Skip to main content

Full text of "American notes and queries"

See other formats






NOVEMBER, 1890 APRIL, 1891, 


619 Walnut Street, * 






Literary Men, General Readers, Etc 


NOVEMBER, 1890 APRIL, 1891 

619 Walnut Street, 



Abora, Mount, 245 

Accident, discoveries by, 59, 204 

Acrophobia, 23 

Adams, 61 

Adobe, 187, 216 

JEsop, Hungarian, 64 

Ainhum, 33 

A lady's sleeve, etc., 78 

Albinism, hereditary, 157 

Alexander the Great, 3 

Alison, 174, 216, 262 

Allison, 109 

Almanacs, 201 

Alroy, 100 

Amadis of Gaul, 1 1 1 

Ambergris, 131 

American romance, first, 309 

Amulree, bard of, 196 

Anagrams in science, 68, 190 

And Helmsley once Proud Buckingham's delight, 

etc., 77 

And when once more my gladdened eyes, etc., 77 
Anniversaries, wedding, 13 
Ant, the honey, 267 
Ant-lion, 101, 152 
Apes in Oregon, 260 
Apostle of unknown tongues, 30, 1 78 
Apple in love, 123, 164 
Apples, swamp, 56, 83, 95, 118, 178 
A purpose, 74 
Arabia Felix, 227 
Arcadia, 37, 238 
Architecture, devil in, 277, 295 
Arthvrr, 62 

Artists, longevity of, 248 
Astor, 75 
Asturias, 106 

A lady's sleeve, etc., 78 

Almighty Dollar, 246, 268, 288 

And Helmsley, etc., 77 

And when once more, etc., 77 

Balder, the White Sun-god, 174 

Bis duo sunt, etc., 246 

Books and Books, 186 

Come, push the bowl about, 75 

Dat Galenus, etc., 140 

Deschecho mi cadaver, etc., 126 

For in the silent grave., etc., 150 

Gottes Briille, 150 


Hell hound, by thee, etc., 29, 39, 57 

I was born an American, etc., 269, 293 

Life is short, etc., 13 

Lose this day loitering, 294 

Me and Jim, 29 

Man of extensive misinformation, 77 

My friend, judge not me, etc., 78 

Pale comes the moonlight, etc., 103 

See where the startled wild fowl, etc., 281 

The grandeur that was Rome, 211, 245, 285 

The mantle that Statius, etc., 91, 256 

'Twas in the Constellation, etc., 78, 102 

Two shall be born, etc., 125 

When Bishop Berkeley, etc., 307 

Azan, he who died at, 29, 45, 69 

Bad Lands, 20 

Bagpipe, 4, 34 

Bald Eagle, 33 

Balder, the White Sun-god, etc., 174 

Baltimore, Lord, 282 

Barber of Agen, 100 

Barber-surgeon, 66, 76 

Bard of Amulree, 196 

Baronets of Nova Scotia, 140, 159 

Bath, soldiers, 64 

Baths, mud, II, 59 

Battle of the ice, 195 

Bayard of American Revolution, 75 

Beads, Aggry, 6, 51 

Beams sing, even his, 175, 200 

Beards, women with, 2 

Bed of justice, 32 

Beeswax, mine of, 20 

Belfry, 292, 311 

Bergamot, 195 

Beron, Pierre, 99 

Bills, Christmas, 126 

Biqgham, no 

Bis duo sunt nomina, etc., 246 

Blackburn, 109 

Elaine, 74 

Blind people, famous, 46, 114 

Blood-rite, 222 

Blount, no 

Blouse, 94 

Boleyn, Anne, 309 

Bonanza, 188 

Bone, Inca's, 13 



Bonny Boots, 274 

Books and Books, 186 

Books and Periodicals, 12, 24, 35, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 

108, 120, 132, 156, 180, 192, 204, 228, 252, 264, 

276, 288, 300, 312 
Book, valuable, wanted, 311 
Bootle, 63, 122 
Botany Bay, 282, 293 
Bottles in drug store windows, 1 86, 208 
Bounds, beating the, 146 
Boycott, 279, 307 
Brazil, 164, 191, 227, 311 
Breckinridge, 88 
Bred in the bone, 73 
Brethren, rather, 118 
Bridge, shaking, 38 
Bridges, Devil's, 277 
natural, 47, 162 

Brigade, the Irish, 211, 222, 249 
Britain, Great, 74 

Little, 73 
Bronco, 199 
Bronze, 162, 174 
Bubb, 27 
Buchanan, 62 

Buddhists in Mexico, 47, 66 
Buffaloes, trained, 203 
Buildings, evergreen on new, 77 
Bulls, 212, 238, 251 
Burgundie, the flower of, 197, 210, 239 
Burials, eccentric, 239 
Burr, Aaron, 88 
Butler, 109 
By and large, 95, 117 
By and by, street called, 211, 235 
Bye-bye, 32 

Cabbage, Heard's Island, 126 

Cacoethes scribendi, 32, 312 

Cacus and Evander, 103 

Caduceus, 223 

Calf, 20, 80 

Calf of Man, 12 

Calhoun, 88 

California, 144 

Calipash, 281 

Calipee, 281 

Calls, animal, 68, 96, 116, 156, 177 

Cama, 27 

Cambuscan, 68 

Cameron, 74 

Camoens, 103 

Camorra, 279 

Campveer, 53, 76 

Canada, 5, 29, 273 

Candleberry, 210 

Candlewood, 71 

Canon, 187, 216 

Cap, wearing a, 21 1, 236, 259 

Caramuru, 146 

Cattle calls, 3, 19, 32, 46, 81, 96, 126, 163 

Cause why, 74 

Cavalry, fleet captured by, 282, 293 
Cave, blowing, 53, 75, 76 
Corycian, 18 
Sibyl's, 113 
Snake, 127, 215 
Cave-in-Rock, 114, 148 
Caverns, Australian, 140 
Caves of classical lands, 224 
Centenarians, 44 
Chalcelet, 66 
Chank, 7 1 

Charles XI, vision of, 259 
Charley-Horse, 77, 196, 216 
Check, largest, 36 
Chestnuts, 195 
Chewing-gum, 82 
China, Solomon of, 64 
Chinook, 78 

Chowder, origin of clam, 52 
Church, pillars of the, 95, 129, 151 

smallest, 200 
Cicero, 33 
Cinq Mars, 173 

Cities, nicknames of, 27, 34, 104 
sunken, 19 

City built by gentlemen, 5 
of Is, 83, 258 
largest, 160, 173 
name wanted for, 9 
Rock, 39, 215 

Cleveland, 62 

Clinton, 88 

Clipper-ship, first, 309 

Clover, four-leaf, 139, 185 

Coccobolo, 148 

Cockney, 103 

Colen, 62 

Coleridge's escapade, 30, 40, 68 

Colfax, 88 

Colleges, 232 

Colonies, Greek, in France and Spain, 168 

Columbus and egg, 151 

Combustion, spontaneous, 12, 140, 188, 299, 310 

Come, push the bowl about, 75 

Commanders, one-eyed, 58 

Condog, 298 

Copper, Bungtown, 53, 76, 103 

Corea, seven wonders of, 153 

Corncob, 16 

Corp, 60 

Corral, 198 

Corrievreckan, 35, 248 

Corrigenda, 35, 216 

Corse family, 307 

Cotnar, 236, 281 

Couvera, 50 

Cowan, 68 

Cozza, 50 

Crane and stone, 6, 104, 143, 215 

Culch, 279 

Cul de sac, 180 

Culprit Fay, 62, 122 


Curan and Argentile, 105 
Curfew, origin of, 160, 209, 259, 312 
Curious punishment, 305 
Customs, curious, 34 

Scandinavian, 182, 267, 279, 292, 305 

Daddy- Long- Legs, 163 

Dago, 68, 80, 280 

Dalburg family, 250, 282 

Dallas, 88, 215 

Dalzel, no 

Danites, 183 

Dare, Jeanne, 100 

Dat Galenus Opes, etc., 140 

Day, dark, 113, 125, 161, 180, 189, 226 

Day-day, 32 

Dead beat, 41 

Death-watch, 150, 173 

Delamater, 74 

Delaware, circular boundary of, 255 

Delia in literature, 294 

Derivations, curious, 35 

Derne, 186, 210 

Desert, painted, 14 

Deschecho mi Cadaver, 126 

Devil in architecture, 277, 295 

literature, 223, 234, 263, 298, 308 

plants, 162 
Devil's strain, 41 
Dialect, Maestri cht, 6 

New Jersey, 10 
Dillon, 74 

Divinity, lay doctors of, 30 
D'O, 173 

Doctor, Indian, 223 
Doctors, scholastic, 1 1 
Dogs, Isle of, 83 

of war, 14, 95, 117 
Dollar, almighty, 246, 268, 288 
Dorimant, 14 
Dosh, 45 

Dreams, captain of my, 33 
Dude, 95 

Duels, Bladensburg, 112 
Dust, 94 

Dwarfs, nations of, 115, 127 
Dwellings, cliff, 172 

Eagle renewing its youth, 140, 185 
Earthquake, continuous, 32, 202 
East, Italian of the, 27 
Edmunds, no 
Eggs, bird's, 1 1 
Egypt, 183, 261, 294 

river of, 195 

Emigrants, Scotch-Irish, 114, 149 
Emodin, 101 
Emperor of Austria, 287 
Ems, punctation of, 40 
Engine, marine compound, 197, 222, 240 
England's rulers, how they died, 302 
Epistle, heroic, 281 

E Pluribus Unum, 140, 160, 211, 226 
Epitaph, Franklin's, 197 
Errors contradicted, 289 
Estotiland, 232, 258 
Etymologies, strange, 107, 144 
Eustis, no 
Evectics, 175 
Everglades, 256 
Ewe, 117 
Eye, evil, 79, 287 
Ireland's, 202 
Eyes of insects, 252 
Exempla, 218 

Fairies, 66 

Fall for autumn, 103 

Fandango, 188 

Farm, brook, 75 

Farquhar, no 

Fashion, vagaries of, 229 

Faun, Marble, 39 

Felix in place names, 26 

Ff as an initial, 19 

Fiefes, 153 

Fillmore, 62 

Fire, Mirimichi, 113, 149 

to eject, 60, 76 

Flag, Mohammed IPs, 27, 102 
Flame-wood, 63 

Fleet captured by cavalry, 282, 293 
Flowers and saints, 193, 225 
Footwear, names of, 30 
For in the silent grave, etc., 150 
For when all heads, etc., 307 
Fosse, war of the, 139, 160 
Four persons sat down, etc., 18 
French language, English words in, 94 
Frenchtown, 6, 76 
Fruits, forgotten wild, 4, 15, 47 

Gall, overflow of the, 236 

Gan, names ending in, 269 

Garfield, 62 

Gascoigne, 94 

Gazebo, 292 

Generation, remarkable, 250, 269, 300 

Geography, 156 

Geographic names, 135 

Geometer, great, 101 

Gerry, 88 

Ginseng, 119 

Glass, 59 

Gleams, dreary, 180 

Glenullin, 21 1 

Goose, the, 9 

Gorman, no, 166 

Gottes Briille, 150 

Grace, shortest, 1 1 

Grant, 62 

Grave by the lake, 186 

Great Scott, 40 

Greek authors, 29, 46, 57 



Grimaces, 207 
Grimes, old, 34 
Ground hog case, 256, 297 
Gum Arabic, 29 
Gun, McSwiney's, 90 
Gunpowder plot, 57 

Hackmatack, 30 

Hair-worm, 25 1 

Halcyon's bill, 124 

Hamlin, 88 

Hampton, no 

Han, names ending in, 269 

Hand of justice, 66, 76, 153 

Hands, shaking, 64 

Happiness, dread of, 47 

Hardy, Albert H., 139 

Harrison, 62 

Hat, carries his office in his, 156 

Hatteras, 150, 190 

Hayes, 62, 82 

Hay is king, 131, 163 

Held, 82 

Hell-hound, by thee, etc., 29, 39, 57 

Helmet of the Percies, 307 

Hen and chickens, 21 

Hep, 77 

Herbert, no 

Herbs, insane, 199, 216, 225 

Herd-grass, 1 6 

Hermit of Lampedusa, 75 

Heron, Bastard, 211, 235 

Hieronymites, 113, 149 

Hild, 82 

Hill, Hipcut, 1 86 

History, making, 77 

Hoax, bottle imp, 189 

Hodge, 3 

Hole, Symmes', 140, 160, 184, 215, 240 

Holl, Woods, 1 60, 244 

Homer of Brabant, 100 

Honey-sweet, 27 

Hook, lucky, 216 

Hotel de Sens, 112 

How England's rulers died, 302 

How names grow, 304 

Hulder, 125, 227, 260 

Humble origin, men of, 34, 70, 141, 164 

Huon, 91, 159 

of Bordeaux, 89 
Hungaria, 5, 14 
Hypnagogic, 160, 173 
Hypnagogue, 200 

Icaria, 75 

Ice, battle of the, 195 
Iceland, snakes in, 14, 33 
Ichaboe, 90 

Hie hie est Raphael, etc., 174, 235, 258, 275 
Illusions of great men, 8 
Imp, bottle, 138, 179, 189, 239 
hoax, 1 88 

Inburning, 246 

Infare, 140, 149, 159, 177 

In God we Trust, 163 

Inviteful, 246 

I shall be satisfied, 8, 23 

Ising Star, 63 

Island, Cat, IO 

of women, 57 
Islands, floating, 48 

sunken, 48, 95 

womanless, 1 08 

Isle, St. Brendan's, 146, 164, 249, 257, 271 
Ivy-bush, 68 
I was born an American, etc., 269, 293 

Jackson, 62 
Jackstones, 246, 275 
Janeway, 94 
Jefferson, 62 
Jersey, east and west, 89 
Jerusalem, king of, 207 
Jiboose, 65, 1 20 
Johnny-cake, 150, 190, 259 
Johnson, President, 8 1, 88 

Jonson, Ben, proverbial phrases from, 85, 97, 133 
Joshua tree, 195 
Judith, Point, 119 
Jumpers, Madawaska, 75 
Juries in U. S. Supreme Court, 100, 131 
Justice, Jedwood, 58 
vicarious, 155 

Kack, 114 
Kerr, no 
Kill, Arthur, 59 
King, 88 

of Jerusalem, 207, 237 

seven days', 63 
King's Cross, 197 

Kinickinick, 83, 130, 153, 188, 225 
Knights of St. John, 66 

Labrador, 19, 185 

Lady-bird, 1 68, 181 

Lady in the case, 72 

Lake of blood, 91, 113 

Lakes drained, 32, 47, 8l, 214, 296 

with two outlets, 29, 57, 83, 117, 310 
Lamb tree, 211, 233, 245, 264 
Lamb, yoked with a, 40 
Lamps, ever-burning, 77, 101, 192, 290 
Langoon, 194 
Laspring, 194 
Latania, 177 
Law, lash of the, 1 86 
Leaving his country, etc., 96, 114, 177 
Lepers, royal, 287, 296 
Life is short, etc., 16, 39, 51, 82 
Liman, 158, 203 
Linaloa, 194 
Lincoln, 62 
Lion, Gulf of the, 162, 176, 203, 205 



Lions, land of, 183 

Liqueurs, 119 

Liriodendron, 127 

Lives for lief, 93 

LI, the initial, 72, 168 

L. L. A., 173 

Llano Estacado, 84, 94, I2O 

Loco, 199 

Lose this day loitering, etc., 294, 307 

Louis XVIII, Memoirs of, 151, 223 

Lucidor, the Unfortunate, 63 

Lycium, 194 

Madison, 62 

Maestricht dialect, 6 

Mafia, 279 

Maguelone, 206, 294, 306 

Mahbe Bosor, 223 

Malafiges, 30 

Malays in Mexico, 30, 116 

Malungeons, 250, 264, 273 

M and Napoleon, 152 

Man of fire, 146 

Man on horseback, 269, 306 

Mars, moons of, 197, 207 

Marshals, Napoleon's, 169 

Marshy tracts, names for, 70 

Maryland in Africa, 307 

Marys, the four, 197, 209 

Matzoon, 6 

McCarthy, 74 

Meadows, high, 180 

Me and Jim, 29, 75 

Medrick, 30 

Melleray, 5, 14, 33 

Melon-shrub, 158, 225 

Memory, feats of, 224 

Mercury, 183 

Metran, 194 

Mianas, 186, 222 

Miaouli, 194 

Mile, two, 74 

Mills, no 

Minorcans, 107, 130 

Mirbane, 30 

Miryachit, 194 

Misinforhiation, man of extensive, 77 

Mission, X. Y. Z., 140, 158 

Mississippi, 228 

Moles as beauty spots, 25 

Money, fish-hook, 53, 120, 162 

spur, 27, 58 
Monroe, 62 
Mooley-cow, 273 
MOonachie, 45 
Morte Darthur, 73 
Morton, 88, 202, 215 
Moss, reindeer, 72 
Mother's son, 73 
Motus est causa caloris, 57 
Mountains, organ, 160, 210 
Moustache, 269, 293 

Move eastward, etc., 197 

M. R., 64 

Muse, The Tenth, 154, 295 

Musha, 103, 138, 163, 202, 215, 227, 299 

My friend, judge not me, etc., 78, 90, 113 

Nabalus, 233 
Naijack, 53, 82, 307 
Names, corruption of, 32 

East Indian place, 253 

geographic, 134 

how they grow, 304 

identified, 117 

Jewish, 239 

origin of, 74, 81, 88, 109, 120, 143, 166, 178 

of Presidents, 61, 88 

singular place, 107, 130, 151, 164, 175, 250 
Name wanted, 223 
Napoleon and M, 152 

marshals of, 169 
Negative, double, 74 

triple, 73 
Nicknames, 297 
Nidaros, 41 

No, pronunciation of, 160 
Norumbega, 175 
Not built that way, 62 
Nutria, i 

Oberman, 158 

Odd numbers, luck in, 32 

Offering, a birthday, 186 

Ogontz, 1 6 

Oils, essential, 16 

Old man Plain, 100 

Old Scandinavian customs, 305 

Orelie I (see Orllie) 

Orllie I, 41, 51, 72 

Owl-shield, 300 

Oyster Bay, 140 

Paddock, no 
Painters, king of, 38 

prince of, 38, 203 

Pale comes the moonlight, etc., 103 
Palladio, English, 100 
Palmerin romances, 123 
Parasites, tiger, 91 
Parnell, 74 
Partridge berry, 312 
Passages, parallel, 238 
Patience, 207 
Patonee, 294 

Patriarchs, 15, 46, 56, 203, 251, 287 
Peace, Charles, 197, 244 
People, Father of the, 100 
Petroleum, 3 
Pattison, 74 

Pets of famous people, 83, 92, 106, 150, 197, 216 
Phonograph anticipated, 72 
Pick-me-up, 71 
Pierce, 62 



Pig, swimming, 305 

Pine figure, 66 

Place names, felix in, 26, 60 

singular, n, 21, 58 
Plain, staked, 66, 84 
Plantation, 264 
Plant, compass, 64, 83, 93 
Plaquemine, 1 8, 45 
Play, longest English, 75 
Plow, anchor and shuttle, 41 
Poet-laureate, Cromwell's, 150, 210, 261 
Poet, woman-hating, 195 
Poets-laureate, Masonic, 236, 256 
Poets, suicidal, 146, 294, 310 

titles of English, 74 

Wupperthal, 66, 113 
Poland, Manchester of, 27 
Polk, 62 

Pomegranate, 140, 159, 190, 214, 263, 265 
Pond, Pomp's, 19 
Pope's neck, break the, 53 
Ports, Greek,- 1 62, 191, 225 
Possum, playing, 68, 94 
Pot-herbs, 220 

Predictions, remarkable, 55, 215, 260, 288, 299 
President who did not vote, 166 
Presidents, origin of their names, 61 
Princess, letters to a German, 89 
Prince Consort's family name, 271 
Prince of Wales, 210, 233, 262, 282, 310 
Prison, subterranean, 5, 21 
Prong, 63, 80 
Prophecy, Montcalm's, 31 
Props, 269 
Protomartyr, 1 06 

Proverbial phrases from Ben Jonson, 85, 97, 133 
Puccoon, 300 
Pullen family, 225 
Punishment, curious, 305 
Puss, 68, 95 
Pygmies, Tennessee, 223, 256 

Quarl, 63 

Queen, six-fingered, 150, 159, 185, 309 

Queer, 103, 139, 155, 175 

Quirt, 103 

Rachel, 233 

Ragman's roll, 10 

Rahel, 233 

Rah, rah, 2 

Raised, 129 

Rajahs, twice-born, 71 

Ranch, 199 

Raphael, Spanish, 101 

Rattled, 199, 216 

Rawrenoke, 257, 269 

Razor-strop man, 113, 125, 150, 161, 176, 200, 238, 


Regio Baccalos, 186, 196 
Remedies, curious, 130 
Remember, boy, etc., 45 

Review, London Quarterly, 83 
Rhetoric, chambers of, 240 
Riddles, some famous, 41 
Riflemen on skates, 71, 82 
Rings, fairy, 150, 184, 204 
Rippowams, 186, 222 
Rise, II 
Rivers flowing inland, 237, 309 

underground, 69 
Robert, 14 
Robes, saffron, 5 
Rock-oil, 3 

Rock, vibrating, 1 68, 192 
Rodeo, 199 
Romance, first published in United States, 236, 256, 

293, 39 

Romans of America, 29 
Rosicrucians, 112, 155, 165, 176 
Rouchi, 77, 102 
Royle, 223, 244, 295 
Ruins, love among the, 180 
Rulers, antonomasias of, 91, 119, 140 

Sahara, flooding the, 159 

Saint Elias, Mount, 9 

Saint Patrick, legend of, 295 

Saints and their flowers, 193, 225 

Salad, Sydney Smith's, 38 

Sambo, 156 

Samuel, 140 

Sancta Simplicitas, 179 

Sand-drift, a notable, 24 

Sands, singing, 202 

Sassasera, 77 

Say nothing and saw wood, 197 

Scandinavian customs, old, 305 

Scholar, breeching, 1 1 

Sculsh, 279 

Sea-cat, 168 

Seal, keeper of the great, 26 

Seals, 243, 285 

See where the startled wild fowl, etc., 281 

Seiches, 191 

Seminets, 144 

September, thirty days hath, 112, 151 

Sermon books, mediaeval, 217 

Serpent as a standard, 70, 82, 95 

Serpent worship, relics of, 9 

Serpents' flesh as food, 30 

Serpents, Isle of, 4, 179 

in mineral spring, 127 
Shamrock, 82 
Sheep, Ancon, 41 

Pontic, 103, 139, 167 
Shelta, 247 
Sherman, no 
Shirt, bloody, 73 
Shoe, casting out the, 167 
Sibyl, 50 

Sierra Leone, 34, 249 
Sind and Sindhia, 142, 167 
Sister-world, silver, 197, 210, 240, 263, 296 



Six -fingered queen, 309 
Skate runners, 10, 23 
Skates, 1 18 
Skunk cabbage, 2.56 
Slang, 189 
Slapper, 129, 179 
Smith, Sydney, 38 
Snake stone, 160, 174 
Snakes, glass, 145 

hissing of, 130, 178, 204 

two-headed, 233, 284 
Sneezing, 53, 81 
Snowdon, 62, 80 
Solomon of China, 64 
Sovereigns, ages of European, 20 
Spectacles, 103, 174 
Speech, Chinese flowers of, 211 
Springs, burning, 120 
Sprog5e, 71 
Squab, 63, 122 
Square man, 63 
Staracle, 45 

Stars in daytime, seeing, 21 1, 233 
Steamship, largest, 280 
Stilton, hero, 196 
Stilt walkers, 151 
Stones, rocking, 168 
Straif, 223, 255 

Streams, underground. 93, 127 
Suicide among the poets, 116, 294, 310 
Sunflowers, Cromwell's, 30 
Sunset on U. S., 10 
Superstitions of actors, 117 

folk-lore, 271, 282 

Siamese, 98, no, 121 
Swamp, 70, 93 
Swimming pig, 305 

Table, head and foot of, 6 

Tacamahack, 30 

Tacoma, 156 

Taking in, 96 

Tammany, Saint, 80 

Tanning plant, 294 

Tantrum bogus, 116 

Tea, Cambric, 174 

Teeth, artificial, 56 

Temples, Brahma's, 186 

Tempora Mutantur, etc., 207, 244 

The grandeur that was Rome, etc., 211, 245, 285 

" The" in place names, 23 

Theocritus, Roman, 64 

The mantle that Statius, etc., 91, 256 

Thimbles, 45, 55 

Thumb, Tom, 223 

Tilman, 74 

Timothy, 16 

Tinker's talk, 247 

Tiny, 243 

Titles of books, curious, 176 

Toads and bloody milk, 1 66 

Tobacco smoking, 307 

To be shut of, 32 

Tokens, communion, 153 

Tonite, 64 

Tonson, Monsieur, 41, 125 

Tote, 129, 156, 177, 190 

Tower, Devil's, 46, 106 

Town, 241 

Towns, abandoned, 118 

rhymes about, 96 
Tractors, metallic, 31 
Tree, Joshua, 195 

Judas, 183, 201 

lamb, 211, 233, 245 

planting, 307 
Trees, men as, 80 

Tripoli, come as high from, 66, 102 
Troqueurs, les, 5 1 
Truxton, Thomas, 78, 102 
Tu quoque argument, 307 
Tube, I love thee, etc., 76 
Tules, 1 88 
Turf and twig, possession by, 77, 90, 101, 129, 166, 


Turnspit dog, 113, 124, 139, 154, 164 
'Twas in the Constellation, etc., 78, 102 
Two shall be born, etc., 125 
Tyler, 62, 178, 203, 299 
Tyrwhit, 77 , 

Umailik, 307 
Under way, 291 
weigh, 291 
Utica, pent-up, 195 

Vacquero, 199 

Valley, Death, 143, 161 

Van Buren, 62 

Vanderbilt, 74 

Van Shaik, no 

Veddahs, 38 

Vespucci, Amerigo, 67 

Visions, 196, 208, 236, 259, 274, 299 

Von Moltke, 301 

Voodoo worship, 278 

Vulgarisms, origin in literature of, 6, 16 

Wales, Prince of, 210, 246 

West, 35 
Walker, 94 

Wanted, a valuable book, 311 
Warriors, antonomasias of, 91, 119, 140 
Washington, 61 
Waterfalls, lofty, 19 
Waters, father of, 57 
Wawa, 119, 144 
We learn so little, etc., 139 
Wells, 207, 246, 275 

magnetic, 30 
Wenona, 211 
What, never ! 1 24 
What the devil, 74 
Wheeler, 88 


Whimple, 63, 123 Wood-tick, 63 

Whirlpool, 35, 96 Words, depravation of, 104 

Whom Biserta sent, etc., 236 Dutch, 190 

Wide-awake fair, 3 notes on, 49, 71 

Wilson, 88 Spanish-American, 186, 198 

Captain, 197 vowel, 267, 288 

Window, bay, 57, 74 Worship, relics of serpent, 9 

Wind howling, 222 Wrens of Donegal, 6, 280 
Witch of the Pyrenees, 140 

Witches of Carnmoney, 1 13 Youl dward 
Witticism, 53 
Women, Isle of, 57 

Wonders of Wales, seven, 236 Zodiacal sign, 38 

Woodruff, 105, 151, 175, 203 Zohrab, 80 




Copyrighted i8qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. V. No. 1. 

SATURDAY, MAY 3, 1890. 

4 fS.OO per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's. Boston ; Damrell &. 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans : 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J, W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES: Announcement Olden-time Amusements, i Super- 
stitions of Shoes, 2 Goody Two-shoes, 3. 

QUERIES : Joint " Caviare to the General "Battle of the 
Herrings Aurora Borealis, 3 Authorship Wanted Jambee 
Adverb and Adjective Only English Pope Depth of the 
Ocean, 4 Oysters and R Coela, etc. Baedeker, 5. 

REPLIES : Rattle Rand of Beef Man of the World 
Holtselster, 5 Black Box New Word Wanted, 6. 

ship Wanted Goose-bone Slang Blue-Nosed Covering 
Locking-Glasses Nectar and Ambrosia, 6. 

COMMUNICATIONS :-Local Words , 6-Osgpd Clapa The 
Hare and Easter Blue Sea-cat Juffer Liriodendron, 7 
Heathen Hymn in Christian Churches Hum The White 
Lady Alliterative Poems Gentoo Amongst for All, 8 
Ignis Fatuus Pinder Damnable To Fire, To Eject Lot, 9 
Egg Superstitions, 10 Brygge-a-Bragge The Number 
Seven in the Bible Latania, n Dornick The Humming- 
birdShortest Sentence Containing Alphabet Little Britain 
Tree Lists, 12. 




With the beginning of Vol. v, we regret 
to announce the resignation from the edi- 
torial management of. AMERICAN NOTES AND 
QUERIES of Mr. W. H. Garrison, who has 
contributed in no small degree to the suc- 
cess of the periodical. In the future this de- 
partment will be in charge of Mr. Samuel 
R. Harris. 


In the early days of the Anglo-Saxons, 
the domestic games were a necessity, as but 
few people could read or write. They were 
exceedingly fond of games of chance. " At 
dice they play," says Dr. Henry in his " His- 
toryof England," " with wonderful skill, and 
in perfect coolness after they have lost all 
their money and goods, they venture their 


[May 3, 1890. 

very persons and liberties on one desperate 
throw. He who loseth tamely submits to 
servitude, and thpugh both younger and 
stronger than his antagonist patiently per- 
mits himself to be bound and sold in the 
market. This madness they dignified with 
the name of honor." 

Although the church discouraged games 
of chance, and the clergy were prohibited, 
the restriction was not observed. On one 
occasion, the Bishop of yEtheric had occa- 
sion on pressing business to see Canute the 
Great, at midnight, and upon being ad- 
mitted to the presence of the king found 
him and his nobles playing dice and chess. 
Backgammon (Vol. ii, p. 6i)was a favorite 
Welsh game and is said to have derived its 
name from two Welsh words, "bach" 
(little) and " cammon " (battle). 

It was incumbent upon the Anglo-Normans 
to have a knowledge of the several games of 
dice and chess, especially if he aspired to 
knighthood, and it consequently became a 
part of his education. Peter of Blois, in a 
letter to a friend, who had a wild young 
man under his care, says: "I ascribe the 1 
profligacy of the youth to the education he 
had received from his father, who, being a 
great gamester, had taught his son to play 
at dice. I do not wonder that he is a 
vicious young man, as dice is the mother of 
perjury, theft and sacrilege." A writer of 
the twefth century, John of Salisbury, says : 
" In our times expertness in the art of 
hunting, dexterity in the damnable art of 
dice playing, a mincing effeminate way of 
speaking, and great skill in dancing and 
music, are the most admired accomplish- 
ments of our nobility." The Abbot 
Brompton,in his "Chronocon," gives the law 
which was promulgated by Richard I of 
England, and Philip of France, -in 1190, 
when on the crusade. " Besides none in the 
array shall play at any kind of game for 
money except knights and clerks ; who 
shall not lose above twenty shillings in one 
day and one night, but if any knight or 
clerk shall lose more than twenty shillings 
in one day he shall pay one hundred 
shillings, for every such offense, into the 
haids of commissioners appointed to hold 
in custody that money. But the two kings 
shall be under no restrictions, but may play 

for as much money as they please. The 
servants who attend upon the two kings at 
their headquarters may play to the extent 
of twenty shillings. But if any other sol- 
diers, servants or sailors shall be found play- 
ing for money among themselves they shall 
be punished in the following manner, unless 
they can purchase a pardon from the com- 
missioners, by paying what they shall think 
proper to demand : ' Soldiers and servants 
shall be stripped naked, and whipt through 
the army three days ; sailors shall be as 
often plunged from their ships into the sea, 
according to the custom of mariners.' ' 

Cards, so report says, were introduced into 
England at the end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury by one Jacquamin Gringonneau, a 
painter from Paris, though it was not until 
the middle of the next century that they 
were played to any extent. The cards were 
very expensive and were handsomely em- 
bellished in gilt, and cost from eighteen to 
fifty shillings. In 1463 an application was 
made to Parliament by the London card 
makers to prohibit the importation of cards. 

In the time of Henry VIII, the domestic 
amusements are thus given in Dr. Henry's 
history, who quotes from Thomas Rymer's 
" Fcedera:" "The ordinary recreation which 
we have in winter are cards, tables and 
dice, shovel board, chesse-play, the philo- 
sopher's game, small trunkes, billiards, 
musicks, maskes, singying, dancing, ule- 
games, catches, purposes, questions, merry 
tales of errant knights, kings, queens, 
lovers, lords, ladies, giants, dwarfs, thieves, 
fayries, goblens, friars and witches." 

Many of these games are still familiar to 
our readers of the present day, while others 
are entirely obsolete. 



It is said that if old shoes are burned, 
snakes will squirm away from the place, 
while to keep old shoes, that are past wear- 
ing, about the place will surely bring good 
luck. Among negroes in the South, the 
"old aunties" say that burned shoe soles and 
feathers are good to cure a cold in the head, 

May .3, 1890.] 


and parched shoes and hog hoofs is a good 
mixture for coughs. 

It is said that old maids believe that 
when their shoes come untied, and keep 
coming untied, it is true their sweethearts 
are talking and thinking about them. The 
sweetheart, when on the way to see his lady 
love, should he stub his right toe, he will 
surely be welcome, but if he stubs his left, he 
may know that he is not wanted. 

When a pair of new shoes are brought 
home, never place them on a shelf higher 
than your head if you would have good luck 
while wearing them, and never blacken 
them before you have had both shoes on else 
you may meet with an accident and perhaps 
sudden death. So say the old Irish women 
who have made a study of these matters. 
The Scotch lassie believes that should she 
by accident drop her new shoes before they 
have been worn, they will surely lead her 
into trouble. The German mother says 
that should she lose the heel of her shoe, one 
of her children will die defore the year is 
out ; while should a French lady meet with 
such an accident to her high-heeled slippers, 
disappointment in love is sure to follow. 

Taste in the selection of foot gear is said 
to indicate the character. Should a young 
man be careless of his shoe laces, 'tis said 
that he will be as neglectful of his wife, but 
in case he laces his shoes very tight he will 
be attentive but very stingy toward her. 
Many sayings about shoes have been put 
into rhyme, as 


Worn on the heel, 
Thinks a good deal. 

Worn on the ball, 
He'll spend it all. 

It is said of the unfortunate who has his 

Worn on the vamp, 
Look out ! he's a scamp. 

Should you meet a person whose shoes are 
" worn on the toes " you may put it down 
as a certainty that he " spends as he goes," 
and on the same authority it is said that the 
girl that has her shoes " worn on the side " 
is surely fated to be a " rich man's bride." 



The little story of Goody Two-shoes is 
often ascribed to Goldsmith. But in Cot- 
ton's burlesque, "Voyageto Ireland" (1670), 
when the poet was dining with the mayor of 
Chester : 

" Mistress mayoress complained that the pottage was 

cold ; 

'And all 'long of your fiddle-faddle,' quoth she. 
' Why, then, Goody Two-shoes, what if it be? 
Hold you, if you can, your tittle-tattle,' " quoth he. 

Here "Goody Two-shoes" is a nick- 
name, and apparently one of contempt, be- 
stowed by the husband upon his wife. The 
quotation shows, at least, that Goldsmith 
did not invent the name or title of the little 
story. IPSICO. 

U B 

B S. 

Joint. What is the origin of this term, as 
used in the expression " opium-joint?" 

E. N. B. . 

It seems to be the Portuguese junta, an 
assembly; hence, a place of low resort. 
The Portuguese establishment at Macao ap- 
pears to have had a very considerable in- 
fluence upon the Pigeon- English vocabulary. 

"Caviare to the General." What is the 
origin and meaning of this expression ? 

B. M. C. 


ii, p. 199. 

Battle of the Herrings. What was the 
Battle of the Herrings ? 

A. L. N. 


This was a naval engagement which took 
place between England and France, Febru- 
ary 12, 1429. It was so called because the 
convoy was bringing herrings to the English 

Aurora Borealis. I see in the April issueof 
Queries Magazine the following questions .: 

62. " What are the Aurora Borealis 
called in the Shetland Isles ? 


[May 3, 1896. 

63. " Who gave the Aurora Borealis 
their name ? ' 

Is then Aurora Botealis plural ? 



No ; Aurora Borealis is singular. The 
plural form would be Aurora Boreales. 

Authorship Wanted. Please inform me 
who is the author of the following lines: 

" The strongest weapon one can see 
In mortal hands is constancy." 

I know that they are quoted by " Noorna " 
in the " Shaving of Shagpat," by George 
Meredith, but I should like to know the 
author. C. C. E. 


The couplet is evidently by the author of 
the book, Meredith, who has written a 
volume of poetry and who, in the use of 
these and similar verses throughout " The 
Shaving of Shagpat," seeks to heighten the 
resemblance of the tales to those of the 
"Arabian Nights' Entertainments," after 
which "Shagpat" is modeled. It is pos- 
sible, of course, that these and other poetical 
sentiments in "Shagpat" maybe transla- 
tions from some Persian or Arabian poet, 
but it is much more probable that they, like 
the stories themselves of which they are a 
part, are original with the author. 



Jambee. What is the origin of this word ? 
It means some kind of a walking-cane {Tat- 
tler, No. 142). According to Dobson's 
notes it is a pale brown and knotty bamboo 
(see "Cent. Diet."). But it seems like 
jambu, a well-known East Indian tree of a 
genus {Eugenia} which furnishes many walk- 
ing-sticks to commerce. E. R. G. 


Jambee is unquestionably derived from 
Jambi, in Sumatra, which has long been 
noted for its trade in bamboos. But the 
dictionaries accent the last syllable in 
jambee ; the town, country and river Jambi 
take the accent or stress on the penult. 
Mr. Dobson's definition is correct. 

Adverb and Adjective. When is it ab- 
solutely correct to add ly to an adverb? 
When shall I say, " He feels badly," and 
when " He feels bad ?" Please answer, giv- 
ing the best authority, and oblige, 


The fullest discussion of this question is 
probably that in Goold-Brown's " Grammar 
of Grammars." "He feels bad" is good 
idiomatic English. But bad is here not ex- 
actly an adverb. It is a predicate adjective, 
the verb feels replacing or standing in the 
place of the copula. You might say, " He 
feels badly shaken by the accident." Here 
shaken stands for the predicate adjective. 
You would not use an adverb after seems 
" She seems pleasant," not pleasantly. In 
every case where a verb stands in the copula- 
tive relation, use a predicate adjective, and 
not the adverb in -ly. 

Only English Pope. Can you tell me if 
there ever was an Englishman chosen as 
Pope? J. R. M. 


Only one, Nicholas Breakspeare ; he took 
the title of Adrian IV. His death was 
rather a curious one; it was caused by being 
choked by a fly. 

Depth of the Ocean. What is the great- 
est known depth of the ocean ? 


The greatest known depth of the ocean is 
midway between the Island of Tristan d' 
Acunha and the mouth of the Rio de la 
Plata. The bottom was there reached at a 
depth of 40,236 feet, or eight and three- 
fourth miles, exceeding by more than 17,000 
feet the height of Mount Everest, the loftiest 
mountain in the world. In North Atlantic 
ocean, south of Newfoundland, soundings 
have been made to a depth of 4580 fathoms, 
or 27,480 feet, while depths equaling 34,000 
feet, or six and one-half miles, are reported 
south of the Bermuda islands. The average 
depth of the Pacific ocean between Japan 
and California is a little over 2000 fathoms ; 
between Chili and the Sandwich islands 

May 3, 1890.] 


2500 fathoms and Chili and New Zealand 
1500 fathoms. The average depth of all the 
oceans is from 2000 to 2500 fathoms. 

Oysters and R. Whence originated the 
belief that oysters were only wholesome dur- 
ing the months whose names contain the 
letter R ? J. S. H. 


" It is unseasonable and unwholesome in 
all months that have not an R in their name 
to eat an oyster" (Butler's " Dyet's Dry 
Dinner," 1599). 

Coela, etc. Can you give the location of 
Coela, Mount Hymettus, Araxes and the 
Cory dan Cave ? R. C. C. 


Coela was an ancient town of Thrace on 
the Hellespont. Mount Hymettus was seven 
miles south-east of Athens in Attica. Araxes, 
a river of ancient Persia, flowing near the 
Persepolis into the Meduse, which empties 
into the Persian Gulf. The Corycian Gate 
was situated near Coryce, a city of ancient 
Asia Minor. 

Baedeker. Who was the originator of 
the Baedeker guide books? When and 
where did he live ? 



Charles Baedeker, a German writer, born 
in Essen, Prussia, in 1801, and died in 
Coblentz, in 1859. The following are his 
earliest works: "The Rhine, from Bale 
to Dusseldorf," "Belgium and Holland," 
"The Traveler's Practical Guide," "Eas- 
tern Italy," " Paris and Vicinity," " Lon- 
don and Vicinity." 

It E P L I E S . 


Ratt/e Rand of Beef (Vol. iv, p. 293). 
Beaumont and Fletcher used the word rand, 
meaning a long, fleshy piece, as of beef cut 
from the flank or leg, a sort of steak. 


Man of the World (Vol. iii, p. 7). 
Horace Binney Wallace is the author of a 
book entitled " Stanley; or, The Recollec- 
tions of a Man of the World." 



Ho/tse/ster (Vol. iv, pp. 269, 293). Re- 
mond would find in modern Dutch not a 
little evidence in support of his derivation 
of Holtselster ; the word itself is not to be 
found (a forester is now a houtvester, hence 
houtvesterij, the Forest Board), but if it does 
not exist, the correspondents of its three 
component parts abound. 

1. If out, the modern form of holt,* has 
derivatives by the score. 

2. Sel is a common affix signifying either 
the means of doing what is represented by 
the noun-root, or the result of the action of 
the verb-root. Thus mengen,\ aaumengen 
=. to mix ; mengsel, aanmengsel= a mixture ; 
gietew\ =. to melt, gietsel, a cast ; brandtn, 
aanbranden, aanzetten = to burn ; brandsel, 
aanbrandsel, aanzetsel= something burnt, a 
crust, etc. ; while binden ,| aanbinden = to 
bind, and bindsel, aanbindsel = a band; 
vu/Jen = to fill, and v ulsel = stuffing ; 
schutten = to enclose, and schutsel^ a fence. 

3. Ster is the well-known old suffix of the 
personal agent, still surviving with us in 
gamester, punster, etc., and in Dutch (to 
name but a few from among the above) in 
gietster, mengster, bindster, etc. 

Assuming that, like the German Holz, 
holt meant timber, rather a forest, holtsel 
might seem to point to what goes to the mak- 
ing of timber ; on the other hand, the Dutch 
proverb, Alle hout is geen timmerhout (all 
wood is not timber wood), may lead some to 
construe holtselster into some such would-be 
German compound as Einforstungstcr, the 
afforesting man. 

Either hypothesis would equally support 
the suggested meaning. 



* Compare Eng. hold,, gold, cold, with Dutch houden, 
go.ud, koud. 

f Compare German mengen and Meng$tl, giesstn and 
Giessel, binden and Bindsel. 


[May 3, 1890! 

Black Box (Vol. iv, p. 222). If your cor- 
respondent will examine the index to the 
first volume of Macaulay's " History of 
England " (I cannot refer to the page, the 
editions are so various), he will find an ac- 
count of the Black Box fable. When 
Charles II was king, and the Duke of York 
was heir presumptive, a large party of the 
common people desired to have the Duke of 
Monmouth, the king's putative son, recog- 
nized as heir to the crown. The story was 
long current that there existed somewhere a 
black box containing a written marriage 
contract between the king and Monmouth's 
mother, the " bold, brown and beautiful, 
but insipid " Lucy Waters. 


Hew Word Wanted (Vol. iv, p. 293). 
Of course the already existing derivatives of 
akq, aA/iy and di-pupis, with the sense of 
salty incrustation, are known to your cor- 

Should these not suit his purpose, what 
would he think of compounding the former 
of these with the adverb, after the pat- 
tern of (, ^ t ).o}> (our old 
familiar chamomile), etc. 

Chamosalm would express the idea of 
salt deposit on the ground, and, if needed and 
not too long, chamosalmose (indirectly 
through dlfjtdto), the depositing of the salt. 



Lowey. What does this word mean? 
It occurs in the " Encyc. Britannica," 
article " Kent," in which reference is made 
to the lowey of Tunbridge. I desire to find 
out the meaning and the origin of this word ; 
it is not in the " Century Dictionary." 

F. A. M. LEVY. 


Authorship Wanted. Who wrote 
the poem " Not Answered Yet," and 
where can it be found ? 



Goose-bone. What is the story or 
superstition of the "goose-bone?" 


Slang. I remember in the Adirondacks, 
a boatable channel or stream connecting a 
small lake with the Raquette river. Our 
boatman called it "the Slang." He could 
not tell me whether slang was a proper 
name, or a common noun. Can any of 
your correspondents explain the origin and 
meaning of the word ? 



Blue Nosed. Can you tell me why 
Presbyterians are sometimes called "blue 
nosed?" MRS. J. C. R. 


Covering Looking-glasses. The 

Germans here have a custom like this 5 
When a death occurs they cover the faces 
of the looking-glasses in the house of the 
deceased. Why is this, and what is the 
origin? ED. GLIFF. 


Nectar and Ambrosia. What was 
the composition of the mythological nectar 
and ambrosia? According to "Webster's 
Dictionary," ambrosia was the food of the 
gods, but according to Sappho and one or 
two other Greek writers it certainly was a 


Local Words. I heard a man in New 
Jersey speak of his grandfolks, meaning 

In Eastern Kentucky plum means very ; 
plum quire means very queer. In the same 
region to mount a horse is to bounce a nag. 

Chetlins (that is, chitterlings) are a favor- 
ite article of food in that district of the 

In some of the South-western States a 
young man's sweetheart is his jimpsecute. 
The above are words of my own gathering. 


May 3, 1890.] 


. Osgod Clapa (Vol. iv, p. 248). From 
the important positions filled by Osgod 
Clapa under the kings of the Danish 
dynasty, his close personal relations with 
Harthacnut (or Hardicanute), and his sub- 
sequent fate, I should conclude that he was 
a Dane, or at least of Danish descent. It is 
conjectured by some antiquarians that the 
old English Hoke-tide festivities commemo- 
rated the death of Harthacnut, which oc- 
curred at the marriage of Osgod Clapa's 

Reference may be had to the " Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle," A. 1046-47-50-54; 
Lappenberg's "Anglo-Saxon Kings," Part 
iv, Chap, xv, and Prof. Church's " Story of 
Early Britain," p. 319. 

E. G. KEEN. 


The Hare and Easter (Vol. iii, p. 
64). Katharine Hillard in the Atlantic 
Monthly says : 

"The Egyptian word un not only meant 
hare and open, but also period, and for this 
reason (as well as for -the one already given 
as to its time of gestation) the hare became 
the type of periodicity,- both human and 
lunar, and in its character of ' opener ' 
was associated with the opening of the new 
year at Easter, as well as with the beginning 
of a new life in the youth and maiden. 
Hence the hare became connected in the 
popular mind with the paschal eggs, broken 
to signify the opening of the year. So close 
has this association become with some peo- 
ples, that in Swabia, for instance, the little 
children are sent out to look for hares' eggs 
at Easter. In Saxony, they say that the 
Easter hare brings the Easter egg, and even 
in America we may see in the confectioners' 
windows the hare wheeling his barrowful of 
eggs, or drawing one large one as a sort of 
triumphal chariot. In some parts of 
Europe, the Easter eggs are made up into 
cakes in the shape of hares, and the little 
children are told that babies are found in 
the hare's "form." The moon, in her 
character of the goddess Lucina, presided 
over child-birth, and the hare is constantly 
identified with her in this connection in the 
folk-lore of many peoples, both ancient and 
modern. Pausanias describes .the moon- 

goddess as instructing the exiles who would 
found a new nation to build their city in 
that myrtle-grove wherein they should see a 
hare take refuge. In Russia, if a hare meet 
the bridal car (as an omen thus opposing it), 
it bodes evil to the wedding, and to the 
bride and groom. If the hare be run over 
by the car, it is a bad presage, not only for 
the bridal couple, but for all mankind; 
being held as equivalent to an eclipse, al- 
ways a sinister omen in popular supersti- 
tion. In Swabia, the children are forbidden 
to indulge in the favorite childish amuse- 
ment of making shadow-pictures of rabbits 
on the wall, because it is considered a sin 
against the moon. 

" Among English popular customs cele- 
brating Easter, the only trace of the hare 
seems to be found in Warwickshire, where 
at Coleshill, if the young men of the parish 
can catch a hare and bring it to the parson 
before ten o'clock in the morning of Easter 
Monday (the moon-day}, he is bound to give 
them a calf's head, one hundred eggs, and a 
groat ; the calf's head being probably a sur- 
vival of the worship of Baal, or the sun, as 
the golden calf." 

Blue Sea-cat (Vol. iv, p. 1 66). The 
Sanskrit name markata, for monkey, still 
exists in India. At least, Dr. Hunter, in-his 
" Bengal Gazetteer," Vol. vii, p. 198, speaks 
of a short-tailed monkey called markut as 
being found in the woods of the Rangpur 
district. E. OTIS. 


Juffer. This old carpenter's name for a 
block or square stick of timber has no ety- 
mology in the " Century Diet." It seems 
identical with the Dutch juffer, "a 
damsel," also a ship's block, a spar, a piece 
of timber. * * * 


Liriodendron. The "Century Dic- 
tionary " tells us that this genus of trees has 
only one living species. Several years 
since the discovery of a second species in 
China was announced. I think the an- 
nouncement was made in the Garden and 
Forest. ... PANAX. 



[May 3, 1890. 

Heathen Hymn in Christian 
Churches (Vol. iii, pp. 141, 165, 190, 211, 
283). Pope's "Vital Spark of Heavenly 
Flame," though containing suggestions 
both of Hadrian's "Animula" and of 
Sappho's ode to Lesbia, is still more closely 
based upon the little sextette " Dying," 
written by Thomas Flatman (1635-1688). 


Hum. This is an old name for a kind of 
drink. The " Century Diet." tells us that 
it is not known what its composition was, 
whether it was ale, or ale and spirits. But 
in Cotton's " Voyage to Ireland " (1670) 
the poet asks a taverner for some ale ; the 
taverner inquires whether he will have it 
pure or "purled;" the poet prefers 
"plain" ale; whereupon there is handed 
to him a bottle of " the best Cheshire hum 
he e'er drank in his life." This seems to 
make it evident that in Cotton's time hum 
was plain ale, for nobody knew more about 
the meaning of such words than the jolly old 
dun-hating toss-pot, Charles Cotton. 



The White Lady (Vol. i, pp. 61, 120). 
In T. Adolphus Trollope's " What I Re- 
member," I find the following allusion 
to The White Lady : 

" But I confess to have been more inter- 
ested in a portrait of the celebrated White 
Lady who, as is well known, haunts the 
families of Brunswick and Hohenzollern, 
and whose appearance, as usual, portends 
the near-at-hand death of one of the family. 
The picture represents a lady of some forty 
years old, with a bad face of "Some beauty 
and very bright black eyes. She is dressed 
in white silk, with a long mantle hanging 
down her back. * * * She was the mis- 
tress of a Duke of Brunswick who had 
promised to mary her, but told her that 
four eyes stood in the way of his keeping his 
promise. She understood this to mean that 
her two children contributed the impedi- 
ment ; so she strangled them, was pronounced 
mad, and made abbess of a convent !" 



Alliterative Poems (Vol. iv, pp. 276, 
286). I herewith send a poem, which I 
think is worthy of notice : 


Americans arrayed and armed attend ; 

Beside battalions bold, bright beauties blend. 

Chiefs, clergy, citizens conglomerate 

Detesting despots daring deeds debate ; 

Each eye emblazoned ensigns entertain 

Flourishing from far fan freedom's flame. 

Guards greeting guards grown gray guest greeting 


High-minded heroes, hither homeward haste. 
Ingenuous juniors join in jubilee, 
Kith kenning kin kind knowing kindred key. 
L6, lengthened lines lend Liberty liege love, 
Mixed masses, marshaled, monumentward move. 
Note noble navies near no novel notion 
Oft our oppressors overawed old ocean ; 
Presumptuous princes, pristine patriots paled, 
Queens' quarrel questing quotas, quondam quailed. 
Rebellion roused, revolting ramparts rose. 
Stout spirits, smiting servile soldiers, strove. 
These thrilling themes, to thousands truly told, 
Usurper's unjust usages unfold. 
Victorious vassals, vauntings vainly veiled. 
Where, while since, Webster, war-like Warren wailed. 
'Xcuse, 'Xpletives 'Xtra-queer 'Xpressed, 
Yielding Yankee yeomen zest. 



Gentoo. -The "Century Dictionary" 
gives this word as equivalent to Hindoo. 
Quite as often as otherwise, however, the 
term is (or was, for it is now archaic, if not 
obsolete) exactly identical in meaning with 
Telugu or Kling. "This language" [the 
Telugu] " was sometimes called by Euro- 
peans of the last generation the Gentoo, 
from the Portuguese " (gentio) " for heathens 
or ' gentiles,' a term which was used at 
first to denote all Hindus or natives, but 
which came in time to mean the Telugus 
alone." (Bp. Caldwell's " Comparative 
Dravidian Grammar," Introduction, p. 29, 
second edition). GEROULD. 


Amongst for All. I am told that in 
some parts of Maryland amongst is used for 
all, as in this example : " Amongst you 
going to town ?" meaning, " Are all of you 
going to town ?" Can this be a survival of 
an obsolete use? Among originally meant a 
mingling, a crowd. 


May 3, 1890.] 


Ignis Fatuus (Vol. iv, pp. 147, 200). 
A few years ago it was a common belief, and 
the notion is now by no means rare among 
mining people, that deposits of iron ore are 
often indicated by flickering lights on the 
surface of the ground over them. There is 
a tradition, which is probably a century old, 
that one of the largest bodies of iron ore in 
this section was discovered in this way. 
The story goes that a man was riding at 
night past the place where the mines were 
afterwards opened and observed these danc- 
ing lights; being familiar with the current 
belief, he dismounted and marked the spot. 

Soon after, operations were begun which 
resulted in bringing to the surface thousands 
of tons of good ore, and these mines are 
still worked. I cannot, of course, vouch 
for the truth of this story, but I have it from 
eye-witnesses that, forty or fifty years ago, 
similar lights were seen in the vicinity, and 
since then deposits o'f ore have been found 
under where they were seen. These appear- 
ances cannot be ascribed to fire-damp, 
which is unknown in this mine ; nor from 
the nature of the ground to the ordinary 
causes which produce the ignis fatuus. The 
ignis fatuus caused by the exhalations rising 
from low-lying, marshy ground, is of very 
frequent occurrence in this section. 

E. G. KEEN. 

Finder (Vol. iii, pp. 94, 129). The 
Benguella name mpindi (not inpindi} seems 
to become mpandi in the Unyoro country 
(see Emin Pasha's " Letters," p. 80, of Mrs. 
Felkin's translation) ; but the name is there 
given to the Voandzeia subterranea, a ground- 
nut not at all unlike the common ground- 
nut or pea-nut, and sharing with it the 
names gooba and gobbe. 


Damnable. One of the most remark- 
able instances I know of where this word is 
used is in the older editions of the " Pil- 
grim's Progress" of Bunyan. Christian 
and Hopeful, on their way out of Doubting 
Castle, find it "damnable hard" to unlock 
the gate. P. S. B. 


To Fire, To Eject (Vol. iv, p. 287). 
A week after I sent my reference to Shake- 
speare's 1 44th sonnet, Prof. Quackenbos of 
Columbia College, in a lecture, said defin- 
itely that our slang phrase "to fire" came 
from that sonnet. Now " B," from New 
Brunswick, sends the enclosed to the New 
York Sun, demolishing Mr. Quackenbos, 
and incidentally answering my query. 



"Sir: In your Sunday issue for March 16, Prof. 
Quackenbos quotes as containing an example of modern 
slang the last two lines of Shakespeare's 144111 sonnet: 

" ' Yet this shall I ne'er know but live in doubt, 
Till my bad a.nge\fire my good one out.' 

" Perhaps in citing this passage the professor was in a 
jocose vein. Shakespeare's ' firing out ' was certainly 
not the same as the ' firing out ' of the present dayi 
A person nowadays is said to be fired out of any place 
when he is hurled therefrom with a force and speed re- 
sembling those of a bullet fired from a gun. 
Shakespeare used the phrase in an entirely different 
sense, as can be plainly seen by this passage from 
' King Lear,' v, 3, 33 : 

" ' He that parts us shall bring a brand from heaven. 
And fire us hence like foxes.' 

Compare, too, the phrase ' fire drives out fire,' in ' Cori- 
olanus,' iv, 7, 54, and ' Julius Caesar,' iii, i, 171." 

Whether " B " has any claim to con- 
sideration beyond being anonymous, I do 
not know. R. G. B. 


Lot (Vol. iv, pp. 164, 187, 275). I do 
not remember to have seen any mention of 
the remarkable parallelism between the 
American colloquial use of the word lot 
(meaning a crowd, a large number, or large 
quantity), and the archaic English use of 
the word sort in the same sense. Of course, 
the lot that is cast and sort (Latin sors, 
sortis} have the same meaning. But Spen- 
ser speaks of a sort of grooms, a sort of 
steers, meaning a group or company. Mas- 
singer tells of a sort of rogues ; and Chapman 
uses the word in the same sense. It occurs 
at least three times in Waller's poems ; once 
in Etherege's "Sir Fopling Flutter," and 
once in the English Prayer Book, Ps. Ixii, 3: 
" Ye shall be slain, all the sort of you." 




[May 3, 1890. 

Egg Superstitions. " To hang an 
egg laid on Ascension day in the roof of 
a house," says Reginald Scot, in 1584, 
" preserveth the same from all hurts." Prob- 
ably this was written with an eye to the 
"hurts" arising from witchcraft, in con- 
nection with which eggs were supposed to 
possess certain mysterious powers. In North 
Germany, if you have a desire to see the 
ladies of the broomstick on May day, their 
festival, you must take an egg laid on 
Maundy-Thursday and stand where four 
roads meet ; or else you must go into church 
on Good Friday, but come out before the 
blessing. It was formerly quite an article 
of domestic belief that the shells must be 
broken after eating eggs, lest the witches 
should sail out to sea in them ; or, as Sir 
Thomas Browne declared, lest they "should 
draw or prick their names therein, and 
venificiously mischief" the person who had 
partaken of the egg. North Germans, 
ignoring this side of the question, say, 
" Break the shells or you will get the ague," 
and Netherlanders advise you to secure 
yourself against the attacks of this disagree- 
able visitor by eating on Easter day a couple 
of eggs which were laid on Good Friday. 

Scotch fishers, who may be reckoned 
among the most superstitious of folks, be- 
lieve that contrary winds and much vexation 
of spirit will result of having eggs on board 
with them, while in the west of England it 
is considered very unlucky to bring birds' 
eggs into the house, although they may be 
hung up with impunity outside. Mr. 
Gregor, in his " Folk-lore of the Northeast 
of Scotland," gives us some curious parti- 
culars concerning chickens and the best 
methods of securing a satisfactory brood. 
The hen, it seems, should be set on an odd 
number of eggs, or the chances are that 
most, if not all, will be addled a mournful 
prospect for the hen wife ; also, they must 
be placed under the mother bird after sun- 
set, or the chickens will be blind. If the 
woman who performs this office carries the 
eggs wrapped up in her chemise, the result 
will be hen birds ; if she wears a man's hat, 
cocks. Furthermore, it is as well for her to 
repeat a sort of charm, " A' in thegeethir. 
A' oot thegeethir." 

There are many farmers' wives, even in the 

present day, who would never dream of al- 
lowing eggs to be brought into the house or 
taken out after dark, this being deemed ex- 
tremely unlucky. Cuthbert Bede mentions 
the case of a farmer's wife in Rutland who 
received a setting of ducks' eggs from a 
neighbor at 9 o'clock at night. " I cannot 
imagine how she could have been so fool- 
ish," said the good woman, much distressed ; 
and her visitor upon inquiry was told that 
ducks' eggs brought into a house after sun- 
set would never be hatched. A Lincoln- 
shire superstition declares that if eggs are 
carried over running water they will be use- 
less for setting purposes ; while in Aberdeen 
there is an idea prevalent among the coun- 
try folks that should it thunder a short time 
before chickens are hatched they will die in 
the shell. The same wiseacres may be 
credited with the notion that the year the 
farmer's gudewife presents him with an ad- 
dition to his family is'a bad season for the 
poultry yard. " Bairns and chuckens," 
say they, " dinna thrive in ae year." The 
probable explanation being that the gude- 
wife, taken up with the care of her bairn, 
has less time to attend to the rearing of the 
" chuckens." 

Beside the divination practiced with the 
white of an egg, which certainly appears of 
a vague and unsatisfactory character, another 
species of fortune telling with eggs is in 
vogue in Northumberland on the eve of St. 
Agnes. A maiden desirous of knowing 
what her future lord is like is enjoined to 
boil an egg, after having spent the whole 
day fasting and in silence ; then to extract 
the yolk, fill the cavity with salt, and eat 
the whole, including the shell. This highly 
unpalatable supper finished, the heroic maid 
must walk backward, uttering this invocation 
to the saint : 

Sweet St. Agnes, work thy fast, 
If ever I be to marry man, 
Or man to marry me, 
I hope him this night to see. 

If all necessary rites and ceremonies have 
been duly performed, the girl may confi- 
dently count upon seeing her future hus- 
band in her dreams dreams which, we 
should presume, as our Yankee friends say, 
would bear a strong resemblance to night- 

May 3, 1890.] 


Brygge-a-Bragge (Vol. iv, p. 283). 
According to Dr. Murray, this phrase can 
have no connection whatever with " bric-a- 
brac," as he accepts Littre's derivation of 
the latter phrase from "debric et debroc" 
" by hook and by crook." Dr. Murray also 
shows that the words composing the phrase 
in question were not derived from the 
French,\x& more likely from the old Norse 
tongues, in spite of the fact that Hawes' 
poetic diction evidences much intimacy 
with the former language. The Percy 
Society prints the opening stanza of the 2Qth 
chapter of Hawes' ' Pastime of Pleasure " as 
follows, \^ phrase being without hyphens : 

" And so forth we rode, tyll we sawe aferre 

To us come rydyng on a lytell nagge 
A folysshe dwarfe, nothynge for the warre, 

With a hood, a bell, a foxtayle and a bagge ; 
In a pyed cote he rode brygge a bragge, 
And when that he unto us drewe nye, 
I beheld his body and his visamy." 

(Ed. 1845.) 

The phrase seems to refer to the haughty, 
vain and boastful manner in which the fool- 
ish dwarf, Evil Report, rode his " little nag." 
One authority, Earle, would class the entire 
phrase with " Phrasal Adverbs." Refer to 
his " Philology of the Eng. Lang." p. 426. 

Although I have not found the phrase re- 
ferred to by any of the leading authorities 
consulted, it is easy to see that it is made of 
obsolete material. rygge is one of the 
many old ways of spelling bridge (Chaucer 
spelled it brigge, M. E.), and it might refer 
to a portion of the harness so called, but it 
seems more likely to carry the idea of 

A and bragge, taken together, may be 
considered equivalent to the obsolete adverb 
bragly, signifying " ostentatiously, nimbly, 
briskly." The adjective brag (braeg), some- 
times spelled bragge, was used as a quasi 
.adverb, in the sense of haughtily or boast- 

An analysis of the " Pastime of Pleasure " 
may be found in VVarton's " Hist. Eng. 
Poetry," Vol. iii, though it offers no help 
as to the phrases. 

Please accept the paper as a clue or sug- 

W. L. 


The Number Seven in the Bible. 

On the seventh day God ended His work. 

On the seventh month Noah's ark touched 
the ground. 

In seven days a dove was sent. 

Abraham pleaded seven times for Sodom. 

Jacob mourned seven days for Joseph. 

Jacob served seven years for Rachel. 

And yet another seven years more. 

Jacob pursued a seven days' journey by 

A plenty of seven years and a famine of 
seven years were foretold in Pharaoh's 
dream by seven fat and seven lean beasts, 
and seven ears of full and seven ears of 
blasted corn. 

On the seventh day of the seventh month 
the children of Israel fasted seven days and 
remained seven days in their tent. 

Every seven days the land rested. 

Every seventh day the law was read to the 

In the destruction of Jericho seven per- 
sons bore seven trumpets seven days. On 
the seventh day they surrounded the wall 
seven times, and at the end of the seventh 
round, the walls fell. 

Solomon was seven years building the 
temple, and fasted seven days at its dedica- 

In the tabernacle were seven lamps. 

The golden candlestick had seven 

Naaman washed seven times in the river 

Job's friends sat with him seven days and 
seven nights, and offered bullocks and seven 
rams for an atonement. 

Our Saviour spoke seven times from the 
Cross on which he hung seven hours, and 
after his resurrection appeared seven times. 

In the Apocalypse we read of seven 
churches, seven candlesticks, seven stars, 
seven trumpets, seven plagues, seven thun- 
ders, seven virgins, seven angles and a 
seven-headed monster. 



Latania. This word, the name of a 
genus of palms, is said in the " Century 
Dictionary " to be from " latanier, the Gal- 
licized native name of the plants in the Isle 



[May 3, 1890. 

of Bourbon." But as the island of Bourbon 
(now Reunion) had no inhabitants when first 
discovered by white men, and as the genus 
is a local one, there must be some more re- 
mote origin for the name. 

* * * 


Dornick (Vol. iii, p. 177; Vol. iv, pp. 
227, 272). Relative to the discussion of 
the meaning of this word, permit me to 
quote a verse from the ancient song of "Old 
Rosin-the-Bow," in which it is used for a 
" head or foot stone :" 

" Then get me a couple of dornicks 

Place one at the head and the toe 

And do not forget to scratch on them, 

The name of Old Rosin-the-Bow." 

M. R. H. 


The Humming-bird (Vol. iv, p. 206). 
Another Mexican name for this bird men- 
tioned in Mr. Lang's article, " Mythology " 
(in the " Encyc. Brit."), is Nuitzon. This 
article gives a good account of the humming- 
bird myths of Mexico. In Prof. Newton's 
article, "Humming-bird," in the same work, 
are still other names, as the Spanish paxaro 
mosquito (Gesner's Passer muscatus). 
Another South American name is ourissia. 
Sabre-wings, Hermits, Racquet-tails, etc., 
are names given in books to certain groups 
of humming-birds. Hummer and hum- bird 
are English-American names of the hum- 
ming-bird. HEINRICH. 


Shortest Sentence Containing Al- 
phabet (Vol. iv, p. 291). The following 
contains thirty-seven letters against forty- 
seven in the " Brady " sentence : '' Quiz 
Judge P. L. Wycoff about his vexing re- 
mark." G. G. M. 


The following sentence, which has been 
received from another correspondent, is 
still shorter, as it contains but thirty-two 
letters : 

" Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs." 


Little Britain (Vol. iv, p. 141). The 
following are examples of the use of " Little 
Britain " in the sense of Brittany, or 
Bretagne : 

1. From the "Polyolbion " of Dr.ayton, 
24th song : 

" St. Macklove [Malo] from North Wales to Little 

Britain sent, 
That people to convert," etc. 

2. From "The Triple Combat" of 
Waller : 

" Legions of cupids to the battel come ; 
For Little Britain these, and these for Rome." 

Little Britain was represented by Mme. 
Queronaille and her train, and Rome by 
" the fair Mazarine " and her attendants. 

Qui TAM. 

Tree Lists (Vol. iii, p. 190; Vol. iv, 
pp'. 71, 167, 249). There is an excellent 
tree list in Spenser's " Faery Queen," Book 
i, Canto i, Stanzas viii and ix, in which 
twenty trees are named and characterized. 

E. G. KEEN. 


The Atlantic Monthly for May contains an article on 
Henry Ibsen, by E. P. Evans, which should be enter- 
taining to admirers of that poet and playwright. 

The number is especially interesting and contains, 
besides a large number of entertaining articles, a 
valuable one on the " Hare at Easter," by Katharine 
iii, p. 64), from which we quote in another column. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes continues his talks " Over 
the Teacups." 

Current Literature for May is, as usual, entertaining. 
It matters not what one's taste in literature may be, the 
reader is always sure to find something to read in this 

Short Stories is also eclectic in its character like 
Current Literature and is published by the same 
company. A good feature of this periodical is the 
classification of stories under different heads "Ghostly," 
" Humorous," " Pathetic," etc., thus enabling readers 
to at once select the story best suited to their mood. 

A catalogue of Americana has just been received 
from Mr. Francis Edwards, London, Eng. It contains 
the names of a large number of works pertaining to 




Copyrighted i8qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. V. No. 2. 

SATURDAY, MAY 10, 1890. 

1 $3.00 per year. $1.76, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 mouths. 10 cents per number 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. V/harton, 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts &, 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, 'etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES: Ancient Laws Concerning Shoes, 13 Thimbles 
Notes on Words, 14. 

QUERIES: Rescue Grass Weeping Trees Arthur Kill, 16. 
REPLIES : Akond of Swat, 16 Sea Blue Bird, 17. 

of Swat Plafery, 17 The Guernere Push Chald, 18. 

COMiMUNICATIONS : The Battle Bell-Creek, 18 Corp 
Kelp Program Divides and River Basins Sunken Islands, 
19 The City of Ys Runcible Goliards, 20 Altitudes 
Ambrosia. Land-pike Larrigan, 21 Deaths of English 
Sovereigns The Criminal Eye Bulldoze Yop, 22 Throw- 
ing the Cups Llanthony Abbey Names of Odd Pronun- 
ciation, 23 Holtselster, 24. 

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS : The Century The Arena, 



The Jew who failed to keep a compact of 
honor was summoned before the authorities, 
and if he then refused to fulfill his compact, 
the offended party would loosen his shoe, 
spit in his face, "and," as Holy Writ says, 
" his name shall be called in Israel, the 
house of him that hath his shoe loosed." 

To say a man's "in his boots" implies 
that' he is very drunk. It comes from an 
old Welsh word, "boozi," meaning to be 
saturated with liquor. But to stand in 
another's shoes is to claim the honors of 
another. It has its origin from a custom 
common among the ancient Northmen, 
among whom if a man adopted a son in order 
that the youth might lawfully inherit, he 


[May 10, 1890. 

must for a certain length of time wear the 
shoes of his adopter. 

An old Roman, much to the surprise of 
his friends, sought to divorce his wife, with 
whom it was always supposed that he lived 
very happily. He was blamed for taking 
this step, and in reply put out his foot and 
asked if his shoes were not new and well 
made. "Yet," said he, " none of you can 
tell where it pinches." From this incident 
is said to have come the say ing, " where the 
shoe pinches." 

As a sign of respect the Japanese, when 
they meet in the street, take off their slip- 
pers. This custom almost universally pre- 
vails in the East. An inferior, when he 
enters the presence of his superior, removes 
his shoes or slippers and leaves them at the 
door until his departure. This is done as a 
mark of humility, as a shoeless foot denotes 
servitude. The shoe is always left at the 
door of the Mohammedan mosque, for the 
reason that leather is regarded as an unclean 
thing and must not be brought into the 
presence of the holy. 

The custom of throwing an old shoe after 
a newly married couple is almost universal. 
Some think that it is a relic of the days 
when the gallant lover carried off his sweet- 
heart bv force. Others ascribe good luck 
to an old shoe, and throw it after the newly 
married couple with the best intent. This 
certainly is the most popular view, and few 
parents dream that when they throw her old 
shoe after her they thereby give up for good 
all their control and right over their 
daughter. Yet this is the significance it had 
in the days when the Anglo-Saxon father 
handed to the bridegroom an old shoe of the 
bride. The husband touched the bride on 
the head with it as an assertion of his au- 
thority, while the father, by the giving of 
the shoe, signified his willingness to relin- 
quish all claim or authority. In Turkey, 
however, it is the bridegroom himself that 
is touched, and sometimes quite severely, 
for the moment he is married his friends and 
relatives set upon him and pelt him with 
their slippers as a sort of affectionate fare- 




(VOL. iv, p. 233.) 

Some months ago there was a brief discus- 
sion in Notes and Queries (English) about 
the invention of the thimble, based upon an 
item similar to that printed in these 
columns. Mr. Skeat objected to the popu- 
lar derivation from ihumb-M/, because it is 
not consistent with the early spelling of the 
word. There was, he said, an Anglo-Saxon 
thymel, a Middle English thimbil, and the 
spelling thymbyl occurs in 1440. By other 
contributors the fact that thimbles were 
made at Islington by the Loftings, in 1695, 
was confirmed, and, on the whole, there 
seemed to be little dissent to the received 
opinion that this was the date of the intro- 
duction of thimbles into general use in Eng- 
land, though not of their invention. 

It seems to me that this can be disproved. 
It chanced, not long ago, that I looked 
through some plays dated before the middle 
of the seventeenth century, with the special 
purpose of learning what light they threw 
upon the customs of that time, and among 
my notes, I find allusions to thimbles im- 
plying a common use of this implement in 
England long before 1695. Other readers 
may perhaps be able to adduce other and 
earlier instances in point. 

Before giving these, it may be said that 
Prof. Skeat's reference to the year 1440 
probably pertains to the " Promptorium 
Parvulorum," the English and Latin dic- 
tionary compiled at that date by a Domini- 
can of Lynne, where the word is found with 
the synonym, theca ; but it also occurs in a 
bit of ancient popular poetry of unknown 
authorship, thought by some to be of still 
earlier date, " The Debate of the Car- 
penter's Tools," to be found in Hazlitt's 
" Early Popular Poetry," Vol. i : 

" Seyd the wymbylle [/'. e., gimlet] 
I ame als round as a thytnbyll " (p. 8oJ. 

The comparison implies a' familiar thing, 
but the " thymbyll " may not have been 
like those of our inquiry. 

Shakespeare's references to thimbles are 
familiar. Although in "The Taming of 
the Shrew," when Petruchio calls the tailor, 
" Thou Thimble !" and Grumio would face 

May 10, 1890.] 


him down " though [his] little finger be 
armed in a thimble," it is a man's imple- 
ment that is in question, and apparently not 
worn like our own, yet in " King John," 
v, 2, it is ladies who, in the war-like time, 

" Their thimbles into gaun.lets change, 
Their needles to lances." 

Sir William D'Avenant's "The Wits" 
was first played in 1634, and printed two 
years later. I quote from an edition with 
modernized spelling. Pert, a soldier em- 
ployed in the Low Countries, but now in 
England, says (Act i, Sc. i) in reply to the 
question of a companion, that it is 

" Not a brass thimble to me, but honour !" 

whether a Spanish Don or a Dutch " fritter- 
seller of Bombell " conquers in that contest. 

Brass thimbles, then, were sufficiently 
common to be of small value in Pert's 
estimation, much like a "brass farthing," 
or a " Sou Marque " (see Vol. iv, p. 247) 
nowadays. If any one argues that this is 
the speech of a soldier who had been much 
out of England and had caught up the say- 
ing elsewhere, there is not lacking better 
proof for our case. 

In the same play, Mrs. Snore is a con- 
stable's wife, a coarse woman who distinctly 
belongs to "the million," and in railing 
against her neighbor, an equally unrefined 
woman eager after gain, she declares: 

" She took rny silver thimble 
To pawn when I was a maid ; I paid her 
A penny a month xise." 

(Act iii, Sc. i.) 

"Good News from Plymouth," by the 
same author, was licensed foractingin 1635, 
although not printed until 1673. 

In this play, a spendthrift's silver seal, 
engraved with "the lover's scutcheon, a 
bleeding heart," is missing from his wrist, 
where the fashion of the day kept seals 
dangling, and a bantering companion avers 
that it has 

" Gone long since to adorn 
His mistress' court cupboard ; [and] on a cloth 
Of network, edged with a ten-penny lace, 
Stands now between her thimble and her bodkin, 
Objects of state, believ't, and ornament." 

(Act. i, Sc. i.) 

These thimbles must have been to all 

intents like those of to-day ; they were made 
of brass and of silver, were for women's use, 
and while they had a considerable money 
value, judging from the pawn-broker's rate, 
and were set forth for display as we should 
place a cherished piece of china, yet they 
were owned by the common classes, and 
could certainly not have been very rare. 
This was sixty years before Lofting made 
thimbles at Islington. 

Several silver bodkins, like the one with 
which the thimble shared the honors of the 
" court cupboard," are in existence; some 
have even recently been found, and whether 
any early thimbles of known date are still 
preserved would be an interesting inquiry. 

M. C. L. 


NOTE. Your correspondent calls the thimble ' a 
"somewhat neglected article;" but judging from the 
immense trayful of silver thimbles set forth at Tiffany's, 
lately, for a lady's inspection, the jewelers do not fear 
that the implement will fall into immediate disuse. 


Budge. Dr. Murray's " New English 
Dictionary," after discussing the origin of 
the word Budge, in the sense of a kind of 
lambskin fur, very discreetly leaves the ques- 
tion of its origin unsettled. . The oldest 
known forms of the word are buggy, buggie, 
and the like. It seems to the present writer 
not improbable that the town of Bttgia (Fr. 
Bougie), now in Algeria, gave name to the 
fur. I cannot recall the place, but I have 
certainly seen some account of the ancient 
export of lambskins from the Barbary ports. 

Davenport. The "Century Dictionary" 
makes the erroneous statement (under 
Davenport, a desk) that the family name 
Davenport comes from the town of Devon- 
port in England. But the name Davenport 
is very ancient, while the town of Devon port 
was called Dock, or Plymouth Dock, until 
1824, when it received its present name. 

Labrus. This word, the name of genus 
of fishes, is said in the "Cent. Diet." to be 
Neo-Latin, from L. labium, a lip. But it 
is old Plinian Latin, and seems to be from 
Gr. M{3ptK; f swift, or greedy. 

Lin, Linn. This word is very common 
throughout a large part of the United States, 



[May 10, 1890. 

as the name of the common linden, or bass- 
wood. Yet so complete a work as the 
" Century Diet." does not record it. 

Lambick. The dictionaries give no ety- 
mology for this word ; it is a kind of strong 
Flemish beer. It was probably named 
from the town of Lembecq in Belgium. 

Lampadite. This word, the name of a 
mineral, is derived by the " Century Diet." 
from the Gr. lampas, lampados, a lamp. 
But "Bristow's Glossary," with probable cor- 
rectness, says that it was named in honor of 
Lampadius, the celebrated German metal- 
lurgist. * * * 


UE 1^1 ES. 

Rescue Grass. There is a species of 
grass, Bromus unioloides, called Rescue grass 
in the books. It seemed to me at first like a 
misprint for the well-known fescue grass ; 
but it is not a fescue. Why was it so called? 


This question is one not easily answered. 
Vasey's " Grasses and Agricultural Forage 
Plants," p. 73, states that it was called 
Rescue grass by Gen. Iverson, of Columbus, 
who introduced it into Georgia. Fescue may 
have suggested the name ; probably with the 
further idea of a plant that comes to the 
rescue at a time when other forage-crops 
fail ; for it is a late winter grass. 

Weeping Trees. Can you inform me 
regarding the truth or falsity of the stories 
published from time to time in newspapers 
about trees which continually drop dew or 
rain ? J. H. P. 


By reference to Insect Life for November, 
1889, p. 1 60, our correspondent will find an 
account taken from the Dallas (Texas) 
Morning News of October 9, 1889, regard- 
ing certain " weeping trees " in which the 
phenomenon of "falling dew" was caused 
by the presence of innumerable insects 
(leaf- hoppers). The dew was a kind of 
honey-dew, ejected by the insects which ex- 
tract the juices of the leaves. 

Arthur Kill. Why, or from whom, is the 
Kill-van-Kull, or a part of it, the channel 
between Staten Island and the mainland, 
sometimes called the Arthur Kill ? 

R. S. P. 


That part of what is now New Jersey 
lying near the city of New York was once 
called Achlyr Kill by the Dutch colonists. 
Some say this means " the eight streams." 
We have seen the statement that it meant 
" twenty-eight gun-ship channel," achter 
being an old Dutch term for a vessel of that 
rating. We know of no historical basis for 
the name. 


The Akond of Swat (Vol. iv, pp. 67, 
270). Absence from home has prevented 
my replying sooner to the request of your 
correspondent for Mr. Lear's verses with this 

They are rather long, perhaps, for publi- 
cation, but I willingly send a copy of them. 

Mr. Lear at one time visited India, and 
besides this burlesque of the inquiries and 
comments made about the potentate of 
Swat, who had just then come into notice in 
Anglo-Indian affair, he wrote " The Cum- 
merbund," an intentional travesty of 
various Hindustani words in every-day use, 
that was first printed in 1874 in a Bombay 
newspaper. Will some one tell me what a 
"cummerbund" is? Within a few days I 
found the word used in a description of some 
young Englishman's foolhardy examination 
of the crocodile pits of Maabdeh, Egypt, 
which could be entered only by a downward 
leap of several feet, and whence the explorers 
must needs "clamber up again with the 
help of a donkey-boy's cummerbund." 

Who, or why, or which, 

or WHAT 
Is the Akond of Swat ? 

Is he tall or short, or dark or fair ? 
Does he sit on a stool or a sofa or chair, or SQUAT, 

The Akond of Swat ? 

Is he wise or foolish, young or old ? 
Does he drink his soup and his coffee cold, or HOT, 

The Akond of Swat ? 

May 10, 1890.] 


Does he sing or whistle, jabber or talk, 

And when riding abroad does he gallop or walk, 

or TROT, 
The Akond of Swat ? 

Does he wear a turban, a fez or a hat ? 
Does he sleep on a mattress, a bed, or a mat, or a COT, 

The Akond of Swat ? 

When he writes a copy in round-hand size, 
Does he cross his T's and finish his I's with a DOT, 

The Akond oi Swat ? 

Can he write a letter concisely clear 
Without a speck or a smudge or smear, or BLOT, 

The Akond of Swat? 

Do his people like him extremely well ? 
Or do they, whenever they can, rebel, or PLOT, 

At the Akond of Swat ? 

If he catches them then, either old or young, 
Does he have them chopped in pieces, or hung, or SHOT, 

The Akond of Swat ? 

Do his people prig in the lanes or park? 
Or even at times, when days are dark, GAROTTE, 

O, the Akond of Swat ! 

Does he study the wants of his own dominion ? 
Or doesn't he care for public opinion a JOT, 

The Akond of Swat? 

To amuse his mind, do his people show him 
Pictures or any one's last new poem, or WHAT, 

For the Akond of Swat ? 

At night if he suddenly screams and wakes, 
Do they bring him only a few small cakes, or a LOT, 
For the Akond of Swat ? 

Does he live on turnips, tea, or tripe ? 

Does he like his shawl to be marked with a stripe, 

or a DOT, 
The Akond of Swat ? 

Does he like to lie on his back in a boat 
Like the lady who lived in that isle remote, SHALLOTT. 

The Akond of Swat ? 

Is he quiet, or always making a fuss ? 
Is his steward a Swiss or a Swede or a Russ, or a SCOT, 

The Akond of Swat ? 

Does he like to sit by the calm blue wave ? 
Or to sleep and snore in a dark green cave, or a GROT, 

The Akond of Swat ? 

Does he drink small beer from a silver jug? 
Or a bowl ? or a glass ? or a cup ? or a mug ? or a POT 

The Akond of Swat? 

Does he beat his wife with a gold-topped pipe, 
When she lets the gooseberries grow too ripe, or ROT, 

The Akond of Swat ? 

Does he wear a white tie when he dines with friends, 
And tie it neat in a bow with ends, or a KNOT, 

The Akond of Swat ? 

Does he like new cream, and hate mince-pies ? 
When he looks at the sun does he wink his eyes, 

or NOT. 
The Akond of Swat ? 

Does he teach his subjects to roast and bake ? 
Does he sail about on an inland lake, in a YACHT, 

The Akond of Swat? 

Some one, or nobody, knows, I wot, 
Who, or why, or which, or WHAT 

Is the Akond of Swat ! 

[The monosyllables rhyming with " Swat" are in- 
tended to have great emphasis, or, if possible, to be 
shouted by a chorus.'] 

M. C. L. 


Sea Blue Bird (Vol. iv, p. 103, etc.). 
The passage from Alcman, referred to by 
M. C. L., and by Mr. Lang, reads as fol- 
lows : " Oh, that I were a sea-mew, which 
wings its flight among the halcyons, and 
runs on the surface of the sea-waves. Bird 
of spring, with radiant plumage, and heart 
that knows no sigh." 




No. What can possibly be the origin of 
the almost unspellable couple of sounds so 
often used in the West, particularly by 
women, for " No?' 1 As near as I can repre- 
sent it, it is " mp-m," with the rising in- 
flection on the first and the falling on the 
second sound, the whole being made with 
closed lips. C. H. A. 


Ahkoond of Swat (Vol. iv, p. 168). 
Which was the first to appear, Lanigan's 
"Ahkoond of Swat," or that of Lear? 

W. H. G. 


Plafery. Momus says to Mercury, in 
Carew's "Ccelum Britannicum " (1633): 
"The hosts upon the highway cry out with 
open mouth upon you for supporting plaj 'cry 
in your train." 

What is meant by plafery ? It must have 
been something offensive to the inn-keepers. 




[May 10, 1890. 

The Guerriere. Please inform me 
where I can find the old song, beginning 
thus : 

" The Guerriere, a frigate hold, 
On the foaming ocean rolled, 
Commanded by proud Dacres the dandy O !" 



Fush. What is the origin of the word 
fush ? To fush out means to come to noth- 
ing, to fail. // is all fush is much like // 
is all fudge. A fushy affair is a common ex- 
pression is Central New Hampshire, and 
after the foregoing explains itself. 


Chald. In an unnamed piece by H. K. 
White occur the following lines : 

" And while with Plato's ravished ears 
I list the music of the spheres, 
Or on the mystic cymbals pore 
That hide the Chald's sublimer lore." 

Who was the Chald ? Does While mean 
"the Chaldean," the astronomer? If so, 
did he invent the word Chald ? 

J. P. A. 


The Battle Bell (Vol. iv, p. 19). 

" Thy plains, Arezzo, often have I seen 

Hastily swept by light-armed horsemen fleet ; 
At tilts and tournaments have I often been ; 

Now tells, now trumped , sending forth alarms, 
With drums and signals loud from castle towers, 
Native-or foreign summoning to arms." 

(Wright's " Dante's Inferno," Canto 22.) 

These graphic lines refer to the battle of 
Campaldino, one of the most celebrated in 
the history of Florence. It was fought on 
St. Barnabas' day, June n, 1289, when 
Dante was twenty-four years old. The poet 
was not only an eye-witness of the affray, 
but fought valiantly in the front ranks on 
horseback, sword in hand. 

In the Longfellow translation, the line al- 
luding to battle bells is the seventh from 
the opening of the canto : 

" Sometimes with trumpets sometimes with bells." 

The note which accompanies this reference, 

is an extended extract from Napier's " Flor- 
entine History," in which the author says : 
"The Martinella or Campana degli Asini 
was tolled continually day and night from 
the arch of the Porta Santa Maria, for thirty 
days before the beginning of hostilities, as a 
declaration of war, and according to the old 
chroniclers, ' for greatness of mind, that the 
enemy might have time to look to their de- 
fenses.' " 

Trollope also says : " A second car went to 
the field in company with the Carroccio, 
bearing on a lofty belfry the Martinella, as 
the great war-bell was called. One month 
before the army took the field, this bell was 
hoisted in the tower of a small church close 
by the station of the Carroccio, in the 
Mercato Anovo, where it was rung day nnd 
night during that time. It was then taken 
down and hung in the portable belfry of the 
car which accompanied the other bearing 
the standard or gonfalon. 'And with 
these two "pomps" of the Carroccio and 
the Campana de Marto,' says Malespini, 
' the pride of the old citizens, our ancestors, 
was ruled.' ' 

After the battle of Monte Aperto, fought 
September 4, 1260, five years before Dante's 
birth, and which is referred to in the poet's 
reply to Farinata : 

" The rout and carnage made 

When Arbia's stream was stained with crimson dye 
Tell why such vows are in our temples paid." 

(" Inferno," Canto x, p. 86.) 

"The standard of the banished Floren- 
tines with their battle-bell, the Martinella, 
were tied to the tail of a jackass and dragged 
in the dirt" (Ampere's "Voyage Dan- 

T. Adolphus Trollope's " History of the 
Commonwealth of Florence " and Napier's 
" Florentine History " are two most inter- 
esting sources of information on this subject. 

The " Century Dictionary " informs us 
that the Carroccio was invented in the 
eleventh century, by Eriberto, Archbishop of 
Milan. W. L. 


Creek (Vol. iv, p. 307). Creek is not 
so very uncommon in the East, as the fol- 
lowing additional examples will show. 

May 10, 1890.] 


Thus, in Pennsylvania, there are not far 
from one hundred. On a two-page map in 
a school-book I count eighty. There are 
several Sugar creeks, Buffalo creeks, Sandy 
creeks and Mill creeks. One stream bears 
the romantic name of Loyal-Hanna ; 
another, the expressive title of Yellow- 
Breeches. In New York, the word seems to 
be about as frequently used as in Pennsyl- 
vania. In the New England States, I find 
the word only in the vicinity of Lake 
Champlain. The word brook is sparingly, 
and branch unsparingly used. From the 
foregoing, it would seem that creeks cannot 
thrive in " pie- for- breakfast " localities. 

In the West, the word is very commonly 
used, and is not infrequently pronounced 
crik. This pronunciation is decidedly 
closer to the Anglo-Saxon crecca and the 
Keltic krig, than the present authorized 
form with its sesquipedalian e. 



Corp. The only example I remember in 
sober literature where corp is used for corpse 
is in Waller's poems, and even there it is 
used in the plural, corps for corpses. It is 
in Acti, Scene i, of the unfinished transla- 
tion of Corneille's ' 'Pompey :" 

" Heaps of the slain, deny'd a funeral, 
Just nature to their own revenge does call ; 
From putrid corps exhaling poisonous airs, 
Enough to plague the guilty conquerors." 

[What a rhyme !] 


Kelp. This word, meaning a blow, a 
stroke, is very common in some parts of New 
England. Compare with it the provincial 
English kelk, a blow. The latter word is 
found in the dictionaries, and, as is suggested 
in the "Century Diet.," it may be the 
same as the local kelk, a large stone. Can 
kelk, a stone, be from the Latin calx, a 
stone ? I imagine, however, that kelp and 
kelk, in the sense of " a blow," are both of 
them imitative or echoic. Cf. Scottish and 
Anglo-Irish skelp, a blow. 

Qui TAM. 


Program (Vol. iv, p. 281). Some edi- 
tions, at least, of "Bailey's Dictionary" 
(1722?) have the spelling program. Wor- 
cester gives it -as one of the spellings ; Web- 
ster marks it rare, and refers to PROGRAMME. 
Etymologically, it is perfectly defensible; 
the spelling programme (except as coming 
from, or rather through, the French) is no 
more justifiable than telegramme would be. 
The modern spelling reformers, some of our 
best scholars among them, write program. 



Divides and River Basins. The 

notion that mountain crests form the divides 
between adjacent drainage slopes is one of 
the traditions that still obtains. The ab- 
surdity of such an idea becomes apparent 
when one examines any good map. The 
Delaware and Susquehanna both have their 
sources west of the Appalachian mountains. 
Green river traverses the Uinta mountains, 
having cut its canon directly across the 
range. The Brahmaputra and Ganges both 
pierce the Himalaya mountains, and the 
Huahuum, rising on the eastern side of the 
Andes, cuts the cordillera sharply in twain. 
The explanation usually given is that the 
river in each case is older than the range, al- 
ways having had the right of way, and when 
the uplift of the range began, it progressed 
so slowly that the river deepened its channel 
as fast as the range was uplifted. 


Sunken Islands (Vol. iv, pp. 198). 
"The Hydrographic Offices give notice that 
Morrell and Rica-de-Oro islands in the North 
Pacific ocean have disappeared, the informa- 
tion being furnished by Lieutenant James 
Miller, of the United States flagship Omaha. 
A small chart of a portion of several tracks 
of the Pacific mail steamship City of Peking 
shows that this vessel has twice passed over 
the position of Morrell island and once over 
the position of the Rica-de-Oro. Captain 
Cavarly, of the steamship City of Peking, 
kept a special lookout for Morrell island on 
February 6, 1890, but not even a sight of 
discolored water was visible " (Philadelphia 
Record of May 5, 1890). 



[May 10, 1890. 

The City of Ys (Vol. i, pp. 89, 119, 
124). A pleasant poetical version of the 
traditionary legend of Ys, by Gildart 
Riadore, M.A., may be found in the Gen- 
tleman 's -Magazine of November, 1860. 
The ballad is entitled "The Legend of 
King Gradlon," and it adheres closely to 
the story as told by Emile Souvestre in " Le 
Foyer Breton." It is divided into three 
JFytes, and has eleven stanzas of unequal 
length, containing altogether eighty-eight 
lines. As this version has not already been 
referred to in NOTES AND QUERIES, I beg to 
quote a. portion of it : 


The sunlight gilds the towers of Ys, 
The towers of Ys fling o'er the sea 
The lengthen'd shades of mystery 

That bid farewell to day ; 
The breezes waft the distant sigh 
Of ever-varying minstrelsy 

Attun'd to am'rous lay ! 


But was to the minstrels of Douarnenez, 
Douarnenet laved by the restless sea, 
The cry of its wickedness mounts on high, 
The curse of its wickedness comes full nigh, 

Can be no longer stayed, 
Douarnenez's Princess is fair to behold, 
Douarnenez's Princess has treasures untold 

To do whate'er he bade. 


" Go ! Seek, Dahut, the golden key, 
The key that opes the floodgates wide, 
That key no mortal saw beside 

King Gradlon, you, and me." 
The fiend hath said, " Away ! Away ! 
Let flow the tide on Douarnenez 
That never ebb shall see." 


Onward speed o'er the heavy ground, 
The dark waves follow with hungry wail, 
The wearied steed begins to tail, 

A lighter burden craves, 
When a voice was heard above the storm, 
" 'Tis the fiend that takes thy daughter's form, 
Cast her to the waves." 


But a shriek was heard that pierced the air, 
A shriek like that when mortal dread 
Has lost all hope in deep despair. 

Yet the king rides on, and his courser sped, 
Like an arrow from bow, with lightning stride, 
Dahut is not there, but silently ride 
Gradlon and Gwenolin side by side. 

The waves have claim'd their prey 
Thro' the livelong night till beaming faint 

Ye spy the break of day. 


But never again shall sunlight beam 
On the towers of Ys, as erst of yore, 
For the tide now rolls in endless stream 

Where tide ne'er roll'd before, 
And oft when the storm-fiend spreads his wing, 
And the winds have burst their chain, 
On the foaming wave lost spirits cling 

To seek in vain, 'mid tempest strife, 
The spirit they had known in life, 
In the City of the King. 

W. L. 


Runcible (Vol. iii, p. 311 ; Vol. iv, pp. 
200, 237, 251, 275). Permit me one more 
remark. " Gerould " says truly, that it is 
useless to call nonsense words too closely to 
account, but instead of using "runcible" 
in what he might himself have styled "a 
vacant and voluble manner," Mr. Lear 
seems to have kept it to the sense of "very 
large." At least, that meaning is never 
inapt, and there is some incidental proof of 
it. In the " Nonsense Pictures," of his 
own drawing pictures and rhymes mutually 
illustrating the "runcible spoon " used by 
the " dolumphious duck" is quite Brob- 
dingnagian. In the description of himself 
beginning with the quoted phrase, " How 
pleasant to know Mr. Lear!" where he 
says : 

" He has many friends, laymen and clerical, 

Old Foss is the name of his cat ; 
His body is perfectly spherical, 
He weareth a runcible hat." 

the word's obvious meaning is " immense," 
and the rotund form and great head in the 
man's portrait show that the whimsical 
word-picture was only magnified truth. 

M. C. L. 


Goliards (Vol. iv, p. 221). Those of 
your readers who have access to good 
libraries can find such of the Gol.iard 
poems as are ascribed (rightly or wrongly) 
to Walter Map, in one of the vol- 
umes of the Camden Society's publications. 
The volume is entitled " Poems of Walter 
Mapes." It also contains, besides the 
original Latin poems, several delightful old 
English translations from the same. 



May 10, 1890.] 



Altitudes (Vol. iv, p. 251). Perhaps 
the highest voting precinct in the United 
States is at the North Star Mine on King 
Solomon mountain, in San Juan county, 
Colorado; it is 13,100 feet above sea level, 
and polls generally seventy-five votes. The 
mine is a noted silver producer in this sec- 
tion, and employs from fifty to one hundred 
and fifty men. For six months in the year 
(the winter months), the mine is almost 
inaccessible from the deep snow and snow 
slides, and it is hard to get miners to work 
there in the winter months, as they are shut 
up in the mine and boarding house attached 
for that period. Mail is brought from Sil- 
verton on snow shoes by a carrier hired by 
the mining company in winter semi-weekly; 
and in the winter of 1887-1888, a mail 
carrier was in sight of the mine and of the 
miners with his precious burden of letters 
from their loved ones, when a snow slide 
came suddenly down the mountain side and 
hurled the carrier one thousand feet back- 

When the slide had spent its force, the 
miners hastened with picks and shovels to 
rescue the carrier, and after three days' in- 
cessant labor they found his dead body and 
his mail pouch. This mine is said to be the 
highest in the United States, if not in the 

Mount Wilson, in Dolores county, Colo- 
rado, is 14,240 feet high, and it has several 
mining prospects not yet developed into 
mines near its summit ; one named the 
Silver Picklode is said to be 13,200 feet 
above sea level, and four men have been em- 
ployed on it this spring. 

The miners say there are but two seasons 
in this high altitude, " winter and d d late 

There is a mail route from Silverton to 
Ophir, a distance of twenty miles, that one 
winter, in 1883-1884, killed three mail car- 
riers by snow slides, and the bodies of two 
of them with their mail lay beneath the snow 
for six months before being found, until the 
summer suns melted and exposed the victims 
of beautiful snow. On one point of this 
route, known as the summit of Lookout 
mountain, it snows nearly every day in the 
year, and at this point there is a toll house 
and gate, but kept only in summer 

months. A sharp Bostonian widened the 
burro trail, called it a road, got a charter 
from the county commissioners and then 
levied toll upon the burro trains loaded with 
ore from the Ophir mines, and with pro- 
visions to the mines. R. McC. 

Ambrosia (Vol. v, p. 6). A contributor 
to the January number of Poet-Lore, in com- 
menting on this word, criticises a writer 
for having used it in the sense of an unguent 
or dressing for the hair, saying that it was 
used properly to designate the food of the 
gods. In this late day it seems almost in- 
credible that an educated person should 
make such a statement. The word is used 
indiscriminately by Greek writers to designate 
a food, a drink, or an unguent. The 
primary concept of the word, however, is 
immortality. The etymology is clear and 
to the point. It has come to us through the 
Sanskrit mrita, death ; Gr., ftporos (from the 
allied form /Z/>TO?), whence a, pfipoToq, im- 
mortal. English classical writers have fre- 
quently used it in the sense criticised by the 
critic in Poet-Lore. 

J. W. R. 


Land-pike (Vol. iii, p. 107). The 
"Century Diet;" defines this term as a 
.popular name for certain tailed batrachians. 
This is probably the true explanation of the 
meaning of the definitions in the older dic- 
tionaries. But I think the term land-pike 
more frequently designates a thin, lank, 
half-wild swine, as your correspondent has 
suggested. S. T. ANDREWS. 


Larrigan (Vol. iii, p. 308). Is it not 
possible that this word, a name for a lum- 
berman's long-legged moccasin, may be con- 
nected with the English (and Australian) 
slang word larrikin, which means rough, 
rowdyish, unrespectable ? There is nothing 
very refined and respectable about the be- 
longings of a Down-East logger. Compare 
rough-and-ready, a kind of hat ; wrap-rascal, 
a coarse cloak. 





[May 10, 1890. 

Deaths of English Sovereigns. 

There has been some dispute concerning the 
deaths of the kings and queens of England. 
The following list is, as far as I have been 
able to find out, correct : 

William the Conqueror. At the siege of 
Mantes his horse reared so violently from 
placing his feet on some hot ashes that 
William was bruised by the pommel of his 
saddle, causing injuries from which he died. 

William Rufus died the death of the poor 
stags which he hunted. 

Henry I died of gluttony. 

Henry II died of a broken heart, occa- 
sioned by the bad conduct of his children. 

Richard Cceur de Lion, like the animal 
from which his heart was named, died by an 
arrow from an archer. 

John died from the fatigue of a tiresome 
march across the Wash of Lincolnshire. 

Henry III died a natural death. 

Edward I died of dysentery. 

Edward II was barbarously and indecently 
murdered by ruffians employed by his own 
wife and her paramour. 

Edward III died of grief caused by the 
death of his son. 

Richard II died either from being starved 
or murdered. Neither of which can be 
called pleasant deaths. 

Henry IV is said to have died of " fits 
caused by uneasiness," and uneasiness in 
palaces in those times was a very common 

Henry V is said to have died of a " pain- 
ful affliction, prematurely. ' ' This is a courtly 
term for getting rid of a king. 

Henry VI died in prison by means known 
then only to his jailer, and now only known 
in heaven. 

Edward V was strangled in the Tower by 
his uncle, Richard III. 

Richard III was killed in battle. 

Henry VII wasted away as a miser 

Henry VIII died of carbuncles, fat and 

Edward VI died of consumption. 

Queen Mary is said to have died of a 
broken heart. 

Old Queen Bess is said to have died of 
melancholy, from having sacrificed Essex to 
his enemies. 

James I died of drinking and the effects of 

Charles I died on the scaffold. 

Charles II died suddenly, it is said of 

William III died of consumptive habits 
of body and from the stumbling of his 

Queen Anne died of dropsy. 

George I died from drunkenness, which his 
physicians politely called an apoplectic fit. 

George II died of a rupture of the heart, 
which the periodicals of that day termed a 
visitation of God. 

George III died after nine years' affliction 
of partial insanity. 

William IV died of old age, accelerated 
by asthma. 



The Criminal Eye (Vol. Hi, p. 107). 
The observation of J. H. that thieves and 
liars cannot look you squarely in the eye is 
important, if true. But I know some ex- 
cellent people (at least, I so regard them) 
who do not like to look any one in the eye. 
King Henry VIII, according to Puttenham, 
took great offense if a subject looked him in 
the eye, regarding it as an act of impudence. 
I have heard, and read, that the North 
American Indians have often, if not usually, 
a slight strabismus, and I think my own ob- 
servations tend to confirm the correctness of 
that statement. O. S. FISHER. 


Bulldoze. To illustrate the formation 
of this low political slang word, permit me 
to call attention to the use of "hopper- 
dozers" in the grass-hopper region of Min- 
nesota; a hopper- dozer is a coal-oil pan used 
in the destruction of the "hateful grass- 
hopper " of that part of the country. 

N. F. R. 

Yop. In some places in Pennsylvania a 
clownish fellow is called a yop (as in Centre 
county). Compare the Dutch Jaap, a nick- 
name for Jacob or James, and the English 
Jake. PHILO. 


May 10, 1890.] 


Throwing the Cups. If the enclosed 
communication is not too lengthy for pub- 
lication it may be of interest to some of 
your readers ; I have forgotten when I ran 
across it, but it has been some time in my 
possession : 

" The reign of superstition is almost at a 
close. The majority of people now, upon 
hearing some old legend of ancient belief 
related, at once say that it is nothing but 
an old wife's tale, and thus think no more 
about it. There is not so much faith nowa- 
days placed in fortune tellers, nor is fortune 
telling so prevalent as it was some years ago ; 
yet we still keep hearing of some poor servant 
girl being misled by these sorcerers, who 
prefer doing anything for a livelihood rather 
than try to procure one in an honest and up- 
right manner. The following story, how- 
ever, is correct in every detail : It must be 
fully half a century since that terrible 
disease, the smallpox, made a raid upon the 
town of Wetherby, when I was com- 
missioned by the vicar's wife (a lady whose 
charity was unbounded) to deliver to twenty- 
seven families some nourishing food which 
she was going to give to them. When I had 
finished my mission, the kind old lady 
wished to give me some remuneration for 
my trouble, but as I declined to accept any 
she insisted upon my taking tea with the 
servants. After tea, the housemaid said to 
the cook : ' Now, Jenny, let us throw the 
cups,' and as I was the only boy and nat- 
urally curious to know what they were about 
to do, I was very attentive. She threw her 
own cup first, and declared, ' No luck in 
it.' She then threw mine, and said, 
* Thoo's luck, mi lad.' She next threw 
Jenny's, and exclaimed, ' Put thi' hat and 
shawl on, lass, an' mak' haste, or Johnny 
will be at' door afore thoo gits there.' 
Now, Johnny was Jenny's lover, and, as I 
had to go home the same way as Jenny, I 
went with her. Just as we turned the corner 
close to the house where she was going sure 
enough there was Johnny knocking at the 
door. I then went home, and you may be 
sure after what I had witnessed became 
thoroughly converted to the belief of the 
cup business. Some time after Jenny, the 
cook, having left her place, came to stay at 
our house for a fortnight. Being a lively 

sort of a girl and full of necromancy, we 
often had a bit of fun at the breakfast and 
tea table by her throwing the cups. On the 
morning of her. departure she said to me, 
' As this is the last morning I shall be with 
you for some time we will throw the cups.' 
She then threw mine, with the same result; 
it had always been 'good luck.' She 
then threw her own cup, as she had done for 
three mornings previously with the same re- 
sult, and exclaimed, ' There's death in the 
cup. Something will happen.' I then 
took her luggage to the wagon (she was go- 
ing on to Bradford), and bid her good-by. 
About three weeks later, as we were having 
tea at home, who should walk in but the 
brother Jenny had gone to stay with, and, 
upon inquiring his business, he replied, ' I 
have got bad news. Poor Jenny's dead and 
I've come to bid you to attend her funeral 
at Kirby Overblow.' I was the only one, 
however, in our family who went to see the 
poor girl laid in her last resting place, and I 
never go now to Kirby but I stay to look at 
her tomb, each time recalling to mind her 
words of prophecy." 


Llanthony Abbey (Vol. iv, pp. 269, 
307). " Serro " is right in saying that it 
was the Austin Canons, not the Cistercians, 
that occupied both the old Llanthonies. 
(By the way, Prof. Freeman has shown that 
the name Llanthony commemorates not St. 
Anthony, but St. David of Wales.) But the 
present, or recent, Anglican occupants of 
the " restored " Llanthony are, I think, of 
an alleged Benedictine congregation. But 
the " Llanthony monastery " of " Father 
Ignatius " is four miles away from the abbey 



Names of Odd Pronunciation. 

Rotherhithe = red riff. 

Seixas seeshus. 

Olney (in Rhode Island) = o'ny. 

Schaghticoke (N. Y.) = skattycook. 

Horry (S. C.) =orree'. 



[May 10, 1890. 

Holtselster (Vol. iv, pp. 269, 293 ; Vol. 
v > P- 5)- After reading Prof. Estoclet's 
scholarly opinion of the origin of the above 
word, I am little inclined to defend my hasty 
guess as to its meaning " the wood -sealer." 
Yet the practice of marking or sealing timber 
is very wide-spread. In Germany (and, I 
think, in England) there is a sworn in- 
spector called the bracker (timber-inspector 
in some of our States) who separates the 
boards and planks into bracks, or grades 
(this subject, the word brack, is very unsatis- 
factorily disposed of in Dr. Murray's " Ox- 
ford Dictionary"). At Danzig, the best 
oak is marked with a W, the second quality 
with VV W (see Laslett's " Timber and Tim- 
ber Trees "). In this country the timber- 
marks are private property, serving merely 
to indicate the ownership of logs and sawn 
material. G. 



The Century for May, the month of Memorial Day, 
is made notable by the number and variety of articles it 
contains which concern our national life and history. 

Mrs. Edith Robertson Cleveland writes of " Archibald 
Robertson, and his Portraits of the Washingtons;" 
William Armstrong and Edmund Law Rogers contri- 
bute two articles on "Some New Washington Relics," 
and these papers are supplemented by a short one on 
" Original Portraits of Washington," by Charles Henry 
Hart. All of these articles in the Washington series are 
profusely illustrated. 

A series of articles, varied in style and subject, but all 
having reference to Memorial Day, are a short sketch, 
"A Decoration Day Revery," by Brander Matthews; 
" Theodore O'Hara," by Robert Burns Wilson, with 
which is given in full O'Hara's stirring battle-song, 
"The Bivouac of the Dead;" a poem, "Twilight 
Song. For Unknown Buried Soldiers North and 
South," by Walt Whitman ; and a Memorial Day ode, 
"The Fallen," by John Vance Cheney; besides ap- 
propriate articles in Topics and Open Letters. 

The first installment of Mrs. Amelia Gere Mason's 
valuable series on " The Women of the French Salons" 
opens in a delightful way, and is finely illustrated. Mr. 
Stillman, in his Italian Old Masters, writes of Andrea 
del Verrocchio, to which Mr. Cole has added a mag- 
nificent engraving of a detail from Verrocchio's " The 
Baptism of Christ " 

Mr. Jefferson's Autobiography continues its charming 
course, this month relating his experiences in Australia, 
and Mrs. Barr's " Friend Olivia" grows in interest. 

Articles which will have a wide reading are George 
Kennan's striking paper on the methods of the Russian 
censors, entitled " Blacked Out," with which is given 
a fac simile of two pages of one of Mr. Kennan's Cen- 
tury articles on Siberia erased by the Government 
censors; "Chickens for Use and Beauty," by H. S. 
Babcock, profusely illustrated ; " Two Views of Marie 

Bashkirtseff," with portraits, and pictures by Marie 
BashkirtsefF; Prof. H. C. Wood's striking paper on 
"A Study of Consciousness;" and Major J. W. 
Powell's valuable contribution on " Institutions for the 
Arid Lands." 

Richard Malcolm Johnston writes one of his charac- 
teristic pictures of Georgian life, " Travis and Major 
Jonathan Wilby," which is illustrated with pictures by 
A. B. Frost, and Mrs. Elizabeth W. Champney con- 
tributes a short story, " The Romance of Two 
Cameras. 1 ' 

Other articles of interest are: " George Washington 
and Memorial Day," "The New Movement in Educa- 
tion," " The Lingering Duello," "The Churches and 
the Poor," in Topics of the Time. 

In Open Letters George L. Kilmer writes of "The 
G. A. R. from the Inside," Rossiter Johnson writes of 
" Martial Epitaphs," and Harry Stillwell Edwards and 
Charlotte Mulligan contribute papers. 

Besides the poems already mentioned there are 
others by Thomas Bailey Aldrich, Andrew B. Saxton, 
Henry Ames Blood, Harrison S. Morris, James Herbert 
Morse, Henry Tyrrell, John L. Heaton and Cora 
Stuart Wheeler. 

The Arena for May has as its frontispiece a finely 
executed photogravure of the Rev. Phillips Brooks, the 
distinguished Episcopal divine of Boston. An enter- 
taining sketch of Dr. Brooks' life and work also appears 
in this issue, written by Rev. Thomas Alexander Hyde. 
The opening paper on " Rock or Natural Gases " is of 
more than ordinary interest, prepared by N. S. Shaler, 
of Harvard University. It is not only authoritative and 
instructive, but exceedingly entertaining. Prof. Shaler 
is followed by the Rev. R. Heber Newton, the well- 
known New York divine, who contributes a paper on 
" The Dogmatism of Science," in which he shows how 
through successive ages science, instead of being the 
open-eyed child Bacon would have it, has too frequently 
assumed the airs of a pope. Canon W. H. Fremantle, 
of Oxford, Eng., appears in a paper on " God in the 
Government," which reviews Col. Ingersoll's paper on 
this theme from the standpoint of orthodox Protestant- 
ism. Prof. Joseph Rodes Buchanan contributes a paper 
of great merit, entitled, "The Cosmic Sphere of 
Woman," a question for statesmen. Rabbi Solomon 
Schindler continues The Arenas series of "Divorce" 
papers from liberal thinkers. Godin's Social Palace at 
Guise, in France, is described in a thoughtful paper by 
Laurence Gronlund, who spent many weeks at Guise 
studying Godin's unique experiment. Prof. Alfred 
Hennequin, of the Michigan University, contributes a 
paper of marked ability on " The Characteristics of the 
American Drama." " In Heaven and on Earth " is the 
striking title of the third " No-Name " series. Who- 
ever the author is he is a vigorous and entertaining 
writer. Hon. J. H. Keatley, late U. S. Judge of 
Alaska, contributes a paper of great interest on " The 
Gold Fields of Alaska." Judge Keatley spent much 
time personally investigating the mineral resources of 
Alaska, and the facts related are important. Dr. Henry 
A. Hartt, of New York, contributes a brief paper to the 
" Rum " series, in which he maintains that drunken- 
ness should be treated as a serious crime. Mr. W. H. 
H. Murray's beautiful prose-poem, " Ungava," is con- 
tinued in this number. From the above table of con- 
tents it will be readily seen that this number of The 
Arena is peculiarly rich in the talent represented. The 
contributions also show that the authors have given 
their best thought. 

American f4otes and Queries: 




Copyrighted 1890, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. Y. No. 3. 


1 $3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number 

American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J, B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's. Boston : Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store) . New Orleans : 
Geo. F. Wharton. 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco! J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : Superstitions About Playing Cards, 25 English 
Words in French Language, 26 Norumbega Latinized 
Proper Names, 27. 

