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6.C. 7;:-..//. 














Entered nccording to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by the 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachasetts. 



Thb PRiMByAL Monuments of Psru compared with those in 

OTHER parts OF THB WoRLD. By HoD. E. G. Squler. IUU8- 

tratedf 1 

Remarks on some Curious Sponges. By Professor Joseph Leidy. 

Illustrated, 17 

The Fresh-water Aquarium. By Charles B. Brtgham. (Con- 
cluded from p. 490 of Vol. III.), 23 

A Sketch of the Truckee and Humboldt Valleys. By W. W. 

Bailey, 27 

The Sea Otters. By Capt. C. M. Scammon, .... 66 

Falconry. By William Wood, M.D., 74 

Certain Parasitic Insects. Illustrated ; voith a plate. By Dr. 

A. S. Packard, Jr., 88 

Notes on Fresh- water Fishes of New Jersey. Illustrated, By 

Charles C. Abbott, M.D., 99 

The Indians of California. Illustrated, By Edward E. Chever, 129 

The Time of the Mammoths. By Professor N. S. Shaler, . 148 

The Mollusks of our Cellars. Illustrated. By W. G. Blnney, 166 
The Surface Geology of the Basin of the Great Lakes and 

THE Valley of the Mississippi. By Professor J. S. Newberry, 193 

Our Native Trees and Shrubs. By Rev. J. W. Chickering, jr., 214 

A Winter's Day in the Yukon Territory. By W. H. Dall, . 218 
A Few Words About Moths. With a Plate, By Dr. A. S. 

Packard, Jr., 225 

The Horse Foot Crab. With a Plate, By Rev. S. Lockwood, 

Ph.D., 267 

The Sea-weeds at Home and Abroad. Illustrated, By John L. 

Rnssell, , .... 274 

Foot-notes from a Page of Sand. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U.S.A., 297 

The Lyre Bird. Illustrated, By Miss Grace Anna Lewis, . . 821 

Mussel Climbing. Illustrated, By Rev. S. Lockwood, Ph.D., . 331 

Flowerless Plants. By Dr. A. Kellogg, 337 

Variations of Species. By A. H. Curtis, . . . . . 352 
A Stroll Along the Beach of Lake Michigan. By Professor 

W. J. Beal, 356 

Mud-loving Fishes. Illustrated, By Charles C. Abbott, M.D., 385 

Variations in Nature. By Thomas Meehan, .... 392 
Observations on the Fauna of the Southern Alleghanibs. 

By Professor E. D. Cope, 392 

On the Deep-water Fauna of Lake Michigan. By Dr. William 

Stimpson, 403 



CLUfBiMG Plants. IlltutraUd* By Professor W. J. Beal, . . 405 
Bbgbnt Advances in Geology. By J. W. Foster, LL.D., . 449 

Vablations in Trillium and Wisteria. By Thomas Meeban, . 472 
The FRoaTiVE Yeobtation of the Earth. By J. W. Dawson, 

LL.D., 474 

Indlln Stone Implements. By J. J. H. Gregory, . . . 483 
The Habits and Migrations of some of the Marine Fishes 

OF Massachusetts. Illustrated. By James H. Blake, . . 613 
Cultivation of Alpine Flowers. By Alfred W. Bennett, . 621 
What is the Washington Eagle? By J. A. Allen, . . . 624 
Acclimatization of Foreign Trees and Plants. By Alfred W. 

Bennett, 52S 

The Distribution of the Moose in New England. By J. A. 

Allen, 636 

NdTES on Certain Inland Birds of New Jersey. By Charles 

C. Abbott, M.D., 636 

The Former Existence of Local Glaciers in the White 

Mountains. By Professor L. Agassiz, 660 

The Flora of the Prairies. By J. A. Allen, .... 677 
Distribution of the Marine Shells of Florida. By Dr. 

William Stimpson, 636 

The Borers of Certain Shade Trees. Illustrated, By Dr. A. S. 

Packard, Jr., 688 

Springtime on the Yukon. By W. H. Dall, .... 694 
The Impregnation of Eggs in Trout Breeding. Illustrated, 

By A. S. Collins 601 

The Ancient Lakes of Western America : Their Deposits and 

Drainage. By Professor J. S. Newberry, LL. D., . . . 641 
The Chinese in San Francisco. By Rev. A. P. Peabody, D.D., 660 
The Lycosa at Home. Illustrated, By J. H. Emerton, . . 664 
Lichens under the Microscope. Illustrated, By H. WiUey, . 665 
The Ant Lion. Illustrated, By J. H. Emerton, .... 706 
The Resources and Climate of California. By Rev. Dr. A. P. 

Peabody, 708 

Notes on Some Birds in the Museum of Vassar College. By 

Professor James Orton, . . . . *. . . . 711 

Further Notes on New Jersey Fishes. By Charles C. Abbott, 

M.D., 717 

The Spores of Lichens. By H. Willey, 720 

The Sperm Whales, Giant and Pygmy. Illustrated, By Pro- 
fessor Theodore Gill, 726 


Report upon Deep Sea Dredglngs in the Galf Stream, p. 83. Transac- 
tions of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, p. 40. Geology of the Mis- 
souri River Valley, p. 41. Petites Nourelles Entomologiqaes, p. 42. 


Volcanoes and Earthquakes, p. 118. Geology of Colorado and New Mex- 
ico, p. 119. A Geographical Handbook of all Known Ferns, p. 121. Ke- 
cent works on the Embryology of Articalates, p. 122. The Bowdoin Sci- 
entific Review, p. 122. Nature, p. 123. Chalchihultls (Illustrated), p. 
171. The Record of Zoological Literature for 1868, p. 181. The Record 
of American Entomology for 1869, p. 182. The Weeds of Maine, p. 182. 
The Geology of the New Haven Region, p. 182. Modem Ideas of Deri- 
vation, p. 230. The Torrey Botanical Club, p. 287. Fossil Plants troxa 
the West, p. 237. Relations of the Rocks in the Vicinity of Boston, p. 
238. Sponges, p. 304. The Extinct Mammalian Fauna of Dakota and 

« Nebraska, p. 307. The Earliest Evidences of Plant Life, p. 810. Fossil 

Birds, p. 310. The Andes and the Amazon, p. 858. Sketches of Crea- 
tion, p. 361. Handbook of Zoology, p. 362. A Naturalist's Guide, p. 863. 
Ornithological Results of the Explorations of the North-west, p. 367. 
Geology of Indiana, p. 872. Rudolph's Atlas of the Geography of Plants, 
p. 372. Natural Selection, p. 419. American Microscopes and their 
Merits, p. 422. Alaska and Its Resources, p. 430. Trout Culture, p. 434. 
Record of American Entomology for 1869, p. 435. Brazilian Crustacea, 
435. The Population of an old Pear Tree, p. 436. The American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, p. 436. The Polyps and Corals of the North 
Pacific Exploring Expedition (Illustrated with two plates), p. 488. Eco- 
nomical Entomology In Missouri (Illustrated), p. 610. American Crabs, 
p. 616. The Craw Fish of North America, p. 616. The Lifted and Sub- 
sided Rocks of America, p. 618. Geological Survey of New Hampshire, 

I p. 619. American Journal of Science and Arts, p. 619. The Chemical 

History of the Six Days of Creation, p. 620. The Eared Seals, p. 675. 
Injurious Insects (Illustrated), p. 684. Deep Sea Explorations, p. 744. 
The Classification of Water Birds, p. 746. ThorclPs European Spiders 
(Illustrated), p. 752. Geography and Archaeology of Peru, p. 754. 

I Botany. — Larger Bar-Marigold, p. 43. The Yellow-flowered Sarra- 

) cenla purpurea, p. 43. Areas of Preservation, p. 44. Leaves of Conlferse, 

p. 44. Notes ftom Chicago, p. 45. Photography In Botany, p. 45. Trans- 
formations of Parts of Flowers, p. 45. Fertilization of Plants, p. 46. 
In Fours, p. 46. Androgynous Inflorescence, p. 46. Edible Fungi, p. 123. 
Large Trees In Australia, p. 124. Tendency of Floral Organs to Ex- 
change Offices, p. 125. Monstrosity In Trillium, p. 125. Notices of 
Botanical Monstrosities, p. 125. Arctic Flora, p. 125. The Fertilization 
of Wlnter-flowerlng Plants, p. 126. Collected Notes on the History of 
the American Oaks, pp. 183, 242. On the Fertilization of Grasses, p. 239. 
Insect Fertilization of Flowers, p. 242. Does Air Dust contain the Germs 
of Disease? p. 248. Hibernation of Duck- weed, p. 811. The Fragarla 
Glllmani again, p. 312. Vital Force and Color in Plants, p. 312. The 
Lianis or Woody Climbers, p. 318. Japanese Sea- weeds, p. 313. Dialysis 
with Stamlnody in Kalmla latlfolia, p. 373. Occurrence of Rare Plants In 


Illinois, p. 874. Fragaria GiUmaDi, p. 487. New Plants, p. 488. Palms 
of the Sandwich Islands, p. 488. The Irritability of the Stamens in the 
Barberry, p. 488. The Compass Plant, p. 495. On the Laws of Fascia- 
tion and its Relation to Sex in Plants, p. 611. On Objections to Darwin's 
Theory of Fertilization through Insect Agency, p. 612. Nutrition and 
Sex in Plants, p. 562. Richardsonia scabra, p. 558. Acclimatization of 
Palm Trees, p. 569. Fertilization of Salvia by Humble Bees, p. 689. 
Motion in the Leaves of Rhus toxicodendron, p. 689. Bur Grass, p. 689. 
Wolffla in Blossom, p. 690. 

Zoology. — Relation of the Physical to the Biological Sciences, p. 46. 
Notes on the Ducks found on the Coast of Massachusetts in Winter, p. 
49. Is Huxley's Bathybius an Animal? p. 50. Reason and Instinct, p. 51. 
Malformations in Insects, p. 51. The Cotton or Army Worm of the 
South, p. 52. Blackbirds in Winter, p. 52. How the Sculptured Turtle 
deposits her Eggs, p. 58. Anecdote of the Sparrow-hawk, p. 53. Hybrid 
Fowls, p. 53. The Ruby-crowned Kinglet, pp. 54, 876. The Crocodile in 
Florida, p. 54. House Sparrow, p. 54. Dimorphism in the Higher Worms, 
p. 55. Disposal of the Placenta, p. 66. Summer Red Bird, p. 56. The 
Osprey, p. 57. The Great Auk, p. 57. A Rare Visitor, p. 57. The Cow 
Bird, p. 58. Occurrence of the Brown Pelican in Massachusetts, p. 58. 
The Chipmunk, p. 58. Albino Rodents, p. 58. Conchological Section of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Nov. 4, 1869, p. 58. A 
Rare Duck, p. 126. External Gills in Ganoid Fishes, p. 127. The Limbs 
of Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus, p. 127. The Organs of Hearing 
and Smell in Insects, p. 127. Albino Bam Swallow, p. 127. Spike 
Horns (with a cut), p. 188. Adirondack's Reply, p. 189. Habits of the 
Striped Squirrel, p. 249. Conchological Notes, p. 250. Functions of the 
Nerve-centres of the Frog, p. 250. The Compressed Burbot or Eel Pout, 
p. 251. A White Woodchuck, p. 252. Rare Birds' In Nova Scotia, p. 253. 
A New Insecticide, p. 313. Fauna of Round Island, p. 814. Position of 
the Brachlopoda in the Animal Kingdom (with cuts), p. 314. The Ruby 
Crowned Wren, p. 316. Early Arrival of Geese, p. 874. Hybrid Fowls, 
p. 874. Hybrid Rabbit, p. 875. Turkey Buzzard, p. 375. Double Headed 
Snakes, p. 375. Reproduction of Limbs, p. 876. Dpes the Prairie Dog 
Require any Water? p. 376. An Albino Turkey Buzzard, p. 876. Albino 
Snow Bird, p. 876. Albino Rats, p. 376. The little Striped Skunk in 
Central Iowa, p. 876. The Marsh Harrier, p. 377. Night Herons, p. 877. 
Song of the Song Sparrow, p. 378. The Pigeon Hawk, p. 489. The 
Flight of Birds and Insects, p. 439. Paedogenesls In the Stylopldae, p. 
489. Curious Conduct of a Sharp-shinned Hawk, p. 439. Partheno- 
genesis in a Wasp, p. 440. List of New England Lepldoptera, p. 440. 
Improving Intelligence in Birds and Insects, p. 440. How many Lepl- 
doptera are there In the World? p. 441. Oologlcal, p. 442. Spike- horned 
Deer, p. 442. A Spike-homed Moose, p. 448. A New Insect Parasite of 
the Beaver, p. 448. On the Early Stages of Dlsclna, p. 493. On Brachl- 
opoda as a division of the Annulata, p. 495. The Condor and the Hum- 


ming Birds of the Equatorial RegtoDS, p. 495. Embryology of Llmalus 
Polyphemus (with cuts), p. 498. On the Relations of the Orders of Mam- 
mals, p. 602. The Structural Characteristics of the Cranium in tlie Lower 
Vertebrata (with cuts), p. 505. On three new generic forms of Brachio- 
poda, p. 510. London Zoological Gardens, p. 559. The Nesting of the 
Fish Hawlc, p. 559. Anatomical Characters of the Limpets, p. 561. The 
Caudal Styles of Insects Sense Organs, i. e. Abdominal Antennse, p. 620. 
A Remarkable Myriapod, p. 621. How to Mount Spiders for Cabinets, p. 

622. The Toucan's Beak, p. 622. Fhysella not a Fresh-water Shell, p. 

623. On the Young of Orthagorlscus Mola (with cuts), p. 629. Ab- 
dominal Sense-organs in a Fly, p. 690. Note on the Existence of trans- 
versely striated muscular Fibres in Acmaea, p. 691. Cedar Bird with 
Waxen Appendages on the Tail, p. 692. Habits of the Red-headed Wood- 
pecker, p. 692. American Panther, p. 692. Notes on some of the Coast 
Fishes of Florida, p. 693. Morphology and Ancestry of the King Crabs, 
p. 754. The Ancestry of Insects, p. 756. Monterey in the Dry Season, 
756. The Rough-billed Pelican on Lake Huron, p. 758. Migration of 
Huwks, p. 759. Scudder's Work on New England Butterflies, p, 760. 
Callldryas Eubule, p. 761. Mephitis bicolor, p. 761. Woodcock and 
Moles, p. 761. Turkey Buzzard, p. 762. Spike-horned Bucks, p. 762. 
Deer's Horns, p. 763. Singular Manners and Customs of the Hornbills 
during the Breeding Season, p. 763. 

Geology.— Further Evidence of the Affinity between the Dinosaurian 
Reptiles and Birds, p. 59. Fossil Horse in Missouri, p. 60. Sudden Dry- 
ing up of Streams in Nevada, p. 61. Quaternary deposits in Missouri, 
p. 61. New Mosasauroid Reptiles, p. 62. Scolithus a Sponge, p. 62. 
Discovery of a huge Whale in North Carolina, p. 128. The Geology of 
Brazil, p. 128. Professor Ward's Museum, p. 128. New Animal Remains 
firom the Carboniferous and Devonian Rocks of Canada, p. 190. Gigantic 
Fossil Serpent Arom New Jersey, p. 254. Geological Survey of Iowa, p. 
317. New Fossil Turkey, p. 317. Geological Explorations, p. 378. Res- 
toration of the Dinotherium, p. 379. Ancient Reptiles of the Connecticut 
Valley, p. 444. The Rate of Geological Change, p. 444. Notes on some 
Post Tertiary Phenomena in Michigan, p. 504. The Supposed Elevation 
and Depression of the Continent during the Glacial Period, p. 508. Gla- 
ciers in Palaeozoic Times, p. 560. Recent and Fossil Copal, p. 560. Rep- 
tilia of the Triassic Formation of the United States, p. 562. Relations 
of the Oneonta Sandstone and Montrose Sandstone with the Hamilton 
and Chemung Groups, pp. 563, 639. Boulder-trains in Berkshire County, 
Mass., p. 565. On the Evidence of a Glacial Epoch at the Equator, p. 
666. The Lava-ducts of Washington Territory, p. 567. The Great Salt 
Marsh of Silver Peak,' Southern Nevada, p. 567. Geology and Topog- 
raphy of the White Mountains, p. 567. New Species of Trilobite ftora 
New Jersey, p. 568. Submergence of a portion of the North American 
Continent since the Drift Period, p. 568. Black Iron Sand, p. 569. The 
Stratigraphy and Surface Geology of North Carolina, p. 570. The 


Origin of South Carolina Phosphates, p. 571. Did a Glacier flow flrom 
Lake Huron Into Lake Erie?, p. 623. The Upper Delta Plain of the Mis- 
sissippi, p. 638. On the Mud Lumps of the Passes of the Mississippi, p. 
638. A Point in Dynamical Geology, p. 639. Discovery of Lower Car- 
boniferous Fossils on the Kio Tapajos, p. 694. New Fossil Fishes, p. 695. 
Plasticity of Rocks, p. 695. Salt Plains in New Mexico, p. 695. The 
Megatherium and its Allies, p. 763. The Tertiary Beds of the Amason, 
p. 765. Lead Mines of Missouri, p. 766. Marks of Ancient Glaciers on 
the Pacific Coast, p. 766. Boulders in Ancient Times, p. 767. New Dls- 
covei*y respecting Coccoliths, p. 767. 

Microscopy. — Microscope Objectives ; Statement and Reply, pp. 254 
and 255. Circulation of the Latex in the Laticiferous Vessels, p. 317. 
Does Boiling Destroy Germs? p. 318. Development of Gas in Proto- 
plasm, p. 379. The Largest Inftisorium Known, p. 380. Air Tight Spec- 
imens, p. 444. The Focal Length of Microscopic Objectives, p. 445. 
Subsection of Microscopy of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, p. 571. New Form of a Binocular Microscope, p. 571. 
On the Illumination of Binocular Microscopes (with cuts), pp. 571, 638. 
Diatoms fk-om Marblehead, Mass., p. 573. Test Plates, p. 573. Instru- 
ments at the Meeting of the A.A.A.S., pp. 573-576. New Clinical Com- 
pressor (with cuts), p. 574. American Microscopes, p. 626. Wales* Low 
Power Objectives, p. 626. The Simplest form of Micro-telescope, p. 628. 
A New Form of Blnocnlar for use with High Powers of the Microscope, 
p. 696. 

Anturopologt. — Relics from the Great Mound, p. 62. The Bone 
Caves of Gibraltar, p. 255. Archsological Impostures, p. 319. Aborigi- 
nal Relic firom Trenton, New Jersey (with cut), p. 380. Origin of the 
Tasmanians, p. 381. Stone Images on Easter Island, p. 382. Peruvian 
Archaeology, p. 445. On the Structure of the Eskimo Languages, 561. 
The Significance of Cranial Chaftacters In Man, p. 629. 

Miscellaneous. — The Death of Michael Sars, p. 63. Photograph of 
Georj;e Peabody, p. 64. Correction, p. 64. The Sars Fund, p. 127. Mary- 
land Academy of Sciences, p. 191. The Future of Natural Science, p. 
438. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, p. 622. Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 383, 492, 561, 629. 

Notes. — Pages 703, 767. 

Answers to Correspondents. — Pages 128, 256, 320, 388, 448, 576, 704. 

Books Received. — Pages 64, 192, 256, 320, 884, 448, 492, 640. 

List of Plates and Cuts. — Page ix. 

List of Contributors to Volume IV. — Pages xi, xil. 

Index. — Page 769. 




1. Bhrd lice, seren llgares, . 

2. Moths, thirty-nine flguies, 
8. Horse shoe Crab, eto., fonrteen 

flgures, 873 

4. Horth Paoiflo Polyps and Corals, 

ten llgares, 490 


SM Plate Piffe 

96 5. North Paclfio Polyps and Corals, 

nine figures, 491 

6. Illamination of Binocular Micro- 
scopes, 687 

7. Ii^urious Insects, twenty-two fig- 
ures 687 




Primitiye tomb, Accra, . 

Hill fortress. Pern, ... 5 

Ghalpa,Peru, 6 

Ghnlpa, Bolivia, .... 7 

Section of Chulpa, .... 8 

V. Burial tower, Peru. ... 9 

7. Pelasgic tower, Italy, ... 11 

8. Early defences, Peru, ... IS 

9. Ancient monuments, Peru, . 15 
10. Pheronema AnnaB, .... 21 
11, 12. Spicules of the same, . 81, 82 
18. Bedbug, 85 

14. Mouth of louse, .... 87 

15. Head louse 87 

16. Body louse. 88 

17. Embryo of louse. .... 80 
18,19,84. Embryo of Dragon fly, 91,83 
20 to 23. Development of mouth parts 

of louse, 02 

Louse of Cow 93 

Louse of Domestic Fowl, . . 94 

Louse of Cat, 96 

Louse of Goat, . . , . 96 

Antenna of Qoniodes, ... 97 

Smelt, 108 

Gizzard Shad, 109 

Chub, Ill 

Gar pike, 114 

Indian stalking an Antelope, . 128 

Indian Tillage 135 

Indian bow and arrow, . . 139 
Arrow heads, etc., . . . .189 

Water basket, 140 




Awl, etc., for making basket, . 141 
Indian woman carrying basket, . 141 
Stone mortar and pestle, . . 142 
Jaw of Limax flavus, ... 167 
Teeth of Limax flavus, ... 167 
44,44a. Hyalina cellaria, ... 169 

45. Limax maximus, . . . .170 

46. Limax flavus, 170 

47. ArlonAiscus, 170 

48. Prepared ancient Mexican skull, 172 
49 to 66. Chalchihuitls, . 173 to 181 
67. Spike horns, 18S 

68. Limulus after the flrst moult, 






Microleus repens, . 

Seeds of Porphyra, 


Coralline, . 
76 to 78. Llngula, . 
79 to 88. Lyrebird, 
88. Mussel climbing, . 

84. Dlnotherium, . 

85. Indian relic, . 

86. Melanura limi, 

87. Enneacanthns guttatus, 

88. Solanumjasminoides, 

. 271 

. 281 

. 281 

. 282 

. 283 

. 284 

. 286 

. 288 

. 316 
821 to 325 

. 831 

. 879 

. 881 

. 885 

. 886 

. 410 

80. Grapevine, 414 

90 to 91. Woodbine, . . 41^-416 
98. Bryony, 417 

93. Spike horns of moose, ... 443 

94. Cancrisocia expansa, . . . 480 
95 to 99. Embryo and young of Llmu- 

lus 496-501 

100a. Larva of Branchlpus, . . .501 
100b. Larva of Apus. . . . .501 
101. Larva of Trinucieus, . . . 501 
108. Larva of Sao hirsuta, . . .501 

103. Larva of Agnostus nudus, . . 501 

104. Adult of •* •* . . 501 
105 to 106. Skull of Ichthyosaurus, . 508 

107. Skull of Lystrosaurus, . . .507 

108. Mackerel, 513 

lOe. Codfish, 516 

110. Haddock 517 

111. Blue fish, 618 

118. Herring, 619 

113. Bill-fish, 520 

114. Internal Lieberkuhn, ... 572 

115. Ward's clinical compressor, . . 575 
115 bis to 116. Compaidea tridentata 

larva and adult, .... 590 
117 to 118. Saperda vestlta, larva and 

adult, 601 

119. Larva of Saperda calcarata, . 602 
180. Prlonus brevicomls and pupa, . 592 

121. Saperda inomata and larva, . 6M 

122. Monohammus titillator, larva and 

pupa, 593 

123. Chion ductus, larva and pupa, . 594 
124 to 185. Roller Spawning box, . 606, 607 

126. Pickle worm, 611 

127 to 188. Vine dresser, . . . 611, 642 

129. Alypla8-maculata, . . .613 
130 to 131. Eudrya grata, . . 613,614 
132 to 133. Acoloithos Americanus, 614, 615 

134. Molacanthus Palassii, ... 630 

135. Orthagoriscus oblongus, . . 030 
136 to 137. Orthagoriscus mola, . 680, 631 
138. Nest of Lycosa, . . . . 6G4 

130. Anatomy of Theloschistes, . . 667 

140. Anatomy of Collema, . . .667 

141. Anatomy of Parmelia, . . . C68 
148. Anatomy of Usnea, . . .668 
143. Anatomy of Sticta, ... 669 
144 to 146. Anat. of Theloschistes, 660, G71 
147. Spores of lichens, . . .671 
148 to 149. Anatomy of Theloschistes, . 672 
150. Spemiatia of lichens, . . .073 
151 to 153. Anatomv of Biatora, . 678, 674 

154. Larva of Lyda, .... 685 

155. Pupa of Robber fly, ... 686 

156. Pupa of Horse flv, . . . . 68G 

167 to 168. "Prism for binocular micro- 

scope, 700, 701 

158 to 162. Ant Lion, . . . 706,706 

168 to 176. Sperm-whales, 728,734,736,741, 

742, 743. 
177. Classification of Spiders, . . 763 


Ebb AT A TO Vol. IV. --Page 63, line 16, for pervenum read perverswm. Page 80, 
line 16, for lips read hips. Page 86, line 8, for ArctotkiphyUa read ArdasU^hyUos. 
Page 103, line 0, for H. analottanus read H. Keniuekiensis, (Later, however, Cope has 
shown the species to be distinct from KIrtland's KeiOuokieMis.) Page 117, line 13 of 
foot note, for Teretribus read teretulus. Page 112, line 16, fbr Jtartton read Baritan. 
Page 273, the sentence beginning on line 0, shoold begin, " Now it is not often the 
case.'' Page 316, line 6, for mouth read mantle. Page 489, line 8 for but one, read an. 
Page 430, line 3, leave out the word but before one instance. Page 458, line 21, for Itord 
Mondoddo read Lord Monboddo. Page 468, line 7, for it is read is it. Page 468, line 18, 
for possession of stars read procession of stars ; and In line 14, for either read ether. 
Page 501 under flgare 100, first line, for Apus read Branch^us, and in second line, for 
Bnsnchipus read Apus. On line 1 firom bottom, fbr cephaiothorax read head. Page 126, 
last line, fpr Mb. Dbbssbb read Mb. Dbeslbb. Page 875, line 34, for J. P. Kibklaitd 
read J. P. KiBTLAND. Page 651, last line, for .Edofo^rM read .Zbolo^to. Page 689, line 
20, for poisoning read poison ivy. 

Plates 3 and 4 (pp. 490, 491) should read plates 4 and 6. Plate 5 (page 637) should read 
Plate 6, and Plate 6 (page 687) should read Plate 7. Page 572) for figure 100, read figure 
114. Page 575, for flgare 100, read figure 115. Page TOO, for figure 140, read 157. Page 
701, for figure 141 read 158. (These corrections, however, only refer te the serial num- 
bers of the plates and cuts, as the references in the text are to their present numbers.) 




Charles C. Abbott, M.D.» Trenton, N. J. 

Prof. L. AOASSiz, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. A. Allen, Cambridge, Mass. 

W. W. Bailey, Providence, R. I. 

Prof. W. J. Beal, Chicago, HI. 

Alfred W. Bennett, London (ftom Quarterly Journal of Science). 

W. G. BiNNEY, Burlington, N. J. 

James H. Blake, Cambridge, Mass. • 

Charles B. Brigham, M.D., Boston, Mass. 

Edward F. Chever, YorkvlUe, HI. 

Rev. J. W. Chickering, Jr., Exeter, N. H. 

A. S. Collins, Caledonia, N. Y. 

Prof. E. D. Cope, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. 

A. H. Curtis, Liberty, Va. 

W. H. Daix, Washington, D. C. 

Prln. J. W. Dawson, Montreal, Canada (Arom Nature). 

J. H. Emerton, Salem, Mass. 

J. W. Foster, LL.D., Chicago, 111. 

Prof. Theodore Gill, Washington, D. C. 

J. J. H. Gregory, Marblehead, Mass. 

A. Kellogg, M.D., San Francisco, Cal. 

Prof. Joseph Leidy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miss Grace Anna Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. S. LocKWOOD, Lockport, N. J. 

Thomas Meehan, Germantown, Pa. 

Prof. J. S. Newberry, New York, N. Y. 

Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., Salem, Mass. 

Rev. A. P. Peabody, D.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Prof. John L. Russell, Salem, Mass. 

Capt. C. M. SCAMMON, U. S. N. 

Prof. N. S. Shaler, Cambridge, Mass. 

Hon. E. G. Squier, New York, N. Y. 

Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Chicago, HI. 

H. WnxEY, New Bedford, Mass. 

Wm. Wood, M.D., Winsor Hill, Conn. 




Charles C. Abbott, M.D., Trenton, N. J. 

Wm. P. Alcott, Nortti. Greenwich, Conn. 

J. A. Allen, Cambridge, Mass. 

T. Allison, DeWltt, lovra. 

Mr. AlTord, Greenfield. Mass. 

F. P. Atkinson, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. L. B., Colora, Md. 

Ward Bachelor, Waverly, Pa. 

Prof. S. F. Baird, Washington, D. C. 

F. A. P. Barnard, LL.D., Sew Tork, N. T. 
Prof. W. J. Beal, Chicaoo, HI. 

Edwin Bicknell, Cambndge, Mass. 
Frederick Brendel, M.D., Peoria, IlL 

G. C. Broadhead, Pleasant Hill, Mo. 
Bobert Brookhoose, Salem, Mass. 
Hon. J. D. Caton, Ottawa, Bl. 

S. C. Clarke. Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

J. R. CoUete. SomerriUe, Mass. 

Wm. A. Conklin, New Tork, N. Y. 

Prof. A. J. Cook, Lansing, Mich. 

Dr. J. G. Cooper, San FrancisoOfCal. 

Prof. E. D. Cope, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dr. Elliott Cones. U. S. A. 

W. H. Dall, Washington, D. C. 

B. H. Fisher, Arba, Ind. 

J. H. Emerton, Salem, ICass. 

Angnstns Fowier^anvers, Mass. 

Charles C. Frost, Brattleborough, Vt. 

Frank Gammons, West Newton, Mass. 

George Gibbs, New York, N. Y. 

Prof. Theodore Gill, Washington, D. C. 

Henry GiUman, Detroit, Mich. 

Prof. Asa Graj, Cambridge, Mass. 

Edward L. Greene, Decatur, 111. 

Prof. James Hall, Albany. N. Y. 

Prof. C. F. Hartt, Ithaca, N. Y. 

W. J. Hays, New York, N. Y. 

J. J. Higgins, M.D^ New York, N. Y. 

Prof. Eugene W. Hugard, Oxford, Miss. 

Thomas Hill, LL J>., waltham, Mass. 

Prof. C. H. Hitchcock, Hanover, N. H. 

Bobert Howell, Nichols. N. Y. 

Prof. T. Sterry Hunt, Montreal, Canada. 

Prof. A. Hyatt, Salem. Mass. 

B. C. Jillson, M J>., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

J. Matthew Jones, Hallfkx, N. 8. 
Prof. W. C. Kerr, BaleighrN. C. 

W. Kirkland, . 

Bre?et Mi^or Gen. A. T. Eantz, U. S. A. 
Prof. J. P. Kirtland, Cleyeland, Ohio. 
William Kite, Germantown, PhiL. Pa. 
Prof. O. C. Auirsh, New Haven , Conn. 

C. J. Maynard, Newtonyille, Mass. 
Thomas Meehan, Germantown, Pa. 

D. MllUkin, HamUton, Ohio. 
Charles S. Minot, Boston, Mass. 
Prof. E. S. Morse, Salem, Mass. 
H. M. Myers, Williamatown, Mass. 
C. H. Nauman, Smyrna, Fla. 

Dr. T. D^remieulx^ew York, N. Y. 

Prof. James Orton, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

C. 8. Osborne, Rochester, N. x. 

A. S. Packard, Jr.. M.D., Salem, Mass. 

H. W. Parker, Gnnnell, Iowa. 

Dr. Henry C. Pei^ins, Newburyport, Mass. 

Rev. J. B. Perry, Cambridge, Mass. 

F. W. Putnam, M.A., Salem, Mass. 
R. W. Raymond, New York, N. Y. 
T. T. Richards, St. Louis. Mo. 

Dr. F. J. B. Roshmer, Mobile, Ala. 
Prof. J. L. Russell, Salem, Mass. 
Ira Sarles, Rnshfbrd, N. Y. 
S. H. Scudder, Boston, Mass. 

E. G. Squier, M.A., New York, N. Y. 
Winfria Steams, Amherst, Mass. 
Dr. R. P. Stevens, New York. 
Charles Stodder, Boston. Mass. 

L. J. Stroop, Waxahachie, Texas. 

E. H. T , Hindsbury, Pa. 

Prof. 8. Tenney. WilliamBtown, SCass. 

G. W. Tiyon, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Prof. A. B. Verrill, New Haven, Conn. 
R. H. Ward, M.D., Troy, N. Y. 

Prof. A. Winchell, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Walter Woodman. 

Dr. William Wood, East Windsor mil, 

Charles Wright, Cambridge, Mass. 
Prof. J. Wyman, Cambridge, Biass 


Nature^ London. 

SderUMc Opinion, London. 

Monttuu Mlcrosc€pioai Journal^ London. 

Proceedingt of the Entomological Society of 

Quarterly Journal of Sbfenee, London. 
Popular Science Reviewj London. 
The Academy, London. 
Annals and Magazine of Ifaiural Btatory^ 

Cmiimm, Paris. 

BibUotheque UnitferBeOe, Archives dee Set- 

enees Phytiquee et Naiurellea. Geneva. 
Siebold andKdUiker>t ZeUschrift far Wit- 

eenschafttiche Zoologie, Berlin. 
SUzungs-herichte der NeUurwiesenechq^' 

Uche GeMeZsd^/r " Jffif," Dresden. 
American Journal qf Science, New Haven, 

FranlMn Journal, Philadelphia. 
Annals of the Lyceum cf Natural History of 

New tork. 




Vol. IV.— MABCH, 1870.— No. L 




BY E. a. SQUnSR, M.A.* 

There is a class of stone structures in Peru belonging to 
what is regarded through the world as the earliest monu- 
mental period, coincident in style and character with the 
cromlechs, dolmens, and ''Sun" or ''Druidical" circles, so 
called, of Scandinavia, the British Islands, France, and 
Northern and Central Asia. The existence of such remains 
in Peru has not, I believe, been hitherto mentioned by any 
traveller in that country. They are not very numerous, at 
least not in the parts of Peru traversed by me, but their 
scarcity is probably in great part due to circumstances and 
causes to which I shall refer further on, and is by no means 
inconsistent with the supposition that they formerly existed 
in considerable, if not very great numbers. 

I think students will attach importance to these remains as 
indicating the existence at one time or another in Peru of a 
population identical in degree and stage of development with 
the people who raised corresponding lithic and megalithic 

* Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Liondon; Honorary Fellow of the Anthro- 
pological Societies of London and Paris; Fellow of the Boyal Society of Antiquaries 
of Copenhagen, etc., etc. 

Entered according to Act of Congrem, in the year 1870, by the Pkabodt Acaosmt or 
SciKircB. in the Clerics Office of the Dlstrtet Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



monuments in other parts of the world, and who, if not the 
progenitors of the semi-civilized nations found in Peru at the 
time of the conquest, certainly preceded them in the occupa- 
tion of the country. If it should be found, nevertheless, that 
there has been a gradual development of any of these rude 
remains into elaborate and imposing monuments, corres- 
ponding with them in their purpose or design, or a gradual 
chan^ from the rough burial chamber of uncut stones into the 
symmetrical sepulchral tower built of hewn blocks accurately 
fitted together, and in general workmanship coinciding with 
the other and most advanced and admirable structures of the 
country, then we may reasonably infer that the latter were 
constructed by the same people that built the first, and that, 
monumentally, at least, the civilization of Peru was in- 
digenous, gradually developed and not intruded. Leaving, 
however, the very few and obvious deductions I may feel 
justified in making, for the close of this brief paper, I wish 
to call attention to three groups of monuments, the chulpas 
and other remains of Acora, Quellenata, and Sillustani, all 
in the great terrestrial basin of Lake Titicaca, near that 
lake, in that political subdivision of the ancient Peruvian 
Empire called the Collao^ and now Department of Puno. 

The arable portions of Peru, circumscribed by mountains, 
cold and sterile jpitnos or table-lands, and bare deserts, early 
forced the population of the country to a close economy of 
their cultivable lands, and led them to bury their dead and 
build their towns in waste places, on arid hillsides above the 
reach of irrigation, or on rocky eminences and promontories, 
which even their patient industry could not make productive. 
In such positions throughout the ancient Collao, we find 
numberless cemeteries, often in proximity to the ruins of 
towns and villages. Some of these cemeteries are marked 
by really imposing monuments, and form conspicuous fea- 
tures in the landscape. 

The first and simplest form of the burial monument, and 
which I shall assume, for the present, to be the oldest, con- 


sists of flat, unhewn Btoiies of varying lengths set firmly in 
the groHud, projecting above it from one to two feet, so as 
to form a circle, more or less regular, about three feet in 
diameter. The body was buried within this circle, in a 
sitting or crouching posture, and with a vase of pottery or 
some other utensil or implement at its feet. Sometimes a 
few flat stones were laid across the upright ones, so as to 
form a kind of roof, and in a few instances these nide tombs 
were placed side by side ia long rows, and stones al'terwai-ds 
heaped over them, so as to give them the appearance of lines 
of I'uined walls. 
Another rude but more advanced and impressive form of 

primitive Tomb, Acoi*. 

the tomb consists of large slabs of stone, projecting from 
four to six feet above the ground, and also set in the form 
of a circle or sqnare of from six to sixteen feet in diameter. 
These uprights support blocks of stone, which lap over each 
other inwardly, until they touch and brace against each 
other, thus forming a kind of rude arch. A doorway or 
opening is often found leading into the vault, formed by 
omitting one of the upright stones. 

The arid plain to the south of the town of Acora, near 
the shores of Lake Tlticaca, and twelve miles distant from 
the ancient town of Chucnito, is covered with remains of 
this kind, of which Fig. 1 is an example; and on the west- 
ern border of the plain, at the base of the mount-iins which 


bound it in that direction, are some of the better class of 
chulpaSf round and square, built of worked stones, to which 
I shall have occasion to allude in another place. 

A modification of the second class of ckulpas, which I 
have described, or rather an improvement on them, is to be 
found among the ruins, so called, of Quellenata to the 
northeast of Lake Titicaca, in Bolivia (Fig. 2), and at many 
other places in the ancient CoIIao. Here the inner chamber 
or vault is formed, as in the case of those already noticed, 
by a circle of upright stones, across the tops of which flat 
stones are laid, forming a chamber, which often has its floor 
below the general level of the earth. Around this chamber 
a wall is built, which is carried up to varying heights of 
from ten to thirty feet. The exterior stones are usually 
broken to conform to the outer curve of the tower, and the 
whole is more or less cemented together with a very tena- 
cious clay. Nearly all are built with flaring or diverging 
walls ; that is to say, they are naiTower at their bases than 
at their tops. Sometimes this divergence is on a curved in- 
stead of a right line, and gives to the monument a graceful 
shape. In Quellenata I found only one skeleton in each 
of the chulpas I examined; and none of the chulpas had 
open entrances. Similar structures in shape and construc- 
tion occur in great numbers among what are called the ruins 
of Ullulloma (Fig. 3), three leagues from the town of Sta. 
Rosa in thd valley of the river Pucura. But here the chul- 
pas have openings into which a man may creep, and all of 
them contained originally two or more skeletons. 

Returning now to Acora. As I have intimated, within 
sight of the rude burial monuments already noticed as exist- 
ing there, — and which so closely resemble the cromlechs of 
Europe, — are other sepulchral monuments, showing a great 
advance on those of Quellenata and Ullulloma. They are 
both round and square, standing on platforms of stones reg- 
ularly and artificially shaped, and are themselves built of 
squared blocks of limestone. In common with the primitive 


and typical forma of the same class of mouiiineiits already 
described, these also have an iuuer chamber, vaulted by over- 
lapping stones, after the fashion of the earlier approxima- 
tions towards the arch. They differ, however, in having 
each four niches in the chamber or vault, placed at right 
angles in respect to each other- The sides of these niches 
converge a little towards their tops, as do most of the 
Tig.a. Inca niches, 

windows and 
doorways. In 
these niches 
were fastened 
the bodies of 
the dead, in 
sqnatting or 

Figure 4 is 
a view of a 
double- sto- 
ried, square 
cJmlpa, with 
a jjMtwjo or 
' hill fort in the 
distance, oc- 
curring near 
Cbnlpa, UUnUoma, partly rnined. the Bolivian 

town of Escoma, on the eastern shore of Lake Titicaca. 
Figure 5 is a section of this chulpa. I introduce these 
cuts to show some of the variations in this class of monu- 
ments. Escoma is on the same side of Lake Titicaca with 
Quellenata, but sixty miles to the southward ; and it is a 
curious fact, that while at the latter place all the c/nilpas are 
round, at the former they are all square. 

The sides of all the square chulpai appear to be perfectly 
vertical, and near their summits we find a projecting band or 


cornice. Their tops seem to liuve beeu flat. Ou the other 
hand tho rouud c/tulj)as here swell out leguluily up to the 
orimmental Imiid or foriiice, aud teriuiimte iu a. dome. 

These features, however, are still better marked in the 
ruins of Sillustiuii, where the chuljms, iu respect of size, 
elaboration of design and workmanship, take their highest 
form. Here we find them built of great blocks of trachyte 
and other hard stones, tilted together with unsurpassable 


Square Ctnilpa. EBComs, BoIItIb. 

accuracy, the structure nevertheless preserving some of the 
characteristic features of the fii-st and rudest form of the 
chulpa {Fig. C). The lower course of sttmes is almost inva- 
riably composed of great blocks of which the unhewn por- 
tions are set in tlie ground, and these support a scrips of 
layers, uot always regular in respect of thickness, nor uni- 
form iu respect of size, but which have their sides cut on 
exact radii of the circle, and their faces out with an accu- 
rate bevel upward to coirespond witli the swell of tho tower. 


The Btoues forming the iluine ore Dut ouly cut on accurate 
radii, but the curve of the dome is preserved iu each, and 
they are fuitbermore eo cut that thehpush or plunge is in- 
ward towardd the centre of the structure, thereby tending to 
give it compactness and cousequeut strength. There are 
tnuny other interesting architectural features connected with 
these i-emuins of Sillustani, the enumeration of which is 
not necessary in order to illustrate the particular question 
before us,* 

Some of the c/tulpas of Sillustani have double vaults or 

*■'« '■ chumbcrs, oue above the other, and 

others have a double row of niches, in 
a single chamber, witii a cist, carefully 
walled up, sunk iu the earth below. 
There are a few built of rough stones 
plastered and stuccoed over, and paint- 
ed, with inner clmmbei's also stuccitcd. 
Now, in all tliesc vuricfies of the 
burial monument culled the chulpa, 
from the rude pile of rough stones at 
Acora, so much resembling the Euro- 
peau_ cromlech, through every variety 
of form and phase of skill to the tine 
Bectiao of ctaDipa (flg. 4). towers of SJllustani we discover com- 
mon features, a common design, and many evidences that 
all were equally Uie work of the same people. If so, do 
the ruder monuments mark an earlier and possibly very 
remote period in the history of that people? And do the 
various stages of development which we observe in this class 
of monuments, correspond with like stages iu the develo^v 
nient of their builders? Or did they build the rough tomb 

•ForpiirpuBpi' of Fomparienn, I Introdnco a reduction from a ]rtinloj(Tsi]h. of a riew 
or a 8" calle.l Pslunglc round tmvpr. BTncing (he nilns of Alatrl. \laly IFIg. 7). T6o re 
Mmblanro belHPpn Ihe etjie and workmanahip of (he SilluF(nni monuments and [ho»e 
of AlJ(rl In Btronit, except tha( the stones of (he former arc mnrh (he Xnnenl. and are 
cut and IKtecl with miirh greater accniaoy. In no part of tho world havn I *een the art 
nf stoueK-ntting and dUiug carrted to the point of pcrt^Uon It was by the anelents of 


Fig. 6. 

for the poor and insignificant, and the grander and more 
elaborate monument for the rich and the powerful, as we do 

today ? 

I incline, for reasons not altogether dmwn from an in- 
vestigation of this single class of monuments, to the opinion 
that the various formsi of the chulpa are indices of different 
eras. I doubt if monuments were ever raised, whether rude 
or imposing, except over important persons. I believe that 
anciently as now, the common Indian, the patient servant of 
the chief or curaca of old, 
as of the gobemador of our 
age, received few burial hon- 
ors. His grave was unmark- 
ed by stone or symbol. The 
chulpas probably signalize the 
graves of individuals distin- 
guished in their periods, 
upon which contemporaneous 
skill and effort were expended. 
If the monument was rude, 
it was because the people 
who raised it were aFso rude. . 
At the time it was erected ' 
the cromlech or chulpa of 
Acora cost, it may be, an 

Cbulpa, or Burial Tower, Sillastanl. 

effort as great or greater than was exhausted, at a later pe- 
riod, on the elaboratie and imposing towers of Sillustani. 
And, altogether, I am convinced, speaking for the present 
only in view of sepulchral monuments, that their develop- 
ment in Peru may be traced from their first and rudest form 
up to that which prevailed at the time of the Conquest, 
preserving throughout the same essential features. 

But it is not in the early sepulchral monuments of Peru, 
that we have absolute coincidences with the remains which 
are now accepted as among the primitive monuments of 
mankind. As we find in both Europe and Asia the rude 



monuments of religion existing side by side with those of 
sepulture, so we find in Peru the Sun-circle, or primitive, 
open, symbolical temple, side by side with the Peruvian 
chtdpa. In many places we discover circles defined by rude 
upright stones, and surrounding one or more larger upright 
stones placed sometimes in the centre of the circle, but 
oftener. at one-third of the diameter of the circle apart, and 
on a line at right angles to another line that might be drawn 
through the centre of the gateway or entrance on the east. 

In connection with the group of chulpas at Sillustani, or 
rather on the same promontory on which these occur, are 
found a number of such Sun-circles, which seem strangely 
to have escaped the notice of travellers. The tradition of 
their original purpose is preserved in the Quichua name 
they still bear of Intihuataruiy '* where the sun is tied 

Some of these circles are more elaborate than others, as 
shown in the engraving (Fig. 8), from which it will be seen 
that while the one nearest the spectator is constructed of 
simple upright stones, set in the ground ; the second one is 
surrounded by a platform of stones more or less hewn and 
fitted together. The first circle is about ninety feet in di- 
ameter; the second about one hundred and fifty feet, and 
has a single erect stone standing in the relative positicm 
I have already indicated. A remarkable feature in the 
larger circle is a groove cut in the platform around it, deep 
enough to receive a ship's cable. 

"" I am well aware that many of the smaller so called Sun- 
circles of the old world are rather grave-circles, or places of 
sepulture ; but that in no way bears on the point I am at 
present illustrating, namely : the close resemblance if not 
absolute identity of the primitive monuments of the great 
Andean plateau, elevated thirteen thousand feet above the 

* /fiK, In the Quichna language, BlgniileB the Sun, and huatcma^ the place where or 
the thing with which anything i£ tied up. The compound word is still applied by the 
Indiana to dials and chnrch clocks. Huata signifies a year. 



Fig. 7. 

sea, aud fenced in with high mountains and frigid deseils, 
with those of the other continent.* 

Peru has many examples of that kind of stone structures 
called Cyclopean, in which stones of all shapes aud sizes are 
fitted accurately 
together, with- 
out cement, so 
as to form a 
solid whole. 
The great Inca 
fortress of the 
dominating the 
city of Cuzco, 
the old Inca 
capit-al, is one 
of the most im- 
posing monu- 
ments of this 
kind in America 
or the world, 
and claims to 
rank with the 
pyramids them- 
selves as an il- 
lustration of 

human power . " Pelasgic " tower, Alatri, Italy. (See foot not© p. 8.) 

But apart from remains of this kind, which characterize 
comparatively late eras, we find remains of similar design, 
often imposing, but rude, and on the stones of which we 
look in vain for the traces of tools of any kind. . In con- 

^Cremlechs and Megalithin monnment.'i appear to hare lieen nnder di8ciif>8)on in the 
Ethnological Society of London during the pa^t year (1869). Mr. Hodder M. West- 
ropp. while indicating their wide range IVom Etruna to Malabar, fVom the f>teppc8 of 
Tartary, to the centre of Arabia, and from Scandinavia to the Pacific Inlands, insisted 
on their purely sepulchral character, and regarded them, even when taking the fonn 
of great cli-cles, dimply as tombs, indicative of a ver>' early and low phaite of civiliza- 
tion. He s^ems to have supported his views (of which I have only an abstract in 


sti'uctidn they somewhat resemble the works uncritically 
knowu as Pdasgic. A notable example may be named in 
the ruins of Quellenata,. already mentioned, situated* on a 
mountain dominating the town of Vilcachico, and overlook- 
ing Lake Titicaca (Fig. 2). Still another, but less rude, is 
the great fortress of Chaucayillo or Calaveras, in the upper 
part of the valley of Casma. 

Tradition affirms that these ^Mcarcw, or strongholds, were 
reared long ago, when the inhabitants of Peru were divided 
up into savage and warlike tribes, *^ before the sun shone," or 
the Incas had established their benignant rule. They are 
held in a certain veneration as the works of giants, whose 
spirits still haunt them, and require to be propitiated with 
offerings of chicha and coca. Hundreds of these remains, 
often of great extent, crown the bare mountain tops of Cen- 
tral and Southern Peru and Bolivia, and are scattered all 
through the grand Andean plateau. Looking upon them in 
their obvious character, expressed also in their name of 
pucaraSy as strongholds or fortresses, we find them to be but 
rude types of the extensive and elaborate defensive works 
constructed by the Incas, and in which were introduced 
parapets, salient and reentering angles, and many of the 

French) by the circumstance that human bones, and other evidences of sepulture, are 
found in all or nearly all of these monuments. But we know that the temple and the 
tomb have gone together ftH>m time immemorial, lending to each other reciprocal sanc- 
tity and reverence. Will the antiquaries of the fhture quarrel over the question 
whether Westminster Abbey and the Church of St. Denis were tombs or temples, one 
or both ? In this discussion Mr. Lane Fox (and I am still confined to the abstract 
alluded to), after indicating a still wider area for megalithic monuments than Mr. West- 
ropp, including the Canary Islands, Algeria, Palestine, Persia, the Fet)ee Islands and 
the Ladrones, leans to the hypothesis that they were the work of one people that spread 
east and west, between barriers of seas like the MediteiTanean on the south and 
eternal snows on the north, and that civilization was developed on the line of their oc- 
currence. And that, the vast regions in which they are not found (in which America is 
enumerated),'*' are precisely those where civilization never penetrated." Civilization 
is, of course, a relative term, and one to which nations who in this age go to war with 
one another may doubtftilly aspire, but to which the beneficent Incas, to say nothing 
of the Arcadian inhabitants of New Mexico might lay good claim. Still, if megalithic 
monuments of any kind are evidences of civilization, or even of its first stages, Pern, 
fk'om what has been Inserted in tibe text, can no longer '* be left out in the cold ;" and if 
civilization took the route of these monuments it certainly spread ** laterally" past the 
Riciflc Islands to Ameiica, or—vicever»a. 


most importiuit features of modern fortificatioiia. In short, 
as we find in the rude cJiulpaa of Acora, the essential fea- 
tures of the imposing and skilfully constructed burial towers 
of SillusUni, so we find iu. these primitive defenses the 
fuudameuUl ideas eubaequentlji elaborated in the gigantic 
fortresses of Suusahiianiau, Pisac, and OUautaytambo. Some 
instances fell under my notice in Peru, of single rough 
upright stoues, occasionaUy of great size, which were huaca 
or sacred, and to which great reverence is still paid by the 
Indians. A notable instance is to be observed on the sum- 

lollliiiUaniiB at Sillast 

mit of a hisfh, bare hill, on the r 
Simanco and the town of Nepefla, 
interesting ruins of Huaca-Tambo. 
stones were set up by hand of 
occupy natural positions." 

The celebrated ruins of Tiahuan 
be called the Stonchenge or Carna 
a striking example of the artificial 
well as upright stones, in the form 

*Tbe ladlana of the iraiut of Pern ralseil larf 
ealtlTftled HbMs. which tbty Milled eftfcfcx or T 
ehacra. Thli stone recelTed eapeclol reTerenoe a 



and on parallel lines. Here we find quadrangles defined by 
huge, unhewn stones, worn and frayed by time, and having 
every evidence of highest antiquity, by the side of other 
squares of similar plan, but defined by massive stones cut 
with much elaboration, as«if they were the work of later 
generations, better acquainted with the use of tools fit for 
cutting stones, who nevertheless retained the notions of their 
ancestors, bringing only greater skjil to the construction of 
their monuments. The megalithic remains of Tiahuanaco 
rank second in interest to none in the world. 

Fig. 9 is of a singular monument, in the ancient town 
of Chicuito, once the most important in the Collao. It is 
in the form of a rectangle, sixty-five feet on each side, 
and consists of a series of large, roughly worked blocks of 
stone, placed closely side by side on a platform, or rather on 
a foundation of stones, sunk in the ground, and projecting 
fourteen inches outward all around. The entrance is from 
the east, between two blocks of stones, higher than the rest. 
This may be taken as a type of an advanced class of mega- 
lithic. monuments by no means uncommon in the highlands 
of Peru. The features I seek to illustrate would be made 
more apparent by a greater number of views, plans, and sec- 
tions than I am now able to present, as may be inferred from 
the few accompanying this paper. When they shall come to 
be fully illustrated, I think all students will coincide with me 
in ray already matured opinion that there exist in Peru and 
Bolivia, high up among the snowy Andes, the oldest forms 
of monuments, sepulchral and otherwise, known to mankind, 
exact counterparts in character of those of the ''old wotld,'* 
having a common design, illustrating similar conceptions, 
and all of them the work of the same peoples found in occu- 
pation of the country at the time of the Conquest, and whose 
later monuments are mainly if not wholly the developed 
forms of those raised by their ancestors, and which seem to 
have been the spontaneous productions of the primitive man 
in all parts of the world, and not necessarily nor even prob- 
ably derivative. 


I have only to add one word hi respect to caverns. There 
are many of these in the sierras of Peru, in which the mod- 
em traveller is often ghid to find refuge, as was the Indian 
voyager before him. But few of these however, seem to 
have been inhabited. Generally they appear to have been 
used as burial places, and abound in desiccated humau bodies, 
human bones, objects of human art, and the bones of indige- 
nous animals, oft'jn cemented together with calcareous de- 
posits. Some of the many Peruvian traditions affirm that 
the ancient inhabitants of the country emerged from the 
limestone caverns in the frontier Amazonian valley of Pau- 
cartambo.* The best accepted perhaps of the Peruvian tradi- 
tions assigns to the Sun-born Manco Capac, his birth-place 
and early residence in a shallow cavern on the island of 
Titicaca, out of which the sun rose to illuminate the earth, 
and which was regarded as the most sacred spot in the Inca 
Empire. That man should first seek shelter in caverns, in a 
cold and arid region like the plateau of Peru, where wood is 
scarce or unknown, is equally natural and probable ; but 
the evidences of such a practice do not exist, or rather have 
not yet been discovered. 

That considerable aboriginal Peruvian tribes once lived in 
houses built on piles, or on floats, in the shallow waters of 
the Andean lakes, is not only probable but certain. The 
remnants of such a tribe, bearing the name of Antis, still 
live in this manner in the reedy lakes formed by the spread- 
ing out or overflow of the Rio Desaguadero, the outlet of 
Lake Titicaca. These people spoke and still speak a lau- 

*The old Jesuit, Atriago, in his rare and valuable work Extirpacion de la Idolatria 
del Peru (1621), tells us not only that the inhabitants of the coast of Pern reverenced 
the ffuarit, "who were their ancestors and also giants, bat the buildings erected by 
them." He adds : ** They reverence also their Pacarinaa^ or places of ancient residence, 
to the degree of preferring to live in them, notwithstanding that they are bnllt in lolly, 
rocky, arid places, often a league fh>m water, and only possibly to be reached, and even 
then with difficulty, on foot." 

The word Pacarinay as given by Arriaga, is embodied in that of Pancartambo, the 
name of one of the upper Amazonian Valleys, running parallel to that of Tncay, near 
Cu2COy whence, one of the traditions of the Incas derives the founders of their civUiaa^ 
tion and empire. The name is only a corruption of Paeari, to be bom ; and tampu, a 
dwelling or stopping place— the whole being equivalent to birth-place or homestead. 



guage differing equally from the Aymara and Quiehua, called 
Puquina, and the early chroniclers speak of them as ex- 
tremely savage, so much so that when asked who they were, 
they answered, they were not men but Uros^ as if they did 
not belong to the human family. Whole towns of them, it 
is said, lived on floats of totora or reeds, which they moved 
from place to place according to their convenience or neces- 



Among the many remarkable marine productions which 
puzzle the naturalist as to their relationship in the animal 
kingdom, is the Hyalonema mirabilis of the Japan seas. 
First described and named by Dr. John E. Gray, of the 
British Museum, this distinguished zoologist viewed it as a 
coral related with Oorgonia, or the Sea Fan. 

The specimens of Hyalonema, as ordinarily preserved, 
appear as a loosely twisted bundle of threads converging 
to a point at one extremity of the fascicle and more or less 
divergent at the other. The threads bear so much resem- 
blance to spun glass that the production has received the 
name of the Glass Plant. They are mainly composed of 
silex and are translucent, shining, and highly flexible. The 
fascicle is upwards of a foot and a half in length and near 
half an inch thick. The threads range from the thickness 
of an ordinary bristle to that of a stout darning needle. 

Specimens of the Hyalonema fascicle, as they have been 
brought to us, almost invariably present some portion in- 
vested with a brown warty crust; the wart-like elevations 
terminating in a cylindrical ring with radiating ridges. These 
elevations are the individual polyps, continuous through the 



intervening crust, of which Dr. Gray views the fascicle as 
the central axis. 

In some specimens of the Hyalonema fascicle the narrow 
end is enveloped in a spongy mass, or as Dr. Gray observes, 
"a species of sponge." He supposes the sponge to be inde- 
pendent of the fascicle or "coral," though necessary to it 
as a means of attachment in its habitsitiou. According to 
this view the fascicle with its warty crust, is a parasite of 
the sponge into which the fascicle is inserted. Dr. Gray 
remarks that ''in general the specimens are withdrawn from 
the spongy base and the lower part of the axis is cleaned ; 
but it is evident that they all are attached to such a sponge 
in their natural state." 

When the writer first had an opportunity of seeing a 
specimen of Hyalonema, consisting of a fascicle partially in- 
vested with a warty crust, presented to the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia in 1860, and before he had 
seen an account of the remarkable production, his impression 
was that it was a silicious fascicle of a sponge, upon which 
a parasitic polyp bad found a convenient and secure resting- 
place. M. Valenciennes had previously expressed a similar 
opinion, as observed in the introduction to Professor Milne 
Edwards' work on British Fossil Corals. 

Notwithstanding the frequency of silicious threads enter- 
ing into the composition of many sponges, Dr. Gray re- 
marks, in referring the Hyalonema fascicle to a coral, that 
this is peculiar ''as being the only body the animal nature of 
which' is undoubted that is yet known to secrete silica ; the 
spicules and axis of all the corals which had fallen under his 
observation being purely calcareous." 

Professor Brandt of St. Petersburg views the fascicle and 
its warty crust as parts of a polyp, and the sponge mass as 
a parasite which attaches itself to the polyp, gradually pen- 
etrating its silicious axis, and finally killing it. 

Dr. Bowerbank who has so extensively investigated the 
sponges in general, regards all thi*ee of the elements of the 


Hyalonema — the fascicle, the warty iuvestmeut and the 
sponge mass — as parts of one sponge. The wart-like eleva- 
tions of the crust he views as oscules of the sponge. 

Professor Max Schultze of Bonn, has published an elabo- 
rate memoir on the Hyalonema, accompanied by beautiful 
plates of perfect specimens preserved in the Museum at 
Leyden. . He represents the fascicle and the sponge mass 
attached to one end as belonging together, while the warty 
crust is referred to a polyp, to which the author has given 
the name of Polythoa fatua. 

To conclude these discordant views, we may add that of 
the distinguished micrologist Ehrenberg, who considers the 
fascicle as an ''artificial product of Japanese industry." 

The Hj'alonema in Professor Schultze's work, is repre- 
sented as a sponge mass of conical or cylindrical form with 
rounded summit, from which the rope of silicious threads 
projects. The sponge mass measures five inches long and 
three in diameter ; the fascicle projects a foot and two inches. 
The sponge mass is described as composed of loosely inter- 
woven cords of fine silicious needles. The entire surface, 
except the end opposite to the fascicle, is provided with 
numerous orifices about one line in diameter. The flattened 
end of this sponge mass is furnished with six orifices half 
an inch in diameter, communicating by canals in the interior 
with a system of interspaces finally ending in the smaller 
orifices of the surface generally. 

The long silicious threads of the fascicle are composed of 
delicate concentric layers enclosing a fine central canal. The 
external layer appears to be composed of imbricating rings, 
most conspicuous toward the free end of the thread and 
almost or quite disappearing toward the other end. The 
arrangement reminds one of the appearance of the cuticle 
on the hairs of mammals. The projecting edges of the ring 
toward the free ends of the thread are most prominent and 
also form reversed booklets. 

Professor Schultze regards the sponge mass as situated at 


the bottom of the fascicle, and its flattened extremity with 
the large oscules at the base. This appears to be the general 
view, hut it has occurred to me that the sponge mass in its 
natural position was uppermost, and was moored by its 
glassy cable, or rope of sand, to the sea bottom, perhaps to 
marine algae. This opinion is founded on the circumstance 
that in sponges generally the large oscules from which flow 
the currents of effete water are uppermost. The ends of the 
threads of the fascicle, with their reversed booklets, are also 
well adapted to adhere to objects. 

The equally wonderful and still more beautiful Euplectella 
of the Philippines was also at first represented upside down, 
as seen in the figure of Professor Owen in the "Zoological 
Transactions of London,*' the reverse of the position now 
assigned to it as represented in figure 76 of the third volume 
of the Naturalist. In the same manner Euplectella and 
Hyalonema appear to me to be alike constructed so as to be 
anchored in position by the silicious threads, with their re- 
versed booklets. It may be that Hyalonema, in its home, 
is suspended by means of its glossy cable, but I think it 
highly improbable that it should either sit or be attached by 
the base of the sponge mass in which the large oscules are 

In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 
for 1867, Dr. Gray observes that, according to Dr. William 
Lockart, "the Japanese Hyalonema is found growing on the 
rocks of the island of Enosima not far from Yokohama. 
The fishermen oflTer the sponges with their silicious fibres for 
sale to visitors at the temples of Enosima." 

An entirely diflTerent sponge, apparently intermediate in 
character with Hyalonema and Euplectella, recently de- 
scribed in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of Philadelphia, under the name of Pheronema^ would 
appear to throw some light upon the question of what be- 
longs to Hyalonema. The specimen, obtained from the 
island of Santa Cruz, W. I., is preserved in the Museum of 


the Academy, It ia represeuted iu the acconipiuiyiug figure 
{Fig. 10), one-halt' the uatural size. The hotly of the 
spuDge is obloiig ovoidal, with oue side more protuberuiit than 
the other. The uarrower extremity, which I suppose to bo 
tUe upper, is conical, and its truncated apex pi-esent^ a single, 
ciixiular orifice, the third of rtu inch iu Uiumetcr. The oppo- 
site extremity is ratlier cylindrical with a hroad, slightly 
rounded extremity, from which project uu- 

nierous fascicles of silicious threads. 

The sponge body is of a light hrown hue, 
aod rigid to the feel. Its surface exbibitii 
j^ ^^ an intricate interlacement 

of the sponge tissue, which 
appears mainly composed 
of stellate, silicious spic- 
ules of various sizes. The 
coarser spicules of the sur- 
face, of which oue is i-ep- 
reseuted in Fig. 11, three 
times the diameter of na- 
re, have five rays. Four 
" of these together are ir- 
regularly cruciform, while 
the fitlb projects iu a di- 
rectiim opposed to all the 
others. They appear to 
be so arranged that the crucial rays interlace 
with those of the contiguons spicules, form- 
ing a lattice work ou the surface of the 
sponge, while the odd ray opposed to the othei-s penetrates 
the interior of the sponge. The finer tissue, seen through 
the intervals of the latticed arnuigenicnt on the surface of 
the sponge, appears to be made up in the same manner of 
finer stellate spicules. Some of the largest stellate spicules 
of the surface have a spread of half an inch. 

The fascicles of silicious threads projecting from the body 



of the sponge are upwards of twenty in number and over 
two inches in length. They resemble in appearance tufts of 
blonde human hair. The individual threads are nearly like 
those proceeding from the lower end of Euplectelbi. Where 
thickest they are less than the ^ou of an inch in diameter, 
Fig. 12. and. become attenuated towards the extremities. 
At first, as they proceed from the body of the 
sponge, they are smooth and then finely tuber- 
culatc. The tubercles are gradually replaced by 
minute recurved hooks, which become better 
developed approaching the free end of the 
threads which finally terminate in a pair of 
longer opposed hooks, reminding one of the arms 
of an anchor, as seen in Fig. 12. The object of 
the tufts of threads, with their lateral booklets 
and terminal anchors, would appear to be to 
maintain or moor the sponge in position in its 
ocean home. 

The singular sponge thus described, the author 
has attributed to a genus distinct from Hyalo- 
nema and Euplectella, and has dedicated the 
species in honor of his wife, under the name of 
Pheronema Annas. 

Of the specimens of Hyalonema in the Mu- 
seum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, there is one which appears to the 
writer as somewhat significant. The fascicle would appear 
to have been withdrawn from its sponge body and lain 
sometime in the sea before it was found. This is inferred 
from the fact that the Polythoa crust reaches to within an 
inch and a half of the end, which in the natural condition is 
inserted in the sponge mass. Two sharks eggs are also at- 
tached to the fascicle by their tendrilled extremities, and 
one of the tendrils clasping the fascicle is included in the 
polyp crust. 


[Concluded from page 480, of Vol. Ul.] 

■ Ot 

A VERY valuable addition to the specimens of an aquarium 
may be found in what are called the cray-lishes or fresh- 
water lobsters. These little animals so closely resembling 
their salt-water relations can be kept without much trouble 
in the general collection. They are natives of most parts of 
the country, though rare or limited in their habitat in New 
England. In New York they are abundant in the gravelly 
brooks and streams, especially in those near Trenton Falls. A 
careful observer will, as wading into the water he searches for 
them, see two claws just visible in a hole in the sand or under 
the edge of a rock ; and if he can hedge the hiding place around 
with his net, and also possibly his straw hat, and then give 
the desired specimen a slight stimulus with his hand, he will 
find of a sudden his cray-fish resting quietly in the trap he 
has set. So quick are their motions that one has to keep a 
sharp lookout for them or they will escape ; the average 
length of those found near Trenton Falls is about two 
inches. They are quite hardy, with this exception that they 
cannot bear water which is much above the normal tempera- 
ture. In the summer time if the tank is so placed that the 
sun shines upon it too forcibly, or for too long a time, we 
shall probably find the cray-fish resting motionless upon the 
gravel with its claws and tfiil extended and its body some- 
what swollen. If this state of things has not existed too 
long a time, immediate removal to cold water may revive 
the unfortunate victim by degrees. Some day, after the 
cray-fish has been a quiet inmate of the aquarium for some 
time, we shall be astouished in finding apparently two cray- 
fishes instead of one. Closer examination will disclose the 
fact that one of them is merely the cast-off shell of the 



other ; and now the uew]y clad ci-ay-fish appears in a coat 
of a pinker hue than before, and tries to keep under the 
plants and conceal itself, until accustomed to its new gar- 
ment it can venture foi*th once more into its little world. 
Cray-fishes eat small pieces of raw beef eagerly. We shall 
have to be careful that they do not crawl out of the tank, 
for if even a tassel of a curtain is left so near the water 
that it can be reached, we shall find our much prized spec- 
imen some morning dried up and lifeless in a corner of the 
room upon the floor. 

Frogs are interesting objects of study, and to many are 
great favorites ; they are best kept in a tank with an inch or 
two of water, with a number of islands or resting-places 
above the water for them. A wire screen over the top of 
the tank will be necessary to keep the specimens together. 

Two of the most useful and instructive sets of specimens 
which the aquarium contains are its snails and mussels ; use- 
ful, because they act as the scavengers of the tank, and from 
what would otherwise be the refuse matter make their living 
from day to day ; instructive, because they serve to illustrate 
in a small way the great principle by wliich the health and 
purity of all our larger ponds and lakes is maintained. The 
snails live upon the bits of decayed plants and the confervoid 
growths in the tank, and the mussels by filtering the water 
act as constant purifiers. There are three kinds of snails 
common in our ponds and streams, the Planorbis trivolvis 
the Paludina decisa, and the Lymn(Ba desidiosa. Of 
these the best is the Planorbis, a snail with a shell coiled like 
a modem chignon ; it is hardy and of clean habits, and does 
almost as much work as its neighbor, the Paludina; it is 
found chiefly in ponds or large streams, while the Paludina 
can be obtained in great numbers in small brooks or pond 
holes. The Lymnasa is found near the gravelly beaches of 
the larger ponds; it is a beautiful snail, but does not confine 
itself to the refuse matter, and is apt to eat eagerly the most 
delicate plants in the tank; it is, therefore, generally an 


unwelcome visitor. Of the mussels, those found in ponds 
with their many rayed shells, and those river mussels with 
their thick, imattractive coverings, are alike useful; they 
move from one side of the tank to the other with ease, and 
we must not expect to find them always in one position ; the 
number of snails which may be kept to advantage in a tank 
is very large ; they are so apt to perish during the winter 
that it will be well to begin the season with as large a stock 
as two hundred for a medium sized tank ; a dozen mussels 
of a size proportioned to the tank will be sufficient. 

There are many specimens, such as fishes at the time of 
spawning, or those particularly fierce, or ceilain larvae, which 
would either be destroyed or seen to disadvantage in the 
general collection. For each of these a separate tank is in- 
dispensable ; some glass jars of strong clear material holding 
about two quarts, will answer every purpose, and the contents 
can be arranged precisely as if they were large aquaria. After 
one has had an aquarium in operation for some time extra 
tanks of this sort will be found very useful and necessary ; 
for if a specimen gets injured or is in poor condition, a few 
weeks recruiting in a separate tank will often save its life ; or, 
if we have a larger stock of plants than the large tank will 
accommodate at the time, when later in the winter the plants 
die off, then we shall wish to replace them from specimens 
in the reserve stock. 

The instruments used for aquarial purposes are few in 
number and simple. We need a good net a foot or two in 
diameter, with very fine meshes, and a flat basket so par- 
titioned off that it will hold four good sized jars ; these jars 
may be of earthen-ware or of strong glass, the latter mate- 
rial being perhaps better, as we can then see how many 
specimens each jar contains without trouble. Most of the 
plants can be taken home (if the distance is not too great) 
rolled up in the net, while the mussels can occupy the room 
between the jars. It is very necessary to keep the planta 
moist, as they are much blighted if allowed to dry; if 




covers for the jars are used at all they should be caps of 
mosquito netting held on by India-rubber rings. 

For the tank a glass rod about a foot iu length and a 
quarter of an inch in thickness will be of use in moving the 
specimens into place when disarranged. Too much cannot 
be said against unnecessarily meddling with the specimens in 
the aquarium ; a slender rod with a sponge attached to the 
end of it will be useful in removing the confervsB from the 
sides of the tank ; a small gauze-net three or four inches . iu 
diameter is often needed to remove dead or objectionable 
specimens ; an India-rubber pipe several feet in length af- 
fords the simplest method of drawing off the water of the 
tank ; a fine gauze should be placed over that end of the 
pipe which is in the tank, otherwise the specimens may 
pass through it and be lost. 

Should the water in the tank become impure by any means 
it can often be purified by the following simple method : take 
a small earthen flower-pot holding about a pint, and insert a 
piece of sponge tightly in the opening at the base so that 
when the water is placed in it it will pass through the sponge 
only drop by drop ; the pot being filled with one-third pow- 
dered charcoal and two-thirds water, place it over the tank 
and let it empty itself into the aquarium. The effect of this 
simple contrivance is astonishing and it will often save one 
the trouble of arranging the aquarium anew. 

The time of feeding and the amount of food may depend 
somewhat upon the kind of stock in the aquarium. As a 
general rule it is better to keep the specimens under than 
over-fed, for they do not then by wasting their food make 
the water impure. Twice a week is often enough to feed 
them, and then very small pieces of raw beef will be found 
the best food ; gold-fishes will not always eat the beef, and 
for them crumbs of bread are necessary ; should we find that 
they do not eat all that is given we must stop the feeding 
.at once and remove with the glass rod the neglected portion. 

The process of accustoming certain salt-water fishes, such 


as minnows and stickle-backs, to fresh water must be done 
gradually if we wish a happy result ; in this process we have 
an example to follow, set by nature herself, for there are in- 
stances of bodies of what were once salt waters, so freshen- 
ing by degrees that they still retain seals and certain marine 
animals. We may find crabs in the Charles Eiver at some 
distance above Cambridge, and they may be kept alive and 
in health for a length pf time in the fresh-water aquarium. 

The system of artificial aeration and that of producing an 
ebb and flow in the marine aquarium have been practiced 
with success in large collections of aquaria. 

The value of the aquarium as a means of instruction can- 
not be overestimated, affording as it does the opportunity 
of studying the habits of aquatic animals in a manner attain- 
able by no other means, and giving to all an inducement to 
pursue further the study of natural history which will be a 
pleasure throughout life. 




Since the opening of the Pacific Railroad all have had 
their attention more or less turned to that vast region lying 
between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains. It is 
known as the Great Basin ; but if, misled by the name, we con- 
ceive merely of a boundless valley, more or less desolate, we 
shall arrive at a somewhat erroneous conclusion. It is indeed 
£l depression between the two giant ranges of the continent, 
but traversing this are successive parallel mountain chains 
with a north and south trend, and only inferior in altitude to 
the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra. Indeed, according to 
our eastern notions, the whole so-called basin is but a broad 


mountain top, as no portion of it is below four thousand feet. 
Notwithstanding the general sterility of the soil it will be 
seen, as I proceed, that it sustains quite an extensive and 
peculiar flora. With the belief that a brief sketch of this 
unique region will be of interest to natui'alists I have ven- 
tured to present the results of my observations. 

My first botanical rambles were along the banks of the 
Truckee River, which has its source in^Lake Tahoe, a lovely 
sheet of pure, cold and clear water, situated on the eastern 
boundary of California. From this Alpine lake the little 
river flows into the Great Basin and waters some of the best 
farming lands in Nevada. It is a narrow and rapid stream, 
mostly shallow, and with a rocky or sandy bottom. At 
intervals nature has adorned its banks with groves of cotton- 
wood {Populxis monilifera). It is sincerely to be hoped that 
these noble trees will be spared by the rapacious wood-chop- 
pers, as in a country so meagre in its sylva, a green thing, 
if it be but a shrub, is cheering to the spirit, and a full-sized 
tree is a positive delight. The size of these poplars, and the 
wide spread of their branches, render them especially wel- 
come to the traveller, who, parched and weary, seeks refuge 
within their shade. 

In speaking of the plants of Nevada it is convenient to 
classify them much as they are distributed in nature, and we 
find that according to their location they naturally fall into 
three grand divisions : 

1st. The plants of the river bottoms and margins of irri- 
gating canals. 

2d. Those found on the desert plains at a distance from 

3d. Those of the mountains. 

These main divisions for ease in study may again be sub- 
divided into sections almost as naturally marked, namely : 

A marginal section immediately contiguous to the rivers 
or lakes. 

A meadow tract, moistened generally by artificial irriga- 


tion or by streams descending from the mountains, and usu- 
ally dry in the summer months. 

A desert section proper and one more particularly per- 
taining to the alkaline flats and vicinity of saline springs. 

Lastly, the flora of the mountains is naturally divided into 
two distinct fields, according as the plants grow in the canons 
in the vicinity of Water, or flourish on the higher and more 
exposed regions where in the summer months little or no 
moisture is obtained, unless from an accidental shower, or by- 
direct condensation from the atmosphere. Of course these 
divisions are more or less arbitraiy and shade the one into 
the other. Following the above order we observe that on 
the Truckee there are a few plants immediately bordering 
the river and small streams which have apparently been 
drifted from above with soil and debris swept oflf by floods. 
The original habitat of some of these plants, I presume to be 
the neighborhood of Lake Tahoe, although no definite data 
can be given in support of such an opinion without an 


examination of the flora near the source of the stream. 
Still, certain plants which I always found on sandy shoals 
and islands in the Truckee, and nowhere else, lead me to 
this conclusion. Seeds, too, have undoubtedly been trans- 
ferred from place to place through the same medium ; but 
whether, with the exceptions just mentioned, the prevalent 
plants have advanced from the east or the west, I am not 
prepared to say. It would require for the study more time 
and larger experience than it was my lot to bestow upon it. 
The species of plants found along the Truckee at one camp 
differed but slightly from those discovered at another, pre- 
serving a close resemblance to each other as far as Wads- 
worth, the limit of my investigations. It would be tedious and 
uninteresting to read a list of the plants found in this region, 
a more correct account of which will, I hope, soon be given 
to the public by one more competent to treat of them, and 
I shall therefore only mention such as are conspicuous to 
the traveller as he passes by, or such as have a positive or 


possible industrial value. Among the smaller plants a spe- 
"cies of mint is common, and a hemp from which the Pi-Ute 
Indians make their bow strings. There is also a highly or- 
namental species of sunflower (Helianthus) ^ well worthy of 
cultivation, as its smaller and more brilliant flowers render it 
more attractive than the grosser garden form. The Mexican 
Poppy {Argemone Mexicana)^ is occasionally seen, and a 
thistle, which 1 consider unequalled in beauty. The deli- 
cately cut leaves look as if formed of silver, and the flower 
resembles a paint-brush charged with scarlet lake. I have 
before mentioned the fine groves of cotton woods, but in 
addition to these a fringe of willows is often found along the 
stream, and a mingled thicket of "Buflalo beriy" {Shep^ 
hei^dia argentea)^ Roses {Rosa blanda), and other shrubbery. 
The bright berries of the Shepherdia and scarlet lips of the 
rose present a pleasing appearance, contrasted, as they are, 
with the silvery leaves of the former plant. When the roses 
are in bloom the eflTect must be even more charming. 

Near Hunter's Station the river flows through exten- 
sive meadows producing abundance of hay and vegetables. 
The native grasses are mostly grown, but our own well- 
known "Timothy" (Phleum pratemse)^ has been introduced 
to some extent, and is always much prized. This valley and 
that of the Carson form decidedly the richest portion of the 
stiite. The meadows are bounded by Washoe Peak, an out- 
lying spur of the Sierra, by the Pea-vine mountains (so-called 
from the frequency with which the hipines or wild peas are 
met with on its sides) , and a range lying to the east on which 
is situated Virginia City. That town, however, is not visi- 
ble from the river. Washoe Peak is of very great height, 
and frequently shows snow upon its summit even in mid- 
summer. It is a splendid mountain in form and color, and 
is especially admirable when the clouds which droop over its 
snowy sides, are suffiised with California's own golden tints. 
After leaving this fertile valley, the Truckee enters a narrow 
gorge between high rocky hills, often beautiful in the colors 


of their exposed strata aud always in the graceful outline 
of their summits. Upou the higher portions only of these 
hills grows the juniper (Juntpenis occidentalis) ^ the chief 
aud best firewood of this region, where fuel is so scarce that 
during the winter of my sojourn, wood sold as high as thirty 
dollars in gold in Virginia City. The cottonwoods are also 
sometimes used for fuel by those residing near the river, to- 
gether with drift wood brought down from the Sierra. The 
lower slopes inclining to the stream support only the scraggy 
sage brush {Artemisia). Yet even in this narrow defile the 
farming lands are excellent, and are occupied and cultivated 
by thrifty settlers. The Truckee after flowing in a general 
easterly direction as far as Wadsworth, suddenly bends and 
following a north-west course empties into Pyramid Lake. 
This is a sheet of water about thirty-five miles in length and 
ten or twelve in width at the widest part. There are many 
small and steep rocky islands in the lake, some of them cov- 
ered with an arborescent tufa resembling coral in its appear- 
ance. One very abrupt, pyramidal island gives its name to 
the lake which was discovered and partially explored by 
Fremont. The islands are the temporary home of pelicans 
and other sea fowl, who frequent them in the breeding sea- 
son, and share the rocky soil with numerous rattlesnakes and 
lizards. Near the mouth of the river the land is good 
though subject to overflows, which while they fertilize the 
soil for future growth, often jeopardize the present crops. 
This land is held as a reservation by the Pi-Ute Indians, but 
even this remnant of their once broad acres is coveted by 
the neighboring whites. The lake is surrounded by moun- 
tains, and the lands removed from the water are of little or 
no value unless artificially irrigated. 

Just before its embouchure the Truckee throws off a 
branch which supplies Winnemucka Lake, parallel to Pyra- 
mid, but separated from it by a narrow strip of highlands 
and mountain ridges. This lake is rarely found on any but 
the most recent maps and we are led to wonder how it could 


have been overlooked. The fact that it is increasing in depth 
while Pyramid is said to be decreasing, seems to indicate 
that it is of recent origin and occasioned by some accidental 
deflection of the Truckee from its legitimate course. The 
fresh water of the river is soon deteriorated by admixture 
with that of the lake, which like all similar sheets, devoid of 
outlets, is brackish and unpleasant to the taste. The most 
showy plants of the Truckee Valley, in addition to those 
already mentioned, were a gigantic Thelypodium often ris- 
ing to a height of six feet, two species of Mentzelia {Ictvicau- 
lis and albicaulis) a species of Hosackia, and two of Cleome, 
and Sida. Near the mouth of the river occurs a remarkable 
deposit of infusorial earth. It is found encased in the cal- 
careous tufa so prevalent in this vicinity. Under this lies 
the basaltic rock. The ''chalk," as it is here called, is one 
hundred feet in width and forms a perpendicular blufi^ nearly 
forty feet in height from the stream, which at this point is 
very deep. The whole deposit is very free from impurities 
and upon microscopical examination, by my brother, proved 
to be composed entirely of fresh-water forms. 

From the Truckee to the Humboldt Valley there is about 
a day's hard riding through deep sands and deserts devoid 
of water, where only grows a depauperate form of sage 
brush {Artemisia) y or the .equally dreary grease wood 
( Obione) , The hills in sight are of volcanic origin, and are 
covered with loose and blackened scoriaceous rocks, occa- 
sionally encased in tufa. There is not a vestige of a tree, 
shrub or herb, with the exception of the ashy colored sage or 
the singular Effedra (anti-si/pkilitica) . The first and only 
object that awakens any interest is the group of hot springs. 
There are some fifteen or twenty of these presenting dififer- 
ent degrees of temperature. One spring indicated 201° 
Fah., while others were positively cool. The water is beau- 
tifully clear, but contains salts in solution which render it 
unpalatable. It is, when cooled, however, preferable to most 
of the villainous decoctions of the sixty-three elements, 


which, in the absence of the genuine article, pass in this re- 
gion for water. It is often in a state of violent ebullition, 
and is thrown up in intermittent jets, especially when ex- 
traneous substances are introduced. Some of the springs 
of this region, highly saturated with mineral ingredients, 
build for themselves a conical chimney, as it were, by the 
deposition of their dissolved constituents. Coarse and wirj', 
but verdant grasses spring up around. Sometimes living 
fish make their abode in these boiling springs, though not 
found in the particular group in question. I have seen them 
from similar wells where the surface of the water marked 
70°. This statement is consistent with that of other obser- 
vers in various parts of the world. Carpenter says "we 
have examples of the compatibility of even the heat of boil- 
ing water with the preservation of animal life. Thus in a hot 
spring at Manilla, which raises the thermometer to 187°, and 
in another in Barbary,^ whose usual temperature is 172°, 
fishes have been seen to flourish. Fishes have been thrown 
up in very hot water from the crater of a volcano, which 
from their lively condition, was apparently their natural 
residence." Various confervce and animalculce are known to 
occur in similar situations, and indeed, were noticed in 
these identical springs. Carpenter adds, "small caterpillars 
have been found in hot springs of the temperature of 205°, 
and small black beetles, which died when placed in cold 
water, in the hot sulphur baths of Albano." After these 
quotations I hope no one will charge me with Munchausen- 
ism. In apparent extravagance they certainly far surpass 
my statement. 

A few hours after leaving the springs the road begins to 
descend, and soon a view is obtained of the basin into which 
both the Humboldt and Carson Rivers enter and "sink," or 
disappear in the sands. A broad, barren valley is stretched 
out before us, through which the course of the river is indi- 
cated by the fringe of green tules which border it. Occa- 
sionally the plain is marked by a tract of white alkaline 



salts, looking like a snow field as it glistens in the sunlight. 
The mountains, most fantastic in outline, which border the 
valley, are enveloped in a gauze-like mist which seems to 
preclude all further inquiry into the features of the anom- 
alous landscape. There is no live color in the scene. Even 
the greens with which nature usually relieves her more 
rugged details, are here wanting, except in the case of the 
tules above mentioned. Still there is a strangely fascinating 
and weird beauty in the view peculiar to these deserts. 
Here the Humboldt which begun its course far away as a fair 
young stream, expands into a lake, and becoming disgusted 
with its vitiated life commits suicide by self-burial. Hence 
the spot is known as the Sink of the Humboldt. At the 
sink proper, the water is intensely alkaline and disgusting 
to the taste, and the atmosphere is filled with noxious vapors 
and miasms. The legions of mosquitoes which infest the 
tulcs arc the food of numerous water-fowl, to whom I can- 
didly wish all success in their warfare upon the insects. 
Among the birds a black swan is said to appear at times, 
but I did not have the fortune to see one if any such occur. 
Above the lake the Humboldt is a narrow, sluggish and ser- 
pentine stream, hardly wider than an eastern creek and 
totally lacking its vivacity. The water is turbid and un- 
pleasant to the taste. The fish which frequent it are when 
cooked soft and tasteless. Not a tree adorns the last hun- 
dred miles of the stream, low willows and Shepherdia being 
the nearest approach to arborescent growth. The lofty 
range of West Humboldt mountains are now in sight, whose 
highest point. Star Peak, rises to an altitude of nine thou- 
sand nine hundred and sixty feet above the sea. From the 
great height of the range, its direction north and south in 
conformity with the trend of the other ridges, its frequent 
water courses giving life and beauty to narrow belts of lux- 
uriant vegetation, and the wide prospect to be obtained from 
its many commanding points, it affords numerous subjects 
for consideration. Many deep canoBs channel its rugged 


sides, most of which contain clear water. A sti'unge fact in re- 
gard to these streams, is that they run freely, even boister- 
ously, during the night and early morning, and dry up utterly 
in the lower part of their course toward noon. The power 
of the sun is such as to totally evaporate the water before 
it reaches the plains, while the powerful radiation during the 
night allows the stream to resume its proper dimensions. 
If a handkerchief be saturated with water at noonday and 
then flirted in the air, it becomes dry in a moment, thus in- 
dicating the wonderful absorptive power of the atmosphere. 
Rains are so infrequent in summer that it becomes a cause 
of wonders, not that the rills should fail, but that they 
should ever flow. Along these little streams willows, 
aspens (Populus tremuloides) , Cornus, Shepherdia and elders 
(jSambucus) grow most abundantly, and Clematis with its 
feathery plumes waves over all. The herbage is peculiarly 
interesting also, columbines {Aquilegiaformosa), asters and 
solidagos, leading us away in spirit to where their beauteous 
kindred smile upon the New England autumn, while the 
gilia ((r. pulchella) and lupines are equally lovely though 
less familiar. Away from the streams the wild sage only 
thrives, if so wretched a specimen of vegetable life can be 
said to flourish. By far the greater mass of the mountains is 
desert, like the plains they overlook. The great, brown 
earth waves roll down into the valleys unrelieved by a dash 
of green, except where some sombre juniper fights its hard 
battle for life. Variously colored lichens occur on all the 
rocks, and an occasional tuft of moss on those exposed to 
the streams, but ferns are nowhere seen. High up on the 
range is found a luxuriant growth of a species of Ceanothus, 
and at seven thousand feet or thereabouts, the sage yields to 
the western juniper {Juniperus occidentalis) and mountain 
mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius). The latter is a hand- 
some tree, averaging twenty feet in height, with bright 
glossy leaves, whose re volute margins conceal the bi'own 
scurf of their inferior surfaces. Its silvery bark, the 


strangely plumose fruit and shining leaves render it very 
conspicuous. As in the case of the manzanita (ArctostaphyUa 
glauca) of California, the wood is susceptible of a high polish 
and is used for many ornamental purposes. This tree and 
the juniper form th^ only respectable fuel which the country 
affords, and the traveller may consider himself especially 
blessed if he lights upon either when frantically searching 
for the wherewithal to kindle a blaze. The juniper is the 
more common tree, and is sometimes twenty or more feet in 
height. The wood is lighter colored and appears scarcely so 
compact as our eastern red cedar, which in other respects it 
closely resembles. 

The character of the vegetation is quite different on oppo- 
site sides of the same range, man}' plants being found on one 
side which are not at all represented -on the other. As a 
rule the eastern exposure is the more fertile. Instances of 
this peculiar distribution are the little alpine potentilla 
{Ivesia Newbem'yi) found in chinks and crevices of high ex- 
posed granite bluffs on the western side, and a curious moss- 
like Spiraea (tomentosa) only found in somewhat similar 
locations on the eastern side. A few eastern weeds thrive 
about the houses in Unionville, and I also found Ranumm- 
lus cymbalaria at quite an altitude in the canons. This fact 
does not speak well for. the soil, as this little plant generally 
favors the searshore or neighborhood of saline springs. A 
wild tobacco (Nicotiana) is common, which the Indians 
called "pah! monhl" pronounced as two interjections, and 
with much the sound of a person vigorously smoking an ob- 
durate pipe. They informed us that it was formerly much 
used by their tribe, until superseded by the superior article 
of the white men. The fleshy roots of a Phelipaea they 
told me they employed as food in the month of October. 

The view from the West Humboldt Mountains is very ex- 
tensive and remarkable. The atmosphere is so pure in this 
region that it is possible to see a distance of sixty miles as 
readily as one could twenty at home. From this great 


height range beyond range is seen both east and west, and 
there seems to be no limit to our vision. No positive colors 
enliven the landscape, giving it the pleasing variety of our 
eastern scenery, but there are only varying tints of brown 
in the foreground and light azure in the distance. The re- 
mote hills look .as if merely outlined in blue. The vrflleys 
are dreary wastes, through which the roads may be seen 
winding. From these clouds of dust often rise a thousand 
feet into the still air. The dreary monotony of the deseii; 
is relieved at this distance by the broad plains of snow- 
white alkali, which it is well to view afar oflF. They have 
no fascination for the unfortunate traveller who inhales their 
smarting dust, penetrating as it does the eyes, nose and ears, 
and imparting a nauseous soapy taste to the mouth. These 
deposits often contain embedded crystals of rock-salt of 
great beauty. 

About sunset is the proper time to really enjoy the weird 
prospect, for the coloi's the mountains then assume are most 
charming. The main masses look as if dusted with gold, 
while each canon and ravine is filled with purple shadows. 
The delicate tints change rapidly, deepening and blending 
until finally night drops its curtain on the scene. Still 
the act is not closed, for the stars twinkle above the serrated 
outline of the mysterious mountains, or the moonlight trans- 
figures their barren slopes. 

When we study each detail of this anomalous scenery in 
its hon'ible individuality it seems unreasonable that the 
whole should in any way delight us, yet that it is fascinat- 
ing is most certain. There is a peculiar coloring, or rather 
tinting, seen nowhere else, and never to be forgotten. I do 
not mean to say that the land is anything but a desert — a lit- 
eral ^'howling" wilderness, nor do I maintain with many of 
the settlers that earth has no fairer habitations. It is an in- 
sult to a forest to call it a wilderness in the above sense, 
teeming as it is with myriad forms of life and beauty, but 
here where nothing interrupts the view but bare, treeless 


mountains, is solitude complete and unbroken. Whatever 
be the charm, it is yet certain that having gazed once we 
admire the strange picture ever after. 


Report upon Deep Sea Dkedginos in the Gulp Stream.* —This 
number of the Bulletin sums up the results of the different expeditions, 
and Is also especially valuable for many novel and interesting observa- 
tions upon geological and zoological questions. According to Professor 
Agasslz, the fauna of the reef, consisting mainly of corals, extends to ten 
fathoms only. The second zone, **a muddy mass of dead and broken 
shells, broken corals, and coarse coral sand, Is chiefly Inhabited by 
worms, and such shells as by their nature seek soil of this character, 
with a few small species of living corals, some Halcyonarians, and a good 
many Algoe.*' This extends seaward "from a few miles" off Cape Florida 
to "twenty miles and more off Cape Sable." "A third region, or zone, 
beginning at a depth of about fifty or sixty fathoms, and extending to a 
depth of fk'om two hundred to two hundred and fifty fathoms, constitutes 
a broad slanting table land, beyond which the sea bottom sinks abruptly 
into deeper waters. The floor of tlils zone Is rocky; It Is, in fact, a lime- 
stone conglomerate, a kind of lumachelle, composed entirely of the re- 
mains of organized beings, animals now living upon Its surface." Algee 
are but sparsely represented upon the plateau, and though the animals are 
abundant, the species are generally of small size and belong to genera 
either identical or closely allied to those of the Cretaceous period. The 
deep sea proper beyond this zone lies upon "a uniform accumulation of 
thick, adhesive mud, with a variety of worms and such shells as seek 
muddy bottoms." Professor Agassiz thinks that If the bottom In these 
depths was rocky, animal life would be "as varied and as numerous com- 
paratively as are the Alpine plants on the very limits of perpetual snow." 

With reference to geology. Professor Agassiz says that he Infers from 
the character of the sea bottom that probably none of the layers of strati- 
fied rock on the surface of the globe "have been formed in very deep 
waters,*' but around the shore lines of the ancient continents, which have 
been subject only to comparatively slight changes of level after they 
were once elevated above the primeval ocean. 

In the main bearing of this conclusion Professor Agassiz agrees with 

* Bulletin of the Museum of CoiDparatlre Zoologj. No. 13. Report upon Deep Sea Dredg- 
Ings in the Gulf Stream during the Thlixl Cruise of the U. S. Steamer Bibb; addressed to Pro- 
fessor B. Peirce, Supt. U. S. Coast Suryejr. By Louis AgHSslz. pp. 863-^86. Cambridge, 1869. 


Dana's theory of the gradual development of continents, a view which 
of late has been steadily gaining in adherents, especially in this country. 
The statement, however, that probably no stratified rock has been formed 
in deep water is open to serious objections. The Chalk, the Nummulltic 
limestone, the Eozoonal limestone and others of like constitution are 
composed in great part of Foraminiferous animals especially fitted to 
flourish at great depths, and, probably, so far as we can judge f^om 
soundings and dredgings, covering at the present day a large portion of 
the Atlantic bottom. 

The description of the physical contrast between the shelving of the 
Florida shore and the abruptness of the Cuban side and Bahama reef^, 
with the minute analysis of the formation and disintegration of the rocks 
of the Double Headed Shot Key, Salt Key, and others, will be read with 
the greatest interest by all geologists. We could not do Justice to this 
part of the publication without quoting several entire pages, and this we 
have not space for. 

Generally speaking the Keys are formed, accoixiiug to Professor 
Agassiz, of fine coral sand, which is washed up on to the higher shal- 
lower parts, and form banks, upon which accumulate a conglomerate of 
broken shells, corals and coarse o61ithcs to the height of high water 
mark. Upon this foundation rock reposes another accumulation of simi- 
lar material, distinguished, however, by th^ steep inclinations of the beds 
which rise to the height of twelve or fifteen feet. These last fUrnish 
the fine material which is swept away by the wind to form sand dunes. 

The more homogeneous limestones are formed in the less exposed 
places, and Professor Agassiz mentions that these are ''frequently as 
hard as the hardest limestone of the secondary formation." 

The author then passes to the consideration of the development of 
Corals, and states that these investigations have led him to regard the 
Actinians as the lowest ; the Madreporarians next ; and the IlaJcyonanans 
as the highest among the corals. Among the Madrepores the sequence 
of the genera is Turbinnlia, Fungia, Astrcea and Madrepora. "Young 
Astreeans, before assuming their solid frame, are Actinia-like; their first 
coral frame is Turbinolia-like, and from that stage they pass into a 
Fungia-like condition, before they assume their characteristic Astrssan 
features." It is next proved, that the succession of types in geological 
times, and their bathymetrical distribution from the deepest water to the 
shallow, corresponds so far as the Madreporarians are concerned to the 
succession in rank of the adult types as determined by diflfercnt phases 
of their development. Thus both as regards rank in classification, and 
the succession of the difiierent phases of development, as well as the 
successive appearance of types in the progress of geological time, and 
the vertical distribution of these types on the seashore, the Turblnollan 
type Is found first and Is followed in succession by the Funglan, the 
Astrsean. and the Madreporinn types. These views also seem to be in 
accord with those of Alexander Agassiz, who, as previously cited, com- 


pares the deep water Echinoids to the Cretaceoas, and those of inter- 
mediate depths to Tertiary genera. It would seem, therefore, if the 
latter be true, that, a priori, the former would acquire a still higher de- 
gree of probability, so far as the agreement of the succession in time and 
depth is concerned. 

Tkansactions of thb Chicago Academy op Sciencks.*— This part 
completes the first volume of ** Transactions'* and in interest and value, 
and the beauty of the plates, Ailly maintains the high standard of the pre- 
ceding part. The plates, which are costly, are presented by the Trus- 
tees of the Academy, an evidence of their immediate interest in the 
scientific and literary reputation of their city. Nearly half of the volume 
is devoted to a biography of Robert Kennicott, the first Director of the 
Academy, fi'om the pen of Dr. Stimpson, his successor, and the editor of 
the present volume. It will be read with great interest as the record of 
a daring explorer and admirable field naturalist. 

Dr. J. W. Foster contributes an exceedingly interesting paper ** On the 
Antiquity of Man in North America." Among the proofs of his great 
antiquity he claims that "the discovery (by Professor Whitney) of a hu- 
man skull in California during the past season, buried deep in the gold 
drift, and covered with five successive overfiows of lava, carries back 
the advent of man to a period more remote than any evidences thus far 
afibrded by the stone implements in the drift of Abbeville and Amiens, in 
the valley of the Somme, or the human skeleton in the loess of the Rhine; 
and although the fossil elephant {E. primigenius) existed in Europe dur- 
ing the glacial epoch, and survived through the valley-drift and loess 
(which I think may be regarded as contemporary, though difi*erent in the 
form of the materials, and indicating a difi*erence in the transporting 
power of the current), this association of the remains of the elephant 
and man has not thus far been found to exist in the purely glacial de- 
posits." He also cites the statement of the late Dr. Koch, that in connec- 
tion with the remains of the Mammoth found in the Osage valley of 
Missouri, "were found flint arrowheads and remains of charcoal, as 
though the aborigines had attacked and destroyed the animal when 
mired. This statement was received at the time, by the scientific world, 
with a sneer of contempt. Last spring I questioned him as to tlie possi- 
bility of his having been mistaken, when he assured me, in the most sol- 
emn and emphatic manner, that it was true." 

He describes the remains of the mound builders, figuring various im- 
plements, and recapitulates the evidence of their "advance in civilization 
beyond a mere barbaric race," as drawn ft-om their textile fabrics, com- 
prising cloth "possessing an uniform and well twisted thread, coarse, 
and of a vegetable fibre, allied to hemp," and " regularly spun with an uni- 
form thread, and woven with a warp and woof." It was taken from two 

* Vol. i. Part II. Chicago, 1869. Royal 8vo, pp. 133 to 337. With a portrait and th!r> 
teen plates, mostly colored. 


mounds in Ohio. He closes with a chapter on the *' Parallelism us to the 
Antiquity of man on the two Hemispheres." The remaining articles are 
"Descriptions of certain Stone and Copper Implements used by the 
Mound Builders," by J. VV. Foster, LL. D. ** List of the Birds of Alaska, 
with Biographical Notes," by W. H. Dall and H. M. Bannister. "On 
Additions to the Bird Fauna of North America, made by the Scientific 
Corps of the Russo- American Telegraph Expedition," by S. F. Baird, and 
"A preliminary List of the Butterflies of Iowa," by S. H. Scudder. 

Gbolooy of the Missoum Rivkr Valley.* — This is the final report 
of the interesting series from the able hands of Drs. Meek and Hayden, 
which have been already published. This Report also Includes one 
made by Dr. Hines on a portion of the route, and another by Professor 
Newberry, on the Cretaceous and Tertiary plants, already reviewed in 
the Naturaust. A careful perusal of the latter, and of Dr. Hayden*s 
chapter on the Physical Geography of the region surveyed would give 
many of our readers new ideas with regard to their own country. The 
typographical errors in the work are numerous, since it was printed dur- 
ing the absence of the author, who read no proof of it. The historical 
introduction reviews the labors of previous explorers, and contains in- 
teresting remarks with regard* to maps. These are especially opportune 
as drawing attention to the very fine specimen of map printing which is 
attached to the present report. The colors are excellent and its size and 
variety of details gives one a very clear idea of the geological structure 
of the Great Missouri Valley. 

The chapter on physical geography contains a resum6 of the results of 
the barometrical profiles run by the diflerent western government expe- 
ditions, showing the general rise of the country west of St. Louis, to the 
base of the Rocky Mountains. Dr. Hayden regards the whole country 
west of the Mississippi as a vast plateau, which was gradually elevated to 
its present height, the strain bursting the central axis of the plateau and 
giving birth to the numerous chains or parallel ranges of the Rocky 
Mountains. Dr. Hayden describes only two types of these mountains, 
those having a granite nucleus and regular outline, and those composed 
of erupted rocks, which **are very rugged in their outlines and irregular 
in their trend." The author regards the Black Hills as an example of the 
regular type, and describes the stratified rocks as lying against the nucleus, 
or kernel, of granite without a break or any unconformability on either 
side of the axis of elevation to the latest period of the Cretaceous for- 
mation." From these facts we draw the inference that prior to the ele- 
vation of the Black Hills, which must have occurred after th& deposition 
of the Cretaceous rocks, all of these formations presented an unbroken 
continuity over the whole area occupied by these mountains. This is an 

* Geological Report of the Exploration of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers, by 
Dr. F. v. Hayden, assistant under the direction of Captain (now Lieut. Col., and 
Bi-evet Brig. General) W. F. Baynolds. 1859-60. Washington. 1869. 8vo, pp. 174. 


42 EEVIEW8. 

important conclusion, and we shall hereafter see its application by other 
ranges, and also to the Rocky Mountain range taken in the aggregate.*' 

From evidence of a similar nature the Laramie Mountains, the Big 
Horn and Wind Klver Mountains are shown to have been elevated at 
some time during the Tertiary period. 

** In this connection I Xmye thought It best to remark more aystematleally In regard to the 
principal rivers that drain this Immense area of country. The Missouri River and Its tributa- 
ries form one of the largest as well as mokt important liydrographical basins in America. It 
drains an area of nearly or quite 1,000,000 square miles, Taking its rise in the loftiest portion 
of the Rocky Mountains, near latitude 44% longitude 118^, it flows northward in three principal 
branches, Madison, Gallatin, and JeflCerson forks, to their Junction, and then proceeds onward 
until it emerges ttom the gate of the mountains, a dl&tance of nearly 200 miles; it then bends 
to the westward, flowing In this direction to the entrance of White Earth River, a distance of 
nearly fiOO miles; it then gradually bends southward and westward to its Junction with the Mis- 
sissippi, a distance of 1,SOO to 2,000 miles. The branches which form the sources of the Missouri 
rise in the ccntrul portions of the Rocky Mountain range, flowing througli granitic, basaltic, 
and the older sedimentary rocks until it emerges from the gate of the mountains, when the 
triasslc and (uraaslc are shown. The foils of the Missouri, extending for a distance of 20 or ao 
miles, cut their way through a great thickness of compact trlasslc rocks. Below the fklls the 
channel makes its way through the soft yielding clays and sands of the Cretaceous beds for 
about 250 miles, with the exception of the Judith tertiary basin, which is about 40 miles in length. 
The Cretaceous beds continue extending nearly to tlie mouth of Milk River, where the lignite 
tertiary formations commence. These are also composed of sands, marls and days, as the 
character of th<* valley will show. The river flows through these t«rtlary rocks to the mouth 
of Heart River below Fort Union, a distance of nearly 2a0 miles, where the Cretaceous rocks 
come to the surface again. These latter rocks extend nearly to CouncU BlulTs, a distance of 
over 600 miles. I have estimated the distances in a straight line as nearly as possible. Just 
above Council Bluffs the coal measure limestones commence, and the valley of the Missouri 
gradually becomes more restricted, though it is of moderate width even below the mouth of 
the Kansas. 

^' The Yellowstone River is by far the largest branch of the Missouri, and for 400 miles ttom 
Its mouth up it seems to be as large as the Missouri Itself from Fort Union to Fort Pierre. It 
Is navigable for large steamers during the spring and early summer for SOO to 400 miles above 
Its Junction with the Missouri. This river also takes its rise In the main divide of the Rocky 
Mountains, near latitude 44 1-2° and longitude 110°, in a lake, as some suppose, called Yellow- 
stone lake, wlilch Is about 60 miles long and 10 to 20 wide. Its channel is formed in rocks simi- 
lar to that of the Missouri, about 400 miles of Its course ])asslng through lignite tertiary beds. 
Tlie character of its valley Is very similar to tiiat of the Missouri. Most of the Important 
branches of this river I have alluded to in the preceding portion of this chapter. Tongue and 
Powder Rivers, which are quite long branches, have their origin In the Big Horn Mountains, 
tlielr channels cutting through the different rocks that surround the Big Horn range. Tongue 
River is nearly 150 miles in length, and flows for the most part through the soft yielding rocks 
of the lignite tertiary. Powder River is f^om 250 to 800 miles In length, and also flows nearly 
all Its course through the same tertiary beds as Tongue River. 

Chapter II. on the " System of Geological Formations in the North- 
west." Chapter XII. on Geological Explorations in Kansaft, and Chapter 
XIII. "Tour to the Bad Lands of Dakota," In 1866, will be found of es- 
pecial value to the student of American Geology. 

Petites Nouvblles Extomologiques.* — This entomological news- 
paper published on the 1st and 18th of each month, contains a r6sum6 
of news interesting to entomologists, and will be useful to all who wish 
to keep themselves informed in current entomological Information. 

* Subscription (for North America) $1.20 a year post free. All communications to be ad- 
dressed to Mr. E. Deyrolle, flls, 19 Rue de la Monnale, Paris. American subscribers can remit 
in two or three cent postage stamps. 



LAROEit Bur-Marigold. — In the last edition of the "Manual," Prof. 
Gra^ ascribes to Bidens chi'ysanthemoides a maximum height of two and a 
half feet. The writer has recently observed this species growing to the 
prodigious height of from six to eight and two-thirds feet. The locality 
of these large specimens is near a spring in Pratt Co., Illinois. We tried 
to trace in these overgrown plants evidences of hybridization with B, 
frondosa, which was growing in the same spot, but could detect none in 
either leaves, flowers or f^ult. Lest the mere record of such a remarkable 
growth should seem incredible to some, we preserved a specimen meas- 
uring eight feet eight inches ; stripping it of its branches, of course, ex- 
cept a few terminal ones bearing leaves and flowers suflflcicnt for identi- 
fication. The species In question almost always surpasses in this district 
the maximum size allowed it by our authors, as indeed do many other 
plants. I should add that the specimens of B. frondosa of the locality 
referred to were equally as tall but not taller than those of B. chrysantke- 
moides. Panicum crua-galli Linn, grows in our low prairies (apparently 
indigenous) to the height of six or seven feet; and Lysimachia ciliata to 
from three to five, rather than ** two to three,** as Professor Gray says. 
But scores of other species might be mentioned which seem constantly 
to outgrow themselves on our western soils. The flora of the United 
States as it is now known seems remarkable for various forms of the 
same species; and although fhture studies will probably identity as dis- 
tinct species many forms now regarded as only varieties, yet remarkable 
differences In the size of the same species in different localities will be a 
more notable feature of our flora when the plants of the east and the 
west, the north and the south, shall have been more thoroughly studied 
and more diligently compared. — Edward L. Greene, Decatur, Illinois, 

TiiK Yellow-flowered Sarracenli. purpurea. — The remarks of Mr. 
Tracy, on page 327 of the Naturalist, have somewhat surprised me, as 
the form of Sarracenia purpurea L., there described, though rather rare, 
has been long and well known. (See Gray's Manual, etc.) This is, I pre- 
sume, no other than the S. heterophylla Eaton, and S, purpurea, var. hete- 
rophylla Torr. Under the latter name, Wood, In describing it says it has 
been found at Northampton, Mass. It may be interesting to state in this 
connection, as showing its distribution, that I collected this form (a 
specimen of which I preserve in my herbarium) more than two years ago, 
on the south shore of Lake Superior, about thirty miles east of Marquette, 
Michigan. It grew with the common form. In my plant the leaves were 
without purple veins, or had them but very few and pale. 



As to its being a transition state, on its way to fUll whiteness, that is a 
point open to question. I do not know that the flower has ever been 
foand white. 

Those who so strongly insist on the relation of vital force to color 
would seem to be sustained in this one fact, that In almost all white vari- 
eties (white being taken us absence of color) the foliage, stem, sepals, 
etc., appear to sympathize, and are at least much paler than usual. But 
this will not be admitted as conclusive. — Henry Gillman, Detroit, Mch. 

