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AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume IX Number 1 September 1970 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Barzun, Jacques; & Graff, Henry F. The 
Modern Researcher. Rev. Edn. 430pp. 
N.Y.: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1970. 
$8.50 

Beardsley, Monroe C. The Possibility of 
Criticism. [Aesthetics of literary crit 
icism]. 123pp. Detroit: Wayne State 
University Press, 1970. $5.95 

Blum, Shirley Neilsen. Early Netherland 
ish Triptychs: a Study in Patronage. 
(California Studies in the History of 
Art, XIII). Color Pktes and Other 
Illus. 176pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1970. $30. 

Burnette, O. Lawrence, jr. Beneath the 
Footnote: a Guide to the Use and 
Preservation of American Historical 
Sources. 450pp. Madison: State His 
torical Society of Wisconsin, 1969. $10. 

Carter, John. Taste & Technique in Book 
Collecting . . . With an Epilogue. 
242pp. London: Private Libraries As 
sociation (41 Cuckoo Hill Road, Pin 
ner, Middlesex, England), 1970. $7.50 

Clouston, W. A. The Book of Noodles: 
Stories of Simpletons; or, Fools and 
Their Follies. (London, 1888). 228pp. 
Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1969. 
$8.50 

De Rosier, Arthur H., jr. The Removal 
of the Choctaw Indians. Illus., incl. 
Maps. 208pp. Knoxville: University of 
Tennessee Press, 1970. $7.50 

Featherstonhaugh, George W. A Canoe 
Voyage Up the Minnay Sotor . . . 
(London, 1847). Introd. by William 
E. Lass. (Publications of the Min 
nesota Historical Society). Illus. 2 vols. 
St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 
1970. $20. 



Field, Claud. A Dictionary of Oriental 
Quotations (Arabic and Persian-). 
(London, 1911). 35lpp. Detroit: Gale 
Research Co., 1969. $13.50 

Flink, James J. America Adopts the Au 
tomobile, 1895-1910. Illus. 343pp. 
Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 
1970. $12.50 

Garcilaso de la Vega, Concordancias de 
las Obras Poeticas en Castettano de. 
Recopiladas por Edward Sarmiento, 
en la Edicion de Elias L. Rivers. 
583pp. Columbus: Ohio State Uni 
versity Press, 1970. $12.50 

Geronimo: His Own Story. Ed. by S. M. 
Barrett. Newly Ed., with an Introd. 
and Notes by Frederick W. Turner 
in. Illus. 192pp. N.Y.: E. P. Dutton 
& Co., 1970. $6.95 

Haskin, Frederic J. 10,000 Answers to 
Questions [Classified; not indexed], 
(NT., 1937). 502pp. Detroit: Gale 
Research Co., 1970. $17.50 

Haynes, John Edward. Pseudonyms of 
Authors; Including Anonyms and Ini- 
tialisms. (N.Y., 1882). 112pp. Detroit: 
Gale Research Co., 1969. $6.50 

Henderson, Andrew, comp. Scottish 
Proverbs. New Edition ... by James 
Donald. (Glasgow, 1881). xxiii, 202pp. 
Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1969. 
$12.50 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Our Old Home: 
a Series of English Sketches. (Ohio 
State University Center for Textual 
Studies publication: The Centenary 
Edition of the Works ... Vol. V). 
cxv, 496pp. Columbus: Ohio State 
University Press, 1970. $12.50 

(Continued on p. 16) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including flrmnal index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies 75#. Printed in the U.S.A. by 
United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. Second-class postage 
paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies; indexed in Book Review Index; included in The Years Work in 
English St&dtes, and Annual Bibliography of English Language and 
Literatur^ MHRA, Appropriate items included in the Annual ML A Inter 
nationa 7 Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Victorian Bibliography* , etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

JAMES THOMSON: AN 
UNNOTICED CONTRIBUTION 

THE AUTHOR of The Seasons is not 
generally regarded as an epigram 
matist, and his active participation 
in the Grub-Street Journal has not 
hitherto been suspected. However, 
there is explicit evidence in the 
Journal itself to link Thomson with 
at least one of a pair of lampoons 
in an early number. 

The issue in question is that for 
28 May 1730. The editors in their 
capacity of scribes of the Grubean 
Society have recorded the latest 
doings of the "Theobaldians", and 
reprinted from the Daily Journal 
an epigram on Pope. Turning, with 
a deadpan show of impartiality, 
to the other side, the Journal pro 
ceeds: "The POPEIANS have sent us 
the two following Epigrams". On 
account of their brevity, and not of 
any high merit, these are repro 
duced here. The text is that of the 
later anthology, Memoirs of the 
Society of Grub-Street (1737). 1 



So some stale, swoln-out dame, you 

sometimes find 
At last delivered: but of what? Of wind. 

On the same. 

To prove himself no plagiary, M E 

Has writ such stuff, as none e*er writ 

before. 
Thy prudence, MOOBE, is like that Irish 

wit, 

Who shew d his breech, to prove twas 
not besh A[J 

The object of attack is of course 
James Moore-Smythe (1702-1734), 
a full member of the Dunces* dub 
and a frequent butt of the Journal. 2 
The immediate cause of this harsh 
treatment was doubtless Moore- 
Smythe s share in One Epistle to 
Mr A. Pope, which had appeared 
earlier in the month. 3 The Epistle 
had been ironically commended in 
the previous issue of the Journal 
as "truly Grub-street". Its author 
ship is generally allotted jointly to 
Moore-Smythe and Leonard Wel- 
sted; but as far as the Journal goes 
it is the former who bears the main 
weight of retaliation. 4 

The symbol "A" at the end was 
one added in the reprinted Mem 
oirs to indicate responsibility for 
a particular section. ( But not neces 
sarily authorship, in the strict 
sense.) According to the preface 
to this volume, **A" indicates that 
the provenance is Pope himself or 
Tiis particular friends". The second 
epigram has indeed been admitted 
to file canon by the Twickenham 
editors as an authentic work by 
Pope. Their view was that most, 
but not all, of the items marked 
"A** were by Pope himself. Internal 
evidence is adduced to suggest 
that he was the author of the sec 
ond epigram which had, inci 



dentally, appeared once before in 
On J. M. S.Gent, by Mr _. mt SQme months earlier .5 

M E goes two years, and then alas ^ . ., -, r . , r i 

produces ^" e methods of the Journal were 

Some noisy, pert, dull, flatulent abuses, largely negative or at any rate 

, 772952 NOV 

KANSAS CITY (MO) PU-LJC LIBRARY 



AN&Q 



devious, insofar as it was the poli 
cy to allow the Grubeans largely 
to condemn themselves out of their 
own mouths. Relatively few straight 
attacks were made, and these were 
nearly all directed against Pope s 
particular knot of adversaries. The 
first epigram has been left in neg 
lect as a side-blow delivered by 
some anonymous scribbler on the 
fringe of the Pope circle. 6 There 
are several reasons for thinking 
that the author was in fact that 
more substantial figure, James 
Thomson: 

(1) Pope was certainly acquaint 
ed with Thomson by 1730. 7 One 
might not readily have placed the 
younger man among Pope s "par 
ticular friends" at this stage. But, 
even if the years of the Patriots 
were yet to come, it should be re 
called that Thomson s circle over 
lapped with Pope s at several 
points: Mallet, Savage, Lyttelton, 
Aaron Hill and others might be 
mentioned. 

(2) Thomson was still in the 
country at the critical time. He 
left for his continental tour in 
November 1730, and did not re 
turn till early in 1733. 8 Samuel 
Johnson, incidentally, stated that 
Pope addressed a verse epistle to 
Thomson whilst the latter was 
abroad. 9 The author of The Seasons 
was at the height of his new fame, 
just prior to his departure, and 
would be a valuable adjunct to 
the TPopian" corps of writers. 

(3) As suggested at the outset, 
there is little to suggest that the 
epigram was a congenial form to 
Thomson. But it would be wrong 
to think that his temperament 
would debar him from satiric 
squibs, or that he would be averse 
to manhandling a Dunce. His let 



ters, splendidly edited as they 
have been by Professor McKillop, 
show a marked interest in the 
Dunciad not just the technique, 
but also the subject matter of that 
poem. He compiled a list of in 
ferior hacks which manifestly de 
rives from Pope s roster of iniquity. 
In addition, his correspondence in 
cludes several malicious thrusts at 
writers whose stature ranged from 
that of Edward Young to that of 
Joseph Mitchell. 10 He was in ef 
fect a committed Popian as early 
as 1730. 

(4) The abbreviated form 
"Th-n w could hardly be interpreted 
in any other way by an alert con 
temporary. Even if one did not 
know of any link with the Pope 
circle, one would be hard pushed 
to find a living poet of remotely 
comparable standing whose name 
could be bent to fit the appropriate 
space. Moreover, there was a par 
ticular reason why the Journal 
would have been cautious lest it 
gave accidental offence to Thom 
son. The circumstance is explained 
in this passage from J. T. Hill- 
house s study of the Journal: 

In an ironic essay in number 5 on 
"Miltonic"" verse the charm of anticlimax 
is illustrated by a passage from Thom 
son s Winter. The citation of Thomson to 
appear in the company of the Dunces, 
and in close proximity with that notable 
member of the group, James Ralph, who 
also furnishes an example of anticlimax 
. . . , is indeed remarkable, and one is pre 
pared for retraction. In number 7, Bavius, 
having noted that some readers have 
thought Thomson a member of the society 
of Grubstreet because he was quoted in 
number 5, declares that he is not. The 
passage quoted is the only one in the 
poem worthy of the [Grub Street] So 
ciety. . . . The greater part of the poem 
is Parnassian When the essay was 



September 1970 



reprinted in The Memoirs of Grub-street, 
the allusion to Thomson and the quota 
tion from Winter were omitted, and the 
passage from Ralph stands alone to repre 
sent anticlimax. 

Later in the run of the Journal, 
it might be added, Thomson is 
spoken of as "probably a profest 
enemy of our Society"; and as "that 
strenuous Antigrubean the author 
of Sophonisba: whom I have han 
dled in such a manner, that on that 
account I was afraid for some time 
to own myself the writer, least 
some surly North Briton should 
have made my b h suffer for 
what my fingers had performed". 12 
This is a handsome enough retrac 
tion. After their early mistake, the 
editors of the Journal were careful 
to allot Thomson the Parnassian 
role which his talents, and his 
friendship with Pope, demanded. 
The epigram has not been in 
cluded in any collection of Thom 
son s works to date. It should, I 
believe, be admitted in future, 
perhaps in a section devoted to 
doubtful and suppositions works. If 
he did not write the lampoon on 
Moore-Smythe, it is a mystery 
why the Journal should have gone 
out of its way to imply that he did 
for that is what the attribution 
to "Mr TH N" amounts to. 13 



Pat Rogers 



Sidney Sussex College 
Cambridge, England 



1. Grub-street Journal, no. 21, Burney 
Collection, British Museum: Mem 
oirs (1737), 1.107-108. The editor 
ship of the Journal at this time was 
divided between Richard Russel and 
John Martyn. See the standard work 
by J. T. Hillhouse, The Grub-Street 
Journal (Durham, N.C., 1928), pp. 
39-46. Hereafter "Journal" refers to 



the original issue and "Hillhouse" 
to the study of the newspaper. 

2. On Moore-Smythe, see Hillhouse, 
pp. 57-64: as well as the "Biograph 
ical Appendix" [s.v. Smythe] to 
James Sutherland s edition of The 
Dunciad (London, 3rd ed., 1963), 
p. 455. 

3. Journal, no. 20 (21 May 1730): 
Memoirs, 1.94. Hillhouse, p. 64. 

4. Memoirs, Lxxix. 

5. Pope, Minor Poems, ed. N. Ault, J. 
Butt (London, 1964), pp. 324-329. 
Cf. Hillhouse, pp. 33-34n. The sec 
ond epigram is printed by Ault and 
Butt, p. 325, in a slightly different 
form from that quoted here. The 
evidence linking such a short poem 
with Pope is inevitably far from 
conclusive. Equally, it would he 
impossible to assert definitively 
that Thomson was the author; but 
I do not believe that this is very 
unlikely. It was common editorial 
practice of the age to print succes 
sive items in this fashion, without 
repetition of the author s name, but 
with a more or less tacit understand 
ing that the same writer was in 
volved. 

6. Neither Hillhouse, p. 60, nor the 
Twickenham editors, p. 329, at 
tempt to identify "Mr Th n". 

7. See for instance the reference in 
Pope s letter to Mallet of 29 De 
cember: The Correspondence of 
Alexander Pope, ed. G. Sherburn 
(Oxford, 1956), IH.158. 

8. Information on Thomson s move 
ments from Douglas Grant, James 
Thomson: Poet of the Seasons (Lon 
don, 1951), p. 117: A. D. McKollop 
(ed.), James Thomson (1700-1748): 
Letters and Documents (Lawrence, 
Kansas, 1958), p. 77ff. 

9. See Sherburn (ed.), IIL226n, for 
a suggestion that Pope may even re 
fer in a letter of 1731 to "a particular 
Friend", i.e. Thomson. The state 
ment by Johnson occurs in the life 
of Thomson: see The Lives of the 
Poets, ed. G. B. Hill (Oxford, 1905), 
EL291. 

10. McKiUop (ed.), pp. 76-77 and pas 
sim. 

(Notes continued overleaf) 



AN&Q 



MOBY-DICK: SCRIPTURAL 
SOURCE OF "BLACKNESS 
OF DARKNESS" 

IN MELVILLE S Moby-Dick, Chap 
ter II, "The Carpet-Bag", Ishmael 
wanders into a negro church in 
which a "black Angel of Doom" is 
preaching. The "preacher s text", 
says Ishmael, "was about the black 
ness of darkness, and the weeping 
and wailing and teeth-gnashing 
there". In his edition of Moby-Dick 
(Indianapolis, 1964), Charles Fied- 
elson, jr, glosses this passage and 
identifies the source for the "preach 
er s text" as Matthew: * [They] . . . 
shall be cast out into outer dark 
ness: there shall be weeping and 
gnashing of teeth . Matthew 8:12. 
The phrase ^blackness of darkness 
is not scriptural, but appears in 
Carlyle s Sartor Resartus, Book II, 
Chapter 4". 

It might be argued, however, 
that Jonathan Edwards rather than 
Carlyle should be used as a logical 
source for the tone and idea of this 
particular passage. In "Future Pun 
ishment of the Wicked", for exam 



ple, Edwards states of the souls 
lost in the "gloom of helT, "We 
read in Scripture of the blackness 
of darkness; this is it, this is the 
very thing . Edwards then proceeds 
to invoke the "great leviathans" 
whose awesome power will be an 
nihilated by the power of their 
still more awesome Creator. More 
specifically, the single chapter that 
comprises the Epistle of Jude, es 
pecially verses 10-13, is the New 
Testament source for the "preach 
er s text" on the "blackness of dark 
ness" in Moby-Dick. In verse 13, 
those who Tiave gone in the way 
of Cain" (verse 10) are described 
as "Raging waves of the sea" and 
"wandering stars, to whom is re 
served the blackness of darkness 
for ever" (Authorized Version). 
The Scriptural source, context and 
images echoed in Melville s Slack 
ness of darkness" possess a clear 
significance for our understanding 
of the coherence of Chapter II and 
the total coherence of Moby-Dick. 

Thomas Werge 
University of Notre Dame 



11. Hillhouse, pp. 27-28. 

12. Journal, no. 12 (26 March 1730), 
and no. 70 (6 May 1731): Memoirs, 
H.36: cf. HiBhouse, pp. 207-208. 
The ostensible speaker in the sec 
ond extract is John Hoadly, authoi 
of The Contrast. 

13. It is interesting to note that a pseu 
donym commonly employed in the 
Journal is that of "J. T." Hillhouse, 
p. 298, identifies J. T. with the 
principal editor, Russel. On balance 
this suggestion must be accepted, 
though it might be noted that J. T. s 
field of expertise is literary (e.g. 
Milton), and that Thomson s friend 
Savage was contributing to the Jour 
nal at the same time, as R, S. 



DONNE S HOLY SONNET 
V, LINES 13-14. 

"But oh it must be burnt; alas the fire 
Of lust and envie have burnt it 

heretofore, 
And made it fouler; Let their flames 

retire, 
And bume me o Lord, with a fiery 

zeale 
Of thee and thy house, which doth in 

eating heale." 

HELEN GARDNER S NOTE on 1. 13 
(John Donne: The Divine Poems, 



September 1970 



Oxford, 1952, p. 76) cites Psalm 
box, 9, "The zeal of thine house 
hath eaten me up", and continues: 
"The fires of lust and envy, unlike 
earthly fires, have not purged, but 
made him fouler . The fire he 
prays for, unlike the fire which 
will destroy the world, will in 
eating heale ". 

The striking paradox of the son 
net s last three words would have 
been strengthened, for the contem 
porary reader, by the scriptural 
associations of the image of fire 
eating through human flesh. In 
James v, 3 (Geneva version) rich 
men are warned: "Your gold and 
silver is cankred, and the rust of 
them shal be a witnesse against 
you, and shall eate your flesh, as it 
were fire. Ye have heaped up 
treasure for the last dayes". The 
angel in Revelation also warns 
about the "eating fires" to come, 
when he prophesies that the ten 
horns of the beast "shall hate the 
whore, and shall make her desolate, 
and naked, and shall eate her flesh, 
and burne her with fire" (xvii, 16). 
The vices of greed and lust will, at 
the last day, be punished by fire 
eating the flesh of those who have 
indulged in them; but the fire of 
zeal, by driving out and consuming 
the desires of the flesh in this 
world, will "heal" the sinner and 
prepare him for a glorious resur 
rection. The resolution of the poem 
comes from the union of "fire" 
and "zeal", which are brought to 
gether by both the logical progres 
sion of the sonnet s imagery and the 
nexus of scriptural associations. 



QUERIES 



Largest non-polar glacier What 
is its name, where is it, has it been 

traversed, how old is it? Bitty 

Miller, Sharon, Ct 

George Washington The Uni 
versity of Virginia in collaboration 
with the Mount Vernon Ladies 
Association is collecting and edit 
ing the first comprehensive edition 
of George Washington s papers, 
including letters both to and from 
him as well as diaries and other 
manuscripts. The editor would ap 
preciate hearing from any individu 
al or institution holding such ma 
terial, which we might include in 
this edition estimated to run be 
tween 60 and 75 volumes. Don 
ald Jackson, Alderman Library, 
Charlottesvitte, Va. 22901 

Greyhound dogs I am unable 
to find anything which would indi 
cate when the first Greyhound dogs 
were brought to North America. 
Since I am gathering my facts for 
a book on Greyhounds, I very bad 
ly need this information. Can any 
of your readers help me find very 
early accounts of the Greyhound 
in the United States, prior to 1850? 
Laurel E. Drew., Albuquerque, 
Neiv Mexico 



Hamilton Hall, 
Columbia University 



V. Clement Jenkins Several 

months ago I had advertised in 
various English and American pub 
lications for information about any 
privately held letters to his family 
of General Charles George Gordon 
Paul Delany for my complete, annotated edition. 
A somewhat puzzling correspond 
ent in Boston replied that she had 
known the widow of V. Clement 



AN&Q 



Jenkins, a member of the Yale REPLIES 
school of architecture and a de 
signer of the Avenue of the Amer 
icas. He was a descendant of Gor 
don s brother, and his widow had 
some letters. Yale seems to have 
no knowledge of him. Can anyone 
identify him or locate his family 
for me? M anj H. Raitt, Wash 
ington, D.C. 



**. , . ointment in my little pot of 
flies" Wanted: the text of a 
poem about an author who, when 
young, strove for perfection which 
would not come, so that " the 
one fly in the ointment/ Put me 
in an awful state". But, with age 
and experience, later says, "Now, 
I m glad to find some ointment in 
my little pot of flies". Who wrote 
it and where can I find the text? 
It may have been current in the 
Southwest, around Army posts and 
Indian Territory at the turn of the 
century. Barbara Thrall Rogers, 
Alamogordo, New Mexico 

"Astrakis" or "strakis" an odor 

The Library of Congress cannot 
identify the word and suggests try 
ing AN&Q; A friend and I were 
passing a factory and both smelled 
a disagreeable odor. The friend 
exclaimed, "What an astrakis [per 
haps strakis?] odor". What is the 
word, its origin, and its meaning? 

/. G. Kavanaugh, Roanoke, Va. 



AN&Q always welcomes Notes 
of literary, historical, biblio 
graphical, folk, natural history, 
or antiquarian interest. 



"Tale of a Tub" source (VL22) -^- 
In reply to Karl S. Nagel s Note 
"Source for A Tale of a Tub", I 
would like to suggest another possi 
ble interpretation of the nursery 
rhyme "Rub a dub dub/Three men 
in a tub" in relation to Swift s work. 
Jack would still remain the butch 
er, symbolic of the dissenters of 
Swift s time, who had gone so far 
in the way of reforming the church 
that they had destroyed the origi 
nal concept of Christianity. How 
ever, Peter, representing the Cath 
olic Church, would be considered 
the baker because he tried to con 
vince his brothers to eat only 
bread by saying that bread "is the 
staff of life; in which bread is 
contained, inclusive, the quintes 
sence of beef, mutton, veal, veni 
son, partridge, plum-pudding, and 
custard" (p. 303 of Louis Landa s 
edition of Gullivers Travels and 
Other Writings). This quotation 
refers to the Catholic Church s re 
fusing the Communion "cup to the 
laity, persuading them that the 
blood is contained in the bread, 
and that the bread is the real and 
entire body of Christ" (p. 303, 
footnote 4). Finally, Martin would 
stand for the candlestick maker 
and the Anglican church since 
Swift considered the Anglican 
church to be the true source of 
religion and light. Even though 
die nursery rhyme tells us that they 
were Tcnaves all three", Swift 
would have us believe that Martin, 
and therefore the Anglican church, 
is the best of the three. Mar 
garet Hunkler, Kent State Univer 
sity, Kent, Ohio 



eptember 1970 

In things certain Unity . . .* 
VIL151; r, VIII:76) More 
ban thirty years ago Professor Ro- 
and Bainton of Yale ( Church His- 
ory), correctly identified the au- 
hor of In Essentia Unitas, etc., as 
Peter Meaderlinus (sp?) (d. 1660), a 
German Lutheran. Some years later 
i Dutch Dominican scholar who 
aad attributed the axiom to St 
\ugustine acknowledged that Pro 
fessor Bainton was correct. I am 
cot able to supply the sources at 
this moment. Shan Van Vocht, 
School of Theology, Catholic Uni 
versity of America, Washington, 
D. C. 

"You can believe it!" (VIII: 24) 
The prosodic pattern underlying 
this phrase of reinforcement (or of 
anaphoric rejoinder, in dialogue) 
has long been with us in North 
American English. Basically, the 
phrase consists of a pitch sequence 
high-low or mid-high-low. The 
given word sequence carried by the 
intonational pattern is quite sub 
sidiary to it, and of per se minimal 
semantic content (note the essen 
tial synonymity of "That s for 
surel", "Y6u re not kidding!" "Ain t 
thdt the truth!", "You can say thdt 
again!", "Howdya like thm ap 
ples!", "That ll be the day!", et sim. 
and the essential homonymity 
of the shared pitch sequence). The 
prosodic constant, therefore, can 
scarcely be dated (and the dear 
old OED does not deal in prosody). 
"You can believe it!" (or in its 
more current form, "You d better 
believe it!" which sometimes 
carries an ounce or so of threat) 
may have been triggered by some 
high person in the manner of 
Nixon s "silent majority" or it 
may have started in a bar in Osh- 



kosh. My teenage daughter was 
struck by it this past Fall, which 
suggests that it became progres 
sively current in Canada in some 
thing like 1968, and in the U.S. 
somewhat earlier. ... As for "Whis 
tling Dixie", I pass on that, having 
never heard it. B. Hunter 
Smeaton, University of Calgary., 
Canada 

Prostitution the oldest profession 
(VIII: 88-89) Kipling in his 
story "On the City Wall" in his 
collection of short stories, In Black 
and White, says the following: 
"Lalun is a member of the most 
ancient profession in the world. 
Lilith was her very-great-grand 
mamma, and that was before the 
days of Eve, as every one knows. 
In the West, people say rude things 
about Lalun s profession, and write 
lectures about it, and distribute 
the lectures to young persons in 
order that Morality may be pre 
served. In the East, where the 
profession is hereditary, descend 
ing from mother to daughter, no 
body writes lectures or takes any 
notice; and that is a distinct proof 
of the inability of the East to man 
age its own affairs". Jerome 
Drost, SUNY at Buffalo, NX. 

Prostitution the oldest profession 
(VIII: 88-89) Archer Taylor 
mentions that some allusions speak 
of prostitution as "the second oldest 
profession". He then inquires what 
is the oldest? The answer is agri 
culture. Genesis 2:15: "And the 
Lord God took the man, and put 
him into the garden of Eden to 
dress it and to keep it". George 
O. Marshall, jr., University of Geor 
gia, Athens 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

Rigby Graham, our Leicester (Eng 
land) correspondent, writes: "There 
is to be a large exhibition of Pri 
vate Presses & Private Publishing 
at Watford Public Library, Wat 
ford, Hertfordshire from 14 Sept- 
17 October 1970. The presses rep 
resented are the London Chapel of 
Private Printers, & the Private 
Printers of Leicestershire. The 
work is to be displayed throughout 
the whole of the library exhibition 
areas and I have seen the seventy 
mounted boards of work about 
200 items from Leicester alone. I 
haven t as yet seen the rest. There 
is, I believe, a catalogue to be 
issued by Watford Public Library, 
or certainly available through them, 
and it is this which some of your 
readers may be interested in. When 
it materializes I will naturally send 
you a copy, it is just that I thought 
AA 7 &Q might like advance, rather 
than retrospective notice, for a 
change". 

Black poetry that really pleads 
Dont Cnj, Scream, by Don L. Lee 
(Detroit: Broadside Press, 12651 
Old Mill Place, Zip 48238, 1970; 
$4.50; paper, $1.50), is filled with 
pathos, music, horror, and humor. 
Some of the poems have appeared 
in Black publications and tie New 
York Times (hardly Black!), and 
display as Gwendolyn Brooks 
comments in her introduction 
"healthy, lithe, lusty reaches of free 
verse 3 . An appealing collection that 
will open some eyes, and even some 
minds, which is a particular func 
tion of poetry. As Lee points out 



AN&Q 

". . . suddenly you envy the BLIND 
man you know that he will hear 
what you ll never see". 

Episcopal Year, 1969, is the first 
issue of a new annual devoted to 
activities, happenings, and facts 
about the Protestant Episcopal 
Church and all shades and tints 
of its inclusive spectrum of mod 
ern religion at home and abroad. 
Accurate and readable, this hand 
some volume presents recent infor 
mation about the Church, its re 
ligious, social, administrative, and 
other activities. The attractive for 
mat and excellently selected illus 
trations contrast easily with the 
accustomed dullness of other de 
nominational books (including 
many of those issued by or for the 
Episcopal Church); an excellent 
index adds to the usefulness of the 
book as a reference tool. Edited by 
Philip Deemer, and published by 
the relatively new Jarrow Press, 
Inc., 45 East 89th St., New York, 
N.Y. 10028, the 289-page, double 
columned book is distributed by 
Morehouse-Barlow, 14 East 41st 
St., New York, N.Y. 10017; $6.50. 

A new four-volume edition of the 
Catch Club of London s famous 
Collection of Catches, Canons, & 
Glees, published over a period of 
32 years is being published by 
Mellifont Press and Irish Univer 
sity Press, Inc. (2 Holland Ave., 
White Plains, N.Y. 10603; 4 vols., 
1,776pp., $160). Here are 652 sa 
cred, sentimental, and bawdy songs 
of the Georgian Era, some of them 
by outstanding poets and musicians 
of the times. Certainly one of the 
most important sources of 18th- 
century English music. 



September 1970 



11 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column -is conducted by DT Law 
rence S. Thompson., Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky. 

Dezso Dercsenyi, Historical Mon 
uments in Hungary, Restoration 
and Preservation (Budapest: Cor- 
vina Press, 1969; 98pp., 136 pi), 
deals with the greatest architectural 
tradition of Europe west of Berlin 
and Vienna. There are sections on 
public buildings, ecclesiastical 
buildings, dwelling houses, rural 
and industrial buildings, and stat 
ues and mural paintings. The plates 
in the last part of the book are 
masterful. 

Peter Berglar, Wilhelm von Hum- 
boldt in Selbstzeugnissen und Bild- 
dokumenten (Reinbek bei Ham 
burg: Rowohlt, 1970; 187pp.; 
"Rowohlts Monographien", 161; 
DM2.80), is a richly illustrated 
biography, based on source materi 
al, of one of the major figures in 
science, exploration, and culture 
in the last century. It is a corner 
stone for collections of Latin Amer 
icana. Adam Schaff, Marxismus 
und das menschliche Individuum 
(Rowohlt, 1970; 155pp.; "Rowohlts 
Deutsche Enzyklopadie", 332; 
DM2.80), is a perceptive commen 
tary on the most powerful single 
socio-political innovation of our 
time. 

From B. R. Griiner (Nieuwe Her- 
engracht 31, Amsterdam) there are 
a number of reprints of works 



which have been almost forgotten 
by the new research libraries, yet 
are a part of their sinews if they 
want to serve scholarship. Otto 
Weinreich, Ausgeicdhlte Schriften 
I, 1907-1921 (reprinted, 1969; 607 
pp.: $30.80), makes available the 
basic works of one of the great 
classical scholars of the twentieth 
century. Frederic Hennebert, His- 
toire des traductions jrangaises 
d auteurs grecs et latins, pendant 
le xvi 6 et le xvii e siecles ( reprinted, 
1968; 261 pp.: $15.40), is a classic 
work which inspired the present 
reviewer s similar study of German 
translations of the classics during 
the period of Renaissance and Re 
formation in northern Europe. Jules 
Le Petit, Bibliographie des princi- 
pales editions originates decrivains 
frangais du xv e an xviii e siecle (re 
printed, 1969; 383 pp.: $40.60), is 
a selective and perceptive study 
which could not be easily dupli 
cated in our time. The Catalogue 
chronologique des libraires et des 
libraires-imprimeiirs de Paris, de- 
pitis Tan 1470, jusqud present (re 
printed, 1969; 260 pp.: $32.20) 
provides long-forgotten publishers 
lists, a compilation without which 
the story of French culture of the 
15th-18th centuries would be dif 
ficult to reconstruct. 

G. H. Hardy, Bertrand Russell 
and Trinity (Cambridge, At the 
University Press, 1970; 61 pp.: 
$2.95), is the documentation of dis 
missal of Professor Russell from 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 
1916. Similar events have occurred 
in the United States in the 1960s, 
and the comparisons should be 
studied. 



12 



AN&Q 



BOOK REVIEWS 



FREEDLEY AWARD BOOK 

SHATTUCK, Charles H. The Hamlet of 
Edwin Booth. Illus. xviii, 321 pp. Ur- 
bana, III.: University of Illinois Press, 
1969. $10.95 

Charles H. Shattuck s new book has 
received the 1969 George Freedley Me 
morial Award from the Theatre Library 
Association, and it well deserves the 
honor. Future theatre historians will re 
gard the book as a classic American 
study, one that set new, rigorous stand 
ards of precision and comprehensiveness. 
Those future historians will have diffi 
culty finding a pre-cinema actor whose 
performances are so well-documented as 
Edwin Booth s, 

Mr Shattuck s aim is not biographical; 
rather, he tries to answer the question, 
"What did the actor do upon the stage 
and what did it mean to his beholders?" 
About half the book is given over to a 
"reconstruction" of Booth s Hamlet based 
mainly on an extraordinary account writ 
ten by a twenty-one-year-old commercial 
clerk named Charles W. Clarke. Moved 
deeply when he first saw Booth in the 
role in 1870, Clarke memorized the play, 
studied it, and went to see Booth s per 
formance eight times. In a 60,000-word 
manuscript now preserved in die Folger 
Library, Clarke recorded Booth s Hamlet 
in astonishing detail, using a system of 
underscoring and other marks to indi 
cate vocal stresses, elisions, and inflec 
tions, and describing Booth s gesture, 
movement, and facial expression. The 
descriptions are so compelling that any 
one with an ounce of histrionic impulse 
will find himself acting out the role, 
trying to reproduce Booth s style. 

As Mr Shattuck recognizes, his recon 
struction is "not holiday reading", so he 
supplies a chapter of general description 
of Booth s 1870 production (the "defini 
tive" production), including discussion 
of the costumes and scenery, the acting 
company, and the critics responses. In 
addition, the book has a long introduc 
tion, three chapters about Booth s earlier 
productions of the play, and a chapter 
on "Hamlet in Repertory, 1870-91". The 
text is illustrated with views of Booth s 
Theatre, scene designs for Booth s pro 



ductions, and portraits of the actor. A 
comprehensive list of references would 
have been useful to those interested in 
pursuing Booth in his other roles; un 
fortunately this has been omitted. Docu 
mentation in the footnotes is, however, 
quite full, and the reconstruction of 
Booth s Hamlet is preceded by a chapter 
on the surviving promptbooks and simi 
lar evidence. 

Booth has been the subject of biog 
raphies by his sister, Asia Booth Clarke, 
by Copeland, Hutton, Winter, Goodale, 
Lockridge, Kimmel, and, most recently, 
Eleanor Ruggles (whose Prince of Play 
ers was adapted for a film starring Rich 
ard Burton). Most of them are popular 
treatments of limited interest to die 
scholar, and William Winter s is still in 
many ways the best of them. Mr Shat 
tuck, despite his concentration on Booth s 
performances, has made important new 
contributions to the actor s biography. 
He has read a huge number o letters, 
presumably including the large batches 
recovered a few years ago and acquired 
by The Players and the New York Pub 
lic Library. (One batch was rescued at 
the last minute from the trasn can.) 
Following evidence in the letters and 
elsewhere, Mr Shattuck has for the first 
time laid a proper stress on the parts 
played by Adam Badeau and by Booth s 
first wife, Mary Devlin, in the develop 
ment of his acting style. Booth first met 
Badeau in New York when they were 
both in their twenties, and Badeau, bet 
ter educated than Booth and a man- 
about-town, became the actor s mentor 
and close friend. Badeau later recalled: 
"I used to hunt up books and pictures 
about the stage, the finest criticisms, the 
works that illustrated his scenes, the 
biographies of great actors, and we stud 
ied them together. We visited the Astor 
Library and the Society Library to verify 
costumes, and every picture or picture- 
gallery in New York that was accessible". 
It was probably Badeau who first de 
veloped in Booth a strong taste for the 
picturesque and for historical accuracy 
in scenery and costumes. These ideas 
were in the air, but Badeau s instruction 
helped to clarify and direct the actor s 
thinking. Booth always made up for 
Richelieu with the guidance of an en 
graved portrait of the historical cardinal 
tacked up on his dressing room mirror, 
and he found his Shylock costume in s 



September 1970 



13 



minting by Ger6me, the popular French 
listorical painter. Throughout his career, 
Sooth s gestures and "attitudes" were 
calculated to create pictorial effects (this 
s clear from Clarke s account), and the 
^reductions at Booth s Theatre were fa- 
nous for historical accuracy. 

Mary Devlin Booth s beloved Mollie 
- also influenced his acting. Mr Shattuck 
has brought forth new evidence dem 
onstrating how she encouraged and 
guided him in the style he was develop 
ing. She found in the French philosopher 
Cousin what she believed was the aes 
thetic justification for Booth s style. 

The Hamlet of Edwin Booth contains 
a valuable discussion of the scenery of 
Booth s productions, excelled only by 
Mr Shattuck s own article in the Harvard 
Library Bulletin in 1967. This is an area 
where all the biographies of Booth are 
severely lacking. The second half of the 
19th century was an age of illusionistic, 
historically-correct scenery (the perform 
ances as often belonged to the scene 
painter as to the actor), and careful 
attention to this aspect of Booth s pro 
ductions was overdue. Mr Shattuck s pre 
vious books on Macready s King John 
and his As You Like It have prepared 
him well to put Booth s production ideals 
into their proper context. He stresses 
Booth s debt to Charles Kean, whose 
splendid productions of Shakespeare in 
New York in 1846 were often compared 
to Booth s. 

There is little to quarrel about in this 
book. Mr Shattuck deliberately chose to 
edit Clarke s manuscript, rather than 
reproduce it without alterations. He de 
fends his choice well: Clarke s style is 
sometimes confusing and inept, and "it 
is through the information which Clarke 
gives us, not his style, that we can realize 
Booth s Hamlet". 

In this light, it is easy to understand 
(but difficult to accept) Mr Shattuck s 
ridicule of William Winter s criticism. 
Winter was Booth s close friend and ad 
visor and the editor of his acting editions. 
His style was rather flowery and he was 
often sentimental, but his biography of 
Booth and his newspaper criticism often 
contain useful information, Mr Shattuck 
goes so far as to make fun of Winter 
by setting up one of the critic s over- 
long sentences as a piece of poetry. The 
problem", he explains, "is to find the 



actor under the smoke of words". Even 
if it is granted that little in the way of 
specific details can be gathered from 
Winter s criticism, it must still be re 
membered that ornateness and sentimen- 
talism were characteristic of the age 
and Booth, according to the New York 
Times, was "the representative tragic 
actor of the American stage". Winter s 
literary style is a counterpart to Booth s 
genteel, even feminine acting style. Read 
without prejudice, Winter s criticism can 
help us capture the "feel" of Booth s 
Hamlet and its meaning to his audiences. 

But Winter s criticism demands from 
the modern reader considerable patience, 
plus a land of suspension of disbelief, 
and the book gets along well enough 
without him. Still, one is curious to 
know if Winter might have influenced 
Booth as much as Badeau or Mollie 
Devlin did. A selection of Booth s letters 
to Winter, edited by Daniel J. Water- 
meier, is to be published by Princeton 
University Press in the fall of 1970; it 
will perhaps answer the question. 

An extended scholarly study of Booth s 
acting has long been needed, and now 
we have it. Some of it may not be 
"holiday reading", but where Booth is 
concerned we have already had enough 
of that. It is to be hoped that Mr Shat 
tuck s excellent book will stimulate thea 
tre historians to re-examine the lives and 
performances of the other great actors of 
the 19th-century American stage. They 
will be hard pressed to produce studies 
as probing, as well researched, and as 
gracefully written as this one. Rich 
ard Stoddard, Yale University, 



SPARROW, John. Visible Words: a 
Study of Inscriptions In and As Books 
and Works of Art. xvi, 152pp. Cam 
bridge: At the University Press, 1969. 
$22.50. 

The Cambridge University Press, 
though it is a university press, is much 
older than most publishing houses associ 
ated with higher education, at least in 
America (it has an American branch in 
New York), and sometimes has the ap 
pearance of a commercial press. Its im- 



14 



AN&Q 



print is often found on beautifully de 
signed and produced volumes, such as 
D. F. McKenzie s The Cambridge Uni 
versity Press 1696-1712: a Bibliographical 
Study (1966), which are expensive ($55 
for the two volumes) and whose appeal 
is limited. Carefully and authoritatively 
written, immaculately edited, they rep 
resent the highest standards of scholarship 
and learning. Another such publication is 
John Sparrow s Visible Words, the San- 
dars Lecture in Bibliography given at 
Cambridge in 1964. 

This lectureship has seen such previ 
ous performances as J. B. Oldham s 
English Blind-Stamped Bindings (1949), 
H. S. Bennett s English Books and Read 
ers (1951), Fredson Bowers Textual and 
Literary Criticism (1957), A. Hyatt 
King s Some British Collectors of Music 
c. 1600-1960 (1961), and F. J. Norton s 
Printing in Spain 1501-1520 (1963). AD, 
of course, were issued by the Cambridge 
University Press; and Professor Bowers 
lecture was at least popular enough 
though that s not the best word to de 
scribe it to also appear as a paperback. 
To accommodate many of the 62 plates 
in Mr Sparrow s history of the inscrip 
tion, the designer of the book for the 
Press has employed a large format, 11 
by 7& inches. This makes it possible to 
read the tiny writing though it is 
often in Latin in the paintings and on 
the monuments used as illustrations in 
the book. Indeed, viewers in museums 
often hardly know there is writing on 
some paintings; for, unless one is study 
ing a work of art and closely observing 
all of the minute details, one is una 
ware of the calligraphy at all. Yet, to the 
artists, this was naturally of some im 
portance, and it is just as necessary to 
Mr Sparrow s discourse. 

Sparrow s definition, in Visual Words 
(p. 5), tells us what he is going to be 
concerned with, and at the same time one 
gets a glimpse at his own style of com 
position: * A literary inscription, then, 
is a text composed with a view to its 
being presented in lines of different 
lengths, the lineation contributing to or 
enhancing its meaning, so that someone 
who does not see it, actually or in its 
mind s eye, but only hears it read aloud 
misses something of the intended effect". 



And he goes on to say, "Such inscriptions 
are examples of a literary form that differs 
both from verse and from prose as it 
is ordinarily composed and presented". 
In these days of hurried journalism, it is 
always a pleasure to see material pre 
sented with such grace and manner, 
regardless of the subject. 

It matters not a whit to Mr Sparrow 
and to the Cambridge Syndics, I am 
sure that many of those who heard 
the Sandars Lectures, which were ex 
panded for publication, or have read, 
or will read, the book, do not read and 
understand Latin, Italian, and French 
in the inscriptions and sources. Trans 
lations would have been out of place, 
and the explanations, if any, are brief; 
yet without getting the full appreciation 
of the epigraphist s art, one can still 
follow Mr Sparrow s "strange and un 
recorded episode in literary history". 
However, it is not, as he says, quite so 
narrow or so trivial as it may appear; and 
he shows how a taste for the inscription 
spread over Europe in the 17th century, 
and how whole books took the form of 
extended inscriptions or a series of them. 
Finally, he shows how far the eye plays 
a part in literary appreciation. 

Though such verses as George Her 
bert s "Easter Wings" (1633), and Lewis 
Carroll s Mouse s Tale in Alice in Won 
derland (1865), have something in com 
mon with inscriptions, the visual form 
here (wings and the tail) does not con 
tribute to the meaning of the text but 
merely illustrates it. His definition set 
tled, Mr Sparrow traces the history of 
classical inscriptions, in Greece and 
Rome: the earliest on bronze or stone, 
laws, treaties, then epitaphs by Greek 
epigraphists, and later the Romans. But 
neither of them regarded the inscription 
as a literary form, nor were they so re 
garded in the middle ages. It was in 
the 15th century that the classical in 
scription was reborn in Italy and be 
gan to acquire a new beauty, as is shown 
in this study and the illustrations. This 
visual presentation of words was re 
kindled in scholars and writers, verse 
however being supplanted by prose, and 
was carried on by architects, painters, 
sculptors, and monument designers. Im 
portant names in this period are Uccello, 



zptember 1970 

ernardo Rossellino, and Fontano, by his 
^counts of whom the author of Visible 
fords shows the breadth and depth of 
is learning. 

In the 16th century collections of clas- 
[cal inscriptions began to be made in 
<x>ks, followed by collections of con- 
smporary inscriptions, in Italy, Germany, 
lolland, and England (Camden in 1600, 
jid John Weever, Ancient Funerall Mon- 
iments, 1631, for example). By this time 
jpigraphy was an art and a science of its 
>wn, and we had a new field for both 
lie stonecutter and the literary artist. 

Mr Sparrow s second chapter, consider 
ably expanded from his lecture, deals 
wdth the inscription in architecture, paint 
ing, and monumental art; and 25 of his 
62 pages are illustrative examples. He 
became fascinated with the subject, he 
says, which has not been fully appreci 
ated by art historians; though it does get 
away from bibliography it is nonetheless 
a subject that readers will not regret his 
"straying" into, nor need he worry about 
his being considered an "intruder" into 
art-historical criticism. Among the many 
artists, all in bkck and white, are Lotto, 
Moretto, Poussin, and Hogarth, all of 
their illustrative painting containing in 
scriptions one would easily have over 
looked, as I mentioned above. Here, as 
well as in art on monuments, the prob 
lem which Mr Sparrow discusses is how 
to unite the text with its setting: the 
inscription should not be unduly promi 
nent, nor should it be swamped by its sur 
roundings. The lineated inscription hav 
ing become a recognized literary form in 
Italy in the 16th century, architects and 
painters and sculptors prepared the pub 
lic to appreciate these visible words in its 
new development. So in his third chapter 
the author shows how "the lapidary 
epigraph ceased to be lapidary, break 
ing away from the stone and transferring 
itself to cheaper and less substantial ma 
terials, fixing itself upon paper, and 
finally becoming a kind of book". And 
the most important person in this phase 
was Emanuele Tesauro (1592-1675), 
who was born and lived in Turin, an 
historian and epigraphist in the court of 
Savoy for more than 40 years, and a 
prolific author. Other producers of lapi 
dary books, whose stories occupy less 



15 

space than Tesauro, are Aloysius Juglar, 
Giovanni Andrea Alberti, and Ottavio 
Boldoni. In England, before the lapidary 
book died in the 17th century, the most 
remarkable work was Francis Quarles s 
Memorial upon the Death of Sir Robert 
Quarles, 1639, an elegy of 253 lines on 
the poet s brother. 

Mr Sparrow s literary, if not biblio 
graphical, history leads in the final 9- 
page concluding chapter, to an intriguing 
aesthetic question: how far can the eye 
play a part in the appreciation of a 
work on literature? This strange literary 
fashion in 17th century Europe as 
the Warden of All Souls College, Oxford, 
puts it, "the ATS Lapidaria lay mid-way 
. . . between the ATS Oratorio, and the 
Are Poetica became popular because of 
the restrictions of quantitative classical 
metres, by the use of inscriptions in pag 
eants and triumphal displays, as weU as 
on public and private buildings and on 
sepulchral monuments, and finally in 
books (until the 1740s). With its death 
some two centuries ago, we can now ask 
if it was important or (to quote G. M. 
Trevelyan) "fundamentally piffle"? 

True, it did get nowhere; hut in our 
time Guillaume Apollinaire often amused 
himself with figured verses, his "Calli- 
grammes" representing by shapes the 
things they described (rain, a man 
smoking a pipe, a bursting bomb) to 
startle the reader and compel him to 
study the text carefully; so did Ezra 
Pound in his Cantos and Stephane Mal- 
larme in Un Coup de Des jamais 
n abolira le Hasard. They, as well as 
others, and as Tesauro in the 17th cen 
tury, produced literary works of which 
visual form was an essential constituent. 
To go a step further, Mr Sparrow 
wonders what our conception o "poetry" 
would be if it were all printed like prose, 
and how different the meaning of po 
etry is to those who read it than to some 
one who has been blind from birth. The 
conclusion is: "the literary effect that 
can be achieved by visual presentation 
is limited, and . . . efforts to go beyond 
its limits were a failure [but] within 
those limits lies a narrow yet not negli 
gible margin, and that margin is the 
field of epigraphic art". William 
White, Wayne State University 



AN&Q 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 2) 

Hertzler, Joyce 0. Laughter: a Socio- 
Scientific Analysis. 231pp. N.Y.: Ex 
position Press, 1970. $6.50 

Hildeburn, Charles R. Sketches of Print 
ers and Printing in Colonial New York, 
(N.Y., 1895). Illus. 189pp. Detroit: 
Gale Research Co., 1969. $8.50 

Hofstadter, Richard. The Idea of a Party 
System: the Rise of Legitimate Op 
position in the United States, 1780- 
1840. 280pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press. [1969], Paper, $2.45 

Howard-Hill, T. H. Bibliography of Brit 
ish Literary Bibliographies, xxv, 570pp. 
N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1969. 
$23.75 

Howe, George; & Harrer, G. A. A Hand 
book of Classical Mythology. (N.Y., 
1947). 301pp. Detroit: Gale Research 
Co., 1970. $9. 

Irving, Washington. Mahomet and His 
Successors. Ed. by Henry A. Pochmann 
and E. N. Feltskog. (Complete Works 
of Washington Irving). 651pp. Madi 
son: University of Wisconsin Press, 
1970. $20. 

Pavese, Cesare. American Literature: Es 
says and Opinions. Trans, by Edwin 
Fassell. xxiv, 219pp. Berkeley: Uni 
versity of California Press, 1970. $6.95 

Pepys, Samuel, The Diary of. A New 
and Complete Transcription Edited 
by Robert Latham & William Mat 
thews. Vol. I, 1660; II, 1661; III, 
1662. Illus. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1970. 3 vols. to 
gether, $27. 

Prescott, William Hiclding. Correspond 
ence . . . 1833-1847, Transcribed and 
Edited by Roger Wolcott (Boston, 
1925). Port, xxi, 691pp. N.Y.: Da 
Capo Press, 1970. $24.50 



Searle, Ronald; & Dobbs, Kildare. TJie 
Great Fur Opera: Annals of the Hud- 
sons Bay Company, 1670-1970. [Hu 
mor]. 128pp. Brattleboro, Vt: The 
Stephen Greene Press, 1970. $4.95 

Smith, Elsdon C. The Story of Our 
Names. (N.Y., 1950). 296pp. Detroit: 
Gale Research Co., 1970. $7.50 

Spicer, Dorothy Gladys. The Book of 
Festivals. (N.Y., 1937). 429pp. De 
troit: Gale Research Co., 1969. $12.50 

Vinycomb, John. Fictitious & Symbolic 
Creatures in Art, With Special Ref 
erence to Their Use in British Her* 
aldnj. (London, 1906). 270pp. De 
troit: Gale Research Co., 1969. $7.50 

Wolfe, Thomas. The Mountains: a Play 
in One Act; The Mountains: a Drama 
in Three Acts and a Prologue. Ed., 
With an Introd. by Pat M. Ryan. 
177pp. Chapel Hill: University of 
North Carolina Press, 1970. $8.50 

Tester, M. H. The Healing Touch. [Faith 
healing]. Illus. 154pp. N.Y.: Taplinger 
Publishing Co., 1970. $5.95 

[Thomas, Ralph]. Handbook of Fictitious 
Names, by Olphar Hamst. (London, 
1868). 235pp. Detroit: Gale Research 
Co., 1969. $8.50 

Thompson, C. J. S. The Mystery and 
Romance of Astrology. (1929). 296pp. 
Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1969. 
$7.50 

Thomson, John, An Enquiry Concerning 
the Liberty and Licentiousness of the 
Press . . . (N.Y., 1801). (Civil Lib 
erties in American History Series). 
84pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. 
$8.95 

Twain, Mark. The Mysterious Stranger. 
Ed. with an Introd. by William M. 
Gibson. ( Center for Editions of Amer 
ican Authors, an Approved Text, 
MLA). 483pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1970. Paper, $2.95 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Jurne IX Number 2 October 1970 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOR REVIEWS 



. . J 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Alexander, Michael, trans. The Earliest 
English Poems: a Bilingual Edition. 
218pp. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1970. $6.50 

( American Revolution ) . Stubenrauch, 
Bob. Where Freedom Grew [Text and 
photographs by the author]. Jllus. 
186pp. N.Y.: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1970. 
.$6.95 

(Ames, Nathaniel). The Essays, Humor, 
and Poems of Nathaniel Ames, Father 
and Son . . . From Their Almanacks, 
1726-1775, With Notes and Comments 
by Sam. Briggs. (Cleveland, 1891). 
Illus. 490pp. Detroit: Singing Tree 
Press, 1969. $17.50 

Bancroft, George, Life and Letters of. 
By M. A. DeWolfe Howe. (N.Y., 1908). 
Illus. 2 vols. in 1. N.Y.: Da Capo 
Press, 1970. 

Berman, Marshall. The Politics of Au 
thenticity: Radical Individualism and 
the Emergence of Modern Society. 
325pp. N.Y.: Atheneum, 1970. $8.95 

Beston, Henry. Especially Maine: the 
Natural World of [HB] from Cape 
Cod to the St. Lawrence. Selected, and 
with an Introd. by Elizabeth Coats- 
worth. Illus. 198pp. Brattleboro, Vt: 
Stephen Greene Press, 1970. $6.95 

Bonnerjea, Biren. A Dictionary of Super 
stitions and Mythology. (London, 
1927). 314pp. Detroit: Singing Tree 
Press, 1969. $10. 

Campbell, Helen. Darkness and Day 
light; or, Lights and Shadows of New 



Yorfc . . . (Hartford, 1895). Illus. 
740pp. Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 
1969. $20. 

Caruthers, William Alexander. The 
Knights of the Golden Horse-Shoe: a 
Traditionanj Tale of the Cocked Hat 
Gentry in the Old Dominion. (Wet- 
timpka, Ala., 1845). xxx, 248pp. Chap 
el Hill: University of North Carolina 
Press, 1970. Paper, $2,95 

Chaney, William A. The Cult of King 
ship in Anglo-Saxon England: the 
Transition from Paganism to Christi 
anity. 276pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1970. $7.50 

Clement, Clara Erskine. A Handbook 
of Legendary and Mythological Art. 
Enlarged Edn. (Boston, 1881). EHus. 
575pp. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 

1969. $14.50 

Copley, John Singleton; Letters and Pa 
pers of (his) and Henry Pelham, 
1739-1776. (Boston, 1914). Illus. xxii, 
384pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. 
$17.50 

Dickinson, Emily. Bolts of Melody. New 
Poems . . . Ed. by Mabel Loomis 
Todd and Millicent Todd Bingham. 
(N.Y., 1945). Illus. xxix, 352pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1969. Paper, $3. 

(Dickinson). Buckingham, Willis J., ed. 
Emily Dickinson: an Annotated Bibli 
ography: Writings, Scholarship, Crit 
icism, and Ana, 1850-1968. 322pp. 
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 

1970. $10. 

( Continued on p. 31 ) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies 750. Printed in the U.S.A. by 
United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. Second-class postage 
paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies; indexed in Book Review Index; included in The Year s Work in 
English Studies, and Annual Bibliography of English Language and 
Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included in the Annual MLA Inter 
national Bibliography; Victorian Studies Victorian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

VAUGHAN S 

"REGENERATION": 
AN EMENDATION 

HENRY VAUGHAN S PHRASING is fre 
quently thorny, but seldom so dif 
ficult grammatically as in lines 
71-72 of "Regeneration", here ital 
icized in relevant context: 

Here musing long, I heard 

A rushing wind 

Which still increased, but whence 
it stirrd 

No where I could not find; 
1 turn d me round, and to each shade 

Dispatch d an Eye, 
To see, if any leafe had made 

Least motion, or Reply, 

But while I listning sought 

My mind to ease 

By knowing, where twas, or where 
not, 

It whisper d; Wfore I please. 1 

Arranged in modern word order, 
the problem clauses read, "But 
I could not find whence it stirr d 
no where", and the syntactical 
oddity becomes more glaring. Not 
only does the sentence involve 
a double negative of a kind that 
does not seem to appear elsewhere 
in Vaughan. In addition, the phrase 
no where performs the adverbial 
function which would otherwise 



be performed by the noun clause 
"whence it came", making that 
clause into an ungainly "pure" 
substantive without the saving ad 
verbial effect. 

I would like to explore the pos 
sibility that Vaughan s intended 
phrasing was nor where rather than 
no where. Where would then be 
coordinate with whence, and the 
sense of the passage would be as 
follows: "I could not tell whence 
the wind came or where it went *. 
This wording would more closely 
parallel John 3.S, to which it al 
ludes: "The wind bloweth where 
it listeth, and thou hearest the 
sound thereof, but canst not tell 
whence it cometh, and whither it 
goetrT. The modern equivalent 
of whither is where, and so the 
parallel with the scriptural verse 
is very striking. Notice OED, 
where, I, 1, c: "colloq. with from 
or to at the end of the sentence 
or clause: where . . . fromP= 
whence? where . . . tfoP=whither? w 

The possible objection that 
stirrd does not seem properly to 
apply to the direction in which 
the wind is blowing is answered 
by OED, stir, 11: "To move (con 
tinuously, or in a general sense); 
to be in motion; spec, to move as a 
living being". In other words, stir 
can be used in relation to a direc 
tion toward (whither, where) as 
well as from a point of origin. 

These lines come near the con 
clusion of a narration of an alle 
gorical journey, which begins with 
the narrator in an unregenerate 
state and ends with his sense of 
the mystery of God s election and 
his prayer to receive it, alluding, 
as E. C. Pettet remarks, "to one 
of the central New Testament texts 
on election and salvation", the 
verse quoted above from John. 2 
If it is assumed that Vaughan 



20 



AN&Q 



had in mind a two-part sense of 
the mystery of the wind s move 
ment ( whence from and where to ) 
paralleling the two-part movement 
in John 3.8, the immediately fol 
lowing stanza is rendered much 
clearer. The phrase "Least motion 
or reply", with its otherwise strange 
division into motion and reply, 
becomes clear: having heard the 
wind, the narrator looks to see 
where the leaves have moved 
("Least motion"), as a clue to the 
place of the wind s coming; and, 
secondly, to where the leaves have 
responsively moved ("reply"), as 
a clue to the place of the wind s 
going. This two-part search for the 
wind s movement is followed by 
the expression of a two-part desire 
to know "where twas, or where 
not", or, as Pettet interprets it, 
where God s election rests and 
where it does not rest. God s reply, 
whispered in the sound of the wind, 
is "Where I please". 

It seems to me that the grammar, 
the symmetry, and the idea of 
these two stanzas are enhanced 
by viewing the action of lines 71-72 
as involving a two-part motion of 
the wind. And this two-partedness 
is achieved by the simplest of 
emendations, suggesting that it 
could easily have been the poet s 
original intention. He could have 
written "Nor where", and it could 
have been transcribed by someone 
else as "No where". 

Edgar F. Daniels 
Bowling Green State University 



1. The Complete Poetry of Henry 
Vaughan, ed. French Fogle, 1964 
pp. 141-142. 

2. Of Paradise and Light, 1960, p. 116. 



THE EYES OF 

DR T. J. ECKLEBURG 

RE-EXAMINED 

But above the gray land and the 
spasms of bleak dust which drift end 
lessly over it, you perceive, after a mo 
ment, the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg. 
The eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg are 
blue and gigantic their retinas are one 
yard high. They look out of no face, 
but instead from a pair of enormous 
yellow spectacles which pass over a 
non-existent nose. Evidently some wild 
wag of an oculist set them there to fatten 
his practice in the borough of Queens, 
and then sank down himself into eternal 
blindness or forgot them and moved 
away. But his eyes, dimmed a little by 
many paintless days under sun and rain, 
brood on over the solemn dumping 
ground. 1 

THE ABOVE PASSAGE is one of the 
most quoted in the work of F. 
Scott Fitzgerald, yet in the criti 
cism I have read no one has pointed 
out the error in it. J. S. Westbrook- 
coined a phrase, "ocular confu 
sions", in quite a different connec 
tion, but such a phrase is apt here. 
Fitzgerald did not want the term 
retinas to describe Doctor T. J. 
Eckleburg s eyes. The signboard 
cannot be seen as Fitzgerald de 
scribes it. The retina is, in the 
words of the OED, "The innermost 
layer or coating at the back of the 
eyeball . . . which is sensitive to 
light and in which the optic nerve 
terminates". Therefore, it is not 
possible to present an advertise 
ment for glasses, showing retinas, 
without entirely different schemat 
ics than Fitzgerald follows. Such 
a signboard can be imagined, per 
haps illustrating a more technical 
aspect of optometry, or a more 
sophisticated philosophical sugges 
tion, e.g., the world is but the 
image on the retinas of God. Un- 



October 1970 



21 



doubtedly Fitzgerald had no such 
point in mindt, either regarding 
optometiy or ontology. He wanted 
a word to describe what could be 
seen on the signboard. He wanted 
a noun that was not as pedestrian 
as eyeballs, and chose retinas, when 
eyeballs alone would do, unless he 
could settle for the pronoun they. 
The corrected passage reads: "The 
eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg are 
blue and gigantic they or the 
eyeballs are one yard high". The 
word eyeballs is rather inelegant 
(though used in the OED), which 
may be why Fitzgerald chose ret 
inas. Of course, he may not have 
known what a retina was. 

Why the critics have overlooked 
this error is not easy to understand. 
That they have could be used in 
support of Mr Snow s contention 
about "literary intellectuals". Cer 
tainly the definition of retina is 
simpler to learn and easier to re 
member than the Second Law of 
Thermodynamics. But ignorance 
and sloth are not at fault here. 
The fault lies in the over zealous 
textual analysis which at times pre 
cludes close reading. Accordingly 
the real subject of Fitzgerald s pas 
sage is the symbolic value of the 
eyes, not the description of them. 
William York Tindall selects the 
passage as an example of what 
he is interested in: "Those eyes 
as suggesters of many things, some 
of them nameless (italics mine), 
seem more entertaining than as 
references to an oculist". 3 The critic 
need not examine the text, but only 
seek out what it can symbolize: 

And over it all brood the eyes of Dr. 
Eckleburg, symbols of what? Of the 
eyes of God, as Wilson, whose own 
world disintegrates with the death of 



Myrtle, calls them? As a symbol of 
Gatsby s dream, which like the eyes is 
pretty shabby after all and scarcely 
founded on the "hard rocks" Carraway 
admires? 4 

For the most elaborate expression of 
the disparity between illusion and reality, 
however, we must turn finally to the 
image of the dump presided over by the 
yard high retinas of T, J. EcHeburg. 
It is here that we get a synthesis of the 
whole constellation of ironies inherent 
in the theme of the novel, and it is here 
that the idea of violated nature and that 
of distorted vision are brought into the 
most striking conjunction. Eckleburg 
may be thought of as a commercial deity 
staring out upon a waste of his own 
creation. 5 

The most potent suggestion of God s 
presence in Fitzgerald s imaginary uni 
verse may be lodged within the enigmatic 
eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg.e 

The ironies are obvious and abun 
dant. No doubt once the error is 
recognized, the symbolic value of 
the passage will be reevaluated: 
more references to "ocular confu 
sions ", "distorted vision", and those 
"enigmatic eyes". Fitzgerald must 
bear this burden. 

Richard Johnson 

Central Washington State College 
Ellensburg, Washington 



1. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby 
(N.Y.: 1925), p. 27. 

2. J. S. Westbrook, "Nature and Optics 
in The Great Gatsby", American Lit 
erature, XXXH (March, 1960), p. 78. 

3. W. Y. Tindall, The Literary Symbol 
(N.Y.: 1955), p. 11. 

4. Tom Burnam, "The Eyes of Dr. Eckle 
burg: A Re-examination of The Great 
Gatsby*, College English (October, 
1952), p. 12. 

5. Westbrook, p. 82. 

6. Milton Hindus, "The Mysterious Eyes 
of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg", Boston 
University Studies in English, III 
(Spring, 1957), p. 30. 



99 



THE DRAMA IN WARD S 
TOWER OF LONDON 

ARTEMUS WARD, DESCRIBING THE 
Tower of London in his widely ap 
preciated letter to Punch, 1 comes 
to a wax figure of Queen Elizabeth. 
He, having wax figures in his trav 
eling show, naturally is interested 
in the proud lifelike appearance 
of Elizabeth, whom he says he al 
ways has associated "with the 
Spanish Armady". 2 And he points 
out to Punch s readers that Eliza 
beth is currently "mixed up with 
it [the Armada] at the Surry [sic] 
Theater, where Troo [sic] to the 
Core is being acted". He continues 
on about the play and makes fur 
ther humorous occasional comment 
upon it, in particular about its use 
of ballet aboard ship. 

The play he is speaking of is True 
to the Core, by Angelo Robson 
Slous, first performed at the Surrey 
Theater in London on 8 September 
1866. 3 This play, according to The 
Times, 4 opened to a "vast audience" 
and was a popular success, al 
though the Times reviewer is criti 
cal of it as a drama. Yet he allows 
that if it is "viewed as a spectacle, 
the new drama is entitled to high 
est praise", 5 and he points out that 
it is the winner of the T. P. Cooke 
prize of 100 for the best nautical 
drama. He especially commends 
the two most spectacular scenes 
of the play, one of which (the bal 
let company aboard the lavish 
Spanish ship) is made fun of by 
Ward in his essay. The play is, as 
the Times critic outlines it, G a 
melodrama with a veiy loosely con 
structed plot, more designed to pro 
vide occasion for spectacle and sen 
timental thrills than any concentrat 
ed dramatic effect. Its action tabes 



AN&Q 

place on the Devonshire coast in 
the summer of 1588 and concerns 
the threatened invasion of England 
by the Spanish Armada. The hero 
is the honest English ship captain 
and combination lighthouse 
keeper and hostelry manager 
Martin Truegold (mentioned by 
Ward). The play has four acts, 
and in these the true-blue Martin 
is exposed to the machinations of 
Spaniards and traitorous English 
in league with the Armada. The 
plot basically has to do with the 
problem the Armada faces in land 
ing at Plymouth and the results 
growing out of its attempt to solve 
this problem. The Spaniards need 
an experienced pilot to lead them 
to the English coast ~ Martin is 
handy he is drugged and taken 
to the Admiral-ship of the Armada 
(End of Act I). Here the first 
of the two great spectacles of the 
play is presented: the Spanish ship 
is splendidly decorated in almost 
Oriental finery and the Spaniards 
loll easily on deck as the stalwart 
Martin is tempted to betrayal and 
adamantly refuses. He refuses, at 
least until his recent bride is 
threatened with death, He finally 
submits, but purposely leads the 
Spaniards to founder on the rock 
of Eddystone (End of Act II). On 
the rock all the main characters 
are thus stranded and here the 
second of the play s spectacles is 
produced, the terrified members 
of the group on the rock and their 
attempts to survive and to be res 
cued. This action consumes all the 
third act. The group, bound to 
gether by mutual need, finally es 
capes the rock in a fortunate boat 
(End of Act III). The last act 
finds Martin in prison about to be 
executed for treason. But he is de- 



October 1970 



23 



livered at the last minute by Queen 
Elizabeth herself, who has been 
urgently sent a ring (the exact 
nature of which is never explained) 
and who commands the real cul 
prits go off to trial and releases 
Martin and also knights him for his 
services against the Armada. Thus 
all ends happily. 

Ward must have seen the po 
tential humor in such a melodra 
matic plot, for he partially ex 
ploited it in his essay on the 
Tower. Especially the ballet scene 
in Act II he singles out: "a full 
bally core is introjooced on board 
the Spanish Admiral s ship, givin 
the audiens the idee that he intends 
openin a moosic-hall in Plymouth 
the moment he conkers that 
town". 7 Ward s comment would 
have provided special delight for 
those familiar with the well-known 
former Surrey manager Robert W. 
EUiston (at Surrey 1809-1831), 
who introduced ballets into all his 
plays (e.g., Hamlet and Macbeth) 
to avoid the Patent Act, 8 as well 
as poking fun at the generally ri 
diculous innovation of ballet on 
ship. 

Scott Garrow 

East Carolina University 
Greenville, North Carolina 



1. Punch, October 13, 1866, p. 155. 

2. Ibid. 

3. Allardyce Nicoll, A History of Eng 
lish Drama 1660-1900, Vol. V: Late 
Nineteenth Century Drama 1850-1900 
(Cambridge, 1959), 571. 

4. Monday, September 10, 1866, p. 10, 
col. 1. 

5. Ibid. 



DEUS EX MACHINA IN 
AS YOU LIKE IT 

IN THE LAST ACT of As You Like It, 
the Folio text brings in the mytho 
logical god of marriage, Hymen, to 
unite the four pairs of lovers. Why 
should Shakespeare, after present 
ing a romantically conceived but 
nonetheless realistic drama of the 
joys of country Me, feel it neces 
sary to bring in a deus ex machina 
to cap it off? The answer is that 
he probably did not intend to. 
Although it is possible that the 
Hymen of the play is meant to be 
none other than the Greek god, 
it seems much more likely that the 
Hymen of the Folio stage direction 
is really Corin in disguise. 

Rosalind and Celia, keeping up 
their disguises to the very last mo 
ment, promise to make all well in 
the last scene of the play. They go 
offstage together, to effect Rosa 
lind s return to female status, and 
when they re-enter (the interval 
needed for costume change having 
been filled by the "wit combat" 
between Touchstone and Jaques), 
Hymen is with them. Since Corin 
is in the employ of the two girls 
as manager of their sheep farm 
and seems to be very diligent in 
their service, it is quite likely that 
he could be prevailed upon to act 
a part to oblige them. Corin, an 
old man, would appear ridiculous 



6. The play was printed in octavo in 
London in 1866, but the nearest copy 
I could locate is in the British Mu 
seum and I have not seen it. 

7. Punch, October 13, 1866, p. 155. 

8. The Oxford Companion to tJie Thea 
tre, ed. Phyllis Hartnoll (London, 
1957), p. 778. 



24 

disguised as the youthful Hymen, 
a point which, we may suppose, 
would not fail to please the Eliza 
bethan audience. Hymen has two 
simple set speeches, both of which 
could have been written by Rosa 
lind beforehand and given to Corin 
to learn by heart. The fact that 
Hymen s words have no great so 
lemnity and are, in fact, rather 
bad verse, encourages the view 
that Hymen is not really meant to 
be the god of marriage. It appears, 
then, that the copy used to set up 
the Folio text was even more de 
void than usual of full and com 
plete stage directions, and that we 
may be justified in reading V, iv, 
108 SD as "Enter [Corin as] Hy 
men, Rosalind, and Celia". 

These observations have little 
direct bearing on the appeal of the 
play. They do perhaps indicate, 
however, an aspect of Elizabethan 
stage practice and an insight into 
Shakespeare s alleged "careless 
ness". 



Kentville, N. S. 



David A. Giffin 



QUERIES 



"To blow ones nails" Can a 
reader provide me with a non- 
classical use of this expression from 
before 1470? The expression is 
found in Horace s Satires, and is 
usually understood to mean idle 
ness or cold. The most important 
appearance is in Shakespeare s 
song, Winter", in Love s Labors 
Lost. Jon R. Russ, Waterville, 
Maine 



AN&Q 

"Whistling in the dark" What 

is the origin and meaning of this 
often quoted phrase? I am familiar 
with it in a Polish rhyme: * Whis 
tling in the day/ Is the Devil s 
dismay;/ Whistling at night/ Is the 
Devil s delight". A careful reading 
of the latter, it seems to me, puts 
a different interpretation on the 
phrase than what I am used to, 
that is, that whistling in the dark 
wards off fears and dangers. 
Mrs Stephen Odlivak, Centereach, 
L. I., N.Y. 

Bernice Minter, poet I have the 
text of "The Gifts of Christ", a two- 
stanza poem beginning, "A star, 
low hanging in the sky,/ Shines 
steadily and bright? . . .", and need 
to know the title of the collection 
in which it appeared, the editor, 
publisher, and date, and any infor 
mation about Bernice Minter. 
David D. M. Haupt, Fort Wash 
ington, Pa. 

Night of the King s Castration 
This recitation is apparently one of 
the most commonly known Amer 
ican folk narratives. A number of 
fragments circulate as jokes, es 
pecially among high school stu 
dents who will easily recall " Tuck 
the queen , cried the king, and 
forty thousand subjects were killed 
in the rush for in those days the 
king s word was law"; or " Come 
forth , said the king, but Daniel 
slipped on a lion s turd and came 
in a poor fifth"; or " Balls! cried 
the king; and the queen said, If 
I had two I d be king , and the 
king laughed, for he had to [two]". 
A mangled version appears in [T. R. 
Smith?], Immortalia (New York, 
1927; reprinted in Tokyo, ca. 1950; 
and the Tokyo version reprinted 
in Atlanta, Georgia, 1968). Can 



October 1970 



25 



readers provide citations for 
other printed or, more probably, 
mimeographed versions in more 
complete form? Ed Cray, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 



REPLIES 

Order of the Golden Fleece (VIII: 
136) "Bruges, on this 10th of Jan 
uary 1429, was a city vibrant with 
joy. Her inhabitants and visitors 
from far and wide were celebrating 
the marriage of Philippe the II, 
Duke of Burgundy, and Princess 
Isabella of Portugal. At the mar 
riage feast when all the great and 
powerful knights were gathered to 
gether to pay homage to the young 
couple, the duke, who was known 
as Philippe the Good, proclaimed 
the formation of the Order of the 
Golden Fleece (L ordre de la toison 
d or). He selected 24 of the fore 
most knights as its original mem 
bers. The Order was an exclusive 
one; rules for membership were 
very strict. Honor, virtue, accom 
plishment in battle, and loyalty 
were absolute musts and if a knight 
did not live up to these high stand 
ards membership could be revoked. 
The sovereign was the head of the 
Order and he alone could nomi 
nate new members. He bestowed 
upon each chosen knight a golden 
chain with the golden fleece at 
tached to it, which had to be worn 
at all times. With the chain a 
mantle of deep red velvet with 
richly embroidered borders and 
the toque of Burgundy was worn 
on state occasions. The origin of 
the name of the Order caused great 



speculation. Some thought that the 
duke had wanted to bid a fond 
farewell to his youth and an un 
known blonde. But historians agree 
that Philippe the Good could not 
have had such vile thoughts, and 
they are in accord that he most 
likely named it after Jason and 
the Argonauts who proved so 
brave in their quest for the Golden 
Fleece. Three years after the duke s 
marriage a reunion of the Order 
took place at Lille. It was at that 
time that the first formal record of 
the Statutes of the Order was made. 
In the National Library at Vienna 
a manuscript known as Ms2606 has 
been part of that library s collection 
since 1783. It is the written record 
of the revised statutes of the Order 
as of 30 November 1431. It also con 
tains the Coats of Arms of its first 
163 members as well as the sump 
tuously executed color portraits of 
the first five rulers who headed the 
Order from Philippe the II, Duke 
of Burgundy, to Charles the Fifth, 
Roman Emperor. The language of 
the manuscript is in 15th-century 
French, and it was written between 
1520 and 1531. It consists of 29 
signatures of four sheets each and 
one signature of six sheets. Specu 
lation has it that Simon Bening of 
Bruges, one of the foremost illumi- 
nators of his time, may have been 
the artist who so beautifully deco 
rated the manuscript. Who original 
ly ordered the manuscript made 
remains open to conjecture. It was 
first mentioned as being in posses 
sion of the Hapsburgs in 1619 when 
inventory was held after the death 
of Emperor Matthias who, between 
1577 and 1582, had been governor 
of the Netherlands. The University 
of California Library acquired a 
facsimile reproduction of the manu- 



26 



AN&Q 



script, published in 1934 by the 
Austrian government and repro 
duced with a great desire for con 
formity with the original. It is a 
limited edition of 300 copies bound 
in deep green velvet with clasps. 
Half of the edition was published 
with an explanatory text in French, 
half with die text in German. Cali 
fornia s copy is no. 64 in French. 

It is to be found under the follow 
ing entry: Order of the Golden 
Fleece. Lc Here des ordonnances de 
Tordre de la toison d or. Edite et 
annote par Hans Gerstinger . . . 
Vienna: Editions de rimprimerie 
d fitat autrichienne, 1934", [Re 
printed from CU News, University 
of California, 23 February 1956; by 
Lisl Davis; mimeographed]. 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

We have been negligent in remark 
ing on the interesting Queries ( and 
Replies), that have appeared in the 
past issues of the fairly new Ca 
nadian Notes and Queries: Ques 
tions et Reponses Canadiennes 
"An Occasional Journal, published 
through the courtesy of Bernard 
Amtmann [noted antiquarian deal 
er specializing in Canadiana and 
Arctica], Montreal". Number 5, for 
May 1970 inquires about John 
Reinhold Forster s Account of Sev 
eral Quadrupeds From Hudson s 
Bay (the 1773 separate edition, 
and any ms. annotations); the 
Wandering Jew legend; Elgin-Ca 
nadian Black Community, 1849-73; 



Bay Company telephones in Al 
berta; Histoiy of Canadian auto 
mobile companies; Canadian fore- 
edge painting. General communi 
cations, including requests for is 
sues, should be addressed to Wil 
liam F. E. Morley, Editor, CN&Q, 
Douglas Library, Queen s Univer 
sity, Kingston, Ontario. 

The only book devoted to antique 
tool prices, Tool Collectors Hand 
book of Prices Paid at Auction for 
Early American Tools, compiled by 
Alexander Farnham, with 500 tool 
prices listed and 200 tools illus 
trated, is available from the Hunt- 
erdon County Historical Society, 
Flemington, NJ. (40pp., $2.10). 
Kitchen and household, woodwork 
ing, farming, blacksmith, tinsmith, 
lumberman, confectioners , and 
many other tools are recorded, with 
prices paid at the most important 
tool auctions from 1964 to 1970. 

Stories of small-town doctors can 
be tedious but we have discovered 
a new one that certainly isn t. A 
Doctor at All Hours: the Private 
Journal of a Small-Town Doctor s 
Varied Life, 1886-1909, by David 
S. Kellogg, M.D., Edited by Allan 
S. Everest. This was indeed "a most 
uncommon doctor s life in the 
sparsely settled [Pittsburgh re 
gion] of New York State". It s not 
only medical, but the book presents 
a variety of excitements concerning 
a number of avocational interests: 
folklore, natural history, local 
events, mountain climbing, book- 
hunting, etc. The illustrations, like 
the text, are charming and informa 
tive (Brattleboro, Vt: The Ste 
phen Greene Press, 1970. 238pp. 
$6.95). 



October 1970 



27 



Have the pictures made you read 
the text of any book since you were 
a child? The exciting, and then the 
later, the sad days, of one of Amer 
ica s joys, as represented in the 
pictures of the Glory of the Seas, 
show the ship in greatest magnifi 
cence and at the nadir of her dis 
graceful end. Titled after the ship, 
Michael Jay Mjelde s book has 
gracefully retold the story of the 
whole life of the last of Donald 
McKay s magnificent three-masters. 
This is an unusually well-researched 
volume that appears now as the 
first title in the American Mari 
time Library series, published for 
the Marine Historical Association 
by Wesleyan University Press, Mid- 
dletown, Ct (303pp., $9.95). For a 
reader with no previous interest in 
sailing ships, it was the pictures of 
the tragic progression from queen 
of the seas to a beached cold stor 
age fishery plant that made me 
read about it all of one summer s 
night. A glossary of technical terms, 
and a reproduction of the color 
plate on the jacket would have en 
hanced the work, but even so, this 
is a fine start for a new series that 
will have great appeal for the spe 
cialist and sailing enthusiast alike. 

Dickensians will want to read and 
keep An Oliver Tioist Exhibition: 
a Memento for the Dickens Cen 
tennial, 1970 an Essay, by Rich 
ard A. Vogler (Los Angeles: Uni 
versity of California Library, 1970. 
16pp., illus. $1, ordered from the 
Gifts & Exchange Section, UCLA 
Library). The pamphlet ties in 
faculty and research interests at 
UCLA with the Library s uncom 
mon resources of Dickens, Cruik- 
shank, and the Victorian novel. 



The Monastic Manuscript Micro 
film Project, housed at St John s 
University, Collegeville, Minn., has 
recently issued its Progress Report 
VI, by Professor Julian G. Plante, 
Curator. The fantastic and success 
ful design of this project is out 
lined, a brief inventory of accom 
plishments (some 90 miles of mi 
crofilm - nearly 8,000,000 pages 
photographed in black and white, 
33,000 color exposures of minia 
tures and illuminations), and of 
continuing efforts of the program 
are described. Ultimate aim is to 
secure the preservation of all hand 
written manuscripts and documents 
dating before the year 1600 still 
extant in European monastic li 
braries. 

Hacettepe University in Ankara s 
second issue of the Hacettepe Bul 
letin of Social Sciences ( December 
1969 ) came to us this summer and 
we were interested to see Professor 
Emil Sonmez article, "George Eli 
ot s Adam Bede", in with "An Evil 
Spirit According to Anatolian 
Turkish Belief, "Kidnapping and 
Elopement in Rural Turkey", and 
other pieces on educational psy 
chology, interest rate, and tenden 
cies in American education, etc. 
Annual subscription to this semi 
annual publication is $1.50, to be 
ordered from Hacettepe Dniversi- 
tesi, Basim ve Yayim Merkezi, An 
kara, Turkey. 

Conradiana, Winter 1969/70, Vol. 
II, No. 2, has appeared, with all 
the trappings of scholarly notes, 
book reviews, bibliographies, etc. 
It s interesting, helpful, and a fine 
job, so far as contents are con 
cerned, but it is thoroughly unat 
tractive and very difficult to read 



28 



AN&Q 



in its more than fifty-line text page 
in an unpleasant typewriter face, 
But it costs only $4 a year for three 
thick issues, to be ordered from the 
Dept of English, McMurray Col 
lege, Abilene, Texas. It can be or 
dered easily from anywhere in the 
world, there is even a cable ad 
dress: CONRADIANA. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky. 

Elsevier s Dictionary of Horticul 
ture in Nine Languages, English, 
French, Dutch, German, Danish, 
Swedish, Spanish, Italian, Latin 
(561 pp.: Amsterdam: Elsevier 
Publishing Company, 1970. $26), 
contains 4,240 terms in languages 
specified in the title, in the usual 
form of polyglot dictionaries, and 
with meticulous accuracy. The 
main alphabet is in English, and 
there are separate indexes for the 
eight other languages. The diction 
ary will be generally useful to any 
botanist, on any level of compe 
tence, but also to scholars in other 
fields, and to amateur gardeners 
who order bulbs from the Nether 
lands. 

W. Longman, Tokens of the Eight 
eenth Century Connected with 
Booksellers and Bookmakers (Au 
thors, Printers, Publishers, Engrav 



ers, and Paper Makers). (1916. 90 
pp.: Detroit: Gale Research Co., 
1970. $7.50), is a classic account of 
"tokens" commonly issued in the 
18th century by tradesmen in lieu 
of small change. There are many 
basic sources for the study of the 
book trade and publishing in this 
descriptive account of a collection 
of tokens which can never be re 
assembled in the same form. A 
similar study on collections of to 
kens used in religious congregations 
both in Britain and America in the 
17th and 18th centuries is urgently 
needed. 

The Bibliographie des deutschen 
Rechts in englischer und deutscher 
Sprache; eine Auswahl herausgege- 
ben von der Gesellschaft fur 
Rechtsuergleichung; Ergdnzungs- 
band 1964-1968 (221 pp.: Karls- 
ruhe: Verlag C. F. Miiller, 1969. 
DM49.-) provides a selective but 
representative cross-section of Ger 
man legal literature for the lustrum. 
It not only supplements the original 
volume, but it also provides the 
additional service of recording 
translations of the most important 
German statute law into English 
and French. 

Gyldenddls store Opslagsbog (Co 
penhagen: Gyldendal, 1962-1970; 
6 vols.) has been completed with 
a sixth volume, most important for 
the indexes, but also for tables, 
selective bibliography, and a sup 
plement. This set is one of the 
more useful encyclopaedias in "mi 
nor" languages, for here we find 
references to things Scandinavian, 
geographical, historical, and per 
sonal, which cannot be readily lo 
cated elsewhere. 



October 1970 



29 



BOOK REVIEWS 

PEPYS, Samuel, The Diary of. A New 
and Complete Transcription Edited by 
Robert Latham and William Matthews. 
Vol. I, 1660; II, 1661; III, 1662. Illus, 
incl Maps. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1970. Unit price, 3 vols. to 
gether, $27. 

Publication of a new and complete 
transcription of The Diary of Samuel 
Pepys is certainly one of the major his 
torical and literary expectations of the 
coining decade. Edited by Robert Latham 
(Fellow of Magdalene College, Cam 
bridge) and William Matthews (Pro 
fessor of English, UCLA), the first three 
volumes have burst upon the world of 
scholarship, filled with erudition, cor 
rections of errors of fact and mistran 
scription that appeared in previous edi 
tions, and with the full complement of 
evaluative essays: a biographical study 
of Pepys; of the manuscript the short 
hand, the text; remarks on previous edi 
tions and the history of the manuscript 
and its publication, 1660-1899; the Diary 
as literature; and then as history. The 
preliminary matter some 152 pages 
is enlightening (though there are a few 
annoying instances of lack of citation, 
and a small number of typographical 
errors which one expects ought to have 
been caught in a book that is so de 
pendent upon textual accuracy), but all 
in all it is the body of the Diary itself 
that re-creates the magnificent liveliness 
of Pepys and his world. Typographically 
appealing, it is the kind of book one can 
really read from beginning to end with 
out boredom, and the editors richly in 
formative notes display erudition of the 
most helpful land. 

The edition will comprise eleven vol 
umes nine of text and footnotes (with 
the introductory material in volume I), 
a tenth of Commentary, and an eleventh 
of Index. The Companion volume (X) 
will contain special studies of Pepys and 
Science, and Medicine, and Weather, 
there is much on Pepys and the theatre 
(one of his most particular interests), 
and a study of the language of the 
Diary. Unfortunately, a most serious fault 
is that individual volumes do not con 
tain separate indexes; each volume does 
contain a "Select List of Persons" and 
a "Select Glossary", the latter "restricted 



to usages, many of them recurrent, which 
might puzzle the reader". Both of these 
lists are identical from volume to vol 
ume. A "Large Glossary" of words, 
phrases, and proverbs in all languages 
will be found in the Companion when 
it is published we are told. The illustra 
tions in the three volumes that have been 
issued are well selected and reasonably 
well reproduced but the Diary calls 
out for many more (especially portraits 
to accompany Pepys 1 vivid descriptions) 
although the addition of all that it would 
be nice to have would be costly so, 
lacking the illustrations, this is probably 
the reason that the Diary, in all its 
earlier editions was a favorite book to 
be extra-illustrated by Pepysians. 

Others, better qualified, will undoubt 
edly comment elsewhere on various as 
pects of the Latham-Matthews edition, 
both on the introductory material and 
the handling of the text, but for this re 
viewer it is the descriptive study of the 
earlier editions that is most interesting, 
being in large part a resume of some of 
the exigencies of scholarship. Surely this 
is a chapter for every serious editor to 
study if only to read about how not to 
do it, the pitfalls to avoid, and the ever- 
present sticky mire of prudery. But even 
the present editors may be criticized: 
for example, I find it difficult to justify 
the omission of imprint information in 
the notes and wonder at the rationale 
(n.9, p. cxlvii), "The footnotes give a 
bare minimum of information about the 
books which are mentioned only by the 
editors and not by Pepys. In these cases 
names of publishers and places of pub 
lication are omitted, and publication 
dates are given only if it is necessary 
to distinguish between editions or if the 
books were published before 1850". Even 
this last consideration is not followed 
where, for example, on pp. Ixxvii-viii, 
the title-page of Braybrooke s edition is 
transcribed in a note on the latter page, 
without the date, and no mention is 
made of the date in the text and this 
was the first printed edition, a matter 
of interest to most readers one would 
think. 

The reader will be able to overlook 
some comparatively unimportant lapses 
in editorial technique in favor of the 
great work the editors have done in giv 
ing us this lively edition of the greatest 
diarist of them all. Lee Ash, Editor. 



30 



AN&Q 



MULLIN, Donald C. The Development 
of the Playhouse. Illus. 197pp. Berkeley 
and Los Angeles: University of Califor 
nia Press, 1970. $15.00. 

Good hooks on the history of theatre 
architecture have long been available in 
German and French - Andreas Streit s 
Das Theater (1903), Martin Ham- 
mitzsch s Der moderne Theaterbau 
(1906), and Helene Leclerc s Les Origines 
italiennes de I architecture thedtrale mo- 
derne (1946) - but not until now has 
a full-length survey of the subject ap 
peared in English. Donald C. Mullin s 
The Development of the Playhouse ex 
amines the evolution of theatre archi 
tecture from the Renaissance to the pres 
ent and is intended to serve the under 
graduate and the interested layman. The 
text is relatively short and keyed to al 
most three hundred illustrations. 

Beginning with a review of Vitruvius 
and a discussion of neo-Vitruvian experi 
ments during the Renaissance, Mr Mul- 
lin traces the growth of new forms in 
the 16th and 17th centuries: the court 
and festival theatres of Italy and France, 
the French tennis-court theatre, the Ital 
ian opera house, the open stage of Eng 
land and the Low Countries. He then 
describes the diffusion of Italian styles 
throughout Europe in the years 1650- 
1750. Devoting separate chapters to pre- 
Restoration English playhouses, English 
theatres from 1660-1830, and American 
theatres to 1869, he sets apart other 
chapters for the discussion of particular 
styles the rococo and classical revival, 
19th-century neobaroque and reactions 
to it, and new ideas of the period 1910- 
1940. The survey concludes with a dis 
cussion of the problems of theatre archi 
tecture today, seen in historical perspec 
tive. Several appendices and a useful 
but sometimes scanty bibliography 
are added. 

Mr Mullin takes care to relate sceneiy 
and machinery to changes in architec 
tural styles (though one would like to 
read more here about acoustics), and 
he makes some necessarily brief attempts 
to place the theatres in their cultural and 
sociological contexts. He has illustrated 
and described a great number of exam 
ples, including such important and sel 
dom-discussed theatres as Penther s for 
ward-looking opera house at Hanover 
(1746), Vanvitelli s court theatre at Ca- 



serta (c. 1752), Ledoux s extraordinary 
theatre at Besancon (1778), and Louis s 
sumptuous Grand Theatre at Bordeaux 
(1780), on which Benjamin Wyatt based 
his Drury Lane (1812 - not 1809, as 
Mr Mullin would have it). The play 
houses of the 18th century are as these 
examples imply - particularly well cov 
ered. 

A more theoretical approach, restrict 
ing the number of examples to be dis 
cussed, might have integrated the text 
more fully, but this was evidently not 
the author s purpose. One is sometimes 
left asking, Was this design really in 
fluential? What did architects think of 
it? How does it fit? These are difficult 
questions, as Mr Mullin admits: "It is 
not always easy to deduce influences 
upon changes in architectural styles". 
Theatre historians have only recently 
begun the sort of rigorous study of bio 
graphical and local historical materials 
that will enable us to trace clearly the 
evolution of new ideas. 

The Development of the Playhouse is 
most valuable for its illustrations. Re 
grettably, the quality of the illustrations 
varies from merely good to downright 
poor, and at least one (Serlio s comic 
scene, Fig. 15) has been printed back 
wards. Furthermore the book has ap 
parently been carelessly edited. One 
finds spelling errors ("de rigeur", p. 36, 
"excedra", p. 94) and grammatical er 
rors (e.g., the third sentence on p. 11, 
the second sentence on p. 71). The edi 
tors should also be blamed for permitting 
Mr Mullin to indulge an irritating and 
irrelevant sense of humor. The chapter 
on American theatres is called "Yankee 
and Other Doodles"; Wagner s patron 
Ludwig II of Bavaria is usually referred 
to as "Mad Ludwig", and so forth, Missed 
entirely was an opportunity to point out 
a bit of genuine humor in the well- 
known illustration of a Roman theatre 
in the Lyons Terence of 1493. The label 
"Fornices" can indeed refer to vaults, 
as Mr Mullin indicates; but here it is 
clearly used in the sense of "brothel", 
which explains those amorous couples in 
the foreground. 

Mr Mullin himself must be blamed 
for his numerous errors of fact, espe 
cially in the chapter on American the 
atres, which seems to have been hastily 
put together. He has included appendices 



October 1970 



31 



which enable the reader to find the place, 
date, and (sometimes) architect of a 
particular theatre if only one of these 
is known. Such lists might have proved 
to be one of the most useful parts of 
the book, but unfortunately they are un 
reliable. Among the American theatres, 
for example, one finds the design of the 
Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia 
attributed to "Wignall" (i.e., Wignell) and 
Reinagle. They were the first managers 
of the theatre; the architect was said to 
be John Inigo Richards. The design of 
the Haymarket Theatre in Boston is at 
tributed to Brunei; the architect is ac 
tually unknown and was probably only 
a carpenter-builder. The Tremont The 
atre (not "Tremont Street Theatre") in 
Boston was built in 1827, not 1819, and 
its designer not mentioned by Mr 
Mullin was the important Greek Re 
vivalist Isaiah Rogers. Peter Grain, not 
Grain, was the architect of the Lafayette 
Theatre in New York. 

In some cases the dates of theatres in 
one of the lists differ from the dates of 
the same theatres in another list (e.g., 
the Beekman Street Theatre in New 
York). In Appendix II the Teatro Olim- 
pico is listed as located in Vienna, a silly 
mistake for Vicenza. Reference to easily- 



accessible sources such as Colvin s Bio 
graphical Dictionary of English Archi 
tects would have filled in some of the 
empty spaces in the lists and would have 
resolved some confusion (as in the case 
of the Royalty - later East End - The 
atre in London). 