QUERIES: Authorship Wanted Question in Grammar,27. 

REPLIES : Slang Ccela To Fire, To Eject Authorship 
Wanted The Guerriere, 28. 

mating Crows Cambrial Colchos, 28 Name Wanted for 
City Peter Out Banjula, 29. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Gem Lore Parallel Passages, 29 
Creek Holtselster Floating Islands Mysfrious Music, 30 
Depth of Ocean Shortest Sentence Blue Sea-cat Bonny 
Boots Underground Streams Weeping Trees Whispering 
Galleries, 31 Hard Words for Rhymsters Altitudes Osgod 
Clapa Kin? Sennacherib Liard Basques Anagrams, 32 
Level Headed Punishment by Water, 33 Cummerbund, 
34 Sunken Islands Men as Things Nicker Turn for 
Pour Madstones, 35 Discoveries by Accident Helgramite 
Fly Buddhism in Lapland Brygge-a-Bragge, 36. 


While I am aware that the number of 
superstitions is legion I send you a few curious 
ones pertaining to playing cards which may 
be interesting to some of your readers. 

Most of these superstitions I have gathered 
from persons I have met, and while some of 
them " did not believe in foolish supersti- 
tions," they would, nevertheless, at times 
when fortune was against them, try some 
little superstitious act "just to see if it 
would make any difference in their luck." 

One of the most common superstitions is 
that where a card player who is not having 
good luck gets up and solemnly walks 
around his chair three times in order to 
propitiate fortune; or the player will call 
for a new pack of cards. 

The partners in a game of cards who have 



[May 17, 1890. 

the grain of the table running between them 
are also supposed to be helped thereby. This, 
I am told, is an Irish superstition. 

If you are a card-player, and not having a 
table in your room, start to play cards on the 
bed, then beware, for this is an act sure to 
bring misfortunes innumerable. 

Never throw a pack of cards at any one, 
as the act will bring all kinds of bad luck to 
the person struck. 

When you have a pack of cards which 
have seen their best days do not commit the 
imprudence of giving them away. It is also 
bad luck. The proper plan is to burn them 
and preferably with pepper and salt. 

The belief that a large number of people 
have in the efficacy of fortune telling by 
cards is too well known to dwell upon. 
These people, when a fortune-teller is not 
convenient, will often pick out their own 
fortune by means of divers kinds of Solitaire. 

Then there is the old proverb, " Lucky at 
cards, unlucky at love." 

In a game of cards it is considered unlucky 
to a player to rest your foot on the back 
rung of his chair while looking at the game. 
Rest your foot on one of the side rungs or 
on the seat of the chair, but the back rung, 

One of the most curious superstitions I 
have met with is one which was told me of 
an old Irishman who could never be per- 
suaded to play cards unless he wore his hat. 
When pressed for a reason he finally gave 
this one. The devil is always around when 
card playing is in progress and not to wear 
a hat would be a sign of respect to his 
majesty and that would bring bad luck. 
Can any correspondents of AMERICAN 
NOTES AND QUERIES furnish some more? 

W. W. R. 



BIFTECK, n. m. (from the English beef and 
steak}. "Si le chat n'a pas mang6 le bif- 
teck sois sur que le drole 6tait deja bourre 
d'aloyau." (Guillermin.) 

" Son intelligence culinaire n'a jamais 
pu s'elever jusqu' aux sommets ardus du 
bifteck raisonnablement cuit." (Ch. Ex- 

" Quel economiste nous dargira 1'estomac 
de maniere a contenir autant de biftecks que 
feu Milon le Crotoniate, qui mangeait un 
bceuf?" (Theophile Gautier.) 

BOXE, n. f. (from the English box). 
" Dans les ^curies de luxe, les chevaux sont 
isoles, soil un a un, soil par attelage, au 
moyen de cloisons a demeure formant des 
stalles ou boxes." (B6leze.) 

" Je ne parle pas des animaux enfermes 
dans leur boxes et etouffant sous tine vitrine 
oil 1'air penetre difficilement." (E. Texier.) 

BOXE, n. f. (from the English to box). 
"La severe Albion a renonce a sa boxe." 

" La boxe a etc de tout temps en hon- 
neur en Angleterre." (Bachelet.) 

BOXER, v. intr. 

" Crabb de Ramsgate vous a appris & boxer." 

(E. Sue.) 

" L'art de boxer s'apprend en Angleterre, 
Comme chez nous 1'art de 1'escrime." 

(E. Texier.) 

" Toujours pret h boxer qui veut te contredire 
II a 1'air d'avoir dit ce que tu vient de dire." 

(C. Delavigne.) 

BOXEUR, n. m. 

" Voila des boxeurs \ Paris 
Courons vite ouvrir des paris." 


" Le boxeur, furieux, tout bouillant de colere, 
* * * S'e'lance sur son adversaire." 


BRICK, n. m. (from the English brig). 
" En France, on ne gree en bricks que les 
navires d'un mediocre tonnage." (A. Jal.) 

" Le brick 1'Aventure est en rade ; on 1'a 
signale ce matin." (Scribe.) 

"Adieu le dogre aile" 
Le brick dont les amures 
Rendent de sourds murmures." 

(V. Hugo.) 

CLUB, n. m. (from the English club]. 
" Ce n'est pas un des moindres traits de ce 
temps-ci que cette vie de club, ou Ton joue 
avec des gens qu'on ne recoit point chez 
soi." (Balzac.) 

"Les clubs sont des instruments de de- 
sordre entre les mains de quelques ambi- 
tieux." (A. Gamier.) 

"Les clubs, cette singerie anglaise, ont 
acheve la ruine de nos salons." (Mme. E. 
de Girardin.) 

May 17, 1890.] 


DANDY, n. m., pi. dandys or dandies (from 
the English dandy}. " C'est un dandy, 
un muguet, un mirliflore, un beau, suivants 
les epoques et les regimes." (E. Chapus.) 

"Collinet et la musique D'Almack en- 
chantait la melancolie fashionable des dan- 
dies." (Chateaubriand.) 

" Un vrai dandy doit etre froid : 1'armure 
de la froideur le rend invulnerable." (Ri- 

EXPRESS, n. m, " L 1 express en France 
est le train qui va le moins lentement." 
(Pierre Larousse.) 

EXPRESS, adj. (from the English express, 
which came from the French expres). " Le 
dernier des convois announcera un de ces 
jours qu'il mene lesvoyageurs a Saint-Denis 
par un train express." (L. Jourdan.) 
\_To be continued^ 

C. F. H. 


I have a few notes regarding this mythical 
or half-mythical city of the aboriginal 
Americans, which some would identify with 
a site near Bangor, Me., and which others 
think to have stood not far from Waltham, 
Mass. Milton, John Dee, Robert Burton 
and others speak of it. An obscure writer, 
whose tract is reprinted in Arber's " Eng- 
lish Garner," professes to have visited it. 
For my own part, I incline to the belief that 
no such place ever existed, or that if it did 
exist, it was a wretched collection of wig- 
wams. Will your correspondents kindly 
send notes regarding it ? 




Bucer stood for Kuhhorn, a family name 
which means Cow-horn. 

Scapula, the lexicographer, was originally 
named Schulterblatt = shoulder-blade. 

Andrew Boorde, said to be the original 
Merry Andrew, Latinized his name into 
Andreas Perforates. 

Parkinson wrote books under the name of 
Paradisus-in-Sole = Park-in-Sun. 

The bird called Godwit is described by 

Latin (late mediaeval) writers, under the 
name of Dei ingenium. 

Melancthori s true name was Schwarzerd 
= black earth. This little list is capable of 
immense extension. Will your corre- 
spondents kindly add to it ? 

B. S. T. 


Authorship Wanted. - 

of the following lines : 

-Who is the author 

" Shed no tear, oh shed no tear, 
The flower will bloom another year." 



The above are the first two lines of a 
"Fairy Song," by John Keats. 

A Question in Grammar. In a little 
poem said to be by Mary Howitt, are these 
words : 

" Morning and night with cleanly pails 

Comes Mary to the spring, 
And to the cottage never fails 
The cooling draught to bring. 

" With some she scours the dresser smart, 

Or mops the kitchen bricks, 

And in the kettle sings a fart 

Above the crackling sticks." 

How do you parse sings ? Our school-teacher 
says it is the predicate agreeing with the noun 
part, which is its subject. I contend that 
Mary sings, that is, causes to sing, a part of 
the water. Which is right ? 

M. A. A. 


Your teacher's interpretation is logical 
and sound. Yours is bold and original. 
Sing is seldom or never used as a causative 
verb, yet your idea is not an unpoetical 
one. Indeed, the use of words in a manner 
slightly out of their ordinary prosaic hand- 
ling lends a certain charm to verse. Don't 
contend with the school-teacher, but stick 
to your opinion all the same. 


[May 17, 1890. 

B P L I B S . 

Slang (Vol. v, p. 6). Captain Joyner, 
for many years an Adirondack guide, in- 
forms me that "slang " is a French Cana- 
dian word for a slough. It is a common 
noun, and not a proper name. 

H. R. 


C(B/a (Vol. v, p. 5). Ccela (rd 
literally, the hollows) is a name given to a 
narrow and sinuous passage south-west of 
Eubcea, an island now generally known as 
Negroponte, east of Greece. 

J. W. R. 


To Fire, To Eject (Vol. iv, p. 287). 
Any interpretation of Shakespeare's words 
found over the signature W. J. R. needs no 
confirmation, but I can direct R. G. B. to 
another seventeenth century master of Eng- 
lish, whose use of "fire out" and "fired" does 
confirm it. It oddly chanced that when read- 
ing R. G. B.'s last communication (Vol. v, 
p. 9), I had still in my hand Mr. J. A. 
Symonds' edition of Sir Thomas Browne's 
" Religio Medici and Urn Burial " (Game- 
lot classics), where occur the following in- 
stances. In the latter essay, 1658, referring 
to what he calls " pyral combustion," the 
author says : " Some apprehended a purify- 
ing virtue in fire, refining the grosser com- 
mixture and firing out the aetherial particles 
so deeply immersed in it" (Chap. i). And 
again : " Even bones themselves * * * 
consisting much of a volatile salt, when that 
is fired out, make a light kind of cinders " 
(Chap. iii). 

Of the " crumbling relicks and long fired 
particles" contained in the ossuary urns 
that had " quietly rested under the drums 
and tramplings of three conquests" to be 
just then discovered at Great Walsingham, 
he says : " We apprehend they were not of 
the meanest carcases, perfunctorily fired, as 
sometimes in military, and commonly in 
pestilence, burnings." 

M. C. L. 

Authorship Wanted (Vol. iv, p. 175). 

" Traveler what lies over the hill?" etc. 

The above lines are the opening ones in a 
poem written by George MacDonald. 

W. R. W. 


The Guerr/ere (Vol. v, p. 18). These 
verses were written in the war of 1812, and 
will be found in McCarthy's " Collection of 
American Songs." They were to be sung 
to the tune of " Drops of Brandy." The 
song begins : 

" It ofttimes has been told 

How the British seamen bold 
Could whip the tars of France so neat and handy, oh ! 

" And they never found their match 

Till Bold Dacres did them catch, 

For the Yankee boys for fighting are the dandy, oh !" 




Camelot. I have notes recording 
several opinions as to the supposed site of 
the fabled (?) city of Camelot. What is the 
best identification thus far proposed ? 

J. C. D. 


Cremating Crows. In his essay upon 
" Urn Burial," Sir Thomas Browne says 
that when burning the dead became the pre- 
valent piactice at Rome, it was " not totally 
pursued in the highest run of cremation, for 
when even crows were funerally burnt, 
Poppaea, the wife of Nero, found a peculiar 
grave interment " (Chap. i). Why should - 
crows have been "funerally burnt," or have 
been given any kind of funeral ceremonies? 

M. C. L. 


Cambrial Colchos. At what place in 
Newfoundland was the settlement or colony 
of Cambrial Colchos, where Sir William 
Vaughan wrote "The Golden Fleece?" 


May 17, 1890.] 



Name Wanted for a City. 

" The smallest vermin makes the greatest waste, 
And a poor warren once a city rased." 

Marvell's poem " To the King " contains 
the above lines. To what city does the 
poet refer? 



Peter Out. Can any one tell me the 
origin of the expression to peter out? Per- 
haps the word should be written fleeter. 

C. H. A. 


Banjula. What is the meaning of this 
word ? It occurs in Sir Edwin Arnold's 
poem, "The Indian Song of Songs," as 
follows : 

" Let us bring thee where the banjulas 
Have spread a roof of crimson." 




Gem Lore (Vol. ii, p. 55). There ap- 
peared in the Portland Transcript a versified 
form of the Gem Lore of Vol. ii, p. 55, 
as follows : 


By her who in this month is born 
No gem save Garnet should be worn ; 
It will insure her constancy, 
True friendship and fidelity. 


The February born will find 
Sincerity and peace of mind, 
Freedom from passion and from care 
If they the Amethyst will wear. 

Who on this world of ours their eyes 
In March first open, shall be wise ; 
In days of peril firm and brave, 
And wear a Bloodstone to the grave. 


She who from April dates her years 
Diamonds should wear lest bitter tears 
For vain repentance flow ; this stone 
Emblem of innocence is known. 


Who first beholds the light of day 
In spring's sweet flowery month of May, 
And wears an Emerald all her life, 
Shall be "a loved and happy wife. 


Who comes with summer to this earth, 
And owes to June her days of birth, 
With ring of Agate on her hand 
Can health, wealth and long life command. 


The glowing Ruby should adorn 
Those who in warm July are born ; 
Then will they be exempt and free 
From love's doubts and anxiety. 


Wear a Sardonyx or for thee 

No conjugal felicity ; 

The August born without this stone, 

'Tis said, must live unloved and lone. 


A maiden born when autumn leaves 
Are rustling in September's breeze 
A Sapphire on her brow should bind 
'Twill cure diseases of the mind. 


October's child is born for woe, 
And life's vicissitudes must know ; 
But lay an Opal on her breast 
And hope will lull those woes to rest. 


Who first comes to this world below 
With drear November's fog and snow 
Shall prize the Topaz's amber hue 
Emblem of friends and lovers true. 


If cold December gave you birth 
The month of snow and ice and mirth 
Place on your hand a Turquoise blue ; 
Success will bless whate'er you do. 

H. A. P. 


Parallel Passages (Vol. iv, pp. .302, 

" With how sad steps, O Moon, thou clim'st the skies ! 
How silently, and with how wan a face !" 

(Sir Philip Sidney.) 

" With what a silent and dejected pace 
Dost thou, wan Moon, upon thy way advance." 
(Henry Kirke White's "Angelina.") 

J. P. A, 



[May 17, 1890. 

Creek (Vol. v, p. 18). In parts of Ver- 
mont, and in Connecticut as well, a back- 
water or currentless backset from a stream 
is called a creek. This agrees very well with 
the Old English sense of the word. At 
Queechy, Vt., there is a backset of this 
kind called Gilson's creek. In parts of Con- 
necticut even the low swale, or wet land 
about the backset, is sometimes called a 
creek ; near Philadelphia it would be called 
a cripple (Ger. Kruppel^). Whittier says in 
"The Swan Song of Parson Avery:" 
" Broad meadows stretched out seaward, the 
tided creeks between." This is said of the 
salt-water channels in the marshes near New- 
bury, Mass. Near Jonesboro', Me., is Tide- 
Mill creek, a salt-water channel. Tenney's 
creek makes into the salt waters of Look's 
bay, near Jonesboro', in Massachusetts. 
Beverly creek is one of the arms of Beverly 
harbor. Black's creek makes into or out 
of Quincy bay. On the Maine coast we find 
Bobby's, Buchanan's, Cole's, Ellison's, Tur- 
burn's creeks, two Goose Fair creeks. Hay 
creek, Hayward's, Hicks', Indian, Miner's, 
Miller's, Mud, Otter, Potter's Ruggles', 
Sawyer's, Sharkeyville, Smith's, Snare, 
Spruce, Strawberry, Tenny'sand Winnegance 
creeks, and I know not how many hundred 
more. Chelsea creek is very near Boston. 
An arm of Portsmouth and Kittery harbor 
is called Chauncey's creek. Green creek is 
in a salt marsh near Ipswich, Mass. 

I think we shall have to concede to New 
England her fair share of creeks, but they are 
mostly creeks in the English, rather than the 
American sense. In some cases, however, 
they seem to partake of both characters. 


If J. W. R. will reread my note on p. 307, 
Vol. iv, he will find that I said nothing about 
creeks in Pennsylvania, or New York, but 
only New England. He says he finds New 
England creeks only in the Lake Champlain 
region. Yet I have already, on p. 307, noted 
one in Connecticut. He states that " the 
word brook is sparingly, and branch unspar- 
ingly used." Not in New England, for in 
every part of New England brooks are ex- 
ceedingly common ; while branch, as a com- 
mon noun, the equivalent of brook, is almost 

unheard of, except in such expressions as 
" North Branch " of such-and-such a stream, 
and even this use of branch is rather uncom- 
mon save in some parts of Maine. Can he 
name any New England creeks except the 
two I have named ? And both of these are 
quite as often called rivers as creeks, I be- 
lieve. Qui TAM. 

Holtselster (Vol. v, pp. 24, etc.). 
Would not Houtzegelster be good Dutch for 
Wood-sealer ? It may be remembered that 
Marvell, from whom this word was quoted, 
lived for a time (1661-63) in the Low 
countries. * * * 


Floating Islands (Vol. iv, pp. 270, 
etc.). Sadawga lake, in the township of 
Whittingham, Vt., has a remarkable island 
within its borders. The island is larger 
than any farm in the neighborhood, con- 
taining over 150 acres. Its peculiarities lie 
in the fact that it daily shifts its position, 
being first on the north, then on the south 
and then on the east or west borders of the 
lake. It is known as " the Floating Island," 
and has kept up its aberrant voyage time 
out of memory. It has many trees upon its 
surface, some of which are from twenty to 
thirty feet in height, besides an immense 
thicket of cranberry bushes. It is a favorite 
resort for picnickers. Holes have been cut 
through the crust and fish caught, much after 
the fashion of catching them through the ice 
in winter time (Philadelphia Ledger, May 
8, 1890). 

The Mysterious Music of Pascagoula 

(Vol. iv, p. 312). I have recently read, I 
think in Forest and Stream, though I 
cannot be positive, a detailed account of a 
recent investigation of this phenomenon, 
the suggestion of the writer being that the 
sound was produced by a species of fish, but 
in some way yet unknown. A disturbance 
of the water caused the sound to cease. Af- 
ter a short interval of quiet it would begin 
again. C. H. A. 


May 17, 1890.] 


Depth of the Ocean (Vol. v, p. 4). 
The deepest sounding ever obtained in the 
Pacific ocean was made by Com. Bartlett, 
U. S. Steamer Tuscarora. The sounding in 
question, 4655 fathoms or 27,930 feet, was 
made off the coast of Kamchatka. 

J. W. R. 


Shortest Sentence Containing Al- 
phabet (Vol. iv, p. 291). I have found 
the following short sentences: "A quick 
brown fox jumps over the lazy dog," and 
" J. F. Grave, pack with my box six dozen 
quills," and the following which contains 
only thirty letters, " What vexing quips jab 
my crazed folk." H. R. 


Blue Sea-cat (Vol. v, pp. 7, etc.). As 
evidence in favor of Mr. Chamberlain's sug- 
gestion in his last paragraph, as to the prob- 
able origin of this word, it may be well to 
add that markatta is commonly used in 
Sweden at the present day to designate a 
small monkey, with no suggestion of the 
syllable mar (pronounced long like mdhr) 
having anything to do with the sea, which 
in Swedish is half, even though I have no 
doubt the folk-etymology connects the last 
part of the word with "cat," the feminine 
form of which, often used generically, is 
katta. K. A. LINDERFELT. 


Bonny Boots (Vol. i, p. 8). In the 
very last stanza (written by Edward John- 
son) of T. Morley's collection called " The 
Triumphs of Oriana " (1601), Bonny Boots 
is spoken of as recently dead, and as sing- 
ing better than any other. But, in an 
earlier piece of the same collection, written 
by John Holmes, beginning, " Thus Bonny 
Bootes the birthday celebrates," it further 
appears that he occupied a very near rela- 
tion to the queen; "For she is Bonny 
Bootses sweet mistress." Can this be the 
poet John Holmes himself? My own idea 
would be that Bonny Boots was some young 
page at court, a favorite with the queen, 
and possibly Holmes, of whom I know 
nothing but his name. G. 


Underground Streams (Vol. iv, p. 
307). There is an interesting account of 
the underground streams of Barbados, in 
Moxly'sbook, "A West Indian Sanatorium." 

The innumerable sinkholes near Benton 
and Ellendale, in Missouri, " which for a 
time kept land there at a low figure," are 
now regarded (according to the St. Louis 
Post-DispatcJi) ' ' as great blessings, as into 
them all the surplus rainfall is drained, and 
many houses have pipe connections to them 
for the conveyance of sewage. Everything 
that goes into them is carried away, and ex- 
periments made lead to the supposition that 
the holes are connected by passages through 
the limestone to underground streams and 
the river des Peres. A resident of Ellendale 
has had in mind for some time a plan for 
thoroughly exploring the supposed passages. 
Near his home is a hole in which the mur- 
mur of flowing water can be heard at nearly 
all times." 

There are in Ireland many rivers having 
partly subterraneous courses for which 
see article "Ireland " in " Encyc. Brit." 
in the paragraph on rivers and lakes; 
connected with them there are many fur- 
loughs, or lakes disappearing at intervals, 
much like the more famous lake of Czirknitz 
(Vol. iv, pp. 165, etc.). 


Weeping Trees (Vol. v, p. 16). 
In Hakluyt's "Voyages" there is an ac- 
count of Hawkins' second voyage to Africa 
and America, written by a gentleman who 
sailed with Hawkins, in which we are told 
that in the island of Ferro there isa weeping 
tree which supplies all the men and beasts of 
the island with drink, there being no other 
available water supply ! Further, he states 
that in Guinea he saw many weeping trees, 
but of a species different from that at Ferro. 


Whispering Galleries (Vol. i, pp. 238, 
etc). " He [a carrier] is the vault in Gloster 
church, that conveys whispers at a distance ' ' 
(Bp. Earle's " Microcosmographie," 15, 
1628). R. S. V. 



[May 17, 1890. 

Hard Words for Rhymsters (Vol. iv, 
pp. 276, 294). The lacking rhyme for 
"silver" may be " chilver," which the 
''New Eng. Diet." defines as "an ewe- 
lamb," but shows its tendency towards ap- 
plication to the young of any animal. Ex- 
amples are given of its very early use, but 
after noo a hiatus occurs until 1815 and 

The rhyme for "babe" inevitably sug- 
gests to those who have read it, Swinburne's 
exquisite poem on that theme. I will not 
venture to quote it entire would that I 
might, for every omitted word is a loss but 
as the verses are not included in any volume 
of "Selections" within my knowledge, 
and may be unknown to many readers, can 
you find space for half-a-dozen stanzas ? 


Babe, if rhyme be none 

For that sweet, small word 
Babe, the sweetest one 

Ever heard. 

Right it is and meet 

Rhyme should not keep true 

Time with such a sweet 
Thing as you. 

None can tell in metre 

Fit for ears on earth 
What sweet star grew sweeter 

At your birth. 

Wisdom knows what may be ; 

Hope, with smile sublime, 
Trusts, but neither, baby, 

Knows the rhyme. 

Wisdom lies down lonely ; 

Hope keeps watch from far ; 
None but one seer only 
Sees the star. 

Love alone, with yearning 

Heart for astrolabe, 
Takes the star's height, burning 

O'er the babe. 

M. C. L. 


Altitudes (Vol. v, pp. 21, etc.). Argen- 
tine Pass, a traveled route between George- 
town and Leadville, Colo., is said to be the 
highest wagon-road 'in the world. There are 
several pack-trails, however, having a greater 
height. J. W. R. 


Osgod Clapa (Vol. iv, pp. 248, etc.). 
There was once a king of Northumbria 
named Clapas, or Clapus. He is mentioned 
in Polydore Vergil's " History of England," 
and if I mistake not he lived long before 
Osgod Clapa's time. I hope your corre- 
spondent, Mr. Clapp, will be able to trace 
for himself a line of descent from this royal 
stock. J. P. KERR. 


King Sennacherib (Vol. iv, p. 287). 
The "King Sennacherib" rhyme calls to 
mind the following which was addressed to 
Stanley the last time he was in America : 

" In Afric's wilds how sad thy lot, 

Where suns wax hot and hotter, 
Where e'en the very Hottentot 
One sees grows hot and totter ! 

" Better the sword thy life cut short, 

Or cannon shot cut shorter ; 
Better to fall by one report 
Than by each fell reporter!" 

C. H. A. 


Liard. The "Cent. Diet." gives this 
word as a Canadian name for the balsam 
poplar, with no explanation of its origin. It 
is the French Hard, or Hard, a black poplar. 
Its remoter origin I do not know. Cf. Ital. 

leardo, O. Fr. Hart, gray. 

* * * 


Basques (Vol. iv, p. 304). For a short 
article on the Basques, that in the new edi- 
tion of " Chambers' Encyclopaedia" is by 
far the best yet written. That article also 
gives the names of some very late books on 
the Basques. E. S. H. 


Anagrams (Vol. iii, pp. 252, etc.). 
Henry, Prince of Wales, son of James I of 
Great Britain, used "in the challenges of 
his martial sports and masquerades," to call 
himself Mcsliades, which word the poet 
Drummond of Hawthornden turned into an 
anagram, " Miles a Deo," soldier from God. 
Near the end of the third book of Browne's 
" Britannia's Pastorals," there is a little 
anagram " Mayden, ayd men." G. 


May 17, 1890.] 



Level-headed. A good many years 
before this expression, and other cognate 
ones, became at all current in the North, I 
used to hear them often among the negroes 
of the South-western States. "He's got a 
level head," " your head is level," and the 
like, were exceedingly common, as were 
also many other slang expressions now 
everywhere known. Slang seems to be the 
natural language of the untrained and un- 
schooled negro, and I credit him with the 
invention of much of what is called Amer- 
ican humor. 



Punishment by Water (Vol. iii, pp. 
191, etc.). It is not given to every man to 
possess the philosophical phlegm of Socrates, 
who, when Xantippe wound up one of her 
"little speeches" with a bucket of water 
over the poor, patient, hen-pecked man, 
would calmly observe that "after thunder 
rain generally fell;" and consequently poor 
puny man, who actually at one time con- 
sidered himself the lord of creation, essayed 
to battle with the evil, instead of sitting 
down quietly and accepting scolding as 
inevitable, and a misfortune for which there 
was no remedy. 

" A common scold, ' communisrixatrix ' 
(for our Law Latin confines it to the femi- 
nine gender)," says Blackstone, " is a pub- 
lic nuisance to her neighborhood." In full 
accordance with the view of this great legal 
luminary, our English forefathers, who were 
men of mettle, grappled with this social evil, 
and they found a possible remedy handy in 
the cucking-stool, which certainly had come 
to them from Saxon times, as it is men- 
tioned in Domesday Book, although it then 
seems to have been used to punish offenders 
of a different description, such as giving 
false measures, or selling bad beer. But it 
was a convenient and harmless punishment. 
It involved no physical hardship, and was 
applied to a scold in a very simple manner. 
She was only placed in it (being of course 
duly fastened in), and exposed outside her 
house, or in some other place, for a given 
time, and so left to the gibes and insolent 
remarks of the crowd. This was the first 
and gentlest treatment of the disease. It 

gave no physical pain, as did the stocks, 
and rather shows the wish of our ancestors 
to begin with moral suasion ; but finding 
still that her " clam'rous tongue strikes pity 
deaf," they invented the tumbrel, on which 
she was drawn round the town, seated on 
the chair. For instance, in the Common 
Hall accounts of the Borough of Leicester, 
1467, it was ordered "that scolds be pun- 
ished by the mayor on a cuck-stool before 
their own door, and then carried to the four 
gates of the town." And this failing, the 
tumbrel was turned into the trebucket, or 
movable ducking-stool, and this, in its turn, 
yielded to the permanent ducking-stool, 
which, according to Gay, seems at all events 
to have had terrors for some. 

" I'll speed me to the pond where the high stool 
On the long plank hangs o'er the muddy pool ; 
That stool the dread of every scolding quean," etc. 

The ducking-stools proper were perma- 
nent affairs, and were erected by the side of 
some river or pond. They were numerous, 
but not so numerous as the stocks, which 
were in almost every village, and indeed the 
cause for their use seems to have been only 
too prevalent. As Poor Robin said : 

" Now, if one cucking-stool was for each scold, 
Some towns, I fear, would not their numbers hold ; 
But should all women patient Grisels be, 
Small use for cucking-stools they'd have, I see." 

But the ducking-stool was not the only 
remedy used to tame a scold's tongue. At 
Carrickfergus they tried another plan, as this 
extract from the town records will show : 

" October 1574 Ordered and agreede by 
the hole Court, that all manners of Skoldes 
which shall be openly detected of Skolding, 
or Eville wordes in manner of skolding, and 
for the same shal be condemned before Mr. 
Maior and his brethren, shall be drawn at 
the sterne of a boate in the water from the 
ende of the Pearle round about the Queene's 
Majestie's Castell in manner of ducking, and 
after when a cage shall be made, the party 
so condemned for a skold Shal be therein 
punished at the discretion of the maior." 

And a cage was made, and women were so 
punished, and a regular list kept of scolds. 

A very curious punishment obtained at 
Sandwich, and in the mayoralty of Robert 
Mitchell, 1637: "A woman carries the 



[May 17, 1890. 

wooden mortar throughout the town hang- 
ing on the handle of an old broom upon her 
shoulder, one going before her tinkling a 
small bell, for abusing Mrs. Mayoress, and 

saying she cared not a for her. ' ' Boyd, 

in his " History of Sandwich, 1792," says: 
" In the second story [of the Guildhall], 
the armour, offensive and defensive, of the 
trained-bands, and likewise the cucking-stool 
and wooden mortar for punishment of scolds, 
were preserved till lately, but they are now 
dispers'd;" but he gives engravings of 
both, and the wooden mortar certainly is a 

In the " Historical Description of the 
Tower of London, 1774," is the following: 
" Among the curiosities of the Tower is a 
collar of torment, which, say your con- 
ductors, used formerly to be put about the 
women's necks that scolded their husbands 
when they came home late ; but that custom 
is left off nowadays, to prevent quarreling 
for collars, there not being smiths enough to 
make them, as most married men are sure 
to want them at one time or other." 

But our ancestors were beginning to find 
out that 

" A smoky house and a scolding wife 
Are two of the greatest plagues in life ; 
The first may be cured ; t' other ne'er can, 
For 't is past the power of mortal man." 

And yet they did not despair. Men's 
wits were set to work, and a triumph of 
ingenuity was produced the brank, the 
scold's or gossip's bridle, which had the im- 
mense advantage over the cucking or duck- 
ing stools, of compelling the victim to be 
silent a punishment almost fiendish in its 
conception. Its inventor is unknown ; but 
he probably hailed from the " North Coun- 
tree," as " branks " is a northern name for 
a kind of bridle. It never seems to have 
been a legal punishment, as the ducking- 
stool was ; but nevertheless it obtained, and 
there are many examples in existence. It 
was, in its simplest form, described by Wal- 
dron, in his " Description of the Isle of 
Man:" "I know nothing in the many 
statutes or punishments in particular but 
this, which is, that if any person be con- 
victed of uttering a scandalous report, and 
cannot make good the assertion, instead of 

being fined or imprisoned, they are sen- 
tenced to stand in the market-place on a 
sort of scaffold erected for that purpose, with 
their tongue in a noose of leather, and hav- 
ing been exposed to the view of the people 
for some time, on the taking off this machine, 
they are obliged to say three times, ' Tongue, 
thou hast lyed.' ' It was commonly made 
as a sort of cage of hoop-iron going over and 
fitting fairly to the head, with a flat piece 
projecting inwards which was put in the 
mouth, thus preventing the tongue from 
moving. It was then padlocked, and the 
scold was either chained up or led through 
the town. 

The earliest-dated brank is preserved at 
Walton-on-Thames, and bears the date 1633, 
with the inscription : 

" Chester presents Walton with a bridle 
To curb women's tongues that talk to idle." 

There is a very grotesque one at Dodding- 
ton Park, in Lincolnshire, which is a mask 
having eye- holes and a long funnel-shaped 
peak projecting from the mouth ; and there 
were some terribly cruel ones, with fearful 
gags ; but these can scarcely come under 
scolds' or gossips' bridles. There was one 
at Forfar with a spiked gag which pierced 
the tongue, and an even more severe one is 
at Stockport ; whilst those at Ludlow and 
Worcester are also instruments of torture. 

We have seen men strive and fail to cure 
scolds, and we know the race is not extinct. 
Might not the old style of punishment be 
revived with a beneficial effect ? No one 
can tell the amount of domestic unhappiness 
that might be avoided by a gentle pointing 
to the brank, kept hanging in a convenient 
place ; or if the ducking-stool were again 
introduced, by a quiet remark as to the prob- 
able temperature of the water and the 
inconvenience of getting wet. English 

Cummerbund (Vol. v, p. 16). Cum- 
merbund (the Hindustani kamarband 
kamar, loins, and band, a band or tie) is de- 
fined in the "Century Dictionary" as a 
shawl, or large sash, worn as a belt, or girdle, 
or waist-band. It is a common part of cer- 
tain East Indian costumes. O. P. R. 


May 17, 1890.] 



Sunken Islands (Vol. v, pp. 19, etc.). 
The dangerous Goodwin Sands are said 
to have once been a low fertile island called 
Lomea {Infera Insula of the Romans), be- 
longing to Earl Godwin, where he lived 
and kept his fleets; but in 1014, and again 
in 1099, it was overwhelmed by a sudden 
inundation of the sea, which also did great 
damage in other parts of Europe. The tale 
is that at the period of the Conquest by 
William of Normandy these estates were 
taken from Earl Godwin's son, and bestowed 
upon the abbey of St. Augustine at Canter- 
bury. The abbot, having diverted the 
funds with which it should have been main- 
tained to the building of Tenterden steeple, 
allowed the sea-wall to fall into a dilapidated 
condition; and so, in the year 1099, the 
waves rushed in and overwhelmed the whole. 
Tenterden, it should be noted, is an inland 
place near the south-west frontier of Kent, 
15 miles NNE. of Hastings. Thus " Ten- 
terden steeple was the cause of the Good- 
win Sands;" so, at least, says one of the 
many legends connected with these remark- 
able shoals. But geology indicates a date 
for the destruction of the island long ante- 
rior to the catastrophe recorded in the 
legend. P. L. O. 


Men as Things (Vol. iv, pp. 264, 298). 
In this list I shall endeavor to give only 
instances in which the names of men become 
the names of things, excluding words de- 
rived from personal names. Watt, joule, 
ohm, ampere, franklin and a host of other 
names of the units recognized by physicists, 
are names of illustrious experimenters and 
discoverers in science. A Matthew Walker 
is a kind of knot used by mariners. A 
chassepot is, or was, a kind of rifled musket. 
Shrapnel is a kind of case-shot. P. S. P. 


Nicker (Vol. iv, p. 307). The discussion 
of the word " Nicker " and its manifest re- 
lation to some kind of nut or nut-bearing 
trees interests me. 

I have seen in the Bahama islands several 
species of very hard, sometimes brightly- 
colored beans which were called "Nicker 
beans." They were very common and, 

Deing nearly spherical, were often used by 
children in games in which American 
children use marbles. C. H. A. 


Turn for Pour. During a sojourn in 
New England, I often heard the word turn 
used for pour, especially at table. "Will 
your turn me a cup of coffee ?" " Mr. Smith, 
will you please turn the water?" So far as I 
know, this is a strictly local use of the word. 

S. S. M. 

Madstone (Vol. iv, pp. 311, etc-). 
Madstones, as the following clipping from 
the Philadelphia Record shows, are still used 
in good faith : 

"James Beyard, a well-known citizen of 
Smithfield, near Lewiston, 111., when bitten 
some years ago by a supposed rabid dog, im- 
mediately went to Denver, in Hancock 
county, and applied a madstone to the 
wound, and experienced no further fear of 
trouble. This stone, owned by T. M. 
Orton, came from Louisiana, where it was 
in the possession of a negress, who had 
cured bites from snakes and mad dogs with 
it. She was pronounced a witch, and fear- 
ing that her life would be taken, she gave the 
stone to her master, a relative of the Ortons. 
It has remained with the Orton family 

"T. M. Orton, a reputable citizen of Den- 
ver, 111., has retained the stone for many 
years. A score or more of cases of hydro- 
phobia were cured by it. 

" Some days ago a huge hound went mad 
near Cuba, 111., and ran through the coun- 
try biting cattle and horses. Before its 
career was ended it had bitten this same 
James Beyard and two other persons near 
Smithfield. The dog rushed on and ap- 
peared at Bushnell, 111., in MacDonough 
county, where it caused much terror. 
Beyard and the other two victims went im- 
mediately to Denver, in Hancock county, 
and applied the madstone. It adhered 
tenaciously in each case, and stuck firmly to 
Beyard 's bite on each of several applications. 
The man returned home satisfied that the 
danger was past." E. R. JAMES. 



[May 17, 1890. 

Discoveries by Accident (Vol. iv, 
P- 35)- Kaolin. The date of Mine. 
Damet's curious discovery of the Limoges 
kaolin beds is given in your quotation as 
" about "1760." Wheatley's "Pottery," 
following the great authority, Jacquemart's 
"History of the Ceramic Art," says that 
the chemist at Sevres, after receiving speci- 
mens of the new clay, went to St. Yrieix in 
August, 1765, to experiment with it. Ap- 
parently, this was immediately after the dis- 
covery. This is a detail, only noticed in 
order to remark another accidental dis- 
covery of the precious clay, less picturesque 
except in its consequences, but probably 
earlier. It is told in Arthur Young's 
"Travels in France," ofwhicha centennial 
edition by M. Betham Edwards (Bohn 
Library, 1889) has now been issued. Arthur 
Young, journeying in the interests of agri- 
culture, was eager to visit a certain Marquis 
de Tourbilly (Turbilly, Maine-et- Loire), 
whose " Memoire sur les Defrichements " 
he valued. Finding the place after much 
trouble, he learned that the man he sought 
had died insolvent twenty years before, 
though, to Mr. Young's relief, not ruined 
by agriculture, but from another cause. 

" One day, as he was boring to find white 
marl, his ill stars discovered a vein of earth, 
perfectly white, which on trial did not 
effervesce with acids. It struck him as an 
acquisition for porcelain. He showed it to a 
manufacturer; it was pronounced excellent ; 
the marquis' imagination took fire, and he 
thought of converting the poor village of 
Tourbilly into a town, by a fabric of china 
he went to work on his own account 
raised buildings and got together all that 
was necessary, except skill and capital. 

"In "fine, he made good porcelain, was 
cheated by his agents and people, and at last 
ruined" (p. 139). 

This account is dated September 29, 1 788. 
The unfortunate marquis must therefore have 
died in 1768, and the necessary allowance 
of time lor the elaborate experiment de- 
scribed would place the discovery of the clay 
early in the decade. 

The finding of kaolin in Saxony in 1710, 
if less accidental, was scarcely less curious 
than Mme. Darnet's, at Limoges. A 
chemist, one Bottner, was employed by the 

Elector of Saxony to search for the 
philosopher's stone, and hit upon a paste 
converted by heat into something like porce- 
lain. This gave direction to his thoughts, 
and one day he noticed that a bottle of hair- 
powder just purchased by his valet was un- 
duly heavy. He examined the contents, 
sought out their source, and found the 
kaolin deposit at Aue. M. C. L 


Helgramite Fly. Prof. Baily, of Brown 
University, in Insect Life, for October, 
1889, furnishes the following list of Rhode 
Island names for the Corydalus cornutus, an 
insect whose larva is well known to anglers 
as the Helgramite or Dobson : 

Dobson, Crawler, Amly, Conniption 
Bug, Clipper, Water Grampus, Goggle Goy, 
Bogart, Crock, Hell-devil, Flip-flap, Alli- 
gator, Ho-jack (locally in Scituate, R. I.), 
Snake-doctor, Dragon and Hell-diver. 



Buddhism in Lapland. In the pref- 
ace to Arnold's "Light of Asia," the poet 
says that at present Buddhism's spiritual 
dominions extend from Nepal and Ceylon 
to Swedish Lapland. Was there ever, or is 
there now, any foundation for this state- 
ment, so far as Lapland is concerned? To 
the eastward, as he might with truth have 
said, Japan, China, Indo-China and some 
of the south-eastern Asiatic islands are 
Buddhistic, so that he has not claimed too 
much area for Buddhism ; but I do not be- 
lieve that Lapland was ever reached by the 
influence of Gautama's teachings. 

OHIO. P- R. E. 

Brygge-a-Bragge (Vol. iv, p. 283; 
Vol. v, p. n). I do not think that Dr. 
Murray accepts or endorses Littre's deriva- 
tion of bric-a-brac, but he refers to it as the 
most probable one yet proposed. " Mur- 
ray's Dictionary " gives an example of the 
adjectival use of bric-a-brac, meaning some- 
thing like higgledy-piggledy, which seems to 
me to correspond fairly well with the brygge- 
a-braggc of Hawes. I put no faith in 
Littre's derivation. R. R. N. 


American f4otes and Queries : 




Copyrighted iBqo, by Tke Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. Y. No. 4. 

SATURDAY, MAY 24, 1890. 

I $3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 mouths. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number 

American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans : 
Geq. F. Wharton. 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. -are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : English Words in the French Language, 37 Cu- 
rious Habits in Animals Egyptological Notations, 38 
Brack Somnific Devices, 39 Reprints, 40. 

QUERIES : Poet-Laureate of Australia Snickersnee Tri- 
vium and Quadrivium Nainsook, 40. 

REPLIES : Name Wanted for City Peter Rise Autum 
Push, 41. 

tice Name Wanted for a City Harmonious Blacksmith- 
Popocatepetl, 41. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Superstitions of India, 4* Men as 
Things, 43 Nicker Hard Words for Rhymsters Discover- 
ies by Accident Anona, 44 Hackney- Barney Creek, 
Brook, Branch Horn Mad and Bedlamites No Billing- 
ton Sea, 45 Ambrosia Parallel Passages Localisms in 
Speech, 46 Cummerbund Blue-nose Blue-nose Presbyte- 
rians On the Score Weeping Trees Aspenquid Slang 
Buckram Kangaroo, 47 Peculiar Names Ancient Laws 
Concerning Shoes Brook vs. Branch Rhymed History of 
England Runcible Xanadu, 48. 




FASHION, n. m. (from the English fashion, 
which came from the Old French fachion). 
" La fashion anglaise " (Pierre Larousse). 

FASHIONABLE, adj. " L'homme impoli 
est le \t^\tvcyi fashionable " (Balzac). 

"Pour gtre fashionable il faut jouir du 
repos sans avoir passe par ie travail " (Bal- 

HIGH LIFE, n. m. (from the English high 
and life). " Le high life parisien " (Pierre 

JOCKEY, n. m. (from the English jockey, 
which came from the French Jaquet, proper 
name, diminutive of Jacques). " Sous des 
pesants jockeys nos chevaux haleterent " 


[May 24, 1890. 

JURY OR JURI, n. m. (from the English 
jury and Old French j'uree). " Si nous 
n'obtenons pas une composition du jury in- 
dependante, nous n' aurons point un jury 
veritable" (B. Const.). 

" Quelquefois repousse par le/#rycomme 
un rapin a ses premiers essais, Delacroix 
s'est toujours presente aux expositions" 
(Th. Gautier). 

PALE ALE, n. m. (from English pale ale}. 
" Ale blanche, espece de biere " (Pierre 

RAIL, n. m. (from English rail). " Les 
rails ne durent pas plus de dix ou douze 
ans" (Proudhomme). 

" Une fois la conversation dans ce rail, il 
faudrait etre bien maladroit pour n'en pas 
profiler " (Balzac). 

" L' instinct est une sorte de rail oh. la 
nature fatale entraine la brute" (Victor 

REDINGOTE, n. f. (from the English 
riding coat). " Les pans de sa redingote 
pendaient comme des drapeaux autour de 
ses jambes " (H. Taine). 

"Si vous me faisiez une rcdingote" 

SKIFF, n. m. (from the English skiff, which 
came from the French esquif). "Le skiff 
est pointu des deux bouts ; il a des fonds 
arrondis et des facons tres-fines " (E. 

SPEECH, n. m. (from the English speech). 
" Prononcer un speech, un \ov\gspeech, un 
speech bien senti " (Pierre Larousse). 
[To be continued, .] 

C. F. H. 


The Rev. Mr. Green, a celebrated moun- 
tain climber, and author of a recent book on 
the glaciers of the Selkirk range in British 
Columbia, observes that the animal called 
Sewellel, Showtl, or Mountain Beaver 
(Aplodontia leporind) has the remarkable 
habit of collecting nosegays of wild-flowers. 

Male cranes and some other birds have the 
habit of dancing, apparently for the sake of 
winning the attention of the females, and the 
Bower-birds of Australia build and decorate 
elaborate bowers or playing-grounds. The 

squirrel-tailed wood-rat of Colorado collects 
and stows away towels, soap, sponges, 
knives, combs and all portable objects not 
too large for it to handle. These it stores 
away in its huge nest or house of sticks and 
twigs. In this house, willy nilly, the wood- 
rat often entertains a considerable company 
of guests, mostly of the mouse kind, who 
visit their cousin, the rat, evidently with an 
eye to his stores of good things. The rat 
commonly treats his visitors well. Latterly, 
the miners have learned that the flesh of the 
wood-rat is delicious meat ; and this fact, 
together with his thieving propensities, may 
yet bring him to grief, and limit the range 
of the species. The common otter is fond 
of sliding down hill, either on the snow, or 
down a steep bank. 

E. B. E. 


Prehistoric archeology may be divided 
into four epochs: Paleolithic, rude stone 
implements ; Neolithic, polished stone 
material ; .Bronze (a mixture of copper and 
tin) used ; Iron, when iron was discovered 
and used. The first really civilized societies 
had their seats in the valleys of the great 
rivers Nile, Tigris and Euphrates. 

The Great Pyramid was the loftiest build- 
ing in the world. If it were formed of hol- 
low tin or sheet-iron, it could be placed over 
St. Peter's Church at Rome, and that struc- 
ture would disappear " like a nutmeg under 
a juggler's cap." 

In theory, at least, the ancient Egyptian 
priesthood seems to have had a high concep- 
tion of deity. They believed in one God, 
eternal and immutable. " He that lives in 
spirit, sole generating force in heaven and 
on earth, that was not begotten " (Nuk~ 
Pu-Nuk I am that I am). 

This idea of God subsequently became de- 
based and complicated, by the distinctions 
made in the divine attributes, which ulti- 
mately were converted into personal gods, 
as Ra, Ammon, Imhotep, Ptah and Osiris. 
The outward manifestation, however, of 
God, in the abstract, seems to have been the 

An Egyptian Prayer: " We adore thee, 

May 24, 1890.] 



O God Ra ! Atoum, Kheper, Horks of 
the two zones. Homage to thee, Sahon, 
divine child, who by thine own power, 
daily reneweth thy birth. Homage to 
thee who shinest from the waters of heaven 
to give us life. Through his divine power 
he has created all that exists. Homage to 
thee, Ra ! When he awakens his rays bring 
life to the pure in heart. Homage to thee, 
who hast created the heavens of the spheres. 
When he disappears his path is unknown. 
Homage to thee ! When thou passest 
through the heavens the gods who approach 
thee thrill with joy." 

The ancient Egyptians believed in the 
immortality of the soul, notwithstanding 
their great anxiety to embalm and preserve 
the bodies of their dead seems to imply that 
they also had a strong faith in the resurrec- 
tion of the material body. They, however, 
weighed the actions of the dead, and the 
proven or confessedly wicked were not 
embalmed. S. S. R. 



For the noun brack, in the sense which 
we are about to discuss, the " Oxford Dic- 
tionary" of Dr. Murray gives but one defi- 
nition, namely, the system of assorting wares 
which prevails in the Baltic ports. It cer- 
tainly has other meanings, a second mean ing 
being " a grade, or sort," and a /////-//being 
"alow grade." There is a corresponding 
verb to brack, meaning to assort, to cull. 
Just as the verb to cull gives culls (low-grade 
goods), so to brack, gives brack, meaning a 
poor sort of goods. (Compare sorts, mean- 
ing inferior drugs, as manna, etc.) In Mr. 
James Paton's article on "Flax," in the 
"Encyc. Britannica," the verb/0 brack oc- 
curs twice, and the noun brack (low grade) 
is spelled wrack. In Laslett's work on 
"Timber and Timber Trees," examples are 
found of the noun brack in the senses of a 
grade, and a low grade. Brack (adj.) for in- 
ferior is found in that work, p. 96. Brack 
(noun), in the sense of a grade, occurs on p. 
92. In German the nouns brack and wrack 
signify refuse, trash. The words are evidently 
connected with break, in the sense of to 
divide, to assort. * * * 



In our boyhood these were resorted to 
with confidence in their efficacy, when peo- 
ple were afflicted with insomnia or sleep- 
lessness, and it is, or was, remarkable how 
often they were alleged to be effectual. 
They were adapted to different cases, and 
when one failed, another was tried, until 
success followed. In a mild case the patient 
shut his eye and repeated the following : 

" One, two, buckle my shoe, 
Three, four, open the door, 
Five, six, pick up sticks, 
Seven, eight, lay them straight, 
Nine, ten, a good fat hen, 
Eleven, twelve, roast her well, 
Thirteen, fourteen, go a courting, 
Fifteen, sixteen, go a kissing, 
Seventeen, eighteen, the bread is baking, 
Nineteen, twenty, the oven's empty." 

This had to be repeated once, twice, or 
three times, or oftener, especially when the 
patient knew no other formula, until he or 
she fell into a slumber. 

If, however, it was a stubborn case, and 
the following was known, this was then re- 
sorted to : 

" A man of words and not of deeds 
Is like a garden full of weeds; 
When the weeds begin to grow 
Like a garden full of snow, 
When the snow begins to melt 
Like a garden full of spelt, 
When the spelt begins to peel 
Like a garden full of steel, 
When the steel begins to rust 
Like a garaen full of dust, 
When the dust begins to fly 
Like an eagle in the sky, 
When the sky begins to roar 
Like a lion at the door, 
When the door begins to crack 
Like a switch upon your back, 
When your back begins to smart 
Like a dagger in your heart, 
When your heart begins to fail 
Like a ship without a sail, 
When the ship begins to sink 
Like a bottle full of ink, 
When the ink begins to spill 
Like a rabbit on a hill, 
When the rabbit begins to jump 
Like a ram against a stump." 

It is true, that many of these " likes" are 
amongst the most unlikely things that could 
possibly occur, but then like all systems of 
pow-wowtry, it will not do to criticise them 
too closely. A juvenile wit once remarked, 
in effect, that the interposition of that 


[May 24, 1890. 

"stump" was a most fortunate contin- 
gency, or there would have been no knowing 
when or where those rhymes might have 
ended ; possibly those rhythmic incongruities 
constituted the chief merit of the lines as a 
cure for sleeplessness. When this formula 
failed, then it was recommended to slowly 
count one, two, three, or even five hundred 
or more, when the patient was sure to fall 
asleep from sheer fatigue. 

S. S. R. 


Why have no American publishers taken 
up the enterprise of reprinting rare Old Eng- 
lish books ? It seems to me that college and 
school libraries and private students would 
subscribe in advance for copies enough to 
insure a good pecuniary return. It would 
be a great mistake to make the prices too 
high, and thus reduce the number of buyers. 
The practice of some of the British societies 
of printing a limited number of copies and 
selling them at a great price seems to me a 
reprehensible one. 

E. R. S. 


^UE 1^1 E S. 

Poet-Laureate of Australia. Who is the 

poet-laureate of Australia ? The name occurs 
in a late review, but I have forgotten it. 


Prof. Douglas B. W. Sladen, of Sydney, 
is spoken of in late periodicals as " the poet- 
laureate of Australia." He is an English- 
man, and a graduate of Oxford. We 
imagine that the title is an unofficial one. 

Snickersnee. -- In the opera "The 
Mikado" occur the words, "I drew my 
snickersnee" apparently "a sword." 
Whence does this word come ? 

R. T. B. 


A snick is the same as a nick, or cut, and 
the word is found in most large dictionaries. 
Asnet is a knife. A snick-and-snee is a fight 

with knives. Sneeh in " Worcester's Dic- 
tionary;" snick is in Webster also. 

An old comic Litany of the seventeenth 
century says : 

" From a Dutchman's 
Libera nos, Domine." 

In Marvell's " Character of Holland," 
in describing a quarrel of the Dutch sailors, 
the poet uses the words "snick and sneer," 
in an adverbial way, like cut and slash. 

Trivium and Quadrivium. Can any of 

your correspondents furnish me with the old 
Latin hexameters which set forth the trivium 
and quadrivium, the two courses of study in 
the mediaeval universities? 

A. S. A. 

They are as follows : 

Gram loquitur: Dia verba docet; Rhet verba colorat; 
Afus canit: Ar numeral; Geo ponderat; Ast colit 

Grammar, dialectic and rhetoric made up 
the tritium ; music, arithmetic, geometry 
and astronomy formed the quadrivium. 

Nainsook. What is the origin of this 
word, the name of a kind of muslin ? 

A. B. M. 

The following suggestions as to the origin 
of this word are here offered as mere hints. 
There is a mountain valley in the district of 
Hazara, British India, called Khaghan, or 
Nainsukh, which is separated, in part, from 
the independent valley of Swat by a moun- 
tain ridge. But it is not probable that this 
wild and remote mountain region gave com- 
mercial name to a fabric. Some have 
thought, not without probability, that Nain- 
sook may have been named from the holy 
city of the Marhattas, Nasik, or Nassuck. 
In the Pushtu language, nasak means thin, 
or delicate, which are terms fairly descriptive 
of the muslin in question. Possibly the 
Nainsukh valley may have been so named 
for its thin, wedge-like shape, or from its 
narrowness. This explanation is a specula- 
tive one, and is offered for what it may be 
worth. It should be added that the name of 

May 24, 1890.] 


the city of Nasik, or Nassuck, is of Sanskrit 
origin, from Nasika, the nose, and has 
reference to an episode in that great epic, 
the "Ramayana." 

I B P L I E S . 

Name Wanted for a City (Vol. v, p. 29). 
If your correspondent will consult the 
fragments remaining of M. Varro's works, 
which I have not at hand, he may possibly 
find a name for the city referred to by Mar- 

Pliny states (Bk. viii, Chap, xliii) that, ac- 
cording to M. Varro, a town in Spain was 
undermined by rabbits, and one in Thessaly 
by mice ; but he does not name the towns, 
nor give any more exact reference, and 
Varro is credited with seventy-four distinct 
works. E. G. KEEN. 


Peter (Vol. v, p. 29). This word, as an 
intransitive verb, is in very common use 
among miners, to indicate the disappearance 
of a vein of ore by gradual contraction in 
width. The ledge under such circumstances 
is said to " peter ' ' out. Until within a year or 
two I never heard the word used otherwise 
than in this sense, and imagined it might 
have been derived from xl-cpa, but from the 
promiscuous manner in which it is used in 
the Eastern States, I take it there is no au- 
thority for this derivation. It is here fre- 
quently used as a synonym for " tired." 


Rise (Vol. iv, pp. 306, etc.). May I say 
a final word on the subject of the pronun- 
ciation of this noun ? 

I heartily applaud the opinion of the late 
Mr. George P. Marsh, that no dictionary or 
encyclopaedia is to be received as a final 
authority on any subject, but only as a 
record, more or less trustworthy, of the facts 
which come within its province. The true 
criterion in matters of pronunciation is the 
best ysage. I think it is a matter of ex- 
perience with all of us, that nearly every- 
body, lettered or unlettered, pronounces 
this word Hze. When the pronunciation 

rice is heard it seems like a piece of 
affectation or oddity. Many of the dic- 
tionaries which endorse it are antiquated. 

C. F. M. 

Autum (Vol. ii, p. 107). With the anti- 
quated slang word autum, or atttem, for " a 
church," compare the French argot autem, 
"high" (Latin, altus). I offer this as a 
conjecture. B. B. C. 


Push (Vol. v, p. 1 8). Push probably 
bears the same relation to fudge that slush 
bears to sludge. 

* # # 



Vicarious Justice. Is there any 
foundation in history for the story told in 
Hudibras about the New Englanders who 
hanged a bed-ridden but innocent weaver in 
the place of a murderer who could exhort as 
well as mend shoes? The cobbler had killed 
an Indian because he was an unbeliever. It 
will be remembered that the Indian chief 
who demanded the execution of the guilty 
man was " the mighty Tottipottymoy." 
Totapotamoy is the name of a river in Vir- 
ginia. Is there any other similar story re- 
corded of the early Puritan colonists ? 

P. R. E. 


Name Wanted for a City. Does 

Browning's beautiful lyric, "Love Among 
the Ruins," have reference to any real site 
of a former city ? If so, what city was it and 
where ? F. R. S. 


Harmonious Blacksmith. Can you 

tell me who the harmonious blacksmith was ? 


Popocatepetl. Will some reader of 
of the altitude of the volcano Popocatepetl ? 

S. D. D. 



[May 24, 1890. 


Superstitions of India. The natives 
of India, according to the Temple Bar, have 
many curious beliefs and superstitions, some 
of which are essentially Oriental in their 
nature, others common to many nations and 
shared by ourselves only a few centuries ago. 
One day an English magistrate was paying 
a visit to a Hindu gentleman who was an old 
friend of his, in the course of which he hap- 
pened to yawn. To his astonishment, up 
jumped the Rajah as if galvanized and began 
furiously snapping his fingers in startling 
proximity to his face. Observing his visitor's 
look of unfeigned surprise, he explained that 
this was done to scare away the devils who 
might have otherwise seized the opportunity 
to jump down his throat. How strange it 
seems to us, this practical belief in devils, 
and fear of them, combined with so insult- 
ingly low an idea of their intelligence and 
power ! I once heard, however, an odd in- 
stance of the same fear and yet contempt for 
unseen powers shown by an English lady 
in the beginning of this century a bishop's 
wife, too ! who was afraid of ghosts, and if 
left alone in the house would whistle as she 
walked through the passages at night in 
order that the ghosts might take her for a 
man. The Scriptural belief in possession by 
a devil is held to this day by the natives of 
India, and very recently a case came before 
an English magistrate in Bengal in which a 
Brahmin was charged with having caused the 
death of a lad by his attempts to exorcise an 
evil spirit. The boy had been made to lie 
on his back, in the presence of his parents 
and other sympathizing relatives, while the 
priest danced on his chest, calling on the 
name of his god, "O Baal, hear." But 
whether the god was sleeping, or whether the 
devil in departing took with him the boy's 
own spirit, cannot be known. The boy 
died, and the civil surgeon, knowing noth- 
ing of the nature of exorcism, reported that 
he had died from injuries caused by the 
priest. Like the Russians of the present 
day, the Hindus think it brings a person ill 
luck to be openly admired or praised, and if 
you should praise, or even look too admir- 
ingly at, a child, the mother will hastily 
withdraw it from notice, and either beat it 

or say something disparaging of it in order 
to counteract your ill-omened admiration 
and avert the jealousy of the gods. 

The belief in some form of ordeal for 
proving the guilt or innocence of an accused 
person is another of the traditions of the 
past which we Westerners have outgrown and 
cast aside, but which still forms part of the 
practical belief of the people in India. Of 
this I remember an instance occurring with- 
in my own experience, on the occasion of a 
robbery having been committed in my 
house, when the police summoned the whole 
of my servants to the police station in order 
that each one might separately and solemnly 
be put to the test. It was a droll sight to 
see the procession setting forth on this mis- 
sion, headed by the magnificent Khansama 
and the imperious bearer, and tailing off 
through minor dignitaries down to the in- 
differently clothed coolies who brought up 
the rear. The ordeal is conducted by a 
Mohammedan priest, who mutters certain 
mysterious invocations over the Koran, 
which is then pronounced to have the power 
of pointing out the guilty person by open- 
ing miraculously at a condemnatory passage 
when touched by him. A factor in this ex- 
periment, doubtless much, even if uncon- 
sciously, relied upon for bringing it to a suc- 
cessful issue, is the power of superstitious 
fear over the conscience of the guilty person. 
To most natures the idea of being discovered 
in this supernatural and awful manner is so 
terrible that the culprit rather than risk it 
will make voluntary confession, and so depre- 
cate the heavier anger of the gods reserved 
for those who defy them. On this occasion 
the Koran unhesitatingly pointed out one of 
the servants as the thief. Whether he was 
innocent, as he maintained, or merely un- 
impressionable and hard of heart as we had 
much reason for believing, I cannot say 
but confess he would not, and living as we 
do in the nineteenth century, he could not 
be imprisoned on the sole testimony, how- 
ever conclusive, of the Koran, nor, owing to 
the modern prejudice there exists against ap- 
plying torture, could he be made to confess. 
The conditions which made trial by ordeal 
so generally successful in the ages of faith 
are altogether wanting in the present skepti- 
cal and scrupulous generation. 

May 24, 1890.] 


The reproach of skepticism cannot, how- 
ever, be applied to the Hindustanis. Their 
powers of belief are child-like. I was once 
taken to see a miraculous spring that had 
suddenly appeared in a dry and barren spot, 
and was bringing in much wealth to the fakir 
who had appointed himself its guardian. It 
was very small scarcely to be discerned 
until pointed out and I of little faith even 
thought in secret that it could be produced 
by the holy man's pouring in water every 
night. But small as the hole, he sucked 
thereout no small advantage, for the people's 
faith is large, and crowds of pious persons 
made pilgrimages to the divinely favored 

Curious instances might be collected from 
the records of Indian law courts illustrative 
of the Old World beliefs of the people, which 
are brought at times into such strange col- 
lision with the legal forms of procedure es- 
tablished by our modern lawyers. A man 
was once being tried for murder when he 
put forward a plea such as could only have 
occurred to an Oriental and to a believer in 
the transmigration of souls. He did not 
deny having killed the man on the con- 
trary he described in detail the particulars 
of the murder but he stated in justification 
that his victim and he had been acquainted 
in a previous state of existence, when the 
now murdered man had murdered him, in 
proof of which he showed a great seam 
across his side which had been the sword- 
cut that had ended his previous existence. 
He further said that when he heard he was 
again to be sent into this world he entreated 
his master to excuse him from coming, as he 
had a presentiment that he should meet his 
murderer and that harm would come of it. 
All this he stated in perfect earnestness and 
simplicity, and with evident conviction of 
its truth and force a conviction shared by 
a large number of those in court. 

Trial by jury is attended with peculiar 
difficulties in India, an instance of which I 
remember as having occurred. In that case 
also a man was on his trial for the murder of 
another. He had been caught red-handed 
and there was no possible room for doubt in 
the matter. The murdered man had suc- 
cumbed almost immediately to his wound, 
living only long enough, after being discov- 

ered, to ask for some water to drink. Some 
surprise was felt at the time taken by the jury 
in considering their verdict, but when at 
length they returned and recorded it the 
astonishment of all in court was unbounded 
when it proved to be one of not guilty. So 
extraordinary a verdict could not pass un- 
challenged, and the judge inquired by what 
process of reasoning they had arrived at 
their decision ; if the accused had not mur- 
dered the man, who had ? "Your Lordship,, 
we are of opinion that the injuries were not 
the cause of the man's death. It has been 
proved that he drank water shortly before 
his death, and we are of the opinion that it 
was drinking the water that killed him."' 
The explanation of this remarkable verdict 
the more remarkable when it is remem- 
bered that the men who brought it in never 
drank anything but water themselves was 
that on the jury was a high-caste Brahman, 
to whom the very idea of being a party to 
taking away a man's life was so abhorrent 
that no earthly persuasion could have in- 
duced him to agree to a verdict that would 
have hanged the prisoner and the earnest- 
ness of his horror had exercised an influence 
over the rest of the jury so powerful as to 
make them return the verdict which so stag- 
gered the Court. 


Men as Things (Vol. iv, p. 264). It 
is interesting to notice that this kind of 
transformation went on centuries ago. 
When the Venetian general and soldier of 
fortune, known then and now as Carmagnola, 
from his birthplace, was brought out to suf- 
fer execution between the pillars of St. 
Mark's, it was surely a curious circumstance, 
as well as a bitter satire upon his hour of 
popularity, that he wore upon his head a 
earmagn&fa, a velvet cap to which his own 
name had been transferred. 

In Dr. Murray's list for "Quotations 
Wanted," is the word " Colbertine (lace)." 
The suffix ine prevents this being a true case 
in point, but it may be noted that the 
material was so named in honor of Colbert, 
the minister of finance who established the 
French lace factories in the seventeenth cen- 



[May 24, 1890. 

Angelots of Brie, /. e., Brie cheese, 
enumerated among the dainties of the same 
century, are thought by some to have been 
so called from some one named Angelot or 
Angelo, who first made the cheese or 
stamped it, but Littre's explanation seems 
better, that the cheese was so called because 
it bore the figure of the gold coin called 
angelot. Of these coins there were two, one 
with the image of St. Michael and the 
dragon, the other having the figure of an 
angel supporting the scutcheon of the arms. 

M. C. L. 


Nicker (Vol. iv, p. 228). The Dutch 
knikker means a child's playing marble, and 
appears to be related to knikken, to snap ; 
but it may nevertheless have some relation 
to L. nux, or its derivatives ; for confusion 
between distinctly separate verbal roots 
often takes place. The spelling knicker 
("Century" and Bartlett) seems to come 
from the Dutch ; nicker (Halliwell-Phillips) 
is an English spelling of what seems to be 
the same word. ILDERIM. 


Hard "Words for Rhymsters (Vol. 
iv, p. 294). As a good rhyme for scalp I 
suggest alp, e.g., the Bel alp, the Wengern 
alp, etc. I cannot understand the sugges- 
tion of Jongleur that vaults and halts may 
be made to rhyme with false and halse. 
Surely in the former words the / is sounded 
and faults would give the perfect rhyme. 
For rhymes to carve and stan>e I suggest 
salve and arve, and for babe and astrolabe 
the manufactured word from the line "And 
the mome rathes outgrabe ' ' in the now 
famous " Jabberwocky " poem in "Alice 
in Wonderland." C. H. A. 


Tarve (Vol. iv, pp. 276, 294). If your 
correspondent Jongleur will consult Bart- 
lett's " Dictionary of Americanisms,' ' he will 
find tarve with a good quotation from one 
of Cooper's novels. It is defined " a turn, 
bend, or curve." "The dishing of a 
wheel," of course, involves one kind of a 

CUBA, N. Y. 

Discoveries by Accident (Vol. iv, p. 
305, etc.). Aventurine. 

" From out the silken curtain folds 
Bare-footed and bare-headed three fair girls 
In gilt and rosy raiment came, and the hair 
All over glanced with dew-drop or with gem 
Like sparkles in the stone Aventurine." 

(Tennyson's " Gareth and Lynette.") 

The mineral aventunne is a variety of 
quartz or feldspar spangled with red, brown 
or golden scales of mica. The mass of the 
stone is dull in color and translucent, but 
the contrast thus formed with the interior 
bright and sparkling points rendered it very 
effective when used for ornaments. The 
mineral, however, is much less beautiful 
than the glass, aventurine, from which its 
name is borrowed. 

The glass is opaque and the general mass 
is of a golden-brown color. The minute 
crystals, specks and drops of gold, as it were, 
with which the substance is filled, are of 
such extraordinary brilliancy that the 
jewelers called it gold stone, and used it ex- 
tensively for ornaments. 

The preparation of aventurine was dis- 
covered in 1600 by a workman in the glass- 
works at Murano near Venice. He acci- 
dentally let fall a quantity of brass filings 
into a pot of molten glass. The substance 
produced at once received the Italian name 
Avventurino from Avventura, signifying 
chance or accident. 

The recipe for the preparation of the 
glass is as follows : 300 parts powdered 
glass, 40 parts copper filings, and 50 parts 
iron filings ; the mixture to cool rather 
slowly. W. L. 


Anona. This word, the botanical and 
generic name of the tropical custard-apple, 
according to the " Century Diet.," is "said 
to be from its Malay name menona" Dr. 
Murray's dictionary very strangely tells us 
to '-'see Ananas," which is the Peruvian 
name for the pine-apple. But in Shake- 
speare's "Hindustani Dictionary" I find 
nona defined as " the custard-apple." This 
certainly seems to be nearer to anona than 
either ananas or menona. 

** *P *t* 


May 24, 1890.] 



Hackney-Barney. Another place 
name from the Old World which we used to 
hear in the old days in this country is Hack- 
ney-Barney. It was used just like Ballyhack, 
or Bungay, just as if it were the last place in the 
world to which one would wish to go, thus : 
" I wished I could send her to Hackney- 
Barney," or the like. 

C. M. R. 


Creek, Brook, Branch (Vol. v, pp. 30, 
etc.). Though acknowledging J. W. Red- 
way as very high authority on subjects 
geographical, I must dissent from his remark 
that in the New England States " the word 
brook is sparingly and branch unsparingly 
used." In New England the word brook is 
almost everywhere the name of a small 
stream, while I do not know of a single in- 
stance of branch being so used. The latter 
word is common in the South, and creek and 
fork in the West. In Maine in the lumber 
region stream is very frequently used, e.g., 
Wilson's stream, Long Pond stream, etc., 
though brook is also very common. 

C. H. A. 


Horn Mad and Bedlamites (Vol. iv, pp. 
57, 100). " Where hast thou been, in the 
name of madness, thus accoutred with thy 
horn?" (Ben Jonson's "Silent Woman," 
Act ii, Sc. 2 ; Morley's Universal Lib. 
Ed., p. 209). 

M. C. L. 


No (Vol. v, p. 17). "The almost un- 
spellable couple of sounds" used in the 
West for ' ' No, ' ' are used in the East for 
" Yes." It is also common as an affirmative 
in Scotland, as the following poem by James 
Nicholson shows : 

" IMPH-M. 

" Ye've heard hoo the deil, as he wauchel'd through 


Wi' a wife in ilk oxter, an' ane in his teeth, 
When some ane cried out, 'Will ye tak' mine the 


He wagged his auld tail while he cockit his horn, 
But only said ' Imph-m,' 
That usefu' word ' Imph-m,' 
Wi' sic a big mouthfu', he couldna say ' A-y-e !' 

" When I was a laddie langsyne at the schule, 
The maister aye called me a dunce an' a fule ; 
For a' that he said, I could ne'er un'erstan', 
Unless when he bawled, ' Jamie ! haud out yer han' !' 
Therul gloomed, and said ' Imph-m,' 
I glunched, and said ' Imph-m ;' 
I wasna owre proud, but owre dour to say, ' A-y-e !' 

" Aye day a queer word, as lang-nebbit's himsel', 
He vowed he wad thrash me if I wadna spell. 
Quo' I, ' Maister Quill,' wi' a kind o' a swither, 
' I'll spell ye the word gif ye'll spell me anither. 
Let's hear ye spell " Imph-m," 
That common word " Imph-m," 

That auld Scotch word " Imph-m," ye ken it means 
" A-y-e !" ' 

" Had ye seen hoo he glowered, hoo he scratched his big 


An' shouted, ' Ye villain, get oot o' my gate ! 
Get aff tae yer seat ! yer the plague o' the schule ! 
The deil o' me kens if yer maist rogue or fule !' 
But I only said ' Imph-m,' 
Thaat common word ' Imph-m,' 

That auld-farrand word ' Imph-m,' that Stan's for an 
' A-y-e !' 

"An 1 when a brisk wooer, I courted my Jean 
O' Avon's braw lasses the pride an' the queen 
When 'neath my grey plaidie, wi' heart beatin' fain, 
I spiered in a whisper, if she'd be my ain. 
She blushed, an' said ' Imph-m,' 
That charming word, ' Imph-m,' 
A thoosan' times better an' sweeter than ' A-y-e!' 

"An 1 noo I'm a dad wi' a hoose o' my ain 
A daintie bit wine, an' mair than ae wean 
But the warst o't is this when a question I spier, 
They pit on a luik sae auld farran' an' queer, 
But only say ' Imph-m,' 
That daft-like word, ' Imph-m, 1 
That vulgar word, ' Imph-m,' they winna say, ' A-y-e !' 

" Sae I've gi'en owre the Imph-m it's no a nice word ; 

When printed on paper it's perfect absurd ; 

An' gif ye're ow're lazy to open yer jaw, 

Jist haud ye yer tongue, an' say naething ava ; 
But never say ' Imph-m,' 
That daft-like word ' Imph-m,' 

It's ten times mair vulgar than even braid ' A-y-e !' " 
(Carpenter's " Popular Readings," Vol. v.) 

C. M. H. 

Billington Sea. There is a consider- 
able lake near Plymouth, Mass., called 
Billington Sea. Can this exam pie of the use of 
the word sea for lake be an instance of word- 
loaning? The Pilgrims of 1620 had been 
living for some years in the Netherlands, and 
they may have adopted this use of the word 
sea from their Dutch acquaintances. 




[May 24, 1890. 

Ambrosia (Vol. v, pp. 21, etc.). My 
critic has entirely misapprehended my 
strictures on the use oftheword "Ambrosia." 
It would be rather presumptuous in me to 
find fault with a word used by Virgil. But 
Virgil wrote Ambrosiaque Odorem and 
my critic must be very obtuse if he sees no 
difference between "shaking ambrosia" 
and "shaking ambrosial odors" from the 
hair. Perhaps he would consider " Breath- 
ing onions " a proper figure of speech for 
" Breathing the odor of onions." 


This matter is treated 
fullness in Dr. Murray's ' 

with considerable 
New English Die- 


Parallel Passages (Vol. v, pp. 29, 
etc.). So much has been said in your col- 
umns about a " Heathen Hymn in Chris- 
tian Churches " that I venture to offer three 
" parallel passages " illustrating the subject. 
The original question, " What hymn now 
sung in Christian churches was composed by 
a heathen?" (Vol. iii, p. 141) was taken from 
one of Miss Killikelly's books of " Curious 
Questions," and it is answered in her latest 
volume in the same way that your corre- 
spondent " Charex" answered it (Vol. iii, 
p. 165). But the question and answer are 
open to some criticism. In the first place, 
Hadrian's " Animula " is in no proper 
sense a hymn, though very heathenish ; in 
the next place, neither it nor Pope's imita- 
tion is actually used in Christian churches. 
Hadrian's lines are as follows : 

Animula vagula, blandula, 
Hospes comesque corporis, 
Qua; nunc abibis in loca 
Pallidula, rigida, nudula; 
Nee, ut soles, dabisjocos? 

To these lines I append a rhyming trans- 
lation : 


My spirit, flickering, wandering shade, 
The body's guest and fellow made 
Pray, now upon what distant strand, 
Pale, naked, chill, are you to land. 
Vague shadow mine? My bones at rest, 
Will you, thin ghost, still smile and jest? 

This cold and poor version gives the 

sense, but does not reproduce the lightness 
of touch, nor the delicate shade of regret that 
pervades the original. Pope's " Dying 
Christian," imitating at once Sappho, Had- 
rian, St. Paul and Thomas Flatman, is as 
follows : 


Vital spark of heavenly flame, 
Quit, oh quit this mortal frame ! 
Trembling, hoping, lingering, flying 
Oh the pain, the bliss of dying ! 
Cease, fond nature, cease thy strife, 
And let me languish into life ! 

Hark ! they whisper ; angels say, 
Sister spirit, come away ! 
What is this absorbs me quite, 
Steals my senses, shuts my sight, 
Drowns my spirit ; draws my breath ? 
Tell me, my soul ! can this be death ? 

The world recedes it disappears ; 
Heaven opens on my eyes ; my ears 

With sounds seraphic ring ; 
Lend, lend your wings ! I mount, I fly ! 
O grave, where is thy victory ? 

O death, where is thy sting? 

These are Thomas Flatman's lines : 

When on my sick bed I languish, 
Full of sorrow, full of anguish, 
Fainting, gasping, trembling, crying, 
Panting, groaning, speechless, dying 
Methinks I hear some gentle spirit say 
" Be not fearful, come away !" 

The extract which your correspondent, 
M. N. R., gave from the " AdLesbiam" of 
Sappho (Vol. iii, p. 211) was taken from the 
translation of Ambrose Philips. 

The closing lines of Pope's piece (bhall 
we call it a cento?) are plainly borrowed 
from St. Paul. 



Localisms in Speech. Squozc for 
squeezed (New England, for the most part 
used humorously, sometimes seriously). 

A few cheese, a few of them cheese, a few 
molasses (Kentucky). 

A few porridge, for a small quantity of 
porridge (Western Massachusetts). 

Wore for waved (Canada). 

Sont for sent (Eastern Kentucky). 


May 24, 1890.] 



Cummerbund (Vol. v, pp. 34, etc.). 
It is a girdle, from the Arabic, and, I think, 
a Hindustani form. It is not employed 
except by East Indians west of India. 


Blue-nose (Vol. v, p. 6). This nick- 
name for a Nova Scotian is well known in 
the United States, and seems to have been 
derived from the purple tinge not rarely seen 
on the noses of Nova Scotiamen, and pre- 
sumably due to the coldness of the winters. 
Some writers derive the name from the Blue- 
nose potato, formerly a great favorite from 
its delicacy, but I believe that the Blue-nose 
potato was simply a Nova Scotia potato. 
The nickname Blue-nose is also extended to 
people from New Brunswick, Prince Edward 
Island, and even Newfoundland. Thus, in 
Holmes' "All Right, De Sauty," he calls 
the Newfoundlander a Cyano-Rhinal and a 
Ceruleo-Nasal ; and the latter retorts, call- 
ing his Yankee interlocutor a " jack-knife- 
bearing stranger, much-conjecturing mortal, 
pork-and-treacle waster." 



Blue-nosed Presbyterians (Vol. v, 
p. 6). This is simply a variant of that 
popular figure of speech which calls sobriety 
and gravity of thought and feeling by the 
name of blueness. Hudibras speaks of 
" Presbyterian true blue." The severe laws 
of the early New England Puritans were 
caricatured and called " Blue Laws." 
'Abundance of other illustrations might no 
doubt be adduced to show the wide pre- 
valence of this idea in its various shapes. 

J. N. D. 


On the Score (Vol. iv, pp. 311, etc.). 
" Hee [the Pot-Poet] ends at last in some ob- 
scure Painted Cloth to which himselfe made 
the Verses, and his life like a Canne too full 
spils upon the bench. He leaves twenty 
shillings on the score, which my Hostesse 
looses" (Earle's "Microcosmographie," 24, 
1628). R. S. V 


Weeping Trees (Vol. v, pp. 31, etc.). 
In the fir forests of Washington and British 
Columbia, I have frequently seen the trees 
dripping copiously during clear, bright days, 
when no dew was visible elsewhere. The 
dripping was so profuse that the ground un- 
derneath the trees was almost saturated. 
The phenomenon, in this case, was caused 
by the remarkable condensing power of the 
leaves of the fir, and it occurred only when 
the relative humidity was near the dew 
point. The dripping ceased after ten or 
eleven o'clock in the morning, but resumed 
at or near sunset. 

J. W. R. 


Aspenquid (Vol. ii, pp. 249, etc.). I 
have a recollection of reading in the Spring- 
field Republican, many years ago, an account 
of the burial of St. Aspenquid. If my 
memory serves me, that account stated that 
though Aspenquid was never canonized, he 
was recognized as a saint by the Franciscans. 

C. D. L. 


Slang (Vol. T, pp. 6, 28). Is not this 
word, in the sense of a water-course, the 
same as the Dutch and Swedish slang, Ger. 
schlange, a water-pipe, or hose ? 

Qui TAM. 

Buckram (Vol. iv, p. 201). Do not the 
French forms bougran and bougeran point to 
"Bulgarian" as the original of buckram 
when it is the name of a kind of cloth? 



Kangaroo (Vol. iv, pp. 130, etc.). The 
" Century Diet." tells us that the great 
Kangaroo (Macropus giganfeus) was the first 
species of this family of animals " to become 
known to Europeans," having been dis- 
covered by Cook in 1770. But another 
species (M. brunii} was described and 
figured by Bruyn in 1711, in his " Travels " 
(^Reizen over Moskovie, etc.) as noted by 
Prof. Flower in the article " Kangaroo " in 
"Encyc. Brit." S. S. T. 




[May 24, 1890. 

Peculiar Names. A recent issue of 
the St. Louis Republic gives some peculiar 
names entered on the old record books at 
Oxford, England, among which may be found 
the following : John Bellewhether, Alan Sweet- 
in-bedde, Alicia Thorndodger, Hugh Hali- 
waterclerk, John de Halfnaked, Isaac Wake, 
Dr. Sleep, William Blakinthemouth, Osbert 
Diabolus (Devil), Thomas Onehand, Agnes 
Blackmantle, Thomas Crakeshield, C. Well- 
beloved, Richard Drinkwater (spelled as 
Drynkewattere), Christopher Pigg, John 
Klenewater, Galfridus Drinkdreggs, Thomas 
Sourale, Fulco Twelvepence, Arnold Schut- 
tlemouth, John Rattlebaggage, Ivory Malet, 
Pine Coffin, Johannes Go-to-bedde, River 
Jordon, Peter Le Goose, George Crook- 
shanks, Savage Beare, Robert Shilling, Cop- 
per Penny, Ralph Fulljames, John Little- 
john, Buck Staggs, Duckie Drake and True 
Hawk. E. S. M. 

ST. Louis, Mo. 

Ancient Laws Concerning Shoes 

(Vol. v, p. 14). Will you let me correct, 
without the slightest hope of removing, the 
error that the bare-foot is a sign of servitude 
in the East. It is a sign of respect as nearly 
as possible like our uncovering the head. 


Brook vs. Branch (Vol. v, p. 18). 
With regard to the prevalence of these words 
I can only give the evidence of tke map 
from which I obtained my information. By 
actual count, in Massachusetts, Vermont, and 
New Hampshire I find brook used eleven times 
and branch sixty-seven times. If there be any 
virtue in numbers, I do not think it im- 
proper to say the one is sparingly and the 
other unsparingly used. In the three States 
named, the term river is used about 400 
times, at an estimate. J. W. R. 


Rhymed History of England (Vol. 
iv, pp. 179, etc.). There is a very com- 
plete rhymed history of England, from the 
Roman period to the present day, in Ince & 
Gilbert's " Outlines of English History." 

R. W. R. 


Runcible (Vol. v, pp. 20, etc.). 
"There is a good rounceval voice to cry 
lantern and candle light" ("Old Play," 
quoted by Nares). 

P. R. E. 


Xanadu (Vol. iv, p. 223). That most 
admirable writer, the late Sir Henry Yule, 
has shown that the Xanadu of Coleridge was 
the beautiful summer palace of the Chinese 
emperors at Shangtu in the country north 
of the Great Wall. B. R. P. 



The Chautauquan for June opens with the second of 
a two-part article on " The Making of Italy," by Edward 
A. Freeman, the eminent English historian ; James A. 
Harrison, LL.D., of Washington and Lee University, 
takes "The Archaeological Club in Italy" to the end of 
its journey; Bella H. Stillman continues her charming 
studies of " Life in Modern Italy," this time giving a 
glimpse of the customs of the upper classes ; Principal 
James Donaldson, LL.D., of the University of St. An- 
drew's, Scotland, closes his series of scholarly articles on 
"Roman Morals;" Prof. Adolfo Bartoli writes of 
" Italian Literature," bringing his study to the works 
of the present day ; Mrs. Browning's " Casa Guidi 
Windows " is paraphrased by President D. H. Wheeler, 
LL.D., of Allegheny College ; a characteristic article 
on " How to Travel in Italy," is contributed by J. P. 
Mahaffy, M. A., of Dublin University ; the " Map 
Quiz" this month is on New Rome; Bishop Vincent 
has selected for the " Sunday Readings " the subject of 
"The Imperfect Angel;" Arabella B. Buckley con- 
siders the "Moral Teachings of Science;" "How 
Electricity is Measured" is the subject of an enter- 
taining article by Prof. Edward L. Nichols, of 
Cornell University ; that the new Greece is worth 
studying as well as the old is shown in " The Greeks of 
To-day," by Albert Shaw, Ph.D.; some interesting 
personals about "The United States Senate " are told 
by Eugene Didier ; John Burroughs explains what to 
him is " The Secret of Happiness;" Elizabeth Robins 
Pennell conducts her readers " From Cathedral to 
Cathedral," to take the tour of which, she affirms, " is 
to see the better and greater part of England ;" Major- 
General O. O. Howard writes of his friend, the late 
Major-General George Crook ; " An Excursion to a 
Famous Convent " is a translation from the French de- 
scribing a visit to La Grande-Chartreuse, that curious 
monument of the past ; some thoroughly practical ideas 
will be found in " How to Make and Retain Friends," 
by Charles H. Thomas ; a strong article on " Mind- 
Reading, or Thought Transference," is contributed 
by Prof. R. E. Thompson, of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and a member of the Seybert Commission. The 
usual space is devoted to editorials and matters of 
interest to the C. L. S. C. 

American JStotes and Queries: 




Copyrighted 1890, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Yol. V. No. 5. 

SATUBDAY, MAY 31, 1890. 

I $3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 mouths. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office, 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamakc-r, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city, New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's, Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans : 
Geo. F. Wharton. 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco: J. W, Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : He Drinks Like a Fish, 49 Canting Heraldry- 
Spanish Main Notes on Words Bourbon, 50 English 
Words in French Language, 51. 

QUERIES : Silures, 51 Sabbatical River Holly Ruffets 

Father Ignatius Dice Probabilities, 52. 
REPLIES : Arthur Kill, 52 Popocatepetl, 53. 

Woodmas Authorship Wanted Swatch Stick, 53. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Nicobar, 53 Branch Camwood 
and Barwood Nomenclature of Rivers Malmsey, 54 No 
Creek Little End of the Horn, 55 And When We're 
There Peter Out The Great Mosquito Bric-a-Brac, 56 
Unknown Land Latinized Proper Names Camelot, 57 
Robert Merry Horn-mad Talboy Men as Things Ques- 
tion in Grammar Reprints, 58 Shortest Sentence Contain- 
ing the Alphabet Spiders and Bees Ambrosia Rhymeless 
Words Bonny Boots Banjula Trees, 59 Nainsook, 60. 




Whence comes this "old saw?" From 
the manner in which dissipated persons 
drank rum in my early days, and from the 
manner in which fishes drew in water through 
their mouths, we thought the simile a most 
appropriate one. But tested physiologically 
it is sheer nonsense. The water that passes 
through the mouth of a fish and out through 
its gills is analogous to the air passing in and 
out of the lungs of a mammal, through the 
nose and mouth. If you wish to drown a 
man, you immerse him in the water, and if 
you wish to drown a fish you lift him into 
the air. It is doubtful whether ever a fish 
drinks anything ; if it does, it is probably a 
very small quantity, hardly enough to "point 
amoral or adorn a tale." 


[May 31, 1890. 

In our early angling days we frequently 
caught on "outlines" fishes that were 
found to be dead when one "searched" 
the line, and these fishes were said to be 
drowned. They had grasped the bait, and 
were hooked in such a manner, that their 
throats were held open ; hence the water 
rushed in, and they were choked or 
drowned, especially when the line was 
"set" in swift water. If a man only 
" drinks like a fish," he is not likely to ever 
become a drunkard, therefore the simile has 
no meaning, except so far as the appearance 
is concerned. S. S. R. 



The castle and lion are borne on the 
arms of Castile and Leon ; the lion on those 
of Louvaine ; /raises, or strawberry-leaves, 
were a badge of the Erasers ; luces, or pikes 
(fish), were borne by the Lucy family ; Cor- 
bet bore a corby, or raven ; Falkner, a 
falcon ; Arundel, a swallow (hirondelle) ; 
Hamerton, a hammer; Oxenden, oxen; 
Hakluyt, axes ; Shelley, a shell ; De Vere, 
a pig (yerres) ; Law, a cock (cock-a-leary- 
law) ; Colonna, a column ; Frangipanni, a 
piece of bread ; Ursini, a bear ; Bern, bears ; 
Dauphiny, dolphins ; Trefusis, three spindles 
(Jusils) ; Beresford and Fitzurse, bears ; 
Keate, cats, or musions; Elphinston, an 
elephant ; Veale, a calf; Calverley, a calf; 
Horsey, a horse ; Ramsey, a ram ; Lamb- 
ton, lambs. E. BRADLEY SIMS. 



Several leading dictionaries inform us 
that the Spanish Main "is the Caribbean sea 
and other near waters. Is not this an error ? 
In one of Marzials' songs, " The Fairy 
Jane," he says: 

" I've rode the typhoon's deadly track, 
And scoured the Spanish Main." 

And Longfellow says ("The Wreck of the 

" Then up and spoke a bold sailor 
Had sailed the Spanish Main," etc. 

In every other instance where I find 

the Spanish Main spoken of it means 
the mainland of Spanish America. I once 
thought I had found the Caribbean sea so 
called in one of Lord Nelson's letters in 
which he speaks of his service on the Spanish 
Main. But investigation satisfied me that 
he referred to his services on a land campaign 
in the Mosquito country, in which he took 
an active part. I would be much pleased to 
have your correspondents send examples of 
either use of the expression. The cases 
where it evidently refers to the mainland are 
very numerous; the others, I think, are 
very few, and comparatively recent. 



Miss. This word, meaning mistress, in a 
good sense, occurs in "The Love of Dom 
Diego and Gyneura " (1596), written by 
R. L. (Linche?). This example is seventy 
years earlier than Skeat's earliest instance 
of this word. The following are rare words 
from the same poem : 

Glitterous = glittering. 

Stone astonied = struck with astonish- 

Womenkind = womankind. 

Flintful = flinty. 

Suspense (as a verb ?). 

Adamantic. This is an older example 
than the one given in " Murray's Diet." 

Hyperboreal = hyperborean. 

Overpeised =: overpoised. 

Enjourney = hasten. 

Endip = for dip. 

Counterfix = fix mutually. 

Loveful = lovely. 

Gyneurize = act like Gyneura. 

* * * 



The Chautauquan for June, 1890 (p. 282, 
note) tells its readers that the name of the 
Bourbon family was derived from the island 
of that name in the Indian ocean ! But in 
point of fact the island (which was not 
known to the world at large till the sixteenth 
century, and had no human inhabitants till 

May 31, 1890.] 


the middle of the seventeenth) was named 
in 1649 from the family, which, at that time 
royal, had already been famous in French 
history for nearly 800 years. The Chautau- 
quan teaching is praiseworthy in its main 
purpose, but not a few crudities are put be- 
fore its patrons for their mental food. 

P. R. E. 




SPORT, n. m. (from the English sport, which 
came from the old French desport}. 
" La chasse, la peche, les courses, la 
natation, la navigation de plaisance sont du 
domaine du sport " (A. Desvaulx). 

"Le sport implique trois choses, soit 
simultanees, soit separees, le plein air, le 
pari et 1'application d'une ou de plusieurs 
aptitudes du corps " (Eug. Chapus). 

STEAMBOAT, n. m. (from the English steam 
and boat}. " II comptait devenir proprie- 
taire et capitaine d'un des steamboats du 
Mississippi" (Ph. Chasles). 

" Les Americains semblent avoir etc 
predestines a ne se servir que de steamboats 
et de chemins de fer " (X. Eyma). 

STEAMER, n. m. (from the English steamer], 
" Les compagnies Anglaise, par le nombre 
de leur steamers, laisse loin derriere elles tout 
ce qui a etc tente en France" (Proud- 

STEEPLE-CHASE, n. m. (from the Eng- 
lish steeple and chase}. " Le premier 
steeple-chase qu'on ait vue en France est 
celui qui eut lieu, le i er Avril 1834, a la 
Croix-de-Berny, sur la route de Versailles a 
Choisy-le-Roi " (Pierre Larousse). 

" Cette comedie fait defiler devant nous 
les ecloppes du steeple-chase &e la vie" (P. de 
St. Victor). 

STEPPEURj, n. m. (from the English to step}. 
' ' Cheval qui a de 1' action, de la vivacit6 ' ' 
(Pierre Larousse). 

STOP, n. m. (from the English stop}. 
" Cri qu'on pousse pour ordonner au 
mecanicien d'un bateau a vapeur d'arrSter 
la machine, ou pour prevenir celui qui jette 
le loch que le sable est passe ' ' (Pierre La- 

STOPPER, n. m. (from the English stop and 
her). " Arreter, dans le langage des marins, 
des mcaniciens et des habitues des courses 
des chevaux "- (Pierre Larousse). 

TOAST, n. m. (from the English toast}. 
" L' aristocratic sait aussi a propos porter 
avec vivacite le toast de la republique ; et la 
republique n'en est pas moins trahie " 
(Bare re). 

" Depuis 1' invention des toasts, on ne boit 
plus a sa soif, mais a celle des autres ' ' 

" A la gloire civile ! Au peuple ! Au ministere ! 
Au pays! Dans son toast, chacun son charactere." 

(C. Delavigne.) 

TRAMWAY, n. m. (from the English tram 
and way}. " Chemin de fer etabli sur une 
route ordinaire, au moyens de rails pos6s a 
plat, sans saillie" ( Dictionnaire Univer- 
selle du xix 6rae Siecle). 

WAGON, n. m. (from the English wagon}. 
" Les wagons anglais ont parcouru en une 
seule annee plus que la distance qui nous 
separe du soleil" (A. Esquiros). 

" Aujourd 'hui les wagons, dans ces steppes fleuries, 
Devancent 1'hirondelle * * *." 

(Th. de Banville.) 

YACHT, n. m. (from the English yacht}. 
"Le yacht de la reine d'Angleterre " 
(Pierre Larousse). 

" Yachts au mille couleurs, caiques et tartanes, 
Qui portent au Sultan des tetes et des fleurs." 

(V. Hugo.) 

C. F. H. 


B S. 

Silures. In the " Encyc. Britannica," 
Art. "Pembroke," the ancient tribe of Silures 
in South Wales are spoken of as " non- 
Aryan," and "dolichocephalic." Are we 
to understand that anything positive is 
known as to the race of this tribe ? 

L. P. M. 


We understand that the non-Aryan origin 
of the Silures is purely conjectural. The 
dolichocephalic skulls found in South 


[May 31, 1890. 

Wales, and elsewhere in Western Europe, 
seem to be unlike Aryan skulls ; but it is not 
certainly known (as we believe) whether 
they are remains of the people whom the 
Romans called Silures, or whether they be- 
longed to a people of some other stock. 

Sabbatical River. Are the old accounts 
true of a stream in the Holy Land which 
flows for six days and rests on the seventh ? 

D. R. D. 


Pliny and other old writers are in error 
who state that the Sabbatical river rests on the 
seventh day. Josephus says it flows one day 
and then rests six days. The Palestine ex- 
ploring expeditions report that the account 
of Josephus is substantially correct. More 
extended examination is required before the 
causes of this curious phenomenon can be 
fully declared. 

Holly Ruffets. In William Warner's ac- 
count (1586) of the loves of Argentile and 
Prince Curan, there is a pretty episode of 
his life as a shepherd, when he falls in love 
for the second time with the princess in the 
guise of "a country wench." "He bor- 
rowed on the working days his holly ruffets 
oft." What are holly ntffets ? I find no ac- 
count of them in the dictionaries within my 
reach ? E. J. B. 


"Holly ruffets" we take to be holiday 
ruffs. Ruffs were much worn in Warner's 
day. The disguised prince was in that stage 
of love when he was exceedingly attentive to 
his personal appearance. Holly for holiday 
is not, however, to be found in any dic- 
tionary that we have seen. 

Father Ignatius. What is the real name 
of the clergyman mentioned (Vol. v, p. 23) 
as Father Ignatius ? 


Father Ignatius is the name " in religion " 
of the Rev. Joseph Leycester Lyne, an 
Anglican priest, and the founder of the 
"restored" order of Benedictines in Eng- 

Dice Probabilities. Can you give me the 
probabilities of throwing 3 aces with 3 dice 
in 3 throws, with the proviso that any die 
turning up an ace is not to be thrown again? 
And also for throwing 5 aces with 5 dice in 
3 throws with the same proviso ? 

Or, better still, if you have room for it, 
give the reasoning by which the probabilities 
are calculated. S. D. L. 


It seems to me that the best way to 
analyze the problem is to consider that the 
first throw must result in having turned up 
(i) 3, (2) 2, (3) i, or (4) no aces, and that 
the desired probability is made up of the sum 
of the probability of (i) and of the products 
of (2), (3) and (4), by the probabilities of 
throwing i, 2 and 3 aces, respectively, in 
the remaining two throws, the probabilities 
of (i), (2), (3) and (4) are ?{*, to J& and 
if and those of throwing i, 2 or 3 aces in 
2 throws are j$, ^Vj, and jf*j s , respectively, 
therefore the desired probability is ^H + to 

x H + to x tfh + m x MW =T$WHT 

= yj 1 :* That is the 3 aces should come up 
once in between 13 and 14 trials. A 
similar analysis of the 5 ace question results 

These probabilities are, as they should be, 
the cube and fifth power, respectively, of 
the probability of throwing i ace with i die 
in 3 throws (/&) with the same proviso. 


B P L I B S . 

Arthur Kill (Vol. v, p. 1 6). Might I be 
permitted to revert to the above, with a view 
to elicit, if possible, further information ? 

The several notes I had previously 
gathered concerning it had led me to con- 
clude that Achter Cull meant (in plain old 
Dutch) the Cull after, next to, behind the 
" Great Cull of New Netherland," Newark 
Bay, even as Dutch canals are at present 
designated achtergracht or voorgracht, ac- 
cording to their position.* 

* Achter enters largely in the composition of local 
names in modern Holland : Achterenk, Achterbosch, 
Achtereind (dist. from Qvereind), Achterste Distelberg 
(dist. from Voorstc Distelberg), etc. 

May 31, 1890.] 



The earliest authority I had found was 
Denton, who, writing in 1671, speaks in two 
different passages of the After Kull river in 
Staten Island. Now here we had (I thought) 
not an English corruption, but a literal 
translation of the original Achter Cull. 
Would your correspondents kindly oblige 
with any other documentary evidence? 


Popocatepetl (Vol. v, p. 41). Mr. Persi- 
for Frazer has noted the altitudes of this 
volcano determined by a number of au- 
thorities as follows : 


Von Humboldt 17,777 

Offman 17,816 

French Commission 17,886 

Birkek 17,955 

Ponce De Leon 17, 790 

Professor Heilprin's determination is re- 
ported about 3000 feet less than this, but 
until his full observations are made known, 
it is hardly fair to compare it with the fore- 
going, inasmuch as there has possibly been 
some error in the transmission of his first re- 
port. J. W. R. 



Primuiste. In Earle's " Microcosmo- 
graphie," Character 13 (1628), occur these 
words: "His words are like the cards at 
Primuiste, where 6 is 18, and 7 21, for 
they never signify what they sound." Is 
there any other notice of a game called 
Primuiste, and if so, where ? What is the 
origin of the word ? 



Woodmas. At the end of Tindale's 
account (1530) of the Testament (1460) of 
William Thorpe, the word woodmas oc- 
curs, and from the context it appears that 
September 19 is the time meant. Can 
roodmas be intended? Or did woodmas take 
its name from the wood of the Holy Cross ? 



Authorship Wanted. "Time was 
made for slaves, but we are free men." Can 
you tell me who wrote this quotation ? 

C. H. T. 


Swatch. In the first volume of Hun- 
ter's " Gazetteer of Bengal," he describes 
the "Swatch of No-Ground," an area in 
the bay of Bengal in which navigators find 
no soundings. Is there any other instance 
of the use of this word " Swatch ?" Can it 
be akin to the word swash, meaning a side- 
channel subsidiary to the main entrance to 
a harbor ? And is the word swash, in this 
sense, an Americanism ? It is so regarded in 
"Bartlett's Dictionary." 


Stick. I have the impression that I have 
seen the word sticks used for certain officers 
of the English court, a kind of collective 
name for the goldsticks and silversticks in 
waiting. Can any of your correspondents 
give me instances of this use of the word 
sticks ? The examples should be from writers 
of good standing. P. F. 



Nicobar (Vol. iv, p. 285). Another 
possible meaning for Nicobar has been 
hinted at by some authors. In the lan- 
guage of the Garos, a hill-tribe of India, 
nicuba, or nicoba, means "a freeman." 
The Garos belong to the set of tribes 
termed Kolarian, being neither Dravidian 
nor Aryan. Now there are tribes said to be 
Kolarian on the east side of the bay of 
Bengal, whose range approaches near the 
Nicobar Islands. Among the non-Malayan 
part of the Nicobarians it is said that many 
Kolarian words are employed, and it has 
been suggested that Nicobar may mean 
Freemen's Islands. This seems to me like 
a piece of wild guessing, but there may be 
a basis of truth for it. 

* * * 




[May 31, 1890. 

Branch (Vol. v, p. 30). If Mr. Red- 
way were on an angling tour in New Eng- 
land, and should ask any farmer the way to 
the nearest branch, he would be shown to a 
tree. An unnamed stream of small or mod- 
erate size is always a brook, never a branch. 
I am a New Englander of the ninth 
generation, and know and love almost every 
section of Yankeeland. I do not think I 
ever heard the word branch used there inde- 
pendently of some specifically named river 
branch. But I have often heard the west 
branch of the North river (Franklin county, 
Mass.) called The Branch "for short." 
But that stream is too large to be called a 
brook. G. 


Camwood and Barwood. All, or 
nearly all, the books of reference make 
these two dyewoods identical. The " New 
English Dictionary" says (under "Cam- 
wood," at the end of the notice), " called 
also Barwood." But the two woods differ 
widely in appearance and in their effects in 
the dye-tub, camwood being worth more 
than ten times as much as barwood. The best 
account of their differences which I have 
seen is in Moloney's " Sketch of West 
African Forestry," p. 137, where we are in- 
1 ~ied that the probabilities seem to be that 
coun VQ dyewoods are tne product of differ- 
"ecies of trees. Indeed, the author 
iovii*. the French botanists say that 

"Holly reproduced by a tree called 
ruffs. Ruffs violtnsi$ t while they name the 
day. The disgi'/*/M0 laurifolia. The Eng- 
of love when he \\gn them both to Baphia 
his personal appeals so called because it 
is not, however, to 'ogwood conies in logs). 
tionary that we have <&uood is less positively 
7e that a well-known 

Father Ignatius. WKJican coast should 
of the clergyman mentiomstaple articles of 
as Father Ignatius ? ' is not yet well 



Father Ignatius is the name " >j., wor( j 

of the Rev. Joseph Leycester Q designate 
Anglican priest, and the foun x wa 
"restored" order of Benedictin _.{ fl . B 
land ? . nowin 5 


Hence the word rival (rivales, those who 
used the same stream). In Italy it (riviera) 
also means a shore, and in Portugal, it 
(reiberd) is applied to a swampy place. In 
the Latin of Caesar's time flumen was 
generally applied to the larger rivers, as 
Aar est flumen, etc. 

Creek, which has already been discussed, 
is almost universally used in the United 
States to designate a small river. It is less 
common on the Pacific coast than in the 
Mississippi valley. 

Run is much used in Illinois, Indiana and 
other parts of the Central States to designate 
small creeks, especially those that partly or 
wholly become dry in summer. In Cali- 
fornia, Nevada and Arizona, these are called 

Swale, which commonly means a low, 
wet tract of land, in Oregon and Washing- 
ton, is applied to any part of a river which 
debouches from and again enters the main 
stream. It is not materially different from 
a bayou. 

Bayou (Fr., boyau, a gut), however, is 
used along the gulf coast to designate almost 
any creek, kill, swale, or abandoned chan- 

A chute, in river-men's parlance, is a half- 
silted, abandoned channel especially one 
that affords passage at higher stages of 

Kill has already been defined as a Dutch 
word denoting any tidal channel or backset 
water. Haarlem river is a kill. 

Coulee is used in Louisiana to denote a 
stream bed. In Canada it is frequently ap- 
plied to the valley or depression between 
hills. J. W. R. 


Malmsey. According to a writer in 
The Nation (May 22, 1890, p. 417), the 
name Malmsey (for a kind of wine) is de- 
rived from Malevisia in Crete, and not from 
Monembasia in the Peloponnesus. If this 
be true, Mr. Skeat and all the dictionaries 
are in the wrong. The writer states that 
the first English consul in Crete was estab- 
lished there in Henry VIII's time, and that 
his special business was to supply the king 
with wine of this sort. R. 


May 31, 1890.] 



No (Vol. v, pp. 17, 45). From my ear- 
liest boyhood down, perhaps, to the present 
period, there have been very common in 
Lancaster county, if not the entire State of 
Pennsylvania, a sort of utterances, between 
a gutteral and a nasal, made with closed lips, 
that were representatives of both no andj^-r. 
They were entirely " unspellable " sounds, 
and, in our early days, school urchins were 
in the habit of challenging each other to 
spell them, but they were as unspellable as 
the stridulations of a grasshopper. The af- 
firmative grunt was accompanied by a slight 
vertical motion of the head, and the negative 
by a transverse or horizontal motion. 
When a bevy of ancient village or country 
dames were holding an old-fashioned tete-a- 
tete, and vocal utterances became fatiguing, 
the conversation could be conducted by 
these and sundry other grunts and motions. 
In the same category belongs a sound some- 
thing like an Indian's honk, made in answer 
to a question involving wonder or surprise 
a hey ! or a nasal hone ! (The least possible 
portion of the letter c was sounded, and the 
o and the n seemed to run together through 
the nose and the throat.) 

These sounds can, perhaps, only be pro- 
duced by the employment of the characters 
used in music. Bird songs and insect 
stridulation are frequently so written, but it 
requires the keenest ear and long observa- 
tion and practice to repeat them. 

S. S. R. 


Is not " imph-m " or "nip-n" a mere 
nasal grunt inarticulate and therefore un- 
spellable the significance of which is wholly 
due to the inflection, rising or falling, and 
of which "humph" is the recognized form 
expressing disgust, surprise or contempt? 
Upon trial, it will be found that " imph-m " 
will unconsciously take an inflection appro- 
priate to the affirmative nod or the negative 
shake of the head. H. L. B. 


Creek (Vol. v, p. 30). I fear I am open 
to the charge of careless reading in quoting 
Qui Tarn in his note (Vol. iv, p. 307). My 
intent, however, was to confirm rather than 
dispute his observation on the infrequency 

of the word in New England and the sharply 
drawn line which separates its abundant dis- 
tribution in New York and Pennsylvania. 
On looking over the maps at my command 
more closely, I find four Otter, Gilson's, 
Lewis and Dead creeks tributary to Lake 
Champlain, and two others, whose names are 
a conglomerate of consonants, tributary to 
Androscoggin river. There are doubtless 
others that would be found on a good 
drainage map. Concerning the use of this 
word to denote an inland stream, I am 
strongly of the belief that Qui Tarn is right 
in his opinion that it is mainly an Ameri- 
canism and that its present application is 
quite modern. The very instructive note of 
Mr. Abbott (Vol. v, p. 30) shows that when 
this word was transplanted to the New 
World it was applied, not to a stream, but to 
a tidal estuary or backset. The Dutch set- 
tlers of New Netherlands recognized this 
peculiar coast feature, designating it a. kill, 
and to this day the word survives in a score 
of names. This, too, was the most common 
application of the word in the British isles, 
as is seen in the names Crigyll, Cnccaethand 
a host of others scattered along the west 
coast. Rather singularly, however, crick- 
lade, which the "Century Dictionary" in- 
stances as an example, is not on a tidal 
inlet, but some miles inland. But while 
different forms of the roots, uisg, door, don 
and avon, are unsparingly used to designate 
inland streams, the most comprehensive 
maps of the British islands show derivations 
of crecca and krig applied in scarcely half-a- 
dozen instances. In fact the only ones I find 
are O/Vvfcadarn, Cmvhowel, Creccantord. and 
<r/V/fclade. ]. W. R. 


Little End of the Horn." The old 

emblem of suretyship. I would have in the 
fairest room of one of these houses, an em- 
blem of a gallant young heir creeping in at 
the great end of a hunter's horn with ease ; 
but cruelly pinched at the coming forth at 
the small end ; a fool standing not far off 
laughing at him. And these be those fools 
who will be so easily bound ! And pass their 
words in their drink" (H. Peacham, "The 
Worth of a Penny," 1641). G. 



[May 31, 1890. 

And When We're There (Vol. iii, 
pp. 239, etc.). 

" And when we're there, ten thousand years, 
Amongst that ransomed van, 
We've no less days to sing His praise 
Than when we first began." 

Whence these lines ? They seem to relate 
to something that has preceded them, in- 
volving also some condition that may follow. 
As a future promise, it is doubtful whether 
the contingency involved can be regarded in 
any special sense desirable. Used as a point 
of comparison, they seem to illustrate the 
total insignificance of a thousand years, 
when compared with eternity. Now, even a 
thousand years of continuous praise suggests 
the idea of monotonous weariness, both to him 
who praises and Him who is praised, and it 
seems difficult to believe that such service so 
imposed could possibly be a state of beati- 
tude. Is it not merely a perverted human 
notion of divine government, in reference 
to fancied future occupations and rewards? 
Small wonder that precocious children should 
manifest so little desire to go to heaven. 

S. S. R. 


Peter Out (Vol. v, p. 29). As to the 
origin of " to peter out," I have always un- 
derstood that the phrase originated in the 
story of Peter's denial of the Saviour. I 
have often heard the phrase, " His courage 
petered out," and a general application of 
the word to failures in other things seems 
not unlikely. 

S. M. Fox. 


The Great Mosquito. One of the old 

legends of the Iroquois related to a monster 
whose diminutive descendants are a torment 
yet the Great Mosquito. The story is very 
simply told in David Cusick's "History of 
the Six Nations," and is here quoted ver- 
batim : 

"About this time a great mosquito in- 
vaded the Fort Onondaga ; the mosquito 
was mischievous to the people, it flew about 
the fort with a long stinger, and sucked the 
blood a number of lives ; the warriors made 
several oppositions to expel the monster, 
but failed ; the country was invaded until 

the Holder of the Heavens was pleased to 
visit the people ; while he was visiting the 
king at the Fort Onondaga, the mosquito 
made appearance as usual and flew about 
the fort, the Holder of the Heavens attacked 
the monster, it flew so rapidly that he could 
hardly keep in sight of it, but after a few 
days' chase the monster began to fail ; he 
chased on the borders of the great lakes to- 
wards the sun-setting, and round the great 
country; at last he overtook the monster 
and killed it near the salt lake Onondaga, 
and the blood became small mosquitoes." 

In Clark's "Onondaga," two monsters 
stood on opposite banks of the Seneca river, 
destroying the passing Indians. Hiawatha 
soon killed one, but the other was pursued 
until slain by Onondaga lake. He threw up 
sand-hills in his dying struggles, and the 
small mosquitoes rose in clouds from his 
decaying body. Another version differs 
from this only in bringing all the Cayugas 
and Onondagas against the monsters, and 
destroying them after heavy loss. 

As Mr. Horatio Hale has well observed, 
there has been a confusion of Hi-a-wa-tha 
with Ta-oun-ya-wat-ha, the Holder of the 
Heavens, and the Onondagas certainly now 
identify their deliverer with the latter. 
Places connected with the story are still 
pointed out. On the Tuscarora reservation 
is a large stone where the Holder of the 
Heavens rested during the long pursuit. 
Two depressions appear ; one where his 
body reclined, and another where he leaned 
upon his elbow. Chief Abram Hill told 
me he had seen the tracks of the pursuer and 
pursued, a little south of Syracuse, where 
the Onondagas kept them fresh not long 
since. He said those of the monster were 
twenty inches long, bird-like, and could be 
traced for twenty rods. W. M. Beauchamp, 
in "A merican Folk- Lore. ' ' 

Bric-a-Brac (Vol. v, p. 36). I find the 
following explanation of the term quoted in 
an old number of Society: "The word 
probably comes from an old French 
expression, De brie et de brogue, which, 
literally translated, means from right and 
from left from hither and thither. The word 
brie in old French is used to describe an in- 
strument to shoot arrows at birds with, and the 

May 31, 1890.] 



word brae, according to some etymologists, is 
derived from the verb brocanter, to exchange 
or sell, the root of which is Saxon, and 
the origin also of the word broker. 

In pure English, bric-a-brac signifies 
second-hand goods, but of late years it has 
been used to indicate objects of artistic 
value, made in olden times and esteemed 
by modern collectors." 