Arkas of Prkservatiox. — Although distribution is one of the strong- 
est points of the derivative doctrine, yet it is wonderftil to see, in the 
light of this sober and impartial survey [Bentham's address on Geographi- 
cal Biology to the Llnna^an Society, 1869], how entirely the whole aspect 
of philosophical natural history in this regard has changed within two 
decades. "Centres of creation" and the like are of thie language of the 
past, here replaced by Bentham's happy term of ** Areas of Preservation." 
And the conclusion tardily reached *' that the present geographical dis- 
tribution of plants was in most instances a derivative one, altered from a 
very different former distribution," has been followed by the conviction 
that the present species themselves are equally derivative, and have a 
changeAil history, some steps in which may be dimly surmised by the 
study of cognate forms, extant or fossil. At the point now reached, if 
not by general yet by large consent, the problems we are led to consider 
are such that It Is Indispensable to have a term of wider application than 
''species'* technically means; and Mr. Bentham here appropriates to this 
use the word Hace, to denote either permanent variety (the old meaning 
of the word when definitely restricted), or species, or groups of two or 
more near and so-called representative species, i. e., for those collections 
of individuals, or resembling groups of Individuals, whose association In 
the way of Uncage is taken for granted by this class — or rather by these 
classes — of naturalists. As the term was only beginning to get fixity In 
its restricted sense. It wllLtalce the wider sense without confusion or diffi- 
culty, and with the advantage of a vernacular Instead of a newly coined 
purely technical word. — A. Gray, in American Journal of Science, 

Lkavks of CoMFERiE. — At the meeting of the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences on the 5th of January, Thomas Meehau referred to 
his original observations that the so-called leaves of pines were rather 
branchlets than leaves, and that the true leaves existed in the shape of 
scales which were adnate to the stem ; and that these aduate leaves were 
partially free or adherent in proportion to the axial vigor of the tree. In 
some CoulfersB, the larch being a good Illustration, the adherent leaves or 
tcales, had the power of producing long follaccous awns, which ap- 
peartfd as true leaves. Nothing of this kind had been found In Plnus 
except in the one-year-old or seedling state. He now exhibited a spec- 
imen of Pinns serotina, which had been sent him by Mr. W. H. Ravenel, of 
Aiken, South Carolina, In vshich foliaceous awns, two inches long^ had been 


developed from these adnate leaves, ui\,der each fascicle of branchlcts (form- 
iog S-leaved fascicles). This he thought demonstrated in a more remark- 
able manner than any observations he had yet made, the soundness of 
his former deductions. 

He called attention to the value of these adnate leaves in affording spe- 
clflc characters. They differed in form and other points nearly as much 
ft'om one another as the leaves of other tribes or plants. He exhibited 
living specimens of Pinus Austriaca^ P. sylvestris, P. maritimay P. rigida, 
P. pungenSy P. mitis and P. glabra Walk., to illustrate this. Some were 
costate, some regularly plane, others elongated, linear, ovate, obtuse, 
acute, regular, oblique, spathulate, gibbous, etc., etc. Pinus glabra, which 
had been confused witli P. mitis, could readily be distinguished by these 
adnate leaves ; and any pine could be as readily known and in some in- 
stances better known, by the adnate leaves, than the minute and often 
almost inappreciable difference founded on the old time leaves (fascicled 
branchlets) and cones. 

Nqtes from Chicago. — Chicago has a flourishing young botanical 
society, the members of which meet on the first and third Saturday of 
each month. They have engraved upon their official seal the Dioscorea 
villosa, considering it the prettiest native twiner In this part of the 

The flowers of the prairies are no prettier than the flowers of New 
York and Massachusetts. The variety is not so great; but on account of 
the absence of trees and shrubs some species are represented by very 
large numbers of specimens, making a grander display which is noticed 
by everybody. — W. J. B. 

Photography in Botany. — To illustrate venation and the nature of 
the surface of foliage photography may be turned to good account, far 
more than is now commonly thought of. We have seen a photograph 
from a specimen of one of the coriaceous-leaved oaks of the Dutch Indies 
which was truly wonderful in its rendering. — A. Gray, in American 
Journal of Science, 

[Photography in Entomology will prove of great benefit, especially in 
representing, with accuracy, the venation of the wings of the Hymenop- 
tera, Lepldoptera and Diptera. We value very highly certain photographs 
taken for us several years ago by Professor A. £. VerrlU ; and Mr. Carl 
Meinerth of Newbury port, Mass., has taken some exceedingly good pic- 
tures of Hymenoptera and Moths. The venation of insects is exceed- 
ingly difficult to represent by the pencil, even of a facile and skilled 
entomologist. — Editors.] 

Transformations of Parts of Flowers. — Professor Koch has found 
that in a flruit of Solanum melongena, the five anthers have been trans- 
formed into five smaller capsules. A capsule of poppy offers, in the cen- 
tre of its cavity, a small elevation (the continuation of the axis), bearing 
a number of smaller capsules. — Nature, 


Fertilization of Plants. —Professor Hildebrnnd states that plants 
inter mediate between the Papaveracese and the Fumarise gave the greatest 
quantity of seeds when impregnated with the pollen of another individ- 
ual of the same species ; less when the pollen was taken from another 
flower of the same individual, and least when the Impregnation took place 
within the flower itself. For EschschoUzia Californica, the proportion of 
seeds in these three cases was as twenty-four to nine to six. Professor 
Fewzl says that he obtained abundance of seeds from two species of 
Abutilon by fecundation with pollen from other individuals^ and that 
these operations are best performed between eight and nine a.m. — 

In Fours. — In the September number of the Naturalist, G. F. M. 
mentions a Trillium erythrocarpum having its parts in fours. I have in 
my collection a similar specimen of T, sessile, found on the Salamonie. 
Also a specimen of T. recnrvatum from the same locality, having its parts 
in twos; two leaves, sepals, petals and stigmas, and four stamens. 

In the November number, C. J. S. speaks of a specimen of Zea Mays, 
where the floral organs have changed offices. I have often observed this 
ft*eak in the flelds ; grains among the staminate flowers, and staminate 
flowers surmounting the rachis. I have also seen the entire fascicle of 
staminate flowers transformed into a tuft of little green blades. — K. H. 
Fisher, Arbay Indiana. 

Androgynous Inflorescence. — Such inflorescences have been found 
on Zea, Populus, Fagus, Carpinus, Betula humilis and B. alba^ as also on 
Pinus nigra; the small scale, considered as a part of the female blossom, 
developing Itself into an anther. — Nature. 


Relation op the Physical to the Biological Scienceb.— With 
reference to those branches of science in which we are more or less 
concerned with the phenomena of life, my own studies give me no right 
to address you. I regret this the less because my predecessor and my 
probable successor in the presidential chair are both of well-known 
eminence in this- department. But I hope I may be permitted, as a 
physicist, and viewing the question ft'om the physical side, to express to 
yon my views as to' the relation which the physical bear to the biological 

No other physical science has been brought to such perfection as 
mechanics ; and in mechanics we have long been familiar with the Idea 
of the perfect generality of its laws, of their applicability to bodies 
organic as well as inorganic, living as well as dead. Thus in a railway 
collision, when a train is suddenly arrested the passengers are thrown 
forward, by virtue of the inertia of their bodies, precisely according to 
the laws which regulate the motion of dead matter. So trite has the idea 


become that the reference to It may seem childish ; bat from mechanics 
let us pass on to chemistry, and the case will be found by no means so 
clear. When chemists ceased to be content with the mere ultimate 
analysis of organic substances, and set themselves to study their proxi- 
mate constituents, a great number of definite chemical compounds were 
obtained which could not be formed artificially. I do not know what may 
have been the usual opinion at that time among chemists as to their mode 
of formation. Probably it may have been imagined that chemical afilni- 
ties were indeed concerned in their formation, but controlled and modi- 
fied by an assumed vital force. But as the science progressed many of 
these organic substances were formed artificially, in some cases from 
other and perfectly distinct organic substances, in other cases actually 
from their elements. This statement must indeed be accepted with one 

It was stated several years ago by M. Pasteur, and I believe the state- 
ment still remains true, that no substance, the solution of which possesses 
the property of rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light had 
been formed artificially from substances not possessing that property. 
Now several of the natural substances which are deemed to have been 
produced artificially are active, in the sense of rotating the plane of 
polarization, and therefore in these cases the inactive artificial substances 
cannot be absolutely identical with the natural ones. But the inactivity 
of the artificial substance is readily explained on the supposition that the 
artificial substance bears to the natural the same relation as racemic acid 
bears to tartaric; that It is, so to speak, a mixture of the natural sub- 
stance with its image in a mirror. And when we remember by what a 
peculiar and troublesome process M. Pasteur succeeded in separating 
racemic acid into the right-handed and left-handed tartaric acids, it will 
be at once understood how easily the fact, if it be a fact, of the existence 
in the natural substance of the mixture of two substances, one right- 
handed and the other left-handed, but otherwise Identical, may have 
escaped detection. This is a curious point, to the clearing up of which 
it is desirable that chemists should direct their attention. Waiving then 
the difference of activity or inactivity, which, as we have seen, admits of 
a simple physical explanation, though the correctness of that explanation 
remains to be Investigated, we may say that at the present time a consid- 
erable number of what used to be regarded as essentially natural organic 
substances have been formed in the laboratory. That being the case it 
seems most reasonable to suppose that in the plant or animal from which 
those organic substances were obtained they were firmed by the play of 
ordinary chemical afiUnity, not necessarily nor probably by the same series 
of reactions by which they were formed in the laboratory, where a high 
temperature Is commonly employed, but still by chemical reactions of 
some kind, under the agency in many cases of light, an agency sometimes 
employed by the chemist in his laboratory. And since the boundary line 
between the natural substances which have, and those which have not, 


been formed artiflciallj Is one which, so far as we know, simply depends 
upon the amount of our knowledge, and is continually changing as new 
processes are discovered, we are led to extend the same reasoning to the 
various chemical substances of which organic structures are made up. 

But do the laws of chemical affinity, to which, as I have endeavored to 
infer, living beings, whether vegetable or animal, are In absolute subjec- 
tion, together with those of capillary attraction, of diSlision, etc., account 
for the formation of an organic structure, as distinguished from the elab- 
oration of the chemical substances of which it is composed ? No more, it 
seems to me, than the laws of motion account for the union of oxygen 
and hydrogen to form water, though the ponderable matter so uniting is 
subject to the laws of motion during the act of union Just as well as 
before and after. In the various processes of crystallization, of precipi- 
tation, etc., which we witness in dead matter, I cannot see the faintest 
shadow of an approach to the formation of an organic structure, still less 
to the wonderful series of changes which are concerned* in the growth 
and perpetuation of even the lowliest plant. Admitting to the fViU as 
highly probable, though not completely demonstrated, the applicability to 
living beings of the laws which have been ascertained with reference to 
dead matter, I feel constrained, at the same time, to admit the existence 
of a mysterious something lying beyond — a something svi generis, which 
I regard, not as balancing and suspending the ordinary physical laws, but 
as working with them and through them to the attainment of a designed 

What this something^ which we call life, may be, is a profound mystery. 
We know not how many links in the chain of secondary causation may 
yet remain behind; we know not how few. It would be presumptuous 
indeed to assume in any case that we had already reached the last link, 
and to charge with irreverence a fellow-worker who attempted to push 
his Investigations yet one step farther back. On the other hand, if a 
thick darkness enshrouds all beyond, we have no right to assume It to be 
impossible that we should have reached even the last link of the chain ; a 
stage where farther progress is unattainable, and we can only refer the 
highest law at which we stopped to the flat of an Almighty Power. To 
assume the contrary as a matter of necessity. Is practically to remove the 
first cause of all to an Infinite distance from us. The boundary, how- 
ever, between what is clearly known and what is veiled In Impenetrable 
darkness Is not ordinarily thus sharply defined. Between the two there 
lies a misty region. In which loom the ill-discerned forms of links of the 
chain which are yet beyond us. But the general principle is not afllectcd 
thereby. Let us fearlessly trace the dependence of link on link as far as 
it may be given us to trace It, but let us take heed that in thus studying 
second causes we forget not the first cause, nor shut our eyes to the 
wonderful proofis of design which. In the study of organized beings es- 
pecially, meet us at every turn. — President Stoket' Address to the British 
Association. Sgibntific Ofiniox. 


Notes on the Ducks found on the Coast of Massachusetts in 
Winter. — [A sporting ft-iend In Salem sends the followiog Interesting 
notes on oar winter ducks, which, though diifering somewhat A'om the 
published opinions of some writers, accord in the main with notes in pre- 
vious lists of the birds of Massachusetts. While adding to our ornitho- 
logical record many facts of special Interest in respect to the distribution 
of our dncks in winter, they are also important as confirmatory in the 
main of what has been previously written] : On looking over th^ '' List 
of New England Birds'* I find some statements that are not in accord- 
ance with my own experience as a sportsman. 

M9l\ATd(Ana8bo8cha8 Linn,), '* Winter resident; not abundant.*' This 
is not a diving duck, but feeds the same as our tame ducks, and is usually 
found in fresh waters. I have never seen it here in winter. Perhaps a 
.bird wounded in the fall may stay over, but / never saw any in winter. 
They are not plenty even on the Chesapeake waters after the last of 
November, but go still farther south. A few may be shot on the Jersey 
marshes in winter. 

Pintail Duck {Dc^a acuta Jenyns). ** Chiefly along the coast. Win- 
ter resident; not abundant.*' I have never found one of these ducks 
here in winter. This is also not a duck that dives for its food (and hence 
cannot feed in deep water). It is usually a very timid duck, and con- 
stantly on the watch. On the Delaware, In spring, considerable numbers 
are shot. By some it is called Spring-tail. 

Scaup Duck (Fulix marila Baird). ** Winter resident." I never saw one 
of these here in winter. Some are found at that season in Long Island 
Sound and on the south side of Long Island. A few also winter on the 
south side of Cape Cod. 

Red Head (Aythya Americana Bon.). ** Winter resident." None to 
my knowledge winter here. They are a strong diver, and can get their 
food even in winter, if they will eat the same kind of food that our Coot 
and Old Squaw. live on. 

l!anvasback (Aythya tallianeria Bon.). "Chiefly winter resident; not 
abundant.** Very seldom if ever seen in our waters. A very few have 
been shot, A few may be found in the waters near New York. 

Golden Eye {^Bucephala Americana Baird). " Common winter resident." 
Winters from Florida to Maine. There are always large numbers to be 
seen any calm day in winter fk'om our lower gunning house on Rowley 

Bufl'el Head (JBucephala albeola Baird). <* Abundant winter resident." 
Stay late in fall and come early in spring; but few, if any, winter here. 

Black Duck {Anas ohscura Gm.). *• Resident." There is a small vari- 
ety of this duck that always winters with us and can be procured at any 
time when the weather is favorable, ft-om September to April. But in 
early spring the more southern ducks of this species come north and stop 
a little time here. They are considerably larger than those that winter 
in our bays. The ducks of this species usually spend the day at sea ond 

AMER. naturalist, VOL. IV. 7 


re tarn .towards evening to the flats and marshes to feed, for they are not 
a duck that dives for its food, bat ttlt up as our puddle ducks do when 

All the species here mentioned may have been seen and shot by others, 
but so far as I have observed only Coots, Eiders, Black Ducks, Velvet 
Ducks aud Scoters winter here. Since most ducks are strong fliers, 
capable of travelling forty to sixty miles an hour, it would take but about 
one night*s flight for them to reach us tvom Long Island Sound or even 
the Delaware waters, and a few warm days may be sufficient to tempt 
some here, now and then, that are not probably winter residents, a fact 
that may have been overlooked by some who may have observed certain 
of them here in winter. 

Is Huxley's Bathybius an Animal? — In the "Microscopical Joumar* 
for October, 1868, is a memoir by Professor Huxley, " On some organ- 
isms living at great depths in the North Atlantic Ocean," in which he 
states that the stickiness of the deep-sea mud is due to "innumerable 
lumps of a transparent gelatinous substance," each lump consisting of 
granules, coccoliths, a,nd foreign bodies^ embedded in a transparent, color- 
less, and structureless matrix." The granules fonn heaps which are 
sometimes the one- thousandth of an inch or more in diameter. The 
"granule" is a rounded or oval disc, which is stained yellow by iodine, 
and is dissolved by acetic acid. " The granule heaps and the transpa- 
rent gelatinous matter in which they are embedded, represent masses 
of protoplasm." One of the masses of this deep-sea " urschleim," may 
be regarded as a new form of the simplest animated beings (Moner), 
and Huxley proposes to call it Bathybius. The " Discolithi and the Cya- 
tholithi" some of which resemble the " granules," are said to bear the 
same relation to the protoplasm of Bathybius as the spicula of sponges 
do to the soft parts of those animals; but it must be borne in mind 
that the spicula of sponges are embedded in a matrix, which is formed 
by and contains, beside the spicula, small masses of living or germinal 
matter. As in other cases, this matrix, with the living matter iucludid, 
constitutes the "protoplasm" of Mr. Huxley. • 

Dr. Wallich has, however, arrived at a very different conclusion. In 
a paper " On the Vital Functions of the Deep-sea Protozoa," published 
in No. 1 of the "Monthly Microscopical Journal," January, 1869, this 
observer, who has long been engaged in this and kindred studies, states 
that the coccoliths and the coccospheres stand in no direct relation to 
the protoplasm substance referred to by Huxley, under the name of 
Bathybius, The former are derived from their parent coccospheres, 
which are independent structures altogether. " Bathybius" instead of 
being a widely extending living protoplasm which grows at the expense 
of inorganic elements, is rather to be regarded as a complex mass 
of slime with many foreign bodies and the debris of living organisms 
which have passed away. Nameroas living forms are, however, still 
found on it. 


Dr. Wallich is of opinion that each coccosphere is Just as much an 
independent structure as Thalaaaicolla or CoUosphaBra^ and that, as in 
other cases, ** nutrition ts effected by a vital act," which enables the 
organism to extract fVom the surrounding medium the elements adapted 
for its nutrition. These are at length converted into its sarcode and 
shell material. In fact, In these lowest, simplest forms we find evidence 
of the working of an inherent vital power, and in them nutrition seems 
to be conducted on the same principle as in the highest and most com- 
plex beings. In all cases the process involves, besides physical and 
chemical changes, purely vital actions, which cannot be Imitated, and 
which cannot be explained by physics and chemistry. — Lionel Bbal, 
in Monthly Microscopical Journal, 

Rrason and Instinct. — Under this title Sir S. W. Baker, devotes a 
chapter of his ** Eight Year's Wanderings in Ceylon," to symptoms of 
the reasoning faculty in animals, and narrates a story of his hound '*BIuc- 
beard," which was called to mind by your account of the Spider and Mud- 
wasp on page 391 of the September Naturalist. To condense a little, 
the facts were these: **Sir Samuel was hunting in a rolling country 
divided by Jungles into so-called patinas, with a large and deep river flow- 
ing through the centre. The pack had disappeared, but after a long time 
spent in searching for them, Sir Samuel saw from one of the grassy 
knolls that commanded the patina, an elk swimming out fk-om the Jungle, 
and succeeded with the gray hounds, remaining by him, in running her 
down shortly after she landed : 

** We were cutting up the elk, when we presently heard old Bluebeard^s voice fhr away In 
the Jungle, and, thinking he might perhaps be running an6ther elk, we ran to alilll which over- 
looked the river, and kept a bright lookout. We soon discovered that he was true upon the 
same game, and we watched his plan of hunting, being anxious to see whether be could hunt 
upon an elk that had kept to water for so long a time. 

On his entrance to the patina by the rlver*s bank, he Immediately took to water and swam 
across the; here he carefully hunted the edg^e for several hundred yards down the 
river, but, finding nothing, he returned to the Jungle at the point ftom which the river flowed. 
Here he again took to water, and. swimming back to tlie bank fVom which he had at first 
stkrted, he lande<l and made a vain cast down the hollow. Back he retamed after his fHiltless 
search, and once more he took to water. I began to dlspalr of the possibility of his finding; 
but the true old hound was now swimming steadily down the stream, crossing and recrossing 
f^ra either bank, and still pursuing his course down the river. At length he reacht^ the spot 
where I knew that the elk had landed, and we eagerly watched to see If he would pass the 
scent, as he was now several yards fW)m the bank. He was nearly abreast of the spot, when he 
turned sharp In and landed in the exact place ; his deep and Joyous note rung across the patinas, 
and away went the gallant old hound In ftall cry upon the scent, while I could not help shouting, 
* Hurrah for old Bluebeard! * In a few mlnntes he was by the side of the dead elk — a speci- 
men of a true hound, who certainly had exhibited a large share of reason.* ** — P. 

Malformations in Insrcts. — In the summer of 1868 I observed on 
several occasions along the south shore of Lake Superior, specimens of 
the Dragon-fly with a curious malformation, or arrest of development of 
the wing. In an individual I specially observed, the skin had Just been 
cast, and the wings, not having yet hardened, were quite soft and delicate 
to the touch. In one of the wings was a lump-like unexpanded portion 
reducing the size of the limb nearly one-half. The malformation was 


similar in each of the instances noticed by me, and was so serious a^ to 
prevent the flight of the insect, it invariably fallinjp^ to the ground on 
being thrown into the air, and being qnite unable to raise Itself. 

A like deformity, with liice results, I had previously found to be not 
uncommon in the Ephemera, which is produced in such countless multi- 
tudes in the lake region. The only wonder is that creatures so fhigile 
that almost the touch of a flnger injures them, should be brought into 
existence in such myriads, generally unharmed and perfect. 

I saw two examples of a more singular case of malformation in the 
beautiful pale green Moon-moth (Actios Luna), The wing was similarly 
dwarfed or contracted, a large portion towards the extremity being unex- 
panded and hardened. The coloring matter and fluids which should have 
passed down to perfect the development remained above in greenish 
blisters, protruding the skin of the wing on each side. On breaking this 
the contents escaped. By pressing those blisters it was possible to pro- 
ject the colored fluid in any direction within the wing; the motions being 
quite perceptible in the increased brilliancy of color of the parts whel'e 
the fluid passed. — Hbnrt Gillman, Detroit Michigan. 

The Cotton or Army Worm op thb South. — The Secretary (of the 
Entomological Society of London) read a communication respecting the 
injury done to the cotton crop in Louisiana by the ** Array Worm," the 
larva of HeUothia armigera (undoubtedly the Anomis xylina, Eds.) 

** It stated that the crop was In danger of being entirely eaten up. Some years ago the plan- 
ters of Louisiana, tempted by the high price of cotton, which was then selling at fifteen pence a 
p.'>und, began to cultivate cotton, which had been almost abandoned. The sugar-cane became 
of secondary importance; but the caterpillars arrived, and swept away the hopes of the plant- 
ers in a few days The noise made by the multitudes of the voracious Insects was described as 
audible at the distance of a mile, and to resemble the crackling of a house on fire. It was 
thrmglit for a long time that the Army worm only visited Lower Louisiana, but tills was an 
error: in 1786, these insects de.6troyed two hundred and eighty tons of cotton in the Bahamas; 
they caused the cultivation of cotton to be given up In many of the West Indian Islands, and 
the case was almost the same in Egypt; in 1793 this insect visited Georgia, and in 1800 It ravaged 
South Carolina; four years later they descended on the whole of Louisiana; and iq 1825 they 
ravaged the whole of the Southern States, and it was very difllcult even to get seed for the fol- 
lowing year. The last general visitation was In 1845. The Army worm appears often In 
Gniana and other parts of South America." 

Blackbirds in Winter. —Since the first week in December there have 
been two, and part of the time three, Rusty Blackbirds constantly about 
one of my barns. At the same locality a number of Cow Blackbirds were 
seen last winter and the winter before. They appeared about the middle 
of November, and left the last of March. Sometimes only three or four 
were observed, but the highest number seen was nineteen. They were 
usually very tame, allowing one to approach within eight or ten feet of 
them. Their only note was a sort of a whistle, uttered while sitting on the 
top of an apple-tree. The Cow Blackbirds were usually very active, but 
the Rusty Blackbirds seemed much pinched with cold, and in cold days 
sat crouched down on their feet. — Robert Howell, Nichols, Tioga 
County, K T., Jan. 11, 1870. 


How TUK ScuLPi'uuED TURTLE (^Qlyptemys inscuXpta Ag.) deposits ueb 
EGGS. — [The following was given to me by Mr. Frank Gammons, of 
West Newton. I think it exceedingly interesting, and send it for publi- 
cation. — C. J. M.] 

I was passing through a cornfield in Weston, when I observed a turtle 
scratching about a hill of corn with one of her forefeet. I paused and 
watched her movements. She went to half a dozen or more hills, and 
seemed to try them, but for some reason they did not suit her ; finally she 
came to one where she began to dig in earnest with both forefeet; turning 
around with her hind-feet acting as a pivot she continued to dig antii she 
had formed a complete circle with the dirt thrown In the centre. She 
then reversed her position by placing her forefeet in the centre and 
supporting herself by these alone, she with her hind-feet threw out the 
earth; at the same time turning around until the hole was about six 
inches deep and about thirteen Inches in diameter. She then began to 
tread it down hard on the bottom. She then came out to the edge and 
immediately deposited eighteen eggs, with the space of about a minute 
between each deposit. Sometimes two would come out very nearly 
together. When she had finished laying she filled the hole by standing 
on her forefeet as before, and using her hind ones as shovels. When 
about one inch of earth was thrown in, she would get in and tread it 
solid. This continued until the hole was filled, when, after smoothing 
and treading carefully, she crawled away. She measured nine Inches 
wide by twelve long. The soil where she dug was very sandy. 

Anecdote of the Sparijow-hawk. — An old gentleman once told me 
the following incident of this bird and I can vouch for its truth: **One 
day as I was sitting by mv window looking over the thriving little town 
of D , my attention was turned towards a tame cat which was cross- 
ing the street, and bearing a large mouse in her mouth, evidently a treat 
for her young. But she came well nigh losing it, for a sparrow-hawk 
came flying over, and seeing the mouse in her month, made a sudden 
swoop and tried to seize it with its talons, but did not succeed. The 
hawk continued its attempts until they reached the opposite side of the 
street, when the cat disappeared under the sidewalk, and the hawk fiew 
off into the forest." — T. Allison, DeWitt, Iowa, 

Hybiud Fowls. — By chance I have had in my possession for two or 
three years a pair of hybrid fowls, bred firom an ordinary dung-hill cock 
and a guinea hen. Not having had the means of ascertaining whether 
this is an isolated instance worthy of note, I have addressed these few 
lines to you, since If the case is worthy of attention I shall be pleased to 
give you any Information concerning them that is in my power. — Ward 
Bachelor, Waverly, Pa, 

[If not too late we should be pleased to have a description of the fowls. 
Will our readers inform us of any similar cases they may have authentic 
knowledge of. — Eds.] 


The Ruby-crowned KiNGLRT. — AH oar standard works on American 
ornithology describe the Ruby-crowned Kinglet as presenting little or 
no sexual differences in color, both males and females being said to pos- 
sess the red crest when mature; those without it being regarded as 
young or Immature birds. I have long questioned whether this is so, but 
have not of late had an opportunity of arriving at a satisfactory conclu- 
sion. Mr. Jillson, writing to me recently about them, says he thinks 
there Is some mistake about them. He says ''as far as I know, all nat- 
uralists describe the female as having the red on the head. I have taken 
from three to a dozen every season In May ; have dissected most of them 
but have never found one that had the red that was not a male. I have 
never taken any without the red until after the former had all, or nearly 
all, gone north. Those without the red have always proved to be females, 
and I have never heard one of them sing ; but I do not think I ever shot 
one with the red crown but that I had heard it sing.*' 

What now is the experience of others? Does the female ever have the 
red crown? — J. A. Allen. 

The Crocodile in Florida. — Professor Wyraan describes. In the 
** American Journal of Science" for January, the skull of a true Croco- 
dile shot near the mouth of the Miami River, Florida. He remarks that 
** It has been shown by different paleontologists, especially by Dr. Leidy 
and Professor Cope, that several species of Ciocodlllans existed In North 
America during the Cretaceous and Miocene periods, all of which became 
extinct. At the present time two living species of true Crocodiles, viz : 
C. aeutus and C rhombifer, are known in South America, and both range 
as fBir north as Cuba and San Domingo, but we have not been able to find 
a record of the presence of either of them within the limits of the United 
States, the Alligator being the only representative of the family to which 
it belongs." He considers the Florida specimen as the GrocodUus actUvs, 

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). — The recent introduction of this 
interesting and usefiil little foreigner to Boston, with a view to his 
naturalization and domestication throughout our New England States, 
appears, I opine, In a fair way of accomplishment, and to call for some 
notice and gratulatlon. Although we cannot restrict him to city life, 
it Is certain that he will instinctively discover for himself locations 
suitable to his peculiar habits and economy. Already he has appeared in 
some of the suburban towns. In passing a few days since through one 
of the most frequented streets of this village, I was unexpectedly sur- 
prised and gratified in recognizing a merry party of six of our new 
English triends of both sexes; some picking out the half digested grain 
among the horse droppings on the road ; others, merrily chirping and ar- 
ranging their toilets on the trees of an adjacent pear orchard, among 
which a quantity of loose stable litter had been strewn ; in such circum- 
stances they appeared to be quite at home and vastly enjoying themselves. 
He is a social, bold, cunning and gregarious bird; domestic, yet impatient 


of restraiaty and his loquacity and pugnacious disposition are at times quite 
amusing, and if successftillj acclimated, we may expect eventually to find 
him generally dispersed among our viilages and farmsteads, as well as 
on the crowded streets of our cities, where his presence may be encour- 
aged and his person protected by wise and salutary laws. Some little 
attention to his natural wants during our« usually severe and protracted 
winters, when the earth is bound by frost or enveloped with snow, In the 
shape of a few dally handfUls of grain and a snug shelter under the eaves 
of the barn or outhouse, would, I appi%hend, be the extent of his de- 
mands on our sympathies, and with his cheerful company and active ser- 
vice during the ensuing season In exterminating those Insectivorous pests 
of the garden and orchard, the curcullo, canker worm (Et sui generis) j 
would be found an ample remuneration, and a more plentifVil supply of 
sound apples and luscious plums we might expect as one of many other 
beneficial results. — J. R. Collets, Somerville, Mass, 

Dimorphism in the Higher Worms.— The distinguished Swiss nat- 
uralist, M. Clapar^de, in a recent article : ** Researches on the Annelids,** 
published In the **Blblloth5qne Unlverselle, Archives des Sciences Phys- 
iques et Naturelles,'* gives an abstract of his studies of the annelids of the 
Gulf of Naples, In which he confirms the discovery of Malmgren (noticed 
In the Naturalist, Vol. ill, p. 494) that Heteronerels Is a form of the old 
genus Nereis. He states that Ehlers, In 1867, In his *' Die Borstenwiirmer,** 
a work on the higher annelids, has shown the undoubted specific unity of 
Nereis cuUrifera and Heteronerels lobulata ; of Nereis pelagica^ and Heteron- 
ereis grandifolia ; of Nereis Dumerilii and Heteronerels fucicola; of Ne- 
reis vezillosat and Heteronerels Middendorfil ; of Nereis fucata and Hetero- 
nereis glaucopis, and ai^other Heteronerels form to Nereis Agassizii and 
Nereis virens. He thinks the Nereids are transformed into Heteronerelds 
at the time of sexual maturity. Clapardde states, however, that all the 
species of Nereis do not have a Heteronereld form, as the species of Ne- 
reis far exceed In number those of the so-called genus Heteronerels. 

He thus concludes : **The fact of animals presenting two sexual forms 
Is not entirely new. The beautiful observations of M. M. Leuckart and 
Mecznlkow, and those of M. Schneider on the Ascaris nigrovenosa, have 
made us acquainted with analogous cases among the Nematodes, where 
one of the generations. It Is tVue, Is heimaphrodlte, and the other presents 
separate sexes. But, among the Acalephs, certain OeryonldaB (Carmci- 
rlna), according to M. Haeckel, and among the Nematodes, the Leptodera 
appendlculata, according to M. Clans, present two sexual forms, for each 
of which * gonochorisme' is the rule. The history of the Axolotls, which 
M. Dumerll has acquainted us with, offers certain points of analogy with 
that of Nereis Dumerilii." 

The bearing of these remarkable discoveries, as well as those of tlie 
dimorphic forms of Insects, on Darwinism, and especially Professor 
Cope's theory of the origin of genera. Is startling, and strongly con- 
firmatory of the latter phase of the theory of evolution. 


Disposal of thk Placenta. — Noticing in the Naturalist passing al- 
lusions to this subject, I desire to add my testimony in the case. I have 
closely observed cats and dogs in the act of parturition, and am in posi- 
tion to affirm that these animals devour the afterbirth. It would ration- 
ally be inferred ttom the fact that a cat's bed, no matter how numerous 
her progeny, shows nothing but a few blood stains, and those made by the 
liquor amnii. The lying-in of a bitch that I watched through the whole 
process, and had under observation for some days afterward, Airnished 
sonae other Interesting partlculftrs. The uterus expelled its contents at 
short intervals, one foetus at a time, each emerging entire, without rup- 
ture of the membranes, and so of course, accompanied by the secundlnes 
intact. The mother at once seized the fluctuating mass with her teeth, • 
tore it open, spilt the water, and shook out the puppy. She then hastily 
took the placenta and membranes In her mouth, chewing and swallowing 
convulsively until the whole mass was In her throat, the Ainls meanwhile 
hanging out of her mouth with the puppy still attached, its abdomen 
touching her muzzle. At this point she began to bite the cord, about an 
inch from the umbilicus, and chewed It off, using not the incisor, but 
the canine teeth. A few drops of blood followed the severing of the 
cord ; the puppy was left to its own resources, while the mother restedi 
apparently asleep, after her pain and fatigue. The process was substan- 
tially repeated in each instance. In this accouchment there were nine 
puppies ; consequently some Idea of the amount of flesh taken into the 
mother's stomach may be formed. 

Here are two points for consideration. In the mode of severing the 
cord we have a flue example of the instinct, or perhaps rather necessity, 
that effects laceration, instead of clean cutting, and thus obviates hemor- 
rhage ; for lacerated vessels do not bleed. It raises a question now ex- 
tensively discussed by obstetricians; and. Indeed, one might ask with 
propriety, was Cain's navel-string tied? Secondly, It Is probable that the 
secundines are not wasted, but on the contrary fUrnlsh sustenance to the 
mother for a time. In the case to which I have special reference the 
mother did not leave her bed for forty-eight hours, nor could she be In- 
duced to take food brought to her during that time. The mass was cer- 
tainly digested, and its nourishment assimilated, as was evident from the 
appearance of what was voided on the third day.— Elliott Cours. 

Summer Rkd Bird.— I have just learned, through Mr. Winfleld Steams, 
of Amherst (in a letter to the Naturalist), that a specimen of the Sum- 
mer Red Bird (Pyranga cestiva), was shot in August, 1867, in that town, 
this making the third instance now known of the capture of this southern 
bird In this state. 

Much is doubtless still to be learned respecting our Massachusetts 
birds, especially in regard to the frequency of occurrence of many of the 
rarer species. It is to be hoped that those having facts of interest re- 
specting such species will see fit to report them in the Naturalist. — J. 

At A LLlUv • 


TiiK OsPRKY (Pandion haliaiius). — Mr. Allen, on page 569 of Vol. iii 
of the Naturalist, refers to the desertion of the seaboard of Massachu- 
setts by this biixl. I will relate an incident which came under uiy observa- 
tion some time since showing that the Osprey is still, or recently, a very 
near neighbor and affording some expectation of his return to our coasts 
where conditions suitable to his peculiar habits still exist. 

Walking from Bristol to Warren, K. I., In May, 18G8, 1 noticed with a 
pleiisant surprise an eyrie of a pair of these birds on the denuded top of 
a stunted oak or butternut, at an elevation, Judging ttom my distance, of 
less than twenty feet fk'om the ground, located near a solitary farmstead, 
about half a mile distant on the right of the turnpike, and with but few 
oiher trees of dwarfish growth scattered at Intervals around. The female 
bli*d appeared to be busily engaged In collecting material and repairing 
her nest ; the male meanwhile sedulously pursuing his piscatory avoca- 
tion over the adjacent bay. I presume I could not have been mistaken In 
identifying the species on this occasion, having had some years previous 
a fair opportunity of studying the habits of these birds on the estate of 
my friend. Dr. Parmley, near Shrewsbury Inlet, New Jersey. — J. R. Col- 
LBTB, Somerville, Mass, 

The Great Auk. — The statement (Amer. Nat., Hi, p. 539) that **the 
Great Ank or Gare-fowl, fortunately for itself did not live long enough to 
receive more than one scientific name " Is incorrect. I give several (Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phlla., 1866), and believe 
others might be found. The tips of the wlugs are not white, as stated 
(1. c), the primaries not being thus marked. I should judge **loss than 
thirty specimens of the egg .... now preserved" (op. cit. p. 550), to 
be an underestimate. Mr. Robert Champley (Annals Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1864, p. 235— fide Hartl. Jahrest. 1864, p. 27), records fifty-three. Those 
who hesitate to credit comparatively southern localities for the species 
should consult the paper of one of the highest authorities upon the sub- 
ject. Professor A. Newton. (Ibis, Oct., 1862). Some of Nuttairs obser- 
vations are more poetical than reliable. Lastly, we have no proof that 
the Great Auk Is extinct; the negative evidence In the case is not so 
weighty that Professor Newton conld not say with propriety "I think 
there is yet a chance of the Great Auk still existing" (Ibid., p. 28). — 
Elliott Coues. 

A Rare Visitor. — A specimen of Pomarine Jager (Lestris Pomarina), 
was obtained by Mr. Vincent Barnard on the fourth of July last, on the 
Susquehanna River at Peach Bottom, Lancaster County, Penn. An adult 
bird of the same species was procured, during the summer of 1840, at 
Harrisbnrg on the same river by Professor Balrd. When it Is remem- 
bered that adults of this species seldom come withio the limits of the 
United States, even In the severest winters, young birds only making 
their appearance along the New England Coast, their occurrence In mid- 
summer may well be considered as quite remarkable. «'^« 

amer. naturalist, vol. IV. 8 


The Cow Bird.— In the second number of ** Nature," Professor 
Newton has an nncommonly interesting and suggestive article on the 
yariatiou observed in Cuckoos' eggs, which seems to depend upon, or to 
be in some way connected with the characters of the eggs of the birds se- 
lected by the parasite as the foster-parents of its offspring. Has anything 
of the sort been determined regarding the eggs of the Cow-bird? Do 
they vary, in the first place, to anything like the extent that the Cuckoo's 
do; and secondly, do they ever tend unmistakably to assimilate in marking 
to the eggs of birds usually selected by the Cow-bird as its dupes? Or, 
again are the birds so chosen, those whose eggs have any special resem- 
blance to a Cow-bird's? It is not always so, I know; but is it so some- 
times, frequently, or usually? The subject is worthy of the attention of 
our ornithologists, from whom It would be well to hear. — Eluott Cou£S. 

OccuuiticNCE OF THE Brown Pelican IN MASSACHUSETTS. —Sluce Writ- 
ing ** Notes on Some of the Rarer Birds of Massachusetts," I have re- 
ceived, through the kindness of Mr. Martin, ftirther information respecting 
the Pelicans mentioned in the February number of the Naturalist. The 
gentleman who saw the llock referred to there, and who fired at them, 
writes that the number was five Instead of thirteen, as at first errone- 
ously reported, and that they were the amaller broion species (^Pelecanus 
fuscus) instead of White Pelicans. They came in from the sea, appar- 
ently much fatigued, and alighted on the beach near the Saukaty Ucad 
lighthouse, where tliey remained till driven away by being fired at. A 
White Pelican seems, however, to have been recently killed on Brant 
Polut, Nantucket, as previously stated. The Brown Pelican I have not 
known to occur previously so far north. — J. A. Allen. 

The Chipmunk. ~ One of our chipmunks was noticed a few days ago 
busily nibbling at a snake that had been recently killed. lie could hardly 
be driven aw.iy, and soon returned to his feast when his tormentors had 
withdrawn a short distance. Does the Tamias striatus in other regions 
possess such carnivorous propensities? — A. J. Cook, Lansing., Mich, 

Albino Rodents. — In the back yard of a small restaurant in this city 
is kept a beautiful albino squirrel, of the black and gray species {SHurus 
Carolinensis Gm.). It was taken in Central W^isconsin, where another 
was killed at the same time. There is an albino rat at a bird-store In 
town. — W. J. Beal. 

Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Nov. 4th, 1869. — Mr. Tryon called the attention of the 
members to specimens of Amnicola grana Say, from Carter County. Mis- 
Kouri, presented this evening. This very minute species was apparently 
unknown to Professor Haldeman, who in his monograph of the genus, 
merely quotes Say's original description and citation of locality and does 
not figure it. The species was for years considered a doubtful one, until 
Mr. Tryon had discovered it, six or eight years ago, existing in consider- 
able numbers in ditches in the southern part of the city of Philadelphia. 


Mr. T. distributed specimens to many of the American Conchologists, 
most of whom informed him that it was new to their collections. The 
donation this evening (Nov. 4) indicates that the species has a large area 
of distribution, and has probably been overloolsed by collectors under the 
supposition that it was merely the 3'oung of some larger species. 

At the meeting held December 2d, Mr. W. L. Mactier called attention 
to a specimen of Dolium melanostoma Jay, presented by him this evening. 
The locality of this shell still remains a mystery, although it has been 
recently assigned to Japan. Mr. M. also presented a nearly perfect speci- 
men of Voluta Junonia and remarked that it was the rarest of American 
VoltUidas, and was found in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Mr. Tryou referring to his remarlvs made at a former meeting in refdta* 
tion of Dr. Gray*s opinion that Crepidula plana Say, is identical with 
C.fornicata Linn., stated that additional evidence of their non-identity 
had recently been presented by Mr. George H. Perkins, who in a recent 
paper states '* that the ovi-capsules of plana are broader, shorter, and 
thinner than those of fomicata^ and the ova are differently situated." 


Further Evidence of the Affinity between the Dinosauriam 
Reptiles and Birds. — Professor Huxley reviewed the evidence already 
cited by himself and others (especially Prof. E. D. Cope), in favor of the 
ornithic affinities presented by the Dinosauria; and discusscM at length 
the recently ascertained facts which bear upon this question, some of 
the most important of which are derived from the species described 
by him in the preceding paper under the uAme of Hypsilophodon Foxit 
He summed up his paper by a comparison of the difl'ercnt elements of 
the pelvic nrch and hinder limb in the ordinary reptiles, the Dlnosauria 
and Birds, and maintained that the structure of the pelvic bones (espec- 
ially the form and arrangement of the ischium and pubis), the relation 
between the distal ends of the tibia and the astragalus (which is per- 
fectly ornithic), and the strong cnemial crest of the tibia and the direc- 
tion of its twist, furnishes additional and Important evidence of the 
affinities between the Dlnosauria and Birds. 

Sir Roderick Murchlson, who had taken the chair, enquired as to the 
habits of the Hypsllophodon. Mr. Ilulke mentioned that Mr. Fox had 
several blocks containing remains of a large portion of the Hypsllopho- 
don, all procured ft'om a thin band of sandstone near Cowleaze Chine. 
On one the pelvis is almost entire, as well as the right femur, the tibia, 
which is longer than the femur, four long metatarsal bones, and an astra- 
galus. All the long bones are hollow. Portions of at least eight indi- 
viduals have been found In the same bed. Mr. Seeley doubted whether 
these animals should be called reptiles at nil, as they seemed to him to 
form a group distinct alike flrom reptiles, birds, and mammals, but occn- 


pying an intermediate position. In the hinder limbs of Pterodactylus the 
analogies were closer with mammals than with birds. He thought It 
possible that the pecnliar structure of the hinder limbs of the Dinosauria 
was due to the functions the}' performed rather than to any actual affinity 
with birds. The President, in reply, stated that Hypsilophodon, fVom the 
character of its teeth, probably subsisted on hard vegetable food. He 
expressed a hope that Mr. Fox would allow a closer examination of his 
specimens to be made. He was unable to agree with Mr. Seeley^s views. 
He was inclined to think that the progress of knowledge tended rather 
to break down the lines of demarcation between groups supposed to be 
distinct than to authorize the creation of fresh divisions. — Nature, Loti' 

Fossil Horse in Missocui. — In the Transactions of the St. Louis 
Academy of Science (Vol. ii, p. 418), Professor Swallow announced the 
discovery of horse remains in the altered drift of Kansas. 

I have now the honor to announce that simihir remains have recently 
been discovered in a well at Papinville, Bates County, Missouri. Mr. O. 
P. Ohlinger procured a tooth at the depth of thirty-one feet fk'om the sur- 
face, resting in a bed of sand beneath a four inch stratum of bluish clay and 
gravel. Above the last was thirty feet ten inches of yellowish clay reach- 
ing to the surface. Beneath the sand, containing the tooth, was a gravel 
bed live feet in thickness, consisting mostly of rounded pebbles resembling 
river gravel, generally hornstone, many partially, and some firmly adher- 
ing together. Other pebbles shown me from the same bed were of iron 
ore, coal and micaceous sandstone. I was farther informed that some re- 
mains of fiuviatile shells were found. I sent the tooth to Professor 
Joseph Leidy of Phlladelph^^, and he pronounced it to be the last upper 
molar of a horse, probably an extinct species. 

From a similar gravel bed on the banks of Marais des Cygne, a fk'agment 
of a tusk was given me resembling very much that of a mammoth. Its 
whole length was said to be seven feet four Inches. About ten miles 
above Paplnvllle, the banks of Marais des Cygne River appear to be of a 
similar formation to the well of Ohlinger, consisting of about twelve feet 
of brown sandy clay resting on ten feet of blue clay with many pebbles 
of worn gravel at the lower part. 

These gravel beds I consider as of more recent age than the drift, but 
older than the bluff or loess, and regard them as altered drift. They seem 
rather to abound on the Osage and its tributaries, and are often reached 
in digging wells. 

The tooth from Maysville, Kansas, was found in altered drift at a depth 
of forty-five feet ft-om the surfaces. 

Dr. Albert Koch exhnmed the famous Missourium {Mastodon gigante^is)^ 
from a bed of gravel and clay on Pomme de Terre Ulver, twenty feet be- 
low the surface. In these beds of altered drift we may therefore expect 
to find many Interesting remains of mammals. — G. C. Bkoadiiead {Bead 
before the St. Louis Academy of Science, Nov, 16, 1869). 



Sudden Drying up of Streams in Nevada. — In my article on the 
'•Truckee and Humboldt Valleys," I casnally call attention to the inter- 
mittent character of the mountain streams In that region. I state that 
they ** run IVeely, even boisterously, during the night and early morning, 
but dry up totally in the lower part of their course by noon." My offered 
explanation was rather a surmise than a conclusion. I had at that time 
seen no other. I have Just observed, however, a statement of the fact 
and a theory to account for it. I refer to an article by Mr. Robert Brown 
in the January number of the "Country Gentleman," upon **The Forest 
Trees and Forest Life of North-west America." He says ** these streams 
are hid in high mountains, and the sun is not of sufficient power to melt 
the snow which forms their volume until late in the day, when they 
gather force, and again decrease after sunset until they are almost 

This solution of the mystery is very plausible and doubtless correct as 
regards the streams which came under Mr. Brown's observation. It will 
not apply so well, however, to those of the West Humboldt Mountains, 
of which I wrote. At the time my attention was drawn to the sub- 
ject there was no snow upon the range, even the high summit of Star 
Peak being perfectly bare. Had there been snow, I think the heat of the 
sun in August was sufficient to melt it nny time in the day. I confess 
that my own offered explanation does not account for the great volume 
of water in the streams. Although the snliject has no direct connection 
with natural history, I have ventured to call your attention to it in 
order, if possible, to draw out a theory which will meet the facts. — 
W. W. Bailey. 

Quaternary Deposits. — During the summer of 1865, whilst digging a 
pit for the foundation of a bridge abutment on the Pacific Railroad, four 
miles north of Pleasant Hill, Missouri, after passing through soil and 
dark clays at the depth of twelve feet, a bed of gravel and decomposing 
remains of fresh-water shells was reached, from which I obtained the 
tooth of an extinct species of ox. 

In the year 1868, whilst prosecuting some geological examinations in 
Moultrie County, Illinois, I found in the bank of Kaskaskia River, the 
skull, with part of the vertebral column of an ox (probably Bos lati- 
frons). The distance across the skull between the roots of the horns 
measured twelve Inches, and the same between the eyes. The horns were 
short, thick, and but slightly curved forward and upward. On the bank 
above there were trees growing two feet in diameter. The bones were 
surrounded by dark clays and debris. 

Besides remains of mammalia, bones and sticks of wood have often 
been found in modified drift at twenty feet or more beneath the surface. 
In North Missouri, sticks of wood have been found at a depth of seventy- 
five feet, part of a grape-vine at forty feet, and in Illinois a piece of 
cedar has been obtained from more than a hundred feet beneath the sur- 
face. In Nevada, Missouri, a walnut log two feet thick was dug up from 


a depth of sixteen feet ; and four miles north, charred wood and a bivalve 
Bhell fk*om a depth of nineteen feet. 

It may not be improper here to state that boulders and many rounded 
pebbles of granite, sienite, greenstone, etc.. with accumulations of drift 
sands, abound along the north line of Missouri, and are even abundant 
near the line of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad; farther south they 
are more rare, being scarce near the Missouri River. In Sullivan County, 
Missouri, I have observed a granite boulder twenty-five feet in diameter; 
in Monroe County, a greenstone boulder, three feet in diameter. Near 
tlie Missouri River one is rarely found more than a foot In diameter. In 
Osage County, Missouri, I have only found one small granite boulder, and 
found none in the upper river counties on the south. The Missouri River 
sandbars abound* In small, rounded pebbles of mostly granite, slenlte, 
hornstone, greenstone, lignite and quartz rock, with pebbles fh>m neigh- 
boring rocks ; ail the first named pebbles are borne down from far up in 
the mountains. 

The absence of granitoid rocks in the accumulations along the Osage 
and its tributaries may be sufficient evidence to place the era of these de- 
posits in a more recent period than that of the modified drift of North 
Missouri. They may belong to the older loess or bluif, and we may con- 
clude the horse, ox, mammoth and mastodon to be coexistent. It is even 
probable that they may have roamed America during the epoch of the 
mound builders. — G. C. Broadhead, St. Louis, Mo. 

New MosASAUitoiD Reptiles. — Professor Marsh has recently published 
in the "American Journal of Science," a notice of four new reptiles, 
belonging, or allied, to Mosasaurus, trom the Qreensand of New Jersey. 
He remarks that " a striking difference between the reptilian fauna of the 
Cretaceous of Europe and America is the prevalence, in the former, of re- 
mains of Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus, which here appear to be en- 
tirely wanting; while the Mosasauroids, a group comparatively rare in 
the Old World, replace them in this country, and are abundantly repre- 
sented by several genera and numerous species. 

ScoLiTHUS A Sponge. — Mr. E. Billings has referred the supposed casts 
of worm burrows, named Scolithus and ArenicoUtes, and found In Silu- 
rian rocks, to the sponges. He believes that these ancient sponges, at 
least many of them, lived in the sand or soft ooze of the ocean*s bottom, 
with their sometimes wide and trumpet-shaped mouths, Just even with or 
a little elevated above the surftice. — Scientific Opinion. 


Relics from the Orkat Mound. — I send in this letter a perforated 
shell disk and an oblong bead. They were found with many others in 

*Qnailt« Mi4 other igneoaa pebbles are ft>aiid Airther to the eonth than lUlnols. 


removing the "big monnd** in this city. The grave was seventy feet 
long, eighteen feet wide, and twenty-five feet below the surface; the 
bodies were in a sitting attitude facing the east; the bones are nearly 
decayed and will cramble when exposed to the air. I have a lock of long 
black hair which was on one of the skulls ; I also obtained from the same 
head two copper ornaments, shaped alike, which were behind the 'ears 
and beneath which were the oblong beads, one of which is enclosed ; the 
copper ornaments are shaped like the bowl of a large tablespoon, from 
the convex surface of which extends a long, sharp horn. Two large 
conch shells were also found which are in my possession. — T. T. Rich- 
ards, St. LouiSy Mo. 

[On page 256, Vol. i, of the Transactions of the Chicago Academy of 
Science^ Colonel Foster mentions the finding of the "disks," "beads,** 
etc., in the grave on the mound, and figures one of the " disks," which on 
the authority of Dr. Stimpson he considers as made from the shell of 
Busycon pervenum, often found in connection with the mounds. Colonel 
Foster also states that a quantity of small shells Marginella apicina, from 
the Gulf of Mexico were also found. The ear ornaments of copper men- 
tioned by Mr. Richards, are probably the same as those mentioned by 
Colonel Foster as "two copper vessels, formed like a spoon-bowl." 

We have also received a number of the disks (all with holes through 
the centre) A*om Mr. Joseph F. Tucker, of Chicago, who states that they 
were found as described by Mr. Richards. We would like to publish 
carefblly made figures of the ear ornaments in the Naturalist. 

Can any one inform us whether the skulls found in this grave on the 
"Great Mound" have been compared with those of undoubted mound 
skulls? For there seems to be much uncertainty relating to this mound. 
Was it really formed by the mound builders, or even used by them, 
or were the skeletons found there of the present Indian race ? It will be 
remembered that Professor Smith, of St. Louis, who watched the level- 
ing of the mound, was satisfied that it was a river deposit, and not an 
artificial mound.— F. W. P.] 

The Death of Michael Sars, the distinguished Naturalist and Pro- 
fessor at the Royal University at Christiana, Norway, was noticed In the 
last number of the Natitralist. Since that notice was written we have 
learned with sincere regret that Professor Sars leaves a family of six 
children In very Impoverished circumstances. In view of the fact that 
American zoologists are deeply indebted to Professor Sars for the light 
he has thrown upon many of the lower forms of animals In the unri- 
valled Investigations embodied in his publications, we feel It a duty to 
solicit aid for his family. Any remittance, however small, will be wel- 
come and acknowledged, and will be forwarded to his family through the 
Norwegian minister. —Editors Naturalist. 


Grorgk Prabodt. — We have received tVoin Mr. Carl Melnerth* of 

Newburyport, the finest photograph we have yet seen of Mr. Peabody. 

It is done by the new form of Mezzo-tint, invented by Mr. Meinerth, and 

is a copy of the last portrait taken of Mr. Peabody by Mayall of London 

in 1869. 

CoKBEcnow.— A slij^t correction needs to be made In the article on " Shavings ** in 
the January nnmber. The ** Larg« openings '' in the llgaro of the oak'Section spoken of 
on page 566, aie not sections of " spiral ducts," of which there is none in the body of 
such wood, but of the very different dotted ducts. The shaving figured, moreover, 
must have been taken from an uncommon stick of oak, not to show the great accumu- 
lation of these ducts at the inner margin of each annual zone. The figure shows them 
only in the second layer and a part of the third. 


Archiv fur AiUhropologU. Vol. HI, Parts 1-3. Braunschweig, 1869. 

Philo*ophirat Tramacliotu of the Royal Society o/ London. 4to. Vol. elvlll. Parts 1 and 9 
1868. Vol. ctix. Parti. 186U. 

Proceeding* of the Royal Society of London, 8vo. Vol. xvfl. (1868-8). Vol. zvUl, Pt. 1. 1869. 

Li^t of Feltowt etc, o,f the Royal Society oj London, 4to. 1868. 

Trantattantic Longitude^ a» determined by the Coast Survey Expedition qf 1866. A Report to 
the Sup't of the U, S. Coa»t Sur. By Dr. B. A. Gould CSniltiiaunian Contributions]. 4to. 1869. 

Quarterly Journat of Science. Jan., 1870. 8vo. London. 

Memoirs de la Soeiete de Physique et d'Uistoire Natiirelle de Oeneve. Tome xlx, Pt. S. 1868. 
Tonic XX. Pt. 1. 186U. 4to. 

The Anatomy of a Mushroom. By M. C. Cooke. [From Popular Science Review, Oct., 1869.J 

Le Naturatitte Canadien. Quebec. Vol. 11, No. 2. Janunrv. 

Botanirat Notes. By D. A. I'. Wiitt. TFrom tiif C'nnadlaii Nittnrallst.J 

American Journal <if the Medical Sciences. Jan.. IbTO. 8vn (quartiTly). H. C. Lea. Phlla. 

IMf Yearly Abstract of the Medical Sciences. Vol. 50. Jan., 1870. H. C. Lea. Philadelphia. 

An Address on the occasion of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Alexander Von uum- 
boldt. By Jaiues P. Luse. Ruad before the New Albanv (Md.) Natural History Society. 

Petites Novelles Entomologiques. Nos. 18- lA. Jan.. 1870. Paris. 

American Entomologist. Vol. 11, No. 2. Dec. and Jan. Stud Icy A Co. St. Louis. 

Scientific Opinion. January 12-26. Loudon. 

Canadian Entomologist, Ttironto. Vol. 11, No. 4. January. 

Stanley^s Microscopic Catalogue. I^ondon. 

Preliminary Field Report nf'th« United Stales Geological Survey of Colorado and Ifew Mexico^ 
conducted Onder the authority qf Hon, J. D, Cox^ Secretary of the Interior, By F. V. Hayden. 
8vo. Washlnfrton. 1S68. 

Contributiom to Zoology^ published by the Royal Zoological Society {Natttra Artis Magisfra)^ 
Amsterdam. 18a9, I8H9. Folio. Notice sur des Debris de Chelonlens fhisant partle des CoHec- 
tlonadu ACusee royal d'Hlstolre Naturelleet provenant des Terrains Tertlalres des Environs de 
Bruxollos; par M. A. Prendliommc de Borre. 8vd, pp. 8. 

Htirdvicke^s Science Oossip, January, February. London. Also bonnd volume for 1868. 

Land and Water {wcc'kX)'). Nos. 202*207. Dec. 4— Jan. 8. Loudon. 

News List and Index. Jan, Ist. London. 

The Academy. No. 4. January 8. London. 

The European Mail {leeekly). No. 6162. January 18. London. 

Illustrated Bee Journal. Vol. 1, No. 2. Indianapolis. $2 00 a year. 

Transactions of the Chicago Academy of Science. Vol. 1. Piirt 9. 1869. Royal 8vo. 1880. 

Third Report of the CommisHoner of Fisheries of the State of Maine. 1869. By Charles G. 
Atkins, 8vo, pp. 48, ami lltlioKraph of Black Bass. Auxusta, 1870. 

American Journal of Conehology. Vol. v. No. 8. Phlladplpbla. (10 per annum.) 

The Molluscan Fauna of Netr Ilaven. By Ueorge H. Perkins. 8vo pamphlet. [Fi'om Pro- 
cectllngs of Boston Soc Nat. Hist., Oct. and Nov.. 1869.J 

Current Numbers of The Atlantic Monthly, Overland Monthly^ Putnam^s Monthly, Avpleton^s 
Journal^ Packard's Monthly, Phrenological Journal, Eoery Saturday, Voung Folks. Mpersi<(e 
Manatine, Old and A>«». Harper^* Hatar, Prank Leslie's Illustrated Paper, Practical Farmer. The 
Nation, The Cititen and Round Ta/>le., College Courant, New Fork Independent, New York Mail. 
Baltimore Gatette, New Jerusalem Messenger, Christian Union^ American Jiee Journal, Journal 
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7 ZX S 


Vol IV.— APRIL, 1870. -Wo. 2. 


The most valuable fur-bearing animals inhabiting the 
waters of the north-west coast of North America are the 
sea otters ; they are found as far south as twenty-eight de- 
grees of north latitude, and their northern limits include the 
Aleutian Islands. f Although never migrating to the south- 
ern hemisphere, these peculiar amphibious animals are found 
around the isolated points of southern Kamtschatka and even 
to the western Kuriles, a chain of islands that separate the 
Okhotsk Sea from the north-eastern Pacific. 

The length of the matured animals may average five feet 
including the tail, which is about ten inches; the head re- 
sembles that of the fur seal of the coast, having full, black, 
sharp eyes, exhibiting much intelligence. The color of the 
females when in season is quite black, at other periods of a 
dark brown. The males usually are of the same shade, al- 
though in some instances they are of a jet shining black like 
their mates. The fur is of a much lighter shade inside than 
upon the surface; and extending over all are long, black, 
glistening hairs, which add much to the richness and beauty 
of the pelage. Some individuals, about the nose and eyes, 

•FnrnlBhed for pnblioation by the Smtthsokian Institutzon. 
fThe moBt northern limit we can rely npon 1b sixty degrees north. 

Xntered acoordln/r to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by the Psabodt Aoadsmt or 
Somicx, In the Clerks Offloe of the Dlstrlot Court of the District of Hasssehusetts. 



are of a light brown or dingy white. The ears are less than 
an inch in length, quite pointed, standing nearly erect, and 
are covered with short hair. 

Its hind flippers, or feet, are long and webbed much like a 
seal's. Its forelegs are short ; the fore paws resemble those 
of a cat, and are furnished with five sharp claws, each meas- 
uring half an inch in length ; the hind feet, or flippers, are 
furnished likewise. 

^ Occasionally the young are of a deep brown, with the 
ends of the longest hairs tipped with white, and about the 
nose and eyes of a cream color. 

The mating season of the sea otter is not known, as the 
young are met with in all months of the year ; hence it is 
reasonable to suppose they difier from most other species of 
marine mammalia in this respect.* 

The hunters about Point Granville say that the males are 
less shy, and run more in shore during May and June, and 
appear to be in search of the females ; while on the other 
hand, the latter make every eflfort to avoid them. The time 
of gestation is supposed to be eight or nine months. 

The oldest and most observing hunters about Point Gran- 
ville aver that the sea otter is never seen on shore unless it is 
wounded. (Nevertheless we have accounts of their coming 
on shore upon the Aleutian Islands, which will be spoken of 

It is possessed of much sagacity, has great powers of 
scent, and is exceedingly imbued with curiosity. 

Its home is nearly as much in the water as some species 
of whales; and as whalers have their favorite *' cruising 
grounds, so likewise do the otter hunters have their favorite 
hunting grounds^ or points where the objects of pursuit are 
found in greater numbers than along the general stretch of 
the coast. About the seaboard of Upper and Lower Cali- 
fornia, Cerros St. Gerimmo, Guadalupe, St. Nicholas and 

•Thii remark in relation to finding the young at all seasons of the year is based 
upon obserrations made at Point Granyille. 


St. Miguel Islands, have been regarded as choice places to 
pursue them ; farther northward, off Cape Blanco on the 
Oregon coast, and Point Granville and Gray's Harbor, along 
the coast of Washington Territory. At the present day con- 
siderable numbers are taken by whites and Indians about 
these northern grounds. 

Thence to the northward and westward comes a broken 
coast and groups of islands where the animals were in former 
days hunted by the employees of the Hudson Bay Company, 
Russian American Company, and the natives inhabiting those 
broken shores. 

These interesting animals are gregarious, and frequently 
may be seen in bands numbering from fifty up to hundreds. 
When in rapid movement they make alternate, undulating 
leaps out of the water, plunging again as do seals and por- 
poises. When in a state of quietude they are much of the 
time on their backs. They are frequently seen in this post- 
ure with the hind flippers extended as if catching the breeze 
to sail or drift before it. They live on clams, as well as 
crabs and other species of crustacea; sometimes small fish. 
When the otter descends and brings up any article of food, 
it instantly resumes its habitual attitude on the back to de- 
vour it. In sunny days, when looking, it sometimes shades 
its eyes with one forepaw, much in the same manner as a 
person does with the hand. 

The females usually have but a single young one at a 
birth, never more than two, which are brought forth on the 
kelp (say the white hunters), which abounds at nearly all 
points known as their favorite resorting places.* 

* That the otters have their yonng in the water, or on the kelp, appears improbable; 
howeveri may it not bo possible ? We have it flrom pretty reliable authority that they 
do come on the beaches about the Aleutian Islands. Is it probable that the habits of the 
animals change in this respect in different latitudes ? 

By expressing doubts as aboye, no reflection is cast on the hunters with whom I hare 
oonversed ; on the contrary, those men who have kindly Aimished me with much valu- 
able data, I know to be of undoubted veracity, and they seem positive that '* sea otters 
never come on shore unless in some way disabled." This is the belief of Mr. Blodget, 
a very sucoessftil hunter at Point Granville. He assures me that he has searched dill- 


The mothers caress and suckle their oflTspring seemingly 
with much affection, fondling them with their forepaws, re- 
clining in their usual manner, and frequently uttering a 
plaintive strain, which may have given rise to the saying that 
"sea otters sing to quiet their young ones." But when 
startled they rise perpendicularly nearly half their lengths 
out of the water ; and if their quick, sharp eyes, discover 
aught to cause alarm, the cubs are seized with the mouth, 
and instantly all will disappear under water. Both males 
and females are sometimes seen curled up in such shapeless- 
ness as to present no appearance of animal form ; when in 
this position they are said to be sleeping. The perpendicular 
attitude is likewise often adopted during the mating season. 

The sea otter is rarely seen far from land, its home being 
in the thick beds of kelp near the shore, or about outlaying 
rocky reefs. 

Point Granville seems to be an exception, as there is no 

gently for their tracks along the sandy beach lying between the above-named point 
and Gray's Harbor, but iiever found the least indication of them. 

Captain Williams, who has long been a successful sea otter hunter on the California 
coast, corroborates Mr. Blodget's statement as to sea otters coming on shore on that 

Coxe, in his work published in 1780, writes the following in relation to the sea otter: 
'*Of all these fhrs, the skins of the sea otter are the richest and most valuable. Those 
animals resort in great numbers to the Aleutian and Fox Islands ; they arc called by 
the Russians *Boahry Morfki, or sea beavers, and sometimes Kamtchadal beavers, on 
account of the resemblance of their fhr to that of the common beaver. From these 
circumstances several authors have been led into a mistake, and have supposed that 
this animal is of the beaver species, whereas it is the true sea otter. 

The females are called Matka, or dams; and the cubs, till Ave months old, MtdvUdJd, 
or little bears, because their coat resembles that of a bear; they lose that coat after 
five months, and then are called Kofchloki. 

The ftir of the finest sort is thick and long, of a dark color, and flue glossy hue* 
They art taken four ways i— struck with darts as they are sleeping on their backs in the sea, 
followed in boats and hunted down till they are tired, surprised in cavemSf and taken in 

Their skins ftetch different prices according to their quality. 

At Kamtschatka, the best sell for, per skin, flrom thirty to forty roubles; middle sort, 
twenty to thirty; worst sort, fifteen to twenty-five. At Kiachta, the old and middle- 
aged sea otter skins, are sold to the Chinese per skin, firom eighty to one hundred; the 
worst sort fVom thirty to forty. 

As these ftars fetch so great a price to the Chinese, they are seldom brought into 
Russia fbr sale; and several, which have been carried to Moscow, as a tribute, were 
purchased fbr thirty roubles i«er skin; and sent fVom thence to the Chinese f^ntiers, 
where they were disposed of at a very high interest." 


kelp in sight from the shore, but the Indians say that there 
is kelp in large patches about ten miles seaward, where the 
animals resoi*t as a breeding place.* 

About the period of the establishing of Fort Astoria, near 
the mouth of the Columbia, and for many years following, 
the sea otter hunters, along the coasts of California and 
Oregon, were made up from nearly all the maritime nations 
of Europe and America, as well as from among the different 
tribes of natives that dwelt near the seashore. Those of the 
former were hardy spirits, who preferred a wild life and ad- 
venturous pursuits, rather than civilized employment. The 
distance coasted in their lightly constructed boats, the 
stealthy search for the game, and when discovered, the 
shai*pshooting pursuit, gave these hunting expeditions a 
pleasant tinge of venture ; moreover, the taking of sea ot- 
ters on the coasts of the Californias by foreigners, was pro- 
hibited by the Mexican government ; and the hunters were 
aware that, if detected, the penalty would be severe ; hence 
they ever kept a watchful eye on all vessels seen, which 
were carefully avoided, or cautiously approached. 

An •* otter canoe" is fifteen feet long, nearly five wide, and 
eighteen inches deep. It is sharp at both ends, with flaring 
sides, and but little shear. Still these boats are admirable 
sea-goers, and regarded as unsurpassed for landing through 
the surf. Its shape is peculiar ; so likewise are the paddles 
for propelling it, which are short with very broad blades, 
being better adapted for use in the thick beds of kelp. 

The outfit when going on a cruise is limited nearly to the 
barest necessities. Two men usually hunt in one boat, each 
taking his favorite rifle, with a supply of ammunition. A 
little tea, coffee, sugar, flour, or ship-bread, aie provided, 
adding pipes and tobacco, and, as a great luxury, perhaps a 
keg of spirits completes their equipment. 

All being in readiness, they leave the quiet waters of the 

•Within the last four years I have passed frequently oyer this locality assigned by 
the IwUan$ as prodacing thick beds of kelp, bat hare never found any.— C. M. S. 


harbor and put to sea, following the trend of the land, but 
occiisionally making a broad deviation to hunt about some 
island, miles from the main. 

When an otter is seen within rifle-shot instantly the 
hunter fires, and if only wounded the animal dives under 
water but soon reappears to be repeatedly shot at till cap- 
tured. Sometimes three boats will hunt together ; then they 
take positions one on each side, but in advance of the third, 
and all three in the rear of where the animal is expected to 
be seen. It is only the practised eye of experienced men 
that can detect the tip of the animal's nose peering above 
water disguised by a leaf of kelp. 

Thus they cruise in search of the game landing to pass 
the nights, at different places well known to them, behind 
some point or rock that breaks the ocean swell. The land- 
ings are ^^made** by watching the successive rollers as they 
undulate upon the beach, and when a favorable time comes 
the boat with dexterous management glides over the surf 
with safety to the shore. It is then hauled up clear of the 
water and turned partially over for a shelter ; or a tent is 
pitched, a fire is made of drift wood, or if this fail, the dry 
stalks of the cactus, or a bunch of dead chapperel serves 
them ; the evening meal is soon partaken of with hearty 
relish ; then come the pipes, which are enjoyed intensely. 
Freed from all care these hardy men talk of past adventures 
and frolics, and when inclined roll themselves in their blank- 
ets for a night's invigorating sleep in the open air ; awaking 
at day-break to the screams of sea-birds and the barking of 
coyotes attracted by the scent of the encampment. 

The morning repsist over they again embark in their 
cockle-shell boats, launch through the surf, gain the open 
sea, and paddle along shore, ever on the watch for "otter 

From San Francisco northward as far as Juan de Fuca 
Strait, the hunting is chiefly prosecuted by shooting them 
from the shore, the most noted grounds being between 


Gray's Harbor aud Point Granville, a belt of low coast lying 
between the parallels of 46^ and 48^ north latitude. 

The white hunter builds his two log cabins, one near the 
southern limits of his beat and the other at its northern 
terminus near Point Granville. During the prevalence of 
southerly winter gales he takes up his quarters at the last 
named station, as the game is found there more frequently ; 
but when the summer winds sweep down from the north he 
changes his habitation and pursues the animals about the 
breakers of Gray's Harbor. From early dawn, till the sun 
sinks below the horizon, the hunter with rifle in hand and 
ammunition slung across his shoulder,* walks the beach on 
the lookout for a shot; the instant one is seen, crack goes 
the rifle, but it is seldom that the animal is secured by one 
fire. A sea otter's head bobbing about in the restless swell 
is a very uncertain mark ; and if instantly killed the reced- 
ing tide or adverse wind might drift the animal seaward, so 
that even if it eventually drifts to shore it may be far out of 
sight from the hunter by day, or is thrown on the rocks by 
the surge during the night, and is picked up by some one of 
the strolling Indians, who "^run the beach" in quest of any 
dead seal, or otter, that may come in their way. 

It is estimated that the best shooters average at least 
twenty-five shots to every otter killed ; and only about one- 
half the number shot are secured by the rightful owners. 
But when once in his possession, it is quickly fleeced of its 
valuable skin, and stretched on the wall of the cabin to dry. 

It is no unusual occurrence for the hunter to pass a week 
travelling up and down the beach, and he may shoot sixty or 
more rounds, perhaps kill several, but owing to bad luck^ not 
one is secured, all either drifting to sea, or to shore, possibly 

*I am informed by Mr. Ford, a resident near ttie banting grounds, that the hunters 
now use a kind of a ladder, or it might be termed two ladders Joined near the upper 
ends by a hinge, opening at the lower ends. It is made of very light material and can 
be easily carried by hand; when required for use it is opened and placed on the beach 
and mounted by the hunter when an elevation Is desired, which is considered a great 
advantage under some circumstances. 


with the flowing night-tide ; and the object bo eagerly and 
patiently sought for is at last stealthily appropriated by some 
skulking savage. 

Notwithstanding their propensity to purloin, the Indians 
of the north-west coast not only occasionally shoot the sea 
otter as do the whites, but in the months of July and 
August, when calm weather prevails, they capture them by 
night. A small canoe is chosen for the purpose and the 
implement used is a spear of native make composed of bone 
and steel, fitted to a long pole by a socket. Four chosen 
men make the crew for the canoe. 

Near the close of the day a sharp watch is kept on any 
band of the animals that may have been in view from the 
shore and their position accurately defined before beginning 
the pursuit. All being in readiness, as the shade of evening 
approaches, they launch upon the calm sea, and three men 
paddle in silence toward the place where the objects of pur« 
suits were seen, while the fourth takes his station in the bow 
—who is either a chief or some one distinguished in the 
chase — watches intently for the sleeping otters. As soon 
as one is descried the canoe is headed for it, and when within 
reach the spear is launched into the unwary creature, which, 
in its efibrts to escape, draws the spear from the pole, but is 
not freed yet (as there is a small strong line connecting the 
spear and pole together, although permitting them to sepa- 
rate a few feet). It dives deep, but with great effort, as the 
unwieldly pole greatly retards its progress. The keen-eyed 
savage, however, traces its course in the blinding darkness 
by the phosphorescent light caused by the animal's transit 
through the water, and when it rises upon the surface to 
breathe is beat with clubs, paddles, or, perhaps another 
spear, and is finally despatched after repeated blows or 
thrusts. The conflict arouses the whole band which instantly 
disappear, so that it is seldom that more than one is secured. 

As soon as the hunt is over the animal is brought on 
shore, the skin taken off and stretched to dry, and when 



ready for market the lucky owner considers himself en- 
riched to the value of ten or fifteen blankets. The flesh of 
the otter is eagerly devoured by the Indians as a choice 
article of food. The mode of capture between Point Gran- 
ville and the Aleutian Islands varies with the diflTereut 
native tribes inhabiting that coast. 

About the Aleutian Islands, the natives, dressed in their 
water-proof garments made from the intestines of seals, 
wedge themselves into their bidarkas (which are constructed 
with a light wooden frame, and covered with walrus or seal 
skins*), and as it were plunge through the surf that dashes 
high among the crags, and with almost instinctive skill reach 
the less turbulent ground swell that heaves in every direction. 

Once clear of the rocks, however, the hunters watch in- 
tently for the otters. The first man that gets near to one 
darts his spear, then throws up his paddle by way of signal ; 
all the other boats form a circle around him at some distance ; 
the wounded animal dives deeply, but soon returns to the 
surface near some one of the boats forming the circle ; again 
the hunter that is near enough hurls his spear and elevates 
his paddle, and again the ring is formed as before. In this 
wise the chase is continued till the capture is made. As soon 
as the animal is brought on shore the two oldest hunters ex- 
amine it, and the one whose spear is found nearest its head 
is entitled to the prize. The number of sea otters taken an- 
nually is not definitely known, but from the most authentic 
information we can obtain the aggregate is two thousand six 
hundred; valuing the skins at fifty dollai*s each, amounts to 
the sum of one hundred and thirty thousand dollars. 

Whether these most valuable fur animals have decreased 
in numbers within the few past years is questionable. The 
hunting of them on the coast of California is no longer 

* These "bidarkas, or skln-boats,'' are from twelve to eighteen f^t long, according 
as they may be made for one or two persons, the greatest width being about thirty 
Inches, and depth seventeen inches. In these frail crafts the natives go from OnUaskl 
to Sanak Islands to hunt the sea otter, a distance of one hundred and sixty miles. 



profitable for more than two or three hunters, and we believe 
of late, some seasons have passed without any one engaging 
in the enterprise ; notwithst^^nding off Point Granville, 
which is an old hunting ground, sixty otters were taken by 
only three hunters during the summer of 1868, a great an* 
nual increase over many past years. 

It is said that the Russian American Company restricted 
the number taken yearly by the Aleutian Islanders — from 
whom the chief supply was obtained — in order to perpetuate 
the stock. Furthermore may it not be that these sagacious 
animals have fled from those places on the coasts of the 
Californias, where they were so constantly pursued, to some 
more isolated haunt, and now remain unmolested. 



As Falconry, before the discovery of gunpowder and fire- 
arms, was a favorite amusement of the kings and nobles all 
over Europe, and as it is even to the present day among the 
Turks in some parts of Asia Minor ; among the Persians, 
the Circassians, the wandering hordes of Tartars and Tur- 
comans, and as it forms one of the chief 6poi*ts of some of 
the native princes of India, and is not unknown in the 
northern provinces of China, and among several other bar- 
barous or half-civilized countries, it may not be uninterest- 
ing to my readers to know in what estimation it has been 
held. I will not in this article give any account of the 
manner of training falcons ; sufiSce it to say that they were 
taught to fly at the game and capture it, and come at call. 
It required months, and sometimes years, to train them 

Hawking was not unknown to the Romans in the early 


part of the christian era, but was firat introduced into Eng* 
laud from the north of Europe duriug the fourth century. 
In 920 the Emperor Heury was called the fowler on account 
of his great fondness for the sport. In the eleventh century 
wheu Canute, king of Denmark and Norway, ascended the 
English throne, the amusement became more and more prev- 
alent. After the ascension of William of Normandy to the 
English throne, none but persons of the highest rank were 
allowed to keep hawks. The killing of a deer, or boar, or 
even a hare by a serf, was punished with the loss of the 
delinquent's eyes, when the killing of a man could be atoned 
for by paying a moderate sum. In the twelfth century this 
was the favorite recreation of all the kings and nobles of 
Europe. '*It was thought sufficient for noblemen's sons to 
wind the horn, and to carry their hawk fair, and leave study 
and learning to the children of meaner people." A German 
writer, about the year 1485, complains that **the gentry used 
to take the hawks and hounds to church with them, disturb* 
ing the devotions of those religiously inclined, by the 
screams and yells of the birds and beasts." This diversion 
was in so high esteem all over Europe, that Frederic, one of 
the emperors of Germany, thought it not beneath him to 
write a treatise on hawking. In 1481, in the reign of Rich- 
ard m, Juliana Berners, sister of Lord Berners, and prior- 
ess of the nunnery of Sapewell, wrote a tract on falconry, 
which was loudly applauded by her cotemporaries, and be- 
came what Hoyle has on games, — a standard treatise. In 
1615 and 1619, two works on the same subject were pub- 
lished in London, the former, by Gervase Markham, the 
latter, by Edmund Bert. 

In the thirteenth century the arbitrary law of William, 
then Duke of Normandy, was somewhat modified by King 
John, ** allowing every freeman to have his eyries of hawks, 
falcons, etc., in bis own woods." In the fourteenth century, 
Edward III, of England, made it felony to steal a hawk, or 
take the eggs, and '* punished the offender by imprisonment 


for one year and one day, together with a fine, at the king's 
pleasure." Any person finding a hawk was to carry it to 
the sheriff of the county, who was immediately to cause a 
proclamation to be made in all the principal towns in the 
county (each falcon had a ring put around his leg with the 
owner's name engraved on it, and a small bell was sus- 
pended from the neck of the bird so that it might be discov- 
ered when lost in the chase) . Any attempt of the finder to 
conceal or appropriate it was to be punished the same as 
stealing. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the imprison- 
ment was reduced to three months, but the culprit was to 
lie in prison 'Uill he got security for his good behavior for 
seven years." 

The dignitaries of the church even indulged in the spoi*t, 
and the poet Chaucer represents them as being more learned 
in hunting than in divinity. During the middle ages a Eu* 
ropean showed his rank by having a hawk on his fist, and 
when he died the bird was generally carved on his monu- 
ment. Among the Welsh princes the king's falconer was 
the fourth officer in the state; yet he was "forbidden to 
take more than three drams of beer from his horn lest he 
should get drunk and neglect his duty." The grand fal- 
coner of France had four thousand florins per annum, was 
allowed three hundred hawks, and had fifty gentlemen and 
fifty attendants to follow him. He rode out with the King 
on all gi*eat occasions. 

The prices paid for falcons were enormous. Sir Thomas 
Monson paid five thousand dollars for a pair. In Persia the 
gerfalcon of Russia is not allowed to be kept by any per- 
son except the king, and each bird is valued at fifteen hun- 
dred crowns. Hawks were sent as royal tokens from kings 
to kings, and formed a customary present from the sovereign 
to the embassador of a friendly power. In more ancient 
times they were bequeathed as valuable and honorable lega- 
cies, with the injunction, ^^ that the legatee should behave 
kindly and dutifully by the said bird." 


The sport suffered no decline on the accession of the 
Tudors. Henry YII. made laws about hawking as did also 
Queen Elizabeth, who occasionally indulged in the amuse- 
ment with the ladies of her court. Sir Walter Raleigh, allud- 
ing to her sylvan sports, compares her and her retinue to the 
goddess Diana and her nymphs. John of Salisbury, who 
wrote in the thirteenth century, said, ''that the women even 
excelled the men in the knowledge and practice of falconry.'' 
Henry the YHI. followed the sport until he grew so fat and 
unwieldy, that in attempting to vault a ditch, he fell in 
where the ''bottom had fallen out," and would have drowned 
but for the assistance of a John Moody. Says Hall, "God 
in his goodnesse preserved hym.** 

In 1531, Sir Thomas Elyot "lamented that providing the 
numberless hawks then kept by the English gentry, with 
their customary food of hens, almost threatened the total 
extinction of the valuable race of domestic poultry." In 
1536, in the twenty-seventh year of the reign of Henry VIII, 
owing to the inroads made upon the game, he issued a pro- 
clamation to protect them, and made it imprisonment, and 
such other punishment as should seem meet to his highness 
the King, for "any person of whatever rank who should kill, 
or in any way molest herons, partridges and pheasants from 
his palace at Westminster to St. Gilcs's-in-the-Fields, and 
from thence to Islington, Hampstead, Highgate and Homsey 

Falconry had in a gi*e^t measure Ipst its prestige in Eng- 
land by the beginning of the seventeenth century. Hawking 
was then classed among "the amusements of squires and 
country gentlemen generally." In a book of advice which 
James I. wrote for the benefit of his eldest son Henry, Prince 
of Wales, after recommending manly exercises, hunting, etc., 
he adds, "as for hawking, I condemn it not, but I must 
praise it more sparingly, because it neither resembleth the 
warres so near as hunting doeth, in making a man bardie and 
skilfully ridden in all grounds, and is more uncertain and 


subject to mischances; and which is worst of all, is there 
through an extreme stirrer-up of the passions." 

The greatest falconer of modern times was one of the 
Lord Orfords who died toward the close of the last century. 
This nobleman spent a princely fortune in attempting to re- 
vive an obsolete taste. He had a large number of hawks 
and a regular establishment of falconers. Each hawk had 
its separate attendant; ^they were all sent on occasional 
voyages to the continent for the sake of a more congenial 
atmosphere during their time of moulting." 

Having now traced falconry through the English dynasty, 
and as they confined it mostly to the smaller game, I will 
give some account of it among other nations who have car- 
ried it to a greater degree of perfection. There was no 
nation in Europe prior to the fifteenth century but what the 
emperor, kings and nobles indulged in this sport, and it 
was considered "as the exclusive attribute of noble blood." 
Even in China and Tartary in the thirteenth century, it was 
strictly forbidden "to every tradesman, mechanic or hus- 
bandman throughout his Majesty's dominions to keep a 
hawk, or any other bird used for the purpose of game, or 
any sporting dog." In China, Tartary, India, and some 
other eastern nations, they capture the stork, swan, heron 
and hubara with their falcons and train dogs to act in con- 
cert with them, so that they pursue and take hares, foxes, 
wolves, deer and antelopes. 

Father Rubruquis and Marco Polo make frequent mention 
of the practice of hawking during the thirteenth century 
among the wandering Tartars. A sport which Marco was 
excessively fond of, and frequently indulged in. The old 
Venetian informs us, that the grand Khan (Kublai), who 
was at once Emperor of Tartary and China, kept at one 
place, where he was accustomed to resort for the purpose of 
hawking, two hundred falcQUS, which during his stay there 
"he always visited and inspected in person, at least, once a 


The Emperor after residing the usual time in China, 
always proceeded to enjoy the field sports in the plains of 
Tartary, attended by full ten thousand falconers, who carried 
with them a vast number of gerfalcons, peregrine falcons 
and sakers. He has also with him ten thousand men who are 
called ta»kaol, distributed all over the country, whose busi- 
ness it is to watch the hawks, assist them when necessary, 
and secure the falcon when he has captured the game. 
Marco tells us, that the Grand Khan takes his wives and the 
ladies of the court with him on these expeditions, who have 
their own hawks and join in the sport. These with their 
attendants, physicians, astrologers, courtiers, slaves and fal- 
coners formed an immense retinue. Dividing up into par- 
ties of one hundred and two hundred, they proceed to the 
lakes and river, where they capture great numbers of storks, 
herons, swans, ducks and smaller game. Each bird belong- 
ing to his Majesty, or to any of his nobles, has a small silver 
label fastened to his leg, on which is engraved the name of 
the owner and the name of the keeper so that it can be 
readily restored. The manner of taking the prey shows 
great skill and sagacity, the falconer usually carries his 
hawk to the field on his fist protected by a glove, and on 
seeing game, removes the head-gear (a hood to cover the 
head and eyes of the bird) and casts the bird ofi* with a loud 
whoop to encourage her. If the bird flushed is a duck, 
partridge, pheasant, or any bird that does not soar high, 
the hawk quickly strikes and brings it down, but if it is a 
heron, or some bird strong on the wing, it will attempt to 
keep above the hawk. Now comes the tug of war, each 
trying to mount above . the other until nearly out of sight, 
when the falcon by performing a succession of spiral circles 
rises above the game, and darts down upon it with all her 
force and velocity, when both tumble from the sky together, 
the sportsman hastening to the spot with all possible dis- 
patch assists the hawk in her struggle with the prey. Marco 
informs us that ^the Emperor had reclaimed eagles which 


were trained to swoop at wolves, and such was their strength 
that none, however large, could escape from their talons." 

The accounts given by Father Rubruquis and Marco Polo 
would seem incredible were not their statements fully con- 
firmed by other writers. The description given by Johnson 
of the number and magnificence of the hunting retinue of 
the Nabob-vizir of Lucknow makes it nearly, if not quite, 
equal to that of the Emperor of Tartary and China as de- 
scribed above. 

The Persians, on some occasions when hunting hares and 
other four legged animals, dress their hawks with leather 
breeches. I will give the language of Sir John Malcolm 
respecting it. "When at Shiraz the Elchee had received a 
present of a very fine Shah-Baz or royal falcon. Before go- 
ing out I had been amused at seeing Nutee Beg, our head- 
falconer, a man of great experience in his department, put 
upon this bird a pair of leathers which he fitted to its thighs 
with as much care as if he had been the tailor of a fashion- 
able horseman. I inquired the reason of so unusual a pro- 
ceeding. * You will learn that,' said the consequential master 
of the hawks, 'when your see our sport;' and I was con- 
vinced at the period he predicted of the old fellow's knowl- 
edge of his business." 

"The first hare seized by the falcon was very strong, and 
the ground rough. While the bird kept the claws of one 
foot fastened in the back of his prey, the other was dragged 
along the ground till it had an opportunity to lay hold of a 
tuft of grass, by which it was enabled to stop the course of 
the hare, whose efix)rts to escape I do think, would have 
torn the hawk asunder if it had not been provided with the 
leathern defences which have been mentioned." 

The account given by Marco of the training of eagles for 
the chase is fully substantiated by a later writer, Thomas 
Witlam Atkinson. The following account of hunting with 
the eagle in Chinese Tartary is related by him in his "Seven 
Years Explorations and Adventures in Siberia, Mongolia, the 


Kirgfais Steppes, Chinese Tartary and a part of Central 
Asia.'' "A well-nioiinted Kirghis held the bearcoote, 
chained to a perch, which was secured into a socket on his 
saddle. The eagle had shackles and a hood and was per- 
fectly quiet, he was under charge of two men. "We had 
not gone far when several large deer rushed past a jutting 
point of the reeds and bounded over the plain about three 
hundi-ed yards from us. In an instant the bearcoote was 
unhooded and his shackles removed, wl^en he sprung from 
his perch and soared up into the air. I watched him ascend 
as he wheeled round, and was under the impression that he 
had not seen the animals ; but in this I was mistaken. He 
had now risen to a considerable height and seemed to poise 
himself for about a minute. After this he gave two or three 
flaps with his wing and swooped off in a straight line towards 
his prey. I could not perceive that his wings moved, but 
he went at a fearful speed. There was a shout, and away 
went his keeper at full gallop followed by many others. 
When we were about two hundred yards off the bearcoote 
struck his prey. The deer gave a bound forward and fell ; 
the bearcoote had struck one talon into his neck, the other 
into his back, and with his beak was tearing out his liver. 
The Kirghis sprang from his horse, slipped the hood over 
the eagle's head, and the shackles upon his legs, and removed 
him from his prey without difliculty. The keeper mounted 
his horse, his assistant placed the bearcoote on his perch, 
and he was ready for another flight. No dogs are taken out 
when hunting with the eagle, they would be destroyed to a 
certainty ; indeed, the Kirghis asserts that he will attack and 
kill the wolf. We had not gone far before a herd of small 
antelopes were seen feeding on the plains. Again the bird 
soared up in circles as before, and again he made the fatal 
swoop at his intended victim, and the animal was dead before 
we reached him. The bearcoote is unerring in his flight ; 
unless the animal can escape into holes in the rocks, as the 
fox does sometimes, death is his certain doom." In another 



place he says '*next morning before starting, I sketched 
Sultan Beck and his family. He is feeding his bearcoote — 
hunting with the king of birds being his favorite sport." 

The Persians have a peculiar kind that they train to fly at 
antelopes and to act in concert with dogs. The huutsmen 
proceed to a plain, or rather desert, near the seaside with 
hawks on their hands and greyhounds led in a leash. When 
an antelope is seen they endeavor to get as near as possible, 
but the animal the moment that it observes them go^s off at 
a rate that seems swifter than the wind ; the horsemen are 
instantly at full speed, having slipped the dogs. If it is a 
single deer they at the same time fly the hawks, but if a 
herd they wait till the dogs have fixed upon a particular 
antelope. The hawks skimming along near the ground soon 
reach the deer, at whose head they pounce in succession, and 
with so great violence as to confuse the animal so much as to 
stop his speed in such a degree that the dogs can come up 
and in an instant, men, horses, dogs and hawks surround the 
unfortunate deer and capture it. The antelope is supposed 
to be the fleetest quardruped on earth, and the rapidity of 
the chase is said to be wonderful and astonishing, the dis- 
tance run, generally, not exceeding three or four miles. 

In the spring of 1861, on the return from Russia of our 
late Ex-Governor, Thomas H. Seymour, who had been min- 
ister to that country for several years, in conversation with 
him, I learned that falconry was still a favorite sport in the 
East, and that he had joined in the chase several times ; that 
eagles were trained as formerly, and that he had seen falcons 
with their leathern breeches on catch hares and hold them 
by inserting one talon into the game and holding on to the 
turf, or anything that came in the way with the other, and 
that they held on with such tenacity that their limbs would 
be dislocated or torn from their bodies were they not thus 




The subject of our discourse is not only a disagreeable 
but too often a painful one. Not only is the mere mention 
of the creature's name of which we are to speak tabooed and 
avoided by the refined and polite, but the creature itself has 
become extinct and banished from the society of the good 
and respectable. Indeed under such happy auspices do a 
large proportion of the civilized now live that their knowl- 
edge of the habits and form of the louse may be represented 
by a blank. Not so with some of their great-great-grand- 
fathers and grandmothers if history, sacred and profane, po- 
etry, and the annals of literature testify aright ; for it is com- 
paratively a recent fact in history that the louse has awakened 
to find himself an outcast and an alien. Among savage na- 
tions of all climes, some of which have been dignified with 
the apt, though high sounding name of Phtbiriophagi, and 
among the Chinese and other semi-civilized peoples, these 
lords of the soil still flourish with a luxuriance and rankness 
of growth that never diminishes, so that we may say without 
exaggeration that certain mental traits and fleshly appetites 
induced by their consumption as an article of food may have 
been created, while a separate niche in our anthropological 
museums is reserved for the instruments of warfare, both 
offensive and defensive, used by their phthiriophagous hun- 
ters. Then have we not in the very centres of civilization 
the poor and degraded, which are most faithfully attended 
by these revolting satellites 1 

But bantering aside, there is no more engaging subject 
to the naturalist than that of animal parasites. Consider 
the great proportion of animals that gain their livelihood 
by stealing that of others. While a large proportion of 
plants are more or less parasitic, they gain thereby in 



interest to the botanist, and many of them are eagerly sought 
Hs the choicest ornaments of our conservatories. Not so with 
their zoological confreres. All that is repulsive and uncanny 
is associated with them, and those who study them, though 
perhaps among the keenest intellects and most industrious 
observers, speak of them without the limits of their own 
circle in subdued whispers or under a protest, and their 
works fall under the eyes of the scantiest few. But the 
study of animal parasites has opened up new fields of re- 
search, all bearing most intimately on those two questions 
that ever incite the naturalist to the most laborious and 
untiring diligence — what is life and its origin? The sub- 
jects of the alternation of generations, or parthenogenesis, 
of embryology and biology, owe their great advance, in large 
degree, to the study of such animals as are parasitic, and the 
question whether the origin of species be due to creation 
by the action of secondary laws or not, will be largely met 
and answered by the study of the varied metamorphoses and 
modes of growth, the peculiar modification of organs that 
adapt them to their strange modes of life, and the conse- 
quent variation in specific characters so remarkably charac- 
teristic of those animals living parasitically upon others.* 

With these considerations in view surely a serious, thought- 
ful, and thorough study of the louse, in all its varieties and 
species, is neither belittling nor degrading, nor a waste of 
time. We venture to say, moreover, that more light will be 
thrown on the classification and morphology of insects by the 
study of the parasitic species, and other degraded, wingless 
forms that do not always live parasitically, especially of their 
embryology and changes after leaving the egg, than by years 
of study of the more highly developed insects alone. Among 
Hymenoptera the study of the minute Ichneumons, such as 
the Froctotrupids and Chalcids, especially the egg-parasites; 

* We notice whUe preparing this article that a Jonmal of ParoBltologj has fbr some- 
time been Issued in Germany— that fayored land of specialists. It is the ** Zeitschrift 
fllr Parasitenkunde,'' edited by Dr. B. Hallier and Dr. F. A. ZOm. 8vo, Jena. 


among moths the study of the wiugless caiiker-worm moth 
and Orgyia; among Diptem the flea, bee-louse (^Braula)^ 
sheep tick, bat ticks, and other wingless flics ; among Cole- 
optera, the Meloe, and singular Sty lops and Xenos ; among 
Ncuroptera the snow insect, Borcus, the Podui*a and Lep- 
isma, and especially the hemipterous lice, will throw a flood 
of light on these prime subjects in philosophical entomology. 

Without farther apology, then, and very dependent on the 
labor of others for our information we will say a few words 
on some interesting points in the natural history of lice. In 
the first place, how does the louse bite ? It is the general 
opinion among physicians, supported by able entomologists, 
that the louse has jaws, and bites. But while the bird lice 
(Mallqphaga) do have biting jaws, whence the Germans 
call them skin-eatei*s (pelzfresser) y the mouth parts of the 
genus Pediculus, or true louse, resemble in rig. is. 
their structure those of the bed-bug (Fig. 13, 
from the author's "Guide to the Study of In- y 
sects") and other Hemiptera. In its form the [' 
louse closely resembles the bed-bug, and the 
two groups of lice, the Pcdiculi and Mallo- 
phaga, should be considered as families of Bedbug. 
Hemiptei-a, though degraded and at the base of the hemip- 
terous series. The resemblance is caiTied out in the form 
of the eggy the mode of growth of the embryo, and the meta- 
morphosis of the insect after leaving its egg. 

Schiodte, a Danish entomologist, has,, it seems to us, 
forever settled the question as to whether the louse bites 
the flesh or sucks blood, and decides a point interesting 
to physicians, i.e. that the loathsome disease called phthiii- 
asis, from which not only many living in poverty and squalor 
are said to have died, but also men of renown, among 
whom Denny in his work on the Anoplura, or lice, of Great 
Britain, mentions the name of "Pheretima, as recorded by 
Herodotus, Antiochus Epiphanes, the Dictator Sylla, the 
two Herods, the Emperor Maximian, and Phillip the Sec- 


oud," is a nonentity. Schiodte, in his essay *^0n Phthirius, 

and on the Structure of the Mouth in PedicuUis" (Annals 

and Magazine of Natural History, 1866, page 213), says 

that these statements will not bear examination, and that tMs 

disease should be placed on the ^* retired list," for such a 

malady is impossible to be produced by simply blood-sucking 

animals, and that they are only the disgusting attendants on 

other diseases. Our author thus describes the mouth parts 

of the louse. 

''Lice are no doabt to be regarded as bogs, simplified in strnctnre and 
lowered in animal life in accordance with their mode of living as para- 
sites, small, flattened, apterous, myopic, crawling and climbing, with a 
conical head, moulded as it were to suit the rugosities of the surfoce they 
inhabit, provided with a soft, transversely furrowed skin, probably en- 
dowed with an acute sense of feeling, which can guide them in that twi- 
light in which their mode of life places them. The peculiar attenuation 
of the head in ttont of the antennae at once suggests to the practised eye 
the existence of a mouth adapted for suction. This month differs ftom 
that of Rhjmchota [Hemiptera, bed-bug, etc.] generally in the circum- 
stance that the labium is capable of being retracted into the upper part 
of the head, which therefore presents a little fold, which is extended 
when the labium is protruded. In order to strengthen this part, a flat 
band of chitine is placed on the under surface. Just as the shoemaker puts 
a small piece of gutta-percha into the back of an India-rubber shoe ; as, 
however, the chitine is not very elastic, this band is rather thinner in the 
middle, in order that it may bend and fold a little when the skin is not 
extended by the lower lip. The latter consists, as usual, of two hard 
lateral pieces, of which the fore ends are united by a membrane so that 
they form a tube, of which the interior covering is a continuation of the 
elastic membrane In the top of the head ; inside its orifice there are a 
number of small hooks, which assume diflferent positions according to the 
degree of protrusion; if this is at its highest point the orifice is turned 
inside out, like a collar, whereby the small hooks are directed backwards, 
so that they can serve as barbs. These are the movements which the 
animal executes after having first inserted the labium through a sweat- 
pore. When the hooks have got a firm hold, the first pair of setse (the 
real mandibles transformed) are protruded; these are, towards their 
points, united by a membrane so as to form a closed tube, flrom which, 
again, is exserted the second pair of setas, or maxiUs, which in the same 
manner are transformed into a tube ending in four small lobes placed 
crosswise. It follows that when the whole instrument is exserted, we 
perceive a long membranous fiexible tube hanging down fi-om the lab- 
ium, and along the walls of this tube the setiform mandibles and maxiUsB 
in the shape of long narrow bands of chitine. In this way the tube of 


sDctlon can be made lonjfer or sLorter its reqaired, and easily adjusted to 

ttie tliickuess of the ttklo iu the particular place where the UDimal in 

sacking, wbereb; access to the capillary systcni is secured at any part of 

tbc body. It ia apparent, from tlie whole struct- Fig.u.* 

nre of the Instrnment, that It Is bj no meaiis cal- 

CDlated on being used aa a sting, but Is ratlier to 

be compared to a delicate elastic probe. In the uao 

of which the terminal lobes probably serve as feel- 
ers. As soon OS the capillary system Is reactied, 

the blood wilt at once ascend Into the narrow 

tube, after wlilcb the current Is continued with 

Increasing rapidity by means of the pulsation of 

the pnmplng ventricle and the powerful peristaltic 

movement of the digestive tube." 

If WO compare the form of the louse 

(Fig. 15, Pediculus capitis, the head louse ; 
Fig. IB. Fig. 16, P. vestimenli, t\ie body 
louse) with tb« young bed- 
l)ug as figured by Westwood 
' (Modem Classification of In- 
' sects, ii, p. 475) we shall seo 
a very close resemblance, the 
head of the young Cimex be- 
ing proportionally larger than 
in the adult, while the thorax 

is smaller, and the abdomen is more ovule, 

less rounded ; moreover the body is white 

and partially transparent. The beak of 

the bed-bug we have studied from some 

admirable prepai-atioiis made by Mr. E. 

Bicknell for the Museum of the Feabody 

Under a high power of the microscope Mnwhof iheLonw. 

specimens treated with diluted potash show that the man- 

•Flgure 14 represents tdo parts of [ho month In a lanje spocimeD of Ptdtatlui rati- 
vKnti, eatlrel; vrotrnctlng. and aeen from above, magoilled one handred and elxty 
times; aa, the enmmltaf the head, wtth taar bristles on each Bide; bb. the chitlnous 
band, and c, the hind part of thfi lower li|> — 8ui-h ns they appear throiifth the akin bj 
■trong liansmltted tl^t; M. the foremost protruding part of the lower lip (the bana- 
tellam); «, [he hooka tomed outwards; /, the Inner tnbe of gactlon, aliRhUy bent and 
twisted; the two pairs of Jawi are perceived on the outside as tbla lines; a few btood 
globolea are seen in the Interior of the tube. 


diblea aud luaxillee arise iiear eacb other iu the middle of 
the bead opposite the eyes, theii- bases slightly divei;gii)g, 
Theuce tbey couverge to the muuth over which they meet 
and beyoud ai-e free, beiug hollow, thiu bauds of chitiiie, 
meeting like the maxillee, or tongue, of buttei-flies to fonu 
a hollow tube for suction. The mandibles each suddenly 
end in a curved, slonder filament, which is probably used 
as a tactile oi^un to explore the best sites in the flesh of 
their victim for drawing hlood. On the other band the 
maxillae, which are much narrower than the mandibles, be- 
come rounded towards the end, bristle-like, and tipped with 
rig. 10. numerous exceedingly fine barbs, by which the 
bug anchors itself in the flesh, while the blood 
is pumped through the mandibles. The base 
of the large, tubular labium, or beak, which 
cusheathes the mandibles and maxillfe, is op- 
posite the end of the clypeus or front edge of 
the upper side of the head, and at a distance 
beyond the mouth equal to the breadth of the 
Bod)fLoQM. labium itself. The labium, which is divided 
into three joints becomes flattened towards the tip, which 
is square, and ends in two thin membranous lobes, prob- 
ably endowed with a slight sense of touch. On compaiiug 
these parts with those of the louse it will be seen how 
much alike they are, with the exception of the labium, a 
very variable organ in the Hemiptera. From the long 
sucker of the Pediculus, to the stout chitinous jaws of the 
Mallophuga, or bird lice, is a sudden transition, but on com- 
paring the rest of the head and body it will be seen tliat the 
distinction only amounts to a family one, ^ough Burmeister 
placed the Mallophaga in the Orthoptera on account of the 
mandibles being adapted for biting. It has been a common 
source of error to depend too much on one or a single set of 
oi^ans. Insects have been classified on characters drawn 
from the wings, or the number of the joints of the tarsi, or 
the form of the mouth parts. We must take into account in 


endeavoring to ascertwn the limita of natural groups, all the 
organs collectively, as well as the internal anatomy and the 
embryology and metamorphoaiB of insects, before we can 
hope to obtain a natural classification. 

The family of bird lice is a very extensive one, embracing 
mauy genera, and several hmidred species. One or more 
species infest the skin of all our domestic and wild mammals 
and birds, some birds sheltering be- » *"«- "■ 
neath their feathers four or five spe- 
cies of lice. Before giving a hasty 
account of some of our more 'com- 
mon species, we will give a sketch 
of the embiyological histoiy of the 
lice,* with especial reference to the 
structure of the mouth parts. 

The eggs (Fig. 17, egg of Pedicu- 
lua capitis) are long, oval, somewhat 
pear-shaped, with the hinder end 
somewhat pointed, while the ante- 
rior end is flattened, and bears little 
conical micropyles (m, minute ori- 
fices for the passage of the sperma- 
tozoa into the egg), which vary in 
form in the different species and Bmbiro or ibe LaDB«. 
genera ; the opposite end of the egg is provided with a few 
bristles. The female attaches her eggs to the hairs or feath- 
ers of her host. 

After the egg has been fertilized by the male, the blasto- 
derm, or primitive skin, forms, and subsequently two layers, 
or embryonal membranes, appear ; the outer is called the 
amnion (Fig. 17, am) (though as Melnikow states, it is not 
homologous with the amnion of vertebrates), while the inner 

■ For mj iafarmBtlon on tho dSTelopineiit of the line I am Indebted to Froreaaor Nlco- 
Ibiu Helnliinff'e " Treatiee un Che Bmbryonal DeTelopment or lasecCa " lu Wlegmiuu'i 
AreblT fUr Nsnirgeacblchte, issa, p. 13s. 



is called the *^ visceral membrane" (Fig. 17 ^db). Melnikow 
remarks that 

''In all the Infiects whose embryology has been studied, and In which 
the ventral primitive streak is developed, neither does the amnion nor the 
visceral membrane take any part in building up the body of the embryo, 
since they are provisional structures in a peculiar sense of the word. 
Quite different relations exist in the lice. The origin of the embryonal 
membranes of the Ipuse occurs at the time of the formation of the prim* 
itive streak. The thickened blastoderm of the end of the egg on which 
the hairs are situated folds in, and this fold is the beginning of the primi- 
tive streak and of the visceral membrane. The layer of this fold facing 
the ventral side of the egg, is transformed into the visceral membrane, 
while the other layer, opposite to the other side of the egg, becomes thick- 
ened and forms the primitive streak. The remaining portion of the blas- 
toderm, with the exception of the primitive streak, which forms the fore- 
head (in the more extended sense of the word) consists of the so-called 

In contradistinction to those Insects [Slmullum, Chlronomus, Donacia 
and Phryganldae] In which a ventral primitive streak Is developed, neither 
do the amnion nor visceral membrane form a capsule surrounding the con- 
tents of the egg. The amnion Is intimately connected with the cephalic 
portion of the embryo as also with the visceral membrane. This latter 
Is connected only with the abdominal part of the primitive streak, and 
the edges of the side, i. e. the continuation of the amnion. In opposition 
to those above-mentioned Insects which have a ventral primitive streak, 
In the lice the visceral membrane and amnion share In building up the 
body of the embryo while they pass upon the dorsal side of the embryo. 

It appears from these facts that the differences which we see in the em- 
bryonal membranes of Insects, are Indirect relation to the mode In which 
the primitive streak Is formed. It seems, therefore, that the mode of 
origin of the primitive streak, or Its position In relation to the yolk \a 
concerned In the above-mentioned differences of the embryonal mem- 

* Melnikow does not consider, as his fellow countryman, Metznikow, does, that the 
embryonal membranes of insects are homologous with those of vertebrates. He says. 
" the mode of origin in all vertebrates is the Same. The formation of the visceral 
membrane and amnion of insects varies in different groups, with different modes of 
formation of the primitive streak. The embryonal membranes of vertebrates have a 
certain relation to the allantols, but the embryonal membranes of insects are corre- 
lated .to the peculiar embryo of these animals. The reciprocal relations of the embry- 
onal membranes; their relation to the whole egg and embryo are the same in all vert^ 
brates ; but in insects differences arise, which become noticeable in the position of the 
primitive streak in relation to the yolk. Finally, these embryonal membranes in aU 
vertebrates are provisional, but in insects this is not the case. They are provisional 
only in those which have a ventral primitive streak,'' (Melnikow). We see, therefore, 
that Immediately after the fertilization of the egg. great and radical differences exist 
between the eggs of vertebrates and articulates, and even between different groups of 
the latter. Those who in popular lectures and books make the sensational statement that 


Agiuu, looking at the louse's egg &ud ita genu (Fig- 17) 
we Bee the amuion (am) siuToundlng the yolk mass, and the 
visceral membrane (db) within, partially wruppiug the rude 
form of the embryo in its folds. The head (vk) of the em- 
bryo is now directed towards the end of the egg on which 
the hairs are situated ; afterwards the embryo revolves on its 
axis and the head lies next to the opposite end of the egg. 
Our embryo previous to this important change of position 
may be compared with the embryo of the dragon fly (Figs. 

Fig. IB. Fig. IB. 

EmbiTO nf (he Drsgon-ll]', Mt 
"riK. I», i™'ir^iew of the um«. 

18, 19). Eight tubercles bud out from the under side of the 
head, of which the foremost and longest are the antennte {as) , 
those succeeding are. the mandibles, maxillie, and second 
maxillee, or labium. Behind them arise six long, slender 
tubercles forming the legs, and the primitive streak rudely 
marks the lower wall of the thorax and abdomen, not yet 
formed. Figure 20 represents the head and mouth parts of 
the embryo of the same louse ; vk is the forehead, or clypeus ; 
arU, the antennfe ; mad, the mandibles ; max', the first pair 

■t Brat the cgs* of bU anlmsli.ngirell ■■ thi early Blades of tlie embryo, are alike, hnve 
not regarded tbe Important dlfferencee preaented at tbe first sketching ant of ttae em- 
bryo, Tbe groat dlini«Dcea between Lhe two broDCheB of vertebrateB and artlcnlalea 
ariae betare the moat rudlmentacy fbrm of ttae embryo la Indlotited ; Indeed It niay be 
■aid with truth, at tbe Qmt beglnnlngB of lUie, Those also nho Indulge in glittering 
genBrelltioB regarding (be Identity In tbe etroctDre of the enta of animals, and tbe ptt»- 
toplaamic matter of which they are oompoaeO, should also take Into account tberatUcal 
dlSerencea of the mode of action of this proto|ilaam ((. e. eg(M»iitenta. yolk and albn- 
nwn) In the eggs of vertebialea and tnaocta at the dawn of life, whether they be due to 
the ■' vital force," or to aome chemical force coneerred and metamorpboaed Into a 
li(lB.giTlDg power. 



of maxillffi and max*, the second pair of maxillae, or labium. 
At this time the embryo may be compared with that of the 
dragon fly of the Bame period of growth (Fig. 24 c, clypeiis ; 
1, aatennee; 2, mandibles; 3, maxillse ; 4, labium; 5, 6, 7, 
legs.) We see that the mouth parts of the louae, so unlike 
those of other adult insects, are originally similar to them. 
Figure 2 1 represents the mouth parts of the same insect a 

little farther advanced, with the jaws and labium elongated 
and closely folded together. Figui-e 22 represents the same 
still farther advanced; the mandibles {mad) arc sharp, and 
resemble the jaws of the Mallophaga ; and the maxitlte 
(max^) and labium (maic') are still large, while afterwards 
the labium becomes nearly obsolete. Figure 23 represents 
tho mouth parts of a bird louse, Oouiodes; lb, is the upper 



lip, or labnim, lying under the clypeus ; mad, the mandibles ; 
max, the maxillie ; /, the lyre-formed piece ; pi, the "plate," 
and V, the beak or tongue. (This, and Figs. 20, 21, 22, are 
from Melnikow). 