The text and illustrations are also 
marred by errors. Fig. 215 shows the 
Park Theatre in 1821, not 1805. Fig. 
210 shows the Chestnut Street Theatre 
as altered in 1805, not 1820. The Hay- 
market Theatre watercolor is not lost 
it hangs in the office of the director 
of the Boston Public Library. Such errors 
are particularly deplorable in a text in 
tended for American students. 

Mr Mullin s book must be supplement 
ed by recent publications he had no op 
portunity to use: Brooks McNamara s 
The American Playhouse in the Eight 
eenth Century ( 1969 ) and the new vol 
umes of the London Survey treating 
Drury Lane and Covent Garden. Bamber 
Gascoigne s excellent World Theatre 
(1969) also contains new information 
on theatre architecture. Consulted to 
gether with these new studies, The De 
velopment of the Playhouse can prove 
useful, but it must be used carefully. 
Richard Stoddard, Yale University 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 18) 

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and 
My Freedom. (N.Y., 1855). Introd. by 
Philip S. Foner. xiii, 464pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1969. Paper, $3.50 

Dow, George Francis. Slave Ships and 
Slaving. (Salem, 1927). Illus. xxxv, 
349pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1970. 
Paper, $3.50 

Ellinwood, Leonard. The History of 
American Church Music. (N.Y., 1953). 
Revised Edition. Illus. 274pp. N.Y.: 
Da Capo Press, 1970. $12.50 

Green, Paul. Home to My Valley. [North 
Carolina folklore]. 140pp. Chapel Hill: 
University of North Carolina Press, 
1970. $5.95 



Grove, Lilly, Dancing: a Handbook of 

the Terpsichorean Arts . . . (London, 

1895). Illus. 454pp. Detroit: Singing 

Tree Press, 1969. $13.50 
Haining, Peter, ed. The Satanists. [an 

Anthology!. 249pp. N.Y.: Taplinger 

Publishing Co., 1970. $5.95 
Henry, Edward Lamson. Life and Work, 

1841-1919, by Elizabeth McCausland. 

(Albany, 1945). Illus. 381pp. N.Y.: 

Da Capo Press, 1970. $15. 
Hyamson, Albert M. A Dictionary of 

English Phrases. (N.Y., 1922). 365pp. 

Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1970. $12. 
Lee, Richard Henry. Letters. Collected 

and Edited by James Curtis Ballagh. 

(N.Y., 1911-14). 2 vols. N.Y.: Da 

Capo Press, 1970. $39.50 
Miles, Josephine. Style and Proportion: 

the Language of Prose and Poetry. 



32 



AN&Q 



212pp. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 
1970. $7. 

Parry, R. H., ed. The English Civil War 
and After, 1642-1658. 127pp. Berke 
ley: University of California Press, 
1970. $7. 

Paul, Sherman, ed. Six Classic American 
Writers: an Introduction [Franklin, 
Irving, Emerson, Longfellow, Thoreau, 
Whitman]. (First published in Univ. 
of Minn. Pamphlets on American 
Writers series). 271pp. Minneapolis: 
University of Minnesota Press, 1970. 
$8.50 

Pierce, Bessie Louise. Public Opinion 
and the Teaching of History in the 
United States. (N.Y., 1926). 380pp. 
N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. $15. 

Stone, William L., trans. Letters of 
Brunswick and Hessian Officers Dur 
ing the American Revolution. (Albany, 
1891). 258, x pp. N.Y.: Da Capo 
Press, 1970. $13.50 

Taylor, Isaac. Names and Their Histories 
. . . 2d Edn, Rev. (London, 1898). 
400pp. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 

1969. $13.75 

Tinker, Edward Larocque. Lafcadio 
Hearn s American Days. (N.Y., 1924). 
IIlus. 382pp. Detroit: Gale Research 
Co., 1970. $15. 

Tower, Charlemagne. The Marquis de 
La Fayette in the American Revolu 
tion ... 2d Edn (Phila., 1901). Illus. 
2 vols. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. 
$37.50 

Towner, Wesley. The Elegant Auction 
eers. Completed by Stephen Varble. 
[History of Art Auction in America]. 
Illus. 632pp. N.Y.: Hill & Wang, 1970. 
$10. 

Walcott, Fred G. The Origins of Culture 
and Anarchy: Matthew Arnold & Popu 
lar Education in England, xxiii, 161pp. 
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 

1970. $7.50 

Warren, Charles. History of the Harvard 
Law School, and of Early Legal Con 
ditions in America. (N.Y., 1908). Illus. 
2 vols. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. 
$37.50 

(Williams). Conarroe, Joel. William 
Carlos Williams "Paterson": Language 
and Landscape. 177pp. Phila.: Uni 
versity of Pennsylvania Press, 1970. 
$6.95 



( ). Wagner, Linda Welshiiner. The 
Prose of William Carlos Williams. 
234pp. Middletown: Wesleyan Uni 
versity Press, 1970. $8. 

Wilson, Charles. Queen Elizabeth and 
the Revolt of the Netherlands. 168pp. 
Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1970. $6.95 

Yount, lohn T. Bottle Collectors Hand 
book & Pricing Guide. Rev. Edn. Illus. 
145pp. San Angelo, Texas: Educator 
Books, Inc. [P.O. Box 3862. Zip 76901], 
1970. Paper, $3.95 



STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, AND 

CIRCULATION (Act of October 23, 1962: Section 
4369, Title 39, United States Code). 1. Date of 
filing 30 September 1970. 2. Title of publica 
tion American Notes & Queries. 3. Frequency 
of issue Monthly, except July and August. 

4. Location of known office of publication 
31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn., 06515. 

5. Location of the headquarters or general 
business office of the publisher 31 Alden 
Road, New Haven, Conn., 06515. 6. Names and 
addresses of publisher, editor, and managing 
editor: Publisher & Editor Lee Ash, 31 Alden 
Road, New Haven, Conn., 06515; Managing 
Editor Marian Neal Ash, 31 Alden Road, 
New Haven, Conn., 06515. 7. Owner (If owned 
by a corporation, its name and address must 
be stated and also immediately thereunder the 
names and addresses of stockholders owning or 
holding 1 percent or more of total amount of 
stock. If not owned by a corporation, the names 
and addresses of the individual owners must be 
given. If owned by a partnership or other un 
incorporated jit in, its name and address, as well 
as that of each individual must be given) Lee 
Ash, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn., 06515; 
Marian Neal Ash, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, 
Conn., 06515. S . Known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 
1 percent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities (If there are none, 
so state) None. 9. Paragraphs 7 and 8 include, 
in cases where the stockholder or security holder 
appears upon the books of the company as 
trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the 
name of the person or corporation for whom 
such trustee is acting, also the statements in the 
two paragraphs show the affiant s full knoiuledge 
and belief as to the circumstances and conditions 
under which stockholders and security holders 
who do not appear upon the books of the com 
pany as trustees, hold stock and securities in a 
capacity other than that of a bona fide owner. 
Names and addresses of individuals who are 
stockholders of a corporation which is itself 
a stockholder or holder of bonds, mortgages, or 
other securities of the publishing corporation 
have been included in Paragraphs 7 and 8 
when the interests of such individuals are 
equivalent to 1 percent or more of the total 
amount of the stock or securities of the pub 
lishing corporation. 

I certify that the statements made by me 
above are correct and complete. 

Lee Ash 
Editor & Publisher 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume IX Number 3 November 1970 



DEC! 1970 

NOTES 

QUERIES %. REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEW 

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Barnum, P. T. The Humbugs of the 
World. (1865). 315pp. Detroit: Sing 
ing Tree Press, 1970. $8.50 

Bibliography of Old Norse-Icelandic 
Studies, 1969. Ed. by Hans Bekker- 
Nielsen. 76pp. Copenhagen: Munks- 
gaard, 1970. Price ? 

Birmingham, John. Our Time Is Now: 
Notes From the High School Under 
ground. Introd. by Kurt Vonnegut, jr. 
262pp. N.Y.: Praeger, 1970. $5.95 

(Bougainville). Hammond, L. Davis, 
ed. News From New Cythera: a Re 
port of Bougainville s Voyage, 1766- 
1769. (Publication of the James Ford 
Bell Library). Map & Facs. 66pp. 
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota 
Press, 1970. $6.50 

Brown, A. E.; & Jeffcott, H. A., jr. Ab 
solutely Mad Inventions. Compiled 
from the Records of the U.S. Patent 
Office. (1932: Beware of Imitations). 
Illus. 125pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications. 
1970. Paper, $1.50 

Byron, Ceorge Gordon Lord. Werner: 
a Tragedy. A Facsimile of the Acting 
Version of William Charles Macready, 
With an Introd. by Marvin Spevack. 
Facsimile, xxiv, 188pp. Munich: Wil- 
helm Fink Verlag, 1970. Paper DM 
28,-. 

Clark, Crahame. Aspects of Prehistory. 
Illus. 161pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1970. $5.95 

Curwen, Samuel, Journal and Letters of, 
1775-1783. Ed. by George Atkinson 
Ward. (Boston, 1864). 678pp. N.Y.: 
Da Capo Press, 1970. $25. 

Edward the Confessor, by Frank Barlow. 
Maps & fold, genealogical table, xxviii, 
375pp. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1970. $10.95 



Erdmann, Kurt. Seven Hundred Yearn 
of Oriental Carpets. Ed. by Hanna 
Erdmann. Trans, by May H. Seattle 
& Hildegard Herzog. Profusely Illus,, 
incl. Color Plates. 238pp. Berkeley: 
University of California Press, 1970. 
$40. 

Forney, John W. Anecdotes of Public 
Men. (1873; 1881). 2 vols. N.Y.: 
Da Capo Press, 1970. $35. 

(Freethinkers). Proceedings and Ad 
dresses at the Freethinkers Conven 
tion, Held at Watkins, N.Y., 1878. 
(1878). 398pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1970. $17.50 

Greene, Jack P., ed. The Nature of Col 
ony Constitutions. Two Pamphlets on 
the Wilkes Fund Controversy in South 
Carolina, by Sir Egerton Leigh and 
Arthur Lee. 232pp. Columbia: Uni 
versity of South Carolina Press, 1970. 
$7.95 

(Housman). Leggett, B. J. Housman s 
Land of Lost Content: a Critical Study 
of "A Shropshire Lad". 160pp. Knox- 
ville: University of Tennessee Press, 
1970. $5.95 

Jenkins, Joseph F., ed. Protecting Our 
Heritage: a Discourse on Fire Protec 
tion and Prevention in Historic Build 
ings and Landmarks. (2d Edn; NFPA- 
SPP-15). Prepared by the NFPA Com 
mittee on Libraries, Museums, and 
Historic Buildings. Illus. 39pp. [Nash 
ville, Tenn.: American Association for 
State and Local History, 132 Ninth 
Ave., No.], 1970. $2. 

Leavitt, John F. Wake of the Coasters. 
(American Maritime Library, Vol. II). 
Illus. Middletown, Ct.: Published for 
The Marine Historical Society, by 
Wesleyan University Press, 1970. $9.95 

(Continued on p. 47) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including ar^nal index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies 750. Printed in the U.S.A. by 
United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. Second-class postage 
paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies; indexed in Book Review Index; included in The Year s Work in 
English Studies, and Annual Bibliography of English Language and 
Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included in the Annual MLA Inter 
national Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Victorian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

THE SUMMONING OF 
DESDEMONA: OTHELLO, 
V.ii.1-82 

I WANT TO CALL ATTENTION here to 

a feature of Othello which has not 
been brought forward in the crit 
icism, and which helps us to ap 
preciate not only the way in which 
Shakespeare imagined one of his 
greatest scenes but the way in 
which he imagined one of his great 
est plays. I am referring to the simi 
larity between the posture of 
Othello and Desdemona in V.ii 
and the posture of Death and his 
victims in the art and literature of 
the Later Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance. Let me illustrate. 

The 15th and 16th centuries, with 
their allegorical predilections, came 
to make much of the moment of 
death; and as literary and graphic 
representations poured forth the 
characters involved in this moment, 
namely Death and his victim, de 
veloped a number of standardized 
features. For instance, Death is 
God s messenger dispatched in ret 
ribution for man s sinfulness; he 
appears suddenly beside his prey, 
unannounced as it were; he will 
not be put off by pleas for mercy, 



by bribes, laments, weeping; he 
is not inclined to let men tarry; 
that is to say, he may give them a 
brief interval to make some final 
preparations, but that is all and not 
to be counted on; and finally, he 
performs his function in a dispas 
sionate, objective way. The fea 
tures of the victim are, o course, 
implied in this: He is a sinful mortal 
unmindful of God s laws; he is 
taken unawares; he pleads for 
mercy, or perhaps even attempts 
to bribe Death; and finally, he 
fails. Here is the way it goes in 
the most popular of the morality 
plays, Everyman: 

God. I perceive here in my majesty, 
How that all creatures be to me 

unkind . . . 
They fear not my 
righteousness . . . 

I must do justice . . . 
Where art thou, Death, thou 

mighty messenger? 
Death. Almighty God, I am here at Thy 

will, 

Thy commandment to fulfil. 
God. Go thou to Everyman, 

And show him in my name 
A pilgrimage he must on him 

take, 
Which he in no wise may 

escape; 
And that he bring with him a 

sure reckoning 
Without delay or any tarrying. 

(God withdraws.) 
Death. Lord, I will in the world run 

over all, 
And cruelly search out both great 

and small . . . 
Lo, yonder I see Everyman 

walking; 

Full little he thinketh on my 
coming. 

A moment later Death tells Every 
man that he is going to take him 
on a long journey" and continues: 

Death. Make preparation that we 

be on the way . . . 

Everyman. What messenger art thou? 
Death. I am Death . . . 



36 



Everyman. 



Death. 
Everyman. 

Death. 
Everyman. 



Death. 



O Death, thou comest when 

I had thee least in mind; 
In thy power it lieth me to 

save, 
Yet of my goods will I give 

thee, if ye will be kind, 
Yea, a thousand pound shalt 

thou have, 
But defer this matter till 

another dayl 
Everyman, it may not be by 

no way . . . 

Come, do not tarry! 
Alas, shall I have no longer 

respite? . . . 
Spare me till I be provided 

of remedy. 
TJiee availeth not to cnj, 

weep, and pray, 
But haste thee lightly that 

thou go the journey . . . 
O Gracious God, in the high 

sea celestial, 
Have mercy on me in this 

my need. 

wither shall I flee? . . . 
Now, gentle Death, spare me 

till to-morrow . . . 
Nay, thereto I will not 

consent . . - 1 



The parallels with Shakespeare 
immediately suggest themselves: 
Othello enters to Desdemona talk 
ing of "the cause" (I); 2 he regards 
himself as a minister of "Justice" 
( 17) about to remove a sinful mor 
tal from the world. With regard 
specifically to this, he appears to 
take the woman completely by sur 
prise: "Talk you of killing? (33) 
she asks, looking up at him as he 
stands over her. She pleads to him 
for "mercy" (58) and cries out, 
as does Everyman, "O, Heaven, 
have mercy on me" (57) but to no 
avail. Othello offers her a moment 
or two to prepare herself, but no 
more: *. . . confess thee freely . . . 
Thou art to die" (53, 56). Even 
her desperate, pathetic "Kill me to 
morrow; let me live to-night" (80), 
another line which recalls the very 



AN&Q 

phraseology of Everyman, cannot 
affect him. He will perform the 
function he feels has been assigned 
him, and that is all there is to it. 
"It is too late" (82), he announces. 

Now let me emphasize that I am 
not talking here about direct in 
fluences; I am not suggesting that 
Othello, V.ii.1-82 is modeled upon 
Everyman, 22-183, or upon any 
other specific work, although it is 
of some interest to note that the 
earlier play went through a num 
ber of editions during the sixteenth 
century and was probably availa 
ble to Shakespeare. 3 What I am 
suggesting, rather, is precisely what 
I suggested at the outset, namely, 
that Shakespeare s imagination was 
working this way. And surely the 
discovery of recent Othello crit 
icism that there are numerous 
imaginative affinities between 
Othello and the moralities 4 makes 
what I am suggesting perfectly 
feasible. For most of us now, it is 
pretty certain that the playwright 
was under the spell of his allegori 
cal heritage when he wrote Othello. 
But I have still to point up the 
dramatic significances of what I 
have chosen to call "the summon 
ing of Desdemona". 

In the first place, by lighting his 
scene up in this way, Shakespeare 
impresses upon his audience the 
monstrousness, or "absurdity", of 
what is happening. For the fact is, 
of course, Othello is not Death; 
he is not God s mighty messenger, 
for all he strives to resemble him; 
he is, rather, lago s dupe, a kind of 
tragic fool. Then too, there is mon 
strousness in the fact that Desde 
mona is placed in the posture of 
the sinful mortal when she is in 
reality not only innocent but the 
one character in the play who is, 



November 1970 



37 



from an imaginative standpoint, 
touched with divinity. And when 
one recalls lago s imaginative kin 
ship with Satan or the Vice 5 the 
monstrousness of the scene be 
comes even more apparent. To put 
it in a nutshell, "the summoning 
of Desdemona" is Shakespeare s 
poetical method of stressing the 
reversal of order in the play s 
last act. 

Secondly, I believe that much 
of what can be described as the 
sheer terror of this scene derives 
from the close imaginative connec 
tion between Othello and the Sum- 
moner. 6 Everyone senses the 
strangeness, even the weirdness, 
that surrounds the figure of the 
Moor as he approaches Desdemona 
with his taper; nor is it long in the 
play before Desdemona under 
scores this herself with: *1 fear 
you", and "you re fatal", and *I 
feel fear" (37-39). With the al 
legorical influence in mind, one 
more deeply appreciates the source 
of this "fear". 

Again, the enormity of what 
is occurring before us is increased 
significantly by the fact that Des 
demona does not "die well", does 
not die as summoned Christians 
were "supposed" to die in Renais 
sance times. Such books as Lerne 
to Dye and Ars Moriendi, as well 
as the later Discourse of Death 
or Disce Mori, make it plain that 
sixteenth-century Englishmen were 
extremely sensitive to the way in 
which one behaved oneself in the 
presence of the Summoner. To 
plead, to weep, to cry out and 
squirm as Desdemona does was a 
hideous business indeed, and one 
of the truly pitiable and tragic 
facts of the play is that a woman 
. who deserves a 



better death, is more or less forced 
by her terrible Summoner-Husband 
to die in the way that she does. 

From a number of important an 
gles, then, "the summoning of Des 
demona" in V.ii deepens the trag 
ic irony, as well as the metaphori 
cal richness, of Shakespeare s 
masterpiece. 

M. D. Faber 

University of Victoria 
Victoria, B.C. 



1. The quotations are from lines 22- 
183 of the play. I am using John 
Gassner s modernized version (Ban 
tam Books, 1963), though I would 
emphasize that the editions listed in 
the Short-Title Catalogue, the editions 
available to Shakespeare, contain the 
same material. Other influential works 
which contain depictions of Death 
and his victim essentially similar to 
the one presented here are Sebastian 
Brant s The Ship of Fools, ed. Edwin 
H. Zeydel (New York, 1944), pp. 
279-283; Death and the Plowman, 
ed. Ernest N. Dirrmann (Chapel Hill, 
1958), pp. 1-37; The Dance of Death, 
ed. Francis Douce (London, 1833), 
pp. 49, 95, 231, 253 ff. All the italics 
in the quotations from Everyman 
have been added by me with the in 
tention of stressing the parallels with 
Shakespeare. 

2. I am using Neilson and Hill s edition 
of The Complete Plays and Poems 
(Cambridge, Mass., 1942). 

3. See note one. 

4. See, for example, Bernard Spivack s 
Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil 
(New York, 1958). 

5. See Spivack. 

6. The reader may be interested to note 
that there was actually current in 
sixteenth-century Europe statuary 
which depicted Death or the Sum- 
rnoner as a Negro! See The Dance 
of Death, p. 230. 



38 



AN&Q 



GEOFFREY OF VINSAUF AND 
ERASMUS DE COPIA 

IN AN EXCELLENT ARTICLE, George 

Engelhardt has pointed out that 
Erasmus* De Copia (1512) relies 
heavily on the medieval arts of 
discourse, and that Erasmus, in a 
letter to Cornelius Gerard, refers 
by name to Geoffrey of Vinsauf, 
placing him in the distinguished 
company of Horace and Quintili- 
an. 1 1 believe that it can be demon 
strated, with at least a high degree 
of probability, that a brief passage 
in the De Copia is derived from 
Geoffrey of Vinsauf s Poetria Nova 
(ca. 1210 ). 2 

Erasmus concludes a rapid clas 
sification of metaphors in this man 
ner: "It will likewise not be found 
out of place to point out that a 
metaphor is sometimes found . . . 
in a single verb, as, a lifetime flies 
away, the years glide by; sometimes 
something is added to explain the 
metaphor, he inflamed the man 
with a passion for glory, he fired 
him with wrath". 3 We may note 
three characteristics of this state 
ment: first, it refers specifically to 
the metaphorical use of the verb; 
second, in the metaphorical appli 
cation of the verb in the first pair 
of examples, inanimate objects are 
endowed with life; third, in the 
last two examples, the metaphorical 
use of the verb is "explained" 
by the addition of a modifier. 

These same points are developed 
in great detail in Geoffrey s ex 
planation of metaphor: 

Make apt metaphorical use of a word 
which is used literally to express a sim 
ilar relationship. Assume you wish to 
say this: "Springtime adorns the land; 
the first flowers shoot up; the time 



grows pleasant; storms cease; the sea 
is calm; there is motion without uproar; 
valleys lie low; mountains tower erect". 
Ask yourself what words describing hu 
man attributes may properly be applied: 
adorning, you paint; the beginning of 
birth, you are born; pleasant speech, 
you allure; ceasing all activity, you 
sleep; motionless, you stand fixed; lying 
low, you recline; shooting into the air, 
you arise. Hence the words will have 
savor if you say: "Springtime paints the 
ground with flowers; birds are born; the 
quiet season allures; the calming storms 
sleep; the ocean stands still as if immo 
bile; the low valleys lie; the erect moun 
tains rise up". It is more pleasing to apply 
human characteristics in such a way. 
examples of the process.] That the meta 
phorical application of the verb may 
be more polished, let not the verb come 
with one noun as its only companion; 
give it an adjective which will fully 
assist the verb and clear away the 
clouds from it, if there be any. If not, 
let it throw light abundantly on and 
through the verb. Thus, it is not suffi 
ciently clear if I say The laws are pliable 
[Jura mollescunt] or The laws are rigid 
[Here Geoffrey gives many further 
[ Jura rigent], for the metaphorical use of 
the verb is as it were hidden under a 
cloud. 4 And since the verb so placed 
remains in darkness, the adjective helps 
and illuminates it. Rather say, The dis 
pensing laws are pliable; the strict laws 
are unbending. 5 

Before we can determine wheth 
er this passage served as Erasmus 
source, we must consider a passage 
from Quintilian: 

As an example of a necessary metaphor 
I may quote the following usages in 
vogue with peasants when they call a 
vinebud gemma, a gem (what other term 
is there which they could use?), or speak 
of the crops being thirsty or the fruit 
suffering. For the same reason we speak 
of a hard or rough man, there being no 
literal term for these temperaments. On 
the other hand, when we say that a 
man is kindled to anger or on fire with 
greed or that he has fallen into error, 
we do so to enhance our meaning. 6 



November 1970 



39 



It will be noted that here, too, 
there are verbs used metaphorically 
(sitire segetes; fructus laborare) to 
give life to inanimate objects; and 
that metaphorical verbs are accom 
panied by a modifier (incensum 
ira; inflammatum errore). Can Eras 
mus be simply commenting on the 
various metaphors in this passage? 7 
I do not believe so: Geoffrey is ex 
plicitly showing the would-be 
writer how to use a verb meta 
phorically; 8 and Geoffrey explicit 
ly discusses how to clarify the ver 
bal metaphor by adding a modi 
fier. 9 As far as I have been able 
to determine, nowhere do classical 
rhetoricians discuss these matters 
at such length. Finally, it will be 
noted that in the passages in ques 
tion, Geoffrey and Erasmus are 
concerned with classifying meta 
phors along quite different lines 
than is Quintilian. It seems reason 
able to suppose that Geoffrey is 
Erasmus source. 

Ernest Gallo 

Moody Bridge Road 
Hadley, Mass. 



1. "Mediaeval Vestiges in the Rhetoric 
of Erasmus", PMLA, LXIII (June, 
1948), 741. 

2. The text of the Poetria Nova is print 
ed in Edmund Faral, Les arts pdeti- 
ques du XII* et du XIII* siecle (Paris, 
1923), pp. 197-262, 

3. De Copia, I. 17, trans. D. King and 
H, D. Rix (Milwaukee, 1963), p. 29. 

4. Geoffrey does not mean that the sen 
tence is unclear, but rather that it is 
not here immediately obvious that 
to be pliable is being used metaphori 
cally. 

5. Poetria Nova, lines 780-856, in Faral, 
pp. 221-223; my translation. 

6. Institutio Oratoria, VIII. 6. 6-7, trans. 
H. E, Butler (London, 1921), III, 



THE OBVIOUS MEANING OF 
CANDIDAS BIG RED SHEEP 

WILLIAM F. BOTOGLIA lists and 
evaluates scholarly interpretations 
of the meaning of Voltaire s big 
red Eldoradan sheep, noting that 
William Price sees the sheep sym 
bolically, as "Frederick s (the king 
of Eldorado s) literary works en 
cased in red-bound sheepskin, 
which Voltaire (Candide) is forced 
to surrender at Francfort (Suri 
nam)". 1 Bottiglia rightly condemns 
Prices convenient and inconsistent 
critical approach while admitting 
that the sheep do serve a double 
purpose: 

On the one hand they definitely have a 
literal value, for they spring from the 
author s interest in touches of pictur 
esque realism. As Morize points out . . . 
Garcilasco describes a beast of burden 
called the "huanacu" and notes that the 
wild species is "de couleur baie". The 
Encydopddie, moreover in volumes pub 
lished in 1765, applies the colours 
"rougeatre" and "roux" to the fleece of 
sheep. 2 



303-305. For the four classes of meta 
phor (application of a term from ani 
mate to animate s inanimate to inani 
mate, animate to inanimate, and in 
animate to animate), see Quintilian, 
VIII. 6. 9-12. 

7. Erasmus refers to this passage from 
Quintilian earlier in De Copia, I. 17 
(King and Rix, p. 29). 

8. There is only a brief reference in 
Quintilian to the fact that "A noun or 
a verb is transferred from the place to 
which it properly belongs to another 
where there is either no literal term 
or the transferred is better than the 
literal (VIE. 6. 5), 

9. In the passage quoted above from 
the Poetria Nova, the modifier is an 
adjective; Geoffrey gives examples 
more similar to those of Erasmus 
in Poetria Nova, lines 902-907. 



40 

After exploring this concrete half 
o the "double purpose", Bottiglia 
offers his own symbolic level of 
the sheep s meaning, suggesting 
that they are the unreal variety 
that "go grazing through pastoral 
romances whose heroes, like Can- 
dide in Chapter XIX, rapturously 
carve the names or initials of their 
sweethearts on trees *. Further he 
suggests that the red sheep are men 
tioned three times in connection 
with the absent Cunegonde, that 
this association of sheep with Can- 
dide s "dream of amorous bliss . . . 
strengthens the possibility of a 
symbolic overtone . 

All Professor Bottiglia and others 
say may be true enough; however 
the edge of Voltaire s big-sheep 
satire cuts another, more practical 
way. Each time we observe the 
sheep in Eldorado, they are at 
work pulling, being ridden, or 
carrying packs: 

The roads were covered or rather orna 
mented with carriages of brilliant ma 
terial and shape, carrying men and wom 
en ... rapidly drawn along by large 
red sheep . . . [gros moutons rouges: 
"fat red sheep** is a better reading here] 

After this long conversation the good 
old man ordered a carriage to he har 
nessed with six sheep ... to take them 
to court . . . the six sheep galloped off 
and in less than four hours they [Can- 
dide and Cacambo] reached the King s 
palace. . . . 

There were two large red sheep [grande 
moutons rouges] saddled and bridled for 
them to ride on when they had passed 
the mountains, twenty sumpter sheep 
laden with provisions, thirty carrying 
presents . . . fifty laden with gold, pre 
cious stones and diamonds. 3 

The size, strength, and speed of the 
sheep are greatly exaggerated, as 
is everything in the Utopian El 
dorado; but the very fact that El- 



AN&Q 

doradans have succeeded in train 
ing the proverbially dumbest of 
animals to do anything at all rea 
sonable accentuates the accom 
plishments of a people undevoted 
to outer-world values. 

Using a simile of sheep the 18th- 
century German satirist Georg 
Lichtenberg neatly sums up the 
impossibility of changing a seem 
ingly unalterable nature: 

There is something in the character 
of every man which cannot be altered: 
It is the skeleton of his character. Try 
ing to change it is like trying to train 
sheep to pull a cart. 4 

To find sheep that might learn to 
lead dependably, rather than sim 
ply follow or chaotically and help 
lessly go their own silly way, pleas 
antly boggles normal expectation. 
However, for a people capable of 
building the royal palace from an 
unknown material superior to West- 
phalian gold and gems and who 
can construct on short notice a 
machine to hoist their visitors over 
mountains, it might be easy to 
train an animal whose inability to 
learn and general frivolousness is 
legendary in the real world. 

No doubt as Bottiglia says, Vol 
taire was striving for "picturesque 
realism" in his description of El 
dorado. And although he might be 
almost literally describing the 
brownish-red llama, the camellike 
beast of burden of the Andes, when 
he speaks of the sheep, he does 
not call it "llama", or Tiuanacu" or 
vicuna or any make-believe name 
he might have; only "mouton". 5 
Surely in describing the excellent 
abilities of even the lowly Eldora- 
dan sheep, Voltaire helps establish 
the superiority of his Utopian crea 
tion over the trivial but common 



November 1970 



assumptions of our irrational "out 
side * world. 

Ed Kelly 

University of Rochester 
Rochester, New York 



1. Voltaire s Candide: Analysis of a Clas 
sic, Vol. VII of Studies on Voltaire 
and the Eighteenth Century, ed. The 
odore Bestennan (Les Delices, Ge 
neva: Institut et Musee Voltaire, 1959), 
Ch. V, pp. 123-125. Bottiglia quotes 
William R. Price, The Symbolism of 
Voltaire s Novels with Special Ref 
erence to Zadig (N.Y., 1911), pp. 
209, 211. 

2. Bottiglia cites Andre Morize, Candide 
ou I Optisme (Paris, 1913)., who 
quotes Garcilasco de la Vega, His- 
toire des Yncas, Rois du Perou, etc., 
trans. Jean Beaudoin (Amsterdam, 
1737), p. 111. 

3. Candide or Optimism, ed. Norman L. 
Torrey (N.Y, 1946), pp. 53, 58-60. 

4. Aphorismen, ed. A. Leitzraann. 5 vols. 
(Berlin, 1902-08) III, 201. 

5. The Lexicon de la Lengua del Peru 
(1560) cites llama along with paco, 
guanuco, vicuna, and ovefa (sheep). 



QUERIES 



Marchettfs case of the pigs tail 
"No chapter on Foreign Bodies 
would be complete without an al 
lusion to de Marchetti s case of the 
pig s tail. The ingenious means 
used for its removal excite our ad 
miration, even after the lapse of 
nearly three centuries", thus said 
J. Rawson Pennington in A Trea 
tise on the Diseases and Injuries of 
the Rectum, Anus, and Pelvic Col 
on (Phila.: Blaldston, 1923; p. 216, 
incl. port, of Pietro de Marchetti, 
1589-1673). May I have the origi 
nal citation in Marchetti s writings 
and a brief description of the case? 



Pennington cites a Paris, 1851 edi 
tion of Marchetti, Recueil d Ob- 
ser vat ions Rares de Medecine et 
de Chirurgie. Chaloner Gordon., 
St Louis, Mo. 

Medical Americana With the 
support of Mr Robert B. Austin, I 
am preparing a supplement to his 
Early American Medical Imprints, 
1663-1820 (Washington: National 
Library of Medicine, 1961), which 
will list imprints that were un 
known to him when his bibliogra 
phy went to press, or the existence 
of which he was unable to verify. 
I should be grateful to any of your 
readers who could send me details, 
including the location of at least 
one copy, of any medical work in 
its wider sense (as defined in Mr 
Austin s "Introduction") published 
in the present United States before 
1821 and not included in his list. I 
should also be glad to learn of any 
entries in the earlier list in need 
of correction. John B. Blake, 
Ph.D., Chief, History of Medicine 
Division, National Library of Medi 
cine, Bethesda, Man/land 20014 

"Curtain lecture Early use of 
the term, its origin, and meaning. 

David Turnbull, Boston, Mass. 

"Sore as a pup" This compari 
son has been long known to me in 
oral use, but I have only now seen 
it in print. Rex Stout uses it in a 
tale in J. F. McComas, Crimes and 
Misfortunes, N.Y. [1970], p. 405: 
"Why don t he throw in and draw 
five new cards? He s sore as a pup". 
The meaning of the comparison is 
obvious enough, but is a pup par 
ticularly conspicuous for bad tem 
per? I should be glad for more ex 
amples in print and for comment. 

Archer Taijlor, Berkeleij, Calif. 



42 



AN&Q 



REPLIES 

"Golfers prayer (VIII: 54) It 
is easy to present the accurate ori 
gin of this curio-shoppe petition: 
it derives from the "Fisherman s 
prayer" ("Lord, grant that I may 
sometime catch a fish so large, that 
even I, in telling of it afterward, 
will never have to lie"). The real 
problem is where the "Fisherman s 
prayer" came from. Robert F. 
Fleissner, Wilberforce, Ohio 

Poe on furniture (VIII: 88) In 
BrylKon Fagin s The Histrionic Mr 
Poe (Baltimore, 1949) there is 
some information on Poe s decora 
tive taste. Furniture arranged in 
curved or straight lines was un 
pleasant to Poe s perception. Mini 
mum of furniture is preferred rath 
er than too much furniture. Es 
sential ingredients are carpets, rugs, 
certain colors and patterns. "In 
his essay he [Poe] was intent on 
attacking the bad taste of the Amer 
ican parvenu with whom costly 
clutter and flashiness passed for 
aristocratic elegance; in his stories 
his aim is to provide appropriate 
settings for Gothic characters and 
plots". Fagin goes on to say that 
Poe was influenced in his taste 
for furniture by the furniture ac 
quisitions of John Allan, a Rich 
mond merchant, who adopted 
Edgar. One of Poe s biographers, 
James H. Whitty, believes that John 
Allan s furnishings "might be found 
the germ for some tastes displayed 
in after years, his minute de 
scriptions of draperies and of fur 
niture". Jerome Drost, SUNY 
at Buffalo, JV.Y. 

To "suck the hind teat" (VIII: 136) 
This phrase developed from 



observation of suckling pigs. Sows 
have twelve, fourteen, or (rarely) 
sixteen teats, and those at the back 
produce less milk and generally are 
first to cease lactation, so the young 
forced to feed there are usually 
runts. The phrase has been in oral 
circulation for at least fifty years. 
Because it was long considered 
vulgar, printed examples are rare: 
Walter Van Tilburg Clark, The Ox- 
Bow Incident (1940; p. 244): " Well , 
he said, if you like to suck the 
hind tit . . / "; John Nance Garner, 
quoted in Time (8 Nov. 1963, p. 
47): "I don t want these kids around 
here to suck on a hind tit when it 
comes to getting a good education". 

Mac E. Barrick, Shippensburg 
(Pa.) State College 

Largest non-polar glacier (IX: 7) 

My great-aunt, Fanny Bullock 
Workman, describes "The Con 
quest of the Great Rose, or Sia- 
chen", in her book Two Summers 
in the Ice-Wilds of Eastern Kara- 
koran (N.Y., n.d. [1917?]), the 
story of an expedition she and her 
husband undertook in 1911. She so 
designates the Siachen glacier. I 
do not have the volume at hand 
and cannot answer the other ques 
tions but perhaps another reader 
will confirm and amplify, or come 
up with another answer. I d like 
to know too. R. J. Bullock-Tel- 
man, Mexico City, D.F. 



always welcomes Notes 
of literary, historical, biblio 
graphical, folk, natural history, 
or antiquarian interest. 



November 1970 



43 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

The second edition of John Chad- 
wick, The Decipherment of Linear 
B (Cambridge: At the University 
Press, 1970; 164pp, ; $1.65), pulls 
together the latest studies on My 
cenaean Greek. Plainly stated, and 
with the support of a decade and 
a half of scholarship, Chadwick s 
work remains the point of depar 
ture for the study of the primitive 
Greek language and for Mycenaean 
studies in general. 

When AN&Q falls behind its pub 
lishing schedule we take heart 
from such stories as that in the 
New York Times of 21 June: "Schol 
ars Now Work on *H* in Welsh 
Dictionary After 50 Years", a task 
that the editors hope to bring to 
completion in another 15 years. 
"Richard Thomas, the editor, who 
is 61 years old, has been involved 
with it for more than 30 years* . 
Headquarters are at the National 
Library of Wales in Aberystwyth. 

Next to the item noted above, the 
NYT cites a new historical diction 
ary of the Italian language being 
prepared by the Accademia della 
Crusca, which is expected to be 
completed in 30 or 40 volumes by 
the year 2021. 

A famous Tasmanian librarian and 
professor, Edmund Morris Miller 
(1881-1964), is honored and me 
morialized in EMM.: A Handlist 
of [his] Published Works and 
Manuscripts, compiled by Linda 
Rodda (Hobart: Morris Miller Li 
brary, University of Tasmania, 



1970; port., 27pp. Price?). Librari 
an T. D. Sprod and Emeritus Pro 
fessor L. A. Triebel provide a Pref 
ace and a Tribute honoring this 
famous humanist, scholar, and li 
brarian. 

We would be more than remiss in 
this column not to call attention to 
resources for the study of Euro 
pean culture in the great American 
research libraries. The Harvard Li 
brary Bulletin, stateliest of all li 
brary house organs, often records 
major work of this sort in the mag 
nificent collections in Cambridge. 
The July 1970 issue (vol. XVIII, 
no. 3) has articles on "The French 
Text of Eleven Letters from Heine 
to His Wife (1844)", by Stuart 
Atkins and "The Hours of Isabella 
di Chiaromonte", by Brucia Witt- 
hoft. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky. 

A welcome new volume in "Ro- 
wohlts Monographien" is no. 166, 
Angelica Krogmann, Simone Weil 
(Reinbek bei Hamburg; Rowohlt 
Taschenbuch Verlag, 1970; 187pp.; 
DM3.80), a documentary biogra 
phy of one of the most productive 
thinkers of our time. Her recon 
ciliation of concepts of social jus 
tice with mysticism and inner re 
ligious experiences is an original 
and important contribution to phi- 



44 



AN&Q 



losophical literature. A contribution 
to TRowohlts Deutsche Enzyklopa- 
die ?> is no. 338, Ralf-Bodo Schmidt, 
Unternehmungsinvestitionen: Struk- 
turen Entscheidungen Kalkille 
(1970; 152pp.; DM2.80), written 
with the assistance of Jurgen Ber- 
thel. 

The second edition of W. H. G. 
Armytage, Four Hundred Years of 
English Education ( Cambridge: At 
the" University Press, 1970; 353pp.; 
$3.45), ought to be the textbook 
for the first (and perhaps only) 
required course for a teaching cer 
tificate. From Roger Ascharn s The 
Schoolmaster (1570) through the 
latest developments in Britain in 
the late 1960s we have a conspectus 
here of what has been, at least up 
to our time, the world s most ef 
fective educational system and, the 
one from which most of our tra 
ditions are derived. 

Ar ion 3; Almanach international de 
poesie (Budapest: Corvina, 1970; 
199pp. ) is a review of the status 
of poetry in our time, with special 
emphasis on the Hungarian. In 
addition to the Magyar texts, there 
are translations into all major Eu 
ropean languages. The book is il 
lustrated by leading Hungarian 
artists. 

A much-needed work is P. V. Glob, 
The Bog People (Ithaca: Cornell 
University Press, 1969), translated 
by Rupert Bruce-Miff or A It deals 
with the some 700 Iron-Age bodies 
found in bogs all over northwest 
ern Europe over the last two cen 
turies, but more particularly with 
those of Denmark. Other evidences 
for the culture of these earliest 



known Germanic peoples are ex 
amined carefully by Mr Glob. 
There are seventy-nine photographs 
and one map. 



BOOK REVIEW 

MORSE, Peter. John Sloans Prints; a 
Catalogue Raisonne of the Etchings, 
Lithographs, and Posters. With a Fore 
word by Jacob Kainen. Illus. 406pp. 
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969. 
$50, regular edition. 

Art movements nearly always get 
started as a revolt of artists against 
something already thoroughly established . 
In 1908 a group of eight American ar 
tists organized themselves under the 
name "The Eight" for an exhibition at 
the Macbeth Gallery in New York. They 
were in revolt against the domination of 
American art at the time by the stand 
ards of the National Academy, though 
their own styles of painting and their 
subject matter ranged from the romantic 
impressionism of one member, Arthur 
Davies, to the tough-minded realism that 
was more typical of the group and es 
pecially found in the work of John 
Sloan and George Luks. 

The choice of subjects by the realists 
among The Eight was often less than 
genteel, but filled with the life of New 
York streets. Unsympathetic critics, ac 
customed to the standards of the Acad 
emy, declared The Eight, and their fol 
lowers, to be an Ashcan School. The 
naming of art movements is at best a 
matter of chance, and more than one 
name applied in derision has caught on 
and stuck. So it was here, and the col 
orful sobriquet for The Eight and their 
friends remains as the catchword by 
which this group of avant garde artists 
of the time is known. Avant garde? From 
this distance in time it is difficult to 
apply the word, but they must be consid 
ered so. The revolution generated by 
the Ashcan School against the academic 
approaches to art which were then in 
vogue inaugurated an artistic exploration 



November 1970 



45 



of the everyday aspects of American life, 
urban and rural, which flourished until 
the end of the 1930s. 

John Sloan is one of the best known 
members of the Ashcan School. His sub 
jects were, typically, street scenes, back 
yards and alleyways of the city, and 
people always people. Well known 
today as a painter, he worked extensively 
in the graphic media as well. In addition 
to poster designs, illustrations for news 
papers, magazines, and limited edition 
books, he published editions of 155 sepa 
rate prints, chiefly etchings. Through his 
early experience as a newspaper illus 
trator he had acquired a facility in 
capturing the essentials of a scene or 
incident, and the narrative element was 
pronounced in his work. 

His approach to his subjects was hu 
mane: the pompous he usually deflated, 
but the humble were always sympathet 
ically treated. Despite his affinity for 
depicting the life around him (not an 
affluent life, usually) Sloan denied any 
interest in loading his subjects with "so 
cial consciousness", but found an outlet 
for his socialist sympathies in the nu 
merous illustrations he did for such peri 
odicals as The Masses. Of one etching, 
"The Women s Page" (Cat. no. 132), 
which shows a working class woman 
en deshabille reading a fashion page in 
her cluttered bedroom, Sloan says that 
it is "done with sympathy, but no social 
consciousness " (p.141). In spite of the 
disclaimer, we see again and again in 
his scenes of city life a concern with 
human situations that makes his prints 
strong social documents. 

About a 1920 etching, "Boys Sledding" 
(Cat. no. 197) Sloan said, "In going 
back over my etchings ... it seems nota 
ble that I have been more interested in 
life than in art " (p. 223). Nevertheless 
Sloan became an accomplished artist, 
"and mastered the art of the intaglio 
medium as well as painting. His earliest 
published prints, while bland and rela 
tively unsophisticated, marked his train 
ing period in the etching medium. A 
comparison of Sloan s early and late 
graphic work is intriguing for its revela 
tion of the growth of his technique and 
the broadening of his outlook. Most of 
the earliest published work, before he 
found his own idiom, was commissioned 
by A. E. Newton, of Philadelphia, and 
is reminiscent of the late 19th-century 



material that had given etching a bad 
name. Such series as "Homes of the 
Poets", "Westminster Abbey", and "The 
Poet s Portfolio", done in modest formats, 
evidently sold well in the 1890s. They 
are interesting as documents of the taste 
of the period, and because they repre 
sent Sloan s beginning efforts in the 
medium. 

It is with some relief, however, that 
we see what the journeyman etcher could 
do with a commission in 1902, to il 
lustrate a series of de luxe editions of 
the then fashionable French writer, Paul 
De Kock. Altogether Sloan produced 53 
etchings as illustrations for 16 books by 
De Kock, and the prints show the emer 
gence of the sure hand of the artist. By 
the time the De Kock series was com 
pleted (in fact, fizzled out, since editions 
de luxe did not sell so well as the pub 
lisher, Frederick Quinby, had expected), 
Sloan s characteristic style was estab 
lished. 

Sloan emerged, then, in his "New 
York City Life" series, a set of ten prints 
published 1905-06, with three titles add 
ed 1910-11. Aside from his book illus 
tration commissions and occasional por 
traits, this reportage of daily life (genre 
scenes) was the chief preoccupation in 
Sloan s graphic work, and dominated it 
until the early 1930s, when a new motif 
emerged, a series of strong female nudes. 
The "New York City Life" series and 
many subsequent single prints on the 
same topic make up the heart of Sloan s 
oeuvre. Unfortunately, the directness of 
some of Sloan s urban subjects offended 
print connoisseurs more accustomed to 
refined subjects, and his prints never sold 
particularly well. 

A valuable trait of Sloan s was his 
continuing concern with record keeping, 
so that his prints are usually documented 
extensively. Sloan retained proofs from 
many states of all his prints, and kept 
virtually all the plates on which his 
etchings were done. There was, of course, 
an economic factor here. Sloan usually 
specified an edition of 100 prints, plus 
10 artist s proofs, for each plate that 
was ready for publication, but had the 
prints pulled by his printer only as there 
was the demand for them. Since they 
sold slowly, it was necessary to preserve 
the plates for future printing, to the limit 
of the edition. Sloan also kept diaries 



46 

from as early as 1906, and these pro 
vided further documentation of the work 
on his prints. 

One man alone may do well at record 
keeping (though I suspect that many 
artists, even printmakers, would not do 
so well), but with the assistance of a 
wife like Helen Farr Sloan, who was also 
gifted with a sense of order, a virtually 
complete documentation becomes pos 
sible. Over a period of years in the late 
1940s, Sloan and his wife reviewed his 
files, expanded old notes and added new 
ones, and generally filled in the history 
of Sloan s oeuvre and his relations with 
his colleagues. 

Thus when a cataloger for Sloan s 
work - in this case his prints - came 
along, the material for a definitive work 
was available, and definitive is the word 
for the book in hand, John Sloans 
Prints, by Peter Morse. 

Mr Morse, who at the time he com 
piled the catalogue raisonne was As 
sociate Curator of Graphic Arts at the 
Smithsonian Institution, was fortunate 
to have the generous assistance of Mrs 
Sloan, who since the artist s death in 
1951 has continued to organize, refine, 
and perfect the record of her husband s 
life work. Among the effects of Sloan s 
estate were nearly all of his etching 
plates, proofs of print states, all the 
other contents of his studio including a 
variety of unused print papers, and his 
notes and diaries. A large collection of 
Sloan graphics and related material, in 
cluding impressions from most of his 
etchings and many of his drawings on 
tissue (for transfer to the etching plates) 
was acquired from the widow by the 
Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1956. 
Most of what remains in Mrs Sloan s 
possession is now managed under the 
John Sloan Trust and is deposited by 
Mrs Sloan at the Delaware Art Center, 
in Wilmington. All of this material, plus 
the vast fund of information at Mrs 
Sloan s disposal, was made available to 
Mr Morse. 

The result of this endeavor has been 
to produce a systematic, chronologically 
arranged list of all known prints a 
total of 313 etchings, lithographs, and 
linoleum cuts, and 20 poster designs 
which will serve as the guide to identi 
fying any impression of any state of a 
Sloan print. 



AN&Q 

The heart of Morse s book is, of course, 
the catalogue raisonne, but he lays the 
groundwork for it thoroughly in the 
introductory section. For each element of 
the entries in the catalog that is to fol 
low, Morse painstakingly defines terms 
and explains conventions of printmaking 
(such as what part of a print is used 
for taking measurements, or the deter 
mination of "left" and "right" in de 
scribing a print). He gives a detailed 
account of the printers of Sloan s plates 
and the bewildering variety of papers 
they used, and gives an explicit account 
ing of other technical matters to be con 
sidered in identifying a particular im 
pression. The discussion of signatures on 
Sloan prints is interesting and valuable. 
Illustrated examples of his signature and 
other inscriptions are shown, along with 
a sample of the way that Helen Farr 
Sloan will sign any approved proof that 
is pulled henceforth from an incompleted 
edition. Other notable tidbits in the 
Introduction are Morse s list of prints 
in which Sloan has introduced a self- 
portrait, and the list of prints cataloged 
which the Sloans sent to friends as 
Christmas or New Year s greetings from 
1909 to 1939. 

The Catalog section of the book be 
gins with a print done in 1888, a dry- 
point after Rembrandt which Sloan later 
described as ". , . overworked . . . looked 
like it was done inadvertently by some 
one turning on their heel . . ." (p.21). 

Each catalog entry supplies a number, 
the title, date, medium, size, and all 
known information about the number 
of states (with brief notes of distinguish 
ing characteristics of each), size of edi 
tion and whether completed, names of 
printers, existence and location of the 
printing plate and any tracings used, 
and Sloan s comments on the print, de 
rived from his diaries, notes, and previ 
ously published remarks. In addition, 
symbols for over a dozen museums and 
collections indicate the locations of im 
pressions from the various states of each 
print 

Each print is illustrated, actual size 
unless otherwise indicated, in at least 
one state (usually the published state), 
but several are reproduced in two states, 
and two of the plates are shown in four 
states of development: "Copyist at the 
Metropolitan Museum" and "Isadora 
Duncan". Typically, there may be from 



November 1970 



47 



two to eight states of proof in the de 
velopment of a Sloan etching, but in 
the case of "Isadora Duncan" the artist 
produced 29 states before the plate was 
ready for publishing! (Morse has de 
fined "state" as being "any impression 
of a print showing a deliberate change 
in a plate, distinguishing it from an 
other impression of the same plate" 
[p.2].) 

The etchings done as book illustrations 
after his early work for Newton fall into 
two groups: those for the De Kock books, 
1902-05, and the illustrations done for 
Maugham s Of Human Bondage in 1937. 
In addition to the usual full catalog 
entries for each of these illustrations, 
Morse has added a history of the ill- 
fated De Kock project "an edition de 
more than luxe", as Sloan expressed it 
in a letter to Robert Henri (p.64) - with 
a detailed account of the twelve differ 
ent limited editions which Quinby pub 
lished, and notes on some library loca 
tions of the various editions. 

Of the 313 prints made by Sloan, most 
are etchings, as we have said. Drypoint, 
aquatint, mezzotint, or engraving are 
combined with etching in a few of 
these. Ten of the prints are lithographs, 
a medium to which Sloan did not take 
readily, partly because of difficulties he 
experienced in printing them. Three of 
the prints are original linoleum block 
posters. 

The second part of die catalogue rai- 
sonne is devoted to twenty poster de 
signs (mechanically produced) that 
Sloan did in the period from 1894 to 
1921. It is believed that he designed 
more than 150 posters, but only these 
cataloged here are known. The catalog 
entries are similar to those in the print 
section of the book. Of particular interest 
are the designs done before 1900, in a 
-style reminiscent of Art Nouveau and 
The Yellow Book. 

The final section of the book is a 
documentary appendix containing three 
short writings by Sloan. The first is a 
foreword to a book about his etchings 
which was planned to be published in 
1944, but never issued. "Autobiographi 
cal Notes on Etching" is an unpublished 
manuscript based on notes taken by 
Helen Farr Sloan during a conversation 
between Sloan and Carl Zigrosser in 
1947. "The Process of Etching" is a 



step-by-step technical article which was 
first published in 1920 in The Touch 
stone. The volume concludes with a bib 
liography, indexes to titles and subjects, 
and a concordance which relates Morse s 
catalog entry numbers to those of three 
previously published lists of Sloan prints. 

A careful reading of the book is re 
warding in several ways: it is a lively 
document of Me in New York City over 
a period of three decades; it provides 
a very personal picture of one artist at 
work with images and words; and it is 
a rich source of information about tech 
nical matters of printmaking, especially 
etching. 

John Sloans Prints stands as a model 
of what the catalogue raisonne should 
be, and will be a foundation upon which 
any future study of the life and work of 
Sloan will stand. It is, indeed, "indis 
pensable to art scholars, museums, li 
braries, and dealers", as the flap on the 
dust-wrapper says. It is too expensive 
for the general art book buff, and that is 
a pity. Despite the formidable scholarly 
apparatus and the great weight of the 
volume the book is delightful because 
of its appealing subject matter, and 
should be attractive to the sophisticated 
general reader as well as the specialist. 
William B. Walker, Librarian, Li 
brary of the National Collection of Fine 
Arts and the National Portrait Gallery, 
Smithsonian Institution 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 34) 

(Lowell). Cooper, Philip. The Autobio 
graphical Myth of Robert Lowell. 
170pp. Chapel Hill: University of 
North Carolina Press, 1970. $7.50 

McKay One-Volume International En 
cyclopedia. Ed. by E. M. Horsley. 
[8th Rev. Edn of Hutchinson s New 
20th Century Encyclopedia]. Illus., 
incl. Color Plates, Maps, etc. 1118 
double-col, pp. N.Y.: David McKay 
Co., 1970. $12.95 

Maddox, George L. ed. The Domesti 
cated Drug: Drinking Among Collegi 
ans. 479pp. New Haven: College & 
University Press, 1970. Cloth, $9; Pa 
per, $4.50 



AN&Q 



Maratzek, Max. Revelations of an Opera 
Manager in 19th-century America: 
Crotchets and Quavers & Sharps and 
Plats. (1855; 1890). New Introd. by 
Charles Haywood. Illus. 2 vols, in 1, 
xxxi, 346, 94pp. N.Y.: Dover Publica 
tions, 1968. $3. 

Nash, John Henry: the Biography of a 
Career, by Robert D. Harlan. Illus. 
167pp. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1970. $7.50 

(Nearing, Scott). The Trial of Scott 
Nearing and the American Socialist 
Society . . . U.S. District Court for 
the Southern District of New York. 
(1919). 249pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1970. $12.50 

Peake, Mervyn. Titus Alone. [An aug 
mented edition, revised, with Introd. 
by Langdon Jones; being Part III of 
the Titus Groan trilogy, now first pub 
lished complete in 1970], Illus. 263pp. 
London; Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970. 
$5.95; The same. London: Penguin 
Books, 1970. Paper, $1.25 

(Peake). Gilmore, Maeve. A World 
Awatj: a Memoir of Mervyn Peake. 
Illus. 157pp. London: Victor Gollancz, 
1970. 

Pitkin, Timothy. A Political and CM 
History of the United States of Ameri 
ca ... 1793-97 . . . (New Haven, 



1828). 2 vols. N.Y.: Da Capo Press 
1970. $39.50 

Russell, John H. The Free Negro in Vir 
ginia, 1619-1865. (1913). 194pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1969. Paper, $2, 
Southwick, Albert P. Quizzism; and Its 
Key: Quirks and Quibbles From Queer 
Quarters . . . (1884). 212pp. Detroit: 
Gale Research Co., 1970. $7.50 
Tucker, George. The Valley of Shenan- 
doah; or, Memoirs of the Gray sons. 
(1824). xxxvi, 320pp. Chapel Hill: 
University of North Carolina Press, 
1970. Cloth, $7.50; Paper, $2.95 
Vaughan, Beatrice. The Old Cook s Al 
manac (1966). Illus. 198pp.; [also] 
Yankee Hill-Country Cooking (1963), 
202pp. Burlington, Vt.; The Stephen 
Greene Press, [1970]. Paper, each 
$2.95 

Wehle, Harry B. American Miniatures, 
1730-1850. One Hundred and Seventy- 
three Portraits Selected with a Descrip 
tive Account; [and] a Biographical 
Dictionary of the Artists by Theodore 
Bolton. (1927). Ports, in 49 Plates, 
incl. Color, xxv, 126pp. N.Y.: Da Capo 
Press, 1970. $17.50 

Willard, John Ware. Simon Willard and 
His Clocks. ( 1911: A History of Simon 
Willard, Inventor and Clockmaker). 
Illus. 133pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 
1968. Paper, $2.50 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume IX Number 4 December 1970 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 




AMERICAN MOTES & QUERIES 

Volume IX Number 4 December 1970 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOR REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Andrews, William. Old-Time Punish 
ments. [Torture; mostly Britain]. 
(1890). Illus. 251pp, Detroit: Sing 
ing Tree Press, 1970. $8.50 

Beckett, Samuel: His Works and His 
Critics an Essay in Bibliography, 
by Raymond Federman & John Fletch 
er. 383pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1970. $15. 

Benton, Thomas Hart, The Life of, by 
William M. Meigs. (1904). 535pp. 
N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. $19.50 

Brown, Glenn. History of the United 
States Capitol (56th Cong., 1st Sess., 
Senate Doc. No. 60. [1900-02]). Il 
lus. 2 vols. in 1. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1970. $35. 

Buhler, Kathryn C.; & Hood, Graham. 
American Silver: Garvan and Other 
Collections in the Yale University Art 
Gallery. I: New England; II: Middle 
Colonies & the South. Profusely Illus. 
2 vols. New Haven: Yale University 
Press, 1970. $35. 

Burnham, Daniel H.; & Bennett, Edward 
H. flan of Chicago. Ed. by Charles 
Moore. (1909). Profusely Illus., incl. 
Color Reproductions. 164pp. N.Y.: Da 
Capo Press, 1970. $37.50 

Calhoun, John Caldtoett, Life of, by 
William M. Meigs. (1917). Ports. 2 
vols. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. 
$37.50 

Canney, Maurice A. Encyclopaedia of 
Religions. (1921). 397 double-col, pp. 
Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1970. $15. 

Clifford, James L. From Puzzles to Por 
traits: Problems of a Literary Biog 
rapher [of Samuel Johnson, etc.]. 



151pp. Chapel Hill: University of 
North Carolina Press, 1970. $6. 
Dale, Doris Cruger. The United Nations 
Library: Its Origin and Development. 
Illus. 236pp. Chicago: American Li 
brary Association, 1970. $10. 
Daniels, Jonathan. A Southerner Dis 
covers the South (1938). New Introd. 
by the Author. 346pp. N.Y.: Da Capo 
Press, 1970. $10. 

Denhardt, Robert Moorman. The King 
Ranch Quarter Horses, and Something 
of the Ranch and the Men That Bred 
Them. Illus. 256pp. Norman: Univer 
sity of Oklahoma Press, 1970. $9.95 
Eells, Walter Crosby, et al. Academic 
Degrees: Earned and Honorary De 
grees Conferred by Institutions of 
Higher Education in the United States. 
(USOE-54008A; BuU. 1960, No. 20). 
324pp. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 
1970. $8.50 

(Flaubert). Gaultier, Jules de. Bovary- 
isrn. Trans, by Gerald M. Spring. 
173pp. N.Y.: Philosophical Library, 
1970. $8.75 

(Heraldry). Ancient and Modern Her 
aldry. An Exhibition Devised and Col 
lected by John Brooke-Little, Rich 
mond Herald of Arms of the College 
of Arms [England]. Illus. 86pp. [Lon 
don: The Tabard Press; distributed 
by The Hammond Museum, North 
Salem, Westchester County, N.Y.]. 
1970. Paper, $1. 

Hughes, John; & Breckenridge, John. 
A Discussion: Is the Roman Catholic 
Religion Inimical to Civil or Religious 
Liberty? [and] Is the Presbyterian 
Religion . . .? (Phila., 1836). 547pp. 
N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. $22.50 
(Continued on p. 63) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75tf each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies; indexed in Book Review Index; included in The Year s Work in 
English Studies, and Annual Bibliography of English Language and 
Literature, MHRA, Appropriate items included in the Annual MLA Inter- 
nxfinnal Bibliosravhv; Victorian Studies "Victorian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

ANTHONY TROLLOPE S 
THEOLOGY 

TROLLOPE PROTESTED HIS RELIGIOUS 
NEUTRALITY so much that critics 
have not looked closely at his treat 
ment of the mid- Victorian doctrinal 
dilemma. 1 It is worth noting that 
the protest was a token one. Trol- 
lope did in fact have a point of 
view and a preference. He, like 
Tennyson, came to an inadequate 
if honest answer to the question of 
the "disappearance of God". 

Trollope proclaimed his objec 
tivity in the Barsetshire novels, in 
An Autobiography, and most firmly 
in a travel book, South Africa, 
where he states, "Into religious 
opinion I certainly shall not stray 
in these pages. In my days I have 
written something about clergymen 
but never a word about religion. 
No doubt shall be thrown by me 
either upon the miracles or upon 
Colenso". 2 However, his is only a 
politic neutrality, and his need of 
a positive religion often breaks 
through his desire not to offend 
any reader. One such outburst oc 
curs in his novel about the Royalist 
revolt, La Vendee, where he ex 
coriates Robespierre s atheism in a 



rhetorical question: "Why, instead 
of the Messiah of Freedom which 
he believed himself to be, has his 
name become a byword, a re 
proach, and an enormity? Because 
he wanted faith: ... He seems 
almost to have been sent into the 
world to prove the inefficacy of 
human reason to effect human 
happiness". 3 

The specific faith which Trol 
lope adheres to is one within the 
bounds of the Anglican Church. 
His dislike of Dissenters, indeed 
of the Evangelical Movement both 
within and without the Church 
of England, is all too clear. Mr 
Slope and Mrs Proudie alone are 
enough to turn the reader against 
the Sabbatarian activities and ex 
cessive moral zeal of the Low 
Church. Mr Puddleham, the bad- 
tempered Nonconformist in The 
Vicar of Bullhampton, and that 
sadistic fanatic Mrs Bolton in John 
Caldigate render Methodism equal 
ly unpalatable to the reader. Clear 
ly, as Trollope himself admits in 
Barchester Towers, he prefers the 
"bell, book, and candle" 4 of the 
High Church movement to the ex 
cesses of Slope. Francis Arabin, 
who is so "high" that he almost 
went over to Rome, and Josiah 
Crawley, another product of La 
zarus College, Oxford, are sympa 
thetic figures, and through them 
Trollope portrays both the 
strengths and the dangers of the 
Oxford Movement. Austere, neurot 
ic, overly scrupulous, Crawley is 
not unlike the Tractarian Hurrell 
Froude. He is a good man, but a 
misguided one, and Trollope lets 
us see the perils into which his 
masochistic humility leads his fam 
ily. Trollope s full approval is re 
served for the third great division 
of Victoria s Church, the Broad 
Church. 



52 



AN&Q 



Broad Churcli doctrine is scarcely 
dealt with in the Barsetshire nov 
els, but in several other books Trol- 
lope indirectly but clearly expresses 
his own convictions. In The Ber 
trams he outlines young George 
Bertram s religious thinking, and in 
George s struggle to choose a pro 
fession, his mistakes, and the seri 
ousness of his thinking, perhaps 
a reflection of the author himself. 
The Thirty-nine Articles come in 
for a good deal of abuse which is 
only half humorous. When George 
tells a clergyman friend that he 
intends to go into the Church, 
his words are greeted incredulous 
ly: "Take Orders! You! You can no 
more swallow the Thirty-nine Ar 
ticles than I can eat Twisleton s 
dinner". Bertram s reply shows that 
he is altogether interested in works 
rather than faith, and is an ironic 
commentary upon the lukewarm 
beliefs of many of the clergy: "A 
man never knows what he can do 
till he tries. A great deal of good 
may be done by a clergyman if 
he be in earnest and not too wed 
ded to the Church of England". 5 
George is contemptuous of what he 
thinks of as the archaisms of Angli 
can theology, and he gibes at the 
conservative thinking of his friend. 
"Come, Arthur", he says, "be hon 
est, if a man with thirty-nine arti 
cles round his neck can be honest" 
(p. 432). 

It is probably fortunate that 
George did not go into the Church, 
for his advanced views would have 
insured him a stormy career. He 
goes so far as to write two books 
on religion, The Romance of Scrip 
ture, and The Fallacies of Early 
History. Trollope notes that "The 
early history of which he spoke 



was altogether Bible history, and 
the fallacies to which he alluded 
were the plainest statements of the 
book of Genesis" (p. 215). George 
champions the "Higher Criticism", 
that symbolic interpretation of the 
Bible so popular in the circles of 
George Eliot and her freethinking 
friends, and he argues passionately 
against Arthur Wilkinson s literal 
ism: "A book is given to us, not 
over-well translated from various 
languages, part of which is history 
hyperbolically told for all East 
ern language is hyperbolic; part 
of which is prophecy, the very 
meaning of which is lost to us by 
the loss of those things which are 
intended to be imaged out; and 
part of which is thanksgiving ut 
tered in the language of men who 
knew nothing, and could under 
stand nothing of those rules by 
which we are to be governed" (p. 
305). 

This novel was published before 
the famous Essays and Reviews, 
but George Eliot s translation of 
Strauss Leben Jesu was thirteen 
years old. Trollope could well have 
read and approved Strauss "High 
er Criticism". I wonder also if 
Trollope s ideas were suggested 
by works of Richard Whately, a 
prominent if not sensational Broad 
Church leader. Whately s little 
tract Christian Evidences was wide 
ly known, and he became Arch 
bishop of Dublin when Trollope 
was still in Ireland. It is easy to 
imagine Trollope reading and ap 
proving his statement that it was 
not essential to one s soul to be 
lieve that the world was created 
in six days, 6 and listening to an 
1847 sermon in which he said, The 
Scriptures are intrinsically infalli- 



December 1970 



53 



ble, but do not impart infallibility 
to the student of them. Even by 
the most learned they are in many 
parts imperfectly understood; by 
the unlearned and unstable they 
are liable to be Vrested to their 
own destruction!* " 7 

I believe that Whately s views 
are Trollope s, as well as Bertram s. 
Without writing polemics, the nov 
elist manages to show the reader 
that George s views have much 
to offer. He avoids possible censure 
by using humor to soften his criti 
cism of the Thirty-nine Articles, 
and by putting his "Higher Criti 
cism" in the mouth of a young, 
and therefore in the eyes of the 
average reader a naive character. 
But Trollope himself does not 
think that Bertram is naive. He 
carefully sets up this opponent, 
Arthur, for George to debate with, 
and as carefully shows us how 
much sounder George s thinking 
is. Arthur is willing to take his faith 
on trust because he has an un- 
speculative mind. The mediocrity 
of his record at Oxford suggests 
the deficiencies of his intellect. 
Bertram, on the other hand, is a 
scholar of great ability, a serious 
and powerful thinker. The theo 
logical dice are loaded in his favor. 

Trollope s interest in the Broad 
Church movement continued to the 
end of his life. The attractive hero 
of Dr Worth s School is a sort of 
later-day Thomas Arnold, anti 
clerical, oriented toward ethics 
rather than piety, pugnacious in his 
latitudinarian views. But the Broad 
Church only fulfilled part of Trol 
lope s spiritual needs. The little 
known late novel Marion Fay is 
particularly revealing of Trollope s 
spiritual leanings, and his dilemma. 



The hero, Lord Hampstead, is an 
other George Bertram, even "broad 
er" in his convictions than George. 
Trollope describes him, with ap 
proval, as "a religious boy, but 
[one] determined not to believe 
in revealed mysteries". 8 Yet Hamp 
stead, and Trollope, are not emo 
tionally satisfied with rational An 
glicanism, or so it would seem, for 
the author has his hero fall in love 
with a girl of a completely different 
spiritual persuasion, the mystical 
and unearthly Quakeress after 
whom the book is named. Surely 
Trollope intends to show through 
this love affair that, after all, man 
cannot live by the Broad Church 
alone. 

Yet the dilemma is finally unre 
solved. Though Marion offers 
something which Hampstead 
yearns for, she and her father are 
portrayed as apart from the ordi 
nary Victorian world of Hamp 
stead, indeed, unable to live in it. 
Their clothes and manners are ex 
traordinary, their ideals incompre 
hensible to most of Hampstead s 
peers. Marion s mysticism itself 
seems to be connected with the 
tragedy of her life. Her death 
from consumption seems symbolic, 
as if Trollope believed that true 
spirituality was doomed in a Vic 
torian world. The description of 
die supernatural vision which Lord 
Hampstead has of his dead fiancee 
as he stands at her grave is unlike 
anything else in Trollope s works. 
The author drops his usual urbanity 
and irony, and writes in a tone 
very different from the gentle pa 
thos with which he describes other 
deaths of sympathetic characters: 
" Marion , he said; Marion; oh 
Marion, will you hear me? Though 



54 



AN&Q 



gone from me, art thou not mine? 
He looked up into the night, and 
there, before his eyes, was her fig 
ure, beautiful as ever, with all her 
lovliness [sic] of half-developed 
form, with her soft hair upon her 
shoulders; and her eyes beamed 
on him, and a heavenly smile came 
across her face, and her lips moved 
as though she would encourage 
him. My Marion; my wife" . 9 
Such is the effect of this vision on 
the young Lord that he gives up 
the ordinary pursuits of life, and 
goes alone on a pilgrimage to seek 
his own soul. His response as well 
as her death suggests that an un 
bridgeable gap lies between in 
tense faith and the Victorian world. 
In fact, if we allow, as I think 
we must, that a little bit of auto 
biography goes into all of Trol- 
lope s heroes, however different 
from each other and from Trollope 
they may seem, we see that Trol- 
lope s religious position was much 
like that of Tennyson and Matthew 
Arnold. Like Arnold, Trollope rea 
soned himself into a "sensible" 
latitudinarian position. Like Ar 
nold, he found it emotionally in 
adequate. Perhaps the quest motif 
in Marion Fay owes something to 
Tennyson s "The Holy Grail*, for 
Trollope was inclined to echo re 
cent popular themes, and certainly 
it is easy to see Trollope, like Ten 
nyson, as conscious of "two voices". 
One demands a public, modern, 
ethical view of life the view of 
King Arthur, Dr Wortle, and 
George Bertram. The other seeks 
"visions of the night or of the 
day . 10 The wanderer follows a 
grail or a dream, and despairs of 
the conventional world. It is inter 
esting to wonder if even that "real 



ist" Trollope may have been torn 
by the same kind of spiritual ten 
sion which afflicted so many great 
Victorians. 

Mrs David J. Kenney 
University of Maryland 



1. Even that fine critic A. O. J. Cock- 
shut is most vague about Trollope s 
religion. See Anthony Trollope, A 
Critical Study (London, 1955), p. 
22. 

2. South Africa (Leipzig, 1878), I, 234- 
235. 

3. La Vendee (London, 1880), pp. 268- 
269. 

4. Barchester Towers (London, 1957), 
p. 477. 

5. The Bertrams (N.Y., 1859), p. 26. 
All citations refer to this edition. 

6. Archbishop Richard Whately, Intro- 
ductory Lessons on Christian Evi 
dences (Boston, 1850), p. 103. 

7. Richard Whately, The Search After 
Infallibility (Dublin, 1848), pp. 37- 
38. 

8. Marion Fay (London, 1883), p. 1. 

9. Ibid., p. 384. 

10. Alfred Lord Tennyson, Idylls of the 
King (N.Y., 1965), p. 205. 



"OK": ROBERT A. CLARKE 

GROCE AND WALLACE S The New- 
York Historical Society s Dictionary 
of Artists in America, 1564-1860, 
pp. 129-30, identifies Robert A. 
Clarke only as a "painter of ani 
mals", born in Ireland about 1817, 
active in New York City, 1843-49, 
and in Philadelphia, 1850-54. They 
cite several books in which Clarke s 
works especially his studies of 
race-horses are mentioned or re 
produced. Clarke was indeed best 
known for his horse paintings; in 
fact, his friend, the sporting writer 



December 1970 



55 



Henry William Herbert ("Frank 
Forester"), believed that Clarke s 
"power of catching and committing 
to paper the peculiar action, style 
of going and salient characteristics 
of any horse, while in motion, on 
the trot especially, has scarcely 
been equalled". 1 

But Clarke was not solely an ani 
mal painter; he was a caricaturist 
and panoramist as well. George G. 
Foster included in his New York 
by Gaslight (1850) a chatty discus 
sion of bowling alleys and their 
devotees, mentioning a bowling 
party made up of Frank Forester, 
William T. Porter (editor of The 
Spirit of the Times), and Foster 
himself: 

It is ten to one that [Porter] has a book 
of rich and rare MS. caricatures in his 
hat, just sent on from Bob Ckrke. . . . 
If Ckrke himself (the "O.K." whose in 
imitable sketches of the blioys of New 
York, have preserved to posterity a char 
acter whose parallel the world has never 
yet seen, and who, but for Clarke s 
graphic pencil, would have passed away 
unchronicled), were not in Phikdelphia 
fiddling away at a tc bksted" panorama, 
"or some such wagon", he would be sure 
to make up a quartette in this agreeable 
little party. 2 

Although Foster seems to imply 
that Clarke s sketches appeared in 
The Spirit of the Times, a search 
of that journal from 1847-50 pro 
duced nothing answering Foster s 
description. However, another of 
Fosters books, New York in Slices, 
includes two sketches signed "OK** 
a posturing Broadway sharper 
and a blioy lustily driving a one- 
horse carriage as well as a num 
ber of portraits and vignettes 
signed with a "CT, on the lower 
curve of which a tiny bird is 
perched. 3 Even without the evi 
dence of this monogram, which 



seems to be a play on Clarke s name 
(C + lark), the striking similarity 
of style in both the "C" and the 
"OK" drawings would suggest that 
Clarke produced them all. 



Richard Stoddard 



Yale University 



1. Frank Forester s Horse and Horseman 
ship of the United States, 2 vols. 
(New York: Stringer and Townsend, 
1857), H, 208-9. Herbert refers to 
"the late lamented Ckrke", fixing the 
artist s death between 1854 and 1857. 

2. New York by Gaslight (New York: 
Dewitt & Davenport, 1850), p. 22. 

3. New York in Slices, by an Experi 
enced Carver (New York: W. H. 
Graham, 1849), pp. 34, 46, and pas 
sim. I am grateful to Miss Suzan 
Bruner of the School of Art at Yale 
University for her assistance in ana 
lyzing these sketches. 



"A POPE ANECDOTE" 

IN NUMBER 50 of the 18th-century 
periodical, The World (1753-56), 
the writer of that essay, attributed 
to Richard Owen Cambridge, re 
lates an amusing anecdote concern 
ing Pope and a hackney coach 
man: 

"It is remarkable that the expletive Mi 
Pope generally used by way of oath, was, 
*God mend me!* One day, in a dispute 
with a hackney coachman, he used this 
expression: Mend YOU! says the 
coachman: *it would not be half the 
trouble to make a new one* "- 1 

Although it would probably be 
impossible to verify this story, 
Cambridge had been, as Austin 
Dobson remarks, "in indirect com 
munication with Twickenham s 



56 



AN&Q 



greatest resident, since, through 
Thomas Edwards, he had supplied 
for Pope s grotto some of that 
sparkling mundic or iron pyrites 
from Severn side". 2 

James A. Means 
Universili/ of Virginia 



1. Chalmers, The British Essayists (1808), 
XXVI, 272. 

2. Eighteenth-Century Vignettes. (3 ser., 
World s Classics edn.), 191. 



QUERIES 



Three Steinbeck items 1) The 
following poem is credited to John 
Steinbeck: "A Book Is Somehow 
Sacred./ A Dictator Can Kill And 
Maim People,/ Can Sink To Any 
Kind Of Tyranny/ And Only Be 
Hated,/ But When Books Are 
Burned/ The Ultimate In Tyranny 
Has Happened./ This We Cannot 
Forgive . . .". Interested in finding 
out when and where did this poem 
originally appear?; 

2) Some time ago, back many 
years, a Tom Collins was to have 
published a book, They Die To 
Live, with a preface by John Stein 
beck. Was the book published?; 

3) I am desirous of finding out if 
and when a short essay by John 
Steinbeck, In Awe Of Words, was 
ever published. If it was published, 
where and when, please? Pres 
ton Beyer, Columbus, Ohio 

Gun salutes When did the cus 
tom originate? Who made the rules 
for the number of rounds to be 
fired? Is there an international code 
that is published? Where will lists 



be found showing the different 
ranks who would be saluted, coun 
try by country? Michael O Reil 
ly, Dublin, Eire 

Fevers attributed to eating fruit 

When and where was the idea 
current? Is it still believed by 
physicians anywhere? By any com 
mon folk? What fruits? Thomas 
Brechman, San Antonio, Texas 

Peary-Cook controversy What 
is the most modern opinion based 
on research in the matter? Did 
Peary reach the North Pole? Did 
Cook? Alexander McDougall, 
Toronto, Canada 

Quarantine flags What were 
they? When were they used? Are 
they still used anywhere, and under 
what authority are they raised? 
Deborah Quint, Sioux City, Iowa 

Goffering Where can I find a 
description of the technique, the 
tools used, and the materials to 
which the art is applied on the 
edges of book leaves or elsewhere? 

James D. Richmond, Nashville, 
Tenn. 

White as mourning dress What 
was the origin of this ( European? ) 
custom? When and where was it 
practiced? Did all classes of society 
follow it? I had always thought 
that black was the universal habit. 

Mary A. Manley, Omaha, Nebr. 



SEASON S 

GREETINGS! 



December 1970 



57 



REPLIES 

Bible Belt (1:103) Bible Belt 
was a term which H. L. Mencken 
coined in 1924, basing it on such 
phrases as Cotton Belt and Corn 
Belt, He intended it to refer to the 
rural areas of the South and Mid 
west where a fundamentalist belief 
in the historical accuracy of the 
Bible held sway. Mencken first 
used the phrase as part of a head 
ing in the "Americana" section of 
the American Mercury (111:10, Oc 
tober 1924, p. 171): "Progress of 
the New Jurisprudence in the Bible 
Belt, as described in a Centerville 
dispatch to the Ottumwa [Iowa] 
Courier". The phrase appears fre 
quently in later issues (November 
1924, p. 290; February 1925, p. 154; 
etc.) and in the fourth edition of 
Mencken s The American Language 
(New York, 1936, pp. 230, 239, 
309, 522), though there is no men 
tion of it in the editions of 1919, 
1921, and 1923. Mathews Diction 
ary of Americanisms provides two 
examples dated February 1926 and 
June 1948. Mencken subsequently 
coined similar phrases Epworth 
League Belt (American Mercury, 
January 1925) and Bryan Belt 
(ibid., November 1925), but these 
did not "catch on". Mac E. 
Barrick, Shippensburg State Col 
lege, Shippenshurg, Pa. 

Apocatastasis of "Hamlet s" Ghost 
(VIII:55, 56; r 121) The 
question as to whether the Ghost 
in Hamlet may be a damned 
soul undergoing a purging prepara 
tory to an eventual salvation at the 
end of time (the doctrine of apoc- 
atastasis), has been carefully con 
sidered in my article on "The 



Ghost in Hamlet" Studies in Phil 
ology, XLVIII (1951), esp. pp. 
185-90. I there argue that although 
the Ghost himself may view his 
sufferings as purgatorial and ulti 
mately salvific, all the facts of his 
behavior indicate otherwise. The 
Ghost s outlook is that of a Chris 
tian soul recrudescently pagan, a 
soul spiritually "lost" in a self-de 
ceiving illusion (such as various 
platonists and even the Christian 
Origen of Alexandria held), that 
all suffering is purgative. St Au 
gustine, however, although reared 
a Platonist, had authoritatively re 
jected Origen s doctrine of apoca- 
tastasis and indeed all variations 
of it (see City of God XXI. 17-28), 
as had likewise Aquinas (S.T., 
Supp,, Q94, Art. 2-4), and also the 
Anglican Thirty-Nine Articles (Art. 
42). The Ghost s view, therefore, 
manifests an heretical lapsing into 
an error which Christian orthodoxy 
condemned and which Shake 
speare s play too shows to be tragic 
and blind. To reach this conclusion 
we need only scrutinize carefully 
the implications of the play s many 
details regarding the Ghost. Any 
reader who doubts this should read, 
besides my article cited above, my 
more recent Shakespearean Trag 
edy: Its Art and Its Christian Prem 
ises (1969), pp. 237-44. I disagree 
with Miss Prosser s view that the 
Ghost is a devil in disguise. He is 
indeed, as Hamlet takes him to be, 
the Spirit of the elder Hamlet. But 
that Spirit, by its dedication to 
revenge, is actually damned and in 
hell - particularly so because he 
confusedly supposes, as many a 
Renaissance platonist did, that 
hell s torments are only for a term. 



58 

Shakespeare as artist is exhibiting 
the elder Hamlet s mistaken judg 
ment and its misleading of Prince 
Hamlet. Roy W. Battenhouse, 
Indiana University 

To "suck the hind teat" (VIII: 136) 
As with many Southern region- 
alisms, this phrase seems to have 
come into general usage since about 
World War II, when so many left 
the South for war work ? service in 
the armed forces, etc., although it 
was already known in the hog and 
hominy belt, and perhaps where- 
ever pigs were farrowed. In Amer 
ican Speech, XVI, 1 (1941), p. 24 
it is given in Indiana: "Suck the 
hind tit. To have fewer advantages 
than others"; XVIII, 1 (1943), p. 
67, R. I. McDavid, jr, reports, 
". . . (usually the left hind tit)" 
employed in S. C., N. C. ? La. and 
Texas. 

The phrase has analogous for 
bears, and seems to be a welcome 
variant in the vocabulary of the 
gland and sex-oriented: E. C. Brew 
er, Phrase and Fable (1905) com 
ments on ec Wrong end of the stick", 
this phrase being included in Farm 
er and Henley s Slang and Its Ana 
logues (1904), vol. 7, sv. wrong, 
without dated example of usage. 
Traditional usage is indicated in 
Oxford English Dictionary: sv. end, 
sb. 24, and wrong, a. and adv. 7c. 
T. L. K. Oliphant, The New Eng 
lish (1886), i, p. 491, suggests 
"wrong end" is a recent voicing of 
the 15th century "worse end of a 
staff in a quarrel", i.e., having the 
weaker stick when singlestick or 
cudgelling was in flower, prior to 
the time the common man was al 
lowed to carry steel, such arms 
being limited to the nobility and 



AN&Q 

gentry. Colloquially, U. S. A., "short 
end" and "dirty end" have been 
employed, becoming "shitty end of 
the stick" ( Mailer, The Naked and 
The Dead [1948], pp. 202, 361) as 
the scatological breakthrough be 
gan to be made in print. 

Visually, the subject phrase has 
been pictured for several decades 
in cartoon and photograph of lit 
ters of eight or ten piglets nippling 
a sow, the smallest being at the 
left hind. Generally, its plight is 
comment in the title. No doubt 
such examples of graphic art may 
still be found in the practical joke- 
novelty shops that infest most big 
cities. Peter Tamony, San Fran 
cisco 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

In spite of the poor quality of his 
scholarship, Washington living s 
Mahomet and His Successors re 
mains a delightfully romantic his 
torical biography of the Islamic 
world. It has forever it seems 
been the most popular interpreta 
tion for the common reader, and 
now that it is in a scholarly format, 
it is still readable and even attrac 
tive. This interesting contribution 
to The Complete Works of Wash 
ington Irving, under the general 
editorship of Henry A. Pochmann 
(Professor of English, University 
of Wisconsin), has a fascinating 
Editorial Appendix containing an 
"Historical Note" by Professor E. N. 
Feltskog, which explains the idio- 



December 1970 



59 



syncratic development of the book. 
There is also extensive "Textual 
Commentary" by Professor Poch- 
mann himself including descrip 
tions of the manuscripts, textual 
variations, editorial problems, etc. 
This "Approved Text", 651pp., 
sponsored by the Center for Edi 
tions of American Authors of the 
MLA, is published by the Univer 
sity of Wisconsin Press, 1970, $20. 

Literary Sketches, a magazine of 
interviews, reviews, and memora 
bilia, is a one-woman publication 
carried on by Mary Lewis Chap 
man in Williamsburg, Va. It is cer 
tainly one of the few we look for 
ward to reading every month, and 
we can honestly say to our readers 
that if you enjoy AIV&Q you ll find 
something for your delectation in 
every issue of Literary Sketches. 
Mrs Chapman has greater courage 
than we she is trying illustrated 
articles now! A recent issue is 
devoted to locating Edith Whar- 
ton s home, visits to the lairs of 
Melville and Bryant, and other lit 
erary landmarks. LS is issued 
monthly, $1 a year, from P.O. Box 
711, Williamsburg, Va. 23185. Don t 
miss it. Libraries will want avail 
able back issues for students use. 

Freelancers Newsletter will appeal 
to many academics who have time 
on their hands and need money to 
support families, friends, and re 
search or other habits. It is meant 
tt to bridge the gap between pub 
lishers who are constantly search 
ing for freelancers to copy edit, 
proof read, index or do graphic 
work, and the many freelancers 
who spend much valuable time at 
tempting to locate current assign 



ments". Subscription is $12 a year; 
published semimonthly by Jarrow 
Press, Inc., 1556 Third Ave., New 
York, N.Y. 10022. Freelancers may 
list their availability for only $2 
per issue. 

Buried treasure in Bristol, Ver 
mont! Read about it real Ameri 
can folklore in the first book ap 
pearance of Franklin S. Harvey s 
articles from the Bristol Herald, 
1888-89. And after reading, go out 
to find it it s not been found yet, 
but you can be almost sure it s 
there. The whole story s in The 
Money Diggers (Brattleboro, Vt: 
The Stephen Greene Press, 1970. 
54pp. $2.50, paper). 

Anyone who really wants to cele 
brate Beethoven his birthday or 
his memory will be intrigued 
and then captivated by Ludwig 
van Beethoven [an] Autograph 
Miscellany, circa 1786 to 1799. 
This is the famous BM Add. Ms 
29801, ff. 39-162 (The "Kafka 
Sketchbook"), as edited by Joseph 
Kerman, Professor of Music at fie 
University of California, Berkeley. 
The set, published by the Trustees 
of the British Museum, with the 
cooperation of the Royal Musical 
Association, consists of a volume of 
facsimiles and a volume of tran 
scription. It is available from Co 
lumbia University Press, New York, 
N.Y., at a pre-publication price of 
$75 until 15 March 1971, after that 
date, $87.50. These early manu 
script versions are of the greatest 
importance in establishing the 
Beethoven canon, "an importance 
that is underlined by the rarity of 
preserved Beethoven autographs 
from the period prior to 1800". 



60 

RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
Vniversity of Kentucky. It will be re 
sumed in subsequent issues. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Bedford Historical Records, vols. 1-3. 
Facsims.; Maps. Bedford Hills, N.Y.: 
Published by the Town of Bedford, 
1966-69. Each volume $3.50. 

The publication of primary sources of 
historical importance is an occasion for 
rejoicing among historians, especially 
when the manuscripts have been care 
fully transcribed and edited and further 
enhanced by an informative introduc 
tion, illustrated with splendid maps, and 
concluded by a sensible index. The first 
three volumes of Bedford Historical Rec 
ords possess all of these features to an 
extraordinary degree. The books are also 
unusual in another respect: the names 
of those who have performed so well 
their editorial duties do not appear on 
the title pages. Compared with the 
vanities nourished by so many local 
history publications this relative ano 
nymity makes these volumes something 
of a rarity. By pursuing the front matter 
of Volume I, written by Donald W. 
Marshall as the Town Historian, we 
learn that the transcripts are almost en 
tirely the work of Janet Doe ... as 
sisted by Julia A. Meade and others. 
The maps were prepared by Arthur I. 
Bernhard. The inside front covers of 
Volumes II and III list the names of 
Bedford s officials followed by the names 
of the members of the Publication Com 
mittee of which Mr Marshall is chair 
man, Miss Doe, editor. Without reser 
vation Miss Doe and her assistants de 
serve the highest praise. Not only will 
persons interested in the history and 
genealogy of Bedford be forever in their 



AN&Q 

debt but local historians everywhere 
can turn to their work as an example 
of excellence in the publication of local 
records. 

Editorial preparation of the Bedford 
Historical Records evidently began sev 
eral years prior to 1966 when the first 
volume was published. It begins with 
a photograph and transcription of the 
deed of 1680 by which the Indian chief 
Katonah sold 7,673 acres to 22 men of 
Stanford, Conn. The original deed is 
now on permanent exhibition in the 
Bedford Town House. The local ar 
chives also include the complete min 
utes of the town meetings from 1680 
to 1720, and somewhat incomplete rec 
ords to 1737. These remarkable docu 
ments constitute the major part of Vol 
ume I (similar extant records through 
1899 are to be published as Volumes 
V and VI of the series ) . Additional docu 
ments in Volume I include transcripts 
of the Connecticut patent of 1697 from 
the official copy at Hartford, and the 
New York patent of 1704 preserved in 
the State Library in Albany which also 
owns the original 1710 list of the in 
habitants of Bedford. Volume I ends 
with a list of 1714 quitrent assessments 
prepared from a document owned by 
the Bedford Historical Society. 

Volumes II and III are devoted most 
ly to land records from 1680 to 1741 
with a few closely related documents 
such as various Indian deeds by which 
the acquisition of the six-mile square 
of the Town of Bedford was completed 
in 1723. Volume IV will continue the 
records of land transactions to 1828. The 
records are, of course, essential to the 
early history of the town as a whole 
and to the families who lived there. 
The larger historical significance, how 
ever, of Bedford s land records is found 
in the contrast between the customs and 
laws of Connecticut, which were of 
New England origin, and those of New 
York which prevailed after 1700 when 
the settlement of the boundary dispute 
placed Bedford within the Empire state. 
The records of land distribution in Bed 
ford clearly and conveniently demon 
strate one of the basic differences be 
tween Yankees and Yorkers, a difference 
vital to the development of both peo 
ples and a basic source of the funda 
mental disagreement between them. Al 
though these records are confined to 



December 1970 



61 



the Town of Bedford, they illuminate 
the whole subject of land ownership in 
colonial New England and New York 
and therefore are significant to his 
torians who have no particular interest 
in Bedford alone. 

The text is lithoprinted from type 
written copy. Each volume is issued 
with a printed title page and printed 
cover. Adequate margins permit easy 
binding in hard covers. James Greg 
ory, New-York Historical Society Library 



CROZIER, Alice. The Novels of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe. 217pp. N.Y.: Oxford 
University Press, 1969. $6.50. 

Miss Crozier ends her fourth chapter, 
that on Mrs Stowe s magazine writing 
and social novels Pink and White Tyran 
ny, My Wife and I, and We and Our 
Neighbors, with this admission: "post 
war American society held for Mrs 
Stowe no very great significance, and 
her writings about it, both the essays 
and the novels, hold for the reader of 
her work today no great fascination". 
Miss Crozier maintains, however, that 
these works are interesting in their use 
of the observer-narrator, a device later 
developed fully by Howells and James. 
This chapter of Miss Crozier s work 
shows the difficulties confronting the 
literary critic in discussing uninspired 
work without succumbing to die temp 
tations of mockery or indulging in base 
less praise, and it is understandably the 
weakest chapter in Miss Crozier s work. 

Chapter Three deals with Mrs Stowe s 
novels of New England before the Revo 
lution. These, The Minister s Wooing, 
Agnes of Sorrento, Pearl of Orrs Island, 
Oldtown Folks, and Poganuc People all 
share in the use of "local color" tech 
niques and in the theme of theological 
debate. Mrs Stowe laments the passing 
of the old "coherence of the Puritan 
community**. She laments the present 
disorder and fragmentation of society 
and sees the problem as caused by the 
movement away from the old Calvinist 
churches and towards anarchy and uni- 
tarianism. There is some contradiction 
in this, as Miss Crozier points out, for 
"the doctrines of Calvinism were re 



garded by Mrs. Stowe as repugnant, 
glacial". She did not accept Calvin s 
evaluation of the human spirit as cursed 
with original sin and innately depraved, 
nor did she accept Calvin s doctrine of 
predestination, but Calvinism in New 
England had been a source of energy, 
purpose and piety and Mrs Stowe felt 
that one could and should remain within 
the Calvinist churches while not neces 
sarily accepting all the doctrines. Har 
riet s father and brother, ministers both, 
did just this. 