F. T. C. 


Unknown Land. Washington has her 
great unknown land like the interior of 
Africa. According to the Seattle Press the 
country shut in by the Olympic mountains, 
which includes an area of about 2500 square 
miles, has never, to the positive knowledge 
of old residents of the territory, been trod- 
den by the foot of man, white or Indian. 
These mountains rise from the level country 
within ten to fifteen miles of the straits of 
San Juan de Fuca in the north, the Pacific 
ocean in the west, Hood's canal in the east, 
and the basin of Quinault lake in the south, 
and rising to the height of 6000 to 8000 
feet, shut in a vast, unexplored area. The 
Indians have never penetrated it, for their 
traditions say that it is inhabited by a very 
fierce tribe, which no coast tribe dared 
molest. White men, too, have only vague 
accounts of any white man having ever 
passed through this country, for investiga- 
tion of all the claims of travelers has in- 
variably proved that they have only traversed 
its outer edges. The most generally accepted 
theory in regard to this country is that it 
consists of great valleys stretching from the 
inward slopes of the mountains to a great 
central basin. This theory is supported by 
the fact that, although the country around 
has abundant rain, and clouds constantly 
hang over the mountain tops, all the streams 
flowing towards the four points of the com- 
pass are insignificant, and rise only on the 
outward slope of the range, none appearing 
to drain the great area shut in by the moun- 
tains. This fact appears to support the 
theory that the streams flowing from the 
inner slopes of the mountains feed a great 
interior lake. But what drains this lake ? It 
must have an outlet somewhere, and as all of 
the streams pouring from the mountains 

rise on their outward slope, it must have a 
subterranean outlet into the ocean, the 
straits, or the sound. There are great dis- 
coveries in store for some of Washington's 
explorers. Numerous attempts have been 
made to organize exploring parties, but they 
have invariably fallen through, the courage 
of the projectors oozing out at the very last 


Latinized Proper Names (Vol. v, p. 
27). De Charpentier took the name of 
Fabricius ; De Valet that of Servilius, 
and Du bout d' JHomme that of Virulus. 
Desiderius Erasmus changed his family 
name from Gerhard. These and other 
curious instances of changed names in dif- 
ferent languages may be found in D' Israeli's 
"Curiosities of Literature." By the way, 
what was the original name of the D' Israeli 
family ? The Earl of Beaconsfield says the 
original Gothic surname was dropped, and 
the name of D' Israeli adopted out of grate- 
fulness to the God of Jacob. Their present 
name, he says, has never been borne before 
or since by any other family. 

E. G. KEEN. 

Robert Fludd wrote under the name of 
Robertus de Fluctibus. 

Regiomontanus stands for Konigsberger. 
His German name was Miiller, but he was 
born at Konigsberg in Franconia. 

Hylacomylus, who is credited with having 
invented the name of America, was origin- 
ally named Waldseemiiller, forest- lake-mil- 
ler, of which his pen-name is a Latinized 
Greek translation. 

A similar name is that of (Ecolampadius 
for Hiissgen, which was altered to Haus- 
schein and then translated. 


Camelot (Vol. v, p. 28). Caxton, in 
the Prologue to the Morte D' Arthur, locates 
the town of Camelot in Wales, where, he 
says, " remaineth in witness of him, the 
great stones, and the marvellous works of 
iron lying under the ground, and royal 


[May 31, 1890. 

vaults." Malory places it at Winchester. 
Ernest Rhys, in a note to his edition of 
Malory's " King Arthur," says, " There can 
be little doubt that Queen Camel, near 
South Cadbury (Somersetshire), must be the 
shrine of the latter-day pilgrim who wishes 
to materially approach old-time Camelot." 

E. G. KEEN. 

There are two places so called. The 
place referred to in" King Lear" is in Corn- 
wall, but that of Arthurian renown was in 

In regard to the first, Kent says to Corn- 
wall: "Goose, if I had you upon Sarum 
Plain I'd drive ye cackling home to Came- 
lot," /. f., to Tintag'il or Camelford, the 
"home" of the duke of Cornwall. But the 
Camelot of Arthur was in Winchester, 
where visitors are still shown certain large 
entrenchments once pertaining to " King 
Arthur's palace." 



Robert Merry (Vol. iv, pp. 31 2, etc.). 
Charles Lamb tells a good story (" Last 
Essays of Elia") of Merry's flight to America 
on the day appointed for his marriage with 
an opera dancer. The wedding guests ar- 
rived in six coaches the whole corps-du- 
ballet, and the bride's father, Signer 
Delpini. The thought of what he was about 
to do now first struck Merry seriously, and 
quite overcame him. Slipping out on some 
pretense, he fled to the nearest sea-port and 
shipped himself to America. Soon after he 
made a more congenial match in the person 
of Miss Brunton. 

E. G. KEEN. 


Horn-mad (Vol. v, pp. 45, etc.). 
" Horn-mad, vide fcenum in cornu gerere. 
Erasm. Adagiis." Note to a translation of 
" The Revelation of Golias the Bishoppe," 
circa 1623, reprinted by the Camden 
Society, 1841. This note is of importance 
as showing that even in 1623 the true and 
original meaning of "horn-mad" was a 
matter of doubt. G. 


Talboy (Vol. ii, p. 116; Vol. iii, p. 
_J7). This half- legendary personage is re- 
ferred to thus in Pope's address "To a 

" What has not fired her bosom or her brain, 
Caesar and Tall-boy, Charles and Charlemagne ?" 


Qui TAM. 

Men as Things (Vol. v, pp. 43, etc.). 
Fiacre is properly the name of a saint, 
the patron of gardeners. 

The orrery was so named from an Earl of 

A stanhope is a kind of chaise. 

The vernier was named from its inventor. 

A vandyke is a kind of neckruff. 

The catlin, a surgeon's knife, also bears 
a man's name. 



A Question in Grammar (Vol. v, p. 
27). It strikes me that the explanations 
given of the last two lines of the verses of 
Mary Howitt are all wrong. The poem is 
all about Mary and her domestic work, and 
it would be contrary to all principles of 
rhetoric to change the subject from the girl 
to the kettle. It is Mary who " in the 
kettle sings a part," that is, a musical part, 
in the sense in which the word is applied to 
soprano, contralto, etc. She does this in- 
directly, but none the less truly, by putting 
the kettle on the fire and attending to it. 
Any other interpretation of the passage is, to 
my thinking, inadmissible. 

W. J. R. 


Reprints (Vol. v, p. 40). It is well 
known to most of your readers that certain 
piratical American publishers, taking advan- 
tage of new photo-engraving processes, have 
been able to put upon the market, for one 
dollar and a half per volume, an edition of 
the " Encyc. Brit.," which at first cost ten 
dollars per volume. What large possibilities 
in the way of cheap reprints of rare old 
books this suggests. 



May 31, 1890.] 



Shortest Sentence Containing the 
Alphabet (Vol. v, pp. 31, etc.). Here are 
some more sentences containing the alpha- 
bet : " John quickly extemporized five tow 
bags." "My Jabez quickly vexed the 
wrong fops." " J. Gray, pack with my box 
five dozen quails." " Z. Badger: Thy 
vixen jumps quick at fowl." " Quick, glad 
zephyr, waft my javelin box." 


Spiders and Bees (Vol. iii, p. 284). 
There is a Hemipterous insect and also a 
species of Arachnida (spider) that conceal 
themselves in the composite flowers of some 
plants, and lie in wait for other insects that 
visit those flowers, for the purpose of feeding 
upon or extracting the honey therein, and 
these the hidden ones seize, penetrate with 
their proboscides or fangs, and immediately 
proceed to suck the juices out of their 
bodies, through which they perish. The 
honey visitors are small species of moths or 
bees and other Hymenoptera. This is more 
particularly the case in late summer and 
autumn flowers, and to facilitate the decep- 
tion, these pirates are similar in color to 
the flowers, and less liable to be noticed. 

S. S. R. 


Ambrosia (Vol. v, p. 46). Mr. H. A. 
Clarke evades the only point of criticism I 
made against him, namely, his assertion, 
"Ambrosia was \k&food of the gods." Let 
us now examine his criticism against Mr. 
Hamilton's translation : 

" And her purpureal hair breathed forth ambrosia 

Of this Mr. Clarke says: "It is as if one 
should write of the cook, ' she shook beef- 
steaks from her horrent hair/ when he sim- 
ply meant the odor of beef." Hardly, my 
friend, ambrosia was a perfume as well as a 
food or a drink. In " Paradise Lost " 
(v. 57), Milton has written : 

" His dewy locks distilled ambrosia," 

a construction identical with Mr. Hamil- 
ton's, and it is safe to say that both writers 
comprehended the true meaning of the 

word. That Mr. Hamilton's " 
has not been so literal as one would expect 
in a pony, goes without saying, but the 
variation is no greater than is common and 
permissible in classical translations. 

J. W. R. 


Rhymeless Words (Vol. v, pp. 32, 
etc.). I do not claim that false and halts 
make a perfect rhyme, but only an admissi- 
ble one, at a pinch. Starve does not rhyme 
with salve, except in New England ; else- 
where the r in starve has its proper sound, 
which is, however, very slight. 



Two more words (both book-words, how- 
ever) will rhyme with scalp, namely salp and 
longipalp, which are natural-history terms, 
to be found in most of the large dictionaries. 

E. N. A. 

Bonny Boots (Vol. v, pp. 31, etc.). 
With this name compare Slyboots, Slow- 
boots, Clumsyboots, Lazyboots, and the 
like. As " Dr. Murray's Dictionary " points 
out (under the word Boots) the idea of fellow 
or rogue seems to be involved, and such 
terms are chiefly applicable to young or 
small persons. This favors the idea that 
Bonny Boots was a page at Queen Eliza- 
beth's court. G. 


Banjula Trees (Vol. v, p. 29). In the 
" Gita Govinda," of Jayadeva, from which 
Arnold derived "The Indian Song of 
Songs," I find the following allusions to 
banjulas or vanjulas, b and v being inter- 
changeable : 

" One of the damsels seizes the mantle of 
Heri (Krishna) and draws him toward her, 
pointing to the bower on the banks of the 
Gamuna, where elegant Vanjulas interweave 
their branches " (p. 239). 

"Why comes he not to the bower of 
bloomy Vanjulas assigned for our meeting?" 
(p. 252). 

" Follow gentle Radhica, follow the foe 



[May 31, 1890. 

of Madhu, his discourse was elegantly com- 
posed of sweet phrases ; he prostrated himself 
at thy feet, and he now hastens to his de- 
lightful couch of branching Vanjulas " (Sir 
William Jones' Works, Vol. iv, p. 261). 

Referring now to " Botanical Observa- 
tions on Select Indian Plants," by Sir W. 
Jones, we find Vanjula to be only another 
name for the Asoca, of which flowering tree 
he gives the following description : 

" The flowers are fragrant just after sunset 
and before sunrise when they are fresh with 
evening and morning dew, beautifully 
diversified with tints of orange scarlet or pale 
yellow, or of bright orange, which grows 
deeper every day and forms a variety 
of shades according to the age of each 
blossom." This explains why so many 
colors are attributed to the same plant, as 
later in Arnold's poem these lines occur: 

" Oh, follow where the Asokai wave 
Their sprays of gold and purple." 

Sir William continues: " The vegetable 
world scarce exhibits a richer sight than an 
Asoca tree in full bloom ; it is about as high 
as an ordinary cherry tree. A Brahmin in- 
forms me that one species of the Asoca is a 
creeper. ' ' 

In " The Toy Cart " occurs a very poeti- 
cal description of the same plant: "And 
here the Asoka tree with its rich crimson 
blossom shines like a young warrior bathed 
in the sanguine shower of the furious fight." 

The Asoca is sacred to the god Siva, the 
third person of the Hindu triad, and is found 
planted near his temple. 

Of this favorite of Sanskrit poetry, Ten- 
nent remarks : " Its loveliness vindicates all 
the praises bestowed on it by the poets of 
the East." F. T. C. 


Nainsook (Vol. v, p. 40). May not 
this word and the French nansouk be 
arbitrarily formed after the Nainsuckh valley? 
Twenty-five or more years ago that valley 
was somewhat famous as the scene of the 
valorous exploits of Lieutenant Abbot, its 
heroic English conqueror. Cf. Rhadames, 
Vol. iv, p. 209, for an arbitrarily named 
fabric, taking a town name. Compare also 
paramatta, an English worsted fabric named 

for an Australian town. But in this case 
the use of Australian wool probably sug- 
gested the name. Thibet (near which Nain- 
suckh lies) gives name to a fabric which is 
not now brought from it ; Thibetan wool 
probably suggested that name. Compare 
also Magenta and Solferino, colors and dyes 
named in honor of victories. 



The Discovery of the Ancient City of Norumbega. 
By Eben Norton Horsford. Boston : Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., 1890. 

This beautiful volume sets forth Prof. Hereford's 
reasons for identifying a site at Watertown, Mass., 
with the ancient town of Norumbega. The book 
is the first installment of a long-promised publication on 
the subject, and the author believes that he has in his 
possession facts as yet unpublished which will fully 
establish the truth of his position. Prof. Horsford be- 
lieves that Norumbega was a Norse settlement, and that 
its name comes from an Algonkin mispronunciation of 
the name Norbega, an ancient form of Norway. He ap- 
pears to have really found ancient remains of much 
interest, and his publication will certainly lead to 
further study and discussion of the question already al- 
luded to in our columns (Vol. v, p. 27). 

The Atlantic for June has a discussion of hours of 
labor, by General Walker. The author of the article 
will be remembered as the writer of a criticism of Mr. 
Bellamy's " Looking Backward," which appeared in 
the Atlantic, and to which Mr. Bellamy replied at some 
length. General Walker has made social questions a 
study, and his criticisms and suggestions on the present 
" Eight-Hour Law Agitation " come from a man more 
fully fitted to speak with authority than almost any one 
in the United States. Charles Dudley Warner's article 
on "The Novel and the Common School," is a keen 
analysis of the duty of the public schools in the supply 
of reading for our young citizens. This and Hannis 
Taylor's consideration of "The National House of 
Representatives: Its Growing Inefficiency as a Legisla- 
tive Body," are the two articles which make up the 
solid reading of the number. Miss Repplier has a 
whimsical paper called " A Short Defense of Villains ;" 
and Dr. Holmes discusses " Book-hunger," the uses of 
cranks, and tells a curious story, entitled " The Terri- 
ble Clock." Speaking of cranks, he makes one of the 
Teacups say, " Do you want to know why that name is 
given to the men who do most for the world's progress ? 
It is because the cranks make all the wheels and all the 
machinery of the world go round. I suppose the first 
fool that looked on the first crank that was ever made 
asked what that crooked, queer-looking thing was good 
for." Mrs. Deland's " Sidney " and the second part 
of " Rod's Salvation," furnish the fiction of this issue, 
and there are two poems, an account of a pilgrimage to 
the localities immortalized in the legends of King 
Arthur, and several short papers of interest. 




Copyrighted i&qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post- Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. Y. No. 6. 

SATURDAY, JUNE 7, 1890. 

1 83.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

( 1)1.00, 3 months. 10 ceuta per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co,, John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's. Boston ! Damrell &, 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans : 
Geo. F. Wharton. 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES: Ranpike, 61 No Man's Land Weathercocks 
Musical, 62. 

QUERIES : Shamrock Mad as March Hare Mayflower 
Scot Free Schoolmaster Abroad Cockney, 63. 

REPLIES: Sabbatical Rivers, 63 Harmonious Blacksmith 
Primroses by the River Brim, 64. 

64 Walled Lakes Jansonus Lockram Rush Carpets 
Macellarius Kill van Kull Usuter Authorship Wanted 
Manege and Menage Tom Green Tatting Whiffletree, 
65 Pluck-buffet Dalles Icta War of the Axe State of 
Franklin Norman's Woe, 66. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Grass-Poly Deaf Smith China 
and Babylonia Altitudes, 66 Holtselster Joe Daveiss 
Oldest Christian Hymn Arthur Kill Names of the Days of 
the Week Worm's Tongue Moslem Brack Avery's 
Fall, 67 Thimble Lore Cheesecake Brook Weeping Trees 
Men as Things William Percy Barnabe Barnes Porcu- 
pig, 68 Parallel Passages Osgod Clapa Jingo Spoon of 
Ilford Rocking btones Cambrial Colchos Mahot, 69 
Norurubega Gulf of the Lion Losh "The" in Place 
Names Swift and Slow American and English Names for 
Marshy Tracts Triumphs of Oriana, 70 Creek Nomencla- 
ture of Streams Good Old Etymologies Hindu and Bengali 
Words, 71 Question in Grammar Camelot, 72. 



This word (which in "Worcester's Diction- 
ary" is marked "obsolete," and which is 
defined as a tree which has begun to die at 
the top) is not yet quite extinct. In the 
Canadian province of New Brunswick it is 
still employed, in the form rampike, to de- 
signate a dead tree, still standing. Some 
connect the word with ran, or royne old 
or Scottish names for the rowan tree. (Can 
"aroynt thee, witch," be connected with 
this word royne, a name for a magic tree?) 
Scandinavian names for the rowan are ronu, 
runn, and the like. In Maine, they call it 
the Round-wood. Some think its name is 
related to rune, a charm ; others name it 
from its roan- colored bark. Another round- 
about but very ingenious derivation of ran- 
pike, is from the ranny, or shrew. Ranny 



[June 7, 1890. 

is an aphetic form from the Latin araneus 
mus, spider-mouse. Now the shrew is a 
harmless and indeed very useful little animal, 
but our mediaeval English ancestors looked 
upon it with the utmost dread and horror. 
Dogs and cats will not eat the shrew, be- 
cause it is protected by a disagreeable odor 
and taste ; and when the country-folk saw 
a dog frothing at the mouth after taking up 
a live shrew, they supposed that the little 
creature was dreadfully venomous. They 
even gave the name of shrew to any woman 
who had a biting fashion of talking to her 
neighbors. Now the proper way to punish 
the little four-footed shrew for his malevo- 
lence, and to avert the calamities which 
were in his power to inflict, was to bore a 
hole in the stem of the magic rowan tree, 
place the living animal in the hole, and then 
plug up, and let the creature die there. 
Soon, it was thought, the tree itself would 
feel the effects of the creature's venom 
and spite, and would begin to die at the 
top. The ranny had turned the tree into a 
ranpike. Another point in the story is this : 
A person under the evil influence of the shrew 
was said to be bcshrewtd, and (since be- 
shrewment affected the character, and made 
its victims artful and cunning) a cool, cal- 
culating man was said to be shrewd. To 
return to our rowan tree. It was a good 
tree, and materially aided the god Thor 
when he was on his way to vanquish the 
Frost-giants. In England, Germany, 
Sweden, Scotland, Wales, and Denmark, 
the peasantry still revere it. It is the best 
of charms against the evil eye. The churn- 
staff is made of it. The old Danes inserted 
a piece of it in every ship, for the Rowan 
had the power of averting the malice of Ran, 
the sea-jotun's wife. No witch, nor devil, 
would dare touch the rowan. The good 
elves loved it. The best of magic wands 
were made of rowan twigs. There was once 
a large rowan in the north of Ireland that 
on Christmas eve was stuck full of blazing 
torches, which no wind could extinguish. 
A single rowan tree in Orkney was looked 
upon as the very palladium of Orkneyan 
liberty, if not the pledge of the very exist- 
ence of the islands. 



Besides the region called by this name 
adjoining Kansas and Texas, there is a little 
uninhabited island called Neman's Land 
near Martha's Vineyard, off the coast of 
Massachusetts. Another region sometimes 
called by this name lies in British South 
Africa. Being dispeopled, it was in 1852 in 
part occupied by Adam Kok's band of the 
Griquas, and hence it is often called Griqua- 
land East, which is at a long distance from 
Griqualand West, the original home of the 
tribe. These Griquas (in their own speech 
this name is the plural form of Grip) are of 
mixed Dutch and Hottentot stock, and 
speak a dialect compounded of very mixed 
elements. The Basutos (of Bechuana-Kaffre 
stock) and the Ama-baca (Kaffres) also 
dwell in what was once called No Man's 
Land ; but the country now contains many 
settlers of European race. N. R. T. 



In the poem entitled " Chaucere's Dreme," 
the poet falls asleep and dreams as follows : 

" Within an vie methought I was 
Where wal and yate was al of glasse, 

" For every yate, of fin gold 
A thousand fanes, ay turning, 
Entune'd had, and birddes singing 
Diverse, and on each fane a paire 
With open mouths again Ahaire, 
And of a sute were alle the toures." 

Which lines are to this effect in the edi- 
tor's version : "Every gate had upon it a 
thousand golden fanes or vans, otherwise 
weathercocks, which as they turned in the 
wind produced a sound like the singing of 
birds, with their mouths opened against the 
air, or towards that quarter whence the wind 

The editor also remarks : " The poet appa- 
rently imagines that those vans or weather- 
cocks were constructed on a self-playing 
principle like an ^olian harp. Their heads 
being always kept to the winds, it blew down 
their throats in which was some instrument 
for producing the sound" (Bohn Ed. 

June 7, 1890.] 


" Chaucere's Dreme " is not included in the 
W. Skeat Ed., as it has been definitely as- 
certained that it cannot be the work of 
Chaucer, the date (1550) of the MS., to say 
nothing of the internal evidence of the poem, 
being enough to refute that idea. 

The isle of the poet's dream was by no 
means a womanless island, but on the con- 
trary was inhabited only by ladies. 

" No creatures save ladies pleye 
Which were swiche of here arreye." 

For this reason Skeat thinks the poem im- 
properly named, and would call it rather 
"The Isle of Ladies." 

Refer. Chaucer's Minor Poems and Skeat. 

In Stephen Hawes' " Pastime of Pleas- 
ure" (1506) occurs another reference to 
musical weathercocks m the description of 
La Bel Pucelle's magnificent castle : 

" Alofte the basse toure foure ymages stode 
Which blew the clarions wel and wonderly. 
Alofte the toures ti\& golden fanes goode 
Dyde with the wynde makeful swefe armony. 
Them for to hear, it was great melody." 

(Chap, xxxviii, St. iii.) 

F. T. C. 



B S. 

Shamrock. What is the true and original 
shamrock? Some say it is the white clover; 
some the wood-sorrel or oxalis ; some the 
Dutch clover ; and some the Black None- 
such, or Medick. N. E. MORRIS. 


Our correspondent will find a full and 
very pleasant discussion of this vexed ques- 
tion on p. 385 of Friend's " Flowers and 
Flower-Lore, "London, 1886. Alltheplants 
named above have their advocates, even in 
Ireland. It appears further the water-cress, 
though not trifoliate, was once termed sham- 
rock ; and that the Arabic name for the tre- 
foil is shamrakh. 

Mad as a March Hare. What is the 
origin of this expression? ? 


ii, p. 104. 

Mayflower. This highly appropriate name 
is often given to the trailing Arbutus ; and it 
has been said that it was one of the first 
spring flowers to greet the pilgrims at New 
Plymouth in 1621. Is the latter statement 
historical, or is it a later invention? What 
was the original mayflower whence the his- 
toric ship took her name ? 

E. O. L. A. 


The English hawthorn was probably the 
original mayflower. It is often called may 
in English books. 

Scot Free. What is the origin of this 
phrase? ? 


ii, p. 214. 

The Schoolmaster is Abroad. How did 

this phrase originate ? MRS. E. F. 


This expression was used by Lord 
Brougham in hisspeech of January 29, 1828, 
as follows : 

" Let the soldier be abroad if he will, he 
can do nothing in this age. There is another 
personage, a personage less imposing in the 
eyes of some, perhaps insignificant. The 
schoolmaster is abroad, and I trust to him, 
armed with his primer, against the soldier 
in full military array." 

Cockney. How did this word originate? 


iv, p. i. 

1* B P L I B S . 

Sabbatical Rivers (Vol. v, p. 52). Dr. 
Thomson, in " The Land and the Book," is 
of the opinion that the Sabbatic River is 
identical with the Neba el Fuarr, a periodi- 
cal spring hard by the convent of Mar Jirius 
near Palestine. Concerning it he says : "At 
stated intervals it throws out an immense 

6 4 


[June 7, 1890. 

volume of water quite sufficient to entitle it 
in this country to the dignified name of 
river. It is now quiescent for two days and 
active during a part of the third. The cave 
out of which the river flows is at the base of 
a hill of limestone entangled in a vast forma- 
tion of trap rock. It was a day of rest when 
I examined the fountain ; but evidently a 
large volume of water had rushed along the 
bed of the river only a few days before." 

The difference between the present and 
the former climatic conditions of the region 
is, in Dr. Thomson's 'opinion, sufficient to 
account for the difference in the periodicity 
of the spring. J. W. R. 


The Sabbatical River may be found on 
large maps of Syria, in latitude 34 40' N., 
longitude 36 20' E. It is described in 
Conder's "Palestine," pp. 192, 193. It flows 
at intervals of from four days to a week. 
There are other periodic rivers in Syria. 

Qui TAM. 


The Harmonious Blacksmith (Vol. v, p. 
41). "The Harmonious Blacksmith" is 
the title of a theme and variations formerly 
called " Handel's Fifth Favorite Lesson," 
being No. 5 of his first " Suite de Pieces 
pour le Clavecin." 

Of the origin of this title, William Chappell, 
author of " Popular Music in the Olden 
Time," gives the following satisfactory and 
interesting account : 

"The story that Handel having heard the 
air sung by a blacksmith at Edgeware while 
beating time to it upon his anvil, and that 
Handel therefore entitled it the ' Harmonious 
Blacksmith,' is refuted by the fact that it 
never was so named during Handel's life. 
The late Richard Clark was the propagator, 
if not the inventor, of this fable. In Clark's 
edition of ' The Lesson, 1 he has gone so 
far as to print an accompaniment for the 
anvil, as he imagined Handel to have heard 
the beats. He states also that the black- 
smith was the parish clerk of Whitechurch. 
A few months after Clark's publication, the 
writer saw the late J. W. Winsor, Esq., of 
Bath, a great ad mirer of Handel, and one who 
knew all his published works. Mr. Winsor 

told the writer that the story of the black- 
smith of Edgeware was pure imagination, 
and that the original publisher of Handel's 
'Lesson' under the present title was a music 
seller at Bath, by name of Lintern, whom he 
knew personally. He said that he had asked 
Lintern the reason for this <?7#name and he 
had told him that it was a nickname given 
to himself because he had been brought up 
as a blacksmith, although he had afterwards 
turned to music, and this was the piece he 
was constantly asked to play. He printed 
this particular number of the ' Suite' in a de- 
tached form, because he could not sell a 
sufficient number of copies of the full set to 
make it profitable. 

"There is, too, much reason to believe that 
the 'Theme' was not original with Handel. 
The same air appears in the Clavecin (piano) 
Suites of Wegenseil, an eminent Viennese 
performer, and a contemporary of Handel. 
Only the date of Wegenseil's ' Suites' is 
needed to determine which was the borrow- 
er" (Supplement " Grove's Mus. Diet."). 

F. T. C. 


Primroses by the River Brim, etc. (Vol. 
iv, p. 90). These lines are from "Edu- 
cation's Martyr, " in a volume of poems enti- 
tled " Dreams to Sell," by May Kendall. 
They are quoted by H. C. Beeching, in his 
review of the book, in the Academy for No- 
vember 12, 1887. E. G. KEEN. 



Name WantecL During one of the 
European wars, it is related that a com- 
manding general, making the rounds after 
taps, discovered a lighted taper in the quar- 
ters of one of his generals. Asking the latter 
why he disobeyed orders at such a critical 
time, the officer said in excuse that he was 
writing to his wife. The commander there- 
upon ordered the offender to add, "to- 
morrow, by this time, I shall have been shot 
for disobedience." Who was the com- 
manding general, and who the offender? 


June 7, 1890.] 


Walled. Lakes. What was the proba- 
ble cause of the walling with stone of the 
celebrated Walled Lakes of Iowa? Walled 
lakes are not unknown elsewhere. The 
noted VValden Pond, near Concord, Mass., 
has something of this character ; and accord- 
ing to Thoreau, its name may possibly be 
derived from this fact it being a walled-in 
pond. The walling may have been caused 
(as some have supposed) by the action of 
the ice. 

In Prof. Horsford's late monograph on 
Norumbega, the author contends that the 
walled streams in the vicinity of Boston de- 
rived their peculiarity from human labor ; 
that, in fact, they were walled by the Norse 
adventurers who came to Vinland in mediae- 
val times. J. F. ROUTH. 


Jansonus. "A book in Latin called 
Mundus furiosus, printed at Cullen 
(Cologne), written by one of the vilest and 
arrantest cullians that ever wrote book ; his 
nzmejansonus. * * * He is now dead" 
("Kemp's Nine Days' Wonder," 1600). 
By the context it appears, I think, that Jan- 
sonus was an Englishman. Is there any- 
thing further known of him or his book? 

A. R. O. 


Lockram. Is there any connection be- 
tween this word and lockron, the name of a 
plant ? The mason's term lockrand, a bind- 
ing course of stones or bricks, is of course 
another word, being from the verb lock and 
rand, a strip. E. E. SIMONDS. 


Rush Carpets. Will some reader of 
writer when and by whom carpets made of 
rushes were invented ? A. U. R. 


Macellarius. Many years ago there 
used to be one or more butchers' carts, in 
our part of the country, with the word 
macellarius (the Latin for butcher) on their 
sides. Was this a local practice, or only a 
freak of some learned butcher ? 



Kill van Kull. Will A. Estoclet kindly 
explain the origin of this name ? And also 
tell us what the connection is, if any, between 
the words kill and kull, in names of streams 
derived from the Dutch language ? G. 


Usuter. Bishop Earle's " Microcosmog- 
raphie," Character 13 (1628), says of "An 
Vpstart Countrey Knight:" "His father 
was a man of good stocke, though but a 
Tanner or Vsuter." Can usuter represent 
the Latin sutor, a shoemaker or cobbler ? The 
connection with tanner, and the reference 
to his " good stocke," seem to suggest this. 
I would like the opinion of some of your 
correspondents on this word, its origin, and 
its meaning. E. DORSET RODMAN. 


Authorship Wanted. Whence comes 
the following quotation, which seems to be 
applied to Hermes : 
" Earth-born, but sky-engendered, son of mysteries." 

P. J. L. 


Manege and Menage. I was in- 
structed in early life that the manege was 
horsemanship or the management of the 
horse under the saddle ; and that the menage 
was grooming, or the care and feeding of 
the horse in the stable. Is this distinction 
a correct one ? JULIUS HINES. 


Tom Green (Vol. iv, p. 225). Will you 
please inform me where I can find some ac- 
count of the person in honor of whom Tom 
Green county, in Texas, was named? 

E. F. S. 


Tatting. What is the origin of the word 
tatting, the name of a certain kind of trim- 
ming for garments that is made by hand ? 

L. M. N. 


Whiffletree. Can any of your readers 
tell me the etymology of this word ? 

E. F. 




[June 7, 1890. 

Pluck-buffet. In the Robin Hood 
ballads (8th fytte), we read : 

" Our King and Robin rode together, 
Forsooth as I you say ; 
And they shot'Pluck-buffet, 
As they went by the way." 

What is the meaning of Pluck-buffet ? 

B. P. E. 


Dalles. Besides the Dalles of the Co- 
lumbia, and those oi the St. Louis, in Min- 
nesota, we have the Dalles, or Dells, of the 
Wisconsin. Are there any other Dalles 
than these ? RALPH W. TRUMAN. 


Icta. Will Mr. Redway kindly explain 
the word, giving us the meaning and origin? 
He has used it in Vol. iii, p. 299. 



War of the Axe. What contest is 
sometimes called the War of the Axe ? 



State of Franklin. Where was the 
State of Franklin ? H. G. R. 


Norman's Woe. Every reader of 
Longfellow remembers " The Wreck of the 
Hesperus," " On the Reef of Norman's 
Woe." Is the story of this wreck true? 
Was Norman the skipper of the ill-fated 
schooner. On page 13 of Horsford's 
" Norumbega " monograph he asserts that 
Norman's Woe means Northmen's O, or 
island. But what is generally called Nor- 
man's Woe is a bluff or rocky headland, 
over a hundred feet high, with a wooded 
face to the eastward. Norman's Woe Cove 
lies at its foot, and in the entrance to the 
Cove is Norman's Woe Rock, on which, as 
I suppose, the Hesperus was lost. No doubt 
this rock is what Prof. Horsford would name 
Norman's O. Can we not hear from some 
correspondent familiar with the local history 
and traditions of the place ? 




Grass-Poly For this plant name the 
"Century Dictionary" ventures upon no- 
etymology. Poly stands for the Greek 
nohov, the name of a plant nearly identical, 
apparently, with our Grass-poly. Its name, 
, probably comes from TTO^W?, gray. 


Deaf Smith (Vol. iv, p. 225). This 
county in Texas was named from a very 
brave and efficient scout once in the Texan 
service named Smith, who was stone deaf. 
He lived in the days of Texan nationality, 
and was said to be a terrible foe and a 
staunch and constant friend, but was spe- 
cially hostile to the Mexicans. 

E. F. S. 

China and Babylonia. A very able 
and entertaining article by R. K. Douglas, 
in Lippincotfs Magazine for June, sets forth 
a strong array of facts which tend to prove 
that Chinese civilization had its origin in 
Babylonia, and which, further, make it 
almost certain that the Chinese language is- 
closely akin to the ancient Accad language. 
This is not a new theory, but it is one which 
is strongly sustained by facts that have been 
recently brought to light. 

Qui TAM. 

Altitudes (Vol. v, pp. 32, etc.). Among 
the high altitudes of points within the United 
States are Mount St. Elias, 19,500 feet, the 
highest peak of North America; Aconcagua, 
23,800 feet, the highest point of the West- 
ern Continent ; Argentine Pass, 13,200 feet, 
the highest wagon road in the world ; Las 
Animas Forks, 11,200 feet, the highest town 
in North America; Marshall Pass, 10,870 
feet, the highest railway pass in North 
America; Mount Whitney, 14,898 feet, the 
highest peak of the Sierra Nevada mountains; 
Mitchell's High Peak, 6711 feet, the high- 
est summit of the Appalachian mountains. 


June 7, 1890.] 


Holtselster (Vol. v, p. 30, etc.). On 
referring to " The Works of Andreas Mar- 
veil, Esq., Poetical, Controversial and Po- 
litical. With a New Life of the Author. By 
Captain Edward Thompson. London, 1776, 
3 vols., 4," I find that at page 216 of Vol. 
iii, the word printed is HOLTFELSTER, not 



Has not our correspondent mistaken a 
long s for an f? On page 25 of Little, 
Brown & Co.'s edition of " Marvell's 
Poems " the spelling holtselster appears. 


Joe Daveiss (Vol. iv, p. 225) From 

an article in the Nation of May 29 it appears 
that two counties in the United States are 
incorrectly named Daviess (and one Joe 
Daviess) in honor of a once famous lawyer 
who fell at the battle of Tippecanoe. His 
name, according to autograph letters still 
existing, was spelled Daveiss, all or nearly 
all the books of reference to the contrary 
notwithstanding. E. F. S. 


Oldest Christian Hymn (Vol. iv, pp. 
234, etc.). A more familiar translation 
than that given of the " Phos Hilaron" is that 
of Canon Bright, beginning " Light of 
Gladness, Beam Divine." It is still sung, 
in the original, at the evening lamp-lighting 
in the Greek churches. 

Qui TAM. 


Arthur Kill (Vol. v, pp. 52, etc.). A. 
Estoclet's explanation of this word is very 
satisfactory indeed. To me the transforma- 
tion of Achter into Arthur seems easy. 
Rustic people, as is well known, often change 
after into arter, and the change of Achter 
into Arthur is quite as easy as the other. 



Names of the Days of the Week 

(Vol. iii, p. 176). Will your correspondent, 
R. G. B., kindly add to his interesting and 
valuable communication on this matter, the 
names of such authors and books as will 

enable me further to investigate the 
subject ? Is it correct to regard the week of 
seven days as of strictly Jewish origin? 

N. S. S. 

Worm's Tongue. It is well known 
that one or more old Norse bards or saga- 
men bore the name of Ormstunga, which is 
explained as meaning worm' s tongue, or 
snake 1 s tongue. Does this name imply any 
venomous or biting quality in their verses? 


Moslem. This word is properly singu- 
lar, but we occasionally see it used as if it 
were a plural noun. Halleck says, " They 
piled that ground with Moslem slain." But 
in this instance we may regard Moslem as an . 
adjective, in which case slain must be treated 
as a noun a good construction. Cf. Shake- 
speare's " pile the ground up with our Eng- 
lish dead." J. MORSE CALLAHAN. 


Brack (Vol. v, p. 39, etc.). " Not a 
crack nor a brack is a common collo- 
quialism. Is it Pennsylvania!! or is it South- 
ern ? I have heard it from Southerners. 

H. P., JR. 

It is common in New England. [Eo.] 

Avery's Fall. This rock, the scene of 
the wreck described in Whittier's " Swan 
Song of Parson Avery," lies off Cape Ann, 
650 yards from the lighthouse on Straits- 
mouth island. Whittier tells us that the 
good parson was sailing " with his wife and 
children eight." But if my memory serves 
me, the account in Mather's " Magnalia " 
puts the number of his children at six. I 
have not seen the "Magnalia," however, 
for several years, and I am not quite sure of 
the facts. The Coast Pilot calls this rock 
Avery's Ledge. It is four feet under water 
at mean low tide, but tourists and yachting 
parties can recognize the historic rock by 
means of the buoy which marks its place. 

F. C. B. 



[June 7, 1890. 

Thimble-Lore (Vol. iv, p. 194). The 
following is an extract from a report of the 
British Archaeological Association: "To 
statements made that thimbles were of re- 
cent date, evidence was adduced to show 
that they were well known to the Romans. 
The earliest examples, however, in England 
and North Europe appear to have been of 
leather, one of that material being shown. 
It was in use in County Cork so late as 1820. 
Many brass thimbles dating from 1500 were 
exhibited, most of which were found in 
London. Some specimens of the seven- 
teenth century have inscriptions." There- 
port appeared in the Athenczum. 

F. T. C. 


Cheesecake Brook. A stream of this 
name flows into Charles river from the south 
in Newton, Mass. This name recalls that 
of the somewhat celebrated Cheesequake 
creek of New Jersey, for the improvement of 
whose navigation attempts have been made 
to obtain appropriations from the Federal 
Congress. The latter stream is called 
Chesnaquack creek on some of the coast sur- 
vey charts. It is, therefore, probable that the 
name is of Indian origin, and I think it not 
unlikely that the name of the little Cheese- 
cake brook in Massachusetts may also be an 
altered form of some Indian name. 



Weepings Trees (Vol. v, pp. 47, etc.). 
Peter Martyr ("Sommario dell' Indie 
Occidentale") and Ramusio ("Hist, delle 
Indie ") and many others describe the Rain 
tree on the Isle of Ferro. John Cockburn 
("A Jpurney Overland from the Gulf of 
Honduras," 1735) describes an enormous 
weeping tree near the mountains of Vera 
Paz, in Central America. The leaves 
are young, and in summer the tree weeps all 
day from the end of every leaf, even after a 
six months' drought, converting the ground 
near it into a swamp. Spence describes the 
Tamia-caspi, a weeping tree of Peru ; but he 
declares that a species of cicada causes the 
rain, and that almost any tree may be con- 
verted into a weeping tree by insects feed- 
ing on its leaves. The literature of weeping 

trees is enormous, and much of it is plainly 
mythical ; but there is a large basis of fact 
on which it rests. R. O. SYKES. 


Men as Things (Vol. v, pp. 58, etc.). 
Faro, a gambling game, is a variant of 
Pharaoh, the name of a noted line of Egyp- 
tian kings. A certain quantity of bottled 
ale used to be called a Jeroboam, and a 
punch-bowl was called a jorum, possibly 
from Joram, a noted king of Israel. The 
Itiois, a device for lifting heavy stone blocks, 
is said to have been invented by and named 
for Louis XIV. The george, the splendid 
heraldic decoration of certain English 
knights, is named from St. George. Many 
coins have kings' names. Many birds have 
personal names, as martin, robin. 

William Percy. The William Percy to 
whom Barnabe Barnes dedicated his " Par- 
thenophil and Parthenophe " (Vol. iv, pp. 
304, etc.) was himself a poet, and published 
" Sonnets to the Fairest Coelia " (1594) and 
other works. G. 


Barnabe Barnes (Vol. iv, pp. 304, 
etc.). The article on John Florio, in the 
" National Dictionary of Biography," shows 
that Florio was at one time tutor to Emanuel 
Barnes, a (elder?) brother of Barnabe, at 
Oxford. It does not seem likely that Florio, 
after being a tutor to one brother at Oxford, 
would be called to act as servitor to a 
younger brother at Cambridge. Malone's 
statement seems to be open to some sus- 
picion. G. 


Porcupig. This old name for a porcu- 
pine (Fr., pore-epic) is familiar to many from 
the old comic ballad of "More of More 
Hall." It is pleasant to find in one of John 
Burroughs' books, that the mountaineers 
about the head-waters of the Delaware still 
call the porcupine by this old name. This 
is much better than the New England 
fashion of calling the porcupine by the most 
inappropriate name of hedgehog. There is 
no species of true hedgehog on our con- 
tinent. F. L. P. 


June 7, 1890.] 



Parallel Passages (Vol. v, pp. 29, 
etc.). The following passage is offered as a 

parallel to the celebrated description of a 

horse in Shakespeare's " Venus and 

Adonis." It is from the " Phillis and 

Flora," 1598, of " R. S. Esquire," and 
runs as follows : 

" His mayne thin haird, his neck high crested, 
Small eare, short head, and burly brested, 

* * 4 * * * 
Strait legd, large thighd, and hollow hoovd." 

The " Phillis and Flora " imitates a Latin 
poem in the Golias series, and its author- 
ship is unknown ; some have been inclined 
to assign it to Stanyhurst ; but it would ap- 
pear to have been to some considerable ex- 
tent a plagiarism from a poem of Chapman's 
(1595). The "large thighd and hollow 
hoovd" recalls the " Zebra-footed, Ostrich 
thighed " of Browning's "Through the 
Metidja." The " Phillis and Flora " bears 
on its title page the motto " Aut Marti vel 
Mercurio," which resembles the well- 
known " Tarn Marti quam Mercurio," the 
motto of Churchyard, Gascoigne, and other 
soldier-poets of that time. But we are not 
to infer that " R. S. Esquire " was a soldier- 
poet. His motto notes the fact that his poem 
celebrates the glories of soldiership as well 
as of scholarship ; one of the ladies being in 
love with a knight and the other with a 
clerk. G. 


Osgod Clapa (Vol. iv, p. 248). If Mr. 
Clapp will examine Matthew of Westminster's 
chronicles and Florence of Worcester's 
chronicles, he will find reference to Osgod 
Clappa or Clapa. 



Jingo. In Eachard's " Grounds and Oc- 
casions of the Contempt of the Clergy " 
(1670), the author, in discussing "whether 
or not Punning, Quibbling, and that which 
they call Joquing and such delicacies of 
\Vit * * * might not be very con- 
veniently omitted?" makes use of the words 
" tanutus .' high jingo! come again !" ap- 
parently some juggler's formula. 

R. N. L. 


Spoon of Ilford. In Kemp's " Nine 
Days' Wonder, performed in a Morrice from 
London to Norwich" (1600), mention is 
made of the Great Spoon of Ilford, which 
held above a - quart. Is there anything 
further known about this spoon ? 

A. R. O. 


Rocking Stones (Vol. iv, pp. 233, etc.). 
The famous Logan stone was wantonly 
overthrown by a Lieutenant Goldsmith, a 
nephew, I believe, of Oliver Goldsmith j 
but the government compelled him to re- 
place it at his own expense. A remarkable 
poised rock, famous throughout South 
America as ' the moving stone," may be 
seen on Tandil mountain, in Argentinia ; 
it is twenty-four feet high, thirty feet long 
and eighteen feet wide, containing over five 
thousand cubic feet and weighing twenty-five 
tons; it is irregularly conical in shape, and 
rests upon a conical support with a bearing 
surface some ten inches in diameter ; the 
power of a single man is sufficient to oscil- 
late the enormous mass, which indeed, is 
often swayed by the wind. 


Cambrial Colchos (Vol. v, p. 28). In 
response to the query of Kilmain as to the 
above, I find in Sir Richard Bonnycastle's 
"History of Newfoundland " the following 
reference : " In 1618, Captain Whitborne, to 
whom Newfoundland is so deeply indebted, 
again visited it, to increase a small colony 
of which he was made Governor, which had 
been sent out by Dr. Vaughn, a Welsh gen- 
tleman in 1616, who had purchased part of 
Lord Northampton's patent. Mhis settle- 
ment was called Cambroil, and was on that 
part of the south coast now named Little 
Britain." THOMAS Louis OGIER. 


Mahot. This word is given in some of 
the dictionaries as the name of an American 
tree. Will such correspondents as are 
interested in these matters please send any 
information they may possess about either 
the tree or the word ? G. 



[June 7, 1890. 

Norumbega (Vol. v, pp. 27, etc.). If 
Prof. Horsford's opinion be correct that 
Norumbega means Norway, and that the 
Norwegians had settlements at various points 
in Eastern New England, why may there 
not have been two towns called Norumbega? 
By this hypothesis we could harmonize the 
facts which seem to point to a Norumbega 
in Massachusetts with those which would 
tend to confirm the view that there was a 
Norumbega on the Penobscot. Prof. Hors- 
ford cites (p. 16) from Vetromile the fact 
that the name of Nolambeghe is known or 
preserved among the Maine Indians of the 
present time. J. F. ROUTH. 


Gulf of the Lion. This important and 
large bight on the South coast of France is 
called the Gulf of Lyons on the older maps, 
and Gulf of the Lion in most of the more 
recent publications. What is the reason for 
this change of name ? I have not as yet seen 
an explanation which seemed to me to be 
adequate. F. C. R. 


Losh. In "fencing the tables" (that 
is, reptlling unworthy persons from the 
sacrament), a minister of Dumfries is re- 
corded to have forbidden the approach of 
all who used minced oaths, such as " heth, 
teth, feth, losh, gosh and lovenenty." 
Most of these "strange oaths" are inex- 
plicable to me, but I heard a gentleman not 
long since say that he witnessed a game of 
ball played by a parcel of young seminarians 
of a Roman Catholic school, and when a 
bad play was made they would cry out 
"Losh!" This he thought was the French 
Idche, which means slack, loose, and comes 
near the word muff'm its significance. 

A. L. R. 


"The" in Place Names (Vol. iv, pp. 
168, etc.). I find the expression "The 
Greenland in " The Interpreter, wherein 
the principal Terms of State, much mis- 
taken by the vulgar, are clearly unfolded" 
(a poem, 1622). 

R. A. D. 


Swift and Slow. Sivijt, as a name for 
an eft, newt, or salamander, is a word very 
well known in country places. I have heard 
country-folk comparing the swift and the 
slow, and setting forth their points of differ- 
ence. The slow is, I suppose, the slow- 
worm, which is not, however, a native of 
America. My recollection is that country- 
folk generally have a great dread of both 
these creatures, and ascribe to them great 
malevolence and power to work mischief. 
SALEM, N. J. S. A. E. 

American and English Names for 
Marshy Tracts. Marsh is the standard 
English name ; moss is used in North 
Britain ; bog mainly in Ireland. Meadow, 
in New England, is a semi-swampy tract. 
In the South there are pocosons and dismals, 
low hammocks and swammocks ; to say noth- 
ing of such great expanses as the Okefenokee 
swamp, the everglades of Florida (called 
glades\r\ the " U. S. Coast-Survey Report"), 
and the prairies tremblantes of Louisiana. 
Swales, sloughs, cripples and galls, are much 
smaller than swamps or marshes. A ridge 
of dry land (running through a swamp) is 
called a brulee in the Southwest. Marish, 
for marsh, is now a purely poetic form. A 
savanna is not always wet land. The Dutch 
vley, for a semi-lacustrine swamp, becomes a 
fly in New York. Even the North Asiatic 
name tundra (for a vast sphagnous swamp, 
underlain even in summer by ice), has been 
imported into the geographical literature of 
Alaska and Northern Canada. 


Triumphs of Oriana. The following 
are the authors of the poetical pieces in- 
cluded in Thomas Morley's collection, " The 
Triumphs of Oriana" (1601) : Michael 
Este, Daniel Norcome, John Mundy, Ellis 
Gibbons, John Benet, John Hilton, George 
Marson, Richard Carlton, John Holmes, 
Richard Nicolson, Thomas Tomkins, 
Michael Cavendish, William Cobbold, 
Thomas Morley, John Farmer, John Wilby, 
Thomas Weelkes, John Milton (senior), 
George Kirbye, Robert Jones, John Lisley, 
Thomas Morley and Edward Johnson. 


June 7, 1890.] 


Creek (Vol. v, pp. 55, etc.). "To the 
southward of this poulder (polder) bulwark 
the country is broken by many creeks not 
passable nor habitable for an army, but by 
forced means ; and in spring tides for the 
most part overflown " (Sir F. Vere's " Com- 
mentaries" [1606?]: "The Siege of Os- 
tend "). Here creek would seem to signify a 
marshy ground. G. 


Nomenclature of Streams (Vol. v, p. 
54). Run is considerably used in New Eng- 
land for a small runnel, rill, or rivulet. 
Rillet is another old English name for a 
little stream ; and so are drill and riveref. 
Runlet occurs in the " In Memoriam." A 
slough, in the West, is much the same as a 
swale in the East ; and I think it is not un- 
like what is called a gall in the Gulf States. 
Kill designates not only a tidal channel, 
but, as in the cases of Wallkill and Fishkill, 
it may be a part of the name of a small river. 
A cripple, I think, is a bushy swale. Cooley 
(for coulee) is used in Dakota for a dried- 
up river-bed almost precisely like an 
Arabian wady ; but a wady may be a river 
as well. Slang, a watercourse, I believe, 
is purely local. In the east of England we 
find learns also ; are they artificial ? 



Good Old Etymologies. There are 
some choice old derivations which the 
modern scientific school of etymologists 
hold in contempt, but which are so ingen- 
ious, so pat, or so pleasing as to be worthy 
of being held in remembrance, and if we 
must lay them aside, let it be with regrets. 
Among them is that of the word antelope. 
This comes from the Greek antholops, which 
ought to mean, and might well mean, 
"flower-eyed," and thus be descriptive of 
the eyes of the gazelle ; but according to 
the latest authority, Prof. Land, it is an 
Egyptian name and has nothing to do with 
the animal's eyes. Next, to take a less 
picturesque example, let us look at the word 
swill, meaning swine's food. In my boy- 
hood I was told that it was from the Latin 
suillus, pertaining to swine. That would 
make an easy and complete explanation, but 

hardly one of the recent etymologists 
will so much as notice it. Very ludicrous is 
the old derivation of the Dutch-English 
eland, an elk-like antelope, and of the Ger- 
man elenn, an^elk, from the German elend, 
miserable, because of the wretchedly un- 
happy life which the elk leads ; but there are 
respectable English and German authors 
who keep on repeating the absurd explana- 
tion. A very delightful, but quite errone- 
ous, derivation is that of flute from the 
Latin fluta, a lamprey, so called, according 
to an old fancy, because the lamprey has 
flute-like holes along its neck. The old 
books say that the eyry of a bird of prey is- 
simply the fggery ; but there is no founda- 
tion -for this opinion. A coward was for- 
merly regarded as a man who had been 
cowed, or frightened ; but the word has 
nothing to do with the verb to cow. The 
old derivation of poltroon from the Latin 
pollice truncus, deprived of a thumb, is en- 
tirely unhistorical. Miniature has no con- 
nection with minus, smaller, nor with 
diminish; it comes from minium, red lead. 
Nor has jubilee anything to do with the 
*Lati.\\jubilare, to rejoice. 


Hindu and Bengali "Words Akin to 
Those in English Use. Chuddah, a 
kind of cloth, stands for the Hindu chadar, 
a scarf, sheet, or shawl, worn by Orientals. 

The Bengali sitar (cf. cithara, zither) is a 
kind of guitar. 

The tampura seems to be related to our 

The Eastern behala is our viol. With the 
Oriental mandira compare our mandolin. 

The tasar, or wild silk, becomes tussore 
in our shops. 

The New York and New Jersey boys' 
game hunkadee suggests the nun-kuti of the 
Calcutta boys. Pachisi is our parchesi (see 
Vol. iv, pp. 131, 200). Kati and c him are 
not unlike our boys' games cat and shinny. 

At cards, our king is the Hindu's raja, or 
shah; our queen, his wazir or vizier; our 
ace is his eka ; deuce, dua ; tray, tiya ; four, 
chawa; five, pan/a; six, chhaka ; seven, 
sata ; eight, atha; nine, nahla ; ten, dahla. 
He has no knave, but he has eight suits of 


[June 7, 1890. 

cards. Of foods, his sakar is our sugar ; our 
orange is his narangi ; we use his chutney 
(chatni), and our candy is the khandava of 
his ancestors. Our rice is indirectly the 
arisi of the South Indians. Our children 
wear the Hindu's paijamas ; our cow is his 
ghau ; our lilacs are named from his nilak, 
or purple. The true Hindu is of our Aryan 
race, and the Dards of the Northwest speak 
not so very far amiss when they call the 
English their brothers. 


A Question in Grammar (Vol. v, p. 
58, etc.). If W. J. R. means to say that in 
the Mary Howitt quotation the construction 
" a part (of the water) sings in the kettle " 
is ungrammatical or inconsistent with the 
grammar of the rest of the stanza I cannot 
agree with him. If he means to say that it 
fails to express exactly the facts in the sup 
posed case I cannot agree with him, but if 
he means to say that it is a heavy and 
wooden construction I fully agree with him. 
As for rhetorical rules, they are constantly 
set aside by all the poets. \V. J. R.'s idea 
that Mary sings a musical part in a kettle 
seems singularly grotesque. Far better, I 
venture to think, would it be to say that 
Mary sings the water that is, makes it sing. 
We say, "Captain Nelson fought his ship 
splendidly." That is a very similar figure 
of speech, and one of which many examples 
could be found. The editorial caution to 
the inquiring pupil to be of the same opin- 
ion still, but not to contend for that opinion, 
seems to me a wise one. Real or seeming 
bumptiousness on the part of a pupil is not 
only unseemly, but unwise, for many school- 
teachers are quite capable of punishing an 
apparently opinionated child by low marks, 
or by other retaliatory acts for which there 
is no redress. G. 


Camelot (Vol. v, pp. 28, etc.). The 
June number of the Atlantic Monthly, 1890, 
contains a delightful article called " An Ar- 
thurian Journey," in which the author dis- 
cusses several identifications of Camelot. 
The account of the visit to Queen's Camel, 
in Somerset, is very interesting, but is too 

long to quote entire, and to mutilate it 
would be to spoil it. Reluctantly, the 
writer seems compelled to give up Queen's 
Camel as not suiting the conditions of the 
Arthurian legends. He more hastily dis- 
misses Winchester. Camelford, in Cornwall, 
another proposed site, was also visited. 
Westminster, or London itself, is also 
claimed as the true Camelot. The article 
makes no reference to Camelodunum, or 
Colchester, in Essex ; but that place very 
early became Saxon, and there is really 
nothing but the name and the situation on 
a navigable river to favor the identification. 
The writer of the article evidently looks 
upon Arthur and Camelot as realities, and I 
cannot help sympathizing with his views in 
this respect. 



The Century for June contains among other interest- 
ing articles another paper by Charles de Kay of his 
series on Ireland, from which we quote as follows: 
" War-cries, meant originally to keep the fighting men 
aware of the place of their own clan in battle, or when 
scattered in woods and hills, came down to the baronial 
period, and were used by the Anglo-Norman nobles out 
of consideration tor their Gaelic retainers. The com- 
monest shout was some name of famous place or famous 
man with the addition aboo, a word well fitted for the 
clamor of a band of fighters, being at once more musi- 
cal and less wearying to the voice than our ' hurrah.' 
The Kildare retainers cried ' Crotn aboo t ' in honor of 
Crom Castle, a citadel in Limerick county, originally a 
stronghold of the O' Donovans, which one of the intru- 
sive Geraldine families, named after the town of Kil- 
dare, occupied while turning Irish. The O'Neills cried 
out, ' Lawv dareg aboo ! ' because the Lawv dareg or 
Red Hand was the badge of the family and clan. The 
O'Briens cried, ' Lawv Lalder / ' or ' Laudir aboo I' or 
1 Strong Hand Aboo ! ' The translator of Geoffrey 
Keating's ' History of Ireland ' suggests as the mean- 
ing of aboo the Irish word booa, victory ; but analogy 
would point rather to boa (beotha), lively, awake, spir- 
ited ; when aboo would be an exclamation like the 
French alerte ! and vlve I A parallel in Irish is the 
well-known Erin go bra! 'Erin till judgment day !' 
where go bra, forever, implies the same idea of living 
which the word beotha actually contains, since the lat- 
ter is the Keltic equivalent of Greek bios. ' Yabul' is 
the exclamation of Tatar horsemen when urging their 
steeds forward. While on this topic it may be in- 
teresting to note that this Irish word, or its Welsh 
equivalent yu byw, corrupted to boo and boh, is found 
in our colloquial expression, ' He doesn't dare say boo 
too a goose ;' in other words, he is too cowardly to 
sound his war-cry in, the presence of the most peaceful 
of creatures." " 

American H tes Md Queries: 




Copyrighted 1890, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post- Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. Y. No. 7. 

SATURDAY, JUNE 14, 1890. 

I $3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 moiKhs. 

| $1.00, 3 mouths. 10 cents per number. 

American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's. Boston : Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : Whipping as a Punishment, 73 Proverbs of the 
Sea Rappacini's Daughter, 75. 

QUERIES: Name Wanted First Pope to Wear a Beard- 
Blind as a Beetle, 76 Luck of Edenhall, 77. 

REPLIES: Whiffle-tree Name Wanted State of Franklin 
Primuiste Bath of Blood, 77 Kill van Kull, 78. 

The Empire State Schamir Bilsted Decoration Day 
Dropping- Wells, 79. 

COMMUNICATIONS : John Dory Resolute, 79 Charac- 
teristics of Nations Cockney, 80 Legends of the Rose, 81 
Palace of Forty Pillars Abaca Icta Angelas Names 
of Cities, 82 Question in Grammar, 83 Shamrock Vica- 
rious Justice Leading Apes in Hell Manatee Maize, 84. 


The first mention of whipping as a pun- 
ishment occurs in the fifth chapter of Exo- 
dus, where we find that Pharaoh whipped 
the officers of the Israelites when they did 
not furnish the required number of bricks 
which they were compelled to make every 

In ancient times the Romans carried 
whipping as a punishment farther than any 
other nation, and their judges were sur- 
rounded with an array of divers kinds of 
whips well calculated to affright the offender 
who might be brought before them. The 
mildest form of whip was a flat leather strap 
called the ferula, and one of the most se- 
vere was the flagellum, which was made of 
plaited ox-hide and almost as hard as iron. 



[June 14, 1890. 

Not only was flagellation in various forms 
used as a judicial punishment, but it was 
also a common practice to punish slaves by 
the same means. The Roman ladies were 
greater offenders and even more given to the 
practice of whipping their slaves than the 
men, for in the reign of the Emperor Adrian 
a Roman lady was banished for five years for 
undue cruelty to her slaves. The practice of 
whipping was in fact so prevalent that it 
furnished Plautus, in several cases, with inci- 
dents for his plots. Thus, in his " Epicidus, ' ' 
a slave, who is the principal character in 
the play, concludes that his master has dis- 
covered' all his schemes since he saw him in 
the morning purchasing a new scourge at 
the shop where they were sold. 

From ancient times the use of whipping 
can be traced through the middle ages down 
to, comparatively speaking, more modern 
times, when it is easier to find records of the 
use of the rod. 

In Queen Elizabeth's time the whipping- 
post was an established institution in almost 
every village in England, the municipal 
records of the time informing us that the 
usual fee to the executioner for administer- 
ing the punishment was " four-pence a head." 
In addition to whipping being thought an 
excellent corrective for crime, the authori- 
ties of a certain town in Huntingdonshire 
must have considered the use of the lash as 
a sort of universal specific as well, for the 
corporation records of this town mention 
that they paid eight-pence " to Thomas 
Hawkins for whipping two people y' had 
the small-pox." 

In France and Holland whipping does not 
seem to have been so generally practiced. 
The last woman who was publicly whipped 
in France by judicial decree was Jeanne St. 
Remi de Valois, Comtesse de la Motte, for 
her share in the abstraction of that diamond 
necklace which has given point to so many 

In connection with the history of flagella- 
tion in France may be mentioned the cus- 
tom which prevailed there (and also in Italy) 
in olden times of ladies visiting their ac- 
quaintances while still in bed on the morn- 
ing of the " Festival of the Innocents," and 
whipping them for any injuries, either real 
or fancied, which the victims may have done 

to the fair flagellants during the past year. 
One of the explanations given for the rise of 
this practice is as follows: On that day it 
was the custom to whip up children in the 
morning, "that the memory of Herod's 
murder of the innocents might stick the 
closer, and in a moderate proportion to act 
the crueltie again in kinde." There is a 
story based upon this practice in the tales of 
the Queen of Navarre. 

Among the Eastern nations the rod in 
various forms plays a prominent part, and 
from what we read China might be said to 
be almost governed by it. Japan is singu- 
larly free from the practice of whipping, but 
makes up for it by having a remarkably san- 
guinary criminal code. 

Russia is, however, par excellence a home 
of the whip and the rod, the Russians hav- 
ing been governed from time immemorial 
by the use of the lash. 

Many of the Russian monarchs were 
adepts in the use of the whip, and were also 
particularly ingenious in making things un- 
pleasant for those around them. Catherine 
II was so particularly fond of this variety of 
punishment (which she often administered 
in person), that it amounted almost to a pas- 
sion with her. It is related that she carried 
this craze so far that one time the ladies of 
the court had to come to the Winter Palace 
with their dresses so adjusted that the Em- 
press could whip them at once if she should 
feel so inclined. 

While the instruments of torture used in 
Russia were of great variety, the most for- 
midable " punisher" was the knout, an in- 
strument of Tartar origin and of which de- 
scriptions differ. In its ordinary form it 
appears to be a heavy leather thong, about 
eight feet in length, attached to a handle 
two feet long, the lash being concave, thus 
making two sharp edges along its entire 
length, and when it fell on the criminal's 
back it would cut him like a flexible double- 
edged sword. "Running the gauntlet" 
was also employed but principally in the 
army. In this the offender had to pass 
through a long lane of soldiers, each of whom 
gave the offender a stroke with a pliant 
switch. Peter the Great limited the number 
of blows to be given to twelve thousand, but 
unless it were intended to kill the victim, 

June 14, 1890.] 



they seldom gave more than two thousand 
at a time. When the offender was sen- 
tenced to a greater number of strokes than 
this, the punishment was extended over sev- 
eral days for the reason above stated. 

Whipping, after dropping out of sight for 
a time in England, was reintroduced in 
England in 1867, in order to put a check 
on crimes of violence. The law was so 
framed that the judges might add flogging 
at discretion to the imprisonment to which 
the offenders were also sentenced. The 
first instance of this punishment being used 
was at Leeds, where two men received 
twenty-five lashes each before entering their 
five and ten years' penal servitude for garot- 
ting. The whip used in this instance was 
the cat-o'-nine-tails. 

The whipping-post is also still used in 
some parts of this country, notably at New 
Castle, Delaware, where the "cat" is still 
administered for minor offenses. Judging 
from a whipping that the writer once wit- 
nessed it appears to be a very mild form of 
punishment. W. W. R. 



The sea refuses no river. 

The ocean is made up of small drops. 

It is a great way to the bottom of the sea. 

It is but a stone's throw to the bottom of 
the sea. 

He that would sail without danger must 
never come on the main sea. 

He sets his sail to every wind. 

Hoist your sail when the wind is fair. 

Being at sea, sail ; being on land, settle. 

He who goes to sea must sail or sink. 

It is easy to sail with wind and tide. 

A big ship needs deep water. 

A mariner must have his eyes on rocks 
and sand as well as the North Star. 

He that will not sail till' all dangers are 
over, will never put to sea. 

He that will not sail till he have fair wind, 
will lose many a voyage. 

Many grains of sand will sink a ship. 

Better lose an anchor than a ship. 

With broken rudder the vessel is soon lost. 

He who can steer need not row. 

The first in the boat can choose his oar. 

Ill goes the boat without oars. 

To have an oar in every man's barge. 

Good riding at two anchors men have told, 

For if one fail, the other will hold. 

Do not trust all in the same boat. 

Too many sailors will sink a ship. 

Ships fear fire more than water. 

To cast water in the sea. 

He cannot find water in the sea. 

He seeks water in the sea. 

Helping the unworthy is throwing water 
in the sea. 

As true as the sea burns. 

As welcome as water in a leaky ship. 

The water that supports the ship is the 
same that sinks it. 

Large fish live in deep waters. 

By the small boat one reaches the ship. 

Who embarks with the devil, must sail 
with him. 

The soul is the ship, the mind is the rud- 
der, the thoughts are the oars, and truth is 
the port. 

Women are ships and must be manned. 

A ship and a woman always want trim- 

A ship and a woman are always repairing. 

Give a woman luck and cast her into the 

Who won't be ruled by rudder must be 
ruled by rock. 



(VOL. ii, P. 169.) 

In the famous Hindu story of the two 
kings, Nanda and Chandragupta, the 
Poison-maid is referred to as the means by 
which Chanakya, a sort of Hindu Macchi- 
avel, being prime minister, rids the country 
of Nanda, and elevates Chandragupta to 
the throne of the Punjaub. 

The personages and events of this story 
are a part of history, and relate to a period 
either contemporary with Alexander's con- 
quests in India, or immediately subsequent 
to them. 

The Hindu historical drama, " Mudra- 
Rakshasa; or, The Signet of the Minister," 
is based upon this story, and (although the 

7 6 


[June 14, 1890. 

Poison-maid is neither seen nor heard in the 
play) contains several references to this ven- 
omous creature. 

One of Rakshasa's agents says to him : 

" You then 

Departed to maintain the realm of Xanda 
In other provinces, devising means 
Intended Chandragupta to remove; 
Which failing him, the mountain king destroyed." 

(Act ii, p. 180.) 

The " means" spoken of in the foregoing 
lines prove, later in the drama, to be the 
Poison-maid, as is shown by the words of 
Jivasiddhi, the religious mendicant, who 
tells Rakshasa that he is threatened with 
banishment, and gives as a reason : 

" That he supplied, 

Employed by you the poisoned emissary 
That killed Parvataka." 

(Actii, p. 185.) 

Jiva. makes this statement : 

" Dwelling at Patatiputra, I concluded, 
Though poor, an intimacy with Rakshasa, 
At the same season when his craft employed 
The Poison-maid, his secret instrument, 
To work the murder of the mountain king." 

(Act v, p. 221.) 

Jiva. in same conversation : 

"To this hour Chanakya 

Knows not the venomed maid even by name." 
(H.W.Wilson's " Theatre of the Hindus," Vol.ii.) 

The introduction to the drama contains 
the following direct statement: "Rakshasa 
(the friend of Nanda) prepared by magic art 
a poisoned maid for the destruction of Chan- 
dragupta, but, by mistake of the emissary, 
Parvatesa perished instead." 

The story appears in the " Vishnu-Pura- 
rias" and in the " Bhagavadgita;" it is told, 
too, in both ancient and modern collections 
of Indian tales, perhaps with a change of 
names. The murder of Nanda, through 
Chanakya's contrivance, is instanced as a 
warning to the king in the "Hitopadesa :" 
"Let the parrot see this and depart, since 
Chanakya by employing a sagacious messen- 
ger destroyed Nanda" (Book "On War"). 

The words translated by Sir Wm. Jones, 
" sagacious messenger" are elsewhere " fatal 
emissary." May he not have found in an- 
cient Hindu literature the source whence 
the compilers of "The Gesla Romanorum" 
drew their most powerful illustration of the 
destructive force of sin ? F. T. C. 


B S. 

Name Wanted. When asked what he 
thought of the next world, who answered : 
" Wait ; I will tell you later when I see you 
there?" E. BRADLEY SIMS. 


Demonax, an Athenian philosopher, who 
lived in the second century of our era. 

First Pope to Wear a Beard. Can you 

tell me if any of the Popes ever wore beards, 
and who was the first one to do so? 

W. E. S. 

Julius II was the first Pope who ever wore 
a beard. He did so in order to inspire 
greater respect among the faithful. He 
was one of the most famous of all the Popes, 
and the founder of the Church of St. Peter 
at Rome. 

" Blind as a Beetle." What is the origin 
of this phrase ? MRS. E. F. 


This simile was no doubt suggested by the 
behavior of the cockchafer {Melolontha vul- 
garis), sometimes called the "blind bee- 
tle," which has a disagreeable way of bump- 
ing against persons and things as if it could 
not see its way. There is another so-called 
"blind beetle," which is actually destitute 
of eyes. It is described as "a small chest- 
nut-colored beetle, found in rice." 

It may be noted, however, that many of 
these vulgar similes will hardly bear critical 
analysis. They are often contradictory; 
like " working like a dog" and " lazy as a 
dog," to quote a single pair. They were 
ridiculed more than three hundred years 
ago by Taylor, the Water-poet, in his " Dogge 
of Warre." He says: "Many ridiculous 
aspersions are cast upon Dogges, so that it 
would make a Dogge laugh to heare and un- 
derstand them. As I have heard a Man 
say, I am as hot as a Dogge, or as cold as a 
Dogge, I sweate like a Dogge (when a Dogge 
never sweates), as drunke as a Dogge, hee 
swore like a Dogge, and one told a man 
nnce, That his Wife was not to be believ'd, 

June 14, 1890.] 


for she would lye like a Dogge." In "The 
Tempest" (iii, 2, 22), Trinculo says, "but 
you'll lie like dogs;" and in "i Henry 
IV" (ii, i, 8), the Carrier declares that 
"peas and beans are as dank [damp] here 
as a dog" (W. J. R., in New Eng. Jour. 
of Education]. 

Luck of Edenhall. What circumstance 
gave rise to the expression, or what legend 
is wrapped up in "The Luck of Edenhall ?" 


See AM. NOTES AND QUERIES, Vol. ii, p. 

It B P Li I B S . 

Whiffle-tree, or Whipple-tree. Is it possi- 
ble that this name is derived from the wipul, 
a name formerly used in England of the 
tree now called the dogwood ? 



Name Wanted (Vol. v, p. 64). The story 
related by "Quaerens" is told, in substance, 
of Frederick the Great. I do not remember 
who the offender was. The offender, I 
think, was not a general but a staff-officer, 
whose duties throughout the day gave him 
no leisure for letter-writing; and he had 
only delayed the extinguishment of his light 
for a minute or so in order to finish a short 
letter. E. H. E. 


Frederick the Great. H. P., JR. 


The incident related by " Quserens" is 
told of Napoleon Bonaparte, but I cannot 
recollect the battle Jena or Austerlitz. It 
is authentic, if adoption by a host of Napo- 
leonic chroniqueurs makes it so. 

J. O. G. D. 


T In the first Silesian war Frederick the 
Great, being desirous of making some 
changes in his camp during the night, or- 
dered that no light should be burning after 

a certain hour, under penalty of death. 
Passing round the camp himself, to see that 
his order was obeyed, he discovered a can- 
dle burning in the tent of Captain Zietern, 
who excused himself by saying that he was 
writing a letter to his wife. Frederick re- 
minded him of the order, and Zietern begged 
for mercy, but could not deny his fault. 
The stern commander ordered him to sit 
down, and write from his dictation the sen- 
tence : "To-morrow I shall perish on a 
scaffold." The captain wrote it, and was 
executed the next day. E. G. KEEN. 

State of Frank/in (Vol. v, p. 66). The 
State of Franklin was the secession of the 
northwest part of North Carolina (about 
1787). H. P., JR. 


Part, if not all, of the Colony of Transyl- 
vania (see my " Ohio Valley in Colonial 
Days") was named State of Franklin after 
the Revolution, but never recognized as such, 
and became the " Southwest Territory." 

B. F. 

Primuiste (Vol. v, p. 53). This is one of 
the oldest games at cards, better known, 
perhaps, as primero. In this game the 
seven was the highest card available, in 
point of number, which counte.d for twenty ; 
the six for eighteen ; the five for fifteen, and 
the ace for the same. The two, three, and 
four counted for their respective points only. 
A citation is given from the " Rival Friends" 
(1632): "When it maybe some of our but- 
terfly judgments expected a set at maw or 
primavista from them." Minshew, speak- 
ing of the origin of the name, says : " That 
is, first, and first scene, because he that can 
shew such an order of cardes first winnes the 
game" (Halliwell & Wrights' ed. " Nares' 
Gloss."). E. G. KEEN. 


Bath of Blood (Vol. iv, p. 43). Another 
"Bath of Blood" was the massacre of the 
Huguenots at Vassy, in France, in 1562, at 
'the command of the Duke of Guise. 



[June 14, 1890. 

Kill van Kull, or, better, Kit van Kul or Cut 

(Vol. v, p. 65). It is probably needless to 
say that Kit is, at present, the current word 
in Dutch for a channel. The original mean- 
ing of the root I take (subject to correction) 
to have been slitting, slicing (akin, perhaps, 
to Lat. coel and Greek KoU ; see Ccela, Vol. 
v, p. 28). Nor have I far to look for sug- 
gestive cases in point : N. W. of the Firth 
of Clyde the Kyles of Bute speak for them- 
selves, and so do the Gz0/-Isla, the Caol- 
Muileach, and others; in Swedish, kil 
means a slice; in Germany the root kehl 
denotes a narrow pass, and it seems almost 
impossible to look at Kehl, BergKehle, Lang 
Kehle, etc., without thinking of some possi- 
ble American Kill, Berg Kil, Long Kil, etc. 
That such a root should gradually be applied 
to a channel, to the water running through 
it, and to small rivers, appears but natural 
(as Mr. R. W. Truman remarks in this morn- 
An old " Hollandisch-Deutsches Worter- 
buch," which I have accidentally under my 
eyes, distinctly defines Kil: die Titfe zwisch- 
tn zwci Sandbanken; das Flussbett, das 
Wasser desselben ; and, better still, Peter 
Stuyvesant, reporting his own trip to Esopus 
in May, 1658, tells us that he "arrived 
safely at the kil or river of the Esopus on the 
29th," and afterwards repeatedly speaks of 
"the said kil" * * * "entering the 
kil . * * * "the bank of the kil," etc.* 

As to Kul or Cul, it can hardly be aught 
else but the well-nigh cosmopolitan root cut, 
best known to us perhaps through the Celtic 
Cul, Cuil (the back, a recess, a bay), and 
the Latin CWus (the back). 

Tourists may be acquainted with Coolmore 
and Coolbeg (the big bay and the little one) 
in Donegal Bay, and Coolebawn and Cool- 
main, not far west of the Old Head of Kin- 
sale (God bless it !), and I know not how 
many Irish readers I may slight if I omit to 
mention Culdaff, Culmullen, Cool, Cul- 
Jcightrin, Coolrainey, Coolattin, Cooleen 
(what a whiff of the Tipperary mountain air 

* As I spoke of the Scotch kyle, I may seem to have 
forgotten the Irish kill (this one I advisedly spell with 
//; none but a Sassenach could have murdered Cill- 
dara into AWdare!); let me mention that all the Kills 
in Ireland are by competent authorities derived either 
from coill, a wood, or till, a church. 

about this one !), etc. In Scotland every- 
body kncws King Charley's Culloden; and 
Culross, Coolt, and Cult are as common as 
the mist. 

From the Latin Culus we have the unsa- 
vory French word to which we owe our own 
verb " to recoil" (through rzculer) and the 
plant name <rtf/<?rage.* Thence, also, cul de 
sac, a striking use of which, in the sense of 
a kul, is given us by the bay actually named 
Cul de Sac, in the island of Martinique. 

The Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese Culo 
I need no more than mention. 

On these hypotheses, Kil van Kul, or, in 
full, Net Kil van het Kul, would simply 
mean the narrow passage of or from the bay. 
Si quid novistis melius istis, etc. 



Kull is a Dutchification of the French 
word cul, as found in cul de sac, and has the 
same meaning. The discoverers of the Kill 
van Kull thought the strait was a bay with 
an outlet into New York Bay. Kull is not 
found in connection with any other stream 
here. B. F. 



Town Bank (Vol. iv, p. 35, under 
"Sunken Cities"). What was the name 
and date of the town of New Jersey which 
stood near the site indicated as above ? I 
lately asked a man ninety-two years of age, 
who has always lived near that place, about 
the former town. He told me that he had 
never heard of it ; but afterwards said he 
thought he had heard of it, but knew noth- 
ing as to the truth of the story. M. J. D. 


* And likewise cu/prit, according to the " Good Old 
Etymologists" (Mr. B. T. Thomas, in to-day's AMERI- 
CAN NOTES AND QUERIES, reminds me of it), because 
a criminal naturally runs away when his pursuers are at 
his back, and when he is caught he becomes a ctil-pnt, 
caught from behind, don't you see ? There remained to 
explain the change of the s in the French pris (Lat. 
prensus) into the / in prit ; but that was a mere detail ! 

June 14, 1890.] 



The Empire State (Vol. i, p. 190). 

(a) I find in Ellis H. Roberts' "New York:" 
" The title of the Empire State is a modern 
invention. Yet at the time the white men 
came to New York, a confederacy, which 
boasted that it had already existed six gen- 
erations, occupied the chief part of this ter- 
ritory and wielded a power imperial in its 
extent and exercise." 

() Twenty-seven years ago, Anthony 
Trollope wrote: "New York is the most 
populous State of the Union, having the 
largest representation in Congress on which 
account, it has been called the Empire State. ' ' 

(c} Washington terminates as follows his 
reply to The respectful Address of the Mayor 
(then, James Duane), Recorder, Aldermen, 
and Commonalty of the City of Neiu York in 
Common Council assembled, Dec. 2, 1784: 

" I pray that Heaven may bestow its 
choicest blessings on your city ; That the 
devastation of war in which you found it 
may soon be without a trace ; That a well- 
regulated and beneficial commerce may en- 
rich your citizens ; and that your State (at 
present the seat of the Empire) may set such 
examples of wisdom and liberality as shall 
have a tendency to strengthen and give a 
permanency to the Union at home, and credit 
and respectability to it abroad. The ac- 
complishment whereof is a remaining wish 
and the primary object of all my desires." 

Now the first two quotations above have 
been taken at random : E. H. Roberts needs 
no commendation at my hands ; Trollope I 
take for what he is worth (truth does take 
up temporary lodgings in strange quarters 
at times). As to Washington's saying, it is 
a simple fact.* 

What I am desirous to know is, whether 
I may safely see, in No. i, the primary 
idea; in No. 2, the proximate cause, and, 
in No. 3, the first public bestowal, of the 
above title. A. ESTOCLET. 


Schamir. What is the myth of the 
schamir, or lightning-stone ? R. P. L. 

* See the New York Packet, for May 2, 1785, or, bet- 
ter still, a.fnc simile of Washington's reply, in the beau- 
tiful reprint of the " Addresses of the City of New York 
to G. Washington, with his Replies," a copy of which 
was secured by the N. Y. Hist. Society. 

Bilsted. In some parts of this country 
the sweet-gum tree (otherwise called copalm, 
Vol. iv, p. 34; bilster, bilsterd, or liquid- 
amber) is known as the bilsted. Prof. Mee- 
han derives this word from the Dutch bijl- 
steel, bill-handle, or axe-handle. But I do 
not see how bijlsteel could become bilsted 
except through a misprint. A still more for- 
midable objection is this : there is probably 
no kind of wood less fitted for axe-handle 
material than this same bilsted. Can any 
of your correspondents explain the origin ot 
the word ? H. R. STOY. 


Decoration Day. Will you inform me 
when Decoration Day became a holiday? 
Is it a national holiday, or one set aside by 
the several States? In the latter case, in 
how many States has it become a legal holi- 
day? E. M. R. 


Dropping- wells. Tennyson calls the 
laburnums " dropping-wells of fire." I have 
often read of various dropping-wells in Eng- 
land, but I do not exactly understand what 
a dropping-well is. Can any of your readers 
explain the term? ILDERIM. 



John Dory (Vol. iii, p. 129). The 
older dictionaries derive this name of a fish 
from the rer\chjaune doree, gilded yellow. 
Bishop Corbet, in describing his " Journey 
Into France" (1647), says: 

" But I to Paris rode along, 
Much like John Dory in the song," 

and Bishop Earle, in his characters (" Micro- 
cosmographie," 1628) says of the fiddler: 
" Hunger is the greatest paine he takes, ex- 
cept a broken head sometimes, and the 
labouring John Dorry." 

What is the legend, or story, or allusion 
to which these two good bishops refer ? 

E. D. R. 


Resolute. In the case of the expression 
" Resolute Doctor " (applied as a title to 
Durandus and Baconthorpe) Wheeler (in 


[June 14, 1890. 

the " Diet, of Noted Names ") gives as the 
meaning of Resolute, "explaining," "inter- 
preting," and notes that it was given out of 
regard to skill and readiness in deciding 
questions. Resolute once signified " con- 
vinced, satisfied ;" also "convincing." I 
think that " Doctor Resolutus" means the 
teacher in whose writings all difficulties are 
cleared up (resoluta). 

There is no difficulty, however, in sup- 
posing that Baconthorpe was called " the 
resolute " from his determined and forceful 
character. "The Resolute John Florio" 
was so named for a similar reason. 



Characteristics of Nations (Vol. iii, 
p. 191, under " A Nation of Shopkeepers"). 
In " The True-born Englishman " (1701) 
of Defoe, we are informed that the devil 

" Binds the World in his infernal chains, 
By zeal the Irish ; and the Rush by folly ; 
Fury, the Dane, the Swede by melancholy ; 
By stupid ignorance the Muscovite, 
The Chinese by a child of Hell called Wit. 
Wealth makes the Persian too effeminate, 
And Poverty, the Tartars desperate. 
The Turks and Moors by Mahomet he subdues, 
And God has given him leave to rule the Jews. 
Rage rules the Portuguese, and fraud the Scotch ; 
Revenge, the Pole, and avarice the Dutch." 

P. R. E. 


Cockney (Vol. iv, p. i). From the 
part of the English Philological Society's 
Dictionary next to appear we shall be able 
to learn all about the term cockney, the origin 
of which has exercised the wits of so many 
speculators. Meantime, Dr. Murray, the 
principal editor of the Dictionary, has dis- 
cussed the term very fully in the pages of 
the Academy. It is there pointed out that, 
as applied to a person, it had, primarily, the 
sense of " cockered or pet child," and was 
used, later, to denote the sort of man into 
which such a child ordinarily develops. As 
the next step, cockneys, in the language of 
rustics, were the inhabitants of large towns, 
whom old-time Hodges and Gileses regarded 
as being, in comparison with themselves, 
squeamish or effeminate, cockered children 
of a larger growth, "milksops," "molly- 
coddles." Gradually, the epithet came, at 

last, to be restricted to Londoners, on the 
assumption that, in a preeminent degree, 
they were lacking in what uplandish folks 
accounted proper manliness. But, long be- 
fore the emergence of persons designated as 
cockneys, there was a word cokeney, resolva- 
ble into coken ey, "cock's egg," and signi- 
fying " fowl's egg." This is established by 
evidence which is beyond all gainsaying. 
" And, now that we know the original 
meaning," writes Dr. Murray, " there is no 
difficulty; the petted and cockered child 
was his mother's nest-egg, or, as Fuller, little 
suspecting how near he was to the truth, 
said, her ' nestle-cock.' ' 

Prof. Skeat, in the first edition of his 
"Etymological Dictionary," prudently con- 
sidered the origin of cockney to be "un- 
known." In his supplement, however, after 
he had taken counsel with the eccentric Mr. 
Hensleigh Wedgwood, he fancied that light 
was dawning on him. Still unaware of 
cokeney as meaning " cock's egg," he there 
boldly lays it down that cokeney, " cockney," 
" answers precisely to" the fictitious French 
coquine and the fictitious Low Latin coquin- 
atus, evolved from the Latin coquina, 
"kitchen." And he adds: "I think we 
are now certainly on the right track." We 
are somewhat reminded, by this, for its as- 
tounding irrationality, of Menage's cele- 
brated genealogy of rat : mus, mu-ris, mu- 
rafus, rat-us, rat. Adopting Prof. Skeat's 
notion, the " Century Dictionary" unhesi- 
tatingly declares for the original of cockney 
in the Utopian coquine and coquinatus, " a 
vagabond who hangs around \Anglice about] 
the kitchen," or " a child brought up in the 
kitchen," and pronounces that this is " the 
only solution of cockney phonetically satis- 
factory." On the other hand, Dr. Murray 
contends, on irrefragible grounds, that such 
a "solution" is demonstrably impossible. 
The implicit followers of Prof. Skeat have 
now had a lesson, and by no means the first, 
as to the danger of taking it for granted that 
his adjudications may safely be accepted 
without independent research and due ac- 
quaintance with scientific philology. A 
whole host of his confident whimsies has al- 
ready been exploded by the redoubtable Dr. 
Murray ; and doubtless a whole host more 
is destined to share their fate. The Nation. 

June 14, 1890.] 



Legends of the Rose. There are several 
legends to account for the origin of the rose. 
Here is a very beautiful one : A certain 
Jewish maiden, Zillah, rejected the advances 
of a lover, Hammal, a degraded and cruel 
man. In revenge he accused her of offenses 
for which she was condemned to be burned 
at the stake. When brought to the spot, the 
flames did no harm to the maiden, but con- 
sumed the false lover. " And the fyre be- 
gan to burne about hire, she made her 
prayers to oure Lord and anon was the fayer 
quenched an oute and brandes that were 
brennynge becomen white roses, and theise 
were in the first roseres that ever any man 
saughe ! " The burning brands thus became 
red roses the other ones white. 

According to a Greek myth, red roses 
were white ones, tinged with the blood of 
Venus, who wounded her foot on a thorn 
while hastening to the aid of the dying 
Narcissus. According to another legend, 
they sprang from the bath of Aphrodite. A 
later Christian tradition asserted that the 
crown of thorns was one of the rose thorn, 
and that the red roses sprang from the blood 
of Christ : 

Men saw the thorns on Jesus' brow, 
But angels saw the roses. 

A still different origin is given to the 
"queen of flowers" by Mussulman tradition. 
According to it, white roses sprang from the 
sweat of the prophet Mohammed during his 
journey to heaven, and yellow ones from 
perspiration dripping from the mane of Al 
Borak, his steed. It is further reported that 
the red flower is colored with drops of his 
blood, and the faithful will never suffer one 
to lie on the ground. There is an Arab tra- 
dition that a certain King Shaddad planted 
a field of roses in the desert, which are still 
flourishing, but no man can find them. 

The rose of Jericho, also called the rose of 
the Virgin Mary, became the symbol of re- 
surrection. It is not really a rose, however. 
A tradition reported that it marked every 
spot where the holy family rested during the 
journey to Egypt. 

The Syrians regarded the rose as an em- 
blem of immortality. Chinese plant it over 
graves, and in the Tyrol it is said to pro- 
duce sleep. Germans call the rose of 

Jericho the Christmas rose, and it is sup- 
posed to divine the events of the year, if 
steeped in water on Christmas Eve. 

There are many other superstitions about 
the rose. It is said in Persia that there is a 
certain charmed day in which the rose has a 
heart of gold. Another tradition relates that 
there is a silver table on a certain Mount 
Calassy, in India, and on this table lies a 
silver rose that contains two beautiful women 
who praise God without ceasing. In the 
centre of the rose is the triangle the resi- 
dence of God. 

And when the bell hath sounded, 
The rose, with all the mysteries surrounded, 
The bell, the table and Mount Calassy, 
The holy hill itself, with all thereon, 
Dissolves away. 

One of Vishnu's wives is said to have 
sprung from a rose. In Germany, the rose 
has been a favorite flower. It is one of those 
mysterious blossoms, like the "forget-me- 
not," that unlocks treasures concealed in 
caves or castles. The rose was a favorite 
flower of Holda, the Northern Venus, and, in 
Christian hands, became the " Marien- 
roschen" of the Virgin. The white rose is 
usually Mary's emblem. She dries her veil 
on a rosebush, which bears no more flowers 

It is probable that rosebuds were the 
larger beads in the Catholic rosary, the Ger- 
man Rosenkrantz, or rose wreath. 

It is said that if a white rose blooms in 
autumn, an early death is prognosticated, 
while an autumn-blooming red rose signi- 
fies marriage. The red rose, it is also said, 
will not bloom over a grave. Rose leaves 
are sometimes thrown on the fire for good 
luck, and a rosebush may be made to bloom 
in autumn by pruning it on St. John's Day. 
Here, as well as in France and Italy, it is 
believed that rosy cheeks will come to the 
lass who buries a drop of her blood under a 
rose bush. In Posen, young women assure 
the fidelity of their lovers by carrying a 
rosebud in the breast. Rose leaves are 
chosen for divination in Thuringia, the 
maiden having several lovers scattering a leaf 
named after each one on the water ; the leaf 
that sinks last is the true lover. 

Charms for stopping hemorrhage are con- 
nected with the rose. One of these, used in 



[June 14, 1890. 

Germany, runs thus : " In God's garden 
bloom three roses blood-drop, blood-stop 
and blood-still ; blood, I pray you, cease to 

The rose was a potent ingredient in love 
philters in England and Scotland a century 

In the Saemunder Edda, Brynhild is thrown 
into a trance from which Sigurd arouses her 
by a blow from the " sleepy thorn " in the 
hands of Odin. In the German tale of 
Dornroschen, or the sleeping beauty, the 
thorn hedge that surrounds the slumbering 
heroine bears only roses to the true Prince. 
All the Year Round. 

Palace of Forty Pillars (Vol. iv, 
p. 156). The great Jain temple of Ajmir 
(now in part ruined, and part turned into 
a mosque) has forty pillars, no two of them 
alike. The whole takes rank as one of the 
finest, if not the very finest, of all existing 
Hindu buildings. N. S. S. 


Abaca (Vol. iv, p. 9). All the diction- 
aries, with no exception that I can find, ac- 
cent this word on the antepenult. But I 
am credibly informed that in the true Span- 
ish and Philippine pronunciation the accent, 
or stress, comes on the final syllable. 



Icta (Vol. v, pp. 66, etc.). Icta, or icter, 
is a word adapted from the Chinese jargon, 
and is quite freely used in Oregon and 
Washington, in the sense of miscellaneous. 
Thus a room used for the storage of odds 
and ends is an icta room. The wagon which 
follows the threshing machine and carries 
tools and materials for repair, etc., is the 
icta wagon. The wagon-box of a freight 
wagon, or "prairie schooner," is an icta 
box. The word used in this sense is cer- 
tainly a very handy one. So far as I could 
learn, a Chinook Indian would apply it to 
anything of which he did not know the 
name. I once heard the reply to a ques- 
tion concerning the proprietorship of about 
a dozen dirty-faced tow-heads: "Them 
kids? Why them's Joe Brumley's u/as." 


Angelus (Vol. iv, pp. 308, etc). Pope Ur- 
ban II, in the year 1095, set forth among 
the faithful the practice of reciting a number 
of " Hail Maries" daily, in order to obtain 
the suffrages of the Holy Virgin in behalf of 
the absent crusaders. The devotion fell 
later into some degree of abeyance, until in 
the fourteenth century John XXIII decreed an 
indulgence for the due recital of the Angelus 
morning, noon, and night. There was, and 
still is in some churches, a special bell the 
Angelus-bell, called also lady-bell, Gabriel- 
bell, or ave-bell which is set apart for call- 
ing the people to this special devotion. An 
article published by Monsignor R. Seton is 
my authority for these facts. R. M. L. 


Names of Cities (Vol. iv, pp. 287, 
etc.). Auld Reekie Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Birmingham of the Continent Li6ge, 

Birmingham of the West Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Bride of Saladin Cairo, Egypt. 

Brighton of Scotland Portobello, Scot- 

Cities of the plain Sodom and Gomor- 

City of a thousand lights Moscow, 

City of Alders Shrewsbury, England. 

City of Baltic trade Hull, England. 

City of bankers Florence, Italy. 

City of cells Lismore, Ireland. 

City of colleges Bokhara, Tartary. 

City of cutlery Sheffield, England. 

City of David Jerusalem, Palestine. 

City of earthquakes Caracas, Venezuela. 

City of Jupiter Thebes, Egypt. 

City of lilies Susa, Persia. 

City of minarets Constantinople, Tur- 

City of mosques Delhi, India. 

City of nuts Barcelona, Spain. 

City of oaks Raleigh, N. C. 

City of palaces Calcutta, Bengal. 

City of temples Benares, India. 

City of the lagoon Chester, England. 

City of the little monk Munich, Bavaria. 

City of the prophet Medina, Arabia. 

City of the red staff Baton Rouge, La. 

City of the saints Rome, Italy. 

City of the sea Venice, Italy. 

June 14, 1890.] 


City of the sun Cuzco, Peru. 

City of the tribes Galway, Ireland. 

City of the West Glasgow, Scotland. 

City of the winds Siena, Tuscany. 

City of Ulysses Lisbon, Portugal. 

City of virgins Magdeburg, Germany. 

City of watches Geneva, Switzerland. 

Cockade city Petersburg, Va. 

Crown of Ionia Smyrna, Asia Minor. 

Daughter of Tyre Sidon, Syria. 

Diospolis Thebes, Egypt. 

Edinburgh of America Boston, Mass. 

Emporium of the West Chicago, 111. 

Fair city Perth, Scotland. 

Fairy city Venice, Italy. 

Flour city Rochester, N. Y. 

Forest city of the South Savannah, Ga. 

Garden of Spain Valentia, Spain. 

Gate City Atlanta, Ga. 

Gibralter of Greece Nauplia, Greece. 

Gibralter of the East Aden, Arabia. 

Gibralter of the North Cronstadt, Rus- 

Gift of God Dundee, Scotland. 

Grave of Europeans Portobello, S. A. 

Half of the universe Ispahan, Persia. 

Harbor of safety Cromarty, Scotland. 

Holy city Allahabad, India ; Benares, 
India; Cuzco, Peru; Jerusalem, Palestine; 
Mecca, and Medina, Arabia. 

Home of plenty Singapore. 

Huge barrack Potsdam, Germany. 

Key of Christendom Buda, Hungary. 

Key of Hindustan Agra, India. 

Key of Northern Hindustan Lahore, 

Key of Russia Smolensk, Russia. 

Key of Scinde Kurrachee. 

Key of Adriatic Corfu, Greece. 

Lion of Circassia Guzbeg. 

Lord of the world Juggernaut, India. 

Lucifer of cities Paris, France. 

Luxurious Goddess Paris, France. 

Manchester of France Rouen, France. 

Mariepolis Montreal, Canada. 

Mart of the world London, England. 

Mistress of the sea Carthage, Africa. 

Mohammedan Athens Bagdad, Turkey. 

Morning star of nations Paris, France. 

Mother of cities Balkh, Persia ; Mecca, 

Mother of German cities Treves, Ger- 

Mother of harlots Babylon, Chaldea. 

Mother Moscow Moscow, Russia. 

Mother of Russian cities Kiev, Russia. 

Northern courj:, The Pekin, China. 

Ornament of Asia Smyrna, Asia Minor. 

Ottoman Porte Constantinople, Turkey. 

Paradise of India Singapore, India. 

Parthenopolis Magdeburg, Germany. 

Petrified city Ishmonie, Upper Egypt. 

Protestant Rome Geneva, Switzerland. 

Queen city of the Merrimack Manches- 
ter, N. H. 

Queen of the Adriatic Venice, Italy. 

Queen of the East Antioch, Syria ; Ba- 
tavia, Java. 

Queen of the Highlands Inverness, 

Queen of the North Edinburgh, Scot- 

Queen of the sea Athens, Greece. 

Regal city Calcutta, Bengal. 

Regno Naples, Italy. 

Rocky city Quebec, Canada. 

Sister of Sidon Tyre, Phoenicia. 

Southern court, The Nankin, China. 

Sublime Porte Constantinople, Turkey. 

Swan of the Adriatic Venice, Italy. 

Tadmor of the desert Palmyra, Syria. 

Tower of saints Bagdad, Turkey. 

Two eyes of Greece Athens and Sparta. 

Venice of the North Stockholm, Sweden. 

Venice of the West Glasgow, Scotland. 

White city Belgrade, Turkey. 

White man's grave Freetown, Sierra 

Woolwich of France Metz, Germany. 


A Question in Grammar (Vol. v, pp. 
72, etc.). Allow me to say in reply to 
"G " that, as he will see if he refers to my 
note, I do not say that " the construction, 
' a part (of the water) sings in the kettle,' is 
ungrammatical or inconsistent with the 
grammar of the rest of the stanza," but base 
my objection to that interpretation upon 
purely " rhetorical " grounds. The follow- 
ing sentence is ''grammatical," but it is in- 
conceivable that Mary Howitt or any other 
good writer would pen it: "Washington 
was first in war, first in peace, and first in 
the hearts of his countrymen ; and a kettle 


[June 14, 1890. 

sings before it boils." Certain " rhetorical 
rules " may be " constantly set aside by the 
poets ;" but the rule violated in this sentence 
(and in the one under discussion, if the sub- 
ject is changed from Mary to the kettle or 
the water in it) is one that cannot be thus 

Whether the idea that " Mary sings a 
musical part in the kettle " (that is, by 
making it sing in the discharge of her do- 
mestic duties), is more " grotesque " than 
that " Mary sings the water, that is, makes 
it sing," I will leave the readers of AMERICAN 
NOTES AND QUERIES to judge. It strikes 
me that the idea in the two cases is the 
same (namely, that Mary makes it sing), 
and that " G " simply substitutes "gro- 
tesque" grammar for that which is regular 
and familiar. I must adhere to the opinion 
already expressed that any other inter- 
pretation of the passage than that which 
I have given is inadmissible, if not ridicu- 

W. J. R. 

Shamrock (Vol. v, p. 63). In Ireland 
only one shamrock is known. It is an in- 
digenous species of clover, which trails 
along the ground among the grass in 
meadows. The trefoil leaves are not more 
than one-fourth ths size of the smallest 
clover I have seen in America, and are pure 
green in color without any of the brown 
shading of white and pink clovers. The 
creeping stem is hard and fibrous, and is 
difficult to dislodge from the earth. On St. 
Patrick's day, the true shamrock has to be 
searched out from among the grass, for, 
though comparatively plentiful at that sea- 
son, it grows close to the ground. Later 
it bears a tiny " whitey-brown " blossom. 
The information that shamrakh is the Arabic 
word for trefoil is new to me, and may be of 
service to those interested in the origin of 
the Irish race. The word could have been 
introduced by the Milesians, or it may fur- 
nish an argument in support of the conten- 
tion that one of the lost ten tribes of Israel 
settled in Ireland, which has been revived by 
the publication of a recent book. 



Vicarious Justice (Vol. v, p. 41). It 
may interest your correspondent to know 
that there is a tradition, recorded by John 
Lederer (1669), a Virginian explorer, that 
the Totapotamoy river received its name 
from an Indian king, Totapottama, who was 
killed in battle, fighting for the Christians, 
against the Indian tribes. 

E. G. KEEN. 

Leading Apes in Hell (Vol. iv, pp. 
201, etc.). In the play, Massinger's " City 
Madam," the daughters of Sir John Frugal 
make conditions that are to be observed by 
their suitors (at the instance of their 
mother), which the lovers refuse to comply 
with. The daughters appeal to their mother, 
saying, " We may lead apes in hell for hus- 
bands if you bind us 'to articulate thus to 
our suitors." Also "The London Prodigal," 
one of the doubtful plays of Shakespeare's, 
page 227: 

Sir Launcelot Spurcock : "What, is it 
folly to love chastity?" 

Weathercock: "No, no. Mistake me 
not, Sir Launcelot. But 'tis an old proverb, 
you know it well, that women dying maids, 
lead apes in hell." 


Manatee. The " Century Dictionary " 
states that the manatee, Manatus senegalensis, 
is found on the "eastern coast" of Africa. 
This is doubtless a misprint for " western 
coast." The African manatee is found 
along the west coast, and in the interior at 
least as far east as Lake Tchad ; but we have 
never before seen the statement that it has 
been seen on the eastern coast. * * * 


Maize. This name for Indian corn 
seems unquestionably Haytian, yet maizum 
was heard as its equivalent among the In- 
dians about New Plymouth. May not the 
name, as well as the thing, have been trans- 
mitted northward from tribe to tribe ? Many 
writers have noted a similarity between this 
word and the Gr. //afa, barley bread. 

P. R. E. 


American JStotes and Qaeries: 




Copyrighted i&qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia., as Second-class Matter. 

Yol. Y. No. 8. 

SATURDAY, JUNE 21, 1890. 

I $3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 mouths. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Qaeries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell &, 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans : 
Geo. F. Wharton. 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : Reason for Castes, 85; Derivation of the Name of 
God, 86. 

QUERIES : Thumb to Butter Bread President who did not 
Vote Honest Statesman, 86 ; Eygre or Bore Rivers Flow- 
ing Inland Luic-land Pig's Eye Pearmain Fly-shoot- 
ing Fishes, 87. 

REPLIES: Schamir Decoration Day, 88 ; State of Frank- 
lin Whiffle-tree, 89. 

Easter Marteno, 89 ; Lady Compton's Letter to her Hus- 
band Fanacle Mother Earth Robert Merry Rafe's 
Chasm British Ministers to the U. S. Priscian's Head 
Crutches in Church Hundred-Harbored Maine Ff in Pro- 
per Names Palm Leaf Liberty Pole Literate, 90; Jeru- 
salem the Golden Upsala, 91. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Saunter Like for As Pixie or 
Pyxie William Percy Significance of Precious Stones, 
91; Cockney Parallel Passages The in Place Names, 92 ; 
Gulf of Lion Foxglove Spire Phantomnation Only Eng- 
lish Pope, 93 ; Canting Heraldry Mainland Clarenceux 
Shamrock Asoka and Banjula, 94 ; Market Jew Weather- 
cocks Musical Lender The Word " The " in Place Names 
Kitchen Cabinet Cold as Charity Men asTnings Jenk- 
ins' Ear Eating Cake, 95 ; Question in Grammar Basket 
Key of Death Humming-Bird, 96. 


How comes it that the Aryan race, which 
in South Europe, as Herr Penka has shown, 
has modified its physical type by free inter- 
mixture with Turanian elements, displayed 
in India a marked antipathy to marriage 
with persons of alien race, and devised an 
elaborate system of taboo for the prevention 
of such unions? An explanation may (ac- 
cording to the Contemporary Review} be 
found in the fact that in India alone were 
the Aryans brought into close contact with 
an unequivocal black race. The sense of 
differences of color which, for all our talk 
of common humanity, still plays a great 
and, politically, often an inconvenient part 
in the history of the world, finds forcible 
expression in the Vedic descriptions of the 



[June 21, 1890. 

people whom the Aryans found in posses- 
sion of the plains of India. In a well-known 
passage the god Indra is praised for having 
protected the Aryan color, and the word 
meaning color (varna) is used down to the 
present day as the equivalent of caste, more 
especially with reference to the castes be- 
lieved to be of Aryan descent. Another 
text depicts the Dasyus or Dravidians as 
noseless; others dwell on their low stat- 
ure, their coarse features, and their vora- 
cious appetite. It is hardly an exaggera- 
tion to say that from these sources there 
might be compiled a fairly accurate an- 
thropological definition of the Dravidian 
tribes of to-day. When it is added that the 
aggregates which would be included in the 
definition represent the lower end of a long 
series of social gradations which in their 
turn correspond not only to varieties of 
physical type, but also to peculiarities of 
custom and tribal structure, it is obviously 
but a short step to the conclusion that the 
motive principle of Indian caste is to be 
sought in the antipathy of the higher race 
for the lower, of the fair-skinned Aryan for 
the black Dravidian. E. BRADLEY SIMS. 


Mr. Calvin Thomas, in The Open Court 'for 
June 9, 1890, discusses the origin of the 
word God. He points out that there is a 
Gothic gudh, a god ; in old Icelandic, 
gudh or godh (originally and often a neu- 
tre). This corresponds to an ideal Indo- 
European ghu-tb-m ; Greek, /wrwv; Sanskrit, 
hutdm. If we suppose the short vowel in 
the Germanic gudh to have been originally 
long, and to have suffered a shortening, 
such as has happened in other cases, then 
the corresponding Sanskrit would be hutdm, 
which is a word actually found in Sanskrit, 
in which language hutdm means " a thing 
invoked," or "an object prayed to." 
" Thus it is to be regarded as highly proba- 
ble," says Mr. Thomas, "that the word 
God, notwithstanding all the exalted asso- 
ciations that have gathered about it in the 
process of the ages, goes back to a period 
when our Germanic ancestors worshiped 
stocks and stones." L. D. BRYANT. 


Thumb to Butter Bread. What general 
who figured in. the Revolutionary War used 
his thumb to butter his bread? 



While the British were in Philadelphia, in 
171 7, General Knyphausen was in command 
of the Hessians. 

Watson, in his "Annals of Philadelphia," 
Vol. ii, p. 288, says of him : " Exalted as 
he was in rank he used to spread his butter 
on his bread with his thumb. What a fancy ! 
This was told by one of the family where 
he quartered. In his deportment he was 
gentle and esteemed." 



President Who Did Not Vote. What 
President had not voted for forty years, and 
under what circumstances? ? ? ? 


It was said of General Grant, when he 
was first nominated for President, that he 
had never voted but once, and then he 
voted for James Buchanan for President in 
1856. The saying was attributed to Grant 
himself. His only reason was an indiffer- 
ence to political matters. For the same 
reason, General Taylor rarely, if ever, voted. 
The indifference of some public men on 
these matters is a mystery to the average 
American, who finds half the interest in life 
in political controversy. It will be readily 
remembered that Mr. Cleveland never saw 
Washington until he went there to be in- 

Honest Statesman. Of whom was it said 
that he was in the public service fifty (?) 
years and never attempted to deceive his 
countrymen ? ? ? ? 


Thomas H. Benton; born 1782, died 
1858. He served thirty years in the U. S. 
Senate, and was the father-in-law of General 

June 21, 1890.] 


Eygre or Bore. Is the phenomenon of 
the bore or eygre so common in certain Eng- 
lish and French rivers ever seen in the 
United States? The Hugli, the Amazon, 
and some of the rivers of Indo-China ex- 
hibit this phenomenon in a very decided 
form. L. F. R. 


At certain times of the year the Colorado 
river of Arizona and California is visited by 
a high tide which takes the form of a bore. 
It is described in some of the government 

Rivers Flowing Inland (Vol. iii, p. 209). 
Somewhere I have seen mention of a river 
flowing from the ocean inland. Will some 
reader inform me if this is true, and if so 
where does it occur? DR. L. W. 


In the sense which the querist means, 
there is probably no such river. There are, 
however, a few instances of a flow of ocean 
water inland. Along the coast of Alaska 
and British Columbia there are a number of 
fjords and estuaries of considerable area, 
whose mouths or inlets are constricted 
to very narrow channels. On the North 
Pacific coast, especially above Dixon En- 
trance, the tide has a rise and fall of about 
20 to 30 feet. The flow of the tide is at times 
almost a bore ; the ebb takes place slowly. 
With the ebbing of the tide, the fjord is 
gradually emptied of its water, but the in- 
coming tide is so rapid that the water can- 
not flow through the narrow strait as fast as 
it rises. The result is a cascade and often 
a very beautiful one the water flowing 
from the ocean into the fjord in tumultuous 

Another example of the inland flow of 
ocean water occurs along low sandy coasts 
in arid regions. The action of wind and 
waves, by throwing up sand-spits, occa- 
sionally forms lagoons many square miles in 
area. Within the lagoon the water is shal- 
low and, under a hot sun, the evaporation 
is enormous, perhaps at the rate of two 
inches a day. To icplace this there is a 
current flowing from the ocean into the 
lagoon, interrupted only when the tide falls 

below the level of the water in the lagoon. 
In the case of the Karaboghaz the black 
gulf of the Caspian lake there being no 
great change of tide levels, the current flows 
steadily from .the lake into the gulf at a rate 
of four or five knots per hour. 

It is quite possible that the depression in- 
cluding Death valley and the sink of the 
San Felipe, was at one time an instance of 
this kind. The inlet having been subse- 
quently choked, the lake disappeared by 
evaporation. J. W. REDWAY. 


Luic-land. Where was the region called 
Luic-land mentioned in Sir William Petty's 
"Political Arithmetick" (1677), as being 
famous for its iron-wares? P. R. E. 


Lute is the Flemish name for Liege. 

Pig's Eye. Was there ever a city of the 
United States called Pig's Eye? 



The city of St. Paul, Minnesota, was so 
called as late as 1847. See Cathcart's 
"Baptist Cyclopedia," p. 102. 

Pearmain. What is the origin of this 
word ? It is a popular name for several 
varieties of the apple. JULIA E. CALL. 


The French equivalent of this word is 
parmain, which is also the name of a town 
in France. Some old lexicographers derive 
it from the Latin peramcenus, " very pleas- 
ant," a rather taking derivation for either 
town or fruit name ; but like all etymolo- 
gies, it should be verified by documentary 

Fly-shooting Fishes. What kind of fishes 
shoot insects with water balls? ??? 


The fish referred to is the fly shooter, 
Chelmon rostratus, inhabiting the fresh 
waters of India and the Asiatic islands. 
For fuller particulars consult almost any 
natural history. 






[June 21, 1890. 

B P L I B S . 

Schamir (Vol. v, p. 79). Schamir was a 
mythical stone about which there are many 
legends, nearly if not all of which describe 
it as a stone possessing the power of cutting 
any substance, and which was therefore used 
by King Solomon in cutting and shaping, 
without noise, the metals and stones used 
in the construction of the Temple at Jeru- 
salem. One tradition states that all of a 
race of supernatural, called " Jinns," were 
subjected to the authority of Solomon ex- 
cept the mighty Sachr and Iblis, and that 
Solomon employed the Jinns in the build- 
ing of the Temple, but they made so much . 
noise with their hammers, saws and axes 
that the people of Jerusalem could not hear 
each other speak. Therefore he directed 
the Jinns to cease their work, and inquired 
whether the metals and stones could not be 
shaped and cut without making noise. The 
reply was that this could only be done by 
obtaining the stone Schamir, the where- 
abouts of which was known only to Sachr. 
It being the custom of Sachr to go every 
month to the land of Hidjr, and drink a 
certain fountain empty, Solomon sent a 
winged Jinn who drew the water from the 
fountain, and filled it with wine, which 
Sachr drank, became drunk, was bound in 
chains, and made Solomon's slave. Solo- 
mon promised the mighty captive his liberty 
on condition that he would reveal the place 
where the stone that would cut and shape 
the hardest metals could be found ; and 
Sachr told him to take the eggs out of a 
raven's nest, place a crystal cover upon 
them, and see how the raven would break 
it. Solomon did so, and the raven finding 
its eggs covered flew away, and returned 
with a stone in its beak, which, dropped on 
the crystal, cut it asunder. The raven was 
asked by Solomon where the stone came 
from, and- was told that it came from a 
mountain in the far west. The mountain 
was found, a number of similar stones ob- 
tained, and with them the Jinns hewed the 
stones for the Temple in the distant quar- 
ries, and brought them to Jerusalem where 
they were laid noiselessly in their proper 

Another legend is that the nest of the 
moor-hen was covered with glass, and when 
the moor-hen came and could not reach her 
young, she flew away and fetched Schamir, 
which was a worm of the size of a barley- 
corn, and the property of the Prince of the 
Sea, when Solomon obtained it from that 

The story of the stone is told in many 
languages, in various ways, there, however, 
always being ascribed to it the property of 
being able to divide asunder the strongest 
substances. One account states that Solo- 
mon obtained the stone by placing the chick 
of an ostrich in a glass bottle, the neck of 
which was contracted and had to be cut by 
the mother bird with this stone in order to 
liberate her offspring. In Normandy it 
was said that such a stone could be obtained 
by putting out the eyes of a swallow's young, 
whereupon the mother bird would go in 
quest of the stone, which had the power of 
restoring sight, but if a scarlet cloth was 
spread below the swallow's nest, the swallow, 
mistaking it for fire, would drop the stone 
upon it, when it was secured by watchers. 
In Ireland the stone was believed to render 
its possessor invisible, and to confer upon 
him the power to burst bolts and bars, cure 
the sick, and raise the head. 

The term "Lightning" was applied to 
the stone Schamir because, in the Greek 
mythology, the storm cloud out of which 
flashed the lightning which broke rocks 
asunder, was supposed to be a mighty bird 
which bore the Schamir in its beak. A very 
full and elaborate article on this stone will 
be found in Baring-Gould's " Myths of the 
Middle Ages." Reference to it is also 
made in his " Legends of the Patriarchs 
and Prophets." RAWE. 


Decoration Day (Vol. v, p. 79). Accord- 
ing to the "Encyclopaedia Americana," 
Vol. iii (1886), Art. "Legal Holiday," the 
day known as Decoration Day, or Memorial 
Day, was, at that date, a legal holiday in Col- 
orado, Connecticut, California, Georgia, Il- 
linois, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hamp- 
shire, New Jersey, New York, North Caro- 
lina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, 

June 21, 1890.] 



Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin. It is 
not a national holiday. Memorial Day is 
observed on May 30, except in some of the 
southernmost States, in which it occurs at 
various earlier dates, a time of the profuse 
blooming of flowers being chosen. 

E. D. R. 

Stafe of Franklin (Vol. v, pp. 77, etc.). 
The State of Franklin, or Frankland (for 
both spellings are found), was organized in 
1785 by the settlers of what is now East 
Tennessee. John Sevier was unanimously 
chosen Governor. The Legislature sat at 
Jonesborough in 1785. But North Carolina 
claimed jurisdiction, and discord arose, in 
consequence of which the new State gov- 
ernment was tacitly abandoned in 1788. 
In 1789, North Carolina ceded the region 
to the United States, and in 1790 the Terri- 
tory of Tennessee was organized. Ten- 
nessee became a State in 1 796. N. S. S. 