We will now describe some of the common species of lice 
■found on a few of our domestic animals, and the mallopho^ 
gous parasites occurring on certain ^ ^ ^ 

mammals and birds. The family 
Pediculiiia, or true lice, is higher 

than the bird lice, their mouth parts, . 

as well as the structure of the head, 
resembling the true Hcmiptera, es- 
pecially the bed bug. The clypeus, 
or front of the head, is much smaller ' * * tie 

than in the bird lice, the latter retaining the enlai^d fore- 
head of the embiyo, it being in some species half as large as 
the rest of the bead. 

All of our domestic mammals and birds are plagued by 
one or more species of lice. Figure 25 represents the 
Hcemataptnus vituli (Linn.), which is 
brownish in color. As the specimen fig- 
ured came trom the Burnett collection 
of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
together with those of the goat louse, 
) the louse of the common fowl, and of 
' the cat, they are undoubtedly naturalized 
here ; the other specimens were collected 
by Mr. C. Oooke, and are in the Museum 
of the Peabody Academy of Science. 

The remaining parasites belong to the 
akin-biting lice, or Mallophaga, and I 
will speak of the several genera referred 
to here in their natural order, beginning with the highest one 
and that which is nearest allied to Pediculus. The species 
of Docophoma. figured on PI. I, fig. 3, appears to be unde- 
scribed, and may be called D. buleonis. It lives beneath the 


Loufl olCow, 

94 CEEiTAiy PABAsrnc iwsectb. 

feathers of the Eed-ehouldered Hawk. It is honey-yellow, 
and the abdomen U whitish, with triangulur chitiuouB plates 
on each segment, the two on the segment next to the last 
forming a continuous band. The head is longer than broad, 
with the trabeculfe {or movable homy process just in front 
of the antennie), as long as the two basal joints of the anten-' 
niB, and extending to the middle of the second joint; the 
basal joint of the antennie is rather thick, and the second 
joint is as long as the two terminal ones. 

Another species (Docophorus hamatua n. sp., PI. I, fig, 1), 
taken from the Snow Bunting ( Plectrophanes nivalis') by 
Mr. C. A. Walker, Feb. 10, 18G!), is white and has a large 
triangular head, with a very narrow 
prothorax, not much more than one- 
half as wide as the head ; the abdo- 
men is rounded oval, while tlic trabe- 
culfe are very long and hooked. 

An undescribed species of Nirmus 
(JT. tkoracicus, PI. I, fig. 5) found on 
the Snow Bunting, is a large white 
' form with the prothorax remarkably 
large, and but slightly narrower than 
the head, which is triangular. A nar- 
row dark line extends along each side 
Loom of eitti owl. ^^ ^^ head and body. The trabe- 
culse are large, placed near the front of the head, and the 
antennee in our specimens appear to he remarkably short, 
being only one-half as large as the trabeculse and not reaching 
to the outer edge of the head. The abdomen is long, ovate. 
The common barn-yard fowl is infested by a louse that we 
may call Goniocoiea Bumettii (Fig. 27), in honor of the late 
Dr. W. I. Burnett, a young and talented naturalist and phys- 
iologist, who paid more attention than any one else in this 
country to the study of these parasites, and made a large 
collection of them, now in the museum of the Boston Society 
of Natural History. It differs from the O. hohffaater of 


Europe, which lives on the same bird, in the short second 
joint of the antennae, which are also stouter; and in the 
long head, the clypeus being much longer and more acutely 
rounded ; while the head is less hollowed out at the insertion 
of the antennffi. The abdomen is oval, and one-half as wide 
as long, with transverse, broad, irregular bands along the 
edges of the segments. The mandibles are short' and straight, 
two toothed. The body is slightly yellowish, and variously 
streaked and banded with pitchy black. 

Of three species of Lipeurus, figured on the plate, fig. 2 
represents a male of the louse of a crow, L. corvi^ a new spe- 
cies. Its body is unusually broad, and is white, with pitchy 
black lines along the side of the head and thorax, a row of 
small blackish oval spots along the abdomen, and a pair of 
narrow black bands on each thoracic ring. The head is 
broad and triangular, with large, curved, long trabeculsd, and 
a prominence just behind the antennsB. The latter are slen- 
der and simple, with the two basal joints moderately large, 
and of equal size and length ; the three terminal ones are 
slenderer ; the third and fifth are of nearly the same length ; 
the fourth is shorter, and the fifth ends in a rather sharp 
point. The mandibles are slender, acute, and much ciu^ed. 
The legs are rather stout, with two very small claws, and a 
small thumb-like tubercle opposed to them. 

Another species (L. elongatus^ n. sp., PI. I, fig. 4, 9 ) 
is allied to the L. baculus and squalidus of Europe. It is 
white, with pitchy black patches along the sides of the abdo- 
men, and at the base of the legs. The head is pitchy black 
along each side. The two basal joints of the antennsB are 
of the same length; the third joint is a little larger and 
longer than the fourth, while the fifth is a third longer than 
the fourth, and is barrel-shaped. The third species (X. gra- 
cilis^ n. sp., PI. I, fig. 6, ^) has a longer and narrower head 
with the clypeus more expanded and larger, and the edge 
of the body is dark, but the band is not so wide as in L. 
dongatus. There are two conical trabeculee, and the antennse 



Fig. 27. 

are as long as the head is broad at the place of their inser- 
tioii ; the second joint is much longer than the first ; the third 
and fourth are together as long as the second, while the fifth 
is a quarter longer than the fourth joint. The mandibles are 
narrow, acute, with two unequal fine teeth. 

To the genus Trichodectes belongs the T. mbrostratus 
Nitzsch? (Fig. 27) identified by Dr. Burnett as probably 

the same as the European species. It is a 
parasite of the common cat. The front of 
the rather square head is elongated trian- 
gularly, with the apex ending in two acute 
spines on the under side of the head. The 
antennsB are three-jointed, with the middle 
joint a little longer than the last. The 
abdomen is oval, and the animal is whitish, 
with the head and thorax pale honey- 
yellow. The other species lives on the 
goat ; it seems to be undescribed, and may 
be called the Trichodectes caproR (Fig. 28) ; 
it is closely allied to T. longicomis of 
Europe, but the head is not hollowed so much m front and is 
rather broader, while the third joint of Fig. as. 

the antennaa is more slender than in that 
species. It is reddish yellow, while the 
abdomen is edged with red, and is barred 
transversely with reddish brown. 

The Saddle-back Gull (Larus ma- 
rinus) is infested by an undescribed 
species of louse which we may call CoU 
pocephalum lari, PI. I, fig. 1. It is dark 
brown and oval in form, with the head 
deeply indented in the middle ; the an- 
terior lobe, or clypeus (made too small ^^^of^^^onnt 
in the figure), is twice as broad as long, with the basal half 
of che head a little wider than the head is long. The slen- 
der filiform antennse are three-jointed, the last joint some-^ 

Loom of the Cat. 


what pointed. The third segment of the thorax is as wide 
as the head, and the legs are thick, the femom being broad. 
It is allied to (7. piceum Denny, which in Europe lives on 
the Sandwich Tern. 

The most degraded genus is Gyropus, of which Mr. C. 
Cook has found G. ovalis of Europe abundant on the Guinea 
pig. A species is also found on the porpoise ; an interesting 
fact, as this is the only insect we know of tiiat lives parasit- 
ically on any marine animal. 

The genus Goniodes is of great interest from a morpho- 
logical and developmental point of view, as the antennas are 
described and figured by Denny as being ''in Fig.a». 
the males cheliform (Fig. 29, a, male; 6, fe- 
male) ; the first joint being very large and 
thick, the third considerably smaller, recurved 
towards the first, and forming a claw, the 
fourth and fifth very small, arising from the 
back of the third." He farther remarks, ''the 
males of this [ G. atylifery which lives on the 
Turkey] and all the other species of Goniodes, 
use the first and third joints of the antennae 
with great facility, acting the part of a finger 
and thumb*' (Denny's Monographia Anoplu- Antemi»ofGoniode«. 
rorum Britannice, 1842, p. 155 and 157). The antennae of 
the females are of the ordinary form. This hand-like struc- 
ture, is so far as we know, without a parallel among insects, 
the antennae of the Hemiptera being uniformly filiform,* and 
from two to nine-jointed. The design of this structure is 
probably to enable the male to grasp its consort and also 
perhaps to cling to the feathers and hairs, and thus give it a 
superiority over the weaker sex in its advances during court- 
ship. Why is this advantage possessed by the males of this 
genus alone ? The world of insects, and of animals generally 
abounds in such instances, though existing in other organs, 

* Except in Banatra and Belostoma where they are disposed to be flabellate, f .4l 
mdely pectinated on one side. 



and the developmentist dimly perceives in such departures 
from a normal type of structure, the origin of new generic 
forms, whether due at first to a "sport" or accidental varia- 
tion, or, as in this instance perhaps, to long use as prehensile 
organs through successive generations of lice having the 
antennae slightly diverging from the typical condition, until 
the present form has been developed. Another generation 
of naturalists will perhaps unanimously agree that the Cre- 
ator has thus worked through secondary laws which many of 
the naturalists of the present day are endeavoring, in a truly 
scientific and honest spirit of inquiry, to discover. 

In their claw or leg-like form these male antennsd also 
repeat in the head, the general form of the legs, whose pre- 
hensile and grasping functions they assume. We have seen 
above that the appendages of the head and thorax are alike 
in the embryo, and the present case is an interesting example 
of the unity of type of the jointed appendages of insects, 
and articulates generally. 

Another point of interest in these degraded insects is, 
that the process of degradation begins either late in the life 
of the embryo or during the changes from the larval to the 
adult, or winged state. An instance of the latter may be 
observed in the wingless female of the canker worm, so dif- 
ferent from the winged volant male ; this difference is created 
after the larval stage, for the caterpillars of both sexes are 
the same, so far as we know. So with numerous other ex- 
amples among the moths. In the louse, the embryo, late in 
its life, resembles the embryos of other insects, even Corixa, 
a member of a not remotely allied family. But just before 
hatching the insect assumes its degraded louse physiognomy. 
The developmentist would say that this process of degrada- 
tion points to causes acting upon the insect just before or 
immediately after birth, inducing the retrogression and 
retardation of development, and would consider it as an 
argument for the evolution of specific forms by causes act- 
ing on the animal while battling with its fellows in the 



struggle for existence, and perhaps consider that the meta- 
D3orpho9es of the animal within the egg are due to a reflex 
action of the modes of life of the ancestors o^ the animal on 
the embryos of its descendants. 


Fig. 1. Colpocephalum laH Pack, la, antenna. The short line by the side 

gives the length of the insect. 
Fig. 2. Lipeunts corvi Paclc. 2a, antenna. . 

** 8. Docophorua buteonis Pack. Sa, antenna, 

" 4. lApeurus elongatua Pack. 4a, antenna. 

*' 5. NirmuB thoradcus Pack. 

" 6. LipeuruB gracilis Pack. 

*' 7. Doeophorus hamatua Pack. 



The character of the Delaware River, in the vicinity ot • 
Trenton, New Jersey, the head of navigation, is quite varied ; 
the bed is stony, with scattered large rocks above the rapids, 
and sandy, with some vegetation below the falls ; the current 
is swift to the rapids, but less so, being tide water, below 
them ; these conditions, with that of the varied character of 
the tributaries at and near Trenton, make it an excellent 
point at which to examine the ichthyology of this river basin. 
This has been done partly by those who have received col- 
lections therefrom ; but there is nothing in the publications 
of their studies giving any knowledge of the habits of 
these fish, but simply the fact of their presence in tliese 

The ichthyic fanna is quite large, as some streams are cold 
and swift, that until lately harbored trout; and other 
streams, sluggish and thick, that are paradisiacal to the mud- 
fish {Mdanura)^ and the sucker (Hylomyzon). 


In the present paper we propose not only to mention the 
results of the study of the habits of the species particular- 
ized, but to refer also to observations we have made, that 
apply to the fishes of these waters as a class, rather than to 
any single species. These observations we will give first, 
and then notice separately the more interesting species, in 

We would first call attention to alterations in circum" 
scribed faunxB. These changes are what have occurred lately 
in the small brooks, either emptying into the river directly, 
or tributary to the two large creeks, the Assunpink, and 
Crosswicks. We give only such instances as have occurred 
under our own notice. In the month of June, 1867, we 
fished the entire length of a never failing spring-brook, re- 
markable always for the number of specimens, if not of 
species. The fauna consisted, as usual, of chubs {Semotilus 
rhotheus and 8> corporalis) ; dace (Argyreus atronasus), and 
minnows {I^undulus muUifasciatus) . The abundance of these 
species was relatively as named. During the first week of 
July following, a heavy, sudden fall of rain caused a consid- 
erable rise in the brook, and the extra bulk of water rushing 
over the narrow bed, altered the character of the brook so 
slightly, that it attracted no notice from those accustomed to 
seeing it daily. On the subsidence of the water, no cypri- 
noids, or in fact other fish, could be found, although we lefb 
hundreds in the stream. A week later we found a few 
roach (Stilbe Americana) ; they were never seen by us pre- 
viously, in this stream, and still later, young mullet (MoxoS' 
toma oblongum). No chub have since been seen in this brook, 
which during the summer past (1869), was well tenanted 
with the species substituted in 1867, for them. During the 
last summer a few red-fins {Hypsilepis comuius), and shiner 
{Hypsilepis Kentuckiensis) , made their appearance. In a 
similar instance, happening in 1868, a familiar creek, teem- 
ing with cyprinoids, but with representatives of no other 
family, was found after a freshet to have lost a large number 


of its species, and those remaining, repi-esented by but few 
individuals ; while percoids, heretofore wanting, appeared in 
the shape of Banded Sunfish {Bryttua chcelodon) ^ and Spot- 
ted-finned Sunfish (B. pundatus) ; also a few specimens of 
the Pirate (Aphrodedeitts Sayanus) were met with. 

A third instance of alteration in the fauna, with no change 
in the bulk of water, occurred in the Shabbaconk Creek, a 
creek flowing into the Assunpiuk, which latter is dammed 
at its mouth, effectually preventing fish, leaving this creek, 
from returning to it. In this instance, the Aphrodederus 
Sayanus^ which, for several seasons previous to 1867, had 
been abundant, suddenly disappeared. We have searched 
for them repeatedly since, but never have taken a single 
specimen. In the Assuupink Creek, where these ^'pirates'* 
it would seem must have gone to, we have also carefully 
searched, but its extensive basin has not yet furnished a 
single specimen. 

Such experiences of one familiar with these waters for fif-" 
teen years, explain why it is that different visitors in a few 
years examination of a stream or neighborhood, will in their 
reports differ considerably. One's own notes may be very 
inconsistent, on comparing those of any year with that o£ the 
preceding or following season. £ven to the smaller cypri- 
noids, that are, we would suppose indisposed, if able, to 
migrate, we have applied the terms •'abundant,** '•rare," 
••numerous," ••scarce," at different times. More frequently 
these contradictory ••remarks" were jotted down with ref- 
erence to the occupants of small streams, but not altogether 
so. It is our custom now to look upon the contents of 
any one stream as but very imperfectly showing the fauna 
of that neighborhood, for two water-coui*ses similar in all 
respects to the eye, may have no species common to each, 
although but two or three miles distant. In concluding 
what we have to say under this head — of changes in 
faunsB — we would call attention to our experience in find- 
ing ourselves apparently or really in error. Frequently 


we have failed to produce for visitors what we claimed 
in publications as easily obtainable ; so we have been forced 
to the conclusion that only a series of examinations, cov- 
ering three or four years, will waiTant one in asserting 
positively i that this or that species is a denizen of such and 
such waters. An instance of this presents itself forcibly 
now in the fact that during the past summer a few speci- 
mens of Pomoxia hexacanthus were caught m the Delaware 
River. They were not caught here before 1869, and fnay 
not be here during the coming summer. Through canals a 
few specimens might have strayed into the Delaware, or it 
may be they were the pioneers of the species hereafter be- 
come resident, but the fact, as it now stands, goes for noth- 
ing in deciding the geographical range of that species. 

Recently discovered tpecies. Professor S. F. Baird, during 
the summer of 1854, discovered, in New Jersey, three fresh- 
water percoids, the Banded Suufish {Bryttus chcetodon) ^ the 
Spotted Olive Sunfish (Bryttus obesus) ^ and the Mud Sunfish 
{AiTibloplites pomotis) . Sometime later Dr. Cheston Morris 
discovered in the Delaware, near Philadelphia, the Pomotia 
{Bryttus) punctatuSj which we now believe to be distinct 
from B. obesus. With reference to the three latter species, 
we have only to say that their dull coloring and general sim- 
ilarity to other species may have caused them to be over- 
looked ; but we very much question if they were any way 
near as abundant before detected by Baird and Morris, as 
they now are. With the Bryttus chcetodon the case is dif- 
ferent. A year later than the date of Baird's discovery of 
this species, in Atlantic County, it appeared sparingly in 
Watson's Creek (Mercer County), a tributary of the Dela- 
ware. Since then it has been crowding out the old time 
'* Sunny" (Pomotis aureus) , although never reaching over 
one-third the size of that sunfish. 

This fish (J5. chcetodon)^ considering its clear silvery and 
jet black markings could never have been overlooked. 
Wherever it was previously to 1855 it then became an addi- 


tioQ to the fauna of Mercer County, and of New Jersey, about 
the time of its discovery by Baird we believe. Few in 
numbers at first, it has steadily multiplied until now it is 
fully as common in a few streams as the JP. aureus is in 
many others. 

To pass now from quiet shady waters to the rapid hill-side 
brooks, let us discuss the active little cyprinoid, called, by 
Girard, Oj/prinella analostana^ and shown by Professor Cope 
to be the Hypsilepis analostanua. This little fish, we know, 
was not a common species, we doubt if it was an inhabitant 
of our waters at all twelve years ago ; and now four-fifths of 
the streams, besides the shallow rapid waters above the falls 
in the river, are literally full of them. Discovered by Kirt- 
land in 1845, in the Ohio, did they work their way from 
there to here, or how became they so abundant in New Jer- 
sey, we might say, suddenly? If they were throughout the 
past century, say, a resident of our waters, with so few indi- 
viduals of their species in existence as to escape detection 
or to be confounded with others, what caused their numbers 
so suddenly to increase, that now they are taking the place 
of the old-fashioned Red-fin {Hypailepis comutus) ? 

In the absence of any facts to the contrary we have 
jumped at the conclusion, that these *'newer species^ were 
to U8^ "newer creations." If created of old then some un- 
detected alterations in our waters must be going on that 
some few years since gave them an impregnable advantage 
in the struggle for existence, and which will give other spe- 
cies now overlooked, ultimately, a similar advantage. Grant- 
ing this why do we not come across the few specimens that 
are now merely preserving their kind until the favorable 
moment arrives for their assuming a multitudinous existence? 
As far as we know the "rare" species of the present have 
somewhere localities where they are abundant, and those 
with us are those that are "pioneering," and are always in 
direct communication with the river basin where the mass of 
their species dwell. 


Habits of fresh'Water fish. We have never met with any 
elaborate treatise upon this subject ; and have been surprised 
that it should be so little referred to by those who have so 
carefully described the fish themselves, unless it is that 
the describer has not generally been the collector. ^* Clear 
water," "muddy streams," "rapid creeks," "sluggish brooks," 
and such phrases cover the whole ground, frequently, of the 
habits of the species, unless like the stickle-backs they do 
something so marked that it cannot well be overlooked. The 
introduction of aquaria has not done much to elucidate the 
subject, in consequence of the meagre dimensions of the 
tanks and carelessness to imitate nature. To what we pro- 
pose to refer now, more particularly, is that the habits of 
the same fish vary much in accordance with their surround- 
ingSj and that the various species are not as confined to 
certain kinds of streams as is usually supposed. 

We make these two statements after a careful resume 
of our many notes, giving them as the result of eleven 
years study of the habits of the forty-nine species, that 
are found in the Delaware River or its tributaries, within 
five miles of Trenton, in one direction or another. Take 
the ten percoids as an example. We have found them in 
every variety of water the neighborhood produced, even to 
the little rivulets, where young Pomotes and Brytti hovered 
behind rocks, in the stiller water, but dashed up stream on 
being disturbed. Now these "sun-fish" as a class, are deni- 
zens of still water ; but the exceptions are not so few, as to 
be put uuder the head of "merely accidental." In sluggish, 
gloomy water, we have found many a school of White-perch 
(^Morone Americana) , that had but to swim a thousand yards 
to join their fellows in the swift waters of the river and like 
them prey upon the cyprinoids there abundant, but scarce 
in the muddy, quiet creek we mentioned. Often when fish- 
in^: for pout and the larger Pike {Esox reticulatus) ^ we have 
foun<l these schools of White-perch, occasionally having the 
Rock-fish {^lioccus lineatus) associated with them. 


The Aphrodederua 8ayanu8^ once abundant in a clear 
pebbly-bedded creek » is now occasionally found in deep 
waters with little currents » where the banks overhang suffi- 
ciently to give them a safe retreat. 

The Bill-fish {Bdone longirontHs) ^ is not sufficiently abund- 
ant in the river, to give one good opportunities of thoroughly 
studying it. During the summer, or autumn, numbers of 
them occasionally enter the Delaware and Eariton Canal at 
Bordentown, New Jersey, and thence come into the canal 
basins. When the water is let out of the canal in De- 
cember these fish are sometimes caught in the basins which 
are a little deeper than the canal. In these puddles, if not 
discovered by boys, they will remain during the winter, half 
buried in the mud, and semi-torpid. On the opening of 
navigation in March they seem to be wholly revivified, and 
frequent this artificial water-course during much of the sum- 
mer, but finally disappear. An accident brings them, but 
they adapt themselves to the surroundings, as their remain- 
ing during the summer shows. Occasionally seeing quanti- 
ties of young about two inches long seems to show that they 
spawned in the canal. The common Barred Minnows, JP\in- 
dulua muUifa8ciatu8, have occasionally been seen by the author 
in spring-basins, at a considerable elevation from the brook 
into which its waters emptied. How they got there was a 
question it was found difficult to answer. To pass from the 
brook to the spring head it was necessary to pass up little 
perpendicular falls of twelve and fifteen inches. Within a 
short time we came across a large number in a little pool 
about a yard in diameter, fed by a full of just thirteen inches, 
and very nearly perpendicular. With a sudden onset, we 
forced them from their quarters and saw severed mourU Uie 
falL The power of this fish to swim against the current is 
very great, and by exercise of it only could we explain their 
presence at fountain heads. The mass of these fish arefownd 
in the river and tide water creeks^ but in some numbers 
everywhere that it is possible for any fish to live. 



Many mote instances might be given showing the wide 
range of territory and difference in habit in different local- 
ities, which these fish have ; and how unsafe it is to judge 
from a casual circumstance or two, what may be the peculi- 
arities of any species. 

Under the headings of certain species we propose now to 
call attention to peculiarities that are specific in their nature, 
especially breeding habits of some of the less numerous 

Banded Sunfish {Bryttus ckcetodon). In the "Geology 
of New Jeraey," page 807, the author under the above head- 
ing, says "this interesting species is a lover of weedy, slug- 
gish streams and ponds, and is never met with in tide- 
water." We now4 at this writing, are confident, that there 
is no fish in New Jersey found in other water not some- 
times met with in tide water. Since the above quotation 
was put in print we have taken this sunfish from the "bel- 
lies" of shad-nets, which were drawn in decided tide waters, 
the Delaware and Cross wick's Creek. The breeding habits 
of this species have, during the past two summers, puzzled us 
considerably. That the}*^ occasionally scoop out a little basin 
in the sand, and there deposit the ova, is undoubtedly true; 
but not always is this the case we judge, as during April of 
1868-69, we found them in all sorts of out-of-the-way 
places, the females heavy with eggs, and in some instances, 
a female with a male at her side, were hidden at the foot of 
a tussock, with scarcely enough water to cover them. Two 
months later the ground over which they swam was perfectly 
dry. Was a severe battle going on between this species and 
the Poniotis aureus^ that they were forced to hide themselves 
to preserve their ova from destruction ? We did see some 
"nests" like those of P. aureus^ but they were not abundant, 
as we had seen them previously. The other Bryttus is simi- 
lar in his habits to the PomotiSi and is not so peaceable as 
the B. chcetodon; but preferring localities not favorites of 
other "sunfish," it does not interfere much with them. The 


coloration of both B. choetodon and B. obesus is very vari- 
al>le. On removing them from the water the black stripes 
of the former, and brilliant spots of the latter, are very dis- 
tinct, but they soon fade even if replaced in water. In an 
aquarium, when first placed in it, they are dull, yellowish 
brown, with no distinct bars or spots, but in a short time 
they resume that coloring which easily distinguishes them 
from other sunfish; the choBtodon becoming silvery, the 
obesusy deep olive. 

Pirate Perch {Aphrodederus Sat/anus). In the "Geology 
of New Jersey," page 808, we make the following statement : 
'^The * pirate' makes a nest after the manner of the sunfish, 
and with the female guards it and afterwaixls the young, till 
they reach a size of one-third of an inch, when they ai'e left 
by their parents, etc." Since the above was written (1866) 
we have had some opportunities of farther studying the 
habits of this peculiar fish. We believe that they occupy 
the nests made by sunfish, but do not scoop them out for 
themselves. Furthermore this is not the only manner of 
breeding, but like many other fish they seek out-of-the-way 
places, as deserted burrowings of the musk-rats {JPiber 
zibethicua)^ and here the pair will remain several days, and 
when the young appear they are attended by the parents, or 
at least an adult pair, until they are about one-third of an 
inch. When young the Aphrodederus is very black, with a 
few pal6, yellowish dots. The tail is margined with white, 
which disappears on the fish reaching an inch or more in 
length. The adult fish, measuring five inches in length, has 
been seen frequently to swallow one of its own kind meas- 
uring an inch. 

Mud Minnow {Melanura limi). It would be an interest- 
ing question to solve in how little water and how compact 
mud this fish can survive. Its gills present nothing pe- 
culiar in themselves, and certainly are not powerful enough 
to squeeze water out of the mud in which we have found 
them buried, two (and one four) inches deep. On closely 


exaiuiDiiig the bottuai of any ditch one axu easily detect the 
Melanura lying close upon tbe mud as quietly as an Etheo- 
■ Btomoid," but if at all disturbed they imuiediutely dart olT, 
and with a rapid twirl and twist of their whole body will 
bury themselves entirely out of sight at about au augle of 
forty-five degrees, tail down. We have ofteu tried this in a 
shallow aquarium with mud on the bottom, and always with 
the same result. The movement is too rapid to be learned 
in detail, but they always bury themselves in a hole scooped 
out with tlicir tail, which is the most deeply buried portioa 
of their body. 

A peculiarity of this fish worthy of note is the length of 

time at which it will matntaiu one posittua, especially a per- 

pendicular one, head up and tail down. In an aquarium we 
have bad them remain so four minutes, while we held just 
above the water a worm or fly. On slowly lowering these 
luitil they touched the water the fish would then seize them 
with a rapidity of movement equal to that of the trout. We 
have likewise seen them leap from the water a distance 
greater than their length, and seize insects that were upon 
blades of grass overhanging the ditch. The largest speci- 
men of Melanura limi ever seen by the writer measured 
seven inches. 

Frost-fish {Osmerus mordax). We desire to record here 

• In mpntlonlng the nnmber of flsh in tliis neiRhborhood (Trenton. N. J.) ■■ IVirty- 
Dfne. we did not inclado Ihe Elhamlontoida, and llie few sltckle- bucks Hint come nnd 
go. Both these niniilies ai reprewoLed In Uio Delaware will be Mudlod and i)UbliBhed 
in a lepante paper- 


the fact of the presence of this fish id a few numbers during 
ahuust every month of the year. In August when the young 
shad are going down the river, we have seen single speci- 
mens of "smelt," or "frost-fish," as they are generally 
called. Occasionally also when fishing for White-peitrh 
{Morone Amencana) we have caught them. la April there 
U very generally a freshet that submerges the tract of mead- 
ows bordering on the river south of Trenton. On the sub- 
sidence of this water the frost-fish are occasionally seen 
with a few herring in the small ditches, and are known then 
by juvenile anglers as the "silver pilte." Hearing frequent 
mention of silver pike, I found this to be the fish referred 
to. Herring that are thus caught in ditches and cut off from 
the creeks do not live, but the Osmerua appears to thrive very 
well. ' The herring is the "Alewife" {Alosa tyrannus). 

Gizzard Shad {Dorosoma Cepedianum) . We gave a short 
notice of this species in the " Geology of New Jersey," page 

OInard Bhkd, Dereioma CiptdliMum, 

832, which we will quote and speak of more particularly. 

"Occasionally the 'gizzard shad' is carried by a freshet into 
uland streams usually having very small outlets, and thus 
mpi-isoned they thrive very well, A pond near Trenton was, 
n 1857, stocked with them, and is now full nf specimens, 

some weighing five pounds apiece." Besides this pond 


spoken of we know of one or two creeks that are annually 
visited by a few of these herring, and have occasionally seen 
several bushels hauled from the deep holes in the creeka they 
had entered. They appear in the Delaware early in March, 
before the other representatives of the Clupeide do, and as 
they are not ever taken in very great numbers, as are the 
other herring in the river, we judge that the immense quan- 
tities occasionally taken in creeks, is to be explained in the 
suggestion that those that come in the spring do not return. 
We have seen them in mid-winter frozen to death, appar- 
ently, and have reason to believe that they bury themselves 
in the mud when they take up their winter quaiters in creeks 
and ponds. 

The specimens we first met with, and described as Oha- 
toessus insociabiliSj were from the pond referred to, stocked 
in 1857. They were different in coloration from the same 
fish as found on the coast and in the Delaware, and appeared, 
to be distinct. If these DorosomcB are left to themselves, un- 
visited by others later from the coast, will they in time be- 
come so far changed by the change in their surroundings as 
to be a difierent species ? We thought them distinct in 1860, 
and the Dorosoma^ from this same pond, is a different 
looking fish now^ in 1870, from what it was then. The dif- 
ference being one of color only it suggests the question as 
to whether the character of the water influences the charac- 
teristic coloring of species ? 

The Chub {Semotilus rhotheus and S. corporalis). In all 
the tributaries of the Delaware, as well as in the river itself, 
**chub" abound. There are several points in their history that 
we cannot fully understand when reading what has been pub- 
lished of the two species, especially ** Cope's Monograph on 
the CyprinidsB of Pennsylvania." This author very correctly 
gives the Delaware as the locality of the Semotilus rhotheuSy 
and admits the presence of 8. corporalis. Now in the Del- 
aware, at Trenton, "chub" are very abundant, as we de- 
scribed them in 1861, which description Cope says is his S. 


rkotheua, and we agree with iiim ; but in addition he says 
the Oyprinus atromaculatua is the young of the S, corporalix. 
If Buch were the case then why are not the adult 8. corpo- 
ralis abundant in the rivei* in proportion to the presence of 
the young in the smaller streams? The tnie corporalis is 
scarce, very scarce, yet the atro/naculatua is abundant. This, 
of course, is an absurdity ; but theae alromaculati are not 
young rhothei; that fish when young is wholly different in 

color, being wholly silvery on the sides and belly, the silver 
becoming roseate near the back, which is "deeply, darkly, 
beautifully blue." 

We have endeavored for several years to collect specimens 
of alromaculatua of all sizes, and so see where and when 
they cease to be atromaculatua and become true corporalis. 
We have as yet failed to do so, and have been somewhat 
disposed to consider it not the young of any species for these 
reasons. It is a peculiarly brook-loving species, hovering 
about deep holes, and most ingenious in its mode of eluding 
the pursuit of collectors. They are never found (that is, 
have not been by us) associated with the young of true 
"chub" as that fish is known. Their peculiar markings ren- 
der them at once distinguishable from the young of S, 
rkotheua, and the two love very different waters, the 
8. atromaculatus loving muddy bottoms, in which they 


half bury themselves, while the young of 8. rhothetia are 
fond of and frequent always pebbly-bottomed, rapid brooks. 
To recapitulate, we have, in the Delaware River and its 
tributaries, the Semotihis rhotheus in abundance, likewise 
the young in the directly tributary streams, equally nu* 
merous — and in certain streams, some cut off from the 
river by dams, the fish described by Mitchell as Ot/prinus 
atromajcidatus^ which reaches a length of six and seven 
inches, and presents a coloration of black, yellow, reddish 
and silvery, like no other fish of our waters. If these are 
the young of the Cyprinus corporalis of the same author, 
why have we not this latter fish in abundance also? But 
we have not. Again, in streams, as the Assunpink and 
Shabbaconk, which are cut off from the Delaware by dams, 
and in the Stony-brook and Mill-stone, which are cut off 
from the Rariton, we have Seinotilus alromaculatua which 
never cease to be such. Do they die fo;* want of the rivers 
to become the 8. corporalis? If not, where are these larger > 
chub ? In Stony-brook and the Mill-stone we have also the 
8. rhotheus^ from half an inch to nearly half a yard in 
length. The difference in the scales of these two species of 
^chub" render them distinguishable without reference to 
color; and the 8, atromaculatiis agree with the size and 
number of scales of 8. corporalis^ as given in the "Mono- 
graph of the CyprinidsB of Pennsylvania,'* by E. D. Cope. 
We are not yet satisfied, however, that the atromaculated 
chub of the Delaware basin is the young of any other 

Roach (8tilbe Americana). Professor E. D. Cope in his 
Monograph says of this fish : "This Stilbe rarely exceeds 
seven inches in length." In the various streams in which we 
find the "roach," it is so frequent an occurrence to meet with 
them eight, nine, and nine and a half inches in length, that 
we are surprised at the figure mentioned by Cope as the 
maximum length. Otherwise his remarks accord with our 
observations. These large specimens have the pectoral, 


ventral and anal fins brilliant orange, during the spring and 
early summer, and later the color is dimmed but not lost. 
The color of the body is, as given by him, of **a greenish, 
brassy, or golden lustre." Smaller specimens even during 
the spring have the fins black and the general coloration sil- 
very ; duller upon the back than the sides. This species is 
not Jis much annoyed by the approach of winter as are many 
of the cyprinoids, merely seeking deeper waters. By cutting 
a hole in the ice and letting down a well-baited hook they 
are readily taken, and the larger ones at this season are ex- 
cellent eating to those who are not incommoded by the mul- 
tiplicity of small bones. The largest "roach" we have ever 
seen measured exactly nine and seven-eighths inches. 

The Mud-sucker {Hylomyzon nigricans). In a tortuous 
tide-water creek, with unobstructed access to the Delaware, 
there are to be found at all seasons of the year where the 
water is deepest and the mud almost nnfathomable, myri- 
ads of these "suckers" — old, young and middle-aged. Lazy, 
limp, almost lifeless, with a net they can be scooped up, 
offering no resistance, scarcely flapping their tails. As we 
follow up the course of this stream (Crosswick's Creek, 
Burlington Co., N. J.) we still find them tucked in under 
the overhanging banks, and so listless that on the receding 
of the water, at the turn of the tide, they sometimes are left 
high and dry before they are aware of it.* In other 
streams of New Jersey the fish is less abundant, and found 
usually with the "mullet" (Moxostoma oblongum). As an 
article of food they are good from December until April, 
and from then until winter are as near worthless as any fish 
well can be. We once saw a large specimen in the jaws of 
a Water-snake {Tropidonotus sipedon)^ which squealed like 

* A Blmllar instance of this is very well shown by a ftir different llsh, the Tessellated 
Darter (^Boieosoma Olnutedii)^ which, In the same stream, follows the waters encroach- 
ing on the meadows at high tide, and settling in little hollows about, are not aware of 
the recession of the water nntil too late. Between tides we haye gathered aver one 
hundred in a space not oyer twenty yards square. Nothing in their stomachs showed 
what particular article of food they Mooght. 




a young pig, more so than cat-fish have been known to do 
under similar circumstances, and showing greater indications 
of "a voice" than does the chub, which Cope says "utters a 
chirruping and croaking noise." 

The Gar (^Lepidosteus osseus). During the past summer 
while walking on the banks of Crosswicks Creek, we were 
attracted by a decided commotion in the water, and on near- 
ing the spot found a young gar, probably eighteen inches 
long, surrounded by and evidently harrassed by a dozen or 
more Bill-fish (Belone longirostris) , It soon disappeared by 
sinking out of sight, but reappeared soon near the shore, 
giving us an opportunity of watching it. It remained as 

Fig. 33. 


Gar pike, LepOotteui ot$eu$, 

motionless as an Esox for several minutes, and on the ap- 
proach of a minnow would come as near the shore as possi- 
ble, moving steadily backwards. If the fish came to about 
where the gar previously had been, it was seized in an 
instant, and the Lepidosteus would remain motionless until 
the approach of another Minnow would cause it to again 
draw back. We finally interrupted this "play" in an attempt 
to shoot the specimen. This fish we should judge was yearly 
becoming more scarce in the basin of the Delaware. 

The Darters (Etheostomoidce) as a class have been the 
most difficult to collect and study. They are with us in 
most streams exceedingly abundant, as also in the river 
itself. Lying motionless upon the flat stones or compact 
sand they readily escape detection, except by experts. As 
yet we have not made as elaborate a collection as we desire, 
but are satisfied we can show in this family some instances 
of wide geographical range, and one or more undescribed 


Another family, the stickle-backs (Gasterostei)j is one of 
much interest as found with us, but they are so uncertain in 
their stay in any stream that we have concluded to wait until 
another season's out-door work shall have given us farther 
opportunities to study them. The four-spined Stickle-back 
(Apeltes quadracus) as an instance, for several summers was 
quite abundant in several streams, and is now not seen in 
any of them. In Watson's Creek, in 1865, they were very 
abundant, and the writer found several nests ; in later seasons 
they were still present but in fewer numbers, and during the 
summers of 1868-69 they had disappeared. We were ac- 
customed to collect them from the "bellies" of nets drawn 
in the river, and lately have been very unsuccessful in find- 
ing them. 

During the present, almost completed winter, the Dela- 
ware River has not been closed by ice, and judging from 
appearances at the time of writing (Feb. 18, 1870), it is not 
likely to be so closed. The fishermen have been steadily 
engaged in their pursuit, and with draw and gill nets have 
captured in very unusual abundance the commoner resident 
species, and also single specimens of rare fish, rare either 
for the time of year, or for the locality. Some of these 
instances are sufficiently of interest to warrant recording 

On the 20th of January, the weather warm and water 
wholly free from ice, a Shad {Aloaa prcestabilis) ^ weighing 
four and one-half pounds, was taken a short distance from 
the city. It was supposed to have been a sickly fish that 
had not "gone out" in August of the preceding summer. 
Such was proved not to be the case however, by an examina- 
tion of the contents of the stomach, which demonstrated 
that it had come directly from salt water. Among the mass 
of marine food was a partially digested Killi-fish {Hydrar-- 
gyra flavula) . The Shad was a female, with ova apparently 
as fully matured as in May. Two or three specimens of 
other representatives of the Herring tribe were captured 


about this time, but to what genus they belonged, the writer 
could not determine from what he heard. He did not see 
the specimens. The Gizzard Shad (^Dorosoma Cepedianum)^ 
has been met with by single specimens and pairs, while fish- 
ing for "suckers" (Oatostomits) and "chub" {Semotiltia) . 
The date is much earlier than any previous one, and prob- 
ably more specimens have been taken. They were usually 
largo, but were thin, sickly and sluggish in their movements. 
Probably but few of this species enter the river, or at least, 
come up as far as Trenton. When once they have wandered 
into deep ponds they will remain and breed. One pond, 
that has been stocked with them since 1833, contains now 
larger specimens than the writer has ever elsewhere seen. 

On the 23d or 24th of January a healthy, strong, active 
Cod-fish (^Moi*rhua Americana) j weighing nearly four pounds, 
was taken in a draw-net. The stomach of this fish showed 
it had been in river-water for several days. The fisherman 
who took this specimen considered it the first instance of the 
kind on record, but such is not the case. Several have been 
taken about Philadelphia during the past twenty years. A 
unique occurrence, however, we believe to be the capture of 
a large Sturgeon in January. The Sturgeon is sensitive to 
the cold, but it would seem that the water had not been 
greatly chilled, considering the presence of this fish, which 
was fully as active as the species is during the summer 

Of the resident fish that are to be taken in variable quan- 
tities during the winter, when the ice is not abundant, the 
sucker tribe and the Delaware chub are the principal. Dur- 
ing the past few days the abundance of these fish has been 
remarkable, and in one day several bushels were taken. 
The number of chubs was very large and afibrded excellent 
opportunities of examining their distinctive characters. 
They were all the Semotilus rhotheus Cope. None measured 
less than eight inches in length, and every specimen^ male 
and female^ had the brilliant rosy and blue lints mentioned 


by the wnter in describing this species in 1861. Mr. Cope 
has stated, iu bis Monograph ou the CypriniduB of Penn- 
sylvania (Transactions American Philosophical Society), that 
the coloration given by the writer, was that of the male 
in spring. The description he alludes to was drawn up in 
the summer. Mr. Cope is correct as to the coloration being 
that of the breeding season, but the tints do not grow less 
distinct after spawning, and the female is very nearly^ if 
not quite, as highly colored during February, March and 
April. Later, the female becomes silvery, but the male, in 
dear water's, retains his high coloring. In muddy, sluggish 
waters, the bright, rosy hue becomes a reddish brown ; the 
blue tints become leaden. Of the smaller specimens none 
exhibited the peculiar cloudy markings of the Cyprinus 
atromaculatus^ Mitchell. The largest specimen, a female, 
measured foui-teen inches in length, and exceeded all the 
others in the magnificence of its coloring. The examination 
of nearly three hundred specimens indicated clearly that 
the beauty of this species was in proportion to the size, and 
that the sex could not be determined by the color of the 
specimen. ^^ 

Among this enonnous quantity of specimens not a single 
Semotilus corporalis was found. 

Note. — Early In Uie month of Februarj of this year, the writer received a number 
of " frost-fish ** or " smelt/' firom the Raritan Biver, N. J. Among these flsh ( OsmeruM 
mordax) was a single specimen of a c3rprinoid, which was new to the waters of New 
Jersey, and was considered at the time as undescribed. The specimen was submitted 
to Professor £. D. Cope, and has since been described by him in MSS., aa Hyhognatku* 
o*merinut Cope. The paper containing the description will be issued soon in the 
" Transactions of the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia.'' 

This is the only species of this genus found in the state, and is, we believe, the 
third genuine species of Hyhognathxu of Girard, who has described many species as 
belonging to this genus, which have been found since not to be true Hyhognathi. This 
makes the total number of Cyprinidm, belonging to the Annua of New Jersey, fourteen. 

In our report of the Zoology of New Jersey, we mentioned but three species of 
** suckers," as found In the state. Wo omitted the large scaled sucker, Teretribus mac- 
roltpidottLty w^hich is very abundant in the Delaware River, about and south of Phila- 
delphia, but it does not occur in numbers much north of the city named. 


VoiXANOES AND EARTHQUAKES. * — Professor Hunt has said more in the 
ten pages of this little pamphlet than would suffice to fill an ordinary vol- 
ume. After a description of volcanoes, volcanic products and the various 
zones, or regions of the earth in which volcanoes are found most abund- 
antly, the author sums up the different theories which have been advanced 
in the endeavors to account for these phenomena. He rejects entirely, 
and with crushing force, the theory which attempts to account for volca- 
noes by supposing that they are the vents of a liquid nucleus, and gives a 
summary of his reasons for doing so from which we quote the following 
paragraphs : 

** Judging ttomr the known properties of the rocks with which we are acquidnted, soUdlflcsi- 
tlon should commence not at the surface, but at the centre of the liquid globe, a process which 
would moreoTer be fkvored by the Influence of pressure. This augments the melting temper- 
ature of matters, which, like the rocks and most other solids, become less dense when melUMl, 
while on the other hand It reduces the melting point of those which, like Ice [or bismuth], be- 
come more dense by flislon. Pressure, moreover. It may be mentioned In this oounectlou, in- 
creases the solvent power of water for most bodies, whoso solution may be described as a kind 
of melting down with water Into a compound whose density Is greater than tliat of the mean 
of Ittf constituents; the Importance of this point will appear farther on. Tlie theory deduced 
ttom the above considerations, and adopted by Hopkins and by Scrope, Is briefly as follows: 
the earth^s centre is solid, though still retaining nearly the high temperature at which It be- 
came solid. At an advanced stage in the solidifying process Uie remaining envelope of fUsed 
matter became viscid, so that the descent fVom the surface of the heavier particles, cooled by 
radiation, was prevented, and a crust formed, through which cooling has since gone on very 
slowly. There were thus left between this crust and the solid nucleus, portions of yet unsoUd- 
Ifled matter (or even perhaps, as suggested by Scrope, a continuous sheet), and It Is In the ex- 
tdtence of this stratum, or of lakes of uncongealed matter, that we are to find an explanation 
of all the phenomena of volcanoes and earthquakes, of elevation and subsidence, and of the 
movements which result In the formation of mountain chains, as Ingeniously set forth by Mr. 
Bbaler. The slow contraction of the gradually cooling globe, a most important agency In Uia 
latter phenomena. Is evidently not excluded by this hypothesis. It may be added that a sim- 
ilar structure of the globe, viz., a solid nucleus and a solid crust separated ttom each other by 
a liquid stratum, was long ago suggested by Halley In order to explain the phenomena of ter- 
restrial magnetism. Scrope has completed this hypothesis by the suggestion that variations In 
tension or pressure may cause portions of matter beneath the surikce to pass ttom solid to 
liquid, or ttom a liquid to a solid state, and in this way helps us to explain the local and the 
temporary nature of volcanic activity. 

This theory of Hopkins and Scrope apparently so complete in Itself, Is an approximation to 
the one which I adopt, though differing nrom it in some most important particulars. While 
admitting with them the existence of a solid nucleus and a solid crust, with an Interposed 
stratum of semi-liquid matter, I consider this last to be, not a portion of the yet unsolldlfled 
igneous matter, but a layer of material which was once solid, but Is now rendered liquid by the 
intervention of water under the Influence of heat and pressure. When, in the process of re- 
fHgeration, the globe had reached the point Imagined by Hopkins, where a solid crust was 
formed over the shallow molten layer which covered the solid nucleus, the fkrther cooling and 
contraction of this crust would result In Irregular movements, breaking it up, and causing the 
extravasation of the yet liquid portions conllned beneath. When at length the reduction of 
temperature permitted the precipitation of water ttom the dense primeval atmosphere, the 
whole cooling and disintegrating mass of broken-up crust, and poured out igneous rook would 

* Abstract of a Lecture by Professor T. Sterry Hunt, LL. D., F. R. 8^ delivered before the 
American Geographical and SUtlstlcal Society, April 23, 1869. Pamph., pp. 10. 



beoome eicposed to tbe action of air and water. In thla way the solid nndeua of Igneous rook 
became snrrounded with a deep layer of disintegrated and water-impregnated material, the 
mlns of its former envelope, and the chaotic mass fl*om wliicb, onder the influence of heat trom 
below and of air and water (ti>m above, the world of geologic and of human history was to be 

It must be borne In mind that water ander pressure and at higli temperatures, develops ex- 
traordinary solvent powers; while ttom what has already been said of tlie influence of pres- 
sure in fkvorlng solution, it will be seen that the weigtit of the overlying mass becomes an efll-' 
cieut cause of the liquefkctlon of the lower portions of the sedimentary material. Time is 
wanting to discuss the great forces which ft-om early geologic periods have been active in trans- 
ferring sediments, alternately wasting and building up continents. By the depression of the 
yielding crust beneath regions of great accumulation there follows a softening of the lower and 
of the more fUsible strata, while tbe great mass of more sillclous rocks becomes cemented into 
comparative rigidity, and finally, as the result of the earth's contraction, rises a hardened and 
corrugated mass, from whose irregular erosion results a mountainous region. 

Those strata, which from their composition yield under these conditions the most Uqold 
products, are, it is conceived, the source of all plutonio and volcanic rocks. Accompanied by 
water, and by diflicultly coercible gases, they are either extravasated among the fissures 
which form in Uie overlying strata, or llnd their way to the surface. The vaiiations in the com- 
position of lavas and their accompanying gases in dlflTereut regions, and even from the same 
vent at dlflTereut times, are strong confirmations of the truth of tills view, to which may be 
added the fkct that all the varlotis types of lava are represented among aqueous sedimentary 
rocks, which are capable of yielding these lavas by tbe process of fUsion.** 

G£OLOGY OF CoLOiiADO AND New Mexico.* — With the small appropri- 
ation of ten thousand dollars, Dr. Hayden appears to have travei'sed in 
one season a very large territory, made extensive collections and a series 
of valuable and minute observations upon the geological structure of the 
country. The report of these Is accompanied by a report upon **The 
Mines and Minerals of Colorado/' by Professor Frazcr, which gives a fair 
and candid statement of the mineral wealth of Colorado and New Mexico ; 
and by a report upon the Agricultural llesources of Colorado. 

These various reports cannot fail of attaining the object for which they 
were written, since In them every one interested in the future develop- 
ment of these territories may find reliable and unprejudiced information 
with regard to their natural resources. The sum of money appropriated 
for this purpose was so small that Dr. Hayden could not have accom- 
plished a large portion of his explorations without their assistance. The 
appropriation of ten thousaud dollars, by the central government, to ex- 
plore two territories, while a state is spending annually more than twice 
that amount, per annum, upon a single institution, might excite some 
surprise and confusion in the minds of a foreigner. 

The route lay along the eastern foot of the Rocky Mountains, from 
Cheyenne, in Wyoming Territory, to Santa FS, the Middle Park having 
been explored by a lateral excursion from Denver City. Returning from 
Saute Fh they returned to Denver by passing up the Rio Grande and 
crossing the Rocky Mountains through the South Park. The explorer's 
remarks with regard to the superficial deposits are very Interesting, and 
their general importance as an explanation of the ori«:ln of some of the 
most Interesting localities is our Justification for the following extract: 

* Preliminary Field Report of the U. S. Geological Survey of Colorado and New Mexico. 
By Dr. r. V. Hayden. Washington, D. G. 8vo. 1889. 


** With the commencement of the tertiary was ushered In the dawn of the great lake period 
of the West. The evidence seems Co point to the conclusion that from the dawn of the tertiary 
period, even up to the commencement of the present, there was a continuous series of fWssh- 
water lakes all over the continent west of the M/sslsslppl River. Assuming the position that 
all the physical changes were slow, progressive, and long-continued, and that the earlier sedi- 
ments of tlie tertiary were marine, then brackish, then purely fresh water, we have through 
them a portion of the consecutive history of the growth of the western continent, step by step, 
Qp to the present time. The earliest of these great lakes marked the commencement of the 
tertiary period, and seems to have covered a very large portion of the American oontlueni 
west of the Mississippi, from the Arctic Sea to Uie Isthmus of Darlen. 

AlK>ut the middle of tlie tertiary period tlie second extensive lake commenced In tha West, 
wliich we have called the Wliite River tertiary basin. We believe tliat It commenced Its 
growth near the south-eastern base of the Black Hills, and gradually enlarged Its borders. I 
am Inclined to think that this lake has continued on, almost or quite up to the commencement 
ot the present period; that the light colored arenaceous and marly deposits In tlie Park of the 
Upper Arkansas, In the Middle Park, among the mountains at the source of the Missouri 
River, In Texas and California, and Utah, are all later portions of this great lake. Tlie upper 
mlocene or pliocene deposits in the Wind River Valley, near Fort Bridgcr, and on the divide 
between the Platte and the Arkansas Rivers, were undoubtedly synchronous, though perhaps 
not connected with this great basin. Every year, as the limits of my explorations are ex- 
tended In any direction, I find evidences of what appear to be separate lake basins, covering 
(rreater or less areas, and bearing intrinsic proof, more or less conclusive of the time of their 
existence. I have given in this place the above brief description of the various geological 
formations as I have studied them In the West, In order that my subsequent remarks on these 
formations in their southern extension may be more clearly understood. Constant reference 
will be made to rocks as they have been seen in the fkr North and West, In order that the story 
of their geological extension may be linked together.** 

Dr. Ilayden also speaks of having met with vast quantities of true drift 
material which he regards as originating from the neighboring mountains. 
*' The superficial deposits at the very margins of the mountains is com- 
posed of very coarse materials, sometimes immense quantities of all 
kinds, but slightly worn ; but proceeding f^om the base of the mountains, 
the rocks become smaller and more rounded, until they pass into small 
pebbles, mingled with loose sand. The phenomena of erosion, as seen at 
the present time, all along the flanks of the mountains, in the plains, in 
the channels of streams, point clearly to a vastly greater quantity and 
force of water than exist anywhere at the present time.'* A page is de- 
voted to an account of the general structure of the mountains which Dr. 
Hayden*8 long familiarity with them enables him to condense Into so 
brief a space : 

" It is now well known that the great Rocky Mountain system is not composed of a slnglts 
range, but a vast series of ranges, covering a width of six hundred to one thousand miles. 
There are also two kinds of ranges, one with a granitoid nucleus, with long lines of fracture, 
and In the aggregate possessing a specific trend ; the other has a basaltic nucleus, and is com- 
posed of a series of volcanic cones or outbursts of Igneous rocks. In many cases fbrnilng those 
saw-like ridges or sierras, as the Sierra Nevada, Sierra Madre, etc. Along the eastern portion 
of the Rocky Mountains, from the north line to New Mexico, the ranges with a granitoid nu- 
cleus prevail. Each one of the main ranges Is sometimes spilt up Into a number of fragments, 
wlilch locally may vary somewhat from a definite direction, but the aggregate trend will be 
about north-west and southeast. 

As I have before stated, each one of the main ranges seems to me to form a gigantic anti- 
clinal with a principal axis of elevation, and the lower parallel ranges descending like steps to 
tlie plalujl, or to the synclinal valley. If, for example, we were to study carbtUlly one of the 
minor mountain ranges, as the Black Hills of Dakota, or the Laramie range, where the system 
Is very complete and regular, we should find a central granitic axis, and on each side a series 
of granitic ridges paraUel with It, and in the aggregate trending nearly north and south. And 


oo the eMtern portion of Uie atitteUnal, the eMt side of the minor ridges slopes fently down, 
while the west side Is abrupt; and on the western portion We« ver$a. Bat If we take the ridges 
singly and exainiue them, we shall And In most cases that the aggregate trend is nearly north- 
west and soutli-«ast. The consequence Is, that as we pass along under the eastern flanks of the 
mountain flnim north to south, these minor ranges or ridges present a sort of ** tn echelon** ap- 
pearance; that Is, they run out one aOer the other ha the prairies, presonrlng the nearly north 
and Moulh course of the entire system. Not unHrequently a group or several of these ridges 
will run out at tlie same time, fbrmliig a huge notch In the main range. This notch in most 
eases forms a yast depression with a great number of side depressions or rifts In the mountains, 
which give birth to a water system of greater or less extent. Such, for example, is the notch 
at Cache a la Poudre, Colorado City, Canon City, on the Arkansas River, and other localities. 
If we were to examine th^ excellent topographical maps Issued by the War Department, which 
are beyond comparison the most correct and most solentlflc of our Rocky Mountain region In 
existence, we should at once note the tendency of all the minor ranges, with a continued line 
of fracture and a granitic nucleus, to a south-east and north-west trend; sometimes It Is nearly 
north and south, and then these ranges pabs out or come to an end without producing any 
marked inflnence on the topography, except, perhaps, some little stream will flow down into the 
plain tlirough tlie monocUnal rift. But when several of these minor ranges come to an end to- 
getlier, an abrupt jog of several miles towards the west Is caused. Then frequently as the range 
dies out, a local anticlinal or a seml-quaquaversal dip Is given to the sedimentary beds. Be- 
tween the notches or breaks In the mountains, the belt of ridges or ^* hog-backs" becomes very 
narrow, sometimes even hardly visible, and sometimes entirely concealed by superficial de- 
posits. But at these breaks the series of ridges split up and spread out so as to cover an area 
from half a mile to ten or fifteen miles In width. It is in tliese localities that the complete geo- 
logical structure of the country can be studied in detail. I do not know of any portion of the 
West where there is so much variety displayed in the geology as within a space of ten miles 
sqnare around Colorado City. Nearly all the elements of geological study revealed In the 
Bocky Mountains are shown on a unique scale in this locality." 

In studying the mines of Colorado the explorer noticed that the lodes 

are almost invariably parallel, running north-east to south-west. This 

and the two cleavage planes, one north-east to south-west, and the other 

north-west to south-east, which he found to be peculiar to all the Azoic 

rocks, leads to an important and highly interesting generalization : 

** I am Inclined to believe that the problem of the history of tlie Rocky Mountain ranges Is 
closely connected with these two great sets of cleavage lines. As I have before stated, ray own 
observations point to tlie conclusion that the general strike of the metamorphio ranges of 
mountains Is north-west and south-east, and that the eruptive trend north-east and south- 
west. The dikes that sometimes extend long distances across the plains. In all cases trend 
north-east and souih-west, or occasionally east and w<.*st. The purely eruptive ranges of the 
northern portion of the San Luis Valley seemed to be composed of a series of minor ranges 
**en echelon " with a trend north-east and south-west. But as soon as this range Joins on to a 
range with a metamorphic or granitic nucleus, the trend changes around to north-west and 
south-east. Many of the ranges have a nucleus of metamorphio rooks though the central and 
higliest portions may be composed of eruptive peaks and ridges. In this case the Igneous ma- 
terial is thrust up in lines of the same direction as the trend. It becomes therefore evident 
that all the operations of the eruptive forces were an event subsequent to the elevation of the 
metamorphic nucleus. This Is shown In hundreds of Instances in Southern Colorado and New 
Mexico, where the eruptive material is oftentimes forced out over the metamorphic rocks, con- 
cealing them over large areas." 

A Oeographical Handbook of all known Ferns, is the title of the 
latest and of the most praiseworthy of Fern-books, now so popular in 
England. This neat volume is by E. M. Lyell (Mrs. Col. Lyell), and Im 
Just published by Murray ; a small octavo of two hundred and twenty- 
five pages. It gives in order, under the principal <;ountries, a list of all 
their Ferns, with range and localities, and then a fdll series of tables 
exhibiting the geographical distribution of each species through the sev- 
eral regions. 



Rrcbnt works on thb Embryoloot of Articulates. — Besides the 
very valuable paper of Melnikow on the embryology of the lice and other 
insects already noticed and quoted, we have to enumerate several others 
of great importance, and which we hope to find room to notice at greater 
length hereafter. Professor Clapar^de has published a paper, richly illus- 
trated, on the embryology of worms, especially Spirorbls, in Siebold and 
Kolliker*s "Journal." Melnikow writes in "Wiegraanu's Archiv" **0n 
the early stages of Tcenia cucumerina, with a few figures. Dr. Rlchaixl 
Greef publishes In the same number of the "Archlv" some most inter- 
esting researches on certain remarkable forms of Arthropoda and worm- 
types, illustrated by four plates. 

Dr. Anton Dohrn has lately published the first part of his "Researches 
on the Structure and Development of Arthropoda" (Insects and Crusta- 
cea) with nine excellent plates. It is extracted f^om Siebold and Kol- 
iiker*s "Journal." He here records his observations on the embryology 
of Cuma and allied genera, of certain sea spiders (Pycnogonlds), and 
thinks that embo'ology shows that these curious animals, classified 
by many naturalists with the Arachnlda, are really Crustacea; and of 
Daphnia, Pranlza, and Paranthura Costana. 

A paper of the greatest interest to entomologists Is M. Ganlu*s " Con- 
tribution to a Knowledge of Developmental History In Insects " in Sie- 
bold and Eolllker's " Journal." It Is fhlly Illustrated, and some of the em- 
bryoes and larvos of certain Ptcromali, Platygasters and Polynemas are 
of such startling Interest, from their resemblance to the zoeas of crabs 
and to certain low worms, that we must defer any farther notice for an- 
other number, when we can insert cuts to illustrate our review. 

Thk Bowdoin Scientific Review.* — Two numbers have appeared of 
this fortnightly paper, which Is conducted by Professors Brackett and 
Goodale of Bowdoin College. It Is devoted mostly to chemistry and 
physiology, and the editors say in their announcement that " It was orig- 
inally their design to communicate to their fellow physicians in Maine 
recent intelligence in physiology, and chemistry applied to therapeutics. 
This design has not been relinquished, but It has been somewhat modified 
at the suggestion of many, and the scope of the Journal has been widened 
without trespassing upon the field now so well occupied by our American 
journals of natural history, physical science, and medicine. It Is believed 
that much of the work now accomplished by many of our domestic and 
foreign periodicals may be made more directly available by the regular 
publication of a review which shall call attention to the best scientific 
labor wherever done. From the nature of the case, the range of the 
journal will approach that of "Cosmos" and "Les Mondes," but more 
prominence will be given to the results of English and American study." 
We trust that this enterprising and ably conducted journal will meet with 
every possible encouragement. We quote the conclusion of M. Mayer's 

* A Fortnightly Review. Bramwlek, Maine. 8to, pp. 82. $2.00 « year. 



discoarse before the Scientific Beunion of Insbnick, on Matter, Force and 
tlie Soul : 

**The French pbyslolst, Adolplie Hlrn, who, at the Bftme time with Joule, Goldlng, Holtman 
and HemboIU, discovered the mechanical equivalent of heat, arrived at the conclusion, which 
I And as beautUhl as true, that there are three categories of exlstouce; first, matter; second, 
force; third, the soul, or the spiritual principle. When once we have succeeded in realizing 
that there are not only material objects, but also forces, aud forces in the definite, accurate 
sense of modem science, as indestructible as the substances of the chemist, we have but one 
step farther to take, and tliat perfectly natural, to recognize and admit spiritual existences. In 
inanimate nature we speak of atoms; in the living world we find individuals. The body of the 
living being, as we now know It, is not only formed of material elements, but force plays also an 
essential part. But neither matter nor force can think, feel snd will. Man thinks. For a long 
time we have generally suppostrd that the nervous substance, and especially the brain matter, 
contained flree phosphorus, and the imagination attributed to th\B free photphoru* an important 
part in Intellectual operations. But new and more exact researches In organic chemistry have 
proved that no living organ, and of course the brain, contains tree phosphorus. If, on one side, 
similar illusions must vanish before the data of an exnot science. It is none the less true, never- 
theless, that there are continually produced In the living brain, material modlflcatious, which 
are, as It were, the consequences of a sort of molecular activity, and that the intellectual acta 
of the individual are intimately connected with this material cerebral action. But It is a great 
error to identify these two activities which proceed parallel to each other. An illustration 
will render my thought clearer. We know that there can be no telegraphic communication 
without a concomitant chemical action. But what the telegraph says, the contents of the des- 
patch, could never be regarded as a function of the electro-chemical action. That is still truer 
fbr the brain and thought. The brain is only the machine, it is not thought. Intelligence, 
which is not a part of sensible things canutit be submitted to the investigations of the physicist 
and the anatomist. What is true subjectively is also true otO^ctively. Without this harmony, 
eternally pre-established by God, between the subjective and objective worlds, all our thoughts 
would be sterile. Logic is the statics of Intelligence, grammar Is its mechanics, and language 
Its dynamics. I finish in saying to you with deep conviction: an exact philosophy should and 
can be nothing but an introduction to the Christian religion." 

Nature.* — During the last year we expressed a very favorable opinion 
of *' Scientific Opinion," a weekly scientific newspaper, and have now to 
express, after a careftil reading for several months, our equally strong re- 
gard for ** Nature." It is in royal 8vo form, well printed, containing ex- 
cellent articles by the leading scientists of Great Britain, aud much valu» 
able weekly intelligence. Everybody who can afford to do so would do 
well to subscribe to it. 




Edible Fungi. — During the last few years great attention has been 
paid, by botanists on the one hand and epicures on the other, to the edible 
qualities of certain ftingi. Notwithstanding the prejudice generally en- 
tertained against this class of vegetable productions, extending in Scot- 
land, Wales and some parts of England, even to the common mushroom, 

JVUurs, a weekly illustrated journal of science. Royal 8vo, two columns, pp. 82. Twelve 
eents a number. McMillan A Oo. New York, fid Sleeker street. 


there Is no question that a considerable number of species, very abundant 
in this country, are not only wholesome, but delicious articles of diet, 
and are at least as easily distinguished, with a little practice, fh)m the 
poisonous or suspicious species, as are berries or other wild fruits. Con- 
taining a larger portion of nitrogen than any other family of the vegetable 
kingdom, they Airnish an abundant supply of nourishment at a period of 
the year when very little else is to be obtained. It is calculated that 
there is scarcely a parish in England where tons of wholesome food are 
not allowed to waste every year, to say nothing of the facilities for their 
artificial culture. Berkeley reckons that there are at least thirty distinct 
English edible fungi ; Dr. Curtis has partaken of forty in North Carolina, 
and enumerates one hundred and eleven species in that state alone re- 
puted to be edible. Fries, the greatest living ci^ptogami^t, is publishing 
a large work on the edible and poisonous flingi of Sweden ; several works 
of a similar character have recently been brought out in Italy; in our 
own country the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, Mr. Worth Ington G. Smith and Dr. 
Bull of Hereford, may be mentioned as having paid special attention to 
the subject. — Quarterly Journal of Science, 

Largb Tbbiss in Australia. — On this subject the government director 
of the Botanic Garden at Melbourne furnishes some interesting details, 
as follows: — *'The marvellous height of some of the Australian (and 
especially the Victorian) trees has become the subject of closer investi- 
gation since of late (particularly through the miner's tracks) easier 
access has been afibrded to the back gullies of our mountain system. 
Some astounding data, supported by actual measurements, are now on 
record. The highest tree previously known was a Karri Eucalyptus 
(Eucalyptus colossea)^ measured by Mr. Pemberton Walcott, in one of the 
delightful glens of the Warren River, in Western Australia, where it rises 
to approximately four hundred feet high. Into the hollow trunk of this 
Karri, three riders, with an additional pack-horse, could enter and turn in 
it without dismounting. At the desire of the writer of those pages (Dr. 
MQller), Mr. D. Bogle measured a fallen tree of Eucalyptus amygdalina^ in 
the deep recesses of Daudenong (Victoria), and obtained for it the length 
of four hundred and twenty feet, with proportionate width ; while Mr. 
G. Klein took the measurement of a Eucalyptus on the Black Spur, ten 
miles distant from Healesville, four hundred and eighty feet high. . . , . 
It is not at all likely that, in these isolated inquiries, chance has led to 
the really highest trees, which the most secluded and the least accessible 
spots may still conceal. It seems, however, almost beyund dispute that 
the trees of Australia rival in length, though evidently not In thickness, 
even the renowned forest giants of California, Sequoia Wellingtonia^ the 
highest of which, as far as the writer is aware, rises, in their favorite 
haunts at the Sierra Nevada, to about four hundred and tifty feet. . . . 
Thus to Victorian trees the palm must be conceded for elevation." — 
Mossman*s Origin of the Seasons, p. 867. [And see more at length, ** Silll- 
man's Journal" for November, 1867, p. 422.] 


Tendency of Floral Organs to Exchange Ofttces. — In the No- 
vember Naturalist, p. 494, *' C. J. S./' speaks of flDdiDg a little ear on 
the apex of a staininate spike of Indian Corn. This is something new to 
me ; but I have several times seen stamiuate organs, produced on the ear. 

When the rains came after the past dry summer many plants seem to 
have made haste to produce new organs even though out of place, rather 
than to go on with the development of organs formed at the natural 
time. This tendency gives us ears of com on the tassel, as C. J. 8. has 
observed, and tassels formed upon the ear and many abortive ears in a 
single husk, ns I have observed this fall. I have noticed, also, a few 
heads of Timothy which, Instead of producing seed, have produced a 
growth of little leaves, and are scarcely recognizable as Timothy-heads. 
— D. Millikin. 

Monstrosity in Trillium. — April 28, 1866, while botanizing at Le 
Roy, N. Y., I fo\ind a Trillium with two stems arising from a common 
rootstock, each stem bearing a flower unlike the other and neither perfect. 
The petals of one could hardly be distinguished from its sepals, the only 
perceptible difference being a minute white margin surrounding the apex 
of each petal. The floral envelopes In this case appear to have reverted 
to the form and color of the leaves much more nearly, than in the other 
terminal flower where the petals are oblong and pure white, having a nar- 
row green stripe running through the centre of each. Though monstros- 
ities among the Trllllums may not be rare, I have never seen a similar 
one. — C. 8. Osborne, Hochesterj N. T. 

Notices of Botanical Monstrositif^, such as the above, we are glad 
to receive from our various coiTespondents. But they must not be dis- 
appointed If they should not appear at once. When they have accumu- 
lated a little so as to throw interest upon each other, we will print them 
all. or the most interesting ones, with some remarks on their classification 
and bearing, as illustrated in connection with a recent work upon Vege- 
table Teratology, by Dr. Masters of London, published by the Ray Soci- 
ety. If our correspondents will send us the specimens themselves, or 
drawings of them, it would in many cases be advantageous. As to the 
monstrosity in Indian corn, the attempt to produce ears on the staminate 
spike Is common enough ; the production of male flowers on the ear Is so 
unusual that we shonld be very glad to see specimens. Chlorosis (as it Is 
termed) in Trillium grandiflorum Is rather common, and we flnd that the 
plant so affected goes on year after year producing such blossoms. — Eds. 

Arctic Flora. — Dr. Berthold Seeman discusses in the *' Journal of 
Botany," the question whether vegetation extends to the North Pole, 
supposing land exists there. He answers the question In the aflSrmatlve, 
maintaining that excessive cold In winter exercises but a limited Influence 
upon a vegetation which, like the Arctic, enjoys the protection of a thick 
covering of snow, and is besides in a state of Inactivity. The tempera- 
tare of the summer daring the months of July and August has by far the 


greatest share In the distrlbation of vegetable life in the northern regions, 
and the lowest temperature during those months is not found in the 
most northerly point yet reached by any exploring expedition, but in 
Winter Island, on the eastern shore of the Melville Peninsula, where the 
mean temperature during July and August ranges between 84^ and AG^ F. 
That spot, which may be called the phytological pole, is nevertheless cov- 
ered with vegetation, and knowing as we do, that plants do grow not only 
on a ft'ozen soil, but even, as in Eotzebue Sound, on the tops of icebergs, 
there is no reason to suppose that the terrestrial pole is destitute of vege- 
tation. The most northerly berry-bearing plant yet recorded is Vaccinium 
VUiS'IcUeat or the cranberry, gathered in Bushman Island, on the north- 
west shore of Greenland, by Captain W. Penny, or in latitude 76^ N., 
and longitude 66® W. The most northerly berry-bearing genera are Vac- 
dniumt Oxycoc^uSy SubuSy Comus and Empetrum. It is stated that occa- 
sionally berries ripen in Lapland. — Quarterly Journal of Science, 

[We should think so I See Linnseus's '* Lapland Flora," and his inter- 
esting **Tour in Lapland." In the former almost thirty baccate-fk*uited 
plants are enumerated, and at least half of these ripen edible berries. — 

Thb Fertilization of Wikter-flowerino Plants. — Mr. A. W. Ben- 
nett contributes to the first number of the new scientific magazine, 
** Nature," the results of some observations on the fertilization of those 
plants which habitually fiower in the winter, when there are few or no 
insects to assist In the distribution of the pollen. He finds that in those 
wild plants which fiower and produce seed-bearing capsules throughout 
the year, as the white and red dead-nettles, shepherd^s purse, chlckweed, 
groundsel, etc., the pollen Is uniformly discharged In the bud before the 
fiower opens. Many garden-plants, on the other hand, natives of warmer 
countries, but which still fiower with us in the depth of winter, never 
bear fruit In this climate, and in them the pollen Is not discharged till the 
fiower Is fblly open. Of this class are the yellow Jasmine and the Chi- 
monanthus fragrans, or all-splce tree ; In the latter species the arrange- 
ment of the pistil and the stamens Is such as to render self-ferttllzatlon 
impossible. — Quarterly Journal of Science, 


A Rare Duck. — A specimen of the Brown Tree Duck, Dendroeygna 
fulvay was killed in New Orleans on the 22d of January, 1870, and pre- 
sented by Mr. N. B. Moore to the Smithsonian Institution. This is the 
first instance on record of the occurrence of this species so far to the 
east, although It has been known for some time as an Inhabitant of Cali- 
fornia; In the first place, fh)m specimens found by Mr. Ilanters at Fort 
Tejou. The species occurs sparingly throughout Mexico and Central 
America and the eastern parts of South America, and Is said to have been 
found nesting near Galveston, Texas, by Mr. Dresser. ^1% 


ExTKiiNAL Gills in Gvnoid Fiwiks. — Stelndachner has discovered that 
in the two species of Ganoid fishes Polypterus Lapradei u. sp., and Polyp- 
terus Senrgalus external branchiss occur when they are young. In his new 
species, P. Lapradei, the branchiss persist in individuals nineteen inches 
long. They consist of a long, flattened band, with fringed edges, very 
like the external branchiae of the axolotls ; there is a single one on each 
side behind the operculum, and it does not pass the posterior margin 
of the pectoral fin. In P. Senegalua this transitory organ disappears 
sooner, and is no longer to be found in specimens measuring three and a 
half to four inches in length. That these are respiratory organs has been 
proved by the anatomical investigations of Professor Hyrtl. — Annal8 
and Magazine, of Natural History. 

Thk Limbs ok Ichthyosaurus and Plesioaaurus. — Dr. Gegenbaur of 
Jena, has recently published an essay on the nature of the limbs of Ich- 
thyosaurus and Plesiosaurus. He indicates that the homologies of the 
paddle of the former are best understood by reference to the fin of the 
Selachians, especially of the sharks, a most important point. He accepts 
the view of the great importance of the diflferences between its limb 
and that of Plesiosaurus. (In the American genus Polycotylus, though 
the type of limb is that of the Plesiosauroid, the ulna and radius are 
those of Ichthyosaunis ; the vertebra resemble also those of the latter.) 
He indicates that the serial relationship of the carpals, metacarpals and 
phalanges is to be traced to the corresponding segments of a primary — 
the radial — series, or ray. He thus lays the basis of the homology of 
subordinate radii of Protopherus and Bregmacerus, and of the fUlcra of 
sauroid fishes, and therefore a basis for the estimation of the origin ot 
the distal portions of limbs fVom the simplest form — the simple ray. — 

E. D. COFB. 

The Groans of Hearing and Smell in Insects. — Mr. Lowne, in a 
recent work on the anatomy and physiology of the flesh fly, states his 
belief that the organ of smell is located in the third joint of the antennas, 
which are remarkably dilated, and are covered with minute openings 
communicating with little sacs in the interior. The halteres he regards 
as the organ of hearing, their cavity being filled by a very large nerve 
terminating In nerve cells, which is connected with a number of small, 
highly refracting bodies, regularly arranged around the base of the organ. 
— The Academy, 

Albino Barn Swallow. — In the month of July of last year, near 
Saco, Maine, I observed a fiock of Barn Swallows {Hirundo korreorum 
Barton), one of the Individuals of which was pure white or nearly so. — 

F. P. Atkinson. 


The Sars Fund. — At a parlor lecture delivered In Salem by Mr. E. S. 
Morse, the sum of twenty-nine dollars and fifty cents ($29.50) was raised 
for the family of the late Professor Michael Sars, of Chrlstlanla. ' Liberal 
sums have already been subscribed in London and Paris. 



Discovery of a buqr Whalb in North Carolina. — Professor Kerr 
has discovered recently in North Carolina the remains of a hnge whale 
some eighty feet in length, which I have recently studied. It is near 
Baleena, and very different from anything hitherto found. It has an ex- 
traordinary development of the snpercilla. The ear bone is preserved. 
I have named it Mesoteras Kerrianu8. — E. D. Cope. 

The Geology ok Brazil. — Professor C. F. Hartt of Cornell Uni- 
versity, who has for several years been studying the geology of the coast 
region of Brazil, and has published two papers on the subject in the Nat- 
URAUST, Vol. I, and a general r^sum^ of his explorations in the ** Pro- 
ceedings of the American Geographical Society/' and has an extensive 
work on the subject nearly printed, entitled '*The Geology and Physical 
Geography of the Coast Provinces of Brazil," proposes to make a third 
trip to Brazil next summer. He will take with him several students from 
Cornell University, and the expedition will be one that in its results will, 
we doubt not, do credit to that institution which has already done so 
much in introducing taW courses of scientific studies into college curricu- 
lums. The geology and natural history of Brazil have been largely studied 
out by university professors ft'om America and Europe. Professor Hartt 
proposes to study especially the Amazonian drift, and doubts having been 
thrown on Professor Agassiz's theory of a great Amazonian glacier by 
several eminent geologists, we trust that this vexed question will he ftilly 

Professor Ward's Museum. — It will be gratifying to many of our 
readers to> learn that the late fire has not proved an unconquerable ob- 
stacle to the indomitable energy of Professor Ward. Our own Museum 
has lately been augmented by the addition of a small collection of his 
valuable casts of unattainable European fossils, and we understand that 
he will continue to furnish casts and collections to colleges and institu- 
tions as freely as before the fire. Professor Ward also informed us that 
he was upon the point of departing again for Europe, where he expects 
to renew and add to his collections, both of actual fossils and of casts. 
His museum was fhlly Insured, and as this has been paid, the losses can 
be, in a great measure, repaired, especially among the moulds, only one- 
third of the whole of these having been destroyed. — Editors. 




8. L. W., New York.— Lichen B, Nos. 1 and 8, Leptogium iremtlloide* i No. 3, Pannaria 
mieropkyllat'So, i, Endocarpon miniatuniy two epecimens, one of which ie E. glaueum 
Ach., bnt only a variety; Kos. 6 and 6, CetraHa lacunosa ; Ko. 7, Urceolnria 8cruposai 
No. 8, Parmelia BoxatUU. The UBtiea without a number la U»nea rubiginota Mx., a 
variety of U, barbata, -~ J. L. B. 


^schna, seyeral species of. 311. 

Agency of Insects in Fertilizing Plants, 155, 

Agricoltnrist, American, 821. 
Agrlon saucium, 308. 
Alaslca, 205. 
Alee Americanns, 063. 
Alexia myoRotis, (>71. 

American Aborigines, Cranial Foi*nis, 152. 
American Acad, of Arts and Sciences, 55. 
American Association for the Advancement 

of Science, 160, 442, 408, 550, 018, 074. 
Amorpba canescens, 406. A. fi*uticosa, 405. 
Aropniex Siblrica, 213. 
Analogy, 438. 
Andrena vicfna, 590. 
Andromeda floribunda, 256. 
Annual Increase In the Circtunftrcnce of 

Trees, 155. 
Annelids, yonng stages of, 60. 
Antilocapra Americana, 537. 
Anther of Flowers, Origin of, 61. 
AntrozouB pallldus, 28i. 
Apathas, 3u9. 
Apple Tree Borer, 110. 
Aquarium, 438. 
Aqtiilla Canadensis, 41. 
Arctomys monax, 060. 
Arizona, Ornithology of, 200; Quadrupeds 

of, 281, 351, 393, 531. 
Artlculata, Motions of, 83. 
Asclepias obtusifolia, 71. 
Asteiids, 126, 470. 
Asttir atricapillus, 40. 
Aurelia, 250. 
Awakening of the Birds, 401. 

Bald Engle. 41. 

Basin of Minas, Bird Tracks of,469, 234. 

Bassaris astuta. 351. 

Bat Brown, 284. 

Bats, 283. 

Bears, 863, 657. 

Beaver, 302, 660. 

Bee Journal, American, 888. 

Bees. The Home of, 364, 696. 

Beetles, 163. 

BcU flower, 406. 

Birds, Awakening of, 401. 

Birds, Errors regarding the habits of, 113. 

Birds, Gigantic, of the Muscareue Islands, 

Birds, Nests of, 811. 
Bii'ds of Spring, 141. 

Bird Tracks of the Basin of Minas, 169, 234. 
Biscuit made of Fish, 323. 
BittoiTi, 325, 434. 
Binck-poU Warbler, 120. 
Blueberry, 2MI. 
Blue Flag, 256. 
Blue Jay, 46. 
Bobolink, 143. 
Bolina, 248. 
Bos Americanus. 640. 
Boston Society of Natural History, 66, 112, 

164. 280, 444, 022. 


Botanical Excursions m my Office, 617. 
Botany. 51, 154, 210, 271, 322, 432, 493, 678. 
Botany, Manual ol; 491. 
Brazil, A Vacation Trip to, 642. 
Brachyotus Cnt'sinii, 41. 
Breeding Habits of Birds, 496. 
Bubo Virginianns, 41. 
Bucephala Americana, 46. 
Bufo Americanus, 106. 
BuflTnlo, 5(0. 
Bull Frog, 109. 

Bunting, Black-throated, 118. 
Buf^h Kat, 399. 
Bntco borealis, 41. 

Baiterflics. Flights of, 104; Mimetic Forms 
among, 52. 

Calabar Bean, Physiological Effects of, 61. 

Califoruia Academy of Sciences, 334, 569. 

Callosamia angrnlilera, and Promethea, 81. 

Campanula rapunculoides, 406. 

Canis Intrans, 289. C. occidentalis, 668. 

Cardnelis tristis, 115. 

Caribou, 666. 

Carnivora, 285. 

Carpenter Bees, 167, 869. 

Carpocapsa pomnella, 110. 

Carychium exiguum, 670. 

Castor Canadensis, 362, 660. 

Caterpillar. A Snake-like, 436. 

Cathartes Californianus, 114. 

Cephalapods, Tetrabranchiate, 270. 

Cephallzatlon among Crustacea, 77. 

Ceratlna dupla, 371. 

Cervus macrotis. 635. C. Virginianns, 606. 

Chalk in Colorado and Dacota, 53. 

Chicago Academy of Science, 66, 447. 

Chickadee, 584. 

Chiroptera, 283. 

Chignon Fungus, 870. 

ChlccOn, Development of, 428. 

Chrysomitris tristis, 43. C. pinuB, 44, 

Circus Hudsonius, 41. 

Civets, 351. 

Clothes' moths, 110, 423. 

Cocki'oach and its Enemy, 283. 

Coddling moth, 110, 163. 

Ccolebogyne, 72. 

Collyrio borealis, 43. 

Coleoptera, 163. 

Common objects of the Country, 649. 

Compositxe, 126. 

Concnology, American Journal of, 102. 

Correspondents, Answers to, 63, 106, 160, 

214, 326, 441. 
Corvus Americanus, 46. 
Corydalis, 71. C. aurea, 72. C. cava, 72. 
Cougar, 285. 
Crab, Edible. 62. 

Cretaceous Formation. .320. [554. 

Crinoidal Banks of Crawfordsville, Ind., 
Cristatella, 184. C. ophidioidea, 186. 
Orow, 45. 

Cnistacea Living In Ascidia, 49. 
Curvlrostra Americana, 44. G. leucopten, 






CnBcuta Americana. C. epllinum, 100. C. 

GronoTii, 192. 
Cyanea, 250. 
Cyanura cristata, 45. 
CynomvB Gonnisoniif 302. C. Lndovicia* 

HUB, 362. 

Dandelion, i05. 

Deer. 666. 

Dendroica striata, 120. 

Desmids and Diatoms. 505, 687. 

Devil's Darning Needle, 310. 

DiatomaceaB, Movements of, 441. 

Diatoms, 158, 505, 587. 

Digitalis pnpurea, 258. 

Dimorphic Plants, 67. 

Diplax Berenice, 311. D. Elisa, 311. D. 

rubicundula, 311. 
Dipodomys Philippil, 385. D. Ordil, 306. 
DiscophorsB, 250. 
Dodo, 614. 

Dragon-fly, 304; Eggs of, 391. 
Drying Flowers by Heat, 103. 
Duck Hawk, 39. 
Duck, Golden-eyed, 46. 

Eagle, Bald, 41, 615; Golden, 41. 
Eagles, Novel way of Siiooting, 439. 
Earliest races of Men in Europe, 272. 
, Educational Montiily, American, 271. 
Empldonax Acadicus and minimus, 119. 
Encampment of the Herons, 343. 
Entomological Society of Philadelphia, 168. 
Entomological Society of Canada, 167, 280. 
EozoOn in Austria, lOo. 
Ephemera, 80. 
Ephyra. 252. 
Epigea repens, 154. 
Erethizon dorsatus, 663. E. epixanthus, 531. 
Esph-itu Santo, Flor del, 155. 
Essex Institute, Proceedings of, 65, 112, 165, 

Enspiza Americana, 118. 
Evening Primrose, 259. 
Expedition of Williams College, 213. 

Falco anatum, 30. F. candicans, 40. F. 

columbarius. 1^. 
False Indigo, 405. 
Felis concolor, 285, 662. F. onza, 285. F. 

pardalis, 286. 
Fern, New, 4.32. 
Fiber zibethicus, 400, 663, 
Field Sparrow, variety of, 614. 
Fish, change of color in, 391, 497; Gestation 

of, 324; Culture, 296, 322. 
Fisher-cat, 656. 
Flax, 66. 

Flax Dodder, 190. 
Flowers, change of color in, 890. 
Fly, larva of, 73. 

Fossil Neuropterons Insects, 268. 
Foxfflove, 258. 
Fredericella, 58. 
Fruits, Rottenness of, 271. 

Gasterosteus biacnleatus, 238. 

Generic and Specific Names, 438. 

Geological Science, Advance of, 212. 

Geology, 53, 104, 157, 212, 272, 825, 654. 

Geysers of California, 337. 

Gila Chipmunk, 358. [610. 

Glacial Phenomena of Labrador and Maine, 

Glossary* 681. 

Golden c:agle, 41. 

Goldfinch, American, 116. 

Gorilla, Habits of, 177. 

Goshawk, 40. 

Grape, Southern Muscadine. 638. 

Grattsnopper, Bed-legged, 271. 

Gray Fox, 292. 

Gray Wolf, 288. 

Great Gray Owl, 41. ■ 

Green Frog, 109. 

Guillemot, Black, 63. 

Gulo luscus, 352. 

Gymnolaemata, 58. 

Haliaetus leucocephalas, 41, 616. 

Halictns parallelus, 602. 

Hand as an Unruly Member, 414, 482, 681. 

Hares, 531. 

Harvest Mouse, 398. 

Hawaiian Plants, 647. 

Hawk Owl, 42. 

Helix albolabris, 6, 95, 06, 316. H. altemata, 
187, 315. H. arborea, 542. H. asteriscus, 
646. H. Binneyana, 542. H. chersina, 544. 
H. cillaria, 541. H. concava,412. H. den- 
tifera, 99. H. electrina, 542. H. exigua, 
543. H. ferrea, 644. H. fnliginosis, 315. 
H. hirsuta, 151. H. hortensls, 186. H. in- 
dentata, 413. H. inomata, 314. H. laby- 
rinthica, 515. H. lineata, 546. H. milium, 
543. H. minuscula, 643. H. minuta, 644. 
H. minutissima, 646. H. monodon, 151, 
315. H. multidentata, 543. H. palliata, 
150. H. Sayi, 98. H. striatella, 546. H. 
suppressa, 411. H. thyroides, 98. H. tri- 
dentata, 150. 

Herons, Encampment of, 343. 

Hesperomys, Arizonian species of, 388. 

High Mallow, 407. 

Honey Bees, Fertile Workers, 62; Queen, 
ft*om worker Grubs, 439. 

Hooded Merganser, w. 

Homology, 438. 

Homed Corydalus, 436. 

Human Jaw, Fossil, 63. 

Hydroids, 252. 

Hyla Pickeringii, 108. H. versicolor, 109. 

Hypotriorchis columbarius, 89. 

Ice-marks «and Ancient Glaciers in the 

White Mountains, 260. 
Ichneumon Parasite, 89. 
Idyia. 249. 

Illinois Natural History Society, 66. 
ludigo Bird, 117; Eggs of, 436. 
Insect Box, 156. 
Insectivora, 285. 

Insectivcrous Birds, Nests of, 211. 
Insects Injurious to Vegetation, 163. 
Insects or Early Spring, 110; of May, 102; 

of June, 220; of Ju^r> 277; of August, 

327; of September, 391. 
Insects and their Allies, 73. 
Insects of Ancient America, 625. 
Iris pscudocarus, 256. I. versicolor, 256. 
Istiophora, 283. 

Jaculus Hudsonius, 387. 
Jaguar, 286. 

Jelly Fishes, Something about, 244. 
Jumping Mouse, 397. 

Ealinia, 66, 257. K. angnstifolia, 267. K. la- 

tifolia, 257. 
Kilauea, The Volcano of, 16. 
Kinglet, Golden crested, 42. 
EJookkenmoBddings. or Shell-heaps in Maine 

and Massachusetts, 661. 



Land SnaUs, 5, 95, 150, 186, 813, 411, 541, 606, 

Laurel, 66, 257. 
Lead Plant, 405. 
Leaf-nosed Bats, 283. 
LegurainoBflB, 259. 
Lepidopterologlcal Notoa, 820. 
Lepus artemiBia, 534. L. Califomicus. L. 

callotis. L. campestria, 531. 
Leticochila armifera, 667. L. contracta, 666. 

L. pentodon, 667. 
Libellula auriponnia, 306. L. quadrimac- 

ulatu, 310. L. trimaculata, 310. 
Lichens, Chemical Test, 434. 
Llniax, 10. 
Linum, 66. 

Lizard-like Serpent, Arom the Chalk forma- 
tion of England, 53. 
Long-eared Bat, 283. 
Long-eared Owl, 41. 
Loosestrife, Spiked, 68. 
Lophodytes cacuUatns, 40. 
Lophopus, 181. 
LotuB, 210. 

Lupus occideutalls, 288. 
Lutra Canadensis, 666. 
Lyceum of Natural History of New York, 

166, 330, 623. 
Lynx Canadensis. 652. L rufkis, 287, 653. 
Lysianassa Magellanica and Crustacea on 

the Coast of Sweden and Norway, 48. 
Lythrum salicaria, 68. 

MacrotuB Califomlcns, 283. 

Malva sylvestris, 407. 

Man, Earliest races of, 272. 

Marsupials, 354. 

Marsh Hanier, 41. 

Martins, 352. 

Mason-bee, 375. 

May Flower, 154. 

May Fly. 80. 

Megachile, 373. 

Melampus bidentatus, 671. 

Mephitis mephitica, 657. 

Mergus Americanns, 46. 

Microscopical Society, American, 167. 

Microscopy, 158, 213, 276, 325, 440, 555, 616. 

Milk-weeks, 60. 

Mimetic Forma among Insects, 52, 155. 

Mink, 666. 

Miocene Flora of North Greenland. 825. 

Modem Scientific Investigation, 449. 

Monstrous Boses, 433. 

Moose, 063. 

Moss-animals, or Polyzoa, 57, 131, 180. 

Mottled Owl, 41. 

Mud-dauber, 293. 

Mule Deer. 535. 

Museum oi Comparative Zoology, 387. 

Musk-rat, 400, 663. 

Mustela Americana, 656. M. Pennantii, 656. 

MustUidos, 852. 

Mygale Hentzii, 139, 409. 

Myriapoda of North America, 49. 

Nannophva bella, 811. 

Nardosmia, 406. 

Natural History of Animals, 50. 

Natural History Calendar, 107, 160, 220, 277, 

Naturalist's Note Book, 618. 
Neotoma Mexicana, 899. 
Nests of Insectiverous Birds, 211. 
Neuroptera, Fossil, 269. 
New England Beptiles in April, 107. 

New England, The Land Snails of, 5, 96, ISO, 

186. 313, 411. 541, (KM, Cm. 
New Jersey, The Fossil Iteptiles of, 23. 
Night Heron, 343. 
Nociiluca, 316. 
Northern Shrike. 42. 
Notes of a Fur Hunter, 052. 
Note from the Far North, 206. 
Nyctea nivea, 41. 
Nyctiardea Garden ii, 343. 

Object Teachhig, 159. 

Ooulot, 286. 

Oenothera. 259. 

Oldenlandia, 67. 

Ophion macrurnm, 89. 

Origin of Life on our Globe, 439. 

Ornithological Calendar for May, IGO. 

Oniithologist, Winter Notes ol, :i». [318. 

Ornithology and Oology of New England, 

Ornithology of Arizona, 209. 

Osmia leucomelana, 375. O. llgnivora, 376. 

O. pacifica, 877. O. paretina, 375. O. 

simillima, 377. 
Otter. 656. 

OlUB Wiisonianus, 41. 
Ovis Montana, 540. 
Owl, Barred, 41. 
Owl Cat. 41. 

Oxalis acetosella, 71. i 

Oyster Culture, 196, 346. 
Oysters, Enemies of, 200. 

Pale Bat, 283. 

Pandalus annulicornis, 76. 

Panther, 652. 

Parallelism between the different stages of 

Life in the Individual, and those in the 

order Tetrabranchiata, 270. 
Parasites of the Humble Bee, 157. 
Parasitic Pianto, 188. 
Parns atricapillus, 584. 
Parthenogenesis In Weeping Willow, 154. 
PasBaflora racemosa, 09. 
PasBion Flower, 69. 
Pcctinatella, 182. P. magniflca, 136. 
Pelican, Breeding Place of, 436: in Cayuga 

Co., 323. 
PelopcBUS, 203. 
Peregrine Falcon, 89. 
Perognathus in Arizona, 897. 
Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences 

of, 168, 224, 279, 447. 
Philanthus ventilabris, 77. 
Phosphorescence of the Sea, 316. 
Phosphorescent Entomostraca, 825. 
Phylactolasmata, 58. 
Pigeon Hawk, 89. 
Pipicola Canadensis, 46. 
Pine Finch, 44. 
Pine Grosbeak, 45. 

Plantago lanceolata, 404. P. major, 406. 
Plantain, 404. [403. 

Plants, Fertilization by Insects, 64, 156, 254, 
Plants, Parasitic, 188. 
Plants, Royal Families of, 126. 
Platysamia Cecropia, 81. P. Columbia, 81. 

P. Euryale, 31. 
Plectropnanes nivalis, 43. 
Pleurobrachia, 247. 
PlumatellsB, 181. 
Polioptila coerulea, 110. 
Polyps and Echinoderms, 49. 
Polyzoa, Fresh-water, 57, 181, 180. 
Pomology, American, 321. 



PompilDB, 203. P. formoBiis, 187. 
Porcupine, 663 ; Tellow liaired, 631. 
Portland Society of Natural Hlstoryi 168. 
Pouched Kangraroo Bat, 885. 
Pouched Rats, 893. 
Prairie Dog, short-tailed, 868. 
Pi^ocyon lotori 657. 
Prong-horned Antelope, 537. 
PnpiUa badia, 609. P. flnllax, 609. 
Putorius yison. 656. 
Pyramids of Egypt; Remains of Plants, 
etc., in a Brick from, 822. 

Quadrupeds of Arizona. 281, 361, 893, 531. 
Quarterly Journal of Science, 611. 

Raccoon, 657. 

Rana Catesbyana, 109. R. clamitans, 100. 

R. halecina, 109. R. palustrls, 109. R. 

sylTatica, 108. 
Raneifer Caribou, 666. 
Rank among Insects, 70. 
Rats, New world. 307. 
Recent Bird Tracks, 234. 
Red Crossbill, 44. 
Red Fox, 653. 

Red-legged Grasshopper, 271. 
Red Sand-rat, 894. 

Red Squirrel, G59; Black Variety of, 63. 
• Regiilus satrapa, 43. 
Reithrodon humilis, 806. 
Reptiles of New England, 107; Fossil, of 

Kew Jersey, 23. 
Reviews. 48, 101, 152, 200, 260, 318, 887, 428, 

491, 547. 610, 672. 
Robinia Hisplda, 674. 
Rocky Mountain Sheep, 640. 
Rodentia, 354. 
Rottenness of Fruits, 271. 

Sable, 655. 
Saccomyidae, 303. 
'Sage Rabbit, 534. 
Salsola Kali growing Inland, 674. 
Samia Cynthia, 31. 
Saperda birittata, 110. 
Scaphiopus Holbrookii, 108. 
Scinrus Abertil, 355. S. Hudsonius, 63, 658. 
Scops asio, 41. 
Scorpion of Texas, 203. 
Sea Horse and its young, 226. 
Sea Urchin, Food of, 124. 
Sheldrake, 40. 

Shellheaps in Maine and Massachusetts, 561. 
Short Eared Owl, 41. 
Slirimp, 76. 

Silk-worm, American, SO, 85, 145. 
Silk- worm, Eggs of, 92; Enemies of, 89. 
Stceleton Leaves, 51. 
SIcunk, 657. 

Smithsonian Institution, 101. 
Snails of New England, 5, 95, 150, 186, 313, 

411. 541, 606, 666. 
Snails^ Tongues, Preparation of, 440. 
Snowy Owl, 41. 
Snow Bunting. 43. 
Spade-footed Toads, 106. 
Sparrow Hnwk, 89. [tailed, 361. 

Spcrmophiie, Line-tailed, 860. S. Round- 
Spcrmophilus Beecheyi, 359. S. grammii- 

ni8,.560. S. Harrisii, 350. S. tcreticauda, 

Sphingidaa of Cuba, 820. 
Spiza cyanea, 117. 
Spotted Fi-og, 109. 
Spring Beauty, 67. 

Squirrel, Califomian Ground, 850; Striped, 

660; Tuft-eared, 855. 
Succinea avara, 007. S. ovalis, 607. S. 

Totteniana, 606. 
Surface Fauna of Mid-ocean, 565. 
Sweet Coltsfoot, 406. 
Symia ulula, 42. 
Syminm cinereum, 41. S. nebulosum, 41. 

Tacsonia mollissima, 68. 

Tailor-bee, 373. 

Tamias dorsalis, 858. T. striatus, 060. 

Tarantula, 409. 

Tarantula Killers of Texas, 137. 

Taraxicum dens-leonis, 405. 

Taxidermists Manual, 321. 

Telea Polyphemus, 31, 83. 85, 87, 91, 92. 

Tenacity of Life among Higher Plants, 82K. 

Terebella, 74. 

Tertiary Flora of Brognon, 10:). 

Test objects for the Microscopes, 158. 

Thereva, Larva of, 73. 

Thomomys fblvus, 391. 

Thomless Form of Honey Locust Tree, 438. 

Tinnunculus sparverius, 39. 

Tinea, 110. T. flaviflrontella, 426. 

Tortricidfl}, 110. 

Tree-toads, 107. [of, 156. 

Trees, Annual Increase in circumference 

Trichina spiralis, 214. 

Tropsea Luna, Caterpillar of, 31. 

0ria grylle, 63. 

Ursidao, 853. 

Ursus Americanus, 657. 


Vertigo Bollosiana, 669. V. decora, 670. V. 
Gouldii, 669. V. milium, G69. V. ovata, 
668. V. simplex, 670. V. ventricosa, 669. 

Vespa, 293. 

Vespcvtillo macropus, 281. V. 6ubulatus,284. 

Vitrlna limpida, 814. 

ViverridsB, 351. 

Volcano of Kilauea, 16. 

Volvox and its Parasite, 276. 

Vulpes fulvus, 653. V. Virginianus, 292. 

Vulture, Califomian, 114. 

Wasps as Marriage Priests to Plants, 106. 

Wavy -leaved Milkweed, 71. 

Weasel, 656. 

Whale, stuffed in the Swedish Museum, 890. 

White Hawk, 40. 

White Mountains, Ice Marks and Ancient 

Glaciers of, 260. 
White Winged Cross-bill, 44. 
Wild-cat, 653. 

Winter Notes of an Ornithologist, 88. 
Wolf, 063. 
Wolf, Barking, 289. 
Wolverine, 852. 
Woodchnck, 660. 
Wood Frogs, 108. 
Wood Wasp, 77. 
Worms, breathing apparatus of, 74. 

Xylocopa Virginica, 869. 

Yellow Bird, 43. 

York Institute of Saco, Me., 168. 

Zotigenetes harpa, 608. [496, 649, 614. 

Zoology, 52, 104, 155, 211, 271, 822, 890, 434, 
Zua lubricoides, 607. 
ZygrenidsB of Cuba, 820. 


Vol. rV.— HAT, 1870.— Ho. 8. 



The name "Digger," which Fremont gave to the Indians 
that he found on the eastern elnpe of the Sierra Nevada, a 

•Read before (he Essex Institute. Fetirnarj-Sl, IBTO, An sljElrnct vlll be rnnnd fn 
the " BDllellD of the Essex Institiilo " unci a Toc-ibiilaiy or such fmnillar irorde as Mr. 
Cherer wu able to reoall. It Ig but JuBlloe to our ontbor to EUte lUnt his rnmlltnrity 
wllb the bingnsse of tbe tribes, during Ave jemt of IVIendlf i<eriinnal Intercourse, 
bu gijen htin a rare oppoTiun[t>- of forming' a correct Juilgmcnt of wliat tliese Indians 
imtlr were before they were ilerncirsllied by rontnct witb Hie wliites, anil that he has 
conDned himself to sacb slat«piciitj ss he remembered clesr])' and knew to lie correct. 

ZnterH nceorflni to Aet of Conim^ In the jenr 1R70. hv the PFAimny AcadihY of 
SciKxCM, In Uie Cleik* OtBoe of the Dlurlct Court oT tin- Dliirlel of MusnchoHltii. 



people who obtained a precarious subsistance in winter by 
digging through the snow for roots, and searching the rocks 
for lizards, and who had neither villages or numerical force, 
has been applied by the readers of Fremont's work to all 
the Indians of California.* 

The name was really applicable to those whom he first 
met with, but not to the Indians living on the other side of 
the mountains, who spoke a different language and were 
more provident than those living on the great plains east of 
the Rocky Mountains. The latter hav^ been much more 
destructive to the whites in battle, having procured, at an 
early date, firearms from Indian traders. The gold excite- 
ment, however, settled California so rapidly that the Indians 
were in a hopeless minority after the first immigration 
crossed the continent, and excepting where their villages 
were attacked they had no wish to fight, for they had no 
surplus population to lose. 

That these same Indians were not wanting in courage 
or spirit I have had repeated proofs. 

They would attack the sturgeon when under water and 
drsg him to the shore with their limbs bleeding from the 
sharp spikes. I have also seen Indians bearing the scars of 
conflicts with grizzly bears, and the frequent instances of 
white men scarred with wounds made by their arrows, shows 
that they contended courageously with the early settlers. 

The Indians of California, in 1849, were the more inter- 
esting to the ethnologist from the manner in which that 
country had been settled. The Jesuits, it is true, had been 
in Lower California for many years, and had established 
mission schools there, and a few Europeans had a short time 
before made scattered settlements in the Sacramento Valley, 
but the whole country was so remote from our frontiers, and 
inclosed by the intervening barriers of the Rocky Mountains 

* The lodian tribes of the section I am describing, called ^mselyes respecthrely, 
Sesnm, Hocktem, Tnbnm, Hololipi, Willem, Tanknm, and inhabited the valley of north- 
ern California, between the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Bange. 


and the snows of the Sierra Nevada Range, that it had l>ecn 
but little changed since its discovery by the whites. Many 
Indian tribes were living in as perfect a state of nature^ as the 
elk, deer or antelope, which furnished them with food. A 
head-dress of feathers with a scanty coat of paint on his ftice 
was the full dress of a brave, while a fringe made of gi*ass, 
or fine strips of bark, from the waist to the knee, was the 
costume of the girls or women. The Indians had but lit- 
tle beard naturally, and excepting in a few cases where old 
men had grown careless of appearances the hairs were pulled 
out ; sometimes a pair of muscle shells were used as tweezers, 
although I have seen a squaw dip her fingers in ashes and 
pull out her husband's beard, and draw tears at the same 
time from his eyes. Both sexes wore ornaments in the 
ears, but not rings. The children had their ears bored 
when quite young and small sticks inserted ; these were ex- 
changed from time to time for larger sticks, until a bone 
ornament, made from one of the larger bones of a pelican's 
wing carved in rude style, and decorated at the end with 
crimson feathers, could be worn permanently. This bone 
was about five or six inches long and larger in size than 
my little finger. The back hair of the men was fastened 
up in a net, and this was made fast by a pin of hard wood 
pushed through both hair and net, the large end of the 
pin being ornamented with crimson feathers, obtained from 
the head of a species of woodpecker, and sometimes also 
with the tail feathers of an eagle. The women used no nets 
for their hair, nor wore feathers as ornaments, excepting in 
the end of the bones used by both sexes for the ears, which 
I have already described. The children were naturally 
frank and the girls gentle and confiding, not much more so, 
perhaps, than yoimg grizzlies, but then I doubt whether the 
cub's mother threatens to give it to a white man, if it proves 
disobedient, and a white man was the Bugbear used to 
frighten papooses into good behavior. They were allowed 
much freedom, however, in seeking amusement or instruc- 


tion ; the girls acting as nurses to the younger children, 
and taking them off in the woods or to the river where they 
bathed, and the babies allowed to crawl in the water before 
they could walk on land. An Indian could no more remem- 
ber when he learned to swim than when he first stood on his 
feet. When the children were disposed to be good natured 
the girls petted them as kindly as our children tend dolls, 
but if they were cross, in spite of their caresses, they threw 
cold water in their faces until their tempers cooled. The 
girls fully equalled the boys in swimming or diving, and also 
used the paddle with skill, sometimes even beating the boys 
in their canoe or foot races. The boys, however, soon took 
to their bows and arrows, wandering off to hunt, and the 
girls learned at home the art of weaving baskets and making 
bread of acorns. Familiar with the points of the compass 
from infancy, they use their knowledge on all occasions ; even 
in play, if a ball or an arrow is being searched for, the one 
who saw it fall will guide the seeker thus, *'to the east," ''a 
little north," "now three steps north-west," and so on. In 
the darkest night I have known an Indian go directly to a 
spring of water from a new camp by following the directions 
of a companion, who had been there previously, given perhaps 
as follows : *Hhree hundred steps east and twenty steps north." 
This early training in woodcraft gives that consummate 
skill and confidence which are rarely acquired by those who 
learn them later in life. In tracking game they know the 
'"signs," as our hunters call them, of the various animals 
and birds as well as they know the kind of game that made 
tbem, and experience teaches them when the animals moved 
away. In tracking white men they cannot make mistakes. 
The white man's foot is deformed, made so by the shape of 
his boots or shoes, and even when he is barefooted his toes 
are turned inwards. The Indian's foot, never having been 
compressed, has the toes naturally formed and straight a^ 
our fingers are, and he can even use them to hold arrows 
when he is making them. When he walks therefore, each 


toe leaves its impress on the dust or sand, the imprint of 
the little toe beiug as straight, perfect and distinct as that 
of the largest. In summer the Indians are fond of travelling 
from place to place as iSsh or game, sunny nooks, or shady 
glens offer their attractions in turn, and this living in differ- 
ent places accounts in part, for the intimate knowledge they 
possess of localities and also of trails leading from one sec- 
tion to another. 

In the event of exposure to a severe storm wheu out hunt- 
ing, or on a journey, the Indian does not risk his life by ex- 
hausting his strength. He selects the best shelter near him 
while he is comparatively fresh, and with bark or boughs, or 
under an overhanging rock, seeks protection from the wind. 
A hole sunk in the ground, and a small fire kept burning by 
an armful of sticks, will keep him warm till he can resume 
his journey. The Indians use great skill in their selection 
of fuel, and also in the disposition of the sticks in burning. 
They say of the white man ''big fool, make heap fire and 
smoke, stand far off, look at him burn, while freeze." The 
Indian rejects green or wet wood and puts a few dry sticks 
together, with the ends towards a centre. This gives a free 
circulation of air between the brands, with but little smoke, 
and a large proportion of heat for the size of the fire. Their 
winter quarters are dry and wai'm, but are rarely free from 
smoke, which the Indians do not seem to regard as an incon- 
venience. The outside is covered with earth and at least a 
half of the hut is below the surface of the ground. The in- 
side shows strong posts supporting an arched roof made of 
poles bound with grapevines, and these covered with reeds 
and coarse grass secured by cords. A small hole in the roof 
serves as a chimney, and a low door, usually on the south 
side, is kept open excepting in stormy weather. A raised 
platform of poles and reeds holds the skins and blankets 
used for bedding. These blankets, made from geese feathers 
woven so as to bring the feathers overlapping each other, are 
ingeniously made, and are a protection from wet or cold. 


When the Indians leave their houses a branch is left in the 
door to show that no one is at home. The California Indians 
were more provident than most of the aborigines of this 
country. Large, round, upright cribs, made of poles and 
reeds, perhaps eight or nine feet high, contained their sup- 
plies of acorns. These cribs were neatly made and had a 
floor of loose reeds to keep the acorns from contact with the 
ground ; they were estimated to hold two years supply, of 
breadstuff, and were filled when acorns were abundant to 
provide for a short crop if the next year should prove un- 
fruitful. The whole tribe, men, women and children, 
worked together in gathering acorns in the fall for these 
public granaries. The hunting and fishing were done wholly 
by men, and some of the fishing was done at night when the 
women were sleeping at home. Much of the drudgery came 
to the women and seemingly with their consent.. They said 
tliat a hunter needed a keen eye, a firm hand and a fleet foot ; 
if he became stiff from hard work or lost his skill, his wife 
must suffer with him in his misfortunes, and it was best for 
each to do what each could do best. 

The position of honor among the Indians is the recogni- 
tion of excellence in some quality or acquirement. This 
induces every young man to improve himself by eveiy 
opportunity offered, so that he may become the first in use- 
fulness and be called on to meet chiefs iu council. When 
the customs of the Indians are learned the charge of indo- 
lence, as often made against them, does not seem wholly 
merited. One of' the early settlers in New York asked a 
chief why he did not work and lay up money. The chief 
replied that he wanted one good reason given him why he 
should make a slave of himself all of his life to make his 
children lazy for the whole of theirs. The labor performed 
is often great and exhaustive and must be shared by many. 
As no one gains any advantage over his fellows, excepting as 
he may prove himself more useful to them by the exercise 
of superior skill, he has less inducement to work alone, as a 


public servant. The Iiidiau again has a desire to have gnme 
abuiidaut, and to have the ti'ees preserved for his gicorus and 
fuel. It would seem folly to kill game faster thaa needed 
for food from year to year, and cutting down the oak that 
brought him acorns, would be killing the goose that laid 
the goldeu egg. An Indian to be judged fairly must be re- 
garded as au Indian. Custom with them, as with civilized 
people, is law, and many of their customs have probably 
been transmitted, with but little change, from remote ages. 