The "villain" in these New England 
novels is either Jonathan Edwards or 
his descendants or his influence. Here, 
too, a paradox is at work, for Mrs Stowe 
admired Edwards evangelistic passion 
while abhorring his insistence on a re 
turn to strict and exclusive Calvinist 
theory. His rationalization of these doc 
trines makes them vulnerable to rational 
attack and his inflexibility on doctrinal 
matters drove doubters to the Unitarian 
heresy. Mrs Stowe desired to keep the 
best of two worlds and ignore the in 
consistencies. 

Perhaps because the novels of Mrs 
Stowe of most interest to present day 
readers are those dealing with slavery 
and race relations, Miss Crozier s com 
mentaries on Uncle Tom s Cabin and 
Dred seem the strongest part of her 
work. Uncle Tom s Cabin was, accord 
ing to Miss Crozier, meant to be an 
accurate documentary of life in the 
slaveholding states. The work was not 
written primarily as a novel, but as a 
"work of salvation", a "providential his 
tory" in the same way as is Bradford s 
Of Plymouth Plantation. It is not, how 
ever, meant as an anti-Southern tract, 
a point that is still misunderstood, for 
it was the entire "system" which was 
to blame the Northerner like Daniel 
Webster, who pled the cause of "Union" 
as an excuse for reconciliation with the 
slave holders, as well as the slave hold 
ers themselves. 

The "problem" then is at least partly 
political; the solution is not. The solu 
tion must be a religious one. It is es 
sential to understand this in order to 
grasp accurately the character of Little 
Eva and, more importantly, of Tom. 
The key is Christian love. Eva, a Christ 
figure, dies preaching Christian broth 
erly love, and it is Christian love that 



62 



AN&Q 



is the motivation for Tom s actions, not 
cowardice or a naturally subservient 
nature, as the present connotation of 
this term seems to imply. 

Miss Crozier also makes some pro 
voking remarks concerning Legree s 
mother, his motivation and the cause 
of his cruelty and his self-destructive 
guilt. Motherhood is a powerful force 
in this novel, as in many of Mrs Stowe s 
works. (It is the separating of mothers 
and children which is, according to Mrs 
Stowe, the worst sin of slavery). Le- 
gree s mother stood for good and for 
conscience but he rejects her and God 
and his guilt grows. Killing Tom is, 
then, an attempt to still his own con 
science, for Tom becomes identified in 
Legree s m ind with his own mother. It 
is, of course, an unsuccessful attempt, 
and Legree is driven by greater guilt 
to greater enormities, drink, madness, 
and death. 

Dred, a novel less read today than 
Uncle Tom s Cabin, is amazingly rele 
vant, if poorly executed. Dred is an 
escaped slave who hides in the Great 
Dismal Swamp and preaches, like Nat 
Turner, bloody insurrection. He par 
takes of many of the characteristics of 
the Byronic hero and, indeed, Miss 
Crozier stresses the influence of Byron 
on Mrs Stowe throughout her career. 
He is a tormented man who suffers the 
crippling effects of his hate for the 
white man, as James Baldwin has elo 
quently told us the hater must. 

Harry Gordon, a mulatto, embodies 
many of the problems of a black of 
his time or our time. He knows that 
there are white men of good will, but 
also feels, like Dred, that freedom can 
only come through violence. Miss Cro 
zier s discussion of Dred is insightful 
and leads us to consider this novel of 
the 1850s as a possible aid in under 
standing the 1960s and 70s. 

Although Miss Crozier s analyses of 
Dred and Uncle Tom s Cabin are 
thought-provoking and penetrating, her 
book cannot be the last word on Mrs 
Stowe. Miss Crozier s study is purely 
critical; it does not purport to be a 
critical biography or to set the novels 
historically, and so it cannot be faulted 
for not doing so, but this job still needs 
to be done. More seriously, Miss Crozier 
seems not to have considered the major 



recent scholarship in the field for ex 
ample, John R. Adams Stowe in the 
Twayne series or J. C. Furnas Goodbye 
to Uncle Tom, both studies which might 
have aided her work and both of which 
contain extensive bibliographies. Miss 
Crozier s work has no bibliography. 
Donald R. Noble, fr, University of 
Alabama 



WILLIAMS, Roger M. Sing a Sad Song: 
the Life of Hank Williams. N.Y.: Dou- 
bleday, 1970. $5.95. 

Hank Williams was, until his death 
at age 29 in 1953, a Byronic hero in 
that curious combination of bucolic art 
and sophisticated commercialism called 
country music a $10-million-a-year 
industry headquartered in Nashville, 
Tennessee. The literary world seems to 
have discovered Hank Williams in the 
past year. In 1969 Babs H. Deal pub 
lished a novel called High Lonesome 
World (Doubleday, $5.95) which is 
a roman a clef of Hank Williams. Now 
comes the first biography which is not, 
as are most publications on the subject, 
a "discovery" of country music and its 
luminaries of the "ThereVGold-in- 
Them-Thar-Hillbillies!" variety. Neither 
is it a sensational show-biz expose. 

Roger Williams, no relation to the 
fabled entertainer, displays country mu 
sic expertise by clarifying the intricate 
distinctions between "hillbilly", "coun 
try", and "folk" music. He is knowl 
edgeable, too, about Hank Williams, 
the singer-composer, whose followers, 
estimated at 15 million, still zealously 
purchase records, pictures, sheet music, 
and any shred of information or gossipy 
rumor about him almost twenty years 
after his death. 

The biographer follows Hank from 
his obscure boyhood in rural Alabama 
through amateur contests, KWKH s 
Louisiana Hayride, WSM s Grand Ole 
Opry, M-G-M records, song writing 
contracts, movie offers, illness, alco 
holism, family problems, dismissal by 
WSM, rejection by booking agents, an 
attempted comeback, and sudden death. 

Litigation over Hank Williams* es 
tate which began almost before the 
garish funeral (which attracted 25,000 



December 1970 



63 



people to the Civic Auditorium in Mont 
gomery, Alabama) has not yet been 
settled. Meanwhile, Hank s first wife, 
Audrey, receives the windfall of his 
talents, collecting one-half of all roy 
alties (amounting to over $100,000 year 
ly) as a provision of their 1952 divorce. 

Although Roger Williams handles 
nuances of country music and such 
medical terms as "alcoholic cardiomy- 
opathy" deftly, he gropes amateurishly 
with psychological terminology. There 
are cliches such as "problem drinking", 
"culturally deprived home", and "con 
fusion of parental role". He avoids even 
a conventional term like paranoia in 
favor of "he thought everybody, in the 
final analysis, had some sort of angle 
on him". This is, however, only a minor 
flaw in an enjoyable and authoritative 
biography. 

"At his best", writes his biographer, 
"there never was a performer with more 
appeal to an audience than Hank Wil 
liams". But many people remained loyal 
to him at his worst, too. Apparently, 
"people loved Hank partly because of 
his problems". Alcoholism, divorce, ir 
responsibility, lechery, and even rumors 
of fathering an illegitimate child failed 
to diminish enthusiastic affection for 
Hank Williams in his native Bible-belt 
or elsewhere. 

For Hank Williams many admirers 
Sing a Sad Song fills a long-neglected 
void. Its journalistic approach to a sub 
ject that too often attracts only over- 
emotional productions of purely com 
mercial design is refreshing. Refreshing, 
too, is Roger Williams* assumption that 
a reading public exists which seeks more 
than an introduction to country music. 
His attempt at audience analysis is not 
developed sufficiently to be seriously 
considered as an approach to under 
standing the American character. It was 
probably not intended to be. Something 
is accomplished, however, in this direc 
tion, and the study is richer because of 
it. Fans of country music, of course, 
will delight in the exhaustive coverage 
of their cherished interests and the most 
worthy attempt yet at a definitive bi 
ography of their idol in Sing a Sad Song. 
Moreover, students of American folk 
culture, native character, the national 
pulse or whatever the fashionable 
term is at the moment will find some 



titillating insights into the responses of 
the grass roots American public to one 
man, his accomplishments, and his 
legacy in the biography of Hank Wil 
liams. David I. Butler, Southern 
Illinois University, Edwardsville, 111. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 50) 

Ingersoll, Cliarles Jared, Life of, by 
William M. Meigs. Ports. 351pp. N.Y.: 
Da Capo Press, 1970. $15. 

Keene, Donald B., ed. Twenty Plays of 
the No Theatre. Illus. 336pp. N.Y.: 
Columbia University Press, 1970. $15. 

(Larkin, T. O.). First and Last Consul: 
Thomas Oliver Larkin and the Ameri 
canization of California. A Selection 
of Letters, ed. by John A, Hawgood. 
2d Edn. Port, xxxviii, 147pp. Palo 
Alto: Pacific Books, 1970. $5.75 

Leach, Joseph. Bright Particular Star: 
the Life & Times of Charlotte Gush- 
man. Illus. 453pp. New Haven: Yale 
University Press, 1970. $12.50 

L Enfant, Pierre CJiarles; Life of: [Plan 
ner of the City Beautiful, the City of 
Washington], by H. Paul Caemmerer. 
(1950). Illus. xxvi, 480pp. N.Y.: Da 
Capo Press, 1970. $15. 

Lossing, Benson J. Seventeen Hundred 
and Seventy-Six; or, the War of In 
dependence . . . (N.Y., 1847). Illus. 
510pp. Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 
1970. $15. 

Norman, Diana. Tom Corbett s Stately 
Ghosts of England. 191pp. N.Y.: Tap- 
linger Pub. Co., 1970. $5.95 

Poems on Affairs of State: Augustan 
Satirical Verse, 1660-1714. Vol. 6, 
1697-1704 [much on Samuel Garth 
and Daniel Defoe]. Ed. by Frank H. 
Ellis. Illus. xxxv, 830pp. New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1970. $25. 

Scarborough, John. Roman Medicine. 
Illus. 238pp. Ithaca: Cornell Univer 
sity Press, [1969]. $7.50 

(Spenser). Freeman, Rosemary. "The 
Faerie Queene": a Companion for 
Readers, 350pp. Berkeley: University 
of California Press, 1970. $6.50 



64 



AN&Q 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Stanard, Mary Newton. Colonial Vir 
ginia: Its People end Customs (1917). 
Illus. 376pp, Detroit: Singing Tree 
Press, 1970. $15. 

Strong, Roy. The English Icon: Eliza 
bethan & Jacobean Portraiture. (Stud 
ies in British Art series). Over 400 
Illus., Some in Color. 388pp. New 
Haven: Yale University Press, 1970 
[c!969]. $30. 

Tar River Poets: Regina Kear; Vemon 
Ward, John Woods. (East Carolina 
University Poetry Series, No. 9). 26pp. 
Greenville, N.C.: East Carolina Uni 
versity Poetry Forum Press, Univer 
sity Station, P.O. Box 2707, Zip 27834; 
1970. Paper, $1. 

Tegg, William, comp. The Knot Tied: 
Marriage Ceremonies of Att Nations. 
(1877). 410pp. Detroit: Singing Tree 
Press, 1970. $15. 

Thompson, Lawrence S. Essays in His 
panic Bibliography. 117pp. Hamden, 
Ct: Shoe String Press, 1970. $5. 



Trumbull, John; The Autobiography of 
Coknel: Patriot-Artist, 1756-1843. Ed. 
by Theodore Sizer (1953). Port, xxiii, 
404pp. N.Y,: Da Capo Press, 1970. 
$15. 

Walsh, Frank K. Indian Battles of the 
Lower Rogue [River]. Illus., incl. map. 
12pp. Grants Pass, Oregon: Te-cum- 
tom Acres, 2618 Sand Creek Road, 
Zip 97526, 1970. Paper, $1. 

Walton, Alan Hull. The Open Gram 
[Black Mass, spectres, psychic phe 
nomena, etc.]. 233pp. N.Y,: Taplinger 
Pub. Co., 1970. $4.95 

(Weld-Grimke Letters). Barnes, Gil 
bert H.; & Dumond, Dwight L. Let 
ters of Theodore Dwight Weld, An 
gelina Grimke Weld, and Sarah Grim 
ke, 1822-44. 2 vols. N.Y.: Da Capo 
Press, 1970. $37.50 

Wortman, Tunis. A Treatise Concerning 
Political Enquiry and the Liberty of 
the Press. (N.Y., 1800). 296pp. N.Y.: 
Da Capo Press, 1970. $15. 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume IX Number 5 January 1971 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 
EDITORS NOTES & 
RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 
BOOK REVIEW 

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

A Biographical Directory of Librarians 
in the United States and Canada [for 
merly published as Who s Who in 
Library Service]. Fifth Edition. Ed. 
by Lee Ash. Sponsored by the Coun 
cil of National Library Associations. 
1250pp. Chicago: American Library 
Association, 1970. $45. 

Brody, Alan. The English Mummers and 
Their Plays: Traces of Ancient Mys 
tery. (University of Pennsylvania Pub 
lications in Folklore and Folklife). 
Illus. 201pp. Philadelphia: University 
of Pennsylvania Press, 1970. $9.50 

Brown, Rosellen. Some Deaths in the 
Delta, and Other Poems. [A National 
Council on the Arts Selection]. 66pp. 
Amherst: University of Massachusetts 
Press, 1970. Cloth, $4; Paper, $2. 

Clifford, James L. From Puzzles to Por 
traits: Problems of a Literary Biog 
rapher. 151pp. Chapel Hill: Univer 
sity of North Carolina Press, 1970. $6. 

DeVinne, Theo. L. The Invention of 
Printing . . . (N.Y., 1876). lUus. 556 
pp. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1969. 
Price ? 

Dudley, Miriam Sue. Chicano Library 
Program. Based on the "Research 
Skills in the Library Context * Program 
Developed for Chicano High Potential 
Students. (UCLA Library Occasional 
Papers, no. 17) Los Angeles: Gifts 
& Exchange Section, University of 
California Library, 1970. 85pp. Il 
lustrated. Paper, $2. 

Field, E. M. The Child and His Book: 
Some Account of the History and 
Progress of Childrens Literature in 
England. 2d Edn (London, 1892). 
Illus. 358pp. Detroit: Singing Tree 
Press, 1968. Price ? 



Franklin, Benjamin, The Papers of > Vol. 
14, January 1 through December 31, 
1767. Ed. by Leonard W. Labaree. 
Illus. xxviii, 382pp. New Haven: Yale 
University Press, 1970. $17.50 

Grimm s Household Tales, With the 
Author s Notes. Trans. & Ed. by Mar 
garet Hunt. Introd. by Andrew Lang. 
(London, 1884). 2 vols. Detroit: Sing 
ing Tree Press, 1968. Price ? 

Hall, Elizabeth Cornelia, comp. Printed 
Books, 1481-1900, in The Horticul 
tural Society of New York [Library]: 
a Listing. Frontis. 279pp. N.Y.: The 
Society, 128 West 58 St, Zip 10019; 
1970. $16. 

Hayne, Robert Y., by Theodore D. Jer- 
vey. (N.Y., 1909). Ports. 555pp. N.Y.: 
DaCapo Press, 1970. Price ? 

James, Henry. Stories of the Supernat 
ural [formerly published as The Ghost 
ly Tales of Henry James (1950)]. Ed. 
and with a New Introduction and 
Headnotes by Leon Edel. 762pp. 
N.Y.: Taplinger Pub. Co., 1970. $7,95 

Lamb, F. Bruce; & Cordova-Rios, Manu 
el. Wizard of the Upper Amazon. 
[True adventure of a Peruvian youth 
kept captive by Hum Kui tribesmen 
in the Amazon jungle]. Illus. N.Y.: 
Atheneum, 1971. $6.95 

Macfarlane, Alan. Witchcraft in Tudor 
and Stuart England: a Regional and 
Comparative Study. Illus. 334pp. N.Y.: 
Harper & Row, 1970. $8.50 

Nicollet, Joseph N., Journals of: a Sci 
entist on the Mississippi Headwaters, 
With Notes on Indian Life, 1836-37. 
Trans, by Andre Fertey. Ed. by Mar 
tha Coleman Bray. Map endpapers. 
288pp. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical 
Society, 1970. $16.50 

(Continued on p. 80) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 750 each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies; indexed in Book Review Index; included in The Years Work in 
English Studies, and Annual Bibliography of English Language and 
Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included in the Annual MLA Inter 
national Bibliographtj; Victorian Studies "Victorian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

THE DEVIOUS GENEALOGY 
OF THE "BOTTLE-IMF PLOT 

THE ULTIMATE SOURCE OF THE PLOT 

elements composing Robert Louis 
Stevenson s "Bottle-Imp" story ap 
pears to be folk tradition. Yet, only 
after these beliefs, separate and 
inchoate in origin, were joined by 
a first author and were elaborated 
by later authors writing in succes 
sive periods and annexing their 
predecessor s narrative refinements 
were they to achieve definitive em 
bodiment as polished literary art. 
Stevenson himself apparently knew 
nothing of the history of his plot, 
other than that the story was the 
basis of a popular melodrama. 

Any student of that very unliterary 
product, the English drama of the early 
part of the century, will here recognize 
the name and root idea of a piece once 
rendered popular by the redoubtable B. 
Smith. The root idea is there and iden 
tical, and yet I believe I have made 
it a new thing. And the fact that the 
tale has been designed and written for 
a Polynesian audience may lend it some 
extraneous interest nearer home [Samoa] 
- R.L.S.i 

"The root idea" which Steven 
son borrowed is that a young man 



buys, with the smallest coin mint 
ed by the nation in which he lives, 
a bottle-contained demon which 
grants all requests, but which is a 
familiar its owner must always sell 
for less than its purchase price 
or else suffer damnation. The sto 
ry s complications then develop out 
of the protagonist s attempts to pass 
his dangerous possession on to 
someone else and thus to avoid the 
penalty of his traffic. This plot, as 
will be shown, was utilized re 
peatedly from the 17th to the 19th 
century, and its elements were ulti 
mately of folk, and largely of Ger 
manic folk, origin. 2 

Professor Joseph Warren Beach, 
clarifying Stevenson s note (quoted 
above) in 1910, carries the geneal 
ogy of the bottle-imp plot back two 
generations. The "redoubtable B. 
Smith", he indicates, was the well- 
known actor and stage manager 
Richard John Smith, who was nick 
named Obi Smith after a part he 
had acted in the melodrama Three- 
fingered Jack. In 1828 the actor 
similarly made a success of The 
Bottle-Imp, a play which was 
staged at several London theatres. 3 
Also in 1828 R. B. Peake, Esq., au 
thored a book entitled The Bottle- 
Imp, which is a stage copy of the 
play and the source of Stevenson s 
plot. Peake gave no information 
upon the origin of his drama, but 
Professor Beach has indicated that 
his probable source was a story en 
titled "The Bottle Imp", which ap 
pears in the first volume of Popu 
lar Tales and Romances of the 
Northern Nations (London, 1823). 
This work does not credit authors 
or translators, but Beach indicates 
that "The Bottle-Imp" is a trans 
lation of La Motte-Fouque s "Das 
Galgenmannlein" . 4 The kernel of 
Fouque s plot, Beach conjectures, 



68 



AN&Q 



will probably be found in some 
popular tale or tradition. 5 

A legend entitled "Spiritus Fam 
iliaris" in the Grimm Brothers 
Deutsche Sagen^ would appear at 
first glance to consummate Mr 
Beach s prophecy. Though the sto 
ries of La Motte-Fouque and of the 
Grimms differ in several respects 
characters, settings, quantity of 
descriptive detail their plots are 
basically identical. The seemingly 
obvious conclusion that another 
oral tradition has been transplant 
ed into the sphere of art-literature 
and there elaborated is untenable, 
however, for La Motte-Fouque s 
story was printed in 1810, six years 
before the appearance of the 
Grimms legend. 

Actually, the fountainhead of 
the Bottle-Imp plot, for both liter 
ary and "folk" versions, seems to 
be an episode (chapters 18-22) in 
Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grim- 
melshausen s novelle "Trutz Sim- 
pkx" (printed in 1670 ), 7 a pica 
resque account of the fluctuating 
career of a camp-follower. Imme 
diately preceding his description of 
the spiritus familiaris ( the Grimms 
title) which Frau Courage, the 
story s heroine, acquires, the au 
thor has her speak of teaching her 
husband the tricks of horse-trading 
(the protagonist of the Grimms 
Sage is a horsetrader). Then follows 
the bottle-imp sequence, which 
presents the familiar elements. 
Frau Courage pays two Kroners to 
an old soldier for a bottle contain 
ing a demon. After a few days 
during which her flask has puzzled 
her by its faculty of self-locomo 
tion, Frau Courage asks the soldier 
to explain to her the real nature 



of her purchase. She has acquired, 
the soldier tells her, a spiritus 
familiaris, which grants wealth, 
protection, and the ability to at 
tract love. Frau Courage asks if 
the creature, like the Galgenmann- 
lein (the source of La Motte- 
Fouque s title), needs to be bathed 
and otherwise tended. The soldier 
replies that the spiritus familiaris 
is of a nature different from the 
Galgenmannlein, and that it must 
be sold for less money than pur 
chased. Elsewhere in the account 
Frau Courage s mother darkly ad 
vises that anyone who dies still 
possessing the familiar spirit will 
be damned. Grimmelshausen con 
cludes his spiritus familiaris episode 
rather casually. Frau Courage 
eventually sells the bottle-imp to 
her paramour, Springinsfeld, who 
later disposes of it by throwing it 
in a baker s oven. 

The evidence which indicates 
most suggestively that the Grimms 
were not presenting an old folk 
legend which they had collected 
from oral sources but were retell 
ing Grimmelshausen s story is their 
description of the bottle-imp, which 
reproduces several details of the 
earlier writer s account. Grimmels 
hausen writes: 

50 etwas in einem verschlossenen das- 
lein, welches nicht recht einer Spinnen 
und auch nicht recht einen Scorpion 
gleich sake. . . . sich dasselbe ohn Un- 
terlasse im Glass regte und herum gra- 



Compare the Grimms phrasing: 

Es wird gemeinlich in einem wohlver- 
schlossenen Glaslein aufbewahrt, sieht 
aus nicht recht wie eine Spinne, nich 
recht wie ein Skorpion, bewegt sich 
aber ohne Unterlass.s 



January 1971 



69 



The form of the bottle-imp story 
which became a cryptically per 
petuated literary tradition was 
probably shaped by Grimmelshau- 
sen, who evidently combined ele 
ments from two similar folkloristic 
themes: that of the bottle-inhabit 
ing familiar and that of the Gal- 
genmdnnlein. The flask-contained 
familiar, though popularly associ 
ated with the Near East and The 
Arabian Nights, is respectably an 
cient in Europe and appears in a 
legend of Virgil as early as the 
thirteenth century 10 and by the 
time of modern folktale-collecting 
is a stock character in Western 
folklore. 11 Though Grimmelshausen 
intentionally distinguishes his de 
mon from the Galgenrnannlein, he 
ascribes dangers and conditions to 
the possession of this spirit that 
popular belief characteristically at 
taches to the ownership of the lat 
ter: the Galgenmdnnlein can not 
be thrown away, for it will always 
magically return; it must be sold 
more cheaply than bought; and it 
brings damnation upon anyone 
who dies while possessing it. 12 
The two themes, originating sep 
arately in folk belief 13 and fused 
by Grimmelshausen, comprise what 
Stevenson called "the root idea". 

Bacil F. Kirtley 
University of Idaho 



1. Despite Stevenson s explanation of 
his indebtedness to a prior source, 
several American commentators upon 
"The Bottle-Imp" have accused him 
of plagiarism: "Stevenson s Borrowed 
Plot", The Literary Digest (IS July 
1914), pp. 105-106. The unsigned 
writer quotes extensively from a 
New York Sun editorial, which takes 
an even more severely disapproving 



and moralistic attitude toward Stev 
enson than does the Literary Digest 
writer. As early as 1902, Harry Quilt- 
er in What s What (London) in 
dicated that Stevenson s tale was 
borrowed from an earlier German 
story, but charitably acknowledged 
that the reinterpretation of a widely- 
known narrative theme can scarcely 
be deemed plagiarism (Quilter is 
quoted by J. S. Hammerton, Steven- 
soniana [Edinburgh, 1910], pp. 319- 
320). The issue of Stevenson s liter 
ary borrowing reverberated for sev 
eral years in the popular press : "Was 
Stevenson a Plagiarist?" Outlook, 
CXVI (June 1917), 252-253; Steph 
en Chalmers, "Letter on the Bottle 
Imp ", Munsey s Magazine, LXI 
(September 1917), 633-635; and 
"Expert Plagiarism by Divine Right 
and Mere Literary Theft", Munseys 
Magazine, LXI (September 1917), 
623-628. 

It is ironic that of the many writ 
ers, translators, and editors who ap 
propriated the bottle-imp story since 
its printed appearance in the 17th 
century, Stevenson, who alone made 
no pretense of having devised the 
plot, should be accused of plagia 
rism. The probability is strong, how 
ever, that the earliest printing of the 
story in the Sunday New York Her 
ald from 8 February to 1 March 
1891, simply omitted Stevenson s ex 
planation without his knowledge. The 
Literary Digest article, p. 105, con 
tains the assertion that Stevenson 
cites no source, and the writer, lack 
ing the newspaper s files, must as 
sume the statement s accuracy. "The 
Bottle Imp" appeared in the English 
literary journal Black and White 
from 28 March to 4 April however, 
and Stevenson s epigraph was at 
tached. This inconsistency between 
the American and English editions 
may have been caused by the New 
York Herald s editorial staff, who 
simply may have omitted Stevenson s 
preface for seeming a tedious aca 
demic quibble, a dubious come-on 
for novelty-hungry readers. 

2. This paper attempts to deal only with 
the bottle-imp theme in its line of 
descent from Grimmelshausen to 



70 



AN&Q 



Stevenson. Besides the authors dis 
cussed here, some of the other writ 
ers who have used the theme are 
Ferdinand Rosenau (Der Vitzliputzli, 
1817), Albert Lutze (Das Gal- 
gemannlein, 1839), Adolph Bottger 
(Galgenmannchen, 1870). A key to 
the extensive literature, both crea 
tive and scholarly, upon the subject 
may be found in Johannes Bolte et 
ali., Handworterbuch des Deutscken 
Marchens, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1934-40), 
II, 304-310; E. Hoffman-Krayer and 
Hanns Bachthold-Staubli, Handwort- 
erbuch des Deutschen Aberglaubens, 
10 vols. (Berlin-Leipzig, 1927-1937), 
II, 1573-1577; and Johannes Bolte 
and Georg Polivka, Anmerkungen zu 
den Kinder-und Plaus-marchen der 
Brtider Grimm, 5 vols. (Leipzig, 
1913-1932), II, 414-422. 

3. "The Sources of Stevenson s Bottle 
Imp **, Modern Language Notes, 
XXV, No. 1 (January 1916), p. 12. 

4. Ibid., p. 13. Fouque s story, the au 
thor again not mentioned, is included 
also in The Romancist s and Novel 
ist s Library (London, 1839), I, 342- 
346. A Galgenmannlein, little gal 
lows-man", was believed to grow out 
of a hanged person s secretions fall 
en to earth. According to folklore, a 
Galgenmannlein required elaborate 
care in return for its services. Fou- 
que s demon in most respects is a 
conventional familiar rechristened 
with a sinisterly suggestive term. For 
a concise but ample description of 
the concept, see Bolte, Handworter- 
buch, II, 304-310. 

5. Ibid., p. 14, note 10, where Beach 
suggests a search for the popular 
origins of the theme should begin 
with the notes to the "Grimm tale no. 
99" ("Der Geist im Glas"), a logical 
but incorrect guess, for that story 
concerns an unwilling captive spirit, 
whereas our theme is Faustian and is 
equivalent to a pact with the devil. 

6. Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Deut 
sche Sagen, ed. Paul Merker (Leip 
zig, 1908), pp. 34-37. This legend 
was the basis of Annette von Droste- 
HiilshofFs poem, "Spiritus Familiaris 
des Rosstattschers" . 



7. Albert Ludwig in his article, "Dahn, 
Fouque, Stevenson: Das Galge- 
mannlein und The Bottle Imp " 9 
Euphorion, XVII (1910), 616, men 
tions Grirnrnelshausen as a possible 
source for Fouqu6 s tale, but does 
not reject the possibility of an origin 
in oral tradition. The similarities in 
these two writers* stories, however, 
point strongly to Fouque s having 
based his work directly on "Trutz 
Simplex". 

8. Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grim- 
melshausen, "Trutz Simplex", in Sim- 
plicianische Schriften (Leipzig, 1877), 
p. 77. 

9. Brothers Grimm, p. 34. 

10. John Webster Spargo, Virgil the Nec 
romancer (Cambridge, Mass,, 1934), 
p. 23. Spargo cites similar legends 
from ca. 1300 (p. 28), ca. 1371 
(p. 39), ca. 1444-45 (p. 51), and 
ca. 1520 (p. 55). 

11. Cf. in addition to the mentioned 
works of Bolte, Hoffmann-Krayer and 
Bachtold-Staubli, and Bolte and Po 
livka the literature cited by Stith 
Thompson, A Motif-Index of Polk 
Literature, 6 vols. (Copenhagen and 
Bloomington, Ind., 1955-1958), s.v. 
motifs D2177.1 and F403.2.2.4; and 
Stith Thompson, The Types of the 
Folktale, FF Communications No. 
184 (Helsinki, 1961), s.v. type 331. 

12. Bolte, II, 309. 

13. The belief that spirits can be im 
prisoned in bottles was apparently 
sincere and persisted even in the 
most enlightened countries until, at 
least, the end of the 19th century. 
According to Christina Hole, Haunt 
ed England (London, 1940), p. 149, 
the irrepressible ghost of Sir George 
Blount was forced into a bottle which 
was still on display in 1886. 

A curious elaboration of the belief 
is mentioned by Edgar Thurston in 
his Omens and Superstitions of 
Southern India (London, 1912), p. 
250: "The Lingadors of the Kistna 
district are said to have made a 
specialty of bottling evil spirits, and 
casting the bottles away in some 
place where no one is likely to come 
across them, and liberate them". 



January 1971 



71 



"WADES BOOT : 
CANTERBURY TALES 
E 1424 AND 1684 

"And eek thise olde wydwes, Got it 

woot, 
They konne so muchel craft on Wades 

boot. 
So muchel broken harm, whan that 

hem leste, 
That with hem sholde I nevere lyve 

in reste". 1 

(E 1423-26) 

THIS PART OF JANUARY S SPEECH in 
the Merchant s Tale, explaining 
why he wants a young wife, has 
been a tantalizing Chaucerian crux 
ever since Speght, in his 1598 edi 
tion of the Works, remarked: "Con 
cerning Wade and his bote called 
Guingelot, as also his strange ex 
ploits in the same, because the 
matter is long and fabulous, I 
passe it over". 2 But although we 
will probably never learn anything 
more about Wade s boat than we 
already know which is to say 
nothing some sense has been 
cautiously drawn out of Chaucer s 
passage by W. W. Skeat: "It is 
obvious that the sole use of a 
magic boat is to transport its pos 
sessor from place to place in a 
few minutes, like the magic 
wings of Wade s own father. . . . 
Old widows, says Chaucer in 
effect, know too much of the 
craft of Wades boat; they can 
fly from place to place in a minute 
and, if charged with a misdemean 
our, will swear they were a mile 
away from the place at the time 
alleged. Mr. Pickwick, on the other 
hand, being only a man, failed to 
set up the plea of an alibi, and suf 
fered accordingly . 3 

A refinement of meaning may, 
however, be made by reference to 
a possible pun on Wade s name 



later in the tale. Justinus, Janu 
ary s brother and faithful counsel 
lor, is trying to dissuade him from 
marriage: 

"My tale is doon, for my wit is thynne. 
Beth nat agast herof, my brother 

deere, 

But lat us waden out of this rnateere." 
(E 1682-84) 

This last couplet appears to me 
to be superfluous, unless there is a 
pun on "waden", for Justinus has 
already said that he is done with 
the subject. Furthermore, "waden" 
(used in this figurative sense here 
for the only time in Chaucer} 4 is 
an odd choice of words, anyway: 
for although the gist of the last 
line must be "Let s drop this sub 
ject as quickly as possible", the 
verb "to wade" usually implies 
slowness, not celerity. But if there 
is a pun, the line acquires a rele 
vance and a meaning: "Let s be 
done with this unpleasant subject in 
a hurry just as (presumably) Wade 
got out of difficult situations in a 
hurry with his magic boat", with 
a still further implication of ""You 
ought to travel as fast as Wade s 
boat could take you, to avoid any 
thoughts of marriage". 

The possibility of this pun seems 
to be borne out by the next few 
lines, in which Justinus speaks as 
though he had heard the Wife of 
Bath: 

"The Wyf of Bathe, if ye han 

understonde, 

Of manage, which we have on hande, 
Declared hath ful wel in litel space. 
Fareth now wel, God have yow in his 

grace." 

(E 1685-88) 

Now, the Wife is precisely one 
of those "olde wydwes" January 
had said he would avoid, and Jus- 



72 



AN&Q 



tinus is in effect reminding him of 
his own words. ( For if the dramatic 
pretense that a character in a tale 
can t hear a pilgrim who has told 
a tale can be momentarily aban 
doned, then a further one likewise 
can be, that January s meditation 
was unheard except by himself.) 
Justinus, then, is warning Janu 
ary, by means of the whole pas 
sage, "Remember how this woman 
got out of unpleasant situations, 
with her wit , and made her hus 
bands lives a Turgatorie [E 1670; 
cf. Wife of Bath s Prologue, D 489]. 
Even if your wit* is "thynne , like 
mine, you ought to have enough 
sense to flee from women as fast 
as Wade s boat can take you". 

One hates to say that we there 
fore know less of Wade s boat be 
fore, but Skeat s suggestion that 
Wade s boat has something to do 
with an alibi would appear to be 
unfounded. If my analysis has been 
correct, to use Wade s boat means 
to extricate oneself from an un 
pleasant or difficult situation, either 
literally (in a magic boat) or fig 
uratively (by one s wit ). 

Sumner J. Ferris 

California State College, 
California, Penn. 



1. Quotations from Chaucer from F. N. 
Robinson, ed., The Works of Geoffrey 
Chaucer, 2nd ed. (Boston, 1957). 

2. Quoted in W. W. Skeat, ed., The 
Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer 
(Oxford, 1894), HI, 356. 

3. Ibid., 357. 

4. The other occurrences are in the 
Canterbury Tales B 2 3684 and D 
2084; Trotlus 11.150; and in the pos 
sibly non-Chaucerian section of the 
Romaunt of the Rose, 5022. 



"ROMANCE" IN THE 
BLITHEDALE ROMANCE 

THE WORD "ROMANCE" has three 
distinct meanings in The Blithe dale 
Romance, and each of the mean 
ings functions on a different level 
in the story. In its most common 
meaning, "romance" applies to the 
love affair between Hollingsworth 
and Zenobia. This is the most fun 
damental level, the level of plot. 

But "romance" can also be un 
derstood in the sense of a poetic 
but impractical vision, like a fan 
tastic fairy tale. In this sense, the 
word functions as a tacit comment 
by the narrator ( and perhaps ) the 
author on the theme of Utopian 
living: an inspiring but unattain 
able ideal which can be fully 
achieved only in another world. 

Last of all, "romance" may be 
used to mean a literary genre some 
what opposed to realism. Under 
stood in this manner, the word 
functions as an ironic device by 
which Hawthorne forestalls all crit 
icism of his work. For if the novel 
openly proclaims itself a romance, 
Hawthorne cannot be criticized for 
having failed to make it "realistic" 
and "believable". It is the nature 
of romance to be unrealistic and 
unbelievable. 

Yet simultaneously it is the na 
ture of romance to arouse passion 
and inspire enthusiasm which leads 
men to attempt bringing reality in 
to alignment with ideality. The 
novel, like Hawthorne s experiences 
at Brook Farm noted in the preface, 
is both a daydream and a fact. If 
in future years a Utopian mode of 
life is achieved, it could in part be 
credited to the author s inspiration 
al work. However, if Utopia should 



January 1971 



73 



remain forever in the realm of 
imagination, who can criticize 
Hawthorne for presenting a foolish 
notion as the object of a romantic 
story? 

The title, then, is subtly chosen 
both to credit and discredit the 
author for writing a book about an 
enigmatical subject which has per 
ennially presented itself to men 
with a promise of success and the 
assurance of failure. 

John White 
Cheshire, Conn. 



WYATTS "DYVERS DOTHE 
USE": A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 
PUZZLE 

Sm THOMAS WYATT S "Dyvers 
dothe use" was not included in 
Totters Miscellany. While his Mis 
cellany contributions were being 
widely read and his sonnets were 
being closely scrutinized by sonnet 
eers (especially in the 1590s), 
"Dyvers dothe use" remained hid 
den from the world in general be 
tween the leaves of a small quarto 
volume of poems, a commonplace 
book owned at different times by 
Mary Skelton and Margaret How 
ard. 1 This small quarto volume was 
not uncovered until the beginning 
of the 19th century, and in 1816 
George Frederick Nott used it in 
preparing his edition of Wyatt s 
and Surrey s works. 2 Today the 
manuscript is commonly called the 
"Devonshire MS/ ; it is officially 
known as Additional MS. 17492, 
British Museum. 3 

We have Nott s testimony that 
"Dyvers dothe use" was not to be 
found before 1816 except in the 
Devonshire MS.: "This [sonnet] oc 



curs in the Duke of Devonshire s 
MS. alone, at page 178". 4 Yet in 
the introduction to his 1816 edition 
Nott confuses the matter some 
what: "The pieces which are print 
ed from this MS. exclusively [au 
thor s italics]", he says, "are kept, 
for the sake of distinction, separate 
by themselves, and occupy the 
space between pagefs] 205 and 
264". 5 "Dyvers dothe use" appears 
on pages 143-144, a fact which 
leads one to believe that it was not 
printed exclusively from the Dev 
onshire MS. If not, though, what 
other published source for "Dyvers 
dothe use" did Nott use? Are Ken 
neth Muir, the foremost editor of 
Wyatt s works, 6 and J. W. Lever 7 
correct in accepting the prevalent 
opinion that "Dyvers dothe use" 
was indeed first published in Nott s 
1816 edition? This bibliographical 
puzzle concerning Wyatt s "Dyvers 
dothe use" deserves a little atten 



tion. 



Donald Kay 



University of Alabama 



1. George Frederick Nott thinks that the 
Devonshire MS. must have belonged, 
if not to the two ladies, at least to 
someone who lived intimately with 
them. See The Works of Hennj How 
ard, Earl of Surrey, and of Sir Thomas 

Wyatt, the Elder, ed. George Fred 
erick Nott (London, 1816), II, x. 
Also see Appendix A of A. K. Fox- 
well s A Study of Sir Thomas Wyatt s 
Poems (London, 1911) for further 
discussion of the Devonshire MS. 

2. Nott s 1816 edition (cited above) has 
two volumes. 

3. Foxwell, p. 7. 

4. Nott, I. 572. 

5. Nott, I, x. 

6. Collected Poems of Sir Thomas Wyatt, 
ed. Kenneth Muir (London, 1949). 

7. J. W. Lever, The Elizabethan Love 
Sonnet (London, 1956). 



74 



QUERIES 



Dr John Cochran We are plan 
ning to publish the "Letter-Book" 
of Dr John Cochran (1730-1807), 
Director-General of the Hospitals 
of the Army of the United States 
from 1781 to 1783. We are nat 
urally anxious to obtain all original 
material, especially letters, concern 
ing him. If your readers have any 
letters by or relating to Dr Cochran 
might they be so kind as to have 
them copied and forwarded to us? 
Proper acknowledgment will of 
course be made for their very kind 
assistance. Mom s H. Saffron, 
A/.D., Ph.D., New York Academy 
of Medicine, 2 East 103 St, New 
k NT. 10029 



Beckford Latin quotation In 
my forthcoming edition of Wil 
liam Beckford s Dreams, Waking 
Thoughts and Incidents, I have 
been able to identify the sources 
of all of the Latin quotations with 
the exception of the following: 
Et circum irriguo surgebant lilia 
prato/ Candida purpureis mista 
papaveribus, Robert ]. Gem- 
mett, SI/NY, Brockport, N.Y. 

A Mackintosh, a Morris, a Rounds, 
and a Bates What are the vital 
dates of birth and death of one 
Newton Mackintosh I believe 
him to be an American. In 1896 
his book A Chamber of Horrors 
was published. Yet not even the 
Library of Congress can give me 
his dates; the same facts for J. W. 
Morris. He is known to me only for 
his poem What I Think of Hia 
watha", which has appeared in 
many anthologies. Is he American 



AN&Q 

or English? The same data for 
Emma Rounds, Her poem "Plane 
Geometry" appeared in Hughes 
Mearn s Creative Youth published 
by Doubleday. I would thus sup 
pose her to be American and it is 
possible she is still living; and what 
about G. E. Bates whose poem 
"Pentagonia" appeared in The New 
Yorker about 1951. I have inquired 
of The New Yorker but they do 
not have an address for him and no 
facts about him. Mrs Richard 
R. Livingston, Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Milton and the Serpent It has 
become traditional to identify Mil 
ton s Serpent in Paradise Lost with 
Satan and evil per se (see, for ex 
ample, the recent comment in 
HLQ, XXXIII, 384: "The Serpent 
suttlest Beast of all the Field . . . 
fittest Imp of Fraud* is indeed the 
Tit Vessel for the wiles of the 
Tempter [IX.86-89]"). Though not 
disagreeing with the Miltonic ver 
dict that the Serpent is cursed, I 
am curious whether any Miltonist 
can provide an explanation for the 
ambiguity of the line "Conviction 
to the Serpent none belongs". As 
I read it, the word Conviction can 
mean both "convincement" (see 
OED) and "punishment"; if the 
latter, then the suggestion might be 
that the poor old snake is not to 
blame, that only the "infernal" one 
is. Is this reading in keeping with 
Milton s intent? Robert F. 
Fleissner, Wilberforce, Ohio 

Othrnar & Erika Spann I 
would like to discover any possible 
mention of the work of the Vien 
nese sociologist and social philoso 
pher Othmar Spann (1878-1950) 
in the United States in the 1920s 



January 1971 



75 



and 1930s. Also any mention of hours from the city; the accom- 

the poetry of his wife Erita Spann- modation will be quite simple, and 

Rheinsch (1880-1967) would be eating arrangements will be unto 

appreciated. John Haag, Ath- each individual". Jerry Drost, 

F^ _ . CrTTVTV x,J. ~D*,t-[. f ,ls\ 



ens, Georgia 



REPLIES 

Upton Sinclair and the Helicon 
Home Colony (1:6) Apparent 
ly Upton Sinclair had forgotten 
(due no doubt to his prolific life; 
his collected works amount to 100 
volumes) a few pamphlets con 
cerning his experiment in commu 
nal living. He was correct about a 
pamphlet coming out in 1906 re 
printing "The Independent" article 
on June 14, 1906. The pamphlet 
was entitled A Home Colony; a 
Prospectus, 1906, published by the 
Jungle Publishing company. 

R. Gottesman in his thesis, Up 
ton Sinclair; an Annotated Bibli 
ographical Catalogue, 1894-1932 
(1964, University of Indiana) in 
cluded a few more leaflets by Up 
ton Sinclair or sponsored by him: 
1) A broadside, "The Helicon Home 
Colony Cottage Plans" (published 
15 January 1907) outlined plans, 
financial cost and restrictions for 
cottages on the grounds of the 
Helicon Home Colony; 2) An il 
lustrated brochure, published Janu 
ary 1907, entitled "Helicon Home 
Colony" describing the nature and 
purpose of the Home Colony Com 
pany; 3) A privately printed 8-page 
leaflet entitled "A Plan for a Co 
operative Group . . . (Personal 
and Confidential)" was published 
in September 1908. The leaflet 
"outlines plans for a new Tiome 
colony this one to be a couple of 



SUNY at Buffalo. 

Caspar de PortoU (VIII: 136) 

As for what happened to Caspar 
de Portola after he returned to 
Spain in 1784, the following source 
gives some information. Maynard 
J. Geiger, The Life and Times of 
Fray Junipero Serra, O.F.M. (Wash 
ington, D.C., Academy of Ameri 
can Franciscan History, 1959), 2 
volumes: Volume I, p. 253, note: 
"Portola became governor of Pue- 
bla, Mexico on June 9, 1776, and 
continued in that capacity until 
about 1783. He returned to his 
native Catalonia a colonel and died 
at Lerida October 10, 1786 where 
he is buried". Volume II, p.^402: 
"Portola was buried in Lerida, 
Spain, October 10, 1786". It re 
mains not entirely certain that he 
was buried and died on the same 
day; I should expect that date to 
be that of his death, rather than 
that of burial, but . . .?! Edgar 
C. Knowlton, jr, University of 
Hawaii, Honolulu 

" Twixt heaven and heir (VIII: 137) 

This passage occurs in Goethe s 

Faust, Part I, Before the City Gate 
scene, 11. 1118-21: "O gibt es 
Geister in der Luft,/ Die zwischen 
Erd und Himmel herrschend web- 
en,/ So steiget nieder aus dem 
goldnen Duft/ Und fuhrt mich 
weg, zu neuem, buntem Leben!" 
It is part of Faust s speech which 
causes Mephistopheles to appear 
to him not as a spirit from the air, 
but as a black poodle strolling 
through a field. Though my ex- 



76 



AN&Q 



amination of all the Faust transla 
tions at hand in the library did not 
reveal the translator of the version 
quoted, it did show that he is heav 
ily indebted to Bayard Taylor s 
1870 text: the third and fourth 
lines are exactly the same (except 
for end punctuation) and the first 
line copies directly another phrase 
except for the one inaccurate and 
misleading substitution of angels 
for spirits. Hell for earth is also in 
correct. A more precise, literal 
translation, freed of the restrictions 
of rhyme, is perhaps this one: "O 
if there be spirits in the air,/ Which 
between earth and heaven ruling 
weave,/ Then descend out of the 
golden ether/ And lead me away 
to new, varied life!" Frank K. 
Robinson, University of Tennessee, 
Knoxville 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

Exciting and important biblio 
graphical news is that Bernard 
Amtmann, noted Canadian anti 
quarian book dealer has recently 
issued his first announcement of 
the forthcoming Contributions to 
a Short-Title Catalogue of Canadi- 
ana. During the past three years 
he has been compiling a compre 
hensive card catalogue on which 
the present bibliography is based. 
It will contain about 45,000 sepa 
rate entries compiled from more 
than 80,000 titles listed in his cata 
logues since 1950. Features worthy 
of special mention are the follow 
ing: 1) Indication of corresponding 



values and years; 2) Tracing of 
author s identity in the cases of 
pseudonymous works; 3) Assess 
ment of the rarity factor of a given 
item by number of copies listed. 
A very large number of items in 
this Catalogue are not cited else 
where. Mr Amtmann intends to 
publish the Short-Title Catalogue 
in 3 bound large quarto volumes. 
Tentative dates of publication are 
as follows: Volume I ? March, 1971; 
II, September; III, December. Con 
tributions to a Short-Title Cata 
logue of Canadiana will be avail 
able on a subscription basis, and 
details are available from Bernard 
Amtmann, 1176 Sherbrooke Street 
West, Montreal 110, Quebec, 
Canada. 

We are informed by Professor Mo 
han Lai Sharma, of Pennsylvania s 
Slippery Rock State College, that 
centers for Sehre (poetry for newly- 
weds ) -Shiksha ( training ) , where 
people are trained to recite cou 
plets, are mushrooming in Delhi 
colonies to meet the pressing de 
mands of a well-known Punjabi 
custom. No Punjabi marriage is 
generally considered complete with 
out a soulful chanting of a few 
"sehre" as a preamble to the cere 
mony. The couplets, colorful and 
flowery are addressed mainly to 
the bride. While showering bless 
ings, the couplets also purport 
to give advice to her. As the 
"sehre" tradition is important, much 
thought is bestowed on the choice 
of the chanter. The Delhi centers 
enroll members on an earn-while- 
you-learn basis, run libraries, em 
ploy instructors, and organize mu 
tual discussions to help trainees 
acquire proficiency. They maintain 
impressive rosters of eligible chant- 



January 1971 



77 



ers from which a client can pick 
and choose. But the profession is 
not for the young. People look for 
reciters with some signs of age to 
proclaim wisdom and voices me 
lodious enough to chant the "sehre" 
with mellifluous gusto. (It is a pity 
that the recitations now are invari 
ably given over vulgarly loud mi 
crophones). Is there anything like 
the Punjabi custom anywhere else, 
especially in the West? 

THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY, 
Brown University, has announced 
availability of a microfilm of John 
Russell Bartlett s Papers, with an 
index, relating to his term of serv 
ice as this country s Commissioner 
for the drawing of the boundary 
between Mexico and the United 
States. Between 1850 and 1853 he 
traveled across Texas, New Mexico, 
Arizona, into northern Mexico and 
California. The papers, most of 
which came to the Library in 1881, 
consist primarily of journals kept 
by Bartlett and of the correspond 
ence addressed to him. There are 
comparatively few letters by Bart 
lett himself. The collection falls 
into the following categories: Cor 
respondence, May 1850 to August 
1877; in seven folio volumes; Offi 
cial Despatches, 1850 to 1853; Of 
ficial Journal, 1849 to 1852; Person 
al Journal, August 1850 to Decem 
ber 1852; Newspaper clippings, 
June 1850 to August 1852. An index 
to the names of the writers of all 
the letters has been prepared which 
will be distributed with the film. 
The microfilm which consists of 
3,500 frames on 12 reels, and the 
index, may be obtained from the 
Library at the cost of $65. Orders 
should be addressed to the Library 
in Providence. 



Roy Strong s beautiful book, The 
English Icon: Elizabethan & Jaco 
bean Portraiture, throws consider 
able light on the confused and 
confusing history of the develop 
ment of a highly personalized art 
form. Covering easel painting in 
the period of about 1540 to 1620, 
Strong has "tried, in the Introduc 
tion, to evoke the historical back 
ground, the climate of thought and 
stylistic development affecting pic 
torial activity during the reigns of 
Elizabeth I and James I". Many 
of the nearly 500 portraits are in 
full-color reproduction and there 
are some interesting magnified de 
tails that enhance the scholarly 
textual analyses of different rep 
resentations by nearly fifty artists. 
The historian and student of dress 
will have a great time studying 
details of the various costumes, as 
well as portraits of historically im 
portant persons. Besides the con 
ventional and expected study of 
styles of painting (with detailed 
appraisals of some of the artists 
works), there are unusual chapters 
on The Language of Painting, Col 
lectors and Collecting, Painting 
and Poetry, as well as a folding 
chart which is "A Calendar of Po 
litical and Artistic Events, 1540 to 
1620". An Appendix includes seven 
of Strong s more important papers 
that are background to the early 
researches that went into making 
the present book. A Critical Bib 
liography, and various special in 
dexes round off the many useful 
purposes to which the book can 
be put. The volume is in the 
Studies in British Art series of the 
Paul Mellon Foundation for Brit 
ish Art. (New Haven: Yale Uni 
versity Press, 1970 [c!969]. $30). 



78 



AN&Q 



Another seemingly indispensable 
book for any art reference collec 
tion is Kurt Erdmann s Seven Hun 
dred Years of Oriental Carpets, 
edited by Hanna Erdmann and 
translated by May H. Beattie and 
Hildegard Herzog (Berkeley: Uni 
versity of California Press, 1970. 
$40). Learning to appreciate the 
history of Oriental carpeting can 
be one of the most exciting and 
rewarding studies of an unusual 
esoteric art form: to read about 
the involved techniques of manu 
facture, the bitter commercial ri 
valry of region against region, of 
the intrigues of carpetmakers, and 
the development of this aspect of 
east-west trade, of forged carpets, 
and the horrors of the loss of 
treasures held by the great Berlin 
museums in World War II, all this 
makes a great story. The fine il 
lustrations, some in color, help to 
make this book a definitive intro 
duction to the subject, stemming 
as it does from the author s many 
years as Curator of the Islamic De 
partment of the Berlin Museums. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky. 

Any new batch of titles in Reclams 
Universal-Bibliothek is always wel 
come. New critical editions and 
important commentaries in the 
series of "Erlauterangen und Doku- 
mente" (e.g., Giinter Hagedorn, 
Heinrich von Kleist, Michael Kohl- 



haas, 1969; 108pp.; UB 9018) are 
special features. Here is an inno 
vation in the Reclam policy during 
the past lustrum which will be use 
ful to all students of German and 
comparative literature. In ancient 
literature Reclam offers Theophras- 
tus, Charaktere, in a parallel Greek 
and German text (translation by 
Dietrich Klose; 103pp.; UB 619/ 
19a), and Seneca, De dementia, 
in a parallel Latin and German 
text (translation by Karl Biichner; 
116pp.; UB 8385/86). Everyman, 
in a parallel English and German 
translation (translation by Helmut 
Wiemken; 95pp.; UB 8326), is a 
fundamental text, useful for both 
English- and German-speaking stu 
dents. Martin Opitz, Gedichte (ed. 
by Jan-Dirk Miiller; 216pp.; UB 
361/63), is an edition which will 
be enduring for students of 17th- 
century German literature. Chris 
tian Thomasius, Deutsche Schrift- 
en (ed. by Peter von Duffel; 205pp.; 
UB 8369/71), includes the most 
important works of a student of 
basic trends in the thinking of late 
17th-, early 18th-century Germany. 
Johann Nestroy, Judith und Ho- 
lofernes, Hduptling Abendwind 
(84pp. ; UB 3347), is the basic text, 
with an introduction by Jiirgen 
Heim. Fritz Martini, ed.; Prosa 
des Expressionismus (319pp.; UB 
8379/82), includes selections from 
the work of Johannes R. Becher, 
Gottfried Benn, Max Brod, Alfred 
Doblin, Kasimir Edschmid, Albert 
Ehrenstein, Carl Einstein, Georg 
Heym, Oskar Kokoschka, Alfred 
Lemm, Alfred Lichtenstein, Oskar 
Loerke, Heinrich Mann, Ludwig 
Meidner, Kurt Schwitters, Carl 
Sternheim, Georg Trakl, Alfred 
Wolfenstein, and Paul Zech; 
George Edward Moore, Principia 



January 1971 

ethica (34Spp.; UB 8375/78), of 
fers a document of English specu 
lative thought which is not readily 
available elsewhere. The parallel 
text of Arthur Rimbaud, Une sal- 
son en enfer, German and French 
(lllpp.; UB 7902/03), with the 
translation and commentary of 
Werner Dlirrson, is a permanent 
monument of Rimbaud scholarship. 

Two new fascicles of the tenth edi 
tion of Dahlmann-Waitz, Quellen- 
kunde der deutschen Geschichte 
(Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann), ed 
ited by Hermann Heimpel and Her 
bert Geuss, have appeared recent 
ly. They are numbers seventeen 
and eighteen, covering the end of 
Section 43 through the beginning 
of Section 50, a general section 
dealing with concepts of history, 
education, culture in general, phi 
losophy, science and literature in 
relation to the entire work. 



BOOK REVIEW 

MILES, Josephine. Style and Propor 
tion: the Language of Prose and Poetry. 
212pp. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 
1967. $7. 

The intention of this book is to probe 
the development of literary English as 
it is evidenced in recognized writers 
from the 15th century to the present. 
The direction the book will take is 
forecast in the first sentence of the 
preface: "How do the words and struc 
tures of language in literature differ 
from place to place, from kind to kind?" 
Partly because the question itself is a 
very ambitious one to pose, I suspect 
that the reaction to the book on the part 
of qualified readers might be expected 
to differ radically. Although there are 
some surprising and highly suggestive 
principles of style uncovered here, the 
heavy burden of conclusion to this mass 



79 

of observation finally falls squarely upon 
the shoulders of the reader who, upon 
reaching the book s end, may feel him 
self seduced and abandoned by the 
author. Because the many threads of 
this inquiry are never really brought 
together, the book might be judged a 
failure were it not for the occasionally 
engrossing flashes of illumination that 
turn up. 

The author, Professor of English at 
the University of California, Berkeley, 
begins with a fairly simple and obvious 
observation: "I think that among the 
possibilities offered by the medium, each 
artist chooses certain ones to stress char 
acteristically, so that he develops, in 
selecting and arranging his materials, 
recognizable habits, a style, which is 
one special variation upon one among 
the more general styles established by 
certain lines of choice". We next receive 
both a quantitative and a qualitative 
description of some sixty representative 
poetry and prose texts selected from 
among British and American authors 
ranging from the anonymous English 
ballads (c. 1470) to James Baldwin. 
Basically, we are shown two things: 
1) the "proportion" of adjectives, nouns, 
verbs and connectives, and later 2) the 
specific character of a given writer s 
tastes in adjectives, nouns and verbs. 
For whatever it may be worth, we learn 
that in Dryden we can expect the steady 
proportion of two adjectives to five 
nouns to two verbs to four connectives. 
By consulting the book s appendix, we 
can also learn that Bryant s chief verbs 
are come, die, fall, grow, hear, know, 
lie, look, love, rise, see, seem and take. 
Well documented as it is, we have little 
reason to disbelieve information such 
as this, although it is difficult at times 
to ascertain the spirit in which we are 
to receive it. 

The book is written with a great deal 
of verve and enthusiasm, and the care 
ful reader is likely to become captivated 
by the author s determined, almost vis 
ceral sensitivity to literary style. She has, 
I think, advantageously applied not only 
her mind to the considerable task in 
front of her, but also her glands. While 
there is much that is not new here, we 
also have a good many unique and per 
sonal observations about style. The 
reader is obliged to accept much in the 
way of generalization about the history 



80 



AN&Q 



of the language, about literary move 
ments and about "major" writers that 
is traditional and tentative, but beyond 
that, the author has in all probability 
identified some characteristics of lin 
guistic proportion and selectivity that 
may lead the way to still other avenues 
of inquiry. The book hints at, among 
other things, methods by which little 
understood problems of attribution and 
influence in literature might better be 
comprehended. One might make some 
thing (but what?) out of the fact that 
the proportions of Swift s prose are al 
most identical to those of Santayana s. 
An observation such as this may not be 
without meaning, but it remains for 
someone else to carry such insights to 
a conclusion of some kind. 

That the author has done her home 
work is obvious. Her bibliography, 
which is very valuable in itself, con 
tains approximately 1,200 entries, all 
having to do in one sense or another 
with the understanding of literary style. 
She has, in addition, supplied numerous 
and generous illustrations of style as 
suited to her purposes. There is, withal, 
a certain give and take that will in 
evitably pass between author and reader 
here. Those who relish a healthy quarrel 
with a book may well enjoy locking 
horns with this one in particular. Be 
cause the book is an ambitious and 
speculative one, the reader may feel 
disposed to give it the benefit of any 
doubts that may arise. Kenneth T. 
Reed, Miami University, Hamilton, Ohio. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

(Continued from p. 66) 

Norman, Diana. Tom Corbett s Stately 
Ghosts of England. Frontis. 191pp. 
N.Y.: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1970. 
$5.95 



Parker, John; & Urness, Carol, comps. 
The James Ford Bell Library: a List 
of Additions, 1965-1969. 103pp. Min 
neapolis: University of Minnesota 
Press, 1970. $10. 

(Plato). The Symposium of Plato. Trans, 
by Suzy Q Groden. Ed. by John A. 
Brentlinger. Drawings by Leonard Bas- 
kin. 129pp. Amherst: University of 
Massachusetts Press, 1970. $10. 

("Punch"). The Best of Mr Punch: the 
Humorous Writings of Douglas Jer- 
rold. Ed., with an Introd. by Richard 
M. Kelly. Illus. 400pp. Knoxville: 
University of Tennessee Press, 1970 
$14.50 

Schapper, Beatrice, ed. Writing the 
Magazine Article From Idea to 
Printed Page, by [the] Society of 
Magazine Writers. Illus., incl, Facs. 
199pp. Cincinnati: Writer s Digest 
1970. $8.95 

Stuart, Dorothy Margaret. The Boy 
Through the Ages. (London, 1926), 
Illus. 1970, and 

. The Girl Through the Ages. (Lon 
don, 1933). Illus. Detroit: Singing 
Tree Press, 1969. Each, Price ? 

Taylor, John M. The Witchcraft Delusion 
in Colonial Connecticut, 1647-1697. 
(N.Y., 1908). 172pp. Stratford, Ct: 
J. Edmund Edwards, 61 Winton Place 
Zip 06497; 1969. $6. 

Thompson, Lawrence S. Essays in His 
panic Bibliography. [I, The Colonial 
Period; II, Libraries of the Caribbean; 
III, Bookbinding; IV, Library Re 
sources and the Book Trade]. 117pp. 
Hamden, Ct.: The Shoe String Press 
1970. 

Walton, Alan Hull. The Open Grave 
[Humans, Demons, Black Mass, Oc 
cult, etc.]. 233pp. N.Y.: Taplinger 
Publishing Co., 1971 [c 1969]. $4.95 

Writers Market, 71. Ed. by Kirk Polk 
ing & Gloria Emison. 731pp. Cincin 
nati: Writer s Digest, 1970. $8.95 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume IX Number 6 February 1971 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Bandelier, Adolph F., The Southwestern 
Journals of, 1883-1884. Ed. & Anno 
tated by Charles H. Lange, et al. 
Illus. 528pp. Albuquerque: University 
of New Mexico Press, 1970. $20. 

Burke, Edmund, The Correspondence of: 
Vol. IX, Pt 1, May 1796-July 1797. 
Ed. by R. B. McDowell; Pt 2, Addi 
tional and Undated Letters, Ed. by 
John A. Woods. Port, xxviii, 487pp. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 

1970. $21.50 

Carter, Marguerite. The Time When 
Jour Luck Will Change According to 
Your Birthdate. [Astrological observa 
tions with some interesting illustra 
tions relative to literature, history, and 
folklore]. Illus. 360pp. [Indianapolis: 
Alan McConnell & Son, Inc.] Distrib 
utor: N.Y.: Taplinger Publishing Co., 

1971. $6.50 

Castaneda, Carlos. A Separate Reality: 
Further Conversations With Don Juan 
[of the author s The Teachings of Don 
Juan: a Yaqui Way of Knowledge 
(1968)]. N.Y.: Simon and Schuster, 
May 1971. $5.95 

Chaucer, Speaking of, by E. Talbot 
Donaldson. 178pp. N.Y.: W. W. Nor 
ton, 1970. $6.50 

Children s Books of Yesterday: a Cata 
logue of an Exhibition . . . May 1946. 
Comp. by Percy H. Muir. Foreword 
by John Masefield. New Edition, Rev. 
& EnL, with an Added Index. 211pp, 
Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1970. 
$6.50 

Cordova-Rios, Manuel; & Lamb, F. 
Bruce. Wizard of the Upper Amazon. 
N.Y.: Atheneum, 1971. $6.95 



The Critical Idiom (series). General 
Editor, John D. Jump: S. W. Dawson, 
Drama and the Dramatic, lOOpp; Eliz 
abeth Dipple, Plot, 78pp; G. S. Fraser, 
Metre, Rhyme, and Free Verse, 88pp. 
London: Methuen & Co., Ltd. [U.S. 
distributor Barnes & Noble, Inc.], 

1970. Each, cloth, $3; paper, $1.25 
Dee, John: Scientist, Geographer, As 
trologer, and Secret Agent to Elizabeth 
I, by Richard Deacon. 

Dunkin, Paul. Tales of Melvil s Mouser; 
or, Much Ado About Libraries. 182pp, 
N.Y.: R. R. Bowker, 1970. Price ? 

Haining, Peter, comp. A Circle of 
Witches: an Anthology of [Eighteen] 
Victorian Witchcraft Stories [Written 
by Women]. Illus. N.Y.: Taplinger 
Publisning Co., 1971. $5.95 

Hawthorne: the Critical Heritage. Ed. 
by J. Donald Crowley. (The Critical 
Heritage Series). 532pp. N.Y.: Barnes 
& Noble, Inc., 1970. $15. 

Levin, Richard. The Multiple Plot in 
English Renaissance Drama. 277pp. 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 

1971. $9.50 

Little Magazines from the Collections 
of Rigby Graham and Alec Morris. 
An Exhibition Held at 1 Newarke 
Street, Leicester, 12 January-19 March 
1970. Illus. ["Twenty copies" (ac 
tually only seventeen) . . . not for 
sale or publication; listed in AN&Q 
for the bibliographical record only]. 
Leicester: The Cog Press, 1970. Not 
available. 

Lowell, James Russell: Portrait of a 
Many-Sided Man, by Edward Wagen- 
knecht. Port. 276pp. N.Y.: Oxford 
University Press, 1971. $7.50 

(Continued on p. 96) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75$ each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Book Review Index; in 
cluded in The Years Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
in the Annual MLA International Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

"THE CHILDRENS THREES" 

JOHN CLEVELAND S "A Dialogue be 
tween two Zealots, upon the &c. in 
the Oath" opens with what has ap 
peared to readers as a most puz 
zling comment on one of the two 
zealots: 

Sir Roger, from a zealous piece of 

Freeze, 
RaisM to a Vicar of the Childrens 

threes; 
Whose yearly Audit may, by strict 

accompt, 
To twenty Nobles and his Vailes 

amount, i 

That Sir Roger is not well-to-do 
in lines one, three, and four has 
been admirably noted by the re 
cent editors of Cleveland s poems. 2 
Frieze is not a cloth suggestive 
of even moderate wealth and the 
computing of his annual income of 
"twenty Nobles", not counting per 
quisites, would yield Sir Roger 
less than seven pounds a year. As 
Morris and Withington point out, 
"even in 1640 . . . [he] was not 
passing rich" (p. 83). 

But what is to be made of the 
second line? In what way has Sir 
Roger been changed by being 



"rais d to a Vicar of the Childrens 
threes"? It is the obscurity of this 
line that makes the opening of the 
poem difficult. The children s 
threes could refer to that third 
of the estate of a London citizen 
given to his children (one third 
being given to his wife and one 
third to his executors), and, as 
Cleveland s editors point out, he 
may refer to the administration of 
wills in London, "though what 
light this throws on Cleveland s 
line is not clear" (p. S3). The rea 
son for lack of light is that if 
Cleveland had meant that Sir 
Roger had become a clerk of the 
children s threes or had been left 
something by this method of estate 
division, he would be much better 
off in line three than in line one. 
It is likely, however, that what 
Cleveland is doing in line two is 
providing a paraphrase of the latin 
term, jus trium liberorum. "Augus 
tus granted certain privileges, 
known compendiously by this 
name, to fathers of three children. 
The privileges included exemption 
from certain taxes and preference 
among candidates for office . 3 Ob 
viously the laws of Augustus did 
not apply in mid-century London, 
but the latin tag seems to have 
made its way into 17th-century 
usage, although with slightly 
changed connotations. Since many 
fathers, in any age, could claim 
jus trium liberorum, the phrase 
came to stand for the most com 
mon, and hence, least effective, 
sort of political or official reward. 
Jeremy Taylor, in The Liberty of 
Prophesying (1647), uses the 
phrase with this changed meaning. 
Taylor fears he will gain no recog 
nition for his work beyond being 
the father of three children, in 
other words, almost no praise at all. 



84 



AN&Q 



I began to be sad upon a new stock, 
and full of apprehension that I should 
live unprofitably, and die obscurely, 
and be forgotten, and my bones thrown 
into some common charnel-house, with 
out any name or note to distinguish me 
from those who only served their gen 
eration by filling the number of citizens, 
and who could pretend to no thanks or 
reward from the public, beyond a jus 
trium liberorum. 4 

Not only were Taylor s book and 
Cleveland s poem published in the 
same year, but their careers are 
strikingly parallel. Both were Cam 
bridge scholars; both had some 
sort of academic connection with 
Oxford; both joined Charles I and 
his court at Oxford and partici 
pated in the intellectual life of 
that court; and no doubt both were 
familiar with the phrase jus trium 
liberorum, in its classical and mod 
ern senses. Hence, Cleveland may 
well have used the English para- 
phrastical reference to indicate the 
inconsequence of Sir Roger politi 
cally and financially, or at least 
his inconsequence until his party 
came to power. 5 This reading of 
line two does shed some light on 
the opening of the poem by solv 
ing the problem of the lack of 
change in Sir Roger s state after 
his being raised to the vicarage of 
the children s threes. 

William P. Williams 

Northern Illinois University 
DeKalb, Illinois 



1. The Poems of John Cleveland, ed. 
Brian Morris and Eleanor Withington 
(Oxford, 1967), p. 4. 

2. Ibid., p. 82. 

3. Sir Paul Harvey, The Oxford Com- 
panlon to Classical Literature (Ox 
ford, 1962), p. 232. 



THE TALM TREE IN THE 
FOREST OF ARDEN 

IT is UNFORTUNATE THAT the earli 
est extant text of As You Like It 
is that of the First Folio, for if 
even one Quarto text existed sev 
eral puzzling details in the play 
might be resolved. The fact that the 
play was entered on the Stationers 
Register in 1600 as a precaution 
against its unauthorized use indi 
cates that it was regarded as a 
valuable enough stage property to 
protect. 

If we are correct in assuming 
that no printed version of the play 
had appeared before the First Fo 
lio, the Folio text must have been 
set up from a manuscript copy. 
This is speculation, of course, for 
there is always the possibility that 
one or several printed texts of the 
play existed in 1623 which have 
not survived. However, at least 
one of the puzzles presented by 
the play can be resolved very nice 
ly by making the initial assumption 
that the Folio compositor was 
working from a hastily written 
manuscript copy. While it is ex 
tremely unlikely that the manu 
script was in Shakespeare s hand 
(the play having been written a 
quarter of a century earlier), we 
may surmise that the penmanship 
of the copyist was little better than 
the dramatist s is reputed to have 
been. Whoever was responsible for 
making up the copy of the play 



4. The Whole Works of Jeremy Taylor, 
ed. Reginald Heber and Charles Page 
Eden (London, 1847-1852), V, 341. 

5. Poems of Cleveland, p. 4. Line 6 
of the poem reads, "Untill the Scots 
can bring about their parity". 



February 1971 



85 



used by the Folio compositor 
seems to have made Shakespeare s 
setting even more idyllic than the 
dramatist intended. 

Shakespeare s chief source for 
the play, we know, was Thomas 
Lodge s pastoral romance, Rosa- 
lynde: Euphues Golden Legacie. 
In Lodge s work, the two heroines 
go to the Forest of the Ardennes. 
Shakespeare, seeking to Anglicize 
the locale, would naturally think 
of shortening "Ardennes" to "Ar 
den", since Arden was his mother s 
maiden name and there was a For 
est of Arden in his native War 
wickshire. Despite its romantic 
aura, Shakespeare seems to have 
intended his forest to be a real, 
rather than a fabulous, setting for 
his play. 

In I, i, we learn that the action 
of the play takes place in France 
Oliver refers to his brother Or 
lando as "the stubbornest young 
fellow of France". Later, on the 
borders of the Forest of Arden, 
we find olives growing. Rosalind 
tells Phebe that she "will know my 
house/ Tis at the tuft of olives 
here hard by" (III, v, 74-75). Oli 
ver looks for "A sheepcote fenc d 
about with olive trees" (IV, iii, 
78). We may tentatively assume, 
then, that the forest is imagined 
to be in southern France. However, 
Rosalind has found one of Orlan 
do s poems to her "on a palm tree" 
(III, ii, 179), which seems rather 
odd, although the dwarf palm 
(Cham&rops humilis) is native to 
southern Europe. The word "palm" 
in manuscript might have con 
tained a script which the Folio 
compositor interpreted as "palm" 
when what was meant was un 
doubtedly "holm" (i. e., the ever 



green oak, Quercus Hex}. There 
would certainly be oak trees in 
southern France, and also in the 
Forest of Arden: compare II, i, 
31; III, ii, 238; IV, iii, 105. An 
alternative explanation for "palm" 
is that it is a dialect term for the 
yew tree (OED). 

However, we still have to ac 
count for the "lioness" referred to 
four times in Oliver s account to 
the ladies of how Orlando saved 
his life (IV, iii, 99-157). Like palm 
trees, lionesses are rare in southern 
France. Nevertheless, "lioness" 
must have been what was written, 
and what was intended. It looks as 
though Shakespeare made the 
solecism deliberately to impress 
the heroine (and the audience) 
with the bravery of her lover. (Oli 
ver could also be embroidering 
his tale for their benefit. ) Certain 
ly if the Rome of Julius Caesar 
can have clocks, then the Forest 
of Arden can have a lioness (if 
not, perhaps, a palm tree) among 
its strange inhabitants. 



David A. Giffin 



Kentville, N. S. 



ANOTHER SOURCE FOR 
"THE RAVEN" 

ALTHOUGH NUMEROUS SOURCES and 
influences have been proposed for 
Foe s use of a bird of ill-omen and 
foreboding in "The Raven", there 
has been no specific suggestion, 
I believe, for the aspect of the rav 
en as "emblematical of Mournful 
and Never-ending Remembrance"? 
which Poe mentions in "The Phi 
losophy of Composition". This par- 



86 

ticular role of the raven may well 
have been suggested to Poe by an 
episode in The Career of Puffer 
Hopkins, a novel by his New York 
City acquaintance Cornelius Math- 
ews, which Poe is known to have 
read not long before writing "The 
Raven". 2 

In Puffer Hopkins, Fob, a tailor 
dying in a New York City tene 
ment, keeps a blackbird which re 
minds him of his lost love and of 
the better days he knew in the 
country. He speaks to Puffer of 
the bird: 

"You wonder I doubt not, to see this 
blackbird here don t you?" said the 
tailor detecting the question which Puf 
fer s looks had often asked before: 
"What business have I with a blackbird, 
unless I might fancy that I could catch 
the cut of a parson s coat from the 
fashion of his deep sable feathers. That 
blackbird, sir, is to me and my opinions, 
what the best and portliest member of 
Congress is to the mind of this metropo 
lis. He has come a great way out of the 
country, from the very fields where I 
was born, and where my childhood 
frolicked, to remind me of the happy 
hours I have passed, and the sweet 
dreams I have dreamt, in the very 
meadows where he and his brethren 
chartered on the dry branches of the 
chestnut tree. He stands to me for those 
fields and all those hours and occasions 
of the past. I am a fool for being so 
easily purchased to pleasure: and so 
I am! 7 3 

His fiancee Martha arriving too 
late to save him, Fob dies, staring 
fixedly at the blackbird, a symbol 
of all he has lost: 

A little while after sunset the room 
was growing dark in all its corners he 
began to talk aloud again. He called, 
over and over again, for an old serving- 
man of the homestead, whose name he 
mentioned, to come to his side; fixed 
his look upon the beam, and clasped 



AN&Q 

tighter and tighter Martha s hand in 
his. With the gentle motion of the wind 
upon a field of autumn grain, his spirit 
stole away; and at an hour past sunset 
Fob was dead. 4 

Puffer Hopkins was published 
serially in Arcturus in June 1841- 
May 1842 and then in book form 
late in 1842, at the beginning of 
the period in which it is believed 
Poe wrote "The Raven". 5 It was 
probably the serialized version 
which Poe read, for he refers to 
Puffer Hopkins in his capsule com 
mentary under Mathews auto 
graph in An Appendix of Auto 
graphs for Grahams Magazine of 
January 1842: 

Mr. Cornelius Mathews is one of the 
editors of "Arcturus," a monthly journal 
which has attained much reputation dur 
ing the brief period of its existence, He 
is the author of "Puffer Hopkins" a clever 
satirical tale somewhat given to excess 
in caricature, and also of the well-written 
retrospective criticisms which appear in 
his maga2ine. He is better known, how 
ever, by "The Motley Book," published 
some years ago a work which we had 
no opportunity of reading, He is a gen 
tleman of taste and judgement, unques 
tionably. 

His MS. is much to our liking - bold, 
distinct and picturesque such a hand 
as no one destitute of talent indites. 

Since Poe read The Career of 
Puffer Hopkins before writing "The 
Raven" and since he implicitly 
characterizes Mathews work as 
"bold, distinct and picturesque", 
we may assume that the use of a 
blackbird in Puffer Hopkins to 
convey the quality of Mournful 



Remember! Send your 
Queries & Replies 



February 1971 



87 



and Never-ending Remembrance 
was in Poe s rnind during the com 
position of "The Raven". 



Duke University 



Allen F. Stein 



1. So important is this function of the 
raven, that in "The Philosophy of 
Composition" Poe declares that he re 
serves its impact, revealing it only at 
"the very last line of the very last 
stanza" of the poem. 

2. Poe is also known to have read Al 
bert Pike s "Isadore" (published in 
the New York Mirror, 14 Oct 1843), 
which associates a mockingbird with 
a bereaved husband s lost happiness, 
but the bird is mentioned only once 
in the poem s twelve stanzas and does 
not serve as an important symbol. 

3. Cornelius Mathews, The Career of 
Puffer Hopkins (N.Y., 1842), p. 93. 

4. Mathews, p. 251. 

5. Killis Campbell, The Poems of Edgar 
Allan Poe (Boston, 1917), pp. 246- 
247. 



QUERIES 



Cellar doors in Philadelphia 
In The Papers of Benjamin Frank 
lin (Yale Edition, 14:343), BFs 
letter to Deborah Franklin re 
quests, 24 December 1767, "a Lump 
of that Sort of Stone we make 
Steps and Cheeks of Cellar doors 
of, at Philadelphia *. The editors 
footnote this as follows: "Either of 
the side pieces or uprights of a 
door, gate, or window frame. Pre 
cisely what kind of stone Philadel- 
phians used to produce them is 
not clear". Surely some architec 
tural historian, and a geologist 
friend perhaps, can identify the 
land" BF is most likely to have 
meant? Burton Tysinger, New 
N.Y. 



"To ride a hobby . . .". Origin? 
Found in Darwin s notebook of 
1837 (Life and Letters, I, 370), 
"You certainly make a hobby of 
Natural Selection, and probably 
ride it too hard . . .", wrote Joseph 
D. Hooker, supporter of Darwin. 
What is the earliest use of the 
phrase, and what was its origin? 
Mary Y. Kent, Chicago, III 

Mount Auburn Cemetery 19th 
Century references to it are want 
ed, from novels other than HowelTs 
A Modern Instance, and Bellamy s 
Looking Backward. Barbara 
Rotundo, Albany, N.Y. 

Lord Dundrennans library 
Where is there a marked copy of 
the sale catalogue of the library 
of Thomas Maitland, Lord Dun- 
drennan (1792-1851) published in 
1851? I am especially anxious to 
know who ("D.A.") purchased 
Sannazarius* Opera Omnia (Lyon: 
Gryphlus, 1549). The copy at hand 
contains the armorial bookplate of 
"Sir Joun Anstruther of that ilk 
Baronet" (1753-1811). Robert 
Lambert, San Francisco, Calif. 

Missing Audubon plates Three 
additional plates missing from the 
Library of Congress s second copy 
of John James Audubon s elephant 
folio edition of his celebrated The 
Birds of America (1827-38) were 
recently purchased from an incom 
plete set that was broken up for 
sale by the Field Museum of Nat 
ural History in Chicago. Having 
acquired a splendid perfect copy, 
the Field Museum decided to dis 
pose of its incomplete set. The 
three plates involved are numbers 
CCXXXIII (Lora or Rail), CCXL 



88 



AN&Q 



(Roseate Fern), and CCLXIII 
( Pigmy Curlew ) . 

The second copy of The Birds 
of America, formerly in the War 
Department Library, was trans 
ferred by the library of the War 
College to the Library of Congress 
in 1929. Presumably it was placed 
in the Division of Prints and re 
mained there until 1947, when it 
was transferred to the Rare Book 
Division. In collating this second 
copy with the other and complete 
copy in the Rare Book Division, 
it was noticed that nine plates were 
lacking. Efforts to secure the miss 
ing plates have thus far resulted 
in the acquisition of six. In addi 
tion to the three recent additions, 
the Library has been successful 
in locating three others, namely 
CCXIII (Puffin), CCXLIV (Com 
mon Gallilune) and CCLXV (Buff- 
breasted Sandpiper). The three 
plates still lacking from the second 
set are CCXXIX (Lesser Scaup 
Duck), CCXXXIX (Coot) and 
CCCCXIII (Valley Quail). Should 
anyone know about the availability 
of any of these, the Library would 
be interested in learning about 
them. Rare Book Division, Li 
brary of Congress, Washington, 
D.C. 

Black bird of "The Maltese Fal 
con" Did Dashiell Hammett 
simply invent the story of the 
"black bird" which is the basis of 
the plot of The Maltese Falcon, 
or did he come across it some 
where? If the latter, what are the 
ultimate sources for it? Sum- 
ner Ferris, California, Penn. 



Send Queries to AN&Q! 



REPLIES 

Samuel Butler quote (VIII:40) 
Since this Query has produced only 
one ( irrelevant ) Reply ( VIII : 154 ) , 
let me point out that I expected 
hordes of readers to be before me 
in doing, that Butler is quoting 
lines 9-10 of Shakespeare s Sonnet 

107. /. C. Maxwell, Balliol 

College, Oxford 

"The Eyes of Dr T. J. Eckleburg 

[Note:IX:20] Judging solely 

from the passage quoted I would 
suggest "pupils" as a more likely 

emendation than "eyeballs". 

John B. Blake, Chief, History of 
Medicine Division, National Li 
brary of Medicine, Bethesda, Md 

While Richard Johnson is cor 
rect in stating that an oculist s 
signboard would not be likely to 
display retinas, would eyes one 
yard high be "enormous"? Is it 
not more likely that the pupils 
(dark like the retina) were one 
yard high? In that event the eyes 
would have been five or six yards 
high. A pair of disembodied eyes 
nearly 20 feet high, surrounded by 
yellow spectacles, would not only 
be enormous but also memorable. 
Since they probably were remem 
bered rather than invented, per 
haps someone can tell us where 
the signboard was and who was 
the original of Dr T. J. Eckleburg? 
In his anxiety to show that a pre 
occupation with the symbolism of 
this passage prevented previous 
critics from noting the error in 
question, Mr Johnson seems almost 
to dismiss the brilliant image. 
Would Mr Johnson impose upon 
Fitzgerald the burden of being 
but a literal describer of sign- 



February 1971 

boards and an incompetent one 
at that? Poor Shelley, poor Ozy- 
mandias. Poor Fitzgerald, poor 
Eckleburg! Paul F. Cranefield, 
Associate Professor, The Rockefel 
ler University, New York, NT. 

"Whistling in the dark" (IX:24). 
The phrase usually refers to an 
attempt to ward off fears or dan 
gers in an unfamiliar situation: "I 
went darkling, and whistling to 
keep myself from being afraid" 
(Dryden, Amphitryon [1690], act 
iii, sc. 1); "Are you whistling in 
the dark to keep your courage up?" 
(Erie Stanley Gardner, The Case 
of the Silent Partner [1940], ch. 9). 
In some recent cases it has come 
to mean "guessing or acting with 
out full knowledge of the facts", 
probably through the influence of 
the slang phrase "a shot in the 
dark": Tou re whistling in the 
dark, aren t you, Dr. Hardy?" 
("General Hospital", ABC-TV, 15 
April 1968). The Polish rhyme of 
the query has no connection with 



89 

this phrase but refers instead to 
a European superstition that if one 
whistles after dark, the devil will 
appear (see Handworterbuch des 
deutschen Aberglaubens, VII, 1580; 
Stith Thompson, Motif-Index, 
G303.16.18; etc.). Mac E. Bar- 
rick, Shippensburg (Pa.) State Col 
lege 

Apocatastasis (VIIL55; 56; r, 

VIIL121; IX:57) The reference 

to the article "The Ghost in Ham 
let: a Catholic Linchpin?" (SP, 
XLVIII) suggested by Mr Batten- 
house was not overlooked by the 
writer when he composed the 
query on the possible apocatastasis 
of "Hamlet s" ghost. There is no 
consideration of Satan s eventual 
restoration to grace through the 
almighty power of God in that 
article. On the other hand, Mr 
Battenhouse s statement in his re 
ply that Augustine, Aquinas, and 
the Anglican Forty-Two Articles 
had "rejected Origen s doctrine of 
apocatastasis and indeed all vari- 



Largest non-polar glacier (IX: 7; r 42) 
NOTABLE GLACIERS OF THE WORLD 



Iceland 

Alaska 

Alaska 

Pamirs 

Karakoram 

Norway 

Karakoram 

Himalaya 
New Zealand 
Alps 



Vatnajokull 
Malaspina Glacier 
Nebesna Glacier 
Fedtschenko 
Siachen Glacier 
Jostedalsbre 
Hispar-Biafo Ice 

Passage 
Kanchenjunga 
Tasman Glacier 
Aletschgletcher 



Length 
miles 

88 
26 
43K 

47 
47 
62 

76 
12 
18 
16K 



125 



sq. mi. 

3,400 
1,480 
770 
520 
444 
415 

240 

177 
53 
44 



Jerome Drost, Buffalo, N.Y. 



90 



AN&Q 



ations of it" is of value especially 
if we agree that Shakespeare was 
not a heretic. Since, however, the 
evidence is that he was a practicing 
Protestant (at St Helens in Bish- 
opsgate), Shakespeare was, by defi 
nition, a heretic according to the 
Catholic tradition. Moreover, Ham 
let s study at Wittenberg University 
surely was Lutheran ( again hereti 
cal), a point Mr Battenhouse is 
cognizant of in his article but 
shrugs off. (Wittenberg U. was 
Catholic before Luther s time, but 
historically there was no W.U. at 
all in Hamlet s time.) So I should 
take most seriously what a devout 
Episcopalian lady confided in me 
(that she prayed for the devil) 
were it not perhaps for what a 
Roman Catholic pastor recently as 
sured me (that God may indeed 
save Satan), which I take at least 
as seriously. R. F. Fleissner, 
Wilberforce, Ohio 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

A new illustrated booklet of 12 
pages ($1.00), Indian Battles of 
the Lower Rogue, by Frank K. 
Walsh, covers the final campaign 
of Oregon s most crucial Indian 
war. One section contains a guide 
and map of the points-of-interest 
along the river. Some 40,000 peo 
ple take the boat trip each year. 
Indian Battles is the first publica 
tion of Te-Cum-Tom Enterprises, 
2618 Sand Creek Road, Grants 
Pass, Oregon 97526. Other works 
of Western Americana are planned 
for publication. 



Sixty-eight pages of notable books 
or pamphlets on Early English 
Theology and Rare Books acquired 
by the St Mark s Library of The 
General Theological Seminary 
(175 Ninth Avenue, New York, 
N.Y. ), show a representation of 
1969770s acquisitions ranging from 
the early 16th century, and in 
clude catalogue card facsimiles 
(shingled), of about 350 items. 
This is a useful list which would 
be even more useful to reference 
collections in research libraries by 
the simple addition of a brief au 
thor index (including Bible and 
corporate authors!). We are grate 
ful to the Library, in any case, 
for this annual review, and we 
again congratulate GTS for its in 
telligent acquisition program in 
this highly specialized field. 

Women - To, By, Of, For, and 
About, is a new magazine that 
claims it "will break the real and 
imaginary barriers that separate 
women from each other in con 
temporary American society, there 
by strengthening our position as 
members of the human race. The 
human race should be an equal 
balance of female and male". The 
first issue contains some interest 
ing reprints of important articles 
by Margaret Mead, Thomas Rog 
ers Forbes, etc., and a facsimile 
of The Revolution (1:3, 22 Jan 
1868), by Susan B. Anthony. The 
new magazine, to be issued six 
times a year, costs $5 for an annual 
subscription (Box 3488, Ridgeway 
Station, Stamford, Conn. 06905). 
From the masthead: "This maga 
zine is one-sided and idealistic; its 
only concern is communication 
among women". 



February 1971 



91 



The new 1970 revised edition of a 
guide to America s most fragile 
hobby, bottle collecting, the Bot 
tle Collectors Handbook and Pric 
ing Guide, by John T. Yount is 
updated with the listing of over 
2500 new and old bottles, includ 
ing the fabulous Jim Beam and 
Avon series. This book is very use 
ful for the collector as it alpha 
betically lists collectable bottles, 
gives collector prices, contains il 
lustrations and classification of 
bottles, and definitions of bottle 
terminology. The most up-to-date, 
authoritative book available. $3.95 
ppd., it is ordered from Text 
books, P.O. Box 3862, San Angelo, 
Texas 76901. 

The annual Journal of the Printing 
Historical Society has gained in 
creasing ovation from antiquarian 
bookmen as well as printing his 
torians. The contents of No. 5, 
1969, is certainly of the same high 
standard that has been set by pre 
vious issues. This number includes 
a facsimile of a printing type speci 
men book, almost worthy of repro 
duction in its own right; there are 
also articles on The Columbian 
Press, Anastatic Printing for Sir 
Thomas Phillipps, Experimental 
Graphic Processes in England, 
1800-59 (Pt III), George Friend: 
a Memoir, Phototransfer of Draw 
ings in Wood-block Engraving. 
(Annual subscription $5.50, incl. 
an occasional newsletter. PHS, St 
Bride Institute, Bride Lane, Fleet 
St, London EC4). 

A seventy-five page index to Beryl 
Rowland s Companion to Chaucer 
Studies (New York: Oxford Uni 
versity Press, 1968), is available for 
$2.00 from Linda K. Rambler, Ref 



erence Librarian, Lehigh Uni 
versity, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 
18015. The index was compiled 
under the direction of J. Burke 
Severs, Professor Emeritus, Lehigh 
University, and Albeit E. Hartung, 
Professor and Chairman of the De 
partment of English, Lehigh Uni 
versity. 

Printed Books: 1481-1900 in The 
Horticultural Society of New York, 
A Listing, by Elizabeth Cornelia 
Hall (279pp. N.Y.: The Society, 
128 West 58 St, Zip 10019; $16), 
is a "short-title" Catalog, arranged 
in alphabetical sequence by au 
thor, recording the collection of 
approximately 4,000 volumes of 
botanical and horticultural printed 
works published between 1481 and 
1900 that are in the Library of 
The Horticultural Society of New 
York. Facsimile and reissue edi 
tions have been included with the 
date of the original edition noted. 
Following the main body of the 
Catalog is an extensive list of ref 
erence sources to serve as a basis 
for research and study. The col 
lection is exceptional not only for 
its wide coverage of more than 
four centuries of plant literature, 
but also for its excellence in many 
categories, such as, the herbals, 
plant exploration, gardening, land 
scape architecture, plant mono 
graphs and botanical and horticul 
tural serials. The art of botanical 
illustration is well represented be 
ginning with the primitive wood 
cuts, superseded by copper and 
steel engravings (many of which 
are hand-colored), and terminating 
with lithographs of the nineteenth 
century. Miss Hall was formerly 
Librarian and Associate Curator of 
Education of The New York Bo- 



92 

tanical Garden; she is presently 
Senior Librarian of The Horticul 
tural Society of New York. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Ckssics, 
University of Kentucky. 

The highly significant and dur 
able art books issued by various 
European publishers and distrib 
uted by Weber (13, Monthoux, 
Geneva ) are indispensable for stu 
dents of the history of art. The 
Journal de Timpressionisme (Ge 
neva: Albert Skira, 1970; 245pp. ), 
by Maria and Godfrey Blunden, 
richly illustrated, with judiciously 
selected illustrations, is a docu 
ment of the period. The color re 
productions are meticulously ac 
curate, and few other books on 
the period are comparable in 
these terms. The critical commen 
tary is a work of permanent ref 
erence value. More documentation 
can be pulled together on impres 
sionism, but it would be hard to 
produce a more satisfactory coffee- 
table book. 

A. Mazaheri, Les Tresors de llran 
(Geneva: Albert Skira, 1970; 
300pp. ), is a sort of a 2,500th an 
niversary volume on the founda 
tion of the Persian Empire by 
Cyrus. The present work tran 
scends the ordinary art book in a 
major degree. Here is a critical 
survey of Iranian art that is not 



AN&Q 

comparable in other works on Indo- 
Iranian culture. The color repro 
ductions are unsurpassed, and 
Skira might be well advised to 
offer them as slides or separate 
pieces to aficionados of the early 
cultural history of Asia Minor. 