Whiffle-free (Vol. v, pp. 77, etc.). This 
word has several variant forms. We find 
whipple-tree (cf. whippet and whiffet, Vol. 
iv, p. 177) ', swingle-tree, which last is often 
converted into single-tree, in which case it 
means a single whiffle-tree, or double-tree, 
when it designates a double whiffle-tree. 
A whiffle-tree, I suppose, is a tree or stick 
which can whiffle, or turn about ; a swingle- 
tree is a tree which can swingle, or swing. 
Whiffle and swingle are both good old 
words. Single-tree was probably at first a 
corrupt form ; double-tree is a farther elab- 
oration from single-tree. 

P. R. E. 

The name whiffle, or whipple-tree, does 
not appear to have had a place in the dic- 
tionaries prior to 1830. 

Worcester, in 1831, "Whiffle-tree, a bar 
to which traces are fastened, used in 

Walker, in 1846, has not the word. 

Clarke, in 1869, has the word. 

Webster, in 1841, gave both whipple and 

Dyche and Pardon, 1742, does not give 
the name, but has whiffle, with this defini- 

tion : "To pipe or play upon a musical 
wind instrument ; also, to idle or trifle 
away time." 

Johnson, 1787, gives whiffle definition: 
"To move inconstantly as if driven by a 
puff of wind. A person of a whiffling and 
unsteady turn of mind." 

Bailey, 1802, defines whiffle, " to trick 
out of a thing, to ramble, to fluctuate." 

Richardson's "English Dictionary" re- 
print in America, 1847, gives whiffle more 
elaborately, to wit : "Whiffle A.-S. Waefl- 
an, to speak foolishly; waefl-ere, an idle- 
headed fellow ; perhaps a form from the verb 
to waff or wave. ' Do we not laugh at the 
groome that is proud of his master's horse, 
or some vaine whiffler that is proud of a 
borrowed chaine?' (Bish. Hall, < The Right- 
eous Mammon')." 

It appears to me that the word whiffle is 
the origin and that tree is an affix. John- 
son (1787) appears to lead up to the mean- 
ing by the word "unsteady." 

Bailey (1802) does the same in the word 
"fluctuate," and Richardson (1847) brings 
us nearer the association in his quotation 
from Bishop Hall. 

The above authorities were the only ones 
at my hand ; probably some other readers of 
to give more information. 


Ruskin. I see it stated in the New 
York Sun that Ruskin was never married. Is 
this true? TROIS II/TOILES. 


Easter (Vol. i, p. 186). Does any an- 
cient writer, except Bede, mention the 
Saxon goddess Eostra? I. F. N. 


Marteno. When I was a child, forty 
years ago, we used to give the name marteno 
to the pickled pods of the martynia, and to 
the plant itself. Is there any literary use 
of the word marteno in this sense? 

M. L. GOLD. 



[June 21, 1890. 

Lady Compton's Letter to Her 
Husband. Can any of your readers fur- 
nish me with Lady Compton's letter to 
her husband, Earl of Northampton, which 
is similar to the conditions made by the 
daughter of Sir John Frugall ? It is in 
Bishop Goodman's " Court of King James," 
Vol. ii, p. 127; also, "Relics of Litera- 
ture;" Knight's " London," Vol. i, p. 324. 
The last has some very important variations, 
however. THOS. CLEPHANE. 


Fanacle. This word occurs in W. 
Percy's " Ccelia" (1594), in Sonnet xiii : 

" One day I went to Venus's Fanacle." 

Fanacle is not in the " Century Dictionary." 
Would not fanicle be a better spelling? 



Mother Earth. What is the origin of 
<< Mother Earth"? T. C. 


Robert Merry (Vol. v, p. 58, etc.). 
Is Charles Lamb's story about Merry's 
flight a truthful one ? In point of fact (see 
Vol. iv, p. 312), Merry seems to have mar- 
ried before he came to America. 

O. N. F. 


Rafe's Chasm. There is a noted cleft 
in the coast rocks of Cape Ann, in Massa- 
chusetts, called Rafe's Chasm, often visited 
by summer tourists. From whom did this 
chasm take its name ? F. R. D. 


British Ministers to the U. S. 
Where can I find a list of all the diplomatic 
(not consular) representatives that have 
been sent to the United States from the 
British government ? 



Priscian's Head. Why is the user of 
ungrammatical language said to " break the 
head of Priscian?" M. H. P. 


Crutches in Church. It is well 
known that in certain Coptic churches the 
worshipers stand during the service, sup- 
porting themselves by a staff or a crutch. 
A friend, in calling my attention to this 
manner of worship, compares the custom 
with the fact recorded of the Patriarch 
Jacob, who "worshiped leaning upon the 
top of his staff." Is this the real origin of 
the Coptic custom here spoken of? 



Hundred-Harbored Maine. Which 
one of the poets speaks of "hundred-har- 
bored Maine?" and where does the expres- 
sion occur? M. H. P. 


Ff in Proper Names. Whence came 
the practice, almost but not quite unknown 
in this country, of spelling certain proper 
names with an initial Ff ? I have seen the 
spelling Ffrench (there is a Lord Ffrench 
in Ireland), also Ffoord, Ffoliot, Ffarring- 
ton, and some others. I suppose these are 
simply aristocratic spellings of otherwise 
plebeian names. J. K. BARBOUR. 


Palm Leaf. Whence comes the kind 
of palm leaf from which the hats are made 
that farmers wear in summer? What spe- 
cies of palm produces the leaf in question ? 

R. B. F. 


Liberty Pole. What is the origin of 
the " liberty pole ?" By this name we used 
to designate a flag-staff standing in a public 
square. S. T. A. 


i, p. 81. 

Literate. Why are clergymen in Eng- 
land who are not university graduates some- 
times designated as literates ? One would 
think the title more appropriate to grad- 
uates than to any others. 

B. S. T. 


June 21, 1890.] 


Jerusalem the Golden. Can any one 
tell me where can be found an old hymn 
which begins : 

" Jerusalem the Golden, 

I see thy bulwarks stand." 

It was familiar to me, and I have interested 
persons not only here but also in England 
on the subject without satisfaction. 

I know there is a hymn which begins, 
"Jerusalem the Golden," but the second 
line is not the same. 



Upsala.- -What is the proper spelling of 
Upsala? In Josephson's " Antikvariat" it 
is spelled both Upsala and Uppsala. 




Saunter (Vol. iv, pp. 53, etc.). Far bet- 
ter than any other proposed explanation of 
this word seems the derivation from s'aven- 
turer, to adventure one's self. Anter and 
aunter are very frequent forms of the word 
adventure in Middle English. ^ . ^ 


Like for As. The incorrect use of like 
for as is very common about Philadelphia. 
In Percy's "Ccelia" (1597), Sonnet xii, we 
read : 

" They surge, like frothy water mounts above all." 



Pixie or Pyxie. In parts of England, 
as in Devonshire, the peasants call the stitch- 
wort by the name of pixie, associating the 
plant with the pixies or fairies. But in New 
Jersey we give the nameflyxie to a very dif- 
ferent plant, the curious little Pyxidanthe- 
ra barbulata, of which botanical name the 
word pyxie is obviously in this instance an 
abbreviated form. The latter plant is often 
called heron's moss, a pretty enough sort of 
name, only the plant is not a moss, and 
therefore should not be called a moss. 

A. F. L. 


William Percy (Vol. v, p. 68). I do 
not think your correspondent, " G," is en- 
tirely safe in classing William Percy as a 
poet. Judging by the specimens of his 
work which I have fallen in with, he was 
a sorry poetaster, and if he had not been 
the son of one of the greatest noblemen of 
his time, he would have had no recognition. 
He was a clumsy amorettist, without one 
spark of the fire of genius. How different are 
his tame " loves" and those of Thomas Wat- 
son (who was infinitely his superior, though 
poor enough), from the manly and real, 
though unsuccessful, wooings of Michael 
Dray ton in his " Sonnets to Idaea," which 
betray at almost every line some feeling of 
true poetic genius. 



Significance of Precious Stones 

(Vol. iv, p. 161). The meaning of the va- 
rious stones is not uniform nor constant in 
the writings of Swedenborg, as he himself 
declares (" Apoc. Rev.," 349, 915). Stone 
signifies truth in ultimates. Precious stone 
signifies truth transparent from good ; also 
such things as are either of the truth of wis- 
dom or of the good of love. Jasper signifies 
the things that are of the truths of wisdom. 
Sardius, the things which are of the truth 
of love. Pearl, of great price, the acknowl- 
edgment and knowledge of the Lord. 
Pearls, knowledges of truth and good. 
Jasper, sometimes means heavenly love ; 
also the church. Sapphire, our wisdom ; 
chalcedony, the uses of life ; emerald, the 
love of doing heavenly uses ; sardonyx, the 
perception of use, and of what use is ; sar- 
dius, the will of serving and of doing ; chrys- 
olite, love towards the neighbor, or charity; 
beryl, love of truth, the affection of truth 
from good, and the intelligence ; topaz, the 
good of life ; chrysoprasus, the conjugal 
love of good and truth ; jacinth, the doctrine 
of good and truth ; amethyst, the life of 
truth from good according to doctrine. 

Hereafter I hope to send your readers 
some further notes on the symbolism of 
precious stones, especially as set forth by 




Cockney (Vol. v, p. 80, etc.). Dr. 
Scott, the etymological editor of the " Cen- 
tury Dictionary," writes to the editor of 
The Nation, of June 12, as follows: 

"In the discussion of the etymology of 
tockney, noticed in your issue of May 29, 
the position of the ' Century Dictionary ' 
in regard to that word has been misrepre- 
sented. Dr. Murray, in his first letter to the 
Academy, affirms that the ' Century Diction- 
ary ' advances the derivation of cockney 
from an O. F. coquine, M. L. coquinatus, 
as certain, and insinuates that this view is a 
new one, peculiar to that work. This is 
false. Among several other suggested ety- 
mologies of the word, the one in question is 
mentioned, with the remark that, though 
* phonetically satisfactory,' it is ' historically 
unsupported* The italicized words Dr. 
Murray omits to quote, but they are essen- 
tial to a correct statement of the position of 
the American book. The ' Century Dic- 
tionary' does not advance this etymology as 
its own, does not assert it to be true, and, 
in what it does affirm about it, is entirely 
within the limits of fact. 

" In, apparently, ascribing this etymology 
to the ' Century Dictionary,' Dr. Murray 
cannot be so ignorant as he allows himself 
to appear. In the glossarial Index of * Piers 
the Plowman,' edited 1886, by Prof. W. W. 
Skeat, is the following statement : ' Coke- 
neyes, pi. scullions, a. 7272. I have now no 
doubt at all that this difficult word ^whence 
mod. E. cockney} answers to an O. F. 
coquine = Low Lat. coquinatus, from coquin- 
fire, to cook, serve as scullion, a derivative 
of Lat. coquinaj etc. The suggestion of 
this etymology did not originate with Prof. 
Skeat ; but as it is positively asserted by him 
(after having been tentatively advanced in 
the supplement to his ' Etymological Dic- 
tionary'), and as it is not asserted at all by 
the ' Century Dictionary,' it is a natural in- 
ference that Dr. Murray's criticisms have 
been intentionally misdirected. 


The following clipping from the Academy 
will probably be of some interest to the 

" The French word coco, which, according 
to Littre, is (i) terme de caresse qu'on ad- 

dresse aux enfants et aux jeunes gens; (2) 
terme familier de moquerie applique aux 
hommes, et presque toujours ironiquement ; 
(3) terme enfantin ; un coco = un ceuf. 
Coco is, in short, like cockney, a child's 
name for an egg, a pet name for a child, a 
contemptuous name for a man. I do not 
for a moment connect coco etymologically 
with cockney (except that it is probably, 
as Littre says, a diminutive of cog, cock) ; 
but it is worth while to point out that it has 
originated a verb cogue liner, ' to dandle, 
cocker, fedle, pamper, make a wanton or 
cockney of (a child),' just as cocker and 
cockle in Tudor-English were to make a 
cockney or nestle-cock of; and that it gave 
a mediaeval Latin diminutive coconellus, 
which the Promptorium Parvulorum has as 
the monastic equivalent of kokenay, and 
moreover tells us was one of certain words, 
' derisorie ficta et inventa,' ' ficta et de- 
risorie dicta." Moreover, coconellus came 
into sixteenth century English in the form 
cocknel, which Peter Levins of Magdalen 
College rendered in Latin acersa delicatus, 
the very words by which Huloet rendered 
cockney. And rustics knew cocknell, as well 
as cockney. Quoth the country fellow to 
the London Prodigal (1605): 'A! and 
well said, cocknell, and Boebell too!' an 
association with Bowbell, afterwards familiar 
in the use of cockney" 


Parallel Passages (Vol. i, p. 74). 
The truly remarkable parallelism between 
the passages cited from Chaucer and Goethe 
is to some degree explained by the fact that 
Boethius ("De re Musica," i, 14), and 
Vincent of Beauvais (" Speculum Naturale," 
iv, 14), both cited by Skeat in the notes to 
Chaucer's " House of Fame," have passages 
which contain the germ of Chaucer's idea. 
The ancients seem to have had a fairly cor- 
rect idea of the nature of sound. B. R. P. 


The in Place Names (Vol. v, p. 70). 
I have often heard " The Labrador " spo- 
ken of among New England fishermen. 

F. R. D. 


June 21, 1890.] 



Gulf of Lion (Vol. v, p. 71). The 
final "s" to the name Lyon is an error, and 
is the probable result of the English pro- 
nunciation, and also of geographers and his- 
torians. No French geography or history, 
i.e., those printed in France, spells the 
name Lyons. But why it has been trans- 
lated into Gulf of the Lion may be difficult 
to say, unless it is the result of the attempt 
to Anglicize the French. The name is pro- 
nounced in French as if spelled lee-ong, and 
there is no sound of " s" in the word. 


It was all very fine for Strabo and other 
learned folks to call this bight A'sfctKos K6\- 
xos, MaaaahioTtKoq Ku).-os, and Sinus Galli- 
cus, but the old sea-farers (so local tradition 
says) in their own plain fashion called it the 
lion's gulf, owing to the roaring of the 
waters. Reforming map makers thought it 
more " stylith" to change this into the 
Gulf of Lyon, but as the city of that name 
happens to have grown up some 200 miles 
inland from the gulf, the hit proved a 
failure. A. ESTOCLET. 


According to various legends and tradi- 
tions, this gulf received its name from the 
roar of the surf against the shores in stormy 
weather. It is barely possible, however, that 
it may have arisen from some poetic fancy, 
or perhaps from some corruption of a name 
similar to that which has converted Mande- 
ville into mann teufel (man devil). Re- 
cently some unmitigated ass charted this 
name as Gulf of Lyon or Lyons, and the 
blunder was repeated on quite a number of 
school atlases. There is absolutely no au- 
thority for such an interpretation. 

J. W. R. 

Foxglove Spire. I never half appre- 
ciated till this season the beauty of thisTen- 
nysonian expression. In my garden the 
foxglove-stalks, laden with quaint, down- 
hanging blossoms, have exactly the general 
outline of a well-proportioned church-spire. 



Phantomnation. An amusing illustra- 
tion of the mechanical way in which dic- 
tionaries have been made is furnished by the 
word phantomnation which appears in Web- 
ster, Worcester, the Imperial, and "Cassell's 
Encyclopedic Dictionary." Webster sol- 
emnly defines it thus : " Phantomnation, n. 
Appearance as of a phantom ; illusion. \_Obs. 
and rare.~\ Pope." Worcester says simply : 
"Illusion. Pope." The Imperial and Cas- 
sell's repeat this bit of lexicographic wis- 
dom ; but the latter omits the reference to 
Pope, apparently suspecting that something 
is the matter somewhere. Now the source 
of this word is a book entitled " Philology 
on the English Language," published in 
1820 by Richard Paul Jodrell, as a sort of 
supplement to "Johnson's Dictionary." Jod- 
rell had a curious way of writing phrases as 
single words, without even a hyphen to in- 
dicate their composite character ; thus, 
under his wonder-working pen, city solicitor 
became " citysolicitor," home acquaintance 
" homeacquaintance " and so on indef- 
initely. He remarks in his preface that it 
"was necessary to enact laws for myself," 
and he appears to have done so with great 
vigor. Of course he followed his "law" 
when he transcribed the following passage 
from Pope : 

" These solemn vows and holy offerings paid 
To all the phantom nations of the dead." 

("Odyssey," x, 627.) 

Phantom nations became " phantomna- 
tions," and the " great standards of the Eng- 
lish language " were enriched with a " new 
word!" There is a difference, however, 
between Jodrell and his followers : he knew 
what Pope meant. Webster's definition is 
entirely original. This appears to have been 
the best instance of a "ghost-word" on 
record. The Critic, May 29, 1890. 

Only English Pope (Vol. v, p. 4). 
It surely ought not to be overlooked or for- 
gotten that it was an English Pope who first 
assumed the right to give the sovereignty of 
Ireland to an English king. Henry II's 
claim to the lordship of Ireland rested upon 
a grant of the same from Pope Adrian IV. 

G. P. O'HlGGIN. 



[June 21, 1890. 

Canting Heraldry (Vol. v, p. 50). 
Luttrel, otters (T outre) ; Herries, a hedge- 
hog (ericius); Pawns, a peacock (/taw/); 
Starkey, a stork ; Rooke, a rook ; Swift, a 
dolphin or swift ; Malbisse, a snake (bisse} \ 
Bottreaux, toads (batrachus, botrace) ; 
Drake, a drake or dragon (wyvern) ; Bowes, 
three bows ; Cranston, a crane carrying a 
stone; Set on was a. battle-cry of the Seton 
family ; Farefac, the motto of the Fairfaxes. 
There are very many other examples to be 
collected. E. BRADLEY SIMS. 


Mainland. The "Century Diction- 
ary" does not notice the use of mainland 
for the principal island of a group. Yet we 
read of the mainland of Orkney and of 
Shetland. G. 


Clarenceux (Vol. iv, p. 137). Accord- 
ing to a paragraph in the Saturday Review, 
of May 31, the " New English Dictionary" 
must be right in deriving (with most other 
authorities), the title of the Duke of Clar- 
ence from Clare in Suffolk. The writer 
cites the opinion of Dr. Stubbs, who bases 
his views on the declarations of Mr. Finlay, 
the historian of Greece, that Klarenza did 
did not give name to the dukedom of Clar- 
ence. But did not the Villehardouins hold 
the duchy of Klarenza? And was not 
Clarence's mother a descendant of the Ville- 
hardouins ? I do not deny that Clare in 
England was chosen as a local habitation 
for the name of Clarence, and that it was 
afterwards called Clarentia, to correspond 
with the title. But it does seem strange that 
in Edward Ill's time a little English town 
should give title to a duchy held by a prince 
of the blood, when most, if not all, other 
duchies were named from large territories. It 
also seems strange that the name Clare should 
be altered, for this special use only, into Clar- 
ence, unless there were some antecedent 
reason for the change. But in this country 
we are so far removed from the sources from 
which we must seek the needed information, 
that I feel compelled for the present to ac- 
cept the authority of two such eminent his- 
torians as Bishop Stubbs and Mr. Finlay. I 

am, however, inclined to think there is a 
mistake somewhere in their testimony on 
this point. 

Shamrock (Vol. v, p. 84, etc.). 
Friend's "Flowers and Flower-Lore," p. 
171, states that shamrock or seamrog seems 
to be a generic word, and is applied as a name 
to white clover, purple clover, speedwell, 
pimpernell and wood-sorrel. The speedwell 
or veronica in particular was thought to bear 
in its bright and "darling blue" flowers 
some likeness of our Lord's face, like the 
kerchief of St. Veronica. Dr. Prior says (op. 
cit., p., 385), that the Black Nonsuch or 
medic, and the Dutch clover, are both worn 
as the true shamrock in Ireland. Dr. Moore, 
of Dublin, says it is the Black Nonsuch. The 
author of " Plant-lore of Shakespeare " says : 
"At the present day the wood-sorrel is sup- 
posed to have the better claim to the honor " 
of being considered the true shamrock. See 
also Britten and Holland's " Dictionary," 
Art. "Shamrock." I have acquaintances 
from all the quarters and provinces of Ire- 
land, and I find that there is a difference of 
opinion among them as to the true and 
original shamrock. From Mr. Duffy's de- 
scription I think his shamrock is the Medica- 
go lupulina, or nonsuch, which you will find 
growing abundantly near Boston. I have 
found it at North Andover, Mass., many and 
many a time. If he desires, and will so 
signify to the editor of the AMERICAN NOTES 
AND QUERIES, I can no doubt procure sam- 
ples of the plant for him. Qui TAM. 


Asoka and Banjula (Vol. v, pp. 59, 
etc.). It is remarkable that neither the 
" Century" nor the "New English Diction- 
ary" have either of these tree names, both 
of which have considerable literary interest. 
The tree itself (Jonesia asoca) to which 
the^e names belong figures prominently in 
Hindu legends and literature. As to whether 
the name asoka is in any way connected 
with the name of the benevolent and able 
Buddhist peasant-descended King Asoka 
(264-223 B. C.), I cannot say anything at 
present. J. E. ESTABROOK. 


June 21, 1890.] 



Market Jew. This is one of the names 
of the Cornish chough, a European species 
of crow. The "Century Dictionary" does 
not explain the origin of the name. Mar- 
ket Jew is properly a place name. It is a 
designation of the town of Marazion in 
Cornwall, called Marghashiewe in the six- 
teenth century. The bird is also called 
Market-Jew Crow. Compare Royston Crow, 
Aylesbitry Duck. * * * 


Weathercocks Musical (Vol. v, p. 
62). Hawes has another allusion to what 
appear to be musical weathercocks, in the 
description of the "Tower of Doctrine:" 

" The little turretts with ymages of golde. 
About was set, whiche with the wynde aye moved, 
With proper vices that I did well beholde, 
About the towers in sundry wyse they hoved, 
With goodly pypes in their mouthes ituned, 
That with the wynde they pyped a daunce, 
Iclipped, Amour de la hault plesaunce." 

(" Percy's Reliques.") 

E. G. KEEN. 


Lender (Vol. iv, pp. 312, etc.). I con- 
fess I do not quite see how Irish lenn, pi. 
lenna, a shirt, can become lender, an under- 
shirt, in English. Could not the German 
lende, the loin, give us lender, a loin-cloth ? 
I do not, however, for a moment share Dr. 
Murray's extreme (and, as it seems to me, 
unreasonable) suspicion of all Celtic deriva- 
tions. If we can find early examples of lender 
in this use, we may be able to trace its origin. 

R. S. S. 


The Word "The" in Place Names 

(Vol. v, pp. 70, etc.). "The California" 
occurs in J. Chilton's account of his travels 
(1569) in Mexico, published in " Hakluyt's 
Voyages." P. R. E. 


Kitchen Cabinet (Vol. i, p. 44). In 
Sumner's " Life of Jackson," there is a list 
)f the members of the kitchen cabinet which 
differs considerably from the one you have 
given. W. P. RODEN. 


Cold as Charity (Vol. iv, pp. 179, 

"Well, well, my friends! when beggars grow thus 

No marvel, then, tho' charity grow cold." 

(Drayton's " Idea" (1624) Sonnet.) 

P. R. E. 


Men as Things (Vol. v, pp. 68, etc.). 
A Dahlgren (gun) ; a Coehorn (mortar) ; a 
Berdan (rifle) ; a Galling (gun) ; a Paixhan 
(gun). H. P., JR. 


Jenkins' Ear (Vol. iii, p. 88). It would 
seem that the blind goddess of justice has 
dealt with the reputation of this much-ma- 
ligned individual. Mr. J. K. Laughton, in 
the English Historical Review (October, 
1889), states that amongst other old docu- 
ments which he has unearthed is one which 
" confirms the story of Jenkins' ear, which, 
for certainly more than a hundred years, has 
been generally believed to be a fable" (p. 
741). In a list of British merchant ships 
taken or plundered by the Spanish, is this 
entry: "Rebecca, Robert Jenkins, Jamaica 
to London, boarded and plundered near the 
Havana, gth April, 1731." 

Mr. Laughton comments as follows : 
"The gth April was the 2oth (new style), 
which definitely, besides the other allusions, 
identifies the Rebecca as the ship whose 
master had one ear cut off. It is satisfac- 
tory to know that Jenkins really had his 
ear cut off, and not in the pillory" (p. 747). 


Eating Cake (Vol. iv, p. 102). Some 
authorities ascribe the saying that " the 
people should eat cake when they have 
no bread" to the Princess de Lamballe. 
Whether it was the queen or her thoughtless 
favorite, it was a heartless and stupid thing 
to say. (But very likely it never was said 
at all.) For if they could not get bread, it 
is not likely that they could get meat ; and 
if they could get no meat, they would surely 
have no occasion to prepare croutons of any 
sort for encrusting their meat. 

O. M. M. 


[June 21, 1890. 

A Question in Grammar (Vol. v, p. 
83, etc.). If "Mary sings a musical part," 
in the case considered by W. J. R., there 
must be others singing with her. Part-sing- 
ing implies more than one singer. There- 
fore W. J. R., I conceive, cannot be right 
in his parsing of the sentence. For if we 
conceive that there were other singers, as 
the fire, or the water, or the birds, bearing 
other part or parts in the singing, we violate 
the Law of Parcimony, which forbids an ex- 
planation by the introduction of any fresh 
actors when those whose names are expressed 
are sufficient for the purpose. 

The word part, occurring in the seventh 
line of the quotation on p. 27, is, in my 
view, correlated with the word some in the 
fifth line. Indeed, the word some, I think, 
calls for a correlative word, which we have 
in the word part ; but W. J. R.'s explana- 
tion leaves sdme without any expressed cor- 

We fly pigeons, when, in reality, it is the 
pigeons who do the flying ; and, in like 
manner, Mary sings the water, when, in 
reality, it is the water that does the singing. 
Indeed, I am inclined to think that the 
words simmer and sing are cognate ; and we 
use simmer both as a transitive (or causative) 
and an intransitive verb; we simmer prunes, 
and at the same time the prunes simmer. 



Basket. If I read the "Oxford Dic- 
tionary" aright, Dr. Murray rejects all, or, 
rather, does not accept any of the deriva- 
tions thus far proposed for the word basket. 
I notice in Hunter's "Bengal Gazetteer," 
(Vol. xi, p. 253), that the Doms, or Hindu 
gypsies, make reed baskets, called bashkar. 
I do not offer this as the source of the word 
basket. It is doubtless a mere coincidence. 


Key of Death (Vol. i, p. 71, etc.). 
The iron key that "shuts amain," in Mil- 
ton's " Lycidas," is also the key of death. 
See the Apocalypse, i, 18, where the keys 
of death and hell are spoken of. 

R. P. L. 

Humming-Bird (Vol. iv, pp. 206-208). 
Addenda and Corrigenda. IntheTonika 
language of Eastern Louisiana the hum- 
ming-bird is called Kua-tu (i. e., little bird ; 
see "Trans, of Am. Philol. Soc.,"xx, 168). 
In Wallace's " Tropical Nature," there is a 
chapter on humming-birds and their names. 
On p. 206 read Pluvianus ; p. 207, col. 2, 
1. n, ciseau-mouche ; p. 208, for "Peru" 
read "Spanish Peru. 1 ' The latter part of 
second line from bottom, on p. 208, col. i, 
should read: " (Lubeck, 1754), Tesdorpf 
celebrates." On page 214, under Plaque- 
mine, read "prune de Damas," and on p. 
2 ic, " Bayoz*." 

A. F. C. 



The Chautauquan, for July, contains a novelette of 
nine chapters, " The Golden Calf," by Hjalmar Hjorth 
Boyesen. It is a forcible study of human nature and 
an admirable piece of literary work. The August and 
September numbers also will contain novelettes by 
brilliant and well-known writers. 

The July number presents the following table of 
contents: "The Golden Calf" (a novelette complete 
in one number), by Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen ; " Sum- 
mer Health: How to Keep It," by Felix Oswald, 
M.D. ; Sunday Readings, selected by Bishop Vincent ; 
" The Newer Parts of Canada," by Cyrus C. Adams ; 
" The House of Representatives," by Eugene L. Didier ; 
" The Follies of Social Life," by Charles Ledyard 
Norton; " Picturesque Dalmatia ;" " Altruism and the 
Leprosy," by Frances Albert Doughty; " Mr. Bryce 
as a Mountaineer," by Elizabeth Robins Pennell ; 
" Original Packages and Prohibition," by Joseph Ship- 
pen, Esq.; "How to Conduct a Round Table," by 
Edward E. Hale; " What Women should Wear," by 
Mary S. Torrey; " Homesteads for Women," by Kate 
Carnes; " Madam Blavatsky," by Frances E. Willard; 

' New Birds for the House," by Olive Thome Miller; 

' Summer Resort Acquaintances," by Felicia Hillel ; 

' The Growth of a Home," by Mrs. Hester M. Poole; 

' Dinners and Dinner Giving," by Mrs. Emma P. Ew- 

ng. The Summer Assemblies of 1890 are liberally 
noticed, and the usual space is devoted to editorials. 
The poetry of the number is by Cora B. Bickford, 
Jessie F. O'Donnell, and Lucy C. Bull. 

Ancient Norombega ; or, The Voyage of Simon Ferdi- 
nando and John Walker to the Penobscot River, 
1579-1580. By B. F. De Costa. Albany : Joel 
Munsell's Sons, 1890. 

This pamphlet of twelve pages favors the view that 
the " city" of Norombega stood on the banks of the 
Penobscot ; but the author conceives that it " perhaps 
was never anything more than an Indian village carry- 
ing on a trade with the French and English in peltry." 

American J^otes and Qaeries: 




Copyrighted 1890, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post- Office, Philadelphia, as Second-dais Matter. 

Yol. Y. No. 9. 

SATURDAY, JUNE 28, 1890. 

I $3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co,, John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. Wharton 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts Si 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : The Evil Eye, 97 The Goose in History, 99. 

QUERIES: America, 100 Fool Hay Woodhouselee Ghost 
Mother Carey's Chickens Stilts Gilsonite, 101. 

REPLIES : Plucke-Buffet, 101 Rusldn Goose-bone Adam 
of St. Victor, 102 Ff in Proper Names War of the Axe 
Marteno, 103. 

Lamb Cacoethes Scribendi Qui Vive The Captain of My 
Dreams The Dragon Fly in Tennyson's "Two Voices" 
Greek Boy General Arose from Sick-bed, 103. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Pillars of the Church, 103 A Ques- 
tion in Grammar Camelot Whipping as a Punishment 
Oregon T. D. Pipes, 104 The State of Franklin Branch, 
River, Creek, Run, etc. Gulf of the Lion Losh, 105 Par- 
allel Passages Names of Boats and Ships Lyons and Lyon 
Washwoods Charivari, 106 Highbelia for Lowpo "The 
Ampulla " Sunset on the United States, 107 Nix's Mate 
Alleluia Victory Inland-Flowing Streams Corycian Cave 
Rushlights Oxford, 108. 



(VOL. iv, PP. 296, ETC.) 

The belief that death could be caused, or 
mischief wrought, by the power of the eye, 
has prevailed almost universally from the 
earliest times. In ancient Egypt we find 
this power attributed to the gods, as in the 
Fourth Sallier papyrus : " On the 23d of 
the month Choiak, a man is blinded if the 
eyes of certain deities fall upon him." 
Similar allusions occur in the papyri in all 
periods. The natural result of such pre- 
scriptions would be that this power would 
soon cease to be the exclusive possession of 
divinity; Prof. Renouf says (" Rel. Anc. 
Egypt," Lect. iv) : "The Egyptian proper 
names bear distinct witness to the existence- 
of the superstition of the evil eye." 

9 8 


[June 28, 1890. 

In Babylonia and Assyria, where supersti- 
tions of all kinds were rife, and the uni- 
verse was thought to be peopled with evil 
spirits, whose mission seems to have been to 
afflict mankind in every conceivable way, 
this idea was still more prevalent. Refer- 
ence is made to it in exorcisms of the primi- 
tive Accadians, and in an incantation tablet 
of the later Babylonish period. Among other 
petitions to the good spirits, is an entreaty 
for protection against the evil eye. 

Among the Parsis, witchcraft could be 
exercised as well by the eye as by the voice. 
The wicked Angra-Mainyu exerts this power 
in the creation of diseases. The Zend-Avesta 
(Veudidad, Fargard xxii, i) has: "Then 
the ruffian looked at me ; the ruffian Angra- 
Mainyu, the deadly, wrought by his witch- 
craft nine diseases, and ninety and nine 
hundred and nine thousand, and nine times 
ten thousand diseases." A note to this 
passage explains that it was by casting the 
evil eye on the good creatures of Ormazd, 
that Ahriman corrupted them. A method 
of averting this maleficent influence, by cer- 
tain positions of the hands, differing from 
the Italian mode described in AMERICAN 
NOTES AND QUERIES (Vol. iv, p. 272), was 
in use among the Jews. The Talmudic 
prescription is as follows : " If one enters a 
town and is afraid of the effects of an evil 
eye (from the townpeople looking at him), 
let him put his right thumb into his left 
hand, and his left thumb into his right 
hand, and say : ' I, so and so, the son of so 
and so, am a descendant of Joseph, who is 
not affected by an evil eye, for it is said, 
"Joseph is a fruitful bough rising above the 
eye" (said to be a variant of Gen. xlix, 22). 
Rabbi Yosi ben Chanena said: "Joseph's 
insusceptibility to the effects of an evil eye 
is proved from Gen. xlviii, 16;" as the 
fishes are sheltered by the sea from the 
effects of an evil eye, so is the seed of Joseph 
sheltered from its effects' ' (Hershon's 
"Gen. Talm. Comm."). According to 
another passage from the Talmud, whenever 
the wise men fixed their eyes in displeasure 
on any man, the consequence to him was 
either death or destitution. An instance is 
given in which a sneering disciple is reduced 
to ashes by Rabbi Yochanan fixing his eyes 
upon him. Much of this superstition among 

the Hebrews was undoubtedly imbibed dur- 
ing the captivity, from the extremely credu- 
lous inhabitants of Babylonia. Mr. Layard 
found on the site of ancient Babylon, a 
number of bowls inscribed in the Chaldean 
language, with characters thought to be 
the most ancient Hebrew. These vessels 
were inscribed with "bills of divorce to the 
devil," and other talismanic devices against 
"evil spirits both male and female, and the 
evil eye" (" Nineveh and Babylon/' p. 442). 

The fox's tail fixed between the eyes of a 
horse counteracted the power of the evil 
eye also, but the Talmud forbids the ani- 
mal going into the public thoroughfare so 
equipped on the Sabbath. The passage in 
Matt, vi, 23, "If thine eye be evil, etc.," 
is scarcely admissible in this connection, as 
no power of harm is implied, and was ex- 
plained by Gregory Thaumaturgus as "the 
pretended love;" the passage, Matt, xx, 15, 
is, of course, of much the same import, as 
Vol. iv, p. 272). That the Romans were 
familiar with the power of the eye for evil 
is shown by Virgil's shepherd attributing 
the diseased appearance of his flock to the 
malicious glance of an enemy (Eccl. iii). 
Douce (Illust. Shakesp.) has several illustra- 
tions of Roman amulets against fascination 
in general, but in particular against the evil 
eye (quoted by Brand). 

According to Pliny, some persons among 
the Triballi, in Moesia, possessed two pupils 
in each eye ; these persons could cause 
death by gazing fixedly at any one, but 
young children were particularly susceptible 
to their influence. The same thing is noted 
of the Illyrii, and in Scythia are certain 
females called Bythiae, who have the same 
appearance and power. On the authority 
of Phylarchus, Pliny tells us that a tribe of 
the Thibii, in Pontus, and many other per- 
sons, have a double pupil in one eye, and 
the figure of a horse in the other. These 
persons have the characteristics of witches, 
as one of the tests applied in later times 
would show, inasmuch as their bodies will 
not sink in water. Pliny also credits Cicero 
with the expression that "the glances of all 
women who have a double pupil are noxious, ' ' 
but this saying is not found in any of Cice- 
ro's extant works. Every one remembers 

June 28, 1890.] 



the terrible eye of the Caliph Vathek, in 
Beckford's tale, and his account is sup- 
ported by the Arabian authors quoted by 
D'Herbelot (" Bibl. Orientale," Tome iii), 
who relates an incident of its fatal effect 
when the caliph was in his death agony. 
Through the middle ages this superstition 
continued rather to increase than diminish 
until it reached its culmination in the fif- 
teenth century. The bull of Pope Innocent 
VIII, in 1484, formally instituted the perse- 
cution of witchcraft in Germany, and spe- 
cial inquisitors were appointed. Five years 
later the publication of Sprenger's celebrated 
"Witch Hammer" followed. From this 
work we learn that witches are necessary to 
the corporeal actions of the devil ; " many 
of them have greenish eyes, the glance of 
which injures." Again : "The witches be- 
witch and sometimes by their bleared eyes. 
These bleared eyes are inflamed eyes ; these 
inflame the air, and even sound eyes, but 
especially when these bleared eyes fix them- 
selves in a direct line with the healthy ones." 
Rydberg, quoting the same volume, says the 
children needed for the witches' kettles and 
Sabbath banquets are killed while in their 
cradle by looks (or by a certain powder), 
and the simple people believe their death 
was from natural causes. 

(To be concluded.*} 

E. G. KEEN. 


The goose figures largely in the history, 
the legends, and the proverbial lore of our 
own and other lands. In ancient Egypt it 
was an object of adoration in the temple 
and an article of diet on the table. The 
Egyptians mainly took beef and goose flesh 
as their animal food, and it has been sug- 
gested that they expected to obtain physical 
power from the beef and mental vigor from 
the goose. To support this theory it has 
been shown that other nations have eaten 
the flesh of wolves and drank the blcod of 
lions, hoping thereby to become fierce and 
courageous. Some other nations have re- 
fused to partake of the hare and the deer on 
account of the timidity of these animals, 
fearing lest by eating their flesh they should 

also partake of their characteristic fearful- 
ness and timidity. 

Pliny thought very highly of the goose, 
saying " that one might almost be tempted 
to think these creatures have an apprecia- 
tion of wisdom, for it is said one of them 
was a constant companion of the peripatetic 
philosopher Lacydes, and would never leave 
him, either in public or when at the bath, 
by night or by day." 

We gather from the quaint words of an 
old chronicler a probable solution of the 
familiar phrase, "To cook one's goose." 
"The kyng of Swedland," so runs the an- 
cient record, " coming to a towne of his 
enemyes with very little company, his ene- 
myes, to slyghte his forces, did hang out a 
goose for him to shoote ; but perceiving be- 
fore nyghte that these few soldiers had in- 
vaded and sette their chiefe houlds on fire, 
they demanded of him what his intent was, 
to whom he replyed : ' To cook your 
goose.' " 

In the days when the bow and arrow were 
the chief weapons of warfare, it was cus- 
tomary for the sheriffs of the counties where 
geese were reared to gather sufficient quan- 
tities of feathers to wing the arrows of the 
English army. Some of the old ballads 
contain references to winging the arrow 
with goose feathers. A familiar instance is 
the following : 

" Bend all your bows," said Robin Hood; 
" And with the gray goose wing, 
Such sport now show as you would do 
In the presence of the king." 

To check the exportation of feathers a 
heavy export duty was put upon them. 

The goose frequently figures in English 
tenures. In a poem by Gascoigne, pub- 
lished in 1575, there is an allusion to rent- 
day gifts, which appear to have been general 
in the olden time: 

"And when the tenants come to pay their quarter's 

They bring some fowle at Midsummer, a dish of fish 

in Lent, 
At Christmasse a capon, and at Michaelmasse a 


A strange memorial custom was kept up 
at Hilton in the days of Charles II. An 
image of brass, known as Jack of Hilton, 
was kept there. "In the mouth," we are 



[June 28, 1890. 

told, " was a little hole just large enough to 
admit the head of a pin ; water was poured 
in by a hole in the back which was after- 
wards stopped up." The figure was then 
set on the fire ; and during the time it was 
blowing off steam, the lord of the manor of 
Essington was obliged to bring a goose to 
Hilton and drive it three times round the 
hall fire. He next delivered the goose to 
the cook, and when dressed he carried it to 
the table, and received in return a dish of 
meat for his own mess. 

In bygone times Lincolnshire was a great 
place for breeding geese, and its extensive 
bogs, marshes, and swamps were well adapted 
for the purpose. The drainage and cultiva- 
tion of the land have done away with the 
haunts suitable for the goose ; but in a large 
measure Lincolnshire has lost its reputation 
for its geese. Frequently in the time when 
geese were largely bred, one farmer would 
have a thousand breeding geese, and they 
would multiply some sevenfold every year, 
so that he would have under his care an- 
nually some eight thousand geese. He had 
to be careful that they did not wander from 
the particular district where he had a right 
to allow them to feed, for they were regarded 
as trespassers, and the owner could not get 
stray geese back unless he paid a fine of two- 
pence for each offender. 

Within the last fifty years it was a com- 
mon occurrence to see on sale in the market 
place at Nottingham, at the Goose Fair, 
from fifteen to twenty thousand geese, which 
had been brought from the fens of Lincoln- 
shire. A street on the Lincolnshire side of 
the town is called Goose-gate. 

The origin of the custom of eating a goose 
at Michaelmas is lost in the shadows of the 
dim historic past. According to Chambers' 
Journal, Saint Martin was tormented with 
a goose, which he killed and ate. He died 
after eating it; and ever since Christians 
have, as a matter of duty, on the saint's day 
sacrificed the goose. We have seen from 
the preceding quotation from Gascoigne, 
that the goose formed a popular Michael- 
mas dish from an early period. 

It is a common saying, " The older the 
goose the harder to pluck," when old men 
are unwilling to part with their money. The 
barbarous practice of plucking live geese 

for the sake of their quills gave rise to the 
saying. It was usual to pluck live geese 
about five times a year. Quills for pens 
were much in request before the introduc- 
tion of steel pens. One London house, it 
is stated, sold annually six million quill pens. 
A professional pen-cutter could turn out 
about twelve hundred daily. 

Considerable economy was exercised in 
the use of quill pens. Leo Atticus, after 
writing forty years with one pen, lost it, and 
it is said he mourned for it as for a friend. 
William Hutton wrote the history of his 
family with one pen, which he wore down 
to the stump. He put it aside, accom- 
panied by these lines : 


" As a choice relic I'll keep thee, 
Who saved my ancestors and me. 
For seven long weeks you daily wrought, 
Till into light our lives you brought, 
And' every falsehood you avoided, 
While by the hand of Hutton guided." 
JUNE 3, 1779. 

In conclusion, it maybe stated that Phile- 
mon Holland, the celebrated translator, 
wrote one of his books with a single pen, 
and recorded in rhyme the feat as follows : 

" With one sole pen I wrote this book, 

Made of a gray goose quill ; 
A pen it was when I it took, 
A pen I leave it still." 

S. S. R. 


America. Are there any good reasons 
for accepting Marcou's theory that the 
name America is of native (Central) Amer- 
ican origin ? The approach of the 4ooth 
anniversary of the first landing of Columbus 
in the Western Hemisphere gives fresh 
interest to the subject of the origin of ti:e 
name America. ISLANDER. 


There are very few persons indeed, we 
believe, who reject the opinion that the 
name America was derived from that of 
Amerigo Vespucci. We know of no valid 
reasons for accepting the other view. 

June 28, 1890.] 



"*" Fool Hay. I see in a far Western news- 
paper some notice of the gathering of " fool 
hay" by ranchmen. What kind of hay is 
meant? S. L. A. 


Certain kinds of grass (as Panicum vul- 
gare) in the far West produce such light 
hay (in proportion to its great bulk) that 
their product is called fool hay by the 
ranchmen, because they are fooled or de- 
ceived in estimating its weight. 

Woodhouselee Ghost. What was the 
Woodhouselee ghost? Where and at what 
time was it supposed to have existed ? 



i, p. 139. 

Mother Carey's Chickens. Can you tell 
me whence came the name " Mother Carey's 
chickens?" MARY OSBORN. 


iii, p. 51. 

Stilts. I remember reading somewhere 
of the habitual use of stilts in walking. In 
what part of the world is stilt-walking regu- 
larly practiced ? A. O. 


The shepherds of the Landes, or sandy 
plains of the south-west of France, use lofty 
stilts in watching their flocks. This custom 
gives them a better outlook over their 
flocks, and increases their speed in cases of 
necessity. A long resting pole enables 
them to stand without losing their balance ; 
and the shepherds often stand on their stilts 
and knit while there is no occasion for ac- 
tively following their sheep. In Samoa and 
some other Polynesian groups the natives have 
handsomely-carved stilts, on which they can 
run with great speed. This is one of their 
amusements; indeed the old-time native 
life of many Polynesian groups seems to 
have been principally a long series of amuse- 

Gilsonite. What are Gilsonites? A re- 
ligious sect or a sort of mineral or ? 


Gilsonite is a mineral wax found in Utah, 
and mined to some extent. It was named 
from its discoverer, a Mr. Gilson. There 
is a Gilsonite Company in Salt Lake City, 
which handles the commercial product. 

It B P Li I B S . 

P/ucke-Buffet (Vol. v, p. 66). A pre- 
cise definition of this strong compound is 
hard to find. The term goes without ex- 
planation in Halliwell and in Nares, al- 
though both quote the stanza in question 
as an illustration of a peculiar use of the 
word pluck. Wright, the only lexicographer 
I have found to attempt a definition, says : 
" Plucke-buffet is a term in archery." 

Shult, in "Sports and Pastimes of the 
English People," makes no reference to 
plucke-buffet in connection with archery or 
any other sport. 

Prof. Child gives the following note on 
Stanza 424 of "A Geste of Robyn Hode :" 
"The sport of ' Plucke-buffet' is a feature in 
the ' Romance of Richard Cceur de Lion' 
(762-798). Richard is betrayed to the 
king of Almayne by a minstrel, to whom he 
had given a cold reception, and put into 
prison. The king's son Ardour held the 
strongest man in the land, visits the prisoner, 
and proposes to give an exchange of this 
sort : 

" ' Art thou Richard, that strong man, 
As man sayn in every lond ? 
Wilt thou stand a befet of my hond, 
Anon I gyfe the leve, 
Another buffet thou me geve ?' 

"The prince gives Richard a clout which 
makes fire spring from the eyes, and goes 
off laughing, ordering Richard to be well 
fed, so that he may have no excuse for deal- 
ing a feeble blow when he takes his turn. 

"The next morning the prince comes for 
his payment, and Richard, who has passed 
the previous evening in waxing his hand, 

" ' And took wax fayr and bright ; 
Be the fer he waxed his hond,' 



[June 28, 1890. 

delivers a blow upon the cheek bone of his 
princely antagonist, who, falling, expires in- 
stantly. Similarly in the ' Robin Hood 
Romance,' Stanza 408: 

" ' And sych a buffet he gave Robyn, 
To ground he yede ful sure.' 

" For this popular romance of the thir- 
teenth century, refer to Vol. xi, 3, Ellis' 
Met. Rom.' or Weber's ditto." 

Prof. Child points to another instance of 
the exercise of this thirteenth century pas- 
time in the romance of " The Turke and 
Gowin," in the Percy Folio MS., Vol. i, 
Hales & Farnival ed. : 

" He was not hye, but he was broade, 
And like a turke he was made, 

both legg & thye, 

And said, ' is there any will, as a brother 
to give a buffett & take another, 

giff any soe hardy bee ?' 

" Then spake Sir Kay, that crabbed knight, 
And said, ' man seemest not soe wight 

if thou be not adread, 
for there been knights within this hall 
with a buffett will gave thee fall 

And grope thee to the ground.' 

"In this romance the proposed exchange 
of ' buffetts' is apparently forgotten as the 
story proceeds" (Childs 1 " Eng.-Scot. Pop. 
Ball.," Part v, p. 55). F. T. C. 


Raskin (VoK v, p. 89). The wife of Sir 
John Millais is the divorced wife of Ruskin. 
Millais was a frequent visitor at Ruskin's 
house, and indeed the critic made him 
famous. Ruskin noticed the flame between 
his wife and the young painter, and, with 
rare self-abnegation, smoothed the way by 
allowing her to have a divorce. He has 
continued to be Millais' best friend, and is 
on the best of terms with Lady Millais. 

J. O. G. D. 

Ruskin was married and divorced. His 
divorced wife afterwards marrying, I think, 
an artist named Whistler. H. P., Jr. 


Goose-bone (Vol. v, p. 6). A mode of 
foretelling the weather by the bones, espe- 
cially the breast-bone, of a goose, is in use 

in Europe. If the bone is red it betokens 
continuous cold for the coming winter ; if 
clear and transparent the weather will be 
milder. The Martinmas goose, which re- 
places on the continent the Michaelmas 
goose of England, was particularly in repute. 
Ennemoser ("Hist. Magic") quotes a pas- 
sage : "Ye good old mothers, I consecrate 
the breast-bone to you, that you may from 
it become weather-prophets. The foremost 
part by the throat betokens the early part 
of winter; the hindermost part, the end of 
winter; the white indicates snow and mild 
weather, the other great cold." From what 
I can learn, I think this is about the same 
as the popular belief in this country. 

E. G. KEEN. 

Adam of St. Victor (Vol. iii, p. 259). 
Adam de St. Victor, who died in or near 
the year 1180, was the most fertile and one 
of the greatest of all the Latin hymn-writers 
of the middle ages. Dr. J. M. Neale and 
Archbishop Trench each greatly admired 
his poetry; and Trench's collection of 
hymns contains some excellent examples of 
Adam's work. He was one of the Victor- 
ines, or monks of the Augustinian monas- 
tery of St. Victor, near Paris. This monas- 
tery was, in the twelfth century, the headquar- 
ters of that pietistic mysticism which arose 
as a protest against the dialectical and dry 
scholastic divinity of the time. It had a 
wide influence in promoting popular devotion 
throughout Western Europe. The other 
principal Victorine writers were the eminent 
Hugh de St. Victor (1096-1141 whose 
writings greatly influenced St. Bonaventura 
1221-74 Pierre d'Ailly and John Ger- 
son), Richard of St. Victor, and Walter de 
St. Victor. Hugh was a Fleming or Wai- ^ 
loon, and was the founder of the "Sum-' 
mists," a set of theologians so named from 
his " Summa Sententiarum." Richard (d. 
1173) was the prior of his abbey, and a 
Scotchman by birth. Walter was distin- 
guished by the hatred and contempt he ex- 
hibited for the dialecticians and "Sum- 
mists" alike, the principal of the Summists 
of his time being the celebrated Peter Lom- 
bard, called "the master of sentences." 


June 28, 1890.] 



Ff in Proper Names (Vol. v, p. 90). 
The spelling of such names as Ffrench, 
Ffolliott, and Lloyd with double letters is a 
survival of the early days of printing from 
Roman-faced type. There were no capitals 
used and for proper names two lower-case 
letters were employed where a capital was 
required. In a few cases, families have re- 
tained that spelling, especially in Ireland. 

J. O. G. D. 


War of the Axe (Vol. v, p. 66). In 1846, 
a Kaffer thief in South Africa stole an axe, 
and was being conveyed to Grahamstown 
for trial. His friends killed the Hottentot 
to whom the Kaffer was chained, and rescued 
the thief. The English then made war 
upon the Gaika and Tambuki tribes of 
Kaffers, who had refused to surrender either 
the thief or the murderer of the Hottentot. 
The war lasted twenty-one months and was 
very severe; indeed, warfare was kept up 
pretty steadily until 1853, by which time 
the brave Africans were pretty thoroughly 
subdued. ISLANDER. 


Marteno (Vol. v, p. 89). My recollection 
is that Mrs. L. M. Child's good old-fash- 
ioned cookbook, "The Frugal Housewife," 
contains an account of pickled martenoes. 
The word occurs in no dictionary. 

M. C. B. 



Yoked with a Lamb. What is meant 
by the lamb in the familiar passage in " Ju- 
lius Caesar," " O Cassius, you are yoked 
with a lamb," etc. ? Does it refer to the 
temperament or disposition of Cassius, or 
does Brutus mean himself? * * * 

Caccethes Scribendi. Who will sug- 
gest a good American substitute for this use- 
ful but pretentious-looking hybrid ? Cor- 
respondents of Notes and Queries (London) 
re busy coining an English rendering. 



Qui Vive. "Webster's Dictionary" 
says that this expression means, " For whom 
do you cry vive ?" corresponding to our 
" Who goes there ?" but conveying the idea 
of the question, "To which party do you 
belong ?" Is this a correct explanation ? 

F. W. P. 


The Captain of My Dreams. To 

what does this expression refer in Tenny- 
son's "Dream of Fair Women?" The 
stanza reads : 

" With that sharp sound the white dawn's creeping 


Stolen to my brain, dissolved the mystery 
Of folded sleep. The captain of my dreams 
Ruled in the eastern sky." 


The Dragon Fly in Tennyson's 
"Two Voices." Will some reader of 
third, fourth, and fifth stanzas of " The Two 
Voices" (describing the emergence of the 
dragon fly from the chrysalis) in their rela- 
tion to the argument of the poem ? 


Greek Boy. What Greek boy ex- 
claimed on receiving news from his father : 
" My father will leave nothing for me to 
do?" ??? 


General arose from Sick-bed. 

What general arose from a sick-bed to lead 
his troops in a battle in which he was killed ? 



Pillars of the Church (Vol. iv, pp. 120, 
etc.). Compare Rev. iii, 12: "Him that 
overcometh will I make a pillar in the tem- 
ple of my God," etc. According to Swe- 
denborg, by a pillar is signified the Divine 
Truth of the Word, which is that which 
sustains the church and makes it firm. 

R. M. V. 




[June 28, 1890. 

A Question in Grammar (Vol. v, p. 96, 
etc.). A person may be said to "sing a mu- 
sical part " to sing soprano or tenor, for in- 
stance when singing a solo. In the passage 
in question, however, the meaning is, as I 
have said in substance before, that Mary helps 
in the singing of the kettle by attending to it, 
and this is prettily compared to singing a 
part in its music. "With some" in the 
preceding lines may be explained in more 
than one way let the reader choose but 
for myself I cannot conceive of an explana- 
tion that will make it correlative to part. 
Will "G" be so good as to give a para- 
phrase of the passage showing this relation 
between some and part ? It will be amusing 
at least, and I will promise to find no fault 
with it. Indeed, my part in the dispute 
must cease with this present writing. 

W. J. R. 

Camelot (Vol. v, pp. 72, etc.). I am 
informed by a gentleman who has made a 
special study of Celtic history, and who is 
becoming recognized as one of the most 
promising of the younger scholars of this 
country, that almost all experts concede 
Camelot to have stood at Queen Camel, 
near South Cadbury, in Somerset ; and that 
the best critical opinion at present regards 
the earlier Arthurian stories as having a large 
basis of fact. RYLAND JONES. 


"Whipping as a Punishment (Vol. v, 
p. 73). This article recalls my school 
days between 1819 and 1822. My last 
teacher was deeply impressed with the 
maxim involving, "if spare the rod you are 
sure to spoil the child," and he seemed de- 
termined not to sin in that direction. He 
had three implements (or instruments) of 
"torture" according to the weight of the 
crime, besides a few for ordinary cases. 
The most "potent, powerful, and painful," 
was Toby Scratchem, although that term is 
tame, compared with the pain it inflicted. 
It had a smooth, round handle, about two 
feet in length, and about an inch in diame- 
ter at the thickest end, tapering down to 
about half an inch ; to this end was firmly 
attached three leather thongs, rolled round 
as a cord, or rope, ending with three silken 

lashes, or " crackers," with, it was said, three 
"duck-shot" concealed in them. This was 
the testimony of those who felt them, but 
others said they were merely ordinary knots. 
The second in potency was Doctor Blue. 
This was merely about seven inches of the 
small twisted end of a blue raw-hide, or 
"cowskin," as it is usually called, attached 
to a handle about six inches in length. I 
felt it once, and I can bear testimony to its 
prolonged agonizing effects. The third was 
the common "cat o' nine tails." He never 
inflicted punishment without real or pre- 
sumed cause, but the certainty with which 
punishment followed the slightest "infrac- 
tion of the rules," lead many to believe 
that he, in a measure, enjoyed it. But he 
was absolutely humane, when compared 
with a contemporary, who punished some of 
his pupils where a doubt existed ; on the 
ground that if not guilty then and there, he 
certainly would need it before the setting of 
another sun. His " invitation " invariably 
was," Stand up, Bill, I'll score you anyhow." 
How deeply the world has been, and still is, 
infused with that sort of leaven is almost 
daily reflected through the columns of the 
secular press. S. S. R. 


Oregon (Vol. ii, p. 58). I wish to call 
your attention to two other proposed deri- 
vations for the name Oregon. One is from 
the Spanish oregano, origanum, or thyme; 
some say that the region was named from a 
thyme-like plant abundant there. Another 
guess (old but not likely to be true) makes 
it equivalent to Horicon, a lake name, said 
to signify "hollow" in some Algonquin 
language; but, except the Cheyennes and 
Blackfeet, there were no Algonquins within 
a thousand miles of Oregon. 


TROY, N. Y. 

T. D. Pipes (Vol. ii, p. 114). I have 
often been told that T. D. pipes were of 
Scottish manufacture. If this be true, it 
does not seem probable that they took their 
name from that crazy and semi-idiotic Yan- 
kee, Lord Timothy Dexter. 

L. V. SHAW. 


June 28, 1890.] 


The State of Franklin (Vol. v, p. 77). 
"The State of Tennessee originally be- 
longed to North Carolina, whose boundaries 
extended indefinitely westward. The terri- 
tory had been opened to settlement through 
the treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1768. The 
settlers on the Watauga framing a code of 
laws signed by each person, became a body 
politic, the Watauga Association. Their num- 
bers and their spirit of independence were 
both increased by immigrants driven from 
North Carolina by the tyranny of the royal 
governor Tryon, and conventions of Jones- 
boro, August 23, and December 14, 1784, 
formed a separate State government, variously 
called Frankland and Franklin in its official 
documents. The Constitution was ratified by 
popular vote ; a legislature and a governor, 
John Sevier, were elected, and a civil war be- 
tween two State governments seemed im- 
minent. The North Carolina party in Ten- 
nessee overthrew the Franklin party, May, 
1788. North Carolina legislature passed 
an act of oblivion, and admitted John Sevier 
as Senator" (Lalor's " Cyclo. Pol. Sci.," 
Vol. iii). 

Refer., "Encyc. Brit.," "Tennessee;" 
" John Sevier," '"Appleton's Cyc." 


Branch, River, Creek, Run, et al. 

(Vol. v, pp. 54, etc.). The great river that 
cuts Eastern Pennsylvania through from 
north to south-east, is the Susquehanna with 
its North and West branches. We never hear 
the North or West branches of the Susque- 
hanna mentioned in connection with either 
of these streams, when spoken of by those 
who reside on them ; it is simply the North 
branch, or the West branch ; of course 
Susquehanna is always understood. In Lan- 
caster, the Conestoga cuts the county 
through from north to south, but the term 
branch is never applied to that stream, 
although it has two branches it is al- 
ways mentioned as the "Big" and "Little 
Conestoga." Perhaps at one period of 
its history, it was known as a creek, or 
"krick," but since the building of the 
"Conestoga Navigation" an effort has 
constantly been made to dignify it into a 
river, and had not that enterprise been 

superseded by railroad improvements, it 
might have been crowned with success. 
But still its dams, and water stretches, and 
pleasure crafts, which every season ply its 
placid bosom, retain the name of river 
half the time, and with about half the 

It is nearly the same in regard to the 
Chiquesalunga creek, about twelve miles 
west of the city of Lancaster, which has 
also two branches, but we never hear the 
term branch applied to either of them it 
is always either the "Big" or "Little 
Chiques," which now, through the sugges- 
tions of the late Prof. Haldeman, is gener- 
ally rendered "Chickies." On the ex- 
treme west of Lancaster county we have the 
Conewago, and on the extreme east the 
Octorara creek, as boundary lines ; but 
Donegal and many others have never gotten 
beyond the dignity of Runs, although many 
of them are amply worthy of a more pro- 
nounced cognomen. 

Many of the runs, rivulets, and rills of 
my boyhood have become entirely obliter- 
ated as much so as if they never had been. 

S. S. R. 


Gulf of the Lion (Vol. v, pp. 93, etc.). 
So this gulf was named in this fashion be- 
cause its waves roar. But is there any gulf 
(except it may be some little land-locked 
basin) whose waters do not roar ? Some say 
that the north wind, here called the mistral, 
or master wind, is the lion in the case. But 
the same wind blows in the near-by parts of 
the Mediterranean. The city of Lyons is 
170 miles away. I think the only way to 
determine the true origin of this name is to 
trace it back by the historical method. 
Keith Johnston's "Atlas" puts it Gulf of 
Lyons. Surely he was not an ass. The 
map in "Encyclopaedia Britannica" also 
calls it Gulf of Lyons. F. H. S. 


Losh (Vol. v, p. 70). Heth and feth I 
should think were minced forms of faith; 
losh may stand for lord ; teth for 'sdeafh. 
For lovenenty I can think of no probable 
meaning. A. L. R. 




[June 28, 1890. 

Parallel Passages (Vol. v, p. 69). 
The passage quoted as above from the 
" Phillis and Flora," of 1598, imitates the 
following passage in the " De Phillide et 
Flora," printed with the Golias series, 
Verses 297-210, etc., as follows : 

" Equus fuit domitus Pegaseis loris, 
Multum pulcritudinis habet, et valoris ; 
Pictus artificio varii coloris ; 
Nam mixtus nigredini candor est oloris, 
Pulcre fuit habilis, as tat is primaevae, 
Et respexit paululum munde non saeve ; 
Cervix fuit ardua, sparsa coma leve, 
Auris parva, prominens pectus, caput breve. 
Dorso pando jacuit virgini cessurae 
Spina quae non senserat aliquid pressurae, 
Pede cavo, tibia recta, largo crure, 
Totus fuit sonipes studium naturae, etc." 



" A moment while the bugles blow, 

He sees his brood around thy knee ; 
The next, like fire he meets the loe, 

And strikes him dead for thine and thee." 
(Tennyson's "The Princess.") 

" And when on foote he fight doth try, 
While his fayre squire his horse holds by, 
Mine thinks on me, and then they dy." 

(" Phillis and Flora," by R. S., 1598.) 


Names of Boats and Ships. Caique 
and kayak, pitpan and sampan, lugger and 
nuggur, prow and snow, flute, float zxi&fluve, 
cog, barge, lymphad, hulk and holcad, bal- 
inger, ballahoo, carack, crayer, dogger, hoy, 
lodeship, snake, sneak, galley, galleas, gal- 
liot, galleon, hock-boat, bumboat, pursuer, 
pickard, pinnace, bark and barkentine, brig 
and brigantine, sloop and shallop, punt, 
pinnace, gig, launch, jolly-boat, long-boat, 
cutter, yacht, schooner, junk, flyboat, prahu, 
proa, drogher, fire-ship, frigate, frigatoon, 
gondola and gundelow, corvette, settee, 
felucca, polacre, canoe, woodskin, ketch, 
monitor, pink, chebacco-boat, chebec, din- 
ghy, bugeye, cat-boat, coracle, scow, shell, 
sharpie, skiff, bateau, piroque, yawl, pungy, 
dory, wherry, broadhorn, budgerow, schoon- 
er, dahabeyah, ark, tartan, catamaran, balsa, 



Lyons and Lyon (Vol. vi, pp. 93, etc.). 
Let me right here enter my demurrer 
against the statement that Lyons is an erro- 
neous spelling for Lyon. Is Munich an 
erroneous form of Miinchen ? Is either of 
the spellings Geneva, Geneve, or Genf, er- 
roneous? Cf. Ratisbon for Rfgensburg ; 
Prague, Praha, and Prag ; Vienna and 
Wien; Roma and Rome ; Marseilles and 
Marseille ; Orleans and Orleana, etc. ; 
CoruTia, Corunna, La Coroyne, and Old 
English The Groyne; Aix and Aachen; 
Anvers and Antwerp; Mechlin, Mecheln, 
and M aline s ; Livorno, Livourne, Liorna, 
and Leghorn; London, Londres, Londra, 
etc. ; Cantorbery for Canterbury ; Genova, 
Genes, Genua, Genoa; Mediolanum, Mai- 
land, Milano, Milan; Douvres for Dover; 
Edimbourg for Edinburgh ; Copenhagen for 
Kjobenhavn; The Hague, Haag, La Haye, 
and Aja, for 'S Gravenhage, etc. One could 
easily find fifty analogous examples. 



Washwoods. This is the name of a 
place on the coast of North Carolina, near 
the Virginia line. I am informed by a gen- 
tleman who is familiar with the place, that 
a year or two since the sea made some en- 
croachment upon the land at this point, lay- 
ing bare a great forest of fallen trees which 
was not known to exist there before. But 
it occurred to me that the people who named 
the place must have known of the existence 
of the fallen forest, for that must have sug- 
gested the name " Washwoods." 

E. N. C. T. 


Charivari (Vol. i, p. 8). There have 
been many derivations suggested for this 
French word ; one of the most remarkable 
is from the Gr. -/alufidpta, kettles ; but this 
is, also, most unlikely. The French have 
many similar words with similar meanings ; 
as taribari, chanavari, queriboiry, chalivali, 
caribari. d.^ng.,tilly-vally. These words, 
as a rule, seem meaningless of themselves. 
But the French tohu-bohu (for chaos, rout, 
confusion), is borrowed directly from the 
Hebrew. This was originally a book word. 


June 28, 1890.] 



Highbelia for Lowpo. The use of the 
term hypo, as an abbreviated form of the 
word hypochondriasis , has actually led many 
people, by no means all of them rustics, to 
call extreme depression of spirits by the 
remarkable name lowpo. Country folk 
have great faith in the medicinal virtues of 
the plant lobelia, and for a larger species of 
the same genus of herbs, the name highbelia 
has been invented. I have even heard it 
said that just as lobelia is a sovereign remedy 
for hypo, so highbelia is equally good for 
lowpo. The Lobelia inflata is the plant ordi- 
narily called lobelia, and L. syphilitica is, I 
fancy, the highbelia of the rustic pharmaco- 


"The Ampulla." The legend of the 
ampulla brought from heaven by a white dove, 
and containing the oil with which the Frank 
king Clovis was anointed by St. R6my at 
his baptism, in 496, is, as every respectable 
legend ought to be, considerably younger 
than the fact it relates to. It is mentioned 
for the first time by Hincmar, Archbishop 
of Rheims, who was born in 806 and died 
in 882. The ampulla was always used there- 
after at the coronation of the kings of France 
down to Charles X. It was kept at Rheims 
in the tomb of St. Remy. It was a glass 
vial, forty-one millimetres high, with an 
aperture sixteen millimetres in circumfer- 
ence. It was filled with a kind of 'gruel 
thick and slab,' which, in the long run, 
had become solidified and of a reddish 
brown color. When it was time to use it 
at the ceremony of coronation, the High 
Prior of St. Remy, from whose neck the 
rich shrine which contained it hung by a 
silver chain, scooped from it a particle by 
means of a golden needle, and this was 
mingled with 'the chrism (a compound of 
oil and balm), preparatory to the anointing 
of the king. 

" The legend says that there was such rela- 
tion between the holy phial and the life of 
the reigning king as for the bulk of the 
balm it contained to diminish if his health 
happened to be impaired. The ampulla 
was destroyed in 1793 by Ruhl, a member 
of the convention, then appointed com- 

missioner in the department of the Marne. 
But before delivering the phial to that offi- 
cer, Abbe Seraine, the cur6 of St. Remy, 
took out of it a part, which was reverently 
kept in a crystal -vessel enclosed in a silver- 
gilt shrine, and was used for the last time 
at the coronation of Charles X, in 1825. 
I think it may be admitted that, in the 
phrase of the very old French writer here 
quoted, the word ' milk' refers to the oil, 
and the word 'honey' to the balm, which 
composed the chrism. Milk, indeed, can 
be an allowable substitute for oil, referring 
to the sweetness of the savor, and ho,ney for 
the balm, referring to the sweetness of the 
odor" (English Notes and Queries}. 

Sunset on the United States (Vol. iii, 
p. 58). Try the experiment with a globe, 
and I think you will find that even at mid- 
summer there is a time in every twenty-four 
hours during which night (excluding twi- 
light) prevails on every part of the United 
States and its possessions. Eastport, Me., 
is in Ion. 66 57' W. ; Attoo island, Alaska, 
is 187 34' W. ; the difference is much less 
than half a circle. The westernmost Amer- 
ican guano island in the South Pacific lies 
farther east than does Attoo. At the latter 
island the longest actual daylight (June 21) 
is about eighteen hours long; at Eastport 
about fifteen hours. At the winter solstice, 
when the nights are longest in the North, 
darkness prevails at night, beyond any ques- 
tion, over all the United States and its pos- 
sessions ; and unless I have made an error 
in my simple but rough computation, there 
is a short time during every period of twenty- 
four hours at which there is no part of the 
United States or its possessions upon which 
the sun, even at the summer solstice, is not 
actually invisible. In other words, the sun 
actually is set to every place belonging to 
the United States during a longer or shorter 
part of each of the earth's diurnal revolu- 
tions. Of course, exception must be made 
with regard to the part of Alaska which lies 
north of the Arctic circle. There, during 
the time near the summer solstice, the sun 
does not set at all, but throughout the 
greater part of the year the sun sets there. 




[June 28, 1890. 

Nix's Mate (Vol. ii, p. 1 60). Nix's 
Mate is not yet entirely submerged at 
least not in ordinary tides. Like all the 
islands in Boston barber, it has for many 
years been subject to rapid erosion from the 
sea. Nearly all these islands are now pro- 
tected by sea walls, which, with proper care, 
will probably serve their purpose, and keep 
the islands from being washed away alto- 
gether. R. A. STARBIRD. 


Alleluia Victory (Vol. ii, p. 137; Vol. 
iv, p. 126). There is a curious misprint in 
the first notice given of this battle in your 
columns. The Christian victors were the 
British, and the vanquished heathens were 
the Anglo-Saxons. ROBERT P. BROWNE. 


Inland-Flowing Streams (Vol. v, pp. 
87, etc.). With regard to inland-flowing 
streams of Argostoli (mentioned Vol. iii, p. 
209), I would remark that so eminent a 
geographer as Elisee Reclus calls one of them 
a river. Mr. W. J. Stillman, in the Century 
magazine, two or three years ago. gives an 
account of his visit to Argostoli. His guide, 
much to his disgust, took him to see this 
river. Mr. Stillman saw nothing remark- 
able about the river, and he seems to have 
looked upon it as an ordinary stream. At 
the time his article was written he evidently 
did not know that he had witnessed one of 
the most remarkable phenomena on the face 
of the earth. The only explanation I have 
ever read of this curious anomaly is this : 
The water is absorbed by porous or fissured 
rocks, and given out again in salt springs, 
much as a towel left with one end in a basin 
of water, and one end hanging out, will in 
time empty the basin of its contents. This 
does not seem a satisfactory explanation. 
The inflow is probably not tidal, for, except- 
ing at a few points, the Mediterranean has 
only a very slight tidal vibration. The 
island of Kephalenia, where these inland- 
flowing streams occur, is said to have no 
permanent streams of fresh water, and in- 
deed its water supply for ordinary needs is 
but scanty. I suppose that a deposition of 
rock salt is going on in the cavernous rocks 
of the island, sufficient to cause an inflow of 

salt water, much like that which takes place 
across the bar of the Kara-Boghaz. What 
becomes of the desalinated water I cannot 
tell, unless it be exhaled through the porous 
stony soil. It may, perhaps, be evaporated 
by volcanic heat. RYLAND JONES. 


Corycian Cave (Vol. v, p. 5). This 
noted grotto or basin, which is celebrated 
in the mythology and poetry of antiquity, 
is described by a writer in a very recent 
number of the Athenceum. The neighbor- 
ing parts of Cilicia abound in caves, often 
of much historical and scientific interest. 
But this particular cave is merely a sheltered 
hole in the rocks, having a fertile floor on 
which the ancients cultivated saffron, and 
at present various crops are grown there. 
Nearly all parts of the Anatolian peninsula 
are now being minutely explored, and the 
results are of singular interest to the archa;- 
ologist and to the philologist as well, for 
many rich finds are made of Greek and 
semi-Greek inscriptions, often of considera- 
ble promise to the student of word develop- 
ment. ANAX. 

Rushlights. We often read of rush- 
lights, but seldom see them, if ever. An 
ingenious lady of my acquaintance made 
some rushlights on the following plan : Large 
rushes were peeled to their pith, leaving 
a slender strip of the bark or cortical layer 
running -up one side, to give some tensile 
strength to the pith. This pith was treated 
as a candle-wick, being dipped into melted 
tallow a few times. The light given by this 
primitive candle was a mere glimmer at the 
best. Probably a better rushlight might be 
made than these v/ere ; but the absence of 
capillarity in the wick would, no doubt, in 
any case make the resulting light a dim one. 


Oxford (Vol. iv, pp. 201, etc.). Permit 
me to call the attention of your correspond- 
ent N. S. S. to the undoubted fact thaty>;Y/ 
in place names very often indeed, signifies 
fjord, and not a fording-place. Thus in 
Waterford, Wexford, Haverford, and I know 
not how many more. G. 


American jMotes and Queries: 

Copyrighted i8qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. Y. No. 10. 

SATURDAY, JULY 5, 1890. 

j $3.00 per year. $1.76, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Singlecopies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office, 
Also, by J, B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city, New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans : 
Geo. F. Wharton. 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts &. 
Co,, 10 Post Street, 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : The Evil Eye, 109 Castes Popular Superstitions, 

QUERIES : Author of Catechism State of Maine Flying 
Spider St. John's Day, 112. 

REPLIES : Mother Earth Captain of my Dreams, its 
The Dragon Fly Lowey of Tunbridgc Cacoethes Scribendi 
Mother Earth Fanacle, 113 Days of the Week Eygre 
or Bore, 114. 

Bootle Lake Drained Palace of Forty Pillars Garments 
following drowned Corpse Tantrum Bogus Allyballycar- 
rick O'Shaughlin, 114 Putrid Sea Verses Wanted Jo-Jo 
Swimming Pig, 115. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Dialect Forms Pretzel or Bretzel 
Buddhism in Lapland The Ampulla, 115 Gilsonite 
Survivals of Stone Age Superstitions of Gamblers Blind 
as a Beetle, n6 Horicon Pets of Distinguished People, 117 
Whiffle-tree Gulf of the Lion Question in Grammar . 
Foxglove Spire, 118 Good Old Etymologies John Dory 
The Goose, 119 Tree Lists Blind as a Bat, 120. 




Coming down to the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, we find this belief still 
held by the more ignorant classes of nearly 
all nations, and, in not a few instances, by 
those making pretension to enlightenment. 
In Egypt mothers ascribed the ill health of 
their children to some evil eye, and we read 
of one preventative which consisted in fre- 
quently spitting in the child's face; the 
same mode of preventing harm from a per- 
son who squinted was practiced in London, 
in 1839 (Brand, "Pop. Antiq.," Vol. iii, 
p. 50). A vulgar saying, common in the 
north of England, "No one can say black 
is your eye," originated, in Brand's opin- 
ion, from the popular superstition of the 
evil eye. A curious form of this supersti- 
tion is shown in the belief that persons pos- 
sessed of this power must go through certain 



[July 5, 1890. 

forms before their object can be effected, 
and during this time the evil they wish 
is seen by them in some mysterious way. 
An individual suspected of having cast an 
/// j e can be frustrated by turning a coal on 
the fire ; this will cause the evil-disposed 
person to feel as though the coal was placed 
upon his heart, and they have often been 
seen to put their hand to their breast, ex- 
claiming, "Oh!" While the coal is held 
by the tongs this person is unable to move. 
Throughout Scotland and the neighboring 
islands the evil eye was firmly believed in. 
A charm against it was the Virgin Mary's 
Nut, called, also, Molluka Beans; we hear 
of its use when cows, being bewitched, gave 
bloody milk. Another charm to be used in 
this case was to bind into the cow's tail a 
small piece of the wood of the mountain 
ash. A remedy for a person under the evil 
influence was to borrow an old six-pence 
from a neighbor ; as much salt as can be 
taken on the coin is put into a tablespoon - 
ful of water, and melted ; the six-pence is 
then put into the solution, and the soles of 
the feet and palms of the hands of the pa- 
tient moistened three times ; it is then tasted 
three times, and afterwards the patient is 
"scored aboon the breath," that is by the 
operator dipping his forefinger into the salt 
water and drawing it along the brow. The 
contents of the spoon are then thrown be- 
hind and over the fire, the thrower saying, 
" Lord preserve us frae a' scathe." This 
ceremony completed, the patient will re- 
cover, provided he has been under the 
influence of an evil eye; if he does not 
recover, something else must be the trouble. 
If you can " draw blud aboon the breath," 
the fascinating power of a witch's eye will 
cease (Brand's " Pop. Antiq."). 

A talisman against this baneful influence 
was lately in use in Yorkshire, consisting of 
a necklace of "lucky stones," i.e., small 
stones with a hole through them. From the 
same district comes a description of the 
method of attaining the power of fascina- 
tion : Nine toads are to be collected at night, 
then hang them up on a string, afterwards 
bury them in the ground, and as the toads 
pine away, so will the person pine on whom 
the evil glance has been cast. 

In Aubrey's "Miscellanies," we find: 

"The glances of envy and malice do shoot 
also subtilly ; the eye of the malicious per- 
son does really infect and make sick the 
spirit of the other." He adds that these 
glances are "more subtile than the spirits 
drawn by the chymist." In Ireland, this 
fascination was known, also, as eye-biting. 
In Spain and France nurses are very shy to 
let people look upon their children, for fear 
of fascination, as " infants are very sensible 
of these irradiations of the eyes." In Spain 
they take it ill if one looks on a child and 
make one say, "God bless it" (Aubrey, 
"Misc."). A traveler in Turkey, in the 
last century, found the country filled with 
devices to divert this sinister influence. Pas- 
sages from the Koran, globes of glass, and a 
part of the superfluous caparison of their 
horses were in use. A quotation from Sor- 
row's "Zincali," says: "IntheGitano lan- 
guage, casting the evil eye is called Querelar 
nasula, which simply means making sick. 
After receiving the evil glance, they fall 
sick, and die in a few hours." In Spain, an 
amulet in the shape of a stag's horn tipped 
with silver, was suspended from a child's 
neck by means of a cord braided from the 
hair of a black mare's tale. Among uncivil- 
ized races the belief in the evil eye is every- 
where found. In the oasis of the north of 
Africa, a method of averting its influence 
from the gardens, was to hang up the skull, 
or some of the bones, of an ass. Not alone 
to humans was this power confined. The 
catoblepas of Pliny, which would soon de- 
stroy the entire human race but for a fortu- 
nate circumstance, killed with its eyes the 
wolf, deprived men of speech, and with the 
fabled power of the basilisk and cockatrice 
every one is familiar. With a later instance 
from the personal observation of a writer in 
the London Spectator, I will close this note, 
already far too long. Speaking of an agent 
of the Emperor Napoleon, he says : " This 
man had eyes absolutely different from any 
I ever saw, and probably one-third of the 
Italians who passed before him, threw out 
their fingers to counteract their malefic 
effect." He adds, "I will remember them 
at the Judgment Day ; one of my compan- 
ions said, ' My God, that is Mephistopheles 
alive!'" E. G. KEEN. 


July 5, 1890.] 




(VOL. V, P. 85.) 

I have no doubt whatever that caste dis- 
tinction in India was at first in part a race 
distinction. But at present there are many 
castes, some of them merely hereditary 
trades unions, whose members are delimited 
from the rest of society. 

There are many errors in the literature of 
the castes. For instance, it is commonly 
said that the Chandalas, or Chandals, of 
Bengal, are an out-caste group, descended 
from the union of Brahman fathers with Su- 
dra mothers. But Dr. Hunter unhesitat- 
ingly declares that the Chandalas are the 
descendants of some Hinduized and non- 
Aryan subjugated race. Neither are they 
an out-caste nor a set of people without 
caste. In many parts of India they are far 
more numerous than any other caste. Nor 
are they (though despised) by any means 
the lowest of the castes. In Daccag, they 
rank as the forty-fifth of the ninety-five 
castes enumerated by Hunter. Locally, the 
Chandalas are divided into various sub- 
castes. Often they acquire considerable 
wealth and some share of respectability. 
Once upon a time, the Chandalas of a cer- 
tain district struck for recognition and for 
a higher place in the social scale ; and the 
high-caste people felt constrained to grant 
them, locally, all they demanded. It is 
often said that persons who are expelled 
from a high caste sink to the level of the 
Chandalas; but this is not correct; out- 
castes, at least in Bengal, are usually re- 
garded or received as members of the de- 
graded Vaishnav sect, which does not recog- 
nize caste. 

Another error is that of regarding the 
Pariahs as the lowest of Hindu outcasts. 
This is not quite true. The true Pariahs 
are the drummer caste of Southern India, 
who rank very low in the scale, but there 
are other castes still lower ; and there are 
various subcastes among the Pariahs them- 
selves. Several of the leading Tamil poets, 
like Tiruvalluvar, and his sister, Auveiyar, 
have been of Pariah stock. 

Another error of Europeans is that of 
regarding the Sudras as low-caste people. 
True, the Sudras are the lowest of the four 
original, or pure, castes, but they are rela- 

tively high in the social scale. In South- 
ern India, to call a man a Sudra is to con- 
fer a compliment upon him. Even in 
Northern India, a pure Sudra is a man of 
thoroughly respectable rank. 

A fourth error is the belief that all Brah- 
mans are priests. They are of the priestly 
caste, but not all are priests. They may be 
of any respectable profession. There are, 
locally, even plough Brahmans, who till the 
soil with their own hands. But these are 
"off color" with their fellows. There also 
are actually low-caste Brahmans, those who 
act as priests for the low castes. These are 
treated with much scorn by the lordly Kulin 
Brahmans. Indeed, there are everywhere 
many, or at least several, grades of Brah- 

A fifth error is the supposition that the 
Brahmans are all of Aryan descent. The 
true Aryans, or twice-born Brahmans, have 
deemed it politic to accept as true Brah- 
mans many who are assuredly of Dravidian 
descent. This is especially the case in Tra- 
vancore, a country which is regarded as the 
peculiar and special seat of the Brahman 

A sixth error is to regard Indian caste as 
inflexible. Low-caste kings were reigning 
in India in Alexander the Great's time. 
Even now, the Maharajahs of Travancore 
are of a low caste ; and because they are 
not of " twice-born" stock, they have to be 
born the second time, of an artificial cow, 
before they can reign. RYLAND JONES. 



Your readers probably have no idea how 
much attention is paid to what are called 
"signs," in reference to planting, etc., by 
the old "set" of farmers hereabouts. 
Onion sets, I have been solemnly assured, 
must be planted when the moon's horn 
points up, or they will come out of the 
ground instead of taking root, as they 
should. The same person declared that po- 
tatoes must be planted in the sign of the 
" foot," whatever that is, to insure a good 
crop. Another neighbor, if ready to plant 
a crop, always waits for the full of thejnoon 
to put in the seed. 

It is remarkable how tenacious are these 



[July 5, 1890. 

and kindred superstitions in this particular 
locality. Sometimes when I have argued 
such points with believers and tried to show 
their absurdity, as I imagined, with some 
success, the discussion has been closed with 
the sage remark, " Well, it is possible that 
there is nothing in it, but I shall continue 
as I have been doing and get the benefit, if 
there is any. ' ' ELLWOOD ROBERTS. 


Author of Catechism. Who was the au- 
thor of the good old English Catechism ? I 
mean the one in the Prayer Book. 

B. N. E. 


Tradition ascribes its authorship, in part, 
to Dean Nowell; but Canon Luckock, in 
his " Studies in the History of the Prayer 
Book" (1882), rejects this opinion, as ex- 
ceedingly improbable. He believes that 
Goodrich, afterwards Bishop of Ely, wrote 
the first part, as far as the paraphrase of the 
Lord's Prayer. Bishop Goodrich built, in 
1552, the Long Gallery attached to his 
episcopal palace ; and in it he placed two 
tablets, one inscribed with the " Duty to 
God," and the other with the " Duty to our 
Neighbor;" and beside them he placed the 
armorial bearings of the see, with his own 
initials. He was one of the translators of 
King James' Bible. In 1604, the remain- 
ing part of the Catechism (by Bishop Over- 
all) was added ; this part is explanatory of 
the Sacraments (op. cit., pp. 185, 224). In 
the American Prayer Book a few verbal 
changes have been made in the Catechism. 

State of Maine. Why is Maine so often 
spoken of as " the State of Maine?" It is 
not usual to speak of the other States in 
this way. P. O. D. 


Because it was formerly " the Province of 
Maine" and part of Massachusetts. Some 
write on letters, " State of Washington," to 
avoid any possible error in the sending of a 

Flying Spider. Are there any flying 
spiders ? This question is the outcome of a 
dispute after dinner. E. P. D. 


A handsome Australian spider, Attus vo- 
lans, has a parachute arrangement like that 
of the flying squirrel, by means of which it 
can take long leaps through the air. Many 
kinds of spider are wont to float in the air 
upon filaments of gossamer of their own 
spinning , but their gossamer floats are not 

St. John's Day. Why is the summer 
solstice taken as a time for honoring St. 
John Baptist ? L. F. N. 


St. John said, "He must increase, but I 
must decrease." At St. John's day, the 
length of the days begins to decrease. This 
explanation is, at least, as old as St. August- 
ine's time ; but it is probably fanciful. 


Mother Earth (Vol. v, p. 90). I once 
heard a Chinese cook say, "The sky is my 
fader, the earth is my mudder." Gaia, Tel- 
lus, and Demeter all represent Mother Earth. 
Some say that Demeter literally means Ge 
meter, Mother Earth. The giant Antseos, 
when wounded, was healed by contact with 
the earth, his mother. The origin of the 
expression is far too remote to be traced. 

E. D. R. 


Captain of My Dreams (Vol. v, p. 103). 
Tennyson refers to the morning star, which 
is mentioned four times in this poem, " The 
Dream of Fair Women." Chaucer, the 
" morning star of song," sets him to dream- 
ing after having read the " Legend of Good 
Women." Before his first interview, that 
with Helen of Greece, is recorded, " The 
maiden splendours of the morning star 
shook in the stedfast blue;" and when he 
woke, "the captain of his dreams [still] 
ruled in the eastern sky." G. 


July 5, 1890.] 


The Oregon Fly in Tennyson's " The Two 
Voices" (Vol. v, p. 103). The first voice 
is urging the poet to take a pessimistic view 
of life. " Thou art so full of misery. Were 
it not better not to be?" The voice goes 
on to cite the example of the dragon-fly. 
While in "his old husk" within the "wells 
where he did lie," the dragon-fly by "an 
inner impulse rent the veil" and came forth 
a far more glorious creature than he had 
been. Why not imitate his example, and 
put an end to this life, "so full of misery," 
in the hope of thereby ridding the soul of 
its material burdens, and attaining a happier 
mode of existence ? G. 


Lowey of Tunbridge (Vol. v, p. 6). The 

word lowey or lowy does not appear in any 
of the ten or twelve dictionaries, either of 
archaic or modern words which I've exam- 
ined ; it is nevertheless employed, in his- 
tories of the county of Kent, and in topo- 
graphical works relating to the same. John 
Harris' "History of Kent" gives the fol- 
lowing explanation of the term, which is the 
only one met with : 

" Round about this Town of Tunbridge, 
for about a League, as some say, Two Miles, 
or rather, One Mile and a half Distance, is 
a compass of Land, which anciently was 
called Districtus Leucae de Tonbridge ; now 
the Lowy of Tunbridge, Leuga, Leuca, and 
Leucata, was the ancient French League, by 
'which the old Gauls journeyed ; as the Ro- 
mans did by the Mille Passus. This League 
of theirs was MD Paces or a Mile and a half; 
and Spelman in his Glossary, under the 
word Leuca or Leuga, shows that such a dis- 
tance as this round a Monastery or Religious 
House was frequently called by this name 
of the Leucata, Leugate, or Lowy. ' ' 

The author relates much that's interesting 
about the Town of Bridges, on the Med- 
way, beginning with the occasion and Rise 
of this Lowy of Tunbridge, as follows : " In 
Normandy there was a Town and Lands about 
it called Briony, which anciently was under 
the Dukes of Normandy." This had been 
seized by Robert, eldest son of the Con- 
queror ; but Richard de Clare, Earl of 
Gloucester, put in a claim for it, believing 
he had a better right. At last, William 

Rufus promised Richard, as a recompense 
for the loss of Briony the Town of Tun- 
bridge, and just as much Land as was about 
Briony. "And this was actually done by 
measuring the Land about Briony Castle and 
laying out just as much about Tunbridge ; 
and some say that he brought over with him 
from Normandy the very same Rope with 
which he measured the Land of Briony; 
and this being what they called the Distance 
of a Leuca every way gave the District the 
name of the Leucata or Lowy of Tunbridge. ' ' 
(Refer, Harris' "Hist. Kent," London, 
1719, Vol. i, p. 319; Spelman's "Gloss- 
ary," pp. 356-7; Hasted's "Kent," Map, 
" Lowey of Tunbridge." F. T. C. 


Cacoethes Scribendi (Vol. v, p. 103). I 
submit the following as proposed substitutes 
for thess words : pen-fad and graphomania. 

S. L. A. 


Mother Earth (Vol. v, p. 90). The idea 
at all events is in Livy's account of the Tar- 
quins and Brutus how the oracle told the 
Tarquins that he who first kissed his mother 
should rule Rome, and how, while the 
brothers were quarreling about kissing their 
own mother, the clever Brutus pretended to 
fall and kissed the earth, the "common 
mother of us all." R. G. B. 


Fanacle (Vol. v, p. 90). If I mistake 
not, all our words in tele and acle are spelt 
with / or with a in strict accordance with 
their Latin prototypes. Thus we say obsta- 
cle, tabernacle, spectacle, oracle, pinnacle, 
receptacle, miracle, on the one hand, and 
article, curricle, funicle, cuticle, vehicle, reti- 
cle, radicle, etc., on the other, after our 
Latin models. 

{Manacle is a corruption of what our 
forefathers correctly spelt manic le ; treacle is 
an anomaly ; and icicle has nothing to do 
with the case.) 

If so, fanacle should follow the example 
of its brother fanatic, and adhere to the a 
of their common mother-root fanari. 




[July 5, 1890. 

Days of the Week (Vol. v, p. 67). The 
week of seven days is not of strict Jewish 
origin; in Exod. xx, n, its origin is re- 
ferred back to the creation ; in Deut. v, 15, 
to the exodus from Egypt. Like so many 
of the rites and customs of the Jews (nota- 
bly, circumcision), the seven-day week was 
adopted by the Jews from the races by which 
they were surrounded. N. S. S. will find a 
short but explicit account of the week in 
the "American Cyclopasdia," xvi, 535, 
with references to other books. R. G. B. 

Eygre or Bore (Vol. v, p. 87). A late 
number of the Portland (Me.) Advertiser 
described a remarkable " bore" on St. John 
River, Bay of Fundy. 

I am not unaware that this river is outside 
the United States, but it is nearer Pittsburgh, 
Pa., than the Colorado or the Hugli. 




Oolen and Bootle. A writer in the 
Nation, of June 26, calls the attention of 
readers to two plant names, not found in 
any of the dictionaries as yet. Both occur 
in "The Culprit Fay," of J. R. Drake. 
Colen-bell occurs twice, colen-goblet once, 
and bootle-blade twice in this poem. It ap- 
pears from the tenth stanza that the colen 
has a crimson flower. Do these words de- 
signate any real plants ? F. R. D. 


Lake Drained. What large lake in the 
United States has lately disappeared, from 
the use of the water of its afferent streams 
in irrigation ? J. K. W. 


Palace of Forty Pillars (Vol. v, pp. 
82, etc.). There is a fifth building of this 
name. It stands on the caravan road from 
Bokhara to China, and is described in some 
of the old books of travel. I am sorry not 
to be able to name any authorities for this 
statement ; but probably some of your 
readers may be able to make good the defect 
of my memory. J. K. M. 


Garments Following Drowned 
Corpse. The following is a clipping from 
a daily : 

"The mystery attending the disappear- 
ance of Sallie Wilkins was dispelled by the 
finding of the body floating in the Rancocas 
creek, about three miles from Mt. Holly, N. J. 
Miss Wilkins was last seen standing on the 
Bispham street bridge, about dusk on Wed- 
nesday evening, and the supposition is that 
she fell or jumped overboard there. In ac- 
cordance with an old superstitious belief, an 
old dress worn by the missing woman was 
procured and thrown in the water at the 
spot where the woman was supposed to have 
jumped overboard. 

" The theory is that the garment will fol- 
low the same course taken by the body, and 
will stop as soon as it reaches the corpse. 
Two men followed the floating dress in a 
boat, while crowds watched them from the 
shore. Just below Washington street the 
dress stopped, and it was confidently be- 
lieved the body had been found, but it 
proved to be a mistake, as the most persist- 
ent dragging failed to discover any trace of 
the woman. This morning, however, the 
body was discovered as related above." 

Can any correspondent of AMERICAN NOTES 
AND QUERIES tell me the origin of this be- 

Tantrum Bogus. Who or what is 
meant by this expression ? I have frequently 
heard from my mother and grandmother 
when the conversation turned upon wishing 
for death, " I'll live till I die, like Tantrum 
Bogus," or what sounded like the words I 
have quoted. They had it, I am told, from 
my great-grandmother, who was Irish or 
Welsh, it may be. Was " Tantrum Bogus" 
a character in some play, and what is the 
origin of the apparently unmeaning phrase ? 

Allyballycarrick O'Shaughlin. 
This is the name of an Irish bog in one of 
Miss Edgeworth's stories. Is it the real 
name of a real bog? A friend insists that 
it is. I have always believed it a name in^ 
vented by the novelist. ISLANDER. 


July 5, 1890.] 


Putrid Sea. In what book of travels 
can I find a description of the Sivash, or 
Putrid Sea, of Southern Russia? I do not 
care for a description in any book of refer- 
ence. I desire an account of personal ob- 
servations and impressions. IPSICO. 


Verses Wanted. Can any of your 
correspondents complete for me the follow- 
ing rhymes ? I heard them many years ago 
from an Irishman; I have forgotten the 
greater part of the story with which they 
were associated : 

" I saw a jackdaw at Dundalk, 

And he mending old shoes ; 
I saw a skylark at Dunkirk 

With spectacles reading the news ; 
I saw a buck flea saving hay 

For the Earl of Tyrone, 
And Kilkenny town going down 

To visit Athlone. 



Jo-jo (Vol. i, p. 31). Apart from the 
origin claimed for this name, as above indi- 
cated, I have been informed that some small 
animal, probably of the monkey tribe, has 
long been called, at least locally, by this 
name. Can any of your readers indicate 
the species of animal known by this name ? 


Swimming Pig. It is commonly said 
that a pig while swimming cuts its own throat 
by the strokes of its fore-feet. Is this belief 
in accordance with the facts ? Coleridge, in 
his poem, "The Devil's Thoughts," alludes 
to this supposed fact. (The poem is in part 
by Southey.) ISLANDER. 



Dialect Forms (Vol. iv, pp. 249, etc.). 
Among other expressions I have noted down 
since sending you a former list, are the fol- 
lowing : " Coppy woods," for a small 
grove; "Quait," for quoit; "outen," in 
the sense of to extinguish, as a fire. 



Pretzel, or Bretzel Which ? It has 
been a very long time since I first saw a 
"pretzel," and almost as long since I first 
saw the word in print not much less than 
seventy-five years ago. At that period, and 
for many years afterwards, that popular con- 
fection, cake, or " New Jersey handcuff," 
as it was facetiously named, was universally 
called and printed, or written, Pretzel ; at 
least in hamlets, villages, and inland towns, 
where it was manufactured, or kept for sale. 
But, for a quarter of a century or more, I 
have noticed the gradual innovation of the 
term Bretzel, both among the intelligent 
and the illiterate, as well as the ignorant ; 
and, perhaps, on a fair average, both names 
are about equally used. Now, although not 
of a life-and- death importance, yet, from the 
popularity of this article of human con- 
sumption, it has occurred to some persons 
that this is one of the questions that might 
be ventilated or determined by AMERICAN 
NOTES AND QUERIES, as within its legitimate 

Some have imagined the pronunciation 
hinges merely upon a Pennsylvania German- 
ism, especially that peculiar class who 
habitually indulge in consonantal transposi- 
tions ; but others entertain a different view. 

S. S. R. 

Buddhism in Lapland (Vol. v, p. 36). 
Max Muller, in a note to his review of 
Julien's "Buddhist Pilgrims" ("Chips from 
a German Workshop," Vol. i, p. 233, N. Y., 
1881), says : " The only trace of the influ- 
ence of Buddhism among Kudic races, the 
Fins, Laps, etc., is found in the names of 
their priests and sorcerers, the Shamans. 
' Shaman' is supposed to be a corruption 
of (,' a name applied to Buddha, 
and to Buddhist priests in general." 

E. G. KEEN. 

The Ampulla (Vol. v, p. 107). There 
is also an ampulla, or sacred phial, for the 
oil used in the coronation of the British sov- 
ereigns. It is preserved among the crown 
jewels in the Tower of London. 





[July 5, 1890. 

Gilsonite (Vol. v, p. 101). Mr. S. H. 
Gilson was the discoverer, it is said, of Gil- 
sonite, which is an asphalt, rather than a 
mineral wax. It appears to be the same as 
Uintahite. In the United States report on 
" Mineral Resources of the United States," 
for 1887, p. 795, its name is misprinted 
"Gibsonite." It finds no place in the 
"Century Dictionary" under either name. 
The Gilsonite Manufacturing Company, of 
Salt Lake City, is said to control it in some 
degree ; but the deposits are very large. It 
is used to some txtent in preparing varnishes 
and lacquers. RYLAND JONES. 


" Survivals of the Stone Age. Uni- 
versal as was the use of arrowheads in primi- 
tive times, their real purpose is now so gen- 
erally unknown that they are popularly be- 
lieved to be ' elf-darts' or ' elf-bolts' hurled 
by the fairies in their efforts to injure man 
and beast. This singular belief is still more 
or less widely prevalent in Great Britain and 
Ireland, in Scandinavia, Italy, and France. 
Other peoples, such as the Japanese, account 
for their origin by imagining that they are 
showered from heaven by an army of spirits 
that fly once a year through the air in the 
rain and the tempest. This idea may pos- 
sibly have arisen from the fact, which I 
have more than once verified, that arrow- 
heads are often found after a storm in places 
where the day before there was no trace of 
them, the rain having in the meantime 
washed away the mold and laid them bare. 

" But if the arrows of the elfin spirits 
could do harm, they were also supposed to 
possess the virtue of removing or averting 
evil. In the remoter parts of Ireland, Scot- 
land, and England the peasantry still believe 
that water in which 'elf-darts' and coins 
have been placed is an infallible remedy for 
cattle that have been shot at by the fairies. 
Arrowheads, when used as amulets, were 
further accredited with the power of pre- 
serving the wearers from danger and from 
the influence of malignant spirits. It is 
almost certain that it was for this purpose 
they found a place in the necklaces worn 
by the ancient inhabitants of Egypt and of 
Etruria. In Italy they are still in common 
use as preservatives against evil ; and in our 

own land it is only within the present cen- 
tury that they have ceased to be carried as 

"As might be expected, the deluded crea- 
tures, who professed to practice witchcraft, 
set a high value on arrowheads. They 
averred that they were manufactured for 
their special use by the arch fiend and his 
imps, and that so fatal was their power that 
whoever was struck by them must die, even 
though he were protected by a coat of mail. 
In ' The Ancient Criminal Trials' of Scot- 
land there are many references to this ab- 
surd idea. There it is stated that the 
witches sometimes made ( a picture of clay' 
representing the person whose death they 
wished to bring about, and that they threw 
'elf-darts' at this clay image until it was 
broken" (Good Words). 

Superstitions of Gamblers (Vol. v, p. 
25). I find that in the National Zcitung, 
an article upon the " Superstition of Gam- 
blers," says that " the gambler has a tradi- 
tional reverence for hump-backed persons. 
The French Deputy, M. Nacquet, the inti- 
mate of Boulanger, is notably a hump-back, 
and during his stay at Monte Carlo the little 
gentleman was in great request with the 
players on account of this valuable physical 
endowment. Any person gifted with a re- 
spectable outgrowth upon his back, but 
down on his own luck, might possibly earn 
his bread by going to Monte Carlo, and 
charging a fee to the superstitious luck- 
hunters at the green table. ' ' 



Blind as a Beetle (Vol. v, p. 76). 
The American "Dor-beetle" (Copris Caro- 
lina) has the same habit. But there are 
beetles which are actually blind. The 
Erythrophthalma telkemphii, a carabidinous 
beetle, found in the Mammoth cave, Ken- 
tucky, like the fishes and crustaceans found 
in that cave, are all blind, of which there are 
various species. The small chestnut-colored 
beetle, which we have always found in rice, 
is the Sitophilus oryzea, or "Rice weevil," 
but we know nothing about a blind species, 
if one is found there. S. S. R. 


July 5, 1890.] 



Horicon (cf. Oregon, Vol. v, p. 104). 
According to Hough's " Gazetteer of New 
York," the name Horicon, as applied to 
Lake George, is said to have been an inven- 
tion of the novelist Cooper, and not a true 
Indian name at all. The assertion of some 
is that it means " the smile of the Great 
Spirit. ' ' The same meaning is assigned by 
some guide-books to Winnepiseogec, the 
name of a lake in New Hampshire. Hori- 
con Lake is also the name given on some 
maps of Wisconsin to what is called, on 
other maps, Winnebago Marsh. Where 
can I find a good description of this lake, 
or marsh, as it exists at present ? 

N. S. S. 

Pets of Distinguished People (Vol. 
iv, pp. 274, etc.). Matthew Arnold's dogs, 
cat and canary bird. It would be hard to 
find another company of pets for whom the 
need of poetic verse has been dispensed so 
bountifully. Although "Goss" and "Rover" 
died unsung, the poetical tributes addressed 
to the favorite dogs "Geist" and "Kaiser," 
and to the canary "Matthias," count up 375 

" They had no poet, and they died," 

mot be said of Matthew Arnold's pets ; 
their poet-master insured for all of them 
that fame which he so fondly desired for the 
little friend, Geist of 

" That liquid melancholy eye, 

From whose pathetic soul-fed springs 
Seem'd surging the Virgilian cry, 
The sense of tears in mortal things." 

The special tributes already alluded to 
"belong to the later years of the poet's life, 
when poetical production had almost en- 
tirely ceased : 

" And so there rise these lines of verse 
On lips that rarely form them now." 

Geist lived but four years, and the lines 
"Geist's Grave" (January, 1881), was 
the first of the tributes the poet addressed to 
his pets. The little dachs-hound was named 
un memory of a remarkable conversation 
between his master and a Berliner visiting 
England in the summer of '66, while Prus- 
sia was at war with Austria; the Prussian's 

parting words to Arnold were " Get Geist" 
(see Every Saturday, Aug., 1866). 

In December, 1882, appeared the second 
of the group of tributes, "Poor Matthias." 

" Sigh for daily song of yore 
Silent now for evermore." 

Poor Matthias, "songster of many a 
year," the golden-liveried pet like the Car- 
dinal in Shakespeare, " dies and makes no 
sign," or rather his human keepers hard 

" Unable to divine 
Our companion's dying sign." 

In this connection occur, perhaps, the 
most significant lines in the poem : 

" What you feel escapes our ken 
Know we more our fellow-men ? 
Human suffering at our side, 
Ah, like yours is undescried ! 
Human suffering, human fears, 
Miss our eyes and miss our ears, 
Little helping, wounding much, 
Dull of heart and hard of touch, 
Brother man's despairing sign 
Who may trust us to divine?" 

Although "Rover with the good brown 
head" and "Great Atossa" "had been 
dismissed without a word," or rather "had 
died and died unsung," some time before 
the other pets, they come in for beautiful 
words of remembrance in connection with 
the canary, as 

" Nearer human were their powers, 
Closer knit their life with ours." 

Of sage Atossa sitting for hours beside the 
bird-cage the poet says : 

" Down she sank amid her fur 
Eyed thee with a soul resigned, 

Cruel, but composed and bland, 
So Tiberius might have sat, 
Had Tiberius been a cat." 

Of Max and Kaiser the poet had said in 
"Poor Matthias:" 

" Much I doubt if they shall have 
Dirge of mine to crown their grave." 


" Kaiser with his collie face, 
Penitent for want of race," 

died of a fit, April 6, 1887, a ^ ew days m ore 
than one year before his master. The fol- 
lowing July, in the last summer of Arnold's 



[July 5, 1890. 

life, "Kaiser Dead," was published in the 

Of the several pets referred to, the only 
one left is 

" Max a dachs-hound without blot, 
Max with shining yellow coat, 
Prinking ears and dew-lap throat." 

Regarding the outstretched form of his 
lifeless companion 

" Full well Max knows the friend is dead, 

Whose cordial talk, 
And jokes in doggish language said, 
Beguiled his walk." 

(See MacMillan, Dec., 1882; Fortnightly, 
Jan., 1881, July, 1887.) F. T. C. 


Whiffle-tree (Vol. v, p. 77). When 
we were a boy and worked on a farm, the 
large bar with a hook at each end, and an 
iron-bound hole in the middle, through 
which an iron pin was run to attach it to 
base of the tongue, was called a double-tree. 
To each of these hooks was attached a 
smaller bar, called a single-tree, or ivhifflc- 
tree, and this, without regard to the kind of 
tree they were made of; but white oak or 
ash was generally used for that purpose. 
Now, if uipul was a name formerly used in 
England for the dogwood, then it may be 
possible that whipple-tree has had the origin 
suggested, but it don't seem likely. 

S. S. R. 


Gulf of the Lion (Vol. v, pp. 93, etc.). 
If Mr. Keith Johnson, or any other geog- 
rapher, should deliberately attempt to 
change an established name in order to foist 
one of his own coining, I should conclude, 
in my own opinion at least, that he had 
written himself down an ass of the most 
hopeless kind. But I fail to find that either 
he or the author of the article in the " En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica" has laid himself 
open to any shadow of criticism. In Keith 
Johnson's " Imperial Atlas," recently pub- 
lished, and also in his " London Geogra- 
phy," I am able to find but one form, 
namely, " ' GULFE DU LION' (< Gulf of the 
Lion 1 )" just as it is here printed. So far as 
the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" is con- 

cerned, I can vouch for but one edition 
that issued by Messrs. Black & Co., of Edin- 
burgh. That is the only genuine edition, 
and there the name appears, GULF OF LIONS 
no Lyon or Lyons about it. This is a 
solemn warning to " F. H. S." to hereafter 
abjure all pirated editions. J. W. R. 


A Question in Grammar (Vol. v, pp. 
104, etc.). What are called practical men, 
or " Philistines," look upon all minute ver- 
bal criticism as mere waste of time. I be- 
lieve that W. J. R. belongs to a class of 
persons who take a wiser -view of such ques- 

I take much pleasure in answering W. J. 
R.'s request for a paraphrase which shall 
exhibit the correlative quality of the words 
some and part in the case before us. I trust 
it will prove instructive, if not amusing. 

Some is here used partitively, or distribu- 
tively ; and in such a case it is often followed 
by another partitive or distributive word. 
Some may be correlated with other, another, 
some, some other, or the archaic other some. 
Almost any partitive will serve, as for ex- 
ample : 

" With some of the water she scours the 
dressers ; some she puts into the kettle and 
boils." Or this: " A part of the water she 
uses in house-cleaning; another part she 
boils in the kettle for tea." Some, in the 
verses quoted, means a part ; and a part 
means some. 

Every distributive expression has at least 
two members, like the one before us. 

I am sorry that W. J. R. declines to ex- 
tend this discussion. I hope to have the 
opportunity of discussing larger questions 
with him in future. 

Many persons can explain correctly easy 
passages of English verse ; but no wise man 
will engage to make everybody understand 
them alike. Quidquid recipitur, says Boe- 
thius (" De Cons.," v, pr. 4), redpitur ad 
modum recipientis. G. 


Foxglove Spire (Vol. v, p. 93). An- 
other little point in the simile is this : The 
foxglove stalk is laden with what Tennyson 
elsewhere calls "dappled bells." There 

July 5, 1890.] 



may be a hint of a likeness between these 
and the church bells. I do not, however, 
think it best to push the parellelism too far, 
and thus read into the poet's lines a mean- 
ing which he never thought of. P. R. E. 

Good Old Etymologies (Vol. v, p. 
71). One of the most luminous of these 
blessed old-time derivations is that of Africa 
from the Greek a, not, and ppi*?], cold. 
This is so realistic that our grandfathers are 
not to be blamed for having accepted it 
without a question or a quibble. G. 


John Dory (Vol. v, p. 79). The legend 
of this person is that, being a sea captain, 
or, rather more likely, a pirate, he made an 
agreement with the king of France to bring 
to Paris the crew of an English ship bound 
as captives; and that, accordingly, he at- 
tempted to make prize of an English vessel, 
but was himself taken prisoner. 

This hero of the fourteenth century (?) is 
celebrated in the famous old song, "John 
Dory," in which the king of France in- 
tended, is John, who died in England 
(1364), and the captor Nicholas, the Cornish 
man, son to a widow near Fag, Cornwall. 
N The song is classed with the " Freemen's 
Songs for Three Voices," and has nine 
stanzas, beginning : 

" As it fell upon a holy day, 

And upon an holy tide-a, 
John Dory bought him an ambling nag 
To Paris for to ride-a." 

Both music and words may be found in 
several collections of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, the earliest being " The Deuteromelia" 
(1609); but the song is older than any of 
these works. In " Gammer Gurton's Nee- 
dle," printed in 1575, the second act opens 
with the song, " I cannot eat but little 
meat," to be sung to the tune of "John 

Richard Carew, the poet-antiquarian, re- 
fers to the same "Three Men's Song," in 
his " Survey of Cornwall," published 1602, 
but written sometime in the preceding cen- 
tury, during Elizabeth's reign. 

In seventeenth-century literature there are 
numerous references both to the legend and 

song, particularly in dramatic works, of which 
none is more interesting than that one in 
the "Chances" (Beaumont and Fletcher), 
where Antonio insists that "John Dory" be 
sung while his wound is being dressed : 

" I'll have John Dory ; 
For to that war-like tune I will be opened." 

The song was parodied, and satires were 
written to the tune of it until, at last, through 
excess of popularity, John Dory became at 
once a by-word with the poets, and to future 
generations the name of a fish. Chappell 
says: " The name of the fish called 'John 
Dory,' corrupted from doree or doure, is 
another proof of the popularity of the song" 
(" Pop. Mus. Old. Time"). 

F. T. C. 


This is the name of the hero, as well as 
the title, of a popular old song, from a book 
entitled "Deuteromelia" (1609). He was 
a French piratical captain who was con- 
quered by Nicholl, a Cornish man, his 
downfall being related in the song. It 
begins thus : 

" As it fell on a holiday, 

And upon a holy tide-a, 
John Dory bought him an ambling nag, 
To Paris for to ride-a." 

Bishop Corbet's allusion is obvious. The 
tune was also in favor for dancing, to which, 
doubtless, Earle refers. 

E. G. KEEN. 


The Goose (Vol. v, pp. 99, etc.). The 
following passage in praise of the goose 
comes from Ascham's"Toxophilus" (1545): 
" Yet welfare the gentle gouse which bring- 
eth to a man euen to hys doore so manye 
excedynge commodities. For the gouse is 
man's comforte in war and in peace, slep- 
ynge and wakynge. What prayse so euer is 
gyuen to shootynge the gouse may chalenge 
the best parte in it. How well dothe she make 
a man fare at hys table? Howe easelye dothe 
she make a man lye in hys bed ? How fit 
euen as her fethers be onelye for shootynge, 
so be her quylles fitte onelye for wrytyng," 
etc. P. R. E. 



[July 5, 1890. 

Tree Lists (Vol. iv, pp. 249, etc.). 
" The earliest Silva of New England is con- 
tained in the following lines, which may 
interest some of your readers," writes a cor- 
respondent of Garden and forest. " They 
were printed in 1670, in London, in 'A 
True and Faithful Account of the Chiefest 
Plantations of the English in America, to 
wit, of Virginia, New England, Bermudas, 
Barbadoes.' The name of the author does 
not appear, but the remarks which he adds 
upon the value and use of some of the New 
England trees, and their fruits are copied, 
with a few verbal changes, from Wood's 
well-known ' New England Prospect,' pub- 
lished in 1634: 

" Trees both on Hills and Plains in plenty be, 
The long-liv' Oake, and mournful Cyprefs Tree, 
Sky-towering Pines, and Chefnuts coated rough, 
The lafting Cedar, with the Walnut tough ; 
The Rofin-dropping Fir for Masts in use, 
The Boatmen feek for Oars, light, neat-grown Sprufe ; 
The brittle Afh, the ever-trembling Afpes, 
The broad spread Elme, whose concave harbours 

Wafps ; 

The watry, fpongy Alder good for nought, 
Small Elder by th' Indian Fletchers fought, 
The knotty Maple, pallid Birch, Hawthorns, 
The Horn-bound Tree that to be cloven fcorns; 
Which from the tender vine oft takes his Spoufe, 
Who twines imbracing arms abut his Boughs ; 
Within this Indian Orchard Fruits be fome, 
The ruddy Cherry and the jetty Plumb, 
Snake murthering Hafel with fweet Saxafrage, 
Whofe fprouts in Beer allayes hot Feavers rage, 
The Diars Shumack, with more trees there be, 
That are both good for ufe, and rare to fee." 