There is every reason to believe that the Indians wei* very 
numerous in California at some former time. Deserted 
mounds, showing the sites of former villages, are seen along 
the banks of the rivers, and a few tribes, speaking dialects 
of their own and yet living separately as nations, only consist 
of a dozen families each. One of these removed to a large 
tribe while I lived near them and remained as a part of the 
more powerful tribe for a year or more ; but they became 
discontented or homesick, and returned to the village con- 


tainiiig the dust of their ancestors. Here they kept up the 
traditions of their fathers, and related tales of former glory, 
and prayed to the Great Spirit for success and for abundant 
blessings. It is worth our time perhaps to consider, while 
speaking of the mounds that indicate the sites of villages, 
how much of the elevation is due to natural deposits, and 
whether it may not in many cases be entirely so. 

The streets in the city of Chicago have risen from eight 
to ten feet above the old level during the past twenty-five 
years from the soil obtained from cellars, ashes, sweepings, 
etc. Even the villages (so called) of pmirie dogs are made 
higher by their occupation. The ground used as a permanent 
home by human beings is constantly receiving additions from 
the wood used as fuel, bones of animals, shells of various 
kinds, and even the bodies of the California Indians were 
buried near their houses, with their baskets and implements 
used in hunting and housekeeping. I am aware that 'else- 
where mounds seem to have been heaped up by another race 
of people, but the highest that I have met with in Califor- 
nia I think were owing to the gradual accumulations from 
centuries of occupation. 

The traditions of the Indians are so fanciful, when they 
get beyond the history known to the living, that they difier 
but little from printed fictions. 

Their religion is probably little changed from that of an 
earlier age. A Good Spirit is invoked to provide food and 
give prosperity, and evil spirits are to be propitiated. The 
oldest chief prays at certain seasons, morning and evening, 
outside of the council lodge, and sings in a monotone a few 
sentences only. This is not in words taken from their lan- 
guage, but is supposed to be intelligible to the Great Spirit. 
When special prayei-s are made for success in fishing or hunt- 
ing, the request is made in plain Indian. Although he prays 
constantly for success, he uses wonderful craft and skill to 
ensure it. The antelope could not be approached in the 
short dry grass on the plains even by crawling, but the In- 


dian whitens the sides of his body with clay, and puts a per- 
fect decoy antelope's head on top of his own.* With a short 
stick in his left hand to give length to the pretended foreleg, 
aud carrying his bow and arrows in his right, he pretends 
to feed contentedly on the grass until the antelope approaches 
sufficiently near for him to kneel and shoot. The hunter, 
when standing or walking, supports himself on the short 
stick held in the left hand, like an animal standing on three 
legs (Fig. 34). I found by adopting this decoy head, and 
wearing knit clothing, that the antelope would come to me 
readily if I would remain in one place and hold the head 
near the ground, as if feeding. It was more difficult to walk 
far in this way, and the antelopes would come to me at times 
when if I had attempted to go to them, they would have 
become alaimed. 

To illustrate the ease with which an Indian can provide 
food for himself, I saw one come to the bank of Feather 
River one afternoon and start a fire. Turning over the sod 
and searching under the logs and stones he found some 
grubs. Pulling up some light dry reeds of the last year's 
growth he plucked a few hairs from his own head and tied 
the gmbs to the bottom of the reeds, surrounding the bait 
with a circle of loops. These reeds were now stuck lightly 
in the mud and shallow water near the edge of the river, and 
he squatted and watched the tops of his reeds. Not a sound 
now broke the quiet of the place ; the Indian was as motion- 
less as the trees that shaded him. Presently one of the reeds 
trembled at the top and the Indian quietly placed his thumb 
and finger on the reed and with a light toss a fish was thrown 
on the grass. The reed was put back, another reed shook 
and two fish were thrown out; then still another and the 
fellow was soon cooking his dinner. 

The spearing of salmon by torch-light, is very exciting. 

*Thi8 is the real skin of an antelope's head with artificial homa made fh)in tu]^ 
eovered with a paste composed of the bulb of the soapweed pounded with charcoal; 
the eyes are made of the skin stripped flrom the back of a woodpecker, with the purple 
black feathers attached. 



It is done on moonless nights and usually in parties of three 
to each canoe. One Indian goides the boat, a boy kneels in 
front with a blazing torch held near the surface of the water, 
while the one with the spear watches for the flash of the 
salmon as he darts toward the light. The spear is a loose 
point of bone with a hole through the centre, and one end 
fitted in a socket at the end of a light strong pole, and se- 
cured to the staff by a cord through the centre of the bone. 
When a fish is struck the bone is drawn out from its 
socket and left in the fish, making what sailors call a 
"toggle," the cord holding it in spite of its struggles. 
When the Indian is about to spear the salmon, you see him 
to advantage, and he gives his orders full of earnestness. 
**Hoddom 1 Hoddom 1 Pue-ne 1 Pue-ne 1 Hon-de 1 Hip-pe-ne 1 
Mipl Mip I Wedem-poul'' as the struggling fish is drawn 
to the canoe. These words translated are : There, there 1 
East, east I Lower I Higher I Hold, hold I The last word 
is an exclamation of surprise. 

No christian has stronger faith that his Father will provide 
for his wants, than these Indians had that the Great Spirit 
would send the salmon into their nets, or the grasshoppers to 
vary their bill of fare. Although grasshoppers are regarded 
with dread by the white settlers in some sections, the Indians 
go out to meet them rejoicing. They pile up the dry bunch 
grass for a centre and then forming a wide circle, and swing- 
ing branches of trees, they advance driving the swarms of 
grasshoppers, until thej" take refuge under the pile of hunch 
grass. The grass at every point is set on fire simultane- 
ously, and burns like gunpowder. When the smoke has 
rolled away the roasted grasshoppers are picked up by the 
basket full. 

The division of fish and game was made generally by a 
chief, who counted out as many portions as there were fami- 
lies to eat. If no objection was made to the size of any por- 
tion, one of the number turned his back and called out some 
name as each lot was pointed out by the chief, the Indians 


removing their share as fast as called for. No complaint 
was lUEide if some were sharers who hud not been workera, 
and hospitality to those eDtering their lodges was uuiversal. 
The Indians hunt for one kind of game ouly at a time, 
and each kind when they can be takeu most advantageously. 
Fig. as. 

When I saw every kind of game represented together at 
the Indian encampment in Biei-stadt's celebrated piiintJng 
of the Yosemite, I knew the camp had been introduced for 
effect, from this evident ignorance of, or disregard for the 
habits of Indians. 

The Indian bow (Fig. 3()) is made of the tough monntain 
cedar, with a thick back of sinew. A string of sinew also 
enables him to draw an arrow nearly to its head before it is 
sent hnmmiiig through the air. The aiTOWS are of two 
kinds, those with a head of hard, pointed wood for common 
use and those (Fig. 366) reserved Fig.n. 

for extreme cases of attack or 
defence, having points of agate 
or obsidian, which are oirefnlly 
kept in the skin of a fox, wild 
cat or otter. The stone arrow- 
heads (Fig. 37) are made with 
great care, and the materials 
from which they are made are 
often brought from long dis- ^^ * a 

rti -1- 1 a Arww-htiul nf ot..M1in, from ll>e Ho- 

tances. Ubsidian and agate are , i,,^^,',;;^,^;;;^'*™,'^,^ ^If '*Ka,, 
probably selected not so much ' smiii™ or iiw mibs. 
for beauty of coloring asfuf their close grain, which admits 
nf more careful shaping. They use n tool wJlh its working 
edge shaped like the side of a glaziei-'s diamond. The 


arniwhcad is held in the left hand, while the nick id the 
side of the tool is used as a nipper to chip off small frag- 
ments. An Indian usually has a ponch of treasures consist- 
ing of unfinished arrowheads or unworked stones, to be 
slowly wrought out wheu industriously inclined. The feath- 
ers are so placed on the arrow as to give it a spiral motion 
ill its flight, proving that the idea of sending a missile with 
rotary motion is older than the rifling of our gnus. 
. It wonld consume too much space to describe all their im- 
plements, and many of them do not differ materially from 
■FiR-m those that were used by Indians in this 

O/ section ; among them were awls of boue, 

thread of deer sinews, and coid which 
they used for their nets, bird traps, aud 
blankets; — this coi-d was spun from the 
- inner fihi-e of a species of milk-weed. 
Their cooking utensils were made from 
tlie roots of a coarse grass. These roots 
grow near the surface of tho ground, aud 
: in sandy soil can he pulled up in long 
pieces. The pulpy outside skin is I'e- 
moved and the inside is a woody libre, 
imw'ihe'bllnnnlll'^'uiB ctremely tough when green, and dui-able 
biukcu ■« ibrnied.' when made into articles for daily use. 
The Indian women split these roots into thin strii>s, keep them 
in water when they are making baskets, and take them out 
one at a time, as needed. The water basket is fii'st started 
from a centre at the bottom, and is added to stitch by stitch, 
without a skeleton frame to indicate the intended size (Fig. 
38). A loose strip of grass root is added constantly as a 
new layer to the last rim, and this is sewed on with another 
strip of the same fibre to the iiiiished work beneath, a boue 
awl being used to bore holes through the basket portion. Tho 
last rim or complete edge of a basket has a larger filling, con~ 
sisting of several strips of split grass roots, or sometimes a 
willow stick is used. The larger baskets are ornamented with 

■ThDrwUitliiglineiluihlpSgureare incorrect. 


figures woven in of a darker color ; the girls sometimes add 

beada aiid feathers for smaller baskets (Fig. 39). The con- 
ical baskets used for carrying 

burdens is woven instead of 

being sewed together, and is of 

looser texture and lighter in 

weight (Fig. 40). They are 

quite durable, however, and arc 

used to carry wood, acorns, or 

household goods on a journey. 

The water baskets were also 

durable and would hold hot < 

water.* Water was made to ' 

boil in them by dropping in , 

stones previously heated. The — - • --- --- -. - -^- - 

wpmen ektlfiilly used two «"""di m aw outtine. 

sticks in handling hot stones or conls as we would tonga. 
^e-^- In bread making the women pounded 

the acorns between two stones, a hol- 
lowed one serving fqr a mortar (Fig. 41), 
until it was reduced to a powder as fine 
as our corn meal. They removed some 
of the bitterness of the meal l>y scraping 
hollows in the sand and leaching it, by 
causing water to percolate slowly through 
it. To prepare it for cooking the dough 
was wrapped in green leaves and these 
balls were covered with hot stones. It 
comes out dark colored and not appetiz- 
. ing, but it is nutritious and was eaten 

with' gi-atitude by Fremont's men in 

^tai'tM.'"'^"* """*™ 1844. Fish and meat were sometimes 

cooked in this way. A salmon rolled in grape leaves and 

euiTOUDded with hot stones, the whole covered with dry 

le Bfnaenm caUecUon Ibryeart, 


earth or ashes over night and takeu out hot for breakfast, 
does not need a hunter's appetite for its appreciatioD. 

MaiTiage among the Calilornia Indians was similar to that 
of other tribes in other parts of the country. Presents of 
sufficient value were given by the man to the girl's pareuts, 
and the bride might be given away without her knowledge 
or consent. From my own observation I know that the 
Indian uses the best of his judgment in making a selection, 
and desires neither family strife or misery in his lodge. 
Girls are married at thirteen or fourteen years of age, and 
Fig. II. DO woman of marriageable age 

remains single long. Most of 
the Indiana, who became per- 
sonally well known to me, were 
very happy in their iamily rela- 
tions, and tiie custom of dividing 
food equally among them, al- 
lowed no fiimily to suffer from 
8t™«mor..rnMdp«.i<™,ii,eMP«am When the whitcs first came 
■.Hod) radcmr, .^j^ ^.j^^ country the Indians 

were virtuous and happy, and if whiskey had not demora- 
lized them they would have retained much of their original 
independence and self-respect. They were naturally cheer- 
ful and attached to each other, and although polygamy was 
peiTnitted I knew only one chief who had two wives. 
These seemed to agree, although Waketo said of his family 
that it had "too much tongue." 

In earlier days dancing among them was confined to cere- 
monies of different kinds. In some of these the women 
joined, forming themselves into a circle; but as only one 
step was used in a solemn way, accompanied b}' a half turn- 
ing of the body, a stranger might be in doubt whether 
it was rejoicing or mourning. Within this circle the men 
danced with great activity, leaping across a fire burning 
in the centre, and yelling and singing whilst the women 


continued their solemn dancing, singing a low monotonous 

Running of races was confined, after childhood, to the men, 
and endurance rather than speed sought for. A race was 
for three or five miles at least, and a good runner would 
follow a runaway horse or mule that had started off with 
greater speed, but in a few hours would return with the 
animal in his possession. 

The Indians were inveterate gamblers, and parties from 
one tribe would visit another for several days at a time and 
play day and night. The game was a sort of an **odd and 
even," as played by white children, the parties guessing 
as to the number and position of the sticks used in the game. 
The playing was accompanied by singing, and beads were 
principally used for stakes. 

In the treatment of diseases the Indians succeeded in a 
certain class of them, but failed altogether in others. The 
pain from a spmin or rheumatism would be drawn to the sur- 
face by burning the skin with fire. I can testify to a cure 
from this remedy. A severe sprain of an ankle, followed by 
two months use of crutches, resulted six months later in 
rheumatism in one of my feet. The assertion of a chief 
that fire would cure it in an Indian, but for a white man — 
and here he shrugged his shoulders as if words were unnec- 
essary — induced me to try the experiment, and show him 
that white men could bear pain. I placed a live coal on the 
top of my instep, and before the bum was healed my rheu- 
matism was gone. For headaches they pressed their hands 
on the head of the sufferer and sometimes cured it by gentle 
pressure. For other diseases they tried steam baths, especi- 
ally for colds. When any internal disorder defied their 
treatment, they immediately begged medicine from the 

In burying the dead a circular hole was dug and the body 
placed in it, in a sitting posture, with the head resting on 
the knees. If a man his nets were rolled about him and his 


weapons placed by his side. If a woman her blanket en- 
closed her body, and a conical shaped basket, such as they 
carry burdens in, was put in the grave also, with the peak 
upwards. The widow of an Indian cut her hair short and 
covered her head with ashes, and in the mountains they used 
tar for that purpose. Every night for weeks, after their be- 
reavement, the wails of these women were distracting. I 
do not know the exact time prescribed for mourning but I 
do not think it lasted more than six months. 

The language of the California Indians is composed of 
gutteral sounds, difficult to separate into words when spoken 
rapidly, and hard to pronounce or remember. The count- 
ing is done, as with all primitive people I have met, by deci- 
mals. Children in reckoning call off the fingers and toes 
of both hands and feet as twenty, when wishing to express a 
large number. In counting ten the following words are used : 
Weekum, Paynay, Sarpun, Tchuyum, Marctem, Suckanay, 
Penimbom, Penceum, Peleum, March ocom. If eleven is to 
be expressed it is Marchocum Weekum, or Ten one ; Marcho- 
cum Paynay, ten two, and so on to twenty which is Mide- 
quekum. The general term for man is Miadim, and for 
woman Killem, and for a child Collem. A boy is Miadim 
collem and a girl Killem collem. Although this seems to 
indicate a poverty of distinctive terms, yet when it is found 
that every animal, bird, insect and plant has its own name, 
it will be seen that there is no want of materials to supply a 
stranger with words for book making, if his tastes lead him 
in that direction. 

After many years passed with these Indians, and having 
every opportunity to study their customs and character, I 
entertain pleasant recollections of their friendship which was 
never broken, and feel sadly when I realize that the im- 
provements of the white men have been made at the sacrifice 
of Indian homes and almost of the race itself. 

Feather River (Rio de Plumas), before its mines were 
washed for gold, was so clear that the shadows reflected on* 


its surface seemed brighter than the real objects above. The 
river abounded in fish, as did the plains on either side in 
antelope, deer, elk and bear. The happy laughter of chil- 
dren came from the villages, the splash of salmon, leaping 
from the surface, sent ripples circling to the shore, and the 
blue dome of heaven was arched from the Sierra Nevada 
with its fields of snow on the cast, to the distant Coast Range 
that shut out the Pacific on the west. Grand oaks, with far 
spreading shade, dotted the plains that stretched for miles on 
either side, and in spring time tJie valley was brilliant with 
flowers. This was the possession and home of the Indians, 
whose ancestors bad lived and hunted without patent or title 
obtained from deeds, long before the first sailor phinted his 
flag on the sea-coast and claimed the country by right of dis- 
covery. It could not be expected that the Indian would 
see his trees cut down and game destroyed, and the clear 
rivers turned into muddy streams, without regret. That 
they refrained from seeking satisfaction for what they re- 
garded as intentional wrong is more surprising. 

A white woman told me one day of her spirit in driving 
an Indian from her tent, by getting out her husband's pistol 
and ordering him to "vamose." The Indian's story was 
heard in this particular case, and never having seen a white 
woman before he was astonished at her hostile intentions, 
and indignant at having been threatened when he intended 
no wrong. He added that he knew now " why so few* of 
the white men in California were married." 
. The Indians are philosophical by natui*e and accept either 
death or suffering, when regarded as inevitable, with com- 
posure. On one occasion, when talking with a chief, and 
slapping mosquitoes with considerable energy, killing them 
when I could, the Indian remained cool and serene, quietly 
brushing the little torments from his limbs, and observing 
my impatience, said, "what good comes of killing a few, 
the air is full of them." When the first steamboat passed 
the Indian villages I watched the Indians to see what effect 



it would produce, but to my disnppoiutment it did not excite 
them or elicit any expression of wonder. Even the steam 
whistle failed to move them ; they did not understand it and 
would not exhibit surprise* Two years later a brig sailed 
up the river and the Indians were full of excitement. The 
size of the sails and the strength of the ropes came within 
their comprehension, tilling them with wonder. The task of 
gathering fibre enough to weave so much cloth, and such 
ropes, made the white man a wonderful worker in their 

It has been customary to attribute certain general qualities 
to whole tribes of Indians, and this has been done to those 
of whom I have written. I can only say that no two In- 
dians of my acquaintance were alike, and their mode of life 
would naturally develop individuality of character. 

The charges of lying and stealing, as urged against them, 
have some foundation in fact, although the Indian might 
make some such defence as our soldiers made to the accu- 
sation of theft of honey and chickens while marching 
through the South during our late war. They did not steal, 
they took what they wanted and expected to live on the enemy. 
No Indian can steal from his tribe, however, without los- 
ing his character, and their desire to have position in the 
tribe makes both men and women as careful of their reputa- 
tions as those in civilized life. Indians and white men can- 
not* live side by side happily, nor without fighting till the 
white man is acknowledged master. The Indian is cat-like, 
attached to localities, and kills only such game as he needs 
for food ; he is stealthy by nature, and patiently waits his 
opportunity to strike. The white man is migratory and 
carries his attachments to strange lands, making his home 
where his ambition or nature attracts him, and is destructive 
alike to game or forests. The Indian, if he become an ob- 
stacle, is classed with wild animals, and is hunted to the 
death; this antagonism becomes mutual and is perhaps as 
natural as the antipathies of cats and dogs. 


The early settlement of New England was attended by 
the horrors of Indian warfare, and this struggle is the same 
to-day as then, but farther west on the plains of Colorado 
and Arizona. The Indians of California are now fed oii gov- 
ernment rations, and instead of elk and antelope the land is 
grazed by herds and flocks of domestic animals owned by 
the white men, and enumerated and taxed as one of the 
largest items of wealth in a rich state. The present policy 
of the government of removing Indians from disputed lands, 
and settling them upon reservations, is perhaps the best 
thing that can be done, but much of the maiiagement of 
Indians in the past has been a shameful record of fraud, by 
the agents of our government who represented the public 
money-bag, and of outrages committed on •emigrants by the 

Many of the Indian agents, in their greed for gain, sn}> 
plied hostile tribes with rifles, ammunition and whiskey 
in exchange for furs and even property captured from the 
white settlers. Whisky that may only make a fool of the 
white man converts an Indian into a fiend, and when drunk 
he may kill friend or foe. The individual settler, exposetl 
to attack, regards the Indians as brutal a<nd dangerous, and 
loses faith in his government if it rewards with presents the 
wretch who has murdered his companions, and may at any 
time attack him by surprise and butcher his wife and children. 

Our government is now powerful enough to warrant the 
exercise of authority and mercy. It is folly to purchase 
peace of such a people by paying them tribute, as the In- 
dians themselves seek to propitiate evil spirits by gifts of 
beads; and it cannot be right to make ^* Black "Kettle^ a 
present of a Colt's revolver, after he has already used his 
rifle and knife on more white victims than any brave of bis 

The Indians whom I have particularly described in this pa- 
per, have been shown to possess the virtues of generosity and 
hospitality without the least knowledge of Christianity, and 


it is a mortifying fact that the early explorers in this country 
generally found welcome and hospitality among the Indians 
before the white traders had corrupted them. Now it is dif- 
ficult to find a tribe that a white man cares to visit unless 
with the balance of power on his side. Indian cunning even 
has not proved equal to the duplicity of the white man. You 
may have heard of the Indian who offered his beaver skins 
for sale to a trader in olden times in one of our Puritan vil- 
lages, when the trader was on his way to church. The trader 
would not purchase then, but in a whisper stated a price. 
When the church was dismissed the Indian followed the 
trader. home and demanded payment for his skins, but was 
forced to accept a less price than was first named. The 
Indian took the money but told an acquaintance that he had 
discovered the use of the big meeting at the church, — ''it 
was to lower the price of beaver skins." 

As a white man I take the side of the pioneer in defence 
of his family, but I wish the Indians could have been spared 
much of the degradation brought upon them by bad white 
men that must eventually end in complete subjection, or 

NoTB. All the flgnres not otherwise designated, are drawn from memorj. — Eds. 




We must ask the reader to go with us into the remote 
past ; back beyond the time when man invaded the primitive 
forests and disturbed the abundant life which covered the 
prairies around the great inland seas of our continent ; still 
farther back until we come to a time when very different 
animals from those now living there, roamed those woods 
and fields. We thus come to a time remote when measured 



by the usual standards of duration, yet only a geological 
yesterday. Once such journeys as we propose making were 
very difficult, and attended with dangers to soul, if not to 
body, which might well make any but the stout heai*ted in- 
vestigator hesitate. But now that the wall, which once di- 
vided the preadamic time from the present, has been so 
frequently breached and trodden over by those bound on 
expeditions into an even more remote past than that to 
which we seek to penetrate, we may set out on our journey 
without fear of meeting with a reception, on our return, 
which might make us wish that we had stayed among the 
monsters of that ancient time. 

We will not strain the imagination of the reader by asking 
him to conjure up a picture of land and sea unlike that given 
by our present continents and oceans. He need not flatten 
out mountain chains, or dry up river systems, in order to 
represent to himself a true picture of the theatre which bore 
the actors of the scenes we are about to describe. Our good 
old continent was much the same then as now. All the 
changes which have taken place would fall within the limits 
of error of the maps of the past few decades. The unceas- 
ing agents of change operating through water, have done 
much work; but a little longer delta to the Mississippi, a 
somewhat greater projection of Florida to the southward, 
a lessened area of the great lakes of the north-west, are 
about all the more impoi*tant changes which have been ac- 
complished since the time of which we speak. 

In order to come in contact with living elephants and 
mastodons, we need not go so far into the history of our 
continent as to traverse the glacial period. Long after the 
time when this great ice envelope shrouded the northern half 
of this continent, the great pachyderms continued to form 
the most important feature in the life of our continent. If 
we wish to go back to the time when these great animals 
first came into our fields and forests we must ascend much 
farther into the past, beyond two or more glacial periods. 


with the long intervals of repose between them. During the 
middle and later tertiary periods elephantine life had its 
highest development ; a half a dozen or more species lived 
then on the surface of the European continent, and only a 
portion of the then existing forms may be known to us. 
The importance of the elephant life of this time may be 
better estimated by comparing the number of large mammals 
belonging to any one family now existing in the same area. 
Only three or four s[>ecies of the family of cervid®, to which 
the common deer belongs, have existed in Europe since the 
glacial period. Among the bulls not more than two species 
are known to have lived during the same time. Nor among 
the large earuivora, the bears or wolves, have the species 
been more numerous. We must seek among the smaller of the 
existing mammals, among the squirrels or mice, for the same 
richness in specific representation as we find among the ele- 
phants of the tcFtiaries. The variety in size and form seems 
to have been very great; the smallest species was not over 
thi-ee or four feet high, while the largest stood as high as 
any of onr living elephants, towering to the height of ten or 
twelve feet. We know too little of the geology of the other 
continents of the oM world to say whether this exceeding 
richness in large elephants at this stage of the earth's history 
was also found there. We know^ however, that India, 
where one of the two remaining species of elephants lives, 
was thronged with these animals at this time, and although 
Africa was probably then separated from the other continents 
with which it is now closely united by seas of considerable 
width, it, too, probably bore an abundance of the same life. 
We do not know the character of the life of the middle ter- 
tiary time in North America with anything like the accuracy 
that we do that of Europe during the same time. The in- 
vestigations which are to enable us to form a clearly defined 
picture of the life of that time, on our own continent, are yet 
to be made. It seems likely, however, that during the time 
when elephants were so remarkable a feature in the life 


of the old world, the new world was inhabited by quite dif- 
ferent forms of pachyderms. The beds of the Mauvaises 
Terres, and neighboring country so astoundingly rich in ani- 
mal remains, have supplied us with more species of fossil 
horses than are known from all the rest of the beds of that 
period. Altogether the middle and later tertiurios of North 
America have supplied us with the remains of at least ten 
species of fossil horse-like animals; so that the compara- 
tively unexplored regions of North America have yielded 
more tertiary horses than all of every age and formation 
which have been found in other re^fions. 

When we come down to dates nearer to our own time, and 
only separated therefrom by the last ice period, we find evi- 
dences that the European elephantine life still continued, 
though the species had changed, there being no longer so 
considerable a number of distinct forms as then existed. 
We are not yet quite certain whether the elephant remains 
of Siberia come down to us from a period anterior to the 
glacial epoch, or whether they wei*e stored away in that 
frozen soil during or since that time of extreme cold. All 
analogy with the remains found in other regions, lead us to 
conclude that these herds of elephants, whose remains are 
found in such abundance around the mouths of the crrcat 
rivers of northern Asia which empty into the Arctic Ocean, 
are contemporaneous with those of the closely allied, if not 
identical, species found in the peat swamps and morasses of 
North America. The number of these fossil elephants which 
are to be found in northern Asia is as remarkable as the 
condition in which they have been preserved. The ivory 
which they have left strewn over this region has been for 
centuries an important article of commerce, a large portion 
of the Chinese supply being probably derived from this 
source. There can be no doubt that the elephant life of 
this region was once as abundant as that which now exists in 
the jungles of Ceylon, or the southern part of Africa. 

The peculiar circumstances under which many of the bod- 


ies of the Siberian elephants have been preserved, enables us 
to form an idea of the external form and habits of the crea- 
ture far more satisfactory in its character than that which 
tve have of any other extinct animal, except a. few which 
have been exterminated by the hand of man. 

Generally the geologist is compelled to effect the restora- 
tion or rebuilding of the form of the extinct animal from 
fragments of a skeleton, the gaps of which he must fill by 
iuferencc, and this conjectural framework is afterwards to be 
thrown into a more or less imaginary outline of soft, envel- 
oping parts. He is only too thankful if he finds that decay 
has left him a tolerably fair basis which he may build his 
labor upon. But in the case of many of the Siberian ele- 
phants the preservation is perfect; not only the skeleton, 
but the whole mass of the soft parts ; the external envelope 
of skin, with its protecting covering of hair ; even the deli- 
cate and perishable structures of the eye, an organ which so 
quickly perishes when decay begins to work, are all in an 
unchanged condition, ^or is the ^preservation that of form 
alone ; the chemical condition of the body is unchanged, it is 
still flesh and blood ; its imprisonment in the ice of the 
frozen soil of the Lena delta for an hundred thousand years, 
more or less, has not perceptibly changed its constitution ; 
animals feed greedily on this flesh which has endured twenty 
times as long as the historical record. The dogs and wolves 
gather from afar to the feast whenever one of these bodies 
is uncovered, and there seems no good reason why those 
abnormal appetites of Paris, which find a new titillation of 
the palate in every monstrosity of diet, should not get a 
sweeter morsel from these preadamic elephants than they 
have obtained from their choice pieces of the knackers yard. 
Fortune certainly awaits the next rival of the hois irei^es 
Provenceaux, if he will bid for it with elephant steaks from 
Siberia. The many ingenious inventors, who seek to find a 
means of preserving substances liable to perish by decay, 
who are constantly endeavoring to solve the problem of how 


to bring the surplus food of South America to the hungry 
mouths of Europe, may take a profitable lesson from these 
Lena elephants. Freeze the object to be preserved from 
decay in a block of ice ; retain this in a frozen state and the 
entrance of the dreaded agents of change is at once barred. 
The conditions of permanent preservation are obtained ; air 
is excluded ; that which is within the substance is locked 
with the water and can act no farther. These are the simple 
conditions which have kept the Lena elephants unchanged, 
while the very vegetation which supported them has been 
swept away ; and by observing these conditions we might 
have preserved the body of Csesar himself unchanged to the 
present day. Who knows but that following the simple 
method here indicated, the forms of the illustrious dead may 
yet be preserved from generation to generation, giving a 
tangible chain to connect the too forgetful present with the 
past. What could so preserve the memory of a time as one 
of its chief actors sleeping before our eyes cased in crystal 
ice? Would not the world be richer if we could have 
before us the eartlily habitations of a Dante, a Shakspeare, 
or an Humboldt, as they were left by their immortal selves ? 
He who entered the cold depositaries of such precious relics 
could not come forth without feeling that he was closer 
wedded to a distant past than ever before. The author does 
not feel free to advise this Siberian treatment of our ances- 
tors, as he is not sure but death should be followed by decay ; 
but to those who think that the closer our relation to the 
past the better fitted we are for the work of the present, it 
must commend itself. 

But to return to our elephants. The peculiar interest 
which is attached to the discovery of the well preserved re- 
mains of the only one of these animals which has come under 
the eye of a naturalist, warrants the transcription of the 
whole statement of the circumstances of its discovery. 

This important discovery was made by the Chief Schuma- 
choff, of the wandering tribe of Tunguzes, near the mouth 



of the river Lena. The following account is translated and 
condensed from the description published in the **Memoir8 
of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences." • 

"In 1799 he built a cabin for his wife on the borders of the Lake 
OdcouI, and then went to search on the shore of the northern sea, hoping 
to find some elephants tusks. One day he perceived in the midst of the 
ice cliffs a shapeless mass, which did not look like the heaps of drift wood 
which are often found there. In order to examine It more nearly, he 
came ashore and observed the object on all sides, but could not recognize 
what it was. 

The following year he discovered at this point a sea cow, and saw at 
the same time that the mass which he had seen before was farther sepa- 
rated flrom the ice, and showed two long projections, but he could not yet 
determine what it was. Towards the close of the following summer the 
whole side of the animal and one of the tusks projected beyond the ice 
wall of the cliff. On his return to the shores of Lake Oncoul he commu- 
nicated the result of this discovery to his wife and to some of his friends ; 
but their way of looking at the matter gave him much distress. The old 
men told him that they had heard their fathers say that once before a 
similar monster had shown itself on the same peninsula, and that the dis- 
coverer and all his family perished soon afterwards. The mammoth was 
consequently looked upon as an augury of a dire calamity, and the Chief 
was so much affected that he fell very 111; but at last, being a little con- 
valescent, his first idea was of the profits he might gain by selling the 
tusks, which were of extraordinary beauty and size. He gave orders to 
have the locality careftiUy concealed, and all strangers turned away on 
some pretext, charging at the same time some of his people to watch 
carefully that no one should steal his treasure. 

But the summer was less warm than the preceding, and the mammoth 
remained buried In the ice which scarcely melted at all. At last, towards 
the close of the filth year, the ardent desires of Schumachoff were happily 
accomplished. Por that part of the ice which was between the ground 
and the mammoth having melted more rapidly than the rest, the surface 
became sloping, and this enormous mass, pushed by its own weight, slid 
down and sorted on a bank of sand upon the shore. 

In the month of March, Schumachoff came to his mammoth, and having 
cut off his tusks sold them to a merchant for goods worth fifty roubles. 

Two years afterwards, consequently soon after the discovery of the 
mammoth, and fortunately in travelling through this country I was able 
to establish these facts which one would have believed so improbable. I* 
found the mammoth still In the same place, but entirely mutilated. The 
Jacutes of the neighborhood had cut up the fiesh and fed it to their dogs 
during a period of scarcity, and the wild animals, white bears, wolves, 

*I>e Skeieto Mamonteo Siberico ad maris glaciales littora aono 1797 efosso, Anctore 
Tilesio. Hem. Acad. Imp., St. Petcrsbnrg. Tomo v. 


gluttons and foxes had picked the bones. The skeleton, almost entirely 
stripped of the flesh, was still entire with the exception of one forefoot. 
The spine Arom the head to the coccyx, a shoulder blade, the pelvis and 
the remains of the three extremities were still attached by cartilage. The 
head was covered with a dry skin. One of the ears was very well pre- 
served, and furnished with a tuft of hair. All these parts have naturally 
suffered by transportation for a distance of eleven thousand werst. Still 
the eyes have been preserved, and In the left the ball is still visible. The 
brain remained in the skull, but seemed somewhat dried. The parts the 
least injured are one front and one hind foot; they were covered with 
hair, and had still the soles. According to the assertion of the Chief the 
creature was so tut that the belly hung down to below the knees. T?i€ 
neck bore a long mane. The skin, of which I collected about three-quarters, 
is of a dark gray color, covered with wool and black hair. 

The escarpment Arom which the mammoth had slid had a height of Arom 
two hundred to two hundred and fifty feet, and is composed of clear, 
pure ice. It slopes towards the sea and its summit is covered with a 
coating of moss and triable earth about eight inches thick. During the 
heat of summer a part of the crust melts, but the rest remains firozen. 
Curiosity caused me to climb two other hills somewhat away firom the 
shore. They were composed of ice also, and less covered with moss. 
At various points one saw fragments of wood of great size, and many 
tusks of mammoths imbedded in the ice precipices." 

The peculiarities of the geographical distribution of or- 
ganic life makes us associate certain animals and plants with 
certain features of climate. So that the inference was natu- 
rally made that the remains of elephants and rhinoceroses 
indicated a climate of a tropical character in the region 
where they are found at a time when these extinct species 
were living. That this is entirely fallacious is sufficiently 
proven by the fact that our Lena elephant is fitted to resist 
just such a temperature as now prevails in the regions where 
his remains are found. The hairy envelop afforded a non- 
conductor such as does not exist on the skin of any living 
animal outside of the Arctic circle. In place of the imper- 
fect hairy covering of hairy pachyderms, or the bare skin of 
his living congeners, this elephant was provided with three 
distinct suits of hair and wool, the longest bristle-like hairs 
having various lengths up to a foot and a half, and serving the 
ruder purposes of defence ; the next and shorter coat was a 
close set, tolerably fine hair, three or four inches long ; within 


this, in itself a cousidemble protection against the weather, 
lay a coating of wool, fitting the intervals between the other 
hairs, and enabling the animal to withstand the greatest rigor 
of the olimate, which now prevails in this part of Asia. Acute 
observation has supplied us with another evidence of the 
fitness of this elephant to live in the ordinary conditions of 
high latitudes. In the tooth of the specimen, before de- 
scribed, was found a morsel of wood, the remains of the last 
meal made by the creature ; the microscope of the botanist 
showed this fragment to belong to a coniferous tree, so that 
the stunted furs of the high north might have supplied food 
for herds of these mammoths. It is not, however, quite cer- 
t'lin that these animals ever came down to the borders of the 
northern sea, though, as we have seen, they were fitted for 
such a climate as now prevails there ; so far as we know 
the remains which are found around the mouths of the 
great rivers of Siberia are always in a position, which 
seems to indicate that they have been swept into their places 
by the river, and may thus have come from any point on 
its course. The fact that spring overtakes the stream at its 
headwaters, filling its channel with the floods of the annual 
melting, while the region near the estuary may be still fro- 
zen solid, renders these Siberian rivers, as all other streams 
which flow towards higher latitudes, peculiarly liable to de- 
structive overflows. Overtaken by these inundations these 
clumsy inhabitants of this region were swept down towards 
the sea and stranded on the perpetually frozen soil of the 
shore ; here buried in the mud and ice they soon became 
frozen, and each successive inundation thickened the sheet 
of ice and frozen soil which sealed them from decay. Noth- 
ing but a change of climate or an altemtion in the course of 
the stream in such fashion as to disinter the remains can 
ever disclose the innumerable bodies of these ancient mon- 
sters which lie stark and stift* along the waters of that frozen 
sea. When the frequent disinterment of these valuable fos- 
sils, by the falling of the frozen clifis of the rivers of Siberia, 


are more closely watched, we will doubtless obtain similarly 
preserved bodies of the other large mammals which were 
contemporaneous with these elephants. It would be contrary 
to all analogy to find that these great pachyderms held these 
vast steppes of Siberia unassociated with other large mam- 
mals. We may re:isonably expect to find a whole fauna of 
creatures fitted to the rude conditions to which we have seen 
this elephant is adapted. 

Unfortunately we know too little concerning the fossils of 
the extreme northern part of North America to be able to 
say whether the Siberian elephants were peculiar to the Asi- 
atic border of the Arctic Ocean, or extended over the norths 
em part of this continent. All analogy in the distribution 
of life around that sea, at the present day, would lead us to 
expect that the same, or allied species, ranged all along our 
northern shore. The Mackenzie River being subject to just 
such a peculiar overflow as has embedded the elephauts of 
Siberia in ice, we can hope that when its shores are better 
known there will be similar fossils found there. There 
seems to have been an obscure tradition among some portions 
of the Indians of eastern North America, that on the unex- 
plored and distant recesses north of Lake Ontario and the 
St. Lawrence, there dwelt some great mammals which had a 
size like that of the elephant. With the early voyjigcrs this 
was accepted as proof that the manunotli still lived in the 
western part of Labrador; and on some of the first maps 
this territory was laid down as the habitation of these sur- 
viving members of the giant race whose bones strewed the 
surface of so large a portion of the continent. It is to be 
expected that the Indians, who must from time to time have 
encountered skeletons of the mastodon and elephant where 
they had been unearthed by the changes of river courses, or 
brought to light in their efibits to free the obstructed course 
of large springs, such as those at Saratoga or Big Bone Lick, 
would have believed the species still living, and have assigned 
it a home in some distant region. A savage conceives with 


difficulty the extinction of any species of large animal, but if 
it fails to cross bis patb is disposed to assign it a home in the 
region least known to him. 

So far as is known to the author no remains, either of 
elephants or mastodons, have been found north of the parallel 
of forty-eight degrees east of the Rocky Mountains. South 
of this line the remains are found in tolerable abundance 
over the whole surface of the eastern United States as 
far south as middle Alabama. We have not sufficient evi- 
dence of the distribution of the remains of these animals to 
determine just what range they had. New England has 
given us the fewest remains, only rare traces of the presence 
of this species having been found. In the valley of the 
Hudson they are tolerably abundant. In New Jersey, where 
the conditions favorable for their preservation are frequently 
found, some of the most perfect skeletons have been disin- 
terred. All over the middle states we come across traces of 
this species ; and in the West, they are themost abundant of 
mammal remains. On the Pacific coast, the fossil elephants 
were as numerous as in the Mississippi Valley ; on this side 
of the continent they seem to have a greater northern range. 
The explorations of Mr. Dall revealed the existence of these 
remains as far north as Alaska ; so that on the west coast 
at least, we have the remains of American elephants as far 
north as those of Siberia. The existence of tliese remains 
in Alaska makes it exceedingly probable that we shall find 
the similar fossils throughout British America, and that our 
mammoth is specifically identical with that of Asia. It is re- 
markable that the buffalo, which once ranged far east, and 
covered the whole of the plain region of the Ohio basin with 
innumerable herds, has not left as many traces of his pres- 
ence as the elephants. The remains of the mastodon seem 
even more plentiful than those of the red deer. Something 
must, no doubt, be attributed to the greater size and solidity 
of the bones of these pachyderms over those of bison and 
deer. Still the remarkable abundance of the elephant re- 


mains is indubitable proof, not so much perhaps of the abun- 
dance of the individuals at any one time, as of the long con- 
tinuance of the species on the soil. The buffalo was a 
temporary race on the Ohio Valley ; he had probably been 
here only a few thousand years at most, possibly but a few 
hundreds, when the coming of the white man drove him 
beyond the Mississippi. He was not there at the time of 
the mound builders. His bones are not found among their 
remains. His striking form is not copied in their pottery, 
as are those of all other remarkable mammals of the 
valley. Nor do we find him delineated in the great figure 
mounds of the north-west; although if he existed in the 
regioA at the time when these people made these earthern 
monuments, he would have been sure of a prominent place 
among them. The elephants and mastodons, on the other 
hand, had a life which may possibly be reckoned by hundreds 
of thousands of years. A species was probably here before 
the glacial period ; and since that time up to about the com- 
ing of man, possibly after his advent on the continent, they 
were continually present. The consequence is that their re- 
mains are found in about every spot where the conditions 
of their preservation exist. Almost any swampy bit of 
ground in Ohio or Kentucky where these huge creatures 
would have gotten mired in their elTorts to get to water in 
dry seasons, or where the too yielding mud could have swal- 
lowed them up when they endeavored to cool themselves by 
wallowing in the mire, as is the habit of all elephants, con- 
tains more or less evidence of the presence of these animals. 
Sometimes a single tooth or tusk onlj- has survived decay ; at 
other times many skeletons are packed together in the bog. 
The numerous salt springs of the West, commonly called 
licks, are peculiarly rich in these remains. Like many 
other mammals these elephants were in the habit of seeking 
once a year, or oftener, some place where they could supply 
the hunger for salt. The saline waters, such as pour from 
Big Bone Lick, the upper and lower Blue Licks of Kentucky, 


or other similar localities in the West, supplied this need, and 
here came, on an annual pilgrimage, all the large animals of 
the country. When this region was first occupied by the 
whites the bones of elephants and mastodons were found in 
abundance upon the surface, or buried beneath a thin covering 
of mould around the various springs of the first of these 
localities. For nearly half a century they supplied every 
strolling curiosity hunter with relics, besides furnishing the 
remarkably perfect specimen in the British Museum, as well 
as half a dozen less complete skeletons. There remain to 
this day traces of the ancient paths on which at the time the 
country was settled the deer and bufifalo thronged to their 
favorite watering place. These traces, broader than A wide 
bridle path and worn to the depth of several feet, were fifty 
years ago the natural roads, leading from great distances, 
dowu to the springs. The buffalo evidently fell into the 
paths made by their predecessors, the elephants ; for along 
the courses of these paths the mammoth remains seem most 
abundant. Although some of the remains of the Elephas 
primigenius give evidences of extreme antiquity, others 
seem comparatively very recent. The author has a tooth bf 
this species which came from the uppermost terrace of the 
alluvial plain opposite Cincinnati, at a point over sixty feet 
from the surface. This tooth could not have been placed in 
its position less than fifty thousand years ago. Since the 
deposition of the beds where it lay the Ohio has deepened 
its rock channel over fifty feet, and shrunk to the mere 
shadow of the mighty stream which flowed through its valley 
when it bore the melting ice of the drift period. On the 
other hand some of the remains of the same species, such 
as those which lie upon the surface at Big Bone Lick, are so 
well preserved tis to seem not much more ancient than the 
buffalo bones which are found above them. There is a great 
difliculty in determining the relative antiquity of the two 
elephants which have existed in the United States since the 
glacial period. The JElephaa primigeniua (if the species 


be identical with the European representatives) seems on the 
whole to be more ancient than the Mastodon Ohioticus. It 
was beyond all question in existence when the upper terraces 
of our river bottoms were being formed, which must have 
been just as the ice sheet was passing away from the Alle- 
ghanies and was flooding our Western streams with its waters. 
This mastodon on the other hand seems never to be found 
under circumstances which indicate such great antiquity ; it 
seems to have come in after the details of the river courses 
were about complete and all the terraces formed. There can 
be no doubt, however, that these two giants were associated 
during the latter part of their history. Although it is quite 
unusual for two allied animals of very great size to exist to- 
gether in the same field, there is no reason why the Western 
world could not have been broad enough for both. There is 
sufficient difference in the structural features of these two 
races to warrant the supposition that they must have been 
characterized by considerable difference of habit and instinct 
such as would lead them to choose dififerent fields of activity. 
It seems not unlikely, though the evidence is hardly suffi- 
cient to support the assertion, that the mastodon was most 
given to wandering in the swamps, while the elephant ranged 
on higher grounds. 

The Elephas primigeniua^ or mammoth, was consider- 
ably taller than the Indian elephants of to-day, though not 
much exceeding them in length. The most striking dif- 
ferences of form were to be foimd about the head, which 
was considerably higher and more pointed than that of 
the Indian elephant, and provided with tusks, which in- 
stead of projecting downward and forward, curved quite 
abruptly outward and backward. The size of these tusks 
far exceeds those of any living elephant the author has 
measured; tusks of our North American mammoths have 
been found having a length on the outside of the curve 
of over ten feet, yet wanting both tips and bases. The 
perfect tusk must have been over eleven feet long. In 



addition to the greater length of the tusks the mammoth was 
distinguished from the elephants of to-day by the long hair 
which hung in a coarse mane from the neck and along the 
belly, nearly dragging on the ground. This shaggy envelope 
of hair must have added greatly to the apparent size and 
formidable appearance of this giant. 

We know less about the appearance of the mastodon than 
the elephant proper. Their proportions were evidently not 
more widely different than those of our domesticated bull and 
the bujlalo. The mastodons were probably never over eleven 
feet high. They had straight tusks, as have our modern 
elephants, their grinding teeth, which exhibit the most char- 
acteristic differences, separating them from their larger rela- 
tives, were fitted for the grinding of rougher food. From 
the extreme frequency of the occurrence of the remains of 
the mastodon in the swamps of the West, it seems likely that 
this form of elephant was peculiarly suited to exist in such 

There can be no doubt that a few thousand years ago these 
companion giants roamed through the forests and along 
the streams of the Mississippi Valley. They fed upon a veg- 
etation not materially different from that now existing there. 
Replace them in the primeval forests of that region and 
their wants would be as well supplied as when they were 
lords of the domain. The fragments of wood which one 
finds beneath their bones seem to be of the common species 
of existing trees ; even the reeds and other swamp plants 
which are imbedded with their remains are apparently the 
same as those which now spring in the soil. The naturalist, 
accustomed as he is to behold the mysterious changes of life, 
where races sink at once into a common grave, and the face 
of earth prepared for other actors in the great tragedy of 
existence, cannot but feel more keenly than before the tem- 
porary character of all life when he opens to the light of 
day the resting place of one of those species of gigantic ani- 
mals. What could have been the nature of these agents 


which at one stroke drove from the face of earth two of the 
most powerful races of its inhabitants, sweeping with them 
many smaller forms, such as the extinct deer and bulls which 
we find buried with them. The unchanged geography of the 
country assures us that no great convulsion of nature 
brought it about. The similarity of the vegetation of the 
elephant period, with that now growing on the same soil, 
shows pretty conclusively that it was not due to great geo- 
graphical changes of other regions reacting on the climate 
of the region they inhabited. It is not meant to assert that 
no changes of climate have taken place ; on the contrary, 
such changes have most likely come about ; but they have 
hardly been sufficient to extinguish animals so well adapted as 
the Elephas primigenitis undoubtedly was to brave climatic 
irregularities.* There seems but one other way to explain 
the extirpation of these races and that is through the action 
of man. There is no longer any doubt that our ancestors 
of the stone age, on the European continent, were ushered on 
to earth in the midst of the gigantic animals of the elephant 
period. It is now over thirty years since Schmerling of Liege 
presented the evidence of the contemporaneity of the remains 
of man with those of the cave bear and other extinct ani- 
mals. Step by step the evidence has accumulated, over- 
whelming the determined opposition of those who think that 
the truth they have is necessarily damaged by all new dis- 
coveries. It is impossible to present here the evidence 
which supports what may seem to many a too confident as- 
sertion ; its character is known to most readers. Bones of 
these extinct animals, split for marrow and worked for tools, 
are probably the most important part of the evidence. But 
the most unquestionable bit of proof is that which is fur- 
nished by a fragment of a tusk of an elephant in the collec- 

* So fkr ih>m a change ft*oin warmtti to cold having been the cause of the extinction 
of the fossil elephants which have recently disappeared ft-om the Mississippi Valley, 
all the eridence would warrant the eonclasion that if change of climate was the agent 
at all, it likely acted by an alteration flrom cold to warmth, giving a climate too hot for 
a ereafenre probably clothed as we know the Lena elephant to have been. 


tion of M. Lartet, of Paris. Some artistic spirit of the 
stone a,ge has commemoi'ated an incident of the chase by 
graving upon this fragment a rude, but spirited representa- 
tion of the animal to whom the tusk belonged. The form 
is very characteristic ; the shape of head, such as the species 
is known to have had, diiSTering considerably from that of the 
African elephant, is clearly shown. But one feature alone is 
sufficient to show that the savage meant to represent a mem- 
ber of the race to which the Lena elephant belonged ; it is 
the long, shaggy hair, falling like a mane from the shoulders 
and neck and fringing the belly ; this is clearly indicated in 
the engraving. But for the preservation of the Siberian 
elephants in ice we would have failed to perceive the meaning 
of this feature in the drawing ; as it is it leaves no doubt 
that he who drew it had an Eleplias primigenius in bis 
mind's eye. 

It was probably for the best that man should have come 
upon earth while these giants still lived. They were his 
teachers' in the first arts of craft and courage. Having to 
dispute the possession of his primitive home, the caverns, 
with the gigantic cave bear, and the mastery of the forests 
with the formidable elephants, he was compelled to contrive 
weapons and use them with well concerted bravery. The 
magnitude of the dangers which surrounded him compelled 
him to associate himself with his fellow men, and his tri- 
umphs in struggles, where skill and valor prevailed against 
animal strength, gave him the first rude education of the 

If we must seek a reason for the death of the elephants in 
external influences we may well find it in the coming of man, 
though it would be quite as reasonable to suppose that their 
race already, as we have seen very ancient, passed away 
because it had lived its time and done its appointed work. 
We have no such evidence of the contact of man with this 
ancient race of giants on the continent of North America as 
European discoveries have afiTorded. No one who has ex- 


amined the conditions of entombment of the extinct peoples 
of the Western states, the preservations of their remains, 
and the changes which have taken place since their deposi- 
tion, can believe that the disappearance of the elephants, and 
the coming of the North American man were separated by 
any great length of time. When the fields of the West, rich 
in the remains of these ancient animals and ancient men, are 
studied as they will be by the rising generation of investi- 
gators of that region, the precise relation will be easily 
established. It is not likely that it will be found that the 
highly organized mouiul building nations were instrumental 
in driving the extinct elephants from the soil of North 
America. Had they come in contact with these large crea- 
tures we should have had some representation of them in 
their pottery sculpture, where we find figures of all the com- 
mon large mammals of the West, except as before remarked, 
the bison, as well as other forms like the manatee which 
could not have been personally known to the inhabitants of 
the Ohio Valley. It is more likely to have been some rude 
dweller in caves of the stone age who slew the last mammoth 
of America. 

The history of the changes in the elephant life, a little 
while ago so abundant, on three at. least of the five conti- 
nents, is not unlike what we find among other types of ani- 
mals and plants which have passed the full meridian of their 
existence and are hastening to their setting. While the type 
is in its full vigor it spreads its diversified species far and 
wide over northern as well as southern lauds ; when it begins 
to wane the northern species fall first in the struggle, and 
the last remnants of the type are found beneath the torrid 
sun where easier conditions permit them to protract a senile 
life. Among the plants the palm and tree ferns ; among the 
animals the large reptiles like the crocodiles and alligators, 
the rhinoceros, the hippotamus, the tapirs, the monkeys, and 
many other types find in the tropical forests the conditions 
of existence which the ruder climes of the north long since 


denied them. Our speculative friend asks, **may it not be 
that man, driven from the uoilhem lauds by the coming of 
his higher successor ou the stage of life, is to finally end his 
race on earth within the recesses of the gloomy forests of 
Brazil or Borneo?" 


BY W. O. BIN17ET. 


Most of the readers of the Naturalist, who teside in the 
cities of. our Atlantic coast, are aware that the cellars of their 
houses are infested with slugs and snails. They have seen 
or heard of the glistening tracks made by their slime, and 
have heard dreadful stories of the ugly creatures who left 
them when escaping from their nocturnal depredations. But 
as few of our readers have met them face to face, we pro- 
pose giving a short description of each with a portrait of 
sufficient accuracy to enable any one to identify the separate 

A word first about their characters and habits. They all 
belong to the great division of mollusks which are called 
Pulmonaia^ from the fact of their breathing with lung-like 
vessels. Furthermore, they all belong to that group of Pul- 
monata which are called Gecphila^ or lovers of dry land*, 
from the fact of their habits being terrestrial in distinction 
from those which are adapted to living in fresh-water, or in 
the sea. These Geophila are distinguished in addition to 
their breathing with lung-like vessels by their having their 
eyes at the end of long, slender, cylindrical feelera. Thus 
far most authors agree, but in subdividing these Geophila 
into natural groups there is so little accord among naturalists 
that we do not carry our readers farther in classification. 
Suffice it to say that literally from head to tail almost every 


character has been seized to found families upon, and thus 
far the conchologiual world is bnt little the wiser for it. 

Our cellar molliisks are all nocturnal in their babite. They 
lie quietly stowed away in some crack or crevice of the walls 
during the day. At night they sally forth in 
pursuit of food and to enjoy the company of 
their kind. They feed on vegetable matter — 
refuse fi-om the kitchen, decaying vegetables '■■ 
or fruits — or on Indian meal, flour, or anything they are 
lucky enough to find. They even devour animal food, and 
in confinement have even been accused of cannabalism. 
When one comes to know how well adapted their mouth is 
to eating, it becomes a wonder that our mullusks leave suiy- 
thiug uneaten. For the rot>uth of each individual mollusk is 

HiUr row of iBeik at Limait fiatui. 

anned at its entrance with a sharp, stout, pointed process, 
called a jaw, fi»r want of a better term. This falls, purtcntiis- 
like, on the food of the animal, and cuts off pieces into his 
mouth. We give here a figure of the jaw of Limax flavus 
one of the species mentioned below (Fig, 42). Once in the 
month the food is taken hold of by a long, broad, ril>bon-]ike 
membrane, generally called a tongue. The Avhole surfaeeof 
this tongue is covered with sharp, tooth-like proccgses run- 
ning in transverse rows. These small, sharp teeth rasp 
quickly the food and carry it forw.nrds towards the stomach. 
Short work they must make of it, for the number of these 
tooth-like processes is very great, counting as high as eighty 
thousand in some species. We give here a figure of one- 
half of one transverse row of teeth on the tongue of the same 
species whose so-called jaw is already figured (Fig. 43). To 


understand the figure it must be borne in mind that the 
remaining half of this tmnsverse row is similar to the half 
figured, and that all the transverse rows are alike. Thus 
our figure gives as good an idea of the tongue as if the 
whole hundred rows of eighty-five teeth each were given. 
No wonder the possessors of all these teeth have a reputa- 
tion for voracity and that their presence is dreaded in 
kitchen gardens. 

Our cellar moUusks are active all the year round, owing 
to the milder and more equal climate of their abode. They 
do not hihernate like their brethren of this fields and woods. 
Their soft shell-less body gives them little protection from 
their enemies. Like all animals so defenceless they would 
soon l.ecome exterminated had Jthey not great powers of 
reproduction. They lay eggs several times during the year, 
and in such numbers that a couple of them will lay as 
many as six hundred in a year. These eggs are gelatinous, 
semitransparent and globular, sometimes attached together 
like a rosary. They are remarkably tenacious of vitality, 
so much so that they resist the greatest extremes of temper- 
ature. They have even been shrunk and dried in a furnace 
and kept for years in this state, yet still have developed their 
youuir upon being restored to moisture. The young animal 
emerges from the egg in about a month, and when two 
months old begins to reproduce its kind, though not itself 
arrived at more than half its greatest size. 

Only one species of our cellar mollusks is furnished with 
Mil, external well developed shell. The others are what are 
commonly ' nown as slugs. They have, however, under the 
skin of the forepart of their body, called the mantle, a rudi- 
mentary shell, either in grains of calcareous matter or in a 
regular calcareous plate. This plate was formerly supposed 
to have great medicinal properties, and has been said to be a 
sovereign remedy for almost all the ills that flesh is heir to. 

The whole surface of their body is constantly lubricated 
by a watery fluid. They also have the power of secreting a 


milk-like mucus at any part of their body which may require 
protection from auy foreigu substance. This secretion of 
mucus is their only meaus of defence against their enemies. 
It also is used us a thread like the spider's web to enable 
them to descend to the earth. 

All the species mentioned below are of foreign origin. 
They were imported from England. They are found only 
in close proximity to man around his habitation, either in 
cellars or gardens. Most of them were noticed pj^ ^ 
more thun half a century ago, as early as moUusks 
became to be studied in our country. They have 
also been imported into other colonies of England, 
and probably are destined to become the most 
cosmopolitan of mollusks. 

^ . . ShvlX of hyalina 

We will now describe the various species found <^««a'^«- 
in our cellars, commencing with the only one which bears a 
well developed external shell (Fig. 44). This is the Ilyalina 
cdlaria, a thin, horn colored, glistening, flattened shell of five 
whorls, and less than half an inch in diam- p. ^^ 

eter. The edge of the aperture is sharp, not 
reflected, or thickened by a border of testa- 
ceous matter. It is a common European shell AiaHTai of j^na 
of which a single specimen was first noticed 
by a gentleman in Philadelphia on a wharf near the foreign 
shipping. It was shown to Mr. Say, who described* it as a 
new species. Of late years it has not been seen in that 
city, but from Astoria, Long Island, to Halifax, it exists in 
almost every Atlantic port. It is found only in cellars and 
gardens. It used to be very common under the bricks of 
the inner edge of the sidewalk on the north side of Mount 
Vernon street, Boston, between Walnut street and Louisberg 

Liniax maximus is the largest of our cellar slugs (Fig. 45). 
It seems to be a more recent importation than the other spe- 
cies, having first been noticed in Philadelphia in 1867. It 
appeared almost simultaneously at Brooklyn, New York, and 



at Newport, R. I. The iudividual figui-ed was fouDd in a 
gaixleQ iu Pelham street of the last named city. Some iudi- 


viduuls placed in n gaHen in Burlington, New Jersey, were 
shortly after found iu an adjoining cellat. This species is 
readily distinguished by the rich brown or black stripes 
Pij_4B_ running lengthwise 

down its back, giv- 
ing it a leopurd-like 
appearance. It is 
about four inches 
Ltmax Jiavua, 
Ltmaifiavu$. whose tongue and 

jaw are figured above, grows about three inches lung (Fig. 
46). It is characterized by a brownish color, with oblong- 
oval ulicolored spots; body cylindrical, elongated, termin- 
ating in a short Fig. 11. 
prominent keel ; 
mantle oval, 
rouiuled at both ^ 
ends, with round- 
ed spots ; base of *'^'" ■'"'""■ 
foot sallow white. It has been noticed for mure than forty 
years in the cities of our Atlantic coast, mid probably has 
followed the white man over the whole country. 

Arion fuscua belongs to a different genus from the last 
mimed slugs (Fig. 47). It is readily diistinguished by its 



jaw which has no median beak-like projection to its cutting 
edge, but has rib-like processes on its anterior face, cren- 
ulatiug the margin. Its tongue differs also in the form of 
the teeth. In the forepart of its body, under the rounded 
shield-like process of the skin, there are calcareous grains 
instead of a well formed plate. And finally at its tail is a 
decided triangular perpendicular mucus pore. It grows 
about one inch long. The color is whitish, grayish or 
brownish ; upper surface marked with elongated crowded 
glands ; mantle oval, granulated ; tail obtuse, not carinated ; 
the sides marked with an obscure brownish line. It is of 
European origin and thus far has only been noticed in 
Boston and vicinity. It is not properly a cellar snail, but 
is found with the preceding species around kitchens and 


CHALCHiHurrLS. * — [Mr. Sqnier has in this commnnlcation to the Ly- 
ceam given a very important and interesting summary of what is known 
relating to the carved ** green stones " from Mexico and Central America, 
and as lie has kindly placed the original cuts of the article in oar hands, 
we make this review in the form of extracts ftom his commnnlcation. 
In a ftiture number we shall give figures of a few similar carved stones 
collected by Mr. McNlel in Nicaragua.] 

*' Among the articles of ornament used by the aboriginal inhabitants 
of Mexico and Central America, those worked from some variety of green 
stone resembling emerald, and called by the Nahuatl or Mexican name 
chalchiuUlf chalchihuith or chalchiuUe^ f were most highly esteemed, and 
are oftenest mentioned by the early explorers and chroniclers. The word 
chalckiuiU is defined by Molina, in his Vocahulario Mexicano (1571), to 
signify esmeralda haja, or an inferior kind of emerald. The precious em- 
erald, or emerald proper, was called quetzalitztli^ from the quetzal^ the 
bird known to science as the Trogon resplendens (the splendid plumes of 
which, of brilliant metallic green were worn by the kings of Mexico and 

* ObserrsUoiu on a CoUeetlon of OhalchllraltU from Mexico and Central Ameriea. By E. Q, 
Squler. From the Annals of the Lyoenm of Natural History of New York. 1869. 

1 1 bare followed the ortliography of the word throughout, as given by the varloos authors 

1 72 KBVIEWS. 

Central America rh ngeX Inslgatft), and iuli, Btoae; i.e. tUe stone of the 

SahaguD mcntioDB four of the Mexican gods who were the especial 
patrons of tlic lapidaries, and honored as the luveotors of the art *of 
working stones and ehaUMuUes, and of dillllng and polislilng tliem.' Ue 
does not, however, describe the process made nse of by the Indians in 
cutting precious stoues, 'because,' he i>ays, 'It Is so common and well nu- 
derstuud;' uu omisalon which his editor, Bustamente, regrets, 'since the 
art Is now entirely lost.' 

QueUalcoirtl, the lawgiver, high-priest, and Instnictor of the Mexicans 
in the arts. Is said to liave taught not only the working of metals, but 
j.|^ ^ 'particularly the art of cut- 

ting precious stoues, such ns 
chalchiuilea, which are green 
stones, much esteemed, and of 
great raluc' ( Torqurmioda, 
lib. vl., cap. xxlv.) Quetzol- 
coatl hlmseif, according to cer- 
tain traditions, was begotten 
by one of these stunes, wliich 
the goddess Ckimalma had 
placed in her bosom. Indeed, 
both among the Mexicans aud 
the nations forther tn the 
southward, the chalfhihuiU 
seems to have represented 
everything that was excellent 
in Its Itlnd. Us name was 
used in compounding desig- 
nations of distinction and 
honor, and was applied both 
to heroes and divinities. The 
goddess of WQter bore tho 
name of Chahkiuitlcmjf, the 
women of the chnlrbiuius; 

Jinn was otlen applied to the 
city of Tlaxcolla, from a beantimi fountain of water near It, the color 
of which, according to Torquemada. 'was between blue and preen." 
Coitez, according to the same anthoiHy, was often called ' ClialeMiiill, 
which Is the same as captain of great valor, because rhalchiiiUl Is the 
color of emerald, and thi; emeralds are held tn high estimation among 
the nations.' {Slonarrhia Indiana, vol. 1, p. «6.) When a great digni- 
tary died his corpse was richly decorated for bnrlul with gold and plumes 
of feathers, and ' they put In his mouth a flne stone rcsombUng emerald, 
which they call chnlchihuill, and which, they say, they place as a heart.' 
{lb., vol. ii. p. 621.) 



Sahagan, In one place describes the chalchihuitl as ' a jasper of very 
green color, or a common emerald.' Elsewhere he goes Into a very fUll 
description of the various kinds of green stones which the Mexicans held 
in esteem, and as his account may materially aid in identifying the chal- 
chihuitl f It Is subjoined entire : 

* The emerald which tlie Mexicans call quetzalitztli Is precious, of great 
value, and Is so called, because by the word quetzalli they mean to say a 

Fig. 49. 

very green plume, and by 
itztliy flint. It Is smooth, 
without spot; and these 
peculiarities belong to 
the good emerald ; name- 
ly. It Is deep green with 
a polished surface, with- 
out stain, transparent, 
and at the same time lus- 
trous. There is another 
kind of stone which is 
called quHzalchalchivitly 
so called because It Is 
very green and resem- 
bles the ehalchivitl ; tho 
best of these are of deep 
green, transparent, and 
without spot ; those 
which are of Inferior 
quality have veins and 
spots intermingled. The 
Mexicans work these 
stones Into various 
shapes; some are round 
and pierced, others long, 
cylindrical, and pierced ; 
others tiiangular, hexag- 
onal or square. There 
are still other stones 
called rhalchivitea, which 

are green (bat not trans- Chalohihultl, or engravrd precloui itone, from Ocosingo, 

. . . . , Central America. Fall size, 

parent), mixed with 

white; they are much used by the chiefs, who wear them fastened to 

their wrists by cords, as a sign of rank. The lower orders (maceguales) 

are not allowed to wear them. . . . There is yet another stone called 

tlilaiotiCj a kind of chalchuitey In color black and green mixed. . . . And 

among the jaspers is a variety in color white mixed with green, and for 

this reason called iztacchalchiuitl.* Another variety has veins of clear 

• iMtac slgnlllea white ; 1. e. tehiU chalchihuitl. 


green or blae, with other colors interspersed with the white. . . . And 
there is yet another kind of green stone which resembles the chdlchiuUies, 
and called zoxouhquUeqxitL* It is known to the lapidaries as teceliCj fcr 
the reason that it is very easy to work, and has spots of clear blue. The 
wrought and curions stones which the natives wear attached to their 
wrists, whether of crystal or other precious stones, they call chopilotl — 
a designation that is given to any stone curiously worked or very beauti- 
tuV {Bistoria de Nueva Espana, lib. xi., cap. vlli.) The same author, 
describing the ornaments which the Mexican lords used in their festivals, 
speaks of a * head-dress called quetzalalpitoai^ consisting of two tassels of 
rich plumes, set in gold, and worn suspended from the hair at the crown 
of the head, and hanging down on each side towards the shoulders. 
They also wear rings of gold around the arms and in their ears, and 
round their wrists a broad band of black leather, and suspended to this 
a large bead of chalchittitl or other precious stone. They also wear a 
chin ornament (barbote) of chalchiuitl set in gold, fixed in the beard. 
Some of these barbotes are large crystals, with blue feathers put in them, 
which give them the appearance of sapphires. There are many other 
varieties of precious stones which they use for barbotes. They have 
their lower liptf slit, and wear these ornaments in the openings, where 
they appear as if coming out of the flesh ; and they wear in the same 
way semilunes of gold. The noses of the great lords are also pierced, 
and in the openings they wear fine turquoises or other precious stones, 
one on each side. They wear strings of precious stones around their 
necks, sustaining a gold medal set round with pearls, and having in its 
centre a smooth precJous stone.' (/d., lib. vlii. cap. ix.) 

In these descriptions, it will be seen that the chalchihuiUs are spoken 
of as ornaments, round or oblong beads, which conforms with the repre- 
sentations in the paintings. But these or similar green stones were used 
for other purposes. The chronicler Villagutierre, in his account of the 
conquest of the Itzaes of Yucatan, speaks of idols in their temples 'of 
precious Jasper, green, red, and of other colors ;' and, in describing the 
great temple of Tayasal, mentions particularly an idol which was found 
in it, * a span long, of rough emerald (eameralda bruta), which the infidels 
called the god of Battles,' and which* the conquering general, Ursua, took 
as part of his share of the spoil. 

The Mexicans nevertheless had true emeralds, of which we have left to 
us the most glowing descriptions. Gomara describes particularly five 
large ones which Cortez took with him from Mexico to Spain at the time 
of his first visit, and which were regarded as among the finest in the world. 
They were valued at 100,000 ducats, and for one of them the Genoese 
merchants offered 40,000 ducats, with the view of selling it to the Grand 
Turk. Cortez had also the emerald vases, which the padre Mariana as- 
sures us, in the supplement of his History of Spain, were worth 300,000 

ducats. They are reported to have been lost at sea. All th^se emeralds 

* From xoximhqvit eota Mnfc, something green, and tecpaa^ stone; i. «. greoi stone. 

rig, w. 


were cat In Mexico by Indiaa lapldnrles ander tbe orders of Coitez, and 
were most elaborately worked. One was wroDgbt In tbe form of a little 
bell, with a fine pearl for a clapper, and bad on Its lip tbls inscription in 
Spauisli, Bendito quien te erid I Blessed he who made thee I The one 
valned most highly was In the shape of a cap, with a foot of gold. All 
of them were pres- 
ented by Cortei to his 
secood wife, who thus, 
says Gomnrn, became 
possessed orHiiCL jew- 
els tbnn any other 
woman in Spain. Re- 
markable as were 
these emernlds, Peter 
Martyr mentions one, 
of which Cortcz was 
robbed by tbe French 
pirates, that mnst have 
surpassed any of them 
Id size and valae. 

Coming down to 
later times, we And 
Professor P. Blake 
(Amer. Jour, of Scl. 
and Arts, March, 
1BS8), tn an interest- 
ing article on 'The 
Cbalcblhuitll of the 
Mexicans,' informing 
ns that the Navajo 
Indians In the north- 
ern and western por- 
tions of New Mexico 
wear small ornaments 
and trinkets of a hard, 
f^recn stone, which 
they call by the Mex- 
ican name, and which they regard as of great valae ; ' a string of frag- 
ments large enough for an ear-ring being worth as mnch as a mnle.' 
Mr. Blake, suspecting this stone to be turqnolse, and learning that it was 
yet procured in small quantity by tbe Indians among tbe mountalDS about 
twenty miles from Santa F&, visited tbe spot, where be foand an Im- 
mense pit excavated in grannlar porphyry, '200 feet In depth and 800 or 
more In width,' besides some smaller excavations. He obtained many 
fragments of the so-called tkahhlhu&U 'of npplefcreen and peagreen, 
passing lnt6 blnish-green, capable of a Bne polish, and of a hardness 

Bu«o-BeUero or (he god Cnenlou, tctim Fmlenqne. 


little less than that of feldspar.' The rragmentB foand were small, not 
exceeding three-qaartcrs of an Inch In length and one-quarter of an Inch 
In tbtckneBS, and the material 'appeared to have formed crusts npou the 
snrfaces of cavities or flsaurea In the rock, or to have extended through 
It In relDS.' 

Mr. Blake's description applies to the specimens exhibited to the Lv- 
ceam not long ago by Professor Nenberry, and there Is no doubt that the 
material was, or mther Is. a variety of the turquoise. Bnt I donbt If It 
be the true chalchlhuitt of the Mexicans and Central Americans. That 
they used the atone deacrlbed by Mr. Blake fbr certain purposes, I know; 
Fig. U. 

Cliilehlhalll from OooalDgo. Two-ttalrdi letnil ilie. 

fbr there exists la the museum of the late Mr. Henry Christy, In London, 
a hnman skuil completely encragted with a mosaic of precisely this stone, 
and a flint knife with Its handle elaborately Inlaid with It, in small frng- 
roents. Of the first of these relics I present a drawing made by Waldeck 
and publbhed by the French Oovemmeat. See Fto. 18.* 

The weight of evidence, In my opinion, goes to show that the atone 
properly called cAalehihuUl Is that which Molina defines to be ' baja etme- 
ralda,' or possibly nephrite, 'a Jasper of very green color,' as Sahagnn, 
already quoted, avers. I shoold therefore object, on strictly critical and 
historical grounds, to the Nuggestion of Mr. Blake, that the variety of 
tnrqnolse found by him should be ' known among mineralogists as rhal- 

But apart fl-om any speculations on the subject, I have to lay befbre the 
Lyceum a most Interesting series of green stones, unrivalled, in their 

*ID Mr. ChrliiT'i Mdkiiiii laalui wooden muk ctienmtcd In Uke mmnner, with tangnolK*, 
malichlte, inrl white ini rol thcLla. The predomlnint glone In ill ll tha InrqiiolH. The hark 
of the (knil In the ipKlmeD FngriTid I) nit lyi.y, aa » Co adnilE the rkoo In be hung hr lealh* 
em Oinnin (wbleh ttlll remilnl over tlw tint of an Idol, la wia the cuatom In Mrilco. The 
tnn*««whlicktiandalnIh<^<nitimornhaMlnnlnthe oriftnal. Tha ortballa an nodale* at 
Iron pjriilM, aul btnilaph*rloallr and bigblr poUahed. 


nay, In the world, whicli were found amoDg the rulna of Ocoslngo, In the 
(lepartmeut of Quesaltenango, Guateinalu, on the borders of Cblupas, aiiil 
not remote from the more famous but hurilly less Imposing mounmeuts 
or Palenqoe. I must not omit to soy that, in tomraou with similar stones, 
tliey were designated by tlie people of the region where they were found 
as chalchtchuilet. 

yio.W.— Tlie flnt and mosl 1nt*r»llng of Owe liprcelKiT (bur ImIim long by iwn and 
Ilirec-teiitUi liroiul. una about bilf no Inch In trcraiK Ihlckueu. Tliii Diet li sculplurcO iu low 
relief, wilh tlie flgun or k dlvlnlly aeated, crDM-leggcd, un ■ kbul of cnrreil tent, wltli lils Irll 

lion. Anmml hli loliu 1> m ornuninlil glrd]i'. uhI dcpcndlpg i>diii his neck and Teatlng do 

h1i breut la an obloni rceluipilai plate or cliartn, not unJlke Uiat lalil to Lave been *oni by 

Ibe Jeirtah hlgh-prlesta. Tlie net la In profllt, sbow. 

lUK (he •all^nl no» and eoi.vrntlonal rtcedlug fOre- ^<3' '^■ 

iKad thai oharacwnie mo.l Central American acolp- 

on tlic Paler»[Un monumenta and In Ihe paliillngs. 
larjte bas-<fHff (Imnd by Mr. Steplicna In an Inner 

Willi a'all(1iily dlmlul 

» rierced dlaironally. sa If lo alTDnl mc 
I tt lo Clolli or olber mnlerial, wllb 

-Tlie nrxl relle In Importance li of a al 
B opaque material, whicb. were II not lb 

viihin Imir nil tncli. wlien tbc tiilermo 
riearly polltJicd oul. Tlili «ns clearly 

I block to which I bare allndeil In do«rlbiiig Fio. 61. Tlie f*ont appears aa IT of 
n enamel. e«hlbllln([ a full hnnau hee with a lar»e and elaborate fralher belmel 

ie original, Thla, too, U pierced, like that laat described, from edge to edge, neai 

lo. G3. — TMi li a conparatlTcly gmall fk'agnienl of Identical material with Fic. £ 


u ttitntit lu ahipe, » 
rnngh TcrllcuJlr and 

! DD Uit tkBt, whwe l> emnr«d In proUc i liiiin*n brad, 

H portion ot the di*s« or the wemrer. It li pollilin] 
irve-l«nlli« laches by odq md ulne-tvuthi. IE hu Ita 
Airmerly Mayer, MuHum. of Loudoh. 
ind Ttry InwrstUnj. It li ■ »llghlly lrrt«nl.r (lobe, 
er«ed tTvm top to bottom by ■ perftctir circulu hole 

CDgnied IderoglyphJei. ' 
to be •yllmbo-phoDetlc 

a Inch li 

tomOeoiIn^. Fall gl 

■lenls. witli DO >p«liU ■JgnlAciuHW. 

■ IderoglFpldMl •IgslflciDce. Tlie Utter 
(Flo. 61) 1) 1 ftifmeiit of ■ UiId plile, of 
tbe UDie (tone nllli tbe objocu ulrculy 
deKribed, two iDCbci uid elght-tentlii \a 

Meileo, Ceiiii»l Amer] 

I aborlglnil point 

iD Inch In dlUDttfi 

Tbe relics above described are Ihir types or 
the cbalchlbultls foDDd at DcoslDgo; bnt I pos- 
sess some other worked and engraved green- 
stones, worth mentioning, perbi^>B, tn thts con- 
nection- The flrat of these, 

Fig. O. bu BBie membluiee to the engraTcd Aufrlu 

uthey t 


EfrpU»n Kholim 

•^od or I>FM1i*), 

1. 1i pre«Bied a. 

I on a projectjoi 

1> tnldlT ud ihmrplr 

mCbalcIilhiim globe. Tall 

FiQ. «4 Ji an engnTlnit or ■ ato 

rcaembllnK quarli, flTC iDcbei k» 
II H blcUr pollihRt OB Iha lux, I 

dilllfd eiillrtlr tbrouih tin ttono. 
IHiralL*! wlUi lla lace. Tbe loirep or 
cnlllnr v\ge l> illghtlr onrrcd out- 
wird, Implying that. If Intended for 
pnctlca] Krrleei It wmi u adio. But It la 

>. Balfalu. 

m iTmboUcallT, li 

* In OnM« *toM weapona oT jar 

pnlDird at oM eniLwitb a broad catting 
inentlTe junlnat llilitnlDf . Another eor- 

._. , nd(ilm11ir'>l)lectlnJamiilci tortjye^ta 

undertinit. ItwM kept In Ml ■■rtbtrn Jar OlUd irlUi wu«, a&d ni »p- 

>r. and reinnlMl hy the na 

r orlglmJ) !• Uis cutlr Teeogalitble agnrc of i frog. In * UDd of malaclille 

lolcpcc, Luke Nlcvagut. 

jioUier ud Lsrdvr iirlelr orgreeu iloae, n-om ■ mouiHl our Nnlclwi, 

Itag. Hltli (Ik liuman hod;. II Is alio plcrtPd lalcraJI]', Itkc Ibne alrcudy dcMHb«d, itoublleu 

I do Dot present FiGS- G3, 64. 65, and 66 as Bpeclmena of tbe ehalchibuitt. 
but as stioning the regard paid to green stones generally. It Is one that 
pervades both eontlncnts and many nations, from the advanced Chinese, 

Ctrrcd Kttea atone Ibnnd neir If^teliet. 

Sculplund IVo;, NIcangoL 

to whom the green jade Is sacred, to the savage dwellers on the banks 
or the Orinoco, among whom Hnmboldt Tonnd ejllnders or bard green 
stones, the most highly prized objects of the several tribes, snd some of 
which It must have required a lifetime to work Into shape. 


or the carved chalchlhultls, like those described ft-om Fio. 48 to Fio. 62, 
I have seen bat three specimens outside of my own collection : one al- 
ready alladed to in the Christy Maseum of London, another in the late 
Uhde Museam near Heidelberg, and a third in the Waldeck collection in 

The qaestion how these obdurate stones were engraved, drilled, and 
sawn apart, or Arom the blocks of which they once formed a portion, is 
one likely to arise in most minds. It is one that has puzzled many in* 
quirers ; nor do I pretend to give an answer, except that the drilling was 
probably performed by a vibiatory drill, composed of a thin shaft of cane 
or bamboo, the silica of which was reinforced by very fine sand, or the 
dust of the very article under treatment. The stria: shown in the orifices 
are proof of something of the kind, and the esteem attached to these 
stones by the aborigines proves that their value, like that of the main- 
spring of a watch, was due mainly to the amount of labor expended in 
their production. 

As regards the sawing, of which the backs of Fias. 51, 52, and 64, afford 
striking examples, we may find a clue in the accounts of the early chron- 
iclers, who relate that they saw, in Santo Domingo and elsewhere, the 
natives use a thread of the ccAuya (or agave), with a little sand, hot only 
in cutting stone, but iron itself. The thread was held in both hands, and 
drawn right and left until worn out by attrition, and then changed for a 
new one, fine sand and water being constantly supplied. 

Not a few inquirers entertain the hypothesis that most of the raised 
and sunken figures on various stones in Mexico, Central America, and the 
mounds of the United States, were produced by persistent rubbing or 
abrasion— a general hypothesis which I shall not dispute. But in objects 
fjrom the mounds, as well as ft-om other points on the continent, we have 
distinct evidence of the use of graving or incisive tools of some kind — 
as for instance in the hieroglyphics In Fio. 54, which are cut in a stone so 
hard that the blade of a knife produces scarcely any impression on its 
polished surface. 

The Record of Zoological Literaturb for 1868.* — We have before 
alluded to the great and Increasing value of this work, and again urge Its 
Importance to American naturalists situated as many of them are away 
from libraries. We cannot understand how any entomologist can do with- 
out the part on insects ; or the conchologist without that on shells ; or the 
ornithologist be at all informed on the progress of his speciality unless 
he has this work to refer to. Its prepanitlon is a labor of love by the 
editors and Its liberal minded publisher, Mr. Van Voorst; and the work is 
a credit to their heads and hearts. 

*yoL y. Edited by Dr. A. Guutlier. London. Van Voorst, 18G9. 8vo, pp. fi03. Price re- 
dueed to $10 a rol, Tlie Record fbr 1867 and IflSS, also in parts: Part 1, Vertebrate*^ tAM; Part 
2, Bntomologfj f UX); Part 8, Mottuik*^ Crustacea and the Lower AnimaU^ t3JM). For sale at the 
Natarallit*s Book Agenej. 


The Kbcord of Amibrican Entomoloot fob 1869 will be published late 
in May. It will contain chapters by Messrs. Scndder and Uhler, Drs. 
Horn and Packard, and Baron Osten Sacken. Price, $1.00, which does 
not cover the cost of printing. We tmst lovers of entomology will evince 
their zeal for the science by promptly subscribing to this useful publica- 
tion. We hope that it will meet with better support than last year, as 
the publlHhers are sadly out of pocket In consequence of the small sale of 
the work for 1868. 

The Weeds of Maine.* — This pamphlet, issued Arom the State Print- 
ing 0£Qce, consists of a few forms taken from the recent report of the 
Secretary of the Maine Board of Agriculture. The young man whose 
name appears as the author, has certainly shown a remarkable taste for 
botanical study. Wholly unassisted, even by fHendly advice, he com- 
menced the study of botany under great disadvantages and he has zeal- 
ously prosecuted his herborizing during the too scanty leisure afforded by 
a Maine farm. The extraordinary power of diagnosis, which the author 
possesses, leads us to hope that be will devote the next few years to 
rigid disciplinary study, and then resume botanical work for which he 
seems to be so well fitted. The pamphlet itself Is not to be criticised as 
a botanical work, and therefore we shall take the present opportunity to 
make it the text for a few very brief remarks. It is so easy to learn the 
names of plants and associate the two together, and so very difficult to 
learn the plant itself, that too many of our young botanical students are 
devoting their time simply to collecting, preserving, and naming speci- 
mens. In view of the many great questions in plant-physiology which 
are now being asked, it seems to be a sort of botanical dissipation to give 
up to the name what is due to the plant. These questions arise every 
week.* The January 8d number of *' Comptes rendus," contains a very in- 
teresting note by M. Prillieux upon the movements of chlorophyl grains 
under the Influence of light. It is obvious that such a subject of study 
as this, one dealing with forces and with life itself, is more difficult than 
that of guessing at the names of all the Solldagos and half the Carlces, 
but it is plain, too, that the thinkers of our time are asking that the 
former kind of work shall be done and fatthftiUy done. Our plants are 
well named, and therefore we are Justified in suggesting that our young 
botanical friends devote less time to mere " botanizing," as it is absurdly 
called, and give more time and better work to the study of the plant. 

The Geology of the New Haven REOiON.f — Professor Dana de- 
scribes the geology of New Haven and vicinity, with especial reference to 
the origin of Its topographical features ; showing by special flicts. Chat 
the region, in the glacial era, like that of New England to the North, was 
moulded by ice, and that icebergs had no part In the matter, and the sup- 
posed iceberg sea over New England no existence. 

'ByF. L. Serlbner. 

t From the TransaoUooi of tbe Oonneotloot Aoademy. 1870. Sro, pp. IIS. 





American oak noticed in botanical works is the white oak, mentioned by 
Parkinson in "Theatmm Botanicnm,*' 1640, as Querctu alba Virginiana. 
Banister, 1686, in "Catalogas Plantarum In Virginity Observataruro *' (in 
Rayi Historia) mentions Quereus alba virens (as Virginiana aempervirens), 
Phellos (as Ilex Marilandica) with a drawing by Ray, and Uicifolia Wg« 
(as Q, pumild). 

Piuckenet In ** Amagestnm Botanicnm," 1696, enumerates Quercu8 etcuH 
divUuraf wliich is Q, rubra L., Q, Americana rubris venia (Q, coccinea Wg.)* 
var. r (I>C.)» Q. Virifiniana salieis longiore folio (Q. Phelloa L.), Q* Vir- 
giniana iempervirena (Q. virens Ait.)» Q. castane<B folio ( Q. prtnue palustris 
Michx.)t Q' pumila caHanece folio VirginienHe (Q. prinus pumila Michx.)t 
Q. mbra, Phelloe and Prinus palustris, are Illustrated. 

Catesby in his " Natural History of Carolina,** 1731, names Q. alba, Pri- 
nus palustrle and virens. Q. nigra L., he calls Q. MarUandica ; Q, aquatica 
Walt., he knows under the name Quereus folio non serrato; his Q, esculi 
divisura is Q. Catesbcei Mlchz., and his Q, humilis salicis folio breviore is 
Q. cinerea Michx.; all except the latter are illustrated. 

Charlevoix in ''Hlstoire et description g£u6rale de la Nonvelle France,** 
Paris, 1744, knows Q, prinus palustris Michx., Q, alba L., Q. viretis Ait., 
and Q, nigra L. ; he gives drawings of the three latter. 

In Gronovlus' ** Flora Virginlca,*' 1748, containing the plants which John 
Clayton observed in Virginia, we find Q. Pkellos, nigra, aquatica, Prinus 
palustris, ilidfolia, which he calls Q, pumila bipedalis, Q. stellata Wg. (to 
him Q, alba) andfalcata Michx., which he calls rubra seu hispanica, 

Kalm in his travels, or rather in his ** Preliminary Report on his Bo- 
tanical Collections," 1751, mentions only four oaks. Q, rubra and alba, 
the Spanish oak (Q. falcata Michx.) and another one with three lobes at 
the apex of the leaves, which is perhaps the var. triloba of the latter ( Q. 
triloba Michx.). These are the American oaks known at the time when 
LinniBus* ** Species Plantarum/' 1758, was published. Llnn6 established 
five species, Q. Phellos, comprising Q. virens and cinerea as varieties p and 
T' Q* nigra z and fi (x being aquatica Walt.), Q, rubra, comprising rubra, 
coccinea and Catesbtei, Q. prinus {Q. prinus palustris Michx.) and Q. alba. 

Dn Roi published (in ** Harbke'she wllde Baumzncht,** Braunschweig, 
1771) a new species^ Q. palustris. 

Marshall published his '* Arbustum Amerlcanum,** In 1785, in which he 
described the following oaks : Q. alba, Q. alba minor^atellata Wg., Q. 
alba palustriSf which is apparently Q, Prinus tomentosa Michx., not Q. 



alha, as Michaux says; Q. nigra=^coccinea (Q. tinctoria Bartr.)t Q- nigra 
(Ui/itata, Q. nigra trijida, Q. nigra integrifoUay the two latter certainly fall- 
ing under Q, nigra L. var. ^9, Q, nigra pumila=Q. Uicifolia Wg., Q, rubra; 
(^. rubra ramosissima^Q. palustris Du Roi; Q, rubra montana^'Q. falcata 
Micbx. ; Q. i^bra nana=Q, CatcsboBi Michx. ; Q. Phellos angustifolia and 
latifolia=^Q. Phellos L. {silvatica Michx.); Q. Phellos 8empei'virens=^Q. 
virens Ait.; Q. Pi^nus=Q. Prinus monticola Michx.; Q, Prinus humili8=^ 
Q Prinm pumila Michx. 

Wungeuheim in his work on the ** Americauische Holzarten," 1787| pro- 
posed some new species, of which three are acknowledged to-dt^y : Q. 
utellata (the Q, alba minor of Marshall), Q, Uicifolia (the Q. pumila of 
Banister), and Q. coccinea (Q. rubra L., Tar. a). His Q. cuneata is Q. 
falcata Michx., var. y triloba^ and his Q. uliginosa is the Q. aquatica 

Walter in *' Flora Caroliniana," published in the year 1788, enumerated 
thirteen oaks : 1, Q. sempervirens (virens Ait.) ; 2, Q, Phellos; 8, Q, humilis 
(cineiea Michx., var. y, humilis); 4, Q, pumila {cinerea Michx., var. 
pumila); 5, Q. PHnus; 6, Q. nigra; 7, Q. aquatica (nigra L., a); 8, Q. 
rubra (glandibus parvis globosiSy perhaps Q. Uicifolia Wang. ?) ; 9, Q. loivis 
(Catesbeei, Michx.?); 10, Q. alba; 11, Q, lyrata, which he first describes; 

12, Q. sinuata, from the description of which it is not plain what it means ; 

13, Q. villosa already described by Wangenhelm as Q. stellata, Micfaaux 
gives Catesby, who indeed described, but did not name it, the authorship 
of Qnercus aquatica. De Candolle makes Walter the author of it; the 
latter published his Flora one year after the publication of Wangenheim's 
work, in which the species is described and called uliginosa. The de- 
scriptions of both the authors are as poor as possible ; both the names 
derived from the hygrophile nature of the tree are good enough, only that 
the right of priority, acknowledged as a general rule by the international 
Botanical Congress at Paris, is in favor of Wangenheim*s name. But 
the name aquatica is indeed older, and was first used by Clayton in Gro- 
noviusy so his name should be added. By the way, Walter is noteworthy 
for his modesty, which should be imitated by many an eager species- 
maker. His work is full of ** Anonymos,*' and in the preface he says: 
'' Lihertatem appellative assignandi paucis tantum concedendam sentit, 
quamobrem iis, qui in hac scientia merito duces sunt, Jus reliquit dicendi 
qftwnam sint nomina plantis nunc primum descriptis.** If so many botanists, 
who, overrating the doubtflil merit of having created a new species, fill 
our botanical books with names, would follow modest old Walter, a good 
deal of wasted paper could be saved, and a good deal of unnecessary 
work. Indeed, it is much easier to make new species, than to clean those 
Augean stables of synonyms. 

Alton in '^ Kew Garden," 1789, calls the long-known Q. sempervirens of 
Catesby Q. virens; the latter name is adopted. 

William Bartram, in his ''Travels throngh North and South Carolina," 
Phil. 1791, proposes the new species Q. tinctoria, which De Candolle in 


his Prodromos reunites with Q. cocdnea Wg., as var. T tinctoria, Bart- 
ram's Q. hemisj^rica and dentata are both varieties of Q. aquatica, 

Luis N6e Joined the expedition of Malaspina from 1789 to 1794; he 
visited South America, Mexico and the Paciflc Islands, and brought 
in his rich botanical collections to Europe, the first specimens of oak 
ft*om those countries, which have been published in ** Annales de Cien- 
cias Nutnrales ** by Cavauilles, 1798. Amongst these oaks are two Cali- 
fornia species, Q. lobata and agrifolia ; the latter was already known to 
Flucknet as Ilex foliia agrifolii Americana (in *'Pbytographia,'* London, 
IG91-93, with a drawing, but without fiower or fVuit) ; the others are Mex- 
ican, Q. circinata, magnoliaefoUa^ saltcifoUa^ microphyUaj splendens, aeuti- 
folia, elliptica, castanea, and candicans, all considered yet to be " good 
species." His Q. lutea and macrophylla come under magnoUa/olia ; his 
diversifolia is a variety of Q. peduncularis N^e, changed by Willdenow into 
Q. tomerUosa, because the character Nee took the name from is variable, 
and Ne^*s specimen is defective; Q, rugosa Humboldt and Bonpland 
changed into Q. crassifolia, N^e's unique specimen being very defective 
and doubtAil. 

Andr^ Michaux explored flrom 1785 to 1796 the forests of Eastern North 
America. He published in 1801 his "Histolre des Chines TAm^rique 
Septentrionale," in which for the first time is pointed out a character, very 
important to the methodical arrangement of the oaks, the time of matura- 
tion. His arrangement is the following : 

I. The leaves of the old tree not bristle-pointed : fhiit peduncled, annual. 

1. Leaves lobed. Q. obtusiloba (stellata Wg.), macrocarpa (n. sp.) 

lyrata Walt., alba L. 

2. Leaves toothed. Q. Pi'inus, with 5 varieties: palustria, monti- 

cola, acuminata, pumila and tomentosa. 
8. Leaves entire. Q, virens, but the fhiits are according to him 

II. Leaves of the old tree bristle-pointed : fknilt sessile, biennial. 

1. Leaves entire. Q. Phellos, with three varieties, silvatica, mari' 

tima, and pxtmila, Q. cinerea, Q, imbricaria (n. sp.), Q, latiri' 
folia, with the variety obtusifoUa, 

2. Leaves with short lobes. Q. aquatica, Q, nigra, Q. tinctoria, 

with two varieties (angulosa and sinuosa), Q. triloba. 
8. Leaves deeply lobed. Q, Banisteri (ilidfolia Wg.), Q. falcata 
(hispanica Clayton, discolor Ait., elongata WiUd.), Q, Cateabcsi, 
Q. coccinea Wg., Q, palustris Du Roi and Q. rubra L. 
The same species are enumerated in his ** Flora Americana," published 
by L. C. Richard, but without this arrangement. The ripening of fhiit 
is not there mentioned at all. 

Willdenow in "Species Plantarum," 1797-1810, enriched (?), the genus 
Quercus by new species, making out of the five varieties of Prinus, 
five species : PrinuB, montana, bicolor (tomentosa), castanea (acuminata) 
and Prinoides (pumila) ; the varieties of Phellos, maritima and pumila he 



changed into two species of the same name ; tinctoria var., tinuoia into 
discolor, and hiif Q, myrttfolia is probably a variety of Q. aquatiea. 

Persoon in *' Synopsis Plantarum," 1805 enumerates eighty-flve oalcs, of 
which forty-six are American; thirty Arom the eastern part of North 
America, two Califomian and fourteen Mexican ; all mentioned above. 

F. A. Michanx, the son, published his ** Arbres for^sti^res," 1810-18. 
He calls Q. Prinus tomentoaa of his father Q, Frinus discolor, and proposed 
five new species : Q, heterophylla, which proves to be an hybrid ; ambigua 
and borealis, which fall under Q, cocdnea ; femtginea, which is Q. nigra 
L. p, ; and olivorformis, which is m<icrocarpa, 

Humboldt and Bonpland collected (1799-1804) twenty-three new spe- 
cies, of which thirteen are now considered as good ones : Q. confertifolia, 
crassifolia, craasipes, depresaa, Humholdtii, lanceolata, laurina, obtueata, 
pulchella, repanda, reticulata, Tolimensia, Xalepensis; four are dubious: 
Q, Amalguerensis, chrysophylla, glaucescena and Hderoxffla ; three had been 
described already by N6e : Q. stipulariS'sisplendefis N6e ; tridens a castanea 
N6e var. y, and Mexicana=s Castanea N6e var. £; three are the same as 
other species of the same authors : Q, spicata is reticulata H. B. ; pan* 
durata and ambigua are obtusata H. B., var. fi and y. They are all Mexi- 
can, except three from New Granada : Humboldtii, Tolimensis and Almagu- 
erensis. They are described in "Plantffi .£qulnoctiales/' 1805-1818. 

In Pursh*s ** Flora," 1814, are mentioned thirty-four species; except 
agrifolia, all are eastern and comprising all the species of Michaux, with 
the additions of the younger Michaux and Willdenow. In his arrange- 
ment the ripening o the fruit talses the first place as a diagnostic char- 
acter, the second the presence or absence o the bristles of the leaves ; 
the third the form of the leaves. 

Nuttall in «* Genera of North American Plants," 1818, follows the same 
disposition, but the number of his species is thirty-two. He calls Q. 
Frinus discolor Mich. fll. Q. Michauxii, but at the same time he keeps Q, 
bicolor WiUd. as a species with the variety mollis (probably Q, velutlna 
Lam., which he believes is Q. flliformis Muhl.). Afterwards he proposes 
three more species : Q. Oambelli, Leana (a hybrid) and dtimosa (In *' Silva 
Americana,*') a doubtfkil species. Of Mexican species he knew only fif- 

Elliott in a " Sketch of the Flora of Georgia," 1824, enumerating 
twenty-six oaks, adds to those already known, a variety of falcata Michx. 
(var. pagodmfoUa). 

Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 1880, in '^Linnica," v., described some 
new Mexican oaks ft-om specimens collected by Schiede and Deppe : Q. 
calophylla, polymorpha, laurifolia, germana and oleoides, the latter being 
Q. virens Ait. These make the western species amount to thirty-six. 

Hooker and Arnott published in 1841, the "Botany of Capt. Beechey*s 
Voyage," comprising the plants which Lay and Collie, 1825-28, collected. 
We find amongst them three oaks, two Callfornian : Douglasii and devsi- 
flora, and one Mexican : ariatata. In ** Hooker's Flora boreall Americana/' 


1888-40, is described as new Q, Garryana by Mensies and Doaglas, found 
in Oregon ; and in '* Icones," 1887-46 ; i^tmous eorrugata Arom Guatemala. 

Bentbam describes in the Botany of the voyage of the Sulphnr, under 
command of Capt. Belcher, the collections of Barclay, Hinds and Sin- 
Clair. He proposes a new species of oak, Quercus Hindaiit tcom Call* 
fomia which is nothing else than Q. lobata N^. 

From the same author are the *'PlantiB Hartwegiann," 1888-42, contain- 
ing the plants which Hartweg, 1886-40, collected in Mexico, etc. There we 
find a number of new species : Q, harbinervis, gidbrescens, Grahamif Skin' 
nerit Sonamenaia, dyaophylla, undtUata, aalicifoliat the two latter names, as 
already used, De CandoUe changed into Benthami and Tlapuxahuensia* 
Others had already been described : Q. Mexicana is crasHpeB H. B., Alamo 
^ callophylla, Cham, and Schl., Hartwegi = obtuaata H. B., petiolaris^ 
polymarpha Cham, and Schl., callosa ^ tomentoaa Willd. Others are 
varieties; tafnenlosar^tomerUosa Willd., var., compressa = actUifoUa var., 
laurffolia ^denaiflora Hook, Am. var. fi. Hartwegi ; Douglasii =» Dottglaai. 
Hook. Am. var. ; one proposed as a variety was afterwards taken as a spe- 
cies by Liebmann : Q. obtuaata var. »» Q, laeta Liebm. At the same time 
two Belgian botanists, Galeottl and Ghiesbreght, travelled In Mexico, and 
collected many oaks, which have been published, 1848, in ** Bulletin of 
the Acadtole des Sciences of Braxelles,'* by Galeotti and Martens: Q, 
lanigera^ ItUeacenat QhUabreghtiij niUna^ inaignia, ruguloaa^ glaucoidea, cat' 
loaa (the latter described by Liebmann as Q, laxa^ ; Q. ChtleoUH, cordata, 
jmbinervia (not in Prodromus, perhaps atrompocarpa Liebm.), moUia (per- 
haps craaaifolia), are doubtful. Such as were already described are Q. 
variana= polymarpha Ch. and Schl., nitida ~ aetUifolia N6e, acuminata 
and intennedia — calophylla Ch. Schl., tpinuloaa = craaa^folia H. B., affinia 
^obtuaata H. B., decipiena ^ reticulata H, B., laurina^ depreaaa Bth., lan- 
eeolata (not H. B.)= Oaxaeana Liebm. 

Liebmann travelled in Mexico in 1841-48. His own collection and those 
of Oerstedt and of Seemann fumished the material for his great work on 
*' American Oaks.'* The new species are Q. granulata, linguctfolia, nee- 
tandroBfolia, berberidifolia, cUrifoliaf Coataricenaia^ Seemanni, Sartarii, Cor^ 
teaii, IcUa^ Drummondii, atrompocarpa^ grandia^ Waracevsiczii^ chryaolepia. 
Species already described are Q. Fendleri=undulaia Torr. (in Annals Ly- 
ceum of New York, 1827), furfurarea^^acutifoUa H B., commutata^nitena 
M. G., triatia==caatanea N^e, tubereulata^^polymorpha Cham. & Schl., r^tiMa 
^^virena Alt. ; varieties of described species are Q. reainoaa=magnolictfolia 
N6«*, ^ rudinervia^obtuaata H. B. T, Necsi^Douglaaii var. T', longifolia'^ 
acutifolia var. ocotasf<dia?=nUena var. Xy peraeatfolia and microcarpa^^elliptica 
N6e var. His Q. oocarpa is the same as his Warczevficzii\ what he took 
for laurina Is lanceolata H. B., var. ^9. ; Q, Qrahami Bth., is acutifolia N6e, 
his lancifolia is a new species by A. DeCandoUe changed into Uiophylla;- 
Q, bumelioideay cuneifolia {Chinantlenaia), excelaa, eugeniaefolia, Jlavida^ 
floccoaa, fulva, jurgenaeniif Oaxaeana, Orizabae, aapotaefolia, Segovienaia^ 
aerra, aororia, acytophyllay turbinata (by A. DC, changed into OuatimaUn* 



8i8)y Are donbti\il species. From Wright's collection he described Q. 
pungena, haaiata and grisea, already published by Torrey, the two former 
as Q. Emoryi (in Emory's Report) the latter as Q, oblongifolia in Sit- 
grcaves' Zuui Expedition. Olher species of Torrey had been already 
named, when he published them : Q. crassipocula (in Williamson's Report) 
is chrysolepis Llebm., described in ** Plants Hartwegianse ;" Q. tinctoria 
var. Califomica (in Whipple's Report) is Sonomensia Bth. ; longiglanda in 
** Frem. Geogr. Mem. of Cal.," is lobata N6e; echinacea (\u Whipple's 
Rep.) is densiflot^a, oxgadenia (in Sitgreavcs' Report) is agrifolia N€e. 
In "Mexican Boundary Survey" (1868), is a new species described as Q. 
acutidens ftom California, omitted by De Candolle; another, oltuaifolia, 
falls under undulata Torr., as a variety ; another variety is there mentioned, 
Q, coccinea \fiT, microcarpa, Kellogg publis<hed in the ** Proceedings of 
the California Academy of Sciences," vol. i, some new species, which are 
not new : Q. fulvescens is chryaolepis Lbm. ; acvtiglandia Is agi'ifolia N^e ; 
Bansomi is lobata Nee. His Q. Morchua (Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. ii) is 
doubt All. Newberry proposed what Torrey took for a variety of tinctoria 
({. e. coccinea) J as a new species, Q. Kelloggii, which falls under Sono- 
menaia Benth. Curtis, 1849, proposed a new eastern species, Q. Georgiana, 
Shuttle worth's Q. Floridana is the var. ^5. Floridana of Q. atellata ac- 
cording to De Candolle, perhaps Chapman's var. parrifoUaf Endlichcr in 
** Genera Piantarum," Suppl. iv, 2, 1847, enumerates one hundred and 
ninety-seven described oaks, of which one hundred and one are American. 
— FREa Brendel, Peoria^ III. {To be conclwled,) 



Spike Horns. — The article in the December number of the Natura- 
list seems to me to be the result of careless observation. The * Common 
Deer," Cervua Virginianua, * begins growing his first pair of horns wlien 

about one year old ; these horns are 
* firom four to nine inches long and 

sometimes one of them will have 
a single branch of an inch or two 
long; these horns are shed when 
the animal is about two years old 
(Fig. 67). At this age I have seen 
deer that had attained their flill 
growth in height, and to an ordin- 
ary observer would be thought old 

The number of persons hunting 
in the Adirondacks increases very 
rapidly, and every hunter is bent on procuring a fine pair of horns as a tro- 
phy, and as it takes at least six or eight years for a buck to grow a fine 


pair of anilcrs, yoa can see that the chances for a deer to attain a full de- 
velopment Is growing more unfavorable every year. The reason why Sitike 
horns seem to be more numerous than formerly, is that there arc more 
hunters and fewer old deer. If any one can show me a spil^e horn of a 
deer that is three or more years old, that is not the result of acciilcnt, I 
would like to get it. 

The same difficulty exists with the moose and carraboo. It is now 
almost impossible to procure a large and well developed pair of moose 
or carraboo horns, while some years ago they were plenty. — W. J. Hays. 

Adirondack's Reply. — In replying to the criticism of Mr. Hays, I can, 
unless I can take time to collect testimony, only reiterate my former 
statements, that I shot on Louis Lake a buck With spfke-homs, which 
was not a yearling, nor a two years old, nor a three years old even, but a 
large buck, of ftiU age and size ; and that I afterwards shot on Cedar 
Lakes a buck with spike-horns, which was pronounced to be a "three 
year old." I will add that I have conversed on the subject of ** spike- 
horn bucks" with a number of hunters and guides, some born in the 
Adirondacks, others who have lived there many years, and that the tes- 
timony of all agreed that spike- horn bucks are of all ages and sizes, and 
that they are slowly increasing in the southern part of the Adirondack 

When I shot the large buck on Louis Lake, Silas Call, then a noted and 
most intelligent guide, now keeper of the inn at Northville, was with me. 
He will undoubtedly remember the facts and testify to them if called upon. 
When I shot the smaller spike-horn. William S. Robinson, Esq., of Mai- 
den, Mass., stood by my side. Hon. F. W. Bird, of Walpole, was of the 
party, and saw the deer at the shanty. I do not know that either of these 
gentlemen has ever given attention to the subject of spike-horn bucks ; 
but Mr. Bird has hunted a good many years in the southern Adirondacks, 
and I think must know something about them. [I beg pardon of these 
gentlemen for using their names without their consent, but, living at a 
place reached only by InfVequent mails, I have no time to procure it.] 
David Sturges, the keeper of the inn at Lake Pleasant, born there, and 
one of the best and most successftil guides and hunters of the Adiron- 
dack?, could give valuable testimony on the question. He has been upon 
the lookout all through the past autumn and early winter, for the head of 
a large spike-horn buck for you, but has not succeeded in procuring one. 
Bucks have now lost their horns, and a head cannot be procured unless 
with horns "in the velvet," before next September. I hope then Mr. 
Stnrgis will be more successful. But spike-horn bucks, of fbll age and 
size, are not yet common, and a young one will not answer your purpose. 

Of the figures of " spike-horns " (Fig. 67) by Mr. Hays, neither resembles 
very closely the true spike-horn. I have the pair ftom the young spike- 
horn buck shot by me, and will send them to you whenever I go to a place 
reached by the express. I will send with them the antlers of a common 
** two year old " buck. You will at once see the difference. You will see 
too, what was the fact, that the spike-horns came from the larger deer. 


The distance between the horns shows this. The spike-horns are about 
half an inch farther apart than the others, showing the spike-horn back 
to have been probably a year older than the other. The hair on the sknll 
of the spike-horn buck is shorter than that on the other; the spike-horn 
was shot Just as deer were attaining the ** blue coat ;" the other was shot 
a month or six weeks later. This Is the reason of the difference. 

Notwithstanding what Mr. Hays says, I never saw a yearling buck 
(that is a buck in his second year, wearing his first pair of horns) that 
could be said to have ** attained taW growth," in *' height," or anything 
else. I never saw a ** two years old" (in his third year) that had attained 
full growth in all respects — nor yet ** a three years old." The saddle of a 
two years old will never exceed forty or fifty pounds in weight. I doubt 
whether the saddle of a yearling ever reaches the smaller weight, while 
I have seen ftiU grown antlercd bucks, whose saddles weighed over 
seventy pounds ; and I have the head of one whose saddle weighed a little 
over eighty pounds. I have heard of bucks still heavier. Without the 
antlers, there may in some cases be difficulty in distinguishing between a 
two years old and a three years old ; but there is never any difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing between either of these and a buck of six or seven years. A 
yearling (in his second year) can always be known by his size. A buck 
in the spring, when he attains the fUll age of two years, never has horns, 
and has had none for some time. While his first pair of horns lasts surely 
he can never be said to have ** attained ftill growth " in any respect. Shot 
in the fall previous, his youth is very manifest. Yet it Is the first pair of 
horns only that are ever ** spikes " in a common C. Virginianus. 

Did Mr. Hayes ever hunt south of Raquette Lake, or ever south of 
Long Lake? I think It probable that he enters the Adirondacks over the 
more common route by way of Keesville and the Saranac Lakes, and 
hunts in the Raquette River country, north of Long Lake. I have hunted 
through the whole region ftrom the Saranac Lakes south to Saratoga and 
Fulton counties, and west into Herkimer county and the " Brown tract." 
But I have visited the country north of Long Lake only once. 

The writer in the ** Saginaw Republican " apparently knows little of deer. 
A yearling buck (in his second year, with his first pair of horns) has 
spike-shaped horns; but at the rutting season he Is scarcely eighteen 
months old, and is quite too young and small to be a rival of a Aill-grown 
buck, while a two years old buck (in his third year with his second pair 
of horns) has antlers which are scarcely more formidable weapons than 
the antlers of a ftill-grown buck. In point of fact I believe the Aill- 
grown bucks have altogether the advantage with the does.— Adirondack. 


Nkw Animal Remains from thb Carronifbrous *and Dkvonian 
Rocks of Canada. — Principal Dawson has discovered another species 
of amphibian from the Joggins Coal Mine, the Bapfietes minor ; the remains 
consisting of a lower Jaw six inches long. The author also noticed some 


Insect remalna found by hlro in slabs containing Sphenophyllum. They 
were referred by Mr. Scudder to the Blattarie. From the Devonian beds 
of Gaspd the author stated that he had obtained a small species of Ceph- 
alaspis, the llrst yet detected in America. Mr. Etheridge remarked that 
the Cephalaspis differed materially in its proportions Arom any In either 
the Russian or British rocks. — Nature, 


Maryland Acadkmt of Sciencbs. — By this title we announce the or- 
ganization of a Natural History Society in the city of Baltimore. We are 
glad that the long continued efforts of the gentlemen who are its present 
officers have at length resulted in the establishment of a society regularly 
chartered, and with some fifty members. They have, as it appears ftrom an 
official commanlcation to the Director of the Peabody Academy, already 
secured proper apartments, centrally located, and received donations of 
collections of books and specimens, and began the regular scientific 
work of the society. The circular which the academy has published cer* 
tainly states their case very fairly and modestly to the citizens of Balti- 
more, and we do not see how they can do otherwise than sustain the new 
society if they care at all for the completion of their system of public in- 

Such societies devoted to the exposition of the natural resources of 
the country have a recognized value in Europe and in some of the cities 
of this country. But their refining Influence upon society, the cultivation 
which results ftom their publications and teachings, especially If they 
become sufficiently well endowed to institute lectures to teachers and ad- 
vanced students of the public schools, as the Boston Society has done, is 
not at all appreciated or even understood. 