Raymond Oursel, Invention de f- 
architecture romane (Geneva: Zo- 
diaque, 1970; 470pp.) is a richly 
illustrated story of romanesque 
architecture and a commentary 
which will have an enduring place 
in the literature of art history. The 
illustrations leave nothing to be 
desired, the commentaries to be im 
proved upon only by the captious. 

Saintonge Romane (Geneva: Zo- 
diaque, 1970; 410pp.; "La nuit des 
temps", XXXIII) is another vol 
ume which students of romanesque 
architecture will neglect at their 
own peril. Careful selections, schol 
arly commentary, and good, sound 
reading will lend enduring refer 
ence value to this book. 

Gaetan Picon, Admirable tremble- 
ment du temps (Geneva: Skira, 
1970; 154pp.) is a study of the 
effects of a presumed "trembling" 
of time by artists throughout the 
ages, but mainly from the Renais 
sance to the present. Picon intro 
duces us to a new concept of ar 
tistic genius as related to time. His 
choice of illustrations ranges from 
recognized masterpieces to Red 
Army posters and Rexall drugstore 
window displays. 

Jacques Prevert, Imaginaires (Ge 
neva: Skira, 1970; 112pp.), deals 
with the outer limits of fantasy 
of artists, but limits which often 
reveal the essence of genius. Many 



February 1971 



93 



of the works selected show singular 
insight into the themes selected; 
but, more significant, the whole 
work reveals a trend of artistic 
inspiration which has been highly 
productive, particularly in recent 
years. It cannot be stressed too 
strongly that all of the books noted 
in this column are superbly print 
ed, and the quality of the color 
illustrations is not surpassed any 
where else in the world. Swiss pub 
lishers have set a high standard 
for typographical quality. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

McGRAW-HILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Illus. 
15 vols., incl. Index. N.Y.: McGraw- 
Hill, 1971. $360; special price to schools, 
colleges, and public libraries, $295. 

These magnificently produced vol 
umes are the third edition of a reference 
work whose primary purpose it is to 
present, in very thorough manner, the 
accumulated knowledge of the physical, 
natural, and applied sciences. 

The organization of this knowledge 
has been a tremendous undertaking. It 
pools information from universities, re 
search laboratories, industrial concerns, 
government agencies, and research foun 
dations. The 7,600 articles by some 2,500 
contributors are efficiently arranged and 
indexed so that maximum exposure to 
the information is possible with minimum 
effort. The physical format of the vol 
umes is conducive to the user s dis 
covering whether or not the material in 
the individual articles is sufficient to 
his needs. The cross-referencing system 
and the index provide immediate access 
to any associated information which may 
be helpful. 

There are no misspellings or printing 
errors noted in more than fifty articles 
read by this reviewer, and the photo 
graphs, charts, graphs and illustrations 
are very clear, presenting their informa 
tion with a minimum of clutter. In 



short, these pictures really are each 
worth a thousand words. 

There are two guides published for 
use with the encyclopedia: a "Reader s 
Guide" and a "Study Guide". The Read 
er s Guide indicates the most efficient 
pathways for complete information re 
trieval, pointing out the most rapid 
solutions to such problems as finding 
the answers to general or specific ques 
tions, or by using the encyclopedia as 
a research instrument. It even tells you 
how much of an article you need to 
read in order to answer various kinds 
of questions. 

A very useful section of the Reader s 
Guide is that in which the three main 
systems of scientific notation (particular 
ly measurement) are discussed and rec 
onciled. For example, in science the 
U.S. Customary System and the metric 
system are gradually being phased out 
and the International System or SI is 
gradually, however very slowly, coming 
into general use. This guide discusses 
the three systems and presents conver 
sion factors from one to the other. It 
is probably one of the most useful com 
parisons of the three systems in scien 
tific literature today. 

The Study Guide enables the user to 
further utilize the encyclopedia for self 
instruction. It lists a series of article 
titles under general subject headings so 
that one can see what information is 
available and where to locate it in the 
encyclopedia at a glance. Basically, the 
Study Guide is keyed to a secondary 
school curriculum but when used in 
conjunction with the cross referencing 
system the index and the bibliographic 
notations its range of usefulness is 
a great deal broader. 

There is a general shortcoming to the 
work: by their very nature, reference 
books are supposed to present knowledge 
in a positive manner. So, to a scientist 
it may be unfortunate that an inkling 
of the controversies that exist in many 
areas of science could not have been 
presented. The articles are written, how 
ever, from the particular contributor s 
point of view, and other equally valid 
opinions are not aired. Admittedly, this 
is a petty criticism since time, space, and 
cost would surely be prohibitive if every 
opinion was expressed. 

As an anthropologist, I find the Mc 
Graw-Hill volumes most valuable as an 



94 



AN&Q 



aid to the understanding of the position 
of science and technology within con 
temporary society. Victor C. Ferkiss 
(Technological Man) deals with "the 
(direction that mankind must take if it 
is going to deal with the new challenges 
put to the social order by technological 
change". In modern Western society 
there is a gap between the level of 
understanding among scientists and tech 
nicians vis a vis most of the literate 
populace. This gap makes the discovery 
of an appropriate "direction", in FerMss 
sense, a difficult if not impossible task. 
This new encyclopedia affords its users 
an important link between science and 
technology and the rest of society s 
understanding of scientific advance. It 
is a fine communications bridge over 
some very troubled social waters. 
Michael F. Gibbons, jr, Department of 
Anthropology, Yale University 

Editor s note We have used the new 
edition of the McGraw-Hill Encyclo 
pedia of Science and Technology assidu 
ously over the past month in the offices 
of AN&Q, in connection with an outside 
project. In every case, where recent 
information in the natural sciences and 
in technology was needed or tested, we 
found the new text to be informative, 
understandable, and intelligently written 
for those of us who are trained in the 
social sciences or humanities. It has 
never left us unsatisfied, and it has 
taught us a great deal quite painlessly. 
We concur in everything that our re 
viewer has said. L. A. 



O MALLEY, C. D., ed. The History of 
Medical Education: an International 
Symposium . . . (UCLA Forum in Medi 
cal Sciences, No. 12). Illus. 548pp. 
Berkeley: University of California Press, 
1970. $20. 

A volume of tremendous importance 
for the history of medical education 
grew out of a symposium hosted by the 
UCLA Department of Medical History 
and the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation in 
February 1968, edited by the late 
Charles D. O Malley. Nineteen authors 
probe many of the most basic and 
stimulating questions generated by a 
discussion of the topic of medical edu 
cation and its history. Philosophical con 



sensus pursuant to the selection of stu 
dents, appointment of teachers, type and 
variety of courses taught, range of guid 
ance into the diagnosis and treatment 
of disease for the student and cost of 
all the activities is summed up in Wil- 
helm von Humboldt s statement of 1809 
that, "Medicine is not only a technical 
discipline . . . but a rational science 
which can only be studied in connection 
with historical, mathematical and phil 
osophical sciences which are the prope- 
deutics (sic) of all rational education 
(Bildung). With rare exceptions, medi 
cine as a rational science prospers only 
in minds which have gone through long 
and laborious exercises in schools and 
universities". 

The continual striving for excellence 
in medical education and the changes 
in knowledge and techniques that must 
ensue is common to all civilizations span 
ning recorded history. Less apparent in 
some of these papers are the demands 
made upon society by the medical pro 
fession and the gains measured in terms 
of death prevented, of lives improved, 
and energies released for various cre 
ative endeavors. Nevertheless the topic 
of medical education stimulates histori 
ans to investigate and evaluate a broad 
spectrum of events and this collection 
includes some excellent syntheses. One 
example, which I may mention because 
it also illustrates the virtue a number 
of articles possess of introducing infor 
mation formerly not discussed in such 
detail into English, is the account of 
medical education in Scandinavia before 
1600 given by Dr Wolfram Kock. 

Most authors accept the premise that 
medicine at its best results from or 
ganized efforts of individuals and insti 
tutions to perpetuate ideals determined 
by its formally educated practitioners. 
Innovators throughout history experi 
enced opposition to their ideas for change 
although a number were successful and 
rose to become the traditional and, oc 
casionally, legendary heroes of medicine. 
These figures, such as Hippocrates, Ibn 
Sina, Boerhaave, and Welch, are dis 
cussed and sometimes their luster is 
slightly tarnished by the discovery of 
precursors or worthy compatriots, al 
though none have been seriously threat 
ened with historical oblivion. For in 
stance, the existence of Gerard Van 
Swieten s (1700-1772) Viennese pred- 



February 1971 



ecessors in the promotion of bedside 
teaching are brought to our attention 
by the authority on the Vienna Medical 
School, Prof. Erna Lesky. Bedside in 
struction is a familiar theme to medical 
historians and its pioneers are justifi 
ably respected, but it is fascinating to 
wonder why this fundamental aspect of 
a physician s education should have 
been so long in coming (according to 
present scholarship, it appeared origi 
nally during the Renaissance). The usu 
al inconsequential historical explanation 
given by those who begin with the cur 
rent development and work backwards 
to arrive at the past need not deter us 
from wondering why the most educated 
physicians of any period would not have 
recommended and encouraged the study 
of diseased individuals by aspiring heal 
ers. Cultural mores against exploring a 
dead body are well known, but restric 
tions on merely observing and question 
ing a sick person were rare. Why should 
an experienced physician and teacher 
not have brought some of his students 
to his patients from time to time to 
demonstrate a favorite theory, thera 
peutic discovery, etc.? And if this is 
credible, why have historians become 
so fascinated with the physician s at 
tempts at bedside instruction, without 
being more aware of other essential 
factors such as source and attitude of 
the patients and import of this type of 
instruction on hospital policies? Prof. 
Lindeboom tells us that the hospital ad 
ministration willingly increased the budg 
et for medicinals for the patients of 
Sylvius, a notable Dutch teacher who 
had a preference for expensive chemical 
drugs, because of the high esteem in 
which he was held by students and 
colleagues for, among other things, his 
practice of introducing students to pa 
tients regularly. The effectiveness of 
Sylvius teaching had a considerable im 
pact on the extensive acceptance of ids 
basic theories of disease and treatment. 
The balance between instruction in 
theory and practice seems often to have 
gone askew in favor of theory at least 
this is a frequent refrain of medical 
historians. Many of those practitioners 
who appeared from time to time to offer 
practical solutions to difficult diagnostic 
and therapeutic questions were dispar 
aged as quacks and charlatans who knew 
little theory, often because they avoided 



a traditional medical education. Scholars 
who harp on the dire results of empha 
sizing the theoretical at the expense of 
practical medicine, however, miss the 
multifarious medical and cultural rela 
tions which afford a more meaningful 
and realistic history of medicine. Sev 
eral excellent samples of this compre 
hensive approach are Prof. Kudlein s 
article, "Medical Education in Classical 
Antiquity", and Prof. Keswani s "Medi 
cal Education in India Since Ancient 
Time". One need only read these arti 
cles to experience an appreciation for 
the continual interplay between medicine 
and the society in which it is practiced. 
How much more exciting it is to study 
another culture through its medicine, an 
area of relevance to every member of 
the society, than by merely limiting the 
historical review to its political and eco 
nomic structure. 

It was the intention of the sponsors 
that this volume would generate further 
investigation into the history of medical 
education; indeed some authors remark 
on the work yet to be done, although 
one need only dip into a few articles 
to discover a multitude of research areas 
independently. In addition, the scope 
and direction of modern medical edu 
cation gains a perspective from this 
volume. Reminding us that the problem 
of educating the physician has existed 
from the origin of the profession, we 
also are prepared to accept a multitude 
of scientific and cultural factors as sig 
nificant in the practice of medicine and 
therefore should be studied in the course 
of a physician s education. Hopefully 
medical administrators and planners will 
find this book and the rest of us will 
encourage them to read it. Audrey 
B. Davis, Curator, Division of Medical 
Sciences, National Museum of History 
& Technology, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 



The March issue of AN&Q will 
contain renews of 
Religious Periodicals Index; Brody s 
The English Mummers and Their 
Plays, and a revision of Professor 
Paul J. Korshin s recently published 
important discussion in the TLS, "On 
Locating Literary Manuscripts". 



96 



AN&Q 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 82) 

MacFarlane, Alan. Witchcraft in Tudor 
and Stuart England: a Regional [Es 
sex] and Comparative Study. Illus. 
xxi, 334pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 
1970. $8.50 

McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science 
and Technology. 3d Edition. Profuse 
ly Illus. 15 Vols. incl. Index. N.Y.: 
McGraw-Hill, 1971. $360; $295 to 
schools, colleges, and public libraries. 

Marana, Giovanni P. Letters Writ by a 
Turkish Spy. Selected & Ed. by Arthur 
J. Weitzman. (Temple University Pub 
lications). 233pp. N.Y.: Columbia Uni 
versity Press [distributor], 1970. $7.95 

Mellinkoff, Ruth. The Horned Moses in 
Medieval Art and Thought. (Califor 
nia Studies in the History of Art, XIV). 
130 Illus. 210pp. Berkeley: University 
of California Press, 1970. $16.50 

Metcalf, Keyes D. Library Lighting. 
99pp. Washington: Association of Re 
search Libraries, 1970. Paper, $2. 

(Pepys). Barber, Richard. Samuel Pepys, 
Esquire. [Catalogue of an exhibition, 
London, November 1970; four essays 
and an iconography to accompany the 
new edition of the Diary]. Illus. with 
20 color plates and 60 black & white 
plates. 64pp. Berkeley; University of 
California Press, 1970. $3.95 

(Porter). Liberman, M. M. Katherine 
Anne Porters Fiction. 115pp. Detroit: 
Wayne State University Press, 1971. 
$5.50 

Popular Names of U.S. Government Re 
ports: a Catalog. Rev. & Enl. Comp. 
by Bernard A. Bernier, jr & Char 
lotte M. David. 43pp. Washington: 
Library of Congress [Supt. of Docu 
ments, GPO], 1970. 55<* 



Preston, John. The Created Self: the 
Readers Role in Eighteenth-Century 
Fiction. 220pp. N.Y.: Barnes & Noble, 
1970. $8. 

Private Press Books, 1969. Ed. by Rod 
erick Cave, David Chambers, Peter 
Hoy, & Anthony Baker. Facs. Illus. 
90pp. Pinner, Middlesex, England: 
Private Libraries Association [41 
Cuckoo Hill Road], 1970. Paper, $4; 
to PLA members, $3.25 

(South Carolina). Jones, Lewis P. Books 
and Articles on South Carolina His 
tory: a List for Laymen. (Tricenten- 
nial Booklet No. 8). 104pp. Published 
for the South Carolina Tricentennial 
Commission. Columbia: University of 
South Carolina Press, 1970. Paper. 
Price ? 

(Stevens). Brown, Merle E. Wallace 
Stevens: The Poem as Act. 219pp. 
Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 
1970. $8.50 

Twayne s United States Authors Series: 
T-121, Mary N. Murfree, by Richard 
Gary (192pp.); T-122, Mary Wilkins 
Freeman, by Perry D. Westbrook 
(191pp.); T-123, Langston Hughes, 
by James A. Emanuel (192pp.); 
T-124, Allen Tote, by Ferman Bishop 
(172pp.); T-125, Waldo Frank, by 
Paul J. Carter (191pp.). New Haven: 
College & University Press, [c!9671. 
Paper, Each $2.45 

Wilde, Oscar: the Critical Heritage. Ed. 
by Karl Beckson. (The Critical Heri 
tage Series). 434pp. N.Y.: Barnes & 
Noble, Inc., 1970. $15. 

World Guide to Libraries: Internation 
ales BibliotheksHandbuch. 3d Edn. 
4 vols. [I-II, Europe; HI, America; 
IV, Africa, Asia, Oceania, Subject In 
dex, and Lists of Organizations, Di 
rectories, etc.]. N.Y.: R. R. Bowker, 
1970. $44. 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume IX Number 7 March 1971 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Acronyms and Initialisms Dictionary, 3d 
Edition: a Guide to Alphabetic Desig 
nations, Contractions, Acronyms, Zm- 
tiaiisms, end Similar Condensed. Ap 
pellations ... Ed. by Ellen T. Crow- 
ley & Robert C. Thomas. 484pp. De 
troit: Gale Research Co., 1970. S22.50 

. New Acronym* and Initialisms, 
1971, 1972. By subscription. Detroit: 
Gale Research Co., each, $15. 

Afro-American Resources., Directory of. 
Ed. by Walter Schatz, Race Relations 
Information Center. 485pp. N.Y.: R. R. 
Bowker Co., 1970. Price ? 

(American Revolution). Cephart, Ron 
ald M., comp. Periodical Literature 
on the American Prvohttion; Histori 
cal Piescarch end Changing Interpre 
tations: a Selective Bibliography, 1895- 
1970. 93pp. Washington: Library of 
Confess [distributed by Supt. Docs., 
USGPO]. 1971. Paper, $1. 

Bengtson, Hermann. Introduction to An 
cient History. Trans, from the 6th 
Edn, by R. I. Frank & Frank D. Gil- 
liard. 213pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1970. $7.50 

Berger, Rainer, ed. Scientific Methods 
in Medieval Archaeology. (UCLA 
Center for Medieval and Renaissance 
Studies. Contributions, IV). Illus. 
459pp. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1970. $20. 



Drummond, Robert Rutherford. Early 
German Music in Philadelphia. (1910). 
88pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1970. 

Eliot, T. S., The Mystical Philosophy of, 
by Fayek M. Ishak. 223pp. New Ha 
ven: College & University Press 
[c!970]. $6.50; Paper, $2.95 

(Emerson). Anderson, John Q. The Lib 
erating Gods: Emerson on Poets and 
Poetry. 128pp. Coral Gables: Univer 
sity of Miami Press, 1971. $6.95 

Greville, Pulke; Lord Brooke, 1554-1628: 
a Critical Biography, by Joan Rees. 
Illus. 238pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1971. $8.50 

Raining, Peter, ed. The Wild Night 
Company: Irish Stories of Fantasy 
and Horror. Foreword by Ray Brad 
bury. 287pp. N.Y.: Taplinger Publish- 
ing Co., 1971. $5.95 

Harrison, R. K. Old Testament Times. 
Illus. 357pp. Grand Rapids: William 
B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1970. $6.95 

"Historical Studies Today" Winter 1971 
issue of Dsedalus: Journal of the Amer 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
[Contributions to modern historiog 
raphy]. 270pp. Cambridge, Mass.: 
The Academy, 1971. Paper, $2.50 

James, Charles F. Documentary History 
of the Struggle for Religious Liberty 
in Virginia. (Lynchburg, 1900). 272pp. 
N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. 

(Continued on p. 112) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75tf each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Book Review Index; in 
cluded in The Year s Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
in the Annual MLA International Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

LEAR S CORONET 

THE EDITORS OF King Lear in both 
the Arden (1952) and New Shake 
speare (1960) series concur in 
assuming that in Act I, scene i, 
the coronet brought on stage at 
line 34 and given to the Dukes of 
Albany and Cornwall at line 141 
was "intended for Cordelia" (K. 
Muir, Arden edition), represent 
ing the "third more opulent" that 
was to have been hers. This as 
sumption is evidently based on 
defined as an adornment for per- 
the choice of the word "coronet", 
sons of less rank than the king, 
and on the fact that the gift is 
made immediately after the ban 
ishment of Cordelia and the ref 
erence to her dowry. But neither 
of these reasons is compelling, and 
the interpretation of the passage 
advanced by Professor R. B. Heil- 
man (This Great Stage [1948], p. 
73), yielding richer dramatic and 
symbolic significance, deserves 
support. It suggests, in brief, that 
this coronet is the royal crown 
of Britain. 

Shakespeare generally uses cor 
onet to refer to a small headdress 
or circlet sometimes representing 



an inferior rank, but coronet may 
also refer to a small headdress 
which is die imperial crown. The 
crown which is offered to Julius 
Caesar is described by Casca thus: 

I saw Mark Antony offer him a crown, 
yet twas not a crown neither, twas one 
of these coronets. (Julius Caesar, I. ii. 
236-238) 

Caesar s coronet is by various 
speakers always termed a "crown" 
(nine times in the play). In the 
same manner Lear s coronet is 
termed a "crown" by the Fool 
twice in the play, the only occa 
sions when Lear s gift is described: 

thou clovest thy crown i the middle and 
gavest away both parts . . . Thou hadst 
little wit in thy bald crown when thou 
gavest thy golden one away. (I. iv. 175- 
178) 

The Fool s language "clovest 
. . . The middle . . . both parts" 
echoes Lear s remarks (at line 
141 ) and demonstrates the sensitiv 
ity with which the Fool has fol 
lowed the action of I. i, though 
he was not in attendance at the 
time. This parallel in text suggests 
a parallel in action: the first action 
of the Fool at his entrance is to 
take off his coxcomb (his crown) 
and offer it to Kent. The Fool s 
visible removal of his coxcomb 
can have meaning only if it repeats 
Lear s visible removal of his crown. 
It therefore presupposes a staging 
of I. i which includes Lear s taking 
the coronet from its bearer and 
putting it on (at line 36), as he 
begins his darker royal utterances, 
and his removing it and ceremoni 
ally giving it to the two Dukes at 
line 141. The dramatic gesture of 
the Fool is a significant part of the 
stage imagery of the play; in dem 
onstrating, by repetition, the folly 
of Lear s divesting himself of this 
most important element of his 



100 



AN&Q 



clothing, the Fool s gesture em 
phasizes the rich suggestiveness of 
the verbal imagery of clothing. 

Professors Duthie and Dover Wil 
son, following Greg, suggest that 
in the Quarto, Lear "retains on his 
own head the crown as symbol of 
The name, and all th additions to 
a King" (Cambridge New Shake 
speare edition); but Greg contin 
ues, to suggest that as the Folio 
text lacks the stage direction (at 
line 34), "we must [in that text] 
suppose that Lear takes the 
coronet from liis own head to 
part between the Dukes" (First 
Folio, p. 385 n.). Greg s supposi 
tion is, I would argue, correct. 
Lear s original plan was to have 
parted the coronet three ways; 
Cordelia s reply requires the di 
vision into two. Lear makes a pub 
lic spectacle of giving away every 
thing, including the crown "I 
gave you all" while thinking 
that he can still retain the name 
of king; the play demonstrates his 
error. Lear s removal of his crown 
in Act I will explain as Professor 
Duthie s thesis will not where 
the crown is in Act III when Lear 
is certainly "bareheaded". If Lear 
in spectacular fashion gives away 
his crown in Act I, he may then 
be allowed to wear a hunting or 
travelling headdress in L iv, v and 
Act II, and no headdress in Act 
III; if he has not given away the 
crown in Act I, the critic may well 
wonder what has become of it. 

In Act IV, Lear, fantastically 
dressed, is "Crowned with rank 
furniter and furrow weeds,/With 
burdocks, hemlock, nettles, cuckoo 
flowers/Darnel, and all the idle 
weeds that grow/In our sustaining 
com crowned with thorns, of 



course, symbolizing the suffering 
and passion he is enduring, and 
with flowers, symbolizing the hope 
of resurrection (IV. vii. 45). In 
his raving in scene vi, he cries 
"that we are come To this great 
stage of fools" (11. 186-187), and, 
thinking of the gate that let his 
folly in, takes off again his "crown": 
"This s a good block". 

There are many interpretations 
of this line; the most economical 
is to believe that Lear is speaking 
of his own new crown ( so Duthie- 
Wilson, p. 251). This crown of 
thorns points to Lear s folly in 
giving away his crown of gold; 
in calling it a good block, Lear 
accepts the humiliation and an 
guish that he has brought upon 
himself as a good and necessary 
instruction and preparation. 
Though mad, he is spiritually al 
most well, ready for the fresh gar 
ments that Cordelia will put on 
him in the next scene garments 
that include no crown nor coronet 
of his kingdom. 

George Walton Williams 
Duke University 



MARY SIDNEY S ". . . TWO 
SHEPHERDS" 

ALTHOUGH THE EXISTENCE of an 
English Areopagus centered upon 
the Countess of Pembroke has long 
been dismissed, it ought neverthe 
less not be forgotten that the 
writers who gathered informally 
about her at Wilton in the 1580s 
and 90s did have important liter 
ary and religious aims in common. 



March 1971 



101 



They were implicitly dedicated to 
continuing the Sidnean spirit in 
English life and literature and 
they were also united by a common 
Calvinist piety. Indeed, the Sid 
nean spirit is as much tempered by 
Calvin as by Castiglione. Although 
Sidney was held to embody all of 
Castiglione s desired qualities for 
a courtier, he was also admired for 
his piety, dedicating his life to 
"above all things the honour of his 
Maker". 1 According to Greville s 
significant phrase, which juxtaposes 
the dual elements of Sidney s life, 
he "sweetly yoked fame and con 
science together in a large heart". 2 
The influence of Calvinism on Eng 
lish courtly ideals and life is a 
promising area for scholarly inves 
tigation. 3 

Interestingly enough, the same 
elements of courtly idealism and 
Calvinist piety are exhibited in the 
Countess of Pembroke s own "A 
Dialogue between Two Shepherds, 
Thenot and Piers, In Praise of 
Astrea". A minor but charming 
piece, it nevertheless points to the 
potential split in the Sidnean ideal, 
a split which provides a dominant 
motif in the work of Greville, Sid 
ney himself, and even possibly 
Spenser. 4 

Astrea, of course, is Elizabeth, 
the righteous Virgin. 5 The poem 
was probably written in honour of 
a visit the Queen made or was to 
have made to Wilton, and it takes 
its place among a host of common 
place tributes to Elizabeth. 6 Intel 
lectually, however, it is more re 
vealing than most. 

Its two shepherds, Thenot and 
Piers, compete with each other to 
sing Astrea s praises. Thenot s 
praise is characterized as courtly 



and neo-Platonic in implication, 
with the divinity of Astrea being 
apprehended through natural and 
cosmic features. She is "a field in 
flowery robe arrayed", "heavenly 
light that guides the day", she 
"sees with wisdom s sight" and 
"works by virtue s might". Indeed, 
virtue and wisdom are embodied 
in her they "jointly both do stay 
in her". By seeing and meditating 
on Astrea s beauty, man may at 
tain to truth. "Let us therefore", 
argues Bembo, ~bend all our force 
and thoughes of soule to this most 
holy light, that sheweth us the way 
which leadeth to heaven ... let us 
climbe up the staires, which at the 
lowermost steppe have the shadowe 
of sensuall beauty, to the high 
mansion place where the heavenly, 
amiable and right beautie dwelleth, 
which lyeth in the innermost se 
cretes of God . . .". 7 

Piers, on the other hand, is char 
acterized as a conscientious, in 
deed iconoclastic, Protestant, who 
stresses the Calvinist-derived doc 
trine of the absolute transcendence 
of the divine and the inability of 
man s unaided mind to attain to 
genuine truth. He warns against 
fallen man s tendency to self-de- 
ceptiveness, and echoes the Pla 
tonic rejection of poetry as un 
trustworthy: 

Thou need st the truth but plainly tell, 
Which much I doubt thou canst not well, 
Thou art so oft a liar. 

Not only is the corrupt human 
mind unable to reach any truth, 
but plain speaking without the dis 
torting intervention of the fancy 
is stressed. 8 Du Bartas, the 16th- 
century Calvinist poet par excel 
lence, treats the question thorough- 



102 



AN&Q 



ly in both the Devine Weekes 
and Urania. 9 To each of Thenot s 
claims, Piers response is firmly in 
this vein, rejecting any metaphysi 
cal means of describing God, until 
the confrontation is summed up 
in the final verse: 

THEN. Then, Piers, of friendship tell 

me why, 

My meaning true, my words 
should lie, 

And strive in vain to raise 
her? 

PIERS. Words from concerto do only 

rise; 

Above concert her honour flies; 
But silence, nought can 
praise her. 

Words cannot embody the inef- 
fability of the design. Although a 
greater compliment is thereby paid 
to Astrea, the Calvinist suspicion 
of the mind s ability to apprehend 
truth has the last word. 

G. F. Waller 
University of Auckland 



1. Thomas Nashe, Works, ed. Ronald B. 
McKerrow (Oxford, 1958), I, p. 7, 
cf. John Buxton, Sir Philip Sidney 
(1954), p. 37; Fulke Grevffle, Life 
of Sir Philip Sidneij, introd. Nowell 
Smith (1907), p. 35. 

2. Greville, Life, p. 40. 

3. The present note is a small part of 
a full-scale study I am at present 
completing on the influence of Cal 
vinism on Elizabethan thought and 
literature. 

4. It is printed in Davison s Poetical 
Rhapsody, ed. A. H. Bullen (1890), 
I, pp. 42-44. 

5. Cf. Spenser, The Faerie Queene, 
V.i.ii. For discussion of the back 
ground, see e.g. Alastair Fowler, 
Spenser and the Numbers of Time 
(1964), pp. 196-199, and esp. Fran 
ces A. Yates, "Queen Elizabeth as 

Astnea", JWCI, X (1947), 27-82. 



YR STARS FELL IN 
THE BEAR 

THE CRUCIAL FOUBTH SECTION of 

Faulkner s The Bear contains an 
important reference to a famous 
astronomical event of which Faulk 
ner scholars may not be aware. As 
Ike McCaslin reads the family 
ledgers and learns the tragic story 
of black and white in the previous 
generations of his family, he comes 
upon these entries: 

Tomasina called Tomy Daughter of Thu- 
cydus & Eunice Born 1810 dide in 
Child bed June 1833 and Burd. Yr 
stars fell 1 

Turl Son of Thucydus & Eunice Tomy 
born Jun 1833 yr stars fell Fathers will 2 

As Ike realizes, "Fathers will* is 
a reference to old Carothers Mc- 
Caslin s admission of Tomy s Ter- 



6. See Yates, 56-75. My view of the 
poem s implications would seem to 
differ significantly from Miss Yates 
brief discussion, 64. 

7. Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of 
the Courtier, trans. Sir Thomas Hoby, 
introd. W. H. D. Rouse (1928), pp. 
320-321. Cf. Giovanni Pico della 
Mirandola, A Platonick Discourse on 
Love, trans. T. Stanley (1651), III. 
stanza IV. 

8. See Jean Calvin, Institutes of the 
Christian Religion, I.vii.5, I.xi.ll, 
12, III.xii.1. Cf. William Perkins, Of 
the Calling of the Ministry (1618), 
p. 430; Thomas Gataker, Certaine 
Sermons (1637), pp. 69-70. For a 
fuller, though later, discussion of a 
Calvinist poetic, see Richard Baxter, 
Paraphrase on the Psalms of David 
(1692), sigs. A5 r r . 

9. E.g. Bartas His Devine Weekes and 
Works, trans. Joshua Sylvester, introd. 
Francis C. Haber (Gainesville, 1965), 
e.g. pp. 32, 535, 539, 541. 



March 1971 



103 



relTs paternity: "cheaper than say 
ing My son to a nigger". 3 And "Yr 
stars fell" seems an appropriate ac 
companiment to the entries which 
bring black and white together un 
der a common curse, to culminate 
a century later in the encounter 
between Ike and Roth s mistress, 
his niece and a negro, at the end 
of "Delta Autumn". But "Yr stars 
fell" is also an allusion to the great 
Leonid meteor shower of Novem 
ber 1833. 

The Leonids, so called because 
they seem to radiate from a point 
in the sickle of the constellation 
Leo, are one of the major showers 
of the astronomical year. Under 
good conditions at the height of 
the shower, an observer can expect 
to see five or more Leonids per 
hour; but there are times when the 
Leonids give unusually spectacular 
displays as the earth passes through 
the thickest condensation of the 
tiny particles of dust ejected from 
the nucleus of the parent comet. 
The Leonid shower of 1833 was 
the most spectacular meteoric dis 
play in recorded history: "On the 
evening of November 12, 1833, a 
blizzard of meteors was observed, 
falling at the rate of some 100,000 
per hour". 4 

The memory of this spectacular 
and portentous display apparently 
entered into Mississippi legend, 
and Faulkner thought it appropri 
ate for Buck and Buddy McCaslin 
to use it to date the death and the 
birth. Recognition of the astronomi 
cal foundation for the allusion does 
not weaken the tonal value of the 
phrase. Rather we should be aware 
that Faulkner based his reference 
on a widely known event, and that 
he may well have chosen 1833 as 



the date for Tomy s Terrell s birth 
because of the ominous Leonid dis 
play of that year. 

Malcolm A. Nelson 

State University College 
Fredonia, New York 



1. William Faulkner, The Bear, in BEAR, 
MAN, and GOD: Seven Approaches 
to William Faulkner s THE BEAR, 
ed. Francis Lee Utley, Lynn Z. Bloom 
& Arthur F. Kinney (New York, 1964), 
p, 64. 

2. Ibid., p. 65. 

3. Ibid., p. 65. 

4. Stanley P. Wyatt, Principles of As- 
tronomij (Boston, 1964), p. 224. 



F. MARION CRAWFORD AND 
THE EVIL EYE 

ON A VISIT TO ITALY in the winter 
of 1906 Thomas Nelson Page, who 
had made his reputation as a writer 
of stories in the dialect of planta 
tion Virginia Negroes, went to call 
on F. Marion Crawford. On 21 
January he wrote to his mother a 
letter now part of the Clifton Wal 
ler Barrett Library of the Univer 
sity of Virginia: *We find the be 
lief in the Evil Eye almost preva 
lent among a good lot of Americans 
who live in Rome. They will tell 
you that they do not believe in it, 
but they will not have so and so 
in their house or meet them if they 
can help it because it makes their 
friends uncomfortable. Mrs. Marion 
Crawford [wife of the Italian-born 
American novelist whose mother 
was sister of Julia Ward Howel 
told Florry [Mrs Page! pray not 
let her husband hear her mention 
so and so s name, as he could not 



104 

bear to hear it, and she herself 
instantly stuck out the first finger 
and the little finger, like horns, 
which is supposed to keep off the 
evil consequences of the Eye. Did 
you ever hear such rot such 
tommy-rot! It is as medieval as 
putting poison in a cardinal s wine 
cup at mass". 

Harriet R. Holman 

Clemson University, 
Clemson, South Carolina 



QUERIES 



Sedan fire "Anna had baked 
plum cakes and that night the 
Sedan fire was to be lit on the 
rock on the mountain". (Chapt. 
VI, Herman Hesse. Beneath the 
Wheel). What did it signify? Is 
it a custom still practiced? 
Richard Wisell, Sharon, Ct 

Mystery organist Can your 
readers identify a poem I read 
some years ago? The following as 
pects I recall: small country church 

stormy night regular organist 
fails to arrive; door suddenly opens 

stranger, poorly kept and smell 
ing of alcohol appears. First recep 
tion by congregation rather "cool". 
Stranger sizes up situation goes 
to organ and begins to play. Au 
dience spellbound by his playing 

suddenly realize that music is 
over and stranger has departed 
unthanked unwelcomed. Reac 
tion one of mixed emotions, etc. 

Frank H. Holt, Potomac, Md 

"Jesus H. Christ" Would any 
one have an inkling where Jesus 



AN&Q 

got the middle initial H so often 
ascribed to him in ejaculations? I 
have assumed the attribution is 
phonological only. R. F. Fleiss- 
ner, Wilberforce, Ohio 

"A seamless web" Someone, I 
think perhaps Sir Frederic Mait- 
land, made the observation that 
when one begins to write history, 
no matter where he starts, he cuts 
into a "seamless web". Can anyone 
give me the exact quotation, its 
authorship, and its source? There 
has recently been written a book 
by Stanley Burnshaw entitled The 
Seamless Web (N.Y.: George Bra- 
ziller, 1970), but it nowhere gives 
the source of its title. Paul S. 
Clarkson, Worcester, Mass. 

"There is some good in the upper 
class ..." - Acton (?) "There 
is some good in the upper class 
and some good in the lower class 
but no good at all in the middle 
class". I believe it is from Lord 
Acton but I have checked all the 
standard books of quotations, ideas, 
and so forth, and I have had no 
success. Is this from Lord Acton, 
another person, or is it a fictional 
quotation? Philip Coelho, Hali 
fax, Canada 



REPLIES 

CabelTs "Taboo in Literature" 
(1:41) James Branch CabelTs 
leaflet, The Taboo in Literature, 
was a pirated reprint from the New 
York Evening Post, 11 Dec. 1920. 
Neither Merle Johnson s A Bibli 
ographic Checklist of the Works 
of James Branch C obeli (N.Y., 



March 1971 



105 



1921) or I. R. BrusselTs A Bibli 
ography of the Writings of James 
Branch Cab ell (Philadelphia, 1932) 
gives the exact date of the printed 

reprint. Jerome Drost, Buffalo, 

NT. 

Night of tJte Kings Castration 
(IX: 24) I recall that high 
school students in Carlisle in the 
late 1940s recited a series of verses 
that began: "Hi, ho", cried Daniel. 
"Asshole", cried the King. "Where s 
the Queen", cried Daniel. "In bed 
with arthritis", cried the King. "Kill 
the dirty bastard", cried Daniel. 
And forty thousand loyal subjects 
were trampled in the rush. As I 
recall, each stanza used the same 
opening and closing line. Mac 
E. Barrick, Carlisle, Penn. 

Largest non-polar glacier (IX:7; 
r 42, 89) The answer would de 
pend on several things. First, what 
does your correspondent mean by 
"non-polar"? There is only one 
"polar" glacier in the sense of be 
ing at the pole Antarctica s ice 
sheet is polar. Since the North Pole 
is in the middle of an ocean and 
cannot have a glacier right there, 
there are no polar glaciers outside 
of the southern continent of ice. 
If this is what Miller means, then 
we would have to give Greenland s 
ice sheet first place by a wide mar 
gin. The ice cap on Novaya Zemlya 
is probably second in size. 

If Miller means to exclude what 
geologists generally call "ice sheets" 
or "ice caps" as on Greenland, 
then we assume that the question 
might become: what is the largest 
valley glacier (also called moun 
tain or alpine glacier)? Several 
answers can be found to this: The 
Hubbard Glacier in Alaska is noted 



as being quite large. Dyson in The 
World of Ice, 1962, notes a length 
of 75 miles. Colliers Encyclopedia 
gives 72 miles; the Encyclopedia 
of Geomorphology says 65 miles; 
and Flint s Glacial and Pleistocene 
Geology notes a length of 120km 
for Hubbard. 

The Guinness Book of Records 
( 1962 ed. ) tells us that the largest 
glacier is the Bering-Columbus 
Glacier in Alaska, being "over 100 
miles long . . ."; Charlesworth s 
The Quaternary Era states that 
the Fedchenko Glacier in the Pa 
mirs of the USSR is the longest 
glacier in the world at 75-77km, 
but this is clearly out of the run 
ning. 

Have these been traversed? Both 
Antarctica and Greenknd have 
been crossed a few times in vari 
ous places. If the Hubbard Glacier 
is the sort of thing wanted here 
a traverse would be vastly easier 
since this long glacier is only a 
couple of miles wide and could 
probably be crossed in short order 
given a stimulus. 

Age of the glacier? This would 
again depend on the intent and 
since I have no handy information 
on that score, I would refer Miller 
to someone at Yale. I hope that a 
better answer than this is forth 
coming. Glacial ice, of course, 
waxes and wanes and measure 
ments will be sometimes vastly 
different from year to year. Some 
valley glaciers are only a few hun 
dred years old but Hubbard is no 
doubt older. Perhaps as much as 
eight or ten thousand years but 

I don t know from here. Robert 

G. Schipf, Science Librarian, Uni 
versity of Montana, Missoula, 
Mont. 



106 

EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

Brian Neal Odell, editor of Social 
Thought (102 Old Oak Drive, 
Ballwin, Mo.) writes that teachers 
and students alike have sought a 
guide to the wealth of available 
information on black America, and 
that such a guide is provided by 
the second edition of The Negro 
in America: a Bibliography, com 
piled by Elizabeth W. Miller 
(Cambridge: Harvard University 
Press, 1970. Cloth, $10; Paper, 
$4.95). Containing over 6,500 en 
tries and 4,000 contributors, it is 
an extensive annotated bibliog 
raphy on the American racial scene, 
divided into chapters on history, 
urban problems, housing, litera 
ture, and education, as well as on 
intermarriage, language and idiom, 
black theatre, and racial violence. 
There are two separate sections 
on black militancy: the first cov 
ering materials published through 
1965, the second since 1965. In 
addition, there are new sections 
on black studies, black power, the 
Muslims, and tie Panthers. The 
annotations following each entry 
are succinct and informative. A 
guide to further research and an 
authors index are also provided. 

In 1967 and 1968 Falls City Mi- 
crocards worked closely with the 
late Professor David Dowd of the 
University of Kentucky in devel 
oping a corpus of critical and his 
torical sources on the French Rev 
olution to accompany the Falls 
City Microcard edition of French 
Revolution pamphlets. The latter 
is now attaining the status of a 
najor collection, and Professor 



AN&Q 

Dowd, who used it effectively with 
his students until his tragic death 
felt that it should be supplemented 
by a microform edition of critical 
and interpretive works which are 
not generally available in Ameri 
can university libraries. With this 
object in mind, Professor Dowd 
went through Pierre Caron, Manu 
el pratique pour Tetude de la Re 
volution Francaise (new ed., 1947); 
Maurice Tourneux, Bibliographic 
de Thistoire de Paris pendant la 
Revolution (1890-1913; 5 vols.); 
and the available volumes of An 
dre Monglond, La France revolu- 
tionnaire et imperials (in progress; 
v. 1-9, 1789-1812). Using Professor 
Dowd s notes, Falls City is repro 
ducing systematically the printed 
sources recorded by Caron, Tour 
neux, and Monglond, as they are 
available for copying. These ma 
terials will be copied on 35mm 
microfilm, since the variety of 
sources which must be used will 
not provide facilities for copying 
all that is wanted in negatives 
suitable for use as flat film 
("fiches") or opaque microforms. 
Details available from Falls City 
Microcards, 1028 Cherokee Road, 
Louisville, Ky 40204. 

An especially welcome reprint is 
The Cambridge Modern History 
(13 vols.; $295.00). Libraries which 
bought the original edition will 
find that set read to pieces; and 
the newer research libraries which 
bought the "popular edition * of 
the 1930s will discover to their 
disappointment that the very ex 
tensive bibliographies, still very 
useful, were not reprinted there. 
A Cambridge paperback reprint 
which has a place on the shelf of 
every reader of English literature 



March 1971 



107 



and all of us should be is the 
third edition of George Sampson s 
Concise Cambridge History of 
English Literature (1970; 976 pp.; 
$4.95). John Wilson Lewis, ed, 
Party Leadership and Power in 
China (1970; 422 pp.; $2.95, in 
wrappers, also available in hard 
covers), is a volume of essays by 
twelve authorities on contempo 
rary mainland China, a virtual en 
cyclopaedia of that jurisdiction. 
A. B. Bolt and M. E. Wardle, 
Communicating with a Computer 
(1970; 80 pp.; $1.95, in wrappers, 
also available in hard covers), is 
the Cambridge Press very useful 
contribution to the understanding 
of these indispensable monsters. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky. 

Der Heine Pauly (Stuttgart; Alfred 
Druckenmiiller Verlag), edited by 
Konrat Ziegler and Walther Son- 
theimer, is now complete through 
the third volume (Nasidienus is 
the last entry). This indispensable 
tool for classicists supplements the 
full PW. It is fairly inexpensive 
for those who are wise enough to 
subscribe by fascicles (about 
DM20.- or DM30.- each) or vol 
umes (v. Ill, DM104.-). 

The highly readable, well written 
English-language books issued by 
the Corvina Press of Budapest 



(Vaci Utca, 12) contrast sharply 
with many clumsily written and 
produced books from other East 
ern European and Asian coun 
tries designed to communicate na 
tional cultures. Indispensable for 
the shelf of any gourmet is the 
work of the Guatemalan poet 
Miguel Angel Asturias and the 
Chilean poet Pablo Neruda, Sen 
timental Journey around the Hun 
garian Cuisine (1969; 120 pp.), 
with notes on the finest delicacies 
of Budapest and the restaurants 
which serve specialties and hand 
some, imaginative illustrations. The 
Corvina Press has always issued 
handsome topographical works, 
and among the recent ones are: 
Panoramas of Budapest (unpaged; 
photographs by Lajos Czeizing, 
text by Erno Bajor Nagy); Buda 
pest (1970; 322 pp.), a guide book 
with twenty-two maps and fifty- 
one photographs; and Anna Zador, 
The Cathedral of Esztergom (1970; 
29 pp., 36 pi.). Gyula Illyes, Once 
Upon a Time, Forty Hungarian 
Folk-Tales (2nd ed., 1970; 324 pp.), 
is a substantial addition to the 
literature of folklore. 

Georg Lukacs, Marxismus und 
Stalinismus; politische Aufsdtze 
(Hamburg, Rowohlt, 1970; 251 
pp.; "Rowohlts deutsche Enzyklo- 
padie", v. 327-328), is a perceptive 
commentary on current tensions 
between the Marxist and the non- 
Marxist parts of the world. In an 
other basic Rowohlt series, "Ro 
wohlts Monographien", the latest 
is number 165, Hans Oppermann, 
Wilhelm Raabe in Selbstzeugnis- 
sen und Bilddokumenten (1970; 
158 pp.), an original work. 



108 



AN&Q 



BOOK REVIEW S 

RELIGIOUS PERIODICALS INDEX: 
a Quarterly Index of the Major Religious 
Periodicals in America. Ed. by Philip 
Deemer. 1:1, Jan/March 1970. N.Y.: 
Jarrow Press, Inc. (1556 Third Ave., 
Zip 10028). Subscription $20. 

The appearance of a Religious Peri 
odical? Index with broad coverage in 
English language periodicals of Ameri 
can origin, a planned quarterly issuance 
two months after the quarter indexed, 
and at a price within reach of a large 
circle of personal as well as institutional 
buyers, is most welcome. The Jarrow 
Press now offers such an index and, al 
though the first issue was somewhat 
late, the editor promises that this gap 
will be brought down to the desired 
two months within a few issues. Volume 
One, Number One, listed 214 periodicals 
for indexing, but the needed issues of 34 
had not been received in time for in 
clusion. This list excludes foreign lan 
guage periodicals but includes about 
150 journals not included in the com 
peting American Theological Library As 
sociation Index to Religious Periodical 
Literature, while duplicating only 50 
titles. RPI indexes only 20 periodicals 
which are also included in the Catholic 
Periodical and Literature Index. 

On principle, "denominational 7 period 
icals are excluded, but this does not mean 
that major news and opinion journals 
of important religious bodies, nor their 
learned periodicals, are omitted. Epis 
copalians, for example, can find the 
Witness, Living Church and The Epis 
copalian, as well as the Historical Maga 
zine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
(still omitted from the ATLA Index), 
indexed here, but the hundred or more 
diocesan magazines and organs of spe 
cial interest groups are not included. 

It is good to find a sizeable number of 
the magazines of theological seminaries 
indexed, journals which often include 
important writings of scholars who are 
readily honored when published in other 
media. More popular Roman Catholic 
journals are indexed here than in the 
ATLA Index. The effect of this cov 
erage, which is to be extended to in 
clude more periodicals, and adapted to 
contemporary needs by an alert, search 



ing editorial board, will be to provide 
an indispensable tool to all who must 
comment on the developing religious 
scene, such as preachers, editors, teach 
ers, and students. Factors of current, 
frequently popular coverage, quarterly 
as contrasted to very delayed annual 
issuance (the 1969 ATLA volume, is 
sued March 31, 1970, was fourteen 
months late for January 1969), avoid 
ance of European publications, and rela 
tively low price ($15.00 as compared to 
$40.00) differentiate this index from 
the older ATLA Index. 

The structure of the Religious Peri 
odicals Index is designed to assist the 
user and to make possible detailed sub 
ject indexing. The Index is divided into 
three sections: Section One consists of 
three lists of indexed items, one by 
author, the second by title for unsigned 
articles, and the third "Documents and 
official statements". Each article is as 
signed a distinctive number determined 
alphabetically either by author or title. 
There are 2,834 numbered items in this 
first issue. The author entry is in a 
standard form and the titles of the pe 
riodicals are represented by a system of 
abbreviations, simple to understand and 
clearly given in the alphabetical list of 
periodicals indexed at the beginning of 
the number. The location of the articles 
is indicated by month and page number, 
but there is no repetition of year as all 
articles represented come from the pe 
riod of coverage. 

Section Two, "Cross reference index 
by subject categories", contains a list of 
subject words originating in the material 
indexed rather than accommodated to 
a rigid "List of Subject Headings". This 
provides a sense of vitality in the subject 
presentation wanting in the structured 
system used by the ATLA Index, where 
presentation must mold itself to form 
and there must be a burdensome system 
of "see" and "see also" references to 
frustrate and confuse the user. Under 
subject, reference is to the item num 
bers given in Section One. This eco 
nomical form of entry, with only one 
printing of the entry proper, makes pos 
sible very detailed subject indexing. Each 
article is examined paragraph by para 
graph for subject content demanding 
index representation. Here another com 
parison with the ATLA Index is pos 
sible. Although indexing only three 



March 1971 



109 



months, RPI has 56 references under 
"War" and its subdivisions, while the 
ATLA Index, covering the whole of the 
war filled year, 1969, has only 6 ref 
erences to actual articles under "War", 
bolstered by 10 "see also" references. 
This type of comparison can be ex 
emplified in many other subjects of 
which "Ecumenism" is an outstanding 
instance (RPI, 177 references, ATLA 
Index 31). It is this repeated emphasis 
on topics of the times, in their own 
terminology, that gives RPI its sense of 
relevance. In some cases, this exhaustive 
indexing has led to too large groups of 
references without practical breakdown. 
The editors are aware of this problem 
and are working to correct it. There is 
also a section devoted to book reviews. 
The Religious Periodicals Index fills 
a very real place not occupied by any 
other index, certainly not by the ATLA 
Index, nor the Catholic Periodical and 
Literature Index. RPI sets the user di 
rectly and immediately into the center 
of the present day life of the churches 
as represented in their periodical lit 
erature. This is quite different from help 
ing him to find scholarly articles about 
subjects currently being studied in the 
schools. All who need this kind of help 
should welcome this new Index and 
hope that the editor can continue it, 
improve it, and insure its regular and 
early appearance. Niels H. Sonne, 
Librarian, General Theological Seminary, 
N.Y.C. 



BRODY, Alan. The English Mummers 
and Their Plays; Traces of Ancient Mys 
tery. (University of Pennsylvania Pub 
lications in Folklore and Folklife). Illus. 
201pp. Philadelphia: University of Penn 
sylvania Press, 1970. $9.50. 

A. P. Rossiter in English Drama re 
calls a verse from the play of St. George 
and the Turkish Knight, which the mum 
mers used to give in his Gloucestershire 
home at Christmas before the first World 
War. After St. "Jarge" had been killed, 
he was miraculously restored to life by 
a doctor who entered saying: 

Ere come I, ole Dr Grub, 

under me arm I cany a club, 

in me pock t I carry a bo le [bottle] 

An a gr t big volum o Harris To le . . . 



This allusion reveals the basic action 
which is common to hundreds of texts 
and fragments of texts of the mummers 
play the dramatic ceremonial of death 
and resurrection dating back to primitive 
times. 

In his lively and well-organized book, 
Professor Alan Brody re-examines the 
phenomenon of the mummers play, 
stressing its ritualistic elements. The 
term mummers is misleading, as Brody 
remarks. It has nothing to do with the 
child mummers of the West Riding of 
Yorkshire and East Lancashire who 
blacken their faces at Christmastime 
and go from house to house, sweeping 
the hearth with little humming noises; 
nor is it to be confused with the courtly 
mummings of the 14th and 15th cen 
turies, although disguise was a common 
element, the participants in some areas 
actually being known as "guizers". The 
drama which Brody discusses might 
properly be called "men s dramatic cere 
mony". It is a play performed by men 
only, which has survived, with many 
modifications, into this century. Now it 
often uses as its loci the village pub 
instead of the private house, yet it re 
tains characteristics which point to its 
roots in ritual and myth when the men 
were priests, the primitive agents of 
magic. 

The author finds three categories of 
action in the ceremony: the Hero-Com 
bat, the Sword Dance, and the Wooing;. 
The first usually involves an announce 
ment of the protagonist, a challenge, 
the killing, the revival, and the qitete 
a request for reward for the enter 
tainment; the Sword Dance consists of 
a ritual killing by a community of 
dancers of one of their number, and a 
subsequent revival; the third affords us 
the clearest line of evolution from the 
primitive fertility ceremony to seasonal 
folk drama. Brody refers to the work 
of Harrison, Cornford, Murray, and 
Gaster, on the development of drama 
of the ritual to show that the three 
types are "representative dramatic crys 
tallizations of the rituals of three dif 
ferent religious attitudes similar to those 
of the Greeks". He is careful not to try 
to establish any direct relationship be 
tween these dramas and the Greek cul 
ture yet the essential nexus is one and 
the same, with the life-giving phallus 



110 



AN&Q 



of Thrace transformed into the English 
club. 

Appendices on the Netley Abbey 
Mummers Play, the Greatham Sword 
Dance Play, the Bassingham Men s Play, 
the Revesby Play, the Papa Stour Play, 
and others are included. 

At the conclusion of his careful analy 
sis Professor Brody remarks on the as 
tonishing longevity of the mummers 
play: ". . . it is almost a thousand years 
since there was any reason for the men 
of the town to meet on one night of the 
year, to hide their faces, to move from 
station to station through the town and, 
in the magic circle, to re-enact the death 
and resurrection of their earth, the eter 
nal pattern of the seasons". The principal 
reason for its persistence no doubt lies 
in the mythic origins of the mummers 
drama which invest even the most banal 
doggerel with an underlying serious 
meaning. Pertinent here is a remark 
which Brody repeats of an old mummer 
in the 1930s who was asked by a Ger 
man professor at Oxford whether women 
ever took part in the plays: " *No sir he 
replied, mumming don t be for the 
likes of them. There be plenty else for 
them that be flirry-like, but this here 
mumming be more like parson s work ." 
The book presents its case with clarity 
and conviction, and is illustrated with 
excellent photographs. Beryl Row 
land, York University, Toronto. 



Research libraries and special collections 
of various kinds will find the brief, help 
ful checklists of holdings at Wofford 
College, Spartanburg, S.C., useful and 
interesting. Varying in quality of ex- 
pertness in compilation, each of the lists 
indicates the sincere sense of obligation 
which The Library of the college has 
toward the scholarly community. All are 
available at present, the first one for $1; 
the rest for $2 each: Hymns & Hymnody 
(168 titles); Geography & Travels (200 
titles; 1587-1970); Children s Literature 
(200 titles; mostly 19th century); Bi 
ography (200 titles; 19th-century Meth 
odist preachers especially well represent 
ed); Carlisle-Smith Pamphlet Collection 
(93 19th-century pphs); Seventeenth 
Century Imprints (43 titles). Order from 
The Wofford Library Press, Wofford 
CoUege, Spartanburg, S.C. 29301. 



BIBLIO 
GRAPHICAL NOTE 

ON LOCATING LITERARY 
MANUSCRIPTS 

Following is part of a communication 
to the (London) "Times Literary Sup 
plement" of 11-12-70 (p. 1467), which 
we believe deserves wide attention in 
the world of scholarship of the United 
States. AN&Q had the gracious permis 
sion of the TLS editor to reprint, but 
Mr Korshin wished to make some re 
visions which have been incorporated 
here. The Editor 

The recent description of further auto 
graph manuscripts in the National Por 
trait Gallery besides those donated to 
the British Museum is not simply wel 
come news to literary and art historians. 1 
It also convincingly demonstrates how 
great the unknown, uncatalogued, or 
otherwise untapped manuscript resources 
of even the largest institutions may be. 
Clearly, it is not enough for the scholar 
interested in manuscripts to check the 
latest acquisitions of the BM and many 
other archives must be scrutinized as 
well. Obviously the need to identify 
fully all manuscript holdings poses a 
tremendous problem to scholar and ar 
chivist alike. I would like to examine 
the problem briefly. 

A few of the largest institutions, usu 
ally those with separate departments of 
manuscripts, regularly publish cata 
logues of their acquisitions, almost al 
ways quite a while after the accession. 
The British Museum is the best of these 
and, while the published quinquennial 
lists of additions are always many years 
in arrears, they are augmented by the 
Department of Manuscripts* own xeroxed 
or typed tally books, the British Museum 
Quarterly, and the Department s staff 
Information Bulletin (issued three or 
four times a year). There is little or no 
calendaring of accessions until the print 
ed volume appears. 

The variations in reporting on manu 
script acquisitions of other libraries are 
considerable. Some report new arrivals 
in more or less regular catalogues, an 
nual reports, or library bulletins. This 
is the case with the Bodleian, Houghton, 



March 1971 



111 



Huntington, Newberry, the John Ry- 
lands, and miscellaneous others, But 
most institutions do little or nothing sys 
tematically to announce such arrivals, 
so for over a century and a half impor 
tant manuscripts have been leaving a 
brief trail in auction sale catalogues or 
booksellers lists, and then disappear. 
Those which are a part of a bequest 
sometimes are never listed anywhere. 
In the United States, the serial publica 
tion, The National Union Catalogue of 
Manuscript Collections, has since 1959 
(most recent annual volume, 1968) 
been recording accessions throughout 
the country. This is an excellent pub 
lication, but not all libraries or archives 
report to it, including several of the 
nation s largest. The first volume at 
tempts to be retrospective, and to record 
all manuscript holdings of thousands of 
archives received prior to 1959, but it 
cannot be expected that such a listing 
would be complete. The volume lists 
collections rather than individual manu 
scripts, so it does not attempt to cal 
endar its entries, but despite its un 
avoidable shortcomings the National Un 
ion Catalogue provides a good start for 
scholars. In the United Kingdom, a 
similar annual publication, the List of 
Accessions to Repositories, published by 
HMSO for the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission, gives a broad survey of 
new accessions in summary form. 2 How 
ever, many manuscripts purchased or 
acquired in the last century were in 
correctly catalogued or are still uncal- 
endared, which means that their contents 
may still be largely unknown, except to 
members of a particular library staff 
and a few scholars. 

A good example of this can be found 
in the British Museum, It was very com 
mon in the 18th and 19th centuries, 
before the invention of the filing cabinet, 
to "grangerize" printed books with auto 
graph letters or other manuscript ma 
terial; such papers would be interleaved 
with the text or bound in before or after 
the body of the book. No doubt great 
manuscript riches are to be found in 
such volumes. But there is no guide to 
their contents, for they are generally 
listed only as printed books. Except for 
the British Museum, which used to put 
such books in the Cases, and which 
generally states in the printed catalogue 



that the book in question contains manu 
script material, no other library has had 
a long-term policy of giving such books 
special classifications. And even in the 
BM the uncatalogued surprises are great: 
autograph letters by such writers as 
Boswell, Smollett, and Byron, have come 
to light in grangerized books. 

We frequently meet the statement 
that a given manuscript is "lost", "un- 
traced", or "has not survived". In many 
cases this must be so, but the antiquari 
an instincts of collectors have been so 
great for so long that probably many 
fewer manuscripts perish than we are 
led to conclude. Even in the 19th cen 
tury, when letters and manuscripts were 
cheaper and more plentiful than today, 
people saved them carefully. A useful 
example might be the sale of Isaac 
Reed, the early Shakespearean scholar 
(Bibliotheca Reediana [1807]), quite a 
large sale, almost 9,000 lots: Reed owned 
a number of printed books grangerized 
with autograph letters, and several hun 
dred lots of manuscripts. Of the manu 
scripts, there are three lots which came 
to the British Museum later in the cen 
tury his manuscript of Gray s poems, 
a collection of notes on the London 
stage from 1725 to 1745 called Notitia 
Dramatica, and some of the minutes of 
the European Magazine in the 1780s, 
of which Reed was an editor, minus the 
Johnsoniana they were supposed to have 
contained. Could all the other Reed 
manuscripts have perished? His granger 
ized books included the famous inter 
leaved Langbaine, An Account of the 
English Dramatick Poets, with his and 
William Oldys s notes, now in the BM. 
But Reed also owned books described 
in his sale as containing letters of Wal 
ler, Smollett, Dyer, and quite a few 
other literary men. It is hard to believe 
that all have been lost. 8 

Now, the Reed Sale is only one ex 
ample of how potentially valuable lit 
erary manuscripts have disappeared from 
sight. Perhaps they are not irrecoverable. 
Many of Reed s papers must be cata 
logued under various headings in li 
braries ignorant of their provenance. 
There are thousands of private, public, 
and institutional libraries on the Con 
tinent, in Britain, and in the United 
States, whose manuscript holdings have 
never been fully ascertained or com- 



112 



AN&Q 



pletely calendared, and in which nu 
merous "lost" or wholly unknown manu 
scripts may now lie unperceived. Thus 
I would like to propose that scholars 
throughout the English-speaking world 
spend the next half -decade accumulating 
their want lists of lost" manuscripts and 
that 1976, the year of the United States 
Bicentenary, be declared International 
Manuscripts Year. Want-lists could be 
cumulated and published so that schol 
ars and archivists everywhere could ex 
amine their collections. It is to be hoped 
that a comprehensive bibliography of 
manuscript catalogues like that of Kris- 
teller would also result for English-lan 
guage collections. 4 Perhaps massive re 
search assistance or institutional support 
could be obtained. What has recently 
been described at the National Portrait 
Gallery would turn out to be, I suspect, 

just the tip of an iceberg. Paul ]. 

Korshin, University of "Pennsylvania 



1. See Richard Ormond, "New B.M. 
MSS.", Times Literary Supplement, 
18 September 1970, p. 1039. The 
manuscripts in question, earlier de 
scribed in the TLS, 9 July 1970, p, 
750, are now BM Add. MSS. 54,224-6. 

2. There are various reference works, 
such as A Guide to Archives and 
Manuscripts in the United States, ed. 
Philip M. Hamer (New Haven: Yale 
University Press, 1961); see the bib 
liographical note, pp. xix-xx. For an 
analysis of manuscript finding aids 
in the United Kingdom, see Felicity 
Ranger, "The Common Pursuit", Ar 
chives, IX, no. 43 (April 1970). 

3. It must he remembered, however, 
that autograph letters are often cut 
out of the books they have been used 
to illustrate. For locating autograph 
manuscripts of this period, a useful 
source is Hugh Amory, "A Selected 
Bibliography of 18th Century Docu 
ments & Autograph Manuscripts", 
Manuscripts, XX, no, 3 (Summer 
1968), 22-29. 

4. See Paul Oskar Kristeller, Latin Manu 
script Books before 1600: a List of 
the Printed Catalogues and Unpub 
lished Inventories of Extant Collec 
tions, 3rd ed. (New York: Fordham 
University Press, 1960). 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued -from p. 98) 

MacDiarmid, Hugh. A Drunk Man Looks 
at the Thistle. Ed. [with a marginal 
gloss, notes, and critical commentary] 
by John C. Weston. 122pp. Amherst: 
University of Massachusetts Press, 
1971. $7.50; Paper, $2.95 

Poe s Tales, Twentieth Century Inter 
pretations of: a Collection of Critical 
Essays, Ed. by William L. Howarth. 
116pp. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Pren 
tice-Hall, Inc., 1971. $4.95; Paper, 
$1.45 

Poirier, Richard. The Performing Self: 
Compositions and Decompositions in 
the Languages of Contemporary Life. 
203pp. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 
1971. $6.50; Paper, $1.95 

Readings on Literary Criticism Series: 
6, Critics on Chaucer, ed. by Sheila 
Sullivan, 139pp.; 7, ... on Blake, 
ed. by Judith O Neill, 120pp.; 8, ... 
on Virginia Woolf, ed. by Jacqueline 
E. M. Latham, 126pp. Coral Gables: 
University of Miami Press, 1970. Each, 
$3.95 

(Spenser). Fletcher, Angus. The Pro 
phetic Moment: an Essay on Spenser. 
326pp. Chicago: University of Chi 
cago Press, 1971. $11.75 

(Trees). Wilson, B. F. The Growing 
Tree. Illus. 152pp. Amherst: Univer 
sity of Massachusetts Press, 1970. $6.50 

Vivaldi, Antonio: His Life and Work, 
by Walter Kolneder. Trans, by Bill 
Hopkins. Illus., incl. Music Facs. 
288pp. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1970. $15. 

Walford, A. J. Guide to Reference Ma 
terial, 2d Edn: Vol. 3, Generalities, 
Languages, the Arts, and Literature. 
585pp. London: The Library Associa 
tion [N.Y.: R. R. Bowker Co.], 1970. 
$13.95 

Wesleyan Poetry Program Series: 55. 
Dugan Gilman, Upstate, 64pp.; 56. 
John Haines, The Stone Harp, 65pp.; 
57. Harvey Shapiro, This World, 79pp. 
Middletown: Wesleyan University 
Press, 1971. Each, $4; Paper $2. 

Zwierlein, Frederick J. Religion in New 
Netherland, 1 623-1624. ( Rochester, 
1910). 351pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1971. Price ? 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume K Number 8 April 1971 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Besanceney, Paul H., S.J. Interfaith Mar 
riages: Who and Why. 223pp. New 
Haven: College & University Press, 
1970. $6.50; paper, $2.95 

Bradstreet, Anne; Poems of. Ed. with an 
Introd. by Robert Hutchinson (1969). 
222pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1969. 
Paper, $2. 

Crandall, Prudence: an Incident of Rac 
ism in Nineteenth-Century Connecti 
cut, by Edmund Fuller. Ports. 113pp. 
Middletown: Wesleyan University 
Press, 1971. $5.95 

Dunlap, William. A History of the Rise 
and Progress of the Arts of Design in 
the United States. A Reprint of the 
Original 1834 Edition, with a New 
Introduction by James Thomas Flex- 
ner; Newly Edited by Rita Weiss. 
394 HIus. 2 vols. as 3. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1969. Paper, $4.50 per 
vol. 

Eliot, George: the Critical Heritage, Ed. 
by David Carroll. (The Critical Heri 
tage Series [Eliot vol. containing 69 
contemporary English or American 
reviews of her novels]). 511pp. N.Y.: 
Barnes & Noble, 1971. $17.50 

Gates, Elmer, and the Art of Mind- 
Using, by Donald Edson Gates. Illus. 
540pp. N.Y.: Exposition Press, 1971. 
$10. 

Hauling, Peter, comp. A Circle of 
Witches: an Anthology of Victorian 
Witchcraft Stories. [Fact and fiction; 



all written by women. A successor 
volume to The Gentlewomen of Evil]. 
Illus. 253pp. N.Y.: Taplinger Publish 
ing Co., 1971. $5.95 

Hassan, Ihab. The Dismemberment of 
Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Lit 
erature. 297pp. N.Y.: Oxford Univer 
sity Press, 1971. $8.50 

Jefferson, Thomas; The Life o\; Third 
President of the United States., by- 
James Parton (1874). Port. 764pp. 
N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. $22.50 

La Farge, John: a Memoir and a Study, 
by Royal Cortissoz (1911). HIus. 
268pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. 
$15. 

McGinnis, John J., Ma]. Gen. Military 
Government Journal, Normandy to 
Berlin. Ed. by Robert A. Hart. 351pp. 
Amherst: University of Massachusetts 
Press, 1971. $9.50 

McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and 
Technology, 1970. Profusely Illus. 
481pp. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
1971. $27.50 

Morrill, Justin Smith; The Life and Pub 
lic Services of, by William B. Parker 
(1924). 387pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1971. $15. 

Nilon, Charles H. Bibliography of Bibli 
ographies in American Literature. 
483pp. N.Y.: R. R. Bowker, 1971. $? 

Parker, Derek. Astrology in the Modern 
World. Illus. 254pp. N.Y.: Taplinger 
Publishing Co., 1970. $6.95 

( Continued on p. 128 ) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75# each. 
Printed in the U.S. A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
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Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Book Review Index; in 
cluded in The Year s Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
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AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

RICHARD SHEALE AND THE 
BALLAD OF "CHEVY CHASE" 

ALTHOUGH GENUINE FOLK BALLADS 
are traditionally anonymous. Ash- 
mole MS 48 s unique text of Child 
Ballad 162A, "The Hunting of the 
Cheviot", is signed "Expliceth, 
quoth Rychard Sheale", a name 
subscribed to three other poems 
in this same MS (Nos. XVIII, 
XLVI, and LVI). 1 When Wright 
edited Ashmole 48 in 1860, he not 
ed that Sheale "certainly claimed 
the authorship of the ballad of 
Chevy Chase, and no evidence 
has yet been brought forward to 
invalidate his claim" (p. viii). And 
while scholars before and since 
have denied Sheale s authorship, 
Wright s judgment still holds, for 
none of their opinions have been 
supported by critical analysis of 
the poetry in question. 2 Such anal 
ysis of the works attributed to 
Sheale in Ashmole 48 indicates, I 
think, that he was a professional 
minstrel who wrote at least three 
of the poems in the MS, but not 
poem VIII, the "Chevy Chase 5 
ballad 
Poem XLVIII, though left anon 



ymous in the MS, is the most 
certain item in Sheale s canon, for 
here the poet names himself twice: 
"Becaus my name ys Sheale * (1. 
7), and "Both mutton and veile/Ys 
good for Rycharde SheilT (11. 27- 
28). The twenty-four Skeltonic 
couplets of poem XLVIII comprise 
an appropriate stock piece for a 
wandering minstrel, a farewell to 
his host, thanking him for a land 
reception and a good meal. This 
occupational clue logically con 
nects Sheale with the minstrel 
who complains of being robbed 
in poem XLVI, a work assigned 
to Sheale in the MS. From poem 
XLVI we learn that Sheale lived 
in Tamworth, Staffordshire (1. 44), 
and that he had some acquaint 
ance with the Stanley family, for 
he thanks ", . . my good lord and 
mastar, whom I sarve, , . . And my 
lord Strang also" (11. 115, 118), 
for helping him through his finan 
cial difficulty, Sheale probably re 
fers to Henry Stanley who was 
styled Lord Strange till 1559" 3 
while his father, Edward, Third 
Earl of Derby, was probably 
Sheale s "good lord and mastar". 
If then, Sheale was patronized by 
the Stanleys, it is not surprising 
that his name appears both in the 
title and at the end of poem LVI, 
an epitaph on the death, 23 Feb 
ruary 1559, of the Countess Mar 
garet, Henry s stepmother and wife 
of Edward Stanley. 

In addition to this biographical 
information, the poetic technique 
of poems XLVIII, XLVI, and LVI 
also supports their association with 
Sheale, for the verse of these three 
poems shows the consistent hand 
of one poet. All three are written 
entirely in couplets and there are 
several feminine rimes in each 
work. Sheale s diction is generally 



116 



AN&Q 



commonplace, but includes a scat 
tering of such Latin derivatives as 
"perseve" (found in all three 
poems), "awdacitie", "supplyca- 
cion", "lamentacion", "declaracion", 
"presarve", and "rephar" (refer). 
The metrics of Sheale s long line 
poems, XLVI and LVI, defy scan 
sion, for they are written in irreg 
ular accentual verse of from nine 
to nineteen syllables and from four 
to eight stresses per line. 

Accordingly, poem XVIII shows 
by its metrics alone that Sheale 
could not have written it. Although 
XVIII is subscribed with his name, 
it is written in extremely regular 
syllabic fourteener couplets, whol 
ly alien to his ragged accentual 
verse. Thus, the MS attribution to 
Sheale can not mean that he wrote 
poem XVIII; the name here prob 
ably means only that he supplied 
the transcriber of Ashmole 48 with 
a copy of this work. Similarly, 
Sheale s name after poem VIII 
may indicate that he was the tran 
scriber s source for "Chevy Chase", 
but the subscription does not nec 
essarily mean that he wrote the 
ballad. 

While preceding studies have at 
tempted to refute or defend 
Sheale s claim to "Chevy Chase" 
through tenuous biographical as 
sumptions or the tacit juxtaposition 
of passages from the poems in 
question, the problem is best re 
solved through a specific contrast 
ing of the diction and poetic tech 
nique in Sheale s works and in 
the ballad. "Chevy Chase" lacks 
the array of Latinate words found 
in poems XLVI, XLVIII, and LVI, 
for while Sheale s diction has been 
carried over almost entirely into 
modern usage, the diction of the 



ballad was somewhat archaic even 
by the mid-sixteenth century. For 
example, "byckarte" (VIII, 1. 11, 
from Tbicker , to attack with mis 
siles), is not listed by the OED 
after 1534. The latest OED entry 
for "sterne" (1. 62, a bold or stern 
man), is c. 1470, and for "sprente" 
(1. 67, sprang out ), before 1470. 
"Spurn" (11. 134, 136, an encoun 
ter), "freyke" (11. 64, 66, 97), 
"rnagger" (1. 3, maugre ) and 
"verament" (1. 55), are representa 
tive of the archaic or obsolete dic 
tion so typical of the ballad and 
so lacking in Sheale s verse. 

Three major differences in poet 
ic technique between "Chevy 
Chase" and Sheale s poetry effec 
tively round out the evidence 
against his authorship of the bal 
lad. First, alliteration is a recur 
rent ornamental device in poem 
VIII: 

Bomen byckarte uppone the bent with 

ther browd arcs deare; 
Then the wyld thorowe the woodes 

went on every syde shear; 
Greahondes thorowe the grevis glent 

for to kyll thear dear. 

(11. 11-13) 

Yet no such persistent use of allit 
eration can be found in Sheale s 
poetry. 

The second major difference is 
the use of rime in Sheale s works 
and in the ballad. With one excep 
tion (XLVIII, 11-14), Sheale al 
ways changes his rime from one 
couplet to the next, while the 
"Chevy Chase" poet uses the same 
rime over and over. There is no 
pattern, however, to his repetition 
of identical rimes; in Child s tran 
scription, the fifth and sixth stanzas 
have the same a and b rimes, 
which are dropped in the seventh 



April 197] 

but picked up again in the eighth 
stanza, and stanzas thirty-eight 
through forty-one have the same 
b rime. 

Third, and most important, the 
principle of rime in poem VIII is 
quite different from Sheale s prac 
tice. There is no feminine rime in 
the ballad, and the poet sometimes 
puts the rime on a final unstressed 
syllable: "meany/iif (11. 6-7), lie/ 
pitte" (11. 8-9), "Perse/pitte/contre 
(11. 37-39 ). 4 But Sheale always 
rimes on a stressed syllable, so that 
his lines ending in unstressed syl 
lables are truly feminine rimes, as 
in these examples from poem 
XLVI: "relacion/occupacion" (11. 
36-37); "offendyde/spendyde" (11. 
137-138). 

Sheale may well have supplied 
the transcriber of Ashmole 48 with 
a copy of "Chevy Chase", or, as 
Child suggests (III, 303), it may 
have become associated with his 
name simply because it was part 
of his repertoire as a minstrel. 
However, the variations in diction 
and poetic technique between the 
ballad and the poems demonstra- 
bly his, prove that he could not 
have written it, and thus, "Chevy 
Chase 7 must remain in the tradi 
tion of the anonymous folk ballad. 



Chicago, Illinois 



Steven W. May 



1. Quotations from poems in Ashmole 
48 and their numbers follow the tran 
scription in Songs and Ballads, Chief 
ly of the Reign of Philip and Mary, 
ed. Thomas Wright (London, 1860). 
Wright (p. iv) argues convincingly 
that the names signed to the poems 
are not those of the transcribers of 
the MS. No author s name is con 
nected with the ballad of "The Hunt- 



117 

ing of the Cheviot", popularly known 
as "Chevy Chase* , in any of its more 
modern versions. 

2. Thomas Hearne, first to publish Ash 
mole 48 s version of the ballad, in 
Guilielmi Neubrigensis, Historia Sive 
Chronica Rerum Anglicarum (Oxford, 
1719), I, kxxii-lxxxviii, did not doubt 
Sheale s authorship. In Reliques of 
Ancient English Poetry (London, 
1765), III, 2, Bishop Percy agreed 
that a Richard Sheale wrote "Chevy 
Chase", but not that this was the 
same Sheale identified by Hearne 
(p. kxxviii) as "living in the Year 
1585 , . . Author of many other Po 
etical Things* . Percy decided that 
the ballad was written well before 
1588, as did Joseph Ritson (Bibli- 
ographia Poetica, London, 1802, p. 
303), who classified it as ^manifestly 
a composition of the preceding cen 
tury". Both opinions were contested 
in an anonymous article, "Author of 
Chevy Chase", in The British Bibli 
ographer, IV (1814), 97-107; selec 
tions from poem LVI are here pre 
sented to show that its style is no 
less artful than that of "Chevy Chase" 
and that Sheale could therefore have 
written both works, 

Professors Hales and Furmvall 
(Bishop Percy s Folio Manuscript, 
London, 1868, II, 1-2), Skeat (Speci 
mens of English Literature, Oxford, 
1871, p. 67), and Child (The Eng 
lish and Scottish Popular Ballads, 
Cambridge, 1390, III, 303) agreed 
that Sheale was too mediocre a poet 
to be responsible for the ballad, but 
without presenting the evidence to 
support their opinion. 

In refuting Sheale s claim to "Chevy 
Chase", Ewald Fliigel quoted passages 
from poems XLVI and XLVIII in his 
Neuengllsches Lesebuch (Halle, 1895), 
pp. 461-462, implying that the writer 
of such verse could not have written 
the ballad. Karl Nessler (Qeschichte 
der Ballade Chevy Chase, Berlin, 
1911), e?;amined the biographical con 
tent of the worlis attributed to Sheale 
in the MS, arguing that Sheale would 
have used "Chevy Chase" to glorify 
the Derbys, his patrons, if he had 
written it! Nessler s treatment of the 
Northern spellings and dialect of the 



US 

"SHE" AND "SHEE" 

IN DONNE S ANNIVERSARIES 

WITH THE AID OF FRANK MANTLETS 

superior edition entitled John 
Donne: the Anniversaries (Balti 
more, 1963), it is most fitting to 
re-examine Marjorie Nicolson s 
well-known theory about the dif 
ferent denotations of the variant 
spellings "she" and "shee". 1 Bas 
ing herself on Grierson s earlier 
edition of Donne s poetry, Miss 
Nicolson maintained: "The dif 
ference between she and what I 
call double shee holds good 
throughout both Anniversaries, 
and may briefly be stated thus: 
when Donne uses the more com 
mon "she , he is speaking of a real 
person. When he uses the double 
shee , he is writing in symbolic, 
universal, and abstract terms about 
what he himself called the Idea 
of a Woman" (pp. 87-88). In 
supporting her contention, Miss 



ballad, as proofs against Sheale s 
authorship, are unconvincingly 
grounded on the use of some of these 
same words by John B arbour and Sir 
Walter Scott. Hyder Rollins also de 
nied Sheale s responsibility for the 
ballad, without citing evidence, in his 
thorough study of the contents of 
Ashmole 48 ("Concerning Bodleian 
MS. Ashmole 48", MLN, XXXIV, 
1919, 340-351). Rollins concluded 
that the MS itself was transcribed 
between 1557-1565, largely from 
printed broadsides. 

3. George Edward Cockayne, The Com 
plete Peerage (London, 1916), IV, 
211. 

4. I have omitted the accent marks 
which Wright added to "pitte", 
"Perse", "pitte", and "contre", ap 
parently to indicate that these un 
stressed syllables are rimes. 



AN&Q 

Nicolson (pp. 88-90) finds such 
distinctions with various pronom 
inal forms in other poems by 
Donne. 

Three textual arguments of vary 
ing weight may be immediately 
adduced against the above inter 
pretation: 

I. If Donne differentiated signif 
icantly between the spellings of 
"she", a similar distinction might 
be expected in the other pro 
nouns; however, difficulties arise 
at this point. Of the three occur 
rences of "wee" (Second Anni 
versary, 226, 279, 444), is the 
reader in one instance to shift 
focus rapidly from a real to an 
ideal "wee" and then to under 
stand that the ideal "wee" is 
ignorant even of the least things 
(SA, 279-280)? "Mee" likewise 
appears three times (SA, 1, 31, 
518 ) ; in one of these cases "mee" 
is found along with "me" (SA, 
517-522), yet these pronominal 
forms can hardly be said to de 
scribe two types of speakers* Of 
the four appearances of Tiee" 
(FA, 158, 218; SA, 199, 443) 
two designate God (FA, 158, 
and SA, 443). Yet the Ideal Be 
ing is named Tie" five times 
(FA, 156, 462, 464; SA, 404-405). 
One may note, then, that God 
is called "he" at FA, 156, and 
Thee" just two lines later. 

II. Though acutely aware of the 
capricious printing of 17th-cen 
tury texts (p. 87fn.), Miss Nicol 
son certainly had no idea that 
of the twelve long passages 
among others cited to support 
her thesis (pp. 95-105), the "she- 
shee" orthography remains the 
same in only three of them in 
Manle/s edition. 



-April 1971 



119 



III. Given Manley s edition, a 
referential distinction between 
"she" and "shee" still presents 
problems: 

A. There would seem no ra 
tional plan in calling the Ideal 
Woman the measure of sym 
metry and source of beauty, 
and the real woman a cosmic 
magnetic force and source of 
all "Impressions" (Cf. FA, 309- 
310 and 361-362 with FA, 
220-222 and 415). 

B. Surely the following cou 
plets are mutual glosses and re 
fer but to one person: 

Shee, for whose losse we haue la 
mented thus, 

Would worke more fully and 
powerfully on vs. , . . 

So doth her vertue need her here, 
to fit 

That vnto vs; she working more 
then it. (FA, 401-412) 

C. The heroine defined in 
terms of the Astraea legend 
has varying orthographies: 

She that did thus much, and much 

more could doe, 
But that our age was Iron, and 

rusty too (FA, 425-426) 

. . . because in all, shee did, 
Some Figure of the Golden times, 

was hid. (S A, 69-70) 

IB conclusion, one must be in 
accord with the reviews by Herbert 
Grierson (MLR, XLVII [1952], 390- 
392) and Joan Bennett (RES, III 
[1952], 178-180) of the 1950 edi 
tion of The Breaking of the Circle? 
Both critics concurred in the opin 
ion that the variant spellings serve 
merely as a means of emphasis. It 
is also noteworthy that in the An 
niversaries as in the rest of Donne s 
poetry, if the line-ending rhymes 



terminate in a long V, that "e" 
has a tendency to be doubled or- 
thographically. This fact bears out 
the contentions of Joan Bennett 
and Herbert Grierson that the dou 
ble V was used for emphasis, 
especially in line-endings so impor 
tant in the total effect of the he 
roic couplet. 

P. Mahony 

University of Montreal 



1. The Breaking of the Circle (Evanston, 
III., 1950; rev. ed, 1960). It was 
Hiram Haydn, Miss Nicolson s pupil, 
who was the first to make a referen 
tial difference between "she" and 
"shee" (see The Counter-Renaissance, 
N.Y., 1950, p. 542). Miss Nicolson s 
theory, however, is more elaborate 
and substantial, and thus I deal with 
hers. 

2. In the revised edition of The Breaking 
of the Circle, Miss Nicolson shows 
her cognizance of these reviews but 
nevertheless maintains her original 
conception. 



CUMMINGS "NOBODY LOSES 
ALL THE TIME" 

IN THE LAST IXNTE of one of his more 
well-known poems ("Since Feeling 
Is First") e. e. cummings says, "And 
death i think is no parenthesis". In 
a lesser-known poem ("Nobody 
Loses All the Time") from the 
same volume, is 5 (1926), cum- 
mings speaks of his Uncle Sol s life, 
death, and burial. He ends this 
poem in parentheses. 

(and down went 

my Uncle 

Sol 

and started a worm farm) 



120 



AN&Q 



That these two poems are related 
seems clear; but, beyond that, "No 
body" illustrates yet another of the 
verbal and syntactical games cum- 
mings was so fond of playing. 

In the second stanza of "Nobody" 
cummings says, 

i had an uncle named 

Sol who was born a failure and 

nearly everybody said he should 

have gone 
into vaudeville . . . 

Uncle Sol, after having failed at 
vegetable farming, chicken farm 
ing, and skunk farming before he 
"imitated the/ skunks in a subtle 
manner" (11. 24-25), killed himself 
thereby becoming a success at 
worm farming. It is because of this 
final success, even though it occurs 
in true vaudevillian style, that cum 
mings can talk of Uncle SoFs death 
as an "auspicious occasion" ( 1. 29 ) . 

Actually, the poem is over at that 
point, the end of stanza six. Why 
then does cummings add stanzas 
seven and eight? Why does he end 
the poem with the parenthetical 
statement that Uncle Sol "started 
a worm farm)" (1. 38), since, clear 
ly, it is unnecessary to the meaning 
of the poem? Such "overtness" is 
not common in cummings. 

The answer to these questions 
becomes clear when we look at 
stanza three, where cummings ex 
plicitly indicates, in his own way 
of course, the way in which the 
poem must end. 

First, the third stanza is set up 
in the form of an inverted pyramid, 
each line being shorter than the 
one before it. This stanzaic form 
descends toward nothingness, just 
as Uncle Sol will by the end of the 
poem. Stanza seven has a similar 
shape, as one might suspect, be 



cause this stanza concerns Uncle 
Sol s death. In it form and state 
ment merge. But if this parallel 
form were the only reason for the 
seventh stanza it would still be 
unnecessary. All the form serves 
to do is to call attention to these 
two stanzas and to relate them. 
The real reason for the seventh 
( and eighth ) stanza becomes clear 
when we examine the final words 
of each of the lines of stanza three. 
Taking them together they read 
"inexcusable/ phrase/ to/ be/ 
needlessly/ added". And this is the 
reason for stanzas seven and eight, 
which cummings further indicates 
by placing the last four lines in 
parentheses. Having promised in 
stanza three that he will add a 
"needless" and "inexcusable phrase", 
he does so in stanza seven. Having 
said in "Since Feeling Is First" that 
death is "no parenthesis", he indi 
cates in "Nobody Loses All the 
Time" that Uncle Sol found death 
and success in a parenthesis. 

William V. Davis 
Wethersfield, Conn. 



QUERIES 



"Jim Work" and "Gin Work" 
The small farmers of Jesse Stuart s 
W-Hollow area of Kentucky do 
"Gin Work", meaning the little, 
daily chores that must be done 
close around the farm house as op 
posed to the harder, all-day work 
of the farm. They also go "ginning" 
around town, meaning to wander 
around looking for amusement 
without anything specific in mind. 



April 1971 

The farmers of the central counties 
of West Virginia do "Jim Work" 
and go "Jimming" with precisely 
the same meanings in mind. There 
may be a connection between the 
two expressions. The American Di 
alect Dictionary mentions "gin" but 
gives no etymology for the word. 
However, the origins of the West 
Virginia expression, "Jim Work" 
can be traced. In Salem, a central 
West Virginia town, there are older 
persons who were told as children 
that the expression was brought in 
by people from the Valley of Vir 
ginia. In that region before the 
Civil War, male slaves who became 
too old or feeble to work in the 
fields were known generically as 
the "Jims". They were brought into 
the plantation house and given 
lighter work, "Jim Work", in the 
house, yards, and out buildings. 
Other farmers, whether slave hold 
ers or not, picked up the term to 
designate work of lesser impor 
tance. The two terms are so similar 
in sound that I feel strongly that 
"Gin Work" is a variant pronunci 
ation of "]im Work". Further infor 
mation on the etymology or extent 
of use of any of these words would 
be appreciated. Avery F. Gas- 
kins, Morgantown, W. Va 

Montaigne or Stevenson? Leon 
ard Woolf attributes the title of 
his autobiography, The Journey, 
Not the Arrival Matters, to Mon 
taigne. Is it possible that Woolf 
was misquoting and misattribut- 
ing Robert Louis Stevenson s ". . . 
for to travel hopefully is a better 
thing than to arrive , . ." ("El 
Dorado" in Virginibus Puerisque} 
or can someone locate a similar 
quote from Montaigne? Ernest 
Siegel, Los Angeles, Calif. 



121 

Alexander Pope portrait What 
is the present location of the oil 
portrait by Richardson painted near 
the end of Pope s life for the Earl 
of Huntington and inherited by 
the Marquis of Hastings from 
whose estate it was sold sometime 
before 1870? Lee Ash, Editor, 
AIV&Q. 

Camel through a needle s eye? 
(1) It is well known that the post- 
velar consonants of Semitic, both 
regionally and historically, exhibit 
considerable instability. Between 
both dialects and languages, Proto- 
Semitic qaf (we use the Arabic 
names) may appear as hamzdh 
(the glottal stop), [g], [g], [)] and 
(in Hebrew) [k]; am may be 
lightened to hamzah, and ha 
(pharyngeal h) may pass to the 
ordinary glottal hd, while inter 
change between ha and f ain (both 
pharyngeals) is also attested. (2) 
In Arabic the word for *rope* is 
habl and a collective term for 
camels is *ibl. (3) Can a specialist 
in Aramaic tell me whether forms 
of the same roots also appear in that 
language (or for that matter, any 
older Semitic tongue), and with 
what presumed phonetic values for 
the first consonant in each case? If 
they do, and if confusion of the ini 
tials could have occurred, then we 
may posit that the proverb about 
the camel and the eye of a needle 
(Matt, xix: 24) must have original 
ly been: "It is easier for a rope to 
go through the eye of a needle, 
etc." (i.e. a rope as opposed to a 
thread a vastly more plausible 
figure! ) . B. Hunter Smeaton, 
University of Calgary, Canada 

READERS! 

Reply! Avoid a "Camelist" vs. 
"Ropist" schism! LA. 



122 



AN&Q 



Resurrected bodies There have REPLIES 
been numerous disinterments of 
famous persons throughout mod 
em history. I would like a list of 
them or of references to particular 
ones and, if possible, citations to 
printed descriptions of the disin- 
terment. Harold Mason, New 
York, N.Y. 



Henricus Kr otter Who was this 
man who wrote a dissertation De 
Meteorlythis in 1825? Ml 
Nichols, Sharon, Ct 

G. B. Shaw on Whitman In the 
section called "In Praise of Whit 
man", in Louis Untermeyer s Inner 
Sanctum Edition of The Poetry and 
Prose of Walt Whitman (N.Y.: Si 
mon and Schuster, 1949, p. xxvi), 
George Bernard Shaw is quoted: 
<c Whitman is a classic . . . Curious 
that America should be the only 
country in which this is not as ob 
vious as the sun in the heavens!" 
The source of the remark is not 
otherwise given, yet it reads like 
an early Shavian comment. Profes 
sor Milton Hindus of Brandeis Uni 
versity wanted to use the quotation 
in a collection of material about 
Whitman, which he is editing, but 
he could not verify it. Neither Mr 
Untermeyer nor the publishers 
knew the source, and all the obvi 
ous search areas revealed nothing. 
I have gone through more than a 
hundred Whitman and Shaw books 
and countless periodicals. Could 
Shaw have made the comment in a 
newspaper interview? Even Pro 
fessor Stanley Weintraub of Penn 
sylvania State University, editor of 
The Shaw Review, didn t know 
where it came from. Does anyone? 
William White, Detroit, Mich. 



Bishops of Chalons (VIII: 153) 
The See of Chalons was founded 
according to Abbe Duchesne in the 
4th century. St Lumier, who was 
noted as having miraculous power 
over animals, was Bishop of Cha 
lons in 580. For further informa 
tion the inquirer is referred to E. 
de Barthelemy, Diocese Ancien de 
Chdlons-sur-Marne, 2 vols., Paris, 
1861. Jerry Drost, Lockwood 
Memorial Library, SUNY at Buf 
falo 

Curtain Lecture (IX:41) S. 
Johnson defines the term as a re 
proof given by a wife to her hus 
band in bed. The term is derived 
from a series of papers by Douglas 
Jerrold, which was published in 
Punch (1846). The papers present 
Job Caudle as a constant sufferer 
of his wife who nagged him after 
they were in bed and the curtains 
drawn. The papers were titled 
Mrs. Caudle s Curtain-Lectures. 
The following include usage of the 
term: "What endless brawls by 
wives are bred!/ The curtain-lec 
ture makes a mournful bed" 
(Dry den); "She ought to exert 
the authority of the curtain-lecture, 
and, if she finds him of a rebellious 
disposition, to tame him" ( Ad- 
dison). 