Part of the above has already appeared 
in Vol. iv, p. 249. [ED.] 

Blind as a Bat. Although this is a 
very common phrase, yet it is still farther 
fetched than " Blind as a beetle ;" because 
bats have eyes, and some of them quite con- 
spicuous ones. When a bat enters an illu- 
minated chamber through an open window, 
he is not impelled thither by the same im- 
pulse that influences the beetle. The former 
is in pursuit of his insect prey, and if he 
comes blunderingly in contact with any 
object, it is because his sight is dazed by 
the excess of light, which he is trying to 
avoid ; but the latter is attracted by, and 
drawn into, the light itself, by an instinct 
which seems to be common to the insect 

world, without regard to its alimentary 
wants. A bat will pass through a maze of 
stretched strings or threads, in an inclosure 
where no blinding light is present, without 
disturbing or touching one of them. Still, 
"Blind as a bat" must have had its origin 
in some semblance which was misinterpreted 
by the uninformed in the " long, long ago." 

S. S. R. 


The Century for July has a striking feature in the 
long-expected debate on " The Single Tax," by Ed- 
ward Atkinson and Henry George. Mr. Atkinson 
opens the discussion in a paper on " A Single Tax upon 
Land ;" Mr. George replies in " A Single Tax on Land 
Values," and there is a rejoinder by Mr. Atkinson. 

Another article that marks this number of The Cen- 
tury is the beginning of The Century's " Prison Series," 
the first paper being a thrilling account of the life of 
" A Yankee in Andersonville," by Dr. T. H. Mann, 
accompanied by a plan, and pictures made from rare 

The first of two papers on " Provence" describes 
and brilliantly illustrates an unhackneyed region of the 
Old World; that part of France which is like Italy 
with its splendid Roman remains, its palace of the 
Popes, and its associations with Petrarch and Laura. 
Miss Preston, who wrote the article, is the well-known 
translator of " Mireio," by the great Provencal poet 

Dr. Edward Eggleston in an illustrated article tells 
the story of "Nathaniel Bacon, the Patriot of 1676" 
and prints for the first time certain details obtained from 
manuscripts recently acquired by the British Museum 
and the Congressional Library. 

John Burroughs, who has not lately appeared as often 
as usual in the magazine, prints a characteristic out-of- 
door paper entitled " A Taste of Kentucky Blue-grass." 
The pictures are by a Kentucky artist, W. L. Maclean. 

Joseph Jefferson, in his charming Autobiography, de- 
scribes his early experiences in Peru and Panama ; he 
also tells how he revived the play of " Rip Van Win- 
kle," in London, with the literary assistance of Dion 
Boucicault. He also has an amusing chapter on some 
English relatives. 

Mrs. Amelia Gere Mason describes the " Women of 
the French Salons of the Eighteenth Century ;" and 
the engraver Cole presents us with one of his most ex- 
quisitely engraved blocks the frontispiece of the num- 
ber after a painting by Filippino Lippi. 

The fiction of the number consists of the second part 
of the anonymous " Anglomaniacs ;" the ninth part of 
Mrs. Barr's "Olivia;" a story, "The Reign of Rea- 
son," by Viola Roseboro' (a young Southern writer 
with a rapidly growing reputation) ; and a complete 
novelette, " Little Venice," by Grace Denio Litchfield, 
with a full-page illustration by Mary Hallock Foote. 

The Editorial Topics are: " On Lack of Conscience 
as a Means of Success," " New York's Reformed Elec- 
toral System," " A Recent Sermon," and " Tom-Toms 
in Politics." There is an Open Letter on " The Inside 
Facts of Lincoln's Nomination." 




Copyrighted iSpo, by The Westminster Publishing Co, Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter, 

Vol. Y. No. 11. 

SATURDAY, JULY 12, 1890. 

1 13.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanarnaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington! Brentano's. Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. Wharton 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : Snob, 121 Lake Names Cat Island Buck Beer, 

QUERIES : Stift, 122 Super Grammaticam The Red Sea 
Old Bald Mountain, 123 Armenian Wall, 124. 

REPLIES : Lady Compton's Letter, 124 Horicon Lake 
Priscian's Head Tantrum Bogus Lake Drained Greek 
Boy, 125. 

125 Translation Wanted Camels in United States Play- 
ing 'Possum Skate Runners Wives of Presidents Land- 
marker Marks of Accidents Inherited Indigo Greek 
Cities in France and Spain Stone Rivers, 126 Rockall, 127. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Holtselster Duke of York Under- 
ground Streams Blind as a Bat Marshy Tracts, 127 
Gyaros Deserted Village Bottomless Ponds Fanacle 
Once "The" in Place Names Isle of Glass Ruskin 
Whiffle-tree, 128 Fjord or Ford Ff in Proper Names A 
Question in Grammar, 129 Gulf of the Lion Popular Su- 
perstitions, 130 Horicon Marsh The Captain of my 
Dreams Sunken Islands, 131 Evil Eye Good Old Ety- 
mologies Floating Islands Inland Flowing Streams, 138. 


The word snob originally meant a shoe- 
maker. Exactly when it assumed the mod- 
ern meaning, made familiar to all of us by 
Thackeray, is still a matter of philological 
dispute. But one of our correspondents in 
"The Keepsake" for the year 1831 ("The 
Keepsake" was one of those annuals which 
were popular with our grandfathers, but are 
now entirely superseded by the Christmas 
books) lit upon the following verse : 

" Sir Samuel Snob that was his name 

Three times to Mrs. Brown 
Had ventured just to hint his flame, 
And twice received a frown." 

Here the word is used as a surname, but 
it is evidently a name that is meant to ex- 
press a characteristic, the presumption being 
that the word had even at that date acquired 
its present significance. E. BRADLEY SIMS. 




[July 12, 1890. 


In New England nearly all small lakes 
and some large ones are called ponds. A 
mill-pond is called a dam in Pennsylvania ; 
the "Century Dictionary," however, says 
that this use of the word dam is obsolete. I 
think it is not unknown in Scotland. Loch 
is Scottish for lake, as also for a lake-like 
arm of the sea ; lochan is a small loch. 
Lough is the Anglo-Irish form of lake. Tarn 
and /#*>;/ are small mountain lakelets. Mere 
is now mostly poetical. Two lakes of Pales- 
tine (Tiberias and Dead Sea) and two on 
the Asiatic steppes (Caspian and Aral) are 
called seas. There is a Billington Sea in 
Massachusetts. Two of the above seas are 
of fresh water. A lagoon is usually near a 
sea beach or in a marsh, and is generally 
shallow. A broad is an East-Anglian lagoon. 
A haff is a German coast lagoon. In Scot- 
land, the Pow of Errol is said by some to 
mean the pool of Errol. R. S. C. 



It is well known that California, Brazil, 
the Antilles, Seven Cities (in the Azores), 
and the Avalon peninsula (in Newfoundland) 
were named from fabulous places, their 
names being taken from old romances. 
May it not be possible that Cat Island, in 
the Bahamas, was named from the Isle of 
Cats described in the stories of St. Bren- 
dan's voyages? During one of those voy- 
ages a visit was made to the Isle of Cats 
an island which is mentioned in other Irish 
legends. A great sea-cat also figures in 
some of these stories can he be the Sans- 
krit markata of which Mr. Chamberlain has 
told us? 

Cat Island (by some called San Salvador 
and Guanahani, names which seem to be- 
long properly to Watling's Island) can 
hardly have been named from any native 
American cats. There are no native species 
of cat on any West Indian island, except, 
possibly, Trinidad. Cat Island is forty-two 
miles long in its leg portion ; the foot part 
extending fifteen miles more. It is the 
highest and one of the most fertile of the 
Bahama islands, its highest point being four 
hundred feet. Port Howe is the chiet har- 

bor. Not far away is the island of Little 
Cat, only five miles long. In another part 
of the Bahamas are the Cat Cays, two nar- 
row, woody islands, about forty feet high, 
and each, perhaps, four miles long. North 
Cat affords well water to mariners, besides 
some timber. Dollar harbor, on the South 
Cat, is the best anchorage in that part of 
the Bahamas. 

I have a fancy, however, that the Celtic 
Isle of Cats was no myth. There is in the 
Atlantic a group of unpeopled islets that 
actually swarm with cats. They are called 
Las Desertas, and are in lat. 32 31' N., 
Ion. 16 30' W., about thirty miles S.E. of 
Madeira. The islands are sharp, steep, 
high, and narrow ; and they and their nat- 
ural history deserve careful expert study. 
Why may not these isles of cats have been 
known dimly to the ancient Irish bards? 

B. S. B. 


The " Century Dictionary" states that the 
name Bock beer is a contraction of Eimbeck 
beer. But what is sold in this country as Eim- 
beck beer is a very light-colored and mild 
table-beer, while Bock beer is dark, strong, 
and heady. Of course, it is possible that 
some old-fashioned brand of Eimbeck beer 
may have been strong, or that old-fashioned 
Bock beer may have been mild. The his- 
torical method of word study alone can settle 
such points as these. Qui TAM. 


E S. 

Stift. Whatisastift? 


A. S. K. 

A stift is an institution peculiar to North 
Germany, for the maintenance of destitute 
ladies of high birth. For females of an 
exalted class honest labor, of course, is a 
degradation, and as the number of noble 
paupers is very large, benevolent men have 
built and endowed many a stift in Silesia and 
Saxony for their reception. The beneficiaries 
are appointed by a committee, the condi- 
tions of candidature being that they must 

July 12, 1890.] 



have a certain number of armorial quarter- 
ings. They need not be orphans, and if 
their parents are alive, they spend so many 
months in the year with them ; if they 
marry a suitable dowery is provided for 
them. At their head is a stifthofmeisterin, 
who is appointed by the crown, and in vir- 
tue of her office, takes high rank in courtly 
precedence. She has absolute control over 
the others, and probably often finds it very 
difficult to maintain order among a dozen 
idle women. The most palatial of all the 
stifts is just within the Saxon border, its 
inmates being half Saxon and half Prussian. 
It was built more than two centuries ago in 
the Italian style, with a grand approach of 
steps and terraces ; within is a great marble 
hall, with magnificent staircases on either 
side. The ladies furnish their rooms them- 
selves; they have their private laundry, 
their maids, and their carriages; everything, 
in short, to which their birth entitles them, 
but there seems to be a sad lack of interest 
and occupation. It must be a dreary life to 
enter on at eighteen ; the chances of mar- 
riage are not many, and no other career is 
open to them. 

Super Grammaticam. In General Dick 
Taylor's "Destruction and Reconstruc- 
tion," there occurs this paragraph: "On 
a celebrated occasion a certain emperor of 
Germany proclaimed himself above gram- 
mar." Who was this emperor ? 

W. M. G. 


Sigismund, King of Hungary and Bohe- 
mia and Emperor of Germany, who was 
familiarly known as Super Grammaticam. 
The story is well told by Carlyle in his 
" History of Frederick the Great," Vol. i, 
Book 2 : "At the opening of the council 
he officiated as deacon, ' actually doing 
some kind of litanying with a surplice over 
him,' though kaiser and king of the Romans. 
But this passage of his opening speech is 
what I recollect best of him there : ' Right 
Reverend Father, date operam ut ilia ne- 
fanda schisma eradicetur,' exclaims Sigis- 
mund, intent on having the Bohemian 
schism well dealt with, which he reckons to 
be of the feminine gender. To which a 

cardinal mildly remarking, < Domine, 
schisma est generis neutrius (schism is neu- 
tral, your majesty),' Sigismund loftily re- 
plies, ' Ego sum Rex Romanus, et super 
graminaticam V (I am King of the Romans, 
and above grammar !),' for which reason I 
call him in my note-books Sigismund Super 
Grammaticam, to distinguish him in the 
imbroglio of kaisers." It was this Sigis- 
mund who held the Council of Constance, 
and was instrumental in the martyrdom of 
John Huss, the forerunner of Luther. 



-Why is this sea so called ? 

Smith's "Bible Dictionary" expends a 
great deal of learning on this question, sur- 
mising that the name was derived from the 
red western mountains, red coral zoophites, 
etc., but gives little weight to what is the 
most probable solution, viz., that under 
certain conditions the waters of the sea 
assume a distinct ruddy tinge. An Ameri- 
can submarine diver not long ago described 
how, on one occasion as he looked upwards, 
the sea assumed the light, tawny, or yellow- 
ish hue of sherry wine. Anon, this wine 
color grew indistinct with richer radiance; 
and, flashing in the crystalline splendor of the 
Arabian sun, was glorious as a sea of rose. 
The surface, on examination, proved to be 
covered with a thin brickdust layer of infu- 
soria slightly tinged with orange. Placed in a 
white glass bottle, this changed into a deep 
violet. They were diatomaceae, minute algae, 
which, under the microscope, revealed deli- 
cate threads gathered in tiny bundles, and 
containing rings, blood disks, of the curious 
coloring matter in tiny tubes. 

Old Bald Mountain. Some years since 
the newspapers were full of the accounts of 
smoke seen ascending from the top of the 
Old Bald mountain of North Carolina, and 
many expected a great eruption. Was the 
subject ever investigated ? P. M. EDEN. 


The common belief is that the smoke seen 
ascending from the top of the mountain in 
question was produced by illicit distillers of 



[July 12, 1890. 

" mountain dew," who were so hard pressed 
by Government inspectors that they fled to 
the more inaccessible mountain peaks, where 
they could prosecute their peculiar line of 
industry with some degree of safety. 

Armenean Wall. What is the meaning of 
this expression ? W. J. LACK. 

The inhabitants of Armene, or Harmene, 
a town of ancient Paphlagonia, built a wall 
to shut out the cold from their city. Hence 
an Armenean wall is a costly and stupid ex- 
periment. Expressions of the above sort 
are not so common as they were a century 
or two since, when schoolmasters larded 
their speech and their letters with allusions 
to Lacratidian cold, and to Melean or Cala- 
gurritan hunger, and called their bald-headed 
friends Myconians. 


Lady Compton's Letter (Vol. v, p. 90). 


Now I have declared to you my mind for the settling 
of your state, I suppose that that were best for me to 
bethink or consider with myself what allowance were 
meetest for me. [For considering what care I ever 
had of your estate, and how respectfully I dealt with 
those which, both by the laws of God, of nature, and 
civil polity, wit, religion, government, honesty, you, my 
dear, are bound to.] I pray and beseech you to grant 
me, your most kind and loving wife, the sum of ^"1600 
per annum, quarterly to be paid. 

Also, I would, beside that allowance for my apparel, 
have j6oo added yearly (quarterly to be paid), for 
the performance of charitable works, and these things I 
would not neither will be accountable for. 

Also, I will have three horses for my own saddle, 
that none will dare to lend or borrow ; none lend but I ; 
none borrow but you. Also, I would have two gentle- 
women, lest one should be sick, or have some other let. 
Also, I believe that it is an undecent thing for a gentle- 
woman to stand mumping alone, when God hath blessed 
their lord and lady with a great estate. Also.when I ride, 
a hunting or a hawking, or travel from one house to 
another, I will have them attending; so for either of 
those said women, I must and will have for either of 
them a horse. 

Also, I will have six or eight gentlemen ; and I will 
have two coaches, one lined with velvet for myself, 
with four very fair horses ; and a coach for my women, 
lined with sweet cloth ; one laced with gold, the other 
with scarlet and lined with watched lace and silver, 
with four good horses. 

Also, I will have two coachmen, one for my own 
coach, the other for my women. Also, at any time 
when I travel, I will be allowed not only carroches and 
spare horses for me and my women, but I will have 
such carriages as shall be fitting for all, orderly ; not 

posturing my things with my women's, nor theirs with 
chambermaids', nor theirs with washmaids'. Also, for 
laundresses, when I travel, I will have them sent away 
before, with the carriages, to see all safe; and the 
chambermaids I will have go before with the grooms, 
that the chambers may be ready, sweet, and clean. 
Also, for that it is undecent for me to crowd up myself 
with my gentleman usher in my coach, I will have him 
to have a convenient horse to attend me either in city 
or in country. And I must have two footmen. 

And my desire is that you defray all the charges for 
me. And, for myself, beside my yearly allowance, I 
would have twenty gowns of apparel, six of them ex- 
cellent good ones, eight of them for the country, and 
six of them very excellent good ones. 

Also, I would have to put in my purse ^2000 and 
j200 ; and so you to pay my debts. Also, I would 
have j6ooo to buy me jewels, and ^4000 to buy me a 
pearl chain. 

Now, seeing I have been and am so reasonable unto 
you, I pray you to find my children apparel and their 
schooling, and all my servants, men and women, their 

Also, I will have all my houses furnished, and all my 
lodging chambers to be suited with all such furniture as 
is fit ; as beds, stools, chairs, suitable cushions, carpets, 
silver warming-pans, cupboards of plate, fair hangings, 
and such like. So for my drawing chamber in all 
houses, I will have them delicately furnished with hang- 
ings, couch, canopy, glass, carpets, chairs, cushions, and 
all things thereunto belonging. 

Also, my desire is that you would pay your debts, 
build Ashby House, and purchase lands, and lend no 
money, as you love God, to the Lord Chamberlain, 
which would have all, perhaps your life from you. 
[Remember his son, my Lord Walden, what enter- 
tainment he gave me when you were at the Tilt-yard. 
If you were dead he said he would be a husband, a 
father, a brother, and said he would marry me. I pro- 
test, I grieve to see the poor man have so little wit and 
honesty, to use his fiiends so vilely. Also, he fed one 
with untruths concerning the Charter-house ; but that 
to the last, he wished me much harm ; and you know 
him, God keep you and me from him, or any such as 
he is.] 

So that, now that I have declared to you what I 
would have, and what that is that I would not have, I 
pray, when you be an Earl, to allow me ^1000 more 
than now desired, and double attendance. 
Your loving wife, 


In Knight's "London," the portion 
within brackets is omitted from the letter. 
The directions as to the coach trimmings 
differ, while the yearly allowance is ^2600, 
and the extra final demand is ^2000. 

Lady Compton was daughter and heiress 
of Sir John Spencer, called " rich Spencer," 
Lord Mayor of London, 1594. He died 
in 1609-10, leaving three hundred thousand 
pounds sterling or, as some say, eight hun- 
dred thousand pounds. This vast accession 
of property threw Lady Compton's husband 
at first into a state of distraction (refer, 

July 12, 1890.] 



Bishop Goodman's "Court of James I," 
Vol. ii). F. T. C. 


Horicon Lake (Vol. v, p. 117). Horicon 
marsh or lake was formerly in Wisconsin, 
but I believe it has no existence at the pres- 
ent time, having been reclaimed by drain- 
age several years ago. It is entirely distinct 
from Winnebago lake, several miles to the 
northward, and from Winnebago swamp (of 
which there are two or more) in Illinois, 
about two hundred miles to the south-west. 
Horicon marsh, like Calumet lake now 
also drained, wholly or in part is one of a 
series of shallow basins lying near the shores 
of Lake Michigan. It is not unlikely that 
during the Champlain period these lakes 
were included in the area covered by the then 
Great lake, of which the five great lakes are 
now remnants. At that time there was a 
discharge of water from what is now Lake 
Michigan, through Des Plaines river south- 
ward into a tributary of the Mississippi. At 
the close of the Champlain period there was 
a diminution of the volume of water in the 
Great lake, and a consequent recession of 
lacustrine shores. These old basins, among 
them Horicon marsh, were left partly drained 
on slightly higher land, and since that time 
they have been but little else than playa 
lakes or swamps. None of these lakes bear 
any evidence of glaciation, but old gravel- 
choked channels are numerous. 



Priscian's Head (Vol. v, p. 90). " Hie 
Priscianus est, dans palmis verbera" ("The 
Apocalypse of Golias," v, 37). "Then 
sawe I Priscian first, beatinge his scoler's 
hand" (ibid., i6th Cent. Trans., MSS. 
Harl.). G. 


The expression to " break the head of 
Priscian" is an expression used against un- 
grammatical persons on account of Prisci- 
anus, who was a celebrated grammarian of 
antiquity, having lived in the fifth century. 
The expression simply means to violate the 
rules of grammar. THOS. Louis OGIER. 


Tantrum Bogus (Vol. v, p. 114). If Mr. 
Roberts will consult the "New English Dic- 
tionary," edited by Dr. Murray, under the 
entry "Bogus, "he will find something about 
Tantribogus which may interest him. 


Lake Drained (Vol. v, p. 114). During 
the summer of 1889, the waters of Sevier 
lake, Utah, nearly or quite disappeared. 
This was mainly from the diversion of the 
feeders for irrigation, but not wholly from 
that cause, inasmuch as the lake in question 
has had several periods of desiccation in 
recent times. Great Salt lake is diminish- 
ing in size, and Tulare lake, California, in 
1884, was less than one-third its normal 
size. During very recent times, Humboldt 
and Carson sinks, Pyramid lake, and Win- 
nemucca lake have undergone desiccation, 
but are now filling its basin. From the old 
shore lines visible in many parts of the Basin 
region, I believe, most if not all of the lakes 
in this region are subject to periods of de- 
siccation, and the existence of several large 
lakes without outlets, whose waters are 
comparatively fresh, strongly confirms this 
opinion, inasmuch as a salt lake cannot well 
become fresh except by desiccation. 

J. W. R. 


Greek Boy (Vol. v, p. 193). Alexander 
the Great is said to have made the expres- 
sion, " My father will leave nothing for me 
to do." It was a lament over the triumphs 
of his father, Philip of Macedon. 




Archdeacon. Can any of your readers 
state exactly what an archdeacon's duties 
are ? I have read that once upon a time 
the question was asked derisively in the 
House of Lords, " What is an archdea- 
con ?' ' To which Bishop Blomfield replied : 
" He is oculus episcopi" the bishop's eye. 
In what sense is this true ? 





[July 12, 1890. 

Translation Wanted. At the end of 

the "De Mundi Vanitate," ascribed vari- 
ously to Walter Map, to St. Bernard of 
Clairvaux, and to Jacobus de Benedictis, 
occur these words (omitted from most of 
the MSS.). Will some of your correspond- 
ents translate the last line ? 

" Sabbata nostra colo, de stercore surgere nolo, 
Sabbata nostra quidem, Salomon, Celebris ibidem. 
Hii sunt qui psalmos corrumpunt nequiter almos, 
Momler,forscypper, stumler, scaterer, over kipper." 



Camels in the United States. Who 
first recommended the use of camels on the 
deserts of America ? ? ? ? 


Playing 'Possum. The common be- 
lief is that the opossum feigns death in time 
of danger. But Dr. C. C. Abbot, in " A 
Naturalist's Rambles about Home," declares 
his belief that the animal really faints with 
terror. Can any of your contributors throw 
fresh light upon this subject ? C. S. P. 


Skate Runners. In our old " Peter 
Parley's Geography," there used to be a 
picture of the skate runners, a corps of Nor- 
wegian troops, which in winter performed 
military evolutions on skates. Does this 
corps or this practice still subsist ? and, if 
so, where can I find a good recent account 
of it? A. O. 


Wives of Presidents. Can any one 
give me the names and residences of all liv- 
ing wives of Ex- Presidents and Vice-Presi- 
dents of the United States ? ? ? ? 


Land-marker. What is the meaning 
of this term in the following quotation : 
" He is a Land marker t deeming their prac- 
tice as most consistent and most agreeable 
to the teachings of God's Word" (Cat fa- 
cart's ''Baptist Cyclopedia" article on 
J. H. Borum, D.D., a minister residing in 
Tennessee). P. F. B. 


Marks of Accidents Inherited. 

Having noticed some time since in the Lon- 
don Spectator an article stating that marks 
caused by accidents were not inherited, I 
wish to communicate the following : 

My grandfather, when a boy, spilled some 
melted lead on his little finger, causing a 
slight but permanent curvature of it. On 
another occasion, while playing with a 
squirrel, he was bitten on the little finger 
of his other hand, causing a slight curvature 
of that finger, and also leaving the mark of 
the squirrel's tooth. 

The youngest of his eight children in- 
herited one bent little finger and the mark 
of the squirrel's tooth. This child, a daugh- 
ter, had also eight children, none of them 
inheriting these marks. But a granddaugh- 
ter by her second son inherits the curvature 
of the little finger. 

I would like to have the opinion of the 
on the above, in regard to the statement in 
the Spectator. W. S. 


Indigo. The United States Government 
Reports, up to the time of the outbreak of 
the war of 1861-65, contain yearly state- 
ments of the manufacture of indigo in 
Georgia and South Carolina, an industry 
which still subsisted, although very small in 
comparison with what it was a hundred 
years ago. Several indigo-bearing plants 
are natives of the United States. I wish to 
inquire whether there is now any domestic 
manufacture of indigo in any part of the 
country? If so, it is no doubt very unim- 
portant. M. B. F. 


Greek Cities in France and Spain. 

What cities did the ancient Greeks lound 
(in ante-Roman times) in what is now 
France? What cities did they found in 
Spain ? O. A. B. 


Stone Rivers. What is the true ex- 
planation of the "stone rivers" of Pata- 
gonia and Falkland ? 



July 12, 1890.] 



Rockall. Where can I find a good de- 
scription of the uninhabited island of Rock- 
all, in the North Atlantic ? B. S. B. 



Holtselster (Vol. v, p. 67). At the 
above reference the question is asked whe- 
ther, in reading holfelster in Captain Edward 
Thompson's edition of Andrew (not An- 
dreas] Marvell's works, I have not mistaken 
a long s for an f. My answer is : " No ; I 
have not." 

I am not ready to propose any etymology 
for the word, whether it be holselster or hol- 
felster ; but before we try to find one, it is 
perhaps as well to ascertain what the word 
really is. 

Now in publishing the first, and, I be- 
lieve, the only complete edition of Marvell's 
works in 1776, Captain Thompson had be- 
fore him " a volume of Mr. Marvell's poems, 
some written with his own hand, and the 
rest copied by his order" (p. vi of Preface, 
Vol. i). This, it seems, obliges us to give 
some attention to his reading. 

Had Little, Brown & Co., whose edition 
is objected to Captain Thompson's, the 
same documents at their disposal in pub- 
lishing "Marvell's Poems?" 

And may not Little, Brown & Co. have 
mistaken an/" for a long s ? 


PARIS, 29 Rue de Conde. 

Duke of York (Vol. iv, pp. 310, etc.). 
R. G. B. states that the dukedom of York 
has never been conferred upon any prince 
not "in line of succession to the throne." 
Let us examine this statement briefly. The 
first Duke of York was Edmund Langley, 
fifth son of Edward III, created Duke of 
York in 1585, by his nephew, Richard II. 
He had several older brothers, with their 
sons, between him and the crown. His 
son, the second Duke of York, had no bet- 
ter claim to the crown, and was never a 
claimant. The third Duke, a grandson of 
the first, laid claim to the throne, not as a 
descendant of the first Duke, but through 
Anne Mortimer, his mother, who was heiress- 
of-line to Lionel, Duke of Clarence, third 

son of Edward III. George I created his 
brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of York in 
1716; but at that time, the future George 
II was Prince of Wales ; and he, too, had a 
son Frederick, afterwards Prince of Wales ; 
so that there were two princes nearer the 
throne than the Duke of York. I find 
record of seven Dukes of York (eight if we 
include the future Edward IV) three of 
whom were never thought of as heirs pre- 
sumptive of the crown, being clearly out of 
the line of succession. In the time of Henry 
IV, V, VI, the third Duke was fully recog- 
nized as Duke of York, but never (except 
by his own following) was he considered to 
be heir presumptive. 

The only Duke of York who was heir pre- 
sumptive (standing next to the throne) was 
afterwards James II. Other Dukes of York,. 
once removed from the throne, were the one 
who became Henry VIII, and the brother 
of George IV. 

Of course any member of a royal family 
is in the line of succession, provided all 
those nearer the throne die before him. 



Underground Streams (Vol. v, pp. 
31, etc.). Reports from Yucatan represent 
that peninsula as having a very great num- 
ber of underground streams. M. B. F. 


Blind as a Bat (Vol. v, p. 120). S. 
S. R. does not seem to recognize how well 
he shows the propriety of this simile in say- 
ing : " When a bat enters an illuminated 
chamber * * * and comes blunder- 
ingly in contact with any object, it is be- 
cause his sight is dazed by the excess of 
light, which he is trying to avoid." The 
animal is blinded by the very light which is 
necessary for us to see and in which we 
usually observe him. H. L. B. 


Marshy Tracts (Vol. v, p. 70). Ma$- 
keag or Muskeg is a rather common Cana- 
dian name for a swamp ; it is of Algonkin 
origin. K. W. C. 




[July 12, 1890. 

Gyaros. Every school-boy knows " the 
lofty Gyaros" by name; even the ancient 
Greeks probably knew but little more about 
it, although it was only a short sail from 
Athens. The Romans used it for a prison. 
It is only a very few years since some nat- 
uralist found upon it a new species of wild 
goat or ibex of course, not really new, but 
only new to science. BALBUS. 


Deserted Village (see "Allaire," Vol. 
iii, p. 247). Besides the " deserted vil- 
lage," described as above, New Jersey once 
had at least one more place thus designated. 
Glenside, near Fan wood, N. J., was once 
called Feltville, and had some manufactures; 
but these declined, and the village for a con- 
siderable time was dispeopled. It is now a 
pleasant and thriving place of residence. 

M. W. O. 

Bottomless Ponds. In New England 
there are a great number of little lakes, vul- 
garly held to be bottomless. For examples, 
see Thoreau's " Walden." Near my native 
place there was a little lake of this kind, 
called Bottomless pond by many ; but some 
of the old people held that its true name 
was Bottomly's pond, and that its name was 
derived from one Bottomly, who once lived 
near it. But I always suspected that this 
particular Mr. Bottomly was a myth. 

K. W. C. 


Fanacle (Vol. v, p. 90). As fanacle is 
neither in the " Century" nor in any other 
of the twelve dictionaries within reach, it 
seems safe and quite in keeping with the 
context, to consider the word a diminutive 
of fane = temple. The Latin of fane= 
fanum, has fanulum for a diminutive = lit- 
tle temple. The derivation of fanacle from 
fanum seems analogous with that of mana- 
cle from Latin manus, through manica. 
Prof. Skeat says manacle should be man-tele; 
if so, then, perhaps, fan-tele would be better 
than fan-acle (Earle's " Philology, Eng. 
Tongue," p. 362). F. T. C. 


Once (Vol. iv, p. 46). A late writer in 
the Saturday Review condemns the use of 
the word once in the sense of if once, if only, 
or as soon as, as being a solecism. With this 
view I, for one, wholly concur. Quite as 
objectionable, or more so, is the cockney- 
ism of using directly, or immediately, in the 
sense of as soon as. Once, in this objection- 
able sense, finds a place in a few of the later 
dictionaries. G. 


"The" in Place Names (Vol. v, pp. 
70, etc.). Seamen usually call Cape Horn 
"The Horn." Perhaps, however, it is 
partly a metaphor suggested by the horn- 
like contour of the extremity of the conti- 
nent. H. L. B. 

Isle of Glass. The Irish legends tell 
about an island of glass, full of every en- 
joyment, and the abode of perpetual youth. 
Writers have identified it with the Germanic 
" Glasberg," a kind of heavenly abode de- 
scribed in old legends likewise with Glas- 
tonbury, in England, where King Arthur 
sleeps. F. E. P. 


Ruskin (Vol. v, p. 89). Since Trois 
Etoiles wrote his query, the Sun corrected 
its answer. Mr. Ruskin married, some 
thirty-eight or forty years ago, Euphemia 
Chalmers Gray ; but the marriage was never 
consummated, and was declared null and 
void. Miss Gray then married, in 1855, 
Mr. John Everett Millais. 

R. G. B. 

Whiffle-tree (Vol. v, pp. 118, etc.). In 
nautical language, "to whip a rope" is to 
wind yarn around it at or near the end to 
prevent fraying; a "whip" is a light tackle 
for hoisting, and "whip-staff" was an old 
name for the tiller. In the first, the move- 
ment is rotatory ; in the second, up and 
down, and in the third, oscillatory. May 
not this term represent the word of which 
"whiffle" or "whipple" is the frequentative? 

H. L. B. 


July 12, 1890.], 



Fjord or Ford. In old Saxon chroni- 
cles the word Ford is attached to many 
places. The following is a list of a few, 
with their Saxon names, meaning, and Eng- 
lish name : 

Saxon Name. 
^Egeles ford 
Bedan ford 
Beorg ford 
Brent ford 
Cerdices ford 
Heort ford 
Here ford 
Hlida ford 
Ottan ford 
Oxan ford 
Sliowa ford 
Stan ford 
Stret ford 
Temes ford 
Theod ford 
Wealing ford 
Welmes ford 

Meaning. ' 
Egel's ford 
Beden's ford 
Hill ford 
Brent ford 
Cedric's ford 
Kings-famous ford 
Hart's ford 
Army's ford 
Lid's ford 
Ottan's ford 
Oxen's ford 
Sliow's ford 
Stone ford 
Street ford 
Thames ford 
People's ford 
Wall ford 
Sole-foot ford 

English Name. 

There might be other interesting and 
quaint names added, as Ace-man's Ceaster, 
which, being translated, means Sick-man's 
City, but now called Bath ; this city, also, 
was called Bathan Cester, the meaning being 
Bath City, the association between sick 
man and bathing, looks as if the doctors of 
those old days sent their patients to some 
watering places. Buckingham of to-day 
was called by the Saxons Buccingaham, the 
meaning being Beech-tree town. Glassen- 
bury was Glasting byri, meaning glass town. 
Montgomery was Muntgumni, meaning Co- 
rner's mount. Waeltingstraet, in Saxon, 
meant Beggars' street, it is now called Wat- 
ling street. The Saxon words, " byri" and 
"byric" is the "bury" of to-day, but then 
meant town, and the word " scire," after 
such words as Bedan-ford, meant ' ' division, ' ' 
answering to the present " shire." 



Ff in Proper Names (Vol. v, p. 193). 
I have seen before the explanation given 
by J. O. G. D., but have always had my 
doubts about its being entirely correct. Is 
not Ff and LI rather the result of a misun- 
derstanding of the nature of the Gothic 
capitals Jf and 2L, which are practically 
made by a repetition of the lower-case let- 
ters, as a glance in any old black-letter 

book will show ? Or can anybody cite an 
example of a book in Roman type, in which 
capital F or L is printed ff or 11 ? 



J. O. G. D.'s explanation with regard to 
the initial Ff may be correct, but I cannot 
see why the survival of the old practice oc- 
curs with no other consonant except F. 
The case of the initial LI (as in Lloyd, 
Llewellen, Llanthony) is very different. LI 
represents a peculiar Welsh consonantal 
sound which most English-speaking people 
find it difficult to utter, though it is as easy 
a sound to produce as any, when once you 
understand the mechanism of it. 



Brewer says that Ff is "a corrupt way of 
making F in Old English (Jf ). Mr. Bar- 
bour's conjecture, that it is " simply an ar- 
istocratic spelling," seems to be correct; 
the names he mentions are spelled with a 
single initial quite as properly, though not 
so fashionably, as with the double initial. 

R. G. B: 


A Question in Grammar (Vol. v, pp. 
118, etc.). I did not intend to refer to this 
matter again, but I do not like that "G." 
should think I drop it because I " look upon 
all minute verbal criticism as a mere waste 
of time." I have sometimes been accused 
of giving too much attention to such criti- 
cism. 1 was disinclined to continue the dis- 
cussion, simply because it seemed to be of 
interest only to " G." and myself; and 
neither of us seemed likely to convert the 
other. The explanations given by " G." 
appear to me such " tricks of desperation " 
that I am only the more convinced that my 
own exegesis is correct. 

I doubt whether "G." himself would ever 
use some and part with reference to some- 
thing only obscurely implied in the second 
clatise. He writes too well to be guilty of a 
lapse which no teacher would tolerate in a 
school-boy's composition, 

W. J. R. 


I 3 


[July 12, 1890. 

Gulf of the Lion (Vol. v, pp. 71, etc.). 
The leading French " Dictionnaire Uni- 
versel" of the day, Larousse, says : 

" Golfe du Lion, le Gallicus sinus des 
anciens, improprement appele quelquefois 
Golfe de Lyon." 

Elisee Reclus, in his magnificent standard 
work on "Geographic Universelle," calls 
this the Golfe du Lion, and does not even 
hint at any other name. He speaks of "la 
furieuse houle poussee par les vents du sud- 
est qui sont les plusviolentsde cesparages;" 
describes how this "furieuse houle" grad- 
ually beats its way into the mainland, and in- 
stances, among others, the case of the Fara- 
man lighthouse which was erected fifty years 
ago at a distance of seven hundred yards 
from the sea, and the site of which is now 
under water. A. ESTOCLET. 


J. W. R. (p. 93) thinks the name " Gulf 
of Lyons " a recent innovation. But I have 
been studying geography forty- five years, 
and in my early days it was almost always 
" Gulf of Lyons," no doubt by error. My 
Black's "General Atlas" puts it "Gulf of 
Lyons." E. B. 


As to your controversy concerning " Gulf 
of Lyons," or "of the Lion," that inter- 
ests me. In Spruner's " Historical Atlas," it 
is inscribed " Golfe du Lion." 

On the grand " Special Railroad Map of 
France," 1870, it is "Golfe du Lion." 

In Richard's " Guide du Voyageur " on 
France, 1866, it is " Golfe du Lion." 

I have seen it " Golfe du Lion " on other 
maps, and I have heard it so styled, and if 
memory serves, this name was explained, 
while on or by it, in the winter of 1852, as 
conferred from its sudden and violent tem- 
pestuousness, to which I can testify feel- 

On the other hand, Bouillet, in his " Dic- 
tionnaire d' Histoire et de Geographic," says 
" Lion (Golfe de) nom doune scuvent mais 
a tort, au Golfe de Lyon." 

I say Bouillet is wrong himself. It was 
"Golfe du Lion," and only latterly was 
known as " Gulf of Lyons," since Lyons 
has grown so greatly. What had the name of 

an inland city to do with a portion of the 
Mediterranean hundreds of miles distant, 
with which it reasonably had nothing to do, 
especially as to nomenclature. 

On some of my maps, and I have a num- 
ber, no name at all is affixed to the inden- 
tation of the coast affected by the disputed 
title, "Gulf of the Lion or of Lyons." 



Popular Superstitions (Vol. v, p. 
no). In the Popular Science Monthly there 
is an article on popular superstitions, which 
will no doubt be of interest to readers of 

' ' There is a supposition of wide range, based 
upon I know not what, that it is very health- 
ful for children to play with dogs. A weak 
child, it is thought, may gain strength by 
being with a dog, or, if diseased, the child 
may be cured by having the animal ' take 
the disease' for example, inflamed eyes or 
any disorder of the skin. Within a year a 
college graduate told me, in perfect good 
faith, of acquaintances, a Boston doctor and 
his wife, whose little girl had been greatly 
afflicted with some form of eczema which 
they all hoped would disappear, as the pa- 
rents had purchased a fine dog to play with 
the child. 

" When a dog is teething, the upper inci- 
sors, according to a New England superstition, 
must be removed as soon as they become 
loose, or he may ' swallow them and have 
fits.' Perhaps even more generally received 
is the fancied danger of allowing a child's 
milk-tooth after extraction to fall into the 
possession of a dog or cat, lest the animal 
swallow it, and the child have a dog's or cat's 
tooth grow in the place of the lost one. The 
Mexicans and Indians in Texas say that 
every animal has brains enough to tan its 
own skin ; and so the latter, in the case of 
the wolf, panther, wild cat, and some other 
animals, is mainly prepared by rubbing into 
the flesh side of it the brains of its former 
wearer. A somewhat common fancy among 
children, perhaps too adults as well, is that 
' every part strengthens a part ' that is, 
that the liver, heart, brains, and so on of 
animals, when eaten, go directly towards 
nourishing the corresponding organs in the 

July 12, 1890.] 


eater. A similar doctrine was worked out 
in great detail by the American Indians, and 
is, I believe, held by many other savage 
tribes. It seems altogether probable, that 
such beliefs, wherever found among civilized 
people, old or young, are survivals from some 
remote antiquity, and that they are closely 
akin in their nature and origin to the well- 
known doctrine of signatures which has 
played so great a part in the systems of medi- 
cines of primitive peoples." 


Horicon Marsh (Vol. v, p. 117). 
" Horicon Marsh," formerly designated the 
"Winnebago Marsh," though that name 
disappeared years ago, extending from the 
south line of Fond du Lac county to the 
village of Horicon, in Dodge county, Wis- 
consin, a distance of about sixteen miles, by 
five or six miles in width, is a basin formed 
by a slight dip or inclination from the ordi- 
nary surface level, towards the north branch 
of Rock river, and has now the usual ap- 
pearance of a large marsh, with open water 
in pools and creeks here and there. Some 
years ago, however, a dam at Horicon flowed 
the water back over most of the area occu- 
pied by the marsh, forming what was known 
as " Horicon lake." It has lately been 
proposed to restore this lake on a larger 
scale, as a storage reservoir for the Rock 
river, which drains it. 

The name " Horicon " is not indigenous 
to this region, having been transplanted 
there by Judge Hiram Barber and other 
early settlers, who were all from the Lake 
George country about Fort Henry. 



The Captain of My Dreams, etc. 
(Vol. v, p. 112). It is true, as "G." re- 
marks, that the morning star is mentioned 
several times in " The Dream of Fair Wo- 
men;" but there appears to be no connec- 
tion between the references. The first (to 
Chaucer) is purely figurative. The second 
is in the dream, when he fancies that he sees 
Helen early in the morning. The third 
(which "G." does not quote) is where Jeph- 
tha's daughter departs " toward the morn- 

ing star," that is, eastward. The fourth, if 
"G." is right as to the allusion in "the 
captain of my dreams," is after the poet 
awakes from his dream in the morning. I 
see no propriety, therefore, in assuming that 
"still" is to be understood with "ruled in 
the eastern sky." 

Prof. Corson, in his edition of the poem, 
explains the "captain" as "the sun," but 
adds no comment. It is not easy to see in 
what sense the sun can be the captain of his 
dreams. On the other hand, captain seems 
a strange term for the planet Venus; and, 
even if the word can be feminine, in what 
sense is Venus the captain of his dreams ? 
If it be said that Lucifer is meant, the same 
question recurs. 

Will " G." or somebody else give us fur- 
ther light on the passage ? 

I am incidentally interested in the ex- 
planation of the other passage from Tenny- 
son (in " The Two Voices"), which " G." 
also comments upon. If he is right, what 
is the point of the next speech, which says, 
in substance, " Man is the masterpiece of 
Nature, being endowed with reason and 
moral sense?" This would appear to ap- 
prove the hope of a happier existence beyond 
the present life, instead of being in any 
sense an objection to what the Voice had 
said; but the Voice replies, "Self-blinded 
are you by your pride," etc. 

Mr. Tainsh, in his "Study of Tennyson," 
paraphrases the first part of the dialogue 

" Voice : You are so miserable, why not 

"Man: This being of mine is too won- 
derful to be wantonly destroyed. 

" Voice : A dragon-fly is more wonderful 
than you. 

" Man : Not so. The preeminence of 
man lies in his intellectual and moral na- 

This is at least consistent and logical. Is 
it not to be preferred to the explanation 
that "G." gives? Q. 

Sunken Islands (Vol. v, pp. 35, etc.). 
" It is to East (or German) Friesland that 
the island of Heligoland belongs by every 
right. Within historic times it was con- 
nected with that province by dry land. For 



[July 12, 1890. 

the coast of Northwestern Europe, which 
in prehistoric times was a prolongation of 
the coast-line of Scotland to Norway, was 
in Roman times a prolongation of the coast- 
line of Belgium to a point in Danish Jut- 
land. The Zuider Zee was an inland lake, 
and the whole province of North Friesland 
lay where now roll the shallow and sluggish 
waters of the German ocean, and Heligo- 
land was a hill within that province. It was 
about the beginning of the ninth century 
that the province was submerged, leaving 
Heligoland and a few other island fragments, 
but carrying down a considerable population 
of seafarers and cattle tenders with their 
villages. The other islands lay nearer the 
Holstein coast, and several of them were 
swept away in later times' ' ( The American, 
June 28). 

The North Frisian tradition is that 
Hengst and Horsa set sail in the fifth cen- 
tury from the island of Sylt to the conquest 
of Britain. There is (so far as appears) no 
local tradition, and, I feel sure, there is no 
extant history of any moment that turns all 
the south-eastern parts of the German ocean 
into dry land until the ninth century. If 
the shallow waters of that ocean were "slug- 
gish" (which they are not witness the 
fierce storms that sometimes sweep their 
spray over the " Halligs" of North Frisia), 
is it likely that the sea would engulf the land 
so suddenly? Many traditions testify to 
the encroachments of the sea along all the 
Frisian coasts ; and it is generally conced- 
ed that the range of islands running east- 
ward from Texel marks an ancient coast-line. 
It is not unlikely that the Elbe and Weser 
may have once reached the sea through 
many bayous and spill-channels. More than 
this our present knowledge will not enable 
us to affirm. R. J. 


Evil Eye (Vol. v, pp. 109, etc.). In the 
poem called " Golias in Raptorem suse 
Bursae," vs. 17, 18, we read : 

" Excommunicatus sit in agro et tecto ! 
Nullus eum videat lumine directo!" 

The evil eye is mentioned in the early 
Anglo-Saxon poem of Beowulf. G. 


Good Old Etymologies (Vol. v, p. 
119). Among the good old etymologies 
thumped into me with the aid of a crab-stick, 
I recall none more blood-cruddling than 
that by which crypt was shortened from cry- 
pit, the latter deriving itsawfulness from the 
groans of wicked children who were unfor- 
tunate enough to have been tumbled into- 
the Gehenna. I had long supposed this de- 
rivation to have been the invention of my 
teacher, but a few months ago I saw an allu- 
sion to it by the late Dean French. Another 
highly moral derivation was that which 
evolved sincere from sine cera. Another 
one which was regularly made the subject of 
a sermon to all unbelievers, was the extrac- 
tion of idiot from a deo. I have forgotten 
just how the derivation was fetched about, 
but there were no missing links and the 
moral was that the Almighty made idiots 
for his own glorification ! 

J. W. R. 

Floating Islands (Vol. v, p. 30). 
Map's " Cambriae Epitome," vs. 317-324, 
speaking of certain mountains in Wales 
called Eryri, reads as follows (translated) : 
" On the very top of these mountains there 
are two lakes, one of which contains a wan- 
dering island, moving to and fro by the 
winds, * * * the other lake affords perch 
and trout, all one-eyed. According to 
'Nicholson's Guide,' one of these lakes is 
called 'the Lake of the Sod;' the moving 
isle being composed of ' a piece of the tur- 
bery undermined by the water, and detached 
from the shore.' ' G. 


Inland Flowing Streams (Vol. v, p. 
1 08, etc.). This discussion recalls the ac- 
counts, published a few years since in the 
newspapers, of a vast chasm in or near the 
Pentland Firth, Scotland, into which the 
sea water was said to be pouring at an enor- 
mous rate. But such a turbulent sea as 
generally prevails in that region must render 
it difficult to make trustworthy observations. 
I have not much faith in the existence of 
chasms which engulf vast quantities of sea 
water. W. P. RODEN. 


American Hotes and Queries: 




Copyrighted 1890, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post- Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Yol. Y. No. 12. 

SATURDAY, JULY 19, 1890. 

I {3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 
1 $1.00, 3 m ' 

I months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co,, John Wanamakec, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city, New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell &. 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. Wharton. 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts &. 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : Grevillea, 133 Money in All Ages, 134 English 
Village Names Bogus Volcanic Eruptions Color Names 
for Seas, 135 Autograph Hunting, 136. 

QUERIES : Browning's Descent Perpetual Earthquake 
Half-English Pope Chair of Idris Columbus Green Isle 
Serpents in a Mineral Spring, 136 Grain Coast Pyramid 
of Skulls, 137. 

REPLIES : Poet-Laureate of the Nursery Garments follow- 
ing Drowned Corpse Camels in the United States, 137 
Adverb and Adjective General Shot for Disobedience- 
Killed by a Servant, 138 Fase Skate Runners, 130. 

Last Words of Lord Breadelbane Cup of Agathocles Fla- 
gellants Shalott Isle of Serpents Forms of Oaths, 139. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Pretzel or Bretzel Stift-Priscian's 
Head, 130 Precocious Children Popular Superstitions, 140 
Lake Drained Island of Buss Super Grammaticam 
Trivium and Quadrivium Bottomless Ponds, 141 More 
Grammar Cat Island Gulf of the Lion Dropping Wells 
Slobbery Ponds Inland Flowing Streams Evil Eye, 142 
Discoveries by Accident A Question in Grammar Brack 
Buddhist Priests in Mexico Creeks Captain of my Dreams, 
143 Floating Islands Tennyson's " Dragon-fly, etc.. 144 



This word, the name of a genus of plants, 
is said in the "Century Dictionary" to be 
formed from the name of the late R. K. 
Greville. I once made the same mistake 
myself in an article that I wrote about 
Greville ; but I soon got a note from the 
late Dr. Asa Gray containing these words : 
" Grevillea was named fifteen years before 
R. K. Greville was born." Dr. Gray did 
not tell me for whom the genus was named, 
but he was exceedingly well informed on 
such points. Mrs. Ketchum's "Botany" says 
the genus was named from one Greville, a 
patron of botanical science; R. K. Greville 
was an enthusiastic worker in science, but 
was no "patron." The scientific journal 
called Grevillea was named from R. K. 
Greville. G. 




[July 19, 1890. 




Substatice used as Money. 




Substance used as Money. 


A. D. 


India . . . 
China.. . . 
Africa.. . . 
Not stated.. 

Paper bills 

Patterson, 13. 





Uncer n 

B.C. 491 





Palestine. . 

Arabia. . . 
Phoenicia . 
colony in 
Spain . . 
Phrygia . . 
Greece. . . 
Argos . . . 

Rome . . . 
Rome . . . 
Carthage. . 

Sicily . . . 
Persia . . . 
Sicily . . . 

Athens . . 
Sparta . . . 
Macedonia . 

Rome . . . 

Britain . . 
Rome . . . 
Arabia. . . 

Cattle, gold and silver, by 

The Scriptures 

Julius Pollux 
Dictionary of 

Socrates, Dial 
on Riches, 
Journal des 
i874, P- 354- 


MacLeod 1 , 476. 


Die. of Dates. 
N.Y. 7V***. 
July 2, 1873. 

Strips of cotton cloth 
Wooden tallies or checks. . . 

Sold and silver coins .... 
Gold, silver, and copper coins 

Same (some still extant) . . . 
^oins, by Queen of Pelops. . 
Brass coins 
Gold & silver coins by Phidon 

Brass, by weight 
Copper coins 
Leather or parchment money, 
first " paper bills" known . 

Gold coins, by Gelo (some still 












England . . 
Sweden . . 

5. Carolina. 
France. . . 

Maryland . 

Maryland . 
Scotland . . 

State of 
(now part 
of N.Car- 
olina) . . 

All commer- 
cial coun- 
tries . . . 
Russia. . . 

Mexico, pts 
of. . . . 

Corn a legal tender at market 

Charles XII. 


Adam Smith. 

Wheeler's His- 
tory of N. 
Carolina, 94. 

App. Encyc. 

Musket balls 
Paper bills, colonial notes . . 

Copper and iron coins .... 

Inconvertible paper bills a 

Paper bills, colonial notes . . 
Indian corn a legal tender at 
22d. per bushel 
Tobacco a legal tender at id. 

Gold coins, by Darius (two 

Tenpenny nails for small 

Gold coins, by Hiero (some 
still extant) 

Linen at 38. 6d. per yard, 
whisky at as. 6d. per gal- 
lon, and peltry as legal ten- 

Debased gold coins, foreign . 
Iron, overvalued 
First gold coins coined in 
Greece, by Philip 

First silver coins coined in 

Tin and brass coins 
Glass coins 

Great era of bank paper bills. 
Platinum coins (discontinued 


A. D. 







Rome (Ca- 
racalla) . 

Britain. . . 

Italy. . . . 

Milan, It. . 
China. . 
Africa, pt. ol 

Holland.. . 
Iceland . . 
Norway and 
and pts. ol 
Africa . . 
N. America 
And Indian 
tribes. . . 

Orient" 1 pas- 
toral tnbes 
Abyssinia . 
China anc 
India . . 

Lead coins silvered and cop- 
per coins gilded 
Living money, or human be- 
ings made a legal tender for 
debts at about 2 i6s. 3d. 


Henry's Hist, 
of Great Brit- 
ain, Vol. iv, 
p. 243. 

Arthur Young. 
Marco Polo. 


Die. of Dates. 

Jacob, 372. 




Cocoa beans ; and Castle ol 
Perote, soap 


Paper invented; bills of ex- 
change introduced by the 







California . 

Australia. . 
in Ohio, 

Uni'd States 

Camp at 
S. C. . . 

Uni'd States 
Phila., Pa.. 
Uni' dStates 

Gold dust by weight, also 
minute gold coins for small 
change, coined in private 

Private infor- 
Act of Feb. 25. 


Yorkville En- 

Ledger, Apr. 

Act of Mar. 3. 

Paper bills a legal tender. . . 
Paper bills a legal tender. . . 
" Machutes" (ideal money; 
this view doubted) 

Paper bills a legal tender. . . 
Pasteboard bills, represent' ve 
Dried fish 

Seal skins and blubber .... 
Cowry shells 

Paper bills, each representing 
" one hour's labor" . . . . 

Paper bills a legal tender. . . 
Tenpenny nails at 5 cts. each 
for small change. ..... 

Potatoes for small change . . 

Postage stamps for small 
change, temporary 

Turnips for small change, 
temporary and local 

Nickel coins for small change, 

Agate, carnelian, jasper, lead, 
copper, gold, silver, terra 
cotta, mica, pearl, lignite, 
coal, bone, shells, chalce- 
dony, wampunpeag, etc . . 



July 19, 1890.]! 




English people often laugh at the odd 
names of American towns. Matthew Ar- 
nold even went so far as to assert that no na- 
tion could be quite civilized that yielded 
itself to such cacophony of urban nomencla- 
ture. But he might have turned his atten- 
tion to similar barbarisms in his own country. 
Without going very far from London, he 
might have found himself at the villages of 
Great Snoring and Little Snoring in Nor- 
folk. He would hardly have considered 
Fighting Cocks in Durham an evidence of 
high civilization, nor Frog's Gutter in Salop, 
nor Dirt-Car in Yorks, nor Fool's Nook in 
Chester, nor Little Fryup in Yorks, nor 
Blubberhouses in Suffolk, nor Chittlesham- 
bolt, nor Knoctopper. Quaint names that 
are less offensive to the ear, but still bulky and 
unwieldy, are Styrrup with Old Coates, Talk 
o' the Hill, Who'd a thought it, Addlewith 
Eccup, Labor in Vain, Carry Coats, and 
Hard to Come by. Baring Gould was cen- 
sured for choosing such an affected patrony- 
mic as Pennycomequicks for the leading char- 
acters in his novel of that name ; yet Penny- 
comequick is the actual name of a town in 
Devon. Soberton might seem a sorry jest if 
the inhabitants are only as sober as the aver- 
age Englishman. Hungery Hill, Mount Mis- 
ery, London Smoke and Noisy Town do not 
hold out alluring possibilities. Plum Pud- 
ding Island and Strong Beer Centre are ap- 
petizing, however. World's Wonder is near 
Canterbury, but the world seems unconscious 
of the surprises it has missed. Scampton 
appears to cast a doubt on the honesty of 
the Lincolnshire people who live there ; 
Rotherfuld Peppard suggests a vinegar 
cruet ; Poorton can of course have no 
wealthy residents ; Shaver's End and Laeher- 
brush should suit barbers ; Cullercoats, dy- 
ers ; Charing, charwomen ; Bow, lovers of 
archery; Blisland, honeymoon couples; 
Angle, fishermen ; and Pick well, careful 
choosers. Porington might be full of boys 
who love their books ; Gnosall would express 
the result of their researches, and Dunse 
would be the town for such as shirked their 
studies. Cock crow might be recommended 
to the sluggard, Bat and Ball to the lover of 
cricket, Tongue End to the henpecked hus- 

band, Traveler's End and Welcome Stran- 
ger to the tramp. Starve-all and No Man's 
Land should be shunned by every one. 
When you come to Wales the names become 
absolutely appalling. Who would care to stop 
at Llanfihangel-yng-Nghlwufa? Who would 
not be alarmed at finding himself in Llantairp- 
wllgyngyllgogerpwllllandypilwgogo ? And 
Scotland is not so far behind with its Drim- 
taidhvrickhillichatan, in the Island of Mull. 

M. L. R. 


The alleged eruption of Old Bald moun- 
tain (Vol. v, p. 123) is not the only in- 
stance in which eruptions have been asserted 
of extinct volcanoes. Time and time again 
the same assertion has been made of Mt. 
Hood, but in every instance the cloud ban- 
ner formed by the condensation of moisture 
by a west wind has led to the supposition. 
The alleged volcano of the Colorado desert 
proved to be merely a sudden copious flow 
from a hot spring. The reputed eruption 
near Babispe, Mexico, was nothing more 
than an earthquake. The town was injured 
by fire, it is true, but it was first shaken to 
pieces, and afterwards partly consumed. 
There was no flow of lava ; the ' * lurid glare' ' 
came from burning timber. The rumored 
eruptions of Tacoma were also due to forest 
fires in the mountains. J. W. R. 



Besides the Red sea (Vol. v, p. 123) we 
have a Vermilion sea, Black sea, White sea, 
Yellow sea all probably named for some 
peculiarity in the appearance of their waters. 
Tennyson speaks of " dark purple spheres 
of sea;" Homer tells of the wine-faced 
deep ; Moore sings of " Oman's green sea." 
The Japanese Kuro-siwo signifies ' ' the black 
stream." The color of the sea, as is well 
known, changes often in the course of a 
voyage. I myself, years ago, witnessed a 
surprising appearance which I have never 
read of. I was crossing the Gulf of Mexico 
on a steamer. The sea was as smooth as 
a mirror, but presented a singularly dull 
appearance. It occurred to me that the 


[July 19, 1890. 

surface of the water appeared to be covered 
with particles of floating dust. The ship's 
captain informed me that my observation 
was correct the sea was actually covered 
with dust, probably blown seaward from 
Western Texas or some other dry region. 

N. S. S. 


It may cool the ardor of certain persistent 
autograph hunters to know that one distin- 
guished American writer turns over all auto- 
graph-begging letters to an obscure second 
cousin of his who happens to have the same 
name. The second cousin answers the let- 
ters of the autograph fiends, and signs his 
own name. Thus all parties in the transac- 
tion are satisfied. D. A. A. 


UE F$I B S. 

Browning's Descent. Some of the news- 
papers have published the statement that the 
poet Browning had a dash of African blood 
in his veins. Is this statement correct? 



Mr. Browning came of a family which 
had been for a time West Indian, and a re- 
mote cross of African blood has been more 
than hinted at. If it existed at all it must 
have been remote, indeed if we may judge 
from the published likenesses of the poet. 

Perpetual Earthquake. At what place 
is the earth continually agitated by an earth- 
quake tremor? E. B. 


This has been affirmed of Caldera, a sea- 
port in Chili. We are not prepared to 
affirm the absolute truth of the statement. 
Earthquake shocks are exceedingly frequent 
in Chili, in Japan, and in various other 
volcanic regions. The seismometer often 
records earth-vibrations which are not per- 
ceptible by the unaided senses. 

Half- English Pope. What pope was the 
son of an Englishman? N. S. S. 


It is said that Pope Urban V (d. 1370), a 
native of Grisac, in Languedoc, was the son 
of William Grisaunt, an English physician ; 
but there are grave reasons for doubt as to 
the truth of the statement. 

Chair of Idris. What is the Chair of Idris, 
mentioned by Tennyson in his u ^Enid?" 

J. L. T. 


i, p. 21. 

Columbus. Where do the bones of 
Christopher Columbus now repose ? I know 
that the old belief was that the remains of 
the great admiral were translated from San- 
ta Domingo to Havana ; but that has been 
disputed. S. E. S. 


It seems to us that the arguments used to 
prove that the remains of Columbus are 
still at Santa Domingo are entitled to great 
consideration, but from lack of full knowl- 
edge we are not prepared to discuss so 
vexed a question. 

Green Isle. What is meant by the Green 
Isle of the Hebrides ? 


The people of the Hebrides believe that 
there is a Green Island in the West, which 
can sometimes be seen beneath the setting 
sun. As late as 1853, some maps have an 
(imaginary) Isle Verte, or Green Rock, in 
the Atlantic, 44 48' N., 26 10' W. 

Serpents in a Mineral Spring. In what 
mineral spring are living serpents found ? 



In the thermal springs of Schlangenbad, 
in Germany, there are found (perhaps they 
are placed there) living serpents. Ancient- 
ly the serpent was a symbol of health. It 

July 19, 1890.] 



is probable that popular fancy connects 
these snakes in some way with the healing 
qualities of the springs. 

The serpents are of a harmless kind the 
Coluber flav escens of Europe, called also Co- 
luber (zsculapii, which is very easily tamed. 
Ladies greatly frequent these springs, 
which are thought to beautify the complexion 
in a marked degree. 

Grain Coast. Why was Liberia formerly 
called the Grain Coast ? 

J. R. B. 


Probably from the former trade in Grains 
of Paradise, or Melaguetta pepper. Near it 
are the Gold coast, Slave coast, and Ivory 
coast (all named from former commodities) ; 
also the Calabar coast and the Wind coast. 

Pyramid of Skulls. Where was there 
once a pyramid of human skulls ? 

J. R. B. 

On the island of Jerba, near Tunis, the 
Turks, in 1558, built a pyramid of the heads 
of the Spanish soldiers who fell in a battle 

E P L I E S . 

Poet-Laureate of the Nursery (Vol. iv, p. 
126). If I am not mistaken, Matthias Barr 
has also been called " the laureate of the 
nursery." All three of these names are 
those of Scotch writers. N. S. S. 


Garments Following Drowned Corpse (Vol. 
v, p. 114). The example cited by your cor- 
respondent is one form of a belief which prob- 
ably was not originally a superstition at all, 
but later became tinctured with the super- 
natural, as in the case of clothing worn by 
the person being used to find their dead 
body. In this instance, some subtile sym- 
pathy was no doubt thought to exist between 
the dead and their apparel. In fact, how- 
ever, the successful cases may generally be 
accounted for by natural causes. As a 
drowned body would likely be drawn into 

the deep pools formed by eddies, so a light 
substance floating on the current would be 
drawn to that part of the surface over the 
centre of the eddy hole. 

In the last - century, in England, a mode 
of discovering drowned bodies was practiced 
which consisted in putting a small quantity 
of quicksilver into a loaf of bread and set- 
ting it afloat on the stream ; this would float 
about on the surface until it was over the 
body, when it would sink. There is an ac- 
count, vouched for by credible witnesses, of 
the recovery of the body of a boy drowned 
in the Thames, at Eton, by one of the mas- 
ters throwing a cricket bat into the river, 
which indicated the location of the body to 
the searchers. In Ireland, a wisp of straw 
to which was attached a strip of parchment 
inscribed with cabalistic characters, an- 
swered the same purpose. Among the North 
American Indians, drowned bodies were oc- 
casionally recovered by throwing a cedar 
chip into the water, which would stop and 
turn round over the exact spot. Sir James 
Alexander, who is the authority for this 
statement, mentions an instance of its suc- 
cessful use from his personal knowledge, 
when all other means failed. 

E. G. KEEN. 


Camels in the United States (Vol. v, p. 
126). It is my impression that camels were 
recommended for use in the West by one of 
the Secretaries of War sometime between 
1850 and 1855. There was a camel train 
carrying freight between Virginia City and 
Pioche, Nevada, in 1871, and I think the 
camels were imported a year or two before 
that time. In 1857, a train of camels was 
employed by Lieut. Beale in the exploration 
to locate a wagon road between Santa F6 
and California. The experiment was highly 
successful, and the utility of the animals far 
exceeded the most sanguine expectations. 
Subsequently about one hundred and fifty 
animals were imported for use in Western 
Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. As late 
as 1876, a train was employed to pack 
freight between Yuma and Tucson, Arizona. 
The animals thrived and grew fat on the 
mezquit and gamma grass, and while each 



[July 19, 1890. 

animal did about four times the work of a 
horse, it was maintained at about one-half 
the cost. There was but one reason why 
the camel should not entirely supplant all 
other pack-animals, namely, the "mule- 
whacker" or teamster. From the first, the 
teamster was the relentless enemy to the 
camel. His rifle was ever ready, and the 
deadly bullet soon thinned the number of 
animals until their use was abandoned. 
This hatred did not arise from fear of com- 
petition, but from the mortal terror all 
other carrying-animals exhibited in the 
presence of the camel. A pack train would 
instantly stampede at the sight of one, and 
a wagon train would commonly be left in a 
demoralized condition. As late as 1878, I 
saw a cow with her calf in the Gila desert, 
but I could not gel near her. There may 
be a few animals still alive in this region, 
but I doubt it. The advent of the railway 
has rendered their services unnecessary. 


I believe that the late Jefferson Davis, 
while Secretary of War under the United 
States Government, recommended the intro- 
duction of camels for use on the great plains. 
The suggestion was carried out, and there 
are still some half-wild camels in Nevada. 


Adverb and Adjective (Vol. v, p. 4). The 

answer given to "A Subscriber's" query is 
no doubt correct, but it might have been a 
little fuller. Goold Brown, in at least four 
places refers to this subject, which he dis- 
cusses with some fullness, but with less, I 
think, than his usual clearness and decisive- 
ness. The outcome of his reasoning ap- 
pears to be this: We may say either "He 
feels bad," or "He feels badly," and vio- 
late no principle of grammar. I do not go 
into his reasoning, lest I give brain-fag to 
such of your readers as try to follow out this 
little refinement of discussion. Only thus 
far I think I may safely venture. Brown 
thinks that feels in the above examples stands 
for a subjective experience ; and therefore 
with bad or badly does not exactly replace 
the copula and predicate-adjective. But in 
the case of "She seems pleasant," seems 

pleasant expresses an objective fact, and 
therefore the adverb pleasantly could not be 
correctly used, the verb seems standing in a 
relation grammatically equivalent to that of 
the copulative verb is. In like manner, we 
say, "The country looks inviting;" and 
Scottish writers say, " The ship bulks /arge," 
that is, seems large, or larger than we might 
expect from her measurements these being 
expressions of an objective fact. Brown, 
after all, does not condemn the idiomatic 
expression, " He feels bad," but he does de- 
fend the equivalent expression, "He feels 
badly. " Yet we always say ," I feel weary, ' ' 
" I feel strong." The real difficulty, I im- 
agine, is in the word bad, which has various 
meanings. G. 


General Shot for Disobedience (Vol. v, p. 
77, etc.). It was Frederick the Great, and 
the order was fatal to a young officer found 
writing to his wife when lights were forbid- 
den under pain of death, and is related in 
detail in a history either English, French or 
German that I have read. 

This incident forms the basis of a play 
called " St. Patrick's Eve ; or, The Order of 
the Day," in which the famous and lamented 
Irish comedian, Power, made a hit as Ma- 
jor Phelim O'Dogherty. 

In the drama, the result is not mournful 
but happy, as the letter writer is pardoned 
inasmuch as the king finds he had no right 
to issue " The Order of the Day." 

It may be a mistake, but it is most likely 
the real order was issued the evening before 
Liegnitz, when Frederick, expecting Lau- 
don's attempt to surprise him, allowed no 
lights, fires nor smoking in his bivouac, and 
Laudon is himself surprised and disastrously 
defeated (Carlyle [" Harpers "], vi, 49 ; 
Archenholtz, 1760, p. 349). The discovery 
of the officer writing a letter by forbidden 
light and shot next morning is related in 
one of the histories of the great king, "Al- 
les in Allem." ANCHOR. 


Killed by a Servant (Vol. iv, pp. 105, etc.). 
The name of the servant that murdered 
Lord Brooke (Fulke Greville) was Ralph 
Haywood. ISLANDER. 


July 19, 1890.] 



Fase (Vol. i, p. 296). This word ap- 
pears in the " New Century Dictionary," 
in the form faze or phase. It asserts the 
word to be an Americanism, but gives it 
as a variant of feeze, a good old Shake- 
spearean word. TROIS ETOILES. 


Skate Runners (Vol. v, p. 126). An or- 
ganization of Skate Runners, Skielobere, 
rifle men on skates, was still maintained in 
Norway, in 1851, but is said now to be ex- 
tinct. I doubt if the idea is dormant or 
abandoned among the local, not regular, 

Laing's " Journal of a Residence in Nor- 
way," 1834-6, may give some particulars 
of this corps. I have never heard they 
were abolished, and have seen allusions to 
them in more recent books. These skate 
runners may belong to the Militia or Land- 
wehr, although that is not the technical 
term. The French, under Luxembourg, also 
put skates on their troops in the Netherlands 
winter campaign under Louis XIV. 




Mount Abora. Where is Mount Abo- 
ra, of which the Abyssinian maid sings in 
Coleridge's poem of " Kubla Khan?" 



Last Words of Lord Breadel- 
bane. What were the last words of Lord 
Breadelbane ("Old Rags") ? When dying, 
one of the servants dropped a lighted candle 
on his breast. He revived sufficiently to 
give her a scolding for her carelessness. Can 
any correspondent give me his remarks ? 


Cup of Agathocles. What was the 
Cup of Agathocles ? I find it mentioned in 
one of Lamb's essays, wherein the author 
compares a poor relation to the pot of 
Agathocles. J. T. L. 


Flagellants. I have read somewhere 
that self-flagellation, by way of penance, is 
still common in New Mexico. Is this true ? 

A. L. R. 


Shalott. We have had some interesting 
communications about Camelot ; can any 
one locate the Island of Shalott ? 

W. P. R. 


Isle of Serpents. On the map of the 
Black Sea there is marked an Isle of Ser- 
pents. Is this island really infested by ser- 
pents? And if so, of what kind? 



Forms of Oaths (Vol. iv, p. 189). 
In the various States of the Union there are. 
remarkable differences in the words used in 
administering and taking oaths. Could not 
some of your correspondents who are learned 
in the law give your readers a collection of 
these verbal formulas ? BALBUS. 



Pretzel or Bretzel (Vol. v, p. 115). 
In Hilpert's "Pocket Dictionary" (what 
huge pockets they must have in Germany !) 
I find both brezel and prezel, so you can 
take your choice. But the definition is 
given under brezel, to which there is a refer- 
ence from prezel. OBED. 


Stift (Vol. v, p. 122). In Norway we 
find stiffs in quite another sense. The great 
dioceses of the country, each with a Lu- 
theran bishop, are there called stifts. 

P. M. E. 


Priscian's Head (Vol. v, pp. 125, 
etc.). Mr. Ogier's statement is certainly 
correct, but it does not touch my question : 
Why is a violator of the rules of grammar 
said to break the head of Priscian ? 

M. H. P. 




[July 19, 1890. 

Precocious Children (Vol. iv, pp. 
285, etc.). Aldo Manuzio, the younger 
(1547-97), son of Paulo, and grandson of 
Aldo, founder of the Aldine press and the 
greatest printer of his time, at the age of 
eleven published a collection of choice 
specimens from Latin and Italian authors. 
Three years later he also produced a trea- 
tise on Latin orthography, founded on in- 
scriptions, medals and manuscripts. 

Noth withstanding his precocity, he did not 
prove the equal of his father, much less of 
his grandfather, either in mental capacity 
or in attainments. 

Jeremiah Horrox, or Horrocks, was born 
1619, in Taxteth, a small village near Liv- 
erpool, England. He is said to have pre- 
dicted as a boy the first transit of Venus 
ever viewed by human eye, and to have ob- 
served the same himself, when just on the 
verge of manhood (twenty). 

At seventeen years of age, Horrox under- 
took the revision of the Rudolphine Tables 
(Kepler, 1627), and in the course of his 
work became convinced that a transit of 
Venus must occur in 1639, an astronomical 
event which Kepler had failed to predict. 
It was then 1636, and three years must elapse 
before his prediction could be fulfilled. The 
young astronomer confided his secret to his 
most intimate friend, and purchased a tele- 
scope for 2S. 6d. This was a rude appara- 
tus, but it enabled him, when the time came, 
to make the first observation ever made of 
the transit of Venus over the sun's disk, 
November 24, 1639 (O. S.). This transit 
was witnessed only by himself and William 
Crabtree, the draper, at whose suggestion 
Horrox had undertaken the study of Kepler. 
His own account of the event, "Venus in Sole 
Visa," was published (1662) by Helvetius, 
with his own observations on a transit of 

Horrox entered Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, as a sizar, at thirteen years, and took 
orders in the Church of England before 
reaching the canonical age. He died at the 
age of twenty-two. 

George Parker Bidder, the most wonder- 
ful of calculating boys, was born (1806) 
near Dartmoor, England, and was the son of 
a stonemason. Asa child, he showed a power 
of mental calculation which, if it was ever 

equaled, has never been surpassed. At six 
years of age, he learned to count up to ten, 
and when he was able to count one hundred, 
his teacher, an elder brother, thought it un- 
necessary to give him further instruction. 

When Bidder was ten years old, he an- 
swered in two minutes the following ques- 
tion: " What is the interest of ^4444 for 
4444 days at 4^ percent per annum?" The 
answer is ^2434 i6s. 5^d. A few months 
later, when he was not yet eleven years old, 
he was asked, " How long would a cistern 
one mile cube be filling if receiving from a 
river 120 gallons per minute without inter- 
mission?" In two minutes, he gave the 
correct answer 14,300 years, 285 days, 12 
hours and 46 minutes. A year later, he di- 
vided correctly, in less than a minute, 468,- 
592,413,563 by 9076. No date is given to 
the following case : The question was put 
by Sir William Herschel, at Slough, near 
Windsor, to Master Bidder and answered in 
one minute : " Light travels from the sun to 
the earth in 8 minutes, and the sun being 
98,000,000 of miles off (of course this is 
quite wrong ; it was near enough to be ac- 
cepted value), if light would take 6 years 
and 4 months traveling at the same rate 
from the nearest fixed star, how far is that 
star from the earth, reckoning 365 days and 
6 hours to each year and 28 days to each 
month?" The correct answer was quickly 
given to this pleasing question, viz., " 40,- 
633,740,000,000 miles." The lad's pecu- 
liar gift of answering arithmetical questions 
demanding intricate calculation, with light- 
ning rapidity, drew public attention to him, 
and his father found it more profitable to 
exhibit him about the country as the " cal- 
culating phenomenon " than to give him a 
schooling. At the suggestion of some emi- 
nent men, he was sent to school at Camber- 
well, and finished his studies at the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh (see " Diet. Nat. Biog."). 

F. T. C. 


Popular Superstitions (Vol. v, p. 
in). I have known farmers who believed 
that all root crops should be " planted in 
(during) the dark of the moon," and all 
crops fruiting above ground should be plant- 
ed during the " light of the moon," that 

July 19, 1890.] 



the lower rails of a zig-zag fence built dur- 
ing the dark of the moon would sink into 
the ground much sooner than if built dur- 
ing the light of the moon. 

Very many farmers believe in a much 
more intimate connection between the moon 
and the weather than scientific men are wil- 
ling to recognize. It is not unusual to hear 
them say, " We will not have rain until the 
moon changes." "We will have no settled 
weather until the moon changes." "This 
will be a dry moon," etc. 

Many persons put great reliance in the 
signs of the zodiac. The man who declared 
that potatoes must be " planted in the sign 
of the foot " meant that they should be 
planted during those days indicated in the 
almanac by the pisces. I have heard the 
statement by farmers that the right time 
for speying pigs is " when the sign is in the 
arm." Other farm operations should be 
performed when the sign is in the head, the 
back, or the knees. On what principle, if 
any, it was determined where the sign 
should be when any given duty or act is 
performed, I have not learned. 

There are women who will not permit 
edged tools or implements to be carried 
through the house, such an act presaging 
death in the family. So, if a crowing hen 
is permitted to live about the homestead 
there will, "inside of a year," be a death 
in the family. An itching of the nose is a 
sign of a visit, the right, or left side of the 
nose indicating whether from a man or wo- 
man. For a woman to drop a dish cloth 
while washing dishes formerly indicated 
more than carelessness I think it was that 
a visitor was coming. At table to absent- 
mindedly take a supply of food which the 
plate already contains is a sign that " some 
one is coming hungry." 



Lake Drained (Vol. v, p. 125, etc.). 
Lake Taguataga, as it is sometimes called, 
is not on the maps, nor is it mentioned in 
the "Gazetteer." Some years subsequent to 
Darwin's visit it was drained for the benefit 
of 8000 acres of land in its neighborhood 
(Austed's "Phys. Geog."). F. T. C. 

Island of Buss (Vol. iv, p. 8). Why 
do not deep-sea dredgers, like the men of 
the Challenger and the Blake expeditions, 
dredge the sea bottom, or at least take 
soundings at the. alleged place of this island? 
If the island was dest royed by the action of 
the waves alone, the sea at that place must 
doubtless be a very shallow one, even now. 

P. R. E. 


Super Grammaticam (Vol. v, p. 123). 
Somewhere or other I have read that the 
famous assertion of Sigismund was deliv- 
ered at the Council of Constance, and that 
the injunction was against the Hussites. As 
I recall the quotation, it read: "Videte, 
Psatres, date operam ut ilia nefanda schisma 
Hussitarum eradicetur. " It is also interest- 
ing to note that the cardinal in criticising 
the emperor used the unusual genitive form 
nutrius. TROIS ETOILES. 


See also S. I. Capper's "The Shores and 
Cities of the Boden." See ("Lake of Con- 
stance ") Chaps, xiv, xv and xvi. 



Trivium and Quadrivium (Vol. v, p. 
40). "According to Middle Age notions, 
Pythagoras first made known to the Greeks 
the seven arts of the schools, which, in two 
divisions, called Trivium and Quadrivium, 
were Rhetoric, Logic, and Grammar; Arith- 
metic, Astronomy, Music, and Geometry. 
According to the legend, Tubal Cain was 
the inventor of these arts, and apprehensive 
they might be lost in the destruction with 
which mankind was threatened by the flood, 
he caused them to be engraved on two pil- 
lars of stone. One of these pillars, we are 
told, was found by the philosopher of Samos; 
Hermes found the other" (see Halliwell, 
"Early Hist, of Freemasonry in England"). 


Bottomless Ponds (Vol. v, p. 128). 
There is said to be a bottomless pond in 
Madison county, N. Y. 




[July 19, 1890. 

More Grammar. Tennyson, in "The 
Miller's Daughter," speaks of " the mill-dam 
rushing down with noise." Does the mill- 
dam rush down ? Is it not the water that 
rushes down ? Is not this a catachresis ? or, 
is it a hypallage ? Somehow the poets will 
not be tied and hobbled by the red tape of 
the grammarians. G. 


Cat Island (Vol. v, p. 122). Cat island, 
or San Salvador, is mainly famous for being 
the supposed first landing place of Colum- 
bus. The researches of Capt. Fox and 
Prof. Schotte, U. S. Coast Survey, demon- 
strate that neither Cat nor Watling's island 
could have been the place of his first land- 
ing. OROG. 


Gulf of the Lion (Vol. v, pp. 130, etc.). 
I lately asked a gentleman from Paris, a 
graduate of the College Bonaparte, about 
this name. He says he strongly suspects 
that Golfe de Lyon was the original form ; 
for the commerce of Lyon, or Lyons, used 
to go down the Rhone to the gulf, and 
found sea-shipment at various places along 
its coast. But, after all, this is only one 
man's guess. 

There is a work by Charles Pierre Marie 
Lenth6ric, entitled " Les Villes Mortes du 
Golfe de Lyon," 1875, with fifteen charts 
and plans. This work was crowned by the 
French Academy. It ought to contain his- 
torical data as to the name. 



Dropping Wells (Vol. v, p. 79). A 
dropping well in Yorkshire is thus described 
by Drayton : 

* * * Men " Dropping Well " it call, 
Because out of a rock it still in drops doth fall : 
Near to the foot whereof it makes a little pond, 
Which in as little space converteth wood to stone." 

E. G. KEEN. 


Slobbery Ponds. Not very far from 
Chicopee Falls, Mass., there are certain 
swampy or shallow ponds, called vulgarly 
the Slobbery ponds a sufficiently expres- 

sive name. But some of the old folk there- 
away will tell you that the true name is 
Slaw-berry ponds, and that they are named 
from the cranberries that grow there. But 
I never have heard or read of j/(2ze/-berries in 
any other connection. But compare sloe, a 
kind of wild plum. K. W. C. 


Inland-Flowing Streams (Vol. v, pp. 
1 08, etc.). Suppose the case of an island 
lying athwart an ocean current, the rocks 
of the island being fissured and traversed by 
cavernous passages. We may conceive that 
there would be currents flowing directly 
through the mass of such an island; and 
the uncovered entrance of such a current 
would be just such an inland-flowing stream 
as those of Argostoli. This is my guess, and 
nothing more. 

There is an interesting notice of one 
of the Argostoli streams in Baedeker's 
" Greece." It appears that at least one of 
these streams is in part artificial. 

G. H. G. 


Evil Eye (Vol. v, pp. 132, etc.). Per- 
haps the following may interest some of the 
as showing the necessary times of birth of 
persons possessing "virtue " to dispell the 
baleful influence of the Evil Eye. In the 
" Novias y Novios," by Torcato Tarrago, a 
romance of Andalusia, as fascinating as an 
idyl of Moorish Spain, the author says, p. 
72, on the indicated theme : " Persons born 
exactly at the stroke of 12 o'clock, mid- 
night, of the 24-251!! day, or rather night, 
of Christ's nativity, or precisely on the di- 
vide between the hours of 2 and 3 in the 
afternoon of Holy Friday ( Viernes Santo], 
claim to cure Evil eye." These individuals, 
usually known as "El Zahori" (double) 
seer Tarrago states are usually recognized 
in the rural districts of Spain as endowed 
with infallible skill to detect hidden springs 
or subterraneous water courses. He asserts 
the "Zahori" in such researches has been 
uniformly successful, but does not mention 
their using the divining rod for this pur- 
pose. G. F. FORT. 


July 19, 1890.] 


Discoveries by Accident (Vol. v, pp. 
44, etc.). Steel Pens. "Mr. Joseph Gil- 
lott was a Birmingham working jeweler in 
1830. One day he accidentally split one of 
his fine steel tools, and being suddenly re- 
quired to sign a receipt, not finding his 
quill pen at hand, he used the split tool as 
a ready substitute. This happy accident 
led to the idea of making pens of metal. It 
was carried out with secrecy and prompti- 
tude, and the pens of Gillott became famous. 
The manufacture of metal pens has been as 
important as any invention connected with 
business and education since that of print- 
ing. There are now numerous firms which 
produce as many pens every day as all the 
geese in England could have supplied in a 
year. There is still, however, a large de- 
mand for quills and quill-pens; but for 
common use, in these days of universal 
education, the importance of Gillott's first 
invention is incalculable." 

The Argonaut. 

A Question in Grammar (Vol. v, p. 
129). I wish to assure W. J. R. that the 
feeling of desperation which he ascribes to 
me is something of which I am not at all 
conscious. If he can find any one scholar 
of repute who will sustain his view, I shall 
be satisfied to leave poor Mary where he 
puts her in the kettle, above the crackling 
sticks, singing a solo part. 

The use of sing as a causative verb may 
be catachrestic ; if so, it is the poet's fault, 
not mine. But the grammarians cannot 
draw hard and fast lines by which the poet 
must walk. C. W. G. 


Brack (Vol. v, p. 39). When I was a 
child, living in New England, the word 
" brack " was used to describe a small thin 
place in wearing apparel, especially in mus- 
lin or cotton goods. Many a time I have 
been told " there is a ' brack ' which must 
be darned or mended immediately or it will 
become a hole. ' ' This use of the word agrees, 
I think, with the German, signifying to ''di- 
vide or assort," as per three stars, * * *, 
of Philadelphia, Pa. R. W. L. 


Buddhist Priests in Mexico (Vol. iv, 
p. 34). In the Buddhist Ray for July, 
1890 (a periodical published at Santa Cruz, 
Cal.), there is a cut of what is supposed to 
be a figure of Buddha, found at Palenque, 
in Central America. It appears to be, in 
reality, a somewhat Mexican ized figure of 
Gautama Buddha. The paper, accompanied 
by this cut, is full of interest, but many of 
its statements seem crude and unscientific. 
For an illustration of this fault, I would 
refer to the discovery (quoted) of Gautama's 
name in Guatemala and in Guatemozin. A 
really scientific (and not ex parte) discus- 
sion of the various seeming finds of Bud- 
dhistic material in Mexico is something 
much to be desired. 



Creeks (Vol. v, pp. 105, etc.). A 
small map of New Hampshire shows, in Coos 
county, in the northern part of that State, 
the following : Nash's creek, Chickwolnepy 
creek, and Molnichwock creek, all appa- 
rently mountain streams. There is also a 
Pond creek in Grafton county. I wish to 
thank J. W. R. for calling the attention of 
us New Englanders to these creeks. We 
Yankees are in the habit of looking upon 
this use of the word creek as a Western vul- 
garism ; and I, for one, have taken some 
pride in our New England exemption from 
this faulty practice. M. R. B. 


Captain of My Dreams (Vol. v, pp. 
131, etc.). I accept Q.'s amendment 
thankfully as to the use of the word still, 
which is not necessary and may mislead 
such as do not exactly apprehend my mean- 
ing, which is as follows: "Chaucer, the 
morning star of song," sets the poet a- 
dreaming; all through his dreams the 
morning star rules (just as we say the dog- 
star rules, when it is astrologically in the 
ascendant) ; and when he awakes he finds 
that the morning star is really in the ascend- 
ant, or ruling. The real captain of his 
dreams may possibly be Chaucer ; in which 
case, by an extension of that figure which 
makes Chaucer a morning star, the morning 
star itself is said to be the captain of the 



[July 19, 1890. 

poet's dreams. But this would be a concetto, 
rather than a legitimate figure of poetry. 

Floating Islands (Vol. v, p. 132, etc.). 
September 13, 1834, when Darwin was 
traversing Central Chili, he made a visit to 
the gold mines of Yaquil, which are situ- 
ated near the top of a lofty hill. He says : 
"On the way we had a glimpse of Lake 
Tagua-tagua, celebrated for its floating 
islands, which have been described by M. 
Gay (see " Annales des Sciences Naturel- 
les," March, 1833). They are composed 
of the stalks of various dead plants inter- 
twined together and on the surface of which 
living ones take root. Their form is gener- 
ally circular and their thickness from four to 
six feet, of which the greater part is im- 
mersed in the water. As the wind blows, 
they pass from one side to the other, and 
often carry horses and cattle as passengers " 
(" Voyage of the Beagle," p. 265). 

Tennyson's "Dragon-fly," etc. (Vol. 
v, pp. 1 3 1, etc.). I think I can so paraphrase 
the first part of "The Two Voices" that "Q" 
will understand and approve my interpreta- 
tion. As far as possible, I will use "Q's" 
words : 

" Voice : ' You are so miserable, why not 

" Man : 'This being of mine is too won- 
derful to be destroyed.' 

"Voice: 'Perhaps it would not be de- 
stroyed even if you were to die. I saw a 
larval dragon-fly burst its shell, and it came 
forth a creature of far higher rank than it 
was before.' 

" Man : * But that would not be the case 
with me, if my body were to perish, for na- 
ture has given man the highest place in the 
scale of creation. There is no higher rank 
known to which I could aspire.' 

" Voice : ' Your pride blinds you. Is it 
likely that there are no beings of statelier 
rank than yours in all the hundred million 
spheres that surround this earth ?' 

" ' Moreover ' (the voice went on), ' if you 
should perish utterly there would be plenty 
of men left as good as you,' " etc. 

This interpretation is, I venture to think, 

as consistent and as logical as any ; it also 
avoids one weak point in the other para- 
phrase, that in which the Voice is made to 
say : "A dragon-fly is more wonderful than 
you.'" This particular poem of Tennyson's 
is one of that interesting class of which 
much or little can be made, according to 
the receptivity of the reader. It is like 
wheat that is crushed and injured by over- 
threshing; or like grapes, which, if pressed 
too hard, will run lees instead of wine. 
The mind struggling with itself does not 
follow out logical lines of thought ; sugges- 
tion follows tumultuously upon suggestion ; 
a cloud of despair is for a moment lighted 
up by a gleam of hope and light. The poet 
is true to nature throughout ; but he does 
not reason according to scholastic rules. 


Book News, for July, contains a carefully compiled 
" Suggestive List of Books to Read Before Going to 
Europe," prepared by Sarah W. Cattell, which is a 
summer-time feature of this number. The important 
books of the month have reviews, some with illustra- 
tions, and the descriptive price list of new books con- 
tains nearly two hundred titles. " With the New 
Books;" the sketch of Jules Verne (with the author's 
portrait); "A New Anglo-Indian Writer," Rudyard 
Kipling ; the announcements, notes, and other miscel- 
lany are most attractive reading, and maintain, in this 
number, the Book News' reputation as a necessary 
guide book in the world of letters. 

The Cosmopolitan Magazine, for August, will contain 
perhaps the most extraordinary article ever published 
upon " Hypnotism." It was secured from one of the 
two most celebrated professors of the weird art, the 
Frenchman Donate, and the illustrations were secured 
by having a number of the subjects taken to the photo- 
graph gallery of Mr. Kurtz, in New York, and there 
hypnotized under the camera by Donate himself. The 
illustrations show very fairly the frightful powers which 
the hypnotizer exerts; and the whole article makes 
plain asubject which is exciting much attention all over 
the world at this time. One who has not seen the facile 
movements of the hypnotizer and the change which 
takes place in the victim under his apparently simple 
action, cannot for a moment comprehend the wonderful 
powers exercised. One moment the subject looks you 
in the eyes, talks to you as any other person, is in his 
right mind in every particular; the next, under a mo- 
tion of the professor, his mind is as completely lost to 
his body as if his head had been cut off, and in this 
condition, subject to suggestions of the operator, sug- 
gestions which may be carried to the most farcical or 
the most terrible results, he remains until recalled to 
life by the hypnotizer. Never before has a number of 
subjects been placed under the camera and operated 
upon in'this way, and the article will doubtless be re- 
ceived with general interest throughout the country. 

American f4otes and Queries : 



Copyrighted i&qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post- Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. Y. No. 13. 

SATURDAY, JULY 26, 1890. 

I $3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

\ $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office, 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's, Boston : Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : Coenties' Slip, New York, 145 Maroon Travel- 
ing Plant, 146 Cruel Plant Moha Greek Island Names, 

QUERIES: American Cardinals Countries without Snakes 
Robbing Peter to Pay Paul Breeching Scholar, 147 
Tomohrit Line Islands Oriana, 148. 

REPLIES : Cup of Agathocles Jansonus Flagellants in 
Mexico, 148 Stone Rivers, 149. 

Gleams in Locksley Hall Gamut The Long S Patience 
Sunken Islands St. Michael Mai Poena, etc., 150 Ma- 
rimba Area of Cities, 151 . 

COMMUNICATIONS : The Captain of my Dreams, 151 
Earliest Christian Hymn Plaquemine Discoveries by Acci- 
dent Musical Sands, 152 Buddhism in Lapland Avalon, 
153 Sub Rosa Pets of Distinguished People The Dragon- 
fly in " The Two Voices " Clarenceux, 154 Flying Spiders 
Chebacco-boat Orthography of Alaskan Names Land- 
fall of Columbus Adam de St. Victor, 155 Ff in Proper 
Names Translation Wanted Anagrams in Science Ca- 
coethes Scribendi, 156. 



To the modern New Yorker this is a sin- 
gular-looking word. The only two would-be 
explanations of it that I have yet found are 
equally peculiar. 

One is, that Coenties is a compound (!) of 
Coen and Antey, Coen standing for Coenrad, 
the land-owner, and Antey, for his wife. 
Nothing short of an affidavit signed by all 
the Sellouts and Schepens of New Amster- 
dam could make this combination be ac- 
cepted by any serious student of etymology, 
of course. 

The second is, that Coenties is a corrup- 
tion of Countess, the slip having been so 
named in honor of the Earl of Bellomont's 

That the locality was thus officially 
named at the time, and for the reason just 



[July 26, 1890. 

mentioned, cannot be denied ; that Coen- 
ties was afterwards derived from Countess 
is quite another thing. 

One might perhaps get over the wonder- 
ful etymological transformation of Countess 
into Coenties (and its variants Coenjes, Coen- 
jies~) ; after all, it could not " hold a candle " 
to the distorting of Verlettenberg into Flat- 
ten Barrack, Tuyn Paatje into Tin Pot, 
Kolk into Collect, Krom Messje into Gram- 
ercy, Burgher Jorisen into Boyer Jori' s, etc., 
etc. But there is a more serious difficulty 
in the way, for this suggested derivation 
would imply an anachronism worthy of the 
golden days of Topsyturvydom! 

Now what does history say on this point ? 

1. That the land did belong to a worthy 
tanner, Coenrad ten Eyck, who died long 
before Governor Bellomont came to this city, 
and that the slip was known as Coenrad' s as 
well as Coentjes, etc. 

2. That the practice, not uncommon 
among us, of curtailing personal names in 
familiar language was carried- out by the 
Dutch to an extraordinary extent. 

Thus, among them, a noted skipper, Bart- 
\iQ\ometts van Hoogeboom, was called indif- 
ferently Bator Mees, and left after him a relic 
of the head and of the tail of his name in Bat- 
ten Kill and Meesen Kill. Rut did duty for 
Rutgert; hence Rutten Kill, the property of 
Rutgert Bleecker, etc., etc. And to these 
abbreviations they were fond of adding a 
friendly little suffix, je, tje, just like our own 
if or y in Kate, Katie ; Bob, Bobby, etc. 
Hence we find Nicolas, Claas (dear old San 
Claus!), Claasje; Sara, Saartje; Jacobus, 
Koos, Koosje, etc.* 

In the face of these two facts, is it neces- 
sary to write out the equation of Mr. Coen- 
rad ten Eyck's shorter name, Coen -f suffix 
tje + s of the possessive case = Coenties? 



According to most of the dictionaries, 
this word, in the sense of an escaped negro 
slave, or a mountaineer-negro, comes from 
the Spanish cimarron, wild ; but Brockhaus' 

* A column could be filled with abbreviations of this 
kind in daily use in modern Dutch. 

" Conversations-Lexikon" derives it from 
the river Maroni, in Guiana. It would seem 
to be easier to name the river from the 
maroons than the maroons from the river. 
There is an interesting paper on the maroons 
(runaway negroes) of Jamaica and Nova 
Scotia in the Proceedings of the Canadian 
Institute for April, 1890. These people sub- 
mitted in 1798, not to the terrors of British 
arms, but to their fear of Cuban blood- 
hounds, which had been taken in considerable 
numbers to Jamaica to aid in the struggle. 
After two years of un thrift in Nova Scotia, 
the maroons were sent, in 1800, to Sierra 
Leone, where it appears that some of their 
descendants now occupy honorable posi- 
tions. This exportation of the maroons 
should not be confused with the deportation 
of the colored Nova Scotia loyalists, whose 
departure for Sierra Leone occurred in 1792, 
eight years before that of the maroons. 
Quite a number of years later, Paul Cuffee, 
a half-negro, half-Indian shipmaster of Mas- 
sachusetts, began a series of voyages to Sierra 
Leone, to which country he deported many 
negroes, chiefly from New England. 

P. R. E. 


This is the ''Adam and Eve," or " Putty- 
root," of the common people; but the 
Aplectrum hymedle of botanists; and is 
said to have the singular habit of shifting 
its locality to a degree, amounting to an 
inch annually ; so that if a corm or tuber 
were planted in front of a person's house, 
in one hundred years thereafter, other things 
being equal, he would find that it had 
moved one hundred inches, in a westward 
direction. After the first year it gets a new 
corm annually, and one becomes dissipated 
annually. As the new corm makes its ap- 
pearance, attached to a thick fibre, and 
about one inch from the old, that is about 
the meed of its annual progress not very 
conspicuous, it is true, but still sufficient 
to demonstrate the fact. Nor must this fact 
be criticised too closely, because sometimes 
the old corm continues for more than a 
year. The locale of this plant is from Can- 
ada to Florida, but it is rare everywhere ; 
in a life-time of eight-and-seventy years, I 

July 26, -1890.] 


only saw and handled a single plant, and 
that was forty years ago, in Donegal town- 
ship, Lancaster county, Pa. S. S. R. 


The Proceedings of the Canadian Institute 
for April, 1890, contain two papers upon 
the Cruel Plant (Physianthus albens}, a na- 
tive of tropical America. The flowers are 
provided with five pairs of jaws (leaflets) 
that close upon the proboscis of any moth 
which attempts to extract honey from the 
blossom ; and the insect is held a prisoner 
until it dies. This plant belongs to the 
tribe of asclepiads (milk-weed family). The 
plant is highly ornamental in culture, hav- 
ing pure white, fragrant flowers, much like 
the tuberose in appearance. An instructive 
notice of this plant is to be found in Hen- 
derson's "Hand-book of Plants," Art. 
"Physianthus." P. R. E. 



Webster and Worcester both define moha 
as German millet; the "Century Diction- 
ary" and the "Imperial," as Italian millet; 
the distinction being varietal according to 
the " Century," but specific according to 
many botanists. Mohar would seem to be 
a better spelling, and, according to the 
Brockhaus " Lexikon," mohar is a popular 
(German) name for the German millet. 
Moha occurs in some French books. None 
of the dictionaries explain the origin of the 
name. Some say that the grain originally 
came from Thibet. * * * 


According to Rev. Mr. Tozer's late book 
on the Greek islands, the names Stanco (or 
Stanchio) for the island of Kos, Scarpanto 
for Karpathos, and Stalimene for Lemnos, 
are now totally forgotten in the islands, the 
old Greek names being completely restored. 
Yet many of our modern dictionaries and 
geographies go on repeating the Italianized 
lingua franca names as the present colloquial 
names of the islands. ILDERIM. 


B S. 

American Cardinals. It is commonly 
said that the late Cardinal McCloskey was 
the first American-born clergyman ever cre- 
ated a cardinal. Is this correct ? 



Cardinal McCloskey was elevated to the 
dignity of cardinal-priest in 1875. Cardinal 
Juan Ignacio Moreno, Bishop of Toledo, in 
Spain, who was born at Guatemala, in Cen- 
tral America, was created a cardinal-priest 
in 1868. We do not know of any earlier 
elevation of an American-born clergyman to 
the cardinalate. 

Countries without Snakes. What other 
country, besides Ireland, has no snakes ? 


New Zealand, Iceland, the Arctic and 
Antarctic regions, Newfoundland, and many 

Robbing Peter to Pay Paul. What is the 

origin of this phrase ? F. L. P. 


See the Magazine of American History, 
Feb., 1890, p. 170, where it is stated that 
in 1540 the abbey church of St. Peter's, 
Westminster, was advanced to the dignity 
of a cathedral church; but in 1550 it lost 
its cathedral rank, and some part of its rev- 
enues was appropriated to make up a deficit 
in the income of St. Paul's Cathedral, Lon- 

Breeching Scholar. What does Bianca 
mean in "The Taming of the Shrew," when 
she says, " I am no breeching scholar in the 
schools?" F. O. 


A breeching scholar, in a narrow sense, 
is understood to have been a boy whose 
lot it was to receive the punishments due 
to a fellow-pupil of higher rank. Thus 
Barnaby Fitzpatrick is reported to have 
been the recipient of chastisements due 

T 4 8 


[July 26, 1890. 

to Edward VI during their pupilage. In 
Samuel Rowley's play, "When You See 
Me You Know Me" (1613), this practice is 
described at length. When Charles I was 
a school-boy, one Murray used to take his 
floggings. When Louis XV was a child, 
being also king, he had, says Mme. du Def- 
fand, "un petit hussar" who was beaten 
when the king failed to say his lesson well. 
In Nichols' "Memoir of Henry Fitzroy, 
Duke of Richmond" (1855), tn ^ s ^ s record- 
ed : "It appears that the duke was not 
educated alone, but several young noble- 
men were brought together to be his school- 
fellows * * * to excite him to emula- 
tion, and further by the punishments they 
received, to let him see what he deserved, 
that he might in some measure dread the 
like discipline, even if he did not sustain it 
in his own person." In a wider sense, it is 
probable that any pupil not of too high a 
rank to be flogged in school would be called 
a breeching scholar ; probably Bianca uses 
the term in this sense. See note, " The 
Breeching Boy," in the work just cited, p. 

Tomohrit. What and where is Tomohrit, 
mentioned by Tennyson, in his lines "To 
E. L., on his Travels in Greece?" 


Tomohrit, called "vast Tomorit," by 
Byron, is a mountain in the Epirus ; it may 
be the Mount Tomarus of the ancients, near 
which Dodona stood. 

Line Islands. Where are the Line islands? 

T. L. T. 


We understand that in Pacific-ocean com- 
merce the islands near the equator are often 
called the Line islands. 

Oriana. Who was the Oriana that gives 
name to Tennyson's well-known ballad ? 

F. L. P. 


Oriana was a favorite name in olden times. 
The literary courtiers of Queen Elizabeth 
called her "the fair" or "the matchless 

Oriana." Anne, queen of James I, was 
also called Oriana. The renowned Amadis 
of Gaul, the hero of a whole cycle of ro- 
mances, was the lover, and later the hus- 
band, of Oriana, daughter of Lisuarte, King 
of England. This Oriana was the fairest 
and most faithful of women, but not in 
every way the wisest. Another Oriana 
figures in the romance of " Florisel de 
Niquea" (1532), and marries Anaxartes the 
Strong. But we know of no connection be- 
tween any of these Orianas and the one in 
Tennyson. Some of our correspondents 
may be able to help you further. 


Cup of Agathocles (Vol. v, p. 139). 
Agathocles, the son of a potter, became 
tyrant of Sicily, and of course the pot re- 
minded him continually of his own humble 
origin. Hence, like a poor relation, Agatho- 
cles' pot was a thorn in the flesh. 

L. F. L. 


The allusion is to the famous or infamous 
tyrant of Syracuse, who was the son of a 
potter, and is believed to have himself 
worked at the same trade. According to 
Justin, " he attained greatness equal to that 
of the elder Dionysius, and rose to royal 
dignity from the lowest and meanest origin." 

E. G. KEEN. 


Jansonus (Vol. v, p. 65). The "Mun- 
dus Furiosus," concerning which inquiry is 
made, was printed at Cologne in 1596. Its 
author is called Jansenius Gallobelgicus. 



Flagellants in Mexico (Vol. v, p. 139). 
Flagellation, self-inflicted, is practiced to 
a considerable extent in Mexico by a class 
of religious enthusiasts called Penitences. 
Whether these belong to any established 
order or not, I cannot say. It is my impres- 
sion, however, that it is simply a custom 
that has become traditional. On one occa- 
sion I saw about a dozen ugly-looking vil- 
lains going along the streets chanting and 

July 26, 1890.] 



striking their nearly naked bodies with 
switches made of twigs of oquitilla, a growth 
remarkable for its long sharp thorns. Al- 
most every inch of their bodies was lacer- 
ated by the sharp spines of the oquitilla, 
and blood was streaming copiously from 
scores of wounds. I was informed that not 
infrequently death from loss of blood and 
exhaustion followed the observance of the 
custom. A suggestive feature of the proces- 
sion was that each flagellant wore a crown 
of thorns. I was also told that the custom 
was not sanctioned by the Catholic Church. 

J. W. R. 

Self-flagellation is still practiced in New 
Mexico. A very interesting ten-page article 
on the subject, by Charles F. Lummis, ap- 
peared in the Cosmopolitan for May, 1889. 

E. G. KEEN. 

Stone Rivers (Vol. v, p. 126). Of the 
geological phenomenon on the east coast of 
Patagonia, alluded to, Prof. Ansted re- 
marks : "The Patagonian steppes are only of 
moderate elevation. They are at a dead 
level and covered with shingles to a consid- 
erable thickness. These stones have all 
been brought down from the Andes and are 
water-worn. Over them are innumerable 
boulders or stones of a larger size, which 
have probably been transported by ice' ' (see 
D. T. Ansted's "Physical Geography," p. 

Darwin makes three references in his 
"Journal" to the same phenomenon, as 
follows : 

"From the Strait of Magellan to the 
Colorado, a distance of about eight hundred 
miles, the face of the country everywhere is 
composed of shingle ; the pebbles are chiefly 
of porphyry, and probably owe their origin 
to the rocks of the Cordillera. North of 
the Cordillera, this bed thins out and the 
pebbles become exceedingly small" (1883, 
Chap, iv, p. 75). 

"These beds of soft white stone, includ- 
ing much gypsum and resembling chalk, 
but really of a pumiceous nature, are every- 
where capped by a mass of gravel, forming 
one of the largest beds of shingle in the 

world. When we consider that all these 
pebbles have been derived from the slow 
falling of masses of rock on the old coast 
line and banks of rivers, that these frag- 
ments have been shaped into smaller pieces, 
and that each of them has since been slowly 
rolled, rounded, and far transported, the 
mind is stupefied in thinking over the long 
lapse of years necessary to the accomplish- 
ment of the work. Yet all this gravel has 
been transported, and probably rounded 
subsequently to the deposition of the white 
beds, and long subsequently to the under- 
lying beds of gigantic oyster shells" (1833, 
Chap, viii, p. 171). 

A third reference occurs in the chapter 
on Buenos Ayres, p. 329, " Voyage of the 

Darwin also describes the "streams of 
stones" in the Falklands, but does not ac- 
count for their origin. He concludes his 
remarks by predicting that the progress of 
knowledge will soon give a simple explana- 
tion of this phenomenon, the counterpart of 
which it would be vain to seek in any his- 
torical record. 

Darwin's prediction found its fulfillment 
about forty years afterwards in the observa- 
tions of Sir C. Wyville Thomson (d. 1882), 
who says : " The origin of these ' stone 
rivers' is not far to seek. The larger hard 
beds of quartzite are denuded by the disin- 
tegration of the softer layers. Their sup- 
port being removed, they break away in the 
direction of natural joints, and the frag- 
ments fall down the slope upon the vegeta- 
ble soil. This soil is spongy, and under- 
going alternate contraction and expansion, 
from being alternately comparatively dry 
and saturated with moisture, allows the 
heavy blocks to slip down by weight into 
the valley where they become piled up ; the 
valley stream afterwards removing the soil 
from among and over them" (extract, "Falk- 
land Islands," "Encycl. Brit."). 

See, also, for more extended remarks on 
the phenomenon, "The Voyage of the Chal- 
lenger" Sir Wyville Thomson, Vol. ii, pp. 

In this connection I am reminded of the 
Valley of Stones, Lynmouth, North Devon- 
shire, England, of which Southey says: 
" Ascending from Lynmouth up a road ser- 


[July 26, 1890. 

pentining perpendicularly, you reach a lane 
which, by a slight descent, leads to the Val- 
ley of Stones. This spot is one of the great- 
est wonders in the west of England, and 
would attract many visitors if the road were 
passable for carriages. Imagine a narrow 
vale between two ridges of hills somewhat 
steep ; the southern hill turfed and the vale 
which runs from east to west covered with 
large stones and fragments of stones among 
the ferns that fill it; the northern ridge com- 
pletely bare, excoriated of all turf and of all 
soil, the very bone and skeleton of the 
earth ; rock reclining upon rock, stone 
piled upon stone, a huge and terrific mass. 
A palace of the Preadamite kings, a city of 
the Anakim, must have appeared so shape- 
less and yet so like the ruins of what 
had been shaped ere the waters of the flood 
had subsided." F. T. C. 



The Dreary Gleams in "Locksley 
Hall." There has been much dispute in 
books and magazines (Shepard's Tennysoni- 
ana, the English Notes and Queries, etc.) as 
to the construction and meaning of the sec- 
ond line of the second stanza of " Locksley 

" 'Tis the place, and all around it, as of old, the curlews 


Dreary gleams about the moorland flying over Locks- 
ley Hall." 

Has the question ever been settled, and, if 
so, how? M. N. 


Gamut. Everybody has heard of the 
lines written by Paulus Diaconus, whence 
Guido of Arezzo is said to have taken the 
ut, re, mi, fa, etc., of the gamut. I refer 
to the well-known 

" Ut queant laxis resonare fibris," etc. 

In the year 1866 or 1867 (I think it was in 
one of those years), I read in a stray copy of 
The Congregationalist newspaper another 
Latin stanza, or set of lines, whence it is pos- 
sible to construct the words of the gamut. 
Can any one tell me where I can find this 

last stanza? My impression is that the 
stanza from Paulus Diaconus must be its 
genuine original ; the hymn itself finds a 
place in the Breviary. The other verses 
must have been written for the express pur- 
pose of introducing the names of the mu- 
sical notes in their order. OBED. 


The Long S (Vol. iv, p. 45). What is 
the date of the latest book in which the 
long s is used reprints, of course, excepted? 

E. G. KEEN. 


Patience. There is a good old-fash- 
ioned English herb, Rumex patientia, called 
in popular speech, patience, or patience dock. 
The botanists do not usually recognize it as 
a naturalized American plant ; but on our 
old homestead, in New England, it grew 
abundantly. What gave the plant its sin- 
gular name? It is called by similar names 
in various European languages. 



Sunken Islands (Vol. iv, pp. 198, etc.). 
According to an article in "Appleton's 
Cyclopaedia," the very considerable island 
of Aurora, in Melanesia, disappeared several 
years ago. But I believe the statement to 
be incorrect ; for several late geographical 
notices contain allusions to the island. Can 
any of your correspondents give me infor- 
mation about the point in question ? 



St. Michael. Information wanted re- 
garding the legend of " St. Michael and All 
Angels." Why is that saint's name par- 
ticularly appropriate for a Home for " Col- 
ored Crippled Children ?" ? ? ? 


Mai Poena, etc. Can any of your 
readers translate the following phrase, tell- 
ing me what language or dialect it is ? 

" Mai poena ve iau." 

J. C. 


July 26, 1890.] 


Marimba. To what African language 
does this word belong? It is the name of 
some kind of a musical instrument. 

J. E. C. 


Area of Cities. What is the present 
area of Chicago? What is that of New 
Orleans? J. R R. 



The Captain of My Dreams (Vol. 
v, pp. 131, etc.). The morning star 
very appropriately dominated Tennyson's 
" Dream," since the vision was suggested 
by ' the morning star of song." It is given 
the first place in the description of the scene 
where the visionary figures made their ap- 
pearance ; and it was towards it, as if re- 
turning to the source of her inspiration, 
that Jephtha's daughter "past afar." 

But this morning star could hardly have 
been Venus. Far more probably it was 
Mars or Saturn, for it was not upon love 
that the poet had been pondering before his 
"down-lapsing thought" sank " into the 
gulfs of sleep," but upon "beauty and an- 
guish walking hand in hand," upon wrong, 
confusion, and wars. To my apprehension, 
however, " G.'s" choice of a word for in- 
terpolation in the phrase, " the captain of 
my dreams [still] ruled in the eastern sky," 
is not quite satisfactory. 

If we must understand that the dream was 
completely ended when Cleopatra's sharp 
words loosened the spell, and that the three 
heroines mentioned afterwards were merely 
remembered as those who might have made 
part of the vision had it continued, then 
"really" or "actually" would seem the 
better word to supply. On waking, the 
poet found the same planet really in the as- 
cendant that had commanded in his dream. 

But if we may suppose that a little space 
intervened between folded sleep and clear 
awakening, where dream and remembrances 
were intermingled, and wherein were seen 
Margaret Roper and the two named with her, 
then the word "still" is even less needed, 
because an advance is indicated which that 

word would obscure. When the scene was 
first set, the morning star gleamed in its 
"maiden splendor" just risen but at the 
close it had mounted so far that it " ruled 
in the eastern* sky;" a description surely 
inapplicable to a star whose earliest beams 
were still trembling above the horizon. 

M. C. L. 

Hermes, whom the Romans perhaps in- 
correctly identified with their god Mercury, 
was, in an especial manner, the captain or 
director of dreams. But it appears that not 
any one of the old Greek deities was without 
the power of despatching dreams to men. 
These points may possibly assist your cor- 
respondent Q. in his attempt to find the 
true meaning of the passage referred to as 
above. But the Sun is hardly the sender of 
dreams. Hermes was a night-god, as well 
as the dawn-god, and his caduceus lulled 
men and animals to sleep. F. M. 


It happens that I can settle the dispute 
about these passages. The " captain of my 
dreams" is the morning star, or the planet 
Venus ; but " G." is wrong in his explana- 
tion of the poet's meaning. Venus is the 
captain of his dreams of fair women for the 
simple reason that she is the fairest of fair 
women, human or divine. 

As to the dragon-fly, Mr. Tainsh is right, 
as I always thought, and Peter Bayne, Prof. 
Corson, "G.," and others are wrong. 
"G.'s" attempt to make the context con- 
sistent with his interpretation is ingenious 
but unsatisfactory. It is a good example of 
what can be done in twisting a passage to fit 
a mistaken view of it better than any other 
I have seen given in this particular case ; 
much better, I may add, than the prepos- 
terous exegesis of the Mary Howitt passage 
concerning Mary and the singing kettle. 
By the way, "G.'s" little joke about my 
putting Mary into the kettle is pointless, for 
I merely say that she sings there by making 
the water sing, which is precisely what he 
says in making sing a causative verb. 