The basis of the new academy, as announced in article two, Is broad and 
effective, and ought to Insure Its members the moral and material support 
of the community which is to be benefited by the labor of Its members. 
As stated In this article *' its object shall be to promote scientific re- 
search, and to collect, preserve and difiUse Information relating to the 
sciences, especially those connected vfith the natural history of Maryland." 

The officers of the academy are Philip T. Tyson, president ; John G. 
Morris, D.D., vice-president; Edwin A. Dalrymple, D.D., corresponding 
secretary; Charles C. Bombaugh. M.D., recording secretary; John W. 
Lee, treasurer; P. B. Uhler, curator; A. Snowden Piggott, M.D., Libra- 
rian ; J. B. Uhler, J. DeRosset, M.D., and F. E. Chatard, Jr., M.D., as- 
sistant curators. 




D€8eripti<m d* un Jeune Individu de la Dermatempt Mawii eneee AmeHcaitu ds lafamiUe det 
Elodites, Par. M. Alf. PreiidhoDime de Borre. firussells, 1SG9. 8vo. pp. 7. 

Dticription cT une nouvelle e»pece Amerieairus du genre Caiman Alligator, Par. M. Alf. 
Preadbomme de Borre. BruMelis, 1869, 8vo. pp. 8. 

Bulletin de la Societe det Scienees Naturellet. Neucbatel, Swltserlaod. Tom. ly-ylU, 18U- 
69. 8vo. 

Annalet Aeademiei,lSl(i''Q5, Leiden. 43 vols. 4to. [1867. 8to. 

Tor$lag til en Forandret Ordning af det hoiere Skolevaeten. D**!. 1-8. 8ro. Clirlstiania, 

J)et K. Norske Fred. Univ. Aar$beretningtor Aaret, 1866. 8vo. Cbrlstlaula, 1869. 8vo. 

Index Seholarum 4to. Chrlstlania, 1869. 4to. 

Le Glacier de Boium en Juillet^ 1868. Par S. A. Si'xe. Clirfstiaula, 1869. 4to. pp. 40. 

En Anatomink Be»kritel»e af de ptM, Over og Un>*erextremiteteme/orelommede. BursieMa- 
eoMe. A. 8. D. Srnnestvcdt. Uaiirivet red Dr. J. Voss. Christ Imiia, 1869. 4to. pp. H8. 

The Mammal* of lova. By J. A. Alien. TFrom l*roc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hint., Vol. xllf, Dec. 1869.J 

Note* on the Rarer Birds of Jifassachusettx. By J. A. Allen. [Froiu Am. Nat.. Vol. ill.] 

Contributiotu to the A'eUural History of Nova Scotia, Part l, Coleoptera. By J. Matthew Jones. 
[From tlie Trans. N. S. Inst. Nat. Sel.. 1870.J 

Abstract of Some Remarks on the Relation* of the Rocks in the vicinity of Boston, By N. S. 
Shnlcr. [From l>roc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xlll, Dec.« 1869.] 

Proceedings and Transaction* of the Nova Srotian Institute of Natural Science. Vol. 11, Pt. 3. 
186H-!l. 8vo. Haliflix, 1870. 

The West Coast Fresh-vater Univalves^ No. 1. By J. O. Cooper. [From Proc. Cal. Acnd. ?cl., 
Ir, Feb., 1870.] 

The Fauna of California and it* Geographical Distr&nttion, By J. G. Cooper. [From Proc. 
Cal. Acad, hcl., Iv, ITeli. 1870.J 

Contributions to Zoology from Museum of Yale College. No. 6. Descriptions of Shells trora 
Oulf of California. By A. £. VerHli. [Froin Am. Jour. bcl. and ArU, Mch., 1S7U.] 

Transactions of the American Entomological Society. Vol. 11, No. 4. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia^ No. 8. Aug -Nor., 1869. 

The Arts. Vol. 1. No. 1. Marah. 1870. (Iilcago. .1. .M. Uursli ft Co. $1.00 a year. 

The Game Birds of America. By D. Darwin Huf^bes. (Contained hi several numbers of tira 
••Detroit Free Pn-ss ** for Feb. and followhifr.) 

Address of the President of the Peattody Institute to the Board of Trtutee* on the Organiiation 
and Oovertiment of the Institute, Feb. 12. 1870. Baltimore. 

Third Biennial Report of Trustees of lotea Agricultural College. I>e« Moines, 1870. 

Seventh Annual Report of Tru*tee* of Massachusetts Agricultural College. Boston, 1870. 

Annual Report of Superintendent of Education of Ontario fw 1868. Toronto, 1889. 

Annual Report of Adjutant Oeneral of Maryland for 1«69. 

Fourth Report of the Massachusetts Commissioners of Fisheries for the year 1869. Boston, 1870, 

Catalogue of Omcers and Students of University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1870. 

Circular and Catalogue of Union College. Albany. 1870. 

Meteorological Observation* for 1869 at lotra City, By T. S. Parrin. 

Prairie farmer Annual (No. 8. 80 cts.) Cbicairo. 

Monthly Report of Department of Agriculture for Jan., 1870. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, New York. Nos. 1, 2, 8, Jan., Feb., March, 1870. 8to. 
4 pacres ench. ($1.00 a year. W. H. L«'frgett. 224 £. 10th 8t., N. Y.) 

Bovdoin Scientific Review. Nos. 1, 2, 8, Feb., March, April, 1870. 8ro, pp. 16. (Fortnightly, 
$2.00 a year. Professors Brackctt and Qoodale, Brunswick, Me.) 

The Academy. Nos. b, 6, 7, Feb.. March, April. Loudon. 

ScientiJIe Opinion. Nos. (i6-72, Feb., March. London. 

Nature. Nos. 1-9. Nov., Dec.. ia«»: Feb. 10, 17; Mch.8, 10,17,1870. London. McMillan A Co. 

The Field. June, 1869, to March 5, 12, 19, 24, April 2. 1870. London. 

land and Water. Jan. 15, 22, 29, Feb. 6, 12. 19, 26. London. 

Prtites Noxelles Entomologiaues. Nos. 16, 17. Feb., Harcli Paris. 

he Naturaliste Canadien. II, No». .S. 4. Feb., March. Onebec. 

Bulletin de la Societe Jmperiale d* Acclimation, vl. No. 12. Dec, 1869. vll. No. 1, Jan., 1870. 

Notes on the Later EiUnet Floras of North America u^ith description* of Nete Species of Creta- 
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Jahreshericht der Naturfor*chenden Oesellschaft in Emden. 1868. 12nio. 

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American Entomologiet. March, 1870. 



Vol. IV.— JUITB, 1870.— Wo. 4. 




The area bounded on the north by the Eozoic highlands 
of Canada, on the east by the Adirondacks and the AUegha* 
nies, and on the west by the Rocky Mountains, though now, 
and apparently always, drained by two systems of water- 
courses, may be properly considered as one topographical 
district ; since much of the water-shed which separates its 
two river systems is of insignificant height, is composed of 
unconsolidated ^^Drilt" materials, has. shifted its position 
hundreds of miles, as the water level in the great lakes has 
varied, and was for a long interval submerged beneath a 
water connection imiting both drainage systems in one. 

In this great hydrographic basin the surface geology pre- 
sents a series of phenomena of which the details, carefully 
studied in but few localities, still offer an interesting and 
almost inexhaustible subject of investigation, but which, as 
it seems to me, are already sufficiently well known to enable 
us to write at least the generalities of the history which they 

The most impoi'tant facts which the study of the *^ Drift 

■ - ■ ■ ■ f , ■ I 

Entered aeeordliifr to Aet of Conffreee, In the year 1870, by the Pkabodt Acadsmt Of 
SCIXMCX, In the Clerk*s Ofltoe of the District Coart of the Diitrlct of HMsacbosette. 



phenomena" of this region have brought to light are briefly 
as follows : 

1st. In the northern half of this area down to the paral- 
lels of 38^-40°, we find, not everywhere, but in most local- 
ities where the nature of the underlying rocks is such as to 
retain inscriptions made upon them, the upper surface of 
these rocks planed, furrowed or excavated in a peculiar and 
striking manner, evidently by the action of one great de- 
nuding agent. No one who has seen glaciers and noticed the 
effect they produce on the rocks over which they move, 
upon examining good exposures of the markings to which I 
have referred, will fail to pronounce them the tracks of gla- 

Though having a general north-south direction, locally the 
glacial furrows have very different bearings, conforming in a 
rude way to the present topography, and following the direc- 
tions of the great lines of drainage. 

On certain uplands, like those of the Wisconsin lead re- 
gion, no glacial furrows have been observed (Whitney), but 
on most of the highlands, and in all the lowlands and great 
valleys, they are distinctly discernible if the underlying rock 
has retained them. 

2d. Some of the valleys and channels which bear the 
marks of glacial action — evidently foimed or modified by 
ice, and dating from the ice period or an earlier epoch — are 
excavated far below the present lakes and water-courses which 
occupy them. 

These valleys form a connected system of drainage, at a 
lower level than the present river system, and lower than 
could be produced without a continental elevation of several 
hundred feet. A few examples will sufiice to show on what 
evidence this assertion is based. 

•From my own obseirationa on the action of glaciers on rock surfaces In the Alps 
and in Oregon and Washington Territory, I do not hesitate to assert that no ottier agent 
eould have produced such effects. A different view Is taken of this subject, it is tmOi 
but only by those who either have never seen a glacier or have never seen the markings 
in question. The track of a glacier is as unmistakable as that of a man or a bear. 


Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Onta- 
rio are basins excavated in undisturbed sedimentary rocks. 
Of these Lake Michigan is six hundred feet deep, with a 
surface level of five hundred and seventy-eight feet above 
tides ; Lake Huron is five hundred feet deep, with a surface 
level of five hundred and seventy-four feet; Lake Erie is 
two hundred and four feet deep, with a surface level of five 
hundred and sixty-five feet ; Lake Ontario is four hundred 
and fifty feet deep, with a surface level of two hundred and 
thirty-four feet above the sea. 

An old, excavated, now-filled channel connects Lake Erie 
and Lake Huron. At Detroit the rock surface is one hun- 
dred and thirty feet below the city. In the oil region of 
Bothwell, etc., from fifty to two hundred feet of clay overlie 
the rock. What the greatest depth of this channel is, is not 

An excavated trough runs south from Lake Michigan — 
filled with clay, sand, tree trunks, etc. — penetrated at 
Bloomington, Illinois, to the depth of two hundred and 
thirty feet. 

The rock bottoms of the troughs of the Mississippi and 
Missouri, near their junction or below, have never been 
reached, but they are many feet, perhaps some hundreds, 
beneath the present stream-beds. * 

The borings for oil in the valleys of the Western rivers 
have enabled me not only to demonstrate the existence of 
deeply buried channels of excavation, but in many cases to 
map them out. Oil Creek flows from seventy-five to one 
hundred feet above its old channel, and that channel had 
sometimes vertical and even overhanging cliflTs. The Beaver, 
at the junction of the Mahoning and Shenango, runs one 
hundred and fifty feet above the bottom of its old trough. 

The Ohio throughout its entire course runs in a valley 
which has been cut nowhere less than one hundred and fifty 
feet below the present river. 

The Cuyahoga enters Lake Erie at Cleveland, more than 


one hundred feet above the rock bottom of its excavated 
trough. The Chagrin, Vermilion, and other streams running 
into Lake Erie exhibit the same phenomena, and prove that 
the surface level of the lake must have once been at least 
one hundred feet lower than now. 

The bottom of the excavated channel in which Onondaga 
Lake is situated, and the Salina salt-wells bored, is at least 
four hundred and fourteen feet below the surface level of the 
lake and fifty feet below the sea level. (Geddes, Trans. 
New York Stale Agricultural Society, 1859.) 

The old channel of the Genesee River at Portage, de- 
scribed by Professor Hall in the Geology of the Fourth Dis- 
trict of New York ; the trough of the Hudson, traceable on 
the sea bottom nearly one hundred miles from the present 
river mouth; the deeply buried bed of the Lower Missis- 
sippi, are additional examples of the same kind ; while the 
depth to which the Golden Gate, the Straits of Carquinez, 
the channel of the lower Columbia, the Canal de Haro, 
Hood's Canal, Puget Sound, etc., have been excavated, indi- 
cates a similar (perhaps simultaneous) elevation and erosion 
of the Western coast of America. 

The falls of the Ohio — formed by a rocky barrier across 
the stream — though at first sight seeming to disprove the 
theory of a deep continuous channel in our Western rivers, 
really afiford no argument against it, for here, as in many 
other instances, the present river does not follow accurately 
the line of the old channel below, but runs along one or the 
other side of it. In the case of the Louisville falls the Ohio 
runs across a rocky point which projects into the old valley 
from the north side, while the deep channel passes under the 
lowland on the south side, on part of which the city of 
Louisville is built. 

The importance of a knowledge of these old channels in 
the improvement of the navigation of our larger rivers is ob- 
vious, and it is possible it would have led to the adoption of 
other means than a rock canal for passing the Louisville 


falls, had it been possessed by those concerned in this en- 

I ventured to predict to General Warren that an old fiUed- 
up channel would be found passing around the Mississippi 
rapids, and his examinations have confirmed the prophecy. 
I will venture still farther, and predict the discovery of 
buried channels of communication between Lake Superior 
and Lake Michigan — probably somewhere near and east of 
the Grand Sable^ — at least, between the Pictured Rocks and 
the St. Mary's River — between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario 
through Canada, — between Lake Ontario* and the Hudson 
by the valley of the Mohawk, — between Lake Michigan and 
the Mississippi, somewhere along the line I have before indi- 
cated. I also regard it probable that a channel may be found 
connecting the upper and lower portions of the Tennessee 
River, passing around the Mussel Shoals. This locality lies 
outside of the area where the Northern Drift deposits were 
laid down to fill and conceal ancient channels, but the exca- 
vation and the filling up of the channel of the Tennessee — 
like that of the Ohio — were determined by the relative alti- 
tude of the waters of the Gulf. The channel of the Lower 
Tennessee must have been excavated when the southern por- 
tion of the Mississippi valley was higher above the Gulf level 
than now, and Professor Hilgard has shown that at a subse- 
quent period, probably during the Champlain epoch, the 
Gulf coast was depressed five hundred feet below its present 
relative level. This depression must have made the Lower ' 
Mississippi an arm of the sea, by which the flow of the Ohio 

•When the water in the lake basin had sabalded to near its present level, its old 
avenaes of escape being all silted up by the Drift clays and sands, the surplus made its 
exit by the line of lowest levels wherever that chanced to run. As that happened to lie 
over the rocky point that projected ftx>m the northern exti-emity of the Alleghanies into 
the lake basin, there the line of drainage was established In what Is now known as Ni- 
agara River. 

Though among the most recent of the events recorded in our snrfhce geology, this 
choice of the Niagara outlet by the lake waters was made so long ago that all the ero- 
sion of the gorge below the falls has been accomplished since. The excavation of the 
basin into which the Niagara flows — the basin of Lake Ontario, of which Queenstown 
Heights form part of the margin— belongs to an epoch long anterior. 


and Tennessee was arrested, their channels filled, terraces 
formed, etc. If the Upper Tennessee has, as appears, a 
channel lower than the Mussel Shoals, it must be somewhere 
connected with the deep channel of the lower river. 

It should be said, however, that it by no means follows 
that where an old earth-filled channel passes around the 
rocky barrier by which the navigation of our rivers is im- 
peded, it will be most convenient and economical to follow 
it in making a canal to pass the obstacle, as the course of 
the old channel may be so long and circuitous that a short 
rock cutting is cheaper and better. The question is, how- 
ever, of sufficient importance to deserve investigation, before 
millions of dollars are expended in rock excavation. 

If it is true that our great lakes can be connected with each 
other and with the ocean, both by the Hudson and Mississippi, 
by ship canals, — in making which no elevated summits nor 
rock barriers need be cut through, — the future commerce cre- 
ated by the great population and immense resources of the 
basin of the great lakes may require their construction. 

3d. Upon the glacial surface we find a series of unconsoli- 
dated materials generally stratified, called the "Drift de- 

Of these the first and lowest are blue and red clays (the 
Erie clays of Sir William Logan), generally regularly strati- 
fied in thin layers, and contsiining no fossils, but drifted 
coniferous wood and leaves. Over the southern and eastern 
part of the lake basin, these clays contain no boulders, but 
towards the North and West they include scattered stones, 
often of a large size ; while in places beds of boulders and 
gravel are found resting directly on the glacial surface. 

In Ohio the Erie clays are blue, nearly two hundred feet 
in thickness, and reach up the hill-sides more than two hun- 
dred feet above the present surface of Lake Erie. On the 
shores of Lake Michigan these clays are in part of a red 
color, showing .that they have been derived from different 
rocks, and they there include great numbers of stones. 


On the peniusula between Lake £rie and Lake Huron the 
Erie clays fill the old channel which formerly connected 
these lakes, having a thickness of over two hundred feet, 
and containing a few scattered stones, 

4th. Above the Erie clays are sands of variable thickness 
and less widely spread than the underlying clays. These 
sands contain beds of gravel, and, near the surface, teeth of 
elephant have been found, water-worn and rounded. 

5th. Upon the stratified clays, sands, and gravel of the 
Drift deposits are scattered boulders and blocks of all sizes, 
of granite, greenstone (diorite and dolerite), silicious and 
mica slates, and various other metamorphic and eruptive 
rocks, generally traceable to some locality in the Eozoic 
area north of the lakes. Among these boulders many 
balls of native copper have been found, which could have 
come from nowhere else than the copper district of Lake 

Most of these masses are rounded by attrition, but the 
large blocks of Corniferous limestone which are scattered 
over the southern margin of the lake basin in Ohio show 
little marks of wear. These masses, which are often ten to 
twenty feet in diameter, have been transported from one 
hundred to two hundred miles south-eastward from their 
places of origin, and deposited sometimes three hundred feet 
above the position they once occupied. 

6th. Above all these Drift deposits, and more recent than 
any of them, are the ''lake ridges," — embankments of sand, 
gravel, sticks, leaves, etc., which run imperfectly parallel 
with the present outlines of the lake margins, where high- 
lands lie in the rear of such margins. Of these, the lowest 
on the South shore of Lake Erie is a little less than one 
hundred feet above the present lake level ; the highest, some 
two hundred and fifty feet. In New York, Canada, Michi- 
gan, and on Lake Superior, a similar series of bridges has 
been discovered, and they have everywhere been accepted as 
evidence that the waters of the lakes once reached the points 


which they mark. That they are nothing else than ancient 
lake beaches we shall hope to prove farther on. 

In the southern half of the Mississippi valley the evidences 
of glacial action are entirely wanting, and there is nothing 
corresponding to the wide-spread Drift deposits of the north. 
We there find, however, proofs of erosion on a stupendous 
scale, such as the valley of East Tennessee, which has been 
formed by the washing out of all the broken strata between 
the ridges of the Alleghanies and the massive tables of the 
Cumberland Mountains, — the cafLons of the Tennessee, one 
thousand six hundred feet deep, etc. Here also, as in the 
lake basin, the channels of e^ccavation pass far below the 
deep and quiet waters of the lower rivers ; proving by their 
depth that they must have been cut when the fall of these 
rivers was much greater than now. 

The history which I derive from the facts cited above is 
briefly this : 

IsT. — That in a period probably synchronous with the 
glacial epoch of Europe, — at least coiTCspondiug to it in the 
sequence of events, — the northern half of the continent of 
North America had a climate comparable with that of Green- 
land ; so cold, that wherever there was a copious precipita- 
tion of moisture from oceanic evaporation, that moisture was 
congealed and formed glaciers which flowed by various routes 
towards the sea. 

2nd. — That the courses of these ancient glaciers corres- 
ponded in a general way with the present channels of drain- 
age. The direction of the glacial furrows proves that one 
of these ice rivers flowed from Lake Huron, along a channel 
now filled with drift, and known to be at least one hundred 
and fifty feet deep, into Lake Erie, which was then not a 
lake, but an excavated valley into which the streams of 
Northern Ohio flowed, one hundred feet or more below the 
present lake level. Following the line of the major axis of 
Lake Erie to near its eastern extremity, here turning north- 
east, this glacier passed through some channel on the Cana- 


dian side, now filled up, into Lake Ontario, and thence found 
its way to the sea either by the St. Lawrence or by the Mo- 
hawk and Hudson. Another glacier occupied the bed of 
Lake Michigan, having an outlet southward through a chan- 
nel-^ now concealed by the heavy beds of drift which occupy 
the surface about the south end of the lake— passing near 
Bloomington, Illinois, and by some route yet unknown 
reaching the trough of the Mississippi, which was then much 
deeper than at present. 

3d. — At this period the continent must have been several 
hundred feet higher than now, as is proved by the deeply ex- 
cavated channels of the Columbia, Golden Gate, Mississippi, 
Hudson, etc., which could never have been cut by the 
streams that now occupy them, unless flowing with greater 
rapidity and at a lower level than they now do. 

The depth of the trough of the Hudson is not known, but 
it is plainly a channel of erosion, now submerged and be- 
come an arm of the sea. As has been before stated this 
channel is marked on the sea-bottom for a long distance from 
the coast and far beyond a point where the present river 
could exert any erosive action, and hence it is a record of a 
period when the Atlantic coast was several hundred feet 
higher than now. 

The lower Mississippi bears unmistakable evidence of be- 
ing — if one may be permitted the paradox — a half-drowned 
river ; that is, its old channel is deeply submerged and silted 
up, so that the ^father of waters," lifted above the walls that 
formerly I'estrained him, now wanders, lawless and ungov- 
ernable, whither he will in the broad valley. 

The thickness of the delta deposits at New Orleans is va- 
riously reported from fifteen hundred feet upwards, the dis- 
crepancies being due to the difficulty of distinguishing the 
alluvial clays from those of the underlying Cretaceous and 
Tertiary formations. It is certain, however, that the bottom 
of the ancient channel of the Mississippi has never been 
reached between New Orleans and Cairo ; the instances cited 



by Humphreys and Abbot in their splendid study* of this 
river being but repetitions of the phenomena exhibited at 
the falls of the Ohio — the river running over one side of its 
ancient bed. 

The trough of the Mississippi is not due to synclinal struc- 
ture in the underlying rocks, but is a valley of erosion sim- 
ply. Ever since the elevation of the Alleghanies — i.e. the 
close of the Carboniferous period — it has been travei*sed by 
a river which drained the area from which flow the upper 
Mississippi, the Ohio, the Tennessee, etc. Since the Mio- 
cene period, the Missouri, Arkansas, and Red rivers have 
made their contributions to the flood that flowed through it. 
The depth to which this channel is cut in the rock proves 
that at times the river must have flowed at a lower level and 
with a more rapid current than now ; while the Tertiary beds 
formed as high as Iowa and Indiana in this trough, and the 
more modern Drift clays and boulders which partially fill the 
old rock cuttings, show that the mouth and delta of the river 
have, in the alternations of continental elevation, travelled 
up and down the trough at least a thousaud miles ; and that 
not only is it true, as asserted by EUet, that every mile be- 
tween Cairo and New Orleans once held the river's mouth, 
but that in the several advances and recessions of the waters 
of the Gulf the mouth has been more than twice at each 
point. The change of place of the delta has been caused, 
however, for the most part, by oscillations of the sea level, 
and not, as EUet supposed, by the filling of the channel by 
the materials transported by the river itself. 

Drift Deposits. The Drift deposits which cover the gla- 
cial surface, consisting of fine clays below, sands and gravel 
above, large transported boulders on the surface, and the 
series of lake ridges (beaches) over all, form a sequence of 
phenomena of which the history is easily read. 

Sine Clays. The lower series of blue or red clays — the 
"Erie clays" of Sir William Logan — over a very large area, 
rest directly on the plain and polished rock surfaces. These 


clays are often accurately stratified, were apparently depos- 
ited in deep and generally quiet water, and mark a period 
when the glacial ice-masses, melted by a change of climate, 
retreated northward, leaving large bodies of cold fresh- 
water* about their southern margins, in which the mud 
produced by their grinding action on the paleozoic rocks of 
the Lake District was first suspended and then deposited. 

On the shores of Lake Erie these clays contain no boul- 
ders and very few pebbles, while farther North and West 
boulders are more abundant. This is precisely what might 
be expected from the known action of glacial masses on the 
surfaces over which they pass. Their legitimate work is to 
grind to powder the rock on which they rest; an efifect 
largely due to the sand which gathers under them, acting as 
emery on a lead wheel. The water flowing from beneath 
glaciers is always milky and turbid from this cause. Rocks 
and boulders are sometimes frozen into glaciers, and thus 
transpoiled by them, but nearly all the boulders carried along 
by a glacier are such as have fallen from above ; and a mo- 
raine can hardly be formed by a glacier except when there 
are cliffs and pinnacles along its course. 

In a nearly level country, composed of sedimentary rocks 
passed over by a glacier, we should have very little debris 
produced by it, except the mud flour which it grinds. 

The Erie clays would necessarily receive any gravel or 
stones which had been frozen into the ice, either as scattered 
pebbles or stones, distributed to some distance from the gla- 
cial mass by floating fragments of ice, or as masses of frozen 
gravel, or larger and more numerous boulders near the gla- 
cier. In some localities torrents would pour from the sides 
and from beneath the glacier, so that here coarse material 
would alone resist the rapid motion of the water, and the 
stratification of the sediments would be more or less confused. 

• Cold, because oomlng fVom the melting glacier, and depositing with its sediments 
no evidences of life; /V^^* because no marine shells are found In it— only drift-wood— » 
while the equiralent *' Champlain" clays on the coast are fbll of Marine Arctic sheila. 


In regard to the cause of the gradual amelioration of the 
climate of the glacial epoch, by which the great glaciers of 
the lake basin were driven northward and finally altogether 
dissolved, we are not left entirely to conjecture. 

Cosmical causes possibly and probably had the chief agency 
in producing this result, but we have unmistakable evidence 
of at least the cooperation of another and perhaps no less 
potent cause, namely, continental depression. 

If a cosmical cause had simply increased the annual tem- 
perature till the glaciers were all melted, without the action 
of any other agent, we should never have had the accumula- 
tion of drift deposits which now occupy all the glacial area ; 
but the drainage streams, changed in all their courses from 
ice to water, would have flowed freely and rapidly away 
through their deeply cut channels to deposit their abundant 
sediments only where their transporting power was arrested , 
in the depths of the ocean. 

Instead of this, we everywhere find evidence that this flow 
was checked, and a basin of quiet water formed by an ad- 
vance of the ocean consequent upon a subsidence of the land. 
On the Atlantic and Gulf coasts this depression progressed 
until the sea level was more than five hundred feet higher 
than now. The effect of this depression was to deeply sub- 
merge the eastern margin of the continent, and cover it with 
the **Champlain'' clays. 

It is evident that at this period the drainage from the great 
water-shed of the continent must have been met by the quiet 
waters of the ocean almost at the sources of the present 
draining streams, and as the *Mead water" gradually crept 
up the valleys, aiTCstiug the transporting power of their curr 
rents, their old chaunels would be silted up and obliterated, 
and their valleys partially filled with materials for their sub- 
sequent terraces. In the advance and subsequent recession 
of the line of "dead water" we have ample cause for all our 
terrace phenomena. 

This continental depression accounts satisfactorily for the 


filling of the old channels of the Mississippi and the Ohio, 
as a depression of five hundred feet would bring the ocean 
nearly to Pittsburgh on the Ohio, to St. Paul on the Missis- 

But I think we have evidence that the continent did not 
sink uniformly in all its parts, but most at the Ncn^th. Not 
to cite any other proof of this, — northern coast fiords, etc. 
— the altitude of the loess-like deposits of the upper Missis- 
sippi and Missouri (the lacustrine non-glacial sediments of 
this period of submergence), the upward reach of the Drift 
clays of the lake basin, the filling of the valleys of the 
streams flowing into the Ohio and Lake Erie, the old lake 
beaches marking the former water-level in the lake basin — 
all indicate that the continental subsidence was greatest to- 
wards the north. To this subsidence we must, as I think, 
attribute the accumulation of water in the lake basin and 
Mississippi valley to form the great inland sea of fresh-water, 
of which traces eveiywhere abound. It seems to me scarcely 
necessary to suppose any other ban*iers by which this sea 
was enclosed than the highlands that encircle it — such as are 
roughly outlined by the light tint on Professor Guyot's map 
of North America — and the sea- water which filled the 
mouths of the two* straits by which it communicated with 
the ocean. 

Yellow Sands and Surface Boulders. I have mentioned 
that on the Erie clays are beds of gravel, sand, and clay, 
and over these again great numbers of transported boulders, 
often of large size and of northern and remote origin. 

These surface deposits have been frequently referred to as 
the direct and normal product of glacial action, the materials 
torn up and scraped off by the great ice ploughs in their 

*ir there vere two. That there was one in the conrse of the MlBsiBiiippi we know, 
and that so long that, though salt at one end, it must haye been firesh at the other. 

The eastern outlet of the lake waters may not haye been by the St. Lawrence but 
as likely through the gap between the Adirondacks and the Alleghanles. The shallow 
channels between the Thousand Islands and the Lachlne Rapids seem to indicate that 
the St. Lawrence is a comparatlyely new line of drainage for the lakes. 


long journeys from the North ; in fact, as some sort of huge 
terminal and latera] moraines. I have, however, disproved, 
as I think, this theory of their transportation in a paper pub- 
lished some years since (Notes on the Surface Geology of 
the Basin of the Great Lakes. Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
1863), in which it is urged that the continuous sheet of the 
Erie clays upon which they rest, and which forms an un- 
broken belt between them and their place of origin, pre- 
cludes the idea that they have been transported by any ice- 
current or rush of water moving over the glacial surface ; as 
either of these must have torn up and scattered the soft clays 

There is, indeed, no other conclusion deducible from the 
facts than that these sands, gravels, granite and greenstone 
boulders- — masses of native copper, etc., which compose the 
superficial Drift deposits — have been floated to their resting- 
places, and that the floating agent has been ice, in the form 
of icebergs; in short, that these materials have been trans- 
ported and scattered over the bottom and along the south 
shore of our ancient inland sea, just as similar materials are 
now being scattered over the banks and shores of Newfound- 

If we restore in imagination this inland sea, which we 
have proved once filled the basin ot the lakes, gradually dis- 
placing the retreating glaciers, we are inevitably led to a 
time in the history of this region when the southern shore 
of this sea was formed by the highlands of Ohio, etc., the 
northern shore a wall of ice resting on the hills of crystalline 
and trappean rocks about Lake Superior and Lake Huron. 

From this ice-wall masses must from time to time have 
been detached, — just as they are now detached from the 
Humboldt Glacier, — and floated off southward with the cur- 
rent, bearing in their grasp sand, gravel, and boulders — 
whatever composed the beach from which they sailed. Five 
hundred miles south they grounded upon the southern shore ; 
the highlands of now Western New York, Pennsylvania and 


Ohio, or the shallows of the prairie region of Indiana, Illi- 
nois, and Iowa; there melting away and depositing their 
entire loads, — as I have sometimes seen them, a thousand or 
more boulders on a few acres, resting on the Erie clays and 
looking in the distance like flocks of sheep, — or dropping 
here and there a stone and floating on, east or west, till wholly 

These boulders include representatives of nearly all the 
rocks of the Lake Superior country, conspicuous among 
which are gi'anites with rose-colored orthoclase, gray gneiss, 
and diorites, all chamcteristic of the Laurentian series; 
horublendic rocks, massive or schistose, and dark greenish 
or bluish silicious slates, probably from the Huronian ; dolo- 
rites and masses of native copper, apparently from the 
Keweenaw Point copper region. 

In the Drift gravels I have found pebbles and small boul- 
ders of nearly all the paleozoic rocks of the lake basin, con- 
taining their characteristic fossils, namely, the Calciferous 
Sandrock with Madurea^ Trenton and Hudson with Ambony- 
chia radiata^ Cyrtolites ornatiis, Medina with Pleurotomaria 
litorea^ Corniferous with Conocardium tngonale, Atrypa 
reticularis^ Favositea polymorphay Hamilton with Sjpirifer 
mucroncUuSy etc. 

The granite boulders are often of large size, sometimes 
six feet and more in diameter, and generally rounded. 

The largest transported blocks I have seen are the more 
or less angular masses of corniferous limestone mentioned 
on a preceding page. 

Along the southern margin of the Drift area, especially on 
the slopes of the highlands of Northern Ohio, the Drift 
sands and gravels are of considerable thickness, forming 
hills of one hundred feet or more in height, generally strati- 
fied, but often without any visible arrangement. These de- 
posits are very unevenly distributed, with a rolling surface 
frequently forming local basins, which hold the little lakelets 
or sphagnous marshes so characteristic of the region referred 


to. These are the beds to which I have alluded as constitu- 
ting, in the opinion of some geologists, a great glacial mo- 
raine, but from the fact that they are locally stratified, and 
overlie the older blue clays, I have regarded them as trans- 
ported not by glaciers, but by icebergs. 

Possibly some part of this Drift material may have accu- 
mulated along the margin of the great glacier, moved by its 
agency ; but in that case we should expect to find in it abun- 
dant fragments of the rocks which outcrop in the region 
under consideration, whereas I have rarely, if ever, seen in 
these Drift gravels any representatives of the rocks under- 
lying the south margin of the lake basin. 

By whatever agency transported, the Drift gravels have, 
like the boulders, for the most part come from some remote 
point at the North, and were once spread broadcast along the 
southern shore of the inland iceberg-bearing sea. 

In the retreat of the shore line during the contraction of 
the water surface down to its present area, every part of the 
slope of the southern shore between the present water sur- 
face and the highest lake level of former times, i.e. all 
within a vertical height of three hundred feet or more, must 
in turn have been submitted to the action of the shore waves, 
rain, and rivers, by which if, as is probable, the retrograde 
movement of the water line was slow, these loose materials 
would be rolled, ground, sorted, sifted, and shifted, so that 
comparatively little would be left in its original bedding ; the 
fine materials, clay and sand, would be washed out and car- 
ried farther and still farther into the lake basin, and spread 
over the bottom, to form, in short, the upper sandy layers 
of the Drift. 

At certain points in its descent the water level seems to 
have been for a time stationary, and such points are marked 
by terraces and the long lines of ancient beaches which have 
been referred to. A similar "lake ridge" now borders the 
south shore of Lake Michigan, where it may be observed in 
the process of formation ; and this seems to be the legitimate 


effect of waves everywhere on a sloping shore composed of 
loose material ; storms driving up sand and gravel to form a 
ridge which ultimately acts as a barrier to the waves that 
built it. Winds, also, often assist in building up, and some- 
times alone form these ridges, by transpoi-ting inland the 
beach sand. 

In other localities, where hard rock masses formed the 
shore of our inland sea, perpendicular wave-worn cliffs were 
produced ; and many of these now stand jbls enduring and 
indisputable monuments of a sea whose waves, perhaps for 
ages, beat against them. Such cliffs may be observed on Little 
Mountain, in Lake county, in the valley of the Cuyahoga, in 
Medina and Lorain county, Ohio, along the outcrops of 
the Carboniferous conglomerate and Waverly sandstone. 

In all the changes through which the valley of the Missis- 
sippi passed during the "Drift Period," its general structure 
and main topographical features remained the same. Yet 
the character of its surface suffered very important modifica- 
tions, and such as deeply affected its fitness for human occu- 

As we have seen, the glacial epoch was marked by erosion 
on a grand scale. 

Then, our river valleys and some of our lakes — though 
mapped out long before — were excavated to a much greater 
depth than they now have. 

During their subsequent submergence, these valleys and 
lakes were partially or perfectly filled with the drift deposits 
which covered all the surface like a deep fall of snow, 
rounded its outlines and softened all its asperities. 

When the waters were withdrawn, the rivers again began 
clearing their obstructed channels ; a work not yet accom- 
plished, and in many instances not half done. Numbers of 
the old channels were wholly filled and obliterated, and the 
streams that once traversed them were compelled to find 
quarters elsewhere. Examples of this kind have been al- 
ready cited, and they could be multiplied indefinitely. 



Origin op the Great Lakes. — The question of the ori- 
gin of our lakes is one that requires more observation and 
study than have yet been given to it before we can be said to 
have solved all the problems it involves. There are, how- 
ever, certain facts connected with the structure of the lake 
basins, and some deductions from these facts, which may be 
regarded as steps already taken toward the full understanding 
of the subject. These facts and deductions are briefly as 
follows: — 

1st. Lake Superior lies in a synclinal trough, and its mode 
of formation therefore hardly admits of question, though its 
sides are deeply scored with ice-marks, and its form and area 
may have been somewhat modifled by this agent. 

2d. Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, and Lake 
Ontario are excavated basins, wrought out of once contin- 
uous sheets of sedimentary strata by a mechanical agent, and 
that ice or water, or both. 

That they have been filled with ice, and that this ice 
formed great moving glaciers we may consider proved. The 
west end of Lake Erie may be said to be carved out of the 
Corniferous limestone by ice action ; as its bottom and sides 
and islands — horizontal, vertical, and even overhanging sur- 
faces — are all furrowed by glacial grooves, which are par- 
allel with the major axis of the lake. 

All our great lakes are probably very ancient, as since the 
close of the Devonian period the area they occupy has never 
been submerged beneath the ocean, and their formation may 
have begun during the Coal Measure epoch. 

The Laurentian belt, which stretches from Labrador to the 
Lake of the Woods, and thence northward to the Arctic sea, 
forms the oldest known portion of the earth's surface. The 
shores of this ancient continent, then high and mountainous, 
were washed by the Silurian sea, where the debris of the 
land was -deposited in strata that subsequently rose to the 
surface, and formed a broad low margin to the central moun- 
tain belt, just as the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata flank the 
Alleghanies in the Southern States. 


In the lapse of countless ages, all the mountain peaks and 
chains of the Laurentian continents have been removed and 
carried into the sea, and this has been done by rivers of 
water and rivers of ice. That these mountains once existed 
there can be no reasonable doubt, for their truncated bases 
remain as witnesses, and it is scarcely less certain that gla- 
ciers have flowed down their slopes of sufficient magnitude 
And reach to deeply score the plain which encircled them. 

It will be noticed that all the great lakes of the continent 
hold certain relations to the curving belt of Laurentian high- 

Some of them are embraced in the foldings of the Eozoic 
rocks, and fill synclinal troughs; but most of the series, 
from Great Bear Lake to Lake Ontario, exhibit the san^e 
geological and physical structure, are basins of excavation 
in the paleozoic plain that flanks in a parallel belt the Laur- 
entian area. Few of us have any conception of the enor- 
mous general and local erosion which that plain has suffered. 
Those who will take the trouble to examine the section 
across Lake Ontario, from the Alleghanies to the Laurentian 
hills of Canada, and compare it with the other sections in the 
Lake Winnepeg district, radial to the Laurentian arch, given 
by Mr, Hind in his report on the Assiniboin country, will be 
sure to find the comparison interesting and suggestive ; sug- 
gestive especially of a community of structure and history, 
and of an inseparable connection between the lake phe- 
nomena and the topographical features of the Laurentian 
highlands flanked by the paleozoic plain. 

In estimating the influences that might have afiected the 
number and magnitude of glaciers on the sides of the Lau- 
rentian mountains, it should not be forgotten that the Cre- 
taceous sea swept the western shore of the Paleozoic and 
Laurentian continent from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic 
Ocean ; and whether we consider this sea as a broad expanse 
of water simply dotted with islands, or a strait traversed by 
a tropical current, we have in either case conditions peculi- 


arly favorable to the formation of great glacial masses of ice, 
t. c. a broa<i evaporating surface of warm water swept by 
westerly winds that carried all suspended moisture immedi- 
ately on to a mountain belt, which served as a sufficient con- 

This, at least, may be positively asserted in regard to the 
agency of ice in the excavation of the lake basins, that their 
bottoms and sides wherever exposed to observation, if com- 
posed of resistant materials, bear indisputable evidence of 
ice action, proving that these basins were filled by moving 
glaciers in the last ice period if never before, and that part, 
at least, of the erosion by which they were formed is due to 
these glaciers. 

No other agent than glacial ice, as it seems to me is capa- 
ble of excavating broad, deep, boat-shaped basins, like those 
which hold our lakes. 

K the elevation of temperature and retreat northward of 
the glaciers of the lake basins were not uniform and contin- 
uous, but alternated with .periods of repose, we should find 
these periods marked by excavated basins, each of which 
would serve to measure the reach of the glacier at the time 
of its formation, the lowest basin being the oldest, the others 
formed in succession afterwards. Such a cause would be 
sufficient to account for any local expansions of the troughs 
of the old ice rivers. 

Where glaciers flow down from highlands on to a plain or 
into the sea, the excavating action of the ice mass must ter- 
minate somewhat abruptly in the formation of a basin-like 
cavity, beyond which would be a rim of rock, with whatever 
of debris the glacier has brought down to form a terminal 

When glaciers reach the sea, the great weight of the ice 
mass must plough up the sea bottom out to the point where 
the gi'eater gravity of water lifts the ice from its bed, and 
bears it away as an iceberg. 

If it is true, as the facts I have cited indicate, that our 


lakes are but portions of great excavated channels locally 
filled with drift material, the fiords of the northern Atlantic 
and Pacific coast present remarkable parallels to them ; and 
I would suggest Puget's Sound, Hood's Canal, and other 
portions of that wonderful system of navigable channels 
about Vancouver's Island, as affording interesting and in- 
structive subjects for comparison. Like our lakes their 
channels are for the most part excavated from sedimentary 
strata which form a low and comparatively level margin to 
the bases of mountain chains and peaks. They too have 
their depths and shallows, their basins and bars, and probably 
all who have seen them will assent to Professor Dana's view, 
that they are the "result of subaerial excavation," in which 
glaciers peiformed an important part. 

The '"Loess" of the Mississippi Valley, The "Bluff form- 
ation" of the West, sometimes called "Loess," from its re- 
> semblance to the Loess of the Rhine, I have on a preceding 
page designated as a lacustrine non-glacial Drift deposit. It 
seems to be the sediment precipitated from the waters of our 
great inland sea in its shallow and more quiet portions, to 
which icebergs, with their gravel and boulders, had no ac- 
cess, and where the glacial mud was represented only by an 
impalpable powder, which mingled with the wash of the 
adjacent land, land shells, etc. 

It is evidently one of the most recent of the deposits 
which come into the series of Drift phenomena, and was ap- 
parently thrown down while the broad water surface which 
once stretched over the region where it is found was narrow- 
ing by drainage and evaporation, till, by its total disappear- 
ance, this sheet of calcareous mud was lefb. 

It underlies much of the prairie region, and once filled, 
often to the brim, the troughs of the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri, so deeply excavated during the glacial epoch. When 
the system of drainage was re-established the new rivers be- 
gan the excavation of their ancient valleys in the Loess. 
When they had cut into or through this stratum, so that it 


stood up in escarpments on either side, man came and called 
it the Bluff formation, because it composed or capped the 
bold bluffs of the river-banks. It is often, however, only a 
facing to the rocky cliffs, which are the true walls of these 
valleys, and which are monuments of an age long anterior 
to the date of its deposition. — Annals of the Lyceum of 
Natural History of New Yorky 1869. 



It has long been a favorite aspiration of the writer, at 
some time in life, to have an arboretum collected from our 
woods and waysides. But despairing of that, I would in this 
article give a list of those native shrubs and trees, which 
seem to promise to repay transplanting, and which would in 
beauty, and many of them in novelty, to any but the bota- 
nist, vie with those imported. 

Of the trees of early spring, it is a pity that the Silver 
Maple {Acer dasycarpum) ^ and the Sugar Maple (A, sac^ 
charinuni)^ were not more generally known and valued, as 
flowering trees. The former is the earliest tree I know in 
this latitude, and the beauty of the long, yellow tassels of 
the latter, commends itself to every observer. Then for 
grounds of any extent the different Birches, the White {Be- 
tula alba) J the Paper (JB. papyraced)^ the Yellow (JB. ex- 
celsa)y and the Black (B. lenta)^ are in early spring most 
attractive ornaments, for the grace and variety of the spray 
of their delicate catkins. Then the Tulip Tree {Linoden- 
dron tulipifera)^ and the Cucumber Tree {Magnolia acum- 
tnato), both perfectly hardy in New York and New England, 
should be seen much more frequently in cultivated grounds. 

The Barberry {Berberis vulgaris) forms a pleasing clump 


whether it hang out its bright yellow flowers or its crimson 

Of course the Sumachs would claim a place with their 
variety of flower, fruit and leaf, at least the Staghorn Sumach 
(lihus typhina)^ with its red velvety branches ; R. glabra^ as 
smooth as the last is shaggy, and R. copallina^ with its leaves 
looking as if varnished. 

The New Jersey Tea {Geaiiothua Americanvs) y with its 
spikes of delicate white flowers, demands a place, as well as 

Bittersweet (Oelastrus scandens)^ also called Roxbury 
Waxwork, so well known as having given a name to one of 
the most charming rural poems in our language, is a hardy 
climber, vigorous and luxuriant in summer, and very con- 
spicuous in autumn, with its scarlet seed coverings set in 
orange linings, as is its first cousin the Waahoo {Euonymus 
atropurpureus) , with its crimson drooping fruit, not uncom- 
mon in cultivation. 

The Red-bud, or Judas Tree (Oercis Canadensis) y with 
its branches all aflame in early spring, is a small, graceful 

Spirasa opuUfoliay is an attractive variety, while the 
Meadow Sweet (S. salicifoUa)^ and the Hardback {8. to^ 
mentosa)y so valuable as a medicine, were they only less 
common, would be eagerly sought for their beauty. 

The Shad-bush (Amelanchier Canadensis) , heralding along 
the Connecticut, "the first run of shad," is a favorite where- 
cver known, while the Witch Hazel (Hamamelis Virginica)^ 
closing the floral procession of the season with its weird, 
wrinkled yellow flowers in October, and even November, is 
not to be neglected. 

The Flowering Dogwood ( Comus florida ) , beautiful alike 
in its snowy profusion of flowers and its bright red berries, 
is less known and far less cultivated than its merits deserve. 
It is hardy, with bright green leaves, and ought to become 
common, as our most showy shrub or small tree. 


Several other species of this genus are worthy a place in 
our collections : Cornus cirdnata^ sericea^ stoloniferay pani^ 
culaiay aliernifolia^ all of which may be found either in thick- 
ets or swampy places. 

The Honeysuckle family is already introduced, but some 
members of it need a special introduction. 

The Snowberry {Symphoricai'pus racemosus), with its 
fruit so well known to children as far from' liability to stain ; 
and the Coral-berry (S. vulgaris) y are in general cultivation, 
especially the former. 

The Trumpet Honeysuckle (Lonicera semperivtrens) , and 
the delicate little Fly Honeysuckles (L. ciliata and ccerulea)^ 
are equally as charming as some of their foreign sisters. The 
Viburnum too is a beautiful genus. The Cranberry Tree 
( V. Opulus) , whose fruit is better to look at than to eat, 
and the Hobble-bush ( V. lantanoides) , so called from the 
facility with which its procumbent branches trip the incautious 
traveller, are well known in early spring, with their broad 
cymes of mainly sterile flowera ; and the flower-buds of the 
latter forming in early autumn, afford a beautiful study of 
nature's care in affording protection against the winter's 
cold; while the rusty down upon the leaf-stalks affords 
under the microscope a most beautiful specimen of stellate 
hairs. But the other species, Fl nwrfwm, pi'unifolium^ den* 
tatum^ pubescenSy acerifolium^ and especially Lentaffo, while 
by no means rare in the woods and copses, are very beau- 
tiful, with enough of variety to render it desirable to have 
them all. 

The Button-bush ( Gephalanthus occidentalis) is odd, with 
its buttons of white flowers, and worthy of cultivation. 

Many of the Uricacce are no less beautiful than unknown. 
The Swamp Blueberry ( Vdccinium corymbosum) with its 
great variety of forms, is a very attractive shrub, with pu- 
bescent leaves, large flowers, and conspicuous and delicious 
fruit. The Deerberrj' ( Fl stamineum) is very peculiar in 
its habit of flowering, and would be very ornamental. Doubt- 


less this genus will eventually be taken up by the nurseiy- 
men, as have the different species of Rubus. 

The Leather Jjenf {Cassandra calyculaia) ^ and Andromeda 
polifolia, are both worthy of attention. White Alder ( Cle- 
thra almfolia) is already somewhat known, and is covered in 
August with handsome blossoms so fragrant that a clump 
may be detected at many rods distance. 

Mountain Laurel, Calico-bush, Spoon-wood {Kalmia latU 
folia) y is one of the most beautiful shrubs ever created, as 
seen in profusion in its varying shades, in parts of Massachu- 
setts, but very seldom in cultivation. Kalmia glavca^ or 
Pale Laurel, is less showy, but of great beauty. The Azaleas 
(A. viscosa and nudifiora) are very common, very beautiful 
and frjigrant, but very seldom cultivated. 

The Great Laurel {Rhododendron maxim wm), though mag- 
nificent in its native thickets, cannot probably compete with 
the foreign species, now so generally introduced, but Rhodora 
Canadensis^ with its rose-purple blossoms, covering the leaf- 
less branches, is one of the pleasantest sights of early spring, 
and Labrador Tea {Ledum latifolium) with its delicate white 
clusters and leaves rusty-woolly beneath, is likewise full of 

The Fringe-tree ( Chionanthus Virginicd) with its delicate 
white drooping panicles, ought to be seen much more fre- 
quently than it is. 

Sassafras officicinale with its curiously lobed leaves, yellow 
racemes of flowers, and spicy aroma; Leather- wood {Dirca 
jpalustiHs) J aIqo called Wicopy, with pale yellowish flowers is 
a curious shrub, its wood soft and brittle, its bark so tough 
that it can be used for thongs, requiring a strong man to 
break even its slenderest twigs. 

From this list have been omitted very many trees and 
shrubs in common cultivation. The object has been to call 
attention to those less generally known. Many of these 
have their natural station in swampy ground; many resist 
attempts at transplanting. But a little care in choosing from 



those in dryer locations, or setting out in moist ground, or 
better yet, propagating from seed, would doubtless overcome 
these difficulties, reward the pains taken, and introduce some 
chr.rming novelties to the lovers of flowers. 

Such an arboretum, shrubbery or lawn, comprising only 
native species, would not only gratify the botanist and the 
naturalist, but would surprise and delight the rapidly in- 
creasing number of amateur cultivators, who as yet have 
very little idea of the wealth of floral beauty to be found in 
our swamps and woodlands. 



■ Ot 

Many of the readers of the Naturalist when they hear 
Alaska spoken of, picture to themselves a snow-covered 
country, with at most a scanty summer, and a long and ex* 
tremely cold winter. A recent "official" report for instance, 
represents the island of St. Paul as surrounded in winter by 
"immense masses of ice" on which the polar bears and arctic 
foxes sail down from the North and engage in pitched battle 
with the wretched inhabitants. Such romances are due 
solely to the ardent imagination of the "official" mind, and 
have no basis in fact. There is no solid, and but little float- 
ing ice near St. Paul in winter ; the arctic foxes found there 
as well as on most of the other islands, were purposely in- 
troduced by the Russians for propagation, a certain number 
of skins being taken annually; and finally, we have no 
authentic evidence that the polar bear has ever been found 
south of Behring Strait. 

The country of Alaska comprises two climatic regions 
which difier as widely as Labrador and South Carolina in 
their winter tempeiuture. One contains the mainland north 


of the peninsula of Aliaska and the islands north of the St. 
Matthew group. The other includes the coast and islands 
south and east of Kadiak, while the Aleutian Islands, with 
the group of St. Paul and St. George, are somewhat^inter- 
mediate, being nearly as warm as the southern or Sitkan 
district, and much less rainy. 

This article will refer only to the northern district, which 
I have called the Yukon Territory. This is the coldest and 
most inhospitable part of the country, yet it is far from 
resembling Labrador or Greenland, although the winter 
weather may occasionally be very cold. The summers are 
much warmer and more pleasant than in Labrador, and may 
be compared to those of the Red Kiver district of the Hud- 
son Bay Territory. 

At the first thought one would hardly suppose that a natu- 
ralist would find much to do in the depth of winter, unless 
it were to sit by his great Russian oven or stove, and keep 
himself warm. I would invite the readers of the Natu- 
ralist to accompany me on a day's tramp, similar to many 
which I have undertaken without such pleasant company, 
and see how far their first anticipations will be realized. 

We will start from Ulokuk, an Indian village on the por- 
tage between the Yukon and Norton Sound, and bring up at 
Unaloklik, an Eskimo village on the coast, thirty miles away. 

We clothe ourselves in the comfortable costume of the 
country, consisting of a pair of warm American trousers ; a 
deerskin hunting shirt with a hood, made with the hair on, 
trimmed with wolf or wolverine skin, and fastened by a belt 
around the waist ; a good mink-skin cap with ear-lappets ; a 
pair of otter-skin mittens ; and a pair of long Indian deerskin 
boots with soles of sealskin, tied around the ankle and just 
below the knee, and having a bunch of straw below the foot 
to keep it warm, dry, and safe from contusions. 0\ir equip- 
ment will consist of our guns, a geological hammer, a good 
sheath-knife, a small axe, teakettle, bag of biscuit and dry 
salmon, and a pair of long snowshoes apiece. 

220 A winter's day in the YUKON TERRITORY. 

We start at ten o'clock, just as the December sun emerges 
from the southern hills and casts its welcome beams over the 
broad tundra covered with snow, fleckiug the green spruce 
boughs with golden touches of light, and giving a mellow 
tone to the clear blue sky. The temperature may be about 
twenty below zero, but in our warm deerskin dresses, we 
feel that it is only just cold enough to make the blood leap 
and the nerves thrill with the excitement of a brisk walk, 
skimming over the snow with our light snowshoes. 

We just clear the alder bushes around the village when a 
chirp and twitter in a clump of willows attract our attention. 
We look, and see a flock of the Pine Grosbeaks (Pinicola enu-- 
deatx>r)^ brilliant in scarlet and yellow, rifling the willows of 
their buds, carefully rejecting the scales and eating only the 
tender green hearts of the young buds. They look so pretty 
as they ruflie their scarlet coats, defying the winter frost, 
fat and comfortable with abundance of food, that we hesitate 
before we bring our guns to bear on them, and reluctantly 
add half a dozen members of the happy family to our col- 
lecting bag, with a single shot. They have the large bill 
which has been thought to distinguish the European form 
alone, and cannot be distinguished from typical specimens 
of the enudeator. They are among the most common of the 
Yukon birds in winter, and though quite small are usually 
fat and tender, and not to be despised in a pie. Leaving 
the banks of the Ulokuk River we strike across an undu- 
lating prairie called tundra by the Russians, and only marked 
by clumps of dwarf willow (Salix Richardsonii) ^ which 
project above the snow. Here and there a larch shakes its 
myriads of little cones in the passing breeze, or a small 
spruce shows its green tips ; but the large spruce, poplar, 
willow and birch, prefer the vicinity of the river. The 
snow-covered Ulokuk Hills smooth, serene and beautiful, 
bear up the reluctant sun, which seems loth to part from the 
horizon. Does the snow move? or what is that by yonder 
willow brush? We are answered as a covey of the exquisite 

A winter's day in the YUKON TERRITORY, 221 

Snow Grouse or Ptarmigan (Lagopus albus) rise with a 
whirr, showing their black tail-feathers as they seek a 
more retired spot. Scarcely to bo distinguished from the 
snoWy nor less immaculate, we must be more sharply on the 
lookout if we would secure a brace next time. They are 
better to look at than to eat ; for the dark colored flesh is 
dry and tasteless, and if we want specimens the better plan 
is to apply to the next Indian girl we meet. She, for a 
needle apiece, will furnish us with birds caught in snares, 
without a feather ruffled, or a speck on their shining coats. 
Their legs and feet are feathered down to the toes, and other 
stockings would be superfluous were we ourselves so warmly 

As we near a clump of poplars on a bend in the river, we 
see that the bushes are alive with tiny birds. The Black 
Cap (Panis atricapillus) and the Hudson Bay Titmouse (P. 
Hud&onicus) , chatter to each other from the swaj'ing twigs 
of alder, and a little farther on is a countless flock of the 
Rosy Crowned Sparrow (^giothus linaria) bold and saucy, 
with their crimson crests and rosy bosoms setting off their 
graceful shapes and lively motions. 

Chip I chip I chee 1 cries an angry Squirrel {Sciurua Hud- 
soniiLs) from yonder poplar; he evidently wants to know 
why we intrude on his privacy with guns and things, mak- 
ing ourselves disagreeable. A look, and he darts behind the 
trunk, only showing his head and ears, repeating his angry 
cry in apparent astonishment at our obstinacy in remaining. 
Finding us unmoved *'a change comes o'er the spirit of his 
dreams" and he seeks refuge in the deserted nest of a 
Golden- winged Woodpecker {Colaptes auratus), and waits 
for better times. You ask what is yonder broad trail in the 
snow ; too small for a bear, too broad and heavy for a fox. 
It is the track of a Wolverine (Gido luscus)^ known here by 
the more euphonic name of rossamorga. The Indians tell 
strange stories of his cunning, his perseverence in desti'oying 
their traps, and his almost human powers of reflection. The 

222 A winter's day in the yukon territory. 

Hudson Bay men say the same, but between you and I, 
I don't believe half of it. Mr, Carcajou is very intelligent^ 
no doubt, but he takes the place of snakes in the legends of 
the northern trapper, and we all know what stories are told 
about snakes, in more southern latitudes. 

The sun, though very low, is at his noonday elevation, 
and a short time will be devoted with satisfaction to lunch. 
One takes the axe and starts for a dead dry spruce tree, an- 
other scrapes away the snow from a hillock, with his snow- 
shoe. There we see in the depth of winter bright green 
mosses and other small plants, with the partridge berrj' and 
cranberry vines loaded with berries beneath the snow. The 
white fleecy covering defends them from the frost, and when 
the snow melts in the spring they have only to put forth 
their blossoms and continue to grow, under the warm sun 
which endures almost till midnight in May and June. 

Here comes the wood, and we proceed to make a white 
man's fire, which is built with the sticks laid i)arallel in layers 
which are at right angles to one another. This makes a flat 
top, and taking a dry stick we whittle a few shavings, which 
are put on top of the pile. Then with a flint and steel (for 
matches are luxuries in the Yukon Territory) wo light a bit 
of punk, and with our breath as a bellows, in a few moments 
we have a light with which we proceed to kindle the fire, 
putting it on top of the pile, so that the air having free 
access, it soon produces a cheerful blaze. An Indian builds 
his fire conically, which is much less convenient and takes 
much longer to boil the kettle. It is a work of time and 
difliculty to melt enough snow to fill the teakettle, and 
taking the axe, we go yonder where a low, smooth depres- 
sion in the snow indicates the position of what was a pool of 
water. A few minutes vigorous chopping and the welcome 
fluid gushes up and rapidly overflows the surface of the ice 
where we have scraped away the snow. It is full of little 
red crustaceans, like sand fleas, etc., among which we may 
distinguish members of the genus Cyclops, giants of their 

A winter's day in the YUKON TERRITORY. 223 

kind, carrying two pear-shaped bunches of eggs, one 
on each side of the tail. We throw a double handful of 
snow into the hole to filter out these unbidden guests, and 
filling the teakettle return to the bivouac where the others 
are broiling pieces of dry salmon on sticks by the fire. As 
soon as the kettle boils we put in the tea and let it boil up 
once, and our meal is ready. Tin cups in hand, we enjoy 
the grateful and refreshing beverage, which is worth more to 
the traveller in the north than any amount of whiskey. In- 
deed the latter is worse than worthless, and no old traveller 
would wish to have it along with him. After tea, biscuit 
and salmon are discussed, the one other luxury of voyageur 
life is enjoyed, namely, a cheerful pipe of tobacco, and re- 
placing our pipes in our "fire-bags" we continue on our way. 
By keeping a sharp lookout it is more than probable that we 
shall see a Marten {Mustela Americana) seeking refuge in 
some bushy spruce as we pass by. Their tracks are every- 
where, and they often disturb the traveller's cache of dry 
salmon used for dog feed, and left by the roadside until his 

We keep on our way through thick spruce groves where 
the trees may average eighteen inches in diameter and forty 
feet high. In the interior, on the Yukon, they grow much 
larger, but all the trees diminish in size and abundance as 
we approach the coast, where there are none at all. The 
Aspen {Pcjyulus tremuloides) ^ the Spruce (Abies alba), the 
Poplar {Pqpulits balsamifera) , and the Birch {Betula glan-- 
cZtxto^a), are the largest and most prominent trees. There 
are no true pines, though the settlers call the spruce "pine." 
Leaving the bank as we reach the river we continue on our 
way upon the ice. Although the thermometer may have been 
as low as fifty below zero since August, yet you will always 
find open places in the ice. These are formed by the rapid 
current or by warm springs. At Ulokuk there are a number 
of the latter, which keep a large space in the river open all 
the year round. Over this water a cloud, like steam, arises 

224 A winter's day in the yukon territory. 

in very cold weather. Myriads of fish, particularly a delic- 
ious salmon-trout, and a small cyprinoid fish, frequent such 
localities. One would hardly look for insects in this winter 
weather, yet .by watching the snow on the river while 
the sun shines brightly, a small, shining, pointed creature, 
like a Podura^ may be seen gliding between the particles of 
snow, and immediately disappearing should a cloud pass 
over the sun. In September I have found wooly caterpillars, 
the larvse of arctians^ crawling on the snow, while the at- 
mosphere was even below zero ; and I once found (October 
20th) the caterpillar of Vanessa Antiopa in the same manner, 
alive ; and on yet another occasion I shot a whiskey jack, or 
Canada jay {Perisoreus Canadensis) yyv\i\i one just killed, in 
his mouth. A little way farther on, a bluff of dark colored 
sandstone fronts the river. Here our hammers may well be 
employed, and with care fine specimens of fossil leaves may 
be obtained. These are usually Sycamores {Platanus)^ but 
others can be found by searching for them, and in Cook's 
Inlet some fifty species have been collected, some of which 
are common to Greenland, Spitzbergen, Northern Europe 
and Siberia, showing that there was a time when this part of 
the world was covered with a rich and verdant forest, and 
the temperature was about that of Virginia. This was be- 
fore the advent of the hairy elephant, who lived in colder 
times. It grew at last too cold for him, however, and his 
bones and teeth may be found scattered over the country, on 
the surface, and usually much decayed. His remains have 
been found imbedded in the masses of ice (not glaciers) 
which fringe the Siberian coasts, and in a perfect state of 
preservation, as if he had wandered into an enormous re- 
frigerator and been frozen into it. 

You will look in vain here for the familiar drift boulders, 
so common in the stone fences of New England. What was 
going on during the glacial period in the Yukon Territory 
is a mystery. There were no glaciers there, for their traces 
are entirely wanting. 


The sun is now on the point of retiring for the night, al- 
though it is barely three o'clock, and the sight of the tall 
caches, like corncribs, which mark the position of the village 
for which we are bound, is not unwelcome ; for thirty miles 
on snowshoes is a good day's tramp, especially for the first 
time. In a few minutes we are seated in one of the com- 
fortable underground houses and enjoying the hospitality of 
the friendly Eskimo. Perhaps some summer's day, reader, 
we will try our luck together again. 



The opportunity of copying a number of colored figures by 
Abbot, hitherto unpublished, leads me to say a few words 
regarding our native moths. The Lepidoptera, both butter- 
flies and moths (especially the former, from their constant 
presence by day) from their beauty and grace, have always 
been the favorites among amateur entomologists, and the 
rarest and most costly works have been published in which 
their forms and gorgeous colors are represented in the best 
style of natural history art. We need only mention the 
folio volume of Madam Merian of the last century, Harris's 
Aurelian, the works of Cramer, Stoll, Drury, Hiibner, Hors- 
field, Doubleday and Westwood, and several others, as com- 
prising the most luxurious and costly entomological works. 

Near the dose of the last century, John Abbot went from 
London and spent several years in Georgia, rearing the 
larger and more showy butterflies and moths, and painting 
them in the larva, chrysalis and adult, or imago, stage. 
These drawings he sent to London to be sold. Many of them 
were collected by Sir James Edward Smith, and published 
under the title of "The Natural History of the Rarer Lepi- 



dopterous Insects of Georgia, collected from the Observa- 
tions of John Abbot, with the Plants on which they Feed." 
London, 1797. 2 vols., fol. Besides these two rare vol- 
umes there are sixteen folio volumes of drawings by Abbot 
in the Library of the British Museum. The plate given with 
this article is selected from a thick folio volume of similar 
drawings presented by Dr. J. E. Gray of the British Mu- 
seum to Professor Asa Gray, to whose kindness we are in- 
debted for an opportunity of figuring the transformations 
before unknown of over a dozen moths, whose names are 
given, as far as possible in the present state of our knowledge, 
in the explanation of the plate. 

The study of insects possesses most of its interest when 
we observe their habits and transformations. Catei^illars 
are always to be found, and with a little practice are 
easy to raise, and we would advise any one desirous of be- 
ginning the study of insects to take up the butterflies and 
moths. They are perhaps easier to study than any other 
group of insects, and are more ornamental in the cabinet. 
As a scientific study we would recommend it to ladies as 
next to botany in interest and the ease in which specimens 
may be collected and examined. The example of Madam 
Merian, and several ladies in this country who have greatly 
aided science by their well filled cabinets, and thorough and 
critical knowledge of the various species and their transform- 
ations, is an earnest of what may be expected from their 
followers. Though the moths are easy to study compared 
with the bees, flies, beetles and bugs, and neuroptera, yet 
many questions of great interest in philosophical entomology 
have been answered by our knowledge of their structure and 
mode of growth. The great works of Herold on the evolu- 
tion of a catei^illar; of Lyonet on the anatomy of the 
Cossus; of Newport on that of the Sphinx, both in their 
various stages; and of Siebold on the parthenogenesis of 
insects, especially of Psyche hdix^ are proofs that the moths 
have engaged some of the master minds in science. 


The study of the transformations of the moths is also of 
great importance to one who would acquaint himself with the 
questions concerning the growth and metamorphosis and ori- 
gin of animals. We should remember that the very words 
" metamorphosis*' and "transformation,** now so generally ap- 
plied to other groups of animals and used in philosophical 
botany, were first suggested by those who observed that 
the moth and butterfly attain their maturity only by passing 
through wonderful changes of form and modes of life. 

The knowledge of the fact that all animals pass through 
some sort of a metamorphosis is very recent in physiology. 
Moreover the fact that these morphological eras in the life 
of an individual animal accord most unerringly with the gra- 
dation of forms in the tj-pe of which it is a member, was the 
discovery of the eminent physiologist Von Baer. Up to this 
time the true significance of the luxuriance and diversity of 
larval forms had never seriously engaged the attention of 
systematists in entomology. 

What can possibly be the meaning of all this putting on 
and taking off of caterpillar habilaments, or in other words, 
the process of moulting, with the frequent changes in orna- 
mentation, and the seeming fastidiousness and queer fancies 
and strange conceits of these young and giddy insects seem 
hidden and mysterious to human observation. Indeed, few 
care to spend the time and trouble necessary to observe the 
insect through its transformations; and that done, if only 
the larva of the perfect insect can be identified and its 
form sketched how much was gained I A truthful and cir- 
cumstantial biography in all its relations of a single insect 
has yet to be written. 

We should also apply our knowledge of the larval forms 
of insects to the details of their classification into families and 
genera, constantly collating our knowledge of the early 
stages with the structural relations that accompany them in 
the perfect state. 

The simple form of the caterpillar seems to be a concen- 


tration of the characters of the perfect insect, and presents 
easy characters by which to distinguish the minor groups ; 
and the relative rank of the higher divisions will only be 
definitely settled when their forms and methods of transform- 
ation are thoroughly known. Thus, for example, in two 
groups of the large Attacus-like moths, which are so amply 
illustrated in Dr. Harris's "Treatise on Insects Injurious to 
Vegetation ;" if we take the diflTerent forms of the caterpillars 
of the Tau moth of Europe, which are figured by Godart and 
Duponchel, we find that the very young larva has four horn- 
like processes on the front, and four on the back part of the 
body. The full grown larva of the Regalis moth, of the 
Southern states, is very similarly ornamented. It is an em- 
bryonic form, and therefore inferior in rank to the Tau moth. 
Multiply these horns over the surface of the body, lessen 
their size, and crown them with hairs, and we have our lo 
moth, so destructive to com. Now take off the hairs, elong- 
ating and thinning out the tubercles, and make up the loss by 
the increased size of the worm, and we have the caterpillar 
of our common Cecropia moth. Again, remove the naked 
tubercles almost wholly, smooth off the surface of the body, 
and contract its length, thus giving a greater convexity and 
angularity to the rings, and we have before us the larva of 
the stately Luna moth that tops this royal family. Here are 
certain criteria for placing these insects before our minds in 
the order that nature has placed them. We have here cer- 
tain facts for determining which of these three insects is 
highest and which lowest in the scale, when we see the larva 
of the Luna moth throwing off successively the lo and Ce- 
cropia forms to take on its own higher features. So that 
there is a meaning in all this shifting of insect toggery. 

This is but an example of the many ways in which both 
pleasure and mental profit may be realized from the 
thoughtful study of caterpillar life. 

In collecting butterflies and moths for cabinet specimens, 
one needs a gauze net a foot and half deep, with the wire 

r r 


frame a foot iu diameter; a bottle coutaining a parcel of 
cyanide of potassium gummed on the side, in which to kill 
the moths, which should at once be pinned in a cork-lined 
collecting box carried in the coat pocket. The captures 
should be spread and dried on a grooved setting board, and 
a cabinet formed of cork-lined boxes or drawers ; or as a sub- 
stitute for cork, frames with paper tightly stretched over 
them may be used, or corn, or palm-pith. Caterpillars should 
be preserved in spirits, or glycerine with a little spirits, or 
strong salt and water, while some ingeniously empty the 
skins and inflate them over a flame so that they may be 
pinned by the side of the adult. 


Fig. 1. Eustixis pupula Habner, female; la, larva, 1&, pnpa. Feeds on 

Sideronytum tenax. 
Fig. 2. Ccslodasya higuttatus Pack., male; 2a, larva; 8a, pupa. Feeds on 

Ipomea coccinea. 
Fig. 3. DryopteriSy probably nndescribed, female; 3a, larva; 85, pnpa. 

Feeds on Viburnum nudum. 
Fig. 4. Acontia metallica Grote, male; 4a, larva; 46, pupa. Feeds on 

Hibiscus palustris. 
Fig. 5. Homqptera edusa (Drury). 5a, larva; 56, pupa. The plant on 

which it feeds is not named. 
Fig. 6. Hyperetis, species not known, female; 6a, larva; 66, pupa. Feeds 

on a species of Azalea. 
Fig. 7. Boarmia, species not known, female; 76, larva; 7a, pupa. Feeds 

on Helenium. 
Ffg. S. Acidalia, species unknown. 8a, larva; 86, pupa. Feeds on 7Vi7- 

Fig. 9. fferminia, species not identified, male; 9a, larva; 96, pupa. 

Feeds on Hhexia mariana. 
Fig. 10. Helia cemulalis (Habner)? female; 10a, larva; 106, pupa. Feeds 
• on Phlox speciosa. 
Fig. 11. An unknown species of PhalcenidaSt male; 11a, larva; 116, pupa. 

Feeds on Coreopsis. 
Fig. 12. A species of Botys, male; 12a, larva; 126, pupa. Feeds on 

Fig. 18. A species of Botys^ female ; 13a, larva ; 186, pupa. Feeds on a 

species of Cfrotalaria. 


Modern Ideas of DEitrvATiON.* — This felicitous title heads an equally 
expressive and concise summary of the various theories on the origin of 
species, treated by the strong hand of an accomplished and veteran 

Professor Dawson recognizes that Darwin has given form and cohe- 
rency to researches upon the origin of species, but omits one very impor- 
tant consideration, to which we think the greatest effect of his book is due. 
The novel and exact methods of investigation, the analytical character 
of the book powerfully Influenced a much larger class of minds than 
those who heartily accepted the theory of a struggle for existence. The 
doctrine of natural selection may or may not be true, but the mode of 
study which it iuaagurated began a new era in the history of natural sci- 
ences and is already prodacing results of great value. 

The author begins his review with Professor Owen, bat succeeds no 
better than his predecessors In the same field, and is forced finally to de- 
duce his opinions from the oracular manner in which that distinguished 
anatomist writes of certain animals as being <*made," *< formed," or 
** brought forth." Professor Huxley gets a well deserved and very sar- 
castic notice for his late attempt to prove the theory of derivation by <'a 
series of cleverly arranged transitions," between some of the larger fossil 
reptiles (Iguanodons) and the ostriches. "Yet," writes Professor Daw- 
son, " he could not have placed together any two members of the supposed 
series without convincing any naturalist that an enormous gap had to be 
filled between them." The views of Darwin are summed up as follows : 
"That all organized beings are engaged in a struggle for existence; that 
in this struggle certain varieties arise, which, being better suited to the 
conditions, prosper and multiply more than others : that this amounts to 
a * Natural Selection,' similar in kind to the artificial selection of breeders 
of stock; that members of the same species Isolated fk'om each other 
and subjected to struggles of different kinds, will in process of time 
become specifically distinct." 

Professor Dawson objects to this theory for several reasons. The most 
important are that " conditions which involve a struggle for existence 
are found by experience to result In deterioration and final extinction 
rather than improvement, and are directly opposed to those employed by 
breeders for their purposes," and that the possibilities of geological his- 
tory are exceeded by the enormous time demanded by Darwin for accom- 
plishing the developmental change fk-om one species to another. 

Seemingly no worse or more contradictory comparison could be made 

'Modern Ideas of Derlyatlon. Bf Prlnoipal J. W. Dawson, LL.D. Canadian Nataraliit, 
Vol. It, No. 3. Jane, 1868. 



than that between the laws which govern the transmission of character- 
istics among races perpetually clashing in the " struggle for existence,** 
and those inDnencing the production of different breeds among animals 
enjoying the protection of the animal breeder. We, however, think that 
Professor Dawson would find it diiBcult to establish the truth of this 
very important proposition, that the conditions involving a struggle for 
existence necessarily lead to extinction. Darwin himself has shown that 
it leads to the extinction of those races which are not possessed of cer- 
tain advantages, and that it cannot according to physiological laws do 
otherwise than develop in a higher degree those points or changes in the 
favored races which enabled them to gain their first victories over their 
weaker brothers. 

The last objection, with regard to the lapse of time demanded for spe- 
cific changes according to the Darwinian theory, is becoming stronger 
every day. Deep sea dredgings have shown us that computations of 
geological time, based upon the thickness of rocks, and the presence of 
different assemblages of animals or faunas in successive beds are not to 
be relied upon. These explorations have detected the presence of veiy 
distinct fauniB dependent upon changes of temperature, and very different 
rocks in the course of formation within comparatively narrow limits. 
Thus it no longer becomes necessary to account for the change ttom 
one fossil fauna to another, as we pass fk'om one stratum or bed to an- 
other in geological time, by imagining the lapse of ages and a corres- 
ponding modification of the organization of the animals included in the 
lowest bed. A simple change of fourteen degrees Fahrenheit may pos- 
sibly make the difference between a limestone composed entirely of 
organic remains, and a sandstone containing the fossil remnants of a 
totally distinct fauna, though both of these may have been composed of 
contemporaneous animals.* 

The author's remarks upon Professor Cope*s late paper before the 

American Association so well expresses the substance of the new theory 

of derivation that we quote them in Aill : 

** Tlie last of these hypotheses which I shall notice, and. In my tIcw, the most promlsinff of 
tliem all. Is one whicli has recently been ably advocated by Mr. Edward D. Cope In a memoir on 
the * Orijcin of Genera,* published in the Proeeedin/cs of the Academy of Natural Sciences, t and 
which is based on the well known analogy between embryonic changes, rank in the xoologloal 
scale and geological succession. It may be illustrated by the remarkable and somewhat start- 
ling fact, that while no authenticated case exists of animals changing fk'om one species to an- 
other, they are known to change fVom one genus or family to another, and this without losing 
their Individuality. Professor Dumeril, of Paris, and Professor Marsh, of New Haven, have 
recently directed attention to the fhct that species of Siredon^ reptiles of the lakes of the 
Rucky Mountains of Mexico, and which, like our North American Meno&ranrhus^ retain their 
gills during lUe, when kept In captivity In a warmer temperature than that which is natural 
to them, lose their gills, and pass Into a form hitherto regarded as of a different genus and 
family, — the genut Amblytioma. In this case we may either suppose that the Amblystoma, 
ander onfitvorable circumstances, has its maturity and reproduction prematurely induced be- 

*8ee Keoent Explorations of Deep Sea Fauna, by A. E. Verrill. American Joamal of Sol- 
enee and Art, 3d series, Janaary, 1870. 


Ibre It has loat Ita gills, or that th6 SIredon has, ander oertain olroumstanees the capacity to hare 
iU period of reproduction arrested until it has gone on a stage flutlier in growth and has lost 
Its gills. In any case the same species— nay, the same indlTldual— Is capable of existing in a 
state of maturity as a creature half flsli and half reptile in regard to its circulation, or in a 
more perfect reptilian state in which it breathes solely by lungs. Farther, we may suppose 
conditions of the earth^s surface in which there would only be Slredons or only Amblystomas, 
and a change in these conditions Inducing tlie opposite slate. Here we have fur the first time 
actual fkcts on which to ba«e a theory of development. Tliese facts point to the operation of 
two causes— first, the possible Retardation or Acceleration of development, and secondly, the 
action of outward clixuaistauccs on the organism capable of tills retardation or acceleration. 
We here substitute fbr the tendency to vary of Owon*s theory, the ascertained ftict of repro- 
ductive retardation or accelerailou, and tor the struggle for existence, the action of changed 
physical conditions, and for the question as to the change of one species into another, the 
change of the same species ft-om one genus into another. Farther, Instead of vague specula- 
tions as to possible changes of allied animals, we are led to carelhl consideration of the em- 
bryonic changes of the individual animal, and as to the differences that would obtain were its 
development accelerated or retarded. We can thus range animals In genetic series within 
which anatomical characters would show change to be possible. I cannot follow tliese series 
out into the elaborate lists tabulated by Mr. Cope, but may proceed to notice the limitations 
which his views put tu the doctrine of derivation. It Is obvious that, if this be the real nature 
of derivation as a i>osslble hypothesis, then derivation must follow the same law with metar 
morphlsm and embryonic development. 

Acoordlug to this view, also, a species once created may have in Itself a capacity for passing 
through several generic forms, constituting a cycle wliich ever tends to return into itself, or to 
advance and recede by Mteps more or less abrupt under the law of retardation and acceleration, 
combined with the influence of external circumstances. Yet the dimeusions of the orbit of 
each species must be limited, its duration in time must also be limited, and its capacity to pass 
into a really new species must still be a point suhJect to doubt, but open to anatomical investi- 
gation and inference. As already hinted, it Is a most important point of this theory, that when 
we have ascertained the series of embryonic changes of any animal, we have thereby ascer- 
tained its possibilities In regard to accelerated development. Its possibilities in regard to re- 
tarded development may be inferred by similar studies of animals higher in the scale. Now, if 
we knew the embryonic history of every animal, recent and fbssil, in its anatomical details, 
we should be able to construct out of this a table of possible affiliation of animals, and should 
be able to trace our existing species through the some genera, families, orders and chuses in 
which they mlglit have existed in geological time, and to predict what they might become in 
time still to come." 

This theory of acceleration we have also shown to be the law of 
growth* among the Kautilolds and Ammonoids. Thus the discoidal 
Nautili, though an ancient group, do not accomplish during their entire 
life, from the Silurian to the Tertiary, such extensive changes in the 
septa as the Clymenise do in the course of a single geological epoch, the 
Devonian.' Each species of this group adds something to the serial com- 
plication of the lobes and cells of the sutures until from a species Cly^ 
menia loeviyata, Inseparable generically from the Nautlloids, tlierc is pro- 
duced a species, Clymenia pseudogoniatites, which is a true Ammonoid. 

Tills last species presenting itself to the geologist suddenly according 
to the usual action of the law of acceleration, has young with lateral 
lobes, and an interuul siphon like the other Clymenise, but both the young 
and adult have the abdominal lobes and superior lateral cells of an Am- 
monoid, as well as the more Involute whorls of that order. This case is 
precisely parallel to that of the growth of the Siredon salamander into 

*On the Parallelism betwf»en the Different Stages of Utd in the Individual and those in the 
entire Qroup of the MoUnseus Order, Tetrabranchiata. By A. Hyatt. Memoirs Boston Soci- 
ety of Natural History, Vol. 1, Parts, 1867. 


an Amblystoma, and presents itself to the geologist when compared to 
the lower Clymenise in the same way, the only difference being that In 
this case the characteristics of a different order of animals are produced 
by the acceleration of the growth, instead of a distinct family and genus 

Other instances are brought forward in the memoir referred to above 
which show the action of the law of acceleration, when applied to dif- 
ferent species, and since then other observations have been made which 
demonstrate with equal clearness the agency of the law of acceleration 
in the production of varieties and even of individaal differences. 

Thus one of the best known species of the Lower Lias, Asteroeeras (Am- 
monites) obtusum, is divisible into several varieties. For the sake, how- 
ever, of reducing it as much as possible we will eliminate all of these but 
three, and consider only the English specimens Arom one locality, Lyme 
Regis. These have three distinct variations of form. The first has the 
ordinary rounded sides and abdomen, with very broad immature keel and 
exceedingly shallow channels, while the pilm (costse) are prominent and 
round off evenly at either end. The channels appear on the last quarter of 
the third, and almost immediately attain their ultimate adult depth and 
aspect on the fourth volution ; the second has the same peculiarities in 
the larger number of individuals, but accelerates them by adding to the 
depth of the channels and the height of the keel after the fourth volution, 
producing thereby adults with deeper cliannels and more prominent keels. 
There are different degrees of this acceleration in different individuals, 
some having shallower channels than others. 

The third variety attains the adult characteristics of the most advanced 
members of the second variety on the fourth whorl, and on the fifth, 
flattens the sides. The first and second varieties have gibbous or rounded 
sides, but the third is a transitional variety, approximating to Asteroeeras 
stellare. The accelerations show themselves also in the development of 
the pilse ; the second variety ceasing to be smooth and beginning to form 
these lateral projections at an earlier age than the first, and the latter 
forms the same parts at an earlier age than in the first variety. 

This whole progress in the form and characteristics of parts takes place 
by individual accelerations. Thus in the first variety we have certain in- 
dividuals which remain smooth longer than others which nearly equal the 
rate of growth observable in the second variety, but are retained in the 
first by the slower development of the keel and channels. An objection 
may and probably will be made to this view, that the third is really a va- 
riety of Asteroeeras stellare^ and does not belong to Asteroeeras obtusum 
at all. This alternative would be even more favorable to the theory 
here advanced than that given above. The difference is less in all re- 
spects between the third variety described above and the unquestionable 
Asteroeeras obtusum, than between the former and Asteroeeras stellare. 
Therefore any estimation of the value of their characteristics which would 
join the third variety to the latter species must also include the former 



species as a variety under the same name. If at the other end of the se- 
ries we should be permitted to add Ammonites Turneri, which we think 
will perhaps prove to be merely a local variety of A, obttisumj the evi- 
dence becomes additionally strong. This variety, or species, has only the 
faintest marks of channel grooves, even upon the first quarter of the sixth 
volution, both upon the shell and upon the cast, and in the typical Tur- 
fieri the pilsB at this age run nearly to the base of the keel. The septal 
proportions and outlines of the lobes and cells are the same as in the 
typical Asteroceras obtuaum, and in all respects it is similar to that spe- 
cies, differing only in the later or slower production of the channels and 
keel and in its somewhat smaller size. 

A third opinion that all of these were distinct species, may be answered 
first, by reference to the accelerations in the development of the pilie oc- 
curring between the different individuals of the first variety, which in 
that case become types of Varieties, and, also, by citing other species. 
Thus one species of a lower genus Amiocertu incipiens, all the specimens 
of which are from one locality, fades by regular and inseparable grada- 
tions from specimens whose whorls possess no channels in the adult to 
those which have these parts better defined even at an early age than in 
the adult of the third variety described above. This position might also 
farther be strengthened by showing that this presence or absence of chan- 
nels becomes in the Middle Lias of such importance that it constitutes a 
generic distinction in the family group {Hildoceratidce) which is nearest 
allied to that which includes the species referred to above, the family of 
Discoceratidce (Arietes). Thus Hildoceras (Ammonites btfrons and IVcU" 
cottii) differs from Grammoceras (Amm, striatulus, Amm. Aalense^ etc.) 
principally in these characteristics.* 

The presence or absence of channels, therefore, or any change of form 
to which the abdomen may be subjected, cannot, to use the terms of the 
modem systematist, be considered as of slight importance even though 
we find them, when fli*st introduced, subject to simple varietal changes in 
some species. 

The limits of a review do not permit us to continue this part of the 
subject. Leaving many similar instances, therefore, to appear in due 
course of publication, we will pass on to the consideration of the appli- 
cation of the theory to another series of facts. We refer to the changes 
which take place during the old age of the individual and also of the 
group. They bear directly upon that portion of Professor Dawson's re- 
marks which refer to the possibility of determining beforehand the future 
course of the changes of a group, but have been accidentally passed over 
in silence by him. He has also given Professor Cope the undivided credit 
of discovering the law of acceleration, whereas the memoir we have 
referred to above, which has escaped Professor Dawson's notice, will re- 
move all doubt that the aim of a large part of the investigations there 

Bulletin of tbe Muwam of Compftratlye Zoology, Ko. 5, p. 89. 


recorded is identical with those of Professor Cope's more elaborate essay. 
We have no desire for controversy and regard scientific claims as gener- 
ally speaking not worth contending for, but feel that silence, In the present 
instance, would place in a false light the object of these Investigations, 
and vitiate the original value of the results of much labor not yet pub- 
lished. The quotation below will serve to Justify these remarks, and at 
the same time bring us back to the more agreeable and legitimate subject 
of this review. 

''This law" (of acceleration) *' applied to such groups as have been 
mentioned, produces a steady upward advance of the complication. The 
adult difi'erences of the individuals or species being absorbed into the 
yonng of succeeding species ; these last must necessarily add to them by 
growth, greater differences which in turn become embryonic, and so on ; 
bnt when the same law acts upon some series whose individuals alter the 
shell in old age, precisely the reverse occurs, and a general decline takes 
place. The old age characteristics in due course of time or structure, 
become embryonic and finally afi'ect the entire aspect of the higher mem- 
bers of the series." * In other words there are certain degradational 
characteristics first found in the old age of the shell, which are inherited 
at earlier periods by species standing higher in the series, just as the 
adult characteristics are inherited by them in the young. Thus the deg- 
radation and ultimate extinction of groups of animals may be accounted 
for by the law of acceleration quite as accurately as their rise and pro- 
gress in organization. 

These degradational tendencies bring about in the old age of the indi- 
vidual quite a close resemblance to its own young, t and in the group 
their Inherited Influence may be traced to its ultimate results In the pecu- 
liar unrolled shells of the Cretaceous Ammonites, which are, form for 
form, the same as those of the earlier Nautiloids in the older formations. 
In other respects also the aberrant Ammonoids of the Cretaceous may be 
shown to be degraded species; In their simpler septa when compared 
with the normal formed ammonites, having in the adult only the six lobes 
of the yonng, and in their ornamentation, and simple, rounded, keeless 
and channelless whorls. 

Thus the retardation of development which is invoked to account for 
the tendency of species to return to forms analogous with those with 
which they began; or, in other words, to complete cycles either as a 
series or in geological time, becomes only another phase of the law of ac- 
celeration. The very complete analogy, to say the least, which exists 
between the life of a group and that of an individual member points very 
decidedly to some law that governs alike the growth and decline of the 
individual and the group to which it may belong. The struggle for exist- 
ence may, and probably does as well as physical circumstances strongly 
influence the action of this law, but that it has no controlling influence is 

• ^'On the Paralellisni,** etc., p. 382. 

t First noticed by D'Orblgny. Pal. Fraoealse. Terr. Cretaoet p. 881. 


proved, we think, by the fkct that degradational or senile tendencies are 

In this connection I would suggest that the TurriUites and other idlied 
spiral shells, will ultimately be found to be the legitimate descendants of 
the deformed TurriUites described by D'Orbigny ftrom the Lower Lias 
beds. It is now generally acknowledged by European writers that these 
forms are discoidal ammonites that have departed ft-om the usual mode 
of growth common to their species, and instead of revolving always in 
the same plane the whorl has become slightly assymetrical, and thus be- 
gun to form the assymmetrical spiral of the genus TurriUites. This 
tendency is quite common with the septa of Ptiloceras psilonotus and 
other species, and in the shell, also, but is so faintly expressed that it is 
difficult to distinguish ft'om the elTects of compression. If this and other 
instances of a similar kind be finally substantiated we have here still an- 
other application of the law of acceleration to characteristics, which 
naturalists have been hitherto accustomed to call deformities. 

According to the theory of natural selection only favored races can 
prolong their existence by perpetually Inheriting the advantages of their 
ancestors, and certainly the degradational characteristics as displayed in 
all the terminal species of the am monoids cannot be explained in this 
way. Here also we have the limitation of the cycle of changes or varia- 
tions, of which a species or form may be supposed to be capable, at least 
partially accounted for; and as Professor Dawson and others have 
pointed out, the theory of natural selection makes no provision for such 
restrictions. Reversion cannot be called upon to explain the return of 
the Nautlloid forms In the Ammonolds of the Cretaceous, because they 
show the efi*ect of traceable inherited characteristics continually aug- 
menting in force, and because these are senile to the group, and are no 
more reversionary than the old age of the individual is a reversion to its 
own younger state. They are accomplished by methods opposed to the 
metamorphoses occasioned by the progress of the group In structure and 
by growth in the individual. They take place by a gradual suppression 
or atrophy of the adult characteristics in the individual, and In the group, 
by an unrolling of the closely colled and deeply involute whorl of the 
Jurassic Ammonites, and they occupy the polar extreme of structure and 
life in both cases. 

We would remark, in conclusion, that Professor Dawson does not wholly 
commit himself to the new theory, but regards it as ** holding forth the 
most promising line of investigation" as yet advanced. Though the 
author of the theory In common with Professor Cope, we cannot refuse to 
endorse Professor Dawson*s judgment as regards this decision also. The 
law certainly explains much which has been hitherto inexplicable, but 
until the extent to which it may be modified by physical causes, and per- 
haps natural selection, be l\illy understood, an unprejudiced mind cannot 
consider It as capable of clearing away all our present difficulties. It 
gives us, perhaps the means of asserting that the plasticity of organs 


BEVIEW8. 237 

have certain limits ; that variations can arise Arom natnral selection, or 
physical changes, only when these act in given directions and for a given 
time, after the expiration of which, whether in the individual or the 
group, if sudden death do not intervene, all changes must be degrada- 
tional in character. Physical causes, and the struggle for existence can 
no longer improve the vitiated organization when It has passed this 
period. Its death is decreed as certainly as its line of developmental 
changes must have been before it was born, and whatever agency other 
laws may have, they can only act with more or less force and velocity in 
these predetermined paths of progress and decline, or cat them short by 
the destruction of the organization. — A. Htatt. 

The Torrey Botanical Club, which, under the auspices of Its Presi- 
dent and Nestor, meets at the Herbarium In Columbia College, began 
with the year to issue its *' Bulletin," in monthly numbers of four pages 
each. The notices and memoranda thus issued relate chiefly to the local 
flora of New York, which is the special charge of the Club ; but matters 
of more than local interest are touched upon, making it well worth the 
attention of our botanists throughout the country. For example, in the 
February number, Mr. Leggett, the editor, explains the anomaly of LepU 
dium Virginicfim having accumbent cotyledons, contrary to all the rest of 
the species, showing that what may be termed the petioles of the flat 
cotyledons, in line with the radicle, and in which the bend Is made, are In 
the position answering to incumbent, and so the cotyledons take the ac- 
cumbent position by a twist of ninety degrees. The '* Bulletin " is fur- 
nished, upon application to the editor, 224 East Tenth street. New York, 
for a dollar a year, or seven copies for five dollars. 

Fossil Plants from the West.* — This report closes Dr. Hayden's 
report reviewed by us In March, 1870. By some oversight we conftised It 
with a former paper of Professor Newberry, and thus passed by some 
of the most important results of the explorations. The first portion is 
a general review of the geolo^ of North America, and as these govern- 
ment reports, notwithstanding their wide distribution, generally have but 
few non-scientiflc readers, we shall republish this for the beneflt of our 
subscribers In some succeeding number. 

The chapter on the " Cretaceous Flora" gives a concise summary of the 
varlons government expeditions which have made collections of the 
plants of this period. The conclusions reached are Identical with those 
which we have already quoted In the review referred to above in March, 
1869, page 41. 

Among the Miocene plants Dr. Newberry finds Onoclea sensibilis^ a 
species undlstingulshable either from the living forms of this species or 
those found In Europe, only on the Island of Mull, off the west coast of 
Scotland. This and the large number of other identical miocene species, 
lead to the inference that North America and Europe were connected by 

* Report on tbe Cretaoeoas tad Tertiary Plants. By Profeasor J. 8. Newberry. 


an intermediate continent. *' If this Inference should be confirmed by 
ft2ture observationSi we should then see how the eocene tropical or sub- 
tropical flora of Europe was crowded off the stage by the tropical flora 
of the miocene, which latter accompanying a depression of temperature, 
had migrated Arom America, while the eocene flora had retreated south 
and east, and is now represented by the living Indo-Australian flora, 
characterized by its HakecB, Dryandrece, Eucalypti^ etc., etc., which form 
so conspicuous an element in the eocene flora of Europe." Instances in 
which the miocene flora occurs on the McKenzie River, Disco Island, 
Iceland, and the Island of Mull are then brought forward to show that 
this land connection must have occurred to the northward, and that the 
country was then in possession of a milder climate than now reigns in 
the same latitude. 

In discussing the causes which produced thiR difference of climate 
Professor Newberry gives his adherence to none in particular, but thinks 
that the deflection of the Gulf Stream would be the most natural method 
and at the same time places an objection in the path of the astronomical 
theorists, which they will flnd it difficult to combat. It will be remem- 
bered by our readers that many of the geologists of the day account for 
the former presence of a warm climate in the Arctic region, by supposing 
that the earth has, in former times, passed through a warmer region in 
space. This cannot be assumed to be the cause in the present instance; 
for any " cosmical cause, producing a general elevation of temperature 
on the earth's surface, would have given us a tropical flora on the Upper 
Missouri, whereas we flnd in the miocene flora there, as yet no tropical 

Relations of the Rocks in the Vicinity op Boston.* — Professor 
Shaler regards all the syenites of this viciuity as of sedimentary origin, 
and rejects the old theory of their Plutonic origin. In this he is sup- 
portied by the late discoveries of the Eozoon in this vicinity, and by the 
researches of Professor T. S terry Hunt, published in the last number of 
the " American Journal of Arts and Sciences." The section of the rocks 
in the neighborhood of Quincy is described as consisting of a layer of 
quartzites **to the north of the Quincy Syenite Hills, a hidden section of 
about three hundred feet thickness, and the Braintree series of two hun- 
dred feet. Another section of the Chesnut Hill Reservoir is also de- 
scribed, composed of Cambridge slates for seven hundred feet, Roxbury 
conglomerate for ten feet, thirty feet more of slate and conglomerate 
again extending to the edge of the Charles River flats in Brighton, where 
they give place to a sandstone. 

* Abstract of Some Remarks on the Relations of the Rocks In the Vlclolty of Boston. By 
N. 8. Shaler. Proo. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xlil. Dec.8, lfiG9. Pampb., pp.7. 




On the Fertilization of Grasses. —In gently flowing rivers of tropi- 
cal America grow many fine aqnatlc grasses, species of Luziola, Oryza, 
Leersia, etc. The following note is from my Journal under date of De- 
cember, 1849, when threading In my canoe among the islands of the 
Trombetas : — *' This channel was lined on both sides by a beantlflil grass 
— a species of Luziola — growing in deep water, and standing out of it 
two or three feet. The large male flowers, of the most delicate pink, 
streaked with deep purple, and with six long yellow stamens hanging out 
of them, were disposed in a lax terminal panicle ; while the slender green 
female flowers grew on the bristle-like branches of much smaller panicles 
springing ftom the inflated sheaths of the leaves that clothed the stem. 
As the Indians disturbed the grassy fringe with the movement of their 
paddles, the pollen fell from the antlers in showers," and would, doubt- 
less, some of it, attain the female flowers disposed for its reception. 

A parallel case to the above is that of the common Maize (ZeaMays L.), 
where the male flowers are borne in a long terminal raceme or panicle, 
and the female flowers are densely packed on spikes springing from the 
leaf-axils. Here the male flowers must plainly expand before the pollen 
contained in their anthers can be shed on the female organs below, 
whether of the same or of a different plant. That there are ft*equent 
cross-marriages in Maize is evidenced by the numerous varieties in culti- 
vation in countries where it is a staple article of food, as in the Andes of 
Ecuador, where nine kinds, varying in the color of the grain (through 
white, yellow, and brown, to black), in its size, consistence, and flavor, 
are commonly cultivated ; besides many others less generally known. 

In Pharus scaber (H. B. K.) another tall broad-leaved grass, the spike- 
lets stand by twos on the spike — a sessile female spikelet, and a stalked 
male spikelet. 

In the flne forest grasses of the genus Olyra, whereof some species, such 
as 0. micrantha (H. B. K.), rise to ten feet in height, and have lanceolate 
leaves above three inches broad, and a large terminal panicle, with capil- 
lary branches, like those of our Aira ccespUoaa, it is the lower flowers 
that are male, with large innate (not versatile) anthers, and the upper 
that are female, with two large stigmas, that are either dichotomously 
divided, or clad with branched hairs, thus exposing a wider surface to 
the access of the pollen. And as the panicle is often pendulous, many of 
the male flowers, although placed lower down the axis, are actually sus- 
pended over the terminal female flowers. 

It is generally to be remarked of declinous grasses, that either the male 



flowers are very numerous, as in Zea Mays, or the stamens are multiplied 
in each male flower, as in Fariana, Leersia, Guadua, etc. ; or the stigmatic 
apparatus of the female flowers is enlarged, so as almost to insure im- 
pregnation, as in Olyra and Trlpsacum. 

In the Bambusese I have gathered, belonging to the genera Guadaa, 
Merostachys, and Chusquea, the flowers are more or less polygamous, 
and the stamens of the male flowers often doubled. But there is scarcely 
a genus in the whole order which is not described as having some flowers 
by abortion, neuter or male, and especially those that have biflorous 
spikelets, such as the Faniceae. Some grasses, of normally hermaphro- 
dite genera, are not unfk*equent]y truly unisexual, such as certain species 
of Andropogon. I have occasionally seen panicles of Orthocladna rari- 
Jiorus (Nees), a grass peculiar to the Amazon, quite destitute of stamens, 
and therefore purely female. 

To come home to our own country : Is all the pollen wasted that a 
touch or a breath sets ft'ee fVom the flowers of grasses In such abundance ? 
Watch a field of wheat in bloom, the heads swayed by the wind, lovingly 
kissing each other, and doubtless stealing and giving pollen. Consider, 
too, that throughout Nature, heat or moisture, or both, are essential to 
the emanation of the impregnating influence. In all our Festuceae, as 
well as in Cynodon, Leersia, and some other genera, the stigmas are pro- 
truded ft-om the side or from the base of the flower at an early stage, 
often before the stamens of the same flower are mature — thus as it were 
inviting cross fertilization from the more precocious stamens of other 
plants which are already shedding their pollen. 

All who have gathered grasses will have remarked that some have yel- 
low anthers, others pink or violet anthers; and that anthers of both 
types of color may co-exist on distinct individuals of the same species. 
The same peculiarity is Just as noticeable in tropical grasses, and (with- 
out professing to give a complete physiological explanation of it) this is 
what I have observed respecting it. The walls of the anther-cells are 
usually of some shade of purple, but are so very thin and pellucid, that 
when distended with mature pollen the yellow color of the latter is alone 
visible. When the pollen is discharged, the anthers resume their original 
purple color, shortly, however, to take on the pallor or dinginess of 
decay. Where the anthers emerge of a purple hue, and change ft'om 
that to brown, it will probably be found that they have discharged 
their pollen while still included in the flower. These observations, 
made without any reference to the question now in hand, require to 
be renewed and tested : and in them, as in all that precedes, I am open 
to correction. 

Of grasses with bisexual flowers, there are two ways in which the 
ovary may be fertilized, namely, either by the pollen of its own flower 
(closed or open), or by that of other flowers, after the manner of the de- 
dlnous species. In the latter case, the pollen may be transported by the 
wind, or in the fur of animals (as I have observed the seeds of Selagln- 


ellas in South America), or in the plamage of birds. The agency of in- 
sects has not been traced in the fertilization of trasses, but may exist. 
The little flies I have seen on the flowers of grasses seemed bent on de- 
positing their eggs in the nascent ovaries, but may also have aided in 
cross-fertilization. In the Amazon Valley grasses are often invested by 
ants, who, indeed, leave nothing organic unvisited throughout that vast 
region; and they also, I think, cannot help occasionally transferring 
grains of pollen from one flower to another. 

The flowers of Palms and Grasses agree in being usually small and 
obscurely colored, but contrast greatly in the former being in many cases 
exquisitely and strongly scented, whereas in the latter they are usually 
quite scentless. The odor of Palm-flowers often resembles that of Mig- 
nonette; but I think a whole acre of that ** darling" weed would not emit 
more perftime than a single plant of the Fan Palm of the Klo Negro 
(Mauritia Carard Wallace). In approaching one of these plants through 
the thick forest, the sense of hearing would perhaps give the flrst notice 
of its proximity, from the merry hum of winged insects which its scented 
flowers had drawn together, to feast on the honey, and to transport the 
pollen of the male to the female plants ; for it is chiefly dicBcious species 
of Palms that have such sweet flowers. The absence of odoriferous flow- 
ers Arom the grasses seems to show that insect-aid is not needed for ef- 
fecting their fecundation, but does not render its accidental concurrence a 
whit less unlikely. 

That grasses, notwithstanding their almost mathematical characters, 
vary much as other plants do, is plain fh>m the multitude of osculating 
forms (in such genera as Eragrostis, Fanicum, and Paspalum), which puz- 
zle the botanist to decide when to combine and when to separate, in order 
to obtain what are called *< good species." Hence the conclusion is un- 
avoidable that in grasses, as in other plants, variations of surrounding 
conditions induce corresponding modlflcatlons of structure, and that 
amongst the former must be enumerated cross marriages, however 
brought about. If the flowers of grasses be sometimes fertilized in the 
bud, it is probably exceptional, like the similar cases recorded of Orchids 
and many other families. 

To conclude : the more I ponder over existing evidence, the more I feel 
convinced that In its perfect state every being has the sexes practically 
separated, and that natural selection Is ever tending to make this separa- 
tion more complete and permanent; so that the hypothesis of Plato, that 
the prototype even of man was hermaphrodite, may one day be proved to 
be a fact! — Dr. R. Spruce, Scientiflc Opinion. [See his paper in Journ. 
Linn. Society.] 

Fttngi on Insects. — Dr. Bail of Danzig, in a recent pamphlet, calls 
attention to the various kinds of fungus that are parasitic upon the larvsB 
of dlfl'erent Insects, and his investigations are of some practical impor- 
tance in relation to a possible check to the destruction of forest-trees, 
which goes on to an enormous extent in North Germany, through the 



ravages of caterpillars. In certain seasons these caterpillars appeared 
to be attacked by an epidemic, their bodies being swollen to bursting, 
and white threads being visible between the rings of the body, which 
seemed to Issue A*om the body itself. In this condition great numbers 
were found still clinging to the leaves. The destroying agent had been 
identified by Dr. Reichhardt of Vienna as the mycelium of a fungus which 
he named Empusa aulica. The distribution of the Empusa is very con- 
siderable ; the only order of insects which is not at present known to be 
subject to their attacks being the Neuropttra (dragon flies, etc.) ; they are 
known to be parasitic upon Coleoptera (beetles), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, 
etc.), Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Diptera (flies and gnats), Or- 
thoptera (crickets, etc.), and aphides, either in the larva or perfect condi- 
tion, on water-insects, and even the same species on amphibia and fishes. 
Not only is their distribution over so many dlfibrent animals remarkable, 
but also the prodigious rapidity of their development in the individual. 
The common house-fly is, in some years, destroyed by this parasite in 
vast numbers, and the dung-fly has been in certain districts almost anni- 
hilated. In the forests of Pomerania and Posen the caterpillars have been 
killed by it in such quantities that it may be considered to have saved 
the trees from total destruction. The f^ngi which Dr. Bail found to be 
the most destructive to insect life were those described by authors as 
Cordyceps militarist Isaria farinosa, and Penicillium glaucum; the two lat- 
ter forms he inclines to unite as different stages of growth of the same 
plant. — The Academy. 

Insect-fertiuzation op Flowers. — In an article contributed to 
" Scientific Opinion " by Professor Delpino, he passes from orchids, 
which since Darwin's work upon them have attracted much attention in 
this respect, to the related families, one of which is familiarly repre- 
sented in our gardens by the Cannaj or Indian Shot. Here the arrange- 
ments depends upon the viscidity of the pollen, and the bursting loose of 
the style; the pollen is first deposited on an expansion of the style, 
whence it is taken away by the insect, to be deposited upon the stigma 
of the flower next visited. 

OoLLBCTRD NoTES ON AMERICAN Oaks. — Concluded, A. De Candolle, 
in ** Prodromus '* XVI, 2, 1864, describes two hundred and eighty-one 
species. Of these one hundred and twenty-two are American ; of which 
twenty-nine are doubtAil. He admits Q, olivceformis Michx., hicolor 
Willd., grisea Lbm., pun^en^ Lbm., hasUUa Lbm., Leana Nutt., aa species. 
Thirteen species ft'om Endlicher's list are made varieties of others ; six- 
teen are synonyms of others. De Candolle proposes three new species : 
q, Lindeni (collected in New Grenada in 1842, by Linden), IflsZteeni (1846, 
in New Mexico by Wisllzenus), and omissa (fk*om Secmann's collection, 
but omitted in ** Plantae Hartwegianae ")• Q- dumosa Nutt., and acuHdena 
Torr., are not mentioned. Counting these omitted species, and drop- 
ping olivctformis and lAana as snch ; then nniting grisea with oblongtfolia 


and ptmgenst and placing hastata in Emoryi, we have ninety American 
species. But even this namber may be in the future greatly reduced, 
particularly in the Mexican species, which are founded on a limited 
number of specimens, and with the habitat for the most part not 

Michanx attempted the first methodical disposition of the genus, as 
above mentioned, which was after him maintained by Pursh, Nuttall and 
Elliott. In Europe the important character taken flrom the ripening of 
the ft'uit was entirely neglected. Only Koch, in ** Flora Germanica," 1837, 
gives notice that Q, Cerris ripened its ft-uit in the second year. 

Then Spach, in Vol. XI. of his ** Histoire Naturelle des Veg. Phane- 
rog." 1842, applied this character to his natural arrangement of the oaks, 
which is founded on the form and duration of the leaves, the cup and 
the ripening. His disposition is this : 

I. Deciduous leaves : Esculus. 

1. Robur: Leaves slnuose, pinnatifid; lobes not bristle-pointed. 

Maturation annual ; scales of the cup small, oval, appressed. 

2. Cerroides : Leaves pinnatifid, lobes not bristle-pointed. Matura- 

tion annual. Scales of the cup, the lower imbricated and ap- 
pressed; the upper ones subulate, loose and much, longer. 
8. Erythrobalanus : Leaves entire, mucronate or trilobed, or pin- 
nate-lobed, bristle-pointed. Maturation biennial. Scales of 
the cup small, appressed, imbricated, not subulate. 

4. Cerris: Leaves llite deciduous or subpcrsistent, coriaceous; 

lobes or teeth bristle -pointed. Female flowers often ft-om buds 
without leaves, and so the fruit lateral on the year's shoot. 
Maturation annual. Scales of the cup echlnate. 

5. Galllfera: Leaves late deciduous, becoming ycllqwish and 

brownish ; lobes or teeth bristle- pointed. Maturation biennial. 
Scales of the cup short, appressed. 

II. Leaves persistent: Ilex. 

6. Snber : Maturation annual. 

7. Cocclfera : Maturation biennial. 

Endlicher maintained the same disposition and characters, only changing 
Cerroides into Elseobalanus, and while Spach considers only the European, 
Western- Asiatic, and American species, he introduces the Eastern Asi- 
atic, which he puts into the subgenus Cyclobalanus except one, Qttercus 
cttspidata, which forms his subgenus Chlamydobalanus ; the former are 
all in his subgenus Lepldobalanus. 

Gay, in "Ann. des Sc. Nat., IV, 6," pointed out the errors in the above 
disposition. The character of maturation is mistaken in three groups : 
Cerris, Cktllifera and Suher. Q» Cerris ripens its f^uit the second year ; 
so also Q, atgilops L., castanecrfolia C. A. Mey, and persica Jaub, & Spach. 
So the whole group Cerris has the maturation biennial. Pseudosuber 
Deaf., and hispanica Lam., which Endlicher put as one species under Gal- 


lifera, belong to Cerrls. Spach forms, for the single species, Q. infectoria 
OUv. To the groap gallifera, with biennial maturation, Endlicher added Q. 
humilis Lam., alpeatris Bois., and hispanica Lam., bat the two former, as 
well as infectaria, ripen the fruit the first year. These groups contain 
only European species; the American botanist Is more interested in 
Spach's group, Suber, with the species Q, virens Alt. This species was 
talcen by all the authors from Michauz, the elder, to A. Gray, as maturing 
the fkxiit^n the second year. Spach puts it with Suber, with annual matu- 
ration. In the *' Prodromus," and in the latest edition of '* Gray*s Manual,'* 
it is annual. Gay agrees with, but does injustice to, Endlicher, when he 
says that Endlicher*s seventy-seven American and thirty-five east Asiatic 
species, which never have been examined upon their maturation, had been 
Joined with Suber. Endlicher ranges neither virens nor the rest in the 
group Suber, but into no group at all. His arrangement is thus : Ilex — 
1. Mediterranese et orientates; YI. Suber. VII. Coccifera. 2. AmericansB. 
8. Japonicffi, etc. 