OED suggests the following: 
1633. T. Adams Exp. 2 Peter ii 5. 
Often have you heard how much 
a superstitious wife, by her curtain 
lectures, hath wrought upon her 
Christian husband; 1660. Hicker- 
ingill Jamaica ( 1661 ) 85, I am not 
awed . . , with the dreadfull cat- 
echisme of a Curtain Lecture; 1710. 
Addison Toiler No. 243. He was 



April 1971 



123 



then lying under the Discipline of 
a Curtain-Lecture; 1851. Thack 
eray Eng. Hum. iii (1876) 233. 
As confidential as a curtain-lecture; 
1859. G. Meredith R. Feverel iii. 
No curtain-lecturing with a pipe. 
Q. K. Philander Doesticks (Mor 
timer Neal Thomson), a neologist, 
wrote in Plu-Ri-Bush-Tah: a Song 
That s By No Author - A Deed 
without a Name, the following: 
Calling him my love/ before folks,/ 
When she got him in the bedroom,/ 
And the door was closed behind 
them,/ She was some* on curtain- 
lectures. (- Plu., p. 131). Jer 
ome Drost, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Marchetti s case of a pigs tale 
(IX: 41) The case was original 
ly described in Pietro de Marchet- 
ti, Observationum medico-chirurgi- 
carum rariorum sylloge, Patavii: 
Typis Matthaei de Cadornis, 1664, 
on pp. 161-2. The work was re 
printed in Latin several times, in 
cluding one edition as late as 
1772, edited by Domenico Cotugno. 
A German translation was pub 
lished in 1673, and a French trans 
lation was included in volume 3 
of Th^ophile Bonet, ed, Corps de 
medecine et de chirurgie, Geneve: 
Jean Anthoine Choiiet, 1679. An 
other translation, Recueil dobser- 
vations rares de medecine et de 
chirurgie. Traduit en frangais, et 
precede dune Etude historique 
sur la vie et les outrages de Tau- 
teur, par Auguste Warmont, Paris: 
A. Coccoz, 1858, is apparently the 
one cited by Pennington. The pas 
sage in question may be found on 
pp. 169-171. John B. Blake, 
Chief, History of Medicine Divi 
sion, National Library of Medicine, 
Bethesda, Md 



Beckford Latin quotation (IX: 74) 

The lines are from one of the 
elegies of Propertius: I. xx. 37-38. 

Anthony W. Shipps, Indiana 
University Libraries 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

It will be a shame if an essay of 
classic value, "Acton and the 
C.M.H." (TLS, 19 Feb 71, pp. 195- 
98) must remain anonymous ac 
cording to the TLS s policy. This 
is one of the finest pieces of his 
toriography that I have seen in 
many years: a simple explanation 
of some of the greatest problems 
of historical writing or, rather, of 
the writing of history. Simple ob 
servations, but of such a kind that 
most historians seem unaware of 
their nature. The piece should not 
be missed by anyone who reads or 
writes history. 

Anyone who might wish to con 
sider attending the Preconference 
meetings of the Rare Book Section, 
Association of College & Research 
Libraries (American Library Asso 
ciation) in Austin, Texas, 16-18 
June, should request the descrip 
tive brochure, which includes de 
tails concerning accommodations. 
Write William A. Conway, Clark 
Memorial Library, 2520 Cimarron 
Street, Los Angeles, Calif. 90018. 
Registration is limited to 200 per 
sons. The regular ALA Annual 
Conference will be at Dallas the 
following \veek. 



124 



AN&Q 



The first volume of Proof: the 
Yearbook of American Bibliograph 
ical and Textual Studies will be 
published by the University of 
South Carolina Press in October 
1971. Edited by Joseph Katz, Proof 
focuses on American literature, art, 
and culture, through studies in the 
transmission and recovery of the 
texts by which they are defined. 
Contributors are encouraged both 
to establish the facts and to use 
them historically and critically. 

Proof I is a clothbound book of 
over three hundred pages, with ar 
ticles on Charles Brockden Brown, 
Herman Melville, Nathaniel Haw 
thorne, Park Benjamin, Stephen 
and Cora Crane, Theodore Dreiser, 
William Faulkner, South Carolina 
copyright records 1794-1820, and 
the theory and practice of bibliog 
raphy and textual criticism. Con 
tinuing features will be the serial 
Register of Current Publications, 
a descriptive record of significant 
in-print books, and probing review 
articles on noteworthy projects. 
Illustrations in this volume include 
the first reproductions of Melville s 
own copy of the contract for 
Moby-Dick and the newly-discov 
ered dummy of Dreiser s The 
"Genius". 

Manuscripts should be sent to 
Joseph Katz, Proof, Department of 
English, University of South Caro 
lina, Columbia, S.C. 29208. Sub 
scriptions and orders for single 
copies go directly to the University 
of South Carolina Press. Single 
copies are $14.95; continuation or 
ders (subscriptions) are $12.00. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky and will be con 
tinued in subsequent issues. 



The June issue of AN&Q 

will contain the 
Annual Cumulative Index 



BOOK REVIEWS 

DAHL, Robert A. After the Revolution? 
Authority in a Good Society. 171pp. 
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970. 
$8.50; paper, $2.45 

After the success of The Greening of 
America, Yale Professor Charles Reich s 
book about today s youth culture revo 
lution, another book by a Yale professor 
with a jacket design depicting a rock 
festival and a title After the Revolu 
tion? is bound at least to comparison. 
But in this case, the comparison can be 
dismissed quickly since the books deal 
with different subjects different revo 
lutions. Unlike The Greening of Amer- 
ica, After the Revolution? is speaking 
about political concepts. The author, 
Robert A. Dahl, does not discuss to 
day s youth revolution as an historically 
unique phenomenon, but rather he puts 
talk of political revolution into historical 
perspective. 

Ironically, the fact that After the 
Revolution? is not a youth" book is 
one reason why it will be of more than 
usual value to young people. While 
many other important books about revo 
lution have been published, too many 
of them simply repeat and reinforce 
what young people take for granted. 
This book, however, relates political 
ideas to the past. And today, for some 
young people, the past is a new thing. 

The book is in three parts. In the 
first part, Dahl explains three criteria 
he uses in deciding whether or not he 
will accept any particular decision-mak 
ing process that affects him. The second 
section of the book is a discussion of the 
varied forms of democracy. And in the 



April 1971 



125 



third section, Dahl applies the principles 
he has explained in the first two thirds 
of the book to three problems a de 
mocracy must face. 

Dahl calls his three criteria for au 
thority the Criterion of Personal Choice, 
the Criterion of Competence, and the 
Criterion of Economy. His details on 
each of these make his points clear. The 
Criterion of Personal Choice simply 
means that Dahl wants a decision-mak 
ing process that will insure that all the 
decisions affecting him are made the 
way he would make them. Here, of 
course, the need for democracy becomes 
obvious quickly since everyone wants 
decisions to turn out in his favor. A 
system in which the Criterion of Per 
sonal Choice holds for everyone is need 
ed. But as soon as Dahl goes on to the 
Criterion of Competence, he shows that 
democracy is not always the answer. He 
uses the example of a hospital, for one, 
in which we must take into account su 
perior competence of doctors in medical 
matters and give them most of the au 
thority in that association. The Criterion 
of Economy shows further that democ 
racy is not the perfect answer. Naturally, 
if everyone took part in the making of 
every decision that affects them, they d 
all lose a lot of sleep. 

Even this early in the book, I found 
myself applying much of what Dahl was 
saying to my own experience with as 
sociations. In the case of the student, this 
can be especially interesting. How does 
the Criterion of Competence affect the 
student? Are students incompetent? In 
his introduction to the book, Dahl states 
that the university is an institution in 
which "democratization has not gone 
nearly as far as in the state *. Just how 
that fact is in accordance with DahTs 
principles is something that the student 
will naturally ask himself. 

Another question that concerns stu 
dents is brought up at the beginning of 
the second section. That is: Who are 
"the people" in a democracy? Dahl be 
lieves that the question cannot be an 
swered in a theoretical way, that instead 
pragmatic solutions must be found. He 
offers a theoretical answer anyway, and 
that is the Principle of Affected Interests. 
If you are affected by a decision, you 
deserve a say in the making of it. Sounds 
good for the students, but then the 
competence question arises again. 



It was at this point that I began to 
wish that Dahl would go into more de 
tail about the democratic structure of 
the university. Especially since After 
the Revolution? will undoubtedly be 
used by students as a political textbook, 
an even greater degree of relevance 
would have been added if Dahl had re 
vealed his own views as to whether or 
not students come under the heading of 
"the people". And when Dahl discusses 
the variety of democratic forms com 
mittee, primary, referendum, and rep 
resentative democracy he would have 
done well to relate these forms to the 
university. Perhaps even a separate sec 
tion toward the end of the book on the 
subject of the university would have 
enhanced many of DahTs points. 

While I would have liked to have 
seen more discussion of the university 
structure, After the Revolution? still 
supplies as much relevance as a student 
will demand. The last section, called 
"From Principles to Problems *, tackles 
three of the most undeniably pressing 
problems that any democracy must face 
today. First is the problem of inequality 
of resources among the people that re 
sults in unequal power. The second 
problem has to do with what Dahl calls 
"the corporate leviathan" that is, the 
monster corporations that are swallow 
ing huge amounts of power out of the 
reach of individual citizens. And the 
kst problem that is dealt with he caBs 
"the democratic leviathan", and it en 
tails the remoteness of the huge demo 
cratic system from the individual. 

Dahl speaks about each problem 
somewhat briefly, but he avoids falling 
into a rut of oversimplification. 

In dealing with the problem of in 
equality of resources, for example, Dahl 
relates to history. He uses the example 
of the democratization of Europe during 
the 19th century to point out that groups 
of people with low resources can in 
crease their political strength to "push 
through the process of democratization". 
The politically weak, he says, "have to 
learn how to pyramid their political re 
sources". He then explains, as example, 
how this was done in Europe by what 
today might be called "poor people 
gettin together". The examples will be 
well taken, but what is perhaps most 
important about the way Dahl deals 
with these problems is that he is posing 



126 



AN&Q 



a method of moving with principles from 
problems to solutions. 

After the Revolution? is brief, tight, 
and to the point. The author himself 
suggests that the more skeptical of his 
readers will want to read further, but 
the book is not too short. With its un 
usual clarity, it is a useful text for any 
one concerned with politics today. 
John Birmingham, New York, N.Y. 

John Birmingham is the nineteen-year-old 
author of "Our Time Is Now: Notes 
From the High School Underground" 
(N.Y.; Praeger; and Bantam, 1970). He 
is now working on his first novel, which 
he will complete this summer. L.A. 



DENHARDT, Robert Moorman. The 
King Ranch Quarter Horses and Some 
thing of the Ranch and the Men that 
Bred Them. Illus. 256pp. Norman: Uni 
versity of Oklahoma Press, [c!970]. $9.95 

Steeldust, Billy horse, Copperbottom, 
bulldog, short horse, American Colonial 
Quarter Running horse: these are some 
of the terms applied to one of America s 
oldest **breeds" of horses. Listen to their 
names: Little Joe, Peter McCue, Ada 
Jones, Miss Princess, Nobody s Friend, 
Zantanon, Hired Hand, Shue Fly, Ca- 
nales Belle, Delia Moore, Concho Colo 
nel, Poco Bueno. What is a quarter 
horse? Henry W. Herbert described the 
short-running horses he saw in the 1830s 
to 1850s: "I was particularly struck by 
the fact that the American horse, as 
compared with the English, was inferior 
in height of the forehand and in the 
loftiness and thinness of the withers, and 
in the setting on, and carriage of the 
neck and crest, while he was superior 
in the general development of his hind 
quarters, in the let down of his hams, 
and in his height behind, and further 
remarkable for his formation, approach 
ing to what is often seen in the Irish 
horse, and known as the goose rump. 
I still think that these are the prevailing 
and characteristic differences of the 
horses of the two countries. I fancy that 
J can perceive the American racer stand 



ing very much higher behind and lower 
before, than his English congener". 1 

The quarter horse, developed from 
cross-breeding Spanish stock imported 
to America via Florida (Chickasaw 
horses) and what Nelson Nye calls "line- 
bred orientals" from England, was origi 
nally a sport animal, raced at short 
distances. 2 The following passage from 
J. F. D. Smyth s Tour in the United 
States of America ( 1784 ) is often quoted 
in support of this argument: "In the 
southern part of the colony and in North 
Carolina they are much attached to 
quarter-racing, which is always a match 
between two horses, to run one quarter 
of a mile straight out; being merely an 
excursion of speed; and they have a 
breed that performs it with astonishing 
velocity, beating every other at that 
distance with great ease; but they have 
no bottom. However, I am confident 
that there is not a horse in England, 
nor perhaps the whole world, that can 
excell them in rapid speed". 3 

The tradition of match races has re 
mained an important element in racing 
quarter horses, in contrast with racing 
thoroughbreds in North America; famous 
matches of the latter are occasional, 
whereas quarter horses have been stead 
ily "matched" since the 18th century. 
Starting is still occasionally by *1ap and 
tap" (as the horses approach the starting 
line, if both are moving, and closely 
lapped, the starter "taps * them off) or 
by "ask and answer" (if one jockey is 
ready, he says "Ready?" and if the other 
is ready, he answers "Ho", and they re 
off). The horse must be quiet, yet able 
to get away as soon as possible at top 
speed; in a short race, the start becomes 
a determining factor of utmost impor 
tance. 

This ability to move very fast com 
bined with a quiet temperament is the 
quintessence of the good cow horse; as 
the thoroughbred was developed in the 
eastern United States and came to domi 
nate racing, and as the west opened up 
to settlers, the quarter horse type was 
found to be useful on the plains. Some 
ranchers deliberately bred for this type, 
working with what they had, and in the 
course of the 19th century developed a 
rugged, hardy, fast, quiet work animal. 
Quarter horses still have the heavy mus 
culature that Herbert noted, being com 
pact powerhouses. 



April 1971 



127 



Robert Moorman Denhardt, long as 
sociated with the American Quarter 
Horse Association, has been researching 
and writing about quarter horses since 
the 1930s. He presents in this book the 
fruit of years of investigation of the 
origins of the quarter horse and the 
people in the southwest who have bred 
and used them. Among his previous pub 
lications are The Hcrse of the Americas 
(1947) and Quarter Horses: A Story of 
Two Centuries (1967). In all phases 
of his work he has depended heavily on 
oral history techniques, and uses his find 
ings effectively and judiciously. With 
a very few others, he has created the 
literature of the quarter horse. 

About one third of The King Ranch 
Quarter Horses is devoted to a brief 
history of the founding of the King 
Ranch, and to biographical sketches of 
the key King Ranch personnel involved 
in their program of quarter horse breed 
ing and development. There are most 
interesting glimpses of the social life of 
South Texas. Part of that life was racing 
with one s neighbors, and possibly that 
motivation led many breeders to return 
to the line-bred orientals" now termed 
thoroughbreds, for the introduction of 
more speed. In the development of the 
thoroughbred, some families produced 
more sprinters than stayers, and the two 
types were not only distinguished by 
performance at different distances, but 
by physical types. The sprinters tend 
to be more muscular, closer knit; stayers 
have smoother musculature and longer, 
often taller bodies. The quarter horse 
breeders often used the sprinting, or 
short horse families in their breeding 
programs. The King Ranch, however, 
while interested in the speed charac 
teristic, embarked in the early 1920s on 
a remarkable program, under the lead 
ership of Robert J. Kleberg, jr, for the 
development of a quarter horse that was 
primarily a working cow horse. Like the 
development of the Santa Gertrudis cat 
tle by the Ranch, it followed a classic 
breeding pattern in a rigidly systematic 
way, with great success. The details of 
this program are described in full, with 
numerous appendices listing stallions 
and mares in their many and close re 
lationships. 

In early 18th-century England, fann 
ers began to breed sheep, cattle, and 
horses along the lines used today, and 



to form distinct breeds. Roberts defines 
a breed as a group of animals having 
a number of distinctive qualities and 
characteristics in common, and the power 
to transmit those distinctive traits with 
a good degree of certainty, a distinctive 
name, and a pedigree recorded two or 
three generations/ A studbook is estab 
lished after breeders have more or less 
fixed the type, and the rules of regis 
tration become stricter as the years pass, 
culminating with admission given only 
to animals whose sire and darn are reg 
istered. The quarter horse studbook was 
established in 1941, and registry partial 
ly restricted in 1962. 

Wright points out that the develop 
ment of herds with such distinctive qual 
ities follows the inbreeding of the best 
to the best individuals, and the improve 
ment later Ly selection within the "pure" 
breed. 5 Lush tells us that inbreeding 
is the severest test of the hereditary 
worth of an individual that can be made, 
and the King Ranch searched long years, 
according to Denhardt, and to J. Wid- 
mer 7 to find such an individual for its 
foundation sire, Old Sorrel. They then 
used what might be called intensive 
linebreeding to concentrate and pre 
serve his "blood" and also rigorous se 
lection. No animal was put into the 
carefully regulated manadas (breeding- 
mare bands) without meeting range re 
quirements, i.e., working cattle. No in 
ferior or unsound animal, regardless of 
pedigree, went into the breeding pro 
gram. No stallions except the sons or 
grandsons of Old Sorrel were used, and 
"fresh" blood entered the program 
through the distaff side. 

Denhardt once wrote "It is a fact 
that a few good Quarter Horses have 
carried thoroughbred blood". 8 It is not 
clear whether his tongue was in his 
cheek, but it is obvious in The King 
Ranch Quarter Horses that they at least 
have had many and strong infusions of 
thoroughbred blood through the years, 
but not such that the prized short horse 
characteristics were lost. 

This book is well designed, and the 
plates well selected. The bibliography 
does not perhaps include all that a bib 
liographer would wish (volumes and 
pagination of articles, for instance), but 
it is usable. It seems curious that the 
early volumes of the studbook of the 
American Quarter Horse Association are 



128 



AN&Q 



not listed. On page 165, a reference to 
a "well-known Peggy mare" surely must 
be "Peppy * mare. With these few res 
ervations, the book is a good addition 
to the literature of the southwest, and 
to hippobibliography. EUen B. Welk, 
Associate Osier Librarian, McGill Uni 
versity, Montreal 



1. Henry W. Herbert, Frank Foresters 
Horse and Horsemanship of the 
United States, 2 vols. (N.Y.: Stringer, 
1857), I, p. 116. 

2. J. F. D. Smyth, Tour in the United 
States of America, 2 vols. (London: 
G. Robinson, 1784), I, pp. 22-24. 

3. N. Nye, The Complete Book of the 



Quarter Horse (N.Y.: A. S. Barnes 
1964), p. 22. 

4. I. P. Roberts, The Horse, 2nd ed. 
(N.Y.: Macmillan, 1906), p. 49. 

5. S. Wright, "Mendelian analysis of 
the pure breeds of livestock", /. He 
redity 14:339-348, 1923. 

6. J. L. Lush, Animal Breeding Plans 
(Ames: Iowa State College Press 
1945), p. 284. 

7. J. Widmer, The American Quarter 
Horse (N.Y.: Scribner s Sons, 1959) 
p. 46. 

8. R. M. Denhardt, Quarter Horses: a 
Story of Two Centuries (Norman: 
Oklahoma University Press, 1967) 
p. 79. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p, 114) 

Printing Trades Blue Book, Northeastern 
Edition, 1970-71: Connecticut, Maine, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New 
York State, Rhode Island, and Ver 
mont. Illus. 545pp. N.Y.: A. F. Lewis 
& Co. (853 Broadway, Zip 10003), 
1970. $25, 

Proetz, Victor. The Astonishment of 
Words: an Experiment in the Com 
parison of Languages. 187pp. Austin: 
University of Texas Press, 1971. $6.75 

(St Clair, Arthur). The St. Clair Papers: 
the Life and Public Services of Arthur 
St. Clair, Soldier of the Revolutionary 
War, President of the Continental 



Congress, and Governor of the "North- 
Western Territory . . . Arranged and 
Annotated by William Henry Smith 
(1882). 2 vols. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1971. $47.50 

Samuels, Frederick. The Japanese and 
the Haoles of Honolulu: Durable 
Group Interaction. 206pp. New Ha 
ven: College & University Press, 1970. 
$6; paper, $2.95 

Walton, Alan Hull. The Open Grave 
[Accounts of ghosts, demons, Black 
Mass, witchcraft, etc.]. 233pp. N.Y.: 
Taplinger Publishing Co., 1971. $5.95 

Zaller, Robert. The Parliament of 1621: 
a Study in Constitutional Conflict. 
242pp. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1971. $9. 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume K Number 9 May 1971 



NOTES 
QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

JUI 2 <Q7i 
RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

American Historical Catalog Collection: 
[Trade Catalogs of] Dover Stamping 
Co., 1869 Catalog of Tinware, 
225pp. $4.50; J. W. Fiske, 1893 - 
Catalog of Weathervanes, 150pp. $4; 
L. H. Mace & Co., 1883 - Catalog 
of Woodenware, 76pp. $3.25; Roch 
ester Optical Co., 1898 - The Premo 
Camera, 112pp. $4; Sears, Roebuck 
& Co., 1908 - Catalog of Solid Com 
fort Vehicles, 80pp. $3.25; Whitall, 
Tatum & Co., 1880 - Catalog of Glass 
ware, 80pp. $3.25. All profusely illus. 
facs. Princeton: The Pyne Press, 1971. 
Paper only. Prices as listed. 

Breton, Andre: Magus of Surrealism, by 
Anna Balakian. Illus. 289pp. N.Y.: 
Oxford University Press, 1971. $10. 

Brody, J. J. Indian Painters & White 
Patrons. Illus., incl. color. 238pp. Al 
buquerque: University of New Mexico 
Press, 1971. $15. 

Brown, William Hill. The Power of 
Sympathy, and The Coquette, by Mrs 
Hannah Foster. Ed. by William S. 
Osborne. (Masterworks of Literature 
Series, M-29). 2 vols. in 1; 272pp. 
New Haven: College & University 
Press, 1970. $6.50; Paper, $2.95 

Chalmers, George. An Introduction to 
the History of the Revolt of the Amer 
ican Colonies. (1845). 2 vols. N.Y.: 
Da Capo Press, 1971. $35. 

Comstock, Anthony: His Career of Cruel 
ty and Crime > by D. R. M. Bennett. 
(1878). 110pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1971. $7.95 

Daedalw, Spring 1971, Vol. 100, No. 2: 
The Historian and the World of the 
20th Century. Brookline, Mass: Amer 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
1971. Paper, $2.50 



Dearborn, Henry, Revolutionary War 
Journals of, 1775-1783. Ed. by Lloyd 
A. Brown & Howard H. Peckham; 
With a Biographical Essay by Herman 
Dunlap Smith. (1939). 264pp. N.Y.: 
Da Capo Press, 1971. $12.50 
Florilegium Historiale: Essays Presented 
to Wallace K. Ferguson. J. G. Rowe 
and W. H. Stockdale, eds. Port., Illus. 
401pp. Toronto: University of Toronto 
Press, 1971. $16.50 

Francis, Robert. The Trouble With 
Francis: an Autobiography. 246pp. 
Amherst: University of Massachusetts 
Press, 1971. $7.50 

Franklin, Benjamin, The Life and Times 
f> by James Parton. (1864). 2 vols. 
N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. $39.50 
Grierson, Francis. The Valley of Shad 
ows. Ed. by Harold P. Simonson. 
(Masterworks of Literature Series, 
M-28). 223pp. New Haven: College 
& University Press, 1970. $6; Paper, 
$2.45 

Highet, Gilbert. Explorations. 383pp. 
N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1971. 
$8.50 

History of American Presidential Elec 
tions, 1789-1968. Ed. by Arthur M. 
Schlesinger, jr and Fred L. Israel. 4 
vols. (3959pp.). N.Y.: McGraw-Hill 
Book Co. (in association with Chelsea 
House Publishers), 1971. $135. 
Hurwood, Bernhardt J. The Hag of the 
Dribble, and Other True Ghosts, From 
the Files of Elliott O Donnell. 166pp. 
N.Y.: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1971. 
$4.95 

Petter, Henri. The Early American Nov 
el. 500pp. Columbus: Ohio State Uni 
versity Press, 1971. $12.50 

(Continued on p. 144) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 065is! 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12,00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75# each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies, and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, and Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Rook Review Index; in 
cluded in The Year s Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
in the Annual MLA International Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

PAPER IN THE 17TH CENTURY 

IN 1923 R. w. CHAPMAN, in a paper 
read to the Bibliographical Soci 
ety, 1 referred briefly to a 1674 re 
port to Bishop Fell dealing with 
lots of paper being offered for 
sale. 2 In 1927 he presented a fuller 
analysis of the report 3 in which 
he noted that, although "the water 
marks have ceased to correspond 
with the names of the sorts . . . . 
the names of the sorts indicate 
sizes . . / . 4 He adds that "The ap 
propriation of the terms to dimen 
sions was no doubt a gradual proc 
ess; but it seems to have been 
complete in 1674, and I should be 
surprised if it did not begin much 
earlier". 5 

Some few years later, Edward 
Heawood commented 6 that the list 
Chapman had reprinted contained 
designations of watermarks and 
sorts in too confused a relationship 
to enable any firm conclusions to 
be drawn. 7 However Philip Gaskell, 
in an article dealing with 18th-cen 
tury British paper, 8 stated that the 
system under which the watermark 
or sort designation represented a 
given size was well developed by 



1674, and in an accompanying ta 
ble described the relationship be 
tween the designations and sizes 
in the 1674 list. 9 

In view of such disagreement and 
of the apparently limited nature 
of available evidence, it might be 
useful to put on record some ad 
ditional information about paper 
designations and price in the late 
17th century. 

The evidence is found in a ms 
account book in the collections of 
the Connecticut Historical Society. 
It was kept by Henry Wolcott 
(1611-1680) of Windsor, Connect 
icut, who utilized a somewhat 
modified form of the shorthand 
system developed by John Willis. 10 

In 1959 and 1960 this author 
prepared a translation of the Ac 
count Book of the Society, the 
transcript of which is available for 
examination in the Society s library. 
Clearly any transcription of ma 
terial in a special shorthand sys 
tem must be originally phonetic, 
and the final transcription in more 
recognizable orthography is an ap 
proximation only and sometimes 
highly conjectural. With this cau 
tionary explanation in mind we 
may examine the entries in the 
account book: 

In 1672 Henry Wolcott was in 
London to buy goods to be car 
ried back to New England and 
sold. On 24 February 1671/2 he 
notes that he bought of Mr Budd 
one ream of Caen pott [kan pot] 
pages of the account book devoted 
Morlaix [mor lis] for 0/3/6 . . . 
four quire of fine paper [sic] for 
0/1/4. 

It is interesting to compare the 
prices for the quires and reams 
with those Chapman provided for 
1674. Of more significance, per 
haps, is Wolcott s terminology. The 



132 



AN&Q 



basic question is whether his inten 
tion was to identify the paper by 
size and/or quality in the desig 
nations he used. Although the final 
answer must be left to those more 
knowledgeable in this area, it is 
important to note that the twelve 
pages of the Account Book devoted 
to the transactions of this trip con 
tain carefully detailed lists with 
appropriate designations and prices 
of the varieties of goods purchased, 
indicating that Wolcott was at 
tempting to compile a clear and 
precise record of all his transac 
tions. 

Comparing the 1674 list with 
these 1672 entries, we find in the 
later list six entries for Caen pott 
paper in various dimensions and at 
various prices: 12& x 8 - 0/5/0; 
12 x 8 - 0/4/6; 12x7% - no price; 
12M x 8 - 0/4/3; 12V 4 x 8 - 0/4/6; 
12 x 8 - 0/4/3. This compares with 
the 1672 Caen pott of unspecified 
size priced at 0/4/6 for the ream. 
Although the 1674 list does not 
have an entry for Fine Morlaix, it 
does have Morlaix paper 11% x 7& 

- 0/2/8; 12 x 8 - 0/3/6; 12X x m 

- 0/4/0; Ordinary Morlaix 1322 x 9 

- 0/3/8; Larg Morlaix 1331 x 9 - 
0/3/5; Crowne Morlaix 131 x 9 - 
0/4/3; and Fine Morlaix Crowne 
13J x 9 - 0/5/0. Some of these are 
comparable to the 1672 Fine Mor 
laix at 0/3/6 for the ream. There 
is no designation in the 1674 list 
similar to the "fine paper" of the 
1672 entry. 

It would seem that if in the 
1674 list the designations Morlaix, 
Ordinary Morlaix, and Larg Mor 
laix are meaningful distinctions, 
then the Fine Morlaix of 1672 is 
also. The same is true for the Caen 
pott. 

Whatever ice may make of the 



three paper entries, as a merchant 
no doubt keenly interested in 
value received, Wolcott was mak 
ing note of those designations that 
seemed significant to him. At any 
rate the designations and prices are 
now a matter of record, hopefully 
a useful supplement to our knowl 
edge of the paper trade in the 17th 
century. 

Douglas H. Shepard 

State University of New York 
College at Fredonia 



1. "Notes on Eighteenth-Century Book- 
building", The Library, Fourth Se 
ries, IV (1924), 164-180. 

2. Pp. 175-176. 

3. "An Inventory of Paper, 1674", The 
Library, Fourth Series, VII (1927), 
402-408. 

4. P. 403. 

5. Ibid. 

6. "Papers Used in England after 1600", 
The Library, Fourth Series, XI 
(1931), 263-299. 

7. Pp. 264-265. 

8. "Notes on Eighteenth-Century Brit 
ish Paper", The Library, Fifth Series, 
XII (1957), 34-42. 

9. P. 36. 

10. E. H. Butler, The Story of British 
Shorthand (London, 1951), pp. 19- 
25. 



The June issue of AN&Q 

will contain the 
Annual Cumulative Index 



Remember! Send your 
Queries & Replies 



May 1971 



133 



SHAKESPEAREAN PUN 

IN Troilus and Cressida, when the 
heroine arrives at the Grecian 
camp, her fickleness is underlined 
by that devastating pun, "The 
Troyans trumpet" (IV, v, 65; Sig 
net edn. All references are to the 
Signet edns.) Shakespeare used 
this same pun again, I contend, in 
what appears at first to be a sur 
prising context it occurs in Oth 
ello, II, i, 176, and is spoken by 
lago: The Moor. I know his 
trumpet". 

Is Shakespeare deliberately ex 
ploiting the junctural ambiguity 
to suggest a second meaning be 
hind a perfectly straightforward 
statement from lago? There seems 
to be enough evidence here to 
suggest that Shakespeare is doing 
just that. lago s evil has been amply 
demonstrated in Act I. The pun 
occurs at the end of that sequence 
of events in II, i, in which Des- 
demona diverts herself from open 
ly fretting over Othello s delayed 
arrival in Cyprus by half listening 
to lago s tirade against women as 
mere creatures of lust. When she 
asks lago "how wouldst thou praise 
me?" (123), he elaborates upon 
his cynically bawdy discourse on 
the nature of women. At its con 
clusion, Michael Cassio presumably 
leads Desdemona downstage to 
await Othello s entrance. 

lago is thus left alone to reveal 
to the audience the sexual nature 
of the "web" with which he will 
"ensnare as great a fly as Cassio"; 
throughout this scene his attitude 
has been consistent, and his pun 
comes immediately after this 
lengthy aside to the audience. The 
evidence therefore seems to indi 
cate that Shakespeare has quite 



intentionally rounded off this part 
of the scene with a more subtle 
repetition of a pun he had already 
used elsewhere. Its implications 
are patently untrue of Desdemona, 
but we are confirmed in our opin 
ion of lago by a closer revelation 
of his nature. 

H. F. Garlick 

University of Queensland 
St. Lucia, Australia 



CARLYLE S ANSWER TO THE 
"LIBUSSA-RIDDLE" 

WHEN CAKLYLE FIRST BEGAN serious 
work in German belles-lettres in 
the 1820s, his interest in math 
ematics, which was fostered dur 
ing his student days at the Uni 
versity of Edinburgh, was still very 
much alive. In 1824, for example, 
he translated Legendre s Geom 
etry, and included an introductory 
essay on "Proportion". 1 His pro 
pensity for logic and mathematical 
equation is demonstrated in the 
following problem, which he com 
pleted in answer to the riddle pre 
sented in his translation of Mu- 
saes s "Libussa" in the German Ro 
mance (1827). 

In the story the Princess Libussa 
proposes a riddle for her three 
suitors to answer, which will help 
to facilitate her decision on whom 
to choose: "I intend, for you three, 
a present of this basket of plums, 
which I plucked in my garden. 
One of you shall have the half, 
and one over; the next shall have 
the half of what remains, and one 
over; the third shall again have 
the half, and three over. Now, if 



134 



AN&Q 



so be that the basket is then emp 
tied, tell me, How many plums are 
in it now?" 2 

Carlyle s answer, together with 
the page reference, is completed on 
the verso of the flyleaf of a pre 
sentation copy of the German Ro 
mance to John Badams, a Birming 
ham chemical manufacturer: 3 



3X 



p. 168 

_3_ , JL 
48 



= X 



X = 30 



Rodger L. Tarr 



Illinois State University 
Normal, Illinois 



1. For a listing o Carlyle s scientific 
and mathematical articles, see G. B. 
Tennyson, Sartor Called Resartus 
(Princeton, 1965), pp. 332-334. 

2. German Romance (Edinburgh, 1827), 
p. 168. 

3. The book is in my possession, and 
the inscription on the flyleaf reads: 
To John Badams, Esq r / With the 
kindest regards / of his Sincere 
Friend, / Thomas Carlyle. Badams, 
who studied medicine in Edinburgh, 
treated Carlyle on two separate oc 
casions for dyspepsia. See Reminis 
cences, ed. C. E. Norton (London, 
1887), I, 93; II, 134, 144. 



WHITMAN ICONOGRAPHY; 
OR, MIXED PORTRAITURE 

THIS BOOK is newly catalogued for 
OWU s Whitman collection and 
is listed in the checklist, p. 192, 
in Gay Allen s Whitman As Man, 
Poet and Legend. Whitman, Walt 
Leaves of grass and other poems. 
Translated by Saiki Tomita (Tokyo: 
Ashai Shimbun-sha, 1950). Its only 
illustration, a frontispiece picturing 



a clean-shaven man, is identified 
as Chester Beach s bust of Whit 
man. As I was cataloging this book, 
I thought it unlike any picture of 
Whitman I had ever seen. After 
searching, I found pictured in Ar 
chitecture 63:85, August 1931, sev 
eral busts. The first is Beach s 
Whitman, and next to it is Hermon 
A. MacNeiTs James Monroe, used 
as the frontispiece in our edition. 
The result for our Whitman Col 
lection is the addition of an inter 
esting edition of Leaves of Grass 
whose only accompanying illustra 
tion is a bust of James Monroe. 

Virginia E. Lowering 

Catalog Librarian, 

Ohio Wesleyan University, 

Delaware, Ohio 



QUERIES 



Henry Blake Fullers "The Cheva 
lier of Pensieri-Vanf (1890) I 
would be grateful for any informa 
tion about the location of Fullers 
signed typescript, "My Early 
Books", 4 to 8 pages. It is listed as 
no. 117 in The Chicago Book & 
Art Auctions catalogue for 22 No 
vember 1932; and portions are 
quoted in Constance M. Griffin s 
Henry Blake Fuller: a Critical Bi 
ography (Philadelphia, 1939). I 
have, however, been unable to find 
evidence of more recent access. The 
manuscript is not in the Newbeny 
Fuller Collection. Artem Lo- 
zynsky, Columbia, S.C. 

Book reader s quotation What 
is the source of "They did not seem 
like books to him/ But Heroes, 



May 1971 

Martyrs, Saints themselves/ The 
things they told of, not mere 
books/ Ranged grimly on the oaken 
shelves". Elizabeth Sanford, 
Baltimore, Md 

Monogram to identify Can any 
one suggest who might have used 
(still use?) this monogram in mark 
ing his books? It is a 20th-century 



135 

is the law/ And the law shall run/ 
Til the stars in their courses are 
still/ That who so eateth anothers 
bread/ Shall do that others will*. 
It has been ascribed to Kipling but 
I cannot find its source. The Li 
brary of Congress suggested that 
you might be able to help me. 
Grady E. Grant, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 




mark without doubt. Would it have 
been used by Bruce Rogers? 
Michael O Reilly, Miami, Florida 

James Franklin Gilman Gil- 
man was an itinerant painter who 
spent twenty years in Vermont, 
1872-1892. Most of his paintings 
have been found in the Montpelier- 
Barre area but we suspect that he 
was also in Barton, Middlesex, and 
Brattleboro at some time. Any oth 
er information about him will be 
welcome for a book about him. 
Adele G. Dawson, Marshfield, Vt 

Gustav Brenner German nat 
uralist, b. 1796, d. 1854? Need bio 
graphic information. C. R. An 
derson, St Mary s City, Md 

Hans Hesse, Hessen, or Hassen 
Helden tenor at Milan Opera 
during 1930s. Need biographic in 
formation. Charles R. Ander 
son, St Mary s City, Md 

"This is the law ..." For years 
I have tried to find the source of 
this (approximate) quote: "This 



REPLIES 

"Sore as a pup" (IX:41) My 
comment on this is further to my 
reply concerning "You can believe 
itr (IX:9). Here again, a well 
known colloquial English prosodic 
formula (or its latter part, in this 
case) carries the bulk of the mes 
sage, at the same time reducing 
(or even eliminating) the sense(s) 
of the constituent words: [given 
predicate adjective] + [as (a)] + 
[N = nominal], the prime requi 
sites of N being that it be colorful 
("drunk as a lord", "mad as a wet 
hen"), of dropping intonation, and 
if handy, alliterative ("tight as a 
tick", "pleased as Punch"), while 
sernantically it serves to intensify 
the given adjective. And since it 
is the pattern that counts, it is not 
essential that the figure evoked 
be apt (if, indeed, any is evoked in 
the advanced cliche stage). This 
one, as Dr Taylor notes, is surely 
not apt: pups, as animals, are im 
mature, tail-waggingly trusting, and 
metaphorically as know-it-all young 
humans, insolent but scarcely 
prone to anger. Such similes share, 
with slang in general, passing f ash- 
ionability ("tight as a tick"), only 
a minority becoming permanent 
fixtures in the language ("drunk 



136 



AN&Q 



as a lord"), and with idioms at 
large, subordination of the mean 
ing of their separate components 
(here, the components of N). They 
are also one with the alliterations 
and syntactic jugglings of Old 
Norse, Latin, and Arabic, the di 
minutives of Spanish and Russian, 
and the profane embellishments of 
all languages, in saving us from 
the Dick-and-Jane pragmatism of 
the Spiessburger (who would have, 
perhaps, <f very angry"). B. 
Hunter Smeaton, The University 
of Calgary, Canada 

Goffering (IX: 56) I remem 
bered my mother speaking of her 
mother patiently goffering her cur 
tain frills with a heated iron, not 
unlike a triple-repeat of the 1920 s 
hair-curling tongs. However, I 
could see nothing profound in this 
answer, and began further search. 
The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
Eleventh Edition, Volume 12, p. 
190 states: "Goffer To give a 
fluted or crimped appearance to 
anything particularly to linen or 
lace frills or trimming by means 
of heated irons of a special shape, 
called goffering irons or tongs. . . . 
The term is also used of the wavey 
(sic) or crimped edging in certain 
forms of porcelain, and also of the 
stamped or embossed decorations 
on the edges of the binding of 
books . . .". Further search and I 
found some text and illustrations 
of tools in John J. Pleger s "Gilt- 
Edging, Marbling, and Hand Tool 
ing", Pt 4 of his Bookbinding and 
Its Auxiliary Branches (Chicago: 
Inland Printer Co., 1914). 
Winifred Richardson, University 
of Northern Colorado Library, 
Greeley, Col 



White as mourning dress (IX: 56) 
Although black was generally 
used throughout the world for 
mourning there are many excep 
tions. Black, of course, was sym 
bolical of night. Black was consid 
ered the absence of color and con 
nected with an ancient belief that 
the dead return. The black gar 
ment was invisible to the spirits 
and, therefore, offered a suitable 
protection against the spirits. Mary, 
Queen of Scots, was known as the 
White Queen. She mourned in 
white the death of her husband, 
Lord Darnley. In ancient Rome 
and China and Japan white weeds 
were used by the ladies in mourn 
ing. Yellow is considered by Bert- 
ran S. Puckle in Funeral Customs, 
Their Origin and Development, 
1926, as being one of the most com 
mon of colors to express grief. 
Egyptians, Central Africans, and 
Persians used the color. Blue, vio 
let or purple is also used in various 

parts of the world. Jerry Drost, 

Buffalo, NT. 

Fevers attributed to eating fruit 
(IX:56) Available in English 
translation by Harriet de Onis is 
the novel by Giro Alegria, line 
Golden Serpent (N.Y.: New Amer 
ican Library of World Literature, 
1963). Reference is made (p. 9) 
to the fact that the people in Gale- 
mar, in the valley of the Peruvian 
river Maranon, avoid eating man 
gos, plums, and guavas, fearing 
that these fruits would give them 
malaria. While The Golden Ser 
pent (La serpiente de oro) is a 
novel, in it he deals with a part 
of Peru which the author knew 
from early childhood, and it seems 
more than likely that this refer 
ence to the fear of the cholos that 



May 1971 

eating these fruits would give them 
malaria has a basis in direct ob 
servation. Edgar C. Knowlton, 
jr, University of Hawaii 

In the late 1920s several 

young boys in their early teens 
(including the undersigned) ate 
some persimmons from a tree in 
the Oakwood Cemetery in Raleigh, 
N.C. Three of us came down with 
a violent fever the next day, were 
fed calomel that night, castor oil 
the next morning, and, miracu 
lously, recovered. The servants 
said that it was the result of eating 
persimmons from a tree growing 
in a graveyard. Lawrence S. 
Thompson, University of Kentucky 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

A few years ago AN&Q (YE: 100) 
contained a brief description of 
the William P. Shepard Collection 
of Provengalia that was bequeathed 
to Hamilton College in 1948. Now 
Professor Rouben C. CholaMan, of 
the College, has issued a "Critical 
Bibliography" of the collection in 
an attractive pamphlet of 81-pages, 
available from the Hamilton Col 
lege Library, Clinton, N.Y. 13323, 
for only $3. There are 530 items 
listed in a classified order, and the 
descriptions include critical or bib 
liographical annotations of consid 
erable usefulness, but an author 
index would have been nice to 
have too, especially for easier ref 
erence. William Shepard was Bur 
gess Professor of Romance Lan 
guages & Literature at Hamilton 



137 

from 1896 to 1940, during which 
time he had a lasting influence on 
many students and on the young 
Ezra Pound. The collection will 
undoubtedly draw many students 
of French medieval literature and 
history to Hamilton College, and 
the publication of this unique cata 
logue is a fine contribution to 
scholarship. 

The llth annual edition of Private 
Press Books, recording books and 
pamphlets issued by some 100 pri 
vate presses published in the West 
ern world in 1969 has been pub 
lished by the Private Libraries As 
sociation, 41 Cuckoo Hill Road, 
Pinner, Middlesex, England (Pa 
per, $4; to PLA members, $3.25). 
The volume includes a short bib 
liography, an index, and 13 illus 
trations. A handsome inventory of 
some beautiful and unusual print 
ing, editions, and scholarship. Sub 
ject and author collectors would 
do well to check for special titles 
relevant to their interests and 
printed at the "little presses". 

All who love the drama of Bleak 
House will want to read a fasci 
nating article, "Dickens: the Old 
Court of Chancery", by Douglas 
Hamer of the University of Shef 
field, appearing in Notes and 
Queries (N.S. 17, No. 9), Septem 
ber 1970, pp. 341-47. The history, 
technical apparatus, and workings 
of the Court are described and 
Dickens analyses of its machina 
tions are evaluated. The article is 
so enlightening that one hopes it 
might be included in future edi 
tions of Bleak House, where it 
would provide a helpful appendix 
for today s readers, even if the 
author of the Note does say that 



138 

Dickens "life-long vendetta against 
the Court of Chancery marks him 
as emotionally unstable in that 
context, as he was in others" [mani 
festing "the taint of litigious para 
noia"]. 

Lijrica Germanica: Journal for Ger 
man Lyric Poetry features previ 
ously unpublished, original German 
lyric poetry, translations into Eng 
lish of German lyric poetry created 
before 1880, and related subjects. 
Two numbers, spring and fall, are 
published yearly. Brief poems, ar 
ticles, books for review, subscrip 
tions, and all communications 
should be sent to the editor, Dr 
A. Wayne Wonderley, 3307 Corn 
wall Drive, Lexington, Kentucky 
40503 (USA). Editorial Board: 
Editor, Professor A. Wayne Won 
derley (University of Kentucky); 
associate editor, Professor Her 
mann E. Rothfuss (Western Michi 
gan University); consulting editors, 
Dean Daniel Coogan (York Col 
lege, CUNY) and Professor Her 
man Salinger (Duke University). 
Current, annual subscription is 
$1.50, in advance. Checks may be 
drawn to Lyrica Germanica. 

David William Foster and Virginia 
Ramos Foster, Research Guide to 
Argentine Literature (Metuchen, 
NJ,: Scarecrow Press, 1970; 146pp. ; 
$5.00), is a compilation of some 
1,000 book and journal articles per 
tinent to Argentine literature. It 
is divided into sections on general 
bibliographies, journals publishing 
research on Argentine literature, 
general works on Argentine liter 
ature, and a group of forty-three 
articles on individual Argentine 
authors. 



AN&Q 

RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky and will be con 
tinued in subsequent issues. 

Several major reference works from 
the Cambridge University Press 
deserve a special section in this 
journal. Above all, the first volume 
of the third edition of The Cam 
bridge Ancient History, edited by 
I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, and 
N. G. L. Hammond (1970; 758pp. ; 
$19.50), is a work for all classicists 
and all libraries which have even 
a pretense to the reference func 
tion. Earlier, parts of the CAH 
have come out in separate sections, 
a valuable service to specialized 
scholars, but those of us who look 
at antiquity as a whole must have 
the complete set. This first volume 
covers the period from the geologic 
ages through neolithic times. Like 
the earlier editions, the articles are 
by the ablest authorities, there is 
a highly satisfactory selective bib 
liography, and there is a full index. 

The Cambridge History of Islam 
(1970; 2 vols.; $19.50 per vol.), 
edited by P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. 
Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, is 
similar in planning and execution 
to the other Cambridge histories. 
The first volume deals with Arabia 
before Muhammad, his career, the 
rise and domination of the Arabs, 
the coming of the steppe peoples, 
the Osmanli period and modern 
Turkey, Arab lands, Iran, and Mos 
lem areas of the USSR. The sec 
ond volume, "The Further Islamic 



May 1971 



139 



Lands", deals with India, South- 
East Asia, Africa and the Moslem 
west, and the broad contributions 
of Islam to society and civilization. 
There are full bibliographies and 
indexes. 

Margaret Canney and David 
Knott, comps., Catalogue of the 
Goldsmith s Library of Economic 
Literature, vol. I, Printed Books to 
1800 (1970; 838pp.; $65.00), re 
cord 18,113 items, a fundamental 
collection for British and European 
economic history. It is arranged 
chronologically, with subject di 
visions under each period or year. 
The second volume will contain 
printed books from 1801 to 1850, 
and the third will contain periodi 
cals, manuscripts, and the index 
to the whole catalogue. The his 
torical introduction by J. H. P. 
Pafford, Goldsmith s Librarian, 
1945-1967, is a basic document for 
library history. When complete, 
the set will be a cornerstone for 
any reference collection which 
makes an effort to support studies 
in economic history and theory. 

Ian Michael, English Grammatical 
Categories and the Tradition to 
1800 (1970; 622pp.; $32.50), ex 
amines 273 English grammars 
known before 1801, 140 for the 
first time. There is a full list a 
challenge for any collector! Bib- 
liographically, the work is a sub 
stantial contribution to the history 
of the mother tongue. Linguisti 
cally, it is disillusioning to discover 
that barely forty of the grammars, 
all in the first half of the 18th 
century, made an effort to adapt 
traditional grammar to English. 
There is an abundance of evidence 
about the relation of logic to lan 



guage in the book, and it will not 
soon be superseded. 

Of the major publishers the Cam 
bridge University Press has prob 
ably been among the most indus 
trious giving service to scholars 
and general readers in issuing rela 
tively inexpensive books in paper 
covers. The titles noted here are 
all available in cloth for libraries 
and for others who want them, in 
paper: J. H. Elliott, The Old World 
and the ^ 7 ew, 1492-1650 (1970; 
118pp.), was written for the Wiles 
Lectures at Queen s University, 
Belfast, for 1969, and it is a sharp, 
analytical study of the impact of 
the Americas on Europe before 
1650. J. B. Steane, Marlowe: a Crit 
ical Studij (1970; 383pp.; $2.95), 
is a comprehensive study of Mar 
lowe s complete works, including 
plays, poems, and translations, 
probably the best available vade- 
mecum for this great Elizabethan. 
Andrew Gurr, The Shakespearean 
Stage, 1574-1642 (1970; 192pp. ; 
$2.75), describes theatrical condi 
tions under which Shakespeare, 
his contemporaries, and his suc 
cessors, worked before the ban OB 
playing during the English Civil 
War. Yasmine Gooneratne, Jane 
Austen (1970; 195pp. ; $2.45), is 
a critical introduction to the Aus 
ten canon, including the six com 
plete novels, letters, and minor 
works. David Wardle, English Pop 
ular Education, 17SO-1970 (1970; 
182pp.; $1.95), is an account of 
British efforts to provide universal 
free public education. Daniel M. 
Taylor, Explanation and Meaning, 
an Introduction to Philosophy 
(1970; 202pp.; $2.45), concentrates 
on the two central topics of ex 
planation and meaning and takes 



140 



AX&Q 



his arguments far enough to pro 
vide an adequate introduction to 
modern analytical philosophy. 



Karl-Dieter Opp, Methodokgie 
der Sozialtcissenschaften, Einfuhr- 
ung in Probleme ihrer Theorien- 
bildung (Reinbek bei Hamburg: 
Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 
1970; 332pp.; "Rowohlts Deutsche 
Enzyklopadie", 339-341; DM6.80), 
is a theoretical study of the meth 
ods, purposes, and results of social 
enquiry. The book includes a re 
sume, bibliography, and index simi 
lar to others in the series. 

The Galleria del bel Libro in As- 
cona ( at the northern end of Lago 
Maggiore in Switzerland) is re 
sponsible for frequent exhibits of 
important binders and groups of 
binders. Handsome catalogues are 
issued for these shows. At hand 
are catalogues for the April, 1969, 
exhibit of Georges Leroux of Paris 
(20 unnumbered pp., incl illus.) 
and the May, 1970, exhibit of the 
Nota Bene Club of Copenhagen 
(28 unnumbered pp., incl. illus.). 

An Oxford University Press book, 
long out of print, equally long in 
heavy demand, among others by 
this columnist for his classes, is 
Stanley Casson, The Technique of 
Earlij Greek Sculpture (NT.: Re 
printed by Hacker Art Books, 1970; 
246pp.; $15.00). A noteworthy 
monograph, probably the first ex 
tensive one in English on this sub 
ject, which explores the notion that 
the way in which a statue is made 
gives insight into the mind of the 
artist Casson also shows how tech 
nical problems affect the artist s 



methods and modify his esthetic 
intention. The chronological range 
is from prehistoric ages to around 
the middle of the 5th century B.C. 

The conclusion of the first ten 
volumes of the Archiv filr die Ge- 
scliidite des Buchwesens, issued 
by the Buchhandler-Vereinigung 
GmbH in Frankfurt/Main (Post- 
fach 3914), has been commemo 
rated by a publication (in the for 
mat of the Archiv) listing authors 
of all articles (actually books in 
many instances) alphabetically by 
name. There is also a classified in 
dex by decimal classification. Fi 
nally, there is a perceptive and 
significant essay by Hans Wid- 
mann, "Kontinuitat und Wandel 
in der Herstellung des Buches". 
While it is likely that the contents 
will also be issued separately to 
be bound with the tenth volume, 
subscribers would be well advised 
to hang on to this publication as 
a separate and to analyze Dr. Wid- 
mann s essay in their catalogues. 
No reference collection in the 
fields of the history of books and 
printing is complete without the 
Archiv. 

Frangoise Biass-Ducroux, Glossary 
of Genetics in English, French, 
Spanish, Italian, German, Russian 
(N.Y.: American Elsevier Pub 
lishing Company, 1970; 436pp.; 
$27.00), has been compiled in col 
laboration with Klaus Napp-Zinn 
and with Russian translations by 
Nikoli V. Luchnik. The primary ob 
jective is to provide a tool for rapid 
and adequate translation of terms 
in current use in genetics. The 
basic alphabet is in English, and 
there are indexes in the other lan 
guages. 



May 1971 



141 



BOOK REVIEWS 



MAKERS OF AMERICA. Illus. 10 vols, 
incl. Index. Chicago: Encyclopedia Brit- 
annica Educational Corporation, 1971, 
special price to schools and libraries: 
$79.50. 

This ten-volume reference work, ed 
ited by Wayne Moquin for the Ency 
clopedia Britannica Educational Cor 
poration, records, in documentary fash 
ion, the contributions of various ethnic 
groups to the history of the United 
States from 1536 through 1970. The 
731 selections are the words of some 700 
people who made this history, but the 
writings express the experiences, suf 
ferings, and achievements of the many 
thousands more who were at their sides. 
Eighty-five ethnic groups are repre 
sented and the more than a million 
words about them are by the members 
themselves. 

The selections consist of letters, di 
aries, orders, reports, newspaper articles, 
magazine selections, poems, congression 
al debates, and other documentary de 
scriptions of what various peoples, both 
native and immigrant, were doing and 
what was being done to them over the 
last four centuries in the land now 
called the United States. 

Each of the volumes is divided into 
four, five, or six sections which, in some 
instances, overlap chronologically but 
which deal with the emergence of some 
pattern resulting from the actions of or 
reaction to one or another of the ethnic 
factions that affected the growth of this 
country. The editors, scholars in their 
own right, have written introductions 
to each of these sections, placing them 
in an historical context. Further histori 
cal continuity is gained from short edi 
torial paragraphs at the beginning of 
each selection. These paragraphs give 
the author, date, and source of the se 
lection when loiown. 

The editorial passages are set off from 
the selection which they accompany by 
a difference in type size. The selections 
themselves are in large, very easy-to- 
read print while the editorial comments 
are in smaller type. The larger type 
makes locating a particular passage in 
a selection quite easy a definite re 
search advantage. No misspellings or 



misprints were noted in the more than 
forty selections read by this reviewer. 

The volumes seem to be organized 
for secondary and junior college use, 
but the documents themselves are true 
to the originals and, as such, the collec 
tion forms a comprehensive source of 
information for research at any level. 
Apart from research, simply browsing 
through these volumes is pleasurable, 
informative, and probably a very good 
thing to do. Whether one reads an ar 
ticle here and there throughout the 
series or conscientiously reads the se 
lections in order, he cannot help but 
be reminded of the ethnic pluralism that 
went into the building of the United 
States. Nor can he fail to take note of 
the struggle, suffering, vanity, stupid 
ity, and sometimes downright cruelty, 
that any aggregation of human groups 
seems to bring on its members in its 
quest for an occasional triumph. These 
are good points to take notice of, par 
ticularly now, when our ignorance and 
cruelty, although perhaps more subtle, 
are very much at the forefront of our 
activity. 

Makers of America is an important 
collection of documents for secondary 
school and early college study of Amer 
ican History especially since that disci 
pline has only recently turned from 
treating history as simple chronology to 
a study of the method of historic in 
quiry. In short, it is a valuable instru 
ment for teaching research techniques 

in history. Michael F. Gibbons, /r, 

Yale University 



DANIELS, Jonathan. A Southerner Dis 
covers the South (1938). 346pp. N.Y.: 
DaCapo Press, 1970. $10. 

The DaCapo Press of the Plenum 
Publishing Corporation has reissued 
Jonathan Daniels now-classic 1938 trav 
el essay (originally published by the 
Macmillan Company) in its *The Amer 
ican Scene: Comments and Commen 
tators" series of reprints and, in so do 
ing, has done us all a service. 

There are serious problems in the 
reissuing of a book of impressions, con 
versations and descriptions of a land 



142 



AN&Q 



and its people. Such a work after thirty 
years could very easily be so dated as 
to render it worthless. Mr Daniels, still 
editor of the Raleigh, North Carolina 
News and Observer, is candid in raising 
these questions in his new introduction 
to this edition. He makes no extravagant 
claims for his book, but suggests that 
"possibly to understand any land, we 
need rearview mirrors as well as clean 
windshields". He had not set himself 
up as a prophet in the first edition, and 
so he need not apologize for prophecies 
unfulfilled or for results far different 
than those he thought and hoped might 
come to pass. But there is no denying 
the reader s urge to note where Mr 
Daniels was brilliantly correct or sadly 
wrong in his estimations of the direc 
tions the South would take. 

As Mr Daniels reminds the reader in 
his new introduction, there was an in 
tellectual debate underway in the late 
thirties. The Agrarians of Vanderbilt 
had warned the South not to cast off 
those valuable and often agrarian tra 
ditions which gave it dignity and made 
it distinct. The professors at the Uni 
versity of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, and New South followers of Henry 
Grady of Atlanta were urging the South 
to industrialize, throw off its chains, to 
join the 20th century, to join "the main 
stream of American life". 

Mr Daniels suggests something a little 
different from either of these two posi 
tions. He does not argue that the South 
should or should not join the main 
stream of American life, but rather that 
the South is the main stream of Amer 
ican life, flowing directly out of the 
American experience. Daniels insists that 
the American dream is a fair chance for 
every man, and that that dream is alive 
and well in the South today every bit 
as much as it is alive in any other part 
of the country. He suggests that the 
migration to the South of industry, cor 
porations, and whites from all over the 
country, and the return to the South 
by blacks who left, combined with the 
renewed enthusiasm with which South 
erners stay in the South, is manifest 
proof of the South s bringing the rest 
of the nation into the so-called "Main 
stream of American life". 

Kir Daniels book is the story of a 
journey. The journey began in Raleigh, 
North Carolina, and took him across 



North Carolina, to TVA country, across 
Tennessee via Nashville and Memphis, 
across the Mississippi as far as Hot 
Springs, Arkansas and back via Green 
ville, Mississippi, New Orleans, Mont 
gomery, Birmingham, Atlanta, Jackson 
ville, and Charleston. 

This was not a journey undertaken 
without preparation. In addition to the 
many letters of introduction Daniels car 
ried with him (letters which gave him 
entree to many of the people one would 
naturally have wanted to talk with) 
Daniels was also armed with an intelli 
gent and sympathetic eye for the South, 
for what to look for, for choosing the 
worker and farmer and waitress to talk 
with. This was not a journey that could 
have been undertaken fruitfully by a 
Northerner. It is very much the story 
of a native s deepening understanding 
of his region, not the "discovery" of a 
strange land by an outsider, however 
perceptive and sympathetic the outsider 
might be. Anyone would have desired 
and sought conversation with Donald 
Davidson, even knowing that by 1938 
the Agrarian movement was dead. But 
not everyone would have known how 
much was to be learned about the South 
from conversation with a nitch-hiker 
from Nashville to Birmingham, a man 
tired of the Nashville dole and looking 
for work in the steel mills but knowing 
that the jobs go to the young and 
strong, and that there were not enough 
to go around. 

One is tempted to recall and discuss 
innumerable of Daniels* observations and 
conversations observations of Charles 
ton society, of Memphis night life, of 
the mores of the Tennessee mountain 
people, conversations with the Governor 
of Arkansas, with the new Governor of 
Louisiana, with surviving acquaintances 
of Huey ^Long, with countless other 
"important" and "small" people of the 
South. The book is rich with them, and 
each yields something valuable to the 
total picture. 

There was one land of experiment un 
der way in the South in the thirties, 
which seems to be over now, and which 
was of particular interest to this review 
er: the attempts to raise the hideously 
poor tenant farmers out of their poverty 
by communal or cooperative or subsi 
dized farms. These experiments were 
going on in several Southern states si- 



May 1971 



143 



multaneously, and seemed to capture 
Mr Daniels imagination too. Norris, 
Tennessee, was a company-owned, 
planned town. Daniels found it anti 
septic, overly planned, and dull. The 
Southern Tenant Farmers Union in Ar 
kansas drew Allen Tate s fire for being 
"communistic". Its defenders argued 
that Tate s agrarianism was a plan to 
reduce the Southern farmers to peasant 
ry. Mr Daniels visited the SFTU and 
the Dyess Colony in Mississippi. The 
first was a Norman Thomas-inspired 
Socialistic experiment, the second was 
an expensive, government-sponsored proj 
ect. The first was beleaguered by the 
establishment in the surrounding com 
munity; the second seemed to Mr Dan 
iels "a toy town cut out of the jungle**. 
None of these experiments seemed prom 
ising to him; none have endured. What 
has endured in the South is a strong 
sense of independence, the desire of the 
tenant to be an independent farmer and 
the determination of the yeoman to re 
main self-sufficient. This intense belief 
in self-reliance is, to Daniels, central to 
that American "main stream" into which 
the South is now pulling the rest of 
the country. Donald R. Noble, fr, 
Dept of English, University of Alabama, 
University, Alabama 



BIBLIO 
GRAPHICAL NOTE 

THE REPRINTING OF JUNIUS 

The Argosy-Antiquarian Facsimile Ed 
ition reprinting of the Letters of Junius 
was unanticipated in the proliferation 
of facsimile reprints to which the aca 
demic community has become accus 
tomed. If the Letters had not previously 
been reprinted, the explanation lay in 
the comparative abundance of copies 
in the antiquarian marketplace. The 
Bohn edition, 1 as part of Bohn s Stand 
ard Library, continued to be published 
from its initial appearance in 1850 down 
through 1910 (without change) and the 
Bohn Junius is not only easily found but 
is always modestly priced. Dozens of 



editions of the Letters of Junius ap 
peared during the 19th century; and if 
the Bohn Junius is the best known, any 
decision to reprint the Letters should 
first have ascertained the answers to 
these questions: which edition would 
be most valuable to the student of 
18th-century political and literary his 
tory?; which edition is most important 
bibliographically?; which edition is most 
important to the student of the Letters?; 
and which is the edition to which the 
enigmatic Junius, without controversy 
or doubt, can be related? The answer 
to all these questions is the first au 
thorized edition of the Letters whose 
publication Junius supervised and which 
Henry Sampson Woodfall published in 
1772. 2 

In the light of these facts, the Argosy- 
Antiquarian reprint of the Letters* is 
difficult to justify. For unknown reasons, 
Argosy-Antiquarian chose to issue in fac 
simile reprint an 1812 edition* whose 
only distinction was the inclusion of 
twelve engraved portraits by Edward 
Bocquet: not only does the Argosy- 
Antiquarian reprint nowhere identify the 
edition (except for the legend "First 
Printed 1812" on the verso of the tide: 
there were a number of 1812 editions 
of the Letters), it excludes the engraved 
portraits and reproduces only part of 
the title page. All of this is unfortunate. 
The existence of the Argosy-Antiquarian 
reprint will deter other publishers from 
considering a reprint of the "Letters". 
Certainly, a facsimile of the 1772 au 
thorized edition 5 would be of great 
value; and the reissue of the 1772 edi 
tion might encourage a scholarly edition 
of Junius which would need to be con 
structed out of the pages of the Public 
Advertiser in which the letters originally 
appeared from 21 January 1769 through 
21 January 1772. Francesco Cor- 
dasco, Montclair State College 



1. Junius: including letters by the same 
writer under other signatures. ... A 
new and enlarged edition . . . . by 
John Wade. 2 vols. (London: Henry 
G. Bohn, 1850). See #153 in F. Cor- 
dasco, A Junius Bibliography (New 
York: Burt Franklin, 1949). 

2. Junius. Stat Nominis Umbra. 2 vols. 
(London: Henry Sampson Woodfall, 



144 

1772). See #45 in F. Cordasco, op. 
cit. 

3. ]unius. Stat Nominis Umbra. ([New 
York:] Argosy- Antiquarian, 1970). 

4. Junius. Stat Nominis Umbra. Illus 
trated by Mr Edward Bocquet . . . 
(London: Shirwood, Neely & Jones, 
1812). See #117 and #120 in F. 
Cordasco, op. cit.; and F. Cordasco, 
"Edward Bocquet s Illustrated Edition 
of the Letters of Junius", Papers of 
the Bibliographical Society of Amer 
ica, vol. 46 (1952), pp. 66-67. 

5. C. W. Everett s edition of the 1772 



AN&Q 

collection is not a facsimile reprint 
(C. W. Everett, ed., The Letters of 
Junius, London: Faber & Gwyer 
[1927]), includes other material 
drawn from Bonn s 1850 edition, and 
is primarily a vehicle for Everett s 
attribution of the Letters to the Earl 
of Shelburne. See #168, F. Cordasco, 
op. cit. 

A perfect set of the Public Advertiser 
(for the period 1766-1776) is in the 
London Library. It may be the origi 
nal Woodfall office copy. See Notes 
& Queries 1911: 1, p. 305. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 130) 

(Poetry). Best Poems of 1969: Borestone 
Mountain Poetry Awards, 1970. Vol. 
XXII. I59pp, Palo Alto: Pacific Books, 
1970. $4.50 

(Poetry). Tar River Poets [incl. work 
by William Stafford, Richard L. 
Capps, Kathleen Baumwart, Joseph 
Daugman, Douglas McReynolds, etc.]. 
(East Carolina University Poetry For 
um Series, No. 10). 36pp. Greenville, 
N.C.: East Carolina Poetry Forum 
Press, 1971. Paper, $1.? 

Rude, George. Hanoverian London, 
1714-1808. (History of London Series). 
Illus. 271pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1971. $8.95 

Sawatzky, Harry Leonard. They Sought 
a Country: Mennonite Colonization in 
Mexico, With an Appendix on ... 
British Honduras. Illus., incl. a Map. 
387pp. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1971. $11.50 

(Spenser). Cummings, R. M., ed. Spen 
ser: the Critical Heritage. (The Critical 
Heritage Series). 355pp. N.Y.: Barnes 
& Noble, 1971. $12.50 

Statistics Sources: a Subject Guide to 
Data on Industrial, Business, Social, 
Educational, Financial, and Other 
Topics, for the United States and Se 
lected Foreign Countries. Revised 3d 
Edition. Ed. by Paul Wasserman. 647 
double-columned pp. Detroit: Gale 
Research Co., 1971. $27.50 
Thompson, C. J. S. The Hand of Des 
tiny: the Folk-Lore and Superstitions 
of Everyday Life. (1932). Illus. 303pp. 



Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1970. 
$12.50 

Tomlinson, Abraham, comp. The Mili 
tary Journals of Two Private Soldiers, 
1768-1775. With a Supplement Con 
taining Official Papers on the Skir 
mishes at Lexington and Concord 
(1855). 121pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1971. $8.50 

Tomsich, John. A Genteel Endeavor: 
American Culture and Politics in the 
Gilded Age. 227pp. Stanford: Stan 
ford University Press, 1971. $8.50 

Twain, Mark. Mark Twain s Quarrel 
With Heaven ... Ed. by Ray B. 
Browne. (Masterworks of Literature 
Series, M-27). 126pp. New Haven: 
College & University Press, 1970. $5; 
Paper, $1.95 

Tyler, Royall. The Algerine Captwe. Ed. 
by Don L. Cook. (Masterworks of 
Literature Series, M-25). 224pp. New 
Haven: College & University Press, 

1970. $6; Paper, $2.45 

Vaughan, Beatrice. The Ladies Aid Cook 
book. Illus. 186pp. Brattleboro, Vt: 
The Stephen Greene Press, 1971. $6.95 

Weir, J. Alden, The Life and Letters of, 
by Dorothy Weir Young. (1960). Il 
lus. xxxii, 277pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 

1971. $15. 

Winthrop, Theodore. John Brent. Ed. by 
H. Dean Propst. (Masterworks of Lit 
erature Series, M-30). 237pp. New 
Haven: College & University Press, 

1970. $6.50; Paper, $2.95 
Wulbern, Julian H. Brecht and lonesco: 

Commitment in Context. 250pp. Ur- 
bana: University of Illinois Press, 

1971. $8.95 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Autographs, Four Hundred Years of 
British: a Collector s Guide, by Ray 
Rawlins. Facs. Illus. 188pp. London: 
J. M. Dent & Sons, 1970. 3/50 

Brooke, Rupert: a Reappraisal and Selec 
tion From His Writings, Some Hither 
to Unpublished, by Timothy Rogers. 
Illus. 231pp, London: Routledge & 
Kegan Paul, 1971. $8.95 

Burgh, James. Political Disquisitions: an 
Enquiry Into Public Errors, Defects 
and Abuses. (London, 1774, 1775). 3 
vols. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. $65. 

Ceram, C. W. The First American: a 
Story of North American Archaeology. 
Illus. xxi, 357pp. N.Y.: Harcourt, 
Brace, Jovanovich, 1971. 

Collins, Herbert Ridgeway. Presidents on 
Wheels. Numerous Illus. 224pp. Wash 
ington: Acropolis Books, 1970. $15. 

Edwards, Harry. The Healing Intelli 
gence [by the President, British Na 
tional Federation of Faith Healers]. 
189pp. N.Y.: Taplinger Publishing 
Co., 1971. $5.95 

Evans, Frank B., comp. The Administra 
tion of Mode-rn Archives: a Select 
Bibliographic Guide. 213pp. Washing 
ton: National Archives & Records 
Service, 1970. Paper, $?. 

(Evolution Case). The World s Most 
Famous Court Trial: [the] Tennessee 
Evolution Case. A Complete Steno 
graphic Report. .. (Cincinnati, 1925). 
Illus. 339pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1971. $12.50 

Franciscono, Marcel. Walter Gropius 
and the Creation of the Bauhaus in 
Weimar: the Ideals and Artistic 
Theories of Its Founding Years. Illus. 
336pp. Urbana: University of Illinois 
Press, 1971. $11.95 



Grolier, Jean, The Library of: a Pre 
liminary Catalogue, by Gabriel Austin; 
With an Introductory Study, "Jean 
Grolier and the Renaissance", by 
Colin Eisler. Illus. 137pp. N.Y.: The 
Grolier Club, 1971. $25. 

Harington, John, of Stepney, Tudor 
Gentleman: His Life and Works, by 
Ruth Hughey. Illus. 343pp. Coluinbus: 
Ohio State University Press, 1971. $15. 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, by J. Donald 
Crowley. (Profiles in Literature Se 
ries). 101pp. N.Y.: Humanities Press, 
1971. $3.75 

Holtzapffel, Charles. Printing Apparatus 
for the Use of Amateurs. Reprinted 
from the 3d ... Edition of 1846. Ed. 
by James Mosley & David Chambers. 
Illus. xlviii, 79pp. Pinner, Middlesex: 
Private Libraries Association [41 
Cuckoo Hill Road], 1971. $8; $5.50 
to Members. 

Marriott, Alice; & Rachlin, Carol K. 
Peyote. Hipp. N.Y.: Thomas Y. 
Crowell, 1971. $6.95 

Meredith: the Critical Heritage, Ed. by 
loan Williams. (The Critical Heritage 
Series). 535pp. N.Y.: Barnes & Noble, 
1971. $17.50 

Presidential Elections, History of Amer 
ican, Ed. by Arthur M. Schlesinger, jr, 
& Fred L. Israel. 4 vols. N.Y.: 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1971. $135. 

Rood, Ronald. Animals Nobody Loves. 
Illus. by Russ W. Buzzell. 215pp. 
Brattleboro, Vt.: The Stephen Greene 
Press, 1971. $6.95 

Rowell, John W. Yankee Cavalrymen: 
Through the Civil War With the 
Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Illus. 
280pp. Knoxville: University of 
Tennessee Press, 1971. $7.50 

( Continued on p. 161 ) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher, Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75< each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies, and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, and Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Book Review Index; in 
cluded in The Year s Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
in the Annual MLA International Bibliography; Victorian Studies" "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

BEDE ON ALDHELM: 
NITIDUS SERMONS 

BEDE BRIEFLY DESCRIBES Aldhelm s 
literary and ecclesiastical achieve 
ments in Historic, Ecclesiastica V. 
xviii. He concludes his remarks 
with the following statement, 
meant to be something of a sum 
mary: 

Scripsit et alia nonnulla, utpote vir un- 
decumque doctissimus; nam et sermone 
nitidus, et scripturarum, ut dixi, tarn 
liberalium quam ecclesiasticarum erat 
eruditione mirandus. 1 

The key phrase in this sentence, 
nitidus sermone, has been vari 
ously rendered. The two most ac 
cessible translations, J. E. King s 
in the Loeb Library and the com 
posite effort of J. A. Giles and 
J. Stevens in the Everyman s Li 
brary, offer, respectively, ". . . he 
was . . . choice in his manner of 
writing . . ." 2 and ". . . he had a 
.clean style". 3 The latter is more 
Giles than Stevens because Giles 
renders the phrase in the same 
way in his own translation. 4 The 
first English translator of Bede, 
Thomas Stapleton, gives "[he was] 



very fine and eloquent in his talk" 5 
while A. M. Sellar renders the 
phrase with lie had a polished 
style". 6 

According to Lewis and Short, 
nitidus has the basic meaning 
"shining", "glittering", and is used 
in the sense of "cultivated", "pol 
ished", "refined". The Novum Glos- 
sarium Mediae Latinitatis indicates 
that the word maintains its mean 
ing in later Latin, and especially 
points out that nitidus is often used 
to refer to an orator or his speech, 
two examples being Hrabanus 
carm. 81, 10 eloquio nitidum mori- 
bus and Walahfridus carm. 5, 42, 
11 nitidi sermonis dbundans. The 
instances cited by Lewis and Short 
for the extended sense include sig 
nificant passages in Quintilian 
and Cicero where both rhetoricians 
are describing oratory generally 
similar in kind to Aldhelm s writ 
ings. Quintilian uses nitidus in 
describing the oratory of Isocrates: 

Isocrates in diverse genere dicendi ni 
tidus et comptus et palaestrae quam 
pugnae magis accommodatus omnes di 
cendi veneres sectatus est, nee immerito; 
auditoriis enim se, non iudiciis com- 
pararat . . . 7 

Cicero likewise links sermo nitidus 
with the palaestra in De Oratore: 

Aliud enim mihi quoddam genus orationis 
esse videtur eomm hominum, de quibus 
paulo ante dixisti, quamvis iUi ornate et 
graviter, aut de natura rerum, aut de 
humanis rebus loquantur: nitidum quod- 
dam genus est verborum et laetum, sed 
palaestrae magis et olei, quam huius 
civilis turbae ac fori. 8 

In these passages nitidus is further 
extended to mean "extravagant" 
or "flowery", especially that kind 
of extravagance or elaborateness 
associated with scholastic oratory. 



148 



AN&Q 



Bede s description of Aldhelm, ser- 
mone nitidus, is therefore rather 
apt for Aldhelm s Hisperic writ 
ings are the extravagances of a 
schoolman. Bede underscores the 
learned and scholarly nature of 
Aldhelm s achievements with the 
words doctissimus and eruditio. 

Whereas in the passages above 
Quintilian and Cicero stress the 
impracticality of ornate oratory in 
public affairs, thus giving nitidus 
an unfavorable connotation, the 
term can have a positive sense, 
as when Quintilian refers to the ex 
cellent orator: 

Nitidus ille et sublimis et locuples cir- 
cumfluentibus undique eloquentiae im- 
perat.9 

Nitidus appears to be simply a 
term from the vocabulary of rhet 
oric indicating generally elabo 
rateness or extravagance; the word 
is neither positive nor negative in 
itself. Although it is tempting to 
make an appeal for a negative in 
terpretation based mainly on 
Bede s own sanity in matters of 
style, it is unlikely that Bede is 
criticizing Aldhelm because he 
does say clearly erat eruditions 
mirandus. Bede is therefore merely 
describing Aldhelm s extravagance. 
Since extravagance is no longer a 
neutral term in modern times, how 
ever, it is better to translate ni 
tidus sermone with lie had an 
elaborate style". 

Paul E. Szarmach 
Cornwall, N. Y. 



1. Ed. C. Plummer (Oxford, 1896), I 
p. 321. 

2. Bede, Opera Historica, tr. J. E. King 
(N.Y., 1930), II, p. 297. (Loeb Li 
brary) 



ALEXANDER ROBERTSON: 
IRVING S DRAWING TEACHER 

ALTHOUGH WE KNOW A GREAT DEAL 
about the artists with whom Wash 
ington Irving associated in his early 
years, it has remained open to 
question as to which of two broth 
er-artists actually gave lessons to 
a young Irving and therefore may 
have inspired the sketch-filled note 
books and journals Irving kept and 
influenced the form of writing for 
which he is best known. 

In The Life of Washington Irt>- 
tng 1 , Stanley T. Williams implies 
that Irving was taught by Archi 
bald Robertson who, with his 
brother Alexander, founded New 
York s Columbia Academy of 
Drawing in 1792. William seems 
to have based his citation on what 
Williams himself considered to be 
a somewhat unreliable biographi 
cal sketch in the New-York Mirror, 
June 19, 1824. The article states 
that when Irving was twelve years 
old or so (c. 1795), "by way of 



3. Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the 
English Nation, tr. J. Stevens and re 
vised by J. A. Giles (London, 1910), 
p. 255. (Everyman s Library) 

4. Bede, Ecclesiastical History, tr. J. A. 
Giles (London, 1843), II, p. 235. 

5. Bede, The History of the Church of 
England, tr. Thomas Stapleton (Ox 
ford, 1930), p. 409. 

6. Bede, Ecclesiastical History of Eng 
land, tr. A. M. SeUar (London, 1907), 
p. 344. 

7. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, tr. H. 
E. Butler (N.Y., 1920), X.i.79. 

8. Cicero, De Oratore, tr. E. W. Sutton 
and H. Rackham (Cambridge, Mass. 
1942), Lxviii.81. 

9. Quintilian, op. cit., XII.x.78. 



June 1971 



149 



recreation he was advised to take 
lessons in drawing; and for this 
purpose he put himself under the 
tuition of a gentleman, whose 
Drawing Academy still maintains 
a high reputation in this city". 2 

If the Mirror s information was 
accurate and if Williams had un- 
cited proof that Archibald Robert 
son was "the gentleman"., then Irv 
ing was taught by a miniaturist 
who wrote in his book of art in 
struction "that landscape was the 
form which every man may have 
occasion for ... Rocks, mountains, 
fields, woods, rivers, cataracts, 
cities, towns, castles, houses, for 
tifications, ruins, or whatsoever 
may present itself to view . . . may 
thus be brought home and pre 
served for future use, both in busi 
ness and conservation* ". 3 

But it seems that Irving favored 
especially the Robertson whose in 
terest in fair young ladies Irving 
shared. For in a letter from Bor 
deaux, 20 July 1804, Irving asks a 
friend to remember him 

. , , particularly to Robertson, the happy 
Robertson. He who riots amidst a pro 
fusion of beauty. Whose attentions are 
sought after by the fairest of the fair 
and whose chamber might even vie with 
the harem of the Grand Turk. Tell him 
an itinerant disciple of his wandering 
amidst the medusas of a foreign land, 
wishes him every felicity that can be 
bestowed on a mind of sensibility by the 
smiles of the fair.* 

If we couple these comments 
with references in Dunlap s bio 
graphical sketches 5 of the Robert 
sons, we are strongly inclined to 
believe that in his Bordeaux letter 
Irving was referring to Alexander 
Robertson, not to his brother. It is 
significant that in his sketch of the 



latter, Dunlap makes no mention 
of Archibald Robertson s female 
students and points out that the 
artist "found oil painting injurious 
to his health". 6 

But in comments on Alexander 
Robertson, Dunlap refers to Rob 
ertson s "many young ladies" who 
came to this artist for instruction 
in oil: 

Mr. Robertson sketches and paints land 
scapes in water colors with great facility. 
He has been the instructor of many 
young ladies who are distinguished for 
talent and skill. Miss [Anne] Hill stands 
very prominent among our best painters 
of miniatures, and was for a time his 
pupil. Several ladies under the tuition 
of Mr. Alexander Robertson have at 
tained skill in the painting of landscape 
in oil. 7 

It seems likely, moreover, that Irv 
ing would have established an ac 
quaintance with the Robertson 
closer to him in age. Archibald was 
eighteen years older than Irving, 
whereas Alexander was only eleven 
years his senior. 

Therefore, if Irving received the 
instruction of Alexander Robertson, 
then his advance from simple to 
more complicated work probably 
never occurred, since another Rob 
ertson pupil, Francis Alexander, 
recalled for Dunlap that: 

Mr. Robertson received me in his school, 
gave me a few little things to copy in 
lead pencil and India ink, and finally, 
at my particular request, he let me paint 
in oils, or rather copy two or three first 
lessons for girls, such as a mountain or 
lake, very simple. I wanted to be put 
forward to something more difficult, but 
he said "No*; that I could not be al 
lowed to copy heads of figures till I had 
been with him a number of months. . . . 8 

So it seems more likely that Alex 
ander Robertson, not Archibald 



150 



AN&Q 



Robertson, taught young Irving to 
draw and began to guide, develop, 
and sharpen the artistic eye of a 
budding writer who soon after 
turned to sketching pictures in 
prose. 

Burton Albert, jr 

Pleasantville, N.Y. 



1. (New York, 1935). 2 vols. 

2. Williams, I, 384, n. 117. 

3. James Thomas Flexner, The Light of 
Distant Skies (New York, 1954), p. 
115. 

4. Williams, I, 51. 

5. William Dunlap, A History of the 
Rise and Progress of the Arts of De 
sign in the United States (Boston, 
1918 [for 1834]). 3 vols. 

6. Ibid., II, 88. 

7. Ibid., H, 113. 

8. Quoted in Dunlap, III, 235-236. 



DICKINSON TO ROTH 

IT SEEMS LIKELY and highly appro 
priate that Philip Roth took the 
title for his first novel, Letting Go 
(1962), from the last line of Emily 
Dickinson s fine poem, "After 
Great Pain a Formal Feeling 
Comes": 

After great pain a formal feeling 

comes 

The nerves sit ceremonious like tombs; 
The stiff heart questions was it He 

that bore? 
And yesterday or centuries before? 

The feet, mechanical, go round 

Of ground, or air, or ought 

A wooden way, 

Regardless grown, 

A quartz contentment, like a stone 



This is the hour of lead, 
Remembered if outlived, 
As freezing persons recollect the snow 
First chill, then stupor, then the letting 
go. 

The action of the novel closely 
follows that of the poem. In the 
poem, the speaker describes the 
effect of severe mental anguish. 
The pain of the speaker is com 
pared in severity to what Christ 
suffered while being crucified. The 
sufferer retreats after this experi 
ence into a mechanical mode of 
existence. He does this both out of 
shock and because the mind uses 
this retreat as a means of self- 
preservation. The effect of the pain 
is compared to the process of 
freezing to death, where to give in 
is to die, yet the pain has been so 
intense and the illusion of warmth 
is strong and the mind no longer 
wishes to fight against uncon 
sciousness. 

In Roth s novel, the protagonist, 
Gabe Wallach, and the two other 
major characters, Libby and Paul 
Hertz, all suffer extraordinarily 
painful experiences. Paul, a Jew, is 
disowned by his family because he 
marries Libby, a Catholic. Her 
conversion to Judaism does not 
win back his parents affections 
and it alienates her family entirely. 
Libby becomes pregnant before 
they are ready to accept a child 
and she undergoes a degrading 
abortion. With excruciating irony, 
she later contracts a kidney disease 
which prevents her from bearing 
children and with their marriage 
crumbling they are forced to adopt, 
semi-legally, an unwanted child. 

Gabe Wallach is hurt by his 
father s loneliness in widowerhood 
and by his decision to remarry. 



Jxwe 1971 



151 



Gabe s own life is comprised of a 
series of miseries and a tortuous, 
unspccessful love affair in which 
he, generally unintentionally, hurts 
his partner deeply. 

The temptation for these injured 
people is to "let go J> . They are in a 
stupor. Pain has rendered them 
stony and threatens to make them 
permanently unfeeling. The novel 
ends, however, with a reaffirma- 
tion of their determination to fight 
the stupor and not to let go. The 
Hertzes begin forming a new rela 
tionship based on more accurate 
self-images and formed around 
their adopted daughter, while 
Gabe goes to Europe to travel and 
work, rather than remain in Chi 
cago, going around, mechanically, 
in circles of pain. 

Donald R. Noble 
University of Alabama 



U.S. INTERVENTION IN THE 
PANAMANIAN CONSTITUTION 

ABOAKD THE NORTH GERMAN LLOYD 
line s Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse 
when it sailed from Cherbourg in 
dense fog on 30 May 1906, was the 
American novelist Thomas Nelson 
Page, who subsequently became 
Woodrow Wilson s wartime ambas 
sador to Rome. It happened to be 
one of the periods in his life when 
he was keeping a diary.* On Sat 
urday, 2 June, he made an entry 
to which events of later years have 
given added interest: "Mr. Buch 
anan, who went to Panama to draft 
constitution for the little sliver of 
a republic, told me he put in, of 
his own motion, the clause by 



which the United States has the 
right to intervene and keep order. 
It has been invoked twice already. 
He denies that arms were carried 
down from the United States for 
the [Panamanian] Revolution; says 
the people had arms; bribed the 
officers of one Colombian Regi 
ment stationed there, secured the 
railroad so that any troop trains 
from Colon would have been 
ditched, and took possession. Of 
course, they knew that Roosevelt 
would recognize their independ 
ence, though he did not say this". 

Harriet R. Holman 

Clemson University, 
Glemson, South Carolina 



* The uncorrected typescript is part 
of the Thomas Nelson Page Manuscript 
Collection of the Clifton Waller Barrett 
Library of the University of Virginia; I 
am now editing it for early publication 
by Field Research Projects, Coconut 
Grove, Miami, under the title Mediter 
ranean Winter y 1906. 



MELVILLE S BILLY BUDD 

NAMES ABE SIGNIFICANT in Billy 
Budd y and Melville emphasizes the 
importance of Captain Edward 
Fairfax Vere s nickname, "Starry", 
by taking a whole paragraph to 
explain its origin. There is an im 
portant principle in Anglo-Saxon 
law known as stare (pronounced 
"starry") decisis, loosely translated: 
"to stand by past decisions", Once 
a law has been laid down the job 
of the lawyer is not to tamper with 
that law, but to decide whether the 
law applies in a particular case. 
Captain Vere s sailors understand 



152 



AN&Q 



that the law does apply in Billy s 
case, though some of the critics 
do not. 

Billy is condemned under British 
naval martial law, which is some 
what different from American na 
val law, and totally different from 
either country s civil law. Captain 
Vere and all his men have sworn 
to abide by the Articles of War. 
The severity of these Articles is 
shown in such works as C. S. For- 
ster s Hornblower and the Hotspur 
where the tender-hearted captain 
must hang the steward who struck 
his superior officer, and Admiral 
Hornblower in the West Indies 
where the bandsman is condemned 
to death for playing B-natural in 
stead of B-flat. Thus Captain Vere 
has no choice but to condemn Billy. 
To put off the trial would be to 
shirk his duty, and to delay punish 
ment on a ship already threatened 
by mutiny would be to risk more 
violence. Under the Articles, ex 
tenuating circumstances are irrele 
vant. 

All Vere s names and titles sug 
gest that he is a "strict construc- 
tionist", and a just man. He is 
an "Honorable". "Edward" means 
"guardian of property" (in this case, 
of Law) and of all die lives on his 
ship. "Fairfax" suggests that this 
is a fair trial, in which the facts 
are ascertained. "Vere" may sug 
gest "man" or "truth" but in Latin 
it means "indeed", or "truly". It is 
a modified assent. Thus Captain 
Vere carries out his obligation as 
a judge. He assents to stare decisis, 
but against his will. As his inglori 
ous death and the journal s mis 
taken account of the case show, in 
a tragic world the just man finds 
no reward for, nor even under 



standing of, his painful commit 
ment to duty. 

Blair G. Kenney 

University of Maryland 



QUERIES 



Cresacre Mores "Life of Sir Thom 
as More 9 manuscripts I am 
editing Cresacre More s Life of Sir 
Thomas More, and I would like to 
discover a missing manuscript of 
this work. I already know of four 
extant MSS,, one in the British 
Museum, one at the University of 
San Francisco, and two at Yale 
University. The missing MS. ap 
pears in the 1836 catalogue of the 
English bookseller Thomas Thorpe 
(item 789) who offers a brief 
description: "two portraits inserted, 
ruled with red lines, very neatly 
written, 4to., in vellum". This MS. 
was bought by Sir Thomas Phil- 
lipps in the same year ( 1836 ) and 
is item 9176 in his catalogue. It 
was next sold as lot 366 in the 
Phillipps sale at Sotheby s, which 
began on 15 June 1908. The MS. 
was bought by the firm of Dobell, 
but they have no record of its sub 
sequent sale or present where 
abouts. I would appreciate any 
information concerning this MS., 
or any other hitherto unknown MS. 
of Cresacre More s Life. 
Michael A. Anderegg, New Haven, 
Conn. 

"Sailors Valentine 3 I am anx 
ious to secure any and all literature 
on the "Sailor s Valentine". There 
seem to be two avenues of thought 
on the Sailor s Valentine . . . one 



June 1971 



153 



being that the sailors themselves 
made them with the assistance of 
the ship s carpenter and the other 
being that they were purchased by 
the sailors from merchants of the 
Barbados. As far as I can ascertain 
a Sailor s Valentine has two as 
pects: the romantic one where the 
sailors made them, and the other 
where they purchased them in 
Barbados. It seems that, roman 
tically, they got the ship s carpen 
ter to make the shadow frames and 
then gathered the shells at dif 
ferent ports and arranged them 
and took them home to sweet 
hearts, etc. The other is that they 
had a <4 high" time with the native 
girls and then at the last port of 
call, Barbados, got remorseful and 
purchased them ready-made to 
take home. They date from 1833 to 
1898! Myles F. Jackson, Lehigh 
Acres, Florida 

Whitman as heretic? In a use 
ful article, "Job and Faust: the 
Eternal Wager , CR, XV (Winter 
1971), 53-69, Charlotte Spivack 
makes passing reference to the 
Gnostics "considering the anti- 
Christ as the fourth side of god- 
hood". She adds that "the demonic 
figure complemented the trinity, 
in effect making it a quaternity by 
incorporating the spirit of nega 
tion". The relevance not only to 
Goethe s Faust but to Whitman s 
lyric "Chanting the Square Deific" 
comes to mind. In the latter work, 
I am curious whether an aesthetic 
basis for this "divine foursome" 
could relate to Whitman, namely 
a consideration of the Unum, 
Verum, and Bonum (God the 
Father, Christ the Truth, and the 
Holy Spirit) in terms of the 



Pulchrum (the most "exciting" 
aspect of God and hence providing 
the fascinating quality of a Bla- 
kean Satan). In all fairness, I 
should add that two points may 
militate against this kind of identi 
fication: (1) Msgr Charles Hart 
defined the Pulchrum as "the One 
ness of the Truth of the Goodness 
of Being", thereby incorporating 
the three "attributes" of the God 
head and not implying a separate, 
fourth "dimension" (though of 
course Whitman may have deliber 
ately selected a heretical position); 
(2) the late Stephen Whicher con 
fided in me at Bread Loaf several 
years back that the Satan-PwZ- 
chrum relation was, psychologi 
cally at least, too much even for a 
Whitmaniac. R. F. Fleissner, 
Wilberforce, Ohio 

To cut the mustard Perhaps 
fifteen years ago I asked a helper 
to perform a certain task I no 
longer remember what it was. 
He made a couple of efforts but 
could not. Then, he said, "I can t 
cut the mustard" and gave it up. 
The meaning of the phrase is obvi 
ous enough and I have heard it a 
couple times later, but its explana 
tion still escapes me. Archer 
Taylor, Berkeley, Calif. 

Eskimo finger rings Do Eski 
mos make and wear finger rings? 
Sven Sorensen, Bergen, Nor 
way 



Readers! 

Have a fine summer but 
spend some of it researching 
Replies. And send new Queries! 