I regret that Mary Howitt is not alive 
that we might appeal to her for a decision 
of the question. I am confident that she 



[July 26, 1890. 

would say I am right, as Tennyson did when 
I asked him whether I was right or not in 
my explanation of the two passages men- 
tioned above. Prof. Corson and others 
who took ground against me would not give 
up until the poet had approved my explana- 

The " mill-dam rushing down with noise" 
is an obvious metonymy of a very familiar 
type "the cause for the effect," the dam 
which raises the water and makes it rush 
down being put for the water itself. 

W. J. R. 

Earliest Christian Hymn (Vol. v, p. 
67). "When our Lord and His disciples 
'had sung an hymn,' they left the place 
where they had observed the passover, and 
went out to the Mount of Olives. This 
hymn was the Great Hallel, consisting of 
Psalms 113 to 118 inclusive. * * * We 
thus know, with singular accuracy, what 
was the first hymn of praise in the Christian 
Church" (Duffield's "Latin Hymns," p. i). 

The "PhosHilaron" (see Vol. iv, p. 234; 
Vol. v, p. 67) was not the work of Athenage- 
nes, and is probably of a later date than his. 
Longfellow's translation of it, " O Glad- 
some Light," appears in his "Golden 
Legend. ' ' A fourth version is by Dr. Keble. 


Plaquemine (Vol. iv, pp. 214, etc.). It 
is said, I know not how correctly, that Pluck- 
amin (or Pluckemin), the name of a town in 
New Jersey, is the same as Plaquemine, a 
persimmon-tree. Persimmon-trees are very 
common in New Jersey, and so are opos- 
sums; although "Appleton's Cyclopaedia" 
tells us that opossums are not found in this 
State. M. W. O. 


Discoveries by Accident (Vol. v, pp. 
143, etc.). Guano was discovered on Baker 
island, then called New Nantucket (in the 
Pacific, lat. o 13' 30" N., Ion. 176 29' 30" 
W.), by an accident. A sailor had died on 
a sperm-whaleship, and was buried upon 
the island. In digging his grave it was dis- 
covered that the soil was composed of guano. 

E. J. W. ROE. 


Musical Sands (Vol. iv, p. 152). The 
so-called "barking sands" of Kauai are 
mentioned in the works of several travelers 
in the Hawaiian islands, and have a world- 
wide fame as a natural curiosity ; as a rule, 
however, the printed accounts are meagre 
in details and show the authors to have been 
unacquainted with similar phenomena else- 

" Jointly with Dr. Alexis A. Julien, of Col- 
umbia College, New York," writes Professor 
Bolton in the Honolulu A dvertiser, "I have 
been studying the properties of sonorous 
sand for a long time, and have visited many 
localities in America, Europe, and Asia; 
hence I was able during a recent visit to 
Kauai to make some notes and comparisons 
that may interest the residents of this king- 

"Notwithstanding recent rains, I found 
the sand on the dune at Mana dry to the 
depth of four or five inches, and when pushed 
down the steep incline, it gave out a deep 
base note having a tremulous character. 
This hardly resembles the ' barking' of a 
dog ; but a sound somewhat like it is pro- 
duced by plunging the hands into the sand 
and bringing them vigorously together. An- 
other way is to fill a long bag three-quarters 
full of sand, and then, dividing its contents 
into two parts, holding one in each hand, 
to clap the two portions together. This I 
found to be a good method for testing the 
sonorousness of sand on sea beaches. A 
bag of the sand will preserve its acoustic 
qualities a long time if kept dry, and not 
too frequently manipulated. The angle at 
which the sand lies where it falls over the 
dune is thirty-one degrees; the sonorous- 
ness extends several hundred feet along the 
dune, being interrupted by a creeping vine 
that thrives marvelously in such a soil. 

" A similar dune of sonorous sand occurs 
in Nilhau, and has long been known to resi- 
dents of the island ; and it has been also re- 
ported to occur near Koloa. 

" Sonorous sand is of more common oc- 
currence than is generally supposed. It is 
found on the Atlantic coast of the United 
States from Maine to Florida, on the Pacific 
coast in Europe, Japan, Africa, Tasmania, 
etc., as well as on the shores of many fresh- 
water lakes. In these localities it forms 

July 26, 1890.] 



areas between low tide and the base of ad- 
joining dunes, and emits sounds only when 
subjected to friction by the feet and hands 
or in a bag as described. 

" At Jebel Nagous, in Arabia, on the other 
hand, the sand rests in a ravine and pro- 
duces sound only when it rolls down the in- 
cline (which it often does spontaneously) 
and fails to respond to kicks and cuffs. The 
sand at Mana, as shown, unites in itself 
both these acoustic properties. The angle 
at which the sand lies at Jebel Nagous is the 
same as at Mana, thirty-one degrees being 
the 'angle of rest' for fine dry sand. The 
musical notes obtained at these far-separated 
localities are also the same, but in Arabia 
the incline is three hundred feet high, and 
consequently the sounds are far louder, 
especially as they are further magnified by 
being echoed from adjoining cliffs. 

" The sand at Kauai and Nilhau is made up 
of fragments of shell and coral, while that 
of all other localities known to us (over one 
hundred in number) is siliceous. This 
shows that the sonorousness is independent 
of material. Examination under the micro- 
scope further shows that the sonorous quality 
is not connected with the shape of the grains. 
Sonorous sand is distinguished by being re- 
markably free from fine dust or silt ; the indi- 
vidual grains are very uniform in size. It 
is very easy to deprive sand of its acoustic 
power, by mixing a little earth with it, or 
by wetting it. It is difficult, if not impossi- 
ble, to restore to sand its sonorous quality 
when once 'killed.' 

' ' A number of hypotheses have been pro- 
posed to explain the cause of this curious 
property of certain sands. The prevalent 
idea in these islands that the sound is due 
to the cellular structure of the sand must be 
abandoned, since most sonorous sand is not 
so constituted, that of Kauai forming an ex- 
ception. Some have attributed the sonorous 
quality to saline crusts, others to electricity, 
effervescence of air between the particles, 
reverberations within subterranean cavities, 
and to solarization ; and one author attempts 
to explain the phenomenon by writing of 
1 a reduplication of impulses setting air in 
vibration in a focus of echo.' 

" These theories Dr. Julien and I reject for 
reasons I cannot here detail, and we believe 

the true cause of sonorousness to be con- 
nected with thin pellicles or films of air or 
of gases thence derived, deposited and con- 
densed upon the surface of the sand grains 
during gradual -evaporation after wetting by 
seas, lakes, or rains. By virtue of these 
films the sand grains become separated by 
elastic cushions of condensed gases, capable 
of considerable vibration, and whose thick- 
ness we have approximately determined. 
The extent of the vibration and the volume 
and pitch of the sound thereby produced we 
also find to be largely dependent upon the 
forms, structures, and surfaces of the sand 
grains, and especially upon their purity or 
freedom from fine silt or dust." 

Buddhism in Lapland (Vol. v, pp. 
115, etc.). As affording a curious (but 
probably not important) comment on this 
subject, I would refer to the alleged recent 
discovery of Buddhistic teaching in the 
writings of Swedenborg (see the Buddhist 
Ray for July, 1890). Also, reference may 
be made to the claims set up by Hargrave 
Jennings and others, that Buddhistic sym- 
bols have been discovered throughout Eu- 
rope, and especially in Ireland and the 
Hebrides. For my own part, while I do 
not for a moment accept these claims, I 
think they should receive due attention. 
We may respect the industry, and wonder 
at the ingenuity of those writers who make 
these marvelous finds ; but the finds them- 
selves we should study carefully and inde- 
pendently. There may be important sug- 
gestions concealed in the rubbish collected 
by the labors of some of these overzealous 
enthusiasts, although many of their asser- 
tions seem palpably absurd. R. J. 


Avalon (Vol. iii, pp. 256, etc.). Ynys yr 
Avallon is the Welsh for Island of Apples. 
In the old Welsh mythology, it is the abode 
of blessed souls. The old Irish myths, 
pagan and Christian, state that the Islands 
of the Dead abound in every luxury a 
plenty of apples being the leading feature. 
This points us back to a time when, in Ire- 
land and Britain alike, the apple was a rare 
and costly fruit. D. R. S. 



[July 26, 1890. 

Sub Rosa (Vol. ii, p. 282). The an- 
tiquity of this expression is illustrated by 
the following from the " Consultatio Sacer- 
dotum" of Walter Map: " Nonus ait deci- 
mus, ' dicam hie sub rosa,' " etc. 


Friend, in his " Flowers and Flower- 
Lore," p. 177, relates that "in Waldeck it 
is the Rose under whose silence treasures are 
safely concealed." P. W. R. 


Pets of Distinguished People (Vol. 
v, p. 117). Robert Southey's Dogs, Cupid, 
Dapper, and Miss. Cupid belonged to one 
of Southey's best friends, Mr. Danvers, of 
Bristol; nevertheless he bestowed a large 
share of his affection on the poet, who was 
not indifferent to it, as appears from the 
following remembrance in a letter to Lieut. 
Sou they : 

" Poor Cupid has been hung for robbing 
a hen-roost. Your three half-crown sticks, 
you see, were bestowed on him in vain. He 
is the first of all my friends who ever came 
to the gallows, and I am very sorry for him. 
Poor fellow, I was his godfather." 

Cupid's place in Southey's heart must 
have been fairly filled by Dapper of whom 
he says in another letter : " My dog Dapper 
is as fond of me as ever Cupid was ; this is 
a well-bred hound of my landlord's, who 
never fails to leap on my back when I put 
my nose out of doors, and who never hav- 
ing ventured beyond his own field until I 
tempted him, is the most prodigious coward 
you ever beheld. He almost knocked 
Edith down in running away from a pig the 
other day ; but I like him, for he is a wor- 
thy dog, and frightens the sauntering Lakers 
as much as they frighten him." 

In a letter to Hartley Coleridge, whose 
goddog he was, Southey speaks of Dapper's 
good health and of his increasing gravity, 
and encloses " three wags of his tail." 

A letter from Lisbon, Feb. 19, 1796, has 
the following account of Miss" good appe- 
tite this dog was an especial favorite with 
Southey : 

" Miss remains in Lord Bute's stables, in 
Madrid. She amused me on the road by 

devouring one pair of horse-hair socks, one 
tooth-brush, one comb, a pound of raisins, 
a pound of English beef, and one pair of 
shoes. Maber has much reason to remem- 
ber her. So, you see, Miss lived well on 
the road" ("Life and Correspondence, 
Robert Southey"). F. T. C. 


The Dragon-fly in "The Two 
Voices" (Vol. v, pp. 131, etc.). That I 
read the dragon-fly argument in Tennyson's 
"The Two Voices" differently from both 
of your correspondents who have given 
interpretations of it, is my only excuse for 
offering still another paraphrase of the 
poem's first few triplets : 

"Voice: 'Because of your misery, were 
it not better to end your life ?' 

"Answer: 'Nay; I may not blight the 
development of what is so wonderfully 

"Voice: 'To-day I saw the dragon-fly 
attain his wonderful consummation, yet what 
was he? A mere insect still !' 

" Answer : ' But man is the crown of crea- 
tion, and will advance to the highest attain- 

"Voice: 'You cannot be sure; there is 
boundless worse as well as better, and he 
may lapse to that. There may be a higher 
order of beings for whom the honors are 
destined ; or, granting what you believe, 
the promise can be realized by others of 
your kind, though you pass into nothing- 
ness.' ' M. C. L. 

Clarenceux (Vol. iv, p. 137; Vol. v, p. 
94). Any one who will consult Finlay's 
" History of Greece," will find that he does 
not, in that work, expressly deny that the 
title of Duke of Clarence was derived from 
Klarenza, in Greece. He only quotes, in a 
foot-note, the denial made by Col. Leake. 
It seems to me that neither Mr. Finlay nor 
Dr. Stubbs ever tried to sift this matter 
thoroughly. Leake was, for his time, an 
excellent antiquarian topographer ; but on 
a question of genealogy I would not deem 
him an authority of first rank. 

Qui TAM. 


July 26, 1890.]! 



Flying Spiders (Vol. v, p. 112). There 
are really no "flying spiders," "flying 
fishes," nor "flying squirrels," in the sense 
we mean when we apply these terms to bats, 
to birds, or to the feathered tribes in gen- 

So far as the matter relates to the former 
three, it is rather a leap than anything ap- 
proximating a fly, assisted by an impetus 
they have gained from a starting point aloft, 
beneath the water, or a parachute of some 
kind. Without this impetus, neither of these 
animals can rise up from a plain surface, whe- 
ther of land or water, and fly indeed many 
of the feathered tribes cannot do so, even 
when their organs of flight are highly organ- 
ized. There are, however, some spiders 
that are extraordinarily endowed with leap- 
ing powers from a plain surface, and that, 
too, so quickly, as to get entirely beyond 
the focus of vision in a moment. 

There are also species of Autumnal Spi- 
ders, that select an elevated position, from 
whence they spin and throw off a quantity 
of webbing which they leap upon, cut loose 
from, and sail away in seeming joyfulness. 
These sometimes sail to a considerable dis- 
tance, even crossing streams of half a mile 
wide or more. Of course their progress is 
never contre courant, because, after their 
bark is launched, they have no control over 
it, but must let it go wherever it lists. These 
arachnids are occasionally very numerous, 
covering many acres, and seem to be provi- 
dentially designed as a favored repast for 
other animals, and probably for some of 
their own species. S. S. R. 


Chebacco-boat (Vol. iv, p. 106). 
After all, may not Dr. Murray be right? 
May not the Chebacco river have been 
named for the boats ? Curiously, there is 
a Mystic river in Massachusetts and another 
in Connecticut, both, I think, formerly 
noted for boat-building. Now, Mystick 
(Span, mistico) is an old name for a kind of 
coasting vessel. Can there be any connec- 
tion between these river names and the 
handsome mysticks which are still, I believe, 
to be seen in the Levantine seas ? 

L. M. N. 

Orthography of Alaskan Names. 

The following forms are now officially 
adopted in the maps and charts of Alaska 
by the United States Coast Survey : 

Alaska (territory). 

Aliaska (peninsula). 

Unalashka (island) commonly Ouna- 

Kadiak (pronounced kdd-jafc) formerly 

Bering formerly Behring. 

Pribiloff formerly Pribylov and Priby- 

Shumagin formerly Chumagin. 

Yukon formerly the Quichpak. 


Landfall of Columbus (Vol. v, p. 142, 
under "Cat Island"). Among the various 
islands asserted to have been the landfall of 
the first voyage of Columbus, are Watling's 
island, Cat, Mariguana, Grand Turk, and 
Samana, or Atvvood's Cay. The late Capt. 
G. V. Fox (following the log-book of Col- 
umbus as published by Navarrete in 1790, 
after an alleged MS. copy made by Las 
Casas) fixed upon Samana or Atwood's Cay 
as the true landfall. But the authenticity of 
the published log has been called in ques- 
tion. Commander F. M. Green, U. S. N., 
the able author of " The Navigation of the 
Caribbean Sea" (1877), calls Watling's 
island "the established landfall of Colum- 
bus." The present is an excellent and most 
appropriate time for the careful review of all 
the reasons pro and contra. 

G. H. G. 

Adam de St. Victor (Vol. v, p. 102). 
The "CEuvres Poetiques" (Paris, 1858) 
of this writer, edited by Gautier, contain 
106 hymns. Admired greatly by the Eng- 
lish theologians and hymnologists, they are 
put aside with scant praise by March and by 
Duffield though the latter once calls him 
"brilliant, epigrammatic, and altogether ad- 
mirable." Adam was probably a Breton by 
birth. Duffield gives us his " Salve, Crux, 
Arbor," with a translation of the same. 

Among his pieces are the " Heri Mundus 
Exultavit," the " Veni, Creator Spiritus," 


[July 26, 1890. 

" Spiritus Recreator," the " Verbum Dei," 
" Deo Natum," the "Simplex in Essentia," 
the "Zyma Vetus Expurgetur," and the 
" Plausu Chorus Laetebundae." Digby S. 
Wrangham published (1881) his poems en- 
tire, with an English version. The appen- 
dix to Duffield's " Latin Hymns" gives the 
names of many more of Adam's pieces, with 
notes on some translations. 

One of this old worthy's hymns is the 
" Come, Pure Hearts, in Sweetest Measures," 
translated into English by R. Campbell. 
This can be found in the " Hymnal" of the 
American Episcopal Church. P. R. E. 

Ff in Proper Names (Vol. v, pp. 90, 
etc.). The manuscript capital F of the 
seventeenth century was usually made by 
doubling the lower-case f, as in the following 
extract from the records of the Church of 
Cambridge of 1658 : 

" Thomas ffoxe & Ellen his wife, both in 
full Comm." 

I do not think that there is any aristo- 
cratic idea connected with the custom at all. 
This form of the letter gave away before 
the demand for a letter more rapidly made. 
I have no doubt but that the " ff" was an 
attempt to imitate the Old English charac- 
ter. S. M. F. 


Translation Wanted (Vol. v, p. 126). 
I should have remarked that the lines I 
quoted as above seem to form part of a cento. 
At all events, " Sabbata nostra colo, de 
stercore surgere nolo" (" I am keeping our 
Sabbath ; I am not willing to be taken out 
of the mire"), was the reply of Solomon of 
Tewkesbury to the Earl of Salisbury when 
he offered to extract the Jew from the pit 
on Saturday ; to whom the Earl replied : 
" Sabbata nostra quidem, Salomon, cele- 
brebis ibidem" ("Very well, Solomon; then 
you shall keep our Sabbath in the same 
place"). And so, before Monday came, 
the Jew died. The story is told in quite a 
number of mediaeval books. The four lines 
quoted are no proper part of the De Mundi 
Vanitate. They were doubtless added by 
some scribbler to the MS. in which they 

The following is what I would propose 
as the probably correct meaning of the last 
two lines : 

" These are they who wickedly corrupt 
our holy psalms : The mumbler, the forward- 
skipper, the stumbler, the scatterer, the over- 
leaper;" that is, those priests who read the 
Psalter in a slovenly way are guilty of in- 
iquitously corrupting the holy text. 


Anagrams in Science (Vol. iv,pp. 118, 
etc.). Mho, a unit of electrical conduc- 
tivity, is an anagram of ohm, the name of 
another electrical unit. T. L. S. 


Cacoethes Scribendi (Vol. v, pp. 113, 
etc.). Would not the meaning be conveyed 
with equal accuracy in plain language by 
scribbling itch or scribbling fever ? 

G. S. 



The Chautauqvan for August presents the following 
attractive table of contents: " A Lucky Accident," a 
novelette, by J. Ranken Towse ; "St. Martin," by 
Annie Bronson King ; " The Condition of American 
Agriculture," by Manly Miles, M.D., F.R.M.S. ; " Sun- 
day Readings," selected by Bishop Vincent ; " Virginia 
Sports, 1 ' by Ripley Hitchcock; " On Shore," by Virna 
Woods; "Two Years in New Zealand," J. N. Ingram ; 
"A Sixteenth Century Garden," by Ferdinand Cohn ; 
" Country Life in Ireland," by J. P. Mahaffy, M.A. ; 
" Keeping Well in Summer," by Felix L. Oswald, 
M.D. ; " Going to the Assembly," by Chancellor Vin- 
cent ; " To Alfred Tennyson, Poet-Laureate," by Hugh 
T. Sudduth; "The Salons of Paris," by George La- 
fenstre ; " A Summer Outing in New York," by Charles 
Barnard; "The Minor Lakes of the Northwest," by 
Horace B. Hudson; "The Central Office of the C. L. 
S. C.," by Kate F. Kimball. The Woman's Council 
Table has the following articles: "Summer Furnish- 
ing," by Susan Hayes Ward; "Gloves, Neck Wear, 
Perfumes, and Handkerchiefs," by Mary S. Torrey ; 
" Why Some Women Cannot Obtain Employment." 
by Kate Tannatt Woods ; " A Vacation on Horse- 
back," by Anna C. Bracket! ; " Some Women I Have 
Met," by Frances E. Willard; "Women Physicians 
in Germany," by A. Von Strande ; '' The Fine Art of 
Helping Others," by Felecia Hillel ; " Economical 
Grocery Buying," by Christine Terhune Herrick : 
" Brain Workers' Recreation in Flowers," by Sarah K. 
Bolton; "Out-door Life at Wellesley," by Louise 
Palmer Vincent ; " Children's Wit," by Margaret J. 
Preston. The editorials discuss matters of current in- 

American JNiotes and Queries : 




Copyrighted fSqo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. Y. No. 14. 


I $3.00 per rear. $1.75, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city, New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's. Boston : Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES: Leuca, 157 Curious Coptic Customs Myatt, 158. 

QUERIES : Wind-propulsion of Wheelbarrows Bishop 
Liberated from Prison Claude's Wife, 158 Lazarillo de 
Tormes River Turned Back, 159 Lobster Changing Color 
Mephistopheles Land East of the Sun and West of the 
Moon, 160. 

REPLIES : The Liwash, or Putrid Sea, 160 St. Michael- 
Tom Green I Shall be Satisfied Sambo Seal of the Con- 
federacy Rush Carpets, 161. 

Busy as a Nailer, 161 Barkstone Brazen Fly of Virgil 
Inquisition, 162. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Crowned A I Acknowledge the 
Corn Lord Timothy Dexter Colen Greek Cities in France 
and Spain, 162 Curious Burial Customs Curiosities of Ani- 
mal Punishment, 163 Raymond Lully The Guinea Un- 
derground Rivers Sunken Cities, 164 Bottomless Ponds 
The Captain of My Dreams Arthur Kill Palseologus 
Maroons Oddities of Noted People, 165 Trivium and 
Quadrivium Famous Spinsters Duke of York, 166 The 
Landfall of Columbus " Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep ;" 
or, " Four Comers to My Bed," 167. 




The word leuca, mentioned in the interest- 
ing note at the above reference, supplies an 
instance of early topographical trope, the 
word being made to denote a certain linear 
distance, whereas it really meant the boun- 
dary of that distance, just as though along 
our railroads miles were called posts. 

As a matter of fact, leuca means a flat 
stone ; stones were ever convenient distance- 
markers by the roadside, and thereby hangs 
the tale. 

The Roman soldiers heard the word leac 
on the lips of the Celto- Gauls ; they gave it 
(as they did in so many other cases) a Latin 
termination, and from leuca came not only 
Lowey and league, but also the word which 

i 5 8 


[August 2, 1890. 

to this day represents that distance in 
France, viz., lieue. 

At the present moment, leac is very good 
Gaelic for a flagstone ; llech is Welsh for the 
same. Leek, Belleek, Leckpatrick, Tal- 
laght, and other place names in Ireland pro- 
claim how Irish the root is also, and by a 
remarkable coincidence, old Sliabh-liag (the 
flat-stone mountain) in Donegal has lived 
to see its name Anglicized to Slieve League. 




The Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria is never 
allowed to sleep more than fifteen minutes 
at a time. At the end of every quarter hour 
he is duly awakened by an attendant. The 
abuna, or Primate of Abyssinia, carries the 
principle of nolo episcopari so far that, when 
appointed, he refuses to be elevated to his 
new dignity, and has to be chained and 
taken to Egypt in order to receive consecra- 
tion at the hands of the Coptic Patriarch. 


I have heard the common rhubard, the 
leaf-stalks of which are used for making pies, 
called myatt, both in New England and 
Pennsylvania. The origin of this name is 
as follows : Some thirty years ago or more, 
there was introduced what was alleged to be 
a new variety of this plant, called " Myatt's 
Victoria" by the seedsmen. From this fact 
some people evolved the name myatt for the 
plant. There is even a myatt wine, a kind 
of drink made from the juice of the stalks. 

L. P. J. 


Wind-propulsion of Wheelbarrows. 
Some of the old geographies used to have a 
picture of a Chinaman pushing a wheelbar- 
row, which was fitted with a sail. Is this 
practice really in existence ? 

O. W. E. 


There is plenty of testimony from actual 

observers that the above custom prevails in 
Central China, where wheelbarrows are ex- 
tensively employed, even in the conveyance 
of travelers. Somewhat similar is the prac- 
tice of loading ships with lime-phosphate at 
Starbuck island, in the South Pacific. The 
material in bags is loaded upon tram-cars 
which are driven by sails ; for the trade- 
wind is very steady and uniform. The cars 
are thus propelled to the extremity of a 
wharf or jetty, and there the bags are trans- 
ferred to a lighter. 

Bishop Liberated from Prison. What 
bishop is said to have been set free from 
prison by reason of his singing? 



It is related that on Palm Sunday, in the 
year 82 1, the Emperor-king Louis the De- 
bonnair, while passing by the prison, or 
monastery-dungeon, at Angers, heard the 
voice of a prisoner singing the " Gloria, 
laus, et honor," in clear and joyful tones. 
On inquiry, the good king was told it was 
the voice of Theodulf, the imprisoned 
Bishop of Orleans, who was singing a hymn 
of his own composing. Thereupon the 
monarch ordered the release of the holy 
man. This story does not rest upon any 
very good evidence, but it is quite in keep- 
ing with the fashion of the times in which 
the event is said to have happened. 

Claude's Wife. Can you tell me any- 
thing about a famous play called " La Fem- 
rne de Claude ?" J. R. OXFORD. 


"Claude's Wife" (Fr., "LaFemmede 
Claude") is a three-act drama, in prose, by 
Alexander Dumas the younger, produced 
at the Gymnase in Paris, January 16, 1873. 
It was very successful, owing in great part to 
the magnificent acting of M'lle Aimee Des- 
clee. The history of the play is rather curi- 
ous. Some months before it was written, a 
M. Dubourghad been sentenced to five years' 
imprisonment for murdering his wife whom 
he had caught in adultery her paramour 
making good his escape to the roof. There- 
upon M. Dumas had brought out a pam. 

August 2, 1890.] 


phlet, "Man-Woman" (" L'homme-fem- 
me"), in which he had laid it down that 
when a wife was peculiarly vicious, it was 
not only proper but necessary for the hus- 
band to kill her. "Tue-la" was the short 
and pithy formula in which the advice was 
given. Subsequently (finding, perhaps, that 
wife-murder had not notably increased in 
Paris), he brought out this play in which 
the same moral was enforced. It may be 
mentioned, in passing, that this moral had 
been an incidental part of the teachings 
of his novel, "The Clemenceau Affair," 
written long before the Dubourg murder. 
Claude Ripert is an inventor, living in Paris. 
His wife, C6sarine, is a modern Messalina, 
who gives herself to lover after lover, some- 
times for gain, oftener to gratify her lusts. 
She has had two illegitimate children, one 
being the fruit of a prematrimonial episode, 
has been forgiven by her husband, but the 
other is of subsequent birth, and as for cer- 
tain reasons it is impossible to father it on 
Claude, she has murdered it. Now it hap- 
pens that a certain mysterious society wishes 
to possess itself of a wonderful invention by 
M. Claude, a cannon of irresistible destruc- 
tive powers. As the society is absolutely 
omniscient, one of its agents, Montagnac, 
threatens Madame Claude with a revelation 
of her infamies unless she gets possession of 
the secret of this invention. In great trepi- 
dation she sees only one thing to do. She 
gratifies the passion of Antonin, her hus- 
band's disciple, and obtains from him the 
necessary papers. But Claude has been 
warned ; he comes upon the scene just as 
she flings the papers out of the window to 
Montagnac, catches up a musket and blows 
out her brains. Then coolly turning to 
Antonin, he says, " Now let's go to work." 

Lazarillo de Tormes. Can you tell me 
who he was? 


The hero of Mendoza's novel of that 
name, the earliest of the picturesque ro- 
mances. It was written in 1524, while the 
author was a college student, but not pub- 
lished (possibly for fear of the Inquisition) 
till 1553. The hero, who tells his own 

story, is the son of a miller in Tormes. 
When eight years of age his mother makes 
him over to a blind beggar to act as his 
guide. The beggar maltreats the boy, 
and nearly starves him, but Lazarillo soon 
learns to cheat him out of the money and 
provisions given by the charitable. Finally, 
he rids himself of his master by making him 
jump against a stone pillar, under the idea 
that he is leaping over a stream, and while 
the old man is lying insensible from the 
shock, the boy runs away. His next patron 
is a priest who proves even meaner than the 
beggar had been, and he then attaches him- 
self to a third master, a grandee of Toledo, 
who had an air about him of such magnifi- 
cence and ease, that Lazarillo flatters him- 
self his position will be an enviable one. 
But appearances are deceptive. The hi- 
dalgo is really at the point of starvation, . 
and Lazarillo, who seems to cherish a warm 
affection for him, is driven to begging to 
support the pair, while the hidalgo hears 
mass and stalks about the promenades with 
all the dignity that befits his birth. But a 
law is passed against vagrancy, and this 
avenue of industry is closed. Lazarillo 
then enters the service successively of a friar, 
a chaplain and a dealer in indulgences, and 
the novel winds up abruptly with his mar- 
riage to an ignoble woman. Several con- 
tinuations were published, the best known 
being that by H. de Luna, in which the 
hero is saved from shipwreck, dressed so as 
to represent a hermit, and exhibited in sev- 
eral Spanish towns. He escapes from his 
owners, and arrives at a hermitage, and the 
hermit dying soon after, he assumes his 
habit, and lives on the contributions of the 

River Turned Back. What river in the 
United States has been made to flow back- 
ward by artificial means ? 



Our correspondent probably refers to the 
Allequash river in Maine, a part of which, 
by means of dams and a canal, has been 
made tributary to the Penobscot instead of 
the river St. John. See the description in 
Thoreau's " Maine Woods." 

i Co 


[August 2, 1890. 

Lobster Changing Color. Why do crabs 
and lobsters become a red color when 
boiled? H. R. DARLINGTON. 


It is said that the reason why lobsters and 
crabs become red when boiled is because 
the shell owes its color to the superposition 
of two pigments, one red and one blue, and 
that the process of cooking causes the blue 
to be destroyed while the red remains. 

Mephistopheles. Whence is this name 
derived ? R. W. 


i, p. 208. 

Land East of the Sun and West of the 
Moon. Where is the Land East of the Sun 
and West of the Moon ? 



The "Land East of the Sun and West of 
the Moon," in Scandinavian folk-lore, is a 
story which is told in various forms in dif- 
ferent localities. It is one of the many va- 
riants of the Cupid and Psyche myth. 
William Morris has versified it in the 
"Earthly Paradise." The outlines of the 
story are as follows : A maiden sacrificed 
herself for the sake of her family and mar- 
ried the White Bear. He brought her to a 
magnificent palace, and every night in the 
dark he came to her in a man's shape. In 
spite of the most solemn warnings curiosity 
impelled her to light a candle one night, 
and three drops of tallow fell upon the 
sleeping prince. He awoke and told her 
sorrowfully that if she had only waited a 
twelve-month the enchantment under which 
he labored would have been broken, but 
that now he must go to a dreary castle East 
of the Sun and West of the Moon and marry 
a witch princess with a nose three ells long. 
Then he disappeared. But the wife set off 
bravely in search of him, and after a long 
and weary journey the North Wind, whose 
assistance she had secured after all the other 
winds had failed, set her down in front of 

the witch's castle. She let the prince know 
of her arrival, whereupon he told the witch 
princess that he would only marry the wo- 
man who could wash out the three tallow 
drops on his shirt. Of course the witch 
princess could not do it, and when the 
strange maiden accomplished the task, the 
princess and her mother and all their atten- 
dant trolls burst into pieces with vexation 
and the enchantment was at an end. 


The Liwash, or Putrid Sea (Vol. v, p. 
115). The German naturalist, Peter Simon 
Pallas (i 741-181 1), lived fifteen years ( 1 795- 
1810) in the Crimea, where he had built a 
residence; he published "Travels in the 
Southern Provinces of Russia, 1793-' 94." 
Eng. Trans., Blaghorn, 1803. For his re- 
marks on "Putrid Sea," refer, Vols. iii and 

Ed. Daniel Clarke (1769-1822), who also 
traveled extensively, sometimes in company 
with Pallas, published "Travels in Russia, 
Tartary, and Turkey." His narrative 
abounds in descriptions of the country about 
the Sea of Azof, and contains quotations 
from other "Travels" in the same region, 
going back to Rubrignis, of the thirteenth 

Baron von Haxthausen (1792-1866), in 
his account of his journey to Kertch, says : 
" The slip or tongue of land which sepa- 
rates the Putrid Sea from the Sea of Azof 
is fifty miles long. In the direction of the 
Sea of Azof, it forms a sandy down from 
twenty to sixty feet high. On the side of 
the Putrid Sea, it extends in a flat, for the 
most part, marshy tract of land, terminat- 
ing in the unsightly shores of this, in part, 
stinking sea. The isthmus is in many places 
not more than a mile, in others scarcely 
four hundred paces wide, and the view from 
the high bank between the two seas, whence 
the traveler descries at a great distance be- 
yond the Putrid Sea, the peaks of the moun- 
tains in the Crimea, is very remarkable" 
(" Russian Empire," Vol. i, p. 430). 

The account of the military movements 
around the Sea of Azof, along with the 

August 2, 1890.] 



maps, in Kinglake's " Invasion of the 
Crimea," help one to a clear understand- 
ing of the geography of this region (see 
Vols. v and vi). 

Also, compare Pallas and Prof. Ansted 
on "Mud Volcanoes," in " Phys. Geog.," 
PP- 337-9- F. T. C. 


St. Michael (Vol. v, p. 150). St. Michael 
is the first of the archangels ; and the angels 
are specially interested in the care of little 
children (see St. Matthew xviii, 10). 

Qui TAM. 


Tom Green (Vol. v, p. 65). Thomas 
Green was a native of Virginia, born 1816, 
died 1864. He was a noted Texan ranger in 
the Texan war of independence, and was dis- 
tinguished in other military exploits. For a 
full account, see Appleton's "American Biog- 
raphies." He should not be confused with 
Thomas Jefferson Green, of North Carolina, 
who also fought in the Texan wars. 


I Shall be Satisfied (Vol. ii, p. 22). The 
beautiful little poem with the above title 
was written by Mrs. Sylvia A. Eberhardt, 
of Knoxville, Iowa, just after the death of 
her mother, in 1881 or 1882. The last 
verse of this exquisite little ballad is as fol- 
lows : 

" But not for long will the parting be ; 
Life's story will soon be fold for me ; 
My fancies oft linger around that shore 
Where partings will never trouble more, 
And there I know by my mother's side 
I shall be perfectly satisfied." 


Sambo (Vol. iv, p. 222). Major Serpa 
Pinto describes a tribe and a territory of this 
name in the east of Benguella. It does not 
seem likely that the Samboses of the earlier 
English slave-traders were of this latter tribe, 
but it may be that they were. That the 
Spanish sambo or zambo, for a negro of 
mixed blood, is the same word, I do not 
venture to affirm. Zambo means also bandy- 

legged ; and I suspect that confusion has 
taken place between the words. Sambo, as 
a nickname for a negro, may well have come 
from the tribal name. Few late works on 
Africa mention- the tribe. N. S. S. 


Sea/ of the Confederacy (Vol. iii, p. 202). 
The Great Seal of the Southern Confed- 
eracy is now in the State House at Colum- 
bia, S. C. It is made of polished bronze, 
and is about three inches in diameter. On 
one side of it is an equestrian statue of 
Washington, and on the other the inscrip- 
tion : " Confederate States of America, 22d 
February, 1862. Deo Vindirece." It was 
made in England, and reached Richmond 
only a few days before the evacuation. In 
the general tear up which followed, it was 
overlooked, and afterwards fell into the 
hands of William E. Earle, of Washington, 
D. C., by whom it was presented to the 
State above mentioned, in 1888. 



Rush Carpets (Vol. v, p. 65). The cus- 
tom of strewing floors with loose rushes is 
very ancient, and is probably not yet ex- 
tinct. In the "De Visitatione Abbatis" of 
Walter Map, the abbot visiting the daugh- 

In domum introducitur 
Stratam juncis et floribus." 




Leper Kings. It has been said that 
Henry III and Henry IV of England, Mar- 
garet of Anjou, and Robert Bruce of Scot- 
land were lepers. Is there any foundation 
for such a statement ? R. M. STEEL. 


Busy as a Nailer. We sometimes 
hear this expression. What is its origin? 
Is a nailer any busier than other working 
people? G. H. G. 




[August 2, 1890. 

Barkstone. What is the origin of the 
term barkstone, a hunter's name for the cas- 
toreum of a beaver ? ISLANDER. 


Brazen Ply of Virgil. Please inform 
me about the Brazen Fly of Virgil. 



Inquisition. Was the State Inquisition 
of Venice distinct from the Ecclesiastical 
Inquisition of the same city ? 

P. R. E. 



Crowned A (Vol. ii, p. 144). In the 
inventory of the effects of Queen Catharine 
of Aragon, the embroideries are described 
with considerable fullness. We read there of 
crowned roses, crowned trees, crowned coat- 
armor, etc. We read in it also of " a bedde of 
blewe velvette, embrowdered with Rooses, as 
also with letters crowned." Among King 
Henry's New Year's gifts, "anno xxvij ," 
to his natural son Henry Fitzroy, Duke of 
Richmond, was " a standing Bolle with a 
cover gilt, having upon the toppe of the 
same a litill boy with a spere and a shilde," 
etc. Also, " a grete Jugg with a cover gilt, 
the letters H and A crowned, and ij eares of 
serpentes" (Inventory, p. 13, at end of Vol. 
iii, of "The Camden Miscellany," Camd. 
Soc., 1854). G. 


" I Acknowledge the Corn" (Vol. i, 
pp. 285, etc.). I object to L. B. W.'s ex- 
planation of the trite saying above quoted. 
There are several reasons for not believing 
it to be the proper explanation of the origin 
of the phrase ; the best being, there was no 
member of either House of Congress be- 
tween 1825 and 1830 by the name of Wyc- 
liff. If Mr. Wycliff ever "acknowledged 
the corn," it was not during the year (1828) 
mentioned by L. B. W. 



Lord Timothy Dexter (Vol. v, p. 
104). A paper by William C. Todd, in the 
New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register, for July, 1890, calls attention to 
the fact that Knapp's "Life of Dexter" is 
full of errors, some of them lies or jokes, 
apparently of Dexter's own invention ; be- 
sides anecdotes which lacked authority. 
Dexter's vanity, ignorance, and drunken- 
ness are conceded ; but the stories of his 
fool-luck in the acquisition of wealth are 
discredited. It is affirmed that he possessed 
business sagacity, industry, and a certain 
kind of prudence. Whatever may have 
been his wealth in his most flourishing days, 
it is certain that his fortune at the time of 
his death, in 1806, was by no means large, 
even for those times. It is said traditionally 
that Lord Timothy Dexter once shipped a 
cargo of warming-pans to the West Indies, 
where they were sold at a good profit, the 
planters buying them for scoops to dip mo- 
lasses with. It was a better venture than 
that of the French Government which, in 
1763, established a skate factory in the 
colony of Guiana. 

W. J. LACK. 


Colen (Vol. v, p. 114). Colen-bell, 
colen-goblet, seem to be names for the col- 
umbine, the bell of which is scarlet. The 
columbine agrees in appearance with what 
Drake says of the colen-bell. 

R. G. B. 


Greek Cities in France and Spain 
(Vol. iv, p. 126). Dr. Cocchi, of Florence, 
I 73 2 ~ > 33 as quoted in Spence's "Anec- 
dotes," London, 1820, says: "The first 
four hundred years of the Roman history 
are supposed to have been fabulous by Sena- 
tor Buonarotti (as Niebulir and others more 
recently have undertaken to prove and 
pretty well shown), and he gives several 
good reasons for his opinion. He suspects 
that Rome, in particular, was built by the 
Greeks ; as Tarentum, Naples, and several 
other cities of Italy were. 1 ' 



August 2, 1890.] 



Curious Burial Customs. The fol- 
lowing clipping from Collier's Once a Week 
may prove of interest to some of your read- 



" The Thibetians cut in pieces the bodies 
of their dead and threw them into the lakes 
to feed the fish. The ancient Bactrians 
suffered the bodies of their departed rela- 
tives to be eaten by dogs specially kept for 
the purpose. The early Norsemen used to 
place the Viking in his ship and " send him 
flaming out to sea " with all his belongings. 
The Ethiopians disposed of the dead either 
by throwing them into the river or by pre- 
serving them in their houses in statues of 
gold or baked clay. The Babylonians em- 
balmed their dead in honey, and discounte- 
nanced cremation, which they believed to be 
nothing but a sacrilege to the sun. The 
Guanches rudely embalmed their corpses, 
drying the bodies in the air and covering 
them with varnish. The palaeolithic cave- 
dwellers of France and Belgium buried their 
dead in natural grottoes and crevices of the 
rocks, similar to those in which they lived. 
The Peruvians appear to have preserved the 
bodies of their incas after the Egyptian 
fashion, and in early times mummies seem 
to have had an abiding place in Mexico. 
The Greeks of old were enjoined by law to 
burn the dead, and the Romans, who in the 
time of the republic had interred their dead, 
adopted the Grecian usage in the days of 
Sulla. The Parsees lay their dead on da 
khamas, or " towers of silence," where the 
vultures clean the bones, which in a month 
are removed and deposited in deep wells 
containing the dust of many generations. 
On the Himalayan slopes the Sikkim burn 
the bodies of the dead, and scatter the ashes 
to the four winds, while the tribes oftOona- 
laska and Nootka Sound bury them on the 
hill-tops, and expect every wayfarer to throw 
a stone on the grave. Herodotus tells us of 
favorite horses and slaves being sacrificed at 
the holocaust of the dead chief, and in 
many countries the wives had the privilege 
of dying with their husbands, a custom 
which has continued in the Hindu Suttee 
down to the present generation. The Bur- 

mese, before burying the body of a gentle- 
man, enclose it in a varnished coffin and, 
after divers hymns and processions, place it 
on a pyre of precious woods, which is igni- 
ted and allowed to burn until nearly con- 
sumed, when the body is taken from the 
flames and buried. The Cheyenne Indian 
hangs the dead body of his friend among the 
foliage of his native forests, a prey to the 
vulture and the sport of every storm ; or 
else, swathing it with willow branches, 
places it with the feet southward in some 
cottonwood tree, together with a plentiful 
supply of food, arms, and tobacco, to be 
consumed on its voyage to the happy hunt- 
ing grounds. The Chinese bury their dead 
in the fairest spots in the land. They are 
extraordinarily devoted to the dead, and the 
labor contract of every coolie emigrant spe- 
cially stipulates that in case of death his 
body shall be carried back to China, that 
his dust may mingle with that of his fore- 
fathers and join their spirits in the flowery 
kingdom. Otherwise, he believes that his 
soul will wander amid strangers unknown 
and astray." 

Curiosities of Animal Punishment. 

' 'In the middle ages the lower animals were 
frequently tried, convicted, and punished 
for various offenses. Mr. Baring-Gould has 
collected some curious cases of this kind. 
In 1266, a pig was burnt at Fontaney-aux- 
Roses, near Paris, for having eaten a child. 
In 1386, a judge at Falaise condemned a 
sow to be mutilated and hanged for a simi- 
lar offense. Three years later, a horse was 
solemnly tried before the magistrate and con- 
demned to death for having killed a man. 
During the fourteenth century oxen and cows 
might be legally killed whenever taken in 
the act of marauding, and asses, for a first 
offense, had one ear cropped ; for a second 
offense, the other ear, and if after this they 
were asses enough to commit a third offense 
their lives became forfeit to the crown. 
"Criminal" animals frequently expiated 
their offenses, like other malefactors, on the 
gallows,- but subsequently they were summa- 
rily killed without trial, and their owners 
mulcted in heavy damages. In the fifteenth 
century it was popularly believed that cocks 
were intimately associated with witches ; 



[August 2, 1890. 

and they were somewhat credited with the 
power of laying accursed eggs, from which 
sprang winged serpents. In 1474, at Bale, 
a cock was publicly accused of having laid 
one of these dreadful eggs. He was tried, 
sentenced to death, and, together with the 
egg, was burned by the executioner in the 
market-place, amid a great concourse of 
people. In 1694, during the witch persecu- 
tions in New England, a dog exhibited such 
strange symptoms of affliction that he was 
believed to have been ridden by a warlock, 
and he was accordingly hanged. Snails, 
flies, mice, ants, caterpillars, and other ob- 
noxious creatures, have been similarly pro- 
ceeded against and condemned to various 
punishments mostly in ecclesiastical courts. 
And, stranger still, inanimate objects have 
suffered the same fate. In 1685, when the 
Protestant chapel at Rochelle was condemned 
to be demolished, the bell thereof was pub- 
licly whipped for having assisted heretics 
with its tongue. After being whipped it was 
catechised, compelled to recant, and then 
baptized and hung up in a Roman Catholic 
place of worship. Probably similar absurd- 
ities may have been perpetrated in our own 
country ; for it must be remembered that 
only in the present reign was the law re- 
pealed which made a cart-wheel, a tree, or 
a beast which had killed a man forfeit to the 
State for the benefit of the poor. It had 
been said that punishment is not likely to 
be efficacious unless it swiftly follows the of- 
fense. This was improved on by a Barbary 
Turk who, whenever he bought a fresh 
Christian slave, had him hung up by the 
heels and bastinadoed, on the principle, it 
is supposed though the application is deci- 
dedly singular that prevention is better 
than cure" (All the I ear Round.} 

Raymond Lully. Outside of Nicolas 
de Hauteville's tremendous list of four hun- 
dred and twenty-nine treatises by Lully, 
the compiler states that there are forty or 
more omitted alchemistic treatises ascribed 
to him which are believed to be spurious. 
(He has admitted, with a caveat, some 
twenty-five alchemistic discourses.) Haute- 
ville, however, disclaims completeness. I 
do not find the " Clericus" in his list, and I 
do not think it is entered under another 

name, because the compiler has generally 
given the first and last line of each treatise 
many of the " treatises" being, however, 
mere papers, or discourses. A few are in 
Catalan the most are in Latin. I have 
not examined Salzinger's edition of Lully. 
This splendid man undoubtedly had his 
faults and his limitations ; but he lived two 
hundred years too soon for his fame, He 
was beatified by one pope, and condemned 
as a heretic by another. In some of the 
Mallorquin churches they still honor his 
memory on the day of his martyrdom a 
hymn at vespers containing these words : 

" Remundus, 
Pretiosae laudis abundus 

Doctor profundus, 
Regnat sine fine jucundus," etc. 


Qui TAM. 

The Guinea (Vol. iv, p. 191). Pepys, 
in his diary, says of the " Guinea" and its 
origin : " September 21, 1668. This day 
also came out first, the new five-pieces in 
gold, coined by the Guiny Company, and 
I did get two pieces of Mr. Holder." In a 
foot-note I find further: " Guineas took 
their names from the gold brought from 
Guinea by the African Company, who, as 
an encouragement to bring over gold to be 
coined, were permitted by their charter 
from Charles II to have their stamp of an 
elephant upon the coin." 



Underground Rivers (Vol. v, pp. 127, 
etc.). Among fictitious or imaginary ex- 
amples of this sort are the streams which 
the Armenians believe to flow from Lake 
Van to the river Tigris. 



Sunken Cities (Vol. iv, pp. 154, etc.). 
The ancient Greeks alleged that the cities 
of Buro and Helica were sunk in the sea, 
in which the houses were visible. The sea 
flows over the old site of the city of Cali- 
cut, in India. E. B. 


August 2, 1890.] 



Bottomless Ponds (Vol. v, pp. 141, 
etc.). A small corner, please, for our late 
bottomless pond here on Manhattan, were 
it but through regard for its antiquity. It 
was an article of faith with the old Dutch 
that it had no bottom, and they seemed to 
have recorded their belief in the name Kolk 
that they gave it (although some people 
said Kalk was the right word). In the 
course of years this question was settled by 
the adoption of the ludicrous Anglicism 
Collect ; it was then time the pond should 
disappear, and it did so. 

It was filled up in the early years of this 
century, and the Tombs were erected on the 
spot in 1840. 


The Captain of My Dreams (Vol. v, 
pp. 1 5 1, etc.). Tennyson long ago published 
a piece beginning " Vex not thou the poet's 
mind," which appears to me to contain a 
general caveat against all questioners as to 
his meaning. Be that as it may. I make 
bold to appeal from the poet exploited for 
an explanation to the poet inspired by his 
subject. I would give more for M. C. L.'s 
graceful and thoroughly poetical interpreta- 
tion, than for the one furnished in this case 
by Tennyson himself. The naming of Venus 
as the captain of the poet's dreams of fair 
women, because she herself is the fairest of 
the fair, is excellent ; but it is only an ad- 
ditional, although a principal, reason for 
saying that the morning star is the captain 
of the poet's dreams. The reasons already 
assigned still hold good, and would of them- 
selves be sufficient. 



Arthur Kill (Vol. v, pp. 67, etc.). I re- 
member reading,, a dozen years ago, in a 
foot-note in Hough's " Gazetteer of New 
York," something to the effect that North- 
ern New Jersey was formerly known to the 
Knickerbockers of New York as Achtyr Kill. 
I cannot be sure of the spelling, nor do I 
remember whether or not the origin of the 
term was given. 



Palseologus. In a very recent number 
of the English Notes and Queries inquiry 
is made concerning a branch (which at one 
time was settled in England) of the imperial 
family of Pala^ologus. I remember reading 
that there once was a family of the name of 
Palaeologus in Barbadoes ; and in one of the 
churches of that island they show the tomb- 
stone of the last of the Palseologi. But I 
have also read that there was reason to be- 
lieve that a gentleman of the same name had 
left Barbadoes, and had probably settled in 
some other colony. Is there, then, by any 
possibility, an American family descended 
from this line of Roman emperors ? I have 
the impression that the Courtenay family, 
of which the Earl of Devon is the head, 
trace a descent from the Latin emperors of 
the East. G. H. G. 


Maroons (Vol. v, p. 146). Another ex- 
planation says that the word maroon means 
' ' hog-hunter. ' ' Still another derivation pro- 
posed is from the Spanish simaron, an ape. 
There is still a body of so-called maroons of 
African descent in the wilds of Guiana. 
These bosch-neger are described in the " En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica," Art. "Guiana." 
They speak a curious composite language. I 
have seen extracts from the New Testament 
in their tongue, issued, I think, by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society. They are 
mostly pagans, with some singularly per- 
verted ideas derived from Christianity. 


Oddities of Noted People (Vol. iv, 
pp. 273, etc.). "Lochiel's Warning" and 
a Cup of Tea Servants and Poetical Inspi- 
ration in the Small Hours Origin of the 
familiar couplet : 

" 'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical lore, 
And coming events cast their shadows before." 

" The happy thought first presented itself 
to Campbell's mind during a visit to Minto. 
He had gone early to bed, and still medita- 
ting on ' Lochiel's Warning ' fell fast asleep. 
During the night he suddenly woke up, re- 
peating, ' Events to come cast their sha- 
dows before.' This was the very thought 
for which he had been hunting all the week. 



[August 2, 1890. 

He rang the bell more than once with in- 
creasing force. At last, surprised and an- 
noyed by so unseasonable a peal, the servant 
appeared. The poet was sitting with one 
foot in the bed and the other on the floor, 
with an air of mixed impatience and inspir- 
ation. ' Sir, are you ill ?' inquired the ser- 
vant. ' 111 ! Never better in my life. Leave 
me the candle and oblige me with a cup of 
tea as soon as possible. ' He then started to 
his feet, seized hold of his pen, and wrote 
down the happy thought, but, as he wrote, 
changed the words ' events to come ' into 
'coming events,' as it now stands in the 
text. Looking at his watch, he observed 
that it was two o'clock, the right hour for a 
poet's dream ; and over his ' cup of tea ' he 
completed his first sketch of ' Lochiel ' " 
(Dr. Beattie's "Biog.," Vol. i, p. 322). 

Not long after Campbell became known 
in Edinburgh, Scott's MS. of " Cadyow 
Castle " began to be shown about among 1 the 
writer's friends. The author of the " Pleas- 
ures of Hope " at once conceived such an in- 
tense admiration for this new ballad that some 
of its more thrilling portions were continually 
ringing in his brain ; and he found himself 
stamping his feet and shaking his head to 
the rhythm, as he went through the streets 
repeating favorite verses like 

" Mightiest of all the beasts of chase 

That roam in wooded Caledon, 
Crashing the forest in his race, 
The mountain bull comes thundering on." 

He says : "I have repeated these lines so 
often on the North Bridge that the whole 
fraternity of coachmen know me by tongue 
as I pass. ' ' 

We are led to compare Lord Byron 
("Mazeppa," xvii): 

" A thousand horses, the wild, the free, 

Like waves that follow o'er the sea, 

Came thickly thundering on." 


F. T. C. 

Trivium and Quadrivium (Vol. v, p. 
40). There is another mediaeval Latin 
couplet much like the one you have already 
given. Can any of your correspondents re- 
call them for me ? A. B. M. 


Famous Spinsters (Vol. iii, pp. igo.etc.) 
To the list printed on pages mentioned, 
I would add : The great Diana of the Ephe- 
sians; the younger Vesta, who asked her 
brother, Jupiter, the privilege of remaining 
an old maid ; Elizabeth Carter, of England, 
the great linguist ; Lady Hester Stanhope, 
niece of William Pitt; Susan B. Anthony, 
Anna Dickinson,, Karoline Winderstrom, 
the first woman doctor of Sweden ; Clara 
Barton ; the late Mary A. Brigham, Presi- 
dent of Mt. -Holyoke Seminary; Louise 
Michel, Emily Faithful, and Mary Murfree 
(Charles Egbert Craddock). 

Besides these, Marian Evans (George 
Eliot), Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Sarah Bern- 
hardt, and scores of other famous women 
were "old maids" long enough before they 
became wives. 



Duke of York (Vol. v, p. 127). Let 
us examine G.'s answer a little. The ques- 
tion which I answered was : " Why do none 
of Queen Victoria's sons bear the title of 
Duke of York?" I answered that the title 
was reserved for princes " in line of succes- 
sion to the throne;" and G. undertakes to 
show that it was not. I admit that Edmund 
of Langley was created Duke of York when 
he was not in such line of succession ; but 
his descendants cannot be counted in a ques- 
tion of creations, as they succeeded to a 
title already created. Edward IV created 
his second son Duke of York ; this duke was 
murdered by Richard of Gloucester in 1483. 
Henry VII created his second son duke ; he 
later became Prince of Wales and king. 
James I created his second son duke ; he, 
too, became Prince of Wales and king. 
Charles II made his brother Duke of York ; 
he became king. George I broke the cus- 
tom by creating his youngest brother duke, 
between whom and the crown were the 
Prince of Wales, the son of the prince, and 
an elder brother of the duke, Maximilian 
William, field marshal in the imperial army. 
George III honored the custom by creating 
his next younger brother Edward Duke of 
York; this duke died in 1767, and in 1784 
the king created his second son duke. I 
said nothing about succeeding to the throne. 

August 2, 1890.] 



In the cases of all these princes, except Ed- 
mund of Langley and Ernest Augustus of 
Hanover, the title was conferred when they 
stood next to the heir apparents to the 
throne. R. G. B. 


The Landfall of Columbus (Vol. v, 
p. 155). I am unable to decide what G. H. 
G. means in alleging the log of Columbus 
to be of questionable authenticity. If we 
are to infer that it is fictitious, I fear the 
truth cannot be established one way or the 
other, inasmuch as the chart, the journal of 
his stay in the Bahamas; and the original 
log-book have disappeared. The only au- 
thentic document extant is the narrative of 
Las Casas, a contemporary and intimate 
friend of Columbus. Las Casas wrote a 
narrative of the voyages and discoveries of 
Columbus, and had before him, among other 
things in its preparation, the original jour- 
nals, the log-book, and the map of the Ba- 
hamas made by Columbus all of which 
have been lost. The log of the voyage has 
been abridged in places, but from the time 
the vessels reached Guanahani, the docu- 
ment is given in full. No attempt, I be- 
lieve, has ever been made to gainsay the 
authenticity of this document, and, until 
the original log-book is produced, no track 
or landfall can be established that does not 
conform to it. That the original log had 
a spice of deceptiveness about it is true, as 
the following extract will show. Is it this to 
which G. H. G. refers, or is it Columbus' 
journal in the Bahamas? 

" MlERCOLES, ib de Octubre. 

" Navego al Ouesudueste, anduvieron a diez millas 
por hora y & ratos doce a algun rato &. siete, y entre dia 
y noche cincuenta y nueve legnas; conto d la gente 
cuarenta y cuartro legnas no mas. Aqui la gente ya no 
lo podia sufrir: quejabase del largo viage ; pero el 
Almirante los esforzo lo mejor que pudo dandoles 
buena esperanza de los provechos que podrian haber. 
Y anadia que por demas era quejarse, pues que el habia 
venido a las Indias, y que asi lo habia de prosequir 
hasta hallarlas con el ayuda de nuestro Senor." 

In his official log, Columbus is admitted 
to have constantly underestimated the daily 
distances. This he did, as he claims in his 
private journal, in order that the men might 
not discover the fact that they were reaching 

a longitude beyond the alleged position of 
Cipango (Japan). In his private journal he 
kept record of the real distances, and this was 
used in Las Casas' narrative. That Guana- 
hani was the place of the first landfall all 
are agreed ; but to what one it shall be ap- 
plied remains to be decided. Captain Fox's 
investigation has included a discussion of 
the change in magnetic variation, and for 
this purpose Prof. Shotte, of the United 
States Coast Survey, has calculated the 
probable position of the agonic for 1492. 
If this has been correctly done, neither Cat 
nor Watling can be the original Guanahani. 



" Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep ;'' 
or, "Four Corners to My Bed" (Vol. 
iii, p. 209). Wordsworth, in a prefatory 
note to his poem, "The Redbreast," says: 
"Now that' the cats had been driven away 
from our cottage, the redbreasts became 
familiar visitors, and always felt confident of 
a welcome. One of them took up his abode 
without being caged with Miss Dorothy W., 
and at night used to perch upon a nail, from 
which a picture had been hung, and fan her 
face with his wing in a manner that was 
most touching." The poet connects this 
incident with the "White Paternoster/' 
best known to us as " Now I lay me, etc.," 
in the following characteristic lines : 

" Now cooling with his passing wing 
Her forehead, like a breeze of spring, 
Recalling how with descant soft, 
Shed round her pillow from aloft, 
Sweet thoughts of angels hovering nigh, 
And the invisible sympathy 
Of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, 
Blessing the bed she lies upon." 

The poet also remarks that the child's prayer 
alluded to is still (1835) in use in the north- 
ern counties. 

Ed. Daniel Clarke (b. 1769), the English 
traveler, when among the Cossacks, ob- 
served that this people were accustomed be- 
fore they consigned themselves to sleep, to 
make the sign of the cross, facing respec- 
tively the four quarters of the globe. "A 
similar superstition," he remarks, "re- 
specting four cardinal points . of worship 

1 68 


[August 2, 1890. 

exists among ignorant people even in our 
own country. I remember when a child 
being taught by an old woman to offer the 
following singular prayer : 

" ' Four corners to my bed, 
Four angels overhead, 
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 
Bless the bed which I lie on.' " 

Another version, recently printed, says five 
angels : 

" Two to watch and two to pray, 
And one to drive all dreams away." 


F. T. C. 


The Atlantic Monthly, for August, contains an arti- 
cle by Henry Cabot Lodge on " International Copy- 
right," which is worth studying. The balance of the 
number is made up as follows : " The Use and Limits 
of Academic Culture," a paper by Prof. N. S. Shaler, 
which shows the manner in which Prof. Shaler believes 
the college could be brought into closer touch with the 
aims of the ordinary student, namely, the gaining of a 
living, is a noticeable paper of the number. It is fol- 
lowed by a sketch of Madame Cornuel and Madame 
de Coulanges. Both of these clever French women 
were given to epigram and don-mots, many of which 
are given in this sketch, which is written by Ellen Terry 
Johnson. Miss Murfree's " Felicia" and Mrs. De- 
land's " Sidney" are still continued. 

The poetry of the number is particularly good. Mrs. 
Fields has a sonnet ; Mr. Whittier a three-page poem 
on the town of Haverhill ; and Dr. Holmes ends his 
installment of "Over the Teacups" with some verses 
entitled " The Broomstick Train ; or, The Return of 
the Witches." The Salem witches, he tells us, impa- 
tient at their long imprisonment, petitioned to be re- 
leased, but when the Evil One allowed their liberty, 
they played such mad pranks that he called them to- 
gether and, for punishment, made them pull the electric 

" Since then on many a car you'll see 
A broomstick plain as plain can be ; 
As for the hag, you can't see her, 
But, hark ! you can hear her black cat's purr, 
And now and then, as a train goes by, 
You may catch a gleam from her wicked eye." 

But to appreciate the verses, not six but the twice sixty 
lines should be all read. 

The Century Magazine, for August, con tains the third 
part of " The Anglomaniacs," of which the concluding 

installment will be published in the September number. 
In the new chapter of Mrs. Barr's striking novel, 
" Friend Olivia," the heroine sets sail for America with 
her father, who goes in search of religious freedom and 
converts. The short story of the number, " The Eman- 
cipation of Joseph Peloubet," by John Elliott Curran, 
introduces a Frenchman who turns his back in disgust 
on the Second Emp re, starts a newspaper in New York 
which advocates emancipation of the slaves, and col- 
lapses, and who then returns to his trade of baking 
until the breaking out of the war, when he enlists, and 
his ideals are realized and his life is sacrificed. 

Few readers will reach the end of the second paper 
by Dr. T. H. Mann, on his experiences as "A Yankee 
in Andersonvile," without being profoundly touched 
by the pathos of his helpless journey to his home in 
Boston. The realistic pictures, made from photographs, 
add to the interest of the narrative of life in the prison- 
pens at Andersonville and Florence. Another article 
bearing briefly on the history of the war, is Miss S. E. 
Blackwell's statement in "Open Letters" of "The 
Case of Miss Carroll," whose claims for services to the 
Union are still unconsidered by Congress. 

In the tenth part of " The Autobiography of Joseph 
Jefferson," the comedian writes most entertainingly of 
John Brougham, Edwin Adams, Charles Fechter, 
George Holland, and of other favorites who have not 
long been absent from the stage. Another illustrated 
feature of the number that is pervaded by an artistic 
personality, is the fifth installment of John La Farge's 
" Letters from Japan." There is also a decided lit- 
erary quality in Mrs. Amelia Gere Mason's fourth paper 
on "The Women of the French Salons," which treats 
more particularly of the salons of the eighteenth cen- 

John Muir contributes an important paper on " The 
Treasures of the Yosemite." The article is richly illus- 
trated, and there are maps to indicate the boundaries 
of the proposed enlargement of the Yosemite Park by 
the creation of a new national park to preserve the 
sources of the waters that are such an indispensable fea- 
ture of the old park. Mr. Muir, who is recognized as 
qualified to give a weighty opinion in the matter, urges 
the attention of the public to the preservation of the 

Other illustrated features of the number are W. J. 
Stillman's paper on the " Italian Old Masters," Sandro 
Botticelli, with three full-page engravings by Cole; an 
entertaining account by Gustave Kobbe of " The Perils 
and Romance of Whaling;" and the second part of 
Harriet W. Preston's " Proven9al Pilgrimage," illus- 
trated by Pennell. 

President Eliot of Harvard contributes "The For- 
gotten Millions," a study of the common American 
mode of life, as typified by the permanent native popu- 
lation of Mt. Desert. In " Topics of the Time" there 
is a discussion of the " Distaste for Solitude ;" of " The 
New School of Explorers," as exemplified by Stanley ; 
and a brief comment on Mistral and his poetic country 
of " Provence." In "Open Letters," the Rev. Alfred 
J. P. McClure describes the work of the " Siberian 
Exile Petition Movement of Philadelphia," and Abbot 
Kinney replies to Major Powell's article in the April 
Century on the arid regions of the West. 

Besides the poems in " Bric-a-Brac," the number 
contains a charming poem on Shakespeare by Thomas 
Bailey Aldrich, entitled " Guilielmus Rex," and poems 
by Harriet Prescott Spofford, Frank Dempster Sher- 
man, Edith Thomas, Bliss Carman, and Charles G. D. 

American JNiotes and Queries : 




Copyrighted i8qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post- Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Yol. Y. No. 15. 


I $3.00 per year. $1.76, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's, Boston : Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans : 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco; J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 

NOTES : Tinker's Dam, 169 Notes on Words Meditate 

Rail, 170. 
QUERIES : Colored Starch, 170 Frogs of Windham 

Meum Nil Non Pert, 171. 

REPLIES : Brazen Fly of Virgil Herod and Mariamne, 
171 Stone Worn Away Qui Vive Greek Cities, 173. 

Remember Boy, etc. Shrewsbury Kubla Khan Seiche 
Authorship Wanted, 174. 

COMMUNICATIONS -.What Year is This? 174 Sunken 
Cities and City of Is Popocatepetl, 175 Thackeray's 
Nose Kansas Leper Kings Red Sea Cool as a Cucum- 
ber, 176 Wise Men of Gotham Parallel Passages Colors 
of Lakes and Rivers, 177 Duke of York Telegraphic 
Blunders Devil's Lake Arthur Kill, 178 Musical Sands- 
Charivari Rivers Flowing Inland Lake Drained Rhym- 
ing History of England Discoveries by Accident, 179 
Hardships of Genius Ford in Place Names Presbyterian 
True Blue Sunken Islands Corrigendum, 180. 


(VOL. i, P. 261.) 

A great many people believe that this 
expression comes from the dam of putty or 
clay that a tinker uses to restrain his molten, 
metal from overflowing, and which is thrown 
away when his work is completed. 

This is altogether an error. " A Tinker's 
Dam" is equivalent to the expression, ''A 
Continental Damn." The latter expression 
arose when Continental money had become 
so utterly worthless towards the end of the 
Revolution, as the Confederate notes did at 
end of the Civil War. In a " Classical Dic- 
tionary of the Vulgar Tongue," London, 
1 796, a ' ' dam' ' is defined as ' ' a small Indian 
coin, mentioned in the Gentoo code of 
laws; hence the etymologists may, if they 


[August 9, 1890. 

please, derive the common expression, 'I 
do not care a dam !' /'. e., I do not care a 
farthing for it." And a dam is the smallest 
Hindu coin in circulation, like a Turkish 
paper piastre or a Portuguese milreis, the 
one- thousandth part of a dollar, or a French 
centime, one-fifth of a sou, used in 
making up accounts, but a coin rarely if 
ever seen in circulation. A Hindu Tinker 
is a Pariah, the lowest caste, an outcast. 
For a higher class to touch what a Pariah 
has touched is pollution ; consequently, a 
"Tinker's Dam" is a monetary token al- 
most valueless in itself, and utterly worthless 
by being polluted in passing through a 
Tinker's or Pariah's hands. Sometimes 
this expression is spelled "Tinker's Damn," 
and it has been stated that the French say 
"Damn." But both are errors. The 
French oath sounding like Dam is Dame, 
very common. That is said to be the mis- 
use of Dame, abbreviation of Notre Dame, 
although respectable dictionaries interpret 
it as an exclamation to denote surprise, as 
" Bless me ! Forsooth ! Many !" 



Matte. This is a fisherman's name for a 
fat herring, with the spawn not largely de- 
veloped. The " Century Dictionary" says 
that its origin is uncertain. The Dutch 
name for small herring is maatjes ; maatjc 
also means a small measure, as explained by 
Mr. Holdsworth in " Encycl. Brit.," Art. 
" Fisheries;" herring full of spawn are called 
voll, or full. The subject certainly requires 
further examination. Brockhaus ("The 
Conv. Lexikon," under "Herring") defines 
matjeshering as virgin-herring. 

Metaxite. The "Century Dictionary" 
derives this word (which has been employed 
as the name of at least three minerals, of 
which this dictionary gives us only one) 
from the Greek /^erafy, between. Why not 
derive it from fiira^a, silk ? It has always 
been applied to fibrous or silky minerals. 
I have no doubt that the derivation here 
offered is correct. 

Meristem. The "Century Dictionary" 
states that this word, a botanical term, is 
irregularly formed from the Greek 

to divide, nspiffTos, divided. Is not the 
formation perfectly regular? Quite a num- 
ber of Greek nouns denoting a material 
acted upon, are formed from verbal stems 
with -cma. 

Mot, or Motte. This well-known Texan 
word for a clump of trees, a small grove, is 
not in the "Century Dictionary." Com- 
pare Fr. motte, a lump, a patch, a mound ; 
Sp. nwta, a mound. P. F. P. 



This word, in Milton's phrase, to "strictly 
meditate the thankless muse," is defined by 
the Century, and other dictionaries, as 
meaning " to think upon ; to resolve in the 
mind; to consider." It strikes me that in 
this case we have to do with a strict Latin- 
ism, and that the meaning is "to exercise 
one's self in ; to devote one's attention to; 
to occupy one's time with." It is the " sil- 
vestrem tenui musam meditaris avena" of 
Virgil, in which case it plainly means more 
than to think upon. G. 



This word, meaning a tunic (extant in the 
term night-rail} is generally referred, and 
no doubt correctly, to Anglo-Saxon hregil. 
(But is not the Latin rallus, a tunic, of the 
same origin ?) I am inclined to think that 
a tunicle, scarf, or stole, comes near to what 
the English people at one time meant by a 
rail. N. S. S. 

Colored Starch. Has colored starch ever 
been used ? C. R. REYNOLDS. 


Yes. There was once a yellow starch in- 
vented by a Mrs. Turner, who made herself 
famous in the fashionable world of London 
on its account. Mrs. Turner was executed 
at Tyburn, on November 15, 1615, for her 
connection with the mysterious poisoning 
of Sir Thomas Overbury in the Tower of 

When Lord Chief Justice Coke pro- 

August 9, 1890.] 



nounced sentence of death upon Mrs. 
Turner, he told her " that as she had been 
the inventor of yellow starched ruffs and 
cuffs, he hoped she would be the last by 
whom they would be worn." He accord- 
ingly gave strict orders for her to be hanged 
in the attire which she had made fashionable. 
This addition to her sentence was fully car- 
ried out, and the prisoner came to the gal- 
lows with her face rouged and a ruff stiffened 
with yellow starch around her neck. 

The object contemplated by the Lord 
Chief Justice was fully attained, as the yel- 
low ruff was never more worn from that 

Frogs of Windham. Where can I find 
the best account of the visitation of the frogs 
at Windham, Conn., in the olden times? 
I know that there are various versions of the 
affair, and I would like to see and compare 
them. RUDOLPH. 


Is it not probable that the terrific noise 
made by the alleged " Frogs of Windham" 
were in reality produced by the " Spade- 
foot Toad," Scaphiopus solitarius? It is 
stated that when these creatures (rarely seen, 
and not very well known to naturalists) as- 
semble themselves together they sometimes 
make a very hideous din, which is almost 
always ascribed incorrectly to the bull-frogs. 

Meum Nil Non Pert. What does this sen- 
tence mean ? JAMES R. KEMBLE. 
ST. Louis, Mo. 

This is an old puzzle ; it is said to mean 
"Bearwort produces no indigo." 

It E P L I E S . 

Brazen Fly of Virgil (Vol. v, p. 162). 
Gervase of Tilbury states that the poet 
Virgil made a fly of brass, which, being 
mounted upon one of the gates of Naples 
for many years, hindered that city from 
being troubled with flies. Qui TAM. 


In mediaeval legend the poet Virgil figures 

as a mighty magician in fact, as a type of 
that class. His poetical eminence and the 
consequent familiarity of his name to the 
people, caused the ascription to him of 
many of the marvelous necromantic exploits 
originally told of others, notably of Hip- 
pocrates, besides new stories that were in- 
vented and placed to his credit. One of 
the wonderful examples of Virgil's magical 
power, which is related by Gervase of Til- 
bury, was the creation of a brazen fly, which 
was placed on one of the gates of the city 
of Naples, and had the effect of keeping 
the city free from real flies. But this is 
only one of the many marvelous construc- 
tions of his hands. We read of a chamber 
built by him which would keep meat fresh 
any length of time ; of a certain brazen 
statue which kept the city free from the 
smoke and fire issuing from "Vulcan's 
forges;" his baths which cured every dis- 
order, and the wonderful brazen archer 
which guarded the public fire, besides many 
more not less astonishing. 

A curious story, which may not be out of 
place, is told of the manner in which Virgil 
attained his power in the " scyence of ny- 
gromancy." While at school, at Toledo, 
he wandered into a cave in which a " devyll 
conjured out of the body of a certeyne man" 
was imprisoned. This devil promised Vir- 
gil full knowledge of all the magical arts if 
he would liberate him ; he was accordingly 
released, and faithfully complied with his 
agreement; but afterwards Virgil made abet 
with him that he could not crawl back into 
the same hole ; the devil reentered his for- 
mer prison, and Virgil closed the opening 
and left him there. 

An unfortunate accident which happened 
while Virgil was undergoing the process of 
rejuvenation, many years later, cut short his 
extraordinary career, which might other- 
wise have been prolonged for centuries. 

E. G. KEEN. 


Herod and Mariamne (Vol. ii, p. 223.) 
" The old story of Herod and Mariamne is 
so simple and natural, that it appeals to 
every heart in every age." 

Including three in French already named, 
I find the following dramatic versions of the 



[August 9, 1890. 

story as told in the Spectator, by Addison, 
"who collected it out of Josephus:" 

Marianna Ludovico Dolce . . 1565 

Mariamne Alex. Hardy .... 1623 

Mariamne Tristan L'Eremite . 1637 

No Monster Like Jealousy . Calderon 

Herod and Mariamne . . . Pordage 1674 

Herod the Great Roger Boyle .... 1676 

Mariamne Elijah Fenton . . . 1723 

Mariamne Voltaire 1724 

Herod and Mariamne . . . Friedrich Hebbel . . 1850 

The Italian version, "Marianna," was 
printed (1565) next year after the birth of 
Shakespeare. The play bears some little 
resemblance to "Othello," on account of 
which Klein has chosen to consider Shake- 
speare much indebted to Dolce; most critics 
think the German's theory rests on too 
slight a basis to be tenable. Alex. Hardy 
was the author of six hundred dramas; 
Hazlitt says, " Mariamne is the most tolera- 
ble of his tragedies." 

Tristan's " Mariamne" met with immense 
success, due chiefly to the genius of Mon- 
dory, the greatest actor of the seventeenth 
century. Mondory created the role of Herod, 
and his interpretation was never approached, 
much less surpassed. "He surrendered 
himself entirely to the part, and died of his 
efforts." " Herod," continues Doran, 
" was indeed the malady to which he suc- 
cumbed," for it was while uttering the 
king's words that he was stricken with the 
paralysis (d. 1646). 

The Spanish version, "No Monster like 
Jealousy," is doubtless the most important. 
Of the two hundred works of Calderon 
which have been preserved, this drama is 
thought the most interesting. It exceeds 
even " Othello" in tragical horrors ; as Mr. 
Ticknor remarks, " It does not seem as if 
the fierce and relentless passion could be 
carried on the stage to a more terrible ex- 
tremity." Mr. T. detects a refinement in 
the quality of Herod's jealousy which does 
not belong to Othello's. While the Moor's 
passion is of a lower sort, appealing to gross 
fears, Herod the king's is wholly transcen- 
dental, having for its object a being purely 

The coincidences which occur are, though 
wholly accidental, very interesting. In both, 
near the close of the drama, the heroine ap- 
pears in a night scene accompanied with 

music. In Calderon 's, it is the women in 
attendance on her who sing to Mariamne, 
already sinking from fateful forebodings, 
Escriva's familiar lines : 

" Come, Death, but gently come and still ; 
All signs of thine approach restraining, 
Lest joy of these mine heart should fill 
And turn it back to life again.*' 

Nor can we forget Desdemona's final de- 
fense of Othello, when we listen to Mari- 
amne's reply to Octavius, who urges her 
flight that she may escape Herod's violence: 

" For, Sire, my husband 
Is my husband, an' if he slay me, 
I am guiltless, which, in the flight 
You urge, I could not be." 

" I die not through my fault, 
But through my star's malignant potency, 
Preferring in my heart a guiltless death 
Before a life held up to vulgar scorn." 

In May, or rather June, 1881, Madrid 
celebrated the two hundredth anniversary 
of Calderon's death. Throughout the festi- 
val week his plays were revived with the 
utmost splendor, and were listened to by 
his countrymen with an enthusiasm which 
time could neither lessen nor chill. 

" Herod the Great" is pronounced the 
" most striking of several dramas by Roger 
Boyle, Earl of Orrery ; still Lord Broghill's 
play must rank with the least successful on 
the list, which reminds one of Walpole's re- 
mark, " that he never made a bad figure, 
but as a poet." 

While little better than absolute failure is 
recorded of Voltaire's " MariamneV' 1724, 
it was to Elijah Fenton, the tutor of Charles 
Boyle, the dramatist and grandson of Lord 
Broghill, that "Mariamne" brought for- 
tune and fame. 

It was during a period of great financial 
depression at Lincoln's Inn Theatre, that 
this modest gentleman of a good old family 
handed a tragedy to Colley Gibber, of 
Drury Lane. The manager read the play, 
and, after retaining it unnecessarily long, 
returned it to Fenton with the advice to 
leave the Muses and stick to some honest 
calling. Through the influence of friends, 
Fenton then offered his play to the manager 
of Lincoln's Inn, Rich, who immediately 
brought it out. Whatever difference of 

August 9, 1890.] 



opinion may exist as to its literary merit, 
the tragedy won a triumph, both for author 
and manager. The house in the Fields was 
rescued from bankruptcy, and the poet, to 
whom Pope had paid ^250 for translating 
four books of the " Odyssey" for him, 
netted four times that sum by this drama. 
Fenton was now famous and happy, too. 
Being content with this one great dramatic 
success, he lived calmly the brief seven years 
of life which followed. He died at East- 
hampstead, the guest of Sir William Trum- 
bull. " He was never named but with 
praise and fondness, as a man in the highest 
degree excellent and amiable." 

Pope paid a beautiful tribute to Fenton's 
character in his famous epitaph : 

" This modest stone, what few vain marbles can 

More truly say, ' Here lies an honest man,' 

A poet bless'd beyond the poet's fate, 

Whom Heaven kept sacred from the proud and great. 

Foe to loud praise and friend to learned ease, 

Content with science in the vale of peace, 

Calmly he looked on either life, and here 

Saw nothing to regret or there to fear ; 

From Nature's temperate feast rose satisfied, 

Thanked Heaven that he had lived, and that he died." 

F. T. C. 


Stone Worn Away (Vol. ii, p. 191). It 
is possible that the querist refers to the steps 
of a public building in Pompeii. These are 
described in a popular book, whose name I 
cannot now recall, as having been nearly 
worn in pieces by the feet, probably of chil- 
dren. At least three inches in depth have 
been worn from the steps in front of the 
Cathedral of St. Mark, in Venice, while the 
broad step in front of the Campanile has 
been equally worn. In the stone steps lead- 
ing to the recently discovered crypt of 
Beauchamp Chapel, one of the upper stones 
has been worn quite in two. The foot of 
the bronze statue of St. Peter, in St. Peter's, 
at Rome, has been kissed by worshipping 
pilgrims until the semblance of the shape of 
a foot is almost lost. 


Qui Vive (Vol. v, p. 103). Not a few 
so-called French idioms are found, on ex- 
amination, to be Latin pure and simple, and 

among them I look upon gut vive as a very 
plain example of conjunctious dubitativus. 

In my mind, Qui vive ? (who is there that 
may be alive?) is absolutely analogous to 
Ovid's Quidfaciat ? (what is there that he may 
do?), to Cicero's Qiiidagerem? Quidfaceret 
aliud? etc., etc. 

Instances of the Latin subjunctive in idio- 
matic French are too numerous to need being 
recorded here. Que je finterpelle, mot ! 
could not be turned into English, mood for 
mood ; what is it but Cicero's Egone ut te 
interpellen ! We translate que je sache by 
as far as I know ; Cicero said, quod s dam. 
Sauve qui peut ! Advienne que pourra ! 
Vienne le jour oil .' etc., are all so many 
other cases in point. 

What wonderful discoveries " good old 
etymologists" would have made, had they 
spent, in studying history, one-half the time 
they wasted in straining the powers of their 
ingenuity ! A. ESTOCLET. 


Greek Cities (Vol. v, pp. 162, etc.). 
There are a number of cities in Spain ac- 
credited to the Greeks and Phoenicians as 
the founders. Much is, however, traditional. 
Pliny, in his "Natural History," under 
"Account of Countries," mentions quite a 
number. The most authenticated are the 
following : 

Gades, now Cadiz, founded by Phoeni- 
cians, about i 100 B. C. 

Hispal, now Seville, founded by same, 
date unknown. 

Malaca, now Malaga, founded by same, 
about noo B. C. 

Abdera, now Adra, founded by Greeks, 
date unknown. 

Saguntum, now Murviedro, founded by 
Greeks from Zacynthus, i.e., Zante, about 
1384 B. C. 

Emporice, now Castellon de Ampurias, 
founded by a Greek colony from Marseilles, 
about 550 B. C. 

I have cited the above few, but a refer- 
ence to Strabo and Pliny, with an ancient 
geography, will be interesting to O. A. B. 

In France there were not so many cities 
founded by the Greeks. The principal are : 

Massalia, now Marseilles, founded by 
Phoenicians, about 600 B. C. 



[August 9, 1890. 

Agatha, now Agde, founded by a colony 
from Massalia. 

Antipolts, now Antibes, colonized by Mas- 
salians, about 340 B. C. 

Further upon Greek settlements in France 
may be found in both Strabo and Pliny. 



Lake Baikal. Can any of your corre- 
spondents explain the wonderful ground- 
swell which is said at times to prevail in the 
waters of Lake Baikal in Siberia ? 



Remember, Boy, etc. Who wrote 
the verses given with a Bible, beginning : 

" Remember, boy, who gave thee this?" 


Shrewsbury. What is the proper pro- 
nunciation of this name ? In New Jersey it 
is often called Shroz'b<rr-e (o as in coal} ; 
in Trevisa's translation of the Cambriae 
Epitome (Caxton's Press, 1480), we find 
Shrousbury. M. A. BROWN. 


Kubla Khan. Is the " farm house be- 
tween Porlock and Linton" still standing 
where Coleridge dreamed his fragment of a 
poem about Kubla Khan ? ISLANDER. 


Seiche. Is there any good hypothesis 
yet offered to account for the strange seiches, 
or changes of level, which are observed in 
the Swiss lakes ? Are there similar seiches 
in any of the American lakes ? 


Authorship Wanted. I remember 
these lines : 

" Taught by that Power that pities me, 
I learn to pity them." 

Who was the author of this quotation ? 

L. F. L. 



What Year is This ? " ' A German 
professor says our calculation of the Chris- 
tian era is erroneous.' I find the above 
item going the rounds, with an added line 
which meekly informs the reader that we 
are off four or five years in our mode of 
reckoning time. For centuries there has 
been doubt as to the correctness of the ac- 
cepted calculation of the Christian era. 
Learned historians cannot agree whether 
Christ was born in the year 747, 749, or 
754, counting from the foundation of Rome. 
"Prof. Sattler, of Munich, has published 
an essay in which he tried to reconcile the 
testimony of the evangelists with other 
historical data on this point. He has ex- 
amined four copper coins which were struck 
in the reign of Herod Antipas, one of the 
sons of Herod the Great, from which he de- 
duces the conclusion that Christ was not 
born in 754, but in 749, after the foundation 
of Rome, and therefore that 1890 is 1895. 
This opinion the professor substantiates by 
what he takes to be corroborative testimony 
of the evangelists. 

" According to Matthew, Jesus was born 
towards the end of the reign of Herod the 
Great, and that when Herod died Jesus 
was yet a little child. Luke says that James 
was born in the year in which the Governor 
of Syria made the first census in Judea. In 
another place he says that John began to 
baptize in the fifteenth year of the reign of 
Tiberius Caesar, and in that year baptized 
Jesus, who was then thirty years of age. 
St. Luke says that in Judea the first census 
was made during the reign of Herod ; this 
census must have been ordered in the year 
746 of Rome. 

" Probably it was begun in Judea in 747. 
Prof. Sattler thinks it was not made in Jeru- 
salem earlier than 749. He finds that the 
four coins enabled him to make clear the 
testimony of the evangelist as to the fifteenth 
year of the Emperor Tiberius. Though 
Augustus died August 19, 767, the reign of 
Tiberius must be counted from a year and 
a half earlier, from February, 766, when he 
was appointed coregent; therefore the fif- 
teenth year of Tiberius falls in 780, when 

August 9, 1890.] 



John baptized Jesus, who was then about 
thirty years of age. 

" One of the evangelists says that Jesus 
began to preach forty-six years after the 
building of the Temple by Herod at Jeru- 
salem. Now it is known that the Temple 
was begun eighteen years after Herod was 
appointed regent by the Roman senate, or 
in the year 734 from the foundation of 
Rome. Adding forty-six to that year it 
gives 780 as the year in which Christ began 
to preach. If all these calculations of Prof. 
Sattler are correct, then the Christian era 
began five years earlier than is usually sup- 
posed" (6V. Louis Republic). 

Sunken Cities City of Is, etc. (Vol. 
i, pp. 124, etc. ; iii, 107, etc. ; iv, 154, etc. ; 
v, 131, etc.). In Macmillan's Magazine, 
for January, 1890, is an article by C. H. 
Herford on " The Father of Low German 
Poetry," Klaus Groth, b. 1819, in Western 
Holstein. Many of the poems in the vol- 
ume entitled " Quickborn" (or " Running 
Spring") are founded on legends of the 
North Sea, its marshes, swift tides, and shal- 
low sands. One of them on the buried city 
of Biisum is translated from the Platt- 
Deutsch by Mr. Herford, as follows : 

"Old Biisum lies below the wave, 
The waters came and scooped its grave. 

" They scooped and scoured, they crawled and 

The island to the deep they swept. 

" Never a stick nor straw was found ; 
All buried in the gulf profound. 

" Nor any kine, nor dog, nor sheep ; 
All swallowed in the deepest deep. 

" Whatever lived and loved the light, 
The sea locks in eternal night. 

" Sometimes at lowest ebb you see 
The tops of houses in the sea. 

" Then peers the steeple from the sand 
Like to the finger of a hand. 

" Then are the bells heard softly ringing, 
And the choristers softly singing ; 

" And it is whispered o'er the deep, 
Suffer the buried dead to sleep ! " 


Palseologus (Vol. v, p. 165). In the 
parish church of Landulph, in the eastern 

extremity of Cornwall, is a small brass tab- 
let fixed against the wall, with the following 
inscription : 

" Here lyeth the body of Theodore Paleo- 
logus, of Pesaro, in Italye, descended from 
the Imperial lyne of the last Christian Em- 
perors of Greece, being the sonne of Ca- 
milio, the sonne of Prosper, the sonne of 
Theodore, the sonne of John, the sonne of 
Thomas, second brother of Constantine 
Paleologus, the 8th of the name, and last of 
that lyne that rayned in Constantinople, 
until subdued by the Turks ; who married 
with Mary, the daughter of William Balls, 
of Hadlye, in Suffolke, gent., and had issue 
5 children, Theodore, John, Ferdinando, 
Maria, and Dorothy j and departed this life 
at Clyfton, the 2ist of Jan., 1636." 

Above the inscription are the imperial 
arms : an eagle displayed with two heads, 
the two legs resting upon two gates ; the 
imperial crown over the whole, and between 
the gates a crescent for difference as second 
son. Clyfton was an ancient mansion of 
the Arundel family in the parish of Lan- 
dulph. H. R. 


Popocatepetl (Vol. v, pp. 53, etc.). 
In the New York Daily Herald of April 21, 
1890, p. 7, it is stated that the expedition 
of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences has succeeded in exploding some 
very erroneous ideas in regard to the height 
of Mexican volcanoes. Profs. Anjelo Heil- 
prin and Frank C. Baker, of the expedition, 
have just returned from an ascent of Popo- 
catepetl, which they found to be nearly 
three thousand feet lower than the measure- 
ments of Humboldt. 

The total height of the mountain, making 
allowance for minor barometrical correc- 
tions, is 14,700 feet above the sea level. 


A number of determinations collected by 
Prof. Persifor Frazer are given on p. 53 of 
this volume. Later investigations do not in 
any way confirm Prof. Heilprin's measure- 
ments. On the contrary, it seems certain 
that they are unworthy of consideration. 


7 6 


[August 9, 1890. 

Thackeray's Nose Conflicting 
Statements (Vol. iv, pp. 179, etc.). 
A third claimant to the honor of breaking 
Thackeray's nose is mentioned in an article 
("Some Few Thackerayana," by D. D.) 
in the National Review, August, 1889, viz. : 

" Apropos of school fights, Thackeray re- 
ceived his mark there, if he made it in cari- 
catures. He met some ' Grey Friars' cro- 
nies one day and the needle of reminiscence 
pointed to a well-known frere, Venables, 
then talked of as a writer in the Saturday 
Review. ' He did this,' said Thackeray, 
laying an emphatic finger on his own nose, 
the bridge of which had suffered some dis- 
figurement from a school encounter with that 
worthy in those early days. One cannot 
but smile at the omen conveyed in the future 
critic thus putting out of joint the school- 
boy nose of the future author." 

The writer adds in a note : " Possibly an 
allusion to this occurs in the 'Letters,' p. 
170, where, referring apparently to some ad- 
verse critique in that periodical (the Satur- 
day Review}, Mr. Thackeray says : ' I never 
for one minute should think that my brave 
old Venables would hit me, or, if he did, 
that he hadn't good cause for it.' See, 
also, p. 731 : ' Venables was there, very shy 
and grand-looking ; how kind that man has 
always been to me.' ' 

I copy, also, a " personal" from Harper* s 
Weekly, July 5, 1890 : 

" Thackeray had a broken nose, the re- 
sult, as has generally been supposed, of a 
school-boy fight with the late G. S. Vena- 
bles, Q.C. This fact has recently been 
established in a letter from a brother of the 
nose-breaker, who also says that Thackeray 
adopted the name of ' Michael Angelo Tit- 
marsh' because the great artist's face had 
been disfigured in the same way." 


Kansas. "In 1722-23," says the Kan- 
sas City Star, " the commander of the ter- 
ritory, in which was included what is now 
Kansas, claimed by France, erected a fort 
near the mouth of the Osage, in the hope 
of preventing any further incursions by the 
Spaniards into the region beyond the Mis- 
souri. It was called Fort Orleans, and was 
built after the annihilation of a colony of 

Spaniards from Santa Fe (by the Kansas 
Indians), who had attempted a settlement 
in some portion of what is now the State of 
Missouri, near the mouth of the Osage, 
probably. Of the three hundred that left 
Santa F6 with hopeful hearts, not one was 
left to tell the story of the massacre. 

"The territory now called Kansas, or at 
least that portion of it that borders on Kaw, 
was occupied by the Kauzas Indians, and 
' Kansas' is a corruption of that primitive 
name; happily, too, for the original is harsh 
and lacks the euphony of the modern form. 
It is alleged that the name was diverted 
from the original through the mistake of a 
proof-reader, who, revising the very early 
work of some missionary, mistook the 'u* 
for an inverted ' n' and so corrected it, and 
to that blunder we are indebted for the 
name of Kansas. The Kansas Indians are 
called the Kaws, a diminutive of Kausas or 
Kauzas. I have seen the word spelled in 
old books Kauza and Kausa, but the z is 
probably the correct letter." 

Leper Kings (Vol. v, p. 161). Sir 
Walter Scott is authority for the following 
statement : " Filth, poorness of living, and 
the want of linen, made this horrible dis- 
ease (leprosy) formerly very common in 
Scotland. Robert Bruce died of the leprosy ; 
and through all Scotland there were hospi- 
tals erected for the reception of lepers, to 
prevent their mingling with the rest of the 
community" (see "Sir Hugh Le Blond," 
"Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border," Vol. 
iii, p. 61, note). H. R. 


Red Sea (Vol. v, p. 123, ). Red Sea 
is not a correct translation of the Hebrew 
name for this gulf, but should be Reed Sea. 
Yam Suph (or Sooph in pronunciation) 
means Sea of a peculiar marine vegetation. 



Cool as a Cucumber (Vol. i, p. 272). 
Drayton, in the " Polyolbion," Song 20, 
speaks of " the radish, somewhat hot * * * 
the cucumber as cold, the heating arti- 
choke." Qui TAM. 


August 9, 1890.] 



Wise Men of Gotham (Vol. iv, p. 109). 
The origin of the expression, "They 
don't know enough to go in when it rains," 
was explained by William Cranston Lawton 
in a lecture on "The Excavation of Delphi," 
given at Harvard College, October 22, 1889. 
Apropos of the stoa, or public portico, of 
Delphi, he told the following story : 

" In old Greek times, Abdera was a city 
which was somewhat behindhand in its ways, 
and so was the butt of the wags of the day. 
Abdera got into financial difficulties and 
the stoa was sold to a wealthy citizen who 
closed it up. Greeks never go to their 
houses for other purposes than to eat or 
sleep except when it rains, and in old times 
the stoa was largely resorted to for the latter 
purpose. When the rain came the heart of 
the rich Abderan smote him because the 
people had no place to go, so he sent out 
the town heralds to invite them to their old 
resort, and the wags of Greece said that the 
inhabitants were so thick headed that they 
did not know enough to go in when it 
rained, and had to be told to do so by 
heralds' ' (from a report in Boston Traveler, 
October 23, 1889). 


Parallel Passages (Vol. v, p. 106). 

" Aery tongues that syllable men's names 
On sands, and shores, and desart wildernesses." 
(Milton's " Comus," 208, 209.) 

'' In the deserts of Lop, in Asia, * * * if 
one lose his company by chance, these devils 
will call him by his name, and counterfeit 
voices of his companions to seduce him" 
(Burton, "The Anatomy of Melancholy," 
p. i, Sec. 2, Mem. i, Subs. 2). 



The Colors of Lakes and Rivers. 

" What is the color of pure water ? Almost 
any person who has no special knowledge 
of the subject will reply at once : ' It has 
no color.' Yet everybody knows, either 
through hearsay, or by the evidence of his 
own eyes, that the ocean is blue. Why the 
ocean looks blue is a question that few who 
have crossed it have ever sought to solve; 
and there are probably many travelers who, 
though they have seen most of the famous 

rivers and lakes in the world, have failed to 
notice the remarkable differences in color 
which their waters present. Even the ocean 
is not uniform in color; in some places its 
waters are green or even yellowish. Some 
lakes are distinctly blue ; others present va- 
rious shades of green, so that in some cases 
they are hardly distinguishable from their 
level, grass-covered banks; a few are almost 
black. The Lake of Geneva is azure-hued ; 
the Lake of Constance and the Lake of Lu- 
cerne are green ; the color of the Mediterra- 
nean has been called indigo. The Lake of 
Brienz is greenish yellow and its neighbor, 
Lake Thun, is blue. New York has both 
green and blue lakes. The colors of rivers 
differ yet more widely. The Rhone is blue, 
and so is the Danube, while the Rhine is 
green. The St. Lawrence is blue. These 
various hues are not caused by mud or any 
opaque sediment such as that which makes 
the Mississippi coffee-colored, but belong 
to the waters, like the golden color of tea, 
without greatly impairing their transparency. 
The cause of the difference in the color of 
lakes and rivers has engaged the attention 
of many celebrated investigators of nature, 
such as Tyndall, Bunsen, Arago, Sainte- 
Claire, Deville, and others. Recently, Prof. 
Spring, of the University of Liege, has care- 
fully investigated the question of the color 
of water, and has reached some interesting 
conclusions. According to him, absolutely 
pure water, when seen in masses of sufficient 
thickness, is blue, and all the varieties of 
color exhibited in lakes and streams arise 
from the presence in the water of mineral 
salts of different degrees of solubility and in 
varying quantities. Water containing car- 
bonate of lime in a state of almost complete 
solution remains blue, but if the solution is 
less complete the water will have a tinge of 
green, which will grow stronger as the point 
of precipitation is approached. Prof. Spring 
concludes that, if lime is added to blue 
water in which so much carbonate of lime 
is already dissolved that the point of satura- 
tion is approached, the water will become 
green. In proof of this he cites the fact 
that the water near the shores of lakes and 
seas, where it comes in contact with lime- 
stone, is generally of a greener hue than 
elsewhere" (London Nature}. 


[August 9, 1890. 

Duke of York (Vol. v, p. 166). Is it 
not plain to your correspondent, that the 
fact that this title has more than once passed 
to an heir, shows conclusively that it is not 
reserved for princes " in line of succession," 
whatever that may mean? It is obvious, 
for example, that if Arthur, elder son of 
Henry VII, had lived and proved the pro- 
genitor of a large and prolific line of princes, 
and if Henry, his younger brother, had 
headed a line of Dukes of York, there would 
have been a large number of princes of the 
blood nearer the throne than any of those 
Dukes of York. I am under obligations to 
R. G. B. for calling attention to some Dukes 
of York whom I had forgotten. The real 
reason why Victoria's second and third sons 
bear respectively a Scottish and an Irish 
title is said to be a desire on the part of the 
Queen to win or strengthen the favor and 
good-will of the people of those realms to- 
wards her family. At any rate, that reason 
was assigned by the newspapers at the time 
of the creations in question. 

Since the time of Henry IV, the Duchy 
of Lancaster with its great revenues has 
been attached to the crown itself. The 
dukedom of Cornwall, by special creation, 
is always given to the Prince of Wales. But 
the oft-repeated bestowal of the dukedom 
of York upon princes of the blood by crea- 
tion is, so far as I am informed, in each case 
an attempt to found a new and hereditable 

One excellent reason for not bestowing 
the title of Duke of York is the fact that the 
later associations connected with the name 
are not such as to arouse any popular enthu- 
siasm. James II was exceedingly unpopular 
alike as duke and as king ; and the ineffi- 
cient generalship of the last of the Dukes of 
York won for him very general contempt. 



Telegraphic Blunders (Vol. iv, p. 
1 28). My uncle having made inquiries con- 
cerning the price of board in a country 
town, received this telegram in reply: 
" Board twenty dollars a week including 
washing up the carriage and piano agent. 

He wrote, in answer, that though both 

piano agent and carriage required cleansing, 
he was not accustomed to such charges in a 
board bill ; and soon after learned that the 
original copy had run thus: " Board twenty 
dollars a week including washing, use of 
carriage and piano. Agnes Robinson." 

Devil's Lake. This lake, in North Da- 
kota, is moderately saline, but it is said to 
be stocked with pike and other fresh- water 
fishes. It would be interesting to know 
whether the fishes in it have been modified 
in their appearance, habits, food, or in any 
other respect, by this change of habitat. 
Lake Van, in Armenia, though rather 
strongly saline, has one or two species of 
fish, probably visitants from fresh - water 
streams. (It is curious that the Armenians 
believe this lake to be peopled with six- 
legged horses, which occasionally visit the 
dry land.) A gentleman from North Da- 
kota once told me that he had found lizards 
in a brackish lake. I suppose what he called 
lizards were tailed batrachians of some sort. 

G. H. G. 


Arthur Kill (Vol. v, pp. 165, etc.). 
" Islander's" memory does not mislead him ; 
F. B. Hough does speak of the bay in ques- 
tion ; he calls it Achtur Kull in the body of 
his book, p. 565, and Achter Kull in the 
index, p. 725, but he says nothing of the 
origin of the term. 

I take this opportunity to say that since 
writing my note (Vol. v, p. 52), I have 
found, in the topographical nomenclature of 
New Amsterdam, one instance of the use of 
Achter in the sense I suggested for Achter 

Pearl street is believed to be the first 
street ever occupied by the Dutch settlers on 
this island ; now I find that a line of seven 
houses at the back of this street is designated 
in the records of the Dutch magistrates as 
Aghter de Perel straat. 

This being contemporaneous with the 
naming of Achter Kull, cannot but have 
some little weight in the question, I think. 





Musical Sands (Vol. v, p. 152). On 
Pescadero beach, California, there is a fine 
example of musical, or rather screeching, 
sand. At times every footstep makes a 
sharp, crunching sound, while dragging the 
heel along the sand produces a sharp screech 
the quicker the motion the higher the 
pitch. It is only after an unusually high 
tide that this phenomenon is observed. At 
the base of the sea cliff there is a layer of 
highly ferruginous, gravelly drift, contain- 
ing salts of iron that are slightly soluble in 
sea water. Whenever the waves are high 
enough to beat against this stratum, enough 
of the iron salts are leached out upon the 
beach sand to give the latter that peculiar 
anti-lubricity pardon the word which is 
peculiar to the chlorides and chlorides 
of iron. The screeching property soon dis- 
appears. J. W. REDWAY. 


Musical, or, as they might be more prop- 
erly called in this case, barking sands are 
also found on parts of the New Jersey coast. 

At Point Pleasant, the sand, when scraped 
by the feet, gives forth a barking noise loud 
enough to be heard fifty feet away. The 
sounds can also be produced by scraping it 
with the hands. The sand will do this only 
when dry, but can have its barking quality, 
of which it has been deprived by wetting, 
restored by, redrying it. I noticed this 
where a fire had been built on that part of 
the beach which had been thoroughly wet 
by the sea. Where the fire had dried the 
sand" it gave forth sounds when rubbed, 
while outside the circle, which had been 
dried by the heat of the fire, the sand was 
silent when scraped. 

One curious thing in the mile stretch of 
beach I examined, was that the "barking" 
sands existed only in patches. While one 
spot was sonorous, another one, but a few 
feet away, was mute to all disturbances by 
either feet or hands. The sand in both 
cases seemed to be of the same coarse 
character and equally dry. 

W. W. R. 


Charivari (Vol. i, pp. 312, etc.; ii, 
12, etc.; iv, 81 ; v, 106). In Thomas 

Hardy's novel, "The Mayor of Caster- 
bridge," will be found a dramatic descrip- 
tion of a Skimmington or Charivari. 


Rivers Flowing Inland (Vol. v, pp. 

142, etc.). The place where Mr. Stillman 
so ingeniously misdescribes the wonderful 
inflow of sea water at Argostoli is in the 
Century Magazine for October, 1884, p. 885. 
The water shown in the foreground of the 
cut, on p. 887, is apparently whatE. Reclus 
calls the river, but Mr. Stillman calls the 
lake, of Argostoli, with its inward-flowing 
current, one mile in breadth. On the same 
page (887), Mr. Stillman describes a fine 
brook which he ran upon in his wanderings. 
But Smith's "Classical Dictionary" states 
that there are no (fresh water ?) streams in 
the island of Kephallenia. Mr. Stillman 's 
babbling brook can hardly have been one of 
the inward-flowing rivers of Argostoli, since 
he followed it to the sea ; and it would seem 
impossible for him, in such circumstances, 
to have mistaken an inward-flowing stream 
for an ordinary brook. G. H. G. 


Lake Drained (Vol. v, pp. 141, etc.). 
The Lake of Harantoreen, county of Kerry, 
Ireland, one mile in circuit, disappeared, 
"with all its fishes," on the 25th of March, 

1792. G. P. O'HlGGIN. 


Rhyming History of England (Vol. 
v, p. 48). There is a "Metrical 
Epitome of the History of England prior 
to George the First," by T. C. Burt, Lon- 
don, 1852. P. R. E. 


Discoveries by Accident (Vol. v, pp. 

143, etc.). Byron may be worth quoting 
as a curiosity : 

" When Newton saw an apple fall, he found 
In that slight startle from his contemplation 
'Tis said (for, I'll not answer above ground 
For any sage's creed or calculation) 
A mode of proving that the earth turn'd round 
In a most natural whirl, call'd ' gravitation.' " 





[August 9, 1890. 

Hardships of Genius. Homer was a 

Spencer died in want. 

Cervantes died of hunger. 

Dryden lived in poverty and distress. 

Terrance, the dramatist, was a slave. 

Sir Walter Raleigh died on the scaffold. 

Bacon lived a life of meanness and dis- 

Plautus, the Roman comic poet, turned a 

Butler lived a life of penury, and died 

Paul Borghese had fourteen trades, yet 
starved with all. 

Tasso, the Italian poet, was often dis- 
tressed for five shillings. 

Steele, the humorist, lived a life of per- 
fect warfare with bailiffs. 

Otway, the English dramatist, died pre- 
maturely, and through hunger. 

Bentivoglio was refused admittance into a 
hospital he had erected himself. 

The death of Collins was through neglect, 
first causing mental derangement. 

Chatterton, the child of genius and mis- 
fortune, destroyed himself at eighteen. 

Savage died in a prison at Bristol, where 
he was confined for a debt of forty dollars. 

Goldsmith's "Vicar of Wakefield" was 
sold for a trifle to save him from the grip of 
the law. 

Fielding lies in the burying-ground of 
the English factory at Lisbon, without a 
stone to mark the spot. 

Milton sold his copyright of " Paradise 
Lost" for seventy-two dollars, at three pay- 
ments, and finished his life in obscurity. 

Camoens, the celebrated writer of the 
" Lusiad," the. great Portuguese epic, ended 
his life, it is said, in an almshouse ; and, at 
any rate, was supported by a faithful black 
servant, who begged in the streets of Lisbon 
for him (F. C. F., in Queries Magazine'). 

Ford in Place Names (Vol. iv, pp. 201, 
etc.). The naming of places from animal 
names, with ford attached, does not always 
prove much. There is a Catford in Kent; 
a Foxford in Ireland ; a Huntingford in Dor- 
set ; four or five Gosfords ; two Bulfords, 
etc. In many cases, the first element is a 
river name ; thus, Stortford is on the river 

Stort. Before the origin of any of* these 
names ending in ford can be asserted, the 
questions which should be settled first are 
these : Is there, or was there ever, a ford at 
the placed so called ? If not, is it on a 
fjord? W. B. C. 


Presbyterian True Blue (Vol. v, pp. 
47, etc.). 

" Her habyte was of manyfolde colours, 
Watchet-blewe of fayned steadfastness, 
Meynt with grene, foi chaunge and doublenesse." 
(Lydgate's " Fall of Princes," Bk. vi, C.i, 81.7.) 

" Before me slant clad in asure 
To swere yet eft a newe assure 
For to be trewe." 
(Chaucer's " Anelida and Arcite," Vs. 330, 332.) 

Machault, in the poem Le Remede de 
Fortune, states that blue means loyalty; 
red, ardent love; black, grief; white, joy; 
green, fickleness; yellow, falsehood. 

Chaucer says, in his Balade against 
Women Unconstant, Vs. 5 and 7 : 

" Ye can not love ful half yeer in a place. 

In stede ofblewe, thus may ye were al grene." 

In this case Chaucer follows Machault, who 
writes : 

" En lieu de bleu, Dame, vous vestez vert." 

(Skeat, Chaucer's " Minor Poems.") 

Hence, "the tender, blue Forget-me- 
not" is the emblem of fidelity. 

A. L. O. 

Sunken Islands (Vol. v, p. 150). It 
is recorded that, in 950 A.D., the islands of 
Ammiano and Costenziaco, in the Adriatic, 
were swept away by the sea. In 1634, the 
North Sea engulfed the island of North- 
strand, " destroying 1338 houses, towers, 
and churches, and swallowing up 50,000 
head of cattle and 6400 human beings" 
(Durivage's " Cyclo. of History," p. 662). 

G. H. G. 


Corrigendum. Liwash. On page 1 60, 
Vol. v, for "Liwash" read " Sivask," 

American J^lotes and Queries : 




Copyrighted i8qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vnl "V 
VOI. V. 

. J.D. 


Ifi 1 SQfl 
ID, 1OU. 

i js.oo per year. $1.75, e months. 

{ $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES: Who Struck Billy Patterson? 181 Antiquity of 
the Telephonic Tube Notes on Words, 183 Felix in Gec- 
graphical Names, 184. 

QUERIES : Natural Tunnel Mormon Sects Wild Rice- 
Pipe Lore, 184 Davis or Easter Island Indian Summer 
Earthquake of 181 1 Longest Siege, 185 Pyramid Lake, 186. 

REPLIES: Taught by that Power, etc. Seiches Author- 
ship Wanted Lake Baikal, 186. 

lingworth Nootka Sound Dogs Ten Pound Court Hulder 
Tube I Love Thee, etc. Mathematical Error, 186. 

COMMUNICATIONS -.Curiosities of Animal Punishment, 
187 When We've Been There, etc. Landfall of Columbus 
Scholastic Doctors Money Makes the Mare Go, 188 Odd 
Names of Newspapers, 189 Santa Anna's Wooden Leg 
Nickajack All Passes, etc. Greek Cities in France Drop- 
ping Wells, 190 Suicides in China Stone Rivers Rocking 
Stones Lakes Drained No-man's Land, 191 Underground 
Streams Sunken Islands Ff in Proper Names Pets of Fa- 
mous People Bottomless Ponds Corrigenda, 192. 



(VOL. n, P. 234.) 

The half-dozen published answers to this 
prize question gave as many explanations of 
the origin of this phrase. We are led to 
believe that Billy Patterson outdid Cerberus 
in being six gentlemen at once. Since the 
claims of the various candidates have never 
been settled, perhaps I may be allowed to 
strengthen my version of the incident with 
a few more details recently learned. 

Alban Smith Payne was born in Gran- 
ville, Fauquier county, Va., 1822. He was, 
and is, over six feet tall, finely built, and 
possessed of great strength. In his youth 
he distinguished himself in athletic sports, 
particularly in the foot-race and the stand- 
ing high jump, while as a bowler he ranked 



[August 1 6, 1890. 

second to Clugen. He studied medicine 
and graduated at the Crosby Street College, 
New York ; was professor of surgery in Cas- 
tleton Medical College, Vt. ; practiced in 
the New York hospitals, and afterwards for 
twenty years in the Blue Ridge mountains, 
Va. ; finally, held the chair of theory and 
practice of medicine at the Southern Medi- 
cal College, Atlanta, Ga. He discovered 
that carbonate of ammonia was a specific 
for rattlesnake poison, and made important 
investigations in regard to inoculation and 
therapeutical electricity. He contributed 
frequently to the press under the name of 
" Nicholas Spicer," besides, writing for va- 
rious medical journals ; he was a social favor- 
ite and a ready after-dinner speaker. His 
present address is Markham, Fauquier county, 

In May, 1852, the annual meeting of the 
American Medical Association was held at 
Richmond, Va. One evening about twenty- 
five of the fraternity were returning to the 
city hotel from an entertainment. As they 
reached a well-known restaurant, the door 
flew open and out came Billy Patterson, a 
notorious bully, full of liquor and "spoil- 
ing for a fight." He charged into the col- 
umn of physicians, struck out right and left, 
and knocked down several into the street, 
muddy from recent heavy rains. One of 
the men thus laid low was Dr. Usher Par- 
sons, surgeon to Commodore Perry, at the 
battle of Lake Erie, a genial, white-haired 
old gentleman and a friend of Dr. Payne, 
who was at the rear of the procession. This 
sight so roused " Nick Spicer 's" wrath that 
he put himself into fighting position and 
gave Billy a couple of blows that felled him 
as he had felled others. Patterson was car- 
ried into the restaurant more dead than 
alive, and early the next morning two police- 
men came to the hotel to find his assailant. 
Thereupon the hotel-keeper, " Buck" Wil- 
liamson, called two street gamins, and giving 
each a dollar, instructed them to ask every 
person they met, " Who struck Billy Patter- 
son ?" In a few hours the query was in 
everybody's mouth, and the disgusted po- 
licemen gave up the search. The local 
papers took it up, and by degrees the phrase 
spread through the country. 

The above is condensed from an article by 

Will Wildwood, in Turf, Field, and Farm, 
January 3, 1890. See, also, the same paper 
for December 30, 1880, "Washington's 
Lodge," by F. L. Brocket, and " Directory 
of Alexandria, Va.," by G. W. Rock. 

But the end is not yet ! 

The Boston Transcript has been publish- 
ing in its "Notes and Queries" department 
a series of reminiscences by the oldest in- 
habitants, and one of the subjects discussed 
was the Broad street riot of 1836 or 1837, 
in connection with which another Patterson 
story is told. One of the volunteer fire 
companies of those days was called out by 
an alarm one Sunday afternoon, and turn- 
ing a corner into Broad street ran into a 
funeral train just as the coffin was taken to 
the hearse. (This was a centre for the Irish, 
between whom and the native population 
much bad feeling existed.) A fireman 
pushed through the crowd so roughly that 
an Irishman struck him ; the blow was re- 
turned and a general scrimmage followed. 
Both parties armed themselves with sticks, 
stones, and brickbats ; the Irishmen tried to 
smash the engine, but another alarm brought 
all the other fire companies to the spot, and, 
the engine being rescued, the firemen re- 
tired. But in the meantime a motley crowd 
had gathered, scenting an opportunity for 
plunder under cover of the uproar, and 
these roughs entered the houses, broke up 
furniture, ripped open feather beds and 
threw them out of the window, thereby ex- 
citing the fury of the women, and carried 
off all portable valuables. Finally, the city 
authorities appeared, and the street was 
cleared by cavalry. 

In the midst of the fray, a small but lively 
son of Erin shouted, " Who struck Billy 
Patterson ? Where is the spalpeen who 
struck him?" Larkin Snow, a wood dealer 
and first lieutenant of the Berry Street Ran- 
gers (a militia company), replied, "I struck 
Billy Patterson. What are you going to do 
about it?" The little fellow scanned Snow's 
tall, stalwart frame, exclaimed, "Bejabers, 
ye did it well, ye did," and made off 

All the Transcript writers agree as to the 
main facts, and evidently believe that the 
real original Billy Patterson hailed from 
Boston, though it is noteworthy that not one 



describes him or seems to have known him, 
confident as they are of the identity of his 
assailant. This incident antedates the Rich- 
mond story. The saying is probably much 
older than either, " an ancient bluff quoted 
by the Irishman," suggests one correspond- 
ent of the Transcript, who goes on to say 
that he has heard two variants of the tale, 
one from Georgia, the other from Missouri ; 
the latter was told his informant by Billy 
Patterson himself, a retired sea captain of 
St. Charles, Mo. , who said that in his youth 
he was assaulted in a street melee in that 
town, but being like all his namesakes 
"tall and powerful," he could never dis- 
cover who gave the blow. This writer 
closes with the apt quotation : 

" Seven wealthy towns contend for Homer dead, 
Through which the living Homer begged his bread." 