The disagreement of view in respect to maturation is explained by the 
fiEict that until now two different species, with different maturation, have 
been taken for one. Gay describes a species which grows in France and 
Spain along the Atlantic, and furnishes all the cork used in these coun- 
tries. It is Quercus occidentalis Gay, with biennial maturation, and was 
kept before the discovery of Gay for Suber. It is remarkable that often 
quite similar species differ only in maturation, and it is not impossible 
that the mistake concerning Q, virens grounds on an interchange of Q. 
cinerea and the former. In regard to the first groups Gay follows End- 
licher and Spach ; but I think there is an objection to the second group 
Elffiobalanus. The subulate prolongation of the upper scales of the cup 
is so variable that this character is nOt profitable to be used, in a natural 
arrangement. I have seen fruits of Q, macrocarpa, in which the prolon- 
gation of the scales was scarcely perceptible ; on the other hand I have 
seen frutts of Q. bicolor or Printts discolor, with very much prolonged 
scales. It is my opinion that Q. macrocarpa falls under the group Robur, 
and that the group Elaeobalanus should be dropped. 

There are two essays of A. De CandoUe in *' Ann. des 8c. Nat. ser., 
IV, Vol. XVIII." (1862) : Sur le fruit du chine and Etude sur Visphce, De 
CandoUe considers the proposed characters as incompetent to form nat- 
ural groups in the section Lepidobalanus ; for species ck>8ely related by 
one character are often disjoined by the other, but they are good enough 
to form artificial subdivisions, which are necessary fVom the great number 
of species. A new diagnostic character, discovered by De CandoUe, Is 
for the same reason unfit to form natural groups. This is the position of 
the abortive ovules at the base, or at the apex, of the ripe seed. Working 
out the genus Quercus for the '^Frodromus** De CandoUe mustered the 
different characters, to find out the best for determining the species. He 
considers as good ones, the size, form and pubescence of the stipules ; the 
nervation of the leaf, respecting the direction and relative size of the 


nerves of different degrees; their number to a certain point (?), the 
pnbescence of the leaves and twigs (isolate or aggregate, on nerves or 
parenchyma) ; its length in yonnger parts ; the duration of the leaves ; 
the anthers (smooth or pubescent) ; the form of the cups in the upper 
part in the ripe f^uit ; the size of the cups, the general form and size of 
their scales ; the maturation and the position of the abortive ovules. 

Such characters as the following which, comprising many specimens, 
more or less differ on the same twig, are only good to determine varieties, 
viz. ; the length of the petioles, the form of the leaf in regard to its diam- 
eter, to the base (acute, obtuse, or cordate); the depth of the incisures; 
the pointed or obtuse termination of the leaf; the presence and form of 
the bracts of the aments ; the number of lobes of the perigone in the 
male flowers; the number of stamens; presence or absence of a mucro 
at the apex of the anthers ; the length of the peduncle of the female 
flower ; the swelling of the scales of the cup ; the relative length of the 
acorn; the caducous or persistent pubescence of the underside of the 
leaves ; the length and direction of bristles ; the male flowers, whether 
pedlcelled or sessile ; the form of the cup at the base ; the termination 
of the lower scales of the cup ; the direction of the scales In the ripe 

De Candcille adopts the three subgenera of Endlicher, adding two more 
from species which Endlicher puts under Lepldobalanus. The subgenus 
Androgyne, is formed by the single (Califomlan) species, Quercus densi' 
flora Hook, which has the flowers of both sexes In an upright spike, male 
above, female below, the male flowers in bundles with three bracts, 
stamens double the number of the lobes of the perigone, the abortive 
ovules at the apex of the seed. The other new subgenus Is Pasana, 
with South Asiatic species. All the other American species belong to the 
subgenus Lepldobalanus. The arrangement In the ** Prodromus " is thus : 

I. Lbfidobalanus. 

§ 1. Abortive ovules below. Maturation annual. 

♦ Leaves deciduous. 

Qw LYKATA Walt., Q. MACROCAKPA Mlchx. (wlth var. abbreviata and mi- 
nor); Q. OLiViKFQBMis Mlchx., Q, BicoLOK Wllld. (Q. Prinus tomentosa 
Michx., Priniis discolor Mlchx. f., Michauxii Nutt.). There is a variety 
cultivated In France, fi. platanoides^^Q, prinus platanoides Lam.= Q. velu- 
tina herb YHeT,==Q. pannosa Bosc. (which is, perhaps, Q. mollis Nutt.= Q. 
aiiformis Muhl.). Q. Prinus L.=Q. prinus palustris Mlchx. (De Candolle 
refers to this the figure Q. montana in Emerson's Trees of Mass., PI. 6, and 
the text to the next). Q. Prinus fi acuminata^^Q, castanea Muhl. (Emer- 
son says the younger Michanx makes this a distinct species. This Is not 
so as far as I know). Q. Prinus f monticola^^Q, Prints foliis ohovatis 
Wangenh.Ǥ. montana Wllld., Q, Prinus 3 chincapin=Q. prinoides Wllld. 
=b(^. Prinus pumila^\ch.=^Q, chincapin I'h.= Q. Prinus chincapin Mlclix. 
fli. Q, STRLLATA Wg.=§. obtustloba Michx. = Q. villosa Walt.? There are 
three varieties fi Floridana==Q. Floridana Shutlew, T depressa (Nutt.) on 


the upper Missouri, d Utahensis the only. oak between Salt Lake and Sierra 
Nevada, Q. alba L. with two varieties ( ?) /9 repranda, y microcarpa. 

Q. UNDULATA Torr.=J?ten<ttcn* Lbm. Two varieties /5 obtusifolia, y pe* 
dunculcUa, Q. Douglasu Hook, with three varieties, fi Gambellii=:Q. 
Gambellii Nutt., y novo-Mexicana=Q. Gambellii Lbm. d Neaei^ Q. Neaei 
Lbm.=Q. Douglctsii Bih. Q. lobata N6e=Q. Hindsii Benth.^^Q. longi- 
glanda Torr. Q. Garryana Hook. Q. Drummondii Lbm. These five spe- 
cies are very likely varieties of one species nearly related to the European 
Q. Robur. 

The following are Mexican and Central American species, with dentate 
or entire leaves ; the maturation of the fruit is not sufficiently known. 

Q. CORKUGATA Hook, Q. iNSiGNis Mart. Gal., Q. strompocarpa Lbm., 
Q. Galeottu Mart., Q. circinata N6e, Q. magnolucfolia N6e, with two 
varieties, y9 2t<t6a= Q. flava N6e, y macrophylla^Q. macrophylla N6e=§. 
resinosa Lbm., Q. obtusata HB.=:Q. affinis Mart. Gal.; the varieties fi 
pandurata^^^Q, pandurata UB.T Hartwegii^^Q. ambigua IIB,=Q, Hart' 
toegi Benth.=Q. nudinervis Lbm., Q. polymorpha Cham et Schl.=sQ. pet- 
iolaris Benth. =Q. varians Mart. G&W, = tub€rculata Lbm., Q. omissa 
A. DC, Q. LAXA Lbm.=(^. calloaa Mart., Q. labta Lbm.=:Q. obttisata var. 
Bth., Q. Bknthami A. 'DC.=^undulata Bth., Q. Tapuxahuknsis A. DC.» 
Q. salicifolia Bth., Q. CoRTKSn Lbm., Q. SARiORn Lbm., Q. saucikoua 
N6e, Q. Sbemanjni Lbm., Q. Ghiesbreghti Mart. Gal., Q. barbinervis 
Benth., Q. olaucoides Mart., Gal.^Q. elliptica Lbm. 

* • Leaves persistent. 
Q. HuMBOLDTn Bonpl., Q. citrifolia Lbm., Q. costaricensis Lbm., Q. 
LiNDENi A. DC, Q. ToLiMENSis HB., Q. TOMKNTOSA Willd.==Q. pedunctf- 
lata N6e=:Q. callosa Bth. There are four varieties: — a* communis^ Q, 
tamentosa Bth., fi bullata, y diversifolia^Q. diversifolia N&e, d* abbreviata, 
Q. RETICULATA UB.= Q. spicato UB=:decipien8 Mart. Gal., the variety fi 
Qreggii, Q. pulciiella HB., Q. glabrf.scen8 Bth. with the var. ^. integ- 
rifolia^ Q. orisea Lbm. (probably Q. oblongifolia Torr.) Q. repanda HB., 
Q. MiCROPHYLLA N6e=(^. vepatida Bth. with the var. ft crispata, Q. ob- 
longifolia Torr., Q. pungens Lbm., and hastata Lbm. (both being Q. 
Emoryi Torr.) Q. berbrridifolia Lbm., Q. agrifoua N^e=Q. oxyadenia 
Torr. I examined a number of acorns of this species and found in all 
of them the abortive ovules at the apex of the seed !, Q. chrysolepis 
Lbm.s=Q. crassipocula Torr.==§. fulvescens Kell., Q. vireks Ait.= §. 5«m- 
pervirens Cst.==Q, Phellos ft, L.==§. Virginiana Mill.= §. oleoides Cham, 
and Schl.=Q. retusa Lbm., Q. lutf^cens Mart. Gal. 

§ 2. Abortive ovules below. Maturation biennial. 

Leaves persistent. 
Q. CRASSiFOLiA HB.=Q. rugosa N6e=Q. spinuloaa Mart. Gal., Q. splen- 
DENS N6e, with the var. ft, pallidtor=Q, crassifolia Bth., Q. scytophylla 
Lbm., Q. siDEROXYLA IIB., Q. laurina HB. 

§ 3. Abortive ovules above. Maturation biennial. 

* Leaves deciduous. 


Q. PALCATA Michx.= Q. elongata Willd.sQ. discolor Ait. ; tliere are two ra- 
rieties, p Ludovicianay f triloba=Q. triloba Michx.^Q. cuneata Wg., Q. 
iLiciFOUA Wg.=Q. Banisteri Michx., Q. Catesb.£I Michx., Q. rubra L. 
with tliu var. j} rundnata, Q. falustris Du Kois^Q. rubra ramoaisHma 
Marsh. = Q. rubra dissecta Lam., Q. Geoagiana A. Curt., Q. coccikba 
Q. coccinea Wg.^^Q. rubra a L. There are four varieties: a coccinea=^ 
Q. cocctnea Michx. »Q. ambiyua and borealis Michx. flls. ; fi nigre8C€n8=^ 
Q. tinctoria ainuosa Michx.=Q. discolor Willd.»=Q. tinctoria Mlclix. flls.; 
T tinctoria— Q. tinctoria Batr.aeQ. tinctoria angulosa Michx.= Q. velutina 
Lam., d Bugelli, Q. Sonomensis Bth.^Q. rubra Bth. in Pi. Hartw., Q. 
Lrana Nutt. De Candolle considers the hybridity of this as not certain. 
It is perhaps not so scarce as supposed ; there is besides the known indi- 
viduals one in Fulton County, Illinois, and one near Peoria, the latter in 
the Immediate neighborhood of Q. coccinea and imbricaria. Q. Totut-' 
LEN6I8 A. DC, Q. Phellos L. with the var. fi subimbricaria (hybrid?), 
Q. IMBRICARIA Michx. With a var. /9 spinulosa, Q. nigra Jj.^erruginea 
Michx. flls.s=Q. Marilandica Cat.; there are two varieties, ^9 quinquelobUt 
T tridentata, Q. Skinnrri Bth., Q. XAiJiFEXSis HB., Q. Warscewiczu 
Lbm.^^Q, fflabrescens Seem.=Q. oocarpa Lbm., Q. calophylla Cham, and 
Schl.sC. Alamo Bth.s=Q. intermedia Mart. Gal.=Q. <icuminata Mart. Gal. 

• • Leaves persistent 
Q. GRAKDis Lbm., Q. acutifolia, N6e»Q. furfuraceat there are five vara. : 
P Bonplandi, T angtistifolia=^Q. acutifolia Thib., 3 conspersa Bth,==nitida 
Mart. Gal. £, longifolia—longifolia Lbm. C microcarpa, Q. Wislizrni A. DC, 
Q. AQUATiGA Walt., Willd.=9- nigra L. a=Q. uliginosa Wg,—Q. Phellos 
maritima Michx.=Q. maritima Willd., of this five varieties are enumer- 
ated; fi laur{folia—Q. laurifolia Mich.= Q. hemisphcerica Bartr. y hetero- 
phylla=^Q. heterophylla Michx. flls. (hybrid?), d stipitata, £. dentata^Q. 
dentata Bartr.— Q. nana Willd? !^ mgrtifolia—Q, myrtifolia Willd. Q. nitens 
Mart. Gal.^Q. commutata Lbm., four vars. ; fi podocarpa f ocote(Bfolia== 
Q, ocotecefolia Lbm., ^ major, £ 8ubintegra=Q. laurifolia Bth., Q. lak- 
CROLATA HB. with the var. jS undulato-dentata^^i^. laurina Lbm., Q. db- 


N6e with var. ft microcarpa==Q. persecefolia Lbm.s=Q. microcarpa Lbm., 
Q. NECTANDR^EFOUA Lbm., Q. LEIOPHYLLA A. DC.=Q. lanctfoHa Lbm., Q. 
CASTANBA N6e=Q. mucronata WilId.=Q. tristis Lbm. the four vars. :/9 
sublobata, X tridens^^^Q. tridens HB., $' glabrata=Q. Mexicana yar glab- 
rata Seem., ^ Mexicana^ Mexicana HB., Q. lanioera Mart. Gal., Q. cras- 
8IPE8 HB.»Q. Mexicana Bth., Q. cinbrea Michx.^Q. Prinus ft L=Q. 
Phellos cinerea Spach, with four vars.: ft dentcUo-lobata, X humilis^Q. 
humilis Walt., <J pumila=^Q. pumila Walt.=Q. seHcea Willd.= Q. Phellos 
pumila Michx., e nana, Q. ruoulosa Mart. Gal., Q, comfertifolia HB. 

Then follow twenty-nine doubtful species. 
II. Androgyne. 

Q. DENSiFLORA Hook. and Arn.=Q. echinacea Torr., the var. ft Hdrtwegi 
is Q. densiftora Bth. in PI. Hartw. 


De CandoUe supposes that of the species now known and described 
about two-thirds, are provisional, and that when all the species of America 
and Asia now adopted are as well studied as the European, the ^* good 
species " will be reduced to about one hundred ; then the American spe- 
cies would scarcely be more than fifty. This is credible.when we perceive 
that the single species Q. Bobur as proposed by De CandoUe includes 
thirty-two varieties, and nearly a hundred synonyms. He went to work 
without prejudice or prepossession ; he examined specimens by hundreds 
from different localities; aud the result was that he had to drop many 
supposed ** good species." What will become of our American, partic- 
ularly the Mexican species, when once worked out in that way ? 

I thought I had a very good character, neglected by all authors, in the 
bud. The Quercus coccinea, wherever I found it here (Peoria) had a con- 
• ical pointed tomentose flve-ridged bud, with five rows of scales, and I was 
sure I should never see it otherwise. Now I get from northern Illinois 
a number of specimens with the acorns and all the other characters de- 
cidedly those of Q. coccinea, but some of them with smooth round buds, 
just as in Quercits rubra. We have now about half a dozen species united 
in Q, coccinea ; the difference between Q. rubra and Q. palustrU is so insig- 
nificant that the latter could be taken as a variety of the former, and per- 
haps, when we compare all the black and red oaks by many hundreds of 
specimens from all the different sections of the country, the limits be- 
tween the species aS now accepted would be very uncertain. Even Q^€r'^ 
cus bicolor seems to me to be a transitional form between Q. macrocarpa 
and Q. Prinua; to the fqrmer it is approximate by the olten subulate 
scales, the pubescence of the lower side of the leaves, the buds, and the 
scaly bark of the twigs, which are often corky in Q. macrocarpa. An 
exact definition of the term ** species " has never been proposed. Since 
Darwin's theory has made the stability of species questionable. It has 
lost much of Its Importance ; but we want a certain term, be it species, 
or form, or race, or whatever it be : we want a name for an object, that 
it may be understood. That is the task of species. I cannot see more 
in it. — Frkd. Brendbl, Peoria, liL 

DoKS Air Dust Contain thb Germs of Disease? — Dr. Tyndall, in a 
recent lecture, asserted : (I), that the dust in the air we breathe Is largely 
composed of organic particles; (2), that they are the germs of plants 
like the yeast and such -like fungi ; and (8), that they are the means by 
which epidemic diseases are propagated. 

The editor of ** Scientific Opinion," claims that " each and all of these 
propositions appear to us Incapable of being proved." lie claims that a 
temperature of 212° or higher, such as Tyndall says will In a moment of 
time destroy them, will have no effect on them; secondly that '* obser- 
vations such as those of Pouchet, Joly, Musset, Mantegazza and others, 
all go to show that the germs of many of the lower vegetable organisms 
which are familiar to botanists, are not present in the air generally. 
Thirdly, the hypothesis that the contagious substance of small pox, scarlet 


fiever, cholera, aud the like diseases" is a vegetable organism, rather thac 
a minute particle of disorganized organic matter, is but an hypothesifi 
and nothing more. So fkr as it has been attempted to be demonstrated 
by the experiments of Halller and others, it has utterly brolien down, 
and the ablest fungologists in the kingdom — Berkley and others — are 
distinctly opposed to it, as are, we believe, the more scientific of our 
modem physicians. 


Habits of thb Striped Squirrbl. — I lately noticed in my garden a 
bright-eyed chipmunk, Sciurus striatuSf advancing along a line directly 
towards me. He came briskly forward, without deviating a hair's breadth 
to the right or the left, till within two feet of me ; then turned square 
towards my left — his right — and went about three feet or less. Here 
he paused a moment and gave a sharp look all around him, as if to de- 
tect any lurking spy on his movements. (His distended cheeks revealed 
his business : be had been out foraging.) He now put his nose to the 
ground, and, aiding this member with both forepaws, thrust his head 
and shoulders down through the dry leaves and soft muck, half bury- 
ing himself in an instant. 

At first, I thought him after the bulb of an erythronium, that grew 
directly in front of his face aud about three inches from it. I was the 
more confirmed in this supposition, by the shaking of the plant. 

Presently, however, he became comparatively quiet. In this state he 
remained, possibly, half a minute. He then commenced a vigorous ac- 
tion, as if digging deeper; but I noticed that he did not get deeper; on 
the contrary, he was gradually backing out. I was surprised that, in all 
his apparent hard work (he worked like a man on a wager) he threw back 
no dirt. But this vigorous labor could not last long. He was very soon 
completely above ground ; and then became manifest the object of his earn- 
est work : he was refilling the hole he had made, and repacking the dirt 
and leaves he had disturbed. Nor was he content with simply refilling 
and repacking the hole. With his two little hand-like feet he patted the 
surface, and so exactly rfpZaced the leaves that, when he had completed his 
task, my eye could detect not the slightest dlfl'erence between the sur- 
face he had so cunningly manipulated, and that surrounding it. Having 
completed his task, he raised himself into a sitting posture, looked with 
a very satisfied air, and then silently dodged off into a bush-heap, some 
ten feet distant. Here, he ventured to stop, and set up a triumphant 
"chip I chip! chip I" 

It was now my turn to dig, in order to discover the little miser's 
treasures. I gently removed enough of the leaves and fine muck to 
expose his hoard — half a pint of buttercup seeds, Banuncultis acris, 1 
took out a dozen seeds or so, re-covered the treasure as well as my bung- 
ling hands could, and withdrew filled with astonishment at the exhibi- 



tion of canning, skill and instinct of this little abused denizen of oar 

In my boyhood days I had killed many of the little fellows; had 
ancarthed the treasures in their burrows many times; had seen them, 
as I supposed, under every variety of aspect ; in short, I thought I knew 
the chipmunk, every inch ; but here was a new revelation of chipmunk 
character, for which I was totally unprepared. 

It grieves me that I find it utterly impossible with words to convey 
adequately to you and your readers anything like a complete picture of 
the motions, the skill, the careAilness, the completeness of effect, and 
the consequent satisfaction exhibited by this little harvester. I have 
never read nor heard of any other man's having witnessed a similar 
scene, nor do I expect myself ever again to witness one. My opportu- 
nity for observation was perfect as it could possibly be ; for he was so 
near me that I could almost stoop over and lay my band on him, while 
he was half buried under- the leaves. 

The lesson is perfect; for what our chipmunk does, all chipmunks do, 
under the same circumstances. Where docs instinct stop, and reason 
begin? Wherein does instinctive, irrational skill differ fVom rational 
skill? — Ira Sayles, JSusttford, Alleghany Co., N. Y. 

CoNCHOLOOiCAL NoTES. t- Mr. C. B. Fuller, of Portland, has recently 
discovered Littorina litorea Linn., at Kennebunkport, Maine. Willis re- 
cords it as being found at Halifax, N. S., and we have always understood 
it to be common in the Bay of Chaleur. This is the first time it has been 
found so far south. This species is identical with the common Periwinkle 
of the English coast, and its increase may be hoped for, as it will intro- 
duce a new article of food to our poorer classes. Immense quantities are 
consumed in England, one firm in London purchasing seventy thousand 
bushels per annum. They are very prolific and are ravenous vegetarians. 
Oyster merchants use them to keep down the growth of seaweed in their 
oyster beds. 

For the first time we record the discovery of two species of Melanians 
Arom Massachusetts. Specimens have been sent by William P. Alcott of 
North Greenwich, Conn., collected by him on the shores of Lanesboro 
Pond, Lanesboro, Mass. We Identity Melania Virginica Say, and Melania 
carinata DeKay. 

Functions of thk Nkrve-centrbs of the Fboo. — Professor F. Golta 
of Konigsberg has been continuing his observations on the different nerve- 
centres of the frog. After removing the cerebrum with as little effVislon 
of blood as possible, the trog remained on the table In exactly the posi- 
tion of a sound animal, and without any indication of the injury it had 
sustained ; but, of its own accord, would never change the position once 
assumed. If pinched or pressed, it would turn itself round, or remove 
itself by a leap ft-om the external pressure, but would then remain equally 
unchangeable In Its new attitude. It can indeed be induced by external 


means to go through actions which it would not ordinarily perform volun- 
tarily, so that to a bystander it would almost appear to have undergone a 
coarse of training. Professor Goltz made some curious investigations on 
the source of the croaking power of the frog. Of its own accord it 
never croaks when deprived of its brain ; but can easily be induced to do 
so by stroking it softly down the back f^ora the Aront to the hinder part 
with the damp finger, every stroke being accompanied by a croak of sat- 
isfaction. From a number of such animals a complete concert of firogs 
can be obtained in this manner. The mutilated trog possesses also the 
power of preserving the equilibrium of its body. If placed on a book, to 
which a gradual inclination is given, it climbs to the upper edge, on which 
it supports* itself by its forelegs, and repeats the process every time that 
the inclination is changed. Under similar circumstances an nnmaimed 
ttog would quickly hop to the ground. The movements of the frog, from 
which the brain has been removed, differ fk'om those of the uumutilated 
animal in this respect, that they are performed mechanically, and with the 
regularity of a machine. It would also appear, Arom these experiments, 
that the nerve-centres for the voice and for the power of maintaining 
equilibrium reside, not in the brain, but in the spinal cord. — Academy. 

The Comprkssed Burbot or Eel Pout. — In the March (1869) number 
of the Naturalist is a paper with the above title by Wm. Wood, M.D. 
After giving the history, locality, number of specimens and their de- 
scription, he then says : ** The Lota compressa probably visits the salt 
water, as it is taken in ascending the Connecticut, or its tributaries, in the 
spring of the year in company with fish ftom the salt water ascending to 

My first acquaintance with this rare fish was early in the spring of 1859. 
A specimen was brought me from West River, about a mile north of our 
village, where that stream Joins with the Connecticut, and where it was 
** hooked up " while angling for other fish. Afterwards in 1864, another 
specimen was caught in the Connecticut River, opposite our village, with 
a baited hook set for eels. Both were of such extraordinary dimensions 
(being severally twelve and fourteen inches in length) that I published 
the fact, becauHC I knew that the specimen of Lesueur, who first described 
the Mpecies was only six inches in length, and that of Storer who gave a 
description of a second specimen from Ashuelot River was eight inches 
long. As I had lived many years near thc^se waters, and supposed myself 
to be well acquainted with their diffierent denizens, and, moreover, had 
never seen this genus before, not even their firy, I was led to inquire 
whence they came. 

It first occurred to me that they might have come up ftom the salt 
water, but the many impediments in the Connecticut, which are such 
well-known obstacles in the way of the migrations of fish, forbade at 
once the entertainment of this idea. Be that as it may, an incident has 
recently come to my notice which may shed some light on their early 
history, and certainly on one of their species. 


On our farm is a swamp of aboat three acres, ft-om which Issues a 
rivulet, perhaps three feet wide and three to five inches deep. I have 
known for some years the existence of a peculiar fish in this little stream, 
for on approaching its banks I have often perceived quick efforts at con- 
cealment, of something in the dark mud of the little pools along its 
coast. All my attempts to obtain a ftill view of the fish proved fruitless, 
but I Judged by the ripples it made on the surface of the water, while 
passing shallow places that it must be some three or four inches In length. 
Recently whilst our woodchopper was at work in this swan^p, he cut 
down a tree which fell into one of these pools, and a fish was thus thrown 
out upon the snow. It proved to be a veritable Lota about three and one- 
quarter inches long. It resembled Lota cotnpressa in every particular, 
except that its thickness might have been greater in proportion to its 

This rivulet empties into Whetstone brook, a stream ordinarily about 
two rods wide and two or feet deep, and has a bed differing little 
ftrom that of the Connecticut River. I have lived by this stream a num- 
ber of years, and have never seen a Lota in its waters. The Whetstone 
empties into the Connecticut about a mile flrom the mouth of the rivulet. 
In this distance are two obstructions, partly natural and partly artificial, 
one thirty feet, the other twenty feet high, so that tt cannot be supposed 
that there is any egress from the river to the rivulet by water. 

The fishes of the Whetstone are Salmo forUinalis Mitch., Bhinichthya 
atronasus Agas., Boleoaoma Olmstedii Agas., SemoHlus argenteus Putn., 
JPlargyrtu Americanua Putn., and Holomyzon nigricans Agas.; the three 
latter were introduced by me some twenty years ago. I have been thus 
minute in giving all possible data, in order that a better Judgment may 
be formed, whether these swamps are the breeding places of Lota cortp- 
pressa^ or whether the specimen mentioned above may not be a new 

The train of thought to which a solution of these questions might give 
rise, would naturally lead us to examine luto the effects that purely local 
or particular causes may have upon the development and forms of fish 
life. With respect to the size of this specimen, being much smaller 
than those found in the Connecticut, we may say, that all fish of the 
same species found in large streams are generally larger than those 
found in small ones. We have a perfectly analogous example at hand in 
regard to the Salmo fontinalis of the Connecticut, which occurs of larger 
dimensions than In the Whetstone, the disparity being as striking in the 
latter case as in the former. — Charles C. Frost, Brattleborough, Vt. 

A Whftr Woodchuck. — It may Interest you and some of your readers 
to know that I have obtained a perfectly white woodchuck. a perfect al- 
bino of Arctomys monax of Gmclin. There is not a dark hair on his 
body or tail, and his eyes are of a clear, rich, carneiian color. He was 
caught on North-west hill in Wllllamstown, Mass., and brought to me 
alive. From the first he fed freely on clover, especially the clover heads, 


and made a nice nest for himself from the part discarded as food ; In this 
nest he spent most of his time taking nearly the form of a ball. He al- 
ways exhibited a readiness to bite, and it was not safe to touch him with 
the hand. One day I carried him, in his small cage, to my lecture room, 
and afterwards put him in my private room and left him alone. When I 
returned I found him out of the box or cage, and bottles and trays of 
natural history specimens scattered upon the floor. After disturbing 
things generally he had taken up his position behind a large box of fossils. 
FrcTm his retreat he looked as unconcerned as if nothing had happened. 
Without much trouble I secured him in his box again, and carried him 
home and put him in a large cage In my cellar which is well lighted and 
ventilated. About midway between the top and bottom of this cage is a 
sheif which touches the bars or slats in front, and extends backwards 
about half the depth of the cage. This shelf was put in so that the 
woodchuck might have something to rest upon besides the floor of the 
cage. After the cage was done it was desired to turn it so that what is 
naturally the back should be the bottom, the slats or bars thus being on 
the top instead of at the side ; this brought the shelf into a vertical in- 
stead of a horizontal position. Now observe what this woodchuck did : 
he gnawed through the edge of this shelf, which was against the bars, in 
order to get into the other part of his cage, although there was a space 
of eight or ten inches below the lower edge of the vertical shelf for the 
whole width of the cage, and when he was disturbed he often run through 
this hole instead of going along on the bottom. ' 

I was interested to see that he used everything he could get to enlarge 
and perfect his nest, not only all of his discarded clover stalks, and the 
rags which I gave him, but also all the chips which he gnawed firom his 
cage. But he did not get thoroughly tamed, and so availing himself of 
the absence of a board, which had covered a hole which he had been 
gnawing, he squeezed out through the hole, scaled the cellar wall, and 
escaped through an open cellar window. A few weeks afterwards he 
was killed by a farmer's dog, and I have sent his skin to Mr. Jillson to be 

Mr. Hitchcock of this town, Informs me that he has seen a living white 
woodchuck in New Lebano, N. Y. — 8. Tbnney, Williams College, 

Rarr Birds m Nova Scotia. — I observe in the last number of the 
Naturalist a note on the occurrence of the Pomarine Jager (Leatrispom- 
arinu8)t on the Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania, in July last. On the 
4th of October, my ft'iend, Mr. William Gilpin, shot a fine specimen at 
Digby, on the Bay of Fundy shore of this Province, which is now in my 
possession. I see in the ** Report of the Birds of Massachusetts," that 
I>r. Brewer also obtained it some years ago in Massachusetts Bay. 

Another rare visitor to a latitude so far north, was taken in our harbor 
about the time of the severe revolving southerly gale of the 80th of Jan- 
uary last, the Purple Gallinule (GalHnula martinica, Balrd). This is the 
first instance on record of its capture in Nova Scotia. — J. Matthew 
Jones, Halifax^ iV. 8, 



Gigantic Fossil Serpent from New Jersey. — Professor Marsh de- 
scribes in ** American Journal of Arts and Sciences," under the name of 
Dinophia grandis, a new and gigantic snake Ax>m the Tertiary formation 
of New Jersey. He says "the earliest remains of Ophidia, both In 
Europe and this country, have been found in the Eocene, and nearly all 
the species ft'ora strata'older than the Post Pliocene appear to be more or 
less related to the constricting serpents. Remains of this character are 
not uncommon in European rocks, but in this country two species only, 
one founded on a single vertebra, have been described hitherto, and both 
of these were discovered in the Tertiary greensnnd of New Jersey." The 
vertebra described "would indicate an animal not less than thirty feet In 
length ; probably a sea-serpent allied to the Boas of the present era." 

In closing, the author states that "the occurrence of closely related 
species of large serpents in the same geological formation In Europe and 
America. Just after the total disappearance in each country of Mosasaurns 
and its allies, which show such marked ophidian affinities, is a fact of pe- 
culiar interest, in view of the not improbable origin of the former type ; 
and the intermediate forms which recent discoveries have led paleontolo- 
gists, familiar with these groups, to confidently anticipate, will doubtless, 
at no distant day, reward explorations in the proper geological horizon." 


Microscope Objectives. — A performance of a 4-10 objective made for 
me by Mr. William Wales, of this city, is of such a superior character that 
I have no doubt it will be of interest to many of your readers. With di- 
rect or central light in contradistinction to oblique, and with the diatom 
mounted not dry, but in balsam, the Pleurosigma angulata is beautiflilly 
resolved ; the three sets of lines being brought into view with great dis- 
tinctness, and this with the No. 1 or A eye-piece. Amplification 210 di- 
ameters. With no equal power of Powell & Leland's of London, of 
Hartnack of Paris, of Tolles & Grunow of this country, or of Gundlach 
of Vienna, various objectives of each and all of which makers I have 
examined, have either, I myself, or other microscoplsts of my acquain- 
tance been able to effect this. Another feat which I had recently the 
honor of exhibiting to several members of the "Bailey Microscopical 
Club" of this city was a resolution of the podura scale with Its light 
central markings with this same 4-10. The resolution of the stri® on 
human muscular fibre by a S-inch objective, also made by Mr. William 
Wales of this city, again challenges our admiration. — J. J. Hiooins, 
M. D., 23 Beekman Place., New York, 

[We referred this note to Mr. E. fiicknell, who kindly sends the follow- 
ing reply. — Eds.] 




Messrs, Editors of the American Naturalist :— In answer to your question 
In regard to the above communication, I would say that while f^iUy con- 
curring with Dr. Higgins in his high estimation of Mr. Wales' objectives, 
I am of the opinion that he (Dr. Higgins) has either made an error in 
his measurement of amplification (210 diameters with the No. 1 or A eye- 
piece) or that the 4-IOth objective is very much underrated in magnifying 
power. All of Mr. Wales* 4- 10th objectives which I have seen have been 
as near or nearer l-4ths than 4-lOths In magnifying power; and below I 
give a table of amplification of such 4- 10th objectives as arc at hand; also 
two l-4ths for comparison : 






J. Zentmayer, 
Smith and Beck, 
R. B. Tolles, . 
W. Wales, . 
R. B. ToIleA, 
Smith and Beck, 

Angle of ap. 














The measurements were made with a first-class stand and eye-pieces of 
Zentmayer, the image of a stage micrometer being thrown down by a 
Spencer's camera lucida, and measured at just ten inches A'om the eye ; 
cover adjustment for 125th cover glass. It seems to me that there should 
be some uniform standard adopted by the different makers of objectives, 
so that the l-4th of one maker may not be as high as the l-6th of another 
maker; or a4-10th of one be as high as a l-4th of another; or, still worse, 
a 3-inch objective of one maker of precisely the same power as a 2-inch of 
another maker, which was just the case with two objectives which I had 
about one year since. If the objectives did not diffier any more than the 
first three in the above table it would be an improvement. The amplifi- 
cation which Dr. Higgins gives to his 4-lOths is as high as the highest 
1-4 th in the above table. — Edwin Bicknrll, Salem, 


Thk Bonk Cavks of Gibralter. — The four Genista Caves, Martin's 
Cave, St. Michael's Cave and some others, have yielded evidences of early 
man, in the form of osseous remains, associated with flint knives and flakes, 
stone axes, polished and chipped; worked bones, serving as skewers, 
arrowheads, needles and gouges ; anklets or armlets of shell, hand-made 
pottery, querns, rubbing-stones and charcoal. With these were found 
remains of numerous animals,* including Ehinoceros etntscvs, Bh, lep- 
torhihds § (extinct) ; EquuSj Sus prisons (extinct) ; Sys scrofa, Cervus «Za- 

*TboM msrked thus 9, are abnndant; and thus §§, yery abundant. Ailngle molar of 
Elephas anUquuB was obtained many years since by the late Mr. James Smith, of Jordan HIU, 
tn an old sea-beach (now demolished) at Europa Point, the southern extremity ot the rock. 


phusj var. harharus §, Cervus dama §, Bos (a large form), and Bos taurus 
§ ; two forms of Ibex, Capra ^goceros §§ ; and also the common goat, 
Capra hircus; Lepus timidus, Lepus cuniculus §§, Mus rattus. Of the car- 
niTora were determined FelU Uopardus, Felispardina, Felis serval, Hymna 
hrunnea, Canis vulpes, Ursua sp. ; also remains of the common dolphin, 
numerous genera and species of birds, a species of tortoise and numerous 
remains of fishes, of which the tunny is most prominent. 

The remains are imbedded in red cave-earth and also in a black layer 
similar to that noticed in the caves of France and elsewhere. In many 
instances the organic remains have been carried down Arom one cavern to 
another at a lower level through long fissures, by the heavy autumnal 
floods which pour ftom the higher grounds down upon Windmill Hill 
plateau (where many of these ossiferous caves are situated), bringing 
with them the remains of the various animals which at an earlier period 
Inhabited the thickly-wooded heights, now entirely destitute of trees and 
only covered at places by the little Chamcerops htimilis. 

Many human and animal remains, attributable to modem periods, have 
been also met with ; but the older human remains are distinguished by 
peculiarities in the thigh bones which closely resemble those met with in 
the Cro-Magnon Cave. — Quarterly Journal of Science, 



W. H. S., Huminelstown, Pa. — The "Canadian Nataralist^ is pnblished monthly at 
Quebec, $3 a year gold. Address M. PAbb^ Frovancher, Quebec, Canada. 

C. J. S., St. Auntstine, Fla. No. 1, Pinquieula hUea ; 2, Nothing came with this num- 
ber; 8, Amianthtum angusiifoHum t 4, Lupinwf d^fimtsj 6, Pinouicula pumtto. See 
Chapman's Southern Flora. For naming, fair specimens should be sent,— not misei> 
able and withered bits. 

J. L. L., Boston. — Specimens of various species of sea^anemones with two months, 
each surrounded by its circle of tentacles, have often been observed and recorded in 
Europe. I have seen several instances of this kind in our native Metridium margina- 
tum. It is, however, to be regarded as an abnormal condition, and appears in many 
cases to have been caused by some injury, which has been healed, leaving two disks 
instead of one. Spontaneoas division occars normally, however, in allied coral ani- 
mals, and a disk-shaped sea-anenome is formed in the West Indies which naturally has 
two mouths {Ri(iordeafioridal>vi<s\\. and Mich.).— A. £. V. 

W. H. 8., Hummelstown, Pa. The shells sent are as follows, by yonr numbers : 1, 
Helix monodon Racket (Stenotrema); 2. Helix tridentata Say (Triodopsis): 3. Helix a/- 
temata Say (Anguiepira); 4, Helix bucculenta Gld. (Hesodon); 5, Helix aibolabri$ Say 
(Mesodon); 6, 7, Anculoea diasimiiis Say; 8, Ooniob€uu Viryinica Say (Melania); 9, Palu- 
dina decisa Say (Melantho): 10, Spharium ntleatum Lam.; 11, Ptanorbia mcmnatut 
Say ; 12, 13, Margaritana unatUata Sav ; 14, Unio complanatui Sol. ; 15, Anodonta edeniula 
Say; l^y AnodontaJtuviatUU Lea.— G. W. T., Jr. 


. Quarttrfy Journal of Sei^nee, London. April, 1870. 

Nature, London. March 34, 81. April 7, 14, 31.28. 

Seienti/le Opinion. London. Nos. '3-77. April. 

The Academy. London. No. 8. May. 

Science Oostip. London. April and Hay. 

American EmomologUt and Botanist. St. Lonls. Vol. 2, No. 8. April, 1870. 

The BntomologitCi Monthly Magazine, London (monthly). From jDecember, 1888, to March, 
18TO, Inclusive. 

The Field. London. April 9, 16, 38. 

Sarrii on the Fig ; Breeding, Rearing, Management and Inmrwement, By Joseph Harris. 
Ulostrated. 13mo, cloth. Oranf^e Judd St Co. New York. 1870. $1.80. 

Sketche* of Creation ; a Popular View of Some qfthe Grand Conchuiom of the Sciences in rff- 
erenee to the Hittorg </ Matter and of Lye. By Alexander WInehell, LL.D., etc With iUns* 
tratlons. ISmo, cloth, pp. 480. 1870. Harper A Brothers. Mew York. 



Vol. IV. — JULY, 1870. — Wo. 6. 


It is proposed to. give some results of a summer's study 
on the iocubation of the eggs of the Horse Foot Crab, and 
to connect those results with observations made in an ac- 
quaintance of several years with the animal in its native 
haunts, in the hope of thereby furnishing something towards 
a life-history of the species.* 

Among systematists this crustacean is known as lAmulus 
Polyphemus. It bears also the popular names Horse Foot 
Crab, Horseshoe, and King Crab. In this article these 
names will be used as convenience may suggest. 

The King Crab delights in moderately deep water, say 
from two to six fathoms. Except in the case of the very 
young, which are probably carried thither by the tidal flow ; 

*In October, 18S9, the writer read a paper before the Zoological section of the New 
York Ljcenm of Natural History, under the title " A Contribution to the Natural His- 
tory of the King Crab/' which contained the notes taken during the Bummer's investi- 
gation alluded to above. The article now appearing in the Axesican Natubalibt is 
taken mainly firom that paper. — S. L. 

to AM rf O—pl^ to «te 7»M 1870. ^ Om Pi«»«»y AaAMsr «v Boini«a, to Ito Otoik't OAw «r lk« MikM 

Oont vf ika DlatrM af Htmirhmttn 



it never seeks the shallow waters, unless for the purpose of 
reproduction. It is emphatically a burrowing animal — living 
literally in the mud, into which it scoops or gouges its way 
with great facility. The anterior edge of its enormous 
cephalic shield is not unlike in form the sausage, or mince- 
meat knife of our kitchens (PI. 3, Fig. 12). The upper 
shell of the animal is composed of three parts — the forward 
shield, which is greatly the larger, the posterior shield, and 
the long bayonet-shaped spine, or tail. In the burrowing 
operation the forward edge of the anterior shield is pressed 
downward, and shoved forward, the two shields being in- 
flected, and the sharp point of the tail presenting the ful- 
crum as it pierces the mud, while underneath the feet are 
incessantly active, scratching up and pushing out the earth 
on both sides. There is a singular economy of force in this 
excavating action, for the alternate doubling up or inflecting, 
and straightening out of the two carapaces, with the pushing 
purchase exerted by the tail, accomplish both digging and 
subterranean progression. Hence the King Crab is worthy 
to be called the Marine Mole. 

The Limulus is carnivorous. Its food is the soft nereids, 
or sea worms ; so that not only in its mode of burrowing for 
concealment, but also in its method of procuring food does 
it resemble that little burrowing mammal of the land. It is 
sometimes found held in a strange durance, with a limb en- 
trapped between the valves of the quahog, or round clam, 
( Venus mei'cenaria) , It is a pitiful sight to behold — a galley 
slave with limb confined to ball and chain — **a8 far from 
help as limbo is from bliss.'' The explanation is easy. The 
quahog too is a burrower, and Limulus has seized the pro- 
jecting syphon of the mollusc, which being suddenly with- 
drawn, the less agile claw is jerked between the yalves, and 
the same are closed. This, of course, would effectually 
entrap the limb. But here occurs just this strange fact, that 
a lobster or a crab would not long be held in such durance, 
but would give their custodian leg-bail ; that is, would cast 


off, and desert the imprisoned limb, and in due time would 
reproduce the lost member. 

The position of the mouth, and the masticating process 
are so peculiar, that a description should not be omitted. 
The King Crab has six pairs of feet; although by some, 
those constituting the extreme anterior pair are called anten- 
nae, being greatly shorter than the others. The four pairs 
between this first pair, and the last pair, have a functional 
structure differing from the anterior and posterior pairs. Of 
these four pairs, the basal joint,* or haunch, of each limb is 
flattened and smooth on each side, as though they were a 
series of plates intended to work upon each other, as the 
keys of an organ under the fingers of the musician. The 
external edge of each is rounded, and beveled like the edge 
of a carpenter's chisel. Thus these flattened haunches lie 
against each other, their rounded edges directed backward 
at a considerable angle. The beveled edges (which are the 
exposed parts) of these projections are covered with very 
sharp incurved spines, overhanging and pointing into the 
oral aperture ; for it is between these four pairs of spine- 
clad haunches that the creature's mouth is situated. Each 
of these basal spines is articulated, and is set in the crater, 
or cup, of a little teat-like prominence. These then, are the 
true jaws of the animal's mouth ; and as there are four pairs 
of these manducatory joints, the creature's mouth is set in a 
line between eight jaws. These spiny teeth have, by their 
articulation, an amount of mobility in their little pits, which 
is enlinently serviceable and preservative. Of these chew- 
ing teeth, though the number is variable, an individual can 
scarcely have less than one hundred and fifty. 

Wishing to see what their food might be, and how they eat 
it, I placed a specimen, hatched the preceding summer, in a 
small aquarium, and supplied it with plenty of fresh and 
tender sea lettuce ( Ulva laiissima). But this sea salad re- 
mained untouched, although the young Limulus had no other 
fare for three weeks. In fact, famishment had i*endered it 


literally diaphanous. I tben tried animal food. Having 
opened a live quahog I routed the little fellow from his hi- 
ding place in the sand, and gave it a morsel of the clam. It 
was ravenous, and fed only as a really hungry being could. 
Though using the round clam principally, I gave it other 
food at different times. Any mollusc was acceptable, if 
only sufficiently tender. It even ate beef; but not with the 
relish of the mollusca. This I observed, that beinsf well fed 
it never would eat carrion ; although what it would do if 
impelled by hunger I cannot say. 

As yet I had not seen the eating. This was also hidden 
by the carapace. I was now very anxious to witness the 
feeding process. The first step was to put the animal on a 
long fast, and thus to secure a good appetite. This done, a 
bit of clam was dropped before the hungry crab, which was 
instantly drawn under with its claws, when I immediately 
turned it over, holding it with the abdomen against the glass 
side of the tank. It was kept in that position for full five 
minutes, the eating process being easily witnessed, and the 
manducation quite satisfactorily observed. The performance 
is certainly a very curious one. The animal being in its 
natural position, the food is held immediately under the 
mouth by the claws, or nippers, of the posterior pair of jaw- 
less feet, aided, if necessary, by some of the others. The 
basal joints, or manducatory haunches, then begin an alter- 
nating motion of these members upon the food, by drawing 
one of the spiny or rasp-like joints against the opposite one 
of the same pair, the food of course being between the two. 
This chewing by means of these opposing rasps, reminded 
me of the hand-carding process, in which the card held by 
the right hand is brought towards and against the one held 
in the left hand, the wool being between ; when the right 
hand card is held still, and the left hand duplicates the mo- 
tion, and so on. The fine particles rasped off by the 
incurved teeth pass into the mouth. It will be readily seen 
that food so finely chewed before it passes into the digestive 


apparatus would afford but a poor chance to the investigator 
who sought its nature by use of the knife. Of the large 
inimber that I have opened of adult specimens, I never found 
anything to tell me on what they fed ; and not until by 
actual experiment, above described, did I know whether 
Limulus was vegetarian or carnivorous. 

The exuviation of the King Crab is performed several 
times during the first year, and at very short intervals. 
How many I do not know, as that must vary according to 
the time of hatching. But I think the young produced in 
the latter part of June will accomplish five or six moults be- 
fore the cold weather comes. Even in the case of the adult 
— exceptional as it is among the Crustacea — I think it prob- 
able that the shell is cast more than once in the year. The 
professional oysterman having taken up his best crop with 
the tongs, secures the gleaning with heavy iron dredges ; and 
when using this instrument will take up an occasional Horse 
Foot, even in the winter season. In the unusually tine 
weather of an open February several years ago, in Eariton 
Bay, an adult female was in this manner taken out of the 
mud by the deep sinking dredge, when lo, the animal had 
but recently "shed," and its shell was still quite soft. 

Sometimes the shedding can ba witnessed under very un- 
usual circumstances. A large female taken in August, al- 
though kept for many days in the open air, yet moulted in 
captivity. The operation was a very trying one, and re- 
quired three or four days, as the animal got very dry. A 
little water was occasionally thrown on it for pity's sake ; 
and even this was not marine water. Of course moulting 
under such extraordinary circumstances was a very dif- 
ficult, and probably painful operation ; the wonder was that 
it could be done at all. With natural surroundings a few 
minutes generally suffice for the task. A thin narrow rim 
runs round the under side of the anterior portion of the 
cephalic shield. This is in fact the widest part of the ani- 
mal. Just before the time for exuviating a separation occurs 


between this rim, aud the perimeter of the anterior shield. 
To the unaided eye this rent is altogether imperceptible, but 
opens on the exertions of the animal ; and at this opening it 
emerges from the old shell. Now as the opening is at the 
front, and in the place of the gi*eatest width, and moreover 
as the shell is sub-coriaceous, and somewhat yielding, and 
at this particular place is very thin, it may be seen how great 
advantage the animal has in this matter over the higher crus- 
taceans whose moult, from necessity, takes place from behind, 
and whose shell is composed of a more unyielding material. 
In the exuviation of Limulus I fancy a close likeness to that 
of the insects when leaving the pupa. The King Crab 
emerges at the forward, but under side of the cephalic cov- 
ering ; the beetle at the forward, but dorsal side of the same. 
It is plain that Limulus has an easier time in getting off his 
old coat than his "more respectable relations" have. To see 
the King Crab, as it were, coming out of himself, is a sight 
so odd as to draw from those beholding it the exclamation 
"it is spewing itself out of its mouth." 

When the animal, specially noticed above, had come out 
of its old shell it was nine and a half inches in the shorter 
diameter of the cephalic shield ; while the vacated shell was 
but eight inches by the same measurement. If they moult 
more than once in the year this would make their growth 
quite rapid ; and if they do not, it seems to me that they 
must attain an age of not less than eight years before reach- 
ing the size that indicates adult life. But we must speak of 
this farther on. I have observed that every spring, that is, 
so soon as the water has lost its winter temperature, large 
numbers of the young of the previous summer are found in 
the shallows. These range from an inch to two and a half 
inches in the shorter diameter. As the creature when begin- 
ning life for itself, is but a scant quarter of an inch in diam- 
eter, this would imply rapid growth, and I think that the 
larger of the above have probably lived through two winters. 

There are reasons for believing that the spawn is deposited 


by the same individual more than once in the same season. 
I have heard this asserted with confidence by some fishermen. 
But as they could advance no proof no attention was given 
it until the following fact occurred. Let me first state that 
it is a custom prevailing wherever the Horse Foot Crab 
abounds, to catch it to feed poultry, under the belief that it 
makes them lay, as it surely does fatten both them and hogs, 
but imparts a shocking flavor to the flesh of both. The fe- 
male is always preferred on account of its eggs, of which it 
has not less than half a pint, crowded within the cephalic 
shield. These are obtained by inserting the point of a knife 
into the forward, and under edge of the shield, and running 
the knife round through the thin rim, already described, 
when the entire lower part can be torn from the upper part 
of the shield, thus exposing the eggs, which are like mustard 
seed, but of an ashy green hue. Now a female that I knew 
to have spawned in May was in this manner opened in July, 
and was then to my surprise full of eggs, well formed, and 
with every appearance of maturity. 

The Horse Foot Crab spawns at or near the new and full 
moon, in the months of May, June and July. By this, 
however, is only meant that they embrace the time of the 
extra high tides, which depend so greatly on the lunar influ- 
ence. But mark the nice calculation herein displayed. 
They come up at a great high tide, advancing on the bottom, 
until they reach a suibible spot near to, but within the ex- 
treme line of this great tide. Three definite advantages are 
in this way secured. First, the spawning is performed under 
water, or without undue exposure ; second, the line of the 
average high tide is thus selected ; and third, a short ex- 
posure to the daily low tides is thus secured, by which the 
proper exposure of the spawning spot to the development- 
accelerating heat of the direct rays of the sun is obtained. 

A visit of the adult Limulus to the shore line, except at 
the spawning season, is a very rare event. At this season 
they come up in great numbers in pairs ; and it may be said 


with no figure of speech, in true nuptial bands, — the male 
riding on the shield of the female, and retaining himself 
firmly in this position by holding to the sides of the poste- 
rior carapace, with the two stout and short nipper feet, which 
are exclusively possessed by the males, which with the size 
of the animal, so much smaller than the female, serve to dis- 
tinguish the sex at a glance. The female excavates a de- 
pression in the sand, drops her spawn into it, upon which 
the male emits the fecundating fluid, and the nest is at once 
deserted, the parents returning seaward, with the retreating 
tide. Occasionally, a pair less alert than the rest, is left by 
the tide, which, however, they will overtake, if unmolested. 
By the action of the water the eggs are immediately covered 
up with sand; though if the wind be unpropitious, large 
numbers are often washed up, and cast in windrows on the 
beach, and soon devoured by the many hungry beings, of 
bird, fish, and mollusc kind that always abound. 

Our Limulus is a true monogamist. But it is likely that a 
new mate is accepted each spawning time. Occasionally a 
female comes to shore with even three suitors attached, two 
of them vainly endeavoring to unseat the accepted one. The 
above has led to the belief among fishermen of a dispropor- 
tion of the sexes. I think that this point cannot in that way 
be inferred. 

Though formerly the Horse Foot Crab was very plentiful 
in Rariton Bay it. has become rather scarce. Accordingly 
they have to be watched for now. Not having the time to 
spare I engaged a fisherman to keep a lookout in the month 
of May, 1869, for an actual spawning. He was . instructed 
to see the pair come up and spawn, and to capture them at 
once on their attempt to return with the tide; he was also 
told to scoop up with a tin vessel the whole spawn-mass, 
sand and all, and not to touch the eggs with his hands. I 
believe the man faithfully obeyed instructions. Thus the 
spawn and the parents were brought to me uninjured. My 
preparations had been carefully made. Hatching jars had 


been set for a number of days, and the water was in a fine 
state of oxygenation. One difficulty I bad to submit to, of 
a serious character. I couid only subject the water to the 
reflected Ught of the sun. The direct light would in the 
summer season prove too warm, and spoil my water. The 
result, as will appear, was that the hatching was accom- 
plished very slowly, a fact which with another should be 
borne in mind while reading the following, namely, the ab- 
sence of those conditions of agitation, variation of water 
depth, and sometimes complete exposure to air and sunlight, 
consequent on the tidal flow. 

May 26, 1869. — To-day my Limulus eggs were set for 
hatching. Yesterday was full moon. The eggs were of a 
greenish white, dull, and rather dirty looking. My notes 
record no measurement, which I now regret. As incubation 
progressed the external shell became rapidly darker, and 
more coriaceous. But for this last fact I had become afraid 
that they were in process of decay. Several ineflectual ef- 
forts were made to get at the internal changes, but owing to 
imperfect instruments I gave up in despair, and determined 
to watch and wait for more advanced developments. There 
is considerable vitality in the King Crab's eggs. It will bear 
a good deal of retardation, and yet come out at last. It 
will be understood that necessarily my arrangements had a 
good deal of retarding effect. At the real amount I was 
quite surprised. • Those on the surface progressed most 

July 18th. — ^Thirty-four days after spawning. The opaque 
chorion has cracked (PI. 3, Fig. 1) disclosing the white pel- 
lucid spherical membrane within. Now a sight met me 
which gladdened my eyes. It was a living trilobite form. 
But of course very diminutive. Yet it could be seen with 
the unaided eye, and quite satisfactorily with a common lens. 
It is shown greatly magnified (PI. 3, Fig. 2) in outline. 
Here the elongate character of the abdominal posterior is 
noticeable ; also the excessive relative width of the thorax. 



The figure shows only the upper side, but it has the feet quite 
advanced, and the two great eyes have well begun. In two 
or three days it was considerably changed (PI. 3, Fig. 3). 
Though not so much, still the cephalo-thorax was relatively 
greatly in excess of the abdominal shield. The limbs, though 
not shown in the cut, were quite long, reaching beyond the 
edges of the carapace. The two sessile eyes were now 
prominent, but the central oculiform tubercles, as they have 
been called, but which I prefer to call ocelli, were wanting; 
for in their place, that is, the central anterior of the cephalic 
shield, was still a depression, or cleft, yet to be filled up in 
the progress of development. To me it seems that so far 
the development was markedly asaphoidal ; that is, it re- 
minds me of Asaphus, using that term as the typical genus 
of the Trilobites. Before passing, it should be observed 
that the embryo had its two segments inflected ; and with 
short intervals of rest (not many minutes at a time) kept 
up a very active revolving within its pellucid prison ; the 
efifect of this friction on the walls of the hollow sphere would 
be to bisect it. As the embryo revolves it lies upon its back. 

August 3d. — Seventy days from the spawning. To-day 
an embryo has left the ovum. It measures two and a half 
lines in length and two lines in width. Except for a little 
space in front the cephalic shield is armed on its perimeter 
by a series of briar-like spines, in two rows of about twenty- 
five each, the spines alternating with some regularity as to 
size. The curved rim of the pygidium, or caudal shield, is 
also fringed, but with setaceous tufts, each tuft being made 
up of hairs of difierent lengths. This new-born creature is 
in outline almost circular. The cleft in front of the cephalic 
shield has disappeared. The sessile eyes are now promi- 
nent, and are well up on the shield, the two ocelli are quite 
distinctly marked. But as yet there is nothing of the artic- 
ulated tail that marks the parent Limulus, or its congener 

Such was the form (PL 3, Fig. 4) of the little being be- 



fore me. Was it not a veritable trilobite ? It at once began 
to shift for itself, making a persistent effort to burrow like its 
parent. By consulting the figure it will be seen that besides 
its tail-less aspect every feature is that of a trilobite. The 
abdominal, or caudal, canipace is relatively much wider than 
in the adult Limulus. The segmentary lines afford a very 
distinct triiobed character to both shields. The spiny and se- 
taceous fringe finds its counterpart in many of the trilobites. 
The pointed tendency of the keel on the caudal shield seems 
to me to look towards Pterygotus. But if we take into view 
the presence of the ocelli already, and the high-up position 
of the large sessile eyes, we have Eurypterus shadowed 
forth. Let the reader examine PI. 3, figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
which give an outline of the telson-plate, or terminal tail- 
joint of as many separate species of the fossil crustacean 
Pterygotus, Fig. 5 is P. Banksii, in which the telson is 
marked by a cleft. Fig. 6 is P. bilobus^ showing the cleft 
less marked, and the presence of a median ridge or keel. 
Fig. 7 is P, gigasy in which the keel is more developed, 
showing a higher relief, and a greater prolongation, and the 
disappearance of the cleft. Fig. 8 is P. Ludensis. Here 
the keel is still more acuminated, and the "plate itself is 
mucrouated. Fig. 9 is P. bilobuSy its size being very much 
reduced. Fig. 10 is P. acuminatus. Here the keel has 
attained an extreme length, and great relief, and is with the 
plate carried to a slender point. And this prolongation of 
the telson plate into a terminal spine, is, I think, in respect 
of posterior development, the highest effort of the Pterygotus. 
I also think that this is shadowed forth in the embryology of 
Limulus. But it should be noticed that there is not so far, in 
all this spinal tendency, anything in the direction of an articu- 
lated spine. That is, there is nothing xiphosuroid, or sword- 
tailed in all this, as in Limulus, and the fossil crustacean 
Eurypterus, which have an articulated bayonet-shaped ap- 
pendage. Now Pterygotus has two sessile eyes, and only 
two, and these are placed low down on the very edges of the 


forward shield. But Limulus aud Eurypterus have both 
two large sessile eyes set high up on the shield, and two 
ocelli set forward. 

The want of an articulated tail was soon apparent in the 
case of our little Limulus. The slightest obstacle turns it 
on its back, when, not having this organ, which the adult 
uses so effectively in such emergency, the little thing begins 
a vigorous flapping of the branchial plates. This causes it 
to rise in the water ; then by ceasing the agitation it at once 
descends, with a chance of alighting right side up. Should 
it miss the ascent would be repeated until its desire was 

August 15th. — Eighty-two days from the spawning. A 
great many had hatched, and many had perished for want 
of care. I had almost given exclusive attention to the one 
described above. It had its second moult to-day. A few 
minutes sufficed for it to withdraw itself from its baby suit. 
I noticed that it stopped a little while, as if to rest, having 
the caudal appendage only half withdrawn from the old 
shell (PI. 3, Fig. 11). At last out it came, a person of dis- 
tinction possessing the articulated rapier. It is a true Limu- 
lus now, and fully entitled to carry for Ufe, the sword of 
honor, which has ever been the family mark of rank. The 
animal is now quite a fourth of an inch in width, and its tail 
is the one-twentieth of an inch in length. Where did it keep 
it while in the old dress? It must have been bent under and 
upon the abdomen. I have noticed them since at this 
moult, with the tail considerably incurved, and which re- 
quired some hours to straighten out. Dorsally the little 
thing has now nearly the complete appearance of the adult 
Limulus. The setaceous fringe of the abdominal carapace 
had disappeared, and had left an armature of teat-like or 
half-developed spines ; and the spiny fringe of the cephalic 
shield was quite gone. The posterior projections of this 
shield ai'e now sharp. The tail is distinctly articulated, but 
somewhat stumpy. A section of the adult tail would be ul- 


most triangular, the lower side being slightly rounded, the 
upper sharply edged, while a sectiou of the tail of this young 
specimen would \te almost ovoidal. The tail of the young 
is also more distinctly marked with lines of segmentation 
than is that of the adult. As it travelled on the mud before 
this moult, it made tiny rows of toe-tracks, leaving a plain 
unmarked space between the rows. Now it mores with tail 
depressed, and makes a medial line dividing the toe-tracks 
into two series. 

Alas, at this point, when I had become intensely interested, 
a serious illness, against which I had offered a dogged de- 
termination to keep at work, peremptorily settled the matter 
by taking from me the use of my eyes. 

It will be noticed thus far that the observations here re- 
corded, are almost entirely morphological, and not physi< 
ological. Professor E. D. Cope has given us a lucid phrase, 
"expression point." He says of development, "while the 
change is really progressing, the external features remain 
unchanged at other thim those points, which may l>e called 
expression points." It seems to me that "expression points" 
of generic significance have been pointed out four times in 
these remarks. Twice in the ovum I thought there was an 
"expression point" of a triiohed genus; aud in the larval 
stage, I thought Pterygotus and Eurypterus were shadowed 

And ill the metamorphoses of the larval state there are 
remarkable changes with reference to functional necessities. 
Already mention baa been made of the moult at which the 
animal receives its articulated tail. Now in the life of Lim- 
ulus this tail is as indispensable as is the Alpine stock to the 
Swiss mountaineer. It is constantly liable by the least agi- 
tation, or obstruction, to be turned 
for its tail it would be as helpless : 
position. It is then that it deflects t 
sharp spine into the mud or sand, 
vering efforts succeeds in turning itsi 


it8 limbs that exposure of the under side to the attacks of 
fishes would soon end its career. In short it must keep its 
carapace '* right side up with care," if it would care to live. 
I must now mention another functional metamorphosis 
which seems to me of a very remarkable character. So 
great is the difference in form between the anterior feet of 
the female, and the same feet in the male, that the very 
children on the shore lines at once in this way distinguish 
the sexes. In the female this limb is long, slender, and 
weak ; in the male short, stout and ventricose. Intended for 
strong holding, their nip is like that of a vice. Their use is 
to hold on to the carapace of the female, so that the male 
may retain his position as the pair come up in the breeding 
season. And so strong his hold that no violence of storm, 
or attack of rival suitors, can displace him. Well does the 
fisherman know this, as he stands in the water ready to spear 
the female as she comes up in nuptial embrace. He is only 
concerned to catch the female, for it would need some force 
to separate the two. Now functionally, this stout foot, "or 
hand," as the fishermen call it, has no use in early life. The 
Horse Foot Crab has its period of puberty ; this is its adult 
stage. But judging from the size of the males when they 
couple, which is pretty uniform, and their actual rate of 
growth, I think that the puberty of Limulus cannot come 
before the third or fourth year.- And it would not surprise 
me if the latter figure should prove the minimum age. 
However this is the point — it is not until that age of pu- 
berty is reached that the male undergoes its last metamor- 
phosis. It then has a moult, from which it emerges, having 
received its large claws, or literally, its nuptial hands. 
What change there may be on the emotional side who can 
tell, when master Limulus assumes the toga virilis and is old 
enough to "propose." This may be asserted of these very 
decorous and monogamous people, that among them prema- 
ture marriages are unknown, for however soon the lady may 
be ready to give her heart, not until maturity of age can the 
gentleman possibly extend to her his hand. 


The above fact was obtained by evidence purely negative, 
yet not the less convincing. First, there was the suspicion of 
the fact, then the search for a young male possessing nuptial 
claws. But albeit the numerical equality of the sexes this 
was not found, though large numbers of young specimens of 
different ages were examined. Moreover, I have not found 
the fisherman who has ever seen one. 

Although some of the systematists make of Limulus a 
distinct order, as Xiphosura^ or sword-tailed ; yet I cannot 
but think that in nature the Trilobites are included, making 
of all one grand order. It would thus have not only a real 
systematic meaning, but a profound chronologic significance. 
However this may be in the light of coming knowledge, I 
think Pterygotus and Eurypterus stand higher than the typi- 
cal Trilobite proper, and that Limulus leads rank over all. 

Figure 68 shows Limulus after the first moult (very 
much enlarged), when not more than a week old. Tlie 
fringe of the buckler is now less thickly yjg^ ^ 

set, the cardinal spines only being con- 
served, and these not so stout. The 
posterior shield shows the permanent 
spines. Still the contour is asaphoidal 
while the median ridge of the abdom- 
inal carapace, terminating in the point 
of the mucronated shield, is suggestive 
of the dorsal keel in Pterygotus gigas 
and P. anglicus. At this stage, as the i-Jmuius after the urstmouit. 

facts seem to me, the larval Limulus shows forth more than 
one generic "expression point*' in the career of the trilobite 
as a •'comprehensive type." 

It should be stated here that the exuvia represented by 
fig. 68 was accidentally discovered on the surface of the mud, 
at the bottom of an hatching jar, used in these observations 
last summer. At the close of the warm season last vear 
my jars must have contained not less than two hundred 
young Limuli. We have already said that so soon as 


batched the young burrow like the adult; hence the rare- 
ness of an oppoilunity to witness the casting of the skin. 
Hoping to continue observations upon the growth of my in- 
teresting family the ensuing year the jars were carefully put 
away. Little regard, however, was paid to temperature, 
which, on several occasions, went down to the freezing point. 
On the 3d of May, 1870, 1 emptied the jars to see how my 
charge was getting on, when lo, not one of the last year's 
hatching was alive I but wonderful to say at least a dozen 
little fellows, all hatched this spring, and all alive, had taken 
their place. With these were also at least thirty eggs, in 
different, but all in advanced, stages of incubation. In some 
of them the young could be plainly seen revolving. The 
fact was these eggs had been at the bottom of the hatching 
jar, and had never had any contact with the sunlight. At 
once, not without some misgiving as to the result, the 
proper provision was made to complete the incubation, 
namely, new sea-water, clean sand, the eggs put on top, and 
all set in a favorable place. With an ordinary hand lens 
the progress of incubation could be observed daily. At 
half-past four o'clock on the afternoon of May 11th, before 
my eyes, a new-born baby Limulus left the egg. Just think 
of it — these eggs are within two weeks only of being a year 
old ! And then how remarkable are these facts also — those * 

eggs were partly incubated last summer. Hence there has 
been not only a remarkable retardation of development, but 
also an actual arrest of the same for seven or eight months 
without sacrificing life. Query : is there any connection 
here with that indomitable persistence of being, which in 
the Divine will has carried this comprehensive type through 
the many eons of existence, wherein has been unrolled so 
slowly the life plan of the Entomostraca, from that initial 
Trilobite of the Pre-siluria to our Limulus of these latter 

It has been hinted already in this article that at different 
stages of its life the larval Limulus made a different impress 


Fig. 9. Pierygotus bilobua. 

Fig. 10. Terminal tall Joint of Pterygotus acuminatus. 

Fig. 11. The smaller one is Limulus Just hatched, natural size, mere out- 
line ; the larger is the same undergoing the first moult, and leaving 
the old shell, and having a tail. 

Fig. 12. Limulus Polyphemus, one year old. The markings on the pos- 
terior carapace become less distinct with adult age. The adult female 
will attain a size even exceeding twelve Inches across the cephalic 

Fig. 13. Eurypterus remipes ; size very much reduced. 

Fig. 14. Sao hir8utu8, a triloblte. 



The vegetable productions of the ocean, like those of the 
drier portions of the earth, are subject to a similar order of 
distribution. The most common collector of plants becomes 
soon aware that there are kinds which are not to be looked 
for in ordinary places, and soon learns to set a value on those 
which rarely occur to him. He also desires to extend the 
area of his observations so as to embrace different latitudes, 
or to obtain the same results by ascending lofty mountain 
heights. So the collector of sea-weeds does not confine 
himself to particular districts, but endeavors, either by per- 
sonal inspection or else through the labor and courtesy of 
others, to ascertain what forms, seemingly familiar or entirely 
diverse, may grow abroad. The deeper soundings of the 
ocean-beds, like the higher elevations of the land, afford him 
a greater variety, affected by different causes, which in their 
natural course produce different results. 

The general plan of vegetable life, especially in the lower 
plants, seems to point to constant modification of some one 
typical form, and this modification appears to have its origin 
in climatic influences. It becomes a most fascinating study 
to endeavor to join the separate and divided links so as to 


possess, in a series of specimens, the probable method of 
development which nature has thus instituted. Let me en- 
deavor to adapt this idea to the thoughts of this present 
essay, and arrange to some extent the sea-weeds (Algce) 
of our own and of foreign or distant coasts together. Let 
us see in what kinds there are corresponding ones ; and when 
we select some choice specimen from the beach-drift, or 
pluck it from the rocks, endeavor to tell on what distant 
strand it is obedient to the pulsing waves, or perchance at- 
tracts other eyes. 

The coast of New England presents as great a diversity 
in outline and in character as perhaps can be found in the 
same length of the Atlantic shore. We have here the deep 
inlets like Norwegian fiords in Maine ; the bold rocky prom- 
ontories of Massachusetts varied with the almost level and 
smpoth sands of the South. The noblest in size, as well as 
most beautiful in color and features, are the algae which are 
to be met with throughout this wide range. The would-be 
successful collector must resort to the dredging apparatus, 
and like the shell collector needs a strong arm and abundance 
of patient toil to serve him; else he must wait some vio- 
lent storm, which shall break from their deeper moorings 
those more valuable weeds which only can grow perfectly 
and develop themselves entirely far below the surface, 
where the sun's rays but feebly penetrate and the water is of 
a nearly uniform temperature. Some wonderful waifs are 
occasionally met with in this way by visiting the beaches and 
picking over the waste with scrupulous care. In the 
warmer waters of the Southern States, like those on the 
Florida Keys, there may be sought singular kinds resembling 
corals, for which they were formerly mistaken by Lamour- 
oux, some of exquisite beauty in design and shape. Some 
of these are found growing from the base of a Gorgonia or 
sea-fan, and secreting from the ocean their covering of lime. 
And others of richest green creep over the sand beneath the 
water, and throw up a turf as verdant as that which clothes 


the most luxurinut pastures. This field of botanical enquiry 
is yet open, and many a desirable harvest can be reaped, from 
season to season, out of the treasures of the deep, and the 
yet undiscovered or little known species of New England 
attract the deserved attention of the casual visitor or of the 
sedulous student. 

Let then the season be summer, the warm days of June, 
when many people as naturally resort to the seaside as if 
the custom were instinctive and migratory. To some the 
scenery is the same and familiar, and the cool air is the 
main thing to be realized ; to others, though familiar yet ever 
new, and to others every object, however minute, is novel. 
T\\e very rocks and cliffs are different in looks, composition 
and general features ; the sand composed of curious minerals, 
tiny shells and comminuted fragments; the wild flowers 


wierd and unusual; the thick leaved and prickly seeded 
plants thriving within the spray's reach ; the beach cumbered 
with productions of the sea — mineral, animal, vegetable — 
thrown in wild confusion. Who, for the first time, is not 
moved with wonder at these sea-weeds? Who would not wish 
to become better acquainted ? And no wonder so many are 
gathered, floated out into shape, dried, pressed and carefully 
laid away, silent witnesses that beauty and utility are often 
combined where little dreamed of. The interest increases 
with each coming season ; the practised eye soon learns to 
discriminate ; the cultivated taste finds the most propitious 
time of the year for collecting, and such trifles, employed at 
first to while away an hour or two, are often found indis- 
pensable and auxiliary to the very enjoyment of life. 

Suppose we start on a walk for some gravelly beach con- 
tiguous to some town or city, and removed from it by the 
interventions of wild pastures, rocky and almost desolate, 
or by some level, wide extended marsh. At any season of 
the year, when walking is practicable, the botanist who ac- 
companies you, can point out abundant objects of interest 
long before you come within sea range. The intervening 


space proves not so dreary or desolate as it appears, for 
often our most interesting and best friends have the rudest 
exterior. Perhaps he knows something about the lichens, 
those dull green, grayish, yellow, bright orange, black 
crusts, scales, fringes, torn, ragged felts ; or perchance those 
dry, crisp, brittle, crimson tipped, blunt tipped, sharp 
pointed, branching anomalies which cover many an acre of 
sterility where nothing else grows, and where the surfaces 
of rocks and the rough bark of trees cannot offer them any 
chance. He will be able to introduce you through these 
desiccated and seemingly lifeless plants, the lineal descendants 
of the first forms of vegetation which appeared on the dry 
and solid earth, to the wonderful and more grotesque, more 
developed, sometimes enormous sea-weeds which, at the birth 
of Creation, sprung into activity as plants in the ** waters 
which covered the face of the deep." Nay, you need not heed 
these unless you choose, although within every one of them 
lies enfolded a wondrous tale, locking up in the recesses of 
their natures, health and healing and joy. Notice too as you 
walk, the fair flowers springing up on every side. If autumn, 
or early winter, a bright October's day or a green Christ- 
mas, you may yet find for your admiration such seed-vessels, 
such starry calyces, such feathered down, such inimitable 
trifles as no gold could purchase or art fabricate. 

Such rough and confused pasture lands lie between Rock- 
port and the sea; between Gloucester, between Marblehead, 
Cohasset, Scituate and many famous places, and the beat- 
ing ocean. By the very marge of one such beach I have 
found plants seen nowhere else by me except on mountain 
sides. Think of Rockport in July, lovely in the masses of 
mountain laurel, and this fine native shrub opening its clus- 
ters of flowers within sight of the very sea. From the land 
side the very odors of Araby the Blest come over the Man- 
chester and Gloucester waters from the magnolia, and glad- 
dens the heai*t of the returning fisherman. The very rocks, 
worn smooth by the surf and rounded and polished, extend 


just 80 far inland, which the closely attached lichen defines by 
its persistence in bright yellow colors in the strict line of ter- 
restrial and maritime growth. They stand there patient senti- 
nels to denote that the floods shall no more cover the earth ; 
the lichen the earth's plant, and the alga the sea's plant, 
approximate and almost kiss each other in approach. Noth- 
ing higher in the scale of organization ventures so near ; not 
the sedge, bulrush or hardiest grass dare grow so close to the 
waves. Nor are lichen and alga far removed in consan- 
guinity ; in structural difference something ; some more ex- 
posure to sun and rain, to snow and ice, to heat and cold, in 
existence and continued individual life vastly more in favor 
of the little crusted slow-growing lichen, patient, untiring, 
serenely beautiful, doing by day and night its usual work 
and breaking down the hardest and most obdurate rock 
formations by the gentlest persuasion of its constant pres- 
ence to aid the atmospheric influences. 

The algae are so diverse in their forms, and so many in 
number, computing only the precise kinds or species, to say 
nothing of innumerable varieties, many of which have been 
separately and minutely described, that in ordei to facilitate 
the labor of finding out what they are it has been found best 
to divide them into three great groups known by the color 
of their seed-vessels. But as it is not always possible to find 
their seed-vessels, or even those minuter parts which though 
not seeds serve for similar purposes, because like other plants, 
and what we call flowers or flowering plants, these too have 
particular seasons of the year when they produce them, so 
to look for strawberries after the vines have done bearing 
would be precisely like looking for seed-vessels on sea-weeds 
when they had passed the season. Some kinds, too, like 
some other and higher plants never bear any seeds in our 
latitudes, but such seed bearing plants must be sought else- 
where. Fortunately in this dilemma the chances of success 
are in our favor, and the usual color of the sea-weed corres- 
ponds with the color of the seed it bears. The rosy or 


red-seeded algse are usually the most popular because the pret- 
tiest ; but others, eveu the black or fuscous-seeded ulgae have 
many claims ou our attention. I will yeuture, however, to 
set both these kinds aside for awhile, and speak first of the 
green-seeded algae, the Gldoro^peifncEi as they are called in 
the books. 

In the rear of some beaches, like that known to the old 
folks about Marblehcad, as Devereux's beach, perhaps it has 
now another name, surely none more euphonious — may be 
seen large extended reaches of salt or brackish water, cov- 
ered with floating masses of a light-green tangled fibre, and 
which lies in flakes upon the tips of the growing gi*a8s, or 
cast ashore to desiccate and fade in the bright sunshine. 
Lifting carefully a little on the end of a sharply-pointed 
stick we shall find a great many silky, glossy threads, each 
slender, sparingly branched with alternate and scattered 
branchlets somewhat spread apart; sometimes growing on 
one side, each joint several times longer than broad. Within 
each joint look after a green granular mass which answers 
for seeds, and to do this you must have a pocket lens for 
your eye ; at home a compound microscope would do better, 
and in this rapidly growing and widely extending Chloro- 
sperm you have taken your first lesson, perhaps, in studying 
the algfe, having been introduced to the Conferva JlavescenSy 
and if possessed with farther curiosity you may learn of 
other Confervas of equal or surpassing evidence. The ex- 
treme lightness which these sheets of dead fibres have, 
renders them easily elevated into the higher strata of the 
air, whence they have been known to fall in violent showers 
far into the interior, spreading consternation by their pres- 
ence in such an unusual manner, and greatly frightening the 
superstitious and ignorant. Sometimes this substance has 
been called "meteoric paper," and I have seen in the micro- 
scopical cabinets of my acquaintances fragments of similar 
matter from very remote parts of the globe. This single 
species has been observed extensively in Europe and 


America; and the 'few students of our native kinds have 
been rewarded by meeting with several others, identical with 
species which grew on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, 
such as C. bombycina^ rivulainSj aerea^ refracta^ etc. But 
perhaps the most curious of these water silks, as they may 
be termed, credited to the northern lakes and to those lovely 
sheets of fresh-water in Central New York, is the (7. glome- 
rata of the earlier writers, but now called Cladophora, on 
account of the peculiar manner in which the joints ari'ange 
themselves, being either packed together in strata or layers, 
or flexed and curved in long and delicate lines ; and another, 
far more curious, of which there are many sorts distributed 
from Sweden in the far north, to Cayenne in South America ; 
found in Cuba, in New Zealand, in the lakes of Germany 
and in the fresh-waters of Great Britain ; and worth looking 
after here, is the (7. (Bgagopila^ its filaments rolled together 
like a compact ball, and when dry, sometimes used for pen- 
wipers. I have looked for it, but always in vain ; other del- 
icate and pellucid-jointed water plants sometimes do so, but 
evidently they are only imitations. In the ditches and 
by the sides of shaded paths where the water is stagnant, 
similar Chlorosperms may be seen. Is there any identity and 
do the same algse grow indiflferently in fresh and salt water 
alike? The question is worth attention, so let us when we 
retrace our steps examine. Here I have lifted on the end of 
my cane some of these floating, swollen masses ; they also 
are fibrous and silken, but see ! how diflferent is the green 
coloring particles within the joints I Here are a few in 
which the seeds are so arranged that the joints which are 
only about as long as they are broad, and vary in length, 
are marked by two roundish stars. It is but a rude idea 
produced by the arrangement of the seeds, but as these 
stand side by side in the parallel joints of two of the 
silken filaments of the tangle we have lifted from the ditch, 
and which are joined laterally by a connection or bridge, 
they remind us of the mythological story of Castor and 


Fullux, the twins of Tyndarus, and our humble alga is 
accordingly called Tyndaridea, and of it are many kinds 
growing tangled eveu, in the same mass. In similar and 
rig OS. equally unlikely places for beauty to dwell 

and abide we can gather the Zygnema,OT 
Yoke-thread, in the joints of -which the 
green granules are at first arranged in 
spiral rings, but afterwards collect into a 
single globule as tlie future seed (fig. 69). 
In one species the spiral lines become a 
zriDRDL series of the Koman V, and in another of 

the letter X. Strangely, too, do the delicate and fragile fila- 
ments or silken threads bend at acute angles, the coloring 
matter first filling each joint, ^ ^ 

but soon contracting into a nar- 
row continuous stripe. In this 
and others of similar behavior 
and appearance we have Jl/ow- 
geotia (fig. 70), named in mem- 
ory of a botanist, and bearing 
bis suiTiame. They are com- 
mon in Europe and New Eng- 
land, Before we leave these 
rich green, emerald and vivid, 
or pleasing green weeds of the 
stagnant and brackish pools, let '"'*" '' 

me tell you of a pleasant surprise I once had in the sunny 
waters of an ovei-flowed and stagnant pool formed by the 
rising of the lake, and there permanent through the year for 
want of means of draining it. Years have fled and the pool 
is solid ground now, covered by the property of the railroad 
company, and near Burlington, Vermont. The conchologist 
may be pleased to learn that Lymncea megasotna Say, once 
lived there ; but my finding the elegant water-net, or Hydro- 
dictyon utriculatum, previous to its being seen by the cele- 
brated Bailey in Philadelphia and at We«t Point, will always 




connect a delightful remembrance with stagnant pools and 
still waters in my mind. In this pretty acjuatic the joints 
are united at their ends into regular pentagonal or hexagonal 

Fig. 71. meshes, and form a tubular 

net which floats in the water. 
Turning again' towards the 
sea let us look into these 
salt pools among the clifl!s, 
some shallow and others 
deep and lined with exquis- 
itely colored algse too. Cer- 
tainly, so far as looks go, 
some of these verdant and 
glossy silks should be Con- 
fervflB, but having been in- 
structed better by the lens 
let us see what it will do for 
us here. This flossy silk, 
how delicately and gmce- 
fully it floats just under the 
chaBtomorpha. surfacc, but a little of it 

lifted into the air collapses in a very ungrateful way. Yes 1 
you have gone out of the realm of the Confervse and only 
resemblances occur. Thus your floss silk, so entangling, 
inelegant in the air, shows its elegant proportions and finer 
divisions in its native elements and in water of a denser me- 
dium. It is a tuft of a true maritime Chlorosperm (tig. 71), 
one of a very large genus, and as Professor Harvey tells us, 
difiScult to define ; so we must be content with our present 
knowledge to observe and admire. Some tufts of darker 
green colored and bristle-like jointed filaments stand stiflly 
in the water ; they are worth gathering, and bear the name 
of ChoUomo^'pha^ or Bristle alga ; the most common with us 
is the Melagonium^ but several others may be found on the 
New England shores and the Mediterranean, the Canary 
Isles, Algiers, New Holland, Tropical America and the East 


Indies; the uortheru aad soiitbcni portions of the globe de- 
light ill their presence. For specimens they only dry indif- 
ferently, the joints shrinking by dryness, but- the algologist 
cares little for looks. Very marvels are those closely adhe- 
rent algte, which creep over moistened surfuces, ami some 
of which are fonnd on rocks wetted by the sea, pj ^ 
many in springs of flowing water, some in hot 
springs, and such unlikely pliices; but I should 
scarcely forgive myself if I overlooked in this 
connection the Miaoleus repens (fig. 72), iu 
masses resembling a green slime of almost black 
intensity ; but litled from the wet path and 
a few of its conferva-like threads magnified, 
shows its claim to regard. As the little bit 
expands under water the microscope assists you 
to see the oscillating motions of its jointed 
filaments, creeping apsut from each other like "'™"«*«i>«* 
the measured progress of the hand over the dial plate of 
your watch ! 

Similar, but not tied up in little sheathing bundles, are the 
pretty Lyngbyas, snarls of silky fibres, but each in a mucous 
sheath Ity itself and divided into numerous transverse joints 
of rich deep greeji, purple, browu and other coloi-s; widely 
difi'used over the globe and extensively scattered over wet 
sm'fiices, faces of rocks, and places where we should expect 
nothing curious or striking. They too, boast of many kinds 
of i*esidcnce in the sea, in salt marshes, among pebbles on 
the shore, in hot springs, and the water of salt works, living 
alike iu fresh or saline homes. 

Some few larger and more specious Chlorosperms are 
those rich green crisped and wavy-margined thin algte, which 
lie ujwn the soft mnd aflcr retreating tides, covering unsight- 
liness with continuous beauty, and i-efreshing the eyes. They 
are known as "lavers," UlvoE, and two or three species are 
well known. They do not mike very pretty specimens, but 
pieces of them can be advantageously employed iu airaiiging 


other kinds. Sometimes they are served up with lemon 
juice uuder the name of Oystergreen, and as a diet are con- 
sidered of good repute. The broadest leafed kind are se- 
lected. The green particles which correspond to the seeds 
are deeply embedded in the pulp of the entire plant, and 
commonly armnged in fours, while those of the Purple laver 
{Poiyhyra)j which notwithstanding their color, so distinct 
from the seeds of the Chlorosperms, form an exception to the 
general rule, and though possessing rounded granules, qua- 
ternally arranged, are also provided with chisters of oval 
^ seeds (fig. 73) besides thus indicating a step 

a^ forward in the progressive development. To 

find this pretty alga it is well to examine the 

'*"' piles and timbers of wharves, and the perpen- 

>j y dicular faces of rocks submerged by the tides. 

^ Other and finer species than our own have a 

Seeds of Porpbyra. 'j j» • j • 'xi. ^.i 

Wide dispersion, and in common with the green 
lavers may be frequently met with, abroad, in similar situa- 
tions. Not very unlike their cousins, the U1v8B, are the 
grotesque looking, pale green, inflated buUate Enteromor- 
phas, tossed in wild confusion, and mingled irrespectively 
together, with the usual rejectamenta of the sea upon the 
rocks ; despised and overlooked as they are apt to be there 
they are respectable Chlorosperms when growing and thriv- 
ing under the water ; and a little care and attention to their 
merits will give them their place among the dried trophies 
of the ocean gleanings. Singularly alike, and yet different, 
are the Tetrasporas of the fresh-water, floating quietly upon 
the stream, their lax netted tissues of pleiisant green color 
having their interior subsUmce dotted over with clusters of 
seeds arranged in fours ; and others of humbler pretensions 
but of wondrous symmetry and beauty nestling like small 
disks upon the pebble or upon the submerged log, or throw- 
ing wide upon the current their elegant beaded filaments like 
necklaces of strung jewels, embraced by the Chlorosperms 
or claimed by aberrant forms of the Confervse. 


Some tropical sea-weeds belonging to this section now 
claim the attention. These are the Siphonacese, so-called 
because whatever be the form or size of the alga the different 
parts have a continuous cavity throughout like a pipe or 
siphon. And a very great difference exists in these several 
forms, some of which are very singular, others very beautiful. 
They are described as green, marine or fresh- water algae, 
either naked or else coated with carbonate of lime, which 
they extract by the method of their growth and life from the 
water. A few kinds, of which the elegant Bryopsis is an 
instance, are found in our northern bays and waters. It is a 
pretty little green-tufted feather-like alga, parasitic on other 
weeds, and growing on the rocks near the shores. Yet in 
its range it reaches to Cape Horn, the Falkland Islands and 
New Zealand. The green particles within its substance 
break up into smaller parts, and bursting through the sides 
of the branches escape to furnish the needed seed dispersion. 
In a somewhat similar branching kind, but in which the single 
jointed filaments and branchlets or twigs, as we may call 
them, are compacted together into flattened bundles, so as 
to look like a rude fan furnished with a handle or stem, and 
the sticks somewhat encrusted with carbonate of lime, we have 
the Udotea^ named by Lamouroux after some ocean goddess, 
known to Hesiod. One species, the U. conglutinata^ of 
Lamouroux, has been seen growing at Key West; and 
another, in which the lime is uniformly and evenly depos- 
ited on the entire surface, much more resembles a spread- 
out fan, and is known in our tropical seas as U. flabellata^ 
while other seas produce still other forms. They are so 
bizarre and unlike ordinary algae that no one but an adept 
would recognize their place among sea-weeds. In Halimeda 
(fig. 74) we have still other singular and anomalous looking 
plants, short-jointed and broadly dilated for the length of 
the joints, looking not unlike some smaller truncated cactus 
of the green-house, but soon fading to a dull white tint, and 
on drying becoming brittle. Several species are met with 


on the Florida shores, of which, perhaps the H, opxtntia is 
the most common, as I have picked several fragments of its 
clustered stems from gorgonias and corals collected among 
the Keys. Removing the lime encrustjitions, a singular skel- 
eton of fibres, branching oft' into clusters of smaller branches, 
presents itself and which serves as a support to the tissues. 
In company with these oddities is another singular marine 
production, composed of innumerable slender, single-celled 

Fig. 74. branching filaments, inextri- 

cably woven together into the 
form of a hollow ball, and 
which grows from the size of 
a cherry to that of the human 
head, and is known in the 
European seas as Codium 
bursay or Sea-purse; while 
another species with a nar- 
row, long, branching form, 
but with fibres similarly en- 
tangled and woven y has been 
found on the coasts of Cali- 
fornia, but is not known on 
the Atlantic shores of New 
England, a prize perhaps for 
Haiimeda. somc sca-wccd collcctor ! Of 

the other siphon-constructed algea may be cited the Cauler- 
pasy elegant, green, creeping-rooted algee, mimicking under 
graceful forms, the fenis, club-mosses, feathery mosses, 
ground pines, selagines and other higher cryptogamic plants, 
such as grow in the woods and in bogs remote from the sea ; 
investing the submarine sands and tide-washed rocks with 
perennial verdure and loveliness, and found alike in every 
tropical sea on the globe. 

These lime-bearing alg® so far away from our personal 
observation, and to be seen onlv in our moat southern lati- 
tudes, should have some representatives on our northern 


shores, and it is to the Corallines and their allies that we 
will turn for farther enquiry. Leaving, however, unwil- 
lingly, the attractive Chlorosperms we will make some ac- 
quaintance with the beautiful family of the Rhodosperms, or 
rosy-seeded algse, plants corresponding in the tints and colors 
of their external and internal arrangements, with the ele- 
gance of their seed-vessels and seeds. In outward habit the 
Corallines present also considerable varfety from the sim- 
plest and lowest in the mode of increase similar to that of the 
crustaceous lichens, spreading in horizontal concentric cir- 
cles, or gradually developing upwards and outwards in the 
form of stems and branches. On every part, encrusted in 
their lime covering which moulds itself to the joints, swel- 
lings, depressions, ridges, or into the flutings and channels 
of the surface, or surmounts the very tips in the form of 
seed-vessels, one would scarcely suppose that these elegant 
marine productions — so abundant in every tide pool, and 
fringing the deep cool grottos beneath the water-covered 
rocks, or lining with patches of pleasing and varied colors 
their sides, or laying down tessellated and mosaic pave- 
ments, by encrusted pebbles presenting to the vision variety 
springing from their secreted cements — were sea-weeds and 
marine vegetation. But an immersion in diluted mineral 
acids dispels the mystery ; the usual' tender and flaccid tis- 
sue of cells and pulp appear in due proportions beneath the 
covering which looks so much like the fabrications of the 
polyps, and in the absence of microscopical investigation 
these innocent plants were described and figured as ani- 
mals related to the corals, and from their smaller size and 
comparative insignificance were called Corallines. Very 
rarely found in the colder seas the one species best known at 
the north is the Corallina officinalis (fig. 75), once in ficti- 
tious repute in medicine. You cannot miss it, growing as it 
does in the pools left by the tides, and to be picked from 
the beaches attached to some shell, most usually the larger 
muscle (^M. modiolus)^ thus indicating its range even in 


deeper soundings where that mollusk nboiinds. A much 
more slender aud delicately joiuted kind, scarcely more tlmii 
simply brauching, is the Jania, pieseiitiiig under the surCice 
of the oceaB & violet green tiot, which soon changes to a 
more or less deep rosy or red, aud finally becoming shining 
white if expost^d to the air aud light, growing parnsitically 
on other sea-weeds aud widely distributed. Some clegimt 
species are knowQ iu Cuba and on the southern coast of the 
Fi(. 7S. United States, aud others are found iu 

the oceans about Australasia, Cape of 
Good Hope, etc. The Amphiroce, also 
widely distributed over the globe, are 
lime-bearing Corallines, the joints cylin- 
drical, separated from each other by bare 
portions of the homy axis, the seeds 
lodged like those of all the Corallines 
in couical wart-like conceptacles, the 
different parts of the little plant ou which 
these occur furnishing some criterion to 
determine its real name. Beautiful and 
°°^"~- iuteresting as they seem in living condi- 

tion, a more intimate examination assists in revealing their 
curious structures. Having in this excursion for nortbei-n 
lime-encrusted sea-weeds stepped into the duamius of the 
Rhodosperms, or rosy-seeded aigte, let us take leave of our 
verdant acquaintances, and cultivate the friendship of a 
higher series of marine plants, whose seeds and seed-vessels 
are more curious, elegant aud diverse. 

The algie in this order are by far the most universally 
attractive of any of our native kinds. That part which 
looks like their foliage, and ia technically called the frond, is 
liable to a great difference in size, shape, and outline, in 
some being broad, or flat, or narrow, or tlrread-like, the main 
stem frequently dividing, or the disk-like support on which 
it rests suddenly spreading and ramifying upwards, the 
branches often arranged iu regular pinnn, or lateral wingSi 


and these again dividing into smaller branchlets; or the 
broad, thin, membranous leaf throwing out similar but 
smaller ones from its edges ; the seed-vessels often display- 
ing much beauty and elegance of design, and variously dis- 
tributed in the leaves ; add, too, that gathered at almost any 
season, they make pretty specimens for the album, either as 
portions of the plant or even as fragments, it were no won- 
der that equally with the child and the adult the Rhodo- 
sperms become favorites, and are considered foremost among 
the wonders of the -sea. 

Attracted by the brilliant crimson feathery bit which now 
comes riding on the crest of the wave, the attempt to secure 
it as a prize is successful. It came from deep soundings, 
and has been torn off from the friendly support of some 
gigantic kelp, by a sudden swell or rude wind. Thousands 
of just such bits, and some of them several inches long and 
broad, you can pick out of that drift high up on the beach. 
It is the Piilota serraia^ and though so common here, should 
you chance to gather algse on the coast of California you 
will find it there, the denizen of the Atlantic and Pacific 
alike, while those who collect for amusement from the 
beaches of Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, etc., may 
find another, P. elegansy likewise found at Beverly and its 
neighborhood, a smaller .and softer plant with jointed pin- 
nules. On the tips of the main branches, and enclosed by 
the curving of the smaller, are lodged the pretty concep- 
tacles or seed caskets, giving the plants a feature of interest. 
The species of Ptilota are not numerous, but they are found 
in most parts of the world.* A still more beautiful fragment 
is this which I have at this moment rescued ; I find it fre- 
quently with the last but seldom can I find a perfect piece, 
such as is now lying on my study table at home, from the 
English coast. In outline and ramification a little like 
Ptilota, but its dichotomous branches are two-edged with a 
sort of thickened midrib, its color a dark lake, and it dries 
into good shape. It has two kinds of seeds, some growing 




in the pulp of the frond in dusters {tetra^pores) ^ the 
others issuing from conceptacles which grow on the outside 
of the smaller branches. On the French coast it is called 
P. vulgare, or the Common Ptilota, and Kiitzing says that it 
occurs in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. 

The Carrigeen moss, so well known in the preparation of 
food, and to many more familiar on the table than on the 
shores of the ocean, is the Chondrua crisptis^ really an 
elegant alga. It is subject to many varieties, and the best 
way to study them is to go down as far as you can among 
the rocks at low tides and* sec the plant growing. A careful 
drying of some of the most prominent sorts will repay. 
Those gathered from the beaches are more or less bleached 
or discolored, and generally filled with sand. In similar sit- 
uations, and even growing where the water is always deep, 
some other algae similar yet distinct may be sought. Like 
others which grow out of reach except by the dredge, they 
are thrown ashore in tolerable perfection during storms. Of 
these the Phyllophora membranifoUa may be' cited, the 
fronds as much as a foot long when fully grown, the stem 
cylindrical, filiform, irregularly branched, the branches ex- 
panding into fan-shaped flattened membranous leaflets, the 
color a rich purple, inclining to livid, while that of the 
European species is scarlet. The Gymnogongrus which in- 
habits similar situations might be mistaken for the Chondrus, 
looking not unlike some variety of it, but its internal 
structure forbids this. Something like twenty kinds are 
known in the world, and the one most seen in this neighbor- 
hood is O. Norvegicua^ having an extensive northern distri- 

These black tufts growing out of the stems of the larger 
algsB, and from the outside of shells, etc., belong to Poly- 
siphonia nigrescenSj of which the curious student could find 
a great many distinct varieties. A section of the frond 
would exhibit a number of tubes, side by side, composing the 
branch, and indeed the entire plant, and those tubes vary in 


number, and 3'et seemingly not in a capricious manner, in 
different tufts. Though thus inelegant and vulgar or 
common, they belong to a refined and delicately educated 
family, having in their circle some of the prettiest algae 
known in the American seas, of which the Venus' Comb (P. 
pecten- Veneris) found parasitic on corals and shells at Key 
West and the Pine Islands, is a notable example ; and in- 
deed all require only to be magnified to show what they are. 
There are numerous species to be looked up on the various 
sea-weeds and marine objects on which they delight to grow. 
This almost gelatinous mass of dissolving threads staining 
the paper with a deep empurpled or crimsoned blotch, is the 
DasT/a eleganSj more commonly met with to the south of 
Cape Cod ; it is likewise a parasitic alga and grows in deep 
water; nor are other beautiful species unknown in distant 
regions, Rhodomela is worth looking for^ being an elegant, 
much branched, filiform, cylindrical-stemmed alga, of which 
R. subfusca^ gracilis^ Rochet^ etc., have been collected on the 
coast of Massachusetts. The several species belong to tem- 
perate zones. In the English manuals much is said of the 
beauty of the Lawrencea ; in this country this alga is repre- 
sented by the Chondnopsis of J. Agardh, and some may be 
sought, of which (7. Baileyana is really elegant and graceful, 
while its conceptacle, or seed-vessel, is of classic outline, mi- 
nute, yet not to be overlooked ! Others similar might be al- 
luded to, but we must defer mention of them, unless we meet 
them in their coral groves in waters of a higher temperature. 
The broad-fronded rosy sea-weeds claim a passing tribute. 
Our beaches and shores, the resort of summer seekers for 
pleasure and profit, offer us the Delesseria with a genuine 
rosy-red, leaf-like, jagged edged, or else delicately branching 
membranous symmetrical frond, with a percurrent midrib. 
The seed-vessels are to be looked for near the midrib, but 
definite spots containing another sort of seeds occup}' the 
surface or portions of the frond besides. Several species are 
found both north and south, but by far the finest is the D. 


Americanaj dedicated to Henry Grinnell of New York, in 
honor of bis noble conduct in an expedition fitted out by him 
in search of Sir John Franklin, and known to American bota- 
nists as the Gnnellia of Professor Harvey. In Nitophyllum 
we have a ribless frond, traversed by slender irregular 
veins ; the frond broad membranous and variously divided, 
the seeds in the form of dots deep in the pulp pf the leaf. 
CalliblephaHa ciliata has the margins of its rich dark red 
frond beautifully ciliated or fringed; JBotryoglossum and 
Hymenena are California species and can scarcely be looked 
for with any degree of success hereabouts. The Rhodo^ 
menicej with Uuthora, are plants of great beauty, and need 
scarcely more than be named as the species are few ; i?. pal-- 
mata is parasitic on alg» in shallow water ; R. pahneita on 
the larger kinds in deeper soundings, and JS. cristata extends 
in its range from the Arctic coast to Cape Cod. 

Among the most abundant of these rosy-seeded algae, and 
likewise of the most delicate structure, we notice the Cera- 
miacecB^ with fronds growing in close tutlts, but sometimes 
solitary, creeping along the surface by fibres or afBxed by 
disks, the stems slender, thread-like, articulated, dichoto- 
mously or pinnately branched, and sometimes growing so 
interwoven as to form network or spongy masses. In some 
species the space between the joints is diaphanous, which 
gives a strikingly beautiful appearance ; in others the joints 
exhibit no such peculiarity. The species are exceedingly 
numerous, and the search for rarer ones in any given district 
would be compensating to him who does not despise trifles 
such as these at first seem. 

The last of the Rhodosperms to which we invite your at- 
tention is CallitJiamniony a very large genus of beautiful 
algae, mostly small and many even minute, the difiereut spe- 
cies difiicult of determination, subject as they are to constant 
variation. The elegance of their several parts in stem, 
branches, and branchlets, the delicac}'' of their subdivisions, 
their exquisite color and the symmetry of the seed-vesseU 


in spite of the obstacles in correctly addressiug them by 
their correct names, attract the attention of the most 
superficial. They are not difficult to find, and the same 
efforts to secure other and more specious kinds will insure 
many of these. 

The Melanosperms, black or fuscous seeded sea-weeds, 
less comely and attractive but by far more useful to savage 
and civilized man alike, remain for a cursory glance at least. 
Although our species are of only a respectable size when 
compared with foreign kinds, yet they assist so much in pro- 
ducing the effect we witness, wherever the ocean impinges 
on the land, we can illy spare them. Investing rock and 
wood structures alike, if built in places subject to the varia- 
tions of the tides, they bear exposure of a few hours to the 
dry atmosphere or scorching sunshine, and revive as the 
cooled waters return to cover them, forming safe retreats to 
fishes, mollusks and other marine creatures, and affording the 
most nutritious dressings by way of manure to the exhausted 
fields. The variety of forms which they present has caused 
them to be comprised in several families with subdivisions 
arranged in such a way that they can be more readily studied, 
and those will claim our notice. About our shores the most 
abundant sea- weed of this kind is the fucuSy of which there 
are two or three species and several varieties ; or according 
to Professor Harvey five species on the American and seven 
species on the European shores, and one allied to i^. nodosusj 
found at the Cape of Good Hope. They are usually known 
as kelp weed, rock weed, etc. Their seeds are lodged in 
tubercles filled with mucus, and they are discharged through 
the small pores; the hollow vesicles by which they are 
buoyed up in the water are not the seed-vessels but air 
bladders. A section of one of these seed tubercles, under 
the microscope, affords an instructive and pleasing sight. The 
Ilalidi'ys siliquosa might be readily taken for a narrow 
fronded fucus, but the air vessels are singularly divided 
transversely by numerous diapbragms extremely thin and 


membranous. It is usually found in shallow pools, but 
where the plant is never left to even temporarily become 
dry. Though very common on the Atlantic shores of 
Europe it does not seem to have been recognized here as 
growing on this side of the ocean. The Cystoseira^ too, is 
only recognized as American in a California species though 
several are known to the British waters, and the Phyllo»pora 
Menziesii^ detected by Menzies himself when with Vancouver, 
has elsewhere as yet only occurred in the deeper soundings 
of the California coast. In this plant we see the same glob- 
ular air vessels we have noticed in the fuci. To this family 
belong also the gulf weeds, Sargasaum^ a vast genus and of 
which some species extend as near as Nantucket and Provi- 
dence. One of them, the tropical Sea-grape (/S. bacciferum)^ 
is seen floating in masses in the gulf stream, and is a familiar 
object. Kiitzing gives us a list of one hundred and three 
distinct species known over the globe 1 

An excessively branched and bushy mass of dark brown 
fibres, covered with short harmless prickles, and sometimes 
growing several feet in length, often presents itself on the 
sandy beaches, evidently torn from the bottom, of deep 
water. This is Desmarestia aculeata^ so variable in appear- 
ance at difierent stages of growth as to have led good bota- 
nists astray. When young, this otherwise stiff, bristly weed 
is clothed with the most delicate pencils of finely divided 
filaments, of a beautiful green color, a condition worth seek- 
ing. Its mode of bearing seeds is unknown. 

Another natural order of the Melanosperms, comprising a 
great variety of kinds, is the Laminainacece, among which — 
from a simple cylindrical threadlike frond of the diameter of 
a whip-cord, and often twenty, thirty or forty feet in length, 
tapering at the extremity, and fixed at the base by a disk 
( Chorda filum) to a frond of broad dimensions, and sup- 
ported by a long stalk {Lamtnaria or oar-weed) — we find a 
series of modified forms in species found in our waters. Of 
the sea leaf ( Thallasiophyllum) , one of this order, a writer 


and naturalist thus speaks : **The ocean hardly boasts of a 
more beautiful production ; it is generally about the height 
of a man, very bushy and branched, each branch bearing a 
broad leaf at its extremity, which unfolds spirally ; a spiral 
border winds round the stem ; a number of rather long, nar- 
row perforations, aiTanged in a radiate form, give the frond 
the appearance of a cut fan ; the margin is entire, its sub- 
stance coriaceous, but liable to be torn. No seeds have been 
detected. This fine fucus, or sea-weed, is plentiful around 
the whole island of Amaknak, clothing the rocky shore like 
a thick hedge, and forming at a little distance a very pleasing 
feature in the scenery." (Merteus as quoted by Professor 
Harvey.) Though destitute of this wondrous sea-leaf, our 
piles of seawrack can display something similar in the highly 
curious sea colander (Agarum Tumeri)^ which has come 
ashore after strong winds and gales. Furnished with a short, 
compressed, coriaceous stem, widening and flattening as it 
approaches the frond, and clasping by its stout fibrous roots 
the rocks and stones, its dark olive green expanded leaf per- 
forated at short intervals with roundish holes, it is quite a re- 
spectable weed. The shores of Kamtscbatka and the Pacific 
recognize others. Besides several kinds of the oar-weed of 
respectable dimensions, such as the Sweet or Sugar, the Long- 
shanked, the Fingered, with its frond deeply cleft into several 
strap-shaped segments, we have for noble sea-weeds Alaria 
esculenta^ known, as articles of food, under the name of mur- 
lins among the peasantry of Scotland and Ireland, belongs 
to a» small genus, inhabits the colder regions, and is recog- 
nizable by a branching root, stalked, membranous frond, 
with smaller fronds or leaflets springing from the stalk and 
below the main frond. A definite dark colored patch in the 
centre of these leaflets indicates the clusters of pear-shaped 
seed-vessels packed vertically among straight and simple 

From these we come by easy transitions to some of the 
most marvellous vegetable productions on our globe, and 


algse, or sea-weeds, too. How insignificant appear our kelp- 
weeds in comparison with the Lessonia of the Antarctic Zone, 
trees with forking and branching trunks covered with crim- 
son brown, sinuated edged, and jagged-toothed leaves, or with 
blackish opaque foliage and twisted flexuous trunks, growing 
like submarine forests ; or with the Nereocystis of the Aleu- 
tian islauds, whose stem, never thicker than a packthread, ex- 
tends to the length of forty fathoms or more, and expands at 
the summit into an inflated cylinder from which issues a leaf, 
which gradually grows wider near its top ; not singly, not 
here and there a plant but areas of great extent covered with 
injQumerable plants ; or with the Macrocyatis whose slender 
stem and numerous leaves are buoyed up by their expanded 
and swollen base, the stem so long that fifteen hundred feet 
has been reported by observers as within the limits of belief. 
These several kinds of expanded fronds are employed as 
utensils among savage people, while the trunks of many of 
these gigantic algae drifting on desert shores have been mis- 
taken and gathered for fuel, supposed to be actual wood. 

The structural arrangement of the cellular tissue on a 
number of the Melanosperms, giving to their fronds a pecu- 
liarly netted appearance when viewed through a magnifying 
glass, suggests a natural order, called Dictyotidody which sig- 
nifies like a net. Externally there is quite a variety among 
these sea-weeds, and of them we may search for Punctaria 
in two species, both parasitic on other and larger sea-weeds 
about Boston Harbor, or even Asperococcus with an inflated 
frond, while the others delight in a flattened one. The seeds 
may be found in the minute dot-like clusters scattered over 
the surface of the plants. To this order belong the curious 
Padina pavonia and its allied Zonana lobata^ bearing no 
inapt resemblance to those richly zoned and velvetty fungi 
which grow out of old dead tree-trunks; but both these 
lovely algee are tropical and belong to our roost southern 
states. The rest of the Melanosperms are either parasitic 
and minute, and to be gathered either accidentally or else 


though strange and unusual iu exterior, so infrequently that 
they hardly claim our present attention. In the structure of 
their seed-vessels and seeds they are objects of curious in- 
terest and beauty, but require a quick eye to detect the 
condition favorable to secure specimens, which when col- 
lected, must be submitted to the microscope to satisfy the 

If our excursion and lesson has convinced us that in the 
distribution of plants, the ocean, which to many, shuts out 
the chance of minute observation, forms no exception to the 
law of vegetation ; each part of its vast bosom bearing, like 
the earth, its appropriate flowers, plants and fruits, a day or 
two among the sea-weeds will be well employed. 



If those whom fashion and the weather drive from city 
follies and vices to the vices and follies of the seaside ; who 
live in hotels and carriages and fancy the society of their 
kind the only sort desirable or possible, — if such read at 
all by the sea shore, it is not from the broadest and most elo- 
quent page before them. With eyes to see, blind ; deaf, with 
ears to hear; to them, a blank, a void, beyond the titillation 
of social scandal. Others go out of doors afoot, looking 
and listening; in every object by their pathway a familiar 
thing ; with every vibration of the air, a well known voice ; 
with every odour a reminiscence. Alone by the sea? There 
is no solitude — no escape for the naturalist, even though in 
a weak moment he wish it, from a multitude — no disentang- 
ling of self from the web of animate creatures of which he 
is one slender thread. 

The sea, we know, is teeming with life — full of shapes 



useful or curious, beautiful or monstrous ; the waves them* 
selves, in ceaseless change, incessantly battling with the 
land, seem life-like ; but the sand itself, solid and motion- 
less, looks lifeless. The great broad sheet that stretches 
along the coast seems to be now, as it always has been, in- 
animate. A vast bed of silica ; and yet if not alive, what a 
sarcophagus it is of myriad lives since perished I If the poet 
says of dust in the crack of a door, *' Great Caesar's ashes 
here I'' and attach to the mote and the man common and 
equal significance, yet farther than this the naturalist; for 
him, not the greatest pile that ever rose over emperors' re- 
mains — not the pyramids,* tombs of Pharaohs, are so great, 
as this monument of life that Nature built — the simple sand. 
If ghosts be ever laid, here lie hosts, of creatures innumer- 
able, vexing the mind in the attempt to conceive, never to 
compute, them ; so miuute that a grain of sand is prodigious 
beside. Creatures of wonderful, beautiful, varying shapes; 
creatures that ate and drank after their fashion and went on 
rejoicing or grieving till the day came. Let us write a name 
in the sand; the wave comes — the ebb, the cradle, — the 
flow, the grave — of such short-lived creatures ; what to these 
then, that write their name in the *' sands of time ;" the coast 
of a continent their grave, the beach their monument, each 
sand-gi-ain an epitaph. 