154 



AN&Q 



REPLIES 

Goffering (IX: 56; r 136) The 
word comes from the Old French 
gaufre meaning honeycomb or 
waffle. In bookbinding a book with 
goffered edges is one which has 
had the edges gilded and tooled. 
The tooling often produces a hon 
eycombed or waffled design. Doug 
las Cockerell describes "gauffer 
ing" on pp. 144-145 of his book 
Bookbinding and the Care of Books 
(N.Y.: D. Appleton, 1902). The 
method is described, but not 
termed goffering, on p. 82 of J. W. 
Zaehnsdorfs The Art of Bookbind 
ing, 3rd ed. (London: Geo. Bell & 
Sons, 1897). Books with goffered 
edges are shown on p. 29 of Paul 
ine Johnson s Creative Bookbind 
ing (Seattle: University of Wash 
ington Press, 1963). Frank J. 
Anderson, Prop., Kitemaug Press, 
Spartanburg, B.C. 

White as mourning dress (IX: 56, 
136) In the Far East, white 
has been the traditional color of 
mourning. E. Chalmers Werner s 
revision of J, Dyer Ball: Things 
Chinese (Shanghai, 1925), pp, 403- 
404,. provides some brief data: "Af 
ter the deepest mourning of sack 
cloth is discarded, white is worn 
as deep mourning ... In the North 
of China, white is the only mourn 
ing used . . . though white is usu 
ally said to be the colour of mourn 
ing in China, the fact is that not 
colour, but plainness, such as un- 
dyed material, is at the root of the 
idea of Chinese mourning, this 
idea resting on the manifestation 
of poverty which, again, rests 
on the abandonment in the earliest 
historical and later times, of all of 



the nearest relatives possessions to 
the deceased". See also Hyontay 
Kim: Folklore and Customs of 
Korea (Seoul, 1957), p. 80; Bar 
bara Jones, Design for Death (In 
dianapolis, 1967), p. 53, who in 
dicates white as the color for death 
in China and Japan. On pages 469- 
470 of John Brand s Observations 
on Popular Antiquities (London, 
1877) reference is made to Plu 
tarch and Polydore Vergil for white 
for mourning, and to the fact that 
Henry VIII of England wore white 
in mourning for Anne Bullen. 
Brand s quotation from Polydore 
Vergil states in part: "The white 
coloure was thought fittest for the 
ded, because it is clere, pure, and 
sincer and leaste defiled . . .". See 
also Plutarch s Moralia (Cam 
bridge, Mass., 1936), pp. 47-49, 
question no. 26 of "The Roman 
Questions". Edgar C. Knowl- 
ton, jr, University of Hawaii 

Samuel Butler quote ( VIII: 40;. r 
154; IX: 88) Although it is use 
ful to locate the source of Butler 
quotation I believe it is limited. 
The full quotation from Shake 
speare, which unfortunately was 
not included in the reply is: "Now 
with the drops of this most balmy 
(balrnie) time / My love looks 
fresh, and death to me subscribes". 
The quotation does not explain 
Butler s use of "Yknarc" instead of 
"balmy" in Erewhon Revisited. I 
suggested "cranky" as allied to 
professors Hanky and Panky 
(Hokus and Pokus) in the book. 
Also Balmy is a character in the 
story as well as Yram, the may 
oress, and other characters in the 
satire. Jerome Drost, SUNY at 
Buffalo 



June 1971 



155 



Three Steinbeck items (IX: 56) 
1.) The Steinbeck "poem" appears 
as prose in Steinbeck s "Some Ran 
dom and Randy Thoughts on 
Books", an essay printed in Ray 
Freiman s The Author Looks at 
Format (New York, American In 
stitute of Graphic Arts, 1951, pp. 
27-34). The following passage oc 
curs on page 32: **A book is some 
how sacred. A dictator can kill and 
maim people, can sink to any kind 
of tyranny and only be hated, but 
when books are burned, the ulti 
mate in tyranny has happened. This 
we cannot forgive". Anthony 
W. Shipps, Librarian for English, 
Indiana University Libraries 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

The 1970 George Freedley Memo 
rial Award was presented to 
Brooks Atkinson, former drama 
critic of The New York Times, for 
his book, Broadway (Macmillan), 
on 3 May at the Dramatists Guild, 
New York City. The Award, a 
plaque, was made on the basis of 
scholarship, readability, and gen 
eral contribution to knowledge. It 
was established in 1968 by the 
Theatre Library Association to 
honor the late founder of the Asso 
ciation, theatre historian, critic, 
author, and first curator of the 
Theatre Collection of The New 
York Public Library. An Honor 
able Mention Certificate was pre 
sented to Joseph Leach of the Uni 
versity of Texas at El Paso, for his 
Bright Particular Star: the Life & 
Times of Charlotte Cushman (Yale 
University Press ) . Past winners are 



Louis Sheaffer for O Neill, Son and 
Playwright, 1968 and Charles Shat- 
tuck for The Hamlet of Edwin 
Booth, 1969. 

Publication of the first six titles 
in the American Historical Catalog 
Collection marks the beginning of 
an ambitious quality paperback 
publishing program by The Pyne 
Press of Princeton, NJ. Wooden- 
ware, weathervanes, commercial 
glassware, tinware, horse-drawn 
vehicles and cameras of the 19th 
and 20th centuries are subjects 
covered in the paperbacks pub 
lished recently. The bulk of the 
text of each volume is devoted to 
the illustrations and copy of manu 
facturers and merchants trade 
catalogs the source from which 
most other source books on Amer 
ican art and commercial history 
are written. The contemporary 
copy and illustrations are supple 
mented with an historical intro 
duction, list of readings and public 
museum collections. Each of the 
first AHCC titles is devoted to the 
items manufactured and/or dis 
tributed by a single but typical 
firm J. W. Fiske (weather- 
vanes); Whitall, Tatum (commer 
cial glassware); L. H. Mace 
( woodenware ) ; Dover Stamping 
Co. (tinware); Sears, Roebuck & 
Co. (Solid Comfort Vehicles); and 
Rochester Optical Co. (Premo 
cameras). Some future titles will 
include items by several important 
manufacturers. AHCC titles are 
intended to be used as a reference 
source by students of popular cul 
ture and by the many collectors of 
American antiques and artifacts. 
They are also entertaining reading. 
They reveal the charms of an 
evolving culture: the period styles 



156 



AN&Q 



of clothing, furniture and house 
hold articles; the odd tools and 
weapons; the ultra-polite advertis 
ing copy. Six additional titles will 
soon be available. These include 
volumes on ornamental ironwork, 
china and cut glass, guns and hunt 
ing supplies, clothing and furnish 
ings, sporting goods, and jewelry 
and silverware. When completed, 
the American Historical Catalog 
Collection will include more than 
100 titles illustrating the work of 
American manufacturers big and 
small - from the 1770s to the 
1930s. 

The ethics of the reprint busi 
ness are improving but a review of 
T. F. Carney s A Biography of C. 
Mantis (Argonaut, 1970), which 
appears in The Reprint Bulletin 
of Jan./Feb. 1971, pp. 6-7, de 
scribes "the prime example of 
what is wrong with the reprint 
business", and it is a good if hor 
rible example. The Reprint Bulle 
tin, edited by Sam P. Williams, is 
issued by Oceana Publications, Inc., 
Dobbs Ferry, N.Y. 10522, bimonth 
ly, at $12.50 a year, It includes a 
large number (70 in Jan./Feb. 71) 
of reviews by subject specialists 
and brief notes on the reprint 
trade. 

Contributions to a Short-Title 
Catalogue of Canadians by Ber 
nard Amtmann, is well underway. 
During the past three years the 
noted Canadiana dealer has been 
compiling a comprehensive card 
catalogue on which the new bib 
liography is based. It will contain 
about 45,000 separate entries com 
piled from more than 80,000 titles 
listed in Amtmann catalogues since 
1950. Features worthy of special 



mention are: 1) Indication of 
corresponding values and years; 

2) Tracing of author s identity in 
the cases of pseudonymous works; 

3) Assessment of the rarity factor 
of a given item by number of 
copies listed. In addition, a very 
large number of items listed in this 
catalogue are not elsewhere cited. 
The Canadian STC is to be issued 
in three bound volumes, large 
quarto. Contributions to a Short- 
Title Catalogue of Canadiana will 
be available on a subscription 
basis. Address Bernard Amtmann 
Inc., 1176 Sherbrooke West, Mon 
treal, Canada. We hope that the 
set will be cited as STC/Can. 

University of Toronto Press pub 
lishes Erasmus in English, a news 
letter whose purpose is to assist in 
the exchange of information about 
Erasmian studies, principally in 
the English language, and to keep 
scholars and other interested per 
sons abreast of developments in 
the Collected Works of Erasmus. 
Each issue of the newsletter con 
tains one or more original articles 
on Erasmus and aspects of Eras 
mian and related studies that we 
hope will be of permanent interest 
to the reader. The newsletter 
appears at least once a year, but 
more often if possible; it is dis 
tributed free of charge. Address 
the Collected Works of Erasmus, 
University of Toronto Press, Tor 
onto 181, Ontario, Canada. 



FREE! On application, one year 
of AJV&Q for individuals who 
Reply to previously unanswered 
Queries, Vols. I-V, before 31 
December 1971. 



June 1971 



157 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky and will be con 
tinued in subsequent issues. 

The appearance of the first part 
(A-BA) of the Repertoire des 
outrages imprimes en langue itali- 
enne an XV1P siecle by S. P. 
Michel has provided an adequate 
bibliographical guide for the se 
lective microfilm edition of Italian 
books from this period. This micro 
film edition will supplement Eras 
mus Press s microfilm edition of 
Italian books before 1601, now in 
its fifth year. The enormous bulk 
of Italian imprints from this peri 
od suggests a selection of the most 
important titles. Bibliographer 
Lawrence S. Thompson, professor 
of classics at the University of 
Kentucky, works with colleagues 
in romance, history, and other hu 
manistic, social science, scientific 
and professional departments to 
develop a representative selection. 
Most important, however, is that 
subscribers may request specific 
titles by submission of available 
bibliographical information on 
them. Such requests will be in 
cluded, if at all possible, in the 
next year s selection. Details avail 
able from Erasmus Press, 225 Cul- 
pepper, Lexington, Ky 40502. 

Kurt Leonhard, Dante Alighieri in 
Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddoku- 
menten (Reinbek bei Hamburg: 
Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 
1970; 189 pp.; "Rowohlts Mono- 
graphien", 167; DM3.80), is a 



richly illustrated documentary bi 
ography of Dante. Leonhard s com 
mentary is succinct and perceptive. 
There is an extensive selective 
bibliography. 

Alain-Rene Lesage, Le diable 
boiteux, texte de la deuxidme Edi 
tion avec les variantes de I6dition 
originale et du remaniement de 
1726 (Paris and The Hague: Mou- 
ton, 1970; 223 pp.; "Livre et so- 
cietes", IV; Fr.84.-), edited by 
Roger Laufer, is a model of schol 
arly editing. There is an extensive 
introduction and a full critical ap 
paratus. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

AYRTON, Michael. The Minotaur. Lon 
don: Genevieve Restaurants, December, 
1970. 



It is not often one reads a review of a 
privately published book, for many edi 
tors mistakenly believe that where a 
book is not published in the normal 
trade channels it is not available and 
therefore not worth reviewing. Many 
books fall into this category which are 
worthy of review for this may well be 
the only warning an incipient collector 
may get of a book he would do well to 
be on the lookout for in future dealers 
catalogues. The Minotaur is one of these. 
Another way of getting this book is to 
go to the Minotaur restaurant in Lon 
don, order a meal and then pester the 
manager. 

The Minotaur is another expression of 
a theme which has tortured Michael 
Ayrton to a point of obsession over many 
years, and Ayrton s predicament itself is 
more than superficially identified with 
the struggles of the Minotaur. Though 
Ayrton has wrestled with the Minotaur 
for a long time and has finally thrown 
him, the monster on the ground de 
scribed so vividly on the last page of 
this book was perhaps not so different 



153 



AN&Q 



from Ayrton himself. It was Eric Stan 
ford in a catalogue of Ayrton s sculpture 
and paintings who wrote that: "The 
Minotaur as seen by Ayrton is not a 
terrifying monster but a tragic creature, 
In him is embodied more than the 
duality of man and beast that is in us 
all. He is ignorant of what he is, yet 
conscious of a double existence. The 
tragedy is in his human awareness of his 
predicament, his animal inability to 
understand it, and his painful desire to 
attain fully human stature* . 

Ayrton himself explains this duality, 
this predicament, this paradox in phys 
ical terms when he describes the Mino 
taur, "In contest with him it is well to 
remember that although much of him 
is bull, his hands and arms are those of 
a man of superhuman strength. His 
chest too is deep and he is not quickly 
winded. He can throw a fully armoured 
warrior twenty feet with a single toss 
of his head and his horns will penetrate 
three inches of seasoned wood. There 
are however two flaws in his design 
which can defeat him because he is 
neither bull nor man. One is the setting 
of his eyes in the great shield of bone 
he wears for forehead. His eyes are set 
obliquely in his malformed skull. He 
cannot focus both at once upon an 
object immediately in front of him. He 
cannot look straight ahead, but must 
turn his huge mask and glance sideways 
at his objective; therefore he looks to 
right or left depending upon which eye 
has his target in vision. Secondly, he is 
uncertain how to attack and this con 
fusion is central to his condition and 
gives an opponent the advantage. A bull 
is equipped perfectly to fight as a bull 
and a man may well be adept in battle 
between men, although I am not such a 
man, but the Minotaur is marvellously 
made to kill in either capacity except 
that he cannot decide which. His in 
stincts are double and in perpetual con 
flict. If he grasps his enemy in his arms 
he can break him like a twig or tear him 
apart, but he cannot bring his horns into 
play and if he seeks to gore his victim 
his arms and hands are of no use to him. 
He is not humanly intelligent, but he is 
also less simple than his animal nature, 
so that his reflexes are not so certain as 
a bull s. He is capable of enough 



thought to frustrate his impulses. His 
urge to murder is not a lust but his 
response to the uncertainty by which, so 
far as his slow brain permits, he is 
tormented. To understand him is, with 
luck, to defeat him and I, who am 
neither athlete nor warrior, did so either 
because I made quick deductions or 
because I had entered his mind. I am 
not sure which". 

This slim, square book, beautifully 
produced, is illustrated with thirteen 
pen, ink, and wash drawings, many of 
them studies of the Minotaur himself 
which embellish the Minotaur restaurant 
in London. A few of the studies are in 
private collections in London, Athens, 
and Buffalo, and they anticipate and 
reflect many of Ayrton s sculptures 
which are now widely dispersed in gal 
leries throughout the world, including 
California, New York, and Connecticut. 
The text is a very lucid and descrip 
tive account of the Minotaur written 
with an intensity and precision which 
not only accurately describes trie crea 
ture but which also describes Ayrton s 
relationship with it. The book was 
printed by the Westerham Press and 
bound by Mackays of Chatham. The 
paper-covered boards reproduce the 
maquette for the Arkville Maze 1968 
which is in the collection of Annand 
Erpf in New York. In the centre of this 
maze are two bronzes. The maze at Ark 
ville, New York, completed a year ago, 
is the largest brick and stone maze built 
since antiquity. In the centre are two 
monumental bronzes one of Daedalus 
and Icarus and one of the sad, unhappy, 
bewildered monster, the Minotaur. This 
was to have been the final, visual 
expression of the myth which haunted 
Ayrton these past fifteen years. Unfor 
tunately, Ayrton was not able to throw 
off the shackles quite so easily and this 
book shows how the theme, like Ayrton s 
other "singular obsessions" of Daedalus 
and of Hector Berlioz, continues to 
recur. 

This book came about in an interest 
ing way. Ayrton was dining in 1966 at a 
new restaurant in London called The 
Minotaur. Food and wine were excellent 
but the symbolic bull s head on the 
menu cover annoyed him. He wrote a 
note to the proprietor, "Your food and 



June 1971 



159 



wine are excellent your minotaurs are 
not *. He pointed out to the proprietor 
that the horns of the Minotaur were 
back-to-front. The owner having re 
ceived the note, invited Ayrton and his 
wife to dinner and explained that when 
ha had bought the restaurant it had 
been called The Shorthorn and the 
crockery and cutlery all bore this little 
symbol of a shorthorn s head. He 
wanted to change the name of the 
restaurant but not to discard the mer 
chandise so he called it The Minotaur. 
He concluded by saying to Ayrton, 
"You are a sculptor of Minotaurs. I 
would like some of your drawings and 
sculpture for my restaurant". 

And so began a working relationship 
which lasted for four years and pro 
duced more drawings and studies on 
Ayrton s theme which was also now the 
theme of the restaurant proprietor. 
Those patrons who wine and dine sur 
rounded by these drawings and bronzes 
have over the years asked numerous 
questions on many occasions. To save 
repeated explanations and as a memento, 
this book was born but it does more 
than answer questions and evoke memo 
ries. It extends what has now become a 
personal mythology which has over 
flowed into sculpture, painting and 
drawing, collage, reliefs in bronze and 
wax, paintings in oil and acrylic, book 
illustration, and writing. Many will know 
Ayrton s The Testament of Daedalus 
(Methuen, 1962) and The Maze Maker 
(London: Longmans Green, 1967; and 
Holt, Reinhardt and Winston, 1967), 
which was reissued in paperback by 
Bantam Books in 1969. Many will also 
know of Ayrton s exhibitions at the 
Main Street Gallery, Chicago, 1960; the 
James Goodman Gallery, Buffalo, 1965; 
Vincent Price Gallery, Chicago, 1967 
and 1969; and the Esther Bear Gallery, 
Santa Barbara, 1968. This book, The 
Minotaur, is yet another extension of all 
this. The Minotaur is one of three 
figures which in Ayrton s work are 
closely related to the Icarus theme: a 
Sentinel deriving from Tabs, the armed 
guardian of Crete (in Ayrton s mind a 
tranquil, stupid, comforting presence 
without brains or arms but suggesting 
power); the Oracle which originates for 
Ayrton in the heart of the rock of the 



Acropolis of Cumae and the Temple of 
Apollo on its summit; and the Minotaur, 
Ayrton admits in a note Work in 
Progress, 1962, that he is on dangerous 
ground, for he is following in part at 
least, a line of development marked out 
by Picasso. Nevertheless, Ayrton s is the 
greater, more personal, more articulate 
development. He sees the Minotaur as a 
brainless, bewildered creature, a mon 
strous sacrifice, powerful and yet help 
less. Those who are fortunate enough to 
come by a copy of this book will have 
in it the essence of Ayrton s fifteen 
years of creative development. Rig- 
by Graham, Leicester, England 



BEATY, Nancy Lee. The Craft of Dying: 
a Study in the Literary Tradition of the 
"Ars Moriendi in England. New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1970. $10. 

The book collector is very much 
aware of the block books entitled Ars 
Moriendi which appeared in the early 
decades of the 15th century. The present 
work deals not with the block books but 
with a larger work entitled Tractatus or 
Speculum Artis Eerie Moriendi. This 
work, produced anonymously, possibly 
between 1414 and 1418, preceded the 
block books. The makers of the block 
books abstracted certain themes from 
the Tractatus and gave them dramatic 
representation in woodcut form. In the 
work before us, Dr Nancy Lee Beaty 
attempts to show how the Tractatus was 
the first publication of a minor genre of 
devotional books, called on the continent 
Ars Moriendi and first translated into 
English as the Crafte of Dying Well, 
and how this developed in England 
through four antecedent types to the 
perfection of Jeremy Taylor s Holy 
Dying of 1651. 

Dr Beaty s method is to open her 
discussion of each type of Craft with a 
general statement, placing each work in 
its own context. She then proceeds to 
very exact exegetical analysis of the 
texts, seeking out precedents, describing 
ideas in terms of their origins and 
originality, their actual meaning, an$ 
their utility in the face of the problems 
of approaching death, of adjustment tc 



160 



AN&Q 



its coming and of dying itself. She 
spends much time and effort in identify 
ing and describing literary merits and 
evaluating their importance in creating a 
useful Craft*. From her study of each 
text she seeks to show its contribution to 
the evolution of the whole Craft idea. 
Her five chapters represent five stages 
in a progression, and the summation in 
each of her first four chapters is a dis 
cussion of what has been accomplished 
by the writer in the path to the perfec 
tion of Taylor s work. She also notes 
inherent inconsistencies that undermine 
the long term values of each stance she 
has examined. 

Dr Beaty s attention is first directed 
to an English translation of the Tractatus 
which appeared under the title The 
Boke of the Crafte of Dy tnge. Her 
analysis reveals that the major source of 
the Latin work was Jean de Gerson s 
chapter entitled Ars Moriendi* in his 
Opusculum Tripartitum. To this was 
added much common medieval material 
and all was worked together into an 
essentially new literary form, without 
precedent. The orientation of the Crafte 
of Dyinge is on the dying person, 
Moriens, and his last trials, with fifth 
and sixth chapters of a general liturgical 
character. At the end Moriens 5 friends 
give him the sort of assistance in his 
passage to death which was felt to be of 
the greatest value in that liturgical era. 
The author finds some basic components 
of the matured Craft 1 in this work, but 
ultimately regards it as a poor thing*. 
The competent and precise study 
devoted to the Crafte deserts our author 
in her discussion of the late medieval 
period as one of complete degeneracy. 
She appears as an over-enthusiastic 
disciple of Huizinga. Her study of the 
Craft* is to be in its English form, but 
here she discusses its background on a 
continental basis, generalizing the Euro 
pean situation to apply to England. It 
seems a little strange that no mention is 
made of William Caxton s translation of 
the Ars Moriendi from the French in 
this background discussion. 

The second stage of Dr Beaty s devel 
opment of the Craft of Dying genre is 
found in Thomas Lupset s Waye of 
Dying Well (1534). In J. A. Gee s 
modern text, Lupset s work covers 



twenty-five pages. Dr Beaty subjects it 
to an exegetical study that runs to fifty- 
four pages, devoted often to topics and 
explanations of which the original author 
must have been quite innocent. The sub 
stance of her conclusions is that Lupset 
attempted to unite classical and Christian 
views of dying and methods of dealing 
with it, that he opened his effort with 
some success, but that his position was 
full of inherent contradictions which he 
either did not grasp or which he was not 
able to manage. Lupset s work is viewed 
as a humanist and Renaissance effort to 
create a Craft" and its long term value 
was to identify and develop some of the 
components of ancient thinking and 
literary expression which would be use 
ful in creating such a Craft . 

Dr Beaty s third chapter carries the 
story to 1561 and seeks to describe a 
Craft* originating in the new Protestant 
thinking which she insists upon calling 
Calvinistic , much too early for English 
development. Her study is devoted to 
Thomas Becon s highly popular and 
often printed Sicke Marines Salve (STC 
1757-1773, 1561-1632) which she deems 
typical. In a footnote at the bottom of 
page 110 she agrees with Becon s mod 
ern biographer, D. S. Bailey, not to call 
her author Calvmist but is unable to 
restrain herself several times from 
virtually doing so. After complex exege 
sis of Becon s work with respect to its 
origins, which embraces both Christian 
elements in the reforming pattern and 
humanistic elements, she concludes that 
it has a vital message for the elect , for 
those assured of salvation, that it does 
not do much for the dying who have not 
lived so as to give themselves assurance, 
and it is worthless for the clearly sinful. 
She finds its real inadequacy in this 
inability to help Everyman as he faces 
death. It is passing strange that Dr 
Beaty dogmatizes upon Becon s thought 
with only one work under consideration. 
D. S.^ Bailey distinguishes sixty-nine 
works of Becon, many of a character 
to include consideration of dying well. 

The fourth stage in the development 
of an English Craft of Dying is found 
by Dr Beaty in Edmund Bunny s adap 
tation of Robert Parson s First Book of 
Christian Exercise to the Protestantism 
of the English of the late 16th century. 



June 1970 



161 



The Jesuit missionary, Parsons, had 
adopted a meditative technique from St, 
Ignatius Loyola, and the Calvinist 
Bunny took this over, revising the 
Christian Exercise by removing the doc 
trinal errors as he understood them. His 
revision was entitled The First Booke of 
the Christian Exercise, Appertayning to 
Resolution (1584). Dr Beaty finds in 
an exhaustive analysis, that this tech 
nique provided great opportunities for 
the utilization of literary devices to 
assist Moriens in facing his problem and 
adjusting to it. This approach was lack 
ing in his predecessors but taken up very 
strongly by Jeremy Taylor. As utilized by 
Parsons and Bunny, Dr Beaty finds it 
too concentrated, too little concerned 
with the overall problem and living and 
dying well. Taylor corrected this. 

Dr Beaty s final chapter is devoted to 
an analysis of Taylor s Holy Dying. 
Here she seeks to show how all Taylor s 
predecessors had prepared the way for 
him and how he, building upon them, 
had far exceeded them in producing the 
final Craft of Dying . She justifies her 
position in seventy-five pages of close 
discussion. 

This has been a difficult book to read 
and to review. After all of Dr Beaty s 
analyses and rationalizations, one won 
ders about the validity of her general 
thesis concerning the development of a 
Craft of Dying through the successive 
stages she attempts to define and her 
judgment that Taylor s work is the end 
product of this story. Was Taylor s Holy 
Dying actually the resultant of the kinds 
of works Dr Beaty has been discussing? 
Or was it the creation of a mind operat 
ing in a larger context than the Craft of 
Dying genre alone and bringing its in 
sights from general culture to the pro 
duction of a work of this kind? One 
questions the author s insistent tabbing 
of ideas, this was medieval, this Calvin 
ist, this Counter-reformation, etc. Does 
she not try too hard and too often to 
give a specific antecedent to the ideas 
she is discussing? One feels a certain 
dogmatism in this work. There is the 
ready ease with which Dr Beaty desig 
nates ideas as cliches , as lioary*, as old- 
fashioned and so forth rather arbitrarily 
and without intellectual content, and 
one wonders why one idea was selected 



for such characterization when it would 
equally well apply to another. At times 
there is an unpleasant aura of conde 
scension to the ideas being discussed, 
especially in the ambivalent attitude 
toward the original Ars Moriendi, and in 
the discussion of the later middle ages. 
In laying down this book one feels 
that one has wrestled with much hard 
thinking and has encountered many 
sound insights, both ideal and literary, 
but remains quite unconvinced of the 
general thesis. Niels H. Sonne, 
General Theological Seminary, N.Y.C. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 146) 

Secor, Robert. The Rhetoric of Shifting 
Perspectives: Conrad s "Victory". 
(Pennsylvania State University Studies, 
No. 32). 75pp. University Park: 
Pennsylvania State University, 1971. 
Paper, $2.50; $3 outside U.S.A. 

Sex Book, The: a Modern Pictorial 
Encyclopedia, by Martin Goldstein & 
Erwin J. Haeberle. Photos by Will 
McBride. 208pp. N.Y.: Herder & 
Herder, 1971. $9.95. 

Smith, Charles John. Synonyms Discrim 
inated: a Dictionary of Synonymous 
Words in the English Language. Ed. 
by H. Percy Smith. (N.Y., 1903). 
781pp. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 
1970. $14.50 

Tonson 9 Jacob, Kit-Cat Publisher, by 
Kathleen M. Lynch. Illus. 241pp. 
Rnoxville: University of Tennessee 
Press, 1971. $9.75 

Vaughan, Beatrice. The Ladies Aid Cook 
Book. Illus. by John Devaney. 186pp. 
Bratdeboro, Vt.: The Stephen Greene 
Press, 1971. $6.95 

Warren, Robert Perm. John Greenleaf 
Whittiers Poetry: an Appraisal and a 
Selection. 208pp. Minneapolis: Univer 
sity of Minnesota Press, 1971. $8.95 

Wasson, R. Gordon, Soma., Divine Mush 
room of Immortality. (Ethno-myco- 
logical Studies, No. 1). Illus., incl. 
Color Plates. 381pp. N.Y.: Harcourt, 
Brace, Jovanovich, 1971. $15. 



162 



AN&Q 



ANNUAL CUMULATED INDEX 

Volume IX September 1970 - June 1971 
Notes (n); Queries (q); Replies (r) 



"ACton and the C. M. H. 123 

Albert, Burton, jr: Note . 148 

Aldhelm, Bede on (n) 147 

America, Makers of 141 

American Historical Catalog Col 
lection (series) 155 

American imprints, medical (q) . - 41 

Amtmann s Canadian STC 76, 156 

Apocatastasis of Hamlet s Ghost 

(r) 57,89 

Ardennes, Forest of the, in Shake 
speare (n) 84 

Argentine Literature, Research 

Guide to (Foster) ^ 138 

Arithmetic riddle: "Libussa-Riddle" 

and Carlyle s answer (n) 133 

"Astrakis" or "strakis" (q) 8 

Audubon folio, missing plates (q) 87 
Austin s Early American Medical 

Imprints (q) 41 

"B R/30" monogram (q) 135 

Bartlett, John Russell, papers of . 77 

Bates, G. E. (q) 74 

BecMord Latin quotation (q) .. . 74 

Bede on Aldhelm (n) 147 

Bedford (NX.) Historical Records 

(Doe) 60 

Beethoven Autograph Miscellany .... 59 

Bible Belt (r) 57 

Bibliographical Notes: 

Cordasco, "The Reprinting of 

Junius" 143 

Korshin, "On Locating Literary 

Manuscripts" 110 

Bibliographies: 

Cholakian, William P. Shepard 

Collection of Provencalia 137 

Contribution to a Short-Title Cata 
logue of Canadiana 76 

Foster, Research Guide to Argen 
tine Literature 138 

HaU, Printed Books, 1481-1900, 
in the Library of the Horticul 
tural Society of N.Y 91 

Miller, The Negro in America ... 106 
Proof: the Yearbook of American 
Bibliographical and Textual 

Studies 124 

Birmingham, John, cited 126 



Bishops of Chalons (r) 122 

Black bird of The Maltese Falcon 

(q) 88 

Black poetry 10 

"Blow one s nails" (q) 24 

Book goffering see Goffering 
Books reviewed or noted 

American Historical Catalog Col 
lection (series) 155 

AmtmamYs Canadian STC .. 76, 156 

Ayr ton, The Minotaur (Graham) 157 

Beatty, The Craft of Dying 

(Sonne) 159 

Bedford (NX.) Historical Records 60 

Beethoven Autograph Miscellany 59 

Brody, The English Mummers and 
Their Plays (Rowland) 109 

Canadian Notes & Queries (peri 
odical) 26 

Carney, Biography of C. Marius 156 

Cholakian, William P. Shepard 
Collection of Provencalia ( Ash ) 137 

Collection of Catches, Canons, & 
Glees 10 

Comadiana (periodical) 28 

Contributions to a Short-Title 
Catalogue of Canadiana ... 76, 156 

Crozier, The Novels of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe (Noble) 61 

Dahl, After the Revolution? (Bir 
mingham) 124 

Daniels, A Southerner Discovers 
the South (1938) (Noble) .... 141 

Denhardt, The King Ranch Quar 
ter Horses (Wells) 126 

Doe, ed. Bedford Historical Rec 
ords (Gregory) 60 

Episcopal Year, 1969 10 

Erdmann, Seven Hundred Years 
of Oriental Carpets (Ash) 78 

Farnham, Tool Collectors Hand 
book 26 

Foster, Research Guide to Argen 
tine Literature 138 

Freelancer s Newsletter (periodi 
cal) 59 

Hacettepe Bulletin of Social Sci 
ences (periodical) 27 



June 1971 

Hall, Printed Books: 1481-1900, 
in the Horticultural Society of 

New Yorfc 91 

Harvey, The Money Diggers 59 

Irving, Mahomet and His Suc 
cessors *8 

Kellogg, A Doctor at All Hours 26 

Lee, Don t Cry, Scream 10 

Letters of Junius (Cordasco) 143 

Literary Sketches (periodical) .... 59 
Lyrica Germanica (periodical) .. 138 
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Sci 
ence and Technology (Gib 
bons/Ash) 93 

Makers of America (Gibbons) .... 141 
Miles, Style and Proportion (Reed) 79 
Miller, The Negro in America: a 

Bibliography (Odell) 106 

Mjelde, "Glory of the Seas 27 

Morse, John Sloans Prints (Walk 
er) 44 

Mullin, The Development of the 

Playhouse (Stoddard) 30 

O Malley, The History of Medical 

Education (Davis) 94 

Pepys Diary (Ash) 29 

Private Press Books, 1969 137 

Proof (periodical) 124 

Religious Periodicals Index 

(Sonne) -^ 108 

Rowland, Companion to Chaucer 

Studies; index available 91 

Shattuck, The Hamlet of Edwin 

Booth (Stoddard) 12 

Sparrow, Visible Words (White) 13 

STC of Canadiana 76, 156 

Strong, The English Icon: Eliza 
bethan & Jacobean Portraiture 

(Ash) .. T 77 

Vogler, An Oliver Twist Exhibi- 



163 



Brenner, Gustav (q) I 35 

Buchanan and Panamanian Consti- 

tution (n) 151 

Buried treasure in Vermont ..- 
Butler, Samuel, quotation (r) 88, 154 
CabelTs Taboo in Literature (r) .... 104 
Cambridge Modern History and 

Acton vr; 123 

"Camel through a needles eye 



tton 



27 



Walsh, Frank K. Indian Battles 

of the Lower Rogue 90 

Williams, Sing a Sad Song 

(Butler) 62 

Women - To, By, Of, For, and 

About (periodical) 90 

Yount, Bottle Collectors Hand 
book and Pricing Guide 91 

Bookplates: "They did not seem like 

books to him . . " (q) i34 

Booktrade ethics and reprints 156 

Booth, Edwin, The Hamlet of 

(Shattuck) I 2 

Bottle Collectors Handbook (Yount) 90 
"Bottle-Imp", genealogy of Steven- 



(q) 



121 



Canadian Notes & Queries 26 

Canadiana, Contributions to a Short- 
Title Catalogue of 76, 156 

Carlyle s Answer to the "Libussa- 

Riddle" (n) 133 

Carpets, Oriental, Seven Hundred 

years of (Erdmann) 78 

Castration, night of the King s (q) 

24; (r) 1 5 

Catalogs, American, historical trade 155 

Catch Club o London 10 

Cellar doors in Philadelphia, 1767 

(q) 87 

Cemetery, Mount Aubiirn (q) 87 

Chalons, Bishops of (r) 122 

Chancery, Court of 137 

Chaucer Studies, Companion to 

(Rowland); index available 91 

Chaucer s Merchant s Tale (n) 71 

Chaucer s Wife of Bath (n) 71 

"Chevy Chase" and Richard Sheale 



(n) 



115 



"The Childrens Threes" (n) 83 

Clarke, Robert A. "OK" (n) 54 

Cleveland s "A Dialogue Between 

Two Zealots" (n) 83 

Cochrane, Dr John (q) 74 

Conradiana 27 

Cook-Peary controversy (q) . - 56 

Coronet, Lears (n) 99 

Court of Chancery 137 

Craft of Dying (Beatty) - 159 

Crawford, F. Marion, and the Evil 

Eye (n) 1 3 

cummings , "Nobody Loses All the 

Time" (n) H 9 

"Curtain lecture" (q) 41; (r) .. . . 122 

"Cut the mustard" (q) I 53 

"D.A."? (q) 87 

Daniels, Edgar F.: Note 1 

Davis, William V.: Note 119 

Delany, Paul: Note 6 

Dickens Bleak House 137 

Dickens Oliver Twist Exhibition .... 27 
Dickinson, Emily, to Philip Roth 



(n) 



150 



son s (n) 



67 Disinterments of famous persons (q) 122 



164 



AN&Q 



Dogs, Greyhound (q) 7 

Donne s Anniversaries (n) 118 

Donne s "Holy Sonnet V" (n) 6 

Dowd, David, cited 106 

Dundrennan, Lord, his library (q) 87 

Dying, Craft of (Beatty) 159 

Eckleburg, Dr T. J., eyes of (n) 20; 

(r) 88 

Edwards, Jonathan (n) 6 

English Mummers and Their Plays 

(Brody) 109 

English portraiture (Strong) < 

Erasmus* De Copia and Geoffrey of 

Vinsauf (n) 38 

Erasmus in English 156 

Eskimo finger rings (q) 153 

Evil Eye and F. Marion Crawford 

(n) 103 

Eyes of Dr T. J. Eckleburg (n) 20; 

(r) 88 

Faber, M. D.: Note 35 

Faulkner s The Bear (n) 102 

Ferris, Sumner J.: Note 72 

Fevers attributed to eating fruit 

(q) 56; (r) 136 

Finger rings, Eskimo (q) 153 

Fitzgerald and Eckleburg s eyes (n) 

20; (r) 88 

Flags, quarantine (q) 56 

". . . Fly in the ointment" (q) . . 8 

Franklin, Benjamin, cited (q) 87 

Freedley, George, Memorial Award 

12, 155 

Freelancer s Newsletter (periodical) 59 

French Revolution pamphlets 106 

Fruit, fevers attributed to eating 

(q) 56; (r) 136 

Fuller, Henry Blake, typescript (q) 134 

Furniture and Poe (r) 42 

Gallo, Ernest: Note 38 

Garlick, H. F,: Note 133 

Garrow, Scott: Note 22 

Gauffering see Goffering 

Genevieve Restaurants, London ... 157 

Geoffrey of Vinsauf and Erasmus 

De Copia (n) 38 

German Lyric Poetry: Lyrica Ger- 

manica (periodical) 138 

Giffin, David A.: Notes 23; 84 

Gilman, James Franklin (q) 135 

"Gin Work" and "Jim Work" (q) 120 
Glacier, largest non-polar (q) 7; 

(r) 42, 89, 105 

"Glory of the Seas" (Mjelde) 27 

Goffering (q) 56; (r) 136; 154 

Golden Fleece, Order of the (r) .... 25 

"Golfer s prayer" (r) 42 



Gordon, Charles George (q) 7 

Greyhound dogs (q) 7 

Grimm Brothers, cited (n) 68 

Grimmelshausen, H. J. C. von, cited 

(n) 68 

Grub-Street Journal (n) 3 

Gun salutes (q) 56 

Hammett s black bird in The Mal 
tese Falcon (q) 88 

Hawthorne s Blithedale Romance 

(n) 72 

Helicon Home Colony and Upton 

Sinclair (r) 75 

Hesse, Herman, cited (q) 104 

"Hind teat, suck the" (r) 42; 58 

Hesse (Hessen or Hassen), Hans 

(q) 135 

Historiography: "Acton and the 

C.M.H" 123 

"Hobby, to ride a" (q) 87 

Holman, Harriet R.: Note .... 103, 151 
Horses, Quarter, The King Ranch 

(Denhardt) 126 

Horticultural Society of New Yorfc, 

Printed Books: 1481-1900, in the 

(Hall) 91 

"In things certain Unity" (r) .... 9 

Indian, East; Sehre poetry 76 

Indian Battles of the Lower Rogue 

(Walsh) 90 

Inscriptions In and As Books and 

Works of Art: Visible Words 

(Sparrow) 13 

Irving, Washington, (his) drawing 

teacher (n) 148 

Jenkins, V. Clement (q) 7 

"Jesus H. Christ" (q) 104 

"Jim Work" and "Gin Work" (q) 120 

Johnson, Richard: Note 20; (r) .... 88 

Junius, Letters of (review) 143 

Kay, Donald: Note 73 

Kelly, Ed: Note 39 

Kenney, Blair G.: Note 151 

Kenney, Mrs David J.: Note 54 

King Ranch Quarter Horses (Den 
hardt) 126 

King s castration, night of the (q) 

24; (r) 105 

Kirtley, Bacil F.: Note 67 

Korshin, Paul J.: Bibliographical 

Note HO 

Kratter, Henricus (q) 122 

La Motte-Fouque, cited (n) 67 

Lai Sharma, Mohan, cited 76 

Largest non-polar glacier (q) 7; 

(r) 42, 89, 105 

"Law, This is the, . . ." (q) 135 



June 1971 



165 



Leonid Shower of 1833 in Faulkner 

(n) .............................................. 102 

"Libussa-Riddle" and Carlyle s an 

swer (n) ...................................... I 33 

"Literary Manuscripts, On Locat 

ing" (Korshin) ............................ 110 

Literary Sketches (periodical) ........ 59 

Lodge, Thomas, cited (n) ............ 85 

Levering, Virginia E.: Note .......... 134 

Lyrica Germanica (periodical) ..... 138 

Mackintosh, Newton (q) ........... 74 

Mahomet and His Successors 

(Irving) .... ................................. f 

Mahony, P.: Note ............ .......... ...... 118 

Maitland, Sir Frederic, cited (q) .... 104 

Maitland, Thomas; Lord Dundren- 

nan, his library (q) ................... 7 

Makers of America (set) ................ 141 

Manuscript Microfilm Project, Mo 



nastic 



27 



"Manuscripts, Literary, On Locat 
ing" (Korshin) ................ ; . ......... HO 

Marchetti s case of the pig s tail 
(q) 41; (r) ................................. 123 

Mathews, Cornelius, cited (n) ....... 86 

May, Steven W.: Note .................. 115 

Means, James A.: Note ................ 56 

Medical Americana, imprints (q) - 41 
Medical Education, The History of 
(O Malley) ................................... 94 

Melville s Billy Budd (n) ............ 151 

Melville s Moby-Dick (n) ............ 6 

Mencken, H. L., cited (r) ............ 57 

Meteor shower of 1833 in Faulkner 



(n) 



102 



Meteorlythisis, De (1825) (q) 122 

Milton and the Serpent (q) 74 

Minotaur, The (Ayrton) 157 

Minter, Bernice, poet (q) 24 

Mississippi meteor shower in Faulk 
ner (n) 102 

Moby-Dick: Scriptural Source of 

"Blackness of Darkness" (n) 6 

Monastic Manuscript Microfilm 

Project 27 

Monogram "BR/30" (q) 135 

Monroe, James, portrait (n) 134 

Montaigne quotation? (q) 121 

More, Cresacre, mss of Thomas 

More (q) i52 

More, Thomas, mss by Cresacre 

More (q) &* 

Morris, J. W. (q) 74 

Mount Auburn Cemetery (q) 87 

Mourning dress, white as (q) 56; 

( r ) 136; 154 

Mummers, English, and Their flays 
(Brody) 1 9 



"Mustard, To cut the" (q) 153 

Mystery organist [poem] (q) . .-104 

"Nails, Blow one s" (q) -.- 24 

Negro in America: a Bibliography 

(Miller) 1 6 

Negro poetry see Black poetry 

Nelson, Malcolm A.: Note 10 

Night of the King s castration (q) 

24; (r) 1 5 

Noble, Donald R.: Note 150 

"Now with the drops of this most 

Yknarc time . . ." (r) 88, 154 

"Ointment in my little pot of flies" 

(q) 8 

"OK": Robert A. Clarke (n) 54 

Oldest profession, prostitution, the 

(r) 9 

Oliver Twist Exhibition 27 

Order of the Golden Fleece (r) 25 

Oregon s Indian battles of the Low 
er Rogue (Walsh) 90 

Organist, mystery [poem] (q) 104 

Oriental Carpets, Seven Hundred 

Years of (Erdmann) 78 

Page, Thomas Nelson, cited (n) 103; 

(n) 151 

Palm tree in the Forest of Arden 

(n) 84 

Panamanian Constitution and U.S. 

intervention (n) 151 

Paper in the 17th Century (n) . ..131 

Peake, R. B., cited (n) 67 

Peary-Cook controversy (q) 56 

Pepys, Samuel, Diary of 29 

Philadelphia cellar doors, 1767 (q) 87 
Pig s tail, Marchetti s case of the 

(q)41; (r) 123 

Playhouse, Development of the 

(Mullin) 30 

Poe on furniture (r) 42 

Poe s "The Raven" (n) 85 

Poetry, East Indian Sehre 76 

Poetry, German: Lyrica Germanica 

(periodical) I 38 

Pope, Alexander (n) 3 

Pope, Alexander, portrait (q) 121 

Pope anecdote (n) 55 

Portola, Caspar de (r) 75 

Portraiture, English (Strong) 77 

Press Books, Private, 1969 137 

Presses, Private, exhibition, Hert 
fordshire, 1970 1 

Printing Historical Society, Journal 

of the 91 

Private Press Books, 1969 137 

Private Presses exhibition, Hertford 
shire, 1970 1 



166 



AN&Q 



Proof (periodical) 124 

Prostitution the oldest profession (r) 9 
Provengatia, William P. Shepard 

Collection of (Cholakian) 137 

Pun on "strumpet" in Shakespeare 

(n) 133 

Quarantine flags (q) 56 

Quarter Horses, King Ranch (Den- 

hardt) 126 

Quotations: 

"Blow ones nails" (q) v 24 

"Camel through a needle s eye" 

(q) " : 121 

"Et circum irriguo surgebant lilia 

prato..."(q) 74 

". , . Fly in the ointment" (q) ... 8 

"Golfer s prayer* (r) 42 

"In things certain - Unity" (r) 9 

"Jesus H. Christ" (q) 104 

"Mustard, To cut the" (q) 153 

"Now with the drops of this most 

Yknarc time . . ." (r) .... 88, 154 
". . . Ointment in my little pot of 

flies" (q) 8 

"A seamless web" (q) 104 

"Sore as a pup" (q) 41; (r) 135 
"Suck the hind teat" (r) .... 42; 58 
"There is some good in the upper 

class , . ." (q) 104 

"They did not seem like books 

to him . . ." (q) 134 

"This is the law . . ." (q) 135 

"To cut the mustard" (q) 153 

"To ride a hobby" (q) 87 

"To travel hopefully is a better 

thing than to arrive" (q) .... 121 
"Twixt heaven and hell" (r) .... 75 
"Whistling in the dark" (q) 24; 

(r) 89 

"Wrong end of the stick" (r) .... 58 

"You can believe it!" (r) 9 

"Raven, The", Poe s source for (n) 85 
Red sheep, big, in Candide (n) .... 39 

Religious Periodicals Index 108 

Reprint books, ethics of trade 156 

Reprint Bulletin 156 

Reprint commentary: "The Reprint 
ing of Junius" (Cordasco) 143 

Restaurants, Genevieve (London) ..157 

Resurrected bodies (q) 122 

Riddle: "Libussa-Riddle" and Car- 

lyle s answer (n) 133 

"Ride a hobby" (q) 87 

Rings, Finger, Eskimo (q) 153 

Robertson, Alexander: Irving s 

Drawing Teacher (n) 148 

Robertson, Archibald (n) 148 

Rogers, Bruce, monogram? (q) .... 135 



Rogers, Pat: Note 3 

"Romance" in The Blithedak Ro 
mance (n) 72 

Roth, Philip, title from Dickinson 

(n) 150 

Rounds, Emma (q) 74 

"Sailor s Valentine" (q) 152 

Salutes, gun (q) 56 

Sannazarius, Opera Omnia, 1549 

Dundrennan copy (q) 87 

Satan and Serpent in Milton (q) .... 74 
Science and Technology, McGraw- 
Hill Encyclopedia of 93 

"Seamless web" (q) 104 

Sedan fire (q) 104 

Sehre-Shiksha (poetry training for 

newly-weds) 76 

Serpent and Satan in Milton (q) .... 74 
Shakespeare s As You Like It (n) 23; 84 
Shakespeare s Hamlet (Shattuck) .. 12 
Shakespeare s Hamlet s Ghost s 

apocatastasis (r) 57, 89 

Shakespeare s King Lear (n) 99 

Shakespeare s Othello (n) 35; 133 

Shakespeare s Troilus and Cressida 

(n) 133 

Shakespearean pun on "strumpet" 

(n) 133 

Sharma, Mohan Lai, cited 76 

Shaw, G. B,, on Whitman (q) 122 

"She" and "Shee" in Donne s An 
niversaries (n) 118 

Sheale, Richard, and the Ballad of 

"Chevy Chase" (n) 115 

Sheep, big red, in Candide (n) .... 39 

Shepard, Douglas H.: Note 131 

Sidney, Mary, (her) ". . . Two 

Shepherds" (n) 100 

Sinclair, Upton, and the Helicon 

Home Colony (r) 75 

Sloan, John, Prints of (Morse) 45 

Smith, Richard John "Obi", cited 

(n) 67 

"Sore as a pup" (q) 41; (r) 135 

South, The; A Southerner Discovers 

(Daniels) 141 

Spann, Othmar & Erika (q) 74 

STC of Canadiana 76, 156 

Stein, Allen F.: Note 85 

Steinbeck, John, questions about (q) 

56; (r) 155 

Stevenson quotation? (q) 121 

Stevenson s "Bottle Imp" (n) 67 

Stoddard, Richard: Note 55 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, The Novels 

of (Crozier) 61 

"Strakis" or "astrakis" (q) 8 

"Suck the hind teat" (r) 42; 58 



June 1971 



167 



Szarmach, Paul E.: Note 147 

"Tale of a Tub" source (r) . . . 8 

Tarr, Rodger L,: Note 133 

"There is some good in the upper 

class . . " (q) 104 

"They did not seem like books to 

him . . ." (q) 134 

"This is the law . . ." (q) 135 

Thomson, James: an Unnoticed Con 
tribution (n) 3 

"To travel hopefully is a better thing 

than to arrive" (q) 121 

Tool Collectors Handbook (Farn- 

ham) 26 

Tottel s Miscelkny, cited (n) . . 73 
"Tower of London", Artemus 

Ward s (n) 22 

Trade catalog reproductions series .. 155 

Trollope s theology (n) 51 

"Twixt heaven and hell" (r) 75 

U.S. intervention in Panamanian 

Constitution (n) 151 

"Upper class, There is some good in 

tibe" (q) 104 

"Valentine, Sailor s" (q) 152 

Vaughan s "Regeneration" (n) 19 

Vermont painter, J. F. Gilman (q) 135 

Vermont s buried treasure 59 

Voltaire s Candide (n) 39 



"Wades Boot": Canterbury Tales 

(n) 71 

Waller, G. F.: Note 100 

Ward, Artemus, "Tower of London" 

(n) 22 

Werge, Thomas: Note 6 

Washington, George, papers of (q) 7 
"Whistling in the dark" (q) 24; 

(r) 89 

White, John: Note 72 

White as mourning dress (q) 56; 

(r) 136; 154 

Whitman as heretic? (q) 153 

Whitman commented on by G. B. 

Shaw (q) 122 

Whitman portrait (n) 134 

Williams, George Walton: Note .... 99 
Williams, Hank; Sing a Sad Song, 

The Life of (Williams) 62 

Williams, Stanley T. (n) 148 

Williams, William P.: Note 83 

Wofford College Library Press 110 

Women - To, By, Of, For, and 

About (periodical) 90 

Woolf, Leonard, cited (q) 121 

"Wrong end of the stick" (r) 58 

Wyatt s "Dyvers Dothe Use" (n) 73 
"You can believe it!" (r) 9 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 



Volume X Number 1 



September 1971 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES & READING 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEW 

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
KANSAS CITY, MO. 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

OCT 1 9 197? 



FREE! On application, one year s 
subscription to AN&.Q for individ 
uals who Reply to previously 
unanswered Queries, Vols. I-V, 
before 31 December 1971. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Boguet, Henry. An Examen of Witches 
Drawn From Various Trials ... in 
the County of Burgundy. Trans, by 
E. Allen Ashwin. Ed. by Montague 
Summers. (1929). Facs. edn. Ixiii, 
328pp. [N.Y.: Barnes & Noble, 1971]. 
$11.50 

Clarke, Adam. A Bibliographical Dic 
tionary, plus The Bibliographical Mis 
cellany (a Supplement to the Dic 
tionary) (1802-04; 1806). 1 vol., un 
paged. Metuchen, N.J.: Mini-Print 
Corp., 1971. $ 

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. The Rime of 
the Ancient Mariner. Illus. by Gustave 
Dore. (1878). 77pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1971. Paper, $2.50 

Dore, Gustave; & Jerrold, Blanchard. 
London; a Pilgrimage. (1872). Illus. 
by Dore. xxiv, 191pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1971. Paper, $4.50 

Drake, William Daniel, jr. The Con 
noisseur s Handbook of Marijuana. Nu 
merous Illus. 253pp. San Francisco: 
Straight Arrow Books [World Pub 
lishing Co., New York, N.Y., distribu 
tor]. $10. 

Episcopal Year, 1970, Vol. II [i.e. Sec 
ond annual volume, for the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United 
States]. Ed. by Philip Deemer. Illus. 
360 double-columned pp. N.Y.: Jar- 
row Press, 1971. $? 

Ewen, C. L Estrange. Witch Hunting 
and Witch Trials . . . 1559-1736. 
(1929). Facs. edn. 345pp. N.Y.: 
Barnes & Noble, 1971. $11.50 

Fairfax, Edward. Dssmonologia: a Dis 
course on Witchcraft . . . 1621 . . . 
Along With . . . Two Eclogues . . . 
With a Biographical Introduction 
... by William Grainge. (Harrogate, 
1882). Facs. edn. 189pp. N.Y.: Barnes 
& Noble, 1971. $6. 



Fogel, Robert William; & Engerman, 
Stanley L., eds. The Reinterpretation 
of American Economic History. Illus. 
with Tables, etc. 494 double-colunmed 
pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1971. $? 
Foster, Steve, ed. Mortal Rap. [Quota 
tions and extracts from writings by 
students of San Francisco State Col 
lege]. Illus. 142pp. N.Y.: Harper & 
Row, 1971. Paper, $2. 
Goldman, Emma. Living My Life (1931). 
Illus. 2 vols. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 
1971. Paper, each vol. $3.50 
Grinspoon, Lester. Marihuana Reconsid 
ered. 443pp. Cambridge: Harvard Uni 
versity Press, 1971. Paper, $2.45 
Haining, Peter, ed. The Hollywood 
Nightmare: Tales of Fantasy and Hor 
ror From the Film World. 276pp. 
N.Y.: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1971. 
$5.95 

Hall, Donald. The Pleasures of Poetry. 
338pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1971. 
$4.50 

Howard, C. Jeriel; & Tracz, Richard 
Francis. Tempo: a Thematic Approach 
to Sentence /Paragraph Writing. Illus, 
542pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1971. 
Paper, $5.95 

Kakonis, Tom E., et al, eds. Strategies 
in Rhetoric, From Thought To Sym 
bol. 455pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 
1971. Paper, $5.50 

Laverty, Carroll D. The Unity of Eng 
lish: Five Basic Focal Points [Point 
of View; Structure; Development; 
. Style; Theme & Thesis]. 556 double- 
columned pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 
1971. Paper, $6.95 

Miller, J. Hillis, ed. Aspects of Narra 
tive. Selected Papers from the ENG 
LISH INSTITUTE. 210pp. N.Y.: Colum 
bia University Press, 1971, $6.50 

(Continued on p. 16) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
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Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
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Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies, and Abstracts of Folklore 
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cluded in The Year s Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
in the Annual MLA International Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 



TWO MORE UNPUBLISHED 
WHITMAN LETTERS 

BECAUSE OF THE THOROUGHNESS of 
the search for Walt Whitman let 
ters for their publication in Pro 
fessor Edwin Haviland Miller s 
admirable edition of The Corre 
spondence of Walt Whitman (N.Y., 
1961-1969) in five volumes as part 
of New York University Press s 
Collected Writings, it is not ex 
pected that many unpublished let 
ters by the poet will turn up. Those 
that do, such as the following two 
from the Feinberg Collection, now 
in the Library of Congress, are 
thus both rare and important. In 
printing them here, I am following 
the numbering system used by Mr 
Miller in his Addenda, Vol. 5: 

1484,1 To John H. Johnston 

ADDRESS: J H Johnston / Jewel 
er / 150 Bowery Cor: Broome / 
New York City. POSTMARKS: 
Camden / Feb / [?] / 87; 
[others illegible]. 

328 Mickle Street 

Camden New Jersey 

Sunday Noon 

Feb 12 87 

Still here in the land of the living in 
pretty good heart most of the time, & 
comfortable enough, but horribly crip 



pled & banged up Spirit moved me 
to write you a line & send my love to 
Alma and Al and all I am just going 
out for an hour s midday drive. 

Wak Whitman 

Johnston was one of Whitman s 
very good friends, whom he often 
stayed with in New York; Alma 
was his wife, and Alfbert] their 
son. Whitman s remark that he was 
^horribly crippled & banged up" 
is an exaggeration; for, while he 
never fully recovered from his 
stroke in 1873, he did go to Color 
ado in 1879, Ontario in 1880, Bos 
ton in 1881; and give his Lincoln 
lecture four times in 1886. Further, 
Professor Gay Wilson Allen (A Soli 
tary Singer, N.Y., 1967, p. 526) 
says, "On the whole 1887 was per 
haps the most satisfying year that 
Whitman had had since coming to 
Camden" after his stroke. 

2572.1 To Dr. John Johnston 

ADDRESS: Dr Johnston / 54 
Manchester road / Bolton Lan 
cashire / England. POSTMARKS: 
Camden, N. J. / Jun 23 / 
8 PM / 91; Philadelphia, Pa. / 
Jim 23 / 11 PM / Paid. 

Camden N J U S America 
June 23 91 - Tolerably fairly - (free 
fm mark d pain or bother.) blcfast 
of raspberries b d & coffee warm 
weather Dr Bucke leaves here July 8 
in the SS Britannic look out for July 
Lippincott s (I will send you one, to 
make sure) H T well & flourishing 
Warry ditto Wallace s and W Dixon s 
good letters, rec d My love to both 
Walt Whitman 

Dr John Johnston, to whom the 
letter was addressed, and J. W. 
Wallace, mentioned near the end 
of the letter, were the founders of 
"Bolton College", a humorous 
name they gave to a group in 
Bolton, England, who met and 
discussed Leaves of Grass. They 
visited Whitman in Camden in 
1890 and 1891 and later wrote 



AN&Q 



a delightful book, Visits to Walt 
Whitman in 1890-1891 (London, 
1917). Dr Richard Maurice Bucke, 
one of the greatest admirers and 
later one of Whitman s literary 
executors, with Horace Trauhel 
(the "H T" mentioned in this let 
ter), was going to Europe on a 
business trip to establish a foreign 
market for his water meter. By 
"July Lippincotfs" Whitman must 
refer to a short prose piece he 
wrote, "Walt Whitman s Last", 
which actually appeared in the 
August 1891 Lippincotfs Magazine 
(Vol. 48, p. 256). "Warry" is short 
for Warren Fritzinger, Whitman s 
male nurse at that time (his pic 
ture is in The Correspondence, Vol. 
5, opp. p. 212); and "W Dixon" is 
Wentworth Dixon, another mem 
ber of "Bolton College". The "good 
letters" from Wallace and Dixon 
are now in the Feinberg Collection, 
and it is to Mr Charles E. Feinberg 
that I am indebted for copies of 
the two letters here published for 
the first time. 

William White 

Wayne State University, Detroit 



"Notes" in the October issue 
will consist exclusively of a re 
view of Evald Rink s Printing in 
Delaware, 1761-1800: a Check 
list, by Philip J. Weimerskirch, 
The review lists < SL few addi 
tions, a few added copies, a few 
secondary sources containing 
good descriptions, and a few 
differences of opinion concern 
ing format". 



SPENSER AND THE 
NEW TESTAMENT 

STUDENTS OF SPENSER S BIBLICAL al 
lusions have repeatedly grappled 
with the problem of which version 
of the Bible Spenser used. Differ 
ent authorities have credited him 
with using all three main versions 
of his day, the Great Bible, 1 the 
Geneva, 2 and the Bishops , 3 but 
the problem remains unresolved. 

What seems to be a promising 
clue is provided in a discussion of 
Shakespeare s use of the Bible. 
Richmond Noble writes: 

The policy of Queen Elizabeth as to 
English Bibles was one of non-inter 
ference. Bibles were to be allowed to 
circulate, but it was none of the Queen s 
concern to promote the circulation, be 
yond providing that every parish church 
was to own a copy and every Master 
of Arts a New Testament. Otherwise 
everybody could do as he pleased. 4 

Since Spenser obtained his Master 
of Arts at Cambridge in 1576, the 
above requirement seems to have 
been completely overlooked by 
those who have dealt with the 
problem. 

A little searching, however, in 
dicates that Noble errs as to the 
Queen s edict. In 1559 there ap 
peared Iniunctions giuen by the 
Queenes Maiestie. 5 Injunction 16 
states, in part: 

Also that euerye Parson, Vicar, Curate, 
and stipendarie Priest, being vnder the 
degree of a maister of Arte, shall prouide 
& haue of his owne within three monethes 
after this visitation, the newe Testament 
both in Latine and in English. . . . And 
the Bishoppes and other Ordinaries . . . 
shall examine the said ecclesiasticall Far- 
sons, how they haue profited in . the 
studie of holy scripture. 



September 1971 



Thus the decree was not that 
"every" Master of Arts should have 
a New Testament, as Noble states, 
but only those ecclesiastical Par 
sons and clerics associated with 
a cure. There is no evidence that 
Spenser ever took orders, although 
he was secretary to the Bishop of 
Rochester for one year, 1578-79. 

Furthermore, Elizabeth s injunc 
tion specified no particular Eng 
lish version of the New Testament. 
By 1559 there were six versions 
available: Tyndale s, Coverdale s, 
Matthew s, Taverner s, the Great 
Bible New Testament, and the 1557 
Geneva New Testament by Wil 
liam Whittingham. By the time that 
Spenser received his M.A., the 
Bishops New Testament had ap 
peared (1568) and this was thor 
oughly revised in 1572. Even if 
Spenser came under the Queen s 
decree, he could have met it by 
possessing any of these versions 
of the New Testament. 

It seems, therefore, that efforts 
to determine which Bible Spenser 
used will continue to be governed 
by internal rather than external 
evidence. 

Naseeb Shaheen 

University of California 
Los Angeles, California 



1. Grace Warren Landrum, "Spenser s 
Use of the Bible and His Alleged 
Puritanism", PMLA, XLI (1926), 
517-544, 

2. Charles C. Osgood, "Spenser s Sapi 
ence", Studies in Philology, XIV 
(1917), 169. 

3. Ruth Wilson Russell, Spenser s Use 
of the Bible in the First Two Books 
of "The Faerie Queene", unpublished 
thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1936. 

4. Richmond Noble, Shakespeare s Bibli 
cal Knowledge (London, 1935), p. 9. 

5. STC 10095-10110. 



THOMAS CAMPBELL AND 

SHELLEY S QUEEN MAE 

THE INFLUENCE OF THOMAS CAMP 
BELL on Shelley s Queen Mob has 
been suspected at least since 1812, 
when William Godwin, having read 
the still uncompleted manuscript 
of Queen Mob, wrote to Shelley, 
"You have what appears to me a 
false taste in poetry. You love a 
perpetual sparkle and glittering, 
such as are to be found in Darwin, 
and Sou they, and Scott, and Camp 
bell (sic)". 1 As Godwin guessed, 
Campbell was indeed one of Shel 
ley s favorite poets. While at Eton, 
he had even sent one of his juven 
ile poems to Campbell for criticism 
(Campbell replied that there were 
only two good lines in it actual 
ly, a kindness). 2 The extent of 
Shelley s admiration for the older 
poet becomes fully clear, however, 
only when one examines Camp 
bell s poem, The Pleasures of Hope 
(1799), now almost wholly neg 
lected but a work which distinctly 
colors the style of Shelley s first 
"Philosophical Poem". 

Unlike Darwin s Temple of Na 
ture, Southey s Thalaba., or the 
other chief models for Queen Mob, 
The Pleasures of Hope is written 
in a style that suggests Shelley s 
generally, and not in a few isolated 
passages. True, the two poems are 
seldom strictly parallel in phras 
ing, but they often bear a striking 
resemblance to one another: 

Come, "bright Improvement! on the 

car of Time, 
And rule the spacious world from 

clime to clime! 

(I, 321-322)3 

Man! Can thy doom no brighter soul 
allow? 



AN&Q 



Still must thou live a blot on Nature s 

brow? 
Shall War s polluted banner ne er be 

furl d? 
Shall crimes and tyrants cease but 

with the world? 

(I, 435-438) 

Yet, yet degraded men, th expected day 
That breaks your bitter cup, is far 

away; 
Trade, wealth, and fashion, ask you 

still to bleed, 
And holy men give Scripture for the 

deed. . . . 

(I, 483-486) 

The previous lines might easily 
have been lifted from Queen Mab, 
except for their being in couplets 
rather than in blank verse. 

Campbell s poem anticipates not 
only the emphatic, challenging rad 
icalism of Queen Mab but also 
much of its distinctive imagery, 
including stars, meteors, wild 
winds, symbolic veils, and con 
trasted light and dark all, by 
the way, to appear frequently in 
Shelley s later poetry. 4 Shelley s 
indebtedness to Campbell is best 
shown, however, by the following 
parallel passages: 

Careers the fiery giant, fast and far, 
On bickering wheels, and adamantine 
car. . . . 

(Pleasures, II, 284-285) 

All tend to perfect happiness, and urge 
The restless wheels of being on their 

waj , 
Whose flashing spokes, instinct with 

infinite Me, 
Bicker and burn to gain their destined 

goal. . . . 

(Queen Mab, IX, 151-154) 

Clearly, then, Shelley paid 
Campbell the compliment of im 
itation. The closeness of their 
styles should not, of course, be al 
lowed to obscure their very real 



differences. While Campbell s lan 
guage is concise, his imagery sim 
ple, and his rhythms restrained, 
Shelley s language is elaborate, 
his imagery complex, and his 
rhythms flowing. Already his po 
etry discloses something of the 
expansiveness and rapidity of his 
later work. Nevertheless, he was 
still not far enough along in his ap 
prenticeship in 1812 to free him 
self from the influence of Camp 
bell and other favorite poets 
poets who had, after all, inspired 
him in the first place to attempt 
to express revolutionary message in 
poetry. 

George Richards 

Skidmore College 



1. Letter dated 10 December 1812, in 
The Letters of Percy Bysshe Shelley, 
ed. Frederick L. Jones (Oxford, 1964), 
I, 216. 

2. See Newman Ivy White, SheUey 
(N.Y., 1940), I, 60-61. 

3. Citations from Campbell are to The 
Poetical Works of Thomas Campbell, 
ed. W. Alfred Hill (London, 1890). 

4. Even Shelley s later use of Prometheus 
as a symbol of the Wisdom needed 
for social betterment has a precedent 
in The Pleasures of Hope: "Truth 
shall restore the light by nature giv 
en, /And, like Prometheus, bring the 
fire of Heaven" (I, 415-416). 



FREE! On application, one year 
of AIV&Q for individuals who 
Reply to previously unanswered 
Queries, Vols. I-V, before 31 
December 1971. 



September 1971 



GERTRUDE ATHERTON 
INSCRIPTIONS 

RECENTLY i PURCHASED five of Ger 
trude Atherton s books from an 
English bookseller; four of these 
are autograph presentation copies 
from the author to Ethel Duncan, 
and the other contains a signed 
note by Gertrude Atherton tipped- 
in. A brief description of the books 
follows: 

1) A Daughter of the Vine. London: 
Service and Paton, 1899. Tipped-in on 
the half-title page: "One of the men 
who ought to be in the Senate of the 
United States and is notre the father- 
in-law of His Fortunate Grace. At all 
even Is let him contribute his trifle to 
the Hospital fund. Gertrude Atherton 
June 12th 1899-Bruges, Beige". The 
entire note is in the handwriting of the 
author. 

2) The Conqueror. London: MacMillan 
and Co., 1903. The inscription on the 
flyleaf reads: "To Miss Ethel Duncan 
From Gertrude Atherton 1908". 

3) Ancestors. London: John Murray, 
1907. The inscription on the flyleaf 
reads: "To Miss Ethel Duncan Souvenir 
Miinchen Gertrude Atherton 1908". 

4 ) Rezdnov. London: John Murray, 1906. 
The inscription on the flyleaf reads: "I 
present to Miss Ethel Duncan my fa 
vorite hero Nichol . . . (?) Petr . . . 
(?) Rezdnov Gertrude Atherton 1908 
Miinchen". 

5) The Calif ornians. New York: The 
MacMillan Co., 1908. The inscription on 
the flyleaf reads: "To Isabel Otis other 
wise Miss Ethel Duncan From the ad 
mirer of her still not large enough but 
growing type [?] Gertrude Atherton 
1908 Miinchen". On the front endpaper 
is pasted a postcard on which is written, 
presumably in the hand of Ethel Dun 
can: "Automobile-trip here on Saturday 
April 18th, 08. Had tea at the Kaiserin 
Elisabeth hotel with Gertrude Atherton, 
Boradil Craig [?], Harriet Robb and 
my sister Mabel". The postcard depicts 
Starnberg and the Starnberger See. 



Evidently Miss Duncan and her 
party were travelling in Bavaria 
in April 1908 and met Gertrude 
Atherton there, probably in Mu 
nich. The author presented Miss 
Duncan with several of her books. 
It may not be of great value to 
know that Gertrude Atherton at 
that time evidently considered 
Rezdnov her favorite hero, but it 
is intriguing to know that she as 
sociated Ethel Duncan with Isabel 
Otis, one of the principal characters 
of Ancestors. There are of course 
several possibilities: perhaps Miss 
Otis was modeled after Miss Dun 
can, in which case Gertrude Ather 
ton knew Ethel Duncan intimately 
before the visit to Munich; perhaps 
Miss Duncan had expressed an ad 
miration for Isabel Otis and a de 
sire to emulate her; and, what 
seems to this writer to be most 
likely, the writer thought she saw 
a similarity in character between 
Isabel Otis and Ethel Duncan. 

John E. Van Domelen 
College Station, Texas 



MILTON S MEDITATIONS AND 
SONNET XIX 

SUCH NOTABLE MELTON scholars as 
Sir H. J. C. Grierson and Helen 
Darbishire, who argue that the 
order of Milton s sonnets in the 
1673 edition is chronological, 
would agree that sonnet XIX ("On 
his blindness") was written later 
than April-May 1655, the apparent 
terminus quo for sonnet XVIII. If 
Milton read the psalm prescribed 
in The Book of Common Prayer 
to be read on the Tuesday after 



8 



the fourth Sunday after Trinity, 
which falls in early June, then the 
similarities between Psalm 123 and 
sonnet XIX might suggest that Mil 
ton wrote the sonnet in June of 
1655. The juxtaposition of the word 
"eyes" and the word "wait" in 
verse two of Psalm 123 is particu 
larly suggestive of Milton s mood 
in sonnet XIX: "Behold, as the 
eyes of servants look unto the hand 
of their masters, and as the eyes 
of a maiden unto the hand of her 
mistress; so our eyes wait upon the 
Lord our God, until that he have 
mercy upon us". 

Benjamin W. Griffith 

Carrollton, Georgia 
West Georgia College, 



QUERIES 



Pictorial calendar A calendar 
with religious symbols, entitled 
Sande Awikhigan, 1870, has come 
into my possession. What is it? A 
footnote, in English, says, "This 
year has 13 months. It begins on 
the 3d of December 1869, and 
terminates on the 21st of Decem 
ber 1870". It is print signed, 
"Eugene Vetromile, Alnambay Pat- 
lias". Who was he? Names of the 
months are given, e.g. Onglusam- 
wessit / January. What is this that 
I have? Michael Cahill, Sharon, 
Conn. 

"First, get the money; honor comes 
later" Was it an American 
general who first said this? When? 
Under what circumstances? 
Joe Shitangman, Duncanuille, Tex. 



AN&Q 

Question marks (?) I am un 
able to find a style manual that 
authorizes the growing use of a 
question mark at the beginning of 
a parenthetical statement inside 
the parentheses, for example, 
"These could be pertinent remarks 
about such a code of laws (? but 
they may not belong in this series ) 
concerning morality". What rea 
soning is used here, and has the 
problem been discussed from the 
grammarians or editors points of 
view? Where? John Birming 
ham, New York, N.Y. 

Lincoln, Grant, and Whiskey 

One of the best-known anecdotes 
concerning Lincoln and General 
Grant is the following: Men came 
to the President urging his 
[Grant s] removal. Lincoln shook 
his head: "I can t spare this man", 
he said: "he fights". Many good 
people complained that he drank. 
"Can you tell me the kind of 
whisky?" asked Lincoln, "I should 
like to send a barrel to some of my 
other generals". (See Ida Tarbelfs 
Life of Abraham Lincoln, 1902. 
Vol. Ill, p. 144). What is the 
source or truth of the anecdote? 
Jack Stevens, New "York, N.Y. 

Andrew Jackson Stone Born 
1859 in Missouri and still alive in 
1920, was an explorer, hunter, etc. 
in the West, Alaska, and Canada. 
He collected for the American Mu 
seum of Natural History and had 
several animals named for him. He 
is in Who s Who in America, vol. 
3 and others. Information of any 
kind about this man would be ap 
preciated we have the early 
Reader s Guide references. 
R. G. Schipf, Missoula, Montana. 



September 1971 



REPLIES 

Camel through a needle s eye? 
(IX: 121) I am skeptical of the 
"Ropist" solution on grounds other 
than linguistic. The figure appears 
to be quite plausible as it stands in 
terms of traditional Jewish hyper 
bole. Thus, compare the proposed 
removal of a mountain through the 
faith of a mustard seed (Matt. 
xviii:19). The Confraternity notes 
on this passage read: "The hyper 
bole seems to be traditional. Job 
says that God lias removed moun 
tains (ix:5); and in the Psalms we 
read that the mountains shall be 
removed* (xlv:3)". Compare also 
the hyperbolic figure of plucking 
out the sinful eye (Matt. xix:9) 5 
which led some literalists to cas 
trate themselves. That Christ in 
tended such hyperbole is also 
evident from the Last Supper, 
where He ordered the consump 
tion of His Blood in opposition to 
the law against blood-drinking in 
Leviticus when He expressly stated 
that He had come to fulfill and not 
to deny. (Explanation: "His 
Blood" is that "in heaven".) 
Though I know of no Old Testa 
ment parallel for the camel figure, 
it is of passing interest at least that 
there is now, in the area where 
Christ lived, a camel path contain 
ing an awkward passageway ap 
propriately designated (according 
to the National Geographic) "The 
Needle s Eye". (This may, how 
ever, be after the fact.) R. F. 
Fleissner, Wilberforce, Ohio 

Beckford Latin quotation (IX-.74) 
The quotation used by Beck- 
ford may be found in the first book 
of elegies by Propertius, lines 37- 



38: "Et circum irriguo surgebant 
lilia prato / Candida purpureis 
mixta papaveribus"; in our quota 
tion we follow the text given on 
page 42 of Seymour G. Tremen- 
heere s The Elegies of Propertius 
in a Reconditioned Text with a 
Rendering in Verse and A Com 
mentary (London: Simpkin Mar 
shall, Ltd., 1931). Tremenheere s 
version reads: "And gardened with 
lush meadows bright / With pop 
pies red and lilies white" (p. 43). 

Edgar C. Knowlton, jr, Univer 
sity of Hawaii 

Othmar & Erika Spann (IX: 74-75) 

Othmar Spann, the social phi 
losopher who proposed an univer- 
salist concept of society, is exam 
ined in the following: 

Landheer, B. "Othmar Spann 
Social Theories". Journal of Polit 
ical Economy, 39 (1931). 

A book review by Frank H. 
Knight on Spann s The History of 
Economics in Journal of Political 
Economy, 39 (1931), pp. 258-260. 

Jerome Drost, SUNJ at Buffalo 

Mount Auburn Cemetery (IX: 87) 

In Herman Melville s The 
Confidence-Man ( 1857 ) , John 
Ringman (the confidence man) 
advises a young student to go "to 
the cemeteries of Auburn and 
Greenwood" if he wants to under 
stand human nature (Chapter V). 

William N orris, Lawrence y 
Kansas 

Goethe or Schiller? (VIII: 121) 
One expression of the idea occurs 
in a little poem by Schiller entitled 
"Unsterblichkeit": "Vor dem Tod 
erschrickst du? Du wtinschest uns- 
terblich zu leben? / Leb im Gan- 



AN&Q 



zen! Wenn Du lange dahin bist, es 
bleibt". Anthony W. Shipps, 
Indiana University Libraries, 
Bloomington 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

Congratulations to the Society for 
Theatre Research upon the fulfill 
ment of a long term project begun 
some fifteen years ago the com 
plete revision of Robert W. Lowe s 
Bibliographical Account of English 
Theatrical Literature (London: 
John C. Nimmo). First published 
in a limited edition in 1888, the 
work has been indispensable to 
bibliographers, booksellers, collec 
tors, librarians, and students of 
theatre history. (Gale Research 
Company published a reprint in 
1966.) The work of revision was 
undertaken by scholars working in 
libraries on both sides of the At 
lantic with the end result being a 
new work rather than a new edi 
tion. Titled English Theatrical Lit 
erature, 1559-1900: a Bibliography, 
and compiled by James Fullarton 
Arnott and John William Robinson 
(Society for Theatre Research, 14 
Woronzow Road, London NW 8, 
10 10s) the volume includes over 
5,000 entries, which is more than 
twice as many as in the original. 
Every Lowe listing is found either 
in the main body or in an appendix. 
American and overseas editions 
not included in Lowe are recorded 
in brief. Some glosses on the title 
words "English" and "theatrical" 
must be mentioned. The Society 
has retained "English", but em 



braces as did Lowe, the Irish and 
the Scottish theatre. "Theatrical" 
excludes the purely literary aspects 
of the drama and forms of enter 
tainment such as ballet, circus, and 
cinema although opera is covered. 
Fiction and manuscripts are omit 
ted; engraved prints are included 
because of the letterpress. Entries 
are arranged in chronological order 
under three headings: Bibliogra 
phy, Government Regulations of 
the Theatre, and Morality of the 
Theatre. George Speaight, General 
Editor of Publications, and the So 
ciety s Editorial Board are to be 
commended on the high biblio 
graphical standards maintained in 
this outstanding work. 

"For the record" AN&Q reprints 
the following from AB Bookman s 
Weekly (28 June 1971) : I am writ 
ing to end a myth about the J.F.K. 
quotation "Ask not what your 
Country etc/ To aid and abet in 
this fraudulent legend by an au 
thoritative book medium, must be 
corrected. I sported this bit of 
phonyism before J.F.K. was unfor 
tunately assassinated. It seems that 
Schlesinger, who wrote Kennedy s 
speeches, took this quote and the 
term new frontier from a book by 
Kahlil ^Gibran, "Mirrors of the 
Soul". "Ask not what your country 
can do for you, but ask what you 
can do for your country" This 
statement appeared in an article 
written by Gibran in Arabic, over 
fifty years ago. The heading of 
that article can be translated either 
"The New Deal" or "The New 
Frontier". The article was directed 
to Gibrans people in the Middle 
East, but its philosophy and its 
lesson will continue as long as man 
lives in a free society. The article 



September 1971 



11 



is in the book "Mirrors of the Soul" 
pages 59-64. Philip Sklar, No. 
Miami, Ffo. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky and will be con 
tinued in subsequent issues. 

A. H. M. Jones, J. R. Martindale, 
and J. Morris, The Prosopography 
of the Later Roman Empire, vol. I, 
A.D. 260-395 (Cambridge: At the 
University Press, 1971; 1,152pp.; 
$55.00), is the first of a set which 
will provide a complete prosopog- 
raphy of the later Roman Empire. 
The second volume will cover 395- 
527, the third, 527-641. Solid re 
search, with full bibliographical 
references, makes this work the 
definitive conclusion of the basic 
reference work originally sug 
gested by Theodor Mommsen. 

The imaginative and almost elee 
mosynary Cambridge University 
Press continues to bring out pre- 
publication copies of sections of 
the Cambridge Ancient History at 
most reasonable prices. Kathleen 
M. Kenyon, Palestine in the Time 
of the Eighteenth Dynasty, vol. II, 
chapter XI; 33pp. ; 1971; $1.25), 
pulls together the available mate 
rial after the expulsion of the 
Hyksos and provides a generally 
reliable history of Palestine for this 
period. In a totally different period 



Cambridge has furnished Kenneth 
Muir and S. Schoenbaum, A New 
Companion to Shakespeare (1971; 
298pp.; $3.95), a guide to Shake 
spearian studies by the ablest 
scholars of our time. Still another 
Cambridge reference work in the 
biographical group is R. T. Jones, 
George Eliot (1970; 116pp.; 
$1.95). Other works in this series 
of "British Authors" are Robin 
Mayhead on John Keats, Geoffrey 
Durrant on William Wordsworth, 
and Yasmine Gooneratne on Jane 
Austen. 

Andre Pieyre de Mandiargues, 
Bona, T amour et la peintttre (Ge 
neva; Weber S. A., 1971; 124pp.; 
S.Fr. 36. ), examines death and 
existence in terms rarely used by 
modern artists. Here are insights 
into modern life and aspects of 
20th-century painting offered by 
no other publisher in our time. As 
in all Weber publications, the 
quality of the reproductions leaves 
nothing to be desired. 

V. F. Goldsmith, A Short Title 
Catalogue of French Books 1601- 
1700 in the Library of the British 
Museum (Folkestone London, 
Dawsons of PaU Mall, 1970- ), 
is now in its second fascicle, cov 
ering C-D. It is in the same style 
as the B.M. catalogues of its books 
printed before 1601, but benefit 
ing greatly from bibliographical 
scholarship of the last few dec 
ades. A selection of the major 
works from this catalogue is being 
offered in microform by the Eras 
mus Press, 225 Culpepper, Lex 
ington, Ky 40502. 

(Continued on p. 15) 



12 



AN&Q 



BOOK REVIEW 

BUGHER, Francois. The Pamplona Bi 
bles. 2 vols. Vol. I: Text, 382pp., includ 
ing illustrations; Vol. II: Facsimile, 570 
plates. New Haven: Yale University 
Press, 1970. $175. 

This publication, long anticipated by 
medievalists, is the result of research 
which extended for well over a decade. 
The Pamplona Bibles of the title are 
two late 12th-century Spanish manu 
scripts, which are essentially picture 
books embracing exceptionally extensive 
narrative Biblical and hagiographical 
cycles. One of these is preserved in the 
Bibliotheque Communale at Amiens, 
manuscript 108, and the other at Castle 
Harburg in the collection of Fiirst zu 
Oettingen-Wallerstein. The two picture 
Bibles, neither of which is now complete, 
preserve a total of 1847 illustrations out 
of an original total of 1953. 

The Amiens manuscript has been 
known to scholars through mention in 
a number of books and articles from 
1840 on, although, as Professor Bucher 
points out, not once had the codex been 
correctly described. The series of 871 
illustrations, as now preserved, with 
their Latin captions excerpted from the 
Vulgate and other sources, intrigued 
past scholars by their abundance and 
their stylistic simplicity. These two char 
acteristics, on the other hand, also served 
to repel more than casual investigation. 
This seems the more surprising inas 
much as the manuscript is furnished 
with a dated colophon testifying to a 
royal patron. 

The colophon sets forth that the manu 
script was commissioned by King Sancho 
VIII, "the Strong", of Navarre, and writ 
ten or "composed", as the Latin says 
by Petrus Ferrandus, who finished it 
in 1197 A.D. 

Professor Bucher has fully made up 
for ^ the past superficial treatment of 
Amiens ms. 108 with this conscientious 
and painstaking investigation of every 
possible facet of its history and its ex 
ecution. He prefaces the description and 
discussion of the manuscript itself by a 
review of the political situation in Na 
varre during the 12th and early 13th 
century and an analysis of the person 



ality and character of Sancho VIII, who 
ruled that kingdom from 1194 to 1234. 
Sancho was, it seems, a strong-willed 
opportunist, who shifted his alliances 
shamelessly, antagonized the other Span 
ish rulers and the Pope, fraternized with 
the Moslems (and probably married 
one), absented himself from his country 
for long periods and in general was 
far from being an ideal ruler. 

In considering the selection of subjects 
for the picture Bible, Dr Bucher notes 
that the emphasis of the illustrations is 
on good royal government, stressing the 
dangers of misrule or of blasphemous 
and amoral conduct, and the rewards of 
righteous kingship and unswerving re 
ligious faith. In a detailed investigation 
of the identity of the Petrus Ferrandus 
who "composed" the picture Bible, Dr 
Bucher concludes that he was a certain 
Ferrandus who was active as a scribe 
in the royal chancery as early as 1171, 
during the reign of Sancho s learned and 
much-loved father. His name disappears 
from royal charters issued after the ac 
cession of Sancho VIII, and only reap 
pears in 1235 after that ruler s death. 
The picture Bible, with its original 932 
illustrations and the accompanying cap 
tions, was a most complex undertaking, 
requiring a director learned in Biblical 
and hagiographical lore to obtain and 
select the materials, to direct the artists 
on the project (Dr Bucher finds four 
different hands), as well as to compile 
the inscriptions. With good organiza 
tion, it is possible that the manuscript 
was brought to completion in three years 
- from 1194 to 1197. And the royal 
chancery at Pamplona would have been 
tlie place where such an effort could be 
staged. The faithful archivist who had 
served the virtuous father would have 
been at pains to see that the tenor of 
the picture book would be to exhort 
Sancho VIII to mend his ways. 

Professor Bucher s approach to the 
study of the manuscript is a model of 
system. He describes, in turn, the bind 
ing, the structure of the manuscript 
(with diagrams of the gatherings), the 
condition, the parchment and pigments, 
paleography, abbreviations and spelling, 
original contents and present ones, the 
order of the subject matter, choice and 
source of captions, source of saints 
lives, Sibylline text of Apocalypse illus- 



September 1971 



trations, history of the manuscript, and 
earlier publications. Since all of this 
discussion is contained in eleven pages, 
including over two and a half pages of 
diagrams and about three-quarters of 
a page of lists, it goes without saying 
that the intent is to compress the state 
ment as much as possible. This makes 
for dry and even tedious reading, and 
yet there seem to be areas in which 
one s attention is squandered. The sol 
emn discussion of the kind of colors 
used, as well as their source and method 
of manufacture, seems out of proportion 
for the plain, flat tints "washes" as 
the author calls them that pick out 
the surfaces enclosed within simple 
outlines. 

The other "Pamplona Bible", now in 
Castle Harburg, is very closely related 
to King S anchors picture book the 
style is the same, although in the judg 
ment of Professor Bucher, it is somewhat 
more careful in execution. In general, 
the texts are the same or similar, except 
for variations in orthography. Again there 
is a great series of Biblical narrative il 
lustrations and of images devoted to 
lives of saints. However, the Harburg 
manuscript enlarged upon the pictorial 
scheme of the Sancho Bible, originally 
presenting an array of 1021 illustrations, 
of which 976 survive. In fact, the Har 
burg codex originally contained ninety- 
two scenes and texts not in Sancho s, of 
which forty-nine expanded upon the 
Old Testament and forty-two on the 
lives of saints. Many of the scenes which 
do correspond to those in the Amiens 
manuscript are very similar indeed. In 
other cases there are interesting varia 
tions, often clarifying the narrative or 
improving upon the composition. There 
is some difference in the order of scenes, 
and in other matters. The author be 
lieves that in the Harburg manuscript 
the captions were inscribed before the 
scenes were drawn, whereas the reverse 
was the case with the Amiens manu 
script. This second Pamplona Bible con 
tains no colophon, so the dating of it 
is a matter for conjecture. As the author 
points out, "If one manuscript preceded 
the other, the second was produced in 
the presence of the first". Although at 
several points he postulates that the 
Harburg manuscript is the younger of 
the two, he also notes that "careful 
analysis of the texts reveals so much 



contradictory evidence regarding preced 
ence that the simultaneous creation of 
both Bibles must be considered". 

Again the author examines the manu 
script with the same meticulous method 
used in the case of the first Pamplona 
Bible. To those topics he adds a section 
speculating on the original owner of 
the manuscript. In the absence of pre 
cise documentation, this can be only a 
matter for hypothesis. Since it was pro 
duced in the same chancery atelier 
which presumably executed Sancho s 
Bible, it is to be supposed that the 
second codex was destined for someone 
in the entourage of Sancho the Strong. 
Among the differences to be noted from 
the Amiens manuscript is the emphasis 
on genealogy and on female saints, 
which suggests that it was intended for 
a woman of high station. After con 
sidering various possibilities, the authot 
inclines toward Queen Sancha of Aragon, 
who was a patron of the arts and who 
had a son who could have inherited it. 
In any case, the Harburg Bible is more 
worn and marked up than the Amiens 
one, attesting to considerable use. It was 
acquired by an ancestor of the present 
Prince zu Oettingen-Wallerstein in Val- 
ladolid in 1809. 

The relationship between the Amiens 
and Harburg manuscripts was first point 
ed out in a Munich sale catalogue in 
1935, when the Oettingen-Wallerstein 
codex was listed for an auction from 
which it was eventually withdrawn. In 
1961, the Harburg and Amiens manu 
scripts were exhibited side by side at 
the Council of Europe Exhibition of 
Romanesque Art held in Barcelona. 

The interrelation between the two 
Bibles is such that each can be used to 
reconstruct losses in the other. In the 
volume of plates of the present publica r 
tion the two have been treated as a 
unit to the extent of selecting from one 
or the other the better executed or 
better preserved illustration of a particu 
lar subject although in a dozen or 
more cases, identical scenes from both 
manuscripts are reproduced in juxtapo 
sition for the information of the student. 

Surprising as the close relationship 
between the two Pamplona Bibles may 
be, there is still a greater surprise in 
store for the reader. In the Spencer 
collection of the New York Public Li- 



14 



AN&Q 



brary is preserved an elegantly executed 
Bible in French, of the early 14th cen 
tury. Its 846 extant illustrations out of 
an Original 930 turn out to be copied 
after the pictures in Sancho s Bible! The 
reproduction of an earlier book of so 
unsophisticated a type in 14th-century 
Paris calls for some explanation. An 
archaic model of this kind must have 
been treasured essentially as an heir 
loom. By means of a genealogical table 
Dr Bucher proposes a possible history 
for Sancho s Bible that would explain 
its presence in Paris at the beginning 
of the 14th century, so that it could 
serve as a prototype for the manuscript 
now in New York. Sancho VIII was 
succeeded as King of Navarre by his 
nephew, Thibaut IV of Champagne. The 
12th-century picture Bible may then 
have descended through the successive 
members of the Champagne family who 
held the kingship of Navarre to Louis 
X, who was King of France as well as 
of Navarre at the time of his death in 
1316. His daughter, Jeanne II Queen 
of Navarre, became the wife of Philippe 
II Count of Evreux, who was crowned 
King of Navarre in 1328. In this lineage 
various events might have been the oc 
casion for the execution of the New York 
Bible perhaps the marriage of Jeanne 
II in 1318 when she was a child of 
seven. 

From the point of view of the study 
of the Pamplona Bibles, the great thing 
is that the gothic manuscript can serve 
to aid in the reconstruction of missing 
scenes in Sancho s Bible. It has many 
other facets of interest as well, including 
the exceptional character of its French 
Biblical text. 

Despite the conscientious detail of the 
discussion in the chapters and footnotes 
devoted to the Pamplona Bibles and 
the New York codex, it turns out that 
the real description of each one of these 
manuscripts is to be found in the two 
Appendices - which, in fact, the reader 
is urged (p. xiii) to study first, before 
tackling the main text of the book, Ap 
pendix I consists of meticulous lists of 
the sources of the Biblical quotations 
and of the captions for the hagiographi- 
cal illustrations, together with references 
to the plates reproducing them. Ap 
pendix II transcribes all later notes in 
scribed on the fly-leaves, etc., of the 



three manuscripts, the sequence of 
scenes., including those at present miss 
ing in the two Pamplona Bibles, which 
are described according to the New 
York Bible, together with transcription 
of the Latin or French captions. Nearly 
all the gothic miniatures thus used for 
reconstruction are reproduced among the 
illustrations which are included in Vol 
ume I. When the plates forming Volume 
II can take up the illustrative cycle of 
the Pamplona Bibles, making detailed de 
scription unnecessary, Appendix II gives 
the scriptural source, transcribes the text 
of the captions, indicates the coloring, 
identifies the artist responsible, as well 
as describing the New York version of 
each scene. When the hagiographical 
cycles are reached, an English transla 
tion of the caption is added to the fore 
going data. 

As may be imagined, there is a cer 
tain amount of reiteration and redun 
dancy in the material contained in all 
of this apparatus, since some of the in 
formation in Appendix I is repeated in 
Appendix II, and the many methodical 
lists and analyses in the text proper and 
in the footnotes survey part of the same 
field, even if more briefly. The Appen 
dices, however, are a boon for the scholar 
who proposes to pursue the picture- 
cycles fully and in detail and it is for 
him that they are intended. 