There is a fine opportunity for some 
clever fellow to trace the legend back to an 
Aryan sun-myth. 



Louis Pauliat, the French senator, has 
lately told the world how the phonograph 
must have been known to C. de Bergerac in 

It would seem from the following that the 
telephonic tube had been thought of one 
hundred years earlier still. It is an extract 
from a chronicle of 1580, which I find in 
Williams' "Lays and Legends of Glouces- 
tershire : ' ' 

" About the yeare of our Lord 1554, a 
wenche who came from Glocester, named 
Elizabeth Croft, about the age of eighteene 
yeares, stoode upon a Scaffolde, at Poule's 
Crosse, all the Sermon tyme, where shee con- 
fessed that she, being moved by dyvers 
lewde persons thereunto, hadde upon the 
fourteenth of Marche laste, before passed, 
counterfaited certayne speaches in an house 
without Aldersgate of London, thoroughe 
the whych the people of the whole city were 
wonderfully molested, for that all men 
mighte heare the voice but not see hir per- 
son. Some saide it was an Angell, some 
saide a voyce from heaven, and some the 
Holie Ghost. Thys was called the Spirite 

in the Wall : she hadde laine whistling in a 
straunge whistle made for that purpose, 
whiche was given hir by one Drakes, hir 
paramoure : then were ther dyvers compan- 
ions confederate with hir, whiche putting 
themselves among the preass, tooke uppon 
them to interprete what the Spirite saide 
* * * The penance being ended and 
the people satisfied, the officers of the Courte 
tooke the woman and shut hir for a tyme in 
the prison, but after did shee returne to her 
owne countrie, and was noe more hearde 
of." A. ESTOCLET. 



Flamen. This Latin word, meaning a 
priest, is generally thought to be from the 
root of flagrare, to burn, and the explana- 
tion is that it means a burner of sacrifices. 
But some recent theorist identifies it with 
the Sanskrit brahman, a priest. This is in- 
genious, but, so far as yet appears, it lacks 
confirmation. In fact, historical data are 
lacking for many early Latin words, and the 
temptation to theorize becomes very strong. 

Loquot. According to Hunter's Bengal 
Gazetteer, Vol. xv, p. 102, the loquot, 
Pierardia sapida, is called lukatu in the 
Monghyr district. But this is not the com- 
mon loquat, Mespilus japonica. According 
to the "Century Dictionary," the word 
loquat is Canton-Chinese for " rush orange. " 
The Hindu lukatu may be a corrupted form 
of this Chinese name. 

Meerkat. The "Century Dictionary" 
defines this word as (i) the African pen- 
ciled ichneumon, and (2) the African suri- 
cate. It does not attempt an explanation 
of the origin of the name. Meerkat is the 
Dutch for "sea-cat," and means, in Dutch, 
a marmoset, or small monkey. Cf., Ger. 
meerkatze (Vol. iv, pp. 204, etc.) ; Skr. 
markata, and Hind, markut, a monkey. 

Musion. This word, the heraldic name 
of the cat, or wild cat, the " Century Dic- 
tionary" refers doubtfully to musimon, a 
wild sheep. But in Italian, we find, for the 
cat, mud, muda, musda, and mudna, be- 
sides several other similar names. Musda, 
with the augmentative termination -on, 
comes tolerably near to musion. But must- 



monis plainly another word altogether. Cf., 
Ital. mz'ao, to mew. 

Since. This preposition is oftenest used 
after a verb in the perfect tense. Thus, 
" New Orleans has been the capital of Lou- 
isiana since 1864." We latterly often see : 
" New Orleans is the capital of Louisiana 
since 1864." The German journalists (I 
suppose) introduced this vicious use, which 
is now rather common, but very objection- 

TellecL Telled for told is not uncommon 
in the rustic portions of the Connecticut 
valley. It is very old, and occurs in a 
rhyming " Debate between the Body and 
the Soul," assigned to the times of Edward 


In the well-known examples of Arabia 
Felix and Campania Felix, the adjective 
felix means, of course, the fortunate, though 
in respect of Arabia the term was, to some 
extent, misapplied ; since in no respect is 
Arabia Felix very much blessed its climate 
being very hot, and its soil not specially 
fertile, except that it seems so when com- 
pared with the less favored parts of the pen- 
insula. A still more remarkable misnomer 
is seen in the case of Boothia Felix, an utterly 
waste and frozen peninsula in the Arctic 
portion of Canada. This name was given 
by Sir John Ross, in honor of his friend and 
patron, Sir Felix Booth. But most of the 
recent geographies and maps very appropri- 
ately omit the Felix from this name. 


^UB FI E S. 

Natural Tunnel. Will you kindly locate 
for me the Natural Tunnel of Virginia? 


There is a natural tunnel in Scott county, 
Virginia, near the Tennessee line. It is 
some one hundred feet in average breadth, 
and the length of its S-shaped course is 
given as four hundred and fifty feet. In 
some parts the roof is seventy or eighty feet 
high. A stream runs through it. Either 

this tunnel, or another in the vicinity, is to 
be utilized (if it has not been so already) 
as part of the bed of a railroad the South 
Atlantic and Ohio. 

Mormon Sects. Please name for me 
such of the Mormon sects as are now in 
existence. P. B. GRAYER. 


The main body of Mormons are some- 
times called Twelveites, probably as being 
followers of the Twelve Apostles. The sect 
which once lived on Beaver island, in Lake 
Michigan, were called^ Strangites. Sidney 
Rigdon's followers were or are called Rig- 
donites. The Josephites acknowledge the 
leadership of Joseph Smith, the younger. 
There also is, or was, a sect of Godbeites. 

Wild Rice. Please give me some account 
of that interesting native cereal, the wild 
rice, formerly so important an article of 
food to the Ojibway Indians. 

S. E. H. 


The Zizania aquatica, or wild rice, is a 
tall species of grass. In the Chippeway 
country it often grows in water from four 
to eight feet deep, and stands at about the 
same height above the water. The Indians 
tie the unripe grain, while on the stalk, into 
great clusters or bunches, to save it from 
the birds. When ripe, the squaws beat or 
thresh the grain directly from the standing 
stalk into a canoe. 

Pipe Lore. Can you give me the titles 

of any works devoted to tobacco and pipe 

lore? E. M. 

"The Smokers' Guide," London, 1878, 
published by Hardwicke & Bogue, and the 
Athenaum for August, 1857, which contains 
an article by Andrew Steinmetz, on " The 
History and Mystery of Tobacco." The 
"Smokers' Guide" contains a full history 
of tobacco in different parts of the globe, 
curious customs pertaining to the weed, as 
well as a number of poems on the same sub- 



Davis OP Easter Island. Vai-hou, Teapy, 
Easter or Davis island, in the Pacific, two 
thousand miles west of Chili, was discovered 
in 1686, by English Davis, and rediscovered 
in 1722 by the Hollandish Admiral Rogger- 
dein, on Easter day, whence its best known 

It is suggested that this curious volcanic 
island, with extinct craters, some twelve 
hundred feet high, is the remnant of a 
sunken continent which disappeared like 
the fabled or real Atlantis, in the Atlantic, 
and that it was the centre of a peculiar idol- 
atrous worship. Although only about eleven 
miles long and six miles wide, and inhabited 
by some two thousand primitive savages, 
stone images have been found in it that no 
such race could have executed, which are 
worthy to rank with Egyptian colossi. One 
is forty feet high by nine feet across the 
shoulders, a very Pacific Memnon. Some 
of the heads are rather artistic. Are these 
the relics of antediluvians and of a drowned 
world ? ANCHOR. 


No conclusive answer can be given to the 
above query. The island exists and the an- 
tiquities as stated have been found, but the 
account of them has grown in a manner 
somewhat after the style of the " three 
black crows." Pottery, carvings, and other 
decorative work have been found in abun- 
dance, not only on Easter island but along 
the entire extent of the Pacific coast. In 
general, they belong not so much to the 
present " Indian" races or tribes as to the 
people who preceded them, but who have 
since disappeared, either by extinction or 
by absorption into the more recent Indian 
races. It is true that in the decorative de- 
signs not only Greek but also earlier Egyp- 
tian forms are observed. It does not follow, 
however, that they are either of Greek or of 
Egyptian origin. On the contrary, they are 
somewhat elementary designs that would oc- 
cur to almost any decorator who studiously 
followed the profession or business of orna- 
mentation. Of course it is possible that the 
antiquities may be the relics of an antedilu- 
vian people, but of this there is- not a whit 
of direct evidence, and the strongest cir- 
cumstantial evidence will not stand any 

critical examination. Isolation in this in- 
stance, as also in the case of the Zuni and 
Moquis pueblos, has tended' to preserve not 
only the old customs and traditions, but 
also the antiquities themselves. 


Indian Summer. Why are the warm and 
smoky days which so often occur in the late 
autumn so called? D. M. O. 


We have read the statement that the In- 
dians carried on their most active campaigns 
against the white pioneers in the late au- 
tumn, probably because at this time the 
garners and stalls were fullest. Has any 
correspondent any better theory than this? 
Another time when Indian raids were ex- 
pected was in early spring, when the Indians 
had exhausted their stores. Warm days in 
the latter part of winter were called powow 
days, because the Indians assembled and 
held war councils about that time of the 
year, with a view of warding off starvation 
by means of the ample stores which they ex- 
pected to find in the settlements of the 

Earthquake of 1811. Where can I find a 
good account of the great earthquakes in the 
Mississippi valley which occurred in 1811 ? 

T. F. M. 


There is a good popular account of the 
great North American earthquakes of 1811- 
1812 in Henry Howe's "The Great West," 
p. 219. At the same time great earth- 
quakes occurred in Venezuela. It is not a 
little remarkable that the steamboat New 
Orleans, the first to navigate the waters of 
the Mississippi, was making her first trip at 
the time of these earthquakes. She reached 
New Orleans in January, 1812. 

Longest Siege. Which was the longest 
siege that has ever been ? MARTIN. 


The siege of Troy, 1270 B. C., lasted ten 



Pyramid Lake. Why was Pyramid lake, 
in Nevada, thus named ? T. F. M. 


Fremont discovered this lake in 1844, 
and named it from a huge rock six hundred 
feet in height, and resembling in its propor- 
tions the Pyramid of Cheops. This rock 
at that time rose directly from the surface 
of the lake. 

1^ B P L I B S . 

Taught by that Power, etc. (Vol. v, p. 
174). These lines can be found in Gold- 
smith's " Hermit." The two lines prece- 
ding these show what is meant by them : 

" No flocks that range the hills, 
To slaughter I condemn." 

Some wag turned the lines in question 
into : 

" The butcher kills the sheep for me ; 
I buy the meat of them." 

J. T. L. 


Seiches (Vol. v, p. 174). Phenomena 
similar to or identical with seiches are ob- 
servable in Lake Tahoe, California. 



Authorship Wanted. "He spake" etc. 
(Vol. iv, p. 283). The passage desired by 
your correspondent occurs in Watts' "Lyr- 
ics," p. 9, of the undated copy now in my 
possession. It is as follows : 

" He spake ; the sun obedient stood 

And held the falling day ; 
Old Jordan backward drives his flood, 
And disappoints the sea." 

This is what I deem the weakest stanza of 
that very noble hymn, "Keep Silence, all 
Created Things." RYLAND JONES. 


Lake Baikal (Vol. v, p. 174). Concern- 
ing this wonderful body of water, of which 
so much has been said and so little is known, 
I take the following from an old physical 
geography : " Connected with this lake is a 

singular phenomenon : when its surface is 
most tranquil a vessel sailing on its waters 
is subjected to such severe shocks that it is 
difficult for sailors to stand on their feet (sic'). 
The lake is situated near the centre of an 
earthquake region ; and this effect is attrib- 
uted to the action of volcanic forces. ' ' 

I give this for what it is worth, and, can- 
didly, I don't think it worth much. 




Birds of Killingworth. Is Longfel- 
low's story of " The Birds of Killingworth" 
based on any historical fact, or upon any 
old tradition ? I have read somewhere that 
the poet invented the whole story. 

R. W. LEA. 


Nootka Sound DogS. Early voy- 
agers to our Northwest coast describe a 
woolly breed of dogs which used to abound 
on Vancouver's island. The natives fed 
them on fish, and made garments of their 
wool. Does this interesting breed of ani- 
mals still exist? W. P. RODEN. 


Ten Pound Court. What was the 
"Ten Pound Court," in the early history 
of New York ? MARTIN. 


Hulder. What kind of wood does 
Ascham mean by hulder? He includes 
hulder among the woods suitable for making 
arrows. OBED. 


"Tube I Love Thee," etc. Can any 
one tell me where I can find the rest of the 
following invocation to a pipe? 

" Tube I love thee as my life ; 
By thee I mean to choose a wife," etc. 

E. M. 


Mathematical Error. What is meant 
by the ' ' mathematical error 1 ' in national 
conventions ? MARTIN. 





Curiosities of Animal Punishment 
(Vol. v, p. 163). The trial of the rats of 
Autun, reign of Francis I, is famous in 
the annals of French law, for it was at it that 
Chasseneux, the celebrated jurisconsult the 
Coke of France won his first laurels, and 
laid the foundation of his future fame. For 
Chasseneux (1480-1541), President of Par- 
liament of Provence, see Michaud's "Biog. 
Univ." The story of the "trial" is in 
Chambers' "Book of Days." 

Etymologists tell us that the origin and 
history of the word katze, a cat, are un- 
known, but not so that of kdtzer, which is 
derived from it, and signifies heretic. Dur- 
ing the fiery persecutions of the sixteenth 
century, black cats', witches, and heretics 
came to be regarded as practically one and 
the same thing; and sometimes Catholic 
detestation of the Reformers was well satis- 
fied when permitted to witness, on St. John's 
Day, a holocaust of twenty-four cats im- 
prisoned in a wicker basket. 

At that time when England was filled 
with alarm over Queen Mary's approaching 
marriage with Philip of Spain, and when the 
bodies of three hundred of Wyatt's insur- 
gents were gibbeted about the streets of 
London, some zealous Protestant sought to 
express the national abhorrence of all things 
popish, by the hanging of a solitary puss, 
after this wise : 

" On the eighth of Aprill, then being Sun- 
daie, a cat with hir head shorne and the 
likenesse of a vestment cast over hir, with 
hir fore-feet tied togither, and a round 
peece of paper like a singing-cake betwixt 
them, was hanged on a gallows in Cheape, 
neere to the Crosse, in the parish of St. 
Matthew ; which cat, being taken downe, 
was carried to the bp. of London, and he 
caused the same to be shewed at Paul's 
Crosse by the preacher, Dr. Pendleton." 
Holinshed quotes the account from Stow. 
See " Chronicles," Vol. iv, p. 28. 

Froude repeats this story, and says the 
incident occurred shortly after "the Voice 
in the Wall at Aldgate had collected 1 7,000 
persons to hear a message from Heaven 
pronounced by an Angel" (Froude' s "Hist. 

Eng.," Vol. vi, p. 194). (See "Antiquity 
of the Telephonic Tube," page 183.) 

Throughout the seventeenth century the 
story of the " Cat that was hanged on Mon- 
day for killing a mouse on Sunday" was 
very popular with the Royalists, and latterly 
with the Jacobites. The story made its 
first appearance in literature in Brath wait's 
"Strappado," published in 1615. B. re- 
peats it in "Barnabee's Journal!," 1638, 
when his hero, journeying northward, wants 
to make a hard thrust at the renowned Puri- 
tans of Banbury : 

" To Banbury came I, O prophane one ! 
Where I saw a Puritane one 
Hanging of his Cat on Monday 
For killing of a Mouse on Sonday." 

The story once heard was seized upon by 
poets and dramatists to hit off Puritan prac- 
tices, as John Taylor, in " Praise of Hemp- 
seed," says: 

" Suppose his cat on Sunday kill a rat, 
She on the Monday must be hanged for that." 

One version of the story, as the " Song of 
the Presbyterian Cat," is in the " Aviary" 
(1740), and another, as "The Cameronian 
Cat," is in Hogg's "Jacobite Relics" (1819). 
Hogg calls it " a popular country song, sung 
by wags in mockery of the great pretended 
strictness of the Covenanters. ' ' See Hasle- 
wood's ed. "Barnabee's Journal," 1876. 
From all this it seems that hanging was the 
proper punishment for wicked cats in the 
seventeenth century in England. 

Ed. Long, Esq. (1734-1813), an English 
judge and the author of a " History of Ja- 
maica," having abandoned the law at thirty- 
five years of age, devoted himself to literary 
pursuits for the remainder of his life. His 
first production was "The Trial of Farmer 
Carter's Dog, Porter, for Murder." The 
dog, accused of killing a Mr. Hare, says 
Long's account, " being moved and seduced 
by the instigation of a devilish fit of hunger, 
he, the said prisoner, did him, the said de- 
ceased, feloniously, wickedly, wantonly, and 
of malice aforethought, tear, wound, pull, 
haul, touzle, masticate, macerate, lacerate, 
and dislocate, and otherwise evilly entreat." 
On account of which treatment, "Mr. 
Hare did languish, and languishing did die," 



The sentence or doom is as follows : 

"Thou must be led from the bar to the 
end of a room, where thou art to be hanged 
by the neck to yonder beam, coram nobis, 
till you are dead, dead, dead ! Hangman, 
do your duty. " Porter's fictitious epitaph 
says : ' ' He was found guilty without evi- 
dence, and hanged without mercy. ' ' 

This humorous production was suggested 
by a real event which actually took place, in 
1771, near Chichester. None but fictitious 
names are employed in the report of the 
case, but the affair was so well understood 
thereabouts, that the chief actors in it went 
by Long's nicknames. The "Trial" is in 
Hone's " Every Day Book," with the real 
names appended. 

As far as we know, the dog Cupid, who 
was a great pet with the poet Southey, was 
not allowed the privilege of a trial ; but, in 
spite of his high acquaintance, perished 
ignominiously on the gallows for robbing a 
hen-roost, not longer ago than the year 

The progress of enlightened ideas in mat- 
ters of justice to dogs is illustrated in the 
case of Towser, on trial for his life, a few 
months since, in the Boston Municipal 
Court. The Utica Herald has the follow- 
ing: "The defendant was a handsome set- 
ter named Towser. His master had re- 
tained able counsel. The dog was placed 
in the prisoner's box, and, amid the titters 
of the spectators and the smiles of the judge 
(Curtis), the trial began. A man swore 
that the prisoner had bitten him, and he 
therefore wanted him killed according to 
law. On cross-examination, witness ad- 
mitted that he had provoked the prisoner by 
teasing him. Several witnesses for the de- 
fense testified as to the good character of 
the accused. The latter was then brought 
forward in his own behalf and furnished tes- 
timony as novel as it was effective. At va- 
rious commands, he played dead, walked on 
his hind legs about the room, stood on his 
head, shouldered arms, whined dismally in 
imitation of a song, and wound up by march- 
ing up the steps to the judge's desk on his 
hind legs, and shaking paws with his honor. 
The judge without a moment's hesitation 
said, amid cheers : ' Towser, you are a 
peaceable and orderly canine. I give judg- 

ment in your behalf and dismiss you, the 
plaintiff paying the costs.' Leaving the 
room, the dog received an ovation" (copied 
in N. Y. Observer, May 15, 1890). 

F. T. C. 

When We've been there Ten Thou- 
sand Years (Vol. v, p. 56). The above 
words, with the whole stanza inquired for, 
may be found in Vol. i of " The Christian 
Lyre" (1830), compiled by Joshua Leavitt, 
p. 77. The stanza is as follows : 

" When we've been there ten thousand years, 

Bright shining as the sun, 
We've no less days to sing God's praise 
Than when we first begun." 



Landfall of Columbus (Vol. v, p. 167). 
My suspicions as to the trustworthiness of 
the received accounts of the first voyage of 
Columbus were aroused by a private and as 
yet unprinted letter, not now in my hands, 
written by the late Hon. George P. Marsh, 
in which he alluded to this question as one 
regarding which there was much room for 
doubt. My reference to the matter in your 
columns was made for the purpose of eliciting 
further information. G. H. G. 


Scholastic Doctors (Vol. iv, p. 226). 
Add to this list, Ivo, Bishop of Chartres 
(d. 1117), called Doctor Carnotensis (of 
Chartres) : 

" Ibi doctor cernitur ille Carnotensis, 
Cujus lingua vehemens truncate velut ensis." 



Money Makes the Mare Go (Vol. iv, 
p. 80). From a poem of the fourteenth 
century, Cotton MSS. : 

" Sir Peni gers in riche wede 
Ful mani go and ride on stede 
In this worles wide." 

(" Sir Penny causes full many to go in rich 
clothes and ride on horseback, in this wide 
world.") R. B. D. 




Odd Names of Newspapers. A 

glance through the pages of the " Newspaper 
Directory" reveals many peculiar and curi- 
ous ideas in the way of names or titles for a 
number of the papers published in the 
United States. Some of the names are very 
appropriate, while many will cause wonder 
and merriment. 

In Alabama there is a Hot Blast in An- 
niston, a Standard Gauge in Brewton, a 
Cyclone at Selma, and a Ventilator in Greens- 
boro. Arkansas has many odd names for 
newspapers, some of the most striking 
being Swifts Flying Needle, Serpent, Immi- 
grant, Log Cabin, Linch Pin, Horseshoe, 
Hummer, Tocsin, New Departure. 

In many cities of California may be found 
papers with such queer titles as Porcupine, 
Social Calls, Citrograph, Carrier Dove, 
Wasp, and Elevator. Colorado comes up 
smiling with Boomerang, Rustler, New Eden, 
Solid Muldoon, and Rattler, while Georgia 
has a Solid South, a Gold Leaf, a Breeze, 
and a Gossip. Illinois keeps her people ad- 
vised of the news through papers with such 
names as Sitcker State, Torpedo, Light of 
Egypt, Sunday Optics, Old Flag, and Parti- 
san. Indiana readers keep abreast of the 
times through a Nutshell, an Air Line News, 
a Gas Light, a Hornet, an Indiana Pocket, 
and a Hoosier Slate. 

Journalistic eccentricity in Iowa is marked 
by papers bearing the name of Merry War, 
Hawk Eye, Postal Card, Walnut Bureau, 
Phonograph, and Time Table.. Among the 
numerous dailies and weeklies in Kansas 
are the following with suggestive titles : 
Broad Axe, Boomer, Cap Sheaf, Razzoop, 
Scimitar , Lucifer the Light Bearer, Coyote, 
Chronoscope, Soap Box, Sunday Growler, 
Morning Quid Nunc, Bazoo, Thomas County 
Cat, Border Rover, Prairie Owl, and Mallet. 
Maryland people read The Moral Reformer 
at Vienna, and a Free Quill at Laurel. 

Natural Gas, Drummer, Roundabout, 
Walker' s Boomerang, Climax, Favorite, and 
Blue Grass Clipper, is Kentucky's quota to 
the list of funny-titled newspapers. Massa- 
chusetts contributes a Mimtte Man, a Yankee 
Blade, Ozone, Pilgrim, and Crimson. In 
Michigan are found the following : Light- 
ning Express, Pick and Axe, Eccentric, 

Yankee Dutch, Charlie' s Wide Awake, Bill 
Poster, Business, and Hydrant. 

Missouri's contribution to the list of queer 
titles in newspaperdom is as follows : Cash 
Box, WJiirlwind, Uncle Sam, Grindstone, 
Buzz Saw, Unterrified Democrat, and Bro- 
ther 's Optic. 

Gene Heath's Grip, Pen and Plow, and 
Nebraska Blizzard assist in posting some of 
the Nebraska people. 

The Cracker supplies the Lakeland, Fla., 
people with news food. The Cashier is the 
appropriate name of a weekly issued at Cash 
City, la., and Tombstone, Ari., has a 
weekly fittingly called the Epitaph. It is 
natural to suppose that the Brass Buzz Saw 
makes things hum at Brockton, la., and 
that the Olive Branch chronicles naught 
but words of peace to the inhabitants of 
Hancock, Minn. The Busy Bee at Green- 
ville, Miss., evidently gets all the news. 

Texas has an unusually large number of 
odd and unique-titled dailies and weeklies, 
some of the most striking being : Local 
Freight, Old Capitol, Texas Nutshells, Iron 
Clad, Gimlet, Yoakumri s Yesterday, Round 
Up, News Boy, Jimplecute, Stake Plain, 
fary, Cross Timbers, Labor Sunbeams, 
Colonel, Sharp Shooter, and Thermometer. 
The Boomerang at Palouse, Washington, 
hits the people just about right, and the in- 
habitants of Douglas, Wyo., swear by Bill 
Barlow 1 s Budget. The Pee Dee Index 
is a South Carolina paper. 

Some of the North Carolina editors were 
evidently at a loss for names, as witness the 
following: Tobacco Plant, Gold Leaf , Rail- 
road Ticket, Sign Board, Central Express, 
Pine Knot, Caucasian, French Broad Voice, 
and Eastern Reflector. Ohio publishers call 
their papers Grit, Rip Saw, Pointer, Tax- 
payer' s Guardian, and Quiver. Pennsyl- 
vania is modest, furnishing only the follow- 
ing : Smith' s Broad Axe, Watch Fire, Plain 
Speaker, Blizzard, and Derrick. 

There are a number of political paradoxes 
in the way of names for many of the dailies 
and weeklies published in different parts of 
the country, a few instances only being 
cited as follows : The True Republican, at 
Hudson, Wis., is a Democratic weekly, 
while the Chautauqua Democrat, at James- 
town, N. Y., is a strong Republican paper. 



At Goshen, N. Y., the Democrat espouses 
the cause of President Harrison's party, 
while the Independent Republican upholds 
the standard of Democracy. The Maryland 
Republican, at Annapolis; the Republican 
Citizen, at Frederick, Md., and the Republi- 
can Watchman, at Greenport, N. Y., are 
all misnomers in so far as name goes, as all 
three are strong Democratic papers, while 
the Democratic Volunteer, at Hamilton, N. 
Y., is equally misleading in name, as the 
paper advocates the principles of the Re- 
publican party. Perhaps the best known 
examples of this paradoxical naming, how- 
ever, are found in the St. Louis Repub- 
lican, an out-and-out Democratic news- 
paper, and the St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 
an equally partisan Republican sheet. 

E. B. S. 


Santa Anna's Wooden Leg (Vol. iv, 
p. 6). There are two or three mistakes in 
the answer to the "wooden-leg" query, 
cited above. General Santa Anna was still 
the owner of both his natural legs at the 
time of the battle of San Jacinto (April 21, 
1836), mentioned in your reply to "X.," 
of Baltimore. The wound which caused 
the general to lose his leg was received in 
1837, at a time when France was trying to 
land a body of troops at Vera Cruz. The 
following are the facts in this famous 
" wooden-leg case :" At the battle of Cerro 
Gordo, April 18, 1847, tne Mexican General 
Santa Anna was present, his conveyance 
being an old-fashioned carriage, drawn by 
a span of large mules. The battle becom- 
ing too warm for him, everything being in 
favor of the United States troops, Santa 
Anna cut the traces of one of the mules, 
mounted, and rode away, leaving his wooden 
leg in the carriage. Companies A and G, 
of the Fourth Illinois regiment, were the 
first to reach the abandoned vehicle. A man 
by the name of Waldren, a private in Com- 
pany G, was the first to lay hands on the 
famous relic ; in other words, Waldren 
"captured" the cork leg. Sam and Frank 
Rhodes and Sergeant J. M. Gill purchased 
the relic from Waldren, and upon their re- 
turn took it home to Pekin, 111. In 1862 
or 1863, some time during the rebellion, at 

any rate, the leg was sent as a present to 
General McCook, then living at Washington, 
D. C. General McCook placed it among 
the other relics in the Patent Office, where 
it was at last accounts. 


Nickajack (Vol. i, pp. 60, etc.). The 
Chickamauga Indians were a band of the 
Cherokees which, in 1791, separated itself 
from the main tribe owing to dissatisfaction 
with the Holston, or Knoxville, treaty with 
the whites. They had three towns, called 
the Nickajack towns, situated on the south 
bank of the Tennessee river, fifty miles 
above Huntsville, and not far from what is 
now Chattanooga. Of these towns the mid- 
dle or central one was Nickajack proper. 
The Nickajack war of 1 794 was a short and 
bloody one, but nearly all the blood spilt 
was that of the Chickamaugas, who suffered 
severely in proportion to their numbers. 

G. P. O'H. 

All Passes, etc. (Vol. iii, p. 142 ; iv, 
199, etc.). 

" All passes. Art alone 

Enduring stays to us ; 
The bust outlasts the throne ; 
The coin Tiberius." 

This is one verse of a poem by Austin 
Dobson, entitled "Ars Victrix; Imitation 
from Theophile Gautier." 


Greek Cities in France (Vol. v, pp. 
173, etc.). The Greek colony of Massalia 
was Phocaean in its origin ; there was proba- 
bly a Phoenician or Punic colony, also, at 
or near the place. Lugdunum, or Lyons, 
was the site of an early Greek commercial 
establishment. N. S. S. 

Dropping Wells (Vol. v, pp. 142, etc.). 
Probably, "the spring that gathered, 
trickling dropwise from the cleft," in the 
woods of Broceliande (Tennyson, in "Mer- 
lin and Vivien"), was a dropping well. 
There is, if I remember aright, a noted 
dropping well near Matlock, in England. 


August 1 6, 1890.] 



Suicides in China. Advices from 
China give an account of a curious suicide 
on a large scale. A number of young girls 
in Hong Kong had taken vows of celibacy 
and banded themselves into an organization 
called the Society of Purity. But one of 
the number was betrothed by her parents to 
a young man of the town. Then the whole 
band went off together and drowned them- 
selves in the river an example of female 
consistency and solidarity which is dreadful 
to think of. Yet the story is undoubtedly 
true. Suicide is very frequent in China, 
and an intending felo de se finds it easy to 
obtain companions. Thus some years ago an 
accomplished young lady of Canton, who 
had been unfortunately married to a coarse 
and stupid husband, was bewailing her fate 
to a party of sisters and female cousins, and 
declared her intention of committing suicide. 
On this the young ladies declared that, since 
such was married life, they would die, too ; 
and so the whole bevy of them joined hands 
together, and walking into a fish pond de- 
liberately drowned themselves. Again, three 
men, imprisoned in Hong Kong jail on a 
charge of piracy, determined to make away 
with themselves rather than have the bother 
of a trial. At some height in the cell where 
they were imprisoned was a small window, 
guarded by two iron bars. From the posi- 
tions in which they were found in the morn- 
ing, it would seem that the third man had 
assisted the two others in hanging them- 
selves from the bars by their queues ; that 
then he had cut down one of them by gnaw- 
ing through the queue with his teeth, and 
using the dead body as a stool to be after- 
wards kicked over, he had contrived to sus- 
pend himself. And all this had been done 
so quietly as not to attract the notice of a 
sentinel who was pacing outside the window. 
A very curious series of suicides took place 
in Shanghai in 1869. The parents of a 
young lady, lately married, fell into difficul- 
ties and applied to her for assistance. Her 
husband allowed her to give them a coat 
to pawn. The daughter, however, being 
anxious to render further aid, without the 
knowledge of her husband, secreted sixteen 
dollars in the pocket of the coat. The old 
man did not discover this, but took the coat 
to a pawnbroker, who, noticing the money 

on unfolding the garment, kept his own 
counsel, and quietly advanced two dollars. 
Soon after the husband discovered ihat the 
daughter had given sixteen dollars to her 
parents, and made so much noise about it 
that the lady disposed of herself by hang- 
ing. In this way the news of the r6bbery 
committed by the pawnbroker became 
known to the parents, and the old mother 
took the matter so much to heart that she 
poisoned herself with opium. Lastly, the 
pawnbroker, getting alarmed on hearing 
that his dishonesty had caused two deaths, 
drowned himself in a well. 


Stone Rivers (Vol. v, p. 149, etc.). 
The late Porter C. Bliss, a man of singu- 
larly bright and active mind, informed me 
that he had traveled to some extent in what 
is called Patagonia. By his account, much 
of the country is very fertile, with a good, 
though probably not perfect, climate. Wri- 
ters of books of science, however, generally 
speak of the country as for the most part 
stone-covered and almost worthless, except 
for its possible mineral stores. M. P. D. 


Rocking Stones (Vol. v, p. 69). At 
Brimham Rocks, in Yorkshire, there are 
several rocking stones of great size. 

N. C. T. 

Lakes Drained (Vol. v, pp. 179, etc.). 
Do not omit from this list the Fucine 
lake, in Italy, the drainage of which, by the 
Prince Torlonia, was a work of great magni- 
tude and interest. P. R. E. 

No-man's Land (Vol. v, p. 62). 
Please don't forget our No-man's Land in 
Maine. It is a small wooded island of the 
Atlantic, some fifty feet high, and five hun- 
dred yards in length. It is situated seven 
furlongs (if there is any sea furlong) east by 
north of the north-east point of the well- 
known island of Matinicus, and about five 
miles from the lighthouses on Matinicus 
rock. ISLANDER. 




Underground Streams (Vol. v, pp. 
164, etc.). In the French Jura there are 
many streams partly, or entirely, subterra- 
neous. Besides the Doubs, already referred 
to, the Orbe and the Creuse are both con- 
siderable streams, flowing underground for 
a good part of their respective courses. 

The river Glore, a tributary of the Inny, 
in the county of Westmeath, Ireland, flows 
underground throughout a good part of its 
course. G. P. O'HiGGiN. 


Sunken Islands (Vol. v, pp. 180, etc.). 
In 1691, Egg island, in Delaware bay, was 
surveyed and found to measure fully three 
hundred acres. One hundred years later its 
area was sixty acres. It still existed in 1830, 
but has since then disappeared entirely. 

A late newspaper account states that Sable 
island, some ninety miles to seaward of the 
Nova Scotia coast, is now being rapidly 
swallowed up by the sea. 

Nauset, an island near Orleans, Mass., 
disappeared more than a hundred years ago. 
Webb's island, of twenty acres, near Chat- 
ham, Mass., disappeared nearly two hun- 
dred years ago. * * * 

Ff in Proper Names (Vol. v, pp. 156, 
etc.). Correspondents may be interested 
to know that this question attracted the at- 
tention of their English Notes and Queries 
brethren as early as 1855, and as late as 

The general result of their discussion may 
be thus summed up : In ancient legal manu- 
scripts, the capital F was always represented 
by two small f 's (as it still is in the engross- 
ing hand used in English solicitors' offices). 

This gave rise, in time, to the printer's 
capital F being made in imitation of the 
two small letters; and it also led to the re- 
tention of the ff by the ffrenchs, the ffolliots, 
etc., who, finding their names thus spelt in 
their family papers, thought it wise, from a 
legal point of view, not to alter them in any 
way. A. ESTOCLET. 


Pets of Famous People (Vol. v, pp. 
154, etc.). Lady Hesketh, in one of her 
letters, says of the poet Cowper : "He had, 

at one time, five rabbits, three hares, two 
guinea pigs, a magpie, a jay, and a starling, 
besides two canary birds, and two dogs. 
* * * I forgot to enumerate a squirrel." 
She also seems to have forgotten to mention 
his "retired cat" of 1791. For later, in 
the same letter, she tells how soundly the 
cat was once thumped by one of the hares. 

Qui TAM. 

Bottomless Ponds (Vol. v, pp. 165, 
etc.). There is a little mere, called Never- 
touch pond, near Middleboro', Mass. Its 
name indicates the popular belief that it is 
not soundable. I used to know of an " En- 
chanted Hole," said to be bottomless, in 
the Shawsheen river, a small stream in Mas- 
sachusetts. In this river the devil used to 
baptize witches. Walden pond, or lake, at 
Concord, Mass., is another so-called bot- 
tomless pond. By inspection, any one can 
see that it is in fact only one of a chain of 
glacial lakelets, each held in place by an 
old moraine, or natural darn. It has no in- 
flow nor outlet. An inflow would have 
made a breech in the dam, or moraine, and 
would thus have destroyed the lake. 

G. H. G. 

Corrigenda. Qui Vive (Vol. v, p. 173). 
For conjunctions dubitativus read conjunc- 
tivus dubitativus ; and, on line 13, for inter- 
pellen read interpellem. 


The Chautauquan, for September, shows the follow- 
ing subjects : " On Pleasure Bent,'' by John Habber- 
ton (author of " Helen's Babies" and " All He Knew") ; 
" On the Nature and Value of Folk- Lore," by L. J. 
Vance ; " On Mount Mansfield," by Bradford Torrey ; 
" Two Chiefs of the Great League," by Francis New- 
ton Thorpe, Ph.D. ; " Margaret Fuller Ossoli," by L. H. 
Boutell; " Sacred Trees," by Dr. Ferd. Adalb. Junker 
von Langegg; "Moral Recovery," by Hezekiah But- 
terworth ; "A Spruce Bark Camp in the Adirondacks," 
by John R. Spears ; " The Supreme Court of the 
United States," by Eugene L. Didier; "Experiment 
Stations: What is an Investigation?" by Byron D. 
Halsted, Sc.D. ; " The Passion Play in 1890," by Fannie 
C. W. Barbour ; " Modern Magic and its Explana- 
tion," by Marcus Benjamin, Ph.D. ; " Japanese Art," 
by T. de Wyzewa. The editorials and the special de- 
partments occupy the usual space. 

American Notes and Queries : 


FOR * 


Copyrighted /Spo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter, 

Vol. Y. No. 17. 


I $3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

1 $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Bookstore). New Orleans : 
Geo. F. V/harton, 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco! J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : The Asoka in Hindu Literature, 193 Race-track 
Slang, 196. 

QUERIES: King of Two Worlds Eritrea Chelsea Sol- 
diers' Home, 197 Emu in New Zealand Mantuan Libra- 
ries, 198. 

REPLIES : Birds of Killingworth, 198. 

Devil's Land Romans of America Casting out the Shoe 
Democritus Minor Robespierre, 199. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Underground Streams Sacred 
Trees, 199 Miners' Superstition Rivers Flowing Inland, 
202 Chewing Gum Phenomenal Rainfalls Superstitions 
about the Robin, 203 Easter Island Thumb to Butter 
Bread Non-Christian Use of the Cross Dropping Wells 
Cariacou, 204. 




" What's in a name? That which we call a rose, 
By any other name would smell as sweet." 

Sir William Jones has told us that banjula, 
or vanjula, is only another name for the 
Asoka jonesia, and at the conclusion of his 
"Observations" on the plant says: "The 
name, I hope, will be retained by botanists, 
as it perpetually recurs in the old Indian 
poems and treatises on religious rites. If 
the imagination was at first stirred by the 
mention of ' banjula trees that spread their 
roof of crimson,' the impression need not 
be dispelled, but rather sustained and inten- 
sified by the frequency and beauty of pas- 
sages relating to the same trees under their 



[August 23, 1890. 

more familiar name Asoka. This term is 
variously rendered, as griefless, deprived of 
grief, or grief -destroyer, from a=n0f, and 
soka = sorroiv. ' ' 

Although several other beautiful crimson 
flowers native to India are often alluded to 
by her poets, the Asoka is the most poetical 
of all, and fills a high place in the ancient 
literature of the Hindus, not only on ac- 
count of its surpassing beauty whose real 
or fancied influence may have suggested its 
name but also by reason of its mythologi- 
cal associations and ;he strange superstitions 
which attach to it. 

The " Ramayan" of Valoniki, written 
anywhere between 2030 and 950 B. C., 
abounds in references to the Asoka, in which 
these trees appear either as a striking feature 
or as a full setting of some beautiful scene ; 
aside from the minor allusions, we may 
choose several such beautiful pictures. First, 
there is the palace garden of the wily, 
wicked Queen Kaikeyi, " where parrots 
flew from tree to tree, and gorgeous peacocks 
wandered free." 

" There lute and lyre sweet music play'd, 
Here rich in blossoms creepers twined 
O'er grot with wondrous art designed ; 
There Champac and Asoka flowers 
Hung glorious o'er the summer bowers, 
And 'mid the waving verdure rose 
vGold, silver, ivory porticoes" 

(Vol. i, p. 368). 

Next follows the picture of " Rama and 
Sita in the Forest." Rama dispossessed of 
his patrimony through the selfish designs of 
Kaikeyi, has fled to the woods with his wife, 
Sita, and his brother Laeshman. Leading 
the life of a devotee, he has chosen for their 
hermitage a spot near the mountain Chitra- 
kuta. Rama and Sita are seen roaming in 
the depths of the Indian forest, which, in the 
language of the poet, is fired with a clump 
of bright Asokas, and, attired in their bloom, 
Sita, eying their restless blossoms, cries : 

" * * * Now let us go 
Where those Asoka blossoms grow." 

Rama, obedient to Sita's pleasure, thither 

" And roamed delighted through the wood 
Where blossoming Asokas stood. 

And each upon the other set 

A flower-enwoven coronet. 
There many a crown and chain they wove 
Of blooms from that Asoka grove." 

And not far beyond the poet shows us an- 
other scene, hardly less beautiful, where 
"Sita of the glorious eye" is returning 
from her task at evening : 

" For she had sought the wood to bring 
Each loveliest flovver of early spring ; 
Now would the bright-eyed lady choose 
Some gorgeous bud with blending hues ; 
Now plucked the Mango spray, and now 
The bloom from an Asoka bough." 

Rama having received a visit from his 
brother Bharat, the son of his father's young- 
est queen, Kaikeyi, resolves to seek a more 
secluded hiding place, and so pursues his 
way to the pathless forest of Dandaka, 
through which flowed the brook or river 
Pampea : 

" On whose fair banks Asokas glowed 
And all bright trees their blossoms showed ; 
The crystal waters in their flow 
Showed level sands that gleam'd below; 
There glittering fish and tortoise played, 
And bending trees gave pleasant shade." 

It is here we find Rama, after Sita has 
been snatched away by the giant Ravan, 
and borne off 

" In his magic car 
Aglow with gold, which blaz'd afar." 

Rama, in his "Lament" for Sita, at first 
calls on the flowers, as the Hindus were 
wont to do, and vehemently bids the Asoka 
act his part; but soon overborne by the 
reality of his loss, and sensible that trees 
and flowers are powerless to help, he ex- 
claims : 

" Those flowers have power to banish care, 
But now they drive me to despair." 

The scene around him is a wilderness of 
beauty, which has the effect only to intensify 
the hero's suffering, and he again addresses 
the Asoka : 

" Asoka, brightest tree that grows, 
Hangs out his gorgeous bloom in scorn, 
And mocks me as I weep forlorn." 

Alas ! the grief-dispelling power of our fa- 
vorite is only etymological, and a poetic 

Nor does Sita, who meantime is far away 



in Lanka's isle (Ceylon), find more consola- 
tion than Rama in their favorite flower. 
Ravan, unable to overcome the aversion of 
Sita for him, bids his attendants bear her to 
the Asoka garden, where she is to be watched 
and guarded. Later the giant king seeks to 
pay his addresses to his royal captive there, 
and we are shown another picture. Arrayed 
in his brightest garb, and accompanied by 
a retinue of one hundred dames, bearing 
" chowries, fans, and lamps of gold," and 
making music as they went, 

" With zone and tinkling ornament." 
Ravan hastens to that 

" Lovely shade 

Where glowed each choicest flower and fruit, 
And the sweet birds were never mute, 
And tall deer bent their heads to drink 
On the fair streamlet's grassy brink." 

But Sita yields neither to threat nor to 
blandishment, and makes answer, 

" I am my lord's and he is mine." 

Meantime Hannonan, the monkey-general 
and faithful ally of Rama, has discovered 
Sita's place of captivity, and his search for 
her in the grove forms the last of the series 
of beautiful Asoka pictures in the " Rama- 

" He strayed through alleys soft and green, 
And when a spray he bent or broke, 
Some little bird that slept awoke ; 
Whene'er the breeze of morning blew, 
Where'er a startled peacock flew, 
The gayly colored branches shed 
Their flowery rain upon his head, 
That clung around the Vanar till 
He seemed a blossom-covered hill. 
The earth, on whose fair bosom lay 
The flowers that fell from every spray 
Was glorious as a lovely maid 
In her brightest robes array "d." 

The Hindu drama is a mixture of prose 
and verse, but "The Hero and the Nymph," 
of Kalidasa, who flourished about 56 B. C., 
consists chiefly of poetry, most of which is 
exceedingly pleasing. Here, too, we have 
the inevitable palace garden with its Asoka 
tree this time just bursting into flower. 
When the hero, Purusavas, discovers the 
talismanic ruby lying on the rock, he ex- 
claims, earnestly : 

" * * * 'T'.s a gem more roseate than the blush 
Of the Asoka blossom." 

And when, afterwards, he sees a hawk bear- 
ing away in his beak the celestial gem, "the 
ruby of reunion," he cries : 

" Red as Afoka flowers the precious gem * 
Graces the sky." 

" Ratnavali ; or, The Necklace," a drama 
of the twelfth century, must always interest 
because of the lively description in the first 
act of the festival of Kama-deva, the Hindu 
Cupid, and in which the leading characters 
take part. The Asoka here appears in a 
mythological relation, the presence of one 
of these trees, at least, being essential to the 
ceremony ; for it was in a grove of Asokas 
that Kama incurred the wrath of Siva, who, 
in return, burned him to ashes, and after- 
wards instituted in his honor this festival, 
celebrated in the last days of May. At the 
opening of the play, the queen is preparing 
to offer homage to the flower-armed deity, 
Kama, which stands at the foot of the red 
Asoka tree, in the garden of the palace. 
King Vatsa, who is present at the queen's 
request, among other nice things, says : 
" The bees give back in harmony the music 
of the anklets, as the delicate feet are raised 
against the stem of the Asoka tree." While 
Ratnavali is engaged in the ceremony of 
offering to the god whose statue is near the 
Asoka tree, gifts of sandal, saffron, and 
flowers, King Vatsa remarks : lf As rests your 
hand upon the stem of the Asoka, it seems 
to put forth a livelier shoot" a second al- 
lusion on the part of his majesty to the 
strange Hindu superstition " that this tree, 
by the contact of the foot of a beautiful 
woman, will put forth blossoms." It was 
most common for this ceremony to take 
place in a grove, where the portrait or the 
image of Kama was placed in the shade of 
an Asoka, and for the worshiper, after hav- 
ing bathed, to proceed thence, accompanied 
by a train of nymphs and choristers bearing 
gifts of fruits, flowers, and perfumes. 

In " Malavika and Agnimitra," another 
drama by Kalidasa, we have the superstition 
referred to in Ratnavali, illustrated in the 
action. The scene of the third act is laid 
in a palace garden where stands an Asoka 
tree. This tree does not blossom, and being 
the favorite of Queen Dharini, she has pro- 



[August 23, 1890. 

posed to try the effect of her own foot ; but 
while her attendant was putting the swing in 
motion, the queen fell out of it and sprained 
her ankle. Being thus prevented from per- 
forming the ceremony herself, she deputes 
Malavika to take her place. Malavika hav- 
ing attired herself in royal habiliments, ap- 
proaches the tree and is entirely successful. 
The scene of the fifth act of the same play 
is similarly laid the royal personages hav- 
ing assembled in the shade of the Asoka to 
receive the gifts and the submission of a 
newly-conquered king. 

Kalidasa's celebrated poem, "The Cloud 
Messenger" ("Megha Duta"), has the fol- 
lowing allusion to the same famous supersti- 

" Profuse Asoka sheds its radiant flowers, 
And budding Kesara adorns the bowers ; 
These are my rivals; for the one would greet, ' 
As I would willingly, my charmer's feet." 

The following description in plain prose, 
by some modern observer, is not lacking in 
pictorial effect : 

" The first time I saw the Asoc in bloom 
was on the hill where the famous rock-cut 
temple of Karli is situated, and a large con- 
course of natives had assembled for the cele- 
bration of some Hindu festival. Before 
proceeding to the temple, the Mahratta 
women gathered from the two trees, which 
were flowering somewhat below, each a fine 
truss of blossoms and inserted it in the hair 
at the back of the head. As they moved 
about in groups it is impossible to describe 
a more delightful effect than the rich scarlet 
branches of flowers presented in their glossy 
jet black hair." 

We know that the same Sanskrit name 
was borne by the most famous of ancient 
Hindu monarchs, and this Asoka was grand- 
son of Cbandragupta, the king with whom 
is connected the story of the "Poison 
Maid." For an account of the circum- 
stances of Emperor Asoka's birth and the 
reason why he received this name, refer to 
" The Indo- Aryans," byRajendralala Mitra, 
an author possessed of superior sources of 

F. T. C. 



Race-track talk is not always plain talk. 
It is related that a wild and woolly West- 
erner was once taken to an Eastern race- 
course, where the proceedings resemble a 
Kilkenny fight. On entering the betting 
ring, the Western man saw men and boys 
pushing and struggling with all their might 
around a stall, and heard excited men shout- 
ing at the top of their lungs : " Four to one 
on Proctor Knot ! Four to one on Proctor 
Knot!" Whereupon he whips out his re- 
volver, and howls: "Where is the fight? 
I'm not going to stand by and see four to 
one on to Proctor ! He must have fair 
play !" 

Perhaps the word in most common use on 
the race-track is " tip." If a friend or ac- 
quaintance gives you some quiet and posi- 
tive information about this or that horse, 
this or that stable, the information conveyed 
is called a "tip." A "straight tip" is 
knowledge from an authoritative source. 
Synonymous with "tip" is the word 
"pointer." Should you conclude to try 
the advice given by a "tip," and take a 
chance in the game, you take what is called 
a "flyer." Again, if the odds offered by 
the "bookies" or bookmakers should hap- 
pen to be twenty to one, or so, you would 
also take what is termed a " long shot." In 
other words, you would be taking "long 
odds" or big chances. Once more, on 
every race-track there are persons who for a 
small pecuniary consideration will sell you 
"tips." Ordinarily, these sellers of " tips" 
are called "tipsters." When they are in 
the employ of the "bookies," they are 
known as " touters." So, too, a " capper" 
is a tipster who leads the betting public 

A very peculiar but emphatic bit of turf 
slang is the word "cinch." When a per- 
son has a cock-sure thing, when he can 
pick out without fail the winning horse, he 
is said to have a "cinch." This word, 
taken from the Spanish, is used by cowboys 
to denote the way in which their saddles 
are tightened on their ponies. There are no 
buckles on the belly-band, but in their place 
there is a "cinch-strap," which passes 
through two rings and is tied by the " cinch- 



knot." The Western phrase, "cinching 
up," means simply tightening the girth. 
And, it is significant that, on the race-track, 
you hear the expression "an air-tight." 
The most emphatic form is a "lead-pipe 
cinch," but how that intensifies the cer- 
tainty I am unable to say. 

The turfman has quite a number of words 
descriptive of the horses. An animal that 
has been "fixed" or " doctored," or one 
that runs as if something was the matter, is 
called a ' stiff. ' ' Then there are ' skates. ' ' 
A second-rate track in New Jersey used to 
have running races during the winter 
months, when the track was covered with 
snow and ice. The poor animals, with 
smooth iron shoes, would often slide over 
the course in a curious kind of fashion. 
Some turfmen declared that they skated. 
Since then, second-rate horses that run in 
the mud or snow are called "skates." 

The expression "mud horse" is often 
used in a sarcastic way. Thus, turfmen 
notice that certain steeds only win on a 
muddy track when the " right odds" say 
forty or fifty to one can be obtained 
against them. However, the popular term 
for an animal quoted at big odds is a " long 
horse;" a "short horse" is one that is 
quoted at small odds. A common phrase 
for horses that are not run to win is that 
" they are not out for the stuff" meaning 
that they are not out for the money or the 
purse. A horse is said to "go wrong" 
when he fails to respond; or, he "goes 
lame" when he gets in the home-stretch or 
"in the ruck." 

It is not uncommon to hear the turfman 
ask, "Who is in the pigskin?" That is to 
say, who is the "jock" or rider? A jockey 
who makes a mistake of one kind or another 
is said to " make a break. " If the " break' ' 
is particularly bad or glaring, the jockey is 
a "chump" a word not peculiar to turf 

The wooden stalls, from which the 
"bookies" shout forth their alluring odds, 
forms what is known as the " betting ring." 
A spectator who has made a wager, and re- 
fuses to pay up after he has lost it, is every- 
where known as a " welcher." The " plun- 
ger" is one who stakes his all upon a single 
race, or one who makes big wagers out of 

proportion to his capital. "Great draft" 
is winning a number of bets in succession. 
A turfman betting with money won from 
the "bookies" is said to be "playing on 
velvet." When he goes " broke, " . and 
loses all his money, he is said to be "walk- 
ing on his uppers." 

Thus the turfman has invented new words 
as he went along, to express new wants or 
new phases of sporting life. He has turned 
nouns into verbs and vice versa; has made 
new adjectives, and has adopted into vocab- 
ulary the every-day speech of all sorts and 
conditions of men cowboys, pioneers, dig- 
gers, gamblers, stock speculators, and cor- 
ner-boys. His slang thus smacks of the 
mining camp, the stock exchange, and the 
backwoods. Consequently, turf talk is often 
rich in sound and meaning, and, at times, 
strikingly graphic and picturesque in appro- 
priateness. L.J.VANCE. 

King of Two Worlds. Who was known 
as " the king of two worlds?" 


The title "king of two worlds" was as- 
sumed by one Dundia, or Doondiah, a 
Hindu chieftain who was conquered by 
Wellington in 1798 or 1799. 

Eritrea. What and where is Eritrea? 


Eritrea is a newly constituted Italian 
colony on the east coast of Africa, including, 
besides other tracts, some part of Abyssinia. 
We are not able to say exactly what its 
limits are. 

Chelsea Soldiers' Home. Where is the 
Chelsea Soldiers' Home ? 


TROY, N. Y. 

There is (i) a noted Chelsea Hospital for 
Invalid Soldiers, at Chelsea, in England ; 



(2) the United States Soldiers' Home, at 
Chelsea (or Togus Springs), in Maine ; and 

(3) the State Home for Soldiers, at Chelsea, 
in Massachusetts. This coincidence in place 
names is rather remarkable, and somewhat 
important ; for mistakes might arise from it 
in the transmission of letters or goods. 

Emu in New Zealand. We are told in 
the Chautauquan, August, 1890, p. 575, 
that the " emu, a wingless bird, once roved 
the songless woods" of New Zealand. Is 
this true ? ALICE HENDERSON. 


For emu, read either moa or apteryx. The 
latter still exists in New Zealand, and is 
wingless. The emu is not absolutely wing- 
less, and is an Australian, not a Neo Zela- 
nian, bird. Dumont d'Urville speaks of 
seeing an emu in New Zealand, but he cer- 
tainly meant an apteryx. The huge extinct 
moa probably had small wings. 

Mantuan. What poet is called the Man- 
tuan ? M. O. W. 

TROY, N. Y. 

Virgil, who was born near Mantua, is 
often called the Mantuan; but Mantuan, 
without any the, means Battista Mantuano 
(or Spagnuoli), 1448-1516, a monk and 
Latin poet, who long enjoyed the highest 
repute, but is now much neglected. 

Libraries. Can you inform me (i) which 
is the largest library in the world ? (2) 
Which is the largest library in the United 
States? H. F. PETERSON. 


(i) The largest library in the world is 
said to be the Bibliotheque Nationale in 
Paris. The number of volumes is 2, 290,000. 
The last count was made in 1791, and as the 
foregoing figures enumerate pieces of which 
many are contained in one volume, perhaps 
something like 1,827,000 is nearer the proper 
number. The next largest library in the 
world is that of the British Museum. It 
contains 1,550,000 volumes, and 50,000 

(2) The largest collection of books in the 
United States (according to the "Report of 
the Commissioner of Public Education") is 
the Congressional Library, which contains 
596,000 volumes. The Boston Public 
Library follows closely with its 489,000 


Birds of Killingutorth (Vol. v, p. 186). 
The New York Evening Post, a few 
years ago, gave a short account of Killing- 
worth, a town in Connecticut, founded 
1663. It was originally " Kenilworth," 
named for the English town from which it 
is said the early settlers came. The writer 
had applied to the town clerk, Mr. Henry 
Hull, for information as to whether this was 
the scene of Longfellow's poem, and received 
the following reply : 

"I looked in the record of town votes, 
supposing the town gave a bounty for killing 
certain birds and animals, but I did not find 
any vote. One thing I know by actual 
knowledge. When I was young, say four- 
teen years, the men in the northern part of 
the town did yearly, in the spring, choose 
two leaders, and then the two sides formed. 
Their rules were : The side that got beaten 
should pay the bills. Their special game 
was the hawk, the owl, the crow, the black- 
bird, and any other bird considered to be 
mischievous in pulling up corn and the like. 
Also the squirrels, except the gray squirrels, 
and all other animals that were considered 
mischievous. Some years each side would 
bring them in by the bushel ; it was followed 
up only a few years, for the birds began to 
grow scarce. This was probably the basis 
for Mr. Longfellow's poem." 

This letter being sent to Mr. Samuel 
Longfellow, brother of the poet, he wrote : 

" I cannot say whether the writer of the 
poem had ever heard the story of the crusade 
against the birds which Mr. Hull relates. I 
found among his papers a newspaper cutting 
a report of a debate, in the Connecticut 
Legislature, upon a bill offering a bounty 
upon the heads of birds believed to be in- 
jurious to the farmers; in which debate, a 
member from Killingworth took part. The 



name may have taken his fancy, and upon 
this slight hint he may have built up his 
story. You will observe that in the poem 
he throws back the time to a hundred years 
ago. But I cannot speak with certainty 
upon this matter." M. A. N. 



One-eyed Days. What is meant by 
the term, "One-ejed days ?" MARTIN. 


Devil's Land. What islands are known 
as the Devil's Land, and why so called? 



Romans of America. What tribe or 
tribes of Indians were called the " Romans 
of America ?' ' MARTIN. 


Casting out the Shoe. The Psalmist 
says, "Moab is my wash-pot ; over Edom 
have I cast out my shoe." What does this 
expression mean ? P. P. C. 


Dempcritus Minor. Who was the 
Democritus Minor who annotated " The 
Anatomy of Melancholy" of Burton? The 
latter calls himself Democratus Junior. 
Some of the notes to this work are rela- 
tively very modern. ISLANDER. 


Robespierre. Can any of yotir corre- 
spondents tell me what Carlyle means when 
he says that Robespierre was as barren as 
the Harmattan wind ? J. L. T. 



Underground Streams (Vol. v, pp. 
164, etc.). That valley in Arcadia, wherein 
stood the city of Mantineia, has no drain- 
age to the sea except through underground 
channels. R. H. D. 


Sacred Trees. To what degree the 
religious systems and mythologies of the 
cultured people of antiquity were influenced 
by the story of the Creation and the Fall, 
can hardly be ascertained ; yet in a\\, cer- 
tain analogies are surprising. 

Representations of the tree of life and 
knowledge are found in the oldest art works 
and paintings of the Egyptians and Africans 
as well as in those of the people of the far 
East. The sacred tree appears as an emblem 
of the universe and of the system of crea- 
tion, but most frequently as the tree of life, 
whose fruit fills believers with divine 
strength and prepares them for the joys of 
immortality. Its oldest representatives are 
the date-tree, the fig, and the fir or cedar. 

The earliest representative of the palm is 
the genuine date-tree of the Nile valley and 
of the great alluvial plain of Babylon. The 
palm is represented as the tree of life on aa 
Egyptian obelisk, which probably belonged 
to the time of the eighth dynasty (1701- 
1447, according to Lepsius) and which is 
now set up in the royal museum at Berlin. 
Two arms reach from the top of the tree, 
one of which offers to a dead body a dish 
of dates, the other the water of life. They 
are the arms of the Egyptian household god- 
dess, Neb-hat, goddess of the nether world. 
In other and later representations, her entire 
figure appears. 

In another column, copied by Rossellino, 
is a similar picture, in which the Egyptian 
fig-tree, the fig-tree of sacred writings, fig- 
ures. There is also the fig-tree of India, 
under which Vishnu was born and which 
Brahma made king of all trees when he ap- 
pointed the kings of animals, birds and 
plants. This fig-tree is also sacred to Buddha. 
The tree which is represented by Assyrian 
painters as sacred, resembles the date-palm. 
It were scarcely possible to select more ap- 
propriate representatives of the mythic tree 
of life, whose fruit gives strength and wis- 
dom, than the date and fig-trees, both of 
which are the most important producers of 
food in the East. " Honor your paternal 
nurse, the date-tree," said Mohammed, " for 
it was created from the same dust in Para- 
dise as Adam." 

A later Mohammedan legend relates that 
Adam was allowed to choose three things 



from Paradise: myrtle, the sweetest-scented 
flower; corn, the best food ; and dates, the 
most agreeable fruit in the world. These 
dates were brought in a wonderful manner 
to Hejaz, and thence sprang all date-trees in 
the world ; and Allah assigned them for the 
food of all true believers who should con- 
quer all lands where they grow. 

The tree of life in several old mosaics in 
the apses of the Roman basilicas was repre- 
sented by the palm. In the hands of mar- 
tyrs it signified not only victory according 
to the heathen type, but more directly " the 
wood of life," whose leaves " serve for the 
healing of the nations." 

Palm branches were brought home by the 
crusaders, and, later, great masses were 
fetched from the coast plains of Palestine 
by travelers to the sacred tomb. From this 
custom they were commonly called " Pal- 
mers" and were thus distinguished from 
pilgrims to other places, as Rome, Compos- 
tela, etc. About that time palm-leaves were 
first used as ornaments on the carved capi- 
tals of churches in Northern Europe. It is 
surprising, therefore, to find the date-palm 
in its oldest forms introduced into several 
French churches at an earlier period. This 
may have been effected by the extended 
commerce which during the Merovingian 
period existed between Gaul and the eastern 
sea-board of the Mediterranean. These 
unique and beautiful designs were imitated 
by Romish and native artists of Gaul in the 
decoration of their churches. Thus the 
African tree of life is seen between two lions 
standing guard, on the pediments of many 
church portals. The shape of the tree is 
curiously diversified and sometimes in place 
of lions are dragons and other winged mon- 
sters. But the original African form can be 
recognized in spite of all modifications. 

Since the middle ages, palm leaves have 
been employed in Catholic lands in church 
decoration at Easter-time and on Palm-Sun- 
days in memory of the entrance of Christ 
into Jerusalem, and carried in the procession 
which in former times was formed in the 
church-yard. Catkins of willow are used 
mostly, especially of round-leaved willow 
which, according to old monastery verses, 
also were called palms. 

The third of the oldest sacred trees of life, 

the fir or cedar, represents entirely different 
ideas. These firs unite elegance and flexi- 
bility with strength and durableness, and 
those of upper Africa and Persia, although 
they nowhere attain the gigantic height of 
the deodar of the Himalayas, offer a strik- 
ing contrast to the date-trees and tamarinds 
which the prevailing tree-flora of the allu- 
vial countries exhibit. All their varieties 
possess that grave, lofty character, which 
reaches its highest development in the ven- 
erable cedar of Lebanon. 

It is probable that the cedar of the East 
in very early times was represented in the 
West by a different variety. Its peculiari- 
ties, height and durability, were found 
among European trees, most pronouncedly 
in the oak, and upon it were conferred the 
attributes which at first were connected with 
the firs. Like the cedar of the East, it be- 
came a symbol of supernatural might and 
power. Quercus Jovi placuit, the oak was 
sacred to Zeus, because he first taught man 
to approach him from the oak. Oaks over- 
shadowed his oracle in Dodona ; from its 
smoke priestesses expounded the will of 
God. The Northern oak like the cedar at- 
tracted the flash of lightning, and was the 
tree sacred to Donar or Thor. In the land 
of the Hessians there stood a giant oak of 
Thor, which was greatly venerated by the 
people. St. Boniface, on the advice of a few 
new converts, began to fell this tree. The 
people, amazed at such mischief, broke forth 
in loud curses but dared not hinder the 
deed. When Boniface had hewn half 
through the trunk, a supernatural storm 
arose, caught the top with all its branches 
and hurled it broken into four pieces to the 
ground. The heathen recognized the mira- 
cle, and the majority were immediately 
converted. From the wood of this tree St. 
Boniface built a chapel, which he dedicated 
to St. Petrus. 

The destruction of the oak sacred to Thor 
was necessary in order to break the way to 
the new doctrine; and numerous decrees 
and resolutions made by the papacy up to 
the thirteenth century against the practice 
of heathen ceremonies and rites under trees 
and in groves, show how stubbornly the peo- 
ple clung to the old traditions. 

Holy treesoften were afterwards dedicated 

August 23, 1890.] 



to great saints, by the Celts, especially in 
the northwest of France and in Ireland. In 
Ireland a celebrated oak was dedicated to 
St. Columbus (550-61 5), a splinter of which, 
carried in the mouth, pardoned a suicide. 
Many of these old heathen trees were con- 
secrated by means of a hewn-out cross, and 
in this way were rescued from the ax. Such 
trees are found in England where formerly 
they served as landmarks ; for example, the 
gigantic " Shire Oak," which stands on the 
place where the three counties, York, Not- 
tingham and Derby, join. Its top surpasses 
that of the celebrated chestnut-tree, called 
Cento cavalli, at ^Etna, under whose branches 
two hundred and thirty riders can find shel- 
ter. A noted tree is the "Crouch-oak," at 
Addlestone in Surrey Shire, a landmark of 
the royal forest of Windsor, which owes its 
name to a cross formerly hewn out in the 
bark. By the cross such oaks were de- 
prived not only of the might of Woden and 
Thor, but also of elves and other goblins, 
and they guaranteed protection against every 
evil spirit, a superstition which was broad- 
cast over all Germany. 

In former times and even until lately all 
manner of omens were connected with the 
changing color of the oak-leaves. The en- 
sign of the royal house of Stuart was con- 
sidered unfortunate by the Highlanders, be- 
cause it was a sprig of oak, not evergreen, 
an omen which the fate of this family veri- 
fied only to well. The earlier or later de- 
velopment of the leaves, in many places 
even now, is a weather sign, and in England 
an old maxim is current among the country- 
folk, in which the oak shares this peculiarity 
with the ash : 

If the oak's before the ash 
Then you may expect a splash ; 
But if the ash is 'fore the oak, 
Then you must beware of soak. 

From the little we know of the old Druids, 
their high veneration for the oak and the 
mistletoe growing thereon, is firmly estab- 
lished. The white mistletoe was valued as 
a mighty talisman and was gathered by them 
with mystic rites and great solemnity in the 
forests of Gaul and Britain. It was con- 
sidered sacred, for it was dropped from 
heaven upon the branches of high trees. 

Yet long before the Druid times, we en- 
counter the mistletoe in Scandinavian myths. 
Baldur, the earliest of the gods, was killed 
by a branch of it, after Freya had obtained 
an oath of all the creations of the .earth 
never to harm the Light-god. 

The mistletoe possesses a hidden magic 
power, and banishes evil spirits ; therefore, 
in Wales at Christmas time it is hung over 
the doors. In England, it, with the holly 
and the evergreens, serves for Christmas 
decorations in the home, and gives to him 
who catches a maiden under the white spray 
of berries, the right to kiss her a custom 
which is descended from a Northern myth. 
When, at the request of the gods and god- 
desses, Baldur was called back to life, Freya, 
the goddess of love, took in charge the 
plants of omen, and every one who came 
under this branch received a kiss as a token 
that in the future the mistletoe was to be a 
symbol of love and not of death. Yet, 
singularly, mistletoe, the customary orna- 
mentation for Christmas festivals, is debarred 
from the churches, and is wanting, too, in 
the sculpturing of old ecclesiastic build- 
ings, for which its symmetrical form would 
be especially suitable. Even yet in the 
North lurks the old superstition of its magic 

Like the oak, the ash was an object of 
high veneration with the Celts and Germans, 
but especially with the Scandinavian races, 
in whose religious myths this tree took a 
prominent part. The Northern people 
valued the sacred ash as the symbol of the 

The ash which the scalds chose as a tree 
symbolic of the universe, is found farther 
north than the oak. It is the most abund- 
ant tree beyond the Baltic, and its wood 
served for many purposes for which the pine 
trees of the North were not suitable. The 
saga heroes fashioned their long spear han- 
dles and ax-hafts from ash-wood, from which 
also they usually built their boats. This 
may have been the reason why the learned 
Bishop Adam of Bremen, who lived in the 
eleventh century, calls the Danish and Nor- 
wegian vikings, Aschman (ash-man), or, be- 
cause, as the Edda narrates, the first man 
was fashioned from a block of ash. 

The Edda relates that the universe tree was 



the sacred ash. Though an ash, yet it was 
an evergreen tree, and there were many sa- 
cred trees scattered over all Northern Europe 
which remained green summer and winter, 
and were highly esteemed. According to 
the account of Adam von Bremen, such a 
tree stood before a great temple in Upsala ; 
and in Ditmarsh, carefully hedged in, was a 
similarly honored tree, which was bound 
with the destiny of the land in a mystic 
manner. When Ditmarsh lost her freedom, 
the tree withered. But a magpie, one of the 
most distinguished birds of omen of the 
North, came and nested on it and brooded 
five all white young ones, a sign that the 
land would one day win back its free- 

In contradiction to the old adage, accord- 
ing to which the roots of the sacred ash 
were half destroyed by snakes, the leaves 
and the wood of the ash in Northern Europe 
were considered a mighty protection against 
snakes and other vermin. If one draws a 
circle around a viper with an ash stick, the 
viper is doomed to remain in it, and no more 
to leave it. Deutsche Rundschau. 

Miners' Superstition. " Reaching the 
largest coal mine in the United States at 
Pottsville, after an explosion that had 
robbed many families of their heads, I tried 
to obtain permission to enter the mine. 
The owner said that it was certain death to 
go into it, and I would not be permitted to 
do so. I paid a poor Welshman $5 to take 
me secretly down the shaft, and he and I 
spent an afternoon in the bowels of the earth, ' ' 
writes Julian Ralph in Chatter. " There 
would not have been anything very desper- 
ate about that but for the ignorance and 
recklessness of my Welshman the same 
sort of ignorance and recklessness that had 
blown up that mine and has blown a hun- 
dred others. 

" He got to telling me about the ' brown- 
ies ' that live in the mine. Queer little 
pigmies he said they were, not much bigger 
than your hand ; clothed all in brown, 
wearing feathers in their hats and always ap- 
pearing to a miner when something dreadful 
is about to happen to the mine or to the in- 
dividual. He said that as he was at work 
in a blind shaft on the day of the explosion 

he heard a lilliputian chattering, and look- 
ing up saw a brownie, four inches high, 
standing in a crevice on a coal vein, and 
holding up a warning finger. 

" My Welshman had a naked lamp in his 
hand, and suddenly he raised it in a cranny 
over my head with the remark : ' The 
brownies do live in all such cracks as that.' 
When you know that I had been warned 
that if the flame of a lamp touched any 
crevices of the rocks wherein gas was still 
certain to be lurking, another frightful ex- 
plosion would occur, you can imagine my 
feelings as I seized that man's arm and 
pulled it down, half a minute after the flame 
had penetrated that hiding place of the fatal 

Rivers Flowing Inland (Vol. v, pp. 
179, etc.). According to a French work 
entitled " Curiosites Gdographiques," which 
I translate, a stream in Cephalonia, largest 
of the Ionian islands, presents a phenome- 
non which is even more extraordinary (than 
others already mentioned) since it is a case 
the contrary of all other water-courses in 
that it runs out of the sea, inland, instead 
of emptying into it. After flowing a short 
distance in a sort of canal, it disappears 
under a rubbish of rocks. It is situated at 
the northern extremity of the tongue of land 
which forms the western shore of the harbor 
of Argostoli. It has never diminished in 
volume nor ceased to flow, nor succeeded in 
filling the subterranean cavity into which it 
pours. One of the landed proprietors of 
Cephalonia has vainly quarried a large open- 
ing into these rocks in order to follow out 
this mysterious course. After having reached 
a depth of about ten feet, he discovered that 
the waters disappeared in natural fissures 
ten to fourteen feet below the surface of the 
sea, from which the waters of the sea and 
those of this stream were only separated by 
a thin partition of stone. The existence of 
this phenomenon (first made known to the 
scientific world in 1838) led to the con- 
struction of a mill, located on the border of 
the sea, of which the waters flowing inland, 
after serving to turn the wheel, plunged into 
the gulf or aperture among the rocks and 
disappeared. ANCHOR. 




Chewing Gum. Physicians are begin- 
ning to look upon chewing gum with favor- 
able eyes, in spite of the prejudices of pa- 
rents and school-ma'arms. It opens the 
salivary glands, and gives material aid to 
the digestion of green and starchy foods. 
Hasty eating prevents a due quantity of 
saliva from assimilating with the food. 
Those who eat in haste may repent at leisure 
by chewing gum. 

The output of chewing gum in this coun- 
try alone is about 3,500,000 pounds per an- 
num, representing a total value of $3,000,000. 
It is not only children or young girls who use 
it, but the habit is growing in favor among 
adults, and especially among athletes. Base- 
ball players, sprinters, most of the crack 
men of muscle and agility are inveterate 

The best gum is that made from the chi- 
clezapote tree in Mexico. The gum of this 
tree in its crude state was long used by the 
Mexican Indians for a similar purpose. 
When they went out on the plains they 
found that it kept their throats from becom- 
ing parched if they could get no water. But 
it was not until recently known to Ameri- 
cans. A lump of the gum fell into the 
hands of a Yankee named Adams some 
twenty years ago. It struck him that the 
substance might be made to take the place 
of gutta-percha, or soft rubber, but after ex- 
periments extending over a period of two 
years, he was forced to give up the idea as 
impracticable. A lot of the useless stock 
was left on his hands. One day he hap- 
pened to break off a bit and chewed it. He 
found it was pleasant to the taste. That 
hint was sufficient ; he would manufacture 
the article into chewing-gum. A prominent 
manufacturer assured him that the substance 
was no good for the purpose ; but, nothing 
daunted, Adams set to work on his own ac- 
count, and sold his article on a small scale 
to dealers. Orders began to pour in the 
thing was a success. To-day Mr. Adams 
employs two hundred and fifty hands in a 
factory six stories high. 

Chewing gum of an inferior grade is still 
made from the gum of the New England 
spruce tree, and from paraffine, which is the 
residue of crude petroleum in process of re- 
fining. But the Mexican gum has nearly 

succeeded in driving all its competitors out 
of the field. 



Phenomenal Rainfalls. In studying 
the precipitation of the United States, I find 
the following excessive rainfalls within the 
past five years, concerning which I do not 
recollect having seen any figures given in 
the usual news columns. During the disas- 
trous storm that culminated in the destruc- 
tion of Johnstown, a depth of rain aggregat- 
ing 6. 2 inches fell upon the drainage basin 
of Conemaugh river in thirty-two hours ; at 
Grampian Hills station, 8.4 inches fell in 
the same length of time. During the storm 
of February n, 1886, a depth of 5 inches 
fell in one day upon the southern New Eng- 
land States, and a depth of 7 inches in an 
area of more than fifteen hundred square 
miles. In May, 1890, 3.9 inches fell at 
McCauseland, la., in one hour; at Gal- 
veston, Tex., June 14, 1871, 3.95 inches 
fell in fourteen minutes; at St. Louis, 5.05 
inches fell in one hour ; and at Triadelphia, 
W. Va., July 9, 1888, 6.9 inches were pre- 
cipitated in fifty-five minutes. At Mayport, 
Fla., 13.7 inches fell in twenty-four hours ; 
at Upper Mattole, Colo., 31.7 inches fell in 
five days, and at Alexandria, La., 21.4 
inches fell in one day. This, the most co- 
pious downpour that has ever been recorded 
in the United States, has been surpassed, 
however, in India, where, in Purneah, 35 
inches was recorded in an equal interval of 
time. J. W. REDWAY. 


Superstitions about the Robin. 

"A good many superstitious ideas are preva- 
lent in different localities with reference to 
the robin. In some parts of Scotland the 
song of this interesting little bird is held to 
augur no good for the sick person who hears 
it, and to those superstitiously inclined much 
anxiety is sometimes caused when its notes 
are heard near a house where any one hap- 
pens to be ill. There is a legend connected 
with the robin which I have somewhere 
seen. It is said that far, far away there is a 
land of woe, darkness, spirits of evil, and 
fire. Day by day does this little bird bear 



in his bill a drop of water to quench the 
flame. So near the burning stream does he 
fly that his feathers are scorched, and hence 
he is named bronphuddu (burnt breast). 
There is also a legend which attributes his 
red breast to his having tried to pluck a 
spike from the crown of thorns with which 
our Lord' s head was encircled" ( Good News. ) 

Easter Island (Vol. v, p. 185). Con- 
cerning the truly wonderful prehistoric re- 
mains in Easter island, see Art. " Polyne- 
sia," in " Encyclopaedia Britannica," near 
the end. Some years since a squad of 
French sailors landed and destroyed many 
huge clay images. They are supposed to 
have been actuated by pious zeal against 
idolatry. Easter island is now utilized as a 
sheep-pasture by an American capitalist. 
The island is noteworthy as being by very 
far the easternmost inhabited island in Poly- 
nesia. The images on this island are not 
of the American type, neither are they 
matched by anything else found in Polynesia 
or Micronesia. The Easter islanders say 
their ancestors came from Uparu, nineteen 
hundred miles distant ; and they are no 
doubt correct in this statement. 

Thumb to Butter Bread (Vol. v, p. 
86). This custom has the sanction of roy- 
alty, though, it must be confessed, of a 
" mighty dirty monarch," if we may trust 
the description Lord Raby gives of Charles 
XII of Sweden. Describing the king at 
his meals, he says : " Between every bit of 
meat he eats a piece of bread and butter, 
which he spreads with his thumb" (1707). 

E. G. KEEN. 


Non-Christian Use of the Cross. 

Among the old temples of Pegu, in Burmah, 
some of which are described in the writings 
of Francis Mason, a missionary, are cruci- 
form temples, said to have been constructed 
by the old Peguans (otherwise called Tala- 
ing, or Mon), a people apparently not re- 
lated to any of the dominant tribes of the 
country, their language seeming to belong 
to what is called the Kolarian stem of India. 

* * * 

Dropping Wells (Vol. v, pp. 190, etc.). 
A dropping well in Chinese Tartary is 
thus described by Mr. Atkinson : " Re- 
turning towards the plain by another route, 
we visited the Tamchi-Bouiac, or dropping 
spring, and a magnificent one it is. It lies 
at the foot of Ala mountains ; the water 
comes trickling out of the rocks in thou- 
sands of little streams that shine like show- 
ers of diamonds ; while the rocks, which are 
greatly varied in color, from a bright yel- 
low to a deep red, give to some parts the 
appearance of innumerable drops of liquid 
fire. The water drops into a large basin, 
and runs over fallen masses of stone in a 
considerable stream." J. W. REDWAY. 

Cariacou (Vol. iv, pp. 228, etc.). This 
word signifies not only a certain island, and 
a species of deer, but in French Guiana it is 
the name of a kind of liqueur or cordial 
drink (see " Dunglison's Dictionary"). 
Your correspondents have not yet got hold 
of the ultimate facts about this word. 



The Illustrated American for the current week gives 
an interesting account of the Passion Play at Ober- 
Ammergau, with illustrations from sketches made on 
the spot by its special artist. As the only relic of the 
Mysteries of the Middle Ages that has survived, this 
specimen of the religious drama of old times is of deep 
interest, independent of the vivid presentation it affords 
of the Passion of Christ, and this year the peiformance 
is the more noteworthy as it may never be repeated. 
The sketches in the Illustrated American give an ad- 
mirable idea of the mishaps one meets with going to 
Ober-Ammergau ; of the scenes in the village ; of the 
simple peasants who take part in the performance, and 
of the extraordinary play itself. The text gives a lively 
account of the scenes and incidents of a trip to the 
village, and there is also a careful compilation of the 
tableaux and scenes which constitute the Passion Play. 

Book News, with its August issue, completes the 
eighth year of its publication, and contains an index of 
the reviews, literary miscellany, the portraits of authors 
and writers, with biographical sketches published since 
last September. The portrait of Edward Bellamy, au- 
thor of " Looking Backward," is of timely interest, and 
is fitly accompanied by a short commentary on his 
writings, and an article by Rev. Washington Gladden 
on " The New Socialism in Literature." " With the 
New Books" and " The Descriptive Price List" offer 
opinions and titles to help choose from the month's 
books, and the pictures from some of the illustrated 
books are an additional assistance. 

American J^otes and Queries : 




Copyrighted i&qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. V. No. 18. SATURDAY, AUGUST 30, 1890. {X^S^%55t!*!:* 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city, New York, Chicago and 
Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner BookStore). New Orleans: 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street. 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : Lawn Tennis and its Ancestry, 205 The Satyr- 
Beetle and the Ash, 206 How Names Grow Intelligence of 
Apes Karen Traditions North America Called India, 207. 

QUERIES : Tenterden Steeple Insolent Doctor Birds' 
Eggs, 208. 

REPLIES : Alexander and Apelles Casting Out the Shoe 
Shrewsbury, 208. 

One-eyed Commanders Blood Thicker Than Water 
Last Island, 209. 

COMMUNICATIONS : The Frogs of Windham, 209 Old 
Almanacs, 212 Crutch in Churches Mascarene Family 
Lowey of Tunbridge Rocking Stones Lakes Drained, 213, 
Musical Sands " The " in Place Names English Village 
Names Odd Names of Newspapers, 214 Underground 
Streams When We've Been There, etc. Longest Siege, 215 
Leper Kings River Turned Back Maroons No Man's- 
Land Curiosities of Animal Punishment Cariacou, 216. 




The ball and consequently the ball game 
is fully 4000 years old. At all events, small 
balls of leather and wood, used obviously in 
some out-door sport, have been brought to 
light in recent excavations near Cairo, and 
are held to belong to a period 2000 years 
before Christ. That the Greeks and 
Romans played ball is well known, though 
we have no definite knowledge as to the 
nature of their games. Hand-ball, such as 
we still play, seems to be the earliest ball 
game that emerges out of the mists of his- 
tory in the very early portion of the 
middle ages in Italy under the name of 
pallons, and in France under that of jeu de 
paume. Hand-ball, therefore, may be con- 
sidered the parent of all our modern games 



of ball, the ancestor of lawn tennis, base- 
ball and cricket. The evolution from a 
game in which something besides the hands 
was used wherewith to strike the ball was 
slow and gradual. First the hands were 
covered with gloves to protect them, then 
came the first rude form of racquet a spoon- 
shaped basket strapped to the arm, much 
like that still used in the basque game of 
pelote. Early in the fifteenth century a 
battoir or battledore covered with parch- 
ment and with a wooden handle. So popu- 
lar were these battoirs that every available 
bit of parchment was used up in their manu- 
facture, even to manuscripts of the classics. 
You will remember the story of the French 
tutor in the sixteenth century, who while 
playing ball noticed that there were faint 
Latin characters on his racquet, and taking 
it home with him to decipher found that the 
parchment was evidently a portion of the 
missing books of Livy which scholars had 
mourned for ages. He at once obtained the 
address of the maker, but arrived there only 
to find that he was too late. The MS. had 
all been used up. 

The battoir was soon succeeded by a rac- 
quet something like that now in use in lawn 
tennis. In France, the jeu de paume re- 
tained that name, though it was no longer 
truly descriptive ; in Italy, it came to be 
called simply la palla, the ball. In Eng- 
land it was known as tennis, and there, as 
elsewhere, was the favorite game of the royal 
courts. In 1555, one Messer Antonio 
Scaino, a learned doctor of the church, pub- 
lished a valuable treatise, " Traltato della 
Palla," which did much to assimilate and 
coordinate the rules of the game in the 
different countries where it was played. 
Some of the terms which he makes use of 
have survived to our day in the more modern 
lawn tennis, as due (deuce) and vantaggis 
(vantage). With the close of the seventeenth 
century, the game of tennis languished and 
indeed had become well-nigh extinct until 
within our own days when the interest ex- 
cited by lawn tennis recalled attention to 
the more venerable game of which it was the 
offspring. At present tennis is played con- 
siderably in England and in America, 
especially in Boston, which boasts of the 
tennis champion of the world in the person 

of its townsman, Mr. Pettit, who has only 
just reasserted his claim by a signal victory 
over the English champion, Mr. Sanders. 

The game of " fives," which is still popu- 
lar in England, is a survival of the original 
jeu de paume. It is so called because the 
ball is struck with the hand or "bunch of 
fives." In Ireland substantially the same 
game is known as hand-ball, and under this 
name it has established some foothold in the 
United States, especially in Roman Catholic 

Rackets or racquets seems to have origi- 
nated in the Fleet prison about the be- 
ginning of this century. It soon spread over 
England, but until recently was played in 
courts with one wall. The four-walled 
court dates from about 1850. 



The coincidence has long been noticed, 
that the " Satyr- Beetle " (Hyloryctes saty- 
rus), when found in the soil, is always found 
beneath an ash tree. Ash trees are com- 
paratively free from insect, infestations, 
especially their foliage. Practical collectors 
of insects have frequently noticed the coin- 
cidence here alluded to, and have taken the 
insects to the number of from ten to twenty 
or thirty under a single tree ; and have yet 
seen or taken no larva in connection with 
them indeed we have heard one instance in 
which the mature insects were fairly swarm- 
ing around the trees, and yet the foliage re- 
mained intact, and the trees were in a 
healthy condition. A superstition prevailed 
during my boyhood, to the effect that the 
" hoop-snake " or " horn-snake " (a fabled 
snake then said to exist in Pennsylvania and 
elsewhere) could not injuriously affect an ash 
tree, although any other tree, if struck by said 
snake, would immediately die. This is 
about on a parallel with the case on p. 202, 
except that there only a line is to be drawn 
in a circle with an ash stick around a viper 
to "doom it to remain in it, and no more 
leave it." 

According to the Pennsylvania supersti- 
tion, the horn- snake forms itself in a circle 



by taking the end of its tail in its mouth, 
and then revolves, by which it acquires suf- 
ficient momentum to strike its horn into any 
tree in its path, and is fatal to all except the 
ash. May not the snakes so destructive to 
the sacred ash have been the larvce of some 
insect ? In the olden time, snakes and eels 
were said to be propagated merely by turn- 
ing over a sod with the grass downward, 
"and behold on the morrow, the young 
snakes and eels would be found among the 
grass." S. S. R. 



The Boston Transcript lately remarked 
how white people were known in the upper 
Congo districts as Batendele, tendele being 
the nearest approach the natives can make 
to the pronunciation of Stanley. 

This reminds me of the peculiar way in 
which a name grew for a cannon among the 
tribes on the east coast of that same con- 

The first cannon ever seen in Natal was 
conveyed on board a British ship ; blacks 
were employed, as usual, to unload the 
cargo, and naturally made repeated inquiries 
as to what that thing was. In angry tones 
the officer in charge told them " to get on 
with their work and they would know all 
about the machine by and by" The last 
word of the blustering sailor was somehow 
looked upon by the poor bewildered fellows 
as the answer to their questions ; the news 
at once went around, that this strange thing 
was a mbaimba'i, and the native vocabulary 
was, there and then, enriched with a new 
term, mbaimbai. A. ESTOCLET. 



Emm Pasha, as quoted in Stanley's recent 
book, " In Darkest Africa," professes that he 
has seen troops of chimpanzees making 
their way by night through forests by the 
aid of torches which they carried. Mr. Ro- 
manes rejects Emm's testimony on this 
point as incredible. In Natal an ape acts 
as a signal-man (under supervision) on a 
railway. Near Bencoolen, in Sumatra, 

monkeys are regularly employed in gather- 
ing cocoanuts. In India the monkeys often 
imitate soldiers, marching by thousands in 
regular array. Strabo relates that Alexan- 
der, while in India, fell in with an army of 
apes, and would have done battle with them, 
but was dissuaded by the natives. This is 
probably true, for the Hindu reveres all 
monkeys, and does them no violence. India 
has its regular monkey pilgrimages, some 
kinds of apes visiting yearly the holy places 
in great droves, quite in the fashion of man- 
kind in the same regions. A species of 
galago, in Africa, chews gum while in its 
untamed state. The orangs in the mena- 
gerie at Batavia pitch pennies and smoke 
cigars. * * * 


Those who are familiar with the writings 
of Dr. Francis Mason, the missionary, are 
aware of the very marked similarity of many 
of the Karen traditions to certain parts of 
the Old Testament narrative. This strange 
fact may be accounted for as follows : It is 
generally conceded that the Karens are an 
aberrant branch of the Chinese race ; and 
the strongest reasons exist for identifying 
the Chinese, as a race, with the ancient 
Accadians of Mesopotamia. Now it was 
from Mesopotamia that the early Hebrew 
traditions took their start. In view of these 
facts, we may safely assume that many 
Jewish and Karen traditions had a common 
origin. N. S. S. 


In Dr. Isaac Watts' address, "To His Ex- 
cellency Governour Belcher" (1730), occur 
the following lines: 

" Go, Belcher, go ; assume thy glorious sway ; 
Faction expires, and Boston longs t' obey. 

* Let India hear 

That Jesus reigns, and her wild tribes prepare 
For heavenly joys." 

It will be remembered that Belcher was 
Governor of Massachusetts and New Jersey 
together. R. JONES. 




B S. 

Tenterden Steeple. Why was the Ten- 
terden steeple the cause of Goodwin Sands? 

L. A. 


v > P- 35 under "Sunken Islands." 

Insolent Doctor. Who was called "The 
Insolent Doctor?" M. G. G. 


The title " Doctor Insolent " means for- 
ward doctor rather than insolent doctor. 
It was given to Vincent Clement, a graduate 
of Oxford, probably of Italian birth, who as 
nuncio English agent at Rome procured with 
difficulty from Pope Eugenius IV a bull 
giving special privileges to the newly- 
founded Eton college. Clement by royal 
mandate received the doctor's degree in the- 
ology when only a subdeacon, or possibly 
a deacon. He held several rich benefices, 
and when he died, in 1474, was Archdeacon 
of Winchester. 

Birds' Eggs. What kind of wild birds' 
eggs are sold in the markets ? 

J. L. N. 

i. In California, the eggs of gulls and 
murres are collected at the Farallon islands 
and regularly marketed. 2. In England, 
the eggs of lapwings, plovers, terns and 
gulls are sold in great numbers as food, and 
bring high prices. 3. New London 
schooners in the Antarctic seal and oil 
trade salt down great numbers of penguin's 
eggs for the crews' use. Sometimes a few 
barrels are left over at the end of the voyage, 
and some of the people along the Sound 
make use of these huge eggs for culinary 

1^ B P L I B S . 

Alexander and Apelles (Vol. iv, p. 305). 
John Lyly gives the subjoined version of 
this story in the "Epistle Dedicatorie," 
addressed to Sir William West, Knight, 

Lord De la Warre, and prefixed to his 
"Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit" (1581): 
" Alexander having a skarre in his cheeke, 
held his finger uppon it, that Appelles 
might not paint it, Apelles painted him, 
with his finger cleaving to his face, why 
quod Alexander, I laid my finger on my 
skarre, because I would not have thee see it, 
(yea said Apelles) and I drew it there, be- 
cause none els should perceive it, for if thy 
finger had been awaie, either thy skarre 
wold have been scene or my arte misliked." 

E. G. KEEN. 

Casting Out the Shoe (Vol. v, p. 199). 
" Moab is my wash-pot." Scott's "Commen- 
taries" defines this expression thus: " Moab 
would soon be reduced to bondage and em- 
ployed in the lowest menial services." The 
Doway translation reads thus: "Moab is 
the pot of my hope," and the foot-note ex- 
plains the expression thus: " The pot of my 
hope or my watering pot, /. e., a vessel for 
meaner uses, by being reduced to serve me, 
even in the meanest employments." The 
second part of the query, " Over Edom 
have I cast out my shoe," Scott explains 
this expression of David to the effect that 
he " fully expected in a short time to van- 
quish Edom and take possession of it by 
casting his shoe over it, or treading it under 
his feet and crushing its strength." The 
Doway translation reads, "Into Edom will 
I stretch out my shoe." 


Shrewsbury (Vol. v, p. 174). In England 
the first syllable of this word is unmistakably 
pronounced Shroo ; as to its " proper " pro- 
nunciation, how shall it be determined? By 
its first spelling or its modern orthography? 

The original Celts had named the place 
Pengwerne (the head by the alder trees). 
The Saxons translated the name approxima- 
tively into Scrobbesbyrig, and called the 
shire Scrobscir. The Normans, who took a 
veritable delight in distorting Saxon words 
in general, and hated all K-sounds in par- 
ticular, altered Scrobbesbyrig to Sloppesbury, 
whence came Salop. In spite of this, how- 
ever, the Saxon form seems to have reas- 



serted itself to a certain extent and sur- 
vived in Shrewsbury. 

(Compare Shropham in Norfolk, Wonn- 
wood-scrubbs near London, etc.) 


Strew is often pronounced strow ; shew\s 
the same as show; Shakespeare rhymes 
shrew with show, and with so. Lady 
Berkeley (isth cent., Berkeley MSS. , p. 153) 
writes to her husband concerning " the Earl 
of Shroesbury. " I think, therefore, that of 
old Shrewsbury would have rhymed with 
Rosebery, not with gooseberry ; and that our 
old-time New Jersey pronunciation of it was 
imported from England. G. 



Russian Byron. Who was called the 
Russian Byron, and why? D. 


One-eyed Commanders. Who were 
the notable one-eyed commanders other 
than Lord Nelson ? D. 


Blood Thicker Than Water. Can 
any of the readers of AMERICAN NOTES AND 
QUERIES give information upon this ex- 
pression? I think it was a remark made by 
Lord Howe or Lord Cornwallis in regard 
to General Washington, when at Valley 


Last Island. A short time before the 
rebellion of 1861, there was yet standing an 
island in the Gulf of Mexico, and near one 
of the outlets, or mouths of the Mississippi 
river, which, according to the best of my 
recollection, was called Last Island. It was 
occupied by some of the wealthy citizens of 
New Orleans as a place of summer retire- 
ment, and a number of cottages were built 
upon it. An old gentleman and his wife, 
who resided in Lancaster city at the same 
time, and with whom I became intimately 
acquainted, informed me that he and his 

wife spent some winters upon it, as stewards 
to take care of the cottages. Either before 
the outbreak of the war, or a short time after 
it, the gentleman aforesaid approached me in 
some slight agitation and informed me that 
Last island na longer existed that it and 
all its movable property had been swept 
away, save a steamboat or two. As I have 
never heard anything of the occurrence 
since then, may I ask some contributor to 
event occurred, and the circumstances under 
which it occurred how it occurred, or 
whether it occurred at all or not ? 

I remember the theory which then pre- 
vailed on the subject of such disasters a 
loose friable foundation, a strong continuous 
wind from seaward, and an extraordinary 
flow or flood of the Mississippi river, all oc- 
curring at the same time, continued to heap 
up the destructive waters and cause the over- 
flow. S. S. R. 



The Frogs of Windham (Vol. v, p. 
171). A Legend of the French- Indian 

" Not more bold Elderken with terror shook, 
Not more dismay was pictured in his look, 
When Windham's sons at midnight's awful hour 
Heard from afar the hoarse discordant roar, 
Of Bull-frog sorrow groaning on the wind, 
Denouncing death and ruin to mankind." 

(Richard Alsop.) 

The following version, by the Rev. Samuel 
Peters, a student in Yale college at the time 
of the occurrence, will explain the above 
allusion : " Strangers are very much terri- 
fied at the hideous noise made in summer 
evenings, by the vast number of frogs in 
the brooks and ponds of Windham. There 
are about thirty different voices among them ; 
some of which resemble the bellowing of a 
bull ; the owls and whippoorwills complete 
the rough concert which may be heard sev- 
eral miles. Persons accustomed to such 
serenades are not disturbed by them at their 
proper stations ; but one night in July, 1758, 
the frogs of an artificial pond three miles 



square and about five miles from Windham, 
finding the water dried up, left the place in 
a body and marched or rather hopped to- 
wards Willimantic river. They were under 
the necessity of taking the road and going 
through the town which they entered about 
midnight. The bull-frogs were the leaders 
and the pipers followed without number. 
They filled a road forty yards wide for four 
miles in length, and were several hours in 
passing through the town, unusually clamor- 
ous. The inhabitants were equally perplexed 
and frightened ; some expected to find an 
army of French and Indians ; others feared an 
earthquake and dissolution of nature. The 
consternation was universal. Old and 
young, male and female, fled naked from 
their beds with worse shrieking than that 
of the frogs% The event proved fatal to 
many women. The men, after a flight of 
half a mile, in which they met with many 
broken shins, finding no enemies in pursuit 
of them, made a halt and summoned reso- 
lution enough to venture back to their wives 
and children, when they distinctly heard 
from the enemy's camp these words : Wight, 
Hilderken, Dier, Tete. This last they 
thought meant treaty ; and plucking up 
courage, they sent a triumvirate to capitulate 
with the supposed French and Indians. 
These three men approached in their shirts, 
and begged to speak with the General ; but 
it being dark and no answer given, they 
were sorely agitated for some time betwixt 
hope and fear ; at length, however, they dis- 
covered that the dreaded inimical army was 
an army of thirsty frogs going to the river, 
for a little water " (" History of Connecti- 
cut," London, 1787). 

Although Sam Peters, LL. D. , was a 
Puritan by birth and in charge of the 
churches at Hartford and Hilson, he was 
compelled to flee the country in 1774, on 
account of his Tory sympathies, which had 
led him to connive at the dismemberment 
of Connecticut. 

Windham, in 1758, had been settled 
sixty years, and had a population of 1000. 
The frog pond was of ordinary size, having 
an area of little less than one-fourth of a 
mile, and was only one mile distant from the 
town. In case of a migration the frogs 
would have sought the Shetucket as the 

nearest water supply rather than the Willi- 
mantic river, which was twice as far off. 

The next version of importance is entitled 
" The Frogs of Windham. An Old Colony 
Tale founded on Fact." It first appeared 
in the Providence Gazette, in the early part 
of this century. Barber quotes it as "an 
amusing relic," in "Historical Collec- 
tions of Connecticut" (1836), and says it 
was printed recently. The description of 
the "Fright" is very graphic, and the 
writer says the citizens " loaded their guns 
and sallied forth to meet the invading foes." 
He omits the midnight procession of frogs 
through the town, and substitutes " apitched 
battle fought by the same amphibious quad- 
rupeds, for the possession of what water re- 
mained on the site of the pond itself." 

This same version serves as an introduc- 
tion to a ballad of the same title in M'Car- 
thy's " National Songs," Third or Military 
Series (1842) : 

" When these free States were Colonies 

Under the mother nation ; 
And in Connecticut the good 
Old Blue Laws were in fashion." 

The traditions of the famous occurrence 
were carefully preserved in the family of the 
owners of the mill privilege the Folletts 
and we could hardly hope for a more relia- 
ble account than that of one of their 
descendants, Abner C. Follett, Esq., of 
whom it has been said, " nothing exagge- 
rated or savoring of romance would be stated 
or believed by him." It is evidently on 
his testimony that Miss Lamed rests her ver- 
sion, which is as follows : 

"The family of Mr. Follett, who owned 
the mill privilege and lived adjacent, were 
awakened by a most extraordinary clamor 
among the frogs. They filled the air with 
cries of distress, described by the hearers as 
continuous and thunder-like, making their 
beds shake under them. Those who went 
to the pond found the frogs in great ap- 
parent agitation and commotion, but from 
the darkness of the night could see nothing 
of what was passing. In the morning many 
dead frogs were found about the pond, yet 
without any wounds or visible marks of vio- 
lence. There was no evidence that they had 
been engaged in battle. Some mysterious 



malarial malady, some deadly epizootic had 
probably broken out among them and 
caused the outcries and havoc. The report of 
their attempted migration in search of water 
is positively denied by trustworthy wit- 
nesses. There had been no draught and the 
pond was abundantly supplied with water, 
being fed by a never-failing stream' ' ( " Hist. 
Windham Co., Conn.," Vol. i). 

Miss Larned's account of the fright in 
the town itself does not differ greatly 
from the earlier versions already noticed, 
although she says the alarm was first sounded 
by a negro man, a servant of some promi- 
nent citizen, returning home late at. night. 

The date assigned for the event, in all 
other versions, is July, 1758 : but Miss Lar- 
ned says June, 1754, and quotes a facetious 
letter about this, the most widely known 
event in Windham's history, from Rev. 
Mr. Stiles, of Woodstock, to his nephew, 
dated July 9, 1754. The sober page of 
history which introduces Miss Larned's ver- 
sion connects the " panic " with the " Sus- 
quehanna Purchase," and lends a dignity to 
hers which does not belong to the more 
legendary accounts. For Col. Dyer's con- 
nection with the Susquehanna business, see 
Appleton's " Cycl. Amer. Biog." 

The literature of the frog-fright includes 
three ballads. The earliest, " The Lawyers 
and Bull-Frogs," is by Master Ebenezer 
Tilden, father of Col. Tilden, of Lebanon, 
being "a true relation of a strange battle 
between some Lawyers and Bull-Frogs, set 
forth in a new song written by a jolly farmer 
of New England." 

" Good people all both great and small, 

Of every occupation, 
I pray draw near and lend an ear, 
To this our true relation." 

Closing stanza : 

" Lawyers, I say, now from this day, 

Be honest in your dealing, 
And never more increase your store, 
While you the poor are killing." 

See Barber's " Hist. Colls. Conn." 
(1836). Tilden was presumably the poet 
(1686-1766) who wrote "Miscellaneous 
Poems to Animate and Arouse the Soldiers in 
the French War" (1756). 

The authorship of the ballad, "The 
Frogs of , Windham," which accompanies 
the version from the Providence Gazette in 
M'Carthy's " National Songs," is unknown. 

The Putnam Patriot has very recently 
printed the following note from a gentleman 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., a native of the eastern 
part of Connecticut : 

MR. EDITOR: Please learn from the above that I 
am summering in sight of the noted frog pond of 1758 ; 
this frog pond was believed to be the capital city of a 
colony of the largest bull-frogs, whose stentorian voices 
made hills and valleys ring. 

The writer quotes freely from this ballad, 
and proposes in closing to send a copy to the 
editor for republication. The evacuation 
of the town is thus described : 

" Away they went across the lots, 

Hats, caps and wigs were scattered ; 
And heads were broke, and shoes were lost, 
Shins bruised, and noses battered." 

The latest ballad, also the longest, having 
forty- four stanzas, appeared in the Boston 
Museum, 1851. It is thought to have been 
written by a native of Windham, and is en- 
titled " The Bull-Frog Fright. A Ballad of 
the Olden Time." It begins : 

" A direful story must I tell, 
Should I at length relate, 
What once a luckless town befell, 
In ' wooden nutmeg ' State." 

The closing stanza : 

" This tale is true, and years far hence, 

It must be current still, 
For bull-frogs two are pictured on 
Each current Windham bill," 

intimates that the " legend " is perpetuated 
in art as well as in literature, being the sub- 
ject of an ornamental design on Windham 
bank-notes current in 1865 when the 
banks generally became " National." 

Finally the famous tale has found a musi- 
cal setting in Mr. Leavitt's operetta, " The 
Fr&gs of Old Windham," produced in Wil- 
limantic for the first time during the winter 
of 1888-89. It Ras since been sung in many 
of the Connecticut towns. It was reviewed 
by two Willimantic papers, the Journal and 
the Chronicle. 

The various versions of Windham's most 



[August 30, 1890. 

notable event, both in prose and rhyme, 
with much additional matter, are collected 
in a pamphlet entitled "The Windham 
Frog Fight," carefully compiled by the late 
William L. Weaver, Antiquarian and Gene- 
alogist. Published by James Walden, Wil- 
limantic, 1857. New ed., 1883 (?). 

F. T. C. 

Old Almanacs. " The invention of 
the almanac was the beginning of history, 
in the sense that history is philosophy, 
teaching by example. Previous to that im- 
portant and convenient revelation, there was 
practically no basis of comparison, no pro- 
cess of marking the course of time, no 
means of connecting the past with the pres- 
ent and the present with the future. 

" The art of calculation, the whole great 
system of mathematics, had its origin in the 
pebble device, used to count sheep by drop- 
ping a pebble in a basket for each one as it 
passed, until an entire flock got by, then 
enumerating another flock in the same way, 
and finally determining the relative numbers 
of the two by alternately taking a pebble 
from each basket until one was exhausted. 
Next came the chalk marks, or straight lines 
in blocks of five, the last being drawn across 
the other four at an angle, which plan is 
still largely employed ; then the plan of 
two notched sticks the first double entry 
idea was evolved ; then came the digit sys- 
tem, or counting in fives and tens with the 
fingers ; and finally the Arabic notation, 
with its ten symbols or figures, superseded all 
other methods. 

"It is easy to understand that, while the 
world was thus slowly learning how to count, 
it could have no history. There was no 
way to record events or to adjust and com- 
bine facts. The pebbles and chalk marks 
and notched sticks only answered the crude 
purposes of a life that took no account of 
yesterday or to-morrow. It was not pos- 
sible for the average mind to have any con- 
ception of dates or periods, distances or 
localities. The relation of what was to what 
had been and what might be, did not enter 
into the prevailing order of thought and 
feeling. One day was as a thousand years, 
nd a thousand years as one day. 

"There was no intellectual growth, no 
permanent escape from the right of savagery, 
so long as the gift of measuring space and 
time was absent ; men began to be men only 
when they acquired that advantage, and 
were able to connect the experiences of one 
generation with the necessities of the next, 
or, in other words, to grasp the doctrine of 
accumulation, which is the source of all de- 
velopment. When they came to see that 
the whole was greater than any part and that 
a part was nothing unless rooted to the 
whole, they were placed in the way of har- 
monizing themselves with their environment 
and accomplishing sane and useful results. 
Time was invested with appreciable value, 
and the procession of the days took on a 
practical purport. Wings were provided 
for intelligence. The caged reason of the 
race secured the soaring privilege, and its 
horizon widened with every effort. First 
the pebbles were cast away, then the notched 
sticks, then the digital device ; and thus the 
dawn of history slowly but surely approached. 
"The first almanacs that is to say, the 
first histories were of Arabian origin, and 
reflected the local genius of the people in a 
very striking way. They served as models 
in other countries for hundreds of years. 
The oldest known copy of such a work is 
preserved in the British Museum, and dates 
back to the time of Rameses the Great, of 
Egypt, who lived 1 200 years before the birth 
of Christ. It is written on papyrus, in red 
ink, and covers a period of six years. The 
entries relate to religious ceremonies, to the 
fates of children born on given days, and 
to the regulation of business enterprises in 
accordance with planetary influences. " Do 
nothing at all this day," is one of the warn- 
ings. " If thou seest anything at all this 
day it will be fortune," is another entry. 
" Look not at a rat this day," " Wash not 
with water this day," and " Go not out be- 
fore daylight this day " are some of the ad- 
ditional cautions. This almanac was found 
in an old tomb, and is supposed to have 
been buried with its Egyptian owner, when 
he was converted into a mummy for future 
explorers to dig up and dissect in the interest 
of science and literature. 

Next after this in point of age, among the 
existing specimens of ancient almanacs, are 



some composed in the fourth century. They 
are Roman church calendars, giving the 
names of the saints and other rtligious infor- 
mation. The Baltic nations, who were not 
versed in papyrus making, had calendars 
engraved on ax helves, walking sticks and 
other articles of personal use. The days 
were notched, with abroad mark for Sunday, 
and the saints' days were symbolized in vari- 
ous devices, such as a harp for St. David's, 
a gridiron for St. Lawrence's, a lover's knot 
for St. Valentine's, and so on. The Saxon 
almanacs are numerous and contain histori- 
cal as well as ecclesiastical entries. It is 
possible to trace in these curious records all 
the changes of popular belief and taste. 
They were prepared to meet the current de- 
mand and to constitute a systematic story 
of what took place in successive periods and 
how knowledge increased with the revolving 
years. We owe to them most that we know 
of the people, for whom they were made 
and by whom they were endorsed. 

Crutch in Churches (Vol. v, p. 90). 
I lately conversed with an educated Chris- 
tianized Arab from Beirut, who tells me that 
the use of crutches in church is not peculiar 
to the Copts, but that in rural Syria elderly, 
and feeble people (but no others) are al- 
lowed each two crutches, by means of which 
to stand in church, seats being unknown ex- 
cept in town churches. 

Qui TAM. 

Mascarene Family (Vol. iv, p. 59, 
etc. ). The Mascarencs of New England and 
Nova Scotia were of high descent, their 
founder being a French nobleman of Hu- 
guenot faith. The branch of the family 
which settled in Western Massachusetts has 
long been extinct. They were engaged in 
the manufacture and export of potash. It 
is said that their property was lost in litiga- 
tion. Some European purchaser found stones 
in a cargo of potash cakes, and accused the 
Mascarenes of having fraudulently put the 
stones into the ash. This accusation was 
strenuously denied ; and the family lost all 
their fortune in the attempt to defend their 
reputation. In my boyhood I often heard 
old people tell the story. I believe that the 

Mascarenes enjoyed the respect and confi- 
dence of their neighbors, and that they 
were generally considered innocent of any 
intentional wrong. The stones were proba- 
bly placed in the potash by some malicious 
person. It is not impossible that the ola 
records of the courts might throw more light 
upon this old story. G. 


Lowey of Tunbridge (Vol. v, p. 113, 
etc.). The following information is quoted 
or epitomized from Hasted's " History of 
Kent," published in 1782. 

The Lowy {sic} of Tunbridge consists of 
the four following boroughs : " Hadlow, 
Tunbridge Town, Hilden and South." It 
was anciently the custom in Normandy to 
term the district round an abbey, castle or 
chief mansion Leuca or Leucdta, in Eng- 
lish The Lowy, in which the possessor had 
generally a grant of several peculiar liber- 
ties, privileges and exemptions. When 
Richard Fitz-Gislebert, who came into Eng- 
land with the Conqueror, had possessed him- 
self of the Manor and Castle of Tunbridge, 
which he obtained from the Archbishop of 
Canterbury in exchange for the Castle of 
Brion, in Normandy, he procured a grant of 
divers liberties and exemptions for the in- 
habitants, as well as for the Manor of Had- 
low adjoining, and the whole district which 
he acquired has ever since been called "The 
Lowy of Tunbridge." In all probability 
the liberties which he obtained for his Eng- 
lish possessions were the same that he had 
enjoyed for his property in Normandy which 
had been exchanged for them, and thus a 
name of French origin and significance came 
to be applied to them. J. G. 


Rocking Stones (Vol. v, p. 165). 
There are rocking stones on Langsett Moor, 
near the river Derwent, in Yorkshire. 

S. E. M. 


Lakes Drained (Vol. v, pp. 191, etc.). 
The famous Runaway pond, of Glover, 
Vt., affords a remarkable example of a lake 
which suddenly disappeared. P. R. E. 




Musical Sands (Vol. v, pp. 179, etc.). 
Hugh Miller discovered the sonorous sand 
of Eigg at the outset of his summer ramble 
among the Hebrides. As far as the Scotch 
geologist then knew, the region around the 
bay of Laig was only the third locality 
which had, as yet, attracted the attention 
of any scientific observer by the presence of 
this acoustic phenomenon. A succession of 
wonders had already revealed themselves in 
the majestic and picturesque scenery the 
ancient oyster-bed, the columnar rock- 
tower or gigantic scuir " resting on the re- 
mains of a prostrate forest," and the fields 
of gigantic sandstone mushrooms, as they 
seemed, but the greatest marvel of all was 
the music of the clear, pure white, oolitic 
sand of Eigg. 

Hugh Miller says of it : "I struck it ob- 
liquely with my foot, where the surface lay 
dry and incoherent in the sun, and the 
sound elicited was a shrill sonorous note re- 
sembling that of a waxed thread tightened 
between the teeth and the hand, and tipped 
by the nail of the finger. I walked over it, 
striking it obliquely at each step, and with 
every blow the shrill note was repeated. 
My companions joined me, and we per- 
formed a concert, in which, if we could 
boast of but little variety in the tones pro- 
duced, we might at least challenge all ' 
Europe for an instrument of the kind which 
produced them. As we marched over the 
drier traces, an incessant woo, woo, woo, 
rose from the surface, that might be heard 
in the calm some twenty or thirty yards 
away, and we found that when a damp semi- 
coherent stratum lay at the depth of three or 
four inches beneath, and all was dry and in- 
coherent above, the tones were loudest and 
sharpest, and most easily evoked by the 

In connection with his own observations 
on the sands of Eigg, the discoverer brings 
together much interesting matter about 
those far-off places renowned for similar 
phenomena, the Jabel Nakous, or the 
" Mountain of the Bal," in Arabia Petraea 
referred to by Prof. Bolton, and also the 
"Hill of the Reg-Rawan," or "Moving; 
Sand" in Afghanistan, among the Hindu- 
kush. Altogether with its comparisons 
and observations, and with the theories 

offered by various distinguished scientists, 
concerning this latent, but " most cele- 
brated of all the acoustic wonders which 
the natural world presents to us," Chap, iv 
of " The Cruise of the Betsy " is a pleasant 
and useful contribution on the subject of 
musicals sands. F. T. C. 