How long this book has been making we do not know ; 
no man's time will sufBce him to turn and read even a single 
page. Reflection confounds ; still we may stroll on, obser- 
vant, if not thoughful; a letter, a point, an intelligible note, 
may catch the eye ; and trifles enough have at least some pith. 
Say, at the moment, there is no living thing in sight. As a 
wave curls away from the mirrored sand, little bubbles play 
here and there for a few moments, and then too subside. 
Under the sand, where each bubble rose, lives a creature. 

•And Uiese too, are of a sort of limestone, called " nnmmulitic ** becanso chiefly 
composed of ya«t numbers of certain Foraminifers {Nummulitet). An ounce of Foi'am- 
iniferous sand la estimated to contain upwards ot four millions of these protozoans. 


encased in shell armour, rarely seen alive, and scarcely 
known except by its casement, when this is thrown npon the 
beach ; what some call a razor-shell, others 8olen ensis. 
When the foot presses in yielding sand, surcharged with 
moisture, a slender jet of water spirts up ; below is a clam 
{Mya arenaria) ; it dislikes the weight upon its elastic home, 
and remonstrates. There goes a groove in the sand, as if a 
child had wantonly dragged its copper-toed boot along, or 
some curious share had turned as curious a furrow ; but the 
creature that made it has gone below, after what would have 
seemed to us, had we witnessed it, a tedious journey. Scat- 
tered here and there are large globular, yet essentially 
spiral, shells of the sea-snail (J/everita heivs) ; the animal 
that lives in them made that mark, unfolding a great fleshy 
**foot," and gliding along, perhaps eating something as it 
went, with an organ that is mouth and limb in one. Where 
it is now, under the sand, are plenty more mail-clad things, 
of all shapes and sizes and colors ; snug and secure, giving 
no sign of their presence. The sand is not only a great 
closet of foraminiferous skeletons; it is full of flesh and 

But we may look for signs from above as well as under 
the earth, or from the waters beneath ; the sand tattles many 
pleasant, harmless secrets, if we only attend. Here are 
foot-notes again, this time of real steps from real feet; the 
next tide will wash them out ; but perhaps some one of them, 
— the one chance of millions-^may be left to signal, centu- 
ries hence, as much as they tell now. They are wedge- 
shaped, and meaningless as the cuneiform characters upon a 
Babylonic obelisk, unless the key to the cryptogram is 
found ; for this, the lock must first be examined to the last 
detail, and it is surprising how many details there are. The 
imprints are in two parallel lines, an inch or so apart; each 
impression is two or three inches in advance of the next one 
behind ; none of them are in pairs^ but each one of one line 
is opposite the middle of the interval between two of the 


other line ; they are steps as regular as a man's, only so small. 
Each mark is fan-shaped ; it consists of three little lines less 
than an inch long, spreading apart at one extremity, joined 
at the other; at the joined end, and also just in front of 
it, a flat depression of the sand is barely visible. So much : 
now following the track we see it run straight a yard 
or more, then twist into a confused ball, then shoot out 
straight ; again then stop, with a pair of the foot-priuts op- 
posite each other, difierent from the other end of the track, 
that begun as two or three little indistinct pits or scratches, 
not forming perfect impressions of a foot ; where the track 
twisted there are several little round holes in the sand* 
The whole track commenced and finished upon the open 
sand. The creature that made it could not, then, have come 
out of either the sand or the water ; as there are no fire- 
animals now days, it must have come down from the air; a 
two-legged flying thing — a bird. To determine this, and 
next, what kind of bird it was, every one of the trivial 
points of the description just given must be taken into ac*- 

It is a bit of autobiography ; the story of aii invitation to 
dine, acceptance, a repast, an alarm at the table, a hasty re- 
treat. A bird came on wing, lowering till the tips of it« 
toes just touched the sand, gliding half on wing, half a foot, 
until the impetus of flight was exhausted ; then folding its 
wings, but not pausing, for already a quick eye spied some- 
thing inviting ; a hasty pecking and probing to this side and 
that, where we found the lines entangled ; a short run on 
after more food ; then a suspicious object attracted its atten- 
tion ; it stood stock-still (just where the marks were in a 
pair) till, thoroughly alarmed, it sprang on wing and was ofi*. 
So much is perfectly plain and intelligible ; it may be not 
quite so easy to find out what the bird was, for we will shut 
the "back-stairs" door and allow no guessing, but go 
honestly about our induction, as if we only knew of dead 
birds in the closet, and had never seen a live one. 


Each foot-print was of three marks only ; clearly then 
made by a three-toed bird ; or, if by one with four toes, the 
fourth was too 8hor4; to reach and impress the ground visibly, 
or else was joined to the leg too high up. The three marks 
all point forward ; then the hind toe, or hallux^ as it is called, 
was the missing or rudimentary one. Now, unless the bird 
was of a kind unknown to naturalists, which is highly im- 
probable, it must have belonged to one or the other of two 
groups — the Walkers and Waders, or the Swimmers — 
named, respectively. Cursored and NatatoreSy since no bird of 
the only other remaining group (Insessores) has none, or a 
rudimentary hind toe.* Birds, however, cannot swim unless 
their feet are fashioned into paddles of some sort. We only 
know of this being done in two ways : either by stretching 
a membrane between the toes, making a webbed foot, or by 
fringing of the toes by broad membranes, making a lobed 
foot. But either of these feet, pressing the glassy sand, 
would have shown its pattern. Clearly then the bird was 
neither palmiped or lobiped — it was not one of the Nata-* 
tores; it must have been a Wader. Other reasoning, from a 
different premise, brings us to the same conclusion. The 
marks were not in pairs, but alternating, each with its fellow 
of the other line ; the bird did not hop or leap, but walked 
or ran bringing one leg after the other, whence we legitimately 
infer that it was not one of Insessores or Perchers ; for these 
hop. But it might be asked, how do we know that the 
perchers hop instead of walking when on the ground, since 
we are agreed that we never yet saw a live one to find out 
by observation? Yet it is easy to reason up to such a point, 
that assumption is virtual certainty. For the hind toe (or 
each hind toe when there are two) of the Insessores is long, 
is inserted on a level with the anterior ones, and is armed 
with a curved claw as the others are. This arrangement is 

*To this and all other nnqtialifled general statements in ornithology there are 
technical ofeiJections and real or apparent exceptions, not, howerer, inralldating general 


for the perfect opposition of the hind and front toes, as the 
thumb of our hand opposes the fingers ; it infallibly suggests 
the idea of something to be clasped between' — of grasping 
some object ; the suggestion amounts to a moral certainty 
when we dissect and find among typical perchers a special 
muscle for the freer and more advantageous working of this 
hind toe in opposition to the others. Such birds then, live 
where their foothold is not upon a flat surface, as the ground, 
but upon slender, cylindrical, claspable supports, as are 
found in trees and bushes. But there cannot be much plain 
walking done among twigs; the birds must constantly 
spring from one to another branch, and when they happen 
to descend to the ground it is not likely they would at once 
change a habit inborn and inbred for ages. So with certain 
exceptions, not necessary to point out here, Insessores are 
hoppers, as distinctively as all birds below them are either 
Walkers or Swimmers. 

This bird's wings never touched the sand, yet the marks 
show the shape of the wing as plainly as the character of the 
feet. The wings were flat, long, narrow and pointed, cut- 
ting the air like blades. We learn this from the few indis- 
tinct scratches on the sand just before the prints became 
perfect. The bird came gliding swiftly and low, and 
scraped the sand before its wings were closed ; to do this re- 
quires a wing large or at least long. For all heavy bodied 
birds, or birds with wings small for their weight; or with 
short, rounded and concave wings — all these, however fast 
they may whirr along when fairly on wing, must drop 
quietly, if flying slowly, or arrest their motion abruptly 
and forcibly, if flying rapidly, to avoid shock on alighting ; 
in either case they drop plump, and find their feet at once. 
Now of all our true walking or wading birds the GallinoB 
(Grouse, Quail, etc.) and the Paludicoloi (Rails and Galli- 
nules^ conform to these last mentioned particulars ; so does 
the Heron family, and these, moreover, have a long hind toe. 
It could have been neither of these. The circle of possibili- 


ties is rapidly narrowing ; we have only left whence to pick, 
the families of birds that make up the group LimicdltZy or 
the shore-waflers, as distinguished from the PaludicolcBy or 
marsh-waders. Conning the Limicolce over in mind, we 
fine there are but two families furnishing in our locality any 
species so small that the imprint of its toes is less than an 
inch long. These are the Plover and the Snipe families 
( Charadriiddd and Scolopacidce) . 

We noticed just in front of the point where the lines of 
the three toes came together — at the "heel," as it is gen- 
erally but wrongly called — that the depression of the heel- 
mark continued a slight distance between the bases of the 
toes. Clearly there must have been something of a web con- 
necting the roots of the toes, just as our fingers are joined 
at the hand. Now our plovers and snipes each furnish us 
one, and only one, bird that is partially webbed and small 
enough to have made the tracks ; these two are the Semipal- 
mated or King Plover {^JEgialitis semipdlmatus) and the 
Semipalmated Sandpiper (JSreunetes jmsiUus) ; it might have 
been either, for anything we have yet noticed. Which was 
it? We have exhausted our foot-data, but still one mark is 
left, and that decides. The snipes have long bills, vascular, 
nervous, and sensitive at the tip ; these are organs of touch ; 
the birds feel for things they cannot see. The plovers 
have short bills, comparatively hard at the tip. There were 
little round holes in the sand, just where the lines tangled 
up ; this was where the little bird stuck in its bill and probed 
for something. It would be useless for a plover to do this, 
for it could not feel anything if it did ; we infer then, that 
a plover never would. And so at last, the bird stands con- 
fessed ; Semipalmated Sandpiper, JSreunetes pusilltis ; section 
TiringecBf of family ScolqpacidoRy of group LimicoltZy of 
order GraUce, of subclass CursoreSj of class Aves or Birds. 


Spokoxs.* — Professor Hfleckel in this paper has condensed the results 
of an extended and very remarkable series of investigations with regard 
to the affinities of the Sponges. 

He places them nearest the corals, considering their, canal system as 
homologoas with the stomach and circulatory system of the corals. He 
farther Identities their structure by showing that In both of these types 
the primitive body wall consists of two layers, an outer homogeneous, 
which however, springs Arom an originally cellular layer, and an inner 
cellular membrane. This comparison Is carried so far that as In the 
Coelenterata (Acalephs and Polyps) the large vessel, which conveys away 
the water admitted through the sides by the smaller branches permeating 
the mass of the sponge. Is called the stomach. Sponges are also stated to 
be either simple or compound, to be composed of one or more Individuals 
In proportion as they have one or more aflbrent openings. Of course Pro- 
fessor HsBckel Is well aware of the principal objections to his theory, and 
states them. The mouthless sponges, for instance, he accounts for by re- 
ferring to the mouthless Sycocystls, which, however, has young with a well 
formed mouth. The fact, however, that the water permeating the sponge- 
body goes through minute apertures In the wall Itself and Is ejected at 
the so-called mouth. Is not encountered with quite the same success. 
The cutaneous pores of the corals are supposed to be the same as these 
minute pores, and are supposed to perform the same or a similar office for 
the animal. The egg of the sponge (Prosycum) Is said to pass through the 
mulberry condition, after which It becomes hollow and clothed with cilia. 
This cavity enlarging finally breaks through one end, and forms a mouth 
opposite to the end which has already become attached to the rocks. At 
this young stage it is said to be not essentially dill^rent fjrom a flresh- 
water Polyp, or a young coral; 

The author nowhere alludes to the late memoir of Prof. H. J. Clark, the 
most conclusive of any that has yet appeared, advocating the compound 
nature of the sponge. In this memoir It Is clearly shown that In Leuco- 
solenia, a marine sponge, the cells of the Inner membrane lining the 
cavity (stomach of Hseckel) are monads and not true cells. That they 
have the single flagellum surrounded by a vail, or calyx, and contained 
contractile vesicles and particles of food In various states of digestion. 
Carter's observations, as well as Professor Haeckel's, distinctly confirm the 
flagellate, or single-haired, condition of the cells of the internal mem- 
brane, and the structureless, gelatinous nature of the external layer. 

*0n the Organlmtlon of Sponges and tbeir reUttonshlp to th€ Corals. By Ernest Hvekel 
(Translated In the Ann. and Mag. Nat. History Jan^ 1S70, (h>m the Jenalsohe Zvltsehrfft B. t. p. 



Professor Clark found that the monac^s, hitherto considered one of the 
simplest forms of animal life, had a similar flagollum, but that this was 
used to procure food, which he distinctly saw as it entered the sac-like 
body through a mouth situated at its base. The lip of this mouth spread 
itself over the morsels which descended into a digestive vesicle in the in- 
terior of the body. The series from this point to the sponge is completed 
by a form, Salpingoeca, which with tho same characteristics also secretes a 
gelatinous envelope. These anatomical focts Ailly Justified the author of 
the memoir alluded to in claiming that he had discovered the true nature 
of the sponges, and they appear to indicate a much closer affinity be- 
tween the sponges and the Uniflagellate Infhsoria, and appear much 
more, decisive than the coral-like characteristics described by Professor 

The comparison of the aquiferous systems of sponges with the true 
stomach cavity and circulatory vessels of the coral is more than doubtfbl. 
The objection that the current flows in opposite directions cannot be met 
by comparing the perforations of the body wall in corals with those of 
sponges. It is well known that these perforations are common also in 
the star flshes and Polyzoa, and their precise import in either is as yet 
unknown. The most rational view would seem to be the opposite of 
H&eckers, i, e.j that the pores are the mouths, and the so-called mouths the 
anal orifices, since out of these is all the refhse of the body thrown. De- 
scribing the radiating canals of Cyathiscus, the author asserts that the 
horizontal walls which divide these canals are absorbed, and the vertical 
walls are left standing, and thus a series of radiating chambers are pro- 
duced, similar to those of the corals. Farther, that the only difference 
between them is that in corals the central stomach opens below into the 
common cavity, into which also the radial chambers open, and in Cyathis- 
cus the stomach opens directly into the radial chambers by series of ver- 
tical pores, the former mouths of the lateral canals. This is perhaps the 
very strongest evidence brought forward by Professor Hseckel, and it is 
certainly a most interesting and remarkable fiict, but seems hardly con- 
clusive. The formation of the radiating partitions in the corals by the 
infolding of the inner meml>ranes of the walls, is a very difi'erent process 
ft'om that described above in Cyathiscus. How can we account for the 
fact that an individual with a large stomach cavity, and a set of circula- 
tory vessels, has arisen when no useflil end whatever could have been se- 
cured thereby? What useftil end, or of what advantage is it to the 
species as an individual to possess numerous minute pores to admit food 
and rapidly enlarging canals, abutting finally in a large trunk to facilitate 
its emission. This is Just the reverse of the economy of the organization 
of every individual, as such, in the animal kingdom. Individuals are uni- 
versally possessed of facilities for obtaining and swallowing food in the 
shape of large pliable mouths and stomachs, whereas the emission of the 
refuse takes place through the smaller end of the canal or through the 
mouth again. 



For the proper support of nn individual it Is evidently necessary that 
the food, whether microscopical in size or not, should be obstructed in its 
passage through the body and subjected to a thorough process of diges* 
tion. According to Professor HsF^ckel, however, we have In the sponge 
a creature in which all this Is reversed, and a digestive system Is presented 
to us which is perpetually increasing its facilities for getting rid of food 
as fast as it is swallowed. How tlils reversal of the animal economy can 
be of service to the race we cannot see, so long as we regard the sponge 
as an individual, or an aggregation of large individuals; but if on the 
other hand we adopt the opinion of his opponents, then all these difficul- 
ties disappear. We then see that the pores act as a strainer admitting 
only bodies of small size, such as are appropriate for the sustenance of 
the monads, which cover the internal surfaces of the canals. The grad- 
ual enlargement of these canals into a central trunk becomes at once ap- 
propriate, when we compare it with the similar facilities which are found 
in all compound communities for relieving the colony of reAise and 
deleterious matters. The fact noticed by the author, with marked em- 
phasis, that each cell of his entoderm (internal membrane), is armed with 
a single flagellum is also explained, and the vase-like form of these cells 
noticed by Carter, and the amoeba-like character of the external mem- 
brane, accords equally well with this view. We do not find in this article 
in fact any remarks which lead us to think that Professor Ha^ckel has paid 
such full attention to the structure of the single cells of his inner mem- 
brane as would Justify him in adopting an opinion so entirely opposed to 
that which we have advocated. Of course in his forthcoming work this 
point may be more AiUy treated of; and since the whole discussion hangs 
upon a question of fact as regards the structure of the single cells of the 
internal membrane we may look for an early solution of this vexed ques- 

If we dropped the review here it would be treating Professor Hssckel 
with great injustice. Though forced to criticise the main point of his 
theoretical deductions, the studies upon which they are founded, like the 
other works of this eminent German zoologist, will be deeply felt In the 
history of the progress of knowledge In this department. 

The account of the flinctlon and structure of the ectoderm, and of the 
development of the ** ova" Arom special forms of his so-called cells of the 
internal membrane are of the greatest interest and importance. That, 
also, of the gradual development of the canal system gives us an entirely 
new and original view of sponge structure. In this connection the re- 
markable statements are made that species of Nardoa, Nardopsls and 
Ceenostoma begin with a single stock which subsequently branches, only 
however to coalesce again as they approach maturity and unite their vari- 
ous apertures into one common trunk and single aperture ; and also, that 
we can trace the origin of a species from the common stem form. To 
illustrate this last assertion the author instances two species, Quancha 
blanca and Sycometra eompresia, whose variations are so great, and indi- 


cate affinities, with so many different groups, that be has been obliged to 
place them In a separate order by themselves. **Sycometra compressa 
appears as a sponge stock which bears upon one and the same cormus the 
mature forms even of eight different genera" 

In conclnslon Professor Hseckel begs all of his readers who may be in 
possession of specimens of calcareous sponges to send them to him for 
examination and comparison. 

The Extinct Mammauan Fauna of Dakota and Nrdraska.* — This 
important work Is the final expression, the author informs us, of labors 
extending over a period of twenty-three years, during which the mate- 
rials on which it is based, have been accumulating. Sufficient time has 
elapsed to allow of corrections of first identifications, and we have the 
result in a memoir of much completeness and accuracy in the topograph- 
ical descriptions of the remains preserved in such unusual perfection and 
abundance in the localities in question. Fortunately the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia numbers among its members liberal minded 
men of wealth, for without the '* sinews'* of the undertaking ftirnished 
by Messrs. Joseph Jeanes and William P. Willstach, this work would not 
have seen the light. As it is, the execution both in printing and litho- 
graphy, is a credit to all concerned. 

The species hitherto discovered in the Bad Lands belong to two series 
of strata, determined many years ago by Dr. F. V. Hayden to be Miocene 
and Plioct'ne respectively. Fossils from these, and a few of Postpllocene 
age are included, derived from the area in question. The whole number 
described is eighty-six, distributed as follows: Carnivora, fifteen ; Artlo- 
dactyla, thirty-four; Perlssodactyla, twenty-nine: Rodentia, six; Insect- 
ivora, two. With reference to the relations of the genera and species, 
we let tlic author speak, by quoting his valuable summary at the close of 
the descriptive portion of the work : 

" In comparing the two lists representing the North American tertiary mammals, mainly 
from the states of Dakota and Nebraska, with the tliird list reprcsctitlng the qnaternarjr mam- 
mals of the same continent, a remarkable dissimilarity Is observed, and there Is also noticed 
a greater rescmhlanoo of the former with the tertiary and qnatemary mammals of the old 

Of thirty-two genera of mlocene terrestrial mammals, chiefly firom the Maavalses Terres of 
Hakota, not one occurs in the qnatemary formation of North America; and of twenty-one 
genera of pliocene terrestrial mammals, chiefly from the Niobrara River of Nebraska, only 
eight are common to the qnatemary formations of North America, and of these eight three are 
absent In the existing fhuna Of the continent. Tlie eight g(>nera allnded t*} as common to the 
pliocene tertiary and the quaternary formations are Cauls, Cervus, DIootyles, Mastodon, EI»- 
phas, Eqniis. HIpparlon and Castor. 

It Is uncertain how far the species of Canls attributed to the Niobrara pliocene formation 
are poculltar to It. Part of the fossils maybe quaternary, or perhaps, even recent remains. 
Of Cervus, part of the specimens referred to It may bo of a recent species, while the antler 
viewed as pertaining to the same may represent a peculiar genus, subsequently extinguished. 
The only remains Indicative of DIcotyles was an upper canine tooth which may really have bit- 
longed to a quaternary or perhaps a recent species. The remains of the pliocene mastodon 

*The Extinct Mammalian Fauna of Dakota and Nebraska, with a Synopals of the Mammal- 
ian Remains of North America. By Joseph Leidy, M. D., LL. D., preceded by an Introduction 
on the Geology of the Tertiarles of Dakota and Nebraska, by Professor F. V. Hayden, M. D. 


pertain to the rabfreons Tetralophodon, whJIe thoie of tba qvaternary period belong to tbe 
rabgenns Trllopbodon. 

The remains of Elephas probably Indicate a species distinct ttom the quaternary E, ameri- 
eantM, thongh It Is not positively ascertained. The remains of Eqnns appear to be different 
from those of the later E, fratemut. The genus Hlpparlon Is clearly common to both the 
pliocene and quaternary period, bnt the species are different. Protohlppus, one of the soll- 
pedul genera of the Niobrara pliocene, appears also to have existed during the quaternary 
period. In Chill, South America. A small species of Castor, of tbe Niobrara pliocene. Is re- 
presented by the larger qnatemary and still existing Beaver. 

Tlie quaternary fliiina of both American continents was especially distinguished by the 
presence of those wondcrftil creatures, the giant slotlis, no trace of which has been detected in 
Uie tertiary formations of North America. This appears the more remarkable from the elr- 
curostance that remains of several edentate genera liHve been discovered in the miocene form- 
ations of Europe. 

The presence in the quaternary ftiuna of North America of the great sloths, together with 
other ordinal and generic forms, which likewise existed, and !n part still continue to exist, lu 
South America, leads to the Impression that the North American continent during the qua- 
ternary period was peopled by the extension of lU^ from the south. The greater similitude of the 
miocene and pliocene faun e which we have Investigated In tbe present work, with the eontem* 
poraneons fliunn of the old world, suggests the probability that the North American continent 
was peopled during the tertiary period from the west. Perhaps this latter extension occurred 
from a continent whose area now forms the bottom of the great Pacific Ocean, and whose ter- 
tiary fkuna Is now represented east and west by the fossil remains of America on the one hand, 
and of Asia with Its peninsula. Europe, on the other. 

In comparing the miocene and pliocene faunas with each other, as represented mainly by the 
remains from the Mauvalses Terrvs and the Niobrara River, we observe the remarkable flwt 
that In upwards of fifty genera belonging to the two (hunn together, scarcely a genus Is com* 
mon to both. In view ot the consecutive order and close approximation in position of the two 
formations and faunn, such an exdusiveness would hardly have been suspected. 

Thus, for Instance, the pliocene Merychyus may be regarded as Identical generlcally, with 
the miocene Oreodou; but alter all the^e are the only ones which oould be looked upon as 
the same, unless perhaps Rhinoceros is Included. In this case, however, the miocene R/iino' 
cero* oceiderUaliM appears to have been an Aceratherlum, while that of tbe pliocene formation 
was probably a true or homed Rhinoceros. 

Of all othcV known faune, extinct and recent, those of Dakota and Nebraska, under consid- 
eration, appear to approximate most in their relationship with the tertiary tkunm of Europe. 

Of the camivora of the former localities, comprising eight genera and fifteen species, five of 
tbe genera, or more than one-half, are found In the European tertlarles, as for instance: Canls, 
Amphicyon, Hyanodon, Pseudelurus, and Drepanodon. Tlie follne Dlnlctls of the Dakota 
miocene has not elsewhere been discovered. Tbe remaining two eamlvorons genera are too 
Imperftctly known for comparison. 

It is truly wonderful that of the numerous Rurolnantla, comprising fourteen genera and nearly 
double that number of species, none, excepting the genus Cervus, belongs to any other known 
fttuna extinct or recent. Even In the case of the excepted genus, it Is probable that part of tbe 
remains attributed to It may belong to a peculiar subgenus, while others may be of a recent 

When we compare the family relationships of the North American tertiary and qnatemary 
ruminants, we find remarkable dlffisrences. A peculiar family, the Oreodontldn, Is represented 
in lx>th the miocene and pliocene; In the former by three genera and many species, in the latter 
by a single genus. This fkmily has nowhere else been discovered, neither in tbe American 
quaternary nor the foreign tertiary equivalents. 

Another fkmily, the Agrlochoerldse, nearly allied to the former, li peonllar to the miocene 
of the AfawaiseM TerreM, 

The Camelidn are represented In the North American miocene pliocene and qnatemary de- 
posits, but particularly In the miocene, and they are yet represented In the existing fkuna of 
South America. 

The Moschldse are represented by the genns Leptomeryx In the Dakota miocene, bnt not In 
the later formations of North America. 

Tlie Cervida are represented in the pliocene and succeeding epochs In North America. The 
AntUopldffi are represented by a genus in the Niobrara pliocene. The Caprid» and Bovtda 
are not represented in North America prior to tbe qaaternary period. 


Of ArtiodactyU ezeluslTA of the Raminantla, tlie remains of seyen species of six genera 
belong to the Dakota mlocene, of wliich two genera, Elolherium and Hjopotamns are common 
to the European tertlai-y. The remaining genera in part but Imperfectly known* appear to b% 
peculiar. The Niobrara pliocene presents ns with traces of a peccary, bat this probably may 
belong to a later period. 

One of the arliodactyle genera of the Dakota mlocene, the hvge TItanotherlnm, was repre- 
sented by the nearly allied Challcotherlum of the European and Hhumalaya uilocene period. 

Of nneyen-toed Pachyderms or Perlssodactyla, the Dakota mlocene presents one Acera- 
tberiom, a peculiar genus of the same fkmlly, the Hyracodon, and a species of Lophlodoo. 
The former and latter are both European tertiary forms. Another member of the Khlnooeros 
family, JL he*peritu^ from Calllbrnla, wa-s probably an Aceratlierlum of inlocene age. R. merid- 
ianu4 of Texas was probably of the same category as the latter. 

The Niobrara pliocene presents us with three genera. Rhinoceros, Mastodon and Elephant. 
Tbe former has not been found in the American quaternary, though abundant in Its European 
equivalent, and continuing to exist in Asia and Africa. The Mastodon belonged to the sub- 
genus Tctralophodon, while that of the quaternary period was a Trllophodon. Elephants of 
other species were nearly cosmopolite during the quaternary period; but two species now Utc 
In Asia and Africa. 

Five genera of Sollpeds appear to have lived In North America during the miocene period. 
Three of them are peculiar, and appear not to have been discovered elsewhere. They have 
been named Anchlppua from Texas, Hypohlppus from the Niobrara River, and Anchippodus 
frt>m New Jersey. The remaining genus Anchltherlum, characterized by an abundance of re- 
mains frt>m the Manvalses Terres belongs also to the European miocene. 

The pliocene formation of the Niobrara is remarkable fbr the abundance of its equine re- 
mains, which have been referred to five genera, of wlilcb Merychippus and Parahlppns arc 
peculiar, and Protohlppus has been discovered elsewhere only In South America. Tlie re- 
maining genera Hlpparlon and Equus belong also to the North American quaternary and like- 
wise to the European quaternary and tertiary formations. 

Tlie miocene Rodents of the Mauvalses Terres belong to four peculiar genera of as many 
still existing families. One of the genera, Palasocastor, may be identical with the European 
chalicomys of Cotemporaneous age. 

The pliocene Rotlents of the Niobrara appear to belong to the still existing genera Castor 
and Uystrlx, but the latter now exists only in the old world. 

Of the few discovered quaternary rodents of North America, one genus, Hydrochan^ now 
absent on this continent, still lives in South America. ^ 

The miocene Inseotlvora of North America belong to three genera not discovered else- 
where.** pp. 350-802. 

In reviewing the character of the work, the care and accuracy of the 
descriptions furnish a most valuable storehouse to the palaeontoiogical 
student of other strata or localities, and its conscientiousness in this re- 
spect constitutes its great merit. On the other hand, however, we fail to 
find in many cases, that exact comparison and clear diagnosis of genera 
proposed or adopted, by which the zoological affinity Is alone expressed, 
and by means of which the analysis of the subject in the broad sense is 
so greatly facilitated. Without it, the student gropes in a mass of detail, 
and unless he fortunately have access to a good museum, will fail of 
acquiring a mastery of it. This refers also to a precise comparison with 
European genera, for which we have so many standards in figures and 

The synopsis of extinct mammalia is of equal or greater value to the 
student. The whole number of species enumerated is two hundred and 
three, of which Dr. Leidy has stood sponsor to one hundred and twenty. 
The species are distributed into the orders as follows : Carnivora, thirty- 
three; Artiodactyla, fifty-two; Perissodactyla, thirty-seven; Rodentia, 
twenty; Insectivora, five; Marsupialia, one; Edentata, seven; Sirenia, 


two ; Zeaglodonta, two ; Cetaceai forty-four. There are several species 
described for the first time, and the literary references are very complete. 
The system adopted by Dr. Leidy requires some comment. He adopts 
the order Bimana, a step which we regard as retrograde, since modern 
investigations! ft'esh in the mind of every student, have proved beyond 
cavil that that group Is subordinate to the order Quadrumana. The di- 
vision of Artiodactyla into Ruminantia and Artiodactyla as orders, rank- 
ing with other groups so-called, on the presence or absence of the 
Ainctional peculiarity of rumination, is also contrary to the philosophy 
of a homological system. The separation of- the Pinnipedia from the 
Carnivora has In the same manner little better foundation. The adoption 
of the Zeuglodonta as an order Is perhaps a step forward, though in that 
case the Squalodons, which embrace ten of the twelve species included, 
must certainly be referred to the Cetacea. The separation of the Sirenia 
as an order has met with favor ft'om Owen and others, and is well adopted 
in the present work. 

The Earliest Evidbnces of Plant- life.* — In this pamphlet Pro- 
fessor Dawson reviews the different substances which have been sup- 
posed to show that plants existed contemporaneously with the Eozdon in 
the Laurent! an of Canada. 

** We may ram np these facts and considerations In the following statements: — First, that 
somewhat obscure traces of organic structure can be detected in the Laurentlan graphite; 
secondly, that the general arrangement and microscopic structure of the substance corres- 
ponds with that of the carbonaceous and bituminous matters in marine formations of more 
modem date; tldrdly, that if the Laurentlan graphite had been derived flrom vegetable matter, 
It has only undergone a mctainorphosis similar in kind to that which organic matter in meta- 
morphosed sediment of later age has experienced; fourthly that the association of the graph- 
itic matter wlfti organic limestone, beds of iron ore, and metallic sulphides greatly strengthens 
the probablllty^of its vegetable origin; flfthly, that when we consider the immense thickness 
and extent of the Eozoonal and graphitic limestones and iron-ore deposits of the Laurentlan, 
If we admit the organic origin of the limestoneof graphite, we must be prepared to believe 
that the life of that early period, though it may have existed under low forms, was most copi- 
ously developed, and that It equalled, perhaps surpassed. In Its results, in the way of geological 
accumulation that of any subsequent period.'* 

Fossil Birds, f — In this little pamphlet Professor Marsh imposes a new 
obligation on the science of Paleontology, by the discovery of five species 
of Cretaceous birds. Among the species there is one, Paleotringa vetus, 
described from the original specimen found by Dr. Morton. This is the 
first fossil bird bone found in this country, and though referred to by Dr. 
Morton in his Organic Kemains of the Cretaceous period, has been hith- 
erto considered a recent specimen, which by some accident had been 
burled in the Cretaceous marl deposits. The forms embrace one large 
swimming bird {Laornis Edwardsianus), two gulls {Palceotringa liUoralis 

* On th"! Graphite of the Laurentlan of Canada. By J. W. Dawson, LL. D., eta Proceed- 
ings of the Geological Society, Postponed Papers, Vol. xxvi. Part 1. Pamphlet, pp. A. 

t Notice of the Fossil Birds ttom the Cretaceous and Tertiary Formations of the United 
States. By Professor O. C. Marsh. From American Journal of Science and Arts. Marolu 
1870. Pamphlet, pp. 16. 


and P. vetus)j and two rails {TelmtUomis priscus and T. <nfflnis). Besides 
these there are descriptions of four species of Tertiary birds, the first 
that have been regularly described from that formation in this country. 
These are said to be more closely allied to existing species than those of 
the Cretaceous. They are Puffinis ConradU Catarractes arUiquits, Qrus 
Haydeni, and Graculus Idahensis. 

Though the discovery of that remarkable bird, the Archsaopteryx, in 
the Jurassic beds, led naturalists to suppose that Cretaceous forms 
would bb eventually discovered, to Professor Marsh's energy we owe 
the fulfilment of these anticipations. 



Hibernation of Duck-wbbd. — It has long been known that some spe- 
cies of Zemna, or duck-weed, produce, at the approach of winter, leaves 
of a different character to those formed in the spring, which fall to the 
bottom of the pond or stream, enabling the plant to live through the 
winter. A series of more accurate observations on this point is recorded 
by M. Van Hoven in the ** Bulletin de la Soci6t6 Royale de Botanlque de 
Bclgique." The species of Lemna indigenous to Belgium are the same as 
those found in this country ; of these M. Van Hoven finds tha£ two only, 
the L. polyrrhiza and gibha^ produce leaves of a different form in winter; 
while with the three other species, X. minor, trUulca, and arrhiza, the 
ordinary leaves live through the winter, remaining on the surface. In 
X. polyrrhiza these winter-leaves first make their appearance In August or 
September. They are much smaller than the ordinary leaves, reniform 
or sometimes elliptical, olive-brown on both sides, and not gibbous be- 
neath; their roots arc exceedingly minute, and at first hidden within the 
leaf. The aSrlferous cells which serve to support the ordinary leaves ou 
the surface do not exist, causing the winter leaves to resemble an unde- 
veloped bud. In consequence of the absence of these vessels they are 
heavier than the water, and fall to the bottom as soon as any agitation 
of the water detaches them from the parent leaf, which perishes with the 
first frost. At the ordinary period of the revival of vegetation, a small 
bubble of oxygen appears on the upper surface of these submerged 
leaves, whicli carries them to the surface, ftrom which they again descend 
should the temperature fall below a certain point. In Lemna gibba, 
leaves of a similar character were observed hibernating beneath the 
water, differing in shape, size, and structure flrom those developed during 
the summer. — Quarterly Journal of Science. 


The Fraoabia Gillmani Again.— In simple Justice to those coDcerned, 
I think it bat right to state that specimens of this strawberry have lately 
been examined by Dr. Asa Gray, and that he confidently considers it F. 
Mexicana Schlechtendal. At the same time he admits that Schlechtendal 
in his description has omitted all mention of the well-developed leaf on 
the scape, which Dr. Gray allows, ** proves to be, or to^ be connected 
with, the distinguishing character of the species," adding that **no 
one could tell from SchlechtendaPs description whether or not he had a 
plant lilce this in view." It will thus be seen that he does not entertain 
the idea tlmt it is merely ** an accidental variation of F, vesca" as some 
would have made it, and that whether it is a new species or not,, it is one 
not hitherto described, or at least not sufficiently so for identification. 

In view of the interest at present manifested in England in regard to 
the Everlasting Andine Strawberry, and the discussion as to whether it 
would retain its perennially fhiitfhl habit, I would state that the Mexican 
everbearing strawberry (jP. Gillmani Clint.) has held this everbearing 
character for ten years in the State of Michigan. Plants removed to the 
house from the open ground last January are now (March 22d, 1870) in 
Aruit. The plant has been raised fVom seed during the past season, and 
the seedlings continue to produce all the characteristics of the parent 
plants, with dichotomous stem and racemose flowers, even to the blos- 
soming and ft'uiting of the stolons, and that when but four months old I 
-—the leafy character of the stem being a marked feature. — Henky Gill- 
MAN, Detroit, Michigan. 

Vftal Force and Color in Plants. — In my remarks on the yellow- 
flowered variety of the purple Sarracenia, in the March number of the 
Naturalist, the parenthesis, on page 44, contains an evident lapsus 
pennce. Instead of reading ** (white being taken as absence of color)," 
It might be corrected and Improved so as to read as follows : — *' (white 
being taken as accession of color and diminution of vital force.)" It has 
been repeatedly demonstrated that plants with variegated leaves, such as 
are so greatly sought after at present, are much more delicate than their 
plainer brethren, which, with less color, require less protection. This, I 
believe, is well understood by nurserymen who govern themselves ac- 
cordingly. A multitude of facts are, day by day, grouping themselves 
about this interesting subject, and more clearly defining the laws which 
govern It. As we better understand the effects on yegetation of different 
mineral constituents of the soli, more light will be shed in this direction. 

It ha^ been remarked that when a flower is of two colors, they are al- 
most always complements of each other. Familiar instances of this are 
the forget-me-not and the autumnal asters. More beautiful instances are 
the fairy bird's-eye primrose of the rocks {Primula farinosa Linn.), bear- 
ing pale lilac blossoms with yellow eyes, powdered with silvery farina, and 
the peerless calypso, nymph of the hemlock groves {Calypso horealis 
Salisb.), with brilliant purple petals, and lip maculated with a darker 
purple, almost hiding the flush of rare yellow glory within. Where there 


are three colors, the third is commonly white, — the union of the other 
two, as it were. A fine illastration of this is seen in the showy moccason- 
Hower (Oypripedium apectabile Swartz.). The snow-white petals spread 
above the inflated lip of as perfect a white melting into pink, which in 
turn, deepens into purple in front; while, drooping into the cavity, de- 
pends the singular petal-like sterile stamen of a pale lemon-color blotched 
with tawny spots. Another elegant example of this is presented by the 
Calopogon pulchelltts R. Br., the club-shaped hairs in the beautifUl beard 
of which are pure white, bright yellow, and rich purple. The white is dis- 
tributed, if we may use the expression, into yellow and purple. — Henuy 
GiLLMitN, Detroit, Michigan, 

Thk Lianis OB Woody Climbebs of the Isthmus, form, as is well 
known, entangled obstructions in the forests, which can be penetrated 
only by aid of the axe or machete. M. L6vy, a botanical traveller in Nic- 
aragua, sends to the ** Bulletin of the Botanical Society " of France (Nov., 
1869) an interesting account of them. The stems seud out aerial roots 
Areely, many of which reach the ground, when they enlarge in diameter 
and form new trunk-like supports. When cut in two the lower end of 
the severed stem sends down a root to rSestablish its connection with the 
ground. M. L6vy, finding one in this condition fVom which hung roots a 
foot long, cut it off anew ; two days afterwards it had produced new roots 
of the same length. Cutting it again it promptly made new roots, but 
more slender ones. He repeated the operation up to the eighth time, but 
the new roots were now so slender and feeble that he desisted. The 
plant was a species of Bignonia, 

Japanese Sea-weeds. — At a recent meeting of the Boyal Academy of 
Amsterdam, a collection was exhibited to illustrate the care taken by the 
Japanese in applying to beneficial purposes the natural products of their 
country. The collection consisted of sixteen species of alg» which are 
useful for food or other purposes, together with fabrics manufactured 
from some of them. Several of the species were altogether new; in 
other instances the application was entirely novel. — Quarterly Journal of 


A New Insecticide. — M. Cloez, who is engaged at the garden of the 
Paris Museum, has invented what he considers a complete annihilator for 
plant-lice and other small insects. This discovery is given in the " Bevue 
Uorticole," with the endorsement of its distinguished editor, £. M. Car- 
ri^re. To reduce M. Cloez*s preparation to our measures, it will be suffi- 
ciently accurate to say, take three and one-half ounces of quassia chips, 
and five drachms of stavesacre seeds, powdered. These are to be put in 
seven pints of water, and boiled until reduced to five pints. When the 
liquid is cooled, strain it, and use with a watering-pot or syringe, as 
may be most convenient. We are assured that this preparation has been 



most efficacious In France, and it will be wortti while for our gardeners 
to experiment with it. Quassia has long been used as an insect-destroyer. 
The stavesacre seeds are the seeds or a species of larkspur, or Delphi- 
nium, and used to be kept in the old drug stores. Years ago they were 
much used for an insect that found its home In the human head, but as 
that has fortunately gone out of fashion. It may be that the seeds are less 
obtainable than formerly. The stavesacre seeds contain Delphlne, which 
is one of the most active poisons known, and we have no doubt that a 
very small share of it would prove fatal to insects. — Scientific Opinion. 

Fauna of Round Island. — The remarkable discovery has been made 
by Sir H. Barkly, Governor of Mauritius, of four species of snakes and 
several species of lizards, in Round Island, a small island twenty-five 
miles fVom Port St. Louis, and separated by a sea only four hundred 
feet deep, no animals of that description being natives of the Mauritius. 
The flora was also found to be to a great extinct specifically distinct. 
— The Academy. 

Position of thb Bracriopoda in the Animal Kingdom. — For some 
time past the writer has had reasons for believing that the Brachiopods, 
with the Polyzoa, had greater afl[lnitie8 with the worms than with the mol- 
lusks. He has studied attentively Teredratulina and Discina as well as 
their early stages, and in all points of their structure interprets articu- 
lated characters, and not molluscan characters. Without entering into 
particulars at this time, he would state that in the structure of the shell 
he finds the greatest resemblance to the shell of Crustacea, both as regards 
the peculiar tubular structure, and the scale-like appearance, and its 
chemical composition. In Lingula, while the carbonate of lime amounts 
to only six per cent., the phosphate of lime amounts to forty-two per cent. 

The horny seto) which fringe the mantle are remarkably worm-like. In 
worms the bristles are enclosed in muscular sheaths, while in other 
articulate animals the hairs are simply tubular prolongations of the epi- 
dermal layer. In the Brachiopods these bristles are secreted by follicles 
and are surrounded by muscular fibres, and are freely moved by the animal. 
The structure of these setae difler but little, if at all, from those of the 

The lophophore with the cirri is to be compared to similar parts in the 
tubicolous worms, and the mantle which covers and conceals their arms, 
is to be compared to the cephalic collar, as seen in Sabella, for instance, 
where we find it split laterally, and a portion reflected. If this were 
greatly developed so as to cover the expanded fronds of cirri, we should 
recognize quickly the relation between the two. 

Dr. Gratiolet has compared the circulatory system of the Brachiopods 
to that of the Crustacea, and Burmcister has shown a resemblance between 
the respiratory apparatus of certain cirripeds and that of Lingula. 

In the reproductive system there is a close similarity existing between 
the oviducts of Brachlopoda, with their trumpet-shaped openings and, 
similar organs in the worms. 


In the little knowledge we have of their embryology, the strongest 
proofe exist of their affinity with the worms. Lacaze-Duthiers flgnres 
the embryo of Thecidiam, and it is a little animal with foar segments. 
Fritz Mtlller flgnres an early stage of Discina, and we have recalled to as 
a positive articulate and worm-like character. From the body of this 
embryo, prominent bristles project. Smitt flgnres the same in the 
embryo of Lepralia, wherein he describes six bristles that appear loco- 
motive ; and Clapar^de figures the embryo of Nerine, a worm, in which 
we find similar bristles projecting Arom the body. In this connection it 
is interesting to note that in the winter eggs, or statoblasts, of Polyzoa 
we have a relation to similar characters among the lower Crustacea, the 
ephlppia of Daphnia, and the winter eggs of Rotifers, for example. 

Leuckart places the Folyzoa with the worms, and the close aflSnity of 
the Polyzoa with the Brachiopoda is now freely admitted, and we now 
recall those peculiar worms, or early stages of them, which so strongly 
resemble in almost every essential point of their structure the hippo- 
crepian Polyzoa. 

As many of the foregoing points need ample illustration, and as the 
writer has in preparation a memoir on the subject, he will now only call 
attention to the facts supporting these views, evolved from the study of 
living Lingulse. It is but justice to state that six months previous to the 
^observations made on Lingula, he had come to conclusions herein ex- 
pressed, and had fVeely argued It with his colaborators. 

He saw the necessity of examining Lingula, however, before advancing 
these views, and for this sole purpose had visited North Carolina in com- 
pany with Dr. A. S. Packard, jr., who with his observations on the worms 
and Crustacea of that region yet found time to follow the writer, step by 
step, in his studies of Lingula, and was deeply impressed by the disclos- 
ures there made. His slncerest gratitude is due Dr. Elliott Cones, 
U. S. A., and Major Joseph Stewart, U. S. A., commandant at Fort 
Macon, North Carolina, for their constant aid and sympathy In further- 
ance of the object of his visit there. 

Alter nearly a week's fruitless search, Lingulsd were fbund in a sand 
shoal, left at low tide. They were found buried in the sand. The pe- 
duncle, which was about six times the length of the shell, being encased 
in a sand tube differing in no respect fVom the sand tubes of neighboring 
annelids. In many Instances the peduncle was broken in sifting them 
from the sand, yet the wound was quickly healed and a new sand-tube 
promptly formed. When placed on the surface of the sand they were 
noticed to move quite freely, by the sliding motion, in all directions, of the 
dorsal and ventral plates, aided at the same time by the rows of setse or 
bristles, which swung back and forth like a galley of oars, leaving a 
pecnliar track in the sand. 

The peduncle was hollow, and the blood could be seen coursing back 
and forth in its channel. It was distinctly and regularly ringed, and 
presented a remarkably worm-like appearance. It had layers of circular 
and longitudinal muscular fibre, and coiled itself in numerous folds 


or anwoand at Aill length. It was contractile, also, and quickly Jerked 
the body beneath the sand when alarmed. 

But the most startling discovery in connection with this Interesting 
animal was the fact, that Its blood was red. This was strongly marlced 
in the gills, which were found in the shape of a series of rows of simple 
lamellae, hanging from the internal surface of the mouth; thus proviiig 
the correctness of Vogt's observations from alcoholic specimens. At 
times the peduncle would become conjested, and a deep rose blush was 
markedly distinct. The sexes were distinct. 

The writer believes the Brachlopods to be time articulates, having cer- 
tain affinities with the Crustacea, but properly belonging to the worms, 
coming nearest the tubicolous annelids. They may better be regarded as 
forming a comprehensive type, with general articulate features. Possibly 
they have affinities with the moUusks, through the homologies pointed 
out by Allman as existing between the Polyzoa and Tunicates. 

It is interesting to remember that Lingula, though one of the earliest 
animals created, has yet remained essentially the same through all geo- 
logical ages to the present time. — Edward S. Mobsb. 

Fig. 76. Fig. 77. Fig. 78. 

Tig. 76. Pednncle perAsct, rctalnliiff a portion of tin) sand tnbe. 

Fig. 77. Showlnff tiie valves Id motion ; the peduncle broken and new sand case being formed. 

Fig. 78. Peduncle broken close to body and Baud case being formed. 

The Ruby Crowned Wren. — In reply to Mr. Allen's question, I may 
state positively that, according to my experience, the adult fertile female 
is " ruby-crowned " like the male. She Is perhaps a trifle smaller, not quite 
so brightly colored, and with the flame-colored patch possibly of a little less 
extent; but she cannot be distinguished (Irom the male with certainty, 
except on dissection, and even then it is not always easy to determine 
ftom slight inspection, unless the organs are enlarged in functional activ- 
ity. The barren or sickly female may possibly not acquire the ornament. 
Birds of both sexes lack it for at least a year; whether they breed or not 
with plain heads I do not know. These come along in spring in the rear 
of the mature birds; they are most abundant at the time when the latter 
are about leaving. — Eluoit Coues. 



Geological Survrt of Iowa. — The legislature of this state has 
discontinaed the survey which was being so ably conducted by Dr. C. A. 
White. This seems inexplicable in a state which must necessarily be 
very largely benefited by the exploration and discovery of its natural 
resources. Legislatures, however, are not governed by the same rational 
laws of self interest which actuate private corporations and individuals. 
Though single mining and manufacturing companies consider it neces- 
sary to employ an engineer or a chemist, the legislatures are ttr too poor 
or too anxious about the next election to pay any attention to the de- 
velopment of the natural resources and mining interest of the state. 
Provision has been made, however, for the publication of the State 
Geologist's Report, which Is to be completed in the same style as the 
Illinois Geological Survey. 

New Fossil Turkkt. — At the meeting of the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences, March 8th, Professor O. C. Marsh of Yale College, 
exhibited a number of fossil remains f^om the Post- tertiary deposits of 
Monmouth county. New Jersey, which indicate a new and distinct type 
of birds, closely related, apparently, to the turkey, and not unlilcely the 
progenitors of the existing species. The specimens shown were portions 
of three skeletons, of diflTerent ages, which belonged to birds about the 
size of the common wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo Linn.), although 
proportionally much taller. The tibis and tarso-metatarsal bones were, 
in fact, so elongated, as to resemble those of wading birds. These inter- 
esting remains were referred provisionally by Professor Marsh to the 
genus Meleagris, and the species they represent was named Meleagris aHus. 


Circulation of the Latex in the Laticifrrous Vessels.— Within a 
few days I have repeated some experiments (first made more than fifteen 
years since) upon the circulation of the latex in the laticiferous vessels of 
the leaf of Chelidonium majus, to which I desire to call attention. 

Before detailing these experiments it ought, perhaps, to be stated that 
Amici, Dutrochet and Mohl deny any visible motion in them except such 
as is the result of injury ; while Schleiden says '* that in the uninjured 
vessels, the motion of the latex can very seldom be snccessftilly shown ;" 
even in Chelidonium mnjus it is only occasionally possible, and then pre- 
sents great optical difllcultles. 

Now, I find, by potting a young plant of this kind, and placing any 
young leaf between two strips of glass (upon which a drop of glycerine 
has been put) in such a manner as to bring the under side of the leaf up- 


permost on the stage of the microscope, so as to throw the stroug re- 
flected sunlight upon It Arom the mirror below, that ; 

First, there Is occasionally either a nearly total want of motion or only 
a very slow one of the colored granules, or at times a very rapid motion of 
the particles to be seen, running f^om right to left, If the vessel happens 
to run horizontally on the stage, or toward me If the vessel runs from the 
outer to the Inner border of the stage, and 

Secondly, that while watching the circulation as seen through the lenses 
in the reflected sunlight, if I move the diaphragm Arom left to right, so as 
to make the shadow enter upon the right of the field of view, a brisk 
circulation (no matter how quiet it had been before) Is Instantly wit- 
nessed, which appears to be changed in direction as we move the dia- 
phragm back again ; and that the direction of the circulation can thus be 
changed at will by the interception of the sunlight This same result can 
also be witnessed by the passage of clouds between the sun and mirror. 
The actual direction in the plant is from the apex of the leaf in sunlight 
and toward it in the shade. This change in direction is so rapid when pro- 
duced by the shadow of fast flitting clouds across the sun's disc that it 
would seem that the change of temperature could hardly be felt by the 
plant, it certainly could not be by an ordinary thermometer; but a heated 
body properly placed will quicken the circulation, as will cold retard it. 
If I mistake not we have here a flue demonstration of the conversion of 
light into beat by its passage through the vegetable tissues, and of heat 
into motion by its action upon the laticiferous vessels. 

Prof. Balfour in the Article Botany, "Ency. Brit.," says that in plants 
with milky and colored Juices evident movements have been perceived, 
and mentions the calyx leaves of Chelidonium majus, as also the India- 
rubber plant, the gutta-percha tree, the dandelion, and the Euphorbia; 
and through your journal, should you think this article worth Insertion, 
I would ask assistance in the examination of this interesting subject. By 
mixing a little of the colored juice with alcohol, and adding a little water, 
it will be seen that the motion of the liquids in the vessels cannot be the 
result of evaporation. And that it Is not an ocular Illusion may be argued 
from the fact that three independent observers witnessed the changes of 
motion as above described. — H. C. Pbrkins, M. D., Newhuryport. 

NotCj May 12. I have just examined the circulation of the latex In the 
laticiferous vessels of Leontodon taraxacum under the same circumstances 
as that of Chelidonium and am pleased to find precisely the same results. 
— H. C. P. 

Does Boiltno destroy Germs ?~ This question cropped up In the 
course of the Pasteur and Pouchet controversy on Heterogeny, and It ap- 
peared that there are some germs that are not destroyed by boiling, but 
which require a temperature some degrees (10° or 13°, we believe) above 
boiling. This Is another simple problem for microscopists. — MonMy 
Microscopical Journal. 



ARCHiEOLOGiCAL IMPOSTURES.— To hoax IS eminently an American pro- 
cUvity or habit, a kind of fViskiuess not withgnt a tinge of mischief, and 
always reckless, which pervades our society far and wide, and which is 
gratified by creating what is called " a sensation." Sometimes there is a 
sinister or selfish motive behind, and a deliberate imposture is practiced 
with the view to pecuniary advantage. Of this the ** Aztec children ** 
and the ** Onondaga giant " are clear examples. The latter f^au4> it is 
to be hoped, is deftinct ; the former flourished for years after it had been 
thoroughly exposed. 

I have hunted down a score or more of these f^uds on popular cre- 
dulity, only to find a dozen others springing up in the place of each one 
slaughtered. Skeletons of giants resolving themselves into bones of the 
mastodon; great Jawbones fitting over the faces of common mortals — 
Just as though two spoons of equal size could not fit into or over each 
other— inscribed plates, such as of mica discolored by infiltrations of iron, 
etc., etc., ad nauseam. Not long ago I received a letter from a savant in 
Vienna, regretting that I had not given '* a ftill and particular account* 
of the extraordinary vault, with its statues and inscriptions that had 
been discovered in the rocks of the Palisades of the Hudson, and hoping 
that I would prevail upon some competent western correspondent to 
make a farther carefUl examination of the recently discovered ancient 
tunnel under the Mississippi River, opposite St. Louis I During the last 
summer I received a note ftom a gentleman, whose name is not unknown 
as a north-western explorer, enclosing a slip fi-om a Kansas paper, giving 
an account of the discoveries of ** Professor Henry L. Scott, LL. D., of 
Georgetown, Ky.,'* near Evanstown, Shelby Co., Utah, in one of the 
cafions of Rear River in the Uintah Mountains. I quote fk*om the article : 

^HaTlng secured the belp of some half dozen men, Proftsaor Soott immediately directed 
bia course towards the South, where a bastard canon starts out ft'om one of the Uintah spurs. 
Fortunately lie had with him a half-breed who could converse with the Shoshones, who range 
all through that section, and through the interpretor he learned ft'om Wa-pa-on-ta (Stag), a 
Bub-clilef of the Shoshones, that about fifteen nqlles ttota Evanston was a mound of eztraordi- 
iiMry dimensions. Tlie Professor Immediately repaired to the place, and to his great gratifica- 
tion dlscoTcred a tumulus of as fair and positive proportions as any described by Squler and 
Davis. He immediately commenced the work of excavation, and in three days had the Inex- 
pressible pleasure of laying bare what was certainly a vault. He found a cavity about eight 
feet long, three wide, and (bur deep. Its bottom, sides and ends were made of triangular 
shaped stones, evidently quarried from the red granite of the Wasatch range. There was no 
top or covering to the vault, but fh>m the nature and color of the earth immediately over it, 
tiie Professor thinks that an arch of burned clay had l>een used. But one skeleton was found, 
which on exposure, immediately crumbled into dust; it appeared to indicate that of a man not 
over five feet ten inches. The bones lay east and west— the skull east. At the foot, and appa- 
rently between the feet, was found an ordinary-shaped earthen pot, with a capacity perhaps 
of half a gaUon, cone-shaped, and without any mark or engraving whatever on it. Along the 
left side lay an iron bracelet with a spring clasp, perfectly preserved. On each side of the 
ikoU were two medicine stones, shaped like a cigar, foil of boles, and of half-pound weight. 


Tho stones were Tcry similar to Tennessee marble or Scotch graalte. On the right side of the 
skeleton the Professor found a silver plate about tlie size and exactly the shape of an artlst*a 
palette. Ko mark whatever was distinguishable on this piece, but it is of the purest silver. It 
may have been nsed as a shield, though the Professor inclines to the belief that It was a 
** charm,** and that the skeleton was that of some medicine man or priest.** 

I replied to my correspondent that I thought the whole story a *' hoax," 
but if it would please him would soon find out if it were or not. I ac- 
cordingly addressed a letter to the editor of the paper in which the article 
originally appeared, asking him on what authority the publication was 
made. He answered that it had been written by a sub-editor (giving his 
name) who, however, had left his employ, but to whom he would forward 
my letter. A few days ago I secured a note from the sub-editor afore- 
said, in which he says : 

** To be Arank with 700, * Bxplorations in Utah * was a sensatton^ written to olBiet the fortli- 
coming report of * Professor Powell In the Colorado Canons,* and Colonel Samuel Adams' in 
Colorado,* both of which have since appeared. From personal observation In the region men- 
tloned^I know both reports to be very erroneous.*' 

I should perhaps ipention that ** Professor Scott's" explorations were 
alleged to have been undertaken under the belief that the race of the 
mound builders of the Mississippi Valley had migrated to Mexico and 
Central Mexico, and that traces of thetf transit might be found on the 
way. — E. Q. Squier. 


T. Dupar, M. D. — Toar specimens thongh inconveniently email for determination, 
are : 1, Po'ypodium incanum ; 2, Attpldium patent t 3, ParmeUa pertata variety olive' 
torum i 4, Atmilijia fraxinea ; 6, Parmeiia aoecioaa variety fframeli/era. Soathem ape- 
oiee of lichens and ferns are very acceptable. Send along some mora. Your remarks 
npon the TiUandHa utneoides arc interesting; may we hear more firom yon on the hab- 
its of the plants of your vicinity ?— J. L. B. 


Annual Meteorological SynopHi, By J. B. Tremhiey, M.D., Toledo. Olilo. Pamph. 1870. 

Th€ One Hundred Dollar Frite B»9ay on the Cultivation of the Potato. By D. H.Oompton. 
8vo, pamph. Illiidtrated. Orangeffudd ft Co. New York, 1h70. (25cts). 

7%« Oeotogieai Survey qf Ohio, it* Proifrest in 1869. liepurt of an Address deUvered to the 
LcjrtBlatiire of Ohio, February 7, 1870. By J. 8. Newberry, Chief Geologist. 8vo, pamph. 1870. 

Narrative of a Bear Hunt in the Adirondaeki. Read before the Albany Institute, January 18, 
1870. By Verplanck Colvin. 8vo, paraph. J. Mnnscll. Albany, 1870. 

Proceeding* Academy of Satural Science* of Phila*felphia, No. 4. December, 1869. 

Diseourte on the Life and Character of George Peabody, By S. T. Wallls. Peabody Institute 
of Baltimore. 8vo, pamph. 1870. 

Journal of the Qiteetett Mieroteopical Club, No. 10. April, 1870. 8vo. Plates. London. 
R. Harflwlcke, for the Club. (1«. a number.) 

Ala$ka and it* Re*ource*. By W. H. I>aJI. Large 8vo. Cloth. €38 pages. Many Illustra- 
tions and MHp. Bobton, 1870. L<h; ft Shepard. $7j50. 

Fir*t Annual Report qf the Geological Survey of Indiana^ made during the year 1889. By B. 
T. Cox, t^tate Qeologlst. assisted by Messrs. Bradley, liaymond and Levette. 8vo, doth. pp. 
240. 4 maps. IndianMpolls, 1809. 

On Existing Remains of the Oare-Fbufl {Alea impennis). By Alft«d Newton. [From "The 
Ibis'Mor April, 1870.1 

Contribution* to the Theory of Natural Selection, A Series qf Essays. By Alft^ Russel 
Wallace, pp. 884. ]2mo. oloth. Loudon and New York. 1870. Macnilllan ft Co. 

The NaturaH*C* Guide in Collecting and Preserving Object* itf Natural Hittory^ wUh a Com-' 
plete Catalogue of the Hirds of Eastern Massachusetts. By C. J. Maynard. Illustrated, pp. 170. 
]3mo, clotli. Boston, 1870. Fields, Osgood ft Co. [$2J»).j 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of Net* Tork. Vol. iZ. No. 10. April, 1870. 

NaturaluCs Note Book. April and May, 1870. London. 

Universal Decimal Weight, Measure and Coinage Association, Circular No. 1. May, 1870. 

On the Pre-Carboniferous Floras of North'eastem America^ teith special referenre to that of the 
Brian {Devonian) Period, Abstract of the Bakerian Leotnre. By J. W. Dawson, [rrom 
Proceedings Royal Society. Loudon, 1670. j 


Vol. TV.-AUaVBT, 1870.-NO. 6. 


The Lyi'e Bird fiiids in the soutb-eastern portion of Au&< 



tralia a region peculiarly adapted to its nature. At a variable 
distance from ttie sea rises a range of mountains, the swell 
of which is undulating rather than precipitous, while the 
summits expand into immense open downs and grassy plains. 
These are studded with belts and forests of trees, and appear 
like a succession of vast parks. As the hills and plateaus 
sink into the cup-like depression of the interior, marshy 
grounds alternate with parched and sterile barrens ; but sea- 
ward, the soil is of almost inconceivable richness. Here, a 
tropical luxuriance prevails. Forests of immense, ever ver- 
dant, blooming trees, are broken by rich meadow-like dis- 
tricts admirably suited to grazing pui-poses. Indeed, the 
country as described, is so charming, that it might be con- 
sidered almost a Paradise were it not for the intense heat of 
summer, increased, as it is, by the hot dry w^inds which 
blow southward from more northerly regions. Parching 
droughts are succeeded by torrents of rain, which, collecting 
on the hills and.plains, and advancing through their stream- 
lets, pour in swollen floods down the mountain sides to the 
sea, carrying destruction on every hand. Thus are the sea- 
ward slopes washed into gullies and ravines, which are left 
obstructed by fallen trees and branches. Over these active 
nature soon spreads a mantle of greenness and bloom, by 
means of rapidly growing creeping vines, forming almost in- 
accessible fastnesses. In these secluded haunts the Lyre 
Bird hides itself from the gaze of man. It is found over a 
large extent of country, but is peculiar to the mountain dis- 
tricts of Australia, and especially to those on the south- 
easteni face of the continent. Two species ai*e known ; one, 
Menura superba^ the well-ki^own Lyre Biixl, the other a 
closely allied species, Menura Albertii. 

Australia is a country of wonders, where even the leaves 
of the trees are so disposed that they present but little surface 
to the scorching sun, and, consequently, are almost valueless 
for shade; and where, both in the vegetable and animal 
world, are curious foi*ms existing nowhere else on the globe. 


Here is a rich display of birds with gorgeous plumage, and 
here also are found many remarkable only for their unlike- 
ness to all others. Among the latter is a family, the mem- 
bers of which, with their peculiarly large feet, scratch up 
grass, herbage, and soil, and throwing these backward, in 
concentric circles, finally raise a mound which forms a verit- 
able hot-bed. In this they deposit their eggs, and the heat 
engendered by the decaying vegetable matter quickens the 
life-germ, as in ordinary hatching does the warm body of 
the brooding mother. 

What is esj^ecially curious is that the Lyre Bird, while in- 
cubating its eggs in the method common to birds, has a sim- 
ilar habit of raising mounds which it devotes to a wholly 
different purpose. These elevations seem to be intended as 
orchestras for the display of musical powers, and both morning 
and evening they betake themselves thither, frequently while 
they whistle, sing, or imitate the notes of other birds, raising 
and spreading their tails with all the pride of the peacock. 
M. Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, refers both the Lyre 
Birds and the *^ Mound Builders'* to one family, that of the 
MegdpodidcBj or the Great Feet. It is by no means won- 
derful that this thought should have suggested itself to the 
mind of the learned naturalist, for there certainly is, in 
several respects, a striking similarity between the Lyre Bird 
and the Megapodes, a resemblance so strong as to be per- 
ceived even by the casual observer. But this similarity 
seems capable of explanation on other grounds than those 
of a family relationship, nor need we even suppose that the 
birds in question belong to the same order. 

The Lyre Bird has been known for more than half a cen- 
tury, but possibly, our fullest information is derived from 
the English naturalist, Gould, who, with his wife, travelled in 
Australia for the purpose of ornithological investigation 
more than twenty years ago, and who since has, from time 
to time by his correspondence, obtained facts of much im- 
portance to ornithological science. To his pen, and to her 



almost magic pencil, we are largely indebted for our knowl- 
edge of Australian birds. The pictures of both artists are 
80 life-like that we might well be pardoned for forgetting 
that we had never heard the music of their songsters, nor 
beheld the flowering vine where it grew. 

The whole collection of birds, forming the originals of 
Gould's "Birds of Australia," was purchased by Dr. Thomas 
B. Wilson and presented to the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences in Philadelphia, — a gift to a noble institution of his 
native city, in which America has reason to rejoice. In 
this collection, along with other specimens of the Lyre Bird, 
may be seen that which furnished the half size illustration 
of Gould. It is somewhat faded by time, but otherwise is 
in a good state of preservation. From this bird our ailist 
has given the cut heading the present article. 

The bird is about the size of the common fowl. Its gen- 
eral plumage is of a dull leaden, or chocolate brown color. 
Fig. 80. brightened on the wings, chin 

and front part of the throat 
with a reddish tinge, which is 
much richer during the mating 
season. The peculiar beauty of 
the bird, however, lies in its tail, 
which is in perfection only four 
or five months of the year. 
This appendage consists of six- 
teen feathers, twelve of which, 
as seen in the engraving, are 
furnished with loose, slender and 
flowing barbs, which are so distant from each other that their 
effect is that of a background of light and elegant tracery. 
Figure 80 shows a section from one of these feathers, the 
barbs, many of which are seven inches in length, having 
been cut away on either side of the central stem. Four 
of these feathers are of a closer texture near the base where 
firmness is required. The two unpliant middle feathers are, 

Section ftom IoomIt barbed Fealher, 
natural size. 



on the outside, destitute of barbs, except a alight friuge 
near the termination. Od the inner side there is a narrow 
vane gently expanding to a little ng. si. 

more than half an inch at the widest 
part, but contracting towards the end. 
These feathers bend on either side 
over the delicate tracery, heightening 
its effect by their decided lines, as 
best seen in %. 79. Figure 81 pre- 
sents two sections, a from the ter- 
minal curve, and b from the middle 
of one of these rigid feathers. 

But that which gives character to 
the whole is the arrangement of the 
external feathere. These curve in ^^t^^TSSTu^^^'r^SS' S,X 
such a manner that the two together Kiw ft«"he«"* ' '* """' ' 
form tiie outline of an ancient lyre, an appearance so striking 
Fis. 81. as to conter on the birds their popular 

name. These two feathers contrast 
with the middle ones by presenting 
vanes, wide on the inner side, on the 
whole length of the shaft. These 
vnnes, are apparently frilleti, but this 
singular effect exhibited at a in figure 
82, which is a section, half size, from 
one of the exterior feathers, is pro- 
i duced by an alternate omission of bar- 
bules on the barb, as seen at b, fig. 82, 
which is a single bnrb. As the barbs 
are seen edgewise, they present, in the 
naked spaces, the appearance of trans- 
parency, and are usually so described. 
one The microscope, however, proves that 
KrtiSi"^™ '"*""*' in these portions the barbs are not 
devoid of color. These two outer feathers are of one or 
more shades of brown and ash color, lighter than the general 


plumage, and are tipped with black. In running the tail is 
lowered and held horizontally, and when of full size it is 
nearly two feet in length. 

Gould describes the Lyre Bird {Menttra superha) as soli- 
tary, never more than one pair, and frequently only one bird 
being found in the same covert. It is extremely shy, and of 
all birds is the most difficult to capture, this being ascribed 
in part to its extraordinary powers of running and in part 
to the nature of the ground it inhabits, traversed as that is 
by immense, obstructed gullies and ravines. It seldom or 
never attempts to escape by flight, but like the Texan Guan, 
belonging to the Penelopidae, frequently ascends trees to a 
considerable height, by leaping from branch to branch. 

One mode of procuring specimens is by wearing the tail of 
a full plumaged male in the hat.- The poor bird is deceived, 
and, approaching to greet a companion, easily falls a victim 
to the gunner. Any unusual sound, such as a shrill whistle, 
generally induces it to show itself for an instant ; if this 
favorable moment is not seized instantly, the next it may 
be half way down a gully. None are so successful in the 
capture of these birds as are the native blacks of Australia. 
Bestless and active, the Menura is constantly engaged in 
traversing the brush from one end to the other, and the 
mountain sides from the top to the bottom of the gullies, 
whose steep and rugged acclivities present no obstacle to 
its long legs and powerful and muscular thighs. It is also 
said to be capable of performing the most extraordinary 
leaps, frequently using this method of escape from its 

Independently of its loud, full call, which can be heard 
reverberating over the gullies at least a quarter of a mile, it 
possesses an ^inward and varied song, the lower notes of 
which can only be heard when the listener is within a few 
feet of the singer." This animated strain frequently ceases 
suddenly and then recommences with a low snapping sound, 
ending in an imitation of another Australian singer, the 


Satin Bird, and is always accompanied with a tremulous mo- 
tion of the tail. 

Through a letter written from Sydney, Australia, by Dr. 
George Bennett, and published in the ^^Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society," London, we learn something of the Lyre 
Bird in a state of captivity. 

The bird, described in the letter of Dr. Bennett, had been 
captured when so young that it was only just able to feed 
itself. It was in the possession of a gentleman who, when 
he first obtained it, fed it with great care and regularity pn 
worms, grubs, German paste and beef chopped very fine, 
but as it grew older he added hemp seed, bread, etc. ; in 
short, treating it as he would any member of the Thrush 
family. Of many specimens, of all ages, which he pur- 
chased as companions, this was the only one which survived, 
the others, brought from the lUawara district, lived but a 
short time. Apparently healthy and. well when they 
whistled at dusk in the evening, the morning would present 
only a lifeless form. Others kept in an aviary in Sydney, 
survived their captivity but six months. 

On the fouilh of January, no indication of sex could be 
ascertained from the plumage of the individual described. 
Twenty days afterwards, when the bird was two years and 
four months old, two of the peculiar feathers of the male 
were developing. 

This bird was in a constant state of restless activity, run- 
ning rapidly about the spacious aviary in which it was con- 
fined, and leaping upon and over the stones and branches 
placed in the enclosure, yet with all its restlessness it would 
follow the call of its owner and take food from the hands of 
those to whom it was accustomed. It mocked with great 
accuracy the Piping Crow, Wonga Pigeon, Parrots and 
various other birds in the same aviary and in the vicinity, 
and about dusk in the evening was often heard to utter its 
own peculiar whistle. 

Even in Australia this bird was so highly prized that a 


liberal offer could not induce the possessor to part with it to 
send to England. 

Another letter from Melbonrae, Australia, written to Grould, 
informs us that the nestling bird is extraordinarily helpless ; 
when taken forcibly from the nest, it walked most awk- 
wardly, with its legs bent inwards, frequently falling, appa- 
rently from want of strength to move the large and heavy 
bones of its legs properly, and this at a time when its height 
was sixteen inches, and when its wings and tail were already 
furnished with feathers, although the body was still clothed 
with down, which, as well as the feathers, was of a dark 
brown color. When taken from the nest, the bird screamed 
loudly, and the mother, notwithstanding the proverbial shy- 
ness of the species, actuated by her maternal fondness, tried 
in various ways to deliver the captive. A shot was the re- 
ward of her devotion, and with its mother near it, the young 
Menura soon became silent and quiet. Afterward its cries 
for its natural protector being answered by an imitation of 
the mother's voice, it was easily led by the sound and soon 
became very tame. It was exceedingly voracious, but ate 
wholly in the manner of the Passeres, the nestlings of which 
hold the open beak in a vertical position, requiring food to 
be dropped therein. It was sustained principally by worms 
aud the larvsB of ants, and when occasionally it picked up 
the latter for itself it never was able to swallow them, the 
muscles of the neck not having gained sufficient power to 
effect the required jerk and throwing back of the head. 
Bemaining for an unusually long time iu the nest, the young 
Menuray like the passerine birds in general, possesses the 
instinct of cleanliness. 

The habits of Menura Albertii are very similar to those of 
its better known relative ; the former, like the latter, being 
famous for its most extraordinary mocking capabilities. 
Commencing his song before the dawn of day, in fact being 
the earliest of song-birds, he continues till about an hour 
after sunrise, besides his own peculiar note imitating the 


cries of all the birds in the bush. He then becomes silent 
and remains so during the day until about an hour before 
sunset, when he again commences singing and playing about 
until it is quite dark. 

This species chooses sandy localities and feeds wholly on 
insects, mingled with a considerable proportion of sand, but 
is without the crop found among the gravel-using Rasores. 

It commences building in May, lays its eggs in June, and 
hatches its young in July. Choosing some bare rock where 
there is a sufficient shelter for a lodgement, it builds an 
oven-shaped nest, outwardly constructed of sticks or roots, 
tendrils, or the leaves of palms, and lined with soft green 
mosses, or the skeleton leaf of the parasitical tree fenis, — 
a substance almost as elastic as horse hair. This nest is 
completely rain proof and has the entrance on one side. 

A nest of this species, with two eggs, is deposited in the 
British Museum, The nest is about two feet in length, by 
sixteen inches in breadth, and is domed over except at one 
end. The eggs, about the size of those of the common fowl, 
are of a deep purplish chocolate, irregularly blotched and 
freckled with a darker color. 

The nestling is covered with whiU down and remains six 
weeks in the nes^. 

In this species the male bird is about four years old before 
he acquires his full tail ; the two centre curved feathers are 
the last to make their appearance. 

Of the nest of M. iuperba we find no equally clear descrip- 
tion, but it appears very nearly to resemble that of M. AU 
bertii. The eggs of the former species are said to be of a 
lighter color, and the young to be blind as well as helpless. 

The method of nest building, the helplessness of the 
young, and their passerine manner of feeding, taken in con- 
nection with the structure of the MenuridoBy all point to a 
position considerably higher than the Megapodes. It is true, 
the young are covered with down, but exceptions occur 
among the Fisairostral birds, as for instance, the Night Hawk 



and the Whip-poor-will of the CaprimulgidcB^ both of which 
are downy at birth ; and the Menurid(E may present a similar 
exception in the group of the Paaneres^ where the young are 
nearly if not entirely nude. 

Gray placed Menura among the Wrens. Jerdon assigned 
it a position intermediate between the Walking Birds, — in- 
cluding the common fowl and the Pigeons and Doves, — and 
the higher Land Birds. 

Most ornithologists of the present day unite in consider- 
ing it as a member of the PoMeres^ that group which in- 
cludes our Thrushes, Wrens, Pewees, Humming Birds, 
Sparrows, Crows and all the multitude of their kind. 

Professor Huxley has examined a portion of its anatomy 
with care, and while referring Menura to a group equivalent, 
to the PoBseres^ sees so many distinctions between this and 
all other passerine genera, that he places it in a section of 
this group alone, no other birds in the world answering to 
the Lyre Birds. 

Nitzsch, who with equal care, examined Menxira in refer- 
ence to plumage, reaches the same conclusion, that it is un- 
doubtedly a passerine genus, but that in certain respects it 
differs from every other, while manifesting a relationship to 
the Wrens, the Thrushes, the Dippers and several other 
allied families. 

From all these considerations the probabilities of the 
case seem to be, that the Lyre Birds are neither Wrens nor 
Thrushes, nor members of any other family to which they 
appear to be most nearly allied ; but that they may be the 
living representatives of a group which preceded one, or 
either, or all of these various families; and, that under a 
passerine form, they repeat some of the peculiarities of the 
Megapodes and of their near connections, in the line of ascent^ 
the Cracidoe and Penelopidoe; at the same time reasserting, 
in a general way, their resemblance to the Walking Birds, 
while exhibiting a fundamentally passerine nature. In the 
same manner does each of the vertebrate classes repeat, 


vith[n its own type, characteristics of lower forms of life ; 
and thus do all the higher animals in their embryonic condi- 
tion, pass through stages representing the lower rertebrates. 



Can any one see a snail travel, and not ask mentally, 
"how it does it?" The method certainly is curious. A 
fleshy disk is protruded, and caused to project in the direc- 
tion of locomotion ; it is then spread out flatly, and while 
slightly adhering to the object over which it is passing, a 
contractile energy is exerted, and the little animal bearing 
its bouse is drawn onward. Thus by the repeated protru- 
sion, expansion, and contraction of this soft organ, in due 
time its journey is accomplished. Because of this method 
of progression on a ventral disk, all those shell-fish, or 
properly speaking, molluscan animals, so constituted, are 
called by the systematists, gasteropoda, a term which means 
ventral-footed. And in rank these gasteropoda stand next 
to the most highly oi^anized of the mollusca. But some of 
these shell-encased creatures do not travel at all. Take, for 
instance, the oyster, called a monomyary, because the valves 
are held together by a single muscle. This sedate bivalve 
once settled, probably never moves from that spot. But all 


the dimyaries, or two-muscled bivalves, well represented by 
the common edible mussels, possess a foot, which is not 
greatly unlike that of the snails. The mussel's foot, how- 
ever, presents in its class, the least developed condition of 
this organ, for it is a spinner, rather than a walker ; or, as 
Owen says, *^it is subservient to the function of a gland, 
which secretes a glutinous material analogous to silk, the 
filaments of which are termed the byssus,** which often 
serves for attachment to rocks. He farther says, **in most 
dimyary bivalves the foot is an organ of locomotion." Some 
of the river mussels in babyhood spin a byssus with which 
to moor themselves against the currents of the stream. 
When older grown this necessity is overcome, and the capac- 
ity just mentioned is lost. Then the adult turns its foot 
into a plow-share, and is dragged along in the furrow it 
makes in the mud. The razor-shell alternately bores down- 
wards and propels upward, the foot doing all the work. 
With the foot as an elastic spring the heart-shell leaps along. 
But the common black mussel, Mitylus edtdis^ and its de- 
spised neighbor, the brown horse mussel, Modiola pUcatula^ 
who ever saw them walk? Propulsion is not always walk- 
ing. The scallop with its large adductor muscle, by snap- 
ping together its light valves, thus forcibly ejecting the 
water within against the water without, flits through, and 
sometimes even skips upon its native element, like an aquatic 
butterfly. But no pedestrian does so in all MoUusca-dom. 
Why then should not these pedate bivalves, the mussels, 
walk as others of their own people do? ''For want of 
brains!" says one. You are mistaken, sir. They have 
brains, the right kind too, and in the right place, — a real 
pedal nerve-mass, or ganglion ; a little bilobed brain at the 
very base of the "understanding" itself, that is, exactly un- 
der the foot, as was fabled of a very agile dancer, that his 
brains were in his heels. 

Now, if seeing is believing, mussels can walk. We once 
saw a young brown mussel, of the species Modiola plicatula^ 


about five-eighths of an inch in length, turn his foot to most 
excellent account. We had pulled the youngster's beai'd off, 
and then had deposited him at the bottom of a deep aqua- 
rium. The water was probably but poorly aerated, hence 
he was evidently ill at ease, and to our astonishment he at 
once began travelling over the pebbly bottom, then up the 
glass side with the utmost facility and grace. The foot 
moved precisely as any univalve gasteropod would do, and 
with the same easy gliding motion. The movement was 
continued without interruption until it had reached the sur- 
face of the water, a distance of not less than ten inches, 
which added to the distance travelled over the bottom, was 
probably equal to fourteen inches. At the surface it lost no 
time in spinning its byssus, which it fixed to the side for a 
permanent abode. 

For its lively colors, perhaps rather ruthlessly, we had 
picked this little fellow out of a large family cluster, snugly 
packed in a hole in one of the piles of the dock. It was a 
large group of all sizes, literally bound together by the 
silken cords of — attachment shall we say? 

A fellow captive was a full grown, black, edible mussel, 
torn from its anchorage, a stone near by, at low tide. We 
afterwards found ensconced in this black shell, an amount of 
intelligence, which filled us with astonishment. If his 
youthful fellow prisoner could beat him at walking, he was 
about to accomplish the feat of climbing to the same posi- 
tion by means of a species of engineering of a very high 

In order the better to understand this singular feat, let us 
introduce it by the narration of some spider tactics we once 
witnessed. The insect had captured a large beetle, but 
could not get it to its web, and seemed indisposed to prey 
upon it away from its den. It had dragged the prey under 
the web, which was about two feet above. It ran up to a 
point close by its web; there it attached a thread, by which 
it speedily descended, and then attached the other end to its 


booty. Again it ascendedy affixed another thread, then de- 
scended and affixed to the prey as before. Each thread, in 
sailor phrase, was made taut. After a good many threads 
had been in this manner attached, each being stretched tightly, 
and each pulling a little, the weight was seen to ascend a 
small fraction of an inch. Again the threads were increased, 
and again the weight ascended a little more, until at last, 
after incredible labor, perseverance and skill, the little en- 
gineer had the satisfaction of success; for its well earned 
booty, with one final, tiny jerk ** brought up** at the desired 
spot. The explanation of all this is simple. Suppose we take 
a cord of the material known by the ladies under the name 
elastic, and attach it to an ounce weight. If but very moder- 
ately stretched it would certainly pull at least a grain. Sup- 
posing it to do that, a second one would pull with equal force, 
and it would be but a simple estimate to determine how 
many threads would be required to raise the entire weight. 
But enough of this. Now for the mussel. 

Placed at the bottom of the aquarium, where it had been 
for a couple of days, it had succeeded in wiggling itself up 
to one of the glass sides of the tank. This accomplished 
it protruded its large foot, stretching it up as high on the 
glass as it could reach, this organ seemingly adhering very 
tightly. A little hole opened near the extreme forward end 
of the foot. This tiny hole was really the extremity of a 
folded or closed groove. Out of this a drop of white 
gluten, or mucus, not larger than the head of a pin, was 
exuded, and pressed against the glass. There was then a 
slight withdrawing of the foot, simultaneously with an un- 
folding, or opening of the groove, which contained, as if 
moulded there, the already completed delicate thread. This 
done, the partly contracted foot (not drawn into its shell at 
all, be it understood) was again extended, this time a littlcf 
higher than before. The groove, or spinneret, was again 
closed, except the little opening on the surface of the foot, 
whence another little drop of mucus appeared, which also 


was pressed against the glass. Again the foot was with- 
drawn a little, the lips of the gi*ooye unfolded, and the 
moulded thread set free. This gave thread number two. 
Each was evidently set at a considerable tension. And in 
this wise, thread after thread was formed and set. I regret 
that I did not record the exact number, but am sure that it 
was about twelve or sixteen, and the time occupied was be- 
tween two and three hours, when lo ! up went the mussel, 
about three-eighths of an inch high. Yes, he was drawn up 
by his own cords. He was literally lifted from terra fimia. 
Not at all suspecting what was to follow I mentally ex- 
claimed. ^^This little fellow knows the ropes." 

There was next a period of rest. Whether it was due to 
exhaustion of material, and was meant to allow the secreting 
gland time to evolve a fresh supply or not, I cannot affirm ; 
but must say that such was my belief, for after an hour or 
so it set to work again, precisely as before, attaching a new 
cluster of threads. This cluster was set about iive-eio:hths 
of an inch higher thau the previous one. When this new 
group of filaments was finished, the same result followed, 
another lift of a fraction of an inch, but not quite so high as 
the first. I now suspected its motive — the animal was 
actually in this singular manner attempting to reach the sur- 
face. It wanted to take an airing, and was really in a fair 
way to bring it ftbout. 

While setting its third cluster of threads, I foresaw a seri- 
ous difficulty in the way, and one against which the spider 
never has to contend. It was this : after the third lift had 
been achieved the threads which had accomplished the first 
lift had changed direction ; that is, the ends of the threads, 
which had pointed downward when pulling up the mussel, 
were now pointing upward, and were actually pulling it 
down. Of course the lowermost thread, or threads, would 
exert the most retrograde traction. Thought I, **Sir Mussel- 
man, you will have to exercise your wits now." I rejoice to 
say that the ingenious little engineer was complete master 


of the situation. The difBculty was overcome in this way 
— ^as each lowest thread became taut in an adverse direction, 
it was snapped off at the end attached to the animal. This, 
as I think, was done by two processes ; the one by softening 
that end of the thread by the animal's own juices, purposely 
applied, as the pupa in the cocoon moistens its silk envelope, 
when wishiug to soften the fibres, so that it can break a hole 
through which the imago may emerge ; the other by a moder- 
ate upward pulling, thus breaking the filament at its weak- 
est point. 

The next day our little engineer had accomplished the 
wonderful feat of climbing to the surface by ropes, fabricated 
during the ascent. Without delay it moored itself securely 
by a cluster of silken lines at the boundary where sky and 
water met, and was there allowed to enjoy the airing it had 
so deservingly won. Bravo I my little Mussel-man I No 
acrobat can beat thee on the ropes I 

And what are we to say to all this? Blind instinct, for- 
sooth I Who believes it? The wise men of the ages have 
written as the tradition of the elders — *'byssus-bound," of 
our Mytilus. But it can make of its bonds, mooring lines 
of safety against the storm, and with consummate skill can 
build a silken stair-way into its own wished for elysium of 
delight. It is some three years since the writer witnessed 
the facta here recorded, and to this day, the sight of a mus- 
sel inspires him with profound reflection on the ways of 
Him who made these creeping things of the sea. 

Note. —It has seemed to the writer, that in the perfection of morement shown br 
the Modiola plicaiula, as given above, a high stage of foot development is indicated, 
such as would hint at a gi-nde out-ranking MytUuB edtUia. The figui-e inseited is that 
of M. edutia ; but the process of climbing is the same. — 8. L. 



The great coal measures of our continent are the grand 
storehouses of preserved plants from this richest realm of 
the vegetable kingdom ; they are the entombed pioneers that 
have paved the way, and still light the path of higher forms 
of life, both vegetable and animal. However much we may 
to-day value these humble and lower steps on the stage of 
existence, we are apt to fall far below a due appreciation of 
their value in the economy of nature ; our health, wealth, com- 
fort, nay our very existence more or less, directly depends 
on the uses they subserve ; and still every new dawn brings 
some novel use crowding the advancing ages until we look 
back but a few days to our early years, and wonder how we, 
as well as our forefathers could do without this or that neces- 
sary of life. As coal they are the familiar friends of our la- 
bors, and the cheerful companions of the domestic fireside. 
It is not, however, to the dead and fossilized forms alone, but 
mainly to the living, that we invite a moment's attention. 

An idea of minuteness and insignificance too often follows 
any reference to the simplest plants in nature ; yet many at- 
tain a great size, such as Tree Ferns and certain Sea- weeds 
— the former forty feet high, of the size of one's body, 
and the latter of prodigious length, besides myriads of inter- 
mediate forms. 

The Fungi, a brief account of which follows, are cellular 
plants, without flowers, living in the air, often nourished 
through a stem by an amorphous spawn, or mycelium, in- 
stead of a root, and propagated by very minute spores, 
serving the same purpose as the seeds of flowering plants. 

The largest species found in California, is the kind com- 
monly known as Touchwood, or Hard Tinder {Polypoinis) ; 
of a semicircular shape, between one and two feet across, 



and six to eight inches thick; this large species we hnre 
only seen atUiched to the living trunks of the Laurel Tree 
(Oveodaphne Californica), Its name signifying many pores j 
describes itself, the lower surface being a mass of little 
tubes or pores, angular like honey-comb. 

As tinder it makes a slow but sure fire and good coal, 
wind proof, so that as a slow match for blasting purposes it 
is perfectly safe. It burns at the rate of an inch in five min- 
utes ; this rate, of course, will vary a little with thickness. 
Dipped in nitre and dried it is even more sure on gunpowder 
than fate itself. The corky kinds of fungi to which this 
belongs continue to live and increase for many years, al- 
though in genenil mere size is no reliable index of age in 
this field of inquiry, for we know that under favorable cir- 
cumstances the Scaly Polyponis (P. squamosns), found on 
the trunks of dead trees, attains, perhaps, the largest size of 
any known. Instances have been recorded of its measuring 
seven feet five inches in circumference, and weighing thirty- 
four pounds avoirdupois, growing to these vast dimensions 
in the short space of three weeks. 

The power of these plants to disintegrate the hardest 
wood is very remarkable, causing it to yield much more rap- 
idly than the ordinary influences of the weather. Among 
the greatest agricultural obstacles in the vast timber clear- 
ings of the South and West, and indeed of most new coun- 
tries, are the old stumps, which, if left simply to the action 
of the weather, might be something less than half a century 
in decaying; yet if these were simply sprinkled with water 
in which fungi had been washed, they would shoilly crumble 
beneath the magician's wand, a mere shreddy mass of inter- 
laced cottony touchwood, the tissues and cells of which 
would be seen to be traversed and disorganized by this amor- 
phous mycelium. We know from actual observation that 
where heavily timbered land is required to bo cleaned oflT 
entirely, it often costs from fifty to one hundred dollars per 
acre. Perhaps to estimate it in human flesh, we might adopt 


the western proverb, that it wears out one generation to 
bring the land into tolerable tillage for the next. Only a 
few of these plants are known to us, nor do we know their 
uses except in a few instances. Many of the species we 
know are very destructive to the trunks of living trees, on 
which they grow. In the first instance they may giow on 
parts which are diseased, but the insidious mycelium spreads 
with great rapidity; the moment any growth of this kind 
appears the tree should be felled, or if a valuable ornamental 
tree, the pai*ts affected should be carefully removed, and a 
strong solution of sulphate of copper or corrosive sublimate 
be supplied. 

Most Polypori are close and tough in their texture, and 
rather indigestible ; still some are eaten. Berkley declares 
that the most delicious of ail fungi is the P. casareus. Sev- 
eral other species besides our P, igniarius are used as tinder 
and moxa, and some are said to make famous razor-strops. 
Certainly a more satiny cushion could not be devised. The 
common small species, with variegated concentric rings (P. 
vemicolor) , is used to lure insects from the mycologist's more 
valuable specimens. One is used in Russia, pounded and 
put in, snuff, to improve its narcotic properties; another has 
been manufactured into coarse clothing. Only one, I be- 
lieve, is worshipped, i.e., the P. mcer^ a most striking 
object, much venerated by the negroes on the West African 

Perhaps many of us have experienced the kindred pleas- 
ures of paradise on a walk in the woods after a thunder- 
storm in the warm days of August, and felt our lungs swell 
with a thrill of strength to the very fingers' ends, while 
breathing the balmy odors of the wood ; it was not all the 
breath of flowers, nor foliage, nor any conspicuous form of 
commonly recognized vegetation. Some may remember 
having searched for the sweet knots to take home with them, 
hiding the uncouth thing in the house in order to excite the 
pleasing wonder and prying curiosity of the loved ones, aa 


to where that sweet odor came from I It was the sweet 
scented Polyporus, another species of the same plant. Sim- 
ilar fragrance is observed in one species growing on the 
birch which is used to scent snuff; another like the soft con- 
tents, of the puff bally is celebrated for staunching blood. 
This fungus has been much used as a remedy, and its virtues 
vaunted in this country for the cure of consumption in its 
early stages; so also have similar surprising effects been 
attributed to the use of Agaricus emeticus. The phospho- 
rescent agarics of the olive and palm are luminous like large 
fire-flies, and a few suffice to light up a large room sufficient 
to read by. 

It is often said that some allied mushrooms are unwhole- 
some, and therefore there is danger, and upon the whole, it 
is best to let them alone. In reply, might we not inquire if 
the carrot, celery, parsnip, angelica and anise are not allied 
to the deadly hemlock ? The potato, egg-plant and tomato 
are also close akin to the poisonous night-shade. The inno- 
cent arrow-root, too, is the actual product of the fearful 
woorai, or maratta arunamacea^ with which the savage pois- 
ons his arrow-points in war. The universal practice in 
Russia is to salt fungi; and beside they are often subse- 
quently washed and treated with vinegar, which would be 
likely to render almost any species harmless. Any one fa- 
miliar with our coast and bays will not fail to hear of cases 
of poisoning with shell-fish, and there are also sad cases on 
record of death from these as well as the edible mushroom, 
or AgaHcus campestris. Fungi vary in quality with climate, 
meteorological conditions, soils, etc., so that the safest way 
is to eat only those raised in garden beds for the purpose ; 
always bearing in mind that much depends upon the mode 
of preparation and cooking. 

The Grape Disease ( Oidium TSickeri) , is the result of a 
pai*asitic fungus, terribly devastating to the wine crops of 
Europe, the losses of which are estimated by millions, and 
so frightful as to threaten starvation to thousands; fortu- 


nately, the uative vine^ of America are not subject to it, 
eveu when cultivated m proximity, on the European Conti- 

This fungus plant is easily destroyed by dusting on them 
flowers of sulphur with a soft brush, when the fruit is well 
set, about the size of a pea. One application, the Hon. 
George Hobler, of Alameda, assures me, has proved an in- 
fallible remedy with his foreign grapes ; had he known its 
value sooner it might have saved his English gooseberries, 
which he had plowed up and cast away in utter despair. 
Currants, and other fruits, are also victims at times. Indeed, 
one species, Oidium albicans^ called Thrush, grows in the 
mouths ef children. This can be transplanted and culti- 
vated ; a weak solution of potash or salaeratus will dissolve 
out the albumen and leave the plant wholly exposed and 
unchanged. Now, the U8e of this knowledge is, that the 
same law and similar remedies are indicated here, as where 
it attacks the vine, namely, to kill the parasite and cure the 
disease. It is always pleasing to be able to see in rational 
light why our grandmothers were right in being so partial to 
sulphur. One dram of sulphite of soda to an ounce of 
water is a sure cure. 

The Oidium fi'uctigenum is often seen in whitish puberu- 
leut spots of a greenish gray on oranges ; and on apple trees 
it destroys the fruit while still hanging to them; beans, 
plums, peas and hops, etc., are also often destroyed, or much 
injured by its ravages. 

A digression into the rationale of remedies for these evils 
would greatly interest us, but we must forbear ; they turn, 
however, upon a tew simple physiological facts — in a word, 
the Flowerless Plants on land or sea have an oily or shiny 
coating to the spores, neither the sea water nor air actually 
touch them ; but the moment this adhesive oily or mucilar 
ginous matter is destroyed, they perish ; hence the use of ley, 
lime, ashes, etc., together with many chemical washes. 

It is impossible in a short article like this to dwell upon 


all the mildews, white and black {Puccinia and ArUennarid) 
which ruin wheat fields in the North, and orange groves in 
the South. Rust, or red mildew (Uredo rubigo)^ which, 
however, is not so injurious as some others, but is still a 
serious evil — the smut (Urego segetum) — bunt (Uredo 
caries) y where the gi*ain looks well, but is a mass of black 
foetid sporidia when crushed. If any one of these fungi, out 
of a thousand, would spread famine and death broadcast 
over the earth, is it of no use to investigate the subject? As 
on his* rolling main no navigator, coasting its dangerous 
shores ever contemns the chartings and soundings of science, 
so let the landlubbers learn to do on theirs. 

A brief allusion to a few points in so large a field is all it 
is hoped to do ; but the bald botany of the subject is only to 
aid the end in view, namely, the practical use of the knowl- 
edge; this requires that we add a few words upon the ill 
effects on men and animals, as well as the gross wealth and 
prosperity of a country. That the diseased or fungoid cere- 
als referred to are very dangerous to man and beast, no one 
of proper infonnation will doubt or deny ; why they are less 
dreaded than the larger poisonous fungi, is sufficiently mani- 
fest. The Ergot of grasses (e.g. AgrosiiSy JFestuca^ Ely^ 
mu8y DactyliSy etc.), but chiefly of rye, is one of this class ; 
the fungus is perhaps better known as spurred rye — the 
symptoms of poisoning from eating it, are general weakness, 
intoxication, creeping sensation, cold extremities and insen- 
sibility ; then follow excruciating pains, and lastly, dry mor- 
tification — the fingers and toes drop off. 

I have known only one case so suddenly serious that the 
patient lost the fingers and toes ; but very many instances 
where ultimate death of both men and cattle have followed 
the use of fungoid gi*aiu ; and also mouldy provisions. 
Cheese, however, is supposed to l>e improved by it, and in 
parts of Europe they inoculate with a plug taken from a 
mouldy, and introduced into a new cheese ; or the curd is 
exposed for a day or so before making up, so that the float- 


iug spores in the air may inseminate the mass. If to some 
they are improved, there is a species or condition of mould 
that I have every reason to believe is dangerous tP persons 
of a consumptive predisposition. The black dust of hay 
fields ( Umtilago) acts in a more direct manner — hay makers 
are attacked by violent pains and swellings in the head and 
face, and great irritation of the entire system. The blue 
bread mould (Pencillium), or a condition of it is found on 
the inside of casks, the spores of which prove poisonous ; 
this is well illustrated by the two coopers who entered a 
great tun to clean off this mould, when they were seized with 
violent pains in the head, giddiness, vomiting and fever, 
scarcely escaping with their lives. 

Alluding to fungi on forests, fruits, shrubberies, grapes 
and grains, a passing word will not be amiss on the potato 
disease, caused by the Botrytis infesians; its ravages, how- 
ever, are too well known to this generation for particular 
details. Another, the B. bassiana, attacks the silk worm 
in China and Syria. The Achorion microspoivn^ Trico- 
phyton and Lychen agrixi8^ are well known to attack man, 
to say nothing of the strong probability of their being the 
origin of malaria, typhus, cholera, and the plague, etc., be- 
sides numberless epidemics, which, at least, are preceded 
and unduly accompanied by these strange and often micro- 
scopic wonders of the vegetable kingdom. Unlike other 
plants the fungi in place of purifying the air — at least, so 
manifestly — from the poisonous carbonic acid and the other 
elements of injury, and giving us back the vital oxygen, 
steal away this, and shed on the shadowing wings of every 
dark corner of the earth an element, which, if it exceeded a 
tenth, would annihilate the race ; besides all this, they throw 
off hydrogen, which causes abrasions and sores — mostly of 
the mucus membranes and air passages; and, finally, as we 
have seen in some cases, they exhale specific poisonous sub- 
stances ; while myriads of spore-seeds so minute and light as 
to be scarcely less volatile than ether itself, are poured forth 


upon the gentlest breeze, were it even so slight as to leave 
the gossamer unmoved. Let us not, however, look alto- 
gether upon the dark and dismal side of the picture. They 
all may be, nay, are, beneficent forms of life, only less 
poisonous and otherwise injurious than would be the fleeting 
noxious vapors they catch from the atmosphere, as their 
kindred do the filth of the mighty deep, and hold it back 
from its fiendish mission of misery to mankind. They 
come mostly in the melancholy autumn days when the flow- 
ers are fading away, and the leaves are falling to decay, 
when the beautiful fairies have fled from the grassy lawns ; 
when no naiads dance in glee down the glittering wavelets 
to the boundless ocean; for then even the brook itself 
loathes and leaves its slimy bed, which, with the aid of 
crypts, reptiles and creeping things, can scarce suffice to 
stay or temper the impending plague. Like a grizzly beast 
of prey, it walks in thick darkness, or sits at bey in the sun- 
sucked fogs ; or, perchance, winds its slow length invisibly 
along, like a spirit serpent in the stagnant air of the vales 
and deep mountain gorges ; or coils its envenomed form in 
the dismal cellars and filthy by-ways of our cities. It is 
notorious that in stagnant water, or in that other flnid, the 
air — where decomposing organisms take on innumerable 
forms of life — there is the purified and purest portion of 
the pond. Even the noisome mosquitoes, dragon flies and 
reptiles, with flowerless plants, render fluids salubrious that 
were hastening to putrefaction and death. 

That like assimilates to like in the realms of spirit and of 
matter is a universal law that will be seen, and, sooner or 
later acknowledged. From the vegetable kingdom many 
examples might be drawn in illustration, and, perhaps, few 
will be more strikingly in point than the Fly Agaric {Agar- 
icus mu8oariu8)j so named from its being used to poison flies. 
This intoxicating fungus is often seen in hilly or subalpine 
regions, particularly in our forests of fir and birch, where 
its tall, trim, white stem, and rich scarlet cap, studded with 


white, scaly warts, form a beautiful contrast to the soft, 
green carpet of moss from which it springs, and the elegant 
emerald foliage that overshadows it. This very poisonous 
fungus is to the north-eastern nations of Europe and North- 
ern Asia, what opium and hemp are to India and China, 
awa to the Sandwich Islanders, cocoa to the Peruvians, and 
what tobacco and various spirituous liquors are to Europe 
and America. Thus we see, as a reverend writer justly re- 
marks, that the indulgence of these narcotic cravings has at 
last degraded itself to so low an object in the scale of nature 
as a common toadstool ; and that, too, in the most revolting 
manner possible to conceive. The Kamtschatiian and Koriac 
races are so dreadfully degraded that they personify this 
fungus under the name of Mocko Moro^ as one of their 
household gods — like the god Siva of the Hindoo Thugs; if 
urged by its effects to commit suicide, murder, or some 
other heinous crime, they pretend to obey its commands, 
and to qualify themselves for premeditated assassination, 
they have recourse to additional doses of this intoxicating 
product of decay and corruption. When steeped in the ex- 
pressed juice of the native whortleberry, it forms a very 
strong intoxicating kind of wine, which is much relished. 
But the more common way of using the fungus is to i'oU it 
up like a bullet and swallow without chewing, otherwise it 
would disorder the stomach. Dr. Greville in the fourth 
volume of the '*Wernerian Transactions,'' says, one large 
or two small fungi are a common dose to intoxicate for a 
whole day, i.e., by drinking water freely, which augments 
the narcotic action. The desired effect comes on from one 
to two hours after taking the fungus. Giddiness and drunk- 
enness follow in the same manner as from wine or spirituous 
liquors; cheerfulness is first produced, the face becomes 
flushed, involuntary words and actions follow, and sometimes 
loss of consciousness. Some persons it renders remarkably 
active, proving highly stimulant to muscular exertion ; but 
by too large a dose violent spasmodic effects are produced. 



So exciting is it to the nervous system of many that its 
effects are very ludicrous; a talkative person cimnot keep 
silence or secrets — one fond of music is perpetually singing, 
and if a person under its influence wishes to step over a 
sti*aw or stick, he takes a stride or jump sufficient to clear 
the trunk of a tree. It is needless to say delirium, coma 
and death often results as in the case of alcoholic spirits. 

The most remarkable fact is that the fluids of the de- 
bauchee become similarly narcotic, and are therefore pre- 
served in times of scarcity. Thus a whole village, as some 
say, may be intoxicated through the medium of one man, 
and thus one fungus serves to prolong these most fearful and 
disgusting orgies for many days together. It is worthy of 
note that the very same erroneous impression as to size and 
distance produced by this plant, are also created by the 
hasheesh of India, and are also frequently noticed among idi- 
ots and lunatics. It has been suggested that many of these 
may have suffered martyrdom at the stake during the witch 
mania of Scotland, owing to their natural and temporary 
defect — inability to step over a straw being considered the 
conclusive test of familiarity with evil spirits. And with 
those devoted to its intentional use, we should say it really 
does come within one of it. It is curious to observe how 
the effects produced by various species of poisonous fungi 
should be so very similar to alcoholic liquors. The effects 
in both Ciises may be traced to a kindred cause. Alcohol, 
as all know, is the product of fermentation or corruption, 
arrested at a ceilain sUige of fungoid growth, as also is the 
case with the yeast and rising process of the pastry cook and 
brewer. Having, hence, one common origin, it is less won- 
der their effects should be similar; and, we may add, they 
tend to produce a like poisoned condition in the human body. 
This is exemplified in excessive beer and liquor consumers, 
the slightest accident or even scratch on which will often 
cause death. 

Thus they become the short-lived mushroom humanity 


that blooms on the very verge of decay. That these things 
are nevertheless intended to subserve some good purpose is 
not denied ; every degree of life is wisely provided for, even 
the worst. This is most manifest from the lowest lichen to 
the highest vegetable structure ; and when mankind observe 
the true equilibrium of order, the race is justly represented 
and designated a microcosm, in which from the highest to 
lowest all things are duly subordinated to an end or use. 

The common Puflf Ball {Lycoperdon boviata tmd. pratense) 
requires special notice. When slowly burnt and the fumes 
inhaled it produces intoxication, followed by drowsiness and 
then by perfect insensibility to pain, with loss of speech and 
motion, while one is still conscious of everything that happens 
around — realizing the truth that it is possible for one to lie 
stretched on the funeral bier sensible to weeping friends ; 
aware of the last screw being fixed in the coffin and the last 
clod clapped down upon us in the churchyard, and yet unable 
to move hand or lip for our own deliverance. Experiments 
have recently been made on cats, dogs, and rabbits, and simi- 
lar effects have been found to invariably ensue. And for ages 
it has been used in this manner for stupifying bees, and thus 
robbing their hives with impunity. If the inhalation in 
man, however, be contiimed too long, vomiting, convulsions, 
and ultimate death results. 

Much of this lore is still closeted, perhaps, mainly in the 
secret chambers of the past ; the fumes of many plants have 
been used as spells, enchantments, and to induce spectre 
seeing, etc., of which we may name some on a proper occa- 
sion. In the order of nature, all auras are adapted to human 
requirements, and under the influence of the last named, 
unlike our artificial chemicals — chloroform and ethers — the 
individual remains conscious all the time. I have myself, as 
well as thousands of others, experienced similar slight trance 
states of rapture, sweetly and softly celestial, and yet most 
of all alive to consciousness, with only a dread less some 
gross vociferous burst from beneath should break the spell ; 
a dread lest some one should speak to you. 


That these fungi are sometimes purely meteoric, is proven 
by their fastening upon iron and rapidly extending them- 
selves ; here the matter is manifestly conveyed to them by 
the air and moisture. Many Polypori, too, grow on hard 
tufa of volcanoes without a particle of organic matter. 
Nevertheless, unhealthy conditions of air, soils, and the ob- 
ject attacked, we have often seen to be true concomitants, so 
that in most cases they may, be deemed consequences, rather 
than causes, if one prefers that view of the subject — our 
chief concern being a review of the facts. Some of them, 
indeed, require certain specific conditions so well known 
that they can be grown to order, leading shrewd observers 
to the plausible conjecture that they are of spontaneous 

Berkley and McMillan, from whom we collate, mention 
that in Italy a kind of Polyporus, greatly relished, is gi*own 
simply by singeing the stump or stems of hazel-nut trees and 
placing them in a moist, dark cellar ; other instances of ex- 
tinct fires being followed by fungoid scavengers, imps of 
the pit, are too well known. Now, as charcoal and other 
black bodies absorb many hundred times their own bulk of 
foetid gases — for the color, blade y is philosophically and dev- 
ilishly filthy, and it ardently desires or affiliates with, and 
pertinaciously clings to foubair and odors; and, as a very 
fiend, only yields them up readily as contagion, eluding, 
perchance, the alchemist's wand — the vile spell is hardly 
broken but by that great power of the universe, heat. Hence 
we see why they make such apt servants and meteoric media 
for their masters, the Fungi. These plants and other para- 
sites sometimes invade living organisms, both animal and 
vegetable, in their most vigorous state, but wo may safely 
say, in general terms, that whatever fouls or lowers the 
standard of life in the human, in the animal, or in the plant, 
surely invites these disorder-inspecting gnomes from beneath ; 
which move to and fro in the earth — messengers of the 
shades I — ready to alight upon and claim as their own all such 
trenchers upon the outer i*ealms of death. It is thei'efore 


not wise, neither naturally, morally nor spiritually, to ven- 
ture too near that other place. 

I well recollect, many years since, while residing in the 
pine forests of Eussell county, Alabama, one of my neigh- 
bors (Oliver) was desperately annoyed by some mysterious 
fcetor, like carrion — only more so. A general search was 
instituted, and at length an abominable fungus was found 
growing beneath the steps of his log cabin. I have only 
known of two instances of this kind. It may, however, be 
common in the piney wood sections of our country. This is 
a species of Glathrua^ a putrid, revolting, jelly-like mass of 
raw flesh just beneath the loosely-lifted soil. It diffuses 
such a loathsome stench that none could endure it. 

One might object that this stench was owing to its putrid 
stat« ; not so at all ; it is the natural foetor of the fungus, 
just as we find in our common pole-cat weed and cabbage, 
several arums, stapelias, etc. Unless the hiding place of 
this pest is discovered — and little peace is likely to come to 
the premises until it is — and the intolerable nuisance abated, 
with its surroundings, they are apt to repeat themselves. 
There is a popular superstition that if any one should acci- 
dentally touch this monstrous mass it would produce cancer. 
Hence the custom of carefully covering it over with leaves, 
moss, earth, etc., to prevent the possibility of a contagion. 
Now, whatever we may ihirik of such superstitions, let us 
respect — I had almost said reverence — the intuitive prompt- 
ings from that purer and better world within and above this 
lower region of filth and contagion, which causes the sensi- 
tive and tidy spirit to shudder at, shrink back from and shun 
such exposures. 

We do most solemnly warn the reader that the most vig- 
orous health may not too rashly presume upon a forced, fool- 
hardy or wanton and careless contact with these, or with 
those other fungi — the moral mildews, moulds and blites of 
man's paradise. 

Recent researches seem to show us how little we yet know, 


and well do they warn us not to form too hasty conclusions ; 
nevertheless, with one voice they proclaim these fungi to 
be more abundant aiKl much more importsmt than is com- 
monly supposed. They are undoubtedly the secret or ob- 
scure and oflen unsuspected proximate causes of many 
diseases of animals and of man — operating either directly 
or indirectly. We have already seen that the ergot fungus 
of ill-drained localities found on the Broom-grass {Bw- 
mu8)^ and Meadow or Spear-grass (Poa)^ etc., but chiefly 
on the Rye, sadly deteriorates the blood in every degree 
from intoxication, inveterate ulceration, and mortification 
to absolute death, or from first to last, both in man and 
animals. We cannot dwell here upon the indirect dangero 
of eating the flesh or drinking the milk of such disordered 
brutes ; the eflects are scarcely less deleterious than the 
fungus itself. 

These remarks are true in general as respects other causes 
or other kinds of vicious vegetation. The black dust of hay 
fields alluded to ( Ustilago hypodytes) acts directl}', throwing 
one into a most violent and dangerous fever ; so also, the 
spore dust of the common blue mould (Pencilliuin) ^ as in 
the case of the coopers previously mentioned. Thus we 
see that these plants act powerfully and strangely on man, 
whether their etherial fumes are inspired, snuflTed, or their 
substances taken into the stomach, or even vegetate on the 
outer or inner surfaces of the body. They are also known 
to abound in the lungs of web-footed quacks, and the brains 
of many animals, but we believe they mrely reach the brains 
of some Esculapians. 