The author s conscientious approach 
has impelled him to add to the basic 
studies of the three manuscripts which 
are central to the problem a chapter 
dealing with sculpture and monumental 
painting in Navarre from 1100 to 1230, 
as it might relate to the abortive work 
shop of the Pamplona illuminators, and 
also another chapter gallantly tackling 
the whole vast field of early Biblical 
picture-cycles. In the end he suggests 
that the Pamplona Bibles may have been 
based upon a cycle of the 9th to llth 
century, which "was itself based on a 
sixth-century archetype that could have 
originated in the West". These two 
chapters, suggestive though they are, 
by their very nature leave much for fu 
ture students to do which is not a 
discreditable thing. After all, such a 
study as the present one has as its 
essential purpose to scrutinize, analyze, 
describe and trace the central manu 
scripts, by text and illustration making 



September 1971 



them available to the world of medieval 
scholars, who are now enabled to carry 
on from there. Despite the extensive 
series of reproductions and the very 
substantial price this is not a "coffee- 
table book", and let us hope it is not 
promoted as one. It is a mass of mate 
rial for students of medieval art, icon 
ography, and history, and it belongs in 
the libraries which serve them. It is, 
in fact, exactly the kind of a book that 
a university press should publish. 

I suppose it is my duty to record that, 
despite the well-designed format and 
the earnest effort to produce a tool for 
the serious scholar, there are slips both 
textual and typographical which have 
been overlooked. One somehow has the 
feeling that the very bulk of the ma 
terial and, no doubt, the long-drawn-out 
processing of it, dulled the critical eye 
of author, editor, and proofreader on 
occasion. 

As textual slips I am thinking of the 
allusion, in the Preface, to the New 
York Public Library Bible as a "thir 
teenth-century copy" when the whole 
chapter describing it discusses the rea 
sons for dating it "between about 1317 
and 1326". Again, in the historical dis 
cussion in Chapter 1, the events follow 
ing the treaty of August 1204 (p. 6) 
are twice referred to as occurring in the 
first decades of the 12th century. The 
description of the Harburg Bible in 
Chapter 3 states (p. 29) that this codex 
contains 271 leaves, whereas the dia 
grammatic analysis of the gatherings 
shows on page 32 that there are 272 
leaves, but that folio 271 and 272 have 
been reversed in order. In this connec 
tion, it may be appropriate to protest 
the use of the word "pagination" to 
refer to the numbering of the leaves of 
the various manuscripts, rather than 
"foliation". It is only due to the dia 
grams that we can be certain that we 
have not to do here with a post-medi 
eval page-numbering. 

I suppose it is due to an editorial slip 
that the illustrations of three Beatus 
miniatures in illustrations 106-108 are 
captioned "Beati de Liebana", although 
this is not the case in other captions nor 
in the text. Proofreading oversights oc 
cur here and there: the reference on 
p. 53 to Pis. 55-69 should read Pis. 555- 
569; the numbering of page 188 is in 



verted to read 881; on page 23, the 1 , 
cross-reference to a particular page b&s 
never been filled in, etc. But these are 
small flaws in a massive and detailed 
undertaking. Dorothy Miner, Walters. 
Art Gallery, Baltimore 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

(Continued from p. 11) 

The series of "Finlandska Ge- 
stalter" issued by the Ekenas 
Tryckeri in Ekenas (Tammisaari) 
is represented most recently by 
Olof Mustelin, Nils Ludvig Arppe 
(1969; vol. VIII; 262 pp., illus., 
fold, genealogical table). Dr Mus 
telin, director of Aabo Akademis 1 
Bibliotek in Aabo, has written a 
perceptive and well documented 
biography of one of the more im 
portant personalities of 19th-cen 
tury Finland. The entire series, 1 
now represented by some two 
score volumes, is a basic collection 
on Finnish biography. 

The rich collections offered by 
Reclams Universalbibliothek have 
been expanded by the following 
volumes. Aristotle s Der Staat der 
Athener (translated and edited by 
Peter Dams; 93 pp.; no. 3010); 
Cicero s Laelius ("De Amicitia", 
translated and edited by Robert 
Feger; 87 pp.; no. 868); and 
Longos Daphnis und Chloe (trans 
lated and edited by Otto Schon- 
berger; 173 pp.; nos. 6911/12) 
represent ancient literature. Me 
diaeval German literature is en 
riched by an edition of Herzog , 



16 

Ernst- (translated and edited by 
Bernhard Sowinski; 427 pp.; nos. 
8352.57). Of English literature 
there are Bacons Essays (trans 
lated by Elisabeth Schiicking, ed 
ited by Levin L. Schiicking; 240 
pp.; nos, 8358-60) and Hobbes 
Leviathan (translated by J. P. 
Mayer with a commentary by 
Make Diesselhorst; 328 pp.; nos. 
8348-51), From German literature 
we have Schiller s Vom Patheti- 
schen und Erhabenen (edited by 
Klaus L. Berghahn; 157 pp.; nos. 
2731-31a); Grillparzers Gedichte 
(edited by Peter von Matt; 128 pp.; 
nos. 4401-02); Wilhelm Raabe s 
Des Reiches Krone (with a com 
mentary by Gerhard Muschwitz; 
78 pp.; no. 8368); and Haupt- 
mann s Fasching [und] Der Apostel 
(with a commentary by Karl S. 
Guthke; 62 pp.; no. 8362). Es 
pecially valuable is the new series 
of "Erlauterungen und Doku- 
mente", of which the latest is ed 
ited by Karl Pornbacher on Heb- 
bel s Maria Magdalena (94 pp.; 
no. 8105). Concluding the current 
batch of UB titles are Flaubert s 
Die Legende von Sankt Julian dem 
Gastfreien (translated and edited 
by Ernst Sander; 48 pp.; no. 6630); 
Henry James Schraubendrehungen 
(translated by Alice Seiffert, ed- 
" ited by Rudolf Siihnel; 152 pp.; 
nos. 8366-67); and Roman Ingar- 
den s Uber die Verantwortung, 
ihre ontologischen Fundamente 
(126 pp.; nos. 8363-64), 



Readers comments on the de 
sirability of a 10-year Cumula 
tive Index to AN&Q would be 
welcomed. 



AN&Q 

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED . 
(Continued from p. 2) 

Pickering, James H.; & Carlisle, E. Fred, 
comps. The Harper Reader. 530pp. 
N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1971. Paper, $? 

Potter, E. B. The Naval Academy Illus 
trated History of the United States 
Navy. Nearly 250 Illus. 299pp. N.Y.: 
Thomas Y. Crowell, 1971. $12.95 

Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Halj 
Lives: Studies Among the Tenements 
of New Jor k (1901). A New Preface 
by Charles A. Madison. With 100 
Photographs from the JAR Collection, 
the Museum of the City of New York. 
233pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 
1971. Paper, $4.50 

Ruth, Kent. Touring the Old West. Illus., 
incl. maps. 218pp. Brattleboro, Vt.: 
The Stephen Greene Press, 1971. $6.95 

Sauer, Carl Ortwin. Sixteenth Century 
North America: the Land and the 
People As Seen By the Europeans. 
Illus. 319pp. Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1971. $10.95 

(Scopes Trial). The World s Most Fa 
mous Court Trial: State of Tennessee 
v. John Thomas Scopes. Complete 
Stenographic Report . . . Including 
Speeches and Arguments of Attorneys. 
(Cincinnati, 1925). Illus. 339pp. N.Y.: 
Da Capo Press, 1971. $12.50 

Siegel, Howard; & Boedecker, Roger. A 
Survival Kit. Illus. 351pp. N.Y.: Har 
per & Row, 1971. Paper, $5.95 

Suits, Conrad B., ed. Stories for Writing. 
407pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1971. 
Paper, $4.50 

Thorp, Roderick; & Blake, Robert. The 
Music of Their Laughter: an American 
Album. 187 double-columned pp. N.Y.: 
Harper & Row, 1971. Paper, $3.95 

Uphaus, Robert W., ed. American Pro 
test in Perspective. 406pp. N.Y.: Har 
per & Row, 1971. $5. 

White, Stanford, by Charles C. Baldwin. 
(N.Y., 1931). Illus. 399pp. N.Y,: Da 
Capo Press, 1971. $15. 

Winthrop, John, Life and Letters of, 
by Robert C. Winthrop. (Boston, 
1864-67). 2 vols. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1971. $39.50 

Young, Alexander. Chronicles of the Pil 
grim Fathers of the Colony of Ply 
mouth, 1602-1625. (Boston, 1841). 
504pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. 
$22.50 




AMERICAN MOTES & QUERIES 

Volume X Number 2 October 1971 



if A ikpfr ? ; $ r^TV 

^\i\^ v t:: U-A I. i.j 

PUBLIC L[^ 
NOTE NOV151971 

QUERIES & REPLIES 
EDITORS NOTES AND READINGS 

1 ^^ w , 

BOOK REVIEW 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



SPECIAL ISSUE - 

"PRINTING IN DELAWARE" 
A Review Note 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Appleton, Le Roy H. American Indian 
Design and Decoration [formerly ti 
tled: Indian Art of the Americas] 
(1950). Profusely Illus. 275pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1971. $4. 

Bibliography of Old Norse-Icelandic 
Studies, 1970. Ed. by Hans Bekker- 
Nielsen. 80pp. Copenhagen: Munks- 
gaard, 1971. DanKr 30.00 

Bleiler, E. F., ed. Five Victorian Ghost 
Novels. [Mrs J. H. Riddell, The Un 
inhabited House; Wilhelm Meinhold, 
The Amber Witch; Amelia B. Ed 
wards, Monsieur Maurice; Vernon Lee, 
A Phantom Lover; Charles Willing 
Beale, The Ghost of Guir House]. 
421pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. 
Paper, $3.50 

Bradford, Alden, ed. Speeches of the 
Governors of Massachusetts, 17(35- 
7775 [and] the Answers of the House 
of Representatives Thereto . , . (Bos 
ton, 1818). 424pp. N.Y.: Da Capo 
Press, 1971. $19.50 

Bing, Samuel. Artistic America, Tiffantj 
Glass, and Art Nouveau. Introd. by 
Robert Koch. Profusely Illus. 260pp. 
Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 
[1970]. Paper, $4.95 

Coffin, Tristram Potter. Uncertain Glory: 
Folklore and the American Revolution. 
Illus. 270pp. Detroit: Folklore Asso 
ciates [Gale Research Co.], 1971. $7. 

(Compton Family). Blackwood, James 
R. The House at College Avenue: the 
Comptons at Wooster, 1891-1913. 
265pp. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT 
Press, 1971. $2.95 



Earle, Alice Morse. Two Centuries of 
Costume in America, 1620-1820. (N.Y., 
1903). Profusely Illus. 2 vols. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1971. Paper, each 
vol. $3.75 

(Evolution). The World s Most Famous 
Court Trial: State of Tennessee v. 
John Thomas Scopes. Complete Steno 
graphic Report . . . 1925. (Cincin 
nati, 1925). Illus. 339pp. N.Y.: Da 
Capo Press, 1971. $12.50 

Fellowes, C. H. The Tattoo Book. In 
trod. by William C. Sturtevant. 116 
2-color Illus. 144pp. Princeton: The 
Pyne Press, 1971. $8.95 

Givry, Grillot de. Witchcraft, Magic, & 
Alchemy. Trans, by J. Courtnay Locke. 
(N.Y., 1931). 376 Illus. 416pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1971. Paper, $4. 

Grosz, George. Love Above All and 
Other Drawings. 120 Illus. 119pp. 
N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. $2.50 

(Huxley, Aldous). Birnbaum, Milton. 
Aldous Huxley s Quest for Values. 
230pp. Knoxville: University of Ten 
nessee Press, 1971. $6.95 

Kakonis, Tom E., et al., eds. Strategies 
in Rhetoric from Thought to Symbol. 
451pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1971. 
Paper, $5.50 

Krohn, Ernest C. Missouri Music ( 1924 ) . 
[With a new introduction, supplemen 
tary list of Missouri composers, etc., 
and a bibliography of the writings and 
compositions of Ernest C. Krohn]. xl, 
380pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. 
$15. 

(Continued on p. 32) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher, Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75$ each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies, and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, and Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Book Review Index; in 
cluded in The Year s Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
in the Annual ML A International Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSISTANT EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

"PRINTING IN DELAWARE": A 
REVIEW AND ADDITIONS* 

MR EVALD RINK, head of the Im 
prints Department of the Eleu- 
therian Mills Historical Library in 
Wilmington, has compiled this use 
ful checklist of 18th-century Dela 
ware imprints. It contains 566 en 
tries, making it one of the shortest 
checklists of state imprints; still, it 
is a very considerable advance 
over the 395 items listed by Doro 
thy Lawson Hawkins in her 1928 
Master s Essay done at the Colum 
bia University School of Library 
Service, the first attempt to record 
all Delaware imprints of this peri 
od. Mr Rink was unable to locate 
any copies for sixty-five of his en 
tries, and it seems likely that a 
number of these were either never 
printed at all or were printed after 
1800. 

The checklist is prefaced by a 
well-written and well-documented 
history of printing in Delaware and 
a brief survey of the books printed 
there in the 18th century. About 
one third of the items printed dur 
ing the forty years covered by this 
checklist are official state docu 



ments. Religious publications make 
up the next largest group, with 
some ninety items, and almanacs 
are close behind, with 85 entries. 
Easily the most famous work in 
the checklist is the first edition of 
John Filson s Discovery, Settle 
ment and Present State of Ken- 
tucke (Wilmington: James Adams, 
1784). 

The Stinehour Press has done its 
usual fine job of printing this well- 
designed book. It is remarkably 
free of typographical errors, and it 
is well indexed, except for the in 
troductory essay, which is not in 
cluded in the index. Following the 
usual practice for checklists of 
state imprints, there is no collation 
by signature, and the pagination 
is given according to American Li 
brary Association rules. A refresh 
ing change from tradition is the 
inclusion of the format of the book, 
but unfortunately the description 
of the size of the leaf has been 
sacrificed. 

Mr Rink records locations of 
copies in seventy-nine libraries as 
well as a few private collections. 
An attempt is made to record all 
copies in Delaware libraries and 
all in the American Antiquarian 
Society, the Library of Congress, 
and the Library Company of Phila 
delphia. Although no attempt is 
made to record more than three 
copies of any one title, more lo 
cations, ranging up to fourteen, are 
often given. In giving locations of 
copies Mr Rink does not always 
list the holdings of the more obvi 
ous libraries. For example, he re 
cords copies in the library of the 
Brooklyn Academy of Medicine 
(now part of the Collections of 



RINK, Evald, comp. Printing in Dela 
ware, 1761-1800: a Checklist. 214pp. 
Wilmington: Eleutherian Mills Histori 
cal Library, 1969. $9.50. 



20 

the Downstate Medical Research 
Center Library), and the National 
Library of Medicine, but not in 
the New York Academy of Medi 
cine or the College of Physicians 
in Philadelphia, both of which 
have extensive holdings of Ameri 
cana. The holdings of three Epis 
copal libraries are recorded, but 
the library of the General Theo 
logical Seminary in New York, one 
of the largest, is not among them. 
Several other theological libraries 
have their holdings listed, but the 
library of the Union Theological 
Seminary, perhaps the greatest of 
all, is left out. There are some other 
curious anomalies. The symbol "N" 
is given for the New York State 
Library, but only one entry has 
this symbol after it, this despite 
the fact that the New York State 
Library has some twenty 18th- 
century Delaware imprints. On the 
other side of the coin, the New- 
York Historical Society is given 
more credit than is its due. Judging 
from the checklist, this library 
would seem to have quite a re 
spectable collection of early Dela 
ware imprints, but many of these 
turn out to be microform copies. 
One of the few that it does have, 
Anton Boehme s Spiritual improve 
ment of temporal affliction, 1785, 
is not recorded as being there. The 
only copy recorded by Mr Rink 
is in the library of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania. 

The symbol "PPM" is given for 
the defunct Mercantile Library in 
Philadelphia, but there is no men 
tion of the fact that most, if not 
all, of the rare books in this library 
were acquired by the Free Library 
of Philadelphia. Both recorded 
copies of a 1777 state document, 
Rink no. 107, are incomplete. One 



AN&Q 

lacks the title page; the other is 
said to have the title page and two 
other pages supplied by photo 
copies. Whence came the photo 
copy of the title page? It is evident 
that there must be another copy 
somewhere, or at least a genuine 
title page from which the photo 
copy was made. Similarly, the is 
sues of the Delaware Gazette for 
1790 are said to be on microfilm 
at the Delaware State Archives 
and partly on microfilm at the His 
torical Society of Delaware. 

In the Foreword, page seven, 
Mr Rink states, "Whenever pos 
sible the entries have references to 
bibliographical sources where they 
have been previously recorded". 
This ideal is not borne out in prac 
tice, however, as the citations are 
limited to Evans, with occasional 
Bristol, Hawkins, Sabin, Heartman, 
or Drake numbers. Austin numbers 
are not given for the medical 
books; Karpinski is not cited for 
the mathematical books; Welch is 
not cited for children s books, etc., 
etc. For Filson s Kentucke only the 
Evans number is given, and only 
eight copies are located. One is 
not told which copies contain the 
map, although this was not printed 
in Delaware. Perhaps the best bib 
liographical description of this 
book is in the Church catalog, no. 
1202. The Church copy, one of the 
few to contain the map, is now, 
of course, in the Huntington Li 
brary; it is one of the copies not 
recorded by Mr Rink. He does 
give a bit more information about 
this work in his introductory essay, 
pp. 18-19, but there he gives only 
two references, both rather old. 

The following notes, which list 
a few additions, a few added cop 
ies, a few secondary sources con- 



October 1971 



21 



tainixig good descriptions, and a 
few differences of opinion concern 
ing format, would seem to suggest 
that there is a need for still more 
research in this area. 

1) Wesley, John. 

A sermon on the death of the Rev. 
Mr. George Whitefield. Preached at 
the Chapel, in Tottenham-Court- 
Road, and at the Tabernacle near 
Moor-fields, on Sunday, November 
18, 1770 . . . Wilmington, Printed 
by James Adams, in Market-street, 
1771. 18 p. 8vo. There is a copy 
in the Union Theological Seminary 
Library in New York, 

2) Smith, Robert. 

The bruised reed bound up, and 
the smoaking flax inflamed . . . 
Wilmington, Printed by James 
Adams, 1772. 60 p. 8vo. This is 
now Bristol no. B3488a; it was pre 
viously recorded by Sabin, no. 
83795. There is a copy in the Prince 
ton Theological Seminary Library. 

3) Delaware. Governor. 

By his excellency Caesar Rodney, 
Esq; President ... of the Dela 
ware State, a proclamation [pro 
hibiting the export of wheat, flour 
and other provisions until the fol 
lowing September] the third day 
o May, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-nine. Wilmington, Printed 
by James Adams [1779] Broadside; 
35 x 21 cm. There are two copies 
of this broadside in the Franklin 
Collection at Yale. According to the 
National Union Catalog, others are 
to be found at the Library of Con 
gress, the Delaware Historical So 
ciety, the Wilmington Institute, the 
American Antiquarian Society and 
the Historical Society of Pennsyl 
vania. Curiously this is not listed 
in the checklist, although Rink no. 
122 is rather similar and many of 
the same locations are given for it. 

4) Dilworth, Thomas. 

The schoolmasters assistant: be 
ing a compendium of arithmetic, 
both practical and theoretical. In 
five parts . . . Wilmington, Printed 



... by Bonsai and Niles [178-] 
192 p. According to the National 
Union Catalog there are copies at 
the Library of Congress, the Uni 
versity of Virginia, and the Clem 
ents Library of the University of 
Michigan. 

5) Three small type specimen sheets 
printed by James Adams in 1785. 
These, together with Adams manu 
script proposals for printing the 
Journals of the Continental Con 
gress, are contained in vol. 46 of 
the Papers of the Continental Con 
gress formerly in the Manuscript 
Division of the Library of Congress 
and now in the National Archives 
(microfilm M247, Roll 60). They 
were described by Prof. Edmund 
Dandridge, Jr. in Studies in Bib 
liography, II (1949-50) pp. 189- 
196. According to Prof. Dandridge, 
"Adams offered samples of Latin 
paragraphs in three kinds of Roman 
and Italic sizes, Pica, Small Pica, 
and Long Primer, and spoke ad 
miringly of his type as follows: *As 
I have lately imported from London 
a general Assortment of Types, 
Specimens of such as I suppose 
you will have the Work printed 
on you have here enclosed, think 
there is not a Printer on the Con 
tinent better provided for that 
Work If a larger Size Letter than 
you have here inclos d might be 
pitched on, I have such."* These 
proposals, submitted by nine print 
ers, throw much new light on Amer 
ican printing practices of the late 
18th century. 

6) [Tilton, James] 

Political observations, addressed 
to the people of Delaware. By 
Timoleon [pseud.] . . . Wilming 
ton: Printed by Frederick Craig 
and Co., 1787. 42 p. 12mo. There 
is a copy in the Rosenbach Foun 
dation in Philadelphia; it has a 
manuscript note at the top of the 
title page: "8. Oct. 1787". 

7) Patriotic Society of New Castle 
County. 

Circular. The Patriotic Society of 
New-Castle County, in the State 
of Delaware, to the Patriotic So- 



22 



AN&Q 



cieties throughout the United States. 
Fellow Citizens 

When we consider the cause for 
which we braved the storm of 
British tyranny . . . Signed by Or 
der of the Society 

James McCullough, President 

(attest.) 

John Bird, Secretary 
This undated broadside, not seen 
by the reviewer, is in the Rare Book 
Division of the Library of Congress. 
There are two entries in Mr Rink s 
checklist, nos. 360 and 361, for this 
society, both items published in 
1794 and both signed by the same 
persons. It seems likely that the 
above broadside was printed in the 
same year, or at least not long after. 

8 ) Dilworth, Thomas. 

The schoolmasters assistant: be 
ing a compendium of arithmetic 
. . . Wilmington, Printed and sold 
by Peter Brynberg, 1796. Although 
this title is listed by Mr Rink, no. 
403 with nine copies recorded, 
there were, in fact, two different 
editions of this work published in 
the same year. One has been com 
pletely reset and has some type or 
naments on the title page where 
the other has only rules. The two 
editions have not been distinguished 
by Mr Rink. 

9) Seven Sages. 

Roman stories; or the history of 
the seven wise masters of Rome . . . 
Fiftieth edition. Wilmington, Print 
ed and sold by Peter Brynberg, 
1796. 103 p. This was described 
by the late d Alte Welch and is 
now Bristol no. B9700. There is a 
copy in the private collection of 
Ludwig Ries of Forest Hills, N.Y. 

10) Valentine and Orson. 

The renowned history of Valen 
tine and Orson; the two sons of 
the Emperor of Greece. Wilmington, 
Printed and sold by Peter Brynberg, 
1796. 104 p. 18mo. There is a copy 
in the Free Library of Philadelphia, 
acquired in 1968. Mr Rink lists this 
work under the year 1797 (no. 476) 
on the basis of Evans no. 33110. 
As no copy dated this year is known 
to exist, this entry can now rather 
safely be considered a ghost. 



11) Webster, Noah. 

The prompter; or A commentary 
on common sayings and subjects, 
which are full of common sense, 
the best sense in the world . . . 
Wilmington, Printed & sold by 
Peter Brynberg, 1797. 96 p. 18mo. 
This is listed in Skeel s bibliography 
of Noah Webster, no. 673. There 
is a copy in the New York Public 
Library lacking pages 29-32. 

12) The town and country almanac, for 
the year of Our Lord, 1799. Being 
the third after leap-year . . . Wil 
mington, Printed and sold by Bonsai 
& Niles, Market-Street. [1798] 42 
p. A group of seven of these early 
Delaware almanacs, the earliest be 
ing for the year 1799, was sold in 
the Samuel W. Pennypacker sale, 
Philadelphia, Henkels, 1905-09, pt. 
7, lot 304. What is apparently the 
identical group of almanacs reap 
peared at the Swann Galleries sale 
no. 851, 13 May 1971, lot 107. 
Undoubtedly they now repose on 
the shelves of a library in Delaware. 
The earliest of these almanacs re 
corded by Mr Rink is for the year 
1800. 

13) Webster, Noah. 

The American spelling book, con 
taining an easy standard of pronun 
ciation, being the first part, of a 
gramatical (sic) institute of the 
English language, to which, is ad 
ded, an appendix containing a moral 
catechism. Wilmington, Bonsai & 
Niles, 1798. This edition of Web 
ster s well-known work seems to be 
unrecorded in any bibliography, and 
no copy is known to exist. It is, 
however, listed in the copyright rec 
ords for the State of Delaware kept 
in the Office of the Clerk, United 
States District Court, Wilmington, 
Delaware, docket D. C. L. N., Bin 
no. 12; see p. 16, entry no. 3 (The 
reviewer would like to thank Mr 
Edward G. Pollard, Clerk of the 
Court, for searching out these rec 
ords). The fact that a work was 
copyrighted is, of course, no guar 
antee that it was ever printed. Very 
few 18th-century Delaware im 
prints were ever copyrighted, how 
ever, so it seems likely that a 



October 1971 



23 



printer would not have gone to the 
trouble o obtaining the copyright 
unless he were fairly certain of 
actually printing it. Furthermore, 
according to Skeel s bibliography, 
many editions of this work are 
known today in only one or two 
copies. It seems likely, therefore, 
that there were other editions of 
which no copies have survived. 
Apparently no bibliographers have 
consulted these copyright records. 
Their existence was noted by Mr 
Martin A. Roberts in 1937, but Mr 
Roberts merely indicated that the 
records were said not to be in con 
dition to be transferred to the Li 
brary of Congress; see his "Records 
in the Copyright Office of the Li 
brary of Congress Deposited by the 
United States District Courts, 1790- 
1870", Papers of the Bibliographical 
Society of America, XXXI (1937), 
81-101. Prof. G. Thomas Tanselle 
did not mention these records at 
all in his otherwise comprehensive 
survey, "Copyright Records and the 
Bibliographer", Studies in Bibliog 
raphy, 22 (1969), 77-124. 

14) Brynberg, Peter. 

Peter Brynberg s catalogue of 
books, printed in his office, and for 
sale wholesale & retail. Broadside. 
This undated broadside is in the 
manuscript division of the New York 
State Libraiy in Albany, MS 11006, 
foliated 162 in manuscript and 165 
by handstamp. It has a manuscript 
note, "Sept. 1801 Wilmington Del/* 
This seems to be a later addition, 
however. The broadside contains a 
short-title list of fifteen books and 
twenty-five "chap-books," all of 
which can be identified. As the 
most recent books on the list were 
printed in 1800, it seems likely the 
broadside was printed in that year. 
Surely, if the list were printed in 
1801, Brynberg would have listed 
some books printed or in press 
that year. 

15) Dilworth, Thomas. 

A new guide to the English 
tongue; in five parts . . , Wilming 
ton, Printed by Bonsai and Niles 
[n.d.] 120 p. 12mo. This undated 
book seems to be unrecorded and 



may not fall within the scope of 
Mr Rink s checklist. The firm of 
Bonsai and Niles was in existence 
from 1796 to the end of 1804, so 
that there is at least a fifty per 
cent chance that this book was 
printed in the 1 8th century. There 
is a copy in the Free Library of 
Philadelphia, acquired in 1957 from 
the Midland Book Co. 

The following are locations of cop 
ies of books which are listed in the 
checklist, but with the note "No 
copy known". 

Rink 78. Fox, Thomas. 

The Wilmington almanack, 
or ephemeris . . . for the 
year of our Lord, 1775 . . . 
Wilmington, Printed and sold 
by James Adams [1774] 
There is a copy in the Boston 
Public Library. 

Rink 124. Delaware. Supreme Court. 

Delaware State, ss. Samuel 
Patterson, of New-Castle, in 
the Delaware State aforesaid, 
Esq.: Brigadier General of 
Militia, came before me . . . 
[David Kinney, Esq., one of 
the justices of the Supreme 
Court, for said State] and 
being duly sworn . . . [ex 
plains how public funds in 
his care happened to fall into 
the hands of the British. 
Wilmington, Printed by James 
Adams, 1779]. 4 p. There is 
a copy in the Benjamin 
Franklin Collection at Yale 
University. 

Rink 143. A mournful lamentation on 
the untimely death of paper 
money: a native of North- 
America, who died ... in 
. . . 1781 . . . Wilmington? 
Printed by Sam. Adams, in 
the 10th year of his age, and 
1st month of his apprentice 
ship, 1781. A photocopy of 
this broadside is in the New 
York Public Library; the 
original is in the Benjamin 
Franklin Collection at Yale 



24 

University. As Mr Rink notes, 
there is some doubt whether 
this work was actually print 
ed in Delaware. 

Rink 181. Delaware, Laws. 

Delaware State, November 
15, 1784. Public notice. 
Whereas by a resolution of 
the honourable the Continen 
tal Congress . . . have called 
upon this State to make up 
their quota of a deficiency 
of moneys. In conformity 
thereto, this State have passed 
a law, dated at Dover June 
26, 1784, ordering and au 
thorizing three collectors for 
the State . . . Wilmington, 
Printed by James Adams 
1784. Broadside. 26 x 17.5 
cm. There is a copy in the 
Benjamin Franklin Collection 
at Yale University. 

Rink 552. A new riddle book, or Food 
for the mind. Containing rid 
dles &c. for the amusement 
of youth. By Peter Puzzle, 
Esq. Wilmington, James Wil 
son, 1803. Mr Rink dates 
this 1800? and lists it on the 
basis of an advertisement in 
another book printed by Wil 
son. It was not printed, how 
ever, until 1803. There is a 
copy at Yale University. 

The reviewer found a number of 
additional copies of books previ 
ously thought unique, or of which 
but two copies were known, but it 
would be too tedious to list them 
here. It might be worth adding a 
few comments, however, on some 
of Mr Rink s descriptions. 

No, 6, Thomas Dilworth s A new 
guide to the English tongue, 
1762. Mr Rink gives no ref 
erences to any secondary lit 
erature for this. The only 
known copy, in the Columbia 
University Library, lacks pages 
133-140 and all after p. 142. 
Mr Rinlc gives the pagination 



AN&Q 

as 3 p.l., 154 p. Also, he indi 
cates by three dots that some 
thing has been left out be 
tween the words tongue and 
in five parts on the title page; 
only a colon, in fact, separates 
these words. 

No. 12, Vol. II of the Laws of the 
Government of New-Castle, 
Kent and Sussex, upon Dela 
ware, 1763. This is actually 
the first part of an early book 
in parts, although the connec 
tion between the different parts 
is not brought out by the 
checklist. The other parts are 
nos. 17, 18, 32, 37, 44, 48, 49, 
64, 71, 72, 89, and 90. The 
pagination and the signatures 
run continuously. According to 
the checklist, there is but one 
library with a complete set of 
these parts, that of the Associ 
ation of the Bar of the City 
of New York. There is another 
complete set, however, in the 
New York State Library in 
Albany. This set is of particu 
lar interest because it is from 
the library of George Read, 
signer of the Declaration of 
Independence and Chief Jus 
tice of Delaware. It has his 
autograph, his bookplate, and, 
on many pages, his interesting 
manuscript notes. There is a 
microfilm of this volume in 
the New York Public Library. 

No. 21, A little looking-glass for the 
times, 1764. Although the 
N. Y. Public Library is not 
listed among the libraries hav 
ing copies of this work, it has 
two copies, one on a coarse 
brown paper, the other on a 
good white paper. 

No. 23, Gervase Markham s The citi 
zen and countryman s experi 
enced farrier, 1764. Here one 
is referred to an article by 
Dorothy Hawkins on James 
Adams and to Evans no. 9718. 
By far the best description of 
this work, however, is in Dr 
F. N. L. Poynter s bibliography 



October 1971 



25 



of Markham, p. 190-193. Dr 
Poynter gives the format as 
8vo; Mr Rink gives it as 16mo. 
Dr Poynter seems to be correct. 

Nos. 99 and 106, These two entries list 
paper money issued in 1776 
and 1777. Mr Rink merely 
lists the notes which are in 
the Delaware Historical So 
ciety, which has a rather in 
complete collection. There is 
no reference to the standard 
work on colonial paper money, 
Eric Newman s The early pa 
per money of America, where, 
on pp. 82-84, are described 
all of the notes printed in 
Delaware in 1776 and 1777. 
The American Numismatic So 
ciety has a sheet of eight bills 
issued in 1776 besides various 
single bills issued in 1776 and 
1777. The Library of Congress 
has a sheet of eight bills is 
sued in 1777 besides several 
single bills issued in 1776 and 
1777. Undoubtedly there are 
other specimens of early Dela 
ware paper money in other 
libraries. 

No. 134, Bible. N.T., 1781. Two copies 
are located and only the Evans 
number is given. Surely there 
should have been a reference 
to The English Bible in Amer 
ica by Margaret Hills, where 
one learns that there is a copy 
in the Library of Congress as 
well. 

No. 303, Henry Colesberry s Tentamen 
medicum inaugurale de epi- 
lepsia, 1792. Mr Rink gives 
only the Evans number and 
locates copies at the National 
Library of Medicine and the 
Library of Philadelphia. This 
is Austin no, 493; additional 
copies are to be found in the 
Library Company of Phila 
delphia. This is Austin no. 
493; additional copies are to 
be found in the libraries of the 
New York Academy of Medi 
cine, the College of Physicians 
in Philadelphia and the Uni 
versity of Pennsylvania. 



No. 339, John Spurrier s The practical 
farmer, 1793. Mr Rink gives 
only the Evans number. This 
is also Sabin no. 89930, and 
it is most fully described in 
E. Millicent Sowerby s catalog 
of Jefferson s library, vol. 1, 
p. 329, no, 702. 

No. 341, Girolamo Zanchfs The doc 
trine of absolute predestination 
stated and asserted , . ., Wil 
mington, Printed at Adams s 
Press, 1793, There is no men 
tion of the interesting note at 
the foot of p. 148 of this 
work: "The first twenty-four 
pages of this book, being done 
at a different printing-office, 
the public will excuse its not 
being executed so well as I 
could wish. James Adams/ 

No. 386, The blossoms of morality, 
1796. Mr Rink gives the au 
thor of this anonymous work 
as Arnaud Berquin, noting 
that Evans, no. 30277, assigns 
the work to Samuel Cooper. 
Margaret Weedon of the Bod 
leian Library has shown on 
rather good evidence, how 
ever, that the author was 
Richard Johnson, 1734-1793; 
see "Richard Johnson and the 
successors to John Newberry," 
The Library, 5th ser., 4 (1949 / 
50), 25-63. Both d Alte Welch 
and Judith St. John accept this 
authorship. 

No, 392, Defoe s Robinson Crusoe* 
1796. Only the Evans number 
is given. This book is rather 
more fully described in Welch 
and in Brigham s bibliography 
of American editions of Robin 
son Crusoe, no. 35. 

No. 407, The history of little Goody 
Two-Shoes, 1796. Again, only 
the Evans number is given. 
This book is described in 
Welch and in Miss Sowerby s 
catalog of the Rosenbach col 
lection of children s books. 
Miss Sowerby notes that the 
Rosenbach copy, now in the 
Free Library of Philadelphia., 



26 

was issued in the wallpaper 
binding for which Peter Bryn- 
berg, the printer, was famous. 

No. 412, John MacGowan s The life oj 
Joseph, the son of Israel, 

1796. Only the Evans number 
is given. This too is fully de 
scribed in the Rosenbach cata 
log. 

No. 420, George Washington s An ad 
dress to the people of the 
United States, 1796. Only the 
Evans number is given, the 
work is described as a quarto, 
and five copies are located. 
This is also listed by Sabin, 
no. 101568, who calls the book 
an octavo, locates five addi 
tional copies, and says, "the 
copy in the Library of Con 
gress is in large paper format, 
in folio . . ." Sabin seems to 
be wrong about the format, 
and the copy in the Library 
of Congress seems to be really 
a large paper quarto copy. 

No. 427, The Holt/ Bible abridged, 

1797. This is described in the 
checklist as a 24mo. Miss 
Sowerby, who gives a very 
full description of it in the 
Rosenbach catalog, no. 228, 
calls it a 16mo, 

No. 452, James Hervey s The beauties 
of Hervey, 1797. This is a 
reissue of Rink no. 408 with 
the first gathering reset, a fact 
not mentioned in the checklist. 

No. 472, The history of Tom Thumb, 
1797. Only the Evans number 
is given. This book is also 
described in Welch, Sabin and 
the Rosenbach catalog. Miss 
Sowerby adds the interesting 
note that "this book is a toy 
book measuring 3Vs x 2 inches, 
a form for which James Adams 
was famous". 

No. 477, John Vaughan s Observations 
on animal electricity, 1797. 
Only the Evans number is 
given. This is also Sabin no, 
98686 and Austin no. 1975. 



AN&Q 

Besides the five copies located 
in the checklist there are copies 
in the New York State Library, 
the Library of Congress, the 
library of the New York Acad 
emy of Medicine and that of 
the Harvard School of Medi- 



No 490, John Cough s Practical arith- 
metick, 1798. Only the Evans 
number is given, and copies 
are located at the Library of 
Congress and the Huntington 
Library. This work has been 
fully described by Karpinski, 
p. 201, who locates additional 
copies at the New York Public 
Library, the Library Company 
of Philadelphia, and the Amer 
ican University Library. There 
does not seem to be a copy 
in the New York Public Li 
brary, however. 

No. 511, Zachariah Jess s The American 
tutor s assistant, improved, 
1799. Only the Evans number 
is given. This too is fully de 
scribed by Karpinski, p. 123, 
who records additional copies 
at the New York Public Library 
and the Franklin Institute in 
Philadelphia. There is also a 
copy at Rutgers University 
lacking pp. 3-10. 

No. 566, The Wilmingtoniad, 1800. Only 
the Evans number is given, 
and the format is given as a 
16mo. This work is also listed 
in Sabin, no. 104590 and in 
Miss Sowerby s catalog of Jef 
ferson s library, vol. 3, p. 331, 
no. 3274. Miss Sowerby gives 
the format as 12mo. 

Probably no bibliography such 
as this is ever complete, and it is 
no reflection on Mr Rink that he 
missed some things. Everyone does. 
Still, it does seem that he not only 
relied rather too heavily on second 
hand information for imprints out 
side of Delaware but he made too 
little use of the printed bibliog- 



October 1971 



27 



raphies and catalogs that should 
have been available to him on 
home grounds. What is surprising 
is that despite the efforts of Bristol, 
Shipton, and Mooney and others, 
so many 18th-century American im 
prints should still languish unno 
ticed on the shelves of the libraries 
where one would most expect to 
find them. No doubt more unre 
corded Delaware imprints will 
come to light in due course. Surely 
Mr Rink will wish to continue with 
his work and will prepare a revised 
edition soon. 

Philip J. Weimerskirch 

The Edward G. Miner Library 
University of Rochester 



QUERIES 



Unpublished Whitman prose 
The Feinberg Collection, Library 
of Congress, obtained last year 
three scraps of paper, pasted 
together to form a sheet, with a 
narrow slip attached. On this, in 
the familiar handwriting of Walt 
Whitman, was a heavily revised 
paragraph which I cannot find in 
his Prose Works 1892, ed. Floyd 
Stovall (New York University 
Press, 1963, 1964), nor elsewhere. 
Can any reader identify this prose 
passage as published Whitman (I 
have deleted the cancelled words ) : 
"Alas! while how near how in 
finitely far off & ever eluding us is 
the solving of the problem! The 
old, old puzzle indeed what is 
the motif of our very identity of 
our soul, this strange medley of 
birth, training or want of training, 
circumstance, passion, ennui we 



call life - what else is it all but a 
mockery, a tragic joke? Do we, 
indeed as most believe, but drift 
aimlessly? Who, who shall cast 
even the objective reckoning, the 
reckoning of these ships on bound 
less seas the ship of These States 
the ship of Myself, Yourself 
the ship of To-day, so great, 
majestic, crammed with values, 
and all the accumulated lores & 
lives? Whither are we all sailing? 
What are these shoals beneath, 
that touch the keel so oft with 
deadly grating noise? What are 
those rocks there In the distance? 
What, finally, is the end, the port 
of destination? Is there a port of 
destination?" William White, 
Detroit, Michigan 

Lane Coopers Method of Con- 
cording In the preface of A 

Concordance of Boethius (Cam 
bridge, Mass., 1928, p. ix) Lane 
Cooper refers to his method of 
concording as described in A Con 
cordance to the Works of Horace 
(Washington, 1916). There is, 
however, only a brief description 
in his Horace concordance with an 
even shorter footnote mentioning 
these printed instructions (p. vii). 
A detailed account of Cooper s 
method was given in a leaflet in 
serted in this concordance. Can 
anyone tell me where this by now 
historic leaflet on concording is 
available? Hartmut Breitkreuz, 
Gottingen, Germany. 



AN&Q will resume its columns 
in their usual proportions in 
November. 



28 

REPLIES 

-Jesus H. Christ 9 (IX: 104) I 
have long thought "H" stood for 
Harold, and derived from the 
Lord s Prayer: "Our Father who 
art in heaven, Harold be thy 
name". A biologist colleague offers 
a different origin: He says H 
stands for haploid, a condition in 
which only half the normal num 
ber of chromosomes are present, as 
when an egg develops without 
being fertilized by a sperm, The 
egg has 23 chromosomes and the 
sperm 23; together they produce 
the normal (diploid) complement 
of 46. Since Mary was a virgin the 
egg that became Jesus had only 23 
chromosomes and he, therefore, 
was haploid. I ll bet you get more 
replies to this query than for any 
other. Lawrence Badash, Dept 
of History, University of Califor 
nia, Santa Barbara 

The "H" in the name is from 

Greek. The Christian symbol IHS 
represents the Greek lesous Jesus. 
In time the long V (H) was mis 
taken by people in the Latin cul 
ture for a capital H. Consequently 
various phrases arose using these 
initials: Jesus Hominum Salvator 
(Saviour of men); In Hoc Signo 
(vinces) in this sign (thou shalt 
conquer); In Hac (cmce) Solus in 
this (cross) is salvation. 
Jerome Drost, SUM at Buffalo 

Sedan fire (IX: 104) This foe 
was part of annual festivities com 
memorating Germany s defeat of 
the French and capture of Napo 
leon III at Sedan on 2 September 
1870, Though at one time common 
throughout Germany, the custom 



AN&Q 

has long since been discontinued. 
The origin of the fire itself is 
obscure, but may perhaps be 
traced to the similar and incom 
parably older summer-solstice 
fires, still occasionally to be found 
in the more remote mountains of 
German-speaking areas. Frank 
K. Robinson, Dept of English, Uni 
versity of Tennessee, Knoxville 

"A seamless web" (IX: 104) 
The phrase occurs in the second 
edition of The History of English 
Law Before the Time of Edward I 
(Cambridge: The University Press, 
1898; reprinted, 1952), by Sir 
Frederick Pollock and Frederic 
William Mainland. Chapter I, a 
new chapter written by Maitland 
for the second edition, begins with 
this paragraph: "Such is the unity 
of all history that any one who 
endeavours to tell a piece of it 
must feel that his first sentence 
tears a seamless web. The oldest 
utterance of English law that has 
come down to us has Greek words 
in it: words such as bishop, priest 
and deacon. If we would search 
out the origins of Roman law, we 
must study Babylon: this at least 
was the opinion of the great 
Romanist of our own day. A 
statute of limitations must be set; 
but it must be arbitrary. The web 
must be rent; but, as we rend it, 
we may watch the whence and 
whither of a few of the severed 
and ravelling threads which have 
been making a pattern too large 
for any man s eye". Anthony 
W. ShippSy Indiana University Li- 
braries, Bloomington 

Professor Archer Taylor of 

the University of California, Berke 
ley, offered the same quotation. 



October 1971 



29 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

4th Triennial Prize for Bibliogra 
phy, The International League o 
Antiquarian Booksellers, an inter 
national association grouping to 
gether the National Associations of 
Antiquarian Booksellers, awards 
every three years a prize worth, as 
a rule, US-$75Q.OO to the author 
of the best work published or un 
published, of learned bibliography 
or of research into the history of 
the book or of typography, and 
books of general interest on the 
subject. The competition is open, 
without restriction, but only en 
tries submitted in accordance with 
these conditions will be considered. 
Entries must be submitted in a lan 
guage which is universally used. 
A work already published is eli 
gible only if its publication oc 
curred within the three years im 
mediately preceding the closing 
date for submission, or if it has an 
imprint bearing a date within those 
three years. Entries in the form of 
a specialized catalogue of one or 
more books destined for sale are 
not eligible, nor periodicals or pub 
lic library catalogues. The judges 
will be composed of: 1) the Presi 
dent of the International League 
of Antiquarian Booksellers; 2) the 
Secretary of the Triennial Prize; 
3) a member nominated by the 
League Committee; 4) three per 
sons whose bibliographical knowl 
edge is generally recognized. These 
last three, chosen from countries 
speaking different languages, will 
be helped by specialists, appointed 
as necessary. Three copies of each 
work whether published or unpub 
lished must be deposited at the 



office of the Secretary of the Tri 
ennial Prize (Monsieur G. A. 
Deny, rue du Chene 5, B-1QQO 
Brussels, Belgium) at the very 
latest sixteen months before date 
of award. Next award: Spring of 
1973. Last date for submitting en 
tries: 31st December 1971. For fur 
ther information write Leona Ros- 
tenberg, Vice-President, Antiquari 
an Booksellers Association of Amer 
ica, Shop 2, Concourse, 630 Fifth 
Ave., N.Y., N.Y. 10020. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky and will be con 
tinued in subsequent issues. 



BOOK REVIEW 

PROETZ, Victor. The Astonishment of 
Words: an Experiment in the Compari 
son of Languages. Foreword by Alastair 
Reid; afterword by Charles Nagel. xii 
-f 187pp. Source index. Austin: Uni 
versity of Texas Press, 1971. $6.75 

It seems probable that the author 
(1897-1966), whose complex personality 
combined distinction as an architect and 
interior decorator, the sensitivity of a 
litterateur, and keenness of wit, must 
once have read and been impressed by 
the Harvard philologist Isaac Goldberg s 
The Wonder of Words ( 1938). If so, the 
whimsy of his otherwise illogical title 
is accounted for: even as only certain 
words and phrases concerned him, so 
also astonishment is simply a momentary 
manifestation of wonder. As Alastair 
Reid observes in his Foreword (p. xi): 
"There is nothing particularly new in 



30 

discovering the vagaries of comparative 
translation, but what [Proetz] adds is 
the dimension of awe, the astonishment 
that translation is possible at all". 1 

Proetz s "game", as he called it, was 
limited for the large part to the pursuit 
of German and French translations of 
staunchly English passages and phrases 
and putting the three side by side, to 
gently quaff, as it were, the resultant 
marvel almost always unbelievable, 
either because of the translator s astute 
ness or (more frequently) his slavishly 
ethnocentric reductio ad cognitum. Word 
games, of course, are not new either. 
One need think only of the whimsical 
verse of Lewis Carroll and Christian 
Morgenstern; the Schuttelreime of Ger 
man students, which in a pathological 
sort of way raise the spoonerism to a 
high art; and the syntactic jugglings of 
Latin inscriptions, or of Old Norse (in 
the latter, compounded with alliteration 
and metaphorical phrases called "ken- 
nings"): and indeed, is not all verse, 
recited, sung or chanted, a game of 
sorts, its mnemonic value aside? Proetz s 
game is also laced with malice which, 
in his concentration on easy targets ( such 
as verse translations), he indulges. 

Games such as these are insidious. 
Proetz s addiction began, apparently, 
when he learned that "Behold now behe 
moth" (Job xl:15) turns up in the 
French Bible as one must see it to 
believe it! "Voici I hippopotame". 
The language so ill done by, of course, 
was not English, but the Latin of the 
Vulgate (or if one prefer, a bit of He 
brew which survived in the Vulgate). 
But it set him to thinking: What would 
the volatile -yet-shopkeeper-minded 
French (or the ponderous-but-romantic 
Germans) do, if called on to translate, 
say, "I saw a stranger yestereen . . ."? 
Or (in The Twa Corbies), "Whar sail 
we gang and dine the day"? Or the 
cisatlantic "Yankee Doodle"? Or per 
haps the line "When the chalk wall 
falls to the foam ..." in Auden s "Look, 
stranger, on this island now"? (If you d 
like to know, Dover s cliffs show up 
simply as "le raur de craie" and "die 
Kreidewand". ) 

The interesting thought had now 
grown to an obsession. Who could but 
mutilate "Tiger, tiger, burning bright 
. . ."? (They did indeed. . . .) And 
what of the paradox of a German rend- 



AN&Q 

ering of "Some corner of a foreign field/ 
That is forever England"? (Surprise: 
the German version in the reviewer s 
humble view quite outdoes the Rupert 
Brooke original.) Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning s Sonnets from the Portuguese 
suffer; while in Browning s Song from 
Pippa Passes, "The snail s on the thorn" 
becomes "L escargot rampe sur 1 aube- 
pine" ("Escargot indeed"! Proetz must 
have muttered [see p. 5]). And how 
does "Auld Lang Syne" fare? You d 
never guess: the Germans (who usually 
do better with English than do the 
French) flubbed it, while the French 
came up with a right singable transla 
tion: Au vieux et bon pays, mon cher,l 
Au vieux et bon pays, I Nous cliquerons 
gaiment nos verres,/ Au vieux et bon 
pays. 

Of the 29 chapterettes (if AN&Q s 
editor will tolerate my neologism), most 
consist of an English selection and its 
counterparts in German and French, 
usually in that order, and end with a 
few paragraphs of sparHing and often 
informative commentary by the author. 
There are a few blanks, which he doubt 
less would have filled had he lived to 
complete his work. On the other hand, 
in the odd instance, two or more other- 
language versions are provided. Four of 
the German renderings Proetz (of St. 
Louis, Mo., German stock) undertook 
to do himself with somewhat ques 
tionable results. Exceptions to the pre 
dominance of verse are the 6th chapter 
of Alice s Adventures in Wonderland; 
an excerpt from that most English of 
tales, Dickens A Christmas Carol; the 
opening sentence of the Preamble to the 
U.S. Constitution; and 17 lines from 
Moby Dick which end with "Da blast 
sie"!/ "Elle souffle"! 2 By and large the 
editing is good, though it is marred by 
frequent errors in the German (I note 
at least eighteen ) and the French ( some 
six) which apparently escaped both the 
author s friends and the eyes of Texas. 

The work, however entertaining, is 
not without its parochialism. It is at all 
times the English speaker who is being 
amused (thus, the aforementioned es- 
cargots, to the Frenchman, are snails 
in general: he senses no garlic aroma 
in Browning s context, and the transla 
tion of the word as such is therefore a 
good one, whether Proetz jokes about 
it or not). Another misleading effect 



October 1971 



31 



arises, moreover, in the translation of 
regional and /or early English (Burns* 
"To a Mouse", the first 18 lines of 
Chaucer s Prologue, et al.). Readers of 
an acquired German or French, over 
looking the conversion of the English 
twice over (not only to a foreign lan 
guage but also to a modern, standard 
form of it), are likely to find the non- 
English more intelligible than the Eng 
lish (for much the same reason, inci 
dentally, that naive Germans, and for 
that matter, Russians, have been known 
to claim that their Shakespeare is better 
than the original! ) . 

But who am I to take away the soph 
isticated fun of Proetz and his fellows? 
In the course of writing this review, I, 
too, I find, have been bitten by the 
bug. Consider only an obscure and long 
forgotten work by an Argentine on Amer 
ican Negro jazz and folksongs, 3 to which 
he appends a Spanish stab at translating 
some of the lyrics (if you are a non- 
hispanophone, see his first-line English 
clues ) : 

(1) Aguatero, 

^Donde te estds escondiendo? 

Si no vienes, 

Voy a conlarle a tu madre. 

(2) Yo tengo zapatos, tu tienes zapatos, 
Todas las criaturas de Dios 

tienen zapatos. . . . 

( 3 ) A veces me siento como un huerfano, 
A veces me siento como un huerfano, 
A veces me siento como un huerfano, 
Muy lejos de mi hogar, . . . 

(4) LOS "BLUES" DE SAN LUIS 

For William C. Handy 

Odio ver la caida del sol, 
Odio ver la caida del sol, 
Porque mi amado de la ciudad se 

ha ido . . . 

and 
Si me ayuda IT a Cairo, a San Luis 

llegare. . . . 

Clues: (1) Waterboy . . .; (2) I got 
shoes, you got shoes . . .; (3) Some 
times I feel like a motherless child . . .; 
(4) Oh how I hate to see that evenin 
sun go down. . . . 



Then there s the case of a currently 
popular song with an interpolated French 
version of the refrain. The pallid gal- 
licization of "Look what they ve done 
to my song, Ma . . ." is (I m sorry!) 
"Us [sic/] ont change ma chanson . . / . 
And Ma? She is the victim of some 
modern-day Procrustes. B. Hunter 
Smeaton, The University of Calgary, 
Canada 



1. The literature on translation is enor 
mous, and Proetz s particular hobby 
namely, chasing down the translations 
of very English passages into other 
languages, just to see how they were 
handled (or mishandled) is at best 
a marginal aspect of it. Predictably, 
translated verse is an especially rich 
source for the materials that interest 
him. We note at random some treat 
ments of the problems and techniques 
of this always bold undertaking: 
Muna Lee, "Translating the Untrans 
latable", Americas, Sept. 1954, pp. 
12-19; Josef Korner, Wortkunst ohne 
Namen, vol. 2 (Bern: Francke Verlag, 
1954); and (concerning the transla 
tion of Dante into English) "Old and 
new guides through the dark wood" 
(Times Literary Supplement, June 4, 
1971, p. 654) and in general, the 
introductions to facing-page transla 
tions (e.g., Babette Deutsch s trans 
lation of Rilke s Stundenbuch, Dudley 
Fitts Anthology of Contemporary 
Latin-American Poetry, and many- 
score others). As for biblio graphics 
of translation in general, the best and 
most recent is to be found in Eugene 
Nida s Toward a Science of Trans 
lating (Brill, 1964), pp. 265-320. 

2. Just incidentally, German whales are 
grammatically masculine (a fact pre 
sumably unknown to Tashtego). Wil- 
helm Striiver translates, he says, "aus 
dem Amerikanischen". Could this be 
a blind reproduction of generic she* 
(as ships are she , and as, of a car, 
one may say, "She s beautiful"!)? In 
other words, a case may be made for 
"Da blast er"! or "Da blast es"! 
but sie? 

3. Nestor R. Ortiz Oderigo, Panorama 
de la Musica Afroamericana, Buenos 
Aires: Editorial Claridad, 1944. 



32 

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 18) 

UacDowell, Edward, Catalogue of First 
Editions of, (1861-1008), by O. G. 
Sonneck. (Washington, 1917). 89pp, 
N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. $8.95 

National Faculty Directory, 1971: an 
Alphabetical List, With Addresses, of 
Over 380,000 Faculty Members at 
Junior Colleges, Colleges, and Uni 
versities in the United States. 2 vols. 
Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1971. 
$68.50 

Norton, Alice. Public Relations ~ In 
formation Sources. 153pp. Detroit: 
Gale Research Co., 1971. $14.50. 

Oppenheimer, J. Robert, In the Matter 
of: Transcript of Hearing Before Per 
sonnel Security Board, and Texts of 
Principal Documents and Letters, U.S. 
Atomic Energy Commission. Foreword 
by Philip M. Stearn. 1084pp. Cam 
bridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1971. 
Paper, $5.95 

Foe, Edgar Allan. Seven Tales, With a 
French Translation and Prefatory Es 
say by Charles Baudelaire. Parallel 
translation. Ed. by W. T. Bandy. 
Ports. 245pp. N.Y.: Schocken Boob, 
1971. $10. 

Rae, John B. The Road and the Car in 
American Life. Maps, tables, diagrs. 
390pp. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT 
Press, 1971. $12. 

(Randolph, Edmund). Conway, Mon- 
cure Daniel. Omitted Chapters of His 
tory Disclosed in the Life and Papers 
of Edmund Randolph. (N.Y., 1888), 
IIlus. 401pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 
1971. $15. 

Reisner, Robert. Graffiti: Two Thousand 
Jews of Wall Writing. Illus. 204pp. 
N.Y.: Cowles Book Co., 1971. $5.95 

Ruth, Kent. Touring the Old West. Illus., 
incl. maps. 218pp. Brattleboro, Vt: 
The Stephen Greene Press, 1971. $6.95 

Uphaus, Robert W., ed. American Protest 
in Perspective. 406pp. N.Y.: Harper 
& Row, 1971. Paper, $5. 



AN&Q 

Warren, Robert Perm. John Greenleaj 
Whittiers Poetry: an Appraisal and 
a Selection. 208pp. Minneapolis: Uni 
versity of Minnesota Press, 1971. $8.95 

Yeats, Critics on: Readings in Literary 
Criticism [series]. Ed. by Raymond 
Co well. 114pp. Coral Gables: Uni 
versity of Miami Press, 1971. $3.95 



STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, AND 

CIRCULATION (Act of October 23, 1962: Section 
4369, Title 39, United States Code). 1. Date of 
filing - 30 September 1971. 2. Title of publica 
tion - American Notes & Queries. 3. frequency 
of issue Monthly, except July and August. 

4. Location of known office of publication 
31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn., 0(iS15. 

5. Location of the headquarters or general 
business office of the publisher 31 Alden 
Road, New Haven, Conn., 06515. 6. Names and 
addresses of publisher, editor, and managing 
editor: Publisher & Editor Lee Ash, 31 Alden 
Road, New Haven, Conn., 06515; Managing 
Editor Marian Neal Ash, 31 Alden Road, 
New Haven, Conn., 06515. 7. Owner (// owned 
by a corporation, its natne and address must 
be stated and also immediately thereunder Uie 
names and addresses of stockholders owning or 
holding 1 percent or more of total amount o] 
stock. If not owned by a corporation, the names 
and addresses of the individual owners mutt be. 
given. If owned by a partnership or other im- 
inconporaled firm, i(s name and address, as well 
as that of each individual must be given) Lee 
Ash, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn., 06515; 
Marian Neal Ash, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, 
Conn., 06515. S. Known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 
I percent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or oth.pr securities (If there are none, 
so state) None. 9. Paragraphs 7 and S include, 
in cases where the stockholder or security holder 
appears upon the books of the company as 
trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the 
name of the person or corporation for whom 
such trustee is acting, also the statements in the 
two paragraphs show the affiant s full knowledge 
and belief as to the circumstances and conditions 
tinder which stockholders and security holders 
who do not appear upon the books of the com 
pany as trustees, hold stock and securities in a 
capacity other than that of a bona fide owner. 
Names and addresses of individuals who are 
stockholders of a corporation which is itself 
a stockholder or holder of bonds, mortgages, or 
other securities of the publishing corporation 
have been included in paragraphs 7 and 8 
when the interests of such individuals are 
equivalent to 1 percent or more of the total 
amount of the stock or securities of the pub 
lishing corporation. 



I certify that the statements made by me 
above are correct and complete. 



Lee Ash 
Editor fc Publisher 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Vob ^e X Number 3 November 1971 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

DEC 6 1971 



-tr 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 
EDITORS NOTES AND READINGS 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Arts of Asia (periodical). [Asian arts, 
both ancient & modern]. Profusely II- 
lus., incl. Color. Bi-monthly. Vol. I, 
No. 1, Jan/Feb 1971. Hong Kong: 
Arts of Asia, Metropole Bldg, 57 
Peking Road, Kowloon, 1971-. $7.50 
a year. 

Black Rediscovery series: Charles Ball, 
Fifty Years in Chains (repr. Slavery 
in the United States, 1837). 517pp. 
$3.75; George Francis Dow, Slave 
Ships and Slaving (1927). Illus. xxxv, 
349pp. $3.50; W. E. B. Du Bois, The 
Suppression of the African Slave-Trade 
to the United States of America, 1638- 
1870 (1896). 335pp. $2.25; Solomon 
Northrup, Twelve Years a Slave 
(1854). 336pp. $3; Arthur F. Raper, 
The Tragedy of Lynching (1933). 
499pp. $3.50. N.Y.: Dover Publica 
tions, 1970. All Paper. 

Brawley, Benjamin. Early Negro Ameri 
can Writers. Selections, with Bio 
graphical and Critical Introductions. 
(1935). 305pp. N.Y.: Dover Publica 
tions, 1970. Paper, $2.50 

(Browning, Robert). Berman, R. J. 
Browning s Duke. Illus. 135pp. N.Y.: 
Richards Rosen Press, 1972 [sic]. 
Price ? 

Carter, Robert. Carters Coast of New 
England: a New Edition of (his) 
Summer Cruise . . . [1864]. Illus. 
221pp. Somersworth, N.H.: New 
Hampshire Publishing Co., 1969 [i.e. 
1971]. $5.95 

(Chaucer). Rowland, Beryl. Blind 
Beasts: Chaucer s Animal World. Illus. 
198pp. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Uni 
versity Press, 1971. $10. 



Clarke, William C. Place and People: an 
Ecology of a New Guinean Commu 
nity. Illus. 265pp. Berkeley: University 
of California Press, 1971. $9. 

Coffin, Lewis A.; & Holden, Arthur C. 
Brick Architecture of the Colonial Pe 
riod in Maryland & Virginia. (1919). 
Profusely Illus. 147pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1970. $3.50 

Corbin, John B. A Technical Services 
Manual for Small Libraries. Illus., 
incl. charts, diagrs., etc. 206pp. Me- 
tuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1971. 
$5. 

Cornet, Joseph. Art of Africa: Treasures 
from the Congo. [Trans, by Barbara 
Thompson]. 180 Plates, incl. 108 in 
Color. N.Y.: Phaidon [distributor, 
Praeger], 1971. $60. 

David-Neel, Alexandra. Magic and Mys 
tery in Tibet (1932). lUus. 321pp. 
N.Y.: Dover Publications. 1971. Pa 
per, $3. 

De Camp, L. Sprague. Lost Continents: 
the Atlantis Theme in History, Sci- 
ence, and Literature. (1954). Illus. 
348pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 

1970. Paper, $2.75 

De Pascale, Marc. Book of Spells. Illus. 
130pp. N.Y.: Taplinger Publishing Co., 

1971. $4,95 

Eastman, Charles A. Indian Boyhood. 

Illus. by E. L. Blumenscnein. (1902). 

247pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 

1971. Paper, $2. 
Forster, E. M. Maurice: a Novel. [I913/ 

14; unpublished]. 256pp. N.Y.: W. W. 

Norton, 1971. First published. $6.95 
Foster, Pops: the Autobiography of a 

New Orleans Jazz Man, as told to 

Tom Stoddard. Introd. by Bertram 

(Continued on p. 47) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75tf each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies, and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, and Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Book Review Index; in 
cluded in The Year s Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
in the Annual MLA International Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

A SOURCE FOR SHADWELL S 
AMOROUS BIGOTTE 

IN HIS SOOTCE NOTE to The Amor 
ous Bigotte ( The Complete Works 
of Thomas Shadwell. London, 
1927), Montague Summers cites a 
number of precedents for the 
Spanish setting of this 1690 come 
dy, but implies that the plot is 
original. Albert S. Borgman, in 
Thomas Shadwell: His Life and 
Comedies (N.Y., 1928), lists possi 
ble sources, generally from French 
comedy, for most of the characters 
and some minor plot elements. I 
suggest another French source for 
the central events, the complica 
tions produced when a man con 
fuses the names of his mistress and 
her companion. 

In Pierre Corneille s Le Men- 
teur (1642), Dorante, a compulsive 
liar, meets Clarice and Lucrece in 
a park, and flirts with Clarice. 
When he later elaborates on this 
encounter until it sounds like a 
major affair, he angers Clarice s 
lover Alcippe, who challenges him. 
Neither is hurt in the duel, and the 
two are reconciled because Dor- 
ante thinks that the girl he met is 



the one named Lucrece, The girls 
maintain the masquerade to trick 
Dorante, and Clarice carries on a 
correspondence in her friend s 
name. When he finally learns the 
truth, Dorante casually switches his 
attentions to the real Lucrece. 

Shadwell multiplied the compli 
cations and improved on Corneille 
by making the supposed rival the 
other girTs lover. In his play 
Doristeo meets and falls in love 
with Rosania, believing her to be 
her cousin and companion Elvira. 
The girls are quickly aware of the 
mistake, but maintain it for the 
sake of convenience, and Rosania 
writes to him in Elvira s name. 
When Luscindo, the real Elvira s 
lover, intercepts the note, he chal 
lenges and fights Doristeo. The 
girls explain the confusion, the two 
men are reconciled, and each mar 
ries his mistress. 

In spite of the modification and 
entirely different subplots, there 
are too many specific similarities 
between the two plays to overlook. 
Both Dorante and Doristeo meet 
their mistresses by coming to their 
aid when they stumble; both make 
an error in the names; both re 
ceive a note signed by the false 
name; and both are involved in a 
duel. Dorante s error is based on 
the assumption that his girl is the 
mistress of the servant accompany 
ing them, and Doristeo assumes 
that Rosania is the daughter of the 
older woman serving as chaperone. 
Shadwell also uses the element of 
lying, although he switches it to 
a subplot: Luscindo makes a for 
mer mistress jealous by allowing 
a passing acquaintance with an 
other woman to sound like a pas 
sionate romance. 

These common elements, viewed 
in the light of ShadwelTs many 
other borrowings from French 



36 

comedy, might seem to establish 
Le Menteur as the primary source 
for the plot of The Amorous Bi- 
gotte. 

Gerald M. Berkowitz 

Northern Illinois University 



A VICTORIAN PLAGIARISM 
OF DEFOE 

I DO NOT BELIEVE that it has been 
previously observed that Anne 
Manning, one of the more popular 
of the mid- Victorian novelists, 
plagiarized extensively from Daniel 
Defoe s A Journal of the Plague 
Year, when she wrote Cheery and 
Violet: a Tale of the Great Plague 
which became a popular success 
upon its publication in 1853 and 
went through numerous reissues 
throughout the rest of the century. 
Miss Manning was the chief practi 
tioner in a short-lived, but intense 
ly popular fashion in historical 
fiction for novels in the form of 
"authentic" memoirs in which con 
siderable effort was made to 
imitate the thoughts, prose styles, 
and typography of earlier cen 
turies. Thackeray s Henry Esmond 
is the sole example of this curious 
literary fashion to survive into the 
20th century, but in his own day 
that novel was overshadowed by 
the half-dozen successes of Miss 
Manning in this same field. 

Cheery and Violet takes as its 
subject Cheery, the daughter of a 
wigseller living on London Bridge 
in the early years of the Restora 
tion, and of her frustrated love for 
her cousin Mark. The form of the 
novel is that of a retrospective 
memoir in which she recounts the 



AN&Q 

thoughts and events of a personal, 
domestic nature which are given a 
broader interest by being set in the 
historical context of the Restora 
tion, the Great Plague, and the 
London Fire. For those lengthy 
portions of the novel that depict 
her life under the ravages of the 
plague Miss Manning went direct 
ly to Defoe s Journal and used this 
as her chief source. Virtually all 
the details and events pertaining 
to the impact of the plague on 
London life can be traced back to 
Defoe s work. Frequently we firid 
that whole passages from Defoe s 
account have been inserted into 
her novel with a minimum, ,, of 
modification. For instance, one of 
the more effective passages (in 
Defoe s Journal is the lengthy 
account of the three tradesmen 
who sought to escape the horrors 
of the plague by fleeing to 
Epping Forest outside of Loridofi 
where they lived in primitive con 
ditions for a number of months. 
Defoe uses this lengthy episode to 
trace the impact that the plague 
made on the surrounding rural 
communities. Miss Manning takes 
over the entire adventure for .her 
own novel, reduces it to a third of 
Defoe s length, and ascribes th 
experience to her young hero Mark 
Blenkinsop who, like the three 
tradesmen in Defoe s Journal, 
seeks to escape from the plague by 
flight to the wooded areas beyond 



Readers! 

Have a fine winter but spend 
some of it researching Replies. 
And send new Queries! 



November 1971 



37 



the London environs. Although the 
text of Defoe is not followed to the 
letter, most of his incidents form 
the staple of Miss Manning s narra 
tive/ 

As might be expected, Miss 
Manning s story fails to capture the 
horrors of Defoe s account. The 
earlier novelist achieved his effect 
in part through a lengthy develop 
ment of circumstantial detail, an 
accumulation of numerous brief 
vignettes, a skillful use of contem 
porary statistics gleaned from the 
Plague Bills themselves, and nu 
merous excerpts from the sermons, 
medical treatises, and newspapers 
of the time. The Journal is less 
about the fictional persona who 
relates his experiences and obser 
vations and more about the collec 
tive tragedy suffered by the city of 
London. It is this perspective that 
Defoe gives to his narrative that 
makes it so effective. In contrast, 
Miss Manning, although like Defoe 
she used the form of a persona 
who had remained in the city and 
observed the full course of the 
plague, personalizes the story by 
focusing on the impact of the 
plague on a single family. As a 
result, she fails to develop much of 
the sense of the collective horrors 
of the experience. The effect is 
further diffused by her reliance on 
the traditional hero and heroine 
from Victorian romance and their 
persistent efforts to overcome the 
obstacles, both personal and his- 



* Compare Manning, Cheery and Violet 
(Boston, 1901), pp. 214-225 and Defoe, 
Journal, ed. Louis Landa (London, 
1969), pp. 125-150. For some other 
instances of her plagiarism, see Man 
ning, pp. 162-163, Defoe, pp. 48-50; 
Manning, pp. 142-143, Defoe, p. 103. 



torical, separating them. The 
plague here is finally little more 
than an historical backdrop to the 
love affair in the story s fore 
ground. But this was a backdrop 
that was lifted bodily from Defoe 
without any acknowledgment by 
Miss Manning in the preface to 
her book. 

James C. Simmons 

Boston University 



HUDSON TO PENNANT 
ON FISH, DOGS, BIRDS 

THE FOLLOWING LETTER, recently 
acquired by the transcriber of this 
Note, is a good example of the 
kind of correspondence which 
passed between 18th-century Eng 
lish naturalists. The letter, a three- 
page quarto A.L.S. from William 
Hudson to Thomas Pennant, is 
dated 27 November 1786 and was 
sent from Nutwell, Devon, to Pen 
nant at his residence in Downing, 
Flintshire. 

William Hudson (1730P-1793) is 
referred to in Pennant s British 
Zoology as the discoverer of Troch- 
na terrestris. From 1757 to 1758, 
according to the DNB, Hudson 
was resident sub-librarian of the 
British Museum, and in 1761 he 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society. Thomas Pennant (1726- 
1798), a distinguished traveller and 
naturalist, is perhaps best known 
to readers today as one of Gilbert 
White s correspondents in his Nat 
ural History of Selborne. 

The letter appears to contain an 
swers to particular questions posed 
by Pennant, but much of the infor 
mation is evidently being supplied 



38 

with the assumption that the re 
cipient would likewise be inter 
ested in whatever other natural 
facts or theories could be supplied 
by the writer. Hudson s view that 
the red mullet and the surmullet 
are one and the same has proved 
to be the correct one. The Mr 
Hastings who so desired to import 
a spaniel from China, its supposed 
place of origin, is perhaps Warren 
Hastings, the famous British ad 
ministrator in India. 

The letter reads as follows, with 
Hudson s spelling and punctuation 
unwashed: 

Nutwell near Exmouth 27. Nov. r 1786 
D r Sir 

I should have answer d your favors 
sooner but that I was willing to procure 
all the information I could concerning 
the Pilot fish etc. before I wrote. I have 
not been able to learn that the Pilot 
fish has ever been taken on this Coast. 
The Fishermen of Brixham say they 
never saw one indeed my Friend met 
with only one or two who knew what 
it was & they had been Sailors & seen 
it but never knew one caught here, but 
the Thunny or Spanish Mackrell they 
had seen but very seldom that any are 
taken but they beleive [sic] the Fal- 
mouth fishermen take them more fre 
quent as to the red Mullet they have 
no regular or certain method of taking 
them it is accidental tho on some grounds 
they are more certain than on others 
they are taken in the Seine the Pipers 
are taken in the Seine and likewise by 
hook & line as they do Whitings. The 
sur & Red Mullet are certainly one and 
the same fish. The red is the fresh fish 
& the sur mellet [sic] the stale Fish 
for as it grows stale the stripes begin 
to appear and the nearer it approaches 
to putrifaction [520] the stronger or 
more visible they appear. Pipers are 
taken both by Hook & line (as Whit 
ing) and in the Seine. I don t know 
I ever mentioned a circumstance con 
cerning the Spaniel that it is not origi 
nally a native of Spain but of China, 
and was carried from thence to the 



AN&Q 

Philippine Island [sic] and from thence 
to New Spain etc. and then to Old 
Spain, it is a favorite Dog among the 
Chinese who use it for the same pur 
pose we do Mr. Hastings took great 
pains I am told to procure one of the 
original breed from China which he 
effected and was bringing it to Eng 
land but it died on the passage [?] 
I understand he makes no doubt of the 
Chinese dog being original breed of our 
Spaniel Swallows & Martins were here 
so late as the 14 of this month. Whether 
they continued longer near their [r] cost 
ing places I don t know for the swallows 
which bred here retired the begining 
[sic] of October - [?] no [?] Martins 
having bred here for some years, after 
the 14 the weather became rainy etc. 
but from 10 or 12 of Oct. r till the 12 
of Nov. r the weather was fine without 
any rain and veiy few cloudy days. The 
wind all that time varying between 
N & E & cold but without frost till the 
last ten days pon [?] Monday night 6 
Nov. at nine at night the therm/ was 
at 20% and on Tuesday morn.g the 
Ponds etc. were froze over. Tuesday 
night it froze not so hard but Wednes 
day & Thursday the glass was at 34 & 
36. but Friday the 10 of Nov. r at be 
tween 9 & 10 at night the Thenn. r was 
at 25. & on Saturday morn.g at 26. It 
was a clear sunshiny day the swallows 
& martins were in great Numbers and 
[?] flew very high it froze not so hard 
on Saturday night Sunday almost calm 
son [sic ] shone bright & few clouds 
they were in great N. s this day but 
about 9 at night the wind got up and 
it blew hard all night & next day the 
wind at E cold & cloudy but no frost 
very few this day Tuesday 14 Nov. wind 
abated and not so cloudy great many 
swallows & martins this day flew very 
low close to the ground the swallows 
retired soon after 12 oClock but the 
Martins continued till near four Wednes 
day 15 [?] couldy [sic] & cold & damp. 
No S. or M. appeared. Thursday rain 
the wind S. and warm Friday rain Satur 
day & Sunday showery but the sun [?] 
shone between whiles but no Swallows 
or Martins Sunday fine and with little 
wind at S a little to the W. No appear 
ance this day there fore conclude they 
are gone, it has continued cloudy & 
rainy ever since. I propose being in 



November 1971 



39 



Lond. n the middle of next month & am 

Dear Sir your obliged Hble 

Serv. WHudson 

John E. Van Domelen 
College Station., Texas 



HUCK FINN S ANACHRONIS 
TIC DOUBLE EAGLES 



TWAIN states in his preface 
to Huckleberry Finn: "Time: Forty 
to fifty years ago". Since the novel 
was published in 1885 ( December, 
1884 in England) this would place 
the date of the story somewhere 
between 1835 and 1845. 

Twain uses the double eagle or 
twenty-dollar gold piece twice in 
the novel. The first instance is in 
Chapter XVI. Two men approach 
ing Huck and Jim s raft are fright 
ened by the threat of smallpox. As 
they depart they leave two double 
eagles for Huck and his "Pap", 
Jim. (TU put a twenty-dollar gold 
piece on this board and you get 
it when it floats by". ) The second 
mention of the coin is in Chapter 
XXII. Huck sneaks into a circus 
rather than "waste" his money. ("I 
had my twenty-dollar gold piece 
and some other money".) 

Evidently, Twain was unaware 
of the fact that the double eagle 
had not always been a denomina 
tion of U.S. coinage. Large amounts 
of gold were discovered in Califor 
nia in 1848, making sufficient bul 
lion available for the striking and 
issue of a large denomination gold 
coin. Congress authorized the coin 
in the Act of 3 March 1849. One 
specimen was struck with the date 
1849, and is currently part of the 



National Collection. The regular 
issue coin was first dated 1850, 
and was released into circulation 
the same year. 

Thus, Huck Finn could not have 
carried a twenty-dollar gold piece 
in his pocket before 1850, some 
five to fifteen years after the date 
Twain sets for his novel. 

There is really nothing startling 
or earth-shaking in this curious er 
ror. Twain hated to review or re 
vise his manuscripts, and thus, this 
anachronism is merely indicative 
of what is normal in Twain s nar 



rative art. 



Russell H. Goodyear 



University of Arkansas 
Fayetteville, Arkansas 



QUERIES 



Time as a winged faun Grillot 
de Givry, in his Witchcraft, Magic, 
and Alchemy (trans., p. 245), notes 
of Robert Fludd s Utriusque Cosmi 
. . . Historia [1617?], concerning 
the engraved title, "The engraver s 
fancy has depicted Time per 
sonified, for some unknown reason, 
by a winged faun . . .". Are there 
other representations of Time as 
a faun? Is the reason really un 
known? James Connolly, New 
ark, N.J. 

Spanish Loyalist essays I have 
used all of the bibliographical tools 
that have seemed pertinent and 
cannot locate a book about which 
I heard an announcement over 
Radio Paris some months ago. As 
nearly as I can recall it, the author 
(editor?) as an American, Stanley 
Kemp, and the title, in Spanish, 



40 



AN&Q 



seems to be En las primadoras del REPLIES 
. . . de Franco. I would like a 
proper transcription of author, ti 
tle, imprint, and date, and perhaps 
the location of a copy that might 
be borrowed on interlibrary loan. 
R. T. Faulkner, San Francisco, 
California 



Rabbit story about "Bobbity Flops" 
The British Museum was un 
able to help me identify a chil 
dren s story about a rabbit named 
Bobbity Flops who started to make 
some purchases for his mother, was 
lost in a snowstorm, found by a 
postman, and returned home at 
last. The book was issued between 
1905 and 1916, and the Library of 
Congress, after considerable search 
found "no trace under that name, 
nor anything suggesting it in the 
stack area where such stories are 
shelved . . .". LC thought that your 
readers might help. Mrs Daisy 
Biro, Lausanne, Switzerland 

"Innocent as a bird" I have 
seen this expression a few times 
recently. I have not seen it record 
ed, and do not understand the al 
lusion. May I have an explanation, 
and some word on its origin? 
Archer Taylor, Berkeley, Calif. 

"At dawn when the pigs broke from 
cover/ . . ." At noon when the 
traders were met,/ She clung to 
the lips of her lover/ As never a 
maiden did yet". Perhaps not ver 
batim, but I hope close enough that 
some reader can identify it and 
give me the source of the complete 
verse? I have always thought that 
perhaps it refers to a pipe. Ed 
mund Jones Lilly, jr, Fayetteville, 
N.C. 



Curtain Lecture (IX:41; r 122) 
In his Dictionary (1755), Dr John 
son identifies curtain lecture as "a 
reproof given by a wife to her 
husband in bed". Webster s New 
International Dictionary, un 
abridged (1948), explains the 
origin of the expression while 
defining it as "a censorious lecture 
by a wife to her husband within 
the bed curtains, or in bed". 

The term is conspicuously absent 
from Skeat s Etymological Dic 
tionary and from others of the 
same type. It is amply represented, 
however, in A. Taylor and B. J. 
Whiting s A Dictionary of 
American Proverbs and Proverbial 
Phrases, 1820-1880 (1958), which 
lists separate examples as well as 
five additional reference works. Of 
these, the NED (1893) traces 
perhaps most fully its early history. 
Entries in these works range from 
1611 (in the form curtain sermon) 
to 1931, including such authors as 
Congreve, Addison, Thackeray, 
and Meredith. 

Further information is offered 
by the Etymologisches Worter- 
buch der deutschen Sprache (Ber 
lin, 1967) under the headword 
Gardinenpredigt (literally: curtain 
sermon). According to this source, 
"the nocturnal reprimand of the 
wife is already called sermon in 
Sebastian Brant s Das Narrenschiff 
[The Ship of Fools] (1494), 64, 29. 
The concept of the bed curtain is 
added in J. Hulsbusch s Silvae 
sermonum (1568), 81: cui uxor in 
cortinali condone ita affatur. New 
High German Gardinenpredigt is 
not documented before 1743 
( Schoppe, Mitteilungen der Gesell- 



November 1971 

schaft fur schlesische Volkskunde, 
18, 82. 103), so that New Nether 
landish gordijnmis (since 1562), 
gordijnpreek (1630), and English 
curtain lecture (since 1633) ante 
date it. On the New High German 
term is based Danish gardinen- 
prceken, while Swedish sparlakans- 
texa (since 1725) has gone its own 
way". In addition, the Middelne- 
derlandsch Woordenboek (Hague, 
1889) lists gordijn(s)-mette as a 
Middle Netherlandish form, while 
citing, without dates, two examples 
of its use. Today, earlier forms are 
supplanted in Holland by bed- 
sermoen. 

The possible chain of derivation 
is partially supported - though 
just how authoritatively is uncer 
tain - by Der grope Herder: 
Nachschlagewerk fur Wissen und 
Leben (Freiburg, 1957), which 
states unequivocally that Gardin- 
enpredigt is an "imitation of the 
English curtain-lecture . Neverthe 
less, the obvious should be empha 
sized: all of these dates and 
examples still leave open one main 
question: whether the English 
term is sui generis or whether it 
ultimately derives from one of the 
documented earlier German, Latin, 
and Netherlandish terms or even 
from some yet unknown source. 

However that may be, a signif 
icant later occurrence of curtain 
lecture, not cited in any of the 
above-mentioned works even 
though it vividly illustrates usage 
while associating it with its sermon 
variant, is to be found in Washing 
ton Irving s Rip Van Winkle 
(1818), paragraph 6: " . . he was a 
simple good-natured man; he was, 
moreover, ... an obedient hen 
pecked husband. Indeed, to the 



41 

latter circumstance might be owing 
that meekness of spirit which 
gained him such universal popu 
larity; for those men are most apt 
to be obsequious and conciliating 
abroad, who are under the dis 
cipline of shrews at home. Their 
tempers, doubtless, are rendered 
pliant and malleable in the fiery 
furnace of domestic tribulation ; 
and a curtain lecture is worth all 
the sermons in the world for teach 
ing the virtues of patience and 
long-suffering". Frank K. Rob 
inson, University of Tennessee, 
Knoxville 

Goffering (IX:56; r 136) The 
fullest description of the process 
that I know of is on pages 94 and 
95 of Bernard Middleton s A His 
tory of English Craft Bookbinding 
Technique, published by Haffner 
Publishing Company in 1963. 
Paul N. Banks, Conservator, The 
Newberry Library, Chicago 

The best description I have 

read on the art of gauffering, as 
applied to books, appeared in the 
1896 volume of Bibliographica. Ac 
cording to an article by Cyril 
Davenport entitled "The Decora 
tion of Book Edges", gauffering 
first appeared on French books in 
the 15th century. Common binding 
tools, such as gouges and stamps, 
were slightly heated and then 
worked by hand on gilt edges. 
Fine examples of gauffering may 
also be found on Italian and Eng 
lish books. Designs were often 
formed by series of closely worked 
dots. On the Italian gilt edges the 
use of stamps was more common, 
as opposed to French and English 
books which tended towards the 



42 



AN&Q 



individually hand-worked patterns since about 1952 it has been on 
of dots. In many cases color was loan to the Houghton Library, 

- Alan M. 



added to the gauffered designs. Harvard. 



Co/in, 



Hans Raum, Penn State Uni- Southern Illinois University, Car- 



versity Library 

A short interesting history of 

ornamented edges is in W. Salt 
Brassington s A History of the Art 
of Bookbinding With Some Ac 
count of the Books of the Ancients 
(London, 1894). Apparently in the 
mediaeval library edges were only 
visible when the books were 
shelved in the library; therefore 
decorating the edges became im 
portant. 

The process of goffering is pro 
duced by denting the edge after 
gilding. Several pages are devoted 
to the technique and method of 
edge finishes in the chapter "Hand 
Binding: Edge Finishes" in the 
government publication Theory 
and Practice of Bookbinding (rev. 
ed., 1962). Jerome Drost, 
SUNJ at Buffalo 

Alexander Pope portrait (IX: 121) 
The Pope portrait, one of 
several by Jonathan Richardson, 
would appear to be no. 51 in 
William Kurtz Wimsatt, The Por 
traits of Alexander Pope (New 
Haven: Yale U. P., 1965). Accord 
ing to this account, the Marquis of 
Hastings inherited the painting not 
from the Earl of Huntington, but 
from the Earl of Burlington. Its 
subsequent provenance: It was 
knocked down to the dealer Graves 
at the Christie sale of 25 February 
1869 and was purchased soon 
thereafter by the Boston litterateur 
James T. Fields. It came from his 
widow s estate to the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts in 1924, and 



bondale 

Eskimo finger rings (IX: 153) 
The noted American authority, 
George Frederick Kunz, in his 
book, Rings for the Finger (Phila., 
1917, p. 31), says "Rings are not in 
favor with the Eskimos, who do 
not appear to make or wear any. 
Indeed, Admiral Peary found it 
impossible to dispose of a lot of 
rings he had taken with him on 
one of his Arctic trips in the belief 
that they would be attractive to 
the Eskimos, and good objects of 
barter". [The original four-page 
letter from Peary to Kunz is tipped 
into the American Museum of 
Natural History Library s copy of 
Kunz s own copy of the book. 
Peary says, in the letter, "Women 
would accept them as gifts & hang 
them up in their huts or houses, 
but would not accept them in pay 
ment for anything, &. would not 
wear them" L.A.] Kunz goes on 
to theorize that "Perhaps in the 
intense Arctic cold even the 
slightest pressure on the finger 
may have been avoided, lest it 
should impede circulation and 
increase the danger of having the 
fingers frost-bitten". Jonathan 
A. Trent, Montreal, Canada 

Lincoln, Grant, and Whiskey (X: 
8 ) The story - stripped from 
the good-natured fun-poking at 
envy masquerading in the guise of 
righteousness - is reminiscent of 
one told by Ammianus Marcellinus 
about the emperor Julian (q.v. 
Ammianus Marcellinus, XVI 58 
Loeb Edition, 1935 (reprinted 



November 1971 



43 



1963), J. C. Rolfe, tr., Vol. 1, p. 
218): If, then, it is true (as divers 
writers report) that King Cyrus 
and the lyric poet Simonides, and 
Hippias of Elis, keenest of the 
sophists, had such powerful mem 
ories because they had acquired 
that gift by drinking certain 
potions, we must believe that 
Julian, when only just arrived at 
manhood, had drained the entire 
cask of memory, if such could be 
found anywhere. Si itaque verum 
est, quod scriptores varii memo- 
rant, Cyrum regem et Simonidem 
lyricum, et Hippian Eleum sophis- 
tarum acerrimum, ideo valuisse 
memoria, quod epotis quibusdam 
remediis id impetrarunt, creden- 
dum est hunc etiam turn adultum 
totum memoriae dolium (si us- 
quam repperiri potuit) exhausisse. 
George Javor, Northern Michi 
gan University, Marquette, Mich. 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

The General Microfilm Com 
pany, 100 Inman Street, Cam 
bridge, Mass. 01239, has initiated 
its very extensive project to offer 
microfilm editions of the works 
recorded in Jos6 Toribio Medina s 
Biblioteca Hispano-Americana and 
related bibliographies by Medina. 
Initial groups are ready for imme 
diate delivery, and catalogue cards 
may also be ordered. General 
Microfilm can supply lists of avail 
able items upon request. A special 
feature of this project is to provide 
film of specific listed items upon 
request from standing-order sub 



scribers. GM is now well into its 
"Scandinavian Culture" project, 
which will provide film of Scan 
dinavian books before 1701, fol 
lowing the standard bibliographies 
of Collijn, Nielsen, Bruun, and 
Pettersen. Catalogue cards are 
available. At present a large pro 
portion of Swedish imprints before 
1550 are available. The project will 
not duplicate other related projects 
such as the Danish Royal Library s 
film series of pre-1550 Danish 
imprints recorded by Nielsen, or 
the Helsingfors University Li 
brary s projected film series of 
Finnish dissertations. Extensive 
collections of other pre-1701 con 
tinental European imprints are 
available from General Microfilm, 
including English books printed 
on the continent. The company has 
also assumed responsibility for 
offering the back files of the 
French, Hispanic, German, and 
British-American drama of Falls 
City/Microforms on standard 
microfiches; and it will also offer 
back files of Falls City s series of 
French Revolutionary pamphlets 
and documents on American pub 
lic administration selected from 
the Legislative Research Check 
list, 1960-date, on the same 
medium. 

The Francis Bacon Foundation of 
Claremont, California, has an 
nounced the publication of a 
computer-based Concordance to 
the Essays of Francis Bacon. Gar- 
rett Press, Inc. (250 West 54 St., 
N.Y.C. 10019) will be the distribu 
tor. The Concordance contains 
approximately 350 pages of com 
puter printout reproduced in a 6- 
by-9-inch format. The volume is 
tentatively priced at $17.50. Edi- 



44 

tors of the Concordance are David 
W. Davies and Elizabeth S. Wrig- 
ley. Dr Davies, a 17th-century 
scholar, is Lecturer on the History 
of Books and Printing at California 
State College, Fullerton. Mrs 
Wrigley is President of the Francis 
Bacon Foundation and Director of 
the foundation s Francis Bacon 
Library. In this first concordance 
to any of Bacon s works, the cus 
tomary arrangement for a con 
cordance is followed. Words em 
ployed by Bacon in the Essays are 
arranged alphabetically, after 
which each occurrence of the word 
is cited. Reference is made, by 
page and line number, to the 
Garrett Press reprint of the classic 
Works of Francis Bacon, edited by 
James Spedding, Robert Ellis, and 
Douglas Heath (London, 1857- 
1874). An appendix to the Con- 
cordance includes a tabulation of 
word frequencies. If the Con 
cordance to the Essays is well re 
ceived by scholars, the Francis 
Bacon Foundation plans to issue 
concordances to all of Bacon s 
works. The Essays were chosen for 
the first concordance, because of 
their popularity. The project for 
concordances to Bacon s works was 
a long-time dream of Walter Con 
rad Arensberg, bibliophile and art 
collector, who with his wife Louise 
Stevens Arensberg created the 
Francis Bacon Foundation in 1938. 
Mr Arensberg died in 1954 before 
computer-based concordances 
made the project feasible. 



ering entries 9676-13086. It is ar 
ranged in classified order, with pe 
riodicals and appendices in sepa 
rate sections, with an author index, 
and with errata and corrigenda. 
Together with the previous three 
volumes, this most recent one pro 
vides the best available historical 
bibliography of the circus. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky and witt be con 
tinued in subsequent issues. 

Rosenkilde og Bagger (3, Kron- 
prinsensgade, Copenhagen K) have 
a firm prospectus for "Mediaeval 
Manuscripts from the Low Coun 
tries in Facsimile", to appear in 
nine volumes under the auspices 
of the Belgian and Dutch Royal 
Libraries, and with the chief edi 
tor as J. Deschamps. The set is a 
worthy successor to the same firm s 
"Early Hebrew Manuscripts in 
Facsimile" and "Early Icelandic 
Manuscripts in Facsimile". 



The fourth volume of R. Toole- 
Stott, Circus and Allied Arts: a 
World Bibliography 1500-1970 
(Derby, England: Harpur and 
Sons Ltd., 1971; 335pp., 23 pl. ; 
8.40), is a monumental work, cov- 



Joachim Pfennig, Cerate und Ver- 
fahren der Kopiertechnik und ihre 
Anwendungsmoglichkeiten in Bib- 
liotheken (Cologne: Greven Ver- 
lag, 1971; lllpp. ; "Arbeiten aus 
dem Bibliothekar-Lehrinstitut des 
Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen", 37), 
is a useful survey of photographic 
copying work in libraries. There 
are a number of notes on Euro 
pean experiences which lend spe 
cial value to the book. 



November 1971 



45 



The sixth "Lieferung" of Johann 
Knobloch s Sprachwissenschaft- 
liches Worterbuch (Heidelberg: 
Carl Winter Universitatsverlag, 
1971; 401-480pp.) covers CAK- 
DAH. With the collaboration of a 
number of outstanding compara 
tive linguists, Prof. Knobloch (at 
Bonn) is providing a documented 
guide to linguistic terminology 
which is already a very useful ref 
erence work, even though it is 
moving ahead rather slowly. 