"The" in Place Names (Vol. v, p. 
128, etc.). The following inscription may 
be read on the wall of the church therein 
mentioned : 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 

Of the City of New York. 

Organized under Peter Minuit, 

Director- General of The New Netherland. 

A. D. 1628. 

The italics are mine of course. 


English Village Names (Vol. v, p. 
135). There is a place called Mousehole in 
Cornwall ; Manhole, or manmoel, is in 
Monmouthshire ; Household is in Norfolk ; 
Liphook is in Hants ; Blind End is in the 
same shire; Scratchbury, in Wilts; Fuggle- 
stone is near Salisbury ; Stratford Toney is 
not far off; Diggle is in Yorkshire ; Fox- 
holes is in the East Riding ; Wighill in the 
North Riding ; Rotton Park is in Birming- 
ham ; Sow is a village in Warwickshire; 
Dirty Gap is also in Shakespeare's county ; 
Titeskin is in the county Cork ; Petty cur is 
in Fifeshire ; Wrynose Gap is in the Lake 
district ; Winfarthing is in Norfolk. Shades 
of Matthew Arnold ! 

S. E. MORE. 


Odd Names of Newspapers (Vol. v, 
p. 189). There is, or lately was, a news- 
paper published at Riverside, N. J., called 
The New Jersey Sand-Burr. That most 
exasperating weed, or grass, the Cenchrus 
tribuloides, affords the notorious sand-burrs 
of New Jersey. I have found them, how- 
ever, growing at Northampton, Mass., and 
in Pennsylvania. N. S. S. 




Underground Streams (Vol. v, pp. 192, 
etc.). The little English river Mole is 
partly subterraneous. It flows right under a 
well-known hill, " Box Hill" (so called 
from the number of unusually tall box trees 
with which its summit is covered) in the 
most picturesque part of County Surrey. 


When We've Been There, etc. (Vol. 
v, pp. 1 88, etc.). I have been watching with 
much interest the progress made by your 
correspondents in tracing the verse " When 
we've been there ten thousand years." 

So far they seem to have only gotten the 
dates of publication in various hymn books, 
the earliest being "The Christian Lyre" 
(1830). The conclusion was also reached 
that it was not by Dr. Watts. 

In another hymn book (that of the Afri- 
can M. E. Church), I find it to be the final 
stanza of the old hymn: "Jerusalem, My 
Happy Home." I am unable to get hold 
of the versions of this hymn as I would like. 
The original of them all is a mediasval Latin 
hymn : 

"Jerusalem luminosa 

Vera pacis visio 
Felix nimio ac formosa 
Summi regis mansio." 

The best version and the oldest was by the 
Rev. Francis Augustus Baker in 1565 
(about). It begins: 

" Jerusalem ! My happy home ! 
When shall I come to thee ? 
When shall my sorrows have an end 
Thy joys when shall I see ?" 

My version is not complete, but in it I 
find this: 

"There David stands with harp in hand 

As Master of the choir, 
Ten thousand times that man were blest 
That might this music hear." 

There is here the use of that same phrase 
' ten thousand times. ' ' Perhaps some corre- 
spondent who has access to a larger collec- 
tion of hymnology can follow up this clue. 

There is another version by David Dick- 
son (about 1620). 

In Roundell Palmer's " Book of Praise " 

(1864), I find still another version as- 
signed Anon. 1 80 1. It begins: 

"Jerusalem, my happy home, 

Name ever dear to me ! 
When shall my labors have an end, 
In joy and peace and thee ?" 

It is aggravating to stop short in this in- 
vestigation, but I am persuaded that the 
fault is in the limited facilities for examina- 
tion, and I hope that some one will be able 
to do better than I have done. 



Longest Siege (Vol. v, p. 185). 
Siege of Troy, apocryphal, ten years. Siege 
of Tyre, actual, thirteen years. Authorities, 
Bohn's and other dictionaries of the Bible. 
" Worterbuch der Schlachten, Belagerun- 
gen und Treffen aller Volker, von St. Gen. 
F. Von Kausler (B. C. 572-585, i, 101). 
" Sieges et Capitulations Celebres," 63, 64. 
Eze,kiel xxvi, xxvii, xxviii. The longest 
modern sieges since artillery has assumed its 
proper functions were : i. SiegeofOstendby 
the Spaniards, 1601-1604 three years. 
Like Tyre, Ostend could be succored from 
the sea. The garrison only capitulated when 
the town and works were literally mere masses 
of ruins. 2. Siege of Gibraltar, attacked by 
land and sea by French and Spaniards, 
1 7 79-1 783, for four years. This defense by 
the English stands without a parallel in the 
annals of war. 3. During the Thirty 
Years' War, Olmutz, taken by Torstensen 
in 1642, was besieged or blockaded for six 
years, from 1642 to 1648, and was still held 
by the Swedes in 1 65 o, when they gave it up in 
accordance with agreement, not compulsion. 
Other examples of astonishingly long 
sieges might be added. Constantinople 
might be said to have been besieged by 
either Persians or Turks from A.D. 626 to 
675. From 668 to 675, the Turks repeated 
their attacks yearly. From 675 to i453> 
when taken by assault by Mahoned II, it 
was as much besieged as Troy actually was, 
if at ail, for the poor Byzantine Greeks 
had to be on -their guard continually and 
they were liable to attack any month or 
year. ANCHOR. 




[August 30, 1890. 

Leper Kings (Vol. v, pp. 177, etc.). 
In this connection it is interesting to recall 
the fact that the name of Liberton, a place 
not far from Edinburgh, is said to signify 
Leper-town. N. L. M. 


River Turned Back (Vol. v, p. 159). 
Another river which, like "old Jordan," 
has been forced to flow backward, is the 
Chicago river. Its natural outflow is to- 
wards Lake Michigan, but since the cutting 
and deepening of the canal to the Illinois 
river, the current has been reversed, and the 
Chicago river has become an outlet of Lake 
Michigan. It is believed that in pre- 
historic times Lake Michigan had a natural 
outlet to the Mississippi by way of the 
Illinois river. ILDERIM. 

Maroons (Vol. v, pp. 165, etc.). There 
are still black people called Maroons in 
Jamaica, the descendants of those old fight- 
ing Maroons whose banishment to Nova 
Scotia was not fully carried out, some fami- 
lies being left behind. There is a place 
called Maroon Town not very far from 
Falmouth, in Jamaica. R. J. 


No Man's Land (Vol. v, pp. 191, etc.). 
Another No Man's Land is a village near 
Hamptworth Common, and not far from 
the south-east angle of Wiltshire, in England. 

W. P. R. 


Curiosities of Animal Punishment 
(Vol. v, pp. 187, etc.). Some strange, but 
very unpleasant stories about animal punish- 
ment in colonial New England are on re- 
cord in Mather's " Magnalia." The law of 
Moses enjoins the punishment of animals for 
certain offenses, such as the killing of a 
man. N. S. S. 


Cariacou (Vol. v, p. 204). It may be 
that the liqueur in question was named from 
the island. The well-known cordial called 
Curacoa was so called from an island of the 
same name Curacoa in the Dutch West 
Indies. S. T. B. 


... ' /.**:-;._.. 

r.:> .y - A 

' ' V i * f ' 

$ 2 


The Atlantic for September. Mr. Lowell's "In- 
scription for a Memorial Bust of Fielding," though 
brief; is the most remarkable piece of writing in the 
Atlantic for September. Dr. Holmes, in his install- 
ment of " Over the Teacups," discourses on the fond- 
ness of Americans for titles, and gives a lay sermon on 
future punishment, and ends it, as do many preachers, 
with some verses. Mr. Justin Winsor considers the 
" Perils of Historical Narrative," and Mr. J. Franklin 
Jameson contributes a scholarly paper on "Modern 
European Historiography ;" Mr. Fiske adds an article 
on the " Disasters of 1780," and these three papers fur- 
nish the solid reading of the number. Hope Notnor 
continues her amusing studies in French history, this 
time writing about Madame de Montespan, her sisters, 
and her daughters. " A Son of Spain," the chronicle 
of a famous horse, Mr. Quincy's bright paper on 
" Cranks as Social Motors," and " Mr. Brisbane's 
Journal," the diary of a South Carolinian, written about 
1801, are among the other more notable papers. Mrs. 
Deland's and Miss Fanny Murfree's serials, a considera- 
tion of American and German schools, and reviews of 
the " Tragic Muse " and other volumes, complete the 

The Arena for September is noticeable for the 
strength and variety of its contributions. The opening 
paper is by Senator John T. Morgan, of Alabama, on the 
" Race Question, "a striking presentation of the problem 
from the standpoint of a Southern statesman. Rev. 
Samuel W. Dike, LL.D., contributes a paper of great 
ability on " Marriage and Divorce Laws." " Psychical 
Research," by Richard Hodgson, LL.D., is a notable 
paper treating the subject of apparitions of the living 
and the dead, and haunted houses, in a critical and 
scientific, but very entertaining manner. One of the 
strongest features of this issue, however, is found in 
Prof. Charles Creighton's paper on "Vaccination." Dr. 
Creighton wrote the papers on pathology and vaccina- 
tion for the ninth edition of " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 
"Robert Owen at New Lanark" isa most delightful paper 
contributed by Walter Lewin, another well-known Eng- 
lish essayist, and forms another of The Arena's valuable 
papers on the Labor Question. " The Dominion's 
Original Sin " is a bold and brilliant attack on the 
methods resorted to in order to bring about the present 
Canadian confederation. Sir John McDonald will not 
thank the editor of the Daily Free Press of Ottawa, who 
contributes the paper, for this arraignment. " Divine 
Progress," the No-Name poem this month, is a reply to 
" Progress and Pain." It is said to be the work of a lead- 
ing liberal writer. " The Greatest Living Englishman " is 
a brilliant and entertaining sketch of the life of Glad- 
stone, by James Realf, Jr., .almost as entertaining as fic- 
tion. A splendid photogravure of Gladstone forms the 
frontispiece of this issue. The " Notes on Living 
Problems of the Hour " are very valuable. Allen B. 
Lincoln, editor of the Connecticut Home, writes on 
" High License and High Tariff;" Sylvester Baxter on 
" The Legislative Degeneracy in Massachusetts," and J. 
De Perry Davis on " Municipal Government." These, 
with Editorial Notes, make one of the most able issues 
of this review that has yet appeared. 

American J^otes and Queries : 




Copyrighted i8qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post- Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Yol. V. No. 19. 


I $3.00 per year. $1.7S, 6 months. 

( $1.00, 3 mouths. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office, 
Also, by J, B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's, Boston : Damped Si 
Upham (Old Corner Bookstore) . New Orleans t 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco: J. W, Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES : Looking Glass Fancies, 217 The Highest Water- 
fall in the World, 218 Flowers of Speech from the Celestial 
Empire State Line Towns, 219. 

QUERIES: Prince of Priests, 219 Land of Charity Lon- 
don Plague Authorship Wanted Christian Cicero, 220. 

REPLIES : Last Island Devil's Land, 220 Russian Byron 
Blood Thicker than Water One-eyed Commanders, 221. 

Calf of Man The Marble Faun City Poets, 221 Fiefes, 

COMMUNICATIONS : Easter, Oster or Pausch, Island or 
Davis Land, 222 Lake Drained Leper Kings, 223 Nick- 
names of States Natural Bridges, 224 Majesty Mot 
Underground Streams Good Old Etymologies Victorines 
Grevillea Yankee Doodle Arthur Kill Rotten Row 225 
Ville in Place-names Latinized Names Ff as an Initial- 
Casting Out the Shoe Indian Summer When We've Been 
There, etc. Hoop-snake, 226 Colored Starch On the 
Score Sunken Islands No Man's Land Fountain of 
Youth Priscian's Head, 227 Parallel Passages, 228. 



The queer fancies, which in one form or 
another have clustered round the looking- 
glass, hold a prominent place in domestic 
folk-lore. People in a certain stage of men- 
tal development believe that there is a 
mysterious, though definite, connection be- 
tween an object and an image of it. One of 
the commonest arts of magic is based on this 
ancient belief. We refer to the mediseval 
art of making an image and melting it 
away, drying it up, sticking pins or thorns 
in it, in order to hurt the person repre- 
sented. The reflection of man's face and 
form in the glass has given rise to strange 
thoughts and superstitious fancies. Perhaps 
the oddest notion of all is that entertained 
by Clement of Alexandria, who declared 
that ladies broke the second commanding 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 6, 1890. 

by using looking-glasses, as they thereby 
made images of themselves. 

It is not surprising that looking-glasses 
were used by professors of the " Black Art." 
Brand, in his "Popular Antiquities," says 
that "some magicians, being curious to find 
out by the help of a looking-glass, or a glass 
full of water, a thing that lies hidden, make 
choice of young maids to discern therein 
those images or sights which a person defiled 
cannot see. It is a tradition that the 
famous Dr. Dee discovered the gunpowder 
plot by the aid of his magic mirror. 

Now, the folk-lore of the looking-glass is 
associated with childhood, love and court- 
ship, marriage and death. 

In England, the folk-belief is that, if a 
baby looks into a glass before it is a year 
old, it will die. Again, you should not 
hold a baby to a looking-glass ; if you do, 
it will 'not live the year out. These two 
folk-fancies hold among mothers and nurses 
in this country, and have been noted in the 
"American Folk-Lore Journal" (Vol. ii, 
p. 17). Oddly enough, in Germany, the 
fancy is that to hold a baby before the glass 
will make the child proud. 

The old Swedish fancy is that young 
ladies must not look in the glass after dark, 
or by candle light, for by so doing they for- 
feit the esteem of the other sex. This folk- 
notion has been carried to the United 
States, and it is found in Minnesota and in 
Wisconsin, where the Swedes have thickly 
settled. Mr. Mooney has noted a peculiar 
bit of looking-glass fancy current .in the 
mountain region of North Carolina. He 
says that if a young girl will take a looking- 
glass to the spring on a May morning, and, 
turning her back to the spring, look into the 
mirror, she will see the figure of her lover 
rise out of the water behind her. 

The looking-glass is also associated with 
marriage. In the South of England it is 
regarded as a bad omen for a bride to take 
a last peep in the glass, when she is fully 
dressed in her wedding attire, before goinjg 
to the church. The point of the fancy is 
that young ladies fond of surveying them- 
selves in the glass will be unhappy when 
married. But our quick-witted and ingenious 
of the nineteenth century get around the 
fancy, by putting on a glove or bit of lace 

after a parting and reluctant look in the 
flattering mirror. The old south of England 
fancy has not yet died out in this country 
by any means, as I have heard of the odd 
notion within the past year. 

Looking-glass fancies are mostly associated 
with ill-luck or with death. Thus, the 
notion that it is the height of ill-luck to 
break a looking-glass is held the world over. 
In Cornwall, the supposed punishment for 
such an offence is " seven years of sorrow," 
to which, in a Yorkshire proverb, is added, 
"but no want." In Scotland, the popular 
notion is that, to break a looking-glass is a 
sign of death of some member of the 
family within a year. In Shropshire, it 
adds to the ill-luck to keep the broken 
pieces. Miss Burne quotes the English folk 
as saying, "When I have broken three I 
have finished," meaning that any one who 
has broken a looking-glass will never have 
good luck till he or she has broken two 

In the United States, the general super- 
stition among servants and housekeepers is 
that to break a looking-glass is a sign of 
death, or of bad luck for seven years. 
Several American instances of this same fancy 
could be given. We also cite the curious 
notion found in parts of Massachusetts, and 
of New Hampshire that, if three persons 
look at the same time in a mirror, one will 
die within the year. There is not much 
danger of this dreadful offence happening 
with three young ladies, for women, as a 
rule, want the glass all to themselves. 
Finally, we note the English folk practice of 
covering the looking-glass after a person 
dies, or removing the glass from the cham- 
ber of death. And here we come around to 
the primitive belief that there is a connec- 
tion between a person and his image, in this 
last-named case, between a person and his 
ghost or spirit. L. J. V. 



An item in the Churchman of August 23, 
giving the comparative heights of famous 
waterfalls, says : " According to a recent 
calculation, the highest waterfalls in the 
world are the three Krimbs falls in the 

September 6, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Upper Prinzgau ; these have a total height 
of 1148 feet." 

Elsewhere I read, the waterfall to be 
known hereafter as the highest in the world 
is the Sutherland Fall in New Zealand, 
which is 1904 feet in height. It takes its 
name from its discoverer, who is called " The 
Hermit of the Sounds," on account of his 
having lived many years amid these sur- 
roundings of solitary grandeur in a part of 
the island which is inaccessible except from 
the coast. 

The Otago Daily Times has the following 
description of the Fall : " The water issues 
from a narrow defile in the rock at the top 
of the precipice ; it makes then a grand leap 
of 815 feet into a rocky basin on the face of 
the cliff ; issuing forth once more, it makes 
another fine leap of 75 1 feet, and then goes 
tumbling headlong in one wild dash of 338 
feet into the pool right at the foot of the 
precipice. It will thus be seen that the total 
height of the Fall is 1904 feet, making it the 
highest in the world. When the sun is shin- 
ing the effect of this splendid view is en- 
hanced by a beautiful rainbow of colors of 
the most brilliant kind conceivable. This 
bow is nearly a full circle, and the closer 
you get to it the smaller it grows, till it is 
right in front of the face a brilliant-hued 
ring, one yard in diameter." This Fall is 
situated in a region which will probably 
rival in beauty and splendor any other 
known part of the globe" (see "Chambers' 
Journal," May, 1889). F. T, C. 



Out of a Chinese Children's Primer I 
have culled the following : 

This child has been caterpillared by I? eh- 

"The caterpillar," says the primer, "is 
a small green insect on the mulberry. The 
Sphex is an earth-wasp. The wasp carries 
the caterpillar on its back into the hole of a 
tree and prays to it, saying : ' Be like me, 
be like me !' And after seven days it is 
changed into the wasp's own young. 
Hence the term for an adopted child is 
'caterpillar-child.' " 

His Cedrela odorata and Hemerocallis 

graminea are still flourishing conveys the 
idea that " his father and mother are still 
alive," and in the same way, His Orchid 
and Olea are leaping odorously means that 
" his son and grandson are getting on in the 

Ts'un-huh is their nose-ancestor should be 
no puzzle to the student of physiology. 
What can your nose-ancestor be but the 
original founder of your family, seeing that 
the nose is the first feature of the face which 
is formed in the human embryo ? 

Saying that you are the ear-grandson of 
Sun-Kien is tantamount to stating that you 
are his descendant in the ninth generation, 
because your ear alone has told you of his 
existence (though you are not informed why 
this might not apply to any other ancestor 
as well). 

Is not all this like Columbus' s egg trick, 
simplicity itself, when you know it ? 




There are quite a number of towns or vil- 
lages in the United States situated on State 
boundary lines, and therefore named from 
the two States in which they are situated. 
Delmar and Marydell are on the line be- 
tween Maryland and Delaware. Penmar is 
on the Pennsylvania and Maryland line. 
Moark is named from Missouri (Mo.}, and 
Arkansas (Ark.} Texarkana is partly in 
Texas and partly in Arkansas. Illiana is on 
or near the Illinois and Indiana line. 

Other State-line towns (but not named 
from the two States) are Bristol, Tenn. (and 
Goodson, Va.); Blackstone (Mass, and 
R. I.) ; Westerly (R. I. and Conn.) ; Port- 
chester (N. Y. and Conn.) ; Kansas City 
(Mo. and Kan.) ; Guthrie, Ky. and Fulton, 
Ky. (each partly in Tenn.); Union City, 
Ind. (and Ohio); Great Falls (N. H. and 
Maine). Besides these quite a number of 
smaller towns might be added to the list. 

gUB 1^1 E S. 

Prince of Priests. Who was called the 
Prince of Priests ? S. P. 


King Henry V of England was so called 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 6, 1890. 

on account of the great favor he showed the 

Land of Charity. What country is thus 
denominated ? S. P. 


Travancore, in India, is so named by the 
Brahmans, because they enjoy special privi- 
leges and distinctions there. 

London Plague. Who wrote the best ac- 
count of the London Plague ? 


"The Journal of the Plague in London," 
is the title usually given to an imaginary nar- 
rative by Daniel DeFoe (1722). The full title 
of the original edition ran as follows : "A 
Journal of the Plague year, being Observa- 
tions or Memorials of the most remarkable 
Occurrences, as well public as private, which 
happened in London during the last great 
Visitation in 1665. Written by a Citizen, 
who continued all the while in London. 
Never made public before. ' ' In subsequent 
editions the title is slightly altered ; the 
second (i 754) is called " The History of the 
Great Plague in London in the year 1665." 
Containing observations, etc. To this edi- 
tion was added A Journal of the Plague at 
Marseilles in the year 1720. 

The pretended citizen of London is a 
respectable tradesman, a plain honest devout 
man, well informed for his rank, who is 
anxious to transmit to posterity, an account 
of a calamity that few appeared likely to 
survive. In some of his characteristic he 
may have been drawn from DeFoe's father, 
who was in London during the plague. 
DeFoe himself was only a year old when it 
broke out, but during his childhood he 
must have heard many reminiscences of these 
awful scenes, from his parents and others, 
which he doubtless wove into the substance 
of this book. At all events the journal is 
so vivid and lifelike in its descriptions and 
anecdotes that it has been frequently ac- 
cepted as authentic history. "It leaves all 
the impressions of a genuine narrative," 
says Leslie Stephen, " told by one who has, as 
it were, just escaped from the valley of the 
shadow of death, with the awe still upon 

him, and every terrible sight and sound fresh 
in his memory." The recent plague in Mar- 
seilles had led to a public revival of the various 
authentic records of the London distemper, 
and which no doubt suggested to DeFoe the 
idea of his own work. John Wilson's "City 
of the Plague ' ' has avowedly borrowed much 
from DeFoe. 

Authorship Wanted" Who Shall De- 
cide," etc. What is the origin of the phrase 
" Who shall decide when doctors disagree?" 

W. G. G. 


It is the first line of Pope's Third Epistle 
in the " Moral Essays." 

Christian Cicero. Who was known by 
this title ? R. M. 


Paulinus (353-431), Bishop of Nola is so 
called by Erasmus. Some writers call 
Lactantius by the same designation. 

It B P L I B S . 

Last Island (Vol. v, p. 209). On the map 
of Louisiana, in the American (pirated) re- 
print (1883) of the "Encyc. Brit.," Last 
Island still appears. It is called Dernier 
Island on many maps, as on that in the 
"Travelers' Official Guide" to railways, 
for June, 1890. But I have certainly read 
of the destruction of the island. There was 
a story written about it. Wasitby Lafcadio 
Hearne ? 

Derniere island, on the loth, nth and i2th 
of August, 1856, was visited by a violent 
storm which destroyed the town and all the 
buildings on the island, several lives being 
also lost. From Raccoon Point, its western 
end, the island runs (or ran) twenty miles to 
the eastward, in some places being less than 
a mile wide. It is (or was) very level and 
low, with a ridge of sand heaped up along 
the beach. L. F. A. 

Devil's Land (Vol. v, p. 199). The 
island of Lampedusa in the Mediterranean 
was anciently, or mediaevally, believed to be 
haunted by evil spirits. It was a veritable 

September 6, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


enchanted isle, and seems undoubtedly to 
be the scene of Shakespeare's great play, 
" The Tempest." But I do not remember 
to have heard it called the " Devil's Land." 
Devils also resided in Iceland (asinHecla), 
in Sicily (as in Etna), in the Lipari islands 
(as in Stromboli and Vulcano). In Iceland 
almost every family used to have a familiar 
spirit. Tierra del Fuego was also supposed 
to be a haunted region (read Burton's 
"Anatomy of Melancholy," p. i, Sec. i, 
Mem. i, Subsec. 2). The water-poet Tay- 
lor speaks of news sent from hell to the 
Bermudas. FESTUS. 


Russian Byron (Vol. v, No. 18, p. 209). 
Alexander Poushkin was called the Russian 
Byron. The reasons why appear in W. R. 
Merrill's article, "Poushkin," in the 
" Encyc. Brit." E. G. KEEN. 


Matthew Arnold in his essay on Tolstoi, 
says: "The crown of literature is poetry, 
and the Russians have not yet had a great 
poet" The Russians would probably dis- 
sent from this verdict of our great master of 
criticism, and instance their greatest poet 
Alexander Sergeivitch Pushkin called the 
"Russian Byron." He was born at St. 
Petersburg in 1799, and killed in a duel in 
1837. During his banishment, on account of 
the publication of some poems of free political 
tendency, he studied the works of Byron, 
and formed himself upon his model. It is 
said his writings have become a part of the 
very household language of his native land 
and his expressions are as often quoted as 
those of Shakespeare, Moliereand Cervantes. 



Blood Thicker than Water (Vol. v, p. 
209). If it is to the origin of this expres- 
sion that "Americus" refers, it will be found 
in use at a much earlier date than 1777, be- 
ing included among the Scottish proverbs 
in "Ray's Collection." 

E. G. KEEN. 


Is not this an old English proverb ? Wal- 
ter Scott makes Dandie Dinmont say : 

"Weel, blud's thicker than water! She's 
welcome to the cheese and the ham just the 
same." When Commodore Tatnall, U. S. 
N., assisted the English in Chinese waters, 
he quoted this proverb, in his despatch to 
the Government, as a justification of his in- 

As this was one of the Lippincott series 
of "One Hundred Questions" two years 
ago, possibly further data might be had by 
reference to that magazine, 1888-89." 

M. A. N. 


One-eyed Commanders (Vol. v, p. 209). 
Hannibal, Kutusoff, Niepperg (an Austrian 
General who married Empress Marie Lou- 
ise). Veiled Prophet of Khorassan (a fa- 
mous Asiatic leader). ANCHOR. 



Ireland's Eye. Why was the little 
island of this name so called ? 



Calf of Man. Why was the little 
island of this name so called ? 


The Marble Faun. I have been read- 
ing " The Marble Faun " again, and again 
have been perplexed and angered by its 
ending. Who is Miriam? What is her 
name, the mention of which makes Ken- 
yon turn pale ? Miriam's mother was Eng- 
lish ; she was of Jewish descent, but con- 
nected through her father to one of the 
princely families of Southern Italy. Her 
name recalled to Kenyon a terrible tragedy 
of some sort. Kenyon is said to be Wil- 
liam W. Story, and Hilda is said to be a 
niece of Hawthorne, who finally jumped 
overboard from a Hudson river steamboat 
and was drowned ; but who was Miriam? 

R. N. T. 


City Poets. Will your correspondents 
be so kind as to furnish me the names of 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 6, 1890. 

such of the "city poets" of London as 
they may find records of in their reading ? 
Further, will they please to furnish such 
other notes regarding the office and duties 
of "city poet " as may come to their no- 
tice ? P. R. E. 

Fiefes. In an extant letter of Bishop 
Beckington's, anno 1450, written from 
Exeter, he says, " I have ben this ij dayes 
here in the lande of wildernesse, whereas be 
feme andjfiefes Inowe, and good ale non or 
litell." And in another letter to the Earl of 
Suffolk, apparently written on the same day, 
he says, "I ... have be this two days 
here in the lande of weldernes, wher as 
been feme and fiefes I now (enow) and good 
ale non or litell." What is the meaning of 
fiefes ? It would seem possibly to be a plant- 
name ? G. 



Easter, Oster or Pausch, Island or 
Davis* Land. It is curious how spas- 
modically or sporadically questions arise 
which have been put in former days, 
answered, perhaps in some way or another, 
unsatisfactorily perhaps, and been forgotten. 
Such is the case with the puzzling evi- 
dences of a former civilization or a phase 
of it at Easter island and other islands in 
the Pacific. The subject has been treated at 
length in the last edition of the "British 
Encyclopaedia," under the head of "Poly- 
nesia," and the Chicago News recently pre- 
sented quite an elaborate article on the sub- 
ject. Meanwhile, I was going through my 
wonderfully copious library and found a 
Vol. iv of "Mavor's Voyages," containing 
a synopsis (pp. 133-135) of the discoveries 
(127-145) of Roggewein who, by the way, 
turns out to have been <?/the Dutch Admiral 
of that name, with whom he is often con- 
founded and who explored the Arctic ocean, 
stating he sailed far to the north of Spitzbergen 

*It is more than doubtful if Davis ever saw the 
island. What he discovered, he thought was part of a 
great continent, which Roggewein sailed to investigate, 
and could not find, nor could any subsequent search. 

on open, rolling seas, where almost every 
mariner of other nations encountered noth- 
ing but ice. Our Roggewein was an official 
of the Dutch West India Company, and ac- 
quired his title of "Commodore" from 
having two armed vessels entrusted to him 
for maritime discovery. He is, however, 
also styled "Admiral" (Vol. ii, pp. 153, 
154, " Maritime Discovery," London, 
1881). The Easter islanders, who, in a 
recent account, are said to be rapidly de- 
stroying the vestiges of former civilization, 
flew in 1721 for protection to their idols, 
now objects of contempt, when the Dutch 
landed and fired upon them, incited by sus- 
picion of enmity and treachery. 

" It is remarkable that these islanders did 
not seem to have any arms among them." 
* * * "When attacked, they fled for shel- 
ter to the assistance of their idols, which 
were all of stone, bearing the figure of a man 
with large ears, and a crown on their heads. 
These were so ingeniously sculptured, that 
the Europeans stood amazed at the sight." 

The reader's attention is particularly in- 
vited to the language describing the peculiar 
characteristics of these statues in " the form 
of a man with large ears and a crown on the 
head. ' ' This is exactly the manner in which 
Buddha is represented throughout the re- 
gions subject more or less strictly to his re- 
ligion. This connection moreover with 
Buddha may solve the whole series of rid- 
dles connected with Easter or Vai-hou 
(Strong), or Kusaie (Ascension), or Panape, 
Opara or Rapacte and other Pacific islands. 
It is claimed and many proofs produced 
that Japanese and Chinese driven eastwards 
in their comparatively unmanageable vessels 
discovered America, nearly 1000 years ago, 
if not much, much earlier, colonized its 
western coast, and are the originators 
especially visible in the remains of the civili- 
zation of British America which had been 
already overwhelmed farther north by 
another form of cultivation or progress in ' 
North America when the Spaniards invaded 
the Aztec empire, and which they (the other 
Spaniards) found still in perfection with all 
its magnificent development under the Incas. 
In the work styled " A (or The) New Colum- 
bus," or with some such title, this is all 
fully and logically set forth, going to show 

September 6, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that long before the advent of the actual 
Northmen, the fabulous Welshmen, the 
visible Spaniards (our Columbus) or any 
other, Buddhist civilization had used the 
Pacific islands as stepping stones to a vaster 
colonization and amelioration of Western 
America, both North and South. It is mar- 
velous how the Chinese swarm like ants to 
any land where they are allowed to live 
peaceably, or hardly tolerated, if they can 
make money. In answer to this claim for 
Buddhism, it may be asked, if true, what had 
become of the original settlers or any evi- 
dence of their descendants, in 1687 or 1721. 
The answer is plain . Cen turies, perhaps seven 
or ten, had elapsed since the Buddhist voyages 
had first occurred. When they ceased, no 
one ventures to state. Sufficient time, how- 
ever, had elapsed to overturn an exotic 
civilization on a small scale. Before the in- 
vention of gunpowder and its general 
scientific application to war, there was not so 
much difference between bold savages with 
great staying power and organized troops 
less brave, although better armed and dis- 
ciplined. The Buddhist architects on 
Easter island and others similarly appro- 
priated by Japanese or Chinese, Buddhism 
may have been swarmed out by fleets of 
more savage peoples from the nearest groups, 
some of whom are excellent sailors, incited 
by jealousy or any passion so easy to arouse in 
barbarians. A perfect example of this is the 
history of the Norsemen settlement of Green- 
land. No braver race than these Norsemen 
ever ventured upon the ocean, yet disease 
and a despised people, the Skrcellings (a 
branch of the Esquimaux), ended the settle- 
ment, apparently firmly established with 
the extermination of the European settlers and 
their descendants, within five centuries. 
If that space of time sufficed to "wipe 
out" all traces of the bravest and hardiest 
colonists who ever lived on earth, why may 
not pestilence engendered by want of good 
water, which is one of the demerits of Easter 
island assisted by invasions of savage war- 
riors, giants in comparison to the insignifi- 
cant Skrcellings, have sufficed to clear Easter 
island of its civilized artistic population and 
leave it open to a new settlement of Poly- 
nesian colonists from the nearest Pacific 
archipelagos ? 

" Wrens make prey where eagle dare not perch." 


TlVOLI, N. Y. 

Lake Drained (Vol. v, p. 179). A 
great work began in the reign of Claudm? 
in the first century, and completed in the 
middle of the nineteenth century. "The 
lake of Fucino, situated fifty miles east of 
Rome, near the towns of Avezzano and 
Celano, occupies the centre of a circular range 
of hills in the Apennines, formed like a crater, 
the slopes of which are covered with dwell- 
ings and cultivated hills. Sometimes floods 
inundated all the country round and de- 
stroyed the crops ; afterwards when the 
waters ran off the air was filled with 
poisonous miasmas, the difference between 
the levels being not less than thirty-nine 
feet. In the reign of Claudius 30,000 slaves 
worked eleven years in digging out a chan- 
nel 6151 feet long, across Monte Salviano, 
in order to draw off the largest portion of 
the. water into the Liris, and thence into the 
sea. It was thought that the work once 
done, would last for centuries. All that now 
remained to be done was to open the flood- 
gates. A grand fete was arranged, in which 
19,000 gladiators appeared upon the lake ; 
the slaughter took place, but the water, 
mixed as it was with blood, refused to flow 
out. Narcissus had withholden the money 
which should have been appropriated to the 
completion of the work. Later, at different 
periods, the canal was drained out, but the 
great labor was only a partial success. 

" In 1 854 the work was resumed, the outlet 
was enlarged, and a mass of water amount- 
ing to more than two millions of cubic 
yards, which the lake contained above the 
level of the tunnel, was emptied out the 
marsh fevers ceased their ravages, and culti- 
vation gradually advanced toward the cen- 
tre of the former lake basin " (see "The 
Ocean," Elisee Reclus). F. T. C. 


Leper Kings (Vol. v, p. 216, etc.). 
Uzziah or Azariah, king of Judah ; Baldwin 
IV, son of Amaury, king of Jerusalem, 
Gibbon vi, 24; Michaud's Crusades i, 
399, 402. ANCHOR. 



AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 6, 1890. 

Nicknames of States. There ap- 
peared in the St. Louis Globe Democrat a 
versified arrangement of the nicknames of 
the States which may be of interest to the 

Dear Uncle Sam has many girls, 

All precious in his eyes, 
Tho' varying much in many things, 

As age and wealth and size. 

As sentiment they vary, too, 

In beauty, spirit, grace ; 
The wealth of some is in the breast, 

Of others on the face. 

He early gave them single names, 

Tho' double just a few ; 
Then father-like he nicknamed them, 

As older girls they grew. 

Miss Arkansas he called his " Bear," 

New York the " Empire State ;" 
"Excelsior," he sometimes says 

When he would her elate. 

Rhode Island is his " Rhody " pet, 

Or "Little Rhoda," dear, 
When Texas, the " Lone Star," looks down 

Upon her midget peer. 

North Carolina, " Old North State," 

She is his " Turpentine ;" 
" Mother of Presidents," V a, 

Doth " Old Dominion " shine. 

Ohio is his "Buckeye" lass 

His "Sweet Queen" Maryland; 
His " Keystone," Pennsylvania, 

To "Penny mites" is grand. 

Miss Maine he calls his " Lumber " yard, 
Then " Pine Tree " sweetly sings ; 

That Oregon is " Spirit Land," 
To all he gaily flings. 

Missouri beams the " Central Star," 

" Blue Hen " is Delaware, 
Or when he would her pride expand, 

He " Diamond " lets her flare. 

Miss California we shall find 

Is " Golden " on his knee ; 
His " Silver Sheen " Nevada holds, 

" Big Bend " is Tennessee. 

South Carolina hears his call, 

" Palmetto," in her hand ; 
New Jersey's grit he honors much, 

She is his " Child of Sand." 

" Green mountain " lass he hails Vermont, 

Nebraska, " Blizzard Home ;" 
" Pan Handle," clipped from " Old Domain," 

Is West Virginia tome. 

His "Bayou" Mississippi is, 
New Hampshire " Granite " pride ; 

Louisiana, " Sugar State," 
His " Creole" doth abide. 

"Jayhawker" Kansas most he calls 

His " Garden of the West ;" 
On Massachusetts, old " Bay State," 

He lets his blessing rest. 

Miss Minnesota, " Gopher " State, 

His " North Star " ever shines ; 
O'er Michigan, his " Wolverine," 

He spreads his waving pines. 

Kentucky is his "Blue Grass" field, 

His " Dark and Bloody Ground;" 
But Florida, " Peninsula," 

His " Flower-land" will be found. 

As " Empire of the South " he greets 

Miss Georgia in his joy ; 
But "Sucker" or my "Prairie" bird 

He hails fair Illinois. 

Sweet " Hoosier " is the name inscribed 

On Indiana's breast, 
Whilst Iowa rejoices much 

With " Hawkeye" on her crest. 

" Centennial " Colorado shines, 

Wisconsin's " Badger " child ; 
That " Nutmeg," Miss Connecticut, 

Is " Free Stone " on the guild. 

At Alabama, " Here We Rest," 

Our dear old uncle calls, 
Until into the sisterhood 

Some new-born sister falls. 


Natural Bridges. Will your corre- 
spondents send notes respecting such natural 
bridges as they may come across in their 
reading ? I will start the movement by nam- 
ing a few: i. The world-famous one in 
Rockbridge county, Va. 2. One in North- 
ern New York, on the Indian river, in Jef- 
ferson county (I do not know whether this 
is at the station called Natural Bridge, or 
not, on the Carthage and Adirondack Rail- 
way). 3, 4. There are two natural bridges 
in Walker county, Ala. 5. There is one 
near Williamstown, Mass., of some interest 
to tourists. 6, 7. There are two in Tuo- 
lumne county, Cal. 8. One in Trinity 
county. 9, 10. Two in Siskiyou county. 

11. There is one in Christian county, Ky. 

12. And one in Walton county, Fla. 

S. E. A. 

September 6, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Majesty. It is commonly said that 
Henry VIII was the first English king to as- 
sume the address or title of " His Majesty." 
But in a letter of Thomas Beckington, after- 
wards Bishop of Bath and Wells, written to 
King Henry VI, probably in 1442, the king 
is spoken to as " youre Roial Mageste " 
{Camden Soc. Pub., 1886, p. 81). Further, 
in a letter addressed by "certain officers of 
Calais " to Henry V (no date known) the 
king is addressed as "your high undmightie 
rioll maiestie." G. 


Mot (Vol. v, p. 170). With this word, 
in the sense of a small grove, compare the 
Spanish mats, a coppice, a thicket ; Portu- 
guese mato, matto, or mata, a brushwood, 
scrub, or wild heath. I do not mean to as- 
sert that this is the true origin of the Texan 
word mot. Qui TAM. 


Underground Streams (Vol. v, p. 215, 
tc.). The Taurus mountains of Asia 
Minor abound in yailahs, or wall-enclosed 
mountain-valleys, whose waters escape 
through underground channels in the lime- 
stone rocks. The two large lakes called re- 
spectively Egerdir Gol and Kereli G61 in 
Asia Minor, are believed to have subter- 
raneous outlets. L. M. R. 


Good Old Etymologies (Vol. v, p. 71). 
The popular derivation of carnival from 
vale, farewell, and carni, to flesh, is errone- 
ous, though the popular derivation has helped 
to shape the modern word. Centaur the 
ancients derived from Gr. Ksvrhtv, to goad, 
and raupos, a bull (compare the cow-punchers 
of Texas) ; but there is now a strong suspi- 
scion that the name centaur may be cognate 
with Sanskrit gandharva. Certain it is that 
the centaurs and gandharvas have much in 
-common. The slow-worm is slow enough ; 
but that fact does not give him a name ; the 
old English name was sla-wyrm, which 
means striking or biting-worm ; yet the ani- 
mal never bites. Our ancestors, however, 
from its snake-like form, supposed that the 
oreature was venomous. Qui TAM. 

Victorines (Vol. v, pp. 102, etc. ; 
under Adam of St. Victor). Another of the 
Victorine monks, or canons, and one much 
better known than the ones mentioned at the 
above entry, was the celebrated Jean 
Santeul (1630-1697), a Latin poet, known 
also as Santolius Victorinus. There is a 
good and appreciative notice of him in Duf- 
field's " Latin Hymns," p. 329, sqq. By 
the way, it seems to be a slight error to 
speak of the Victorines as monks. They 
were, I think, canons regular of St. Augus- 
tine and not technically monks, although 
practically they were so. But Santeul was a 
lively fellow, and got excused from cloister- 
life for the most part. F. R. S. 


Grevillea (Vol. v, p. 133). Your cor- 
respondent is correct in stating that that in- 
teresting genus of trees, Grevillea was not 
named from R. K. Greville. In Hender- 
son's "Handbook of Plants," p. 97, it is 
said to have been named in honor of C. F. 
Greville. ILDERIM. 


Yankee Doodle (Vol. iii, p. 161). It 
is stated that the popular name in the 
modern Persian tongue for an American is 
Yenghi Dunia. I do not know the origin 
of this name. J. P. T. CARTER. 


Arthur Kill (Vol. v, pp. 178, etc.). 
Prof. Estoclet's explanation is fully sus- 
tained by early quotations to be found in 
Hatfield's "History of Elizabeth, N. J.," 
in which the name "After Cul ' ' occurs several 
times. The name "AchterKol" (variously 
spelled) in this work also apparently desig- 
nates that part of New Jersey in which the 
town of Elizabeth stands. There was once 
a " bowery " on Long Island called the 
" Achtervelt. " Its name occurs many 
times in the published collections of colonial 
documents. G. 


Rotten Row (Vol. iii, pp. 157, 300). 
With this name compare that of Rotton 
Park, in the outskirts of Birmingham. 




AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 6, 1890. 

Ville in Place-names. This termina- 
tion of place-names seems almost peculiarly 
American, and to me, for one, it appears to 
be associated with shoddyism and vulgarity. 
But it is not quite peculiar to America. In 
France we find Albertville, Vielleville, Neu- 
ville, Bonneville, Blainville, Abbeville, 
Damville, Neville, Villedieu, Villefranche, 
Philippeville, and many more ; also Libre- 
ville in Gaboon, Hellville in Nossi-Be, etc. 
In England are Pentonville, Coalville, Sea- 
ville, Tankerville, and others. (I suppose 
Neville, Savile and Umfreville, old family 
names, will not count). 


Latinized Names (Vol. v, pp. 57, etc.). 
Osiander stood for Hosemann ; Chelidonius 
was originally named Schwalber; Goldschmidt 
became Aurifaber; Dubois was changed 
to Sylvius ; Kochhaff to Chytraus ; Hagen- 
butt to Cornarus ; Kaufman, or Kramer, to 
Mercator ; Kreuziger was made Cruciger ; 
Fischer was, of course, Piscator ; Tedeschi 
of Palermo became Panormitanus ; Kiirch- 
ner was changed to Pellicanus. Consider- 
ing the times and circumstances in which 
the humanists lived these changes seem to 
me to have been natural and appropriate. 

Qui TAM. 


Ff as an Initial (Vol. v, p. 192, etc.) 

In Vol. Ixxxvi of the Camden Society's pub- 
lication, p. 23, may be found a letter, temp, 
Hen. V, from certain officers at Calais to 
the Duke of Bedford. In it February is 
called Ffeverer, &&& fellows \sspt\\. ffelawes. 



Casting out the Shoe (Vol. v, p. 208, 
etc). I read lately in one of Rev. Dr. F. 
Mason's books, that when he was crossing 
in a steamer from London to some Dutch 
port, his fellow-passengers were mostly Jew- 
ish cattle-merchants. When he got into his 
berth the Jews began to cast their shoes upon 
him. He bore it quietly for a time but was 
at last compelled to go on deck and claim 
protection. The captain went below and 
threatened to put all the cattle-men into 

confinement, and soon made things very 
quiet. N. S. S. 


Indian Summer (Vol. v, p. 185). 
The Boston Transcript (Nov. 8, 1889), re- 
fers a querist to "Webster's Diet." under 
" summer," and quotes from "Hiawatha," 
canto ii, line 225 : 

" Shawondasee, fat and lazy, 

Had his dwelling far to southward, 
In the drowsy, dreamy sunshine, 
In the never-ending summer." 

It adds, " Shawondasee, according to 
Schoolcraft, was an affluent, plethoric red 
man, who lived in the South, kept his eyes 
steadfastly on the North, and whose sighs in 
autumn produced the delightful Indian 
summer." M. A. N. 


When We've Been There, etc. (Vol. 
v, p. 215, etc.). There is a Latin hymn 
beginning "Jerusalem gloriosa," which is 
ascribed by Spitzen, with a good degree of 
probability, to Thomas a Kempis (fifteenth 
century). The hymn "O mother dear, Je- 
rusalem" was written by David Dickson, 
(seventeenth century). The " Urbs beata 
vera pacis " (1735), was by the Abbe Bes- 
nault. The original of them all is probably 
an anonymous hymn of the ninth century, 
or perhaps of the seventh. It is of proba- 
ble Spanish origin. B. 

Hoop-snake (Vol. v, p. 206 ; under 
"Satyr-Beetle and Ash "). In the Southern 
and Western states a large but harmless and 
even useful snake is called the Hoop- snake. 
It is the Abastor erythrogrammus. There is 
a prevalent belief that it can take the end 
of its tail in its mouth and roll along the 
ground like a hoop ; but this belief is entire- 
ly unfounded. The horn-snake, Farancia 
abacura, much resembles the hcop-snake, 
and is probably quite as much and quite as 
groundlessly an object of dread. Similar 
superstitions are associated with the coach- 
whip snake, Bascanion flagelliformis, a very 
common species in some sections of the 


September 6, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Colored Starch (Vol. v, p. 170). 
Yellow starch was that most used in England, 
and it greatly excited the wrath of the 
Satirists. Philip Stubbs, in "His Anatomy 
of Abuses," 1588, is particularly indignant 
at the liquor which they call starch, and 
wherein the devil hath wished them to dye 
their ruffs, and this starch they make of 
divers colors and hues, white, red, blue, 
purple, and the like. In the satirical cos- 
tume poem " Pride's Fall," occurs a refer- 
ence to the flaunting ruff starched 

" with white and blew 

Seemly to the eye." 

Ben Jonson's "Squire of Norfolk" ex- 
claims : 

" Yellow, yellow, yellow, yellow." 

and the suggestion is being readily seized 
upon by Sir Paul Eitherside, who responds : 
" That's starch ! The devil's idol of that 
color." Ben Jonson in another connection 
has " goose-green starch" "Bartholomew's 
Fair." Beaumont and Fletcher's "hateful 
as yellow bands," in "The Widow," is 
another allusion to the general popular dis- 
like to yellow starch. The comedy, " The 
Widow," first appeared in 1621, six years 
subsequent to Mrs. Turner's execution, and 
some authorities insist that yellow bands 
were worn at this time, not only, but that 
they were more fashionable immediately 
after Mrs. Turner's death than ever before, 
Armellina in the old play "Albumazar:" 
"Trincalo, what price bears wheat and saf- 
fron, that your band's so stiff and yellow," 
Act ii, Sc.i. In Sir Simon D' Ewes' ac- 
count of King James going from Whitehall 
to Westminster, occurs the following : 

"And looking upp to one window, as he 
passed, full of gentlewomen or ladies, all in 
yellow bands, he cried out aloud, ' A pox 
take yoe, auguther ?' At which being much 
ashamed, they all withdraw themselves sud- 
denlie from the window." F. T. C. 


From a book entitled " Youth's Be- 
haviour," translated from the French (1663) 
is taken the following extract : " When yel- 
low starched bands and cuffs were in fashion, 

Lord Chief Justice Coke commanded the 
common Hangman to do his office in that 
dress, and thus put a stop to the idle fashion 
("Gent. Mag. Lib.," i, 7). 

E. G. KEEN". 

On the Score (Vol. iv, pp. 47, etc.). 
In Taylor, the water-poet's satire " A 
Kicksey Winsey, or a Lerry Come-Twang," 
we read as follows : 

"I'm sure it cost me seven-score pounds and more, 
With some suspicion that I went on score." 

P. R. E. 


Sunken Islands (Vol. v, p. 192, etc.). 
It is rather remarkable that none of your 
correspondents have noticed Graham's 
Island, which arose as a very active volcanic 
crater in 1831. It was situated between Si- 
cily and Pantellaria, in the Mediterranean. 
It was only a few feet above the waves on 
July 19, but by the end of August it was 107 
feet high, and 3240 feet in circumferance. 
In the following December it had entirely 
vanished ; but Graham's Shoal still remains 
to mark its place. In some books this tem- 
porary island is called Fernandinea. 



No Man's Land (Vol. v, p. 216, etc.). 
I believe that the English No Man's 
Land was once a part of the New Forest 
which was not provided for a long time with 
magistrates, for which cause the people 
were, in a manner, a law unto themselves. 

S. T. B. 

Fountain of Youth (Vol. ii, p. 100). 
Sir John Mandeville relares that at Polombe 
(probably Quilon, in Travancore), he found 
the Well of Youth, whereof he drank, and 
thought he felt the better for it. Neverthe- 
less, in 1357, he took the gout, and had to 
go back to Europe. F. A. N. 

Priscian's Head (Vol. v, pp. 139, etc.). 
" Latin is none of my own, I swear by 
Priscian's Pericranium, an oath which I have 
ignorantly broken many times." J. Taylor 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 6, 1890. 

(the water-poet), "The Penniless Pilgrim- 
age," also in the same writer's " Navy of 
Land-Ships " we read of " humorous poets 
who with their continual cudgelling one an- 
other with broken verses had almost beaten 
Priscianus' brains out." P. R. E. 


Parallel Passages (Vol. v, pp. 176, 

etc.) A reviewer of books in Public 

Opinion of August 30, in speaking of Mr. 
T. B. Peacock's "Poems of the Plains" 
cites a line therefrom as an instance of power 
and sublimity. Here it is : 

" Battle stamps his bloody feet." 

I certainly do not wish to detract from 
the reputation of this Western author, and 
yet it seems due to Lord Byron to call atten- 
tion to this famous utterance : 

" Red battle stamps his foot, and nations feel the 

(" Childe Harold," ist Canto, verse 38.) 

Is the line commended a repetition or a 
coincidence? J. W. MONSER. 



The Century for September is made up largely by 
articles treating on California. The paper by John 
Muir on " The Treasures of the Yosemite Valley," in 
the August number, is followed by another on 
" Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park," 
which is illustrated by William Keith and Charles D. 
Robinson, the California artists, and by Fraser, Moran, 
and Davies, the sketches being made in several instances 
from sketches by Mr. Muir himself. The writer de- 
scribes the wonderful scenery in the neighborhood of 
Yosemite the Lyell Glacier, the Cathedral Peak 
region, the Tuolumne Meadows and Canon, and the 
Hetch-Hetchy Valley, all of which are included in the 
limits of the proposed park as denned by General 
Vandever's bill in the present Congress. In conclu- 
sion, Mr. Muir records his protest against the injuries 
done to the Yosemite Valley under the control of the 
present and proceeding Commissions. In " Topics of 
the Time," is an editorial in the same strain on 
" Amateur Management of Yosemite Scenery." The 
number also contains, apropos of the celebration on 
September 8th of the fortieth anniversary of the 
admission of the State, a paper by George Hamlin 
Fitch, entitled, " How California Came into the 
Union," illustrated by a large portrait of General Fr6- 

mont from a daguerreotype of 1850, and by others of 
Commodores Sloat and Stockton, Governor Burnett, 
Senator Gwin and J. Ross Browne, together with pic- 
tures of Colton Hall, Monterey the scene of the Con- 
stitutional Convention and the famous Bear Flag, 
hoisted at Sonoma in 1846. This paper is a forerunner 
of the series on the Gold Hunters, and in the present 
number The Century begins a temporary department of 
" Californiana," similar to the " Memoranda on the 
Civil War," and to be devoted to short articles on 
topics of special interest relating to the '49ers. This 
month these articles are " Light on the Seizure of Cali- 
fornia," by Prof. Royce of Harvard, "The California 
Boundary Question," by Francis J. Lippitt, Esq., and 
" The Date of the Discovery of the Yosemite," by Dr.. 
Bunnell, of the Party of Discovery. 

The frontispiece is an engraving by T. A. Butler, of 
Nattier's picturesque portrait of the beautiful Princesse 
de Conti, an attractive prelude to Mrs. Amelia Gere 
Mason's fifth paper on " The Women of the French 
Salons," which is further illustrated by striking por- 
traits of the Duchesse de Luxembourg, Catherine II. 
in Russian costume, Madame Geoffrin and Madame 
d'Epinay. These portraits are accompanied by dainty 
decorative pieces by George Wharton Edwards. Mrs. 
Mason's text deals with the Salons of the eighteenth 

A paper of timely interest, practically illustrated, is 
Commander C. F. Goodrich's description of" Our New 
Naval Guns," detailing the process of manufacture and 
recounting their remarkable efficiency. 

" The Anglomaniacs," which has awaked much 
curiosity and has attracted more remark, perhaps, than 
any other recent fiction in The Century, reaches its 
fourth and concluding part, with illustrations by Mr. 
Gibson, in this number. It is understood that the au- 
thorship of this story will not be given upon its appear- 
ance in book form. 

Mr. Jefferson's Autobiography deals with incidents 
of his life in England, Scotland and Ireland, and 
includes material relating to Charles Mathews, John B. 
Rice, and William Warren, together with Mr. Jeffer- 
son's apology for the liberty taken with " The Rivals." 
The autobiography, which will be concluded in the 
October number, continues to be notable for its humor 
and humanity. 

An important paper by Prof. Charles W. Shields of 
Princeton, on " The Social Problem of Church Unity,'' 
is another of the " Present- Day Papers," contributed to 
The Century by the " Sociological Group" of writers, 
which now includes fifteen prominent students of social 

Mrs. Van Rensselaer contributes an article on " Wells 
Cathedral," illustrated by Pennell, whose pictures com- 
bine the accuracy of an architectural drawing with the 
charm of etching. 

Mr. La Farge's "An Artist's Letters from Japan," 
are accompanied by an engraving after his drawing; 
and a paper is contributed by Rowland E. Robinson on 
the Marble Hills of Vermont, which is illustrated by J. 
A. S. Monks. 

"Friend Olivia" (Mrs. Barr's novel) is continued, 
the scene being changed to America ; and there is a 
short story by Miss Anne Page, entitled " Lois Benson's 
Love Story." 

Two sonnets, one by Ella Wheeler Wilcox entitled 
" September," and one by Col. John Hay (" Love's 
Dream ") ; an editorial on the " Misgovernment of 
Cities," and a variety of light verse in " Bric-a-brac," 
complete the number. 

American fiotes and Queries : 

Copyrighted i8qo, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Yol. Y. No. 20. 


I {3.00 per year. $1.75, 6 months. 

I $1.00, 3 months. 10 cents per number. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 
Also, by J. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the prin- 
cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 
Washington : Brentano's. Boston : Damrell & 
Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans : 
Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street, 
San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 
Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 

NOTES : Calls and Recalls, 229 The Title of " Reverend," 

230 Highbinder Ancient Imprint-bearing Stones, 23:. 
QUERIES : Itasca, 232. 
REPLIES : Ireland's Eye Highest Waterfall in the World, 


wrench, 232 Lingua Franca Cambuscan Jutes Runaway 

Pond, 233. 

COMMUNICATIONS : No Man's Land, 233 Pets of Dis- 
tinguished People Goober Devil's Land Nickajack, 234 
The Russian Byron Norumbega, 235 Rakestale Easter 
Island Rivers Flowing Inland, 236 Singular Place Names 

Height of Popocatepetl, 237 Lakes Drained Anagrams, 
238 " The " in Place Names Last Island Junker I Shall 
be Satisfied John Company Prince Consort's Family 
Name Samson Occom State Line Towns, 239 City Poets 

The Point of View Neck, 240. 


Of the origin of the English practice of 
calling on the principal actor, Macready, in 
his " Memoirs," has left us an account. It 
first occurred, he says, at Covent Garden on 
the occasion of his initial performance of the 
character of Richard III, October 19, 1819. 
It had been usual at the fall of the curtain for 
a subordinate actor to appear and announce 
the play to be given on the succeeding night. 
But on this occasion Macready, at the sug- 
gestion of the stage manager, undertook the 
duty, and his appearance had the effect of 
what is now known as a call before the cur- 
tain. " I announced the tragedy for repe- 
tition," he says, " amidst the gratulatory 
shouts that carried the assurance of complete 
success to my agitated and grateful heart.'* 

2 3 

AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 13, 1890. 

Notwithstanding, hegrew tohave littlelik- 
ing for such idle compliments as calls and re- 
calls. "Acted very fairly," he writes of one 
of his performances (1845). " Called for 
trash !" and again, "Acted Virginius (in 
Paris, December, 1844) with much energy 
and power to a very excited audience. I was 
loudly called for at the end of the first act, 
but could not or would not make so absurd 
and empirical a sacrifice of the dignity of 
my poor part." 

He would probably have had still less pa- 
tience with the modern system of recalls, which 
not only interrupt but render ridiculous 
many pathetic scenes ; which summon the 
insane Ophelia back from a watery grave to 
acknowledge, sanely enough, by smiles and 
courtesies, the applause of the spectators, to 
the perplexity of Claudius, Gertrude and 

But long before the time of Macready, 
French audiences had been in the habit of 
calling for the author of a successful drama. 

The first dramatist who was ever called 
before the curtain was Voltaire, after the 
production of " Merope." The second 
was Marmontel, after the performance of 
"Dionysius." For some time the English 
playwrights were content to acknowledge 
from their private boxes the applause of 
their audience. 

On the first presentation of Talfourd's 
"Ion," Macready says: "Was called for 
very enthusiastically by the audience, and 
cheered on my appearance most heartily. 
Miss Ellen Tree was afterwards called for- 
ward. Talfourd came into my room and 
heartily shook hands with me and thanked 
me. He said something about Mr. Wai- 
lack, the stage manager, wishing him to go 
on the stage, as they were calling for him, 
but it would not be right. I said on no ac- 
count in the world. He shortly left me and 
as I heard was made to go forward to the 
front of his box and receive the enthusiastic 
tribute of the house's grateful delight. How 
happy he must have been." 

But, in 1838, Macready writes thus of the 
first night of Sheridan Knowles' play, 
" Woman's Wit :" " Acted Walsingham in 
a very crude, nervous and unsatisfactory 
way; avoided a call by going before the 
curtain to give out a play. There was very 

great enthusiasm. Led on Knowles in obedi- 
ence to a call of the audience." Knowles, 
however, had been an actor, although he 
was not included in the cast of " Woman's 
Wit," and in Macready's sight this may 
have rendered his case very different from 
that of Talfourd's. It was not long after- 
wards that the practice of calling out an au- 
thor after the first performance of his 
play became firmly established in every 
theatre of Great Britain. 

Some years ago, when Sophocles' tragedy 
of "Antigone " was produced with Men- 
delssohn's music at the Theatre Royal, in 
Dublin, the gallery gods were so greatly 
pleased that they shouted out for " Sapha- 
cles." The manager explained that Sopho- 
cles had been dead for over two thousand 
years, whereupon a small voice shouted 
from the gallery : " Then chuck us out his 




The title of "Reverend " was a few years 
ago made the subject of a curious discussion, 
the point being raised in England as to the 
right of a dissenting Wesleyan minister to 
assume the title. The gentleman concerned 
was Rev. Henry Keet, who died not very 
long ago, at the age of fifty-eight. It may be 
profitable briefly to recall the history of the 
matter. A daughter of Mr. Keet died in May, 
1874, and was buried in the grounds of the 
parish church at Owston Ferry, England. 
A stone was erected over the grave, and an 
inscription was about to be placed upon it 
wherein the deceased was described as the 
daughter of " Reverend H. Keet, Wesleyan 
minister." But the rector of the parish 
interfered. His permission, under any cir- 
cumstances, was necessary, and he gave it 
except in regard to the use of the word 
Reverend. This he would not allow. An 
appeal was then made to the Consistory 
Court of the Bishop of the Diocese, in the 
form of an application for a faculty for the 
completion of the tombstone and the desired 
inscription. But the application was re- 
fused. Thence the case was taken to the 
Arches Court, in London, and the Dean, 
Sir Robert Phillimore, rendered a judgment, 

September 13, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


also adverse to the appellant. Rev. Mr. 
Keet, not satisfied with this judgment, car- 
ried the case on appeal to the Judicial 
Committee of the Privy Council. On the 
2ist of January, 1876, Lord Cairns, the 
Lord Chancellor, delivered his famous opin- 
ion. His Lordship said that in the judgment 
of the Council, " Reverend " is not a title 
of honor or courtesy ; it is a laudatory epi- 
thet. It has been used, not for a great 
length of time, but for some considerable 
time, by the clergy of the Church of Eng- 
land. It was used in ancient times by per- 
sons who were not clergy at all. It has been 
used, and is used in common parlance of so- 
cial intercourse, by ministers of denomina- 
tions separate from the Church of England. 
It is, therefore, impossible to treat it as 
an exclusive possession of the Church of 
England. Lord Cairns went on to say, "If 
ever there was a case in which no possible 
misunderstanding could arise, it would be 
here, where on the face of the inscription 
it appears exactly what was meant. There 
are appended to the name of Henry Keet 
the words ' Wesleyan Minister.' There is 
no pretense to the position of ordained min- 
ister in the Church of England. The state- 
ment is one which claims nothing more 
than what is actually the fact. Their Lord- 
ships are therefore of opinion that a faculty 
should issue for the erection of the tomb- 
stone in question." In consequence of this 
judgment the vicar of Little Petherick, St. 
Issey, Cornwall, in an advertisement in a 
Plymouth newspaper, requested corre- 
spondents to address him in future as G. W. 
Manning. He added, " Correspondents 
who prefix to his name the now desecrated 
epithet of ' Reverend ' will please not to be 
offended if he rejects their letters." The 
Guardian also stated that its publisher has 
received several applications from clerical 
subscribers that they might be no longer ad- 
dressed as " Reverend." They desired to 
be styled Rector or Vicar, as the case might 
be, without the ordinary prefix. The case 
raised no little excitement among the clergy 
of the Establishment, but at the latest ad- 
vices the breeze had blown over, and they 
were content to be known as Reverends, as 
of old. E. BRADLEY SIMS. 



The highbinder is to a court of the six 
companies, what a Danite was to the Mor- 
mon Church. Practically, every Chintman 
brought to the United States is a peon of 
some one of the six companies who import 
Chinese under contract. The fortunate or 
unfortunate celestial who emigrates from 
China is, in the majority of instances, a 
prisoner from the moment he falls into the 
clutches of the companies. In consideration 
for his passage he agrees to pay the company 
exporting him a sum many times the actual 
cost of the passage money. When he 
reaches San Francisco, he is placed in charge 
of a "boss," to whom he is responsible. 
Until the stipulated amount is repaid, every 
dollar he earns must be given up, and when- 
ever he is idle he is supported by the com- 
pany, which charges him no small sum 
therefor. In order to carry out this system 
of peonage, and properly discipline any re- 
calcitrant peon, the Hoey or Chinese court 
was established by the six companies. This 
court exercised the power of life or death 
over its victims, and the officer appointed to 
execute the sentence of the Hoey is the high- 
binder. The word has been in use for 
many years, but was applied to the Chinese 
assassins, I think, in 1868, by a San Fran- 
cisco journal. A highbinder knows no au- 
thority save that of the Hoey, and in more 
than one instance he has followed his victim 
across the continent in order to carry out 
its fiat. W. WARDLAW. 



The Philadelphia Times lately related the 
discovery, at the Mardingham quarry, near 
Fort Dodge, of a shelf of rock bearing 
seven prints of a gigantic foot, apparently 
a human foot, although the nails are unusu- 
ally long and the toes rather short and wide 

By the side of these, there are marks sim- 
ilar to those that might have been made by 
the dragging of a club over the rock. 

This beats Mohammed's and Adam's re 
spective footprints, with six to spare ; and 
St. Patrick himself will have to look to his 
laurels wherever he left but one mark of his 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 13, 1890. 

passage, as on Lullymore island (County 
Kildare), at Skerries (County Dublin), in 
County Antrim and several others. 

Some of these are simply natural depres- 
sions representing by a mere coincidence 
something like a human foot; others are 
probably a token of the ardor and zeal of 
the new converts, who wished to have a last- 
ing memorial of the place where the new 
religion was preached to them, and carved 
the image of their ap6stle's foot on the ac- 
tual spot where he stood when he addressed 

Why, an enthusiastic admirer of royalty 
did as much, even for King George IV, to 
perpetuate the remembrance of the very 
stone on which he stepped ashore at Howth 
harbor when he visited Ireland some seventy 
years ago ! 

But the saint has better than that on his 
record. American tourists, rambling on the 
Kells road, a couple of miles from Kilken- 
ny, have only to ask for " Glun Padraig," 
or " Patrick's Knees." These impresses 
are worn out by the water on the limestone 
rock common to this locality, and bear (or 
bore) a wonderful resemblance to the marks 
left by a man who would have knelt, with 
his two knees, on soft yielding material. 

Regarding our own Mardingham quarry 
find, the opinion of some competent au- 
thority would be interesting. 



B S. 

Itasca. Can you tell me if the derivation 
of Itasca (lake) from the Latin veritas caput 
has the sanction of good authority? 

M. S. 


I do not think there is the slightest founda- 
tion for such clumsy derivation. VeriTAS 
CAput does not mean " true source" it does 
not mean anything, for that matter. Forty 
years ago Itaska was the more common 
form in which the word appeared, and many 
good authorities still adhere to this form. 
Indian words having a similar termination 
are very common in Canada, and on an 
ordinary school atlas I find Kamouaska, 

Athabaska, Capimiscaw, Nepiscaw, Cami- 
puscaw, Agoomska and Madawasca. My 
impression is that Itaska belongs in the same 
list. Wi,H Prof. Chamberlain kindly en- 
lighten ds ? J. W. REDWAY. 


Ireland's Eye (Vol. v, p. 221). In Ire- 
land this is looked upon as one of the place 
names implanted by the Danes along the 
coast, though (I must say) it is much nearer 
to the Icelandic ey or the Anglo-Saxon ig, 
ey than to the Danish o. In any case the 
root is to be found in all the languages of 
Northern Europe and means an island. 

In England, Eyam (for Ey-hara), Ey- 
worth, Eywick, Ely (in all of which, by the 
way, the syllable in question is pronounced 
" eye ") tell the same tale ; so do Battersea 
(Peter's island), Jersey (Caesar's), Swansea 
(Sweyn's), Sheppey, etc. 

The very word island (for inland with an 
absurd s thrown in the bargain) and its di- 
minutive eyot contain the same root ; and 
need I add that, once upon a time, our own 
Rhode, Barn, Coney and other islands, were 
known as Roode Eylandt, Beeren Eylandt, 
Conynen Eylandt, etc.? A. ESTOCLET. 


Highest Waterfall in the World (Vol. v, p. 
218). What is the matter with Yosemite 
Falls? Merced river, in three plunges, falls 
2600 feet. Bridal Veil Fall, the chief of 
the three, falls 1600 feet in one leap. In 
autumn, when the volume of the river is 
greatly reduced, the water reaches the pool 
of this cascade in the form of a fine spray. 
F. T. C. should give home industries a 
chance. J. W. R. 



Monkey-wrench. What is the origin 
of this name for an adjustable wrench ? 
Some of the newspapers state that the name 
is derived from the inventor, Mr. Monkey, 
or Muncke, of Brooklyn, N. Y. The "Cen- 
tury Dictionary " does not explain the ori- 
gin of the term. * * * 

September 13, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Lingua Franca. Are there dictiona- 
ries or grammars of the lingua franca of the 
crusading days, or of the centuries of the 
early Levantine commerce? One would 
think that a knowledge of that form of 
speech would explain many anomalies of 
West European word development. 

B. D. P. 


Cambuscan. Is not this name, re- 
cently queried by a correspondent, another 
form of Genghis Kahn ? OROG. 


Jutes. Are there at present any people 
called Jutes, living in Jutland, or in its vi- 
cinity? S. P. Q. R. 


Runaway Pond. Where can I find 
an account of the Runaway Pond of Glover, 
Vermont ? It seems to have been a lakelet 
of glacial origin, kept in place by a moraine- 
dam of gravel. Some one made a cut in 
the moraine, and the whole lake left its bed 
at once, spreading destruction for many 
mjjes. I have not read an account of it for 
many years, and would like to verify my 
recollection of what seemed in my early 
days like the story of a very marvelous 
event. W. J. LACK. 



No Man's Land (Vol. v, pp. 226, etc.). 
Areas to which this name is applied are 
not uncommon in the United States. Be- 
sides the strip north of Texas, there is 
another similar area in the south-western part 
of Indian Territory between North and Prai- 
riedog forks of Red river, claimed both by 
Texas and the United States. This area is 
called Greer county, and as a matter of fact 
the inhabitants enjoy the same political 
rights as those of any recognized portion of 
the State of Texas. Greer county is a part 
of the Louisiana purchase, and, at the time 
of the purchase, it is highly probable that 
neither Uncle Sam nor the King of Spain 
possessed any accurate knowledge of the 
topography and drainage of the country. 

According to the treaty of 1819, it was 
agreed that " the boundary between the 
two countries west of the Mississippi shall 
begin on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth 
of the Sabine river in the sea, continuing 
north along the western bank of that river 
to the thirty-second degree of latitude, 
thence by a line due north to the latitude 
where it strikes the Rio Roxo of Natchitoches 
(Red river), then following the course of the 
Rio Roxo westward to the looth degree of 
west longitude * * * the whole as laid 
down in Melish's map of the United States, 
published at Philadelphia, improved to Jan- 
uary i, 1818." Now Melish's map not only 
locates the looth meridian eighty-two miles 
too far eastward, but it also places Red 
river too far south by fifty miles. When 
the looth meridian was properly located 
matters were left in a state of confusion. 
Nearly fifty miles east of the meridian the 
river forks, and which of the forks is the 
main stream it is impossible to tell. 
Melish's map shows that the treaty could 
not have contemplated either fork, and this 
is the only thing the map shows with cer- 
tainty. Melish innocently admits having 
never surveyed or even seen the region, say- 
ing that it had been delineated from Pike's 
explorations. As a matter of fact, however, 
Pike never visited the region in dispute. 

There are no fewer than four other small 
places of that name in England, respectively 
in Devon, Essex, Chester and Hants. 

A remarkable "no man's land " is Island 
No. 74 on the Mississippi (mentioned in 
Prof. Redway's paper before the Engineers' 
Club of Philadelphia*), probably the only 
territory within the United States and not 
of it. True, it has an owner, but it belongs 
to no State, county or township. It appears 
that "According to the enactment, whereby 
the States of Arkansas and Mississippi were 
created, the river boundary of the former 
extends to midstream ; that of the latter, to 
midchanneL Herein is the difficulty. A 
dissipated freshet turned the current against 
the Mississippi bank, and shifted the former 
position of midchannel many rods to the 

* May 17, 1890. 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 13, 1890. 

eastward, so that the fortunate or unfortu- 
nate owner found his possessions lying be- 
yond both the midriver point of Arkansas 
and the midchannel line of Mississippi." 


There is an account of another " No Man's 
Land" in Stow's "Survey of London." 
In 1348, when a great pestilence was raging 
in England, and the church-yards were not 
sufficient to receive the dead, Ralph Strat- 
ford, Bishop of London, purchased a piece 
of ground called " No Man's Land," which 
he enclosed with a wall of brick, and dedi- 
cated for the burial of the dead. In Stow's 
time (1598), this was in the suburbs of Lon- 
don, and was known as "Pardon Church- 
yard." E. G. KEEN. 

Pets of Distinguished People (Vol. 
v, pp. 154, etc.). -James Hogg's Collie, 
Hector. Honest Hector, the peerless col- 
lie of the Ettrick Shepherd, was accidentally 
shot by his own master. He is immortalized 
in that earlier series of papers, entitled 
"Christopher in the Tent," which is in- 
troduced as prefatory to the " Noctes Am- 
brosianae." The closing number contains 
the account of Hector's death and burial, 
also the two epitaphs ; the one in Latin by 
Bachelor Buller of Brazennose (John 
Hughes), and the other in Greek with full 
Latin notes, by Dr. Parr, who was not more 
famous for his pedantry and egotism, than 
for his buzzwig. Hogg himself declined to 
write an epitaph, saying, " I can make nae 
epitaphs the noo. I'se leave that to them 
that has met wi nae loss puir Hector." 
Hogg himself was buried in the ancient 
kirkyard of Ettrick, and the plain stone 
which marks his grave bears only a simple 
inscription, indicating the date and place of 
his birth and death. But Prof. Wilson, as 
Christopher North, in 1824, had thus pre- 
dicted concerning the future fame of Hogg : 
" My beloved Shepherd, some half century 
hence, your effigy will be seen on some 
bonny green knowl in the forest, with its 
honest face looking across St. Mary's Loch 
and up towards the Gray Mare's Tail, while 
by moonlight all your own fairies will dance 

round its pedestal." This prophecy was 
fulfilled not less than a quarter of a century 
from the time of the poet's death. In 1860 
" Auld Scotland" erected a statue to the 
Ettrick Shepherd, right between those 
famous lakes, St. Mary's Loch and Lowes 
Loch in Ettrick Dale in the midst of 
that renowned and picturesque region, which 
had been so often the inspiration of the 
poet's song. Nor was puir, honest Hector 
forgotten in the artist's conception. "The 
bard of Ettrick is seated on an oak root an 
appropriate relic of the forest, and Hector, 
the poet's favorite dog, rests lovingly at his 
feet, with head erect, surveying the hills be- 
hind, as if conscious of his duties in tend- 
ing the flocks during the poetic reverie of 
his master." F. T. C. 


Goober (Vol. iii, p. 94). This word is 
almost exclusively used in Texas and the 
Southwest for the nut commonly known in 
the East as the pea-nut. Ground-pea is also a 
very common and certainly a much better 
name than the meaningless one now used. 


Devil's Land (Vol. v, pp. 220, etc.). 
Among the very numerous rocky islets in 
the eastern part of Penobscot bay, off the 
Maine coast, there is a high and rocky one 
known as Devil's island. 

The Orkney islands, called Orcades by 
the ancients, were once fancied to have some 
etymological relationship to the Latin orcus 
or hell. But most late authorities connect 
the Latin name (and the English also), with 
the Latin orca, a whale. 



Nickajack (Vol. v, pp. 190, etc.). I 
put no faith whatever in the derivation of 
this name from "Nigger Jack." I believe 
it to be a Cherokee word. The name 
"Nickajack" is given in the Southern 
States to a well-known and favorite variety 
of the apple. The "Nigger Jack" ex- 
planation was probably invented to fit the 

F. L. T. 

September 13, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


The Russian Byron (Vol. v, pp. 221, 
etc.). Alexander Sorgovitch Poushkin, the 
most celebrated of Russian poets, has some- 
times been called the Russian Byron, also 
the Byron of the North, though, as one 
critic has remarked, " No epithet could be 
less happily chosen, or more inadequately 
contribute to a true estimate of his genius." 

At the time Poushkin first made the ac- 
quaintance of Lord Byron's works, he was 
living an exile in Southern Russia, having 
narrowly escaped a sentence to Siberia, be- 
cause those live poems of his, " The Ode to 
Liberty" and "The Christmas Tale," had 
caught the attention of the censors of the 
press. The exile poet, though only just on 
the threshold of manhood, was already a 
person of the most strongly marked indi- 
viduality ; he was, too, smarting under a 
keen sense of injustice ; besides, his genius 
bore some striking points of resemblance to 
that of the noble English poet. It is not, 
therefore, a matter of wonder, that Byron's 
brilliant effusions should have awakened a 
response in a mind so congenial, or that 
they should have been a source of consola- 
tion to the wanderer, through their spirit of 
resistance to arbitrary exercise of power. 

" The Day-Star hath Sunk," "The Ode 
to the Sea ' ' which was written on the eve 
of his departure from Odessa, and "The 
Fountain of Bakhchisarai," were among the 
productions of the period of exile and wan- 
dering (1820-1824), and reflect most 
strongly, it is said, the Byronic influence ; 
the last of the three poems named is thought 
to resemble "The Corsair." 

But this influence was suddenly swept 
,way by the study of Shakespeare, whose 
genius, when compared with Lord Byron's, 
offers the strongest contrast in literature, by 
reason of its many sidedness. 

Nevertheless, some critics saw another 
" Don Juan " in the "Eugene Onyegin," 
the first canto of which appeared in 1825. 
There may be some slight resemblance in 
the outline and plan of the two poems, and 
both are pervaded by a satirical tone of 
thought ; but Poushkin's satire is directed 
only at the fashionable society of Russia. 
As, however, other critics liken it to " Childe 
Harold," and the poet himself to " Beppo," 
the resemblance cannot be strongly defined. 

The " Poltava," published in 1828, should 
have been called ' ' Mazepa ; " it was not, how- 
ever, lest it should be confounded with the 
" Mazeppa " of Lord Byron. The two works 
are as unlike as possible, except that the hero 
of both is one and the same personage. 
The "Poltava," which isa narrative poem, is 
a most faithful version of the real history of 
the romantic life of the hero, Mr. Tritman 
Mazeppa. Poushkin reminds one of Byron 
in his numberless allusions to the happiness 
and the friendships of his school days at 
the Trarskoe Selo. A distinguished English 
critic and Russian scholar has disposed of 
the comparison between Byron and Poush- 
kin as follows : " We give the strongest possi- 
ble denial to a fallacious opinion, useless to 
the glory of one great man, and injurious 
to the just fame of the other, viz., that 
Poushkin can be called in any sense an im- 
itator ot Lord Byron." 

Poushkin was born in 1799, eleven years 
after Lord Byron, and was in his thirty- 
eighth year at the time of his death. 

" Whom the gods love die young." 

Like all men of the higher order of intel- 
lect, as " Scott, Cervantes and Michel An- 
gelo, Poushkin was endowed with a vigor- 
ous and mighty organization, bodily as well 
as mentally," and should have lived as long 
as they, but he fell a victim to what in his 
soul was the ungovernable passion of jealousy. 

Poushkin was the author of several prose 
tales, and at the time of his death was writ- 
ing the " History of Peter the Great." 

F. T. C. 


Norumbega (Vol. v, pp. 70, etc.). In 
the September number of The Dial, of Chi- 
cago, Mr. Julius E. Olson calls the attention 
of scholars to Weise's opinion, first published 
in 1884, that Norumbega stood on the Hud- 
son river. He thinks the name a form of 
the obsolete French anorme berge, " the 
enormous scarp," and that it has reference 
to the Palisades along the west bank of the 
lower Hudson. The authorities and pas- 
sages cited in The Dial appear to me to de- 
serve the special attention of students of 
our early history. ILDERIM. 



AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 13, 1890. 

Rakestale. Country people call the 
handle of a haymaker's rake, the rakestale. 
Stale is here, I doubt not, the Dutch steel, 
a handle. But popular etymology has 
changed rakestale into rake's tail ; and you 
will find some intelligent farmers speaking of 
the /a/'/of a rake ; but others, more correctly, 
but probably with no more intelligence, call 
the rake's handle the stale. 

Plough-tail, I suspect, is in like manner 
the representative of plough-stale. 



Easter Island (Vol. v, p. 222). In 
regard to Easter Island idols, I have to add 
that after I had written the article which is 
in press, a friend of mine sent tracings of 
one or two of these effigies, which appeared 
with a description in frank Leslie's Sunday 
Magazine, Vol. vi, July-December, 1879. 
Illustrations, p. 673 ; text or description, 
p. 680. As doubtless these reproductions are 
correct, the heads and faces and facial an- 
gles are almost identical with those of the 
goddess Centeotl, the Aztec deity presiding 
over agriculture or abundance, which "were 
dug out of a teoculli or house of the gods " 
near Toluca, in Mexico. Major-General 
then Major John WalcottPhelps, U. S. A., 
of Vermont, who served in Mexico during 
the War of 1646-48, obtained it there, sent 
it to me, and I placed it in the New York 
Historical Society. It is of basalt, or some 
other dark volcanic stone. Originally .it 
had jewels in the ears and elsewhere which 
had been broken out. It is seated in exactly 
the position that the Mexican Indian women 
assume even at this day. Such authentic 
idols are rare because the Roman Catholic 
priests cause them to be broken up as soon as 
discovered, since they distract the worship of 
their Indian flocks from modern images in 
the churches, and the natives continue to 
worship the old gods secretly in preference. 
This resemblance between the pictures of 
the Easter Island idols, and the Aztec 
Centeotl gives rise to the question whether 
-or not I was perfectly correct in taking the 
ground that the former were the work of 
emigrants or fugitives from the Asiatic 
islands and Southeastern Asia, who stopped 
at Easter Island sojourned there long 

enough to carve and set up their deities, and 
construct sacred buildings ; then continued 
on to plant their religion, develop it and 
communicate their ideas to the natives of 
Mexico particularly Youcatan Central 
America and the nations along the western 
coast of South America. This is theory, 
but is it not a theory based on strong 
probability, borne out by the doctrine of 
resemblances ? ANCHOR. 


Rivers Flowing Inland (Vol.v, pp. 202, 
August 9, 1890, there is an allusion by 
" G. H. G." to my description of the re- 
markable inflow of sea water at Argostoli, 
which is there spoken of as an ingenious 
misdescription. I do not know what E. 
Reclus makes of it, but I have been twice 
to see it and the second time was a. visit 
made for the purpose of describing it, 
which I did with the greatest exactitude. 
The " inward flowing current one mile in 
width " has no existence except in the 
imagination of some one who described it 
from the account of some one else. It is in 
no part, I am confident, ten feet wide, and if 
I were not afraid to understate the fact, I 
should say that a man could jump over it at 
any point. It is in fact no stream at all, but 
a cleft in the rocky shore of the bay of 
Argostoli, below where the lake discharges 
into it, I should say not a hundred yards 
long from the shore to the end of the 
crevice, and the inflow current is barely 
able to drive an undershot-wheel mill. The 
bay of Argostoli is a remarkable natural 
port, one of the best in the Mediterranean 
and has an entrance from the west, while 
the long bay lies north and south. At the 
southern end of the basin in which it lies 
there is a remarkable assemblage of springs 
which gush from under the mountain, and 
after collecting in a body flow into the bay 
through a somewhat narrow passage over 
which is thrown the bridge that carries the 
road to the interior. To the south of this 
bridge the water is fresh, but it gradually 
mingles with the sea water of the bay. It is 
therefore barely correct to call it a lake, but 
river it is not, and there is nothing like a 
river in the island. The brook I describe 

September 13, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


may be seen by any one on the east coast of 
the island between Same and the south- 
eastern cape. The author of the article in 
Smith's classical dictionary evidently knew 
less of the island than I do, as I have 
coasted round it and nearly been ship- 
wrecked on it and have crossed and re- 
crossed it. When E. Reclus talks of a river 
it is evident that he wrote from hearsay. 
What may be mistaken in the cut or by the 
artist for the "inward-flowing river" is 
evidently the bay itself. To the south of 
the main cleft in the shore, which is that 
generally spoken of, there is a minor one on 
which it was attempted to build a mill be- 
tween my two visits, I judge, for I heard 
nothing of it at the first, but the inflow was 
not enough to work it. I should judge that 
the shore at that part was irregularly cleft 
for a considerable distance and that the 
water which finds its way down into the 
crevices goes to feed some of the motors of 
the earthquakes so common in that part of 
the world, but the quantity is not great, and 
to call it a river is a ridiculous exaggeration 
it is hardly a respectable brook. 


Singular Place Names (Vol. v, p. 48). 
Catnip is a station in tha Blue-grass coun- 
try of Kentucky. In this State are Tiptop, 
Cat Creek, Pine Knot, Mud Lick. 

Maine has Wytopitiock, Me.ddybcmps, 

Georgia has a Cooler's Hill. 

Pennsylvania has a June Bug, Shacka- 
maxon, Lackawaxen, Nockamixon, Lacka- 
wack, Wysox, Gum Stiimp, Wapwallopen. 

Mississippi has Guntown, Bobo, Mud 

North Carolina, Goose Nest, Knap of 
Reeds, Helton, Toe River, Troublesome. 

New York, Nobody' s, Horseheads, Cat- 

Washington (State), has Muck, Jump-off- 
Joe (lake), Kumtax. 

Iowa has Correctionville , Nodaway, Sny 

Florida, Pinhook. 

Texas has Gall. 

West Virginia, Mouth of Buffalo, Mouth 
of Pigeon. 

Wyoming has a Miser, Chugwater. 

Ohio has Gambrinus, Gore. 

Wisconsin has a Kick Busch, Left Foot 

Tennessee has Mouth of Doe, Mouth of 

Idaho, Gimlet. 

Ontario has a. Jelly, Middlemiss. 

Newfoundland has Heart's Content, 
Heart's Desire, Heart's Delight and 
Hearf s Ease. 

Height of Popocatepetl (Vol. v, pp. 
175, etc.). "The height of Popocatepetl 
was recorded by Alexander von Humboldt, 
in 1804, as 17,720 feet. Several measure- 
ments have been made since the date of the 
trigonometrical observations of the distin- 
guished German traveler, and with re- 
sults varying from 17,200 feet to somewhat 
over 18,000 feet. Prof. Heilprin's meas- 
urements give 17,523 feet, or 200 feet 
less than the estimate of Humboldt, as cor- 
rected by his astronomical associate, Olt- 
manns. The significant fact, however, 
pointed out, that while geographers have al- 
most universally accepted Humboldt's de- 
terminations and figures, they have neglect- 
ed to take account of the newer data which 
have been made available through the level- 
ing of the Mexican Railway, which was 
constructed a few years since. These show 
that the estimate of the elevation of the 
City of Mexico (7470 feet) and of the ad- 
joining plateaus, which have served as a basis 
for most of the angle measurements of the 
mountains, have been placed 1 23 feet too 
high. Allowing for this excess, a striking 
correspondence is established between the 
early measurements and those obtained in 
the spring of the year by the Philadelphia 

"The ascent of the peak was made on 
the 1 6th and i7th of April by Prof. Heil- 
prin and Mr. F. C. Baker, the rim of the 
crater being reached at 11.30 o'clock on 
the morning of the i7th, and the culminat- 
ing point early in the afternoon of the same 
day. Little difficulty was encountered in 
the ascent beyond that which is due to the 
inconvenience arising from the highly rari- 
fied atmosphere. The snow field was found 
to be of limited extent, and not more than 

23 S 

AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 13, 1890. 

from five to ten feet in depth, and was vir- 
tually absent from the apex of the mountain. 
The surprisingly mild temperature of the 
summit, forty-five degrees Fahrenheit, ren- 
dered a stay of several hours in cloudland 
very delightful. 

" All the observations were made by means 
of a carefully tested aneroid barometer, and 
the data computed from almost simultaneous 
observations made at the Mexican Central 
Observatory of the City of Mexico, and 
from barometric readings made at the sea 
level at Vera Cruz. The equable condition 
of the atmosphere at the time these observa- 
tions were made rendered the possibility of 
the occurrence of possible errors of magni- 
tude almost nil." Philadelphia Ledger. 

It appears to the present writer to be 
no more than just to Prof. Heilprin, that 
attention should be specially called to the 
correction of all previous measurements now 
rendered possible for the first time by the 
railway levels from the sea to the valley of 
Mexico. Taking Humboldt's figures as 
corrected by his friend Oltmanns, and then 
applying this second correction, his meas- 
urement exceeds that of Prof. Heilprin 
by only seventy-four feet. Of course baro- 
metrical readings are not absolutely final, 
nor are railway levels ever ideally perfect, 
but it seems in view of the facts as published, 
that it is not quite fair nor wise to put 
aside Prof. Heilprin's figures as "unworthy" 
of consideration. P. J. L. 


Lakes Drained (Vol. v, pp. 2 23, etc.). 
Many years since there was much discussion 
in the newspapers about the drainage of 
Beaver lake, in Newton county, Indiana. 
I see that the lake is still represented on the 
maps, and I suppose, therefore, that the in- 
tended drainage was never carried into effect. 

Lake Copais, in Bceotia, has a natural 
drainage through Katavothra, or under- 
ground channels, which are liable to become 
choked. The ancients supplemented the 
natural drainage by attempts at clearing and 
multiplying the natural outlets ; and quite 
recently engineering works have been under- 
taken which promise to render cultivable at 
least 50,000 acres of marsh and mere; and 

no doubt the benefit to public health will 
fully justify the proposed outlay of money. 
Reference may be made to the recent drain- 
age operations in Florida. The ancient 
Romans, at a very early day, cut a wonder- 
fully fine and costly emissarium or tunnel, 
for the waters of the Alban lake ; and 
though they did not succeed in draining the 
lake, they gave it an outlet and thus pre- 
vented the flooding of its valley. But by 
far the most wonderful piece of successful 
lake drainage on record is afforded by the 
reclamation of the great Haarlemermeer in 
the Netherlands, concerning which the guide 
books and cyclopaedias will give your read- 
ers ample information. It has since been 
proposed to drain the Zuyder Zee itself. In 
the New World, there are many naturally 
drained lake basins. Geographers have 
named one of these Lake Lahontan. Its 
relics are mostly in Nevada the Pyramid, 
Carson, Walker, Humboldtand Winnemuc- 
ca lakes, with Honey lake in California. 
It was over 260 miles long. Another greater 
lake was that which has been called Lake Bon- 
neville, which was over 300 miles long and 
perhaps 150 miles broad, covering nearly 
20,000 square miles. Great Salt Lake is 
only a comparatively small remnant of this 
great inland sea, whose waters found an out- 
let by way of the Snake river and the 
Columbia. In this it was unlike its fellow, 
Lake Lahontan, which had no outlet. The 
little Lake Alvord, fn the south-east of Ore- 
gon (which is shallow, and occasionally 
dries up), represents a large, long and very 
deep prehistoric lake of not very remote 
antiquity, which had no outlet. In the 
Mexican valley of Coahuila there was once 
a large fresh-water lake. Death Valley, in 
California, was no doubt once a large lake. 


Anagrams (Vol. v, pp. 156, etc.). 
Adrian Gilbert was temp. Jacobi /, a cele- 
brated gardener and topiarian in the employ- 
ment of the Earl of Pembroke. On his 
name, Taylor, the water poet, composed a 
double anagram, " Art redily began a breed- 
ing tryal." This contains the gardener's 
name twice over. R. T. SMITH. 


September 13, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 


"The " in Place Names (Vol. v, pp. 
214, etc.). We find The B 'ague, Miss. ; The 
Gap, in Alberta Territory, Canada; The 
Glen, N. Y. ; The Hill, New Brunswick ; The 
Number (station), Ontario ; The Narrows, 
Ark. ; The Palms, Cal. ; The Rock, Ga., 
W. Va. and Mass. ; The Bay, La. ; The 
Bend, O. ; The Cape, N. C. ; The Caves, 
Md. ; The Corner, N. Y. ; The Forks, 
Me. and Neb. ; The Forts, La. ; The 
Grove, 111. and Tex. ; The Gums, Miss. ; 
The Hollow, Va. ; The Hook, N. Y. ; The 
Oaks, Miss. ; The Plains, Va. ; The Ridge, 
Ky. ; The Square, N. Y., and others. Most 
of the above are post-offices; several are 
railway stations. Besides the above, several 
others in the United States have been al- 
ready mentioned in your columns. 



Last Island (Vol. v, p. 220). Isle (sic) 
Derniere is still in existence. It is a low 
mudspit subject to overflow during unusually 
high tides. A severe storm, accompanied by 
a south-easterly wind, such as that which 
wrought such havoc upon Sabine Pass a few 
years since, would more than likely alter the 
outlines of the island to a considerable 
extent. Mr. Lafcadio Hearn lived upon the 
island for some time, and his story does not 
deviate materially from the facts of the case. 
As a singular coincidence it was written in 
the same room in which this note is pre- 
pared. J. W. R. 


Junker. "A man is in almost as high 
proportion to be a knave in England, as a 
knight in Germany, for there a gentleman 
is called a youngciir, and a knight is but 
a youngcur's man " (John Taylor's" Three 
Weeks, Three Days and Three Hours Ob- 
servations," 1616). P. R. E. 

I Shall be Satisfied (Vol. v, p. 161). 
There is another poem of this title, and a 
very excellent one it is too. It occurs in 
Lucy Larcom's compilation, "Breathings 
of the Better Life," p. 265. Its author- 
ship is not given there, and I do not remem- 
ber to have read the author's name anywhere. 

M. F. PARK. 

John Company (Vol. iv, p. 48). " In 
the interest of the perplexing ' John Com- 
pany ' question, I contribute a recent letter 
from Mr. Rudyard Kipling, kindly loaned- 
me by a friend. "Mr. Kipling writes : 

" I reply to your letter of 24th ultimo, I can only sug- 
gest that the term ' John Company ' arose in much the 
same manner as 'Uncle Sam.' Both were formed 
from the initial letters of the firm monogram H.E.I, 
(or J.) C. The Hon'ble John Company in the old 
days, just as U. S. was raised to Uncle Sam. Colonel 
Yule in his ' Hobson Jobson ' may give you further 
hints. I give what I was told for what it is worth. It 
is curious to think that very many natives in India still 
believe that the land is governed by one Jan Kumpani, 
Bahadur, or ' Big Chief John Company," who is sup- 
posed to be the husband of Her Majesty the Queen 
Empress. Sincerely, 


"In distinction to Mr. Kipling's specula- 
tion, is the very clever argument supplied by 
Mr. Barnwell of the Philadelphia Library. 
Mr. Barnwell suggests that the expression 
came about much after the Fashion of the 
genesis of 'John Chinaman.' That John 
being a common and marvelously frequent 
English name may have been applied to 
Englishman after Englishman, until every 
Englishman was a John, and naturally the 
great company would be spoken of as John 
Company" (W. Appleton Ferree, in The 
American, September 6). 

Prince Consort's Family Name (Vol. 
iii, p. 153). I find it stated in a note- 
book, not my own, that the family name of the 
late Prince Albert was Wetter, or Busici- 
Wetter. But the note-book gives no au- 
thority for the statement. N. S. S. 


Samson Occom (alluded to, Vol. iii, p. 
190). My brother has a printed " execu- 
tion sermon," by the Rev. Samson Occom, 
delivered at the hanging of an Indian male- 
factor many years ago in New England. 



State Line Towns (Vol. v, p. 219). 
The collector of the examples given at the 
above reference, seems to have overlooked 
Texline, which is, as its name indicates, sit- 
uated on or near the Texas line. 
VERONA, ME. P. R- B- P. 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 13, 1890. 

City Poets (Vol. v, p. 221) The office 
of the City Poet of London was to compose 
the yearly "Triumph," as it is generally 
styled, spoken in the pageant on Lord 
Mayor's day. The list includes some em- 
inent names : George Peele, Anthony Mun- 
day, Thomas Dekker, Thomas Middleton, 
John Squire, John Webster, Thomas Hey- 
wood, John Taylor, Edward Gayton, T. B. 
(name unknown), John Tatham, Thomas 
Jordan, Matthew Taubman and Elkanah 
Settle. To Settle, in this capacity, Pope 
alludes in the "Dunciad" (Book i, v. 85- 
90). With the death of Settle the office 
was abolished. Your correspondent will 
find a very complete bibliography of these 
"Triumphs," with much other interesting 
matter on the Lord Mayor's Pageants, ex- 
tending to fifty octavo pages, in the Gentle- 
men's Magazine Library, Vol. i. 

E. G. KEEN. 


The Point of View. How much de- 
pends upon the angle at which, and the dis- 
tance from which we view things ? James 
VI of Scotland was bred a Presbyterian ; 
and when he was of that faith he called the 
Anglican Liturgy "a mass ill said." But 
when he became James I, and the head of 
the English Church, he declared that his old 
form of religion was " no religion for a 
gentleman." But James, though of the 
proudest descent, did not have the manners, 
nor the character of a true gentleman ; and 
he was, therefore, no fit judge of the matter 
he was trying to decide. 



Neck. The "Century Diet." notes the 
use of the word neck as meaning a triangu- 
lar piece (as of land), a use which it makes 
local to New York, New Jersey and South 
Africa. Along the New England coast, 
neck sometimes means an isthmus, as in the 
case of Boston neck. Much more often it 
signifies a peninsula, or a piece of land 
joined to a larger one. Dozens of exam- 
ples of this use of the term could be cited. 
I think the New York and New Jersey use 
could be identified with this of New Eng- 


In the Cosmopolitan for September, "A Successful 
Man " is the title of what is probably the brightest 
American story typically American which has ap- 
peared for many years. It is a story of life prominent 
in fashion and in politics, written by a member of New 
York's highest society who displays a genius as a writer 
destined to make her name famous although she sub- 
stitutes a nom de plume for her own well-known one. 

"A Successful Man" will appear in two parts in the 
Cosmopolitan Magazine the first in the September issue 

and is illustrated by Harry McVickar, the drawings 
being made from life from acting models who were 
guests and servants at a Long Island country house. 

A high type of American politician a man having 
something of the characteristics of a Elaine, with a lit- 
tle of the Daniel Dougherty perhaps is brought by 
chance into the close society of a Newport married belle 

one of those women mated to wealth and manly 
beauty, with keen sympathies unsatisfied by the intel- 
lectual calibre of her husband. Then comes a careful 
study of the self made successful American of the 
society girl of Newport drawn by one who knows her 
perfectly at her best and at her worst of society not as 
it is imagined, but as it exists of the human heart by 
one who has evidently taken it in her hand and watched 
its every pulsation. 

At every page the story is bright and clever, and we 
are much mistaken if it does not attract the widest at- 

Book News (Phila.) for September is somewhat lighter 
than usual, but carries with it a foretaste of the coming 
holidays in the publisher's list of announcements. Two 
of the new juvenile books have reviews with repre- 
sentative pictures to set them off. Other interesting 
illustrations from more of the month's books lighten 
the pages. The "Notes from Boston " is a new feature, 
which, if continued, would soon enlist a circle of read- 
ers of its own, such as watch for and discuss " With 
the New Books," done so well each month by Mr. Tal- 
cott Williams. Brief but comprehensive biographical 
sketches are given of the late Cardinal Newman and 
John Boyle O'Reilly, each in' his life-time having added 
a share to the world of letters. The portrait is of C. 
M. Yonge, the well-known writer of English fiction and 

The Illustrated American is now running Edgar Faw- 
cett's novel, " A New York Family," which is attract- 
ing great attention in the metropolis, not only from the 
fact that it deals with the interesting period of Tweed's 
regime, and is a keen satire on the present condition of 
New York politics under the rule of Tammany, but 
also because it is illustrated by the virile hand of Thomas 
Nast, whose cartoons in Harper's led to the downfall 
of the unscrupulous Boss. The pictures given by The 
Illustrated American may lead to another uprising of 
the citizens this fall and the downfall of the present 
bosses. This story of Fawcett's has been a resurrection 
of Nast, and we again see his cartoons in the Herald 
and other leading journals. 

American Notes and Qaeties : 




Copyrighted /S<po, by The Westminster Publishing Co. Entered at the Post-Office, Philadelphia, as Second-class Matter. 

Vol. V. No. 21. 


^ Vcent7p n ernub.r. 


American Notes and Queries 



619 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 


Single copies sold, and subscriptions taken at the publishers' office. 

Also, by j. B. Lippincott Co., John Wanamaker, and the pnn- 

cipal news-dealers in the city. New York, Chicago and 

Washington: Brentano's. Boston: Damrell &. 

Upham (Old Corner Book Store). New Orleans: 

Geo. F. Wharton, 5 Carondelet Street. 

San Francisco: J. W. Roberts & 

Co., 10 Post Street. 

Queries on all matters of general literary and 
historical interest folk-lore, the origin of prov- 
erbs, familiar sayings, popular customs, quota- 
tions, etc., the authorship of books, pamphlets, 
poems, essays, or stories, the meaning of re- 
condite allusions, etc., etc. are invited from 
all quarters, and will be answered by editors or 
contributors. Room is allowed for the discus- 
sion of moot questions, and the periodical is thus 
a valuable medium for intercommunication be- 
tween literary men and specialists. 

Communications for the literary department 
should be addressed : 


All checks and money orders to be made 
payable to the order of The Westminster Pub- 
lishing Company, 619 Walnut Street, Philadel- 


NOTES: Spectacles and Eyeglasses, 241 Devil-Plants 

. Cartes Among Animals Funeral Plants, 243 Lepers in 
England, 244. 

QUERIES: African Alphabet Leaving His Country for His 
Country's Good Cina, 244. 

REPLIES : Calf of Man Runaway Pond, 244 "If You 
Your Lips," etc., 245. 

ings Zohrab Stovepipe Hat By the Same Token Lan-i. 
guage of Palestine Askol Drum-heads, 245. 

COMMUNICATIONS : Sunken Islands, 24s Easter Island 
I Shall he Satisfied Cupid Playing, 246 No Man's Land 
Itasca Chian Hath Bought Himself a Master Longest 
Siege India Rubber for Erasing Arkansas Toad-Stone, 
247 Majesty Cheesequake, or Chesnaquack, Creek GOOT 
her Natural Bridge?, 248 Ireland's Eye Lakes Formed > 
Devil's Land Lakes Drained Shrewsbury, 249 Birds of 
Killingworth Creek Cockles of the Heart Last Island 
Chewing Gum Sense of Preexistence Plum for Berry, 250 
Crowned A Parallel Passages Camels in the United 
States Wind Propulsion of Wheelbarrows Maroons God 
Save the King Oxen in Battle, 251 Deserted Village 
Pipe in Literature Felibre Anagrams Blood-Corpuscles 
Lofty Towns, 252. 



When Alessandro di Spina of Florence 
invented spectacles he could never have 
anticipated that they would be used as marks 
of social position and intellectual superiority 
by some of the most civilized nations of the 
earth. Yet, strange as it may appear, they 
have been put to this extravagant use. 

In Spain, during the seventeenth century, 
the wearing of spectacles by both sexes was 
a mark of social eminence. Although they 
were not necessary, many kept them on 
while eating or attending public functions, 
such as theatres, concerts, and bull fights, 
so that the wearers might command respect 
from those of the lower orders with whom 
they might be compelled to come in con- 
tact. A story is told of a young monk 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 20, 1890. 

who, having accomplished some difficult 
task, was promised by the prior any favor 
which it was in his power to grant. He 
gravely replied that he had long yearned to 
be permitted to wear spectacles. This re- 
quest evidently gratified his superior, who, 
with an air of satisfied pride, said to the 
young monk, ' ' Hermano, ponga las cjalas ' ' 
("Brother put on spectacles "). The con- 
cession filled the recipient with such joy 
that he forthwith fell on his knees t and, 
"kissing the hand of the prior, earnestly 
expressed his gratitude for so great an honor. 
There is another story which shows how 
highly the right to wear these ornaments 
was esteemed. It is said that when the 
Viceroy of Naples, the Marquis d'Astorgas, 
was having his bust sculptured in marble, 
he was most careful to have his best and 
largest spectacles put in, as he thought it 
could not be a good likeness if these neces- 
sary appendages of nobility were omitted. 

In this century, the size of the spectacles 
was also a matter of important consideration 
just as carriages and men-servants are nowa- 
days. As a man's fortune increased, so did 
the size of his spectacles. And the Countess 
d'Aulnoy assures us that as men rose in 
political and social rank, the spectacles, too, 
rose higher and higher on their noses. She 
also states from personal observation that 
some of those worn by the grandees were as 
large as her head, and that for this reason 
these great personages obtained the sobri- 
quet of ocales. These glasses were for the 
most part made in Venice until the Vene- 
tians, out of revenge, played a trick on the 
Spaniards. The Marqais de Cueva with 
two other nobles had undertaken to set the 
arsenal of Venice on fire by means of burn- 
ing glasses, and thus render up the city to 
the King of Spain. To be revenged for this 
attempt on their city, the Venetians caused 
a large number of these huge spectacles or 
ocales to be made of burning glass, and had 
them set in frames of an explosive material, 
so that when the sun's rays beat upon them, 
they would heat to explosion, and thus blind 
their wearers. It is said that the explosion 
actually occurred, but with no more 
disastrous consequence than the burning of 
the eyebrows, eyelashes and hair of the 
wearers, a circumstance which made the 

Spaniards very irate with the Venetians, 
causing them to withdraw their custom for 
ocales from them forever. 

It would seem that the English caught 
this quaint and ridiculous custom from 
Spain, but, not to appear slavishly imita- 
tive, they adopted the eyeglass, that vain 
decoration of a man's face which Coleridge 
described as "a piece of glass stuck in a 
fop's eye to show that he was a coxcomb." 
How many men wear this curious ornament 
for affectation, it were useless to speculate ; 
but it is known that in the greatest majority 
of cases it is worn to give the wearer a 
supercilious air which he in his inordinate 
vanity mistakes for a dignified one, and 
without which he would be unnoticeable 
among the thousands of commonplace be- 
ings with whom we daily come in contact. 
For a time this single piece of glass was 
much in vogue, but it has by degrees given 
place to the more refined and less dangerous 
to the eye-sight ornament the pince-nez. 
This is the eye gear which is most affected 
by actors, or men who wish to attract atten- 
tion to their puny individuality. 

In Germany, the habit of wearing specta : 
cles first began in affectation, consequent, it 
may reasonably be presumed, on the inter- 
course which existed between that country and 
Spain under Charles V. By degrees this af- 
fectation, following the theory of natural 
evolution, became a necessity, and now it is 
almost an obligatory badge of scholarship 
among all those who aspire to the distinc- 
tion of being considered a savant in Ger- 
many. Mark Twain wittily observes that 
if he had the monopoly of the sale of spec- 
tacles in that country he would be mone- 
tarily rendered happy, inasmuch as the 
revenue he would derive from it would sup- 
ply all his wants. 

In former days the rims of spectacles were 
made of bone and tortoise-shell, but this 
clumsy framework has given place to gold, 
nickel and steel, so that a pair of spectacles 
can now be had which weighs less than half 
an ounce. Still, the tortoise-shell frame, 
with long handles of the same substance, is 
most in fashion for "ladies' glasses," for 
with them insolent gazers may be the more 
easily "snubbed," and unpleasant acquaint- 
ances, by an ostentatious appearance of 

September 20, 1890.] AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. 

near-sightedness, be conveniently "cut." It 
is a strange fact that those who have real 
need of spectacles are slowest to wear them, 
though by their timely use a waning eye- 
sight may be preserved or restored, and a 
pleasant old age secured to him who other- 
wise would have a gloomy one. 



St. John's wort is locally called Devilfuge. 
Devil- in- a bush is the common name of 
several species of Nigella, and for other 
plants. A kind of butter-cup is called 
Devil-on-boih-sides. Various ferns are 
named Devil's brush. Yarrow is the Devil's 
nettle. Devil's horn and Devil's stinkpot 
are names of that disagreeable European 
plant, the Phallor impudicus. Spurge is 
called Devil's milk, and Devil's churn-staff. 
Clematis is the Devif s band; also the 
Devil's cut and Devil's thread. Horn- 
poppy is the Devil's fig. The Datura 
bears the names of Devil's apple and Devil's 
eye. Devifs riband is the small toad-flax. 
Mandrake is the Devil's food. Scabious is 
called Devil" 's bit snapdragon is known as 
Devil's beard. A variety of fig-tree is a 
Devil's tree; deadly nightshade is Devil's 
berry. Indigo is DeviF s dye ; a soft fungus, 
Exidia glandulosa, is the Devil's butler ; an 
envenomed tropical nettle is called Devil's 
leaf; ground-ivy in England is known as 
Devil's candlesticks ; Devil's claw is a kind 
of moss. Parsley is locally yclept Devil's 
oatmeal, or Devil's coach-wheel. One 
species of butter-cup is the Devil's curry- 
comb. Stitch-wort is Devil's corn ; the 
red campion is known as Devil's flower. 
Birdweed is Devil's garters. One kind of 
orchis is Satan's hand. Lotus cornicu- 
latus is Devil's fingers and Devil's claws. 
An English arum is Devil's men-and-women, 
also known as Devil's lords-and-ladies. 
The common ox-eye is the Devil's daisy; 
wild garlic, the Devil's posy. Devil's 
darning needle and Devil's guts are names 
given to several plants, such as the dodder 
and the birdweed. Devil's needle and 
Devil's play-thing are names of nettles. 
Assafoetida is Devil's dung. Aconite is 

sometimes called Devil's wort. The com- 
mon plantain is Devil's head. Devil's 
cherry, Devil's meal, Devil's night-cap and 
Devil's mustard are also on record as plant 
names. In Germany there are Devil's oaks. 
The Tritoma or poker-plant is called Devil's 
poker. In America the common marteno 
is called Devil's claw; Chamalirium luteum 
is called Devil's bit ; and the Aralia spinosa 
is known as the Devil's walking stick; the 
southern wild-olive is Devil wood. Devil's 
cotton is an East Indian tree, and its fibre. 
Devil's apron is a kind of sea-weed, Devil's 
club, in the far West, is a prickly plant, 
Fatsia horrida. The plant wake-robin is 
called Devil's ear. The Alstonia scolaris 
is called Devil-tree in many places. 

S. S. 


The Hindus reckon at least four castes 
among Asiatic elephants, which differ much 
in appearance, temper and intelligence. 
These would seem to be wild or natural 
breeds, rather than real castes. Apart from 
these breeds, the elephants of Ceylon and 
Sumatra are grouped by some as a separate 
subspecies. Indo-China has some hairy 
dwarf elephants. The Bornean elephant is 
said to be of the same stock, or race, with 
the Hindu elephant proper. Quite distinct 
from all these are the African elephants, 
which have very important structural differ- 
ences from all the Asiatic breeds. 

E. B. S. 


The ancients strewed lilies, violets, parsley, 
roses and purple flowers on graves. In later 
times mallows, rosemary, yew, laurel and 
ivy were either carried in funeral pro- 
cessions, or cast upon graves. Wormwood 
and tansy were put in coffins, either from 
some fancied preservative effect, or as sym- 
bols of immortality. Daisies, endives and 
hyacinths were carried to funerals; anciently 
myrtle and amaranth, and, in later days, im- 
mortelles were used at funerals. The yew 
tree and cypress were planted in church- 
yards. The asphodel was sacred to the 
dead. In our times the calla or richardia 


AMERICAN NOTES AND QUERIES. [September 20, 1890. 

the smilax (wrongly so called) and the 
tuberose are favorite funeral plants. For- 
merly, the pink, polyanthus, sweet-william, 
gilliflower, sage, carnation, mignonette, 
Hysop, rosemary, camomile, and other 
fragrant flowers were planted on graves; 
later the periwinkle was a favorite, as at 
present. This list is by no means an ex- 
haustive one. W. J. LACK. 



Queen Matilda, wife of Henry I, founded 
in *ii 1 7 the hospital of St. Giles in the 
Fields, for the reception of forty lepers, giv- 
ing sixty shillings a year for each leper. 
The hospital was dedicated to St. yEgidius, 
alias St. Giles of the Lepers. This hospital 
was kept up till the reign of Henry VIII, 
and appears to have been well patronized ; 
but at the dissolution of the monasteries it 
seems to have been confiscated. Some 
leper-houses were dedicated to St. George, 
others to St. Lazarus (probably with a 
reference to his sores, which the dogs 
licked). At one time there were at least 
ninety-five leper-houses in England. Lep- 
rosy is known at present in nearly all 
Asiatic, African, and South American coun- 
tries, in Polynesia, Crete, West Indies, Ice- 
land, Norway and Portugal. There is a 
small leper community at Tracadie in 
New Brunswick. Cases are rather common 
along the Bayou des Lepreux in Louisiana, 
and the disease is said to exist en- 
demically in some districts of South Caro- 
lina and Florida. It appears certain that 
leprosy, which at one timeseemedalmost a for- 
gotten disease, is now far more widely preva- 
lent than was lately supposed. 

Qui TAM. 

u a 

s . 

African Alpha bet. Please help me recall 
the name of the wild African tribe which in- 
vented for itself an alphabet ? 



You probably refer to the Veys, or Vei, a 
tribe of Liberia. According to Prof. 

Keane, in Johnston's "Africa," p. 522, 
this alphabet (which, however, is only a 
syllabary) is no longer in use, having been 
superseded by the Roman letters. The lan- 
guage itself is said to be a beautiful one, but 
with no known affinities to any other 
African tongue. On the contrary, it has a 
polysynthetic tendency, such as is common 
among the native languages of America. 
We may add that one recent account affirms 
that the Vei syllabary is not yet extinct, and 
further, that while Keane, at the above 
reference, states that the language has not 
any apparent African affinities, he assigns 
the Veys, later in the same work, to the 
Mandi, or Mende stock. 

Leaving His Country for His Country's 
Good. Who originated this expression ? 


In the lines on Sir Francis Drake, written 
by Charles Fitzgeffrey, circa 1596, we find 
the words, " Leaving his country for his 
country's sake." 

'. iMr e-; 

Cina. This is a very common word, the 
name of a homoeopathic medicine. What 
does it mean ? It is not in any of the new 
dictionaries that I have access to. 

M. E. L. 


Cina is the Artemisia santonica, or 
European wormseed plant, or the seed itself. 
The word is found in German and Italian 
books on medical subjects. The origin of 
the name we are not able to. state. 


Calf of Man (Vol. v, p. 221). Calf is 
said, in Cassell's " Cyclopedic Dictionary," 
to be a common name for the smaller of