A French chemist and botanist, M. Dutrochet (as quoted 
by the Rev. E. Sidney), says he found every sort of vege- 
table matter, with only a drop or so of almost any acid, 
yielded a mould ; but when albumen contained a neutral salt 
none appeared. If salts of mercury are present the mould 
is stopped. On the contrary oxides of lead hasten it; ox- 
ideil of copper, nickel and cobalt retard it ; oxides of iroOi 


zinc, nntimony and other miuenils have no effect ; all per- 
fumes stop it. 

Passing in this flying review some of the lower forms of 
flowerless plants of forests and fields, with a few parasites 
on man and animals, only touching here and there an inter- 
esting and suggestive fact, we finally oflcr a word on those 
found upon our farm fixtures, houses, and especially all 
timber structures, although not confined to them alone, for 
even the wall, in the pride of its strength, crumblingly bows 
beneath their stealthy tread. 

Builders have a woful knowledge of numerous fungi found 
on wood, c. g. the Polyporus destructor y truly as its specific 
name signifies, a destroyer \ also P. thelephora, from a Greek 
word, meaning nipple, by reason of its teated surface ; and 
P. sporothricunif from the little pore-tubes having hairy fila- 
ments hanging out ; the one, however, most familiar to me 
from my earliest recollection is the Weeping Morel (Meru- 
lius lachrymans) y a crying evil. Both this and the M, vas- 
tutor are sufiSciently devastating to all timbers in warm, moist 
situations where there is no free circulation of air, as 
in hollow trees, cellars, wainscoting, timbers of ships, sills, 
slecpei*s, etc. These invaders, little less than legion, all 
pass under one common designation, the diy rot. 

Weeping morels at first appear in a white spot, or point, 
spreading their filaments flat over the surface of the timber 
in rounded white cottony patches from one to eight inches 
broad, and so onwards; near maturity it forms folds of yel- 
low, orange or brown, weeping Madeira wine colored tears ; 
they soon after mature myriads of dii-ty, rusty-colored spor- 
ules which spread destruction far and wide ; wood, books and 
walls crumble in its consuming path ; buildings often, though 
taken down and the stones scraped and fired, scarcely sufiSce 
to stay the scourge. Is this the leprosy of the wall spoken 
of in Leviticus? Heat applied to dry wood only hastens the 
malady. Tt can be forestalled by cutting the timber in win- 
ter when the sap is out; and, better still, by immersion in 


water for a loDg time, to fully supplant or extract the entire 
juices, as is often practiced by the best ship-builders and 
honest wheelwrights, carpenters, etc., who regard a worthy 
and enduring reputation. It is said that the ships in the 
Crimea Sea suffered more from this insidious foe than from 
the ravages of fire, or the shots and shells of their enemies. 
We have seen samples of this light, crumbly, papery shelled 
wood, with its weight and strength totally consumed. 

A strong wash of corrosive sublimate solution over the 
timbers of cellars on which these deliquescent or weeping 
morels so dampen it, are at once rendered dry, and the evil 
often entirely arrested in the midst of its havoc. 

Lastly, most of us have heard, and many have no doubt 
seen, specimens purporting to be a caterpillar turned into a 
plant, or some such similar foolishness. We have one in the 
herbarium which any one may see at their leisure. This is 
one of those parasitic fungi, that rob and kill in order to 
supplant and live on others gains ; the dying grub's head 
never sprouts up as a plant, but the seeds or spores of the 
Spheria Rcbertsii alight upon the caterpillar of a moth, the 
ffepialuSy when it buries itself in the mossy woods to undergo 
metamorphosis, and by its growth destroys the napping 
grub. Two species of these are used by the Chinese, who 
sell them in bundles of eight or nine, with the worms at- 
tached, which they place in the stomach of a duck and roast 
for the patient to eat. 



In the March number of the Naturalist we observe an 
account of a remarkable growth of Bidens chrymnthemoideSi 
and as the writer seems to fear that his story may be con- 
sidered an exaggeration, we come to his support with one 


twice as toH, which, happily, refers to the most nearly re- 
lated species, Bidena cernua. While collecting along the 
alluvial, marshy borders of the Potomac below Alexandria, 
some years ago, we found this species (not before discovered 
so far south) growing to the extraordinary height of five 
feet. This, compared with Gray's maximum height, will be 
seen to bo in the ratio of six to one ; while in the instance 
of B. chrysanihemoides^ it was only three and a half to one. 
Our press would barely admit of smaller branches, while in 
collecting the sathe species in New York, we have easily 
pressed two entire plants side by side. As if this were not 
a sufficiently surprising effort of nature, on proceeding some 
distance farther, we came upon some plants of Oxalis atricta 
(an eccentric plant in more than one respect) fully five feet 
in height, and widely branched. We do not apprehend that 
such statements will be discredited by any person familiar 
with the vegetation of such localities. We mention them as 
curiosities in vegetable growth, and not as matters worthy 
of permanent record, or of a place in a work of the nature 
of the "Manual." 

Such variations in the size of plants appear to be seldom 
attended with any material change of specific characters, and 
are therefore of less interest than those produced by differ- 
ence of latitude and longitude, or by change of station, as 
from wet to dry locations, from sunny exposures to shade, 
from marine to fresh-water localities, or from mountain to 
valley, and vice versa. These are all fertile in effects of the 
greatest interest to modern theorists, and no botanist should 
fail to make them a subject of special study. Such observa- 
tions inevitably suggest a former unity of many of our spe- 
cies and genera, and result in the correction of too wide 
distinctions. The two species of Bidens referred to, to- 
gether with B, connatay are strongly suggestive of a common 
parentage ; and when Bidens frondosa is compared with 
Coreopsis bidentoides (especially since the former has been 
found with upwardly barbed awns) , it is difficult to perceive 



a proper dividing line between the two genera. We do not 
anticipate a loss of the genus Bidens, however, though prob- 
ably no collector would object to its thorough extermination 
from our flora, with all its ** pitchforks " and "Spanish 
needles," together with the Desmodiums, which in autumn 
force the herborizer so extensively into their service in trans- 
porting their ''fearfully and wonderfully made" legumes. 

As examples of the manner in which one genus may merge 
into another, and one species into another, we cite two in- 
stances which have lately fallen under our observation. The 
first is that of the Gymnostichum Hystrix of Schreber. This 
remarkable grass was apparently separated from the Linnsean 
genus Elymus, upon the single character of the absence of 
glumes. In this section of the country, however, we find it 
with well developed glumes, which are persistent after the 
spikelets fall. The glumeless and intermediate forms also 
occur, but the one most common has rigid, awn-like glumes 
situated precisely as in Elymus^ of nearly an inch in length, 
and with one prominent nerve, being therefore triangular, 
though appearing terete. We have never found the palese 
dentate (as figured in PI. 11 of Gray's Manual) in any form 
of the species, and the "pedicels" are evidently the joints to 
which the glumes are attached, and are but little longer than 
in some species of Elymus. Were the spikelets appressed as 
in Elymus, it would slrikingly resemble some species of the 
latter in aspect, and as there appears to remain no constant 
technical distinction of any importance, we see no reason why 
its former name, Elymus Hystrix L., should not be restored. 

Our second case is that of Eupatorium aromaticum L., 
which we are convinced is but a variety of E, ageratoides 
L. The latter species is very common at the North in low, 
rich woodlands, and has large, thin and smooth leaves, 
which, wo think, vary very little in size and shape. On 
reaching Maryland (except in the mountains) and the coast 
this species seems to be supplanted by one having the same 
peculiar flower-heads, but lower and less branching, with 


smaller corymbs, and smaller, thicker and pubescent leaves. 
This species is common in Virginia in diy copses and open 
woodlands, but varies greatly, so that we are puzzled in se- 
lecting typical specimens. On coming to the Piedmont 
region, however, the problem was soon solved, for here we 
found that it was no longer confined to dry and somewhat 
exposed and sterile situations, and that in proportion to the 
degree of shade or richness and dampness of soil in which it 
grew, so the leaves became thinner and larger, and the whole 
plant more robust, till it could no longer be distinguished 
from the true E. ageratoides; and on visiting the neigh- 
boring mountains, we found the latter species growing in 
great abundance. If, therefore, the generally accepted rule 
be applied to this case, E. aromaticum must be considered 
to be a variety of E. ageratoides. In a very similar manner 
Acalypha gracilens Gray, varies into A. Virginica L., and 
it has very properly been reduced to the condition of a va- 
riety by Professor Gray. In this connection we would men- 
tion that we have found Eupatorium aromaticum with leaves 
beautifully whorled in threes. As the same arrangement has 
been observed in another species, it would seem that the 
genus is inclined towards this mode of leaf-arrangement, 
which makes that of E. purpureum appear less anomalous. 
Before closing we would add to the list of monoecious and 
dioecious plants which have been found with androgynous 
inflorescence (see March number of the Naturalist, p. 46) 
an instance of the same mode of inflorescence in Fraxirms 
Americana. In the spring of 1867 we observed in this 
county (Bedford Co., Va.) a tree of this species with pani- 
cles thoroughly androgynous; but in this instance, as if a 
violence had been done to nature, every flower afterwards 
became changed to a mass of small, contorted leaves, bend- 
ing the branches with their weight, and presenting a truly 
remarkable appearance. 

Note, ~i?l<f eiit eerwua and B, tihrifianikemoidet might also haTe been adduced an 
species which ran together. We beg for a sight of these taU Virginian specimens.— a. g. 



The south-west extremity of Lake Michigan is surrounded 
by a low, sandy beach, back of which are low land and 
marshes. Let us take a stroll with our Naturalist friends 
along the lake shore south of Chicago. In place of the rocks 
and sea-weeds, radiates, shells and Crustacea of the Atlantic 
coast, here are only fragments of cork, chips, sticks, now 
and then a mutilated specimen of an Unio^ or a few small, 
dead gasteropods, or their empty shells. Among the land 
plants we shall find more to interest us. The student from 
Salem (Mass.), or the coast of New Jersey, recognizes the 
Beach Pea {Lathyrus maritimus) which we believe is never 
found far from the salt water, except along our great inland 
lakes. Here also is the Sea-rocket (Oakile Amei^icana), a 
radish-like plant, and the Shore Spurge {Euphorbia polygo-- 
nifolia)^ growing in the loose barren sand, just as they do 
near the ocean. Of true marine grasses we find the Sea 
Sand-reed (Calamagrostis arenaria)^ the graceful Squirrel- 
tail Grass {Hordeum jubatum)^ and the pest of barefooted 
boys called Bur-grass or Sand Bur (^Cerichms iribuloides) ^ 
and a rush (Juncus Balticus). Our seaside botanist is ac- 
customed to see the Arrow-grass (^Triglochin maritimum) ^ 
on every salt marsh. It is likewise common on the marshes 
a little way back of the lake. In the "basin" near the city 
flowers a Pond-weed (JPotamogeton pectinatus) . Silver-weed 
{Potentilla anserina), is plenty in the sand, and in some 
places last season it sent oflf runners each way full seven feet 
in length. 

We have never seen the Seaside Crowfoot (^Ranunculus 
cymbalaria) near the lake shore, but it is very common a 
little way back on the low pastures and meadows on richer 
soil. Some of our neighbors tell us that they find the 
Prickly Pear {Opuntia vulgaris) on the bluffs just north of 



the city, where it was once much more abundant. The 
grasses Calamagrostis longifolia^ Gird-grafis (Spar Una cyno- 
suroides), Porcupine-grass (Stipa spariea), are common 
enough and look as though they ought to be dwellers by the 
sea. We 6nd in the sand beach of the great lakes, Pitcher's 
Thistle (Girsium Pitcheri)^ a curious plant which we should 
look for along the sea beach. It is white, wooly all over, 
the stem leafy and sprawling, the flowers cream color, and 
about the size of our common Cirsium lanceolatum. The 
Dwarf, or Sand-cherry, usually trailing six to eighteen inches 
high, characteristic of true western enterprise, occasionally 
grows along our shore to the height of eight or ton feet, and 
has a stem two inches in diameter. 

In the walk first proposed one finds thrifty specimens of 
the Bearberry {Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi). Its pinkish white 
flowers are too pretty to be known by two such long, ugly 
names, as those given by Adanson and Sprengel. There are 
now and then tufts of the Early Wild-rose (Rosa blanda)^ 
abundance of common Milkweed (Asclepias comuti)^ and 
A, obtusifolia^ several Willows and Poplars, Scrub Oak, 
Shrubby St. John's-wort, Climbing Bitter-sweet (Celastrua 
scandens)^ Grape-vines, Vetches, False Solomon's Seal, 
Asters, Euphorbia corollata, Panicum virgatum^ Lead-plant 
(Amorpha canescens)^ and at the mouth of a brook, its kin- 
dred, the False Indigo (A. fruticosa)^ Poison Ivy, and 
Fragrant Sumach.* 

We have found several specimens of the curious Aphyllon 
fasciculatum, a parasitic ghostly plant of the Broom-Rape 
Family. In August we find two species of Prairie Clover 
( Petalostemon violaceum and P. candidum)^ the former has 
been pronounced the belle of Chicugo, notwithstanding the 
want of grace in its straight flower-spike. Back in the 
ponds flourish the Pond-lilies (Nyrnphcea odorata and If* 
tiiberosa)^ and Nuphar advena. The Yellow Nelumbo (iVe- 

* In dry places flourishes a carious UmbelliDdr, the Rattlesnake-master, or Bntton- 
^ lake-root, Eryngium yuccaf^folium)^ with leaves like the Yuoca, and head and stalk 
resembling the onions of our gardens. 


lumbium)^ has been found in the mouth of Calumet River, 
ten miles south of Chicago. In the groves are beautiful 
Violets, Phloxes, Oxalis violacea^ the unique Dodecatheon 
Meadia; on the marshes Buckbean {Menyanthes ti'ifoliata)^* 
Indian Plaintain {Oacalia tuberosa)^ Valeinana eduliSy and 
away back on the prairies are hundreds of acres of tall 
sedges and gi*asses abounding in several species of LiatriSj 
showy Sunflowers, rank Rosin-plants {Sitphmm), and mul- 
titudes of Asters and Golden Rods. 


The Andes and the Amazon, f— Tbis racy accoant of a six months' 
trip across the continent of South America is really a valuable contribu- 
tion to American geographical science. The author's '* general route was 
from Guayaquil to Quito, over the Eastern Cordillera, thence over the 
Western Cordillera, and through the forest on foot, to Napo, down the Rio 
Napo by canoe to Pebas, on the Marafion, and thence by steamer to 
Par&." This is a new route of travel, and after a trip to the Pacific 
shores of our own continent, we should prefer this safe, romantic and 
unflrequented Journey to any other we know of. The ascent of the Nile, 
the great rivers of Asia, and even the Congo itself, are baclcneyed subjects 
compared to scaling the Andes, passing around Chlmborazo, and plunging 
for a long month Into the depths of a South American forest, seeking the 
sources of the Napo River, with that magnificent sail down the Marafion 
and Amazon to crown all. 

As an iUustration of the author's pleasant style (though his facts are 
not always well arranged) we quote his impressions of Chlmborazo : — 

»* Coming np from Pent through the elnebona forests of Loja» and oTer the barren hills of 
As8ua7, tlie traveller reaches Rlobamba, seated on the threshold of magniflcenee— like Da- 
mascns, an oasis In a sandy plain, but, unlike the Queen of the East, surrounded with a splendid 
retinue of snowy peaks that look like Icebergs floating In a sea of clouds. 

On our left Is the most sublime spectacle In the New World. It Is a nj^estic pile of snow, 
its clear outline on the deep blue sky describing the profile of a Hon In repose. At noon the 
▼ertlcal sun, and the profusion of light reflected from the glittering surflice, will not allow a 
shadow to be cast on any part, so that you can easily fancy the figure is cut out of a mountain 
of spotless marble. This is Chlmborazo— yet not the whole of It— you see but a third of the 
great giant. His fleet are as eternally green as bis head is everlastingly white; but they are fkr 
away beneath the bananas and coooanut palms of the Pacific coast. 

Rousseau was disappointed when he first saw the sea; and the first glimpse of Niagara often 
fhlls to meet one^s expectations. But Cblmboraxo is sure of a worshipper the moment its over- 

* Habenaria Calopogon^ three or four speclfs of Cypripedium, 

f The Andes and the Amazon: or. Across the Continent of South America. By James Orton, 
With a new miip nf Equatorial America and numerous illustrations. New York. Harper and 
Brothers. 1870. Timo, pp. 356. 


whelmlnic grandeur breaks upon the traveller. Ton feel that you are In the preseoceHsliamber 
of the monarch of the Andes. There la sublhuity In his kingly look, of which the ocean might 
be proud. 

* All that expands the spirit, yet appals. 

Gathers around this summit, as if to siiow 

Huw earth may pierce to heaven, yet leave vain man below.' 

It looks lofty from the very first. Now and then an expanse of thin, sky-Uke vapor, wonid 
cut the mountain in twain, and the dome, islanded In the deep blue of the upper regions, 
seemed to belong more to heaven than to earth. We knew that Chimborazo was more than 
twice the altitude of Etna. We could almost see the great Humboldt struggling up the moun- 
tain's side till he looked like a black speck moving over the mighty white, but giving up In de- 
spair four thousand feet below the summit. We see the intrepid Bollver mounting stUl higher; 
but the hero of Spanish-American Independence returns a delieated man. Last of all comes 
the philosophic Bonsslngault, and attains the prodigious elevation of 19,600 fbet — the highest 
point reached by man without the aid of a balloon; but the dome remains unsullied by Ills foot. 
Yet none of these fkcts increase our admiration. The mountain has a tongue which speaks 
louder than all mathematical calculations. 

There must be something singularly subUme about Chimborazo, fbr the spectator at Rio- 
baroba Is already nine thousand fbet high, and the mountain is not so elevated above him as 
Mont Bianc above the vale of Chamouni, when. In reality, that culminating point of Europe 
would not reach up even to the snow-limit of Clilmborazo by two thousand feet.* It Is only 
while sailing on the Pacillo that one sees Chimborazo in Its complete proportions. Its very 
magnitude dlmiuislies the impression of awe and wonder, for the Andes on which it rests are 
heaved to such a vast altitude above the sea, that the relative elevation of its summit becomes 
reduced by comparison with the surrounding mountains. Its altitude is 21,420 feet, or forty - 
five times the height of Strasburg Cathedral; or, to state it otherwise, tlie fkll of one pound 
ttom the top of Chimborazo would raise the temperature of water 80^. One fourth of this is 
perpetually covered with snow, so that its ancient name, Chimpnrazu— the mountain of snow- 
is very appropriate.t It is a stirring thought that this mountain, now mantled with snow, once 
gleamed with volcanic flres. Tliere Is a hot spring on the north side, an Immense amount of 
debris covers the slope below the snow-limit, consisting chiefly of fine-grained, iron-stained 
trachyte and coarse porphyroid gray trachyte; very rarely a dark vitreous trachyte. Chimbo- 
razo is very likely not a solid mountain: trachytic volcanoes are supposed to be (UU of cavities. 
Bouguer found it made the plumb-line deviate 7' or 8 '. 

The valleys which ftirrow the flank of Chimborazo are In keeping with Its colossal size* 
Narrower, but deeper than those of the Alps, the mind swoons and sinks in the elTort to com- 
prehend their grim majesty. The mouutain appears to have been broken to pieces like so 
much thin crust, and the strata thrown on their vertical edges, revealing deep, dark chasms, 
that seem to lead to the confines of the lower world. The deepest valley In Europe, that of the 
Ordesa in the Pyrenees, Is 3,200 fset deep; but here are rents In the side of Chimborazo in 
which Vesuvius could be put away out of sight. As you look down into the flithomless fissure, 
you see a white ficck rising out of the guU; and expanding as it mounts, till the wings of the 
condor, fifteen feet In spread, glitter in the sun as the proud bird fearlessly wheels over the 
dizzy chasm, and then, ascending above your head, sails over the dome of Chimborazo.^ Could 
the condor speak, what a glowing description could he give of the landscape beneath him when 
his horizon is a thousand miles in diameter. If 

* Twelve fair counties saw the blaze ttom M alvem^s lonely height,* 

what must be the panorama from a height fifteen times hlgherl 

* But ClilmborMzo is steeper than the Alp-klng; and steepness Is a quality more quickly ap- 
pn-ciated tiian mere iiiassiveuess. *Mont Blaiic (says a writer in ^Frazer's Magazine') is 
scarcely admired, because he is built with a certain reirard to sUbillty; but the apparently 
reckless arcbltecture of the Matterhorn brings the traveller fairly on his knees, with a respect 
akin to that felt fur the leaning tower of Pisa, or the soaring pinnacles of Antwerp.* 

t' White Ikiountain' is the natural and almost uniform name of the highest mountains In all 
countries; iluis HImalava, Mont Blanc, Hoemua, Sierra Nevada, Ben Nevia, Suowdon, Lebanon, 
Wliite Mouutains of United States. Chimborazo, and Illlmanl. 

X Hunit)oldt'8 statement that the condor flies higher than Chimborazo has been questioned; 
but WH have seen numbers hovering at least a thousand (bet above the summit of Pichlncha. 
Baron Muller, in his ascent of Orizaba, saw two falcons flying at the height of foil 1^,000 feet; 
Dr. H'toker found crows and ravens on the Himalayas at ISifiOO feet; and flocks of wild geese 
are said to fly over the peak of Klutschinghow, 22,7M foet. 


Chimboraxo was long sapposed to be the tallest mountain on the globe, bnt Its supremacy 
has bfieu supplanted by Mount Everest In Asia, and Aconcagua In Chile.* In njonntaln gloom 
and glory, however. It still stands unriyaled. The Alps have the avalanche, * the thunderbolt 
of snow,* and the glaciers, those ley Niagaras so beautUhl and grand. Here they are wantlng.t 
The monardi of tlie Andes sits hjollonless In ealui serenity and unbroken silence. The silence 
Is absolute and actually oppressive. The road fh>m Guayaquil to Quito crosses Chlmborszo at 
the elevation of 14,000 feet. 8ave the rush of the trade wind In the afternoon, as It sweeps 
over the Andes, not a sound Is audible; not the hum of an Insect, nor the chirp of a bird, nor 
the roar of the puma, nor the music of running waters. Mid-ocean Is never so silent. You 
can almost hear the globe turning on lt« axis. There was a time when the monarch deigned 
to speak, and spoke with a voice of thunder, for the lava on Its sides Is an evidence of vulcanic 
activity. But ever since the morning stars sang together over man's creation, Chlmbo has sat 
In sulien silence, satisfied to look *f^om his throne of clouds o*er half the world.' There Ir 
something very suggestive In this silence of Chlm)x>razo. It was once f^U of noise and Airy; 
it Is now a completed mountain, and thunders no more.'' 

The author's description of the great crater of Plchincha is alike inter- 
esting. The naturalist will enjoy the sketches of animal and vegetable 
life, and the physical geology and anthropology of the varied tracts 
passed over. The map we would draw attention to as undoubtedly 
the best yet published of the region over which the writer passed. It 
'* was drawn with great care after original observations and the surveys 
of Humboldt and Wlsse on the Andes, and of Azevedo, Castlenau, and 
Bates on the Amazon." Professor Orton was accompanied by four other 
gentlemen, and the expedition was sent out under the auspices of the 
Smithsonian Institution. The specimens of rocks, minerals, plants and 
animals have been submitted to naturalists, who have mostly reported on 
them, and many facts new to science in these and on meteorological and 
geographical subjects have been collected and published by the author. 
The book closes with a chapter telling us how to travel in South America, 
with hints about the best routes, the expenses, the best outfit, and the 
precautions and dangers, with a final word on the consolations of travel : 

*' As to dangers: First, f^om the people. Traveling Is as safe In Ecuador as in New York, 
and snfer than In Missouri. There are no Spanish banditti, though some places, as Chanibo, 
near Klobnuiba, bear a bad name. It Is not wise to tempt a penniless footpad by a show of 
gold; but no more so In Ecuador than anywhere. We have travelled f^om Guayaquil to Da- 
mascus, but have never had occasion to use a weapon in self-defense; and only once for offence, 
when we threatened to demolish an Arab sheik with an umbrella. Secondly, fl-om brutes. Some 
traveller would have us Infer that It is impossible to stir In South America without being " af- 
fectionately entwined by u serpent, or sprung upon by a Jaguar, or bitten by a rattlesnake; Jig- 
gers in every sand-heap and scorpions under every stone * C Edinburgh Review ' xlill, 810). t'a- 
dre Vernazza speaks of meeting a serpent two yards In diameter I But you will be disappointed 
at the paucity of animal 1UV>. We were two months on the Andes (August and September) 
before we saw a live snake. They arc plentlAil In the wet season In cacao plantations; but the 
majority are harmless. Dr. Russell, who particularly studied the reptiles of India, found that 
out of forty-three species which he examined not more than seven had poisonous fangs; and 
Sir £. Tenuent, alter a long residence in Ceyltm, declared he had never heard of tlie death of 
an European by Uie bite of a snake. It is true, however, that the number and proportion of 

venomous species are greater in South America than In any other part of the world ; but it Is 


* Mount Everest is 29,000 feet^ and Aeonca^rua 28.200. Schlagintwpit enumerates thirteen 
Blmuliiyan snmmits ovi-r 25,000 feet, and forty-six above 20.0(X). We have little confldence in 
the estimates of the Bolivian mountains. CMilraborazo has nearly the same latitude and alti- 
tude MS the loftiest peak tn Africa, Kllhnn NJ.nro. 

t HuiHbttldt a£>crtbes tlie absence of glaciers in the Andes to the extreme steepness of fli« 
sides, and the excessive dryness of the air. Dr. Loontls above quoted, mentions Indications of 
glacial Hcllon — inorntnes, and i>ollslied and striated rooks— on the crest of the Cordillera, be- 
tween Peru and Bolivia, lat. ^l" S. 

REVIEWS. • 361 

•ome consolation to know tbat, loologioally, they are Inftiior In rank to the barmleaaones; 
* and certainly/ adds Sidney Smith, * a snake that feels fourteen or flfteen stone stamping on 
his tail has little time for reflection, and may be allowed to be poisonous/ If bitten, apply am- 
monia externally immediately, and take fl?e drops in water internally; It Is an almost certain 
antidote. The discumforta and dangers arising ttom the animal creation are no greater than 
one would meet In travelling overland ft-om New York to New Orleans. 

Finally, of one thing the tourist In South America may be nssureil— that dear to him, as it Is 
to us, will be the remembrance of those romantic rides over the Cordilleras amid the wild mag- 
niflcence of nature, the adventurous walk through the primeval forest, the exciting canoe-lift 
ou the Napo, and the long, monotonous sail on the waters of the Great River." 

Skktchbs of Creation.* — The scope of this book is ftiUy set forth 
in the rather lengthy title. The aim of the author is an excellent one and 
jQstsnch a work as this is intended to be is much needed, and we wel- 
come every attempt at popularizing the latest facts and theories of sci- 
ence. Our ideal of such works as these are the writings of Hugh Miller, 
Huxley, Faraday, Gosse, Quatrefiiges, and others, who. added to the 
charms of a pure, simple, pellucid style, present the story of creation, or 
a glance at fragments of it, in a thocpaghly artless way. 

The author of the book before us we regret to say has too often, in 
these " Sketches," looked at nature with the eye of a melodramatist, and 
sometimes we are drawn off fj^om contemplating the grandeur of some 
scene in nature by an illtimed attempt at wit, or an awkward straining 
at effect; the flash and thunder savor too much of the explosive mix- 
tures of the theatre. In short, in attempting to be eloquent and lively 
and FiguieresquCf the author sometimes becomes grandiloquent, and his 
diction falls far short of the sprightly style of his French prototype. In 
spite, however, of these faults of style the book is a very readable one ; 
the facts are correctly stated ; the theories presented with much fairness ; 
the illustrations excellent, and if the whole book had been as well and 
simply written as the chapters on salt and gypsum, and oil, where the 
learned author is fully at home, our duty as a critic would have almost 
been a sinecure. As regards his choice of subjects lovers of the sensa- 
tional and marvellous will find their cravings ftilly satisfied in the chap- 
ters entitled '* The Ordeal by Water," "The Ordeal by Fire," The " Solar 
System in a Blaze." "The Rel^xii of Fire," "The Tooth of Time," "The 
Reign of Universal Winter," "The Sun Cooling Off," and "The Machinery 
of the Heavens Running Down." When the author has endeavored, as 
he seems to think satisfactorily, to settle so many vexed points in the 
science of our day we wonder that he " reft-alns from the attempt to lift 
the veil which conceals the destiny of other firmaments 1" 

We cl^se with a few special criticisms. The Orthoceratite may have 
been a very formidable monster to a trilobite's mind, but for tiie life of us 
we do not understand how, considering the probable structure of the 

* Sketches of Creation: a popular Tlew of some of the grand conclusions of the sciences In 
ref)erence to the history of matter and of life, together with a statement of the intimations of 
science respecting the primordial condition and the ultimate destiny of the earth and the solar 
system. By Alexander Wlnchell, LL. O. With Illustrations. Kcw Turk. Harper and Broth- 
ers. 1870. 12mo, pp. 469. 




limbs and its stiff armor and its habits of barrowlng in the mud, where 
corals do not nsaaliy live, it coald when ** alarmed, shoot with a quick 
stroke of his tall under cover of some coral crag." We should rather 
imagine this acrobatic feat performed by a lobster. And by the way the 
author is at fault in allying the trilobite to the Idotean crustacean, 
Glyptonotut arUarcticuSy figured on page 822, when its closest ally is the 
Horse Shoe Crab, Limulus. Our author adopts the nebulous hypothesis. 
How can he logically discard a theory of a gradual development of vege- 
table and animal forms, since the course of nature is apparently the same 
in both? Why does he reject a fifth subklngdom of the animal kingdom, 
the Protozoa? The Laurentlan Eozoon scarcely conforms to either one 
of the Cuverian types, and must form a fifth ''comer stone on which 
Kature has built the superstructure of the animal creation " (p. 315). We 
would question whether there is not a successional relation between the 
four snbkingdoms of animals, as much as in the classes of the vetebrates. 

The best authorities agree that theWlrchfleopteryx was a bird, and not a 
reptile with feathers. Why In figure 98 does our author arm his primeval 
man with stone axes when attacking the cave bear? Flint, arrow and 
spear-heads were a *'drug" in the ^oekkenmoedden market. Would not 
the use of bows and arrows have been better strategy ? 

We have been informed that Dr. Koch *' the reconstructor of the Ter- 
tiary Zeuglodon " (see p. 856) Is not a man to be trusted in making scien- 
tific statements, or reconstructing skeletons of extinct monsters, as his 
Hydrarchus was fUUy exposed by Johannes Muller, the great comparative 
anatomist, and shown to have been composed of the bones of mastodons 
with a sprinkling of Zeuglodon bones. 

Hand-book of Zoolooy.*— In this little manual the author only claims 
to give a skeleton of the subject, with illustrations taken Arom species 
which the student can collect for himself within the limits of British 
North America, or can readily obtain access to in public or private collec- 
tions. Fossil animals are included as well as those which are recent, be- 
cause many ty^es not represented in our existing fauna, occur as fossils 
in our rock formations ; and because one important use of the teachings 
of zoology Is that it may be made subsidiary to geological research.** We 
like this hand-book, notwithstanding what seem to us great defects in 
the classification of certain groups, and numerous grave typographical 
errors, both of which could be remedied in another edition. Teachers 
will find it (when the second part on Vertebrata is ffisued) the most avail- 
able book we have in instructing their classes, when books are relied on 
in teaching a subject where only specimens and oral instruction ought 
ordinarily to be used. The first and second chapters, on Physiological 
Zoology and Zoological Classification contain much sound sense, and de- 

* Handbook of Zoology; with examples ftrom Canadian speclea, recent and Ibnil. Ry J. W. 
Dawson, LL.D.,F.R.S.,eto. Part I. Inrertebrata, with 275 lUosiratioos. Montreal. ISTQ. 
12mo,pp.364. Trice $1W. 

REVIEWS. «363 

serve to be widely read by a claas of half educated ** species descrlbers " 
which vex good nataralists the world over. 

We regret that the distinguished author Includes the Protozoa in the 
Radiates, for what radiate feature do the Amoebas, Foraminifera, 
Sponges and Infusoria possess? Why also ai'e the Tunicates, which 
homologize so closely with the Lamellibranchs, placed between the Poly- 
zoa and Brachiopods ? 

We are by no means satisfied with the author's treatment of the class 
of Insects, comprising in his estimation the subclass Hexapoda and Myrl- 
apoda. He considers that there are nine orders of six-footed insects 
(Hexapoda). He retains the **Aptera" as a distinct order, the types be- 
ing the Lice and Sprlngtails (Podura,etc.). Now the Lice are proved to 
be low Hemiptera, and the Sprlngtails are closely related to the Nenrop- 
tera, if they do not compose a ftimily of that group. The Coleoptcra are 
regarded as the highest, the Hymenoptera being placed below the Neu- 
roptera even ! Notwithstanding all we know of the Pleas, they are also 
consigned to a separate ** order," though proven to be a family of dlptera. 
A very objectionable feature to us is the rank assigned to the Spiders, or 
Arachnids. They are placed as a ** class" above the insects. Their 
mode of development, their want of a true metamorphosis (except In 
certain genera of Acarlna), their morphology — all convince us that they 
are inferior to the Hexapoda, and do not show class characters, any more 
than do the Myrlapoda. In his definition of the class the author says 
'^antenns rudimentary or mandibuUform." The antenna as proved by 
anatomy and especially embryology (see Clapar^de's great work on the 
embryology of the spiders) do not exist In the Arachnids. The so-called 
autennsB are the mandibles. What are the ** tentacles " in this group, the 
palpl? Of his order Dermophysa, of which we see no necessity, the 
Demodex represents a family of the mites, and the Tardlgrades are in all 
probability the types of another and the lowest family of Acarlna, while 
the Sea Spiders (Pycnogonlds) are truly crustaceous, as proved vei7 sat- 
isfactorily by the able embryologlcal researches of Dr. Anton Dohm. 
The Spiders are to our mind higher than the Scorpions and Phrynidse. 

The cuts are for the most part IndlfTerent, and the printing only endur- 
able, while the typographical errors are so numerous, and in some cases 
so egregious that we suppose the author did not read the proofs owing 
to his absence In Europe. In a second edition the shortcomings we have 
plainly alluded to could be easily corrected, and a cheap, practical, very 
readable and exceedingly usefhl manual be produced, and one that would 
deserve a wide circulation. 

A Naturalists' Guide.*— This Is an excellent little work— one so good, 
in fact, that we only wish there were more of It. It is difiicnlt, if not im- 

* The Natarallst*0 Qnlde In eolleetlxig and preaerTlng objects of Natural Hlstoir* with a 
eomplete \M of tbe Birds of Eastern Massaohosetts. By 0. J. Majnard. With Illnstrationg 
by B. L. Weeks. Boston: Fields, Osgood ft Co. 1870. (For sale at the Natarallsts* Xgencj, 
Postage paid tlM, 


possible, to give the novice in coliecting and taxidermy all the informa- 
tion he requires, in so little space as Mr. Maynard occupies; and in 
condensing to the utmost, he has left unsaid some things that it would 
have been advisable to say. If cramped for space the writer might have 
profitably given up the brief notes upon Reptiles, Fish and the Inveite- 
brates, to malce room for more details respecting the taking and preserv- 
ing of Birds and Mammals — these being evidently his '* specialty ;" 
and the loss would not have been great, since the directions regarding 
the lower animals seem to us too slight and general to be of much real 
service. Still, attentive study of the book will probably fbrnish hints 
and suggestions enough to enable any one to make a good beginning. 
Regarding the collecting of birds, it gives ns much pleasure to observe 
that Mr. Maynard writes of what he himself knows, and that evidently 
this is not a little. His notes of the proper times and places to look for 
birds — of the pleasures and difficulties of taking them — and his pictures 
of fleld-work, are true to the life. We have abundant evidence that he 
has put himself in no danger of tripping by compilation. Thus, for 
example, his remark upon page 84, " that birds for a certain period in- 
crease in size, after which they gradually decrease," is none the less true 
because it expresses a fact of which few are aware ; and it is one not 
likely to be found out except by long coutiuued and repeated ob.servation. 
We endorse the observation without reserve. Most birds are at a maxi- 
mum size before they are perfectly <' adult;" on reaching which state, a 
certain condensation or compaction of the fVame seems to take place, so 
that they become somewhat smaller. Of this the Bald Eagle is an excel- 
lent Illustration. 

The art of preparing birds for the scientific cabinet, no less than that 
of mounting them for public exhibition or other popular end. Is one ac- 
quired only by practice, in gaining which we suppose each taxidermist 
insensibly grows Into ways of his own; so that probably no unvarying 
rules can be laid down. Mr. Maynard*s method is different in many re- 
spects from the one we have found preferable; yet we do not wish to call 
it inferior on this account, the more particularly since we have not the 
pleasure of being familiar with his work, and are therefore not in position 
to Judge of the real merits of his method — still less of the degree of skill 
he may have acquired in using it. But we are bound to add, that we see 
no reason why excellent results should not be obtained by following his 
directions. The whole matter, after all, hangs upon good taste to begin 
with, then upon nicety of touch, and finally, npon practice. While we 
have no difficulty In following out his description of the process he 
employs, we fear it may be found by the beginner a little obscure at 
places — or at least, not so full and plain as it might have been made. 
This brings us back to the thought that prompted our opening sentence ; 
we wish the directions were more ample. Nothing is said, for example, 
of the first difficulty In skinning — that of separating the feathers prop- 
erly on the abdomen, and keeping them out of the wound afterwards ; 


nor of the very next trouble — to avoid attempting to take off the thin 
abdominal walls with the skin, as beginners almost always do. We are in 
the habit of directing that the cut be begun a trifle above the lower border 
of the sternum, since, as nothing but skin can be lifted away there, a guide 
is found at the outset. We think there is a better way of cleaning off the 
leg and wing muscles than that the writer advises. We nip off the head 
of the bone by introducing the closed scissors between the muscles, and 
opening them just wide enough to grasp the bone ; then we strip the 
muscles fVom above downward, and snip all the tendons at a single 
stroke below. Practically, with small birds at least, this is done with the 
thumb-nail, in an instant. Except in the cases of certain long-winged 
birds, we do not agree with the author that the humerus should be left in; 
we remove it, and the radius too, leaving only the ulna, which we sep- 
arate from both the other bones and all the muscles by cutting its head 
away from the elbow-Joint, stripping the muscle off from above down- 
ward, and then removing humerus, radius and all the muscle by a trans- 
verse stroke of the scissors just above the carpal Joint. A description 
should have been given of the neat and rapid way of removing the brain 
and all the head-muscles by the four special cuts that may be made in an 
instant; instead of the general directions for scooping out and scraping 
the skull. We think the writer hardly puts the tyro sufficiently on his 
guard against stretching a skin unduly, particularly at the neck, and so 
producing that ugly bare space on each side, difficult to rectify afterwards. 
Except in the cases of large birds, where main strength and awkwardness 
do well enough, no skin should be pulled, or even drawn, off; but should 
be pushed instead; and as soon as it hangs by the neck, with legs and 
wings dangling, it should be supported in one hand to prevent stretching. 
For the "make-up** of a skin more explicit directions would not have 
been amiss ; more than one novice will probably do all that he is here 
told, and then spoil his specimen. We should like to make a few sug- 
gestions regarding this matter, but want of space prevents, as it does our 
even alluding to a score of little points which will not be found in this or 
any other book on taxidermy that we have seen, but which are neverthe- 
less very good things to know ; and after all, a few hours actual practice 
under the eye and tongue of a competent taxidermist, will be found more 
valuable than any treatise upon the subject can possibly be made. 

In Part II, Mr. Maynard gives what we find to be a very complete and 
otherwise excellent list of the birds of Eastern Massachusetts. We do 
not notice a single species that we would erase, and believe that but very 
few remain to be added. In the nomenclature of the species he adopts 
the changes that Dr. Cones has shown to be necessary or advisable in 
certain families; and in matters specific he Is nearly as conservative* as 

*Thn8 he does not admit Turdu* Alieim Balrd, Troglodytes Amerleanui Aud^ ASffiothus «t- 
iHpM Cones, Lanu ffutehimii Rich., and L. SmithtotUanus Cones. Our Certhia and ErenMH 
pMf9 respeetlTelT be refers to the Earopean C./amiHarU and E. afpestrit. Whilst onr hand is 
In, we may mention the ft>llowtng cases, all In a single order, where the writer might have oon- 


Mr. Allen. The notes of habits, etc., are very valaablo and nseflil, and, 
like Mr. Maynard's directions for collecting, are evidently an original rec- 
ord of the observations of an excellent field ^naturalist. We have thus 
the large amount of definite information that is always aflbrded by good 
local lists. While we believe that the list gives us no actually new names 
(its main points, if we recollect rightly, having been already presented in 
the Naturalist by Mr. Allen), several of the entries are of special inter- 
est and importance. Among these may be mentioned Centronyx Bairdii, 
Argytira maculata (accidental), Xanthocephalus icterocephalua (accidental), 
Tyrann'oa dominicensis (accidental). Passer domestica (introduced), Chon^ 
destes grammaca (accidental), Turdus nosvius (accidental), Helminiho^ 
phcLga peregrina, Falco aacer (unusually southern), Strix pratincola (rarely 
so northern), JBcropalama himantopus (rare), Macrorhamphtu scolopo' 
ceus, Thalasseus acuflavidus, Pelecanus trachyrhynchus, and P. fuacua (both 
of these last accidental). The first named Mr. Maynard considers as 
more likely to be a winter visitor from the north, than a straggler from 
Nebraska. Quiacalua maior, uEgialitia WilaoniuSy and a few other species 
occurring in Allen's or Coues' lists, he dismisses as resting upon insuffi- 
cient evidence ; probably in most Instances he Is correct In so doing. The 
supposed Buteo ** Cooperi** turns out to be a state of B, lineatiia, A good 
description of the nest and eggs of ffelminthophaga ehryaoptera is given. 
The plumages of Sccpa aaiOy and the relationships of Sterna macrura and 
8, hirundOj as well as those of Troglodytea aidon and T, Americanua, are 
discussed at some length. In the case of the 8copa It is evident that 
ornithologists will not be likely to come to any agreement, until they 
conclude, as we did long ago, that the variations in the plumage are 
purely accidental. In an appendix, Mr. Maynard tabulates all the species 
in convenient form. 

We have been so pleasantly impressed with the book, and others will 
doubtless find it so useAil, that we feel the less hesitation in criticising 
some things in it that we cannot praise. A little care would have pre- 
vented such slips as "carpel" for carpal (p. 20), " coccygus" for cocqfx, 
or for oa coccygia, "arctea" totarctica (p. 152), ** Argyria*' tor Argytira (p. 
164), "penguin" for peregrine (p. 184), etc. We fear, however, that the 
writer himself is responsible for such awkward blunders as—" where the 
humerus Joins the sternum " (p. 40) ; and the mention of the wrists and 
heels of sheep and deer as " knee Joints" (p. 49). The figures we cannot 
speak well of; in fact, they are very bad, and we should Judge that they 
will hardly answer the purpose for which they were designed. Thus we 

•ltteiitl7 qvMtloned •peetflOTalldlty: ntieo anatum^ Attur eUrieapWus^ Ptndi^n CbtoMimimCi, 
Otut WiUowlanus, Braek^ottu Cattini^ Njfctait Riehardtoni. Tliere are many others, af nearly 
allied to Karopean types, that he aUows to stand. Though we agree with the writer In being 
rather tneUned toward oonsenratlsm, we conld wish that, before discussing the grare qnestlons 
that arise from our varying acceptation of the term ** species,** be had adopted a more lucid 
and less nngrammatlcal definition than this: ** Species consists in a bird's baring certain 
characters so well defined, although inconstant (bnt never rarlable beyond a certain point), 
that It may readily be distinguished IWhu others." (p. 8S.) 


trust that Fig. 3, Plate vm, was not taken from an example of the au- 
thor's handiwork I The book is well printed and handsomely gotten up. 
We hope It may acquire the popularity to which its merits entitle it. 


This memoir gives the first published results of the Russo- American Tel- 
egraph Expedition, organized to explore preparatory to the connection 
of San Francisco and St. Petersburg by electric telegraph. The officers 
of the company arranged with the Smithsonian Institution and Chicago 
Academy, in broad and liberal spirit, for the scientific exploration of the 
country by a corps of young naturalists headed by Major Robert Kenni- 
cott. The party left San Francisco in July, 1865, by several vessels, 
touching at various points, where collections were made. Starting again, 
July, 1866, after wintering in San Francisco, Mr. Dall visited Plover Bay, 
East Siberia, and afterward St. Michael's, Norton Sound, where he 
learned of Major Kennicott*s death, in consequence of which the direc- 
tion of the scientific corps devolved upon him. Messrs. Pease and Ban- 
nister accompanied the remains to San Francisco, while Mr. Dall and his 
party started for the Unalaklik River and the Yukon, reaching Nulato In 
December, 1866, and remaining there all winter. In the spring they pro- 
ceeded to Fort Yukon, and then returned to St. Michael's, where intelli- 
gence was received of the termination of the enterprise. Notwithstanding 
this Mr. Dall decided to finish the scientific reconnoissauce of the Yukon 
River, remaining In the country alone and at his own expense. He pro- 
ceeded with Eskimos to Unalaklik, where he remained until November, 
1867, and in March, 1868, went to St. Michael's, after examination of 
the country both east and west of Nulato. Crossing the portage in Juno 
he descended the Yukon to its mouth, and shortly afterward embarked for 
San Francisco, ft'om St. Michael's, touching at Pribylof and other islands. 
The ornithological results thus obtained by Mr. Dall and others, during 
several years of travel and exploration, are worked up in the paper now 
under consideration, and in the one we shall presently notice. 

We find the memoir to be one of special interest and importance, as 
was to have been anticipated, no less firom the character of its authors 
and of the other naturalists whose collections contributed towards it, 
than flrom the nature of the ground explored, and other fortunate circum- 
stances. It is not too much to say that no single paper has appeared for 
the last decade, and perhaps for a longer period (although we do not for- 
get the results of Mr. Xantus' explorations), that has added so positively 
to our knowledge of the geographical distribution and habits of our birds, 
or that has so largely and at once increased our bird-fauna. In noticing 
80 important a contribution to ornithology we cannot reA-ain A-om pre- 
senting some of the leading points in detail, although even a bare 
epitome of all the results obtained would exceed our limits. Before so 

• Ltat of the Birds of Alaska, with Blographleal Notes. By W. H. DaU and H. M. Bannister. 
Trans. Chteaffo Acad. Sel., Vol. 1, Art. Ix. 1869. 


doing we have only to add, in expressing oar sense of the intrinsic valae 
of the paper, and in according all the praise to Its authors, that they so 
Justly deserve, our impression that the symmetry of the paper is some- 
what marred by the clrcaraHtances, unlmown to us, which resulted in the 
preservation of the individaality of the Joint-authors ; not so much flrom 
the recurrence of initials, as from the duplication of some paragraphs 
and the confliction of a few others. 

One important result attained, regarding geographical distribution, is 
the clear illustration of the western trend of the boundary line of the 
eastern province as this passes northward ; so that several characteristic 
eastern birds occur in *' Russian America," either associated with, or re- 
placing, western species whose occurrence was rather to have been antici- 
pated. The fact has been made more and more apparent, of late years, 
by other collections from the North-west ; and the present one may be re- 
garded as demonstrating it. Thus we have Picua villosus and P. puhes- 
cens instead of P. Harrisii and P. Qairdneri; Colaptes aurattu instead of 
C. Mexicanus; Scolecophagua ferrugine-as instead of S. cyanocephalus ; 
DendroRca coronata instead of D. Auduhoni; Querquedula discors instead 
of Q. cyanoptera, etc. ; with Seiurus aurocapiUus (though this has lately 
been known also from the Southern Pacific coast), Partu atricapillus, P. 
Hudaonicus (*^ abundant at Nulato"), Passerculus savanna (associated with 
the three other varieties, or species), Junco hyemaliSy* Passerella ih'aca, 
Bonasa umbellu8j Gambetta flavipes. The presence of **Uria lomvia** 
{Lomtna troile)^ with both 27. Californica and U, arra (svarbag), is prob- 
ably rather a matter of circumpolar distribution. We note on the other 
hand, among absentees that might have been expected, Zonotrichia leuco- 
phrySi Limosa fedoa and Numenius longirostris. 

Among the names to which American ornithologists have been more or 
less unaccustomed for the past few years, changes involving questions of 
specific relationships, and indications of rare or specially interesting 
species (exclusive of the additional ones to be presently examined), we 
notice the following points : Falco saeer Forster, is used (by Baird) to 
<' indicate provisionally an ash-colored Falcon, with light transverse bars 
above, found throughout the Anderson River, lower Mackenzie and Yukon 
region, breeding on trees and cliffy indifferently. It never becomes white, 
and does not correspond at all with specimens of either gyrfalco or iiland' 
icus.'* Buteo ^* insigriattis** Cass., is given as a variety of B, Swainsoni. 
The old name of NyctaU **tengmalmi'* replaces N, Bichardaoni, used 
of late years; as Picoidea ** Americantia*' does P. hiratUuSt after Sunde- 
vairs recent showing (Consp. A v. Picin. 1866, p. 15). The Saxicola cenan- 
the we presume to be the same bird that was described and figured 
by Cassin as S. '' fznanthoides'* Vig. (Illnst. B. Cal. and Tex., p. 207, pi. 
84.). Four species of Passerculua are recognized In the list, though we 
should Judge that with the exception perhaps of P. SandmckensiSj it were 

•This probably ezplalnlng iU oooamnoe, In Waihlnfton Territory {Suckt0if), and Arliona 


difficult to tell them apart. Melospiza rtifina and PasstrcHa Townsendii 
occurred at Sitka. Corvxis caurintut continues to be recognized as distinct 
from G. ossifragus. The record of Actodromus Bairdii is the north-west- 
ernmost as yet; with this and Sclater*fl recent South American indication 
it may be considered as an inhabitant of the western hemisphere at large, 
though it has yet to be detected in the Atlantic province; this, however, 
may be predicted with some confidence. Bemicla var. occidentalis is 
recognized in two specimens from Sitka, as is also Pelionetta Trowbridgei; 
Mr. Dall remarks that ** it is not at all unlikely that B. Hutchinsii and 
leucopareia are one species."— The party were enabled to make specially 
interesting observations on some other water fowl, not only of intrinsic 
value, but demonstrating over again that many, and probably most birds, 
however " rare " they may be usually considered through default of speci- 
mens or other fortuitous circumstances, yet have their "metropolis" 
or centre of abundance. We may Instance in this connection the observa- 
tions upon Clilaephaga canagicuy abounding at the mouth of the Yukon, to 
the exclusion of other species; Lampronetta Fischeri^ breeding near St. 
Michacrs ; and Somatena v-nigra, abundant on the north coast. — Diome- 
dea nigripea And., recently restored by Schlegel and Cones, after being 
long considered as the young of i>. brachyuraj is stated to be very com- 
mon in the North Pacific, though not in Bering's Sea. Lams argentatus 
(var.) and L, brachyrhynchus are abundant on the Yukon. Witli the Bissa 
tridaetyla ** abundant at Sitka and Plover Bay," Mr. Dall has doubtless 
confounded, since he does not mention, B. Kotzebui, a species, or perhaps 
only a variety, distinguished from tridaetyla by the remarkable develop- 
ment of the hind toe. Bissa ^* brevirostris Brandt" replaces B. brachy- 
rhynchust recognized of late years. The two names undoubtedly refer to 
the same species; the difference in the color of the legs to which Mr. 
Dall alludes, is simply a matter of Immaturity, or of fading from coral 
red to yellow in preserved specimens. We do not recollect now which 
name has priority. Xema Sabineiy a species highly prized in collections, 
was found breeding abundantly about Pastolik and St. Michael's, and was 
not rare at Plover Bay. Colymbus arcticus is recorded instead of C Pa- 
cificusj which was to have been anticipated ; ami the same may be said of 
Podiceps griseigena instead of P. HolboelU. The ** rare " yellow-billed 
liOon {Colymbus Adamtdi), only recognized of late years, was got at Kadiak 
by Bischofi*. Among the Auks the most interesting occurrence Is that of 
Sagmatorrhina Labradoria Cass. (S, Lathami Bp.), represented by two 
specimens firom Kadiak; these are the first examples of this singular 
bird that American ornithologists have seen. Blschofi^s Kadiak speci- 
mens of Brachyrkamphtis Wrangeli enabled this long obscured species 
of Brandt's to be restored (Coues, Proc. A. N. S., Phil., 1867, p. 64). 
The crested Synthliborhamphns umizusume might have been anticipated ; 
but only 8, antiquus is recorded. 

Not less Important than the record of their geographical distribution, of 
which we have only outlined some of the more salient points, is that of 



the habits of the species observed. ** Great care has been taken," says 
Mr. Dall, "In the record of habits; ♦ ♦ * and it is presamed to be gener- 
ally correct." Of this we have no doobt, and only regret that we mnst 
pass by such a mass of information with only this allusion, in recom- 
mending it, as we specially do, to the attentive consideration of ornithol- 
ogists. The accounts of some of the species are very fhll, and there are 
few paragraphs that do not fill some gap in our previous knowledge with 
highly interesting matter. 

Mr. Dall includes in the list Vanelltis crlatatttSf from a description given 
him by a hunter of a bird killed on an Island off the Golsova River, and 
which *' could apply to no other bird of the country;" no specimens, 
however, were taken. The other actual additions to our bird-fauna, 
though of course contained in the present list, are treated of at length in 
an immediately succeeding paper,* that presents the pith of the discov- 
eries. Of the sixteen species here described or otherwise noticed, one, 
Spermophila badiiventria (Lawr., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1866, p. 172), 
is Nicaraguan; the others are from the North-west; some are well-known 
old-world species, new to our fauna ; others have been separately de- 
scribed as new by Cassin, Elliot and Coues, of late years ; while others 
still are here presented for the first time. The most interesting of these 
are doubtless the three that respectively introduce to our fauna as many 
genera previously known only as old-world. Pyrrhula Is represented by 
a variety {Caaaini Baird) of coccinea; ** the color of the under parts, if 
really characteristic of the adult male, will at once distinguish It, In be- 
ing light cinnamon gray, as in the female coccineOy instead of bright nim- 
ium red" (p. 316); the single specimen is from Nulato, January 10, 1867. 
The other two are Phyllopneustea Kennicottii Baird (one specimen, St. 
Michael's), closely allied to P. trochilua and Everamanni; and t^Budytta^ 
which Professor Baird says he is unable to distinguish A-om the protean 
B, flava of Europe and Asia. It is singular that this last should have 
been so long overlooked, Judging from Mr. Bannister's account. He says 
(p. 277) : — **I first observed this species at St. Michael's about the 9th or 
10th of June, and ftom that until well into the month of August; they 
were among the most abundant birds, perhaps, after Plectrophanea loppo- 
nicu8t the most abundant of the strictly terrestrial species. During the 
month of June I observed them generally in fiocks of ft*om twenty to 
thirty Individuals." 

Scopa Kennicottii (Elliot, Proc. A. N. S., Phil., 1867, p. 69, and 111. B. 
Am. pi. X, one specimen, Sitka), is a large, dark, northern form, close by 
S. aaio; probably representing one extreme, of which the small, pale 
southern S. McCallii is the other. Troglodytea Alaacenaia n. s., Is a curious 
species, like T. hyemalia In shape and generally similar to it In color, with 
the size of T. cedon ; ** of its distinctness f^om any other North American 
species there can be no question " (p. 815). Leucoaticte griaeinucha Brandt, 

'On Addltloiu to the Blrd^knaa of North America, made by the Sctentlflo Corps of tiM 
Bnaso- American Telegraph Kzpedltlon. By 8. F. Baird. — /frtftf., p. 311. (Art. z.) 

REVIEWS . 371 

(Aleutian Islands), noticed in 1858, by Professor Baird, thongh not for- 
mally introduced for want of specimens, is here more definitely charac- 
terized ; and one L, liUoralU n. s. (Sitka and Fort Simpson) is described ; 
the latter is considered to be what Elliot figured under the name of griS' 
dnucha (nee. Brandt), than which species, however, it ** is considerably 
smaller; the colors are brighter and lighter" (p. 818), and the colored 
areas upon the head are somewhat different. Melospiza insignis^ n. s. 
(Kadiak), ** is another of the perplexing species allied to the song spar- 
row of the Eastern United States, and although apparently very distinct 
• ♦ ♦ la yet traceable into It" (p. 819). Limosa uropygialis Gould, auct. (X, 
Foxii Pealc), a well-known and extensively distributed old-world species, 
was found **very common at the Yukon mouth, and on the Pastolik 
marshes to the north of it" (Dail, 1. c, p. 293). Sterna Aleutica n. s. (Ka- 
diak), the single specimen of which we have had the pleasure of inspect- 
ing, is a remarkable tern, with something of the appearance of S, arcttca, 
close to which it must be placed ; it has a black bill and feet like Ualijh 
lana, frontal white lunule like that genus and Sterna mintaa, etc. ; v/hite 
tall, and body coloration not quite like that of any tern we know of; truly 
presenting a singular combination. Graculus bieriatatua (Pallas, Zoog. R. 
A. 11, 188), is the name conditionally applied by Professor Baird to a bird 
from Kadiak, which he identifies with much hesitation. As is well-known, 
the cormorants are in a confused state at present, and will require thorough 
revision before the perplexity now attending their determination can be 
removed. Pufflnua tenuiroatris (Temm., PI. Col. No. 687) is a well-known 
shearwater from Japan, etc., now introduced fk*om Kotzebue Sound 
(Dall) ; Schlegel has it from Sitka. Pulmarua Bodgerai (Cassin, Pr. A. 
N. S., Phil., 1862, 290, and Coues, ibid., 1868, p. 20), first described, as just 
quoted, from the ** North Pacific," was taken at St. George's Island, Mr. 
Dairs specimen making the first discovered since the type ; it is chiefly 
distinguished from F, glacialia by the white on the inner reroiges. The 
fifteenth species is Larua borealia Brandt, which Professor Baird very 
truly says ** is hardly to be called a species." We doubt the propriety of 
recognizing it, since it is nearly L, Smithaonianua with a slightly darker 
mantle; Airther south on the Pacific coast X. SmitJiaonianua is not dis- 
tinguishable in any respect from the common bird of the Atlantic states ; 
and while L, ** borealia " may be said to form the connecting link, in respect 
of the color of the mantle, between this and the Callfornian Z». occidentalia 
And., it appears to lack the great depth of bill which is a strong character 
of the latter. The last species that Professor ^aird gives is the Simor- 
hynchua Caaaini (Coues, Pr. A. N. S., 1868, p. 45), from Onnimak Pass; a 
species near S. tetraculiiaf but much less in size, with a remarkably small, 
simple bill, and dusky, leaden colored plumage. 

In closing a rapid analysis of these two very interesting and important 
memoirs, we have only to add frirther, that they are accompanied by a 
number of colored plates, well illustrating all the new species, and the 
other additions to our fi&nna. 


Geology of Indiana.* — This snrvey has evidently begun In earnest. 
The present volume informs us that it is instituted to make known the 
mineral resources of the State, but does not state the amounts appropri- 
ated; we hope, however, it is proportionate to the practical benefits 
already conferred by the Survey. The geology of the counties examined. 
Clay. Greene, Park, Fountain, Warren, Vermilion and Franklin, display 
rich fields of coal, and are full of practical details which seem to have 
already more than tenfold repaid the expenses incurred. From Green- 
castle to Terre Haute a section has been run along the railroad line and 
by means of two Artesian wells the strata sounded to a considerable 
depth. These have enabled the Survey to give a very interesting section 
showing the strata fl'ora the Silurian to the surface. The first one at 
Terre Haute penetrates first the glacial deposits and reaches to the depth 
of one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three feet, stopping in the 
subcarbonlferous rocks ; the second at Reelsville, begins where the sub- 
carboniferous limestone comes to the surface farther east, and though 
bored only one thousand two hundred and forty feet, penetrated the 
Upper Silurian. 

The present report is concluded with a catalogue of the Mammals and 
Birds of Franklin County. 

The assistants engaged In the Survey are Professor F. Bradley, Dr. 
Rufhs Haymond, and Dr. G. M. Levette. The two former contribute 
largely to this volume ; the report of the first on Vermilion county being 
particularly ftill and complete. We hope that no short-sighted economy 
will cut this survey short as that of Iowa has been before it has thor- 
oughly worked up the natural history of the State. 

Rudolph's Atlas of the Geoorapht of Plants. — There Is, as I un- 
derstand, an ** Atlas der Pflanzen geographic," by L. Rudolph, of which a 
second edition has been published in Berlin, and recommended for trans- 
lation into English, and introduction into our high schools. I possess the 
first edition, but I do not know whether the new one Is as worthless as the 
first one Is. If this is the case I do not understand how such a product 
of the utmost ignorance could be recommended, though the great Hum- 
boldt, to whom the work Is dedicated, had already puffied it, probably 
without ever having looked at it. To prove my assertion I will point out 
the following errors In plate "North America" of the first edition. Be- 
tween JB4° and 45° north latitude in Oregon and California we find sixteen 
plants mentioned, of which not a single one grows there, i.e., Rudbeckia 
pinnata, Fraxinus Americana^ Aristolochia sipho, Smilax sarsaparilla, 
Quercvs tinetoria^ Q. eastaneOt Ampelopsis bipinnata, all eastern species ; 
Tagetes patula, Tagetes treda^ Lobelia splendens and fulgens, Georgina 
variabilis, Cobata scandens, Convolvulus Mechoacana (Mexican species), 
Smilaz officinalis (Mexican when of Presl, South American when the plant 

* First AnnttKl Report of the Oeoloffleal Surrey of Indiana. By E. T. Cox, State Geologrlit. 
8to. pp, 340, with two maps- and one section. 


of Hamboldt and Bonpland is meant) Fraxinits heterophylla, a European 
tree ! The Vanillat Cacao and Quinoa cultivated in the desert west of 
the Colorado I Zinnia elegana, Georgina coccinea, Ipomea purga are all 
placed too far northward. Mobinia viscoaa and hispida between the upper 
Missouri and Rocky Mountains, with Oleditschia monosperma and G. tri- 
acanthos in Northern Wisconsin; Rosa auavis and Americana, quite un* 
known species; Pinus palustris on McKenzie River!! Pinu9 occideiUalis 
from West Indies, transplanted to the North American continent; Juglans 
olivceformiSf our Pecan and Castanea pumila in the Rocky Mountains, and 
Kalmia cuneata on the Red River; Aristolochia officinalis (probably Ser- 
pentaria), Bignonia capreolata in Michigan; Diospyroa Lotus an European 
tree ; almonds and figs cultivated near Lake Ontario ! .And so on ! Should 
all these errors be reproduced in the second edition, the introduction of 
the work into our schools will be a great nuisance. — F. Bkendkl. 



Dialysis wfth Staminody in Kalmia latifolia. — These two technical 
words we take from Dr. Masters* interesting volume published last year 
by the Ray Society, entitled ** Vegetable Teratology," which last woi'd 
denotes the science of monstrosities. Dialysis is the term applied to the 
separation of parts which are normally united ; staminody is the conver- 
sion of other organs into stamens. 

We have before us a novel and specially interesting monstrosity which 
is described by these terms. It was discovered by Miss Bryant, at South 
Deerfleld in this state, and we are indebted to her, through a common 
friend, for the specimens before us. Among the shrubs of Kalmia latifolia 
which abound in a swamp belonging to Col. Bryant, a few have been no- 
ticed as producing, year after year, blossoms In singular contrast to 
the ordinary ones of this most ornamental shrub, and which, indeed, are 
more curious than beautifhl. The corolla, instead of the saucer-shaped 
and barely 5-lobed cup, is divided completely into five narrowly linear or 
even thread-shaped petals. These are flat at the base, and scarcely If at 
all broader than the lobes of the calyx with which they alternate, but above 
by the revolution of the margins they become almost thread-shaped, and 
so resemble filaments. This resemblance to stamens goes farther; for 
most of them are actually tipped with an imperfect anther ; that is, the 
corolla is separated Into its five component petals, and these transformed 
into stamens. Altered as they are in shape, yet a trace of the pouch is 
often discernible, In the form of a little boss on the outer or lower side, 
and a slight corresponding depression on the upper. The anther is ex- 


trorse and adnate, usually snbapical rather than strictly terminal, and its 
two cells incline to open lengthwise. The ten proper stamens are Just 
as in the normal flower, except that they are erect or at length recurved, 
and the anthers wholly free, there being no pouches to receiye them. 
The pistil is wholly normal, and there is nothing apparent to prevent the 
ovules from being fertilized and maturing seed. — A. Gray. 

OccuKRKNCB OF Rarb PLANTS IN ILLINOIS. — There are In ** Gray'8 
Manual " some species noted as rare which grow in the vicinity of Peoria : 
Silene nivea DC, Napiza dioica L., Polygala inearnata L., Cacalia suave- 
olens L., Asclepias Meadii A. Or., Pogonia pendula Ldl., Liparis Lcsselii 
Rich., Aplectrum hyemale Nutt., Panicxim autumnale Bosc, Zannichdlia 
palustris L., in great abundance; and in St. Clair county, Eleocharis quad- 
rangulata R. Br. 

There are a number of species which could, from the habitats given In 
'* Gray's Manual," be taken as not growing in Illinois, though they do; 
they are Arenaria lateriflora L., Flcerkea proserpinacoides Willd., Agri- 
monia parviflora Ait., Archangelica atropurpurea Hoffh]., Lonicera flava 
Sims, Aster (Bstivus Alt., Solidago neglecta T. Gr., Onaphalium purpureum 
L. (only one found), Troximon cuspidatum Ph. (noted as reaching to North 
Illinois), Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spr., LysimacJiia thyrsiflora L., Utri- 
cularia intermedia liayne. Phlox reptans Michx.(?), Fraxinus aambuc^folia 
Lam., Aristolochia serpentaria L., Dirc<t palustris L., Carya tomentosa 
Nutt., Salix myrtilloides L., Orchis spectabilis L., Trillium nivale Ridd., 
Triglochin maritimum L., Potamogeton pectinatum L., Allium tricoccum 
Ait., Carex arida Schw. Torr, C, flliformis L., 0. lanuginosa Michx., C. 
longirostris Torr., Equisetum variegatum Schlelch., A^lenium angustifolium 
Michx., occur around Peoria. 

I have seen Arabis lyrata L., on the limestone rocks near Galena, and 
Collinsia vema Nutt., in Fulton county. In Southern Illinois I have col- 
lected Vitis indivisa Willd., V. bipinnata T. Gr., Heuthera villosa Michx., 
Fedia radiata Michx., Celtis Mississippiensis (near Cairo) Quercus p?^llo8 
L., Cyperua virens Michx., Paspalum Walterianum Schult., P. la:ve Michx., 
Camptosorus rhizophyllus Link (at Falling Spring, opposite St. Louis). — 
F. Bkendel. 


Early Arrival of Gebsr. — A flock of forty geese (Anser Canadensis) 
were observed passing over Glace Bay, Cape Breton, steering north on 
the 23d of February. This is at least a fortnight earlier than I have ever 
known them to appear in Nova Scotia. — J. Matthew Jones, Halifax^ 
iV. iiS^. 

Hybrid Fowls. — In answer to a query in the Naturaust for March, 
as to the hybridation of Pintados, I might state that an Instance of the 
kind alluded to came under my notice in the year 1845, where the cross 
was the more singular one of a male turkey and a female Guinea hen. 


There were upwards of twenty eggs laid by the hen, and incubation had 
progressed until within about two days of hatching, when a marauding 
opossum found the nest and destroyed all but two of the eggs. These 
were hatched, and grew to maturity, evincing a singular combination of 
the form and habits of their incongruous parentage. 

The birds were forwarded to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phil- 
adelphia, where their skins were mounted, and I believe are still to be 
seen. I forwarded an account to the Academy at the time, and they were 
made the subject of a report by the late Dr. Morton. I have not the Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy by me, but I believe the account will be found 
in the volume for 1846. 

The Guineas are very strong in their attachments, and the old gobbler 
had to do the agreeable to his wife and children all summer whether he 
would or no. — William Kitk. 

We have at the Central Park a pair of hybrid fowls, which I consider 
as a cross between the common and Guinea fowl. They are large boned; 
have the cackel but not the horny casque and wattles of the Guinea fowl. 
Instead of the feathers being speckled they are marked with flue wavy 
lines. Tegetmeier says the hybrids between these fowls are rare but 
when produced are perfectly sterile, being incapable of reproduction be- 
tween themselves or with either of the species from which they were 
derived. — William A. Conklin. 

In answer to a query in the Naturalist of March, I would say that 
there was a fowl in St. Augustine of this state, that was a cross between 
the dung-hill fowl and Guinea hen. I have heard of two other instances, 
but have no positive proof, except in this one instance. — C. H. Nauman. 

Hybkid Rabbit. — On the 13th of October a rabbit was shot in the 
woods in this vicinity, which the most superficial observers readily de- 
cide to be a hybrid between our common wild rabbit and the English 
domesticated species. Both are common here; the former in a wild 
state, the latter in coops and pens, ft'om which they often escape to the 
adjacent woods. In this individual the characters of the two are so 
equally blended as to leave no doubt as to its parentage. It is well 
mounted in my cabinet. — J. P. Kirkland. 

Turkey Buzzard. — Can a Turkey Buzzard be deceived by his sense of 
smell? I have noticed several instances in which skunks have been eaten 
by buzzards within a few hours after they were killed ; and in all cases the 
creature had given out a great amount of his odor; those which were 
odorless being allowed to lie as long as other animals. Did the buzzards 
mistake the skunk's scent for putrefaction? — J. L. B., Coloray Md, 

Double Headed Snakes. — Within the last ten years I have had in my 
possession two specimens of doubled headed Snakes. One was accident- 
ally lost, the other Is before me, preserved in alcohol. The latter lived 
some weeks after it was captured and would sustain itself on flies which 
it seized with one of its mouths ; the other seemed always to be passive 


and of no use. Both specimens were the young of our Water Snake, 
Hegina leberis of B. and 6. — W. Kikklakd. 

Reproductions of Limbs. — M. Fhlleppcaux has proved for fish what 
he had already demonstrated in the case of newts, viz. : that when the 
limb is removed below the scapula or Ilium it Is reproduced. But 
when the scapula or Ilium is removed no reproduction takes place. — 
Monthly Microscopical Journal. 

Dobs the Fkaiiub Doa Require any Water? — The following may 
throw some light on the question. October 26th, 1869, I received two 
prairie dogs from Cheyenne. The dogs were kept in my laboratory under 
my own eye, and I am sure have drank no water from that time to the 
present, nearly six months. March 11th and April 3d I placed a dish of 
water before them. Each time they merely smelt of it, and turned away 
without drinking a drop. They were fed on nuts, corn, apples, cabbage 
leaves, celery tops, etc. During the months of December, January and 
February, they were taking their winter nap, and of course ate nothing. 
B. Ci JiLLSON, M. D., PUtahurghf Pa. 

An Albino Turkey Buzzard (CathaHes aura lUig) was shot near 
here about a month since, and a white black duck (^Anas ohscura Gm.), 
was seen a few days ago. — Charles H. Nauman, Smyrna, Fla» 

Albino Snow Bird. — November 16th last, I shot an albino snow bird, 
Nipleoea hyemalis. The bird was with a flock of its species, and attracted 
my attention by its singular whiteness. It is a mule, and possessed no 
peculiarity that I have discovered except its plumage, which was chiefly 
snow-white. — William F. Alcott, North Greenwich^ Conn, 

Albino Rats. — Colonies of albino rats are becoming quite common 
in the city of Clcaveland and its suburbs. I have a live specimen caged, 
which if freed from its odor, would form an interesting pet. Its fUr and 
hair are pure white, and its eyes pink colored. No squirrel could be 
more active and playful. Much of its time is spent in washing its face 
and smoothing down its coat of hair and fur. 

The Little Striped Skunk in Central Iowa. — An animal of this 
beautiful species was killed in this town (Grinnell, Iowa), February 12th, 
and brought to me to be stuff'ed for the College cabinet. It has been 
considered a Texas and California species, but I am informed by Frofes- 
sor Baird that it has been found as far north as Neosho Falls, Kansas ; 
also that he regards the markings as distinctive of the species. My 
specimen Is not much larger than a Western Fox Squirrel. It has all the 
characters of Mephitis bicolor Gray, as described in Baird*s ''General 
Report." — H. W. Farker, Grinnelly Iowa, 

The Ruby Crowned Kinglet. — In regard to the query of Mr. Allen 
about the ruby crowned kiuglet, I would say that I obtained ten or twelve 
specimens in May and June on the Yukon River, Alaska, all of which had 
the red crown, and proved on examination to be males. I never saw a 


female of this species in that region, and noted the ftict as remarkable at 
the time. 

I notice among the notes in regard to the Massachusetts duclES, the 
statement that the mallard pintail and black duck do not dive for their 
food. My own observations do not entirely confirm this theory. The 
black duck is most common on the lagoons in the low ground of the 
Yukon marshes, and. with others, feeds principally on the roots of the 
Equisetcs, which in the spring are under water fk'om six inches to two 
feet, until the river falls and leaves them dry, or nearly so. I cannot say 
that I have seen them dive often, but I have certainly done so on one or 
two occasions. This species was not found on the sea-coasts of that 

The pintail is very common on both coast and river, and I have seen 
them dive apparently for food, hundreds of times. Indeed, they are ex- 
tremely expert at it, and are only excelled by the true sea ducks, such as 
the old squaw. The same is true of the mallard, which is more common 
on the deeper lagoous and on the coasts, than on the shallows by the 
river, according to my observations. It is, however, not impossible that 
their habits may vary somewhat in different localities. — W. H. Dall. 

Tbs Marsh Harrier. — About all our meadows and wherever mice are 
numerous this beautiful species Is very abundant. During the past and 
present month we have seen, we believe, at least a hundred of them, all 
females. Where are the pale blue gray male birds? We have yet to see 
the first specimen this year. We have never seen a dozen in as many 
years. Is this absence of male harriers as noticeable elsewhere? Have 
others called attention to it? This species, Circus Hudsonius, nidificates 
in this state, yet even in the neighborhoods of the nests, we have been 
unable to find the male bird. We have noticed this hawk lately engaged 
in tearing open the ridges formed by the burrowing of the mole (ScaUtps 
aqu€Uicu8)y and once saw the bird overtake and kill the beast, but it would 
or did not devour it. Will any hawk eat so offensively smelling an animal 
as this Scalops is? — Charles C. Abbott, M.D. 

Night Herons. — During the past four months a yard within city lim- 
its, in Trenton, N. J., bordering on the river, and having considerable 
left it of undisturbed nature, has presented a feature of interest, in the 
daily presence of a male, female and three young night herons (Nycti- 
ardea Gardeni). This bird is common with us during the summer, but not 
about the usual thorongl: fares, or even by-ways of the people. They 
breed in unfrequented swampy localities exclusively, when with us. 
Stragglers are occasionally met with about springs In mid-winter, but 
never before, as in this case, in town. The little colony mentioned re- 
main during the day in the large pines in the yard, seldom moving about 
until sundown, when they visit the little pond, and spring brook in the 
grounds, which, In consequence of the mild winter, have remained com- 
paratively warm, and the vegetation about them green. In this pond the 



frogs have been as active and abundant as daring the snmtner, which fact 
we suppose has been the principal cause of the continued presence of the 
herons. On these frogs and the many gold-fish, these birds have sub- 
sisted daily since early in November. Occasionally they have visited the 
river shore, but not from the river have they apparently secured any Im- 
portant quantity of food. These five birds are probably a family raised 
in the neighborhood, and must have remained together during the early 
autumn, which is an unusual proceeding. It will be of interest to watch 
their farther movements to see if, during the coming summer, they will 
be as indifferent to the proximity of man, and if next winter they will 
also remain in a yard in town. — Dr. Charles C. Abboit. 

Song of the Song-sparrow. — Throughout the winter, and at this 
time (April 11th), we are having with us a great abundance of sparrows, 
especially the one above mentioned {Melospiza melodia). While their 
numbers have been generally noticed and commented upon, there has 
been one other feature connected with them, that to an ornithologist is 
interesting and equally noticeable, i,e, a marked change of notes or song. 
In fact, this change induced me to think, at first, that the new notes were 
those of another bird ; but a careful examination has shown the birds of 
the new and old song, to be t>ne and the same. We have seen as well as 
heard the same bird warble first the old time song and follow immedi- 
ately with the new notes. Giving, as the best illustration of their old 
song, Pres-preS'pres — Pres-by-Uee-rian ; we can best show the variation 
by describing the new as Fee-o, Fee-o, twit-tat ttcit-ta, twit-taf fee ! Hear- 
ing these notes, at first, in the one locality (Trenton, N. J.), we thought 
possibly they might have been uttered by but one individual; but since, 
we have shown this not to be the case, by finding the same variations of 
song, in various and widely separated localities. Is such a change of 
notes a common occurrence, in a species having so uniform a song as 
this species is known or supposed to have? — Charles C. Abbott, M. D. 



Geological Explorations. — Professor C. F. Uartt of Cornell Uni- 
versity, with his associate. Professor A. N. Prentiss, and nine assistants, 
sailed June 23 for Brazil, to study the geology of north-eastern Brazil and 
the right bank of the Amazon. Another aim of the expedition is to ex- 
plore the coast from Para down to Pernambuco, and investigate the coral 
reefs of this part of the coast. 

About the same date Professor 0. C. Marsh, of Yale College led an ex- 
pedition, composed of students and recent graduates, to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, where he will spend several months and collect the vertebrate fossils 
of Nebraska, Dakota, and Wyoming. The party will then go to Cali- 
fornia, and visit some of the principal geological localities on the Pacific 
coast, after which they will return through Colorado and Kansas, reach- 
ing New Haven probably In November. 


Rksturatiom or tuh Disotukrivh. — I enclose bd outline restoration 
of tbe Dliiotherium, tUat I fuiind Intel; among the St. Petersburg Traos- 
acUons, presuiitlng the latest Ideas of Dr. Brandt Id regard to tbat 
aoimal. — S. F. Baiud. 



Dkvklopuxnt or Oab in Protoplasm. — Dr. Th. Engelmann haa ob- 
served In Anella, a minute protOEOon tike an AmalMi with a sbeli, a peri- 
odical development of gtis. Dr. I-^ngelmann made his observations on 
specimens conllned In a gas chamber, and describes minntely how grada- 
allj 1q the protoplasmic hyaline substance of tjie animalcule, black points 
arise, which as gradnsllj coalesce, forming a distinct air bubble. Thla 
gas can after a time be absorbed again, and reasons are given for believ- 
ing that a sort of volition Is exercised by the Arcellai lu the secretion and 


absorption of the gas which they use in the manner of a float or alr- 
biadder. The air-babbles are not connected with the contractile vacuoles, 
or with the nuclei. The air-bubbles it is important to observe, do not 
occur in the non-granular protoplasm of the pseudopodia, but in the 
granular substance, and are not spherical but of an Irregular form, which 
as Dr. Engelmann observes, proves that the protoplasm is not in the con- 
dition of aggregation of a fluid. The chemical composition of the gas 
thus so remarkably developed by the Arcellce was not determined, nor the 
mechanism (if any exist) of the formation and disappearance of the air- 
bubbles. The discovery is of importance firom two points of view : in the 
first place, for the development of gas in protoplasm as a physiological 
phenomenon; in the second place, for the supposed voluntary nature of 
this development, of which this exceedingly simple organism makes use 
for the purpose of locomotion. — Quarterly Journal of Science, 

The Largest Infusorium Known. — In the '* lustitut ** of the 24th of 
January Is an interesting paper on the Gregarinadse, which are well known 
to represent one of the simplest forms of animal life, consisting of a nu- 
cleated cell, which under certain conditions invests itself with a trans- 
parent membrane, becoming, as It is termed, incysted. The nucleus 
disappears and the substance of the body then breaks up into innumerable 
sporos perms, navlcellsB, or elongated minute corpuscles, which, being set 
free by the bursting of the enclosing capsule, become distributed in the 
various organs of many animals. A well-marked form is found in the 
alimentary canal of the common beetle. M. Edouard v. Beneden has 
lately discovered a remarkable form, to which he has applied the name 
Oregarina gigarUea^ In the intestine of the lobster. It has been subjected 
to MM. Gluge and Schwann of the Academic Royale de Belgiqae for ex- 
amination, and they report that its length is no less than 16 mm., and its 
breadth 15 mm., or nearly two-thirds of an Inch. It presents, In the mem- 
brane which forms Its wall, a contractile layer, to which M. Beneden had 
previously called attention in other species. The Interior of the animal 
Is occupied by a viscous liquid containing granular particles, with a nu- 
cleus and nucleolus. This last exhibits a remarkable phenomenon. At 
flrst it is single, but in the coarse of a few seconds the nucleus appears 
to be filled with a large number of small refk*actlle corpuscles, which are 
so many nucleoli. Some of them then augment considerably in size, 
whilst the primary nucleolus gradually disappears. With the exception 
of the yolk of the egg of birds, and some other animals, the Gregarina 
gigantea constitutes the largest known cell. — The Acadennfk 


Aboriginal Relic from Trenton, New Jersey. — In the "Proceed- 
ings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," and in local 
papers, we have frequently called attention to various large deposits of 
arrowheads, axes, etc., and to Interesting isolated specimens of curi- 



oDvly shnped relic?, taand In and nenr tliin city. Wc now call nttentinn 
to the relic Ogured here tts one that is unique, at least so far as New Jer- 
sey is concerned. Abont four and a half Inchen long It Is very hccd- 
nt«ly sloped to tlie buck, which Is a flat rlJjsie, uniromily one-thlrlj'- 
sccond of an Inch In width, from the neck to the posterior end. which 
curving npwnrd. Is about double that thickness on the edge. The head 
of the stone Is oval, occurntoly cut, with a width in the centre of three- 
sixteenths lit an Inch. The kDob-lllie protuberances, stand out from the 
hi'ad one-third of an y\g, g.-,. 

Inch, and have a narrow 
neck, about one-half tlie 
width of the head of the 
protuberance, aa seen 
In the Illustration (Fig. i 
83). The bottom, as the " 
drawing shows. Is Hat. 

At either end Is a hole drilled ; in the front the hole Is about a quartet 
of an inch from the end and drilled obliquely, until It meets the drilling 
from the neck, which Is bored at a similar angle to the neck, as the 
under one Is to the base. The holes at the posterior end arc similarly 
bored. The material Is bornblend. 

If the atone is meant for a representation of some animal the holes 
would seem to be intended for the insertion of legs ; but probably were 
used to insert a string or sinew, that the figure might he carried abont 
the neck. We have never seen any large collection of these "Indian" 
relics, 'and do not know whether It is a common form elsewhere or not, 
but, OS we previously stated. It Is novel to New Jersey. It was ploug;hed 
up near the city, In a neighborhood where only ares and arrow points are 
to be met with, and those not abundantly. — CuAitLes C. AncoTT, M.D. 

Oitrntx oFTHB Tarmavians. — Mr. Bonwlck, In a recent paper "On the 
Origin of the Tasmanlans, geologically considered," states that the Tasma- 
nians have now become almost extinct, an old woman being the only sur- 
vivor of the race. They were related In manners and in general phgaiijne 
to the neighboring Australians, bat were allied by black skin and woolly 
hiilr to the distant Africans, while they were assimilated by resemblance 
of language, coBtoms, and habits of thought, to many races scattered 
over vast areas. The author seeks to explain this relation by con- 
structing an Ideal southern continent, whence all the dark-colored race s 
surrounding the, Indian Ocean, and extending into the Pacific and south- 
ern oceans may have rndinted. He regards the Tasmanlan ns probably 
older than the Australian. Dr. Hooker, whose authority had frequently 
been quoted in the paper, pointed out the similarity and differences that 
obtain between the floras of Australia, Tasmania. New Zealand. Sonth 
AfMca, etc. It has recently been found that the flora of the Howe Islands 
is very unlike that of Australia, although so near to the coast. He pm- 
te.iicd, however, against the Inference that the tine of migratton followed 


by plants is necessarily the same as that pursued by the higher animals. 
The president alluded to the great difference between the Australian and 
Tasmanian, especially in the character of the hair; and he regarded it as 
physically impossible that the Tasmanlan could have come from Aus- 
tralia. He suggested that an interrupted communication by a chain of 
islands may have extended from New Caledonia to Tasmania, similar to 
that which now connects New Caledonia with New Guinea; and that 
by this means a low negrito type may have spread eastward over this 
area. — Scientific Opinion. 

8tonk Images on Easter Island. — A paper was read by Mr. J. L. 
Palmer, R. N., on a recent visit to Easter Island In H.M.S. Topaz. Dur- 
ing the visit the singular colossal stone images which excited the aston- 
ishment of Captain Cook and the earlier voyagers were accurately 
observed and measured, and a specimen of them brought away to deposit 
in the British Museum. Mr. Palmer described the topography of this 
remote island in the South Pacific. It is only twelve miles in length by 
four in width, and lies in a part of the ocean far away from other islands, 
at a distance of two thousand miles fl-om the coast of South America, 
and one thousand miles from the nearest Polynesian islands to the west. 
The island is entirely a volcanic formation, and presents numerous 
extinct craters, one of which yields the gray lava of which all the stone 
images are made, and another the red tufa ft'om which are carved the 
crowns or hats that formerly rested on their heads. The present inhab- 
itants are only nine hundred in number — a good-looking, pleasant-tem- 
pered, set of people. They belong to the Polynesian race, and have a 
tradition of their immigrating from Opara at no very distant period. The 
interest attaching to the island was an ethnological one, and concerned 
the race who sculptured the vast quantity of stone images now existing 
in situ on stone platforms in various parts of the island, or inside large 
stone chambers or houses. The platforms, chambers, sculptures, and 
mural paintings were described by the author with minuteness, but he 
did not propound any theory as to their origin. He stated that the inhab- 
itants knew nothing of the matter, that they were undoubtedly of great 
antiquity, and that it was probable they were executed by a race who had 
long since passed away. 

In the discussion which followed Mr. Markham mentioned the fact of 
similar images having been found by the early Spanish invaders in the 
cities on the banks of Lake TIticaca, in South Peru, and belonging to the 
Aymara nation. There existed, however, this difference — that the 
Aymara Images were profusely sculptured. Recently a stone platform 
had been found In one of the Pacific Islands, one thousand miles to the 
west of Easter Island, at the bottom of a deep deposit of guano, and he 
threw out the suggestion that these were all relics of a very ancient peo- 
ple who slowly migrated across the Pacific Arom west to east. Mr. 
Franks gave In detail his reasons for concluding that the ancient remains 


in Easter Island trnly belonged to an earlier population of the same Poly^ 
nesian race wlio now inhabit the island. Sir George Gray also expressed 
the same opinion, and spoke of the habit of carving Images as being a 
peculiarity of Polynesians, including the Maories, and that in a place 
where wood (the usual material) was vei*y scarce, as it Is in Easter 
Island, it was natural that stone should be substituted. Mr. Palmer gave 
some farther details of the amiability and good conduct of the present 
inhabitants, who had been much improved by the Roman Catholic mis- 
sionaries. Mr. P. P. Blyth also took part in the discussion, and the pres- 
ident, in summing up, mentioned the soft nature of the volcanic rock of 
which the images were made as supporting Sir George Gray's explana- 
tion. — Scientific Opinion, 

Americak Association for the Advance^ient of Science. — The 
meeting of the Association for 1870 will be held at Troy, N. Y., beginning 
on Wednesday, August 17th, having been postponed by the Standing 
Committee ftom the 3d, at the request of the Local Committee. We be- 
lieve from the general expressions last year at Salem that this next 
meeting will be largely attended and will prove a most interesting one. 
The Local Committee is evidently doing nil it can to make the meeting a 
success; and judging from the character of the gentlemen composing the 
Committee, Its large size, and careftil division into sub-committees on 
Receptions, Finance, Lodgings, Excursions, Rooms, Invitations, Printing 
and Railroads, we feel confident that the Association will be most cor- 
dially received and taken care of during the session. 

We trust that the subsections of Arrhceology and Ethnology ^ and of 
Microacopy, organized at the Salem meeting, will be reorganized with a 
large attendance in these interesting departments. 

The following are the Officers of the Meeting: — William Chauvenet, 
St. Louis, President; T. S. Hunt, Montreal, Vice-President ; Joseph Lov- 
erlng, Cambridge, Permanent Secretary; C. F. Ilartt, Ithaca, General 
Secretary; A. L. Elwyn, Philadelphia, Treasurer, 

Standing Committee. — William Chauvenet, T. S. Hunt, Joseph Loverlng, 
C. F. Hartt, J. W. Foster, O. N. Rood, O. C. Marsh, A. L. Elwyn. 

Ijocal Committee. — John A. Griswold, Chairman; George C. Burdett, 
First Vice- Chairman ; P. V. Hagner, Second Vice- Chairman ; Benjamin H. 
Hall, General Secretary ; H. B. Nason, Corresponding Secretary; Adam B. 
Smith, Treasurer, and seventy-seven others. 


C. J. C. The plant found in flower Jane 21, on Mount Monadnok, is the Arenar^a 
Oratdandica. It is abundant on the summit of Mount Washington, and we have found 
It common at Hopedale, Labrador, whera it grows near the shore of the ocean. 



DetcripHcni of New CoraU, By A. E. Verrill. [From Am. Joar. 8cl. and Arta. May, 1870.] 

Review* of Report on /nverlebrtUa of Jitusachusetts^ and of Jioliuscan Fauna of New Haven. 
By A. E. Verrill. [From Am. Jour. Scl. Arta. Mav, 1870.J 

Valedietorv Addresn^ Jefferson Medical College. Ky J. A. Meigs, M. D. Phlladdplila, 1K70. 

Veber die Mikronkope Nordamerikas. von Dr. H. Haicen. l*ami)ti., 8vo. 1870. 

The Elevation of Mountains. By G. H. Hitchcock. Hvo, paiuph. April, lb70. 

Tidsukrift for Populare FrerMtillinger af Naturvidentkaben. 1870. KJobeiiham. 

American Entomologist and Botanist, Vol. 11. Nus. 7-8. May, June, 1870. 

New York Slate Library, Flfty-sfcoud Annual Kcport of Trustees. 

Feabodp Institute. Eiijrtiteouth Annual Report of Trustees. Pcabody, 1870. 

American Journal of Medical Sciences, No. 118. April, 1870. [Quarterly, $5.00.] Phllad. 

Cosmos, From January 1 to June 35, 1870. Paris. [Weekly. J 

Monthly Report of Department of Agriculture. March, May, 1870. 

Annual Report of See y Massachusetts Board of Agriculture for WSB, 1 vol, 8vo. Boston, 1870. 

American Journal of Conchology. Vol. v. Part 4. Philadelphia. [$10 ii yeur.j 

fHrst Annual Report of the American Museum of NaturcU Uistorv. January, 187U. New York. 

Notes on Fresh-water Fishes of New Jersey. By C. C. Abbott, M. D. [From American Nat- 
uralist. April, 1870.] 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Nos. 4-«. April, June. 

Howdoin Scientific Review. Nos. 7-11. May, July. Brunswick, Maine. [t2ayear.] 

Address to New York State Agricultural Society^ on the Rational and Irrational Treatment of 
Animals. By Professor James Law. 8vo, pamph. Albany, 1870. 

Memorial of Benjamin P. Johnson. By M. K. Patrick. N. Y. Ajnle. Society. 8to, pampb. 1870. 

Memorial of Herman 7^ Eyek Foster, By A. B. Consrer. N. Y.Agrlc. 8oc 8vo. 18<0. 

Correspondent- Blatt des Zoologiseh-mineralogisehen Vereines in Regensburg, ItW9. 8vo. 

Sitttingsberirhte der kaenigl. bayer, Akademie der Wissenchttften su Munehen. 8ro. Vol. I. 
IS&K and parts 1, 2, 8, of Vol. 11, 1860. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 8to. Vol. rl. 1868-9. 

Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society. 8vo. Vol. I. 1868 - 70. 

Bulletin de Clnstitut National Oenevois, Vols. l-Ul, ia'*3-6; Vol. vl, 1857; Vol. ix, 1861 : Vol. 
x1, 1864; two parts of Vol. zli, 1864-6; Vols. xiU-xv, 1866-69, and Vol. xvl, pp. 1-228, 1S69, 
12 vols. 8vo. Geneve. 

Oversigt over det Kal. danske Videnskabemes Selskabs Forhandlinger. 1868-68. 8vo. 16 vols, 
and 6 parts, ^obenhavn. 

Memoires de C In ttitut National Oenevois. Tome 1 - IS, 1858 - 68 ; IS vols, 4to. Geneve. 

Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabemes Selskabs Skri/ter^ Femte^ Rmkke^ Naturvulenskabelig og 
Maihematisk Afdeling. Bind. 1 - vll, 1849 - 68: 7 vols, 4to. KJobenhavn. 

Experimentale og theoreti*ke Undersogelser over Legemernes Brydningiforhold. Af L. Lor- 
ena. 4t(>, paniph. KJohenliavn. 18<)9. 

Om jEndringen af irrationale Dtfferentialer tit Normalformen for det elliptiske Integral «ff 
forste Art. Af Adolpli Steen. 4to, paniph. fijubenhavn. 1869. 

ThermoeKemiske Undersogelser over Afflnitetsforholdene imellem Syrer og Baser < vandig 
Oplosning. Ved Julius Thomsen. 4to, pamph. KJobenhavn. 1869. 

Om Integmtionen tif Differentialligninger der fare til Additionstheoremer for transeendente 
Funktioner, At Adolph Steen. 4to, pamph. KJobenhavn. 1869. 

Additamenta ad historiam Ophiuridarum Beskrivende og kriiiske Bidrag tii Kundskab om 
Slangestjememe. AfChr. Fr. Ltttken. 4to, pamph. KJobenhavn, 1869. 

Denkschrift auf Carl Friedr. Phil, von Marttus. von C. F. Meissner. 4to. Munehen, 1869. 

Ueber die Entteicklung der Agrikulturchemie. Von August Vo^el. 4to. Munehen, 1869. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. xtli. pp. 267 - 272. 

The Chemical History of the Stx Days of Creation, By Johu Phin. 12mo. Cloth, pp. 96. 
New York. American News Company. 

PetUes Nouvelles Entomologiqnes, Nos. SI, 24. May, June, 1870. Paris. 

The Canadian Entomologist. Vol. 2, Nos. 6 and 7. April and May, 1870. Toronto. 

Le Naturaliste Canadian, Vol. 2. Noa. 6-7. April, June, 1870. Quebec. 

The Chemist and Druggist April, June, 187<>. London. (Mouthly, 7s. 6d. per annum). 

The Field. April 80 to Juno 25 [Weekly]. London. 

Land and Water. March6 to May 28 JH'eckiy]. London. 

Scientific Opinion. April 27 to June 29 [Weekly]. London. 

Nature, April 21 to June 16. London. 

Science- Gossip. May, June, July. London. 
' Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale d* AcclimatatUm, vll. Nos. 2-6. Feb., May. Paris, 1870. 

Current Numbers of the ftillowtng .Magazines and Papers, In addition to those acknowledaed In 

Drecediiiff Numbers: — Bee Keeper's Journal, New York; Ei^ineering and Mining Journal. New 
1'. . ^ . .. ... « . t... „ . . . « . ..-_. ..._.i.. NaehvUle: 


jj^COrW, J'VW I Ul H ^ v««ii'W"»«» M.—W rw€Kt ^ otKtt r < Biiv^aa^^' , v«»»»»«>*«» < <*r rrivr , «,>iviit«/, JOUmttl (^ 

Education^ Toronto; VhicersUy Journal of Medicine^ IMiiliulelplila; A'ew Covenant^ Chicago: 
Canada Health Journal^ London. Ontario; Technologist, Nrw Yi>rk; Trubner^s Oriental and 
Literary Record, Loudon; American Aarievlturist, New York; American Farmer, Baltimore: 
Boston Journal of Chemistry; Ladies Repository, Boston : Missionary Herald, Boston ; Ameri- 
can Literary Oatette^ Philadelphia; J^t^wrator, Wllllam»p<»rt; Rutvltst, Cincinnati; Cultirator 
and CUfuntry Oentleman, Albany; Wood's Household Maaaxine, Newburgh; JficAtoan University 
Medical Journal, Ann Arbor; Southern Farmer, Memphis; Horticulturist^ New York: Congre- 
gational Review, (Chicago and Boston; American Bee Journal, Washington; Bulletin of National 
Association of Wool Manufacturers, Boston: Nbrth- Western Farmer^ Indianapolis; TtltonU 
Journal of HorOeulture^ Boston; American BibHopoHst^ New York; Accountant antl Advertiser^ 
Baltimore; Journal of the Franklin Institute^ Pliiladelphia; Our Dumb Animals^ Boston; The 
Temperance ITo/cAman, Griffin, Oa.; California Medical Oatette, Sain Francisco; CaHfomia 
Teacher. San Francisco: The Grape Culturist^ 8t. Lonis; Little Corporal, Chicago; Arthur^s 
Honte Magatine, Philadelphia; Arikur^s Children's Hour, Philadelphii^ 


Vol. IV.-8EPTBHBEB, 1870. -ITo. 7. 



Fig. 89. 

Mncn is lost to those who essay to study the habits of 
fresh-water fishes, first, by ignoring uninviting mud-holes, 
and secondly, by walking carelessly to the banks of the 
stream, and seeing nothing at first, think they are themselves 
unseen by anything inhabiting the water. Never was there 
a greater mistake t Nine times in ten, if these same streams 
be approached cautiously, and yourself concealed, you peer 
carefully into the water, you will find it tenanted l)y many 
and larger fishes, than you supposed were there. Following 
out this plan, we once saw and captured a chub (Semotihis 
rhotheus) thirteen inches long, in a narrow brook of but 
six inches in depth. This fish, when the bank was carelessly 
approached, would withdraw to a deserted nmskrat burrow. 

After standing quietly for a few minutes upon the bank of 
a stream that has been openly approached, one will notice 



the gradual appearance of the fishes your sudden presence 
startled and sent off; but returning under such circumstances 
they are not the same fish in their moTcments ; for although 
ihey may appear to swim about fearleasly, they nevertheless 
are watching you, and foil to exliibit many of their peculiar 
habits. Au aquarium, even, in which fishes become tame, is 
best watched at a distauue, as more is going ou generally, 
than when you are near by. Fish are like children, fuller 
uf mischief when alone. These remarks, be it understood, 
apply to some species — not all. What we design consid- 
ering as mud-loving species are nine in number, all common 
to the Delaware and its tributaries, at and near Trenton, 

IS galUlm. 

New Jersey. They are the Spotted Sun-fish {EnneacarUhus 
ffutlaliis,' the Mud Sun-fish {Acantharcus pomolis), the Mud 
Minnow {Melanura h'mt), Mud Pike (Esox porosus) , Mullet 
{Moxosloma obhnffum), Black Sucker, Catostomua {Hylo- 
myzon) nigricans. Mud Cat-fieh {Amiurus BeKayt), Eel 
{AnguiUa tenuii-oslris) , and the Lamprey {Petromyzon nigri- 
cans). (We consider the Ichthyomyzon appendix as the 
young of the last, or an allied P^romyzon). 

Spotted Sun-fish (Enneacanthus giUtaius). We have very 

■We trust Uie nomeactiitnre of oar Othes Is Anally establlilml: uidno apecioi irlll 
be ftrtber hnrdened with confasing ej-nunomy. Wa tollrnr Coiw (Journal Aond. Sal. 
Scl., Pbil., Vnl. Ti. part 3. p. 31S, Jan.. IBGtl), In this pnpor; nnd If fkrUiei' cbuigaa an 
propond, IMlnoir M Uuiugh ire (hontd adopt Uimn with n' 


carefully searched for a trait characteristic of this fish as 
compared with E. obesusj and have uniformly failed to do so. 
The tiabits of the species are those of the Centrarchid» gen-* 
erally, modified in so far as being merely more of a mud- 
loving species. So purely a mud-dwelling fish are they 
that we have frequently found them in water so shallow, that 
they marked the mud with their pectoral fins in swimming ; 
preferring such shallow water, with the mud, to that which 
was deeper, to which they had access, because it was over a 
stony bed. In winter they congregate in deep water, and 
imless care is taken to dig well into the mud they will not 
be taken in the ordinary scoop-net. We found, during the 
past winter, in one instance, that a large number had appar-^ 
endy scooped out a basin in the bottom of a little pond. At 
any rate, closely huddled together, in a small space, some- 
what deeper than the surrounding bed of the pond, was a 
large number. Examination of several showed they were 
then taking no food. The stomach of each specimen, and 
the whole digestive tract, in fact, wereemply. 

The main interest attaching to this species, at least to us, 
is the fact of its occupying many small, sluggish streams, 
similar and side by side with others that harbor, though less 
abundantly, the E. obesus. We never yet have found them 
associated in small streams, in the tributaries of the river ; 
yet, in the Delaware itself the E. obesus is occasionally, and 
the guUatas frequently found. North-east of Trenton, in the 
Spar-kill, a creek emptying into the Hudson, and in the 
streams along the coast, emptying into the bays, the E. 
obesus abounds ; and the guUaius has not been found. Along 
the Delaware both are found, the guttatus more abundantly. 
Professor Cope has found E. guttatus near Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and (verbal communication) has not found it about 
Philadelphia. It is undoubtedly in the Delaware, at Trenton 
— distance thirty-seven miles. We have been thus particu- 
lar in stating its habitat, because the fact of its not associ- 
ating with the E. obesus is a mystery we cannot explain, 


except in tne manner following. The similarity of these two 
Enneacanthi is so marked, that unless living, they can 
scarcely be distinguished ; and considering the abundance of 
one and presence of the other, but not associated, we suggest 
that the E, obesus is with us, not of its own choice, but 
forcibly brought by freshets from the localities where it is 
the only Enneacauth (New York State) to this, the proper 
territory of the E, guUatus. Once here it occupies certain 
streams from which it has driven the former occupant, E. 
guUaiua. It is always found in the streams having unob- 
structed access to the river. If this be a true explanation 
of its presence does it not confirm its claim to a distinct 
specific title? In the "Geology of New Jersey** we con- 
founded the two species, considering Pomotis guUatus Mor- 
ris, a synonym of Bryttus obesus Girard. 

On the 16th of March we found females of the Mud 
Minnow (Melanura limi)y in clear, cold, running water. 
They were much distended with large masses of orange-col- 
ored eggs, that we should judge were nearly ''ripe." We 
have watched them frequently since but failed to find them 
depositing these ova. At this time, April 19, a large propor- 
tion of the females are no longer gi*avid. It would appear 
that in March they were passing up stream, or brook, to 
spawn, but appeared to be unaccompanied by males. 

We have lately found that this fish, when grown, feeds 
largely upon small shells {Physa and Lymncea). We have 
seen them seize the animal, crush and then drop the shell, 
and then, by nibbling at the extruded soft parts, finally*suc- 
ceed in devouring all but the shell. Young crawfish are also 
worried to death by this C3rprinodont, which at first bites off 
the larger claws, and ultimately succeeds in crushing the 
whole shell. On the other hand they are themselves ex^ 
posed to attacks from a voracious animal, which takes advan- 
tage of their lying buried in the mud. We refer to the 
odoriferous Cinostemoid (^Ozotheca odorata). This turtle 
appears to be able to discover the whereabouts of the mud- 


minnows without alarming them ; and cautiously approach- 
ing from behind, they seize the head of the fish that is 
scarcely extruded from the mud. This they generally com- 
pletely sever from the body, cast aside, and then draw from 
the mud the decapitated body. We doubt the ability of 
this turtle to catch a mud-minnow not concealed in the mud. 
When lying on the mud, like an Etheostomoid, their move- 
ments are very rapid when disturbed. 

In speaking of the habits of certain species of fishes as 
^^mud-loving,'' or dwellers in and upon mud, we reaUy indi- 
cate merely those species that are most truly nocturnal. We 
judge that, to .a certain extent, all fish are nocturnal. We 
have often noticed that fish will leap from an aquarium, if 
uncovered during the night; but this occurs but seldom 
during the day. Fishing with a line has always been more 
fruitful with us at night than fishing during the day ; even 
when fishing for yellow or white perch,, and other active day 
fish. Nets set over night entrap a greater number, and 
larger specimens, than when set for the same number of 
hours between simrise and sunset. 

These remarks are peculiarly applicable to the two Cato- 
stonioids we have mentioned above, Moxostoma oblongum 
and Hylomyzon nigricans. Unless quite small, less than six 
inches in length, these ** suckers'' remain quiet throughout 
the day; but as night approaches they leave the shallow, 
muddier portions of the creeks, and swim towards and mto 
the deeper waters. About sunset we have often noticed 
them coming to the surface, and with their nostrils above the 
water, they make a low, sibilant sound, and leave in their 
wake a long line of minute bubbles. When attacked, as 
they frequently are at this time, by turtles, they give a very 
audible grunt, similar to that of our chub when drawn from 
the water. Both of these "suckers" are occasionally found, 
even during the day, in running water, hunting among the 
stones upon the bottom ; but still water and soft mud are 
never far distant. The "suckers" of our rivers are very 


different in their likes and dislikes. C!oming up the stream 
in February and March, the large-scaled species, Teretulus 
macrolepidotuSj and the common Caiostomus BostoniensiSy 
seek out rapid, waters, rocky bottoms, and are so active and 
fearless during the day, that many are seen and killed in the 
shallow waters they have entered. This is very noticeably 
the case at Trenton, New Jersey, where the Assunpink creek 
enters the Delaware. The '* suckers" come up to the foot of 
the dam and congregate there in large numbers. Both of 
these species bite readily at a hook ; but the "mullet" and 
•'black-sucker" never do with us. 

We can imagine nothing more devoid of interest than a 
mud-catfish (Amiurus DeKayi)^ at least as we have them 
here in New Jersey. Occasionally one of unusual size is 
met with to give it some characteristic worthy of attention. 
The largest specimen we have ever seen weighed five pounds, 
thirteen ounces. The greatest width of the head was five 
and one half inches. This species wallows in the mud in the 
beds of streams of all sizes ; it is abundant in many of ova 
largest creeks, in every mill-pond, and in average sized 
ditches with overhanging banks, this ''mud-lover" frequently 
congregates in large numbers. It is a little curious to notice 
how soon matters right themselves, as to the distribution of 
fishes, after a freshet has subsided which had obliterated the 
previous boundaries. We have in mind now an extensive 
tract of meadow, through which meanders two rapid current 
creeks, and also through it are cut innumerable ditches. 
In these ditches dwell several mud-loving fish. Of course 
the freshet produces considerable of a "scatter" among 
them ; but on the subsidence of the water we very seldom 
find mud cat-fish in the clear-water creeks, and the running 
water species caught napping in the ditches very promptly 
leave, as a few days sufiice to restore to each locality its 
characteristic species. 

In our report in the "Geology of New Jersey," we gave 
but three fresh-water siluroids. Since then we have had our 


attention called to the stone cat-fish {Noturvs gyrinua) , from 
the Delaware Water Gap, Warren County, New Jersey. Be- 
sides the specimens from this localit}' in the Museum of 
the Philadelphia Academy we have seen ona living specimen 
in an aquarium, taken in the Assunpink Creek at its mouth. 
This is the only living specimen taken in New Jersey that 
we have ever seen, but learn that it is common in some of 
the rocky creeks in the northern part of the State. 

The Eel (AngutUa tenuiroatris) , as elsewhere we suppose, 
is abundant in all our water courses. A careful examination 
of specimens from various localities, and comparison of re- 
ports of local fishermen, tend to the fact (?) that the largest 
eels are to be found in the rivers and streams directly tribu- 
tary to them ; and that in isolated mill-ponds far distant from 
the main water courses, they are not so large or numerous. 
We do not admit that such is really the case, but it does 
appear to be true. The experience of other obsei'vers would 
be interesting to know ; and how large do oiu* various spe- 
cies of Anguilla grow, as found in fresh-water? In the 
Delaware and its many small tributaries we find the Lamprey 
(Petromi/zon nigricans) very abundant. Although occasion- 
ally found sticking to the sides of large fish, shad, rock-fish, 
white-perch and chub, they do not appear to feed upon fish 
thus exclusively. We have frequently found a large quantity 
of them adhering to the carcasses of dogs and other drowned 
animals, and judge that they subsist upon dead, rather than 
living animal matter. In an aquarium they adhere to the 
glass sides and remove the green scum very effectually, but 
whether they devour it or not we could not ascertain. We 
have known the Lampreys to suck their way up the facing ♦ 
of mill dams and so wander far up from the river. In such 
cases they bury themselves in the mud, in the winter, as do 
eels instead of following the river out into the sea. 



The idea that art has made most of the variations we find 
in gardens is far removed from the truth. It has done 
much to prevent a true knowledge of the origin of species. 
Art has done little towards making variations ; it has only 
helped to preserve the natural evolutions of form from being 
crowded out. There is scarcely any species of wild plants 
but will furnish numberless variations, if we only look for 
them. To-day I examined a large patch of ox-eye daisies 
{Ghi*ysanthemum leucanthemum) , The first impression is 
that they are remarkably uniform, yet there were some with 
petals as long only as the width of the disk ; others with 
petals double the length. In some the petals taper to a 
narrow point; in others they are tridentate on the apex. 
Again, some flowers have petals uniformly linear. Others 
have them tapering at both ends. Some have recurved and 
others flat petals. In one plant the scales of the involucre 
were veiy much refleocedj a very striking diflference from the 
usually closely appressed condition. 

I have frequently found that these veiy common things 
which nobody looks at, furnish as many new facts to an 
enquiring mind, as the rare species which every one loves to 





/. On the so-called Alleghanian Fauna in Gfeneral. The 
terms Canadian and Alleghanian, have been applied by Pro- 



fessors Yerrill* and Agassizf to faunal associations of spe- 
cies of animals, characteristic of Canada and adjacent 
territory, and the Middle and Eastern United States, etc. 
The former author, in the later essay quoted, attempts to 
define these faunee in a more or less precise manner, regard- 
ing the southern boundaiy of the first as *^ coincident with a 
line which shall indicate a mean temperature of 50^ Fahren- 
heit, and the southern boundaiy of the second, to be the 
line of 55°." In accordance with this view the southern 
boundary of the Canadian fauna, commencing at the mouth 
of the Penobscot River in Maine, extends parallel with the 
coast into New Brunswick, and returning through middle 
Alaine passes south of Moosehead Lake and the White 
Mountains, along the eastern base of the Green Mountains 
to the south, and up their western foot to the river St. Law- 
rence. - From near Montreal it turns