Vols, XII-XV of the Kulturhistorisk 
leksikon for nordisk middelalder 
fra vikingetid til reformationstid 
(Copenhagen: RosenMlde og Bag 
ger, 1947-1970; paper, Dan. Kr. 
65.00, cloth, Dan. Kr. 85.00, Leath 
er, Dan. Kr. 98.00, per vol. ) covers 
MOTTAKER-SKUDE. Articles are 
signed, and there is a representa 
tive selection of plates at the end 
of each volume. 

Recent additions to Reclams Uni- 
uersdlbibliothek range from the 
18th century to the present. From 
the 18th and early 19th century 
there are Jean Paul s Selberlebens- 
beschreibung, Konjektural-Biogra- 
phie (1971; nos. 7940/41), with 
a commentary by Ralph-Rainer 
Wuthenow; Justus Moser s Patri- 
otische Phantasien (1970; nos. 683/ 
84/84a), a selection with a com 
mentary by Siegfried Sudhof ; Marx 
and Engels, Vber Literatur (1971; 
nos. 7942/43), selected and edited 
by Cornelius Sommer; and Georg 
Weerth s Humoristische Skizzen 
aus dem deutschen Handelsleben 
(1971; nos. 7948/49), edited by 
Jiirgen-Wolfgang Goette. The lat 
ter is a particularly welcome revival 
of a scarce and little known book. 
Of modern works there is Use 



Aichinger, Dialoge, Erzdhlungen, 
Gedichte (1971; no. 7939), select 
ed and edited by Heinz F. Schaf- 
roth, and Gabriele Wohmann s 
tales under the title of Treibjagd 
(1970; no. 7912), edited by Hans 
Schoffler. A singularly important 
original work is Gerhard Storz, 
Der Vers in der neueren deutschen 
Dichtung (1970; nos. 7926-28), a 
fundamental guide to modern 
prosody. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

LEDYARD, Gari. The Dutch Come to 
Korea [An Account of the Life of the 
First Westerners in Korea (1653-1666)]. 
Illus. "231pp. Published by the Royal 
Asiatic Society, Korea Branch. Taewon 
Publishing Co. [U.S. distributor: Paragon 
Book Gallery, Ltd, 14 East 38 St, N.Y.C. 
10016], 1971. $5. 

There can be very few persons, outside 
the small group interested in Korean 
history, who have ever read and ab 
sorbed the values of the incredible story 
of the shipwrecked Dutch "Sparrow 
Hawk" (Speriver), lost on an offshore 
Korean island in 1653 and not heard of 
until thirteen years later, in 1666, when 
eight survivors returned to Japan after 
years of residence in Korea. 

Professor Ledyard, of Columbia Uni 
versity, has revived the remarkable story 
of An Account of the Shipwreck of a 
Dutch Vessel on the Coast of the Isle 
of Quelpaert, Together With the De 
scription of the Kingdom of Corea, by 
Hendrik Hamel, one of the survivors, 
which appeared in English in John 
Churchill s Collection of Voyages and 
Travels (4 vols. London: John Churchill, 
1704. Vol. IV, pp. 607-32). This was 
a translation of the original 1668 Dutch 
edition, which was the first book on 
Korea published in Europe. The book 
has an extremely complex bibliographi 
cal history of various editions and trans 
lations, all of which is explained by Mr 
Ledyard, who includes the English 
translation as an appendix. 



46 



AN&Q 



Very interesting, beyond the story of 
the semicaptivity of the eight surviving 
sailors, is the chapter about Jan Janse 
Weltevree who had been shipwrecked 
in 1627 and had become a minor gov 
ernmental official in Korea. When Ham- 
el and his companions were questioned 
he confronted them in the interest of 
the government. Other aspects of the 
Hamel adventure are equally fascinating, 
as are his factual descriptions of Korean 
life, customs, government, relations with 
China and Japan, and some attempts 
to escape his erstwhile captors. 

While the story itself is enjoyable, 
even exciting reading, the new volume 
is equally interesting as an exercise in 
Korean historiography. Using a succinct 
narrative technique, and following the 
sequence of the original tale, Mr Led- 
yard has searched out dozens of docu 
ments that contain confirming remarks 
and citations dealing with the sailors 
and events relative to their sojourn, de 
scribed in official contemporary Korean 
archives and other records, most of 
which have not been used by scholars 
before this. The methodology is at 
tractive and one senses that, although 
this is by no means the first such com 
parison of sources that has been made 
to give substantive evidence to the va 
lidity of personal narratives, Professor 
Ledyard s easy style and comfortable 
use of different kinds of records gives 
the technique a new appeal. 

Perhaps, among Korean scholars, there 
will be some debate about Professor 
Ledyard s chapter entitled " After 
thoughts", in which he evaluates West- 
em influences on Korea from the 17th 
to the 19th centuries. "A speculative 
rather than a definitive study* , there 
will, undoubtedly, be some experts who 
will question some of Ledyard s specu 
lations, but in general, to the nonexpert, 
it seems to be a satisfactory statement 
that can serve as a good basis to begin 
discussion and sustain further specu 
lation. 

The book also contains special ap 
pendixes on early editions of the Nar 
rative, Hamel s interrogation by Japa 
nese authorities, extensive Notes, a se 
lective annotated bibliography, a good 
index, and reproductions of rude, sim 
plistic woodcuts from two of the early 
Dutch editions. The volume is attractive 
ly bound, has remarkably few typo 



graphical errors, and is relatively in 
expensive in today s market. Perhaps 
more American books should be printed 
in Korea! ~ Lee Ash, Editor. 



REAVER, J. Russell, comp. An O Neitt 
Concordance. 3 vols. Detroit: Gale Re 
search Co., 1971. $87.50 

To Eugene O Neill the scientific and 
technological tides of 20th-century ma 
terialism meant only one thing man s 
enslavement of civilization. Were he 
alive today, one could, without any 
strain of the imagination, visualize his 
"studied aloofness" as "an ironically 
amused spectator" (characteristics he 
attributed to Deborah in A Touch oj 
the Poet) over the publication of J. 
Russell Reaver s computer-compiled An 
O Neitt Concordance. 

Reaver s product of advanced tech 
nology is based on the latest standard 
Random House 3-volume edition of 
O Neill, the Random House edition of 
A Moon for the Misbegotten, and the 
Yale University Press editions of Httghie, 
Long Day s journey into Night, More 
Stately Mansions, and A Touch of the 
Poet. This is not the whole O Neill canon 
by any means. Because of the limitations 
of time, labor, and funds there is only 
a representation of the early plays. All 
O Neill works since 1924 are included, 
and more than 280,000 words and 
phrases are identified with the textual 
sources for each, which supposedly will 
enable one to make systematic appraisals 
of the playwright s "stylistic and struc 
tural characteristics and explore the 
whole range of his language, dialect, 
jargon, and vernacular patterns". It is 
Reaver s contention that "the evidence 
in this concordance should make it pos 
sible to reassess the critical conclusions 
about O Neill . . . [and] . . . open new 
approaches to this large body of dra 
matic work that reflects both O Neill s 
personal concerns and many facets of 
modern life during the decades when 
he wrote". 

The 3-volume set is photo-offset from 
printout, and if one can adjust to the 
peculiarities of arbitrary substitutions 
for conventional punctuation marks, such 
as the dollar sign for the question mark 
and the slant line for the exclamation 
mark, the work should be a helpful 



November 1971 



47 



source of information on America s lead 
ing dramatist. Support for the project 
was provided by the Florida State Uni 
versity Computing Center. Louis A. 
Rachow y The Walter Hampden Memori 
al Library, The Players, N.Y.C. 



THE DIARY OF SAMUEL PJSPYS. A 
New and Complete Transcription Edited 
by Robert Latham and William Mat 
thews. Vol. IV, 1663; V, 1664. Berkeley: 
University of California Press, 1971. To 
gether, 2 vols. $20. 

A while ago, when the first three vol 
umes of The Diary were published, 
AN&Q (IX: 29) presented a welcom 
ing critical review of this tremendous 
undertaking, and since that time I have 
inquired frequently of the publisher 
about the issuance of subsequent vol 
umes. My reason has been a hearty anx 
iety to get on with the story. Well, 
there is no disappointment as Mr Pepys 
tells all about his life in 1663 and 1664. 

Now we are into the swing of it, and 
politics, the Navy, the wife, the King, 
the maids, the bed, the food, the gossip, 
the stage, and the joys of music, are all 
intermingled with everything else in 
Pepys unique style of prideful writing 
and spiritual humility. 

The footnotes continue to be very 
helpful because of their scope and ac 
curacy. Each volume repeats the two 
maps of London in the 1660s, the Select 
List of Persons, and the Select Glossary; 
but there are no separate indexes to 
each volume and the lack of either a 
volume or running cumulative index (a 
complete index will come as the eleventh 
volume) can drive one mad; also at the 
end there will be a tenth volume of 
commentary, The Companion, which 
will contain numerous special studies of 
Pepys and his interests. Once again I 
recommend the introductory pages of 
the first volume as an exemplary state 
ment of editorial purpose and meth 
odology. 

This edition is so superior to the well- 
known and long-beloved set edited by 
Wheatley that comparison is difficult. 
Of course both sets must be kept be 
cause students will always have to deal 
with references citing the older standard 
edition. Since the entire set is in calendri- 



cal form, reference from one to the 
other is a rather simple matter. 

But two more volumes of The Diary 
have got me out of my bed of impa 
tience, after which, with our diarist, I 
will "again to bed" until the next se 
quential years appear. A year is gone 
so quickly though, in reading The Diary, 
that I know I shall soon become restive 
again. Lee Ash, Editor. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 34) 

Turetzky; Interchapters by Ross Rus 
sell; Discography by Brian Rust. Nu 
merous Ilius. xxii, 208pp. Berkeley: 
University of California Press, 1971. 
$8.95 

Frary, I. T. Early Homes of Ohio. 
(1936). 203 Illus. 334pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1970. Paper, $3.50 

Gardner, Alexander. Gardners Photo 
graphic Sketch Book of the Civil War. 
(1866, 2 vols.). 100 Photographs. 
224pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1959. 
$4. 

Gillon, Edmund V., jr. Early Illustrations 
and Views of American Architecture. 
[Not a reprint. Dover Pictorial Ar 
chives series]. 742 Illus. 295pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1971. Paper, $6.95 

Grosswirth, Marvin. The Art of Growing 
a Beard. Illus. by Albert Siringo. 
125pp. N.Y.: Jarrow Press, 1971. $2.95 

Haining, Peter, ed. The Clans of Dark 
ness: [21] Scottish Stories of Fantasy 
and Horror. 272pp. N.Y.: Taplinger 
Publishing Co., 1971. $5.95 

Hand, Wayland D., ed. American Folk 
Legend: a Symposium. 237pp. Berke 
ley: University of California Press, 
1971. $7.50 

Heizer, R. F.; & Whipple, M. A., eds. 
The California Indians: a Source Book. 
2d Edn., Rev. & Enl. Illus. 619pp. 
Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1971. $12.95 

Hichens, Robert. The Green Carnation. 
(1894). New Introd. by William 
Gaunt, lllpp. N.Y.: Dover Publica 
tions, 1970. Paper, $1.50 

Jennings, Joseph W. To the World, For 
the World Poems [of the social revo- 



43 



AN&Q 



lotion in the U.S., written before 
1930]; and The Story of Winter Island 
and Salem Neck (Mass.) [from a pa 
per read before the Essex Institute in 
1897], Map. 107pp. N.Y.: Exposition 
Press, 1971. $4.50 

Kaufman, Martin. Homeopathy in Amer 
ica: the Rise and Fall of a Medical 
^Heresy. 205pp. Baltimore: The Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1971. $10. 

Knoepflmacher, U. C. Laughter & De 
spair: Readings in Ten Novels of the 
Victorian Era. Illus. 281pp. Berkeley: 
University of California Press, 1971. 
$8.75 

Ledyard, Gari. The Dutch Come to 
Korea [an Account of the Life of the 
First Westerners in Korea (1653- 
1666)]. lUus. 231pp. Published by the 
Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch. 
Seoul, Korea: Taewon Publishing Co. 
[U.S. distributor, Paragon], 1971. $5. 

(Lincoln). Simon, Paul. Lincoln s Prep 
aration for Greatness: the Illinois Leg 
islative Years. Illus. 335pp. Urbana: 
University of Illinois Press, 1971. $6.95 

(Linneaus). Larson, James L. Reason 
and Experience: the Representation of 
Natural Order in the Work of Carl 
von Linne. Illus. 171pp. Berkeley: 
University of California Press, 1971. 
$7.50 

Linton, Ralph, by Adelin Linton & 
Charles Wagley. (Leaders of Modern 
Anthropology Series). Port. 196pp. 
N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1971. 
$7.50 

Lipman, Jean, comp. The Collector in 
America. Introd, by Alan Pryce- Jones. 
Profusely Illus., incl. Color. 27lpp. 
N.Y.: Viking Press, 1971. $17.50 

Lloyd-Jones, Hugh. The Justice of Zeus. 
(Sather Classical Lectures, Vol. 41). 
230pp. Berkeley: University of Cali 
fornia Press, 1971. $8.50 

Lord, Caroline M. Diary of a Village 



Library. 269pp. Somersworth, N.H.: 
New Hampshire Publishing Co., 1971. 



Merton, Thomas: Social Critic, a Study, 
by James Thomas Baker. 173pp. Lex 
ington: University Press of Kentucky, 
1971. $8. 

Moorehead, Alan. The White Nile. Rev. 
Edn. Profusely Illus., incl. Color, 
368pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1971. 
$15. 

Murphy, James J., ed. Three Medieval 
Rhetorical Arts. [Writings of Anony 
mous of Bologna; Geoffrey of Vin- 
sauf; Robert of Basevorn]. xxiii, 235pp. 
Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1971. $7.50 

Pepys, Samuel, The Diary of. A New 
and Complete Transcription Ed. by 
Robert Latham & William Matthews. 
Vol. IV, 1663; V, 1664. Illus. 2 vols. 
Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1971. Together, 2 vols., $20. 

Ranhofer, Charles. The Epicurean [Del- 
monico s chefs cookbook; 3500 rec 
ipes]. (1893). Profusely Illus. 1183pp. 
N.Y.: Dover Publications, 197L Cloth, 
$17.50 

Shaw, Dale. Titans of the American 
Stage: Edwin Forrest, the Booths, the 
O Neills. Numerous Illus. 160pp. Phila 
delphia: Westminster Press, 1971. 
$5.95 

Vaux, Calvert. Villas and Cottages: a 
Series of Designs Prepared for Execu 
tion in the United States. (1864). 

. Profusely Illus. 348pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1970. Paper, $3. 

Westley, William A. Violence and the 
Police: a Sociological Study of Law, 
Custom, and Morality, xxi, 222pp. 
Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 
1970. Paper, $2.95 

Wisse, Ruth R. The Schlemiel as Mod 
ern Hero. 134pp. Chicago: University 
of Chicago Press, 1971. $5.45 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 



Volume X Number 4 



December 1971 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 
EDITORS NOTES AND READINGS 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



FREE! On application, one year s 
subscription to AN&Q for individ 
uals who Reply to previously 
unanswered Queries, Vols. I-V, 
before the conclusion of Volume X. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Albers, Josef, at the Metropolitan Mu 
seum of Art: an Exhibition of His 
Paintings and Prints. Incl. Color Plates. 
N.Y.: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
1971. Cloth, $?; Paper, $4.95 
American Book-Prices Current, 1968; a 
Record of Literary Properties Sold at 
Auction in the United States, in Cana 
da, and in London, from September 
1967 through August 1968. Vol. 74. 
xxx, 1259 double-columned pp. N.Y.: 
Columbia University Press, 1971. $40. 
BeMzs, Bela. Theory of the Film: Char 
acter and Growth of a New Art. Trans, 
by Edith Bone. (London, 1952). Illus. 
291pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1970. 
Paper, $2.75 

Bernard, Paul P. Jesuits and Jacobins: 
Enlightenment and Enlightened Des 
potism in Austria. 198pp. Urbana: 
University of Illinois Press, 1971. $7.50 
Chase, Richard, comp. American Folk 
Tales and Songs . . . Preserved in the 
Appalachian Mountains and Elsewhere 
in the United States. (1956). Incl. 
Guitar Chords. N.Y.: Dover Publica 
tions, 1971. Paper, $2. 
(Children s Literature). Commire, Anne, 
ed. Something About the Author: 
Facts and Pictures About Contempo 
rary Authors and Illustrators of Books 
for Young People. Vol. I. Numerous 
Illus. 233pp. Detroit: Gale Research 
Co., 1971. $15. 

Couzens, Reginald C. The Stories of the 
Months and Days. (1923). Illus. 160pp. 
Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1970 
$7.50 

Eisenstein, Sergei. Notes of a Film Di 
rector. [Trans, by X Danko]. (1948?). 
Revised. Illus. 208pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1970. 
Grieve, M. Culinary Herbs and Condi 



ments. (1934). 209pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1971. $2. 
Hogarth: His Life, Art, and Times, by 
Ronald Paulson. Profusely Illus, 2 vols. 
Published for the Paul Mellon Centre 
for Studies in British Art (London), 
Ltd. New Haven: Yale University 
Press, 1971, $40. 

Kamm, Minnie Watson. Old-Time Herbs 
for Northern Gardens. (1938). Illus. 
256pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. 
$2.75 

Keynes, Geoffrey. William Pickering, 
Publisher: a Memoir and a Check- 
List of His Publications. Rev. Edn. 
Facs. Illus. 125pp. London: The Gala 
had Press [36 Sherard Road, SE9], 
1969. 4.20 

Kleinholz, Frank. He de Brghat the 
Flowering Rock. Profusely Illus. 96pp. 
Coral Gables: University of Miami 
Press, 1971. $10. 

Kunz, George Frederick. The Curious 
Lore of Precious Stones. (1913). Illus. 
406pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. 
Paper, $4.50 

(Melville). Knapp, Joseph G. Tortured 
Synthesis: the Meaning of Melville s 
"Clarel". 123pp. N.Y.: Philosophical 
Library, 1971. $6.50 
Merton, Thomas: Social Critic: a Study, 
by James Thomas Baker. 173pp. Lex 
ington: University Press of Kentucky, 
1971. $8. 

Miinsterberg, Hugo. The Film, a Psy 
chological Study: the Silent Photoplay 
in 1916. (1916: The Photoplay: a 
Psychological Study). 100pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1970. Paper, $2. 
Niles, John Jacob, The Ballad Book of. 
(1961). Incl. Music, xxii, 369pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1970. Paper, $3.50 
Northcote, Rosalind. The Book of Herb 
Lore. (London, 1912: The Book of 

(Continued on p. 64) 



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by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
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m the Annual MLA International Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 



AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

SHAKESPEARE ALLUSION IN 
EMILY DICKINSON 

EMILY DICKINSON HABITUALLY 
TEASES her reader with allusive 
quotations. In Emily Dickinsons 
Reading (1966) Jack L. Capp has 
observed that "although she could 
be impudent with the deity, she 
displayed remarkable reverence for 
mortal Shakespeare" (p. 65). For 
this reason a reference in one of 
her letters has eluded both Capp s 
sharp eye and the editorial vigi 
lance of Thomas H. Johnson. A 
letter of 1878 addressed to her 
neighbor Mrs Henry Hills runs as 
follows: "Your memory of others, 
among your almost superhuman 
cares, is so astonishing that I can 
not refrain from surprise and love. 
How near this suffering Summer 
are the divine words There is a 
World elsewhere " (Letters, 1958, 
II, 613). Unable to find an exact 
source in scripture, Johnson du 
biously conjectures that perhaps 
she was thinking of the eschatao- 
logical message of Romans 8:18. 
The allusion is not Biblical, how 
ever, but literary. She echoes 
Shakespeare s description of Corio- 



lanus banishment from the city of 
Rome, when the hero cries, "De 
spising,/ For you, the city, thus I 
turn my back./ There is a world 
elsewhere" ( III. iii. 134- 136 ) . As 
Johnson shows, another letter 
makes similar but even more el 
liptical use of a line from Corio- 
lanus (11,484). Henry Hills, an 
Amherst manufacturer of straw 
hats, had just failed in business, 
and Emily s lawyer brother Austin 
was managing the firm as receiver. 
Mrs Hills was expected to apply 
the quotation aptly to her situation, 
not by imagining heavenly conso 
lations for bankruptcy, but by re 
alizing that if worst came to worst 
and creditors proved ungracious, 
the family could always leave Am 
herst to start a new life elsewhere. 



Michael West 



Wesley an University 



JUNIUS IN PARIS 

UNKNOWN TO ME AT THE TIME of 
the publication of my Junius Bib 
liography (New York: Burt Frank 
lin, 1949) was the most bizarre 
story ever associated with the his 
tory of Junius. 

Buried in the pages of the 
Athenaeum (18 July 1896) is a 
short article by the Junius scholar, 
W. Fraser Rae (1835-1905). In the 
article, Rae notes that Henry Har- 
risse had called to his attention a 
document published in an obscure 
Paris journal, La Correspondence 
Historique et Archeologique. The 
document is a letter (11 May 1773) 
from the Count de Broglie to Louis 
XV of which Rae provided a trans 
lation in the Athenaeum article. 
The document states that Junius 
was in Paris in 1773 (the last of 



52 

the Junius Letters appeared in the 
London Public Advertiser on 21 
January 1772), was introduced to 
M. d Aiguillon, the Minister of 
State, who sought Junius services 
for the French government, and 
that Junius and Anthony Charmer 
(1725-1780), The Deputy Secre 
tary At War, and friend of Samuel 
Johnson, informed the French gov 
ernment that war was imminent. 
Rae gives neither credence nor 
denial to the report. That the Let 
ters of Junius were well known in 
France is undeniable (editions of 
the Letters were published in Paris. 
See Cordasco, op. cit., #64; #136; 
#137; #145); what is most likely 
is that two imposters ( a self-styled 
"Junius" and a self-styled Mr 
Chamier) were enterprising con 
fidence men preparing to embezzle 
the French government. 

Francesco Cordasco 

Montclair State College 
Upper Montclair, New Jersey 



RICHARD S PHAETHON IMAGE 

THE PHAETHON IMAGE in Richard 
II (III.iii.178) has won the atten 
tion of Shakespeare buffs: Parker 
Tyler, for example, tells of how the 
King "obeys the behest of the 
usurper to parlay with him below". 
In so doing, "the metaphor he 
chooses for himself expresses the 
downward motion of what is, in 
myth, Icarus and Prometheus fate 
as well as Phaethon s. It represents 
man s pretension to divine or quasi- 
divine powers which the gods, 
when intimately touched, were so 
prompt to punish". 1 The source for 



AN&Q 

the image was not directly leg- 
endry about Icarus or Prometheus, 
however, but probably Thomas 
Lodge s Rosalynde: 

Climbe not my sonnes; aspiring pride 
is a vapour that ascendeth hie, but 
soone turneth to a smoake: they which 
stare at the Starres, stumble vppon 
stones; and such as gaze at the Suime 
(vnlesse they bee Eagle eyed) fall blinde. 
Soare not with the Hobbie, least you 
fall with the Larke; nor attempt not 
with Phaeton, least you drowne with 
Icarus. Fortune when she wils you to 
flie, tempers your plumes with waxe, 
and therefore either sit still and make 
no wing, or else beware the Sunne, and 
holde Dedalus axioms authenticall (me 
dium tenere tutissimum) ? 

Compare Iris eye, / As bright as is 
the eagle s, lightens forth / Con 
trolling majesty" (III.iii.68-70). 
The speech in Lodge is delivered 
by Sir John of Bourdeaux, and 
Richard is "of Bourdeaux". 3 

Robert F. Fleissner 

Central State University 
Wilberforce, Ohio 



1. "Phaethon: The Metaphysical Ten 
sion Between the Ego and the Uni 
verse in English poetry", Accent, XVI 
(1956), 29. 

2. A New Variorum Edition of Shake 
speare, ed. H. H. Furness, 27 Vols. 
(Philadelphia, 1871-1955), As You 
Like It, p, 319. The Italics are mine. 
-R.F.F. 

3. Since Shakespeare used Rosalynde, 
published in 1590, when he com 
posed As You Like It (produced in 
1599), he most probably was ac 
quainted with the Lodge work before 
then too, possibly soon after its pub 
lication and very likely half-way be 
tween the two dates, in 1595 when 
he produced Richard II. One bit of 
evidence for this is that the same year 
marks the approximate date for 
Romeo and Juliet with its Rosaline, 



December 1971 



53 



QUERIES 



(Mrs?) Jessie Bryant Gerard 
Where are the papers o this in 
teresting woman? She served as 
Chairman of the Conservation De 
partment of the Connecticut State 
Federation of Women s Clubs, at 
which time she wrote "What Wom 
en Have Achieved: They Have 
Saved the Big Trees, Appalachian 
Forests, the Palisades Still Wider 
Opportunity for National Service 
Before Them" (American Conser 
vation, 1:1, February 1911, pp.56- 
59). Any other information about 
her will be welcome. Mary J. 
Clark, Washington, D.C. 

Anchorite Islands I am trying 
to find information about their dis 
covery, exploration, and descrip 
tion. Also, other names they have 
been given, and their economic or 
political significance. Broadus 
Moody, Seattle, Wash. 

Legal lynching What is the 
origin of the seemingly honest be 
lief that if 100 men were in a lynch 
ing party the lynching could be 
considered legal? This theory was 
cited in investigations into the 
lynching of Allen Green in Wal- 
halla, S.C., in April 1930. Are there 
other instances? Dean Trefeth- 
an, Chicago, III. 



a name that then was echoed in As 
You Like It, as Professor Levin says, 
"in the slightly modified form of 
Rosalind" (see his "Shakespeare s 
Nomenclature", in Essays on Shake 
speare, ed. Gerald W. Chapman 
[Princeton, 1965], p. 59). I so, then 
it is just as probable that Rosalynde 
already had made her debut in the 
slightly modified form of Rosaline. 



"Teddy-bear" Modem slang 

definitions wanted. Rainer 

Toor, New York, N.Y. 

"Today it is snowing in China 
I am seeking references to this 
saying, an adage that certainly 
dates back to the early 17th cen 
tury. It was used, supposedly, in 
Holland when older people felt the 
damp of a fog, which suggests it 
may have been used as early as 
the late 16th century at least. ( See 
my The Dutch Come to Korea. 
Seoul, 1971, p.28). Gari Led- 
yard > Sharon, Ct 



REPLIES 

"To cut the mustard (IX: 153) 
I believe I have found an instance 
where the etymology has been ob 
scured, and perhaps misinterpreted 
by the editors of Webster s New 
International Dictionary, Third Ed 
ition. The meaning of the phrase 
in ordinary usage is, as Mr Taylor 
notes, clear enough, and the defi 
nition in WNID-3 accurate: "to 
achieve the standard of perform 
ance necessary for success" (p. 
560). However, WNID-3 offers no 
information regarding the deriva 
tion of the phrase. 

Checking a bit further uncovers 
some perplexing inconsistencies 
among standard lexicographic 
sources. Given what appears to be 
its colloquial American flavor, it 
does seem curious that neither the 
Dictionary of American English 
(1940) nor Mitford Mathews Dic 
tionary of Americanisms ( 1951 ) in 
cludes the phrase. No entry is to 
be found in Bartletfs early Dic 
tionary of Americanisms (1896); 



54 



AN&Q 



in Thornton s An American Glos 
sary (1912); in Eric Partridge s A 
Dictionary of Slang and Uncon 
ventional English (1953); nor does 
Mencken comment on it in The 
American Language. 

A book which Mencken once de 
rided as "an extremely slipshod 
and even ridiculous work", Mau 
rice Wessen s Dictionary of Ameri 
can Slang (1934), does, however, 
list the expression. So also does 
Berrey and Van den Bark s Ameri 
can Thesaurus of Slang (1942), 
entering it under three different 
though related semantic headings: 
"to accomplish"; "skill, be able to 
do"; and "succeed with". This lat 
ter meaning is picked up by Harold 
Wentworth, who lists the phrase, 
curiously, not in his Dictionary of 
American Slang (I960), but in his 
earlier American Dialect Diction 
ary (1944). Although Wentworth 
gives dates of 1916 and 1923, and 
locations of South Carolina, Kan 
sas, and Southwest Missouri as 
sources for his entry, he does not 
give an etymology, nor any illus 
trative citations. 

In addition to the definition, the 
complete entry in WNID-3 gives 
a usage label ("slang"), an illus 
trative citation, a variant, and a 
cross-reference. The illustrative ci 
tation is from the Atlantic Monthly, 
and illustrates the definition and 
usage clearly enough: "in our work 
. . . those of our fellow workers 
who can t or won t cut the mustard 
must of necessity be shoved out 
Atlantic". But a variant, "cut the 
muster", listed in no other standard 
lexicographic reference, is also 
given, with no explanation other 
than the cross-reference, "compare 
PASS MUSTER". I believe the 
cross-reference to be misleading, 



and probably in error; but the 
variant supplies the key to an ety 
mological possibility that the edi 
tors of WNID-3 have missed. At 
the entry for pass muster (p. 1560), 
there are definitions for "passing 
an inspection" of one sort or an 
other, but no elucidation of cutting 
the muster, or mustard. Nor do the 
entries at muster throw any new 
light on the matter. The cross- 
reference appears to lead nowhere. 
Because they have excluded en 
tries recorded before 1755, the edi 
tors of WNID-3 have missed or 
ignored an archaic meaning of 
muster recorded in OED: "a pat 
tern, specimen, sample" (VI, pt. 
II, 794). OED notes that this usage 
has been "confined to certain par 
ticular branches of commerce . , .". 
Partridge reinforces this with an 
entry more fully explanatory (p. 
545): 

musta or muster the make or pattern 
of anything; a sample: Anglo-Chinese 
and -Indian: c. 16-20; in 1563, as mos- 
tra, which is the Portuguese origin. . . . 
Very gen. used in commercial transac 
tions all over the world. 

This archaic meaning for muster, 
reaching back into the 16th cen 
tury, provides a possible, although 
admittedly conjectural, explanation 
for the origin of the phrase, cut 
the muster, and its phonetic vari 
ant, cut the mustard, which, I sub 
mit, originally had nothing to do 
with "mustard" at all. Once muster 
is recognized as an old commercial 
term for "form" or "pattern", the 
meaning of the rarer "cut the mus 
ter" makes more sense: the cutting 
of such forms or patterns for 
cloth goods, for example would 
require great skill and precision. 



December 1971 



55 



Only one skilled in his craft could 
"cut the muster". 

From the literal use of the phrase 
to its figurative extension is an 
easy transition. And as the original 
and literal meaning faded into the 
past, it is not difficult to imagine 
the kind of phonetic variation 
which resulted in the later form. 
For example, the mustard form 
may be a back-formation from 
musterdeuillers, "a kind of mixed 
grey woolen cloth, much used in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth cen 
turies" (OED, VI, II, 795). No 
doubt the expression may have per 
sisted in colloquial usage without 
being recorded in writing. What 
remains unexplained, however, is 
why WNID-3 gratuitously lists the 
(probably earlier) variant, but 
does not explicate the relationship 
between the two. In the absence 
of a supporting citation, one can 
only speculate, a dubious etymo 
logical practice; but the internal 
evidence I have outlined does sug 
gest a possible explanation for the 
origin of the phrase. Ronald A. 
Wells, United States Coast Guard 
Academy, New London, Conn. 



And further 

"To cut the mustard (IX: 153) 
To cut the mustard, to come up to 
one s expectations, has been used 
in various dialects and meanings 
for many years. OED suggests the 
following: 

1903 O. Henry Cabbages & Kings 101 
I m not headlined in the bills, but 
I m the mustard in the salad dress 
ing just the same. 

1907 O. Henry Trimmed Lamp 217 Why 
don t you invite him if he s so 
much to the mustard? 



1922 Sandburg Slabs Sunburnt West 7 
Kid each other, you cheap skates. 
Tell each other you re all to the 
mustard. 

1904 O. Henry Heart of West x. 163 
I looked around and found a prop 
osition that exactly cut the mus 
tard. 

1909 O. Henry Roads of Destiny 99 
"She cut the mustard/* he said 
"all right." 

A word list from Kansas sug 
gests the term is used to meet the 
requirements, to "fill the bill". 
Arkansas used the term to succeed 
"But he couldn t cut the mustard". 
In American Speech the term is 
suggested as always used negative 
ly, "The boys could not cut the 
mustard in that game". O. Henry, 
however, uses the term positively 
as above. 

In Louisiana and Texas the term 
is used to designate an accomplish 
ment of a task. In South Carolina 
and Kansas the term is used in a 
sense to be successful. Southwest 
Missouri, McDonald County also 
believes the term is to meet re 
quirements and discharge obliga 
tions. 

Finally the underground also 
has the term. Partridge s A Dic 
tionary of the Underworld indicates 
that the term, the mustard, as 
being the most successful in the 
criminal line. In Flynns Magazine 
the statement was made that "Pick- 
in s was good in th old days but 
still I ain t more than a cartload 
of kale to the mustard". Extant 
meaning is they re hot stuff at their 
job meaning discharging their ob 
ligations faithfully. Jerry Drost, 

SE7NY at Buffalo, N.Y. 



We wonder whether any more 
need be said? Editor. 



56 



AN&Q 



Resurrected bodies (IX: 122) 
One of the more famous disinter- 
ments is that of Johann Sebastian 
Bach, whose grave was discovered 
and excavated in the churchyard 
of St Thomas Church in Leipzig 
on 22 October 1894. Details of the 
search, exhumation, and identifica 
tion along with counter argu 
ments are given in Hans Henny 
Jahnn s article "Der Schadel J. S. 
Bachs und sein Bild" (Funda- 
mente, 1959; reprinted, with pho 
tograph of skull, in Profile, annual 
of the Freie Akademie der Kiinste 
in Hamburg, 1967). Another pos 
sible source is W. J. Henderson s 
How Music Developed: a Crit 
ical and Explanatory Account of 
the Growth of Modern Music 
(c!898). This is either the exclu 
sive or main source of information 
which Edgar Lee Masters used in 
writing his still unpublished long 
poem, "The Reburial of Bach". 

Norman Douglas writes in Late 
Harvest of D. H. Lawrence, who 
had died in March 1930, that the 
controversial novelist was <c buried 
at Vence, though Lawrence s re 
mains were presently shifted to 
[New] Mexico after an exhumation 
concerning which I could tell a 
tale so gruesome that it might give 
pain to one who is still alive". (Pre 
sumably he is referring to Law 
rence s wife, Frieda. ) He does not 
elaborate, and the only comment 
made by Richard Aldington, in 
D. H. Lawrence: Portrait of a 
Genius But . . ., is: "A year or two 
later Lawrence s body was ex 
humed and taken for reburial to 
Taos, where it lies in a memorial 
chapel . . .". 

In 1941 Tamerlane s remains 
were exhumed in Samarkand by 
Russian scientists under the leader 



ship of Mikhail Gerasimov, "who 
pioneered in the bizarre science of 
re-creating facial likenesses from 
the skulls of the dead", A brief 
report of Gerasimov s work and 
his book The Face Finder, recently 
published in English, may be 
found in Newsweek, 8 March 1971. 
And finally, information and 
references to further sources on 
the 1969(?) disinterment of Laur 
ence Sterne appear in none other 
than AN&Q (VIII: 107). Frank 
K. Piobinson, University of Tennes 
see, Knoxville 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

Nearly every week Dover Publica 
tions sends us some fine, new, in 
expensive paperback reprints and 
we marvel at the publisher s inter 
est in what he is doing. Even the 
least significant books on Dover s 
list give the bibliographical history 
of the book (on the verso of the 
title-page), noting all changes and 
additions to or deletions from the 
original. The books are really qual 
ity paperbacks, notable for lasting 
bindings and good reproduction of 
the original. We always list these 
books in PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED, 
and sometimes comment on them 
in this column. Now Dover has 
issued a giant hardback of 1183pp., 
profusely illustrated, and costing 
only $17.50: The Epicurean, a clas 
sic cookbook by Charles Ranhofer, 
formerly Master Chef of the world- 
renowned Delmonico s of New 



December 1971 



57 



York. A truly gourmandizing book, 
one of the Great Ones of the cul 
inary art, unabridged and unal 
tered, as published in 1893. Not 
only are there more than 3500 
recipes, but there are pages and 
pages with pictures of delectable 
delicacies, appetizing dishes, notes 
on wines, table arrangement, and a 
treasury of Bills of Fare and Del- 
monico s "most interesting" menus 
over a thirty-year period. Many of 
these record particularly historic 
dinners honoring important per 
sons of an era of eating now past. 
There is an extensive index to all 
recipes. Good eating to our read 
ers! As Charles Delmonico said, 
"A perusal will, I think, give one 
an appetite". 

Less expensive than almost any 
movie, and far more entertaining 
actually hilarious in spots as 
well as stimulating for the literary 
or literate mind, is Jacques Barzun 
On Writing, Editing, and Publish 
ing (Chicago: University of Chi 
cago Press, 1971. 130pp. Paper, 
$1.35). These "Essays Explicative 
and Hortatory" have been collected 
from a variety of periodicals and 
were published over the past twen 
ty-five years. It is a great joy to 
read Barzun s explicit prose, his 
humor, and common sense. It is 
embarrassing to find that anyone 
has read so widely, remembered 
so well, and never found scholar 
ship drudgery nor made it a pe 
dantic exercise. I cannot imagine a 
single reader of AIV&Q who would 
not enjoy this remarkable collec 
tion and cite it regularly to stu 
dents and friends because of the 
good sense it makes and the fun 
it is to read. 



Oral History in the United States: 
a Directory, describes 230 oral his 
tory projects and their holdings of 
tapes and transcripts. The 120p. 
guide, arranged by state, and in 
dexed in depth, will serve as a very 
useful aid to researchers. Published 
by the Oral History Association, 
the Directory may be ordered from 
the Association, Box 20, Butler Li 
brary, Columbia University, N.Y., 
N.Y. 10027, $4, postpaid. 

If one looks widely enough, it is 
possible to see some wonderful 
things that come from the small 
public libraries of this country. 
For example, two exemplary pieces 
from our friend John Jackson, Li 
brarian of the Mary Cheney Library 
in Manchester, Conn.: E7. S. His 
torical Fiction, a Selected Reading 
List, chosen by the staff for stu 
dent patrons (all titles have ap 
peared on recommended reading 
lists for young adults), it is classi 
fied by period and includes brief 
descriptive annotations; the other 
piece is the Library s Annual Re 
port, 1970/71, interspersed with 
small tear-out "Posters of Protest 
and Pride". The art work for both 
publications by Lynn Beaulieu is 
bold and attractive. Copies of each 
are still available to readers who 
cite A1V&Q. Here is evidence that 
The Revolution has indeed come 
to the library. 

Authors and publishers are invited 
to submit nominations for the 1971 
George Freedley Award which will 
be presented by the Theatre Li 
brary Association next spring. Es 
tablished in 1968, in memory of 
the late theatre historian, critic, 
author, and first curator of The 



58 

New York Public Library Theatre 
Collection, the Award honors a 
work in the field of theatre pub 
lished in the United States. A 
plaque is presented to the author 
on the basis of scholarship, read 
ability, and general contribution to 
the broadening of knowledge. Only 
books on theatre will be considered 
- biography, history, criticism, and 
related fields. Excluded from the 
category of theatre are vaudeville, 
puppetry, pantomime, motion pic 
ture, television, radio, opera, circus, 
dance and ballet, plays, and similar 
dramatic forms. Other works con 
sidered ineligible are textbooks, 
bibliographies, dictionaries and en 
cyclopedias, anthologies, collec 
tions of articles and essays pub 
lished previously and in other 
sources, and reprints of publica 
tions. Nominations are to be sub 
mitted in writing to the President 
of the Theatre Library Association, 
Louis A. Rachow, The Walter 
Hampden Memorial Library, 16 
Gramercy Park, New York, N.Y. 
10003. Publishers will be asked to 
submit two published copies of all 
books nominated to the President 
at the same address. No galley- 
sheets or proofs will be accepted. 
Books nominated for the 1971 
Award must have been published 
in the 1971 calendar year. If no 
date of publication appears on the 
title page or its verso, the date 
must be indicated in the written 
nomination. All nominations must 
be in the hands of the jury by 15 
January 1972. The selection of the 
Award winner will be determined 
by a five-member jury appointed 
by the President of the Theatre 
Library Association. 



AN&Q 

Scholarly Collections on Microfilm, 
1971/72 General Catalog, which de 
scribes currently available and pro 
jected microfilm publications, has 
been issued by Research Publica 
tions, Inc. of New Haven, Ct. The 
collections cover a wide range of 
subjects, rich in the culture and 
history of the Western world. The 
great strength in the field of Amer 
ican studies, including literature, 
science and history, is paralleled 
by like resources, international in 
scope, of which the Documents 
and Publications of the League of 
Nations, German Baroque Litera 
ture, and 17th and 18th Century 
Periodicals are but a few examples. 
A copy of the catalog may be ob 
tained by writing to Research Pub 
lications, Inc., P.O. Box 3903, New 
Haven, Connecticut 06525. 

Librarians who have forgotten how 
to serve people and who the people 
they serve are, will be intrigued 
to discover that there is still a 
world of librarianship that does 
not need the computer in its out- 
reaching programs. Caroline Lord s 
book, Diary of a Village Library, 
with a Foreword by Walter Muir 
Whitehall ( Somersworth, N.H. : 
New Hampshire Publishing Co., 
1971. 269pp. $6.95), tells of years 
of service in a very small-town li 
brary, thousands of which still 
exist and need the attention of 
inspired younger people who want 
to meet the needs of isolated com 
munities and impoverished librar 
ies. The inner city has its problems 
but so has the town that is in the 
outer reaches of isolation. In each 
case the library has a job to do 
and librarians like Mrs Lord are 
the ones to do it. 



December 1971 



59 



Anthropologists and sociologists 
will be pleased with the efforts of 
Ralph Linton s widow, Adelin, and 
his student Charles Wagley s high 
ly personal review of Linton s life 
and attitudes, and an excellent se 
lection from his writings (with a 
complete bibliography ) , recently 
issued by Columbia University 
Press. Linton left few personal 
writings, and he was a poor cor 
respondent. Many who had experi 
ences with him as a student or 
colleague may think of him some 
what differently, but his present 
devotees will honor this memorial 
work which acknowledges faults as 
well as the strength of his scholar 
ship, originality, and kindnesses. 
The volume is a valuable contribu 
tion to the history of American 
anthropology and other social sci 
ences. 

The charm of Robert Hichens 
amusing novel of 1894 about Oscar 
Wilde and the aesthetic movement, 
in The Green Carnation (N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1970. $1.50), 
stands in strong contrast to E. M. 
Forster s recently first published 
magnificent book, Maurice, which 
he wrote in 1913/14 (N.Y.: Norton, 
1971. $6.95). Together, they rep 
resent two of the many varying 
attitudes of an elite society toward 
homosexuality although sexuality is 
not the expressed theme of Hich 
ens attempt at a good-humored 
critique of "sensitivity", and For 
ster s is a beautifully analytical 
appraisal of the innermost sensi 
tivities of the souls of three men 
who face a problem that is differ 
ent for each of them in their own 
day and in the same way for many 
others today. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 

Universitij of Kentucky. 

The publishing and distribution 
firm of Weber, S.A., 13 Monthoux, 
1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland, offers 
many of the most significant art 
books of our time. Robert Melville, 
Henry Moore, Sculpture et dessins 
1921-1969 (Brussels: La Connais- 
ance, 1971; 368pp.), provides a 
critical analysis and a judicious 
selection of Moore s work in color 
and in black-and-white. For the 
last two decades Moore has been 
a dominant figure in plastic and 
pictorial art; and while he does 
not need to have his reputation 
enhanced by a book of this quality, 
it will bring him closer to those of 
us who may not have appreciated 
his genius fully in the past. 

In the series of "Les senders de la 
creation", published by Albert 
Skira of Geneva, Weber offers 
three new titles: Miguel Angel 
Asturias, Trois des quatre soleils 
(1971; 179pp. ), presents the work 
of a Guatemalan artist who works 
with indigenous themes as well as 
universal ones. Pierre Alechinsky, 
Roue libre (1971; 162pp.), is a 
self-analysis of one of the imagina 
tive painters of our time. Francis 
Ponge, La fabrique du pre (1971; 
272pp.), is a modern herbal with 
a vision of the poetry and art of 
our globe as an old planet infested 
with biological growths. 



60 

The series of "Artistes de notre 
temps", issued by the Bodensee- 
Verlag in Amriswil, distributed by 
Weber, includes Jean Cassou, Os- 
sip Zadkine (1962; 27, 24pp.; vol. 
XII); Jean Cassou, Serge Poliakoff 
(1963; 31, 23pp.; vol. XIII); and 
Carola Giedion-Welcker, Zoltan 
Kemeny (1968; 48, 23pp.; vol. XV; 
published under imprint of Erker- 
Verlag, St. Gallen). 

Weber distributes two pictograph- 
ic works relating to Latin America, 
with possibly more to be in the 
series, issued originally by Editions 
Atlantis in Zurich, Fulvio Roiter, 
Bresil (1970; unpaged), senses the 
sounds, scenes, and smells of Brazil 
in an unusually perceptive collec 
tion of photographs and commen 
taries. Roiter s Mexique ( 1970; un 
paged) does the same service for 
Mexico, Both are singularly hand 
some volumes, and collectors of 
Latin Americana will fail to in 
clude them in their collections to 
their later disappointment. 



Osaka, 500 photographies de TEx- 
po 70 (Paris: Hermann, 1970; 513 
pp.; Fr. 30. ), contains photo 
graphs by Bruno Suter and Peter 
Knapp, with texts in French, Eng 
lish, and Japanese. This photo 
graphic record of the Osaka ex 
position is a document of endur 
ing value for this first great inter 
national fair held in the Far East. 

Jurij Miynk, Serbska bibliografija 
Sorbische Bibliographic 1958- 
1965 (Bautzen: Ludowe Naklad- 
nistwo Domowina, VEB Domo- 
wina-Verlag, 1968; 559 pp.; "Spisy 
Institute za serbski ludospyt", 33), 
is a continuation of the same bib- 



AN&Q 

liographers Sorb (Wendish) bib 
liography for 1945-1957 (Bautzen, 
1959; 287 pp.). This was a contin 
uation of the second edition of the 
general Sorb bibliography issued 
by Jakub Jatzwauk in 1952 in the 
"Berichte iiber die Verhandlungen 
der Sachsischen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, PhiL- 
Hist. Kl. w , vol. 98, no. 3. The pres 
ent work contains 8,785 entries in 
classified order, with indexes of 
authors, names, and places. 

Michael Altschul, Anglo-Norman 
England 1066-1154 (Cambridge: 
For the Conference on British 
Studies at the University Press, 
1969; 83 pp.; $5.95), is the second 
volume in the series of biblio 
graphical handbooks sponsored by 
the Conference on British Studies. 
There are 1,838 entries, classified, 
with an author index. 

Aage J0rgensen, H. C. Andersen 
Litteraturen 1875-1968 (Aarhus: 
Akademisk Boghandel, 1970; 394 
pp.), is a chronological list of 2,266 
items, with indexes of subjects and 
names. It supplements Birger 
Frank Nielsen s H. C. Andersen 
Bibliografi, Digterens danske Vaer- 
ker 1822-1875 (1942) and Sv. Juel 
M011er s Bidrag til H. C. Andersens 
Bibliografi, MI (1967-68). The 
foreword is in both English and 
Danish. 

La empresa del libro en America 
Latina, una guia seleccionada de 
las editoriales, distribuidores, y 
librerias en America Latina (Bue 
nos Aires: Bowker Editores Argen 
tina, 1968; 273 pp.) is a Latin 
American equivalent to The Lit 
erary Market Place. Actually, it is 
vastly more useful than the latter 



December 1971 



61 



simply because Latin American 
addresses are so difficult to obtain 
and verify in many cases. Periodic 
new editions will be most welcome. 

Helmut Kind, Die Luthersamm- 
lung der Niedersdchsischen Staats- 
und Uniuersitatsbibliothek Gottin- 
gen (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & 
Ruprecht, 1970; 68 pp., 9 pi. of 
facsimiles and bindings; "Arbeiten 
aus der Niedersachsischen Staats- 
und Universitatsbibliothek Gottin 
gen", 8), gives the history of the 
collection and provides a list of 
titles supplementary to Kind s cata 
log of Die Lutherdrucke des 16. 
Jahrhunderts der Niedersdchsis 
Staats- und Universitatsbiblio 
Gottingen (1967). Over and 
above the substantive value of the 
study, it provides a sample of the 
history of one of the best admin 
istered of all German research li 
braries. 



Readers comments on the de 
sirability of a 10-year Cumula 
tive Index to AN&Q would be 
welcomed. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

POTTER, E. B. The Naval Academy Il 
lustrated History of the United States 
Navy. 299pp. Profusely Illus. N.Y.: 
Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1971. $15. 

Compacting approximately 200 years 
of naval history into 300 pages means 
the author has had to select those per 
sons, things and events which he con 
siders to be most important in relating 
the history of our navy. This survey, 
recounting U.S. naval history from 1776 
to current operations in Southeast Asia, 



is therefore forced to deal primarily witfi 
major operations and upper echelon peo-t 
pie. The minor engagements and obscure 
personages have been sifted out. This 
is principally an operational history told 
in straightforward expository fashion 
that at times borders on blandness and 
fails to evoke the rush of the sea, or 
the sounds and smells of naval battle* 
The oftentimes long odds of battle, and 
the formidability of the enemies our 
navy has faced in its nearly 200 years 
of existence do not quite come througti 
in this text. 

The book is divided into ten chrono 
logic chapters which treat segments of 
the history. The first chapter is about 
the Continental Navy and the nigged 
individuals and prima donnas of the 
period; the successes and the fiascos 
are told. The administration of the navy 
is considered, along with the rebuilding 
of a naval force to fight for freedom of 
the seas during the War of 1812. 
Sketches of the strong figures and 
heroes who emerged during that period 
are included. The establishment and 
growth of the Naval Academy is re 
counted with due credit given to the 
parts Maury, Chauvenet and Bancroft 
played in the professionalization of the 
Navy s officers. The pre-Civil War tran^ 
sitional period of shifting from sail to 
steam is considered, and the persons 
most responsible for the changes given 
mention. A lively chapter on the Civil 
War deals with the coastal and river 
actions of both the Union and Confed 
erate navies and the outstanding lead 
ers on both sides. 

The thread of technologic changes is 
woven throughout the text, from the 
days of the "wooden walls", into our 
own nuclear power era. The trials and 
tribulations of shifting from sail to 
steam are followed with the post-Civil 
War development of the "new Navy"^ 
which carried it through the first World[ 
War. The twenty year disarmament pe 
riod following the World War, and the, 
rearmament period as prelude to World 
War Two are considered. Chapter IX on 
World War Two is the most extensive 
of the book and uses more than 100 
of the total number of pages; with the 
battle of Savo Island, an Allied naval 
disaster, rating only one paragraph. The 
major changes in administration and 
technology which followed the second 



62 

World War are covered in the final 
chapter which ends with the current 
activity of the U. S. Navy in Vietnam 
and Southeast Asia. 

The book is in a large format (nearly 
&& x 11") and is profusely illustrated; 
with the photos, portraits and diagrams 
closely related to the text. An appendix 
lists the sources of the illustrative ma 
terial All of the illustrative material is 
in black and white. The book was 
printed by an offset process and the il 
lustrations were printed right along with 
the text. The designer has used the 
bleed technique with many of the 
photos. There are many small scale, but 
sharply defined, maps used throughout 
to elucidate the naval actions described 
in the text. There is a good index; but 
no appendices or bibliography. 

The author indicates in the Preface 
that the use of the words "Naval Acad 
emy" in the title is not to be construed 
as official sanction for this book. Mr 
Potter has been at the Naval Academy 
for more than 25 years and is Professor 
of Naval History at that institution. He 
has drawn on his long experience in this 
post, as well as experience gained while 
on active naval duty during World War 
Two, in the writing of this history. He 
has written a number or articles and 
books on naval topics including Sea 
Power: a Naval History, which he co- 
authored with Admiral Chester Nimitz. 

In the Preface the author states ". . . 
Because my aim has been to arouse 
interest and to inform, rather than to 
instruct or to reveal, I saw no point in 
providing footnotes or bibliography . . .". 
To this reviewer this seems like a dere 
liction of an historian s duty. Without 
footnotes and bibliography the student 
or interested reader cannot easily refer 
to the sources used should he desire to 
read an expanded version of some naval 
event mentioned. Without the footnotes 
he cannot easily check the source to 
determine whether the event might not 
be interpreted in more than one way. 

The lack of such basic reference ap 
paratus seems to indicate that the book 
was intended only for the intelligent 
layman or casually interested naval buff 
and certainly not the researcher or seri 
ous student of naval history. Frank 
J. Anderson, Librarian, Wofford College, 
Spartanburg, South Carolina 



AN&Q 

STENERSON, Douglas C. H. L. Menck 
en: Iconoclast From Baltimore. Illus. 
287pp. Chicago: The University of Chi 
cago Press, 1971. $7.95. 

Stenerson has written an intriguing 
documentary on an individual whose 
primary drive, following the dictionary s 
definition, was to break images and re 
fute traditional and hypocritical beliefs 
in American society. The biography is 
not in a traditional sense of biography 
but it is a "genetic" interpretation of 
an individual. The author attempts to 
explore the evolution of Mencken s ideas 
and his style of literary journalism 
his "coruscating and forceful style". The 
book examines Mencken s temperament 
and fight within American culture which 
evolved in the later part of the 19th 
century, reaching its height of intel 
lectual iconoclasm in the 1920s. 

The author, who is presently at Roose 
velt University in Chicago, became in 
terested in the controversial "Sage of 
Baltimore * in the early 1950s. Subse 
quently, he has wanted to write an 
intellectual biography of Mencken to 
give a balanced view of his fight with 
America, his prejudices and passions. 
By searching the documents in the Balti 
more s Enoch Pratt Free Library, inter 
viewing Mencken s brother August, and 
interviewing the iconoclast himself dur 
ing the early 1950s, Stenerson concluded 
that the portrait of Mencken as a coarse 
person was not true. Being fairly old at 
the time of the interview Mencken im 
pressed Stenerson as a Victorian gentle 
man in contrast to the picture one gets 
that Mencken was vulgar. 

In the Twenties The American Mer 
cury was a phenomenal literary success. 
As its editor, Mencken used the pages 
of the journal to express his views of 
decadence in America. The co-editors 
of the journal, George Jean Nathan and 
Mencken, even from the beginning dis 
agreed as to the policy the journal 
would follow since Nathan, an aesthete, 
was not interested in the social and po 
litical problems of the world. For him 
the "surface of life" was the most im 
pressive aspect of existence, "Its charm 
and ease, its humor and loveliness". H. L. 
Mencken, on the other hand, was more 
interested in social and political reform. 
Yet the editors agreed to oppose the 



December 1971 



stupidity of American society, the hy 
pocrisy, and the sham of society. 

Stenerson has succinctly brought out 
Mencken s ambivalence toward Ameri 
can society, noting, for example, that 
Mencken considered the possibility of 
joining the literary avant-garde of 
writers overseas. One wonders if his 
style would have changed if he had 
gone overseas. The question was asked 
of Mencken that if he found so much 
to dislike in America why did he con 
tinue to stay. Mencken answered with 
another question, asking why men go 
to zoos. America, he thought, needed 
him as he needed America. 

Mencken was a realist, an iconoclast, 
but more than these he was a paradoxi 
cal individual, as the book portrays him. 
He thought of himself as belonging to 
an elite class, a class developed through 
natural selection and heredity rather 
than forming out of environmental in 
fluences and cultural opportunities. For 
Mencken artistic and intellectual su 
periority was the most important talent 
to possess, financial status was secondary. 

"The essential elements", Mencken 
believed, "were the consciousness of be 
longing to an elite, the conception of a 
social system in which each class per 
formed its proper function and kept its 
proper place", pointing out that there 
is a small minority of "fearless truth- 
seekers". Some of his ideas were im 
bedded in his books, The Philosophy of 
Friedrich Nietzsche and Man Versus the 
Man: the iconoclast must remain true 
to two beliefs 1) Darwin s discovery 
of 1859, and 2) "Get the sluggish, con 
vention-ridden masses to glimpse the 
vision and move upward toward the 
light". He believed that a transvaluation 
of values was needed for the salvation 
of America. "Dislodge the pseudoaris- 
tocracy, the genteel guardians of ortho 
doxy", Mencken was saying. 

Mencken admired Thomas Huxley 
who had an influence on his writing 
style and philosophy. Huxley, as a fore 
runner of Nietzsche, was a determinist 
for whom free will played little or no 
par*- in his philosophy. However, Menck- 
*6riT"agnosticism (more emotional than 
Huxley s) was the natural outcome of 
his ideas about an enlightened minority, 
the elite of society. Yet these Darwinian- 
Huxlian-Nietzschean views of man, de 



terministic, biological, mechanical, were 
not the only influences in Mencken s 
prospect of life. 

Mencken s father was undoubtedly a 
strong cultural influence also. Mencken s 
family did not encourage the children 
to go to church. Mencken said later that 
"though I was . . . exposed to ... 
Christian theology I was never taught 
to believe it ... the Christian faith was 
full of palpable absurdities and the Chris 
tian God preposterous". A conservative 
economic attitude was inherited from his 
father also, later to be broadened by the 
theory of social Darwinism. 

Mencken s German-American back 
ground influenced him considerably. The 
tradition played a major role in his po 
litical beliefs during the First World 
War. People were sensitive to German- 
Americans; nevertheless, he did not pro 
fess to speak for any particular group 
or political party. 

Mencken believed that the elite, the 
literary artists, the truth-seekers, should 
create a protest literature against certain 
institutions and values. Writers, such as 
Ibsen, Nietzsche, Zola, Twain, and Shaw, 
he admired. Their themes of iconoclasm 
agreed with his philosophy of literature, 
believing that the artist should question 
and reject society s traditional solutions 
to problems. 

Mencken thought that a distinctive 
form of literature rejecting the "genteel 
tradition" was fiction. American drama 
could not be conceived, at this time, as 
the form of literature Mencken wanted 
because American drama was second- 
rate to European drama, especially Ib 
sen. To Mencken, American theatre con 
sisted of melodramas and comedies. Two 
dramas that Mencken thought were 
headed toward the right direction of 
reform and iconoclasm were Clyde Fitch s 
The Truth (1907), and Augustus Thom 
as The Harvest Moon (1909). Also, the 
best-sellers of Mencken s day did not 
perform the function he wanted. He 
said "The essence of this literature is 
sentiment, and the essence of sentiment 
is hope. Its aim is to fill the breast with 
soothing and optimistic emotions to 
make the fat woman forget that she is 
fat, to purge the tired business man of 
his bile, to convince the flapper that 
Douglas Fairbanks may yet learn to 
love her". 



64 

Serious modern fiction was the ef 
fective, distinctive form noted in Menck 
en s literary criticism, for he believed 
that fiction must emphasize "the mean- 
inglessness of life". This was closely re 
lated to his view of the artist as a 
Darwinian reformer and iconoclast. Ac 
cording to Mencken, the impotence of 
existence was the supreme discovery of 
his day and generation, considering that 
it must be the basis for all truth. He 
insisted that the established forms for 
solving man s ultimate problems of life, 
such as traditional religion, were in 
adequate because man can never go 
beyond the obstacles that are put in 
his way, nor overcome death. Yet the 
clash of human aspirations, the struggle 
to overcome these obstacles, does have 
particular meaning for the individual 
and out of these experiences, Mencken 
thought, there would emerge a literature 
that bas meaning. 

Mencken saw a national literature de 
veloping in America, in Mark Twain s 
Huckleberry Finn for example, which 
Jie considered a masterpiece partly be 
cause the novel anticipated the theme 
of life s meaninglessness. The book had 
realism, a satire of the social and re 
ligious traditions in American society, 
and it explored the human condition. 
Other novels that dramatized the pro 
test theme for Mencken were Dreiser s 
Sister Carrie and Jennie Gerhardt, and 
the writings of Joseph Conrad, especial 
ly Lord Jim. 

Stenerson s interesting book sees H. L. 
Mencken not as an expert in the social 
and political issues of his time, nor pri 
marily as a critic of literature, music, 
economics, or science, but rather as a 
man whose prejudices run through his 
commentaries on American life. Mencken 
was contradictory, at times emotional, 
but his style was consistently vigorous 
and intense. "Life fascinated him, and 
he knew how to make his own life fas 
cinating to others". Mencken often made 
stereotypes out of individuals, yet he 
did not want his readers to be taken in. 
He could laugh at his stereotypes 
and if one could laugh at him he would 
probably have said that the world was 
a little better. Jerome Drost, SUOT 
at Buffalo 



AN&Q 

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 50) 

Herbs). Illus. 212pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1971. Paper, $2.50 

Obscenity: Censorship or Free Choice? 
Ed. by William L. Hamling. [National 
College Competition Winning Essays 
on the Subject]. Ports. 367pp. San 
Diego: Greenleaf Classics, Inc., 3511 
Camino del Rio So., 1971. Paper, $1.95 

Peterson, Charles E., ed. The Rules of 
Work of the Carpenters Company of 
the City and County of Philadelphia, 
1786. Illus. incl. 35 Plates & Letter 
press; facs. xv, 44pp. Princeton: The 
Pyne Press, 1971. Cloth, $8.95; Paper, 
$3.50 

Pomorska, Krystyna, ed. Fifty Years of 
Russian Prose. 2 vols. Cambridge: 
The MIT Press, 1971. Each vol., $10. 

Robles, Philip K. United States Military 
Medals and Ribbons. Profusely Illus. 
with Color Plates. 187pp. Rutland, 
Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1971. 
$12.50 

Rosen, Barbara, ed. Witchcraft: Read 
ings in Elizabethan & Jacobean Witch 
ery. Illus. 407pp. N.Y.: Taplinger Pub 
lishing Co., 1972. $9.95 

Schroder, John, comp. Catalogue of 
Books and Manuscripts by Rupert 
Brooke, Edward Marsh & Christopher 
H assail (Limited to 450 copies). II- 
ius. 134pp. Cambridge: Rampant Lions 
Press (12 Chesterton Road), 1970. 
207 

Traven, B. March to the Monteria (a 
novel). 230pp. N.Y.: Hill and Wang, 
1971. $5.95 

Ulrich s International Periodicals Di 
rectory: a Classified Guide to Current 
Periodicals, Foreign and Domestic. 
14th Edn., 1971/72. 2 vols. N.Y.: R. R. 
Bowker Co., 1971. $42.50 

Van Tyne, Josselyn; & Berger, Andrew 
J. Fundamentals of Ornithology. 
(1959). Illus. 624pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1971. $5. 

Vinland Map Conference, Proceedings 
of the. Ed. by Wilcomb E. Washburn. 
Illus. 185pp. (Studies in the History 
of Discoveries: the Monograph Series 
of the Society for the History of Dis 
coveries). Published for The New- 
berry Library. Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1971. $10. 




AMERICAN MOTES & QUERIES 



Volume X Number 5 



January 1972 



NOTES ~ 

QUERIES & REPLIES 
EDITORS NOTES AND READINGS 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



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subscription to AN&Q for individ 
uals who Reply to previously 
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Adrosko, Rita J. Natural Dyes and Home 
Dyeing (formerly titled: Natural Dyes 
in the United States [U.S. National 
Museum Bulletin 281, 1968]). Illus. 
154pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. 
Paper, $2. 

Baskin, Wade. Dictionary of Satanism. 
351pp. N.Y.: Philosophical Library, 

1972. $12.50 

Berrigan, Daniel. Encounters [poetry]. 
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Blythe, Peter. Hypnotism, Its Power and 
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Boggs, Ralph Steele. Bibliography of 
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Bonomi, Patricia U. A Factious People: 
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Borges, Jorge Luis. An Introduction to 
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Trans. & Ed. by L. Clark Keating & 
Robert O. Evans. 95pp. Lexington: 
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Bowen, James K., & Van der Beets, 
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lection. 761pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 
1971. Paper, $7. 

Brewer, E. Cobham. Authors and Thetr 
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Bruman, Henry J. Alexander von Hum- 
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Carey, George. A Faraway Time and 
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256pp. Washington, D.C.: Robert B. 
Luce, Inc. [distributed by David Mc 
Kay Co., N.Y.C.], 1971. $6.95 

Chinese Rhyme-Prose. Poems in the Fu 
Form from the Han and Six Dynasties 
Periods. Trans. & With Introd. by 
Burton Watson. (Columbia College 
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Series). 128pp. N.Y.: Columbia Uni 
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$1.95 

Flammarion, Camille. Haunted Houses 
(1924). 328pp. Detroit: Tower Books, 
1971. $15. 

Flexner, James Thomas. That Wilder 
Image: the Painting of America s Na 
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Winslow Homer. (1962). Numerous 
Illus. xxii, 344pp. N.Y.: Dover Pub 
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(Continued on p. 80) 



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AN&Q 

AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

ENGLISH ORIGIN OF "STILL 
BORN" AND "DUMB-BORN" IN 
MAUBERLEY 

IN HIS COMMENTARY on Mciuberley, 
Espey somewhat vaguely attributes 
the compound adjective "still-born" 
("The Rubaiyat was still-born/ In 
those days") 1 to the influence of 
Gautier, although he suggests that 
it may simply have been part of 
"the vocabulary of nineteenth-cen 
tury French verse" and suggests 
further that "Laforgue probably is 
as much responsible as Gautier" 
for Pound s choice. 2 He has no com 
ment on the very similar "dumb- 
bom", 3 which is not even recorded 
in OED. 

It seems appropriate to observe 
that figurative uses of "still-born" 
go back at least to Shakespeare 
(1597), and that references to books 
as being still-born occur definitely 
(and surely many times more) in 
1709, 1827, and 1894. For that mat 
ter, the word was applied directly 
to the Rubaiyat by Edmund Gosse: 
"Fitzgerald s ambition . . . received 
its final blow in the total unsuc- 
cess of the now so-precious pam 
phlet which Quaritch issued still- 
bom on the 15th of February, 
1859". 4 Even supposing the poetic 
genius of Pound incapable of fetch 
ing up the compound for himself, 



there seems little enough reason 
for tracking the word in France, 
particularly in view of the fact that 
the Rubaiyat was almost literally 
still-born. 

The analogous "dumb-born" was 
discovered by Richard Aldington in 
Drayton, although, as he says, he 
had "for years . . . thought the 
composite adjective . . . Pound s 
invention". 5 He does not give the 
exact source, however, which is 
"Amour. 12." of Idea: "See myracles, 
yee unbeleeving see,/ A dumbe- 
born Muse made to expresse the 
mind,/ A cripple hand to write, yet 
lame by kind,/ One by thy name, 
the other touching thee". 6 

Although Espey s general treat 
ment of Pound s use of Gautier is 
undoubtedly sound, he has per 
haps been a little too insistent on 
Pound s use of French models in 
this case. Considering the vague 
ness of his evidence, the prevalence 
of "still-born" in English, the ap 
plication of the term to the Rubai 
yat by Gosse, and the purely Eng 
lish origin of the analogous "dumb- 
born", it seems likely that Pound 
was merely drawing on the com 
mon treasury of English when he 
characterized the Rubaiyat as still- 

born Lloyd Mills 

Kent State University 
Kent, Ohio 



1. John J. Espey, Ezra Pound s Mauber- 
ley: A Study in Composition (Berke 
ley and Los Angeles, 1955), p. 122. 

2. Ibid., p. 34. 

3. Ibid., p. 127. It occurs in the first 
line of "Envoy (1919)". 

4. The Variorum and Definitive Edi 
tion of the Poetical and Prose Writ 
ings of Edward Fitzgerald . . . by 
George Benham and with an Intro 
duction by Edmund Gosse (New York, 
1902), I, xxi. 

5. Ezra Pound & T. S. Eliot, A Lecture 
(Peacocks Press, 1954), p. 11. 

6. The Works of Michael Drayton, ed. 
J. W. Hebel (Oxford, 1931), I, 103. 



68 



AN&Q 



J. R. LOWELL BOOSTS 
JEREMIAH CURTIN, 
HARVARD 63 

DATED 26 MAY 1864, James Russell 
Lowell s letter to Charles Sumner 
is a brief but strong recommenda 
tion of Jeremiah Curtin as a 
consular pupil. 1 Jeremiah Curtin 
(1838P-1906) had a distinguished 
career as linguist, translator, and 
mythographer. His reputation large 
ly rests upon work done in the lat 
ter capacity, and his bibliography 
includes thirteen separate studies 
and collections of Irish, Slavonic, 
Mongolian, and American Indian 
folklore. During his life he received 
two political appointments, one as 
Second Secretary of Legation (St 
Petersburg), 1864-1870, and an 
other as field investigator in the 
U. S. Bureau of American Ethnol 
ogy, 1883-1891. The position for 
which Curtin applied in 1864, that 
of consular pupil, was a product 
of the Consular Pupils Act of 1856, 
which sought to improve the con 
sular service by training young men 
as career employees of the State 
Department. It of course threat 
ened the spoils system by which 
consuls and consular employees 
normally were selected. Repealed 
in 1857, in 1864 a weakened ver 
sion was reenacted, under which 
thirteen pupils were to be ap 
pointed. 2 

It was appropriate for a number 
of reasons that Lowell should write 
Sumner in favor of Curtin. Curtin 
was clearly a superior student, and 
Lowell desired his preferment. As 
Charles A. Joy, Professor of Mod 
ern Languages at Columbia Col 
lege, put it in his own letter of 
recommendation to Secretary of 
State William H. Seward, Curtin s 



"familiarity with modem languages 
attracted the notice & received file 
friendship of Professors Lowell, 
Longfellow, [and] Child, who will 
now come forward to aid him". 8 
Further, Lowell s politics made ap 
propriate his claim upon Sumner s 
attention. A strong abolitionist, 
Sumner surely knew of the series 
of articles that Lowell had written 
as editor of the Anti-Slavery Stand 
ard during the period 1848-1852; 
and Lowell had written pro-Re 
publican articles for the Atlantic 
Monthly and North American Re- 
vietv* The form of Lowell s ad 
dress to Sumner clearly shows the 
familiar terms upon which the 
Brahmin author approached the 
Brahmin legislator. Finally, as Re 
publican Senator from Massachu 
setts, Sumner was at the peak of 
his power; and as chairman of the 
Senate Committee on Foreign Af 
fairs, his recommendation could 
strongly influence Department of 
State appointments. Lowell chose 
his man well. The letter follows: 

Elmwood, 26th May, 

1864 
My dear Sumner, 

Jeremiah Curtin who graduated here 
last year is an applicant for a place as 
Consular pupil at St, Petersburg. I can 
testify in the fullest way to his qualifi 
cations. His bias is languages & he al 
ready speaks Russian tolerably. He is 
to have a free passage in the Russian 
fleet & is one of the most promising men 
for ability we have graduated for some 
years. 5 If you can do anything for him, 
pray do oblige. 

Truly yours 
Hon. Chs Sumner J. R. Lowell 

Sumner read Lowell s letter, 
among the others in favor of Cur 
tin, and was favorably impressed, 
for he endorsed the letter by writ 
ing: With his peculiar talents & 



January 1972 



69 



aptitude in languages especially 
the Russian language he deserves 
something better". He received in 
consequence the appointment as 
Second Secretary of Legation, in 
stead of the appointment as con 
sular pupil; and he experienced 
thereby a direct impression of Rus 
sian literature and culture that 
emerged in translations of Henryk 
Sienkievicz and Alexis Tolstoy and 
studies of Slavonic and Mongolian 
myth and folklore. 

Bill R. Erubdker 

Florida State University 
Tallahassee, Fla. 



1. In the National Archives, Record 
Group 59, Diplomatic Despatches 
(Russia). Hereafter, the abbreviations 
NA and RG will designate National 
Archives and Record Group. 

2. Carl Russell Fish, The Civil Service 
and the Patronage (Cambridge, Mas 
sachusetts: Harvard University Press, 
1920), pp. 183-184. 

3. 24 May 1864, NA, RG 59, Diplo 
matic Despatches (Russia). 

4. Lowell edited the Atlantic Monthly, 
1857-1861, and joined Charles E. 
Norton as co-editor of the North 
American Review, 1864-1868. For an 
example of Lowell s political writing 
near the time of his recommendation 
of Curtin, see "The Next General 
Election", North American Review, 
XCIX (October, 1864), pp. 557-572. 
A complete bibliography of Lowell s 
political essays in magazines is avail 
able in George Willis Cooke, A Bib 
liography of James Russell Lowell 
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1906). 

5. The Russian Consul in New York 
City, R. Osten Sacken, warmly com 
mended Curtin in a letter to Secre 
tary Seward, 13 May 1864. The con 
sul recommended Curtin as consular 
pupil because of the young man s 
deep interest in Russian literature, 
language, and culture. Osten Sacken 



WILLIAMS MATHILDA - 
ETYMOLOGY OR 
SERENDIPITY? 

WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS short 
story "The Use of Force" contains 
an interesting example of a charac 
ter s name which has striking ety 
mological appropriateness. The par 
ents of an acutely ill little girl have 
asked the first-person narrator, a 
doctor, to examine the child. Pro 
ceeding on a hunch derived from 
several cases of diphtheria in the 
child s school, the doctor asks her 
to open her mouth so that he can 
examine her throat. She refuses, 
and a battle ensues between her 
and the doctor, in which, defen 
sively, she tries to claw his eyes, 
knocks his glasses to the floor, 
shrieks "terrifyingly, hysterically", 
splinters with her teeth the wooden 
tongue depressor that he once 
manages to get into her mouth, 
and finally after he has succeed 
ed in muscling a "heavy silver 
spoon back of her teeth and down 
her throat till she gagged" ( expos 
ing diphtheria membrane over both 
tonsils) she attacks, trying "to 
get off her father s lap and fly at 
me while tears of defeat blinded 
her eyes". 



pointed out that Curtin had asked 
at the consulate for books on Russian 
language and culture and had learned 
to read and speak Russian in^ a re 
markably short time, having "inter 
course with the officers of our squad 
ron". Curtin had also been invited 
to take passage to Russia in the Rus 
sian fleet at anchor in New York 
harbor in the winter of 1864. A 
rather large file of letters in favor of 
Curtin s appointment is in NA, RG 
59, Diplomatic Despatches (Russia). 



70 



AN&Q 



That the examination is a battle, 
Williams is at pains to make clear, 
not only through the force of the 
narrative details but also through 
direct commentary by the first- 
person narrator: "In the ensuing 
struggle", he comments, her par 
ents "grew more and more abject, 
crushed, exhausted while she sure 
ly rose to magnificent heights of 
insane fury of effort bred of her 
terror of me"; and later, "I could 
have torn the child apart in my 
own fury and enjoyed it. It was 
a pleasure to attack her. My face 
was burning with it". 

The family s surname is Olson, 
but the given names of the mother, 
the father, and the doctor are not 
revealed. Only the child has a 
given name Mathilda. Mathilda 
is derived from the Old High Ger 
man Mahthilda, which is derived 
from maht, might, power -f htttia, 
battle; hence, literally, powerful 
(in) battle. 1 For a desperately ill 
child, this little Mathilda is indeed 
powerful in battle. 

This etymological method of 
naming a character is different 
from and more erudite than the 
traditional ones of using denota 
tion (Chillingworth), connotation 
(Christopher Newman), or allusion 
(Ahab). Strangely, however, "The 
Use of Force" seems to be the only 
story in its collection 2 in which a 
character has a name of such pre 
cise etymological appropriateness. 
Have readers noticed other in- 



Readers comments on the de 
sirability of a 10-year Cumula 
tive Index to AN&Q would be 
welcomed. 



stances in Williams* fiction or his 
poetry? Was he working conscious 
ly with etymology in this instance, 
or is it perhaps no more than a 
classical case of serendipity? 

Paxton Hart 

Pennsylvania State University 
Ogontz Campus 



1. Webster s New World Dictionary of 
the American Language (Cleveland, 
1966). 

2. Make Light of It Collected Stones 
(New York, 1950), pp. 131-135. 



QUERIES 



Mrs Brown and the duck On 
page 234 of Reginald Horsley s In 
the Grip of the Hawk (London: 
Nelson, c. 1908) there is the fol 
lowing statement: c Without the 
least desire to accept this gracious 
invitation, which resembled that 
of the famous Mrs. Brown to the 
duck, George turned his head to 
find Pokeke rushing at him . . .". 
Who was the famous Mrs Brown 
and what was her invitation to the 
duck? Norman D. Stevens, 
Storrs, Ct. 

"GunseT and "Gooseberry lay" in 
Dashiell Hammett Jaques Bar- 
zun and Wendell Hertig Taylor s 
A Catalogue of Crime (N.Y.: Har 
per & Row, 1971) has usually been 
characterized by phrases like "re 
liable but eccentric"; but in their 
introduction they repeat a folk 
tale about Dashiell Hammett that 
is either baseless or distorted. 



January 1972 



71 



GUNSEL . . . denotes a young homo 
sexual killer. Howard Haycraft tells an 
illustrative anecdote of Dashiell Ham- 
mett s early writing days. Hammett said 
he was turning in a story containing two 
expressions, one harmless, the other 
shady, and he predicted that his editor 
would strike out the harmless one and 
leave the other, in the belief he was 
doing just the opposite. The harmless 
expression was gooseberry lay., which 
is thieves slang for stealing wash from 
a clothesline. The editor duly struck it 
out. The other, left in, was gunsel. (P. 
xxix. ) 

The only place in his writings 
where, to my knowledge, Hammett 
used either expression was in his 
third novel, The Maltese Falcon 
(1930); and in it he used both and 
got both into print. 

In Chapter XI, Sam Spade says 
to Casper Gutman, about Wilmer, 
"Keep that gunsel away from me 
while you re making up your mind. 
HI kill him" (The Novels of Dash 
iell Hammett [1965], p. 364); and 
in the very next chapter, confront 
ing Wilmer again, Spade asks him 
"How long have you been off the 
gooseberry lay, son?" (p. 374). 
Perhaps the story, as Barzun and 
Taylor, and Haycraft, and Ellery 
Queen, tell it is true of some 
other story by Hammett, More 
likely, one of Knopfs editors ob 
jected, in The Maltese Falcon, to 
"gooseberry lay", and Hammett ex 
plained its real meaning to the 
editor, possibly countering further 
with an explanation of "gunsel". 
By the time Hammett got around 
to telling the story to Haycraft, it 
had improved with the retelling, 
to serve as an exemplum of how 
a crafty writer can hoodwink a one- 
eyed editor. If this explanation is 
not true, can any reader suggest 
another one or tell me where Ham 



mett may have had one of these 
expressions censored while slipping 

the other in unnoticed? Sum- 

ner /. Ferris, California, Penn. 

A small boat called Truth or False 
hood In his will, George E. 
Hyde, author of a number of schol 
arly books on American Indians, 
left some royalties to the Omaha 
Public Library for purchase of 
books on American history and on 
Indians, He requested that the 
books be marked with "a book 
plate made with the name of the 
memorial at the top and below 
that the following quotation from 
our wise English ancestors: *A 
small boat at the mercy of the 
wind and waves; some call the 
boat Truth, the sea Falsehood; 
some the boat Falsehood and the 
sea Truth ". One of our library 
staff members thinks it may have 
been said about the Mayflower 
but so far we have found nothing. 
Catherine Beal, Omaha, Nebr. 

M.A. as a "Free degree" An 
M.A. degree is automatically given 
to B.A. Honors students at Cam 
bridge University. What is its ori 
gin, usefulness, reason, and aca 
demic value or purpose? Is it given 
elsewhere? Michael Cahill, 
Sharon, Conn. 

Mr Dunns Chinese Collection 
What disposition was made of the 
pieces described in E. C. Wines* 
A Peep at China, in Mr. Dunns 
Chinese Collection . . . (Phila.: 
Printed for Nathan Dunn, 1839)? 
The volume, without illustrations, 
tells about this large private collec 
tion made by Nathan Dunn of 
Philadelphia, "opened to the pub 
lic" 22 December 1838. Editor 



72 



AN&Q 



REPLIES 

John Deweys Syllabi (1:14) 
Thomas John Dewey, a Centennial 
Bibliography (University of Chi 
cago Press, 1962) list the following 
syllabi prepared by John Dewey 
in the Nineties: 1) Introduction to 
Philosophy. Syllabus of Course 5. 
February, 1892. [Ann Arbor, 1892] 
24pp. cover-title; 2) Introduction 
to Philosophy. October, 1892. [Ann 
Arbor, 1892] 14pp. cover-title. 3) 
The Study of Ethics: A Syllabus. 
Ann Arbor: Register Publishing 
Company, 1894. iv, 151pp. Reprint 
ed in 1897 with the imprint: Ann 
Arbor: George Wahr; 4) [Sylla 
bus.] The University of Chicago. 
Pedagogy I B 19. Philosophy of 
Education. 1898-1899 Winter Quar 
ter. [Chicago, 1898.] llpp. 
Jerome Drost, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Endless tales (1:40) For some 
introductory comment and descrip 
tion see my remarks in Hand toor- 
terbuch des deutschen Mdrchens, 
II (Berlin, 1934-1940), 190, with 
bibliography and Stith Thompson, 
"The Types of the Folktale", FF 
Communications 184 (Helsinki, 
1961), 537, nos. 2300 ff. Note also 
the "Rounds", p. 538, No. 2350, 
in which the story returns upon 
itself and thus never ends: "The 
robbers were sitting around the 
campfire. The oldest robber turned 
to the youngest robber and said, 
Tell us a story . The youngest 
robber began, *The robbers were 
sitting around . . /". Many stories 
of this sort have been published 
from time to time in the corre 
spondence in Western Folklore 
over the last twenty years or long 
er. Archer Taylor, Berkeley, 
Calif. 



"Out of the Horses Mouth" (1:54) 

This was the subject of com 
ment in the earlier AZV&Q VIII 
(1948) 158. One gets reliable in 
formation directly "out of the 
horse s mouth" about its age and 
by extension about other matters. 

Archer Taylor, Berkeley, Calif. 

Hairy-eared engineers (1:40) 
Hairy ears antedates World War 
II, of course, but may have an 
Army connection through engi 
neering taught at West Point: 
1936 - Esquire (August), VI, No. 
2, p. 25, "ENGINEERS ARE NOT THE 

ONLY ONES WITH HAIRY EARS. Well, 

here at General Design we have 
the hairy ears of engineers our 
selves". (Heading and text; full- 
page advertisement); 1944 Life, 
August 14 (Vol. 17, No. 7), 72/73, 
"Like most engineers they refer to 
themselves as Hairy Ears , a name 
derived from a largely unprintable 
engineers song". On the opposite 
page ... a sign outside "Hairy 
Ears Clinic" which lists a few pri 
vate American names for the alien 
diseases of the jungle (i.e., Ledo 
Road, Burma). 

The song alluded to above and in 
the query appears to be one com 
mon to colleges with engineering 
schools, Generically, "Rambling 
Rake (or Wreck) of Poverty (or 
Georgia Tech)", it is sung to the 
air ,of "Son of a Gambolier", per 
haps thought by some to be "Son 
of an Engineer". A verse, or part 
of a verse or mish-mash of two, 
first heard about 1919: The engi 
neers have hairy ears,/ And wear 
red-leather britches;/ They knock 
their cocks against hard rocks,/ 
The hardy sons-of -bitches. 

Engineers appear to be so termed 
because barbershops are not con- 



January 1972 



73 



venient to the boondocks, such 
brush being cropped in urban 
shops as a matter of course. 
Peter Tamony, San Francisco 

Chinese proverbs (1:119) There 
are available in Western languages 
a number of works useful in the 
study of Chinese proverbs, etc. 
Perhaps most helpful as orienta 
tion is Arthur Henderson Smith s 
Proverbs and Common Sayings 
From the Chinese (new edition, 
Shanghai: American Presbyterian 
Mission Press, 1914). Others of in 
terest are: Brian Brown, ed., The 
Wisdom of the Chinese (N.Y.: 
Brentano s, 1920); Char Tin-yuke, 
comp. and tr., Chinese Proverbs 
(San Francisco: Jade Mountain 
Press, 1970); Ho Feng-ju and Wolf 
ram Eberhard, Pekinger Sprich- 
worter in the Baessler-Archiu, vol. 
24, pt. 1 (Berlin, 1941); William 
Scarborough, A Collection of Chi 
nese Proverbs (N.Y.: Paragon Book 
Reprint Corporation, 1964; reprint 
of an 1875 work). 

The twenty-seventh volume of 
the Library Catalogue, School of 
Oriental and African Studies, Uni 
versity of London (Boston: G. K 
Hall, 1963) is rich in titles in 
characters, romanization, and trans 
lation; such headings as folklore 
and literature have entries of inter 
est, such as Chang Hsiang s Shih 
tzu cKu yu tzu hui shih ( Charac 
ters and Expressions in Poetry and 
Drama), published in Shanghai, 
1954, and in Peking, 1959. 

Many proverbial expressions 
from the Chinese classics are con 
tained in Mathews* Chinese-Eng 
lish Dictionary, revised American 
edition (Cambridge: Harvard Uni 
versity Press, 1956). For example, 
items under the character san 1 , 



"three" numbered 5415, 13: "if 
three of us are walking together, 
there will be certainly a teacher 
for me", and 39: "there are three 
friendships which are advanta 
geous, and there are three which 
are injurious". No indication of 
source, however, is given for either 
quotation. All-Chinese dictionaries 
like the Tzu yuan or Tz 9 u hai, par 
ticularly the latter, are more help 
ful in giving references to sources. 
These items both are from the 
Confucian Analects. The first is 
from Book VII, chapter xxi; the 
latter from Book XVI, chapter iv. 
Edgar C. Knowlton, jr, Uni 
versity of Hawaii 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

Halkett & Laing revision The 
publication of a revised and en 
larged edition of Samuel Halkett 
and John Laing s Dictionary of 
Anonymous and Pseudonymous 
English Literature (Smith, John 
son; 9 vols., 1926-62) has been an 
nounced by Oliver and Boyd of 
Edinburgh. An Editorial Board 
under the chairmanship of Mr John 
Horden, Director of the Institute 
of Bibliography and Textual Crit 
icism at the University of Leeds, 
and including representatives from 
the Bodleian Library, the British 
Museum and the University of 
Texas, in collaboration with a large 
number of helpers, will be revis 
ing this large work, which is due 
for publication in 1975. It is an 
ticipated that the new edition will 



74 

appear in six volumes, each of 
some 1040 pages, the sixth volume 
being an index volume. Every en 
try in the existing work will be 
checked and printed in a revised 
form. A most important aspect of 
the revision is that each entry will 
include a precise reference to the 
source of the attribution. Clearly 
it will be impossible to identify ev 
ery anonymous and pseudonymous 
author with equal authority, but 
this reference will at least enable 
the reader to assess for himself the 
validity of any identification. In 
addition to the entries in the exist 
ing work, the revision will enable 
the publication to be very consid 
erably increased in scope and size. 
The Editor would be pleased to 
hear from any "AN&Q" readers 
who may have contributions to 
make to the revision which their 
special knowledge provides or 
which serendipity may bring to 
their notice. Such contributions 
should be sent to John Horden at 
the Institute of Bibliography and 
Textual Criticism, School of Eng 
lish, University of Leeds, Leeds 
LS2 9JT, England. 

Church and Cinema: a Way of 
Viewing Film, presents a fine series 
of opinionated essays on the devel 
opment and future course of the 
film story, as seen by James M. 
Wall, Editor of The Christian Ad 
vocate (Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerd- 
mans, 1971; 135pp.). These intel 
ligent remarks and reviews of some 
of our most interesting modern 
films Persona, The Graduate, 
Midnight Cowboy, Patton, etc. 
show style and purpose in the art 
of film appreciation. 



AN&Q 

In preparation for the celebration 
of two important anniversaries in 
1974, the Carpenters Company of 
Philadelphia has agreed to permit 
the Pyne Press, of Princeton, N.J., 
to publish a facsimile of one of 
the rarest of American imprints: 
THE CARPENTERS COMPANY of the 
City and County of Philadelphia 
1786 Rule Book. For the Carpen 
ters Company 1974 marks two mo 
mentous occasions. Two hundred 
and fifty years earlier the Com 
pany was founded by the master 
builders of Philadelphia. Fifty 
years later their Hall, which the 
Company still maintains in Inde 
pendence National Park, was the 
site of the first meetings of the 
Continental Congress. This is the 
first illustrated book on architec 
ture written and published by and 
for Americans. In addition to the 
original text, the facsimile repro 
duces the 37" original copper-plate 
engravings which provide a unique 
view of typical eighteenth century 
structural and decorative detail. 
The Carpenters Company 1786 
Rule Book reveals fascinating new 
insights on early American archi 
tecture, building technology and 
business practices. It is an indis 
pensable source to anyone who 
wants to understand the origins 
and growth of architectural de 
sign, of the building trades and of 
professional associations. ($8.95 
hardcover; $3.50 paper). 

One of the major projects of Oc 
tober s Secondary Universe 4 Sci 
ence Fiction conference in Toronto 
was the publication of Russian 
Science Fiction Literature and 
Criticism, 1956-1970: a Bibliogra 
phy, by Dr Darko Suvin. The bib 
liography is compiled in three 



January 1972 



75 



sections: Science fiction in the 
Russian language, Russian science 
fiction in English and French; and 
criticism of Soviet science fiction. 
Available for $2.00 from the 
Spaced-Out Library, 566 Palmer- 
ston Ave, Toronto 4. The confer 
ence of 275 science fiction writers, 
editors, teachers, bibliographers 
and librarians, the first to be held 
in Canada, was co-sponsored by 
the Toronto Public Library. 

American Book-Prices Current, 
Volume 74 of this standard refer 
ence work, covering the 1967-1968 
season, reports prices of single lot 
books and serials, autographs and 
manuscripts, broadsides and maps, 
which brought $10.00 (3) or more 
at auction between September 
1967 and August 1968. The Lon 
don firms reported on are Christie, 
Manson & Woods, Ltd., Hodgson 
& Company, Phillips, Son & Neale, 
and Sotheby & Company, while the 
New York houses reported on are 
Charles Hamilton Autographs, Inc., 
Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., and 
Swann Galleries, Inc. Sales of Mar 
vin H. Newman of Los Angeles 
and Montreal Book Auctions in 
Canada are also recorded. Among 
the hundreds of interesting sales 
occurring during the period were 
a superb manuscript of Firdausi s 
Shahnama, or Book of Kings, writ 
ten in the 15th century, brought 
50,000; The Venerable Bede s De 
Natura Rerum, an 11th-century 
manuscript sold for 27,000, from 
the renowned manuscript collection 
of Sir Thomas Phillipps; also in 
the Phillipps sale were The Craft 
of Lymmyng of Bokys, c. 1450, 
which brought 10,500; di Vadi s 
De Arte Gladiatoria Dimicandi, 
1482-87, 15,000; and a carefully 



revised and very early manuscript 
of La Divina Commedia, c. 1363, 
which sold for 20,000. In printed 
books, Antonio Lafreri s 16th-cen 
tury Atlas brought 13,000 at 
Sotheby s, and a copy of Poe s Al 
Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor 
Poems, with corrections in the au 
thor s hand, sold for $10,000. Other 
important works came from the 
collections of Thomas W. Streeter, 
Charles E. Feinberg, Herbert S. 
Auerbach, and Major John R. Ab 
bey. An almost complete series of 
literary properties associated with 
Thomas }. Wise, important Swift 
and Defoe material, and letters and 
manuscripts of Voltaire and his 
circle, also figured prominently in 
the season s sales. AB-PC, 1967-68, 
is available from Columbia Uni 
versity Press for $40. Paul Jordan 
Smith, formerly with Parke-Ber 
net, has taken over the editorship 
of future volumes in the series. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

(All notes are by Lawrence S. Thomp 
son, Professor of Classics, University of 
Kentucky, except the first one signed 
S.E.T., Sarah Elizabeth Thompson, a 
student of Japanese at Radcliffe College. ) 

The Charles E. Tuttle Company of 
Tokyo and Rutland, Vermont, has 
added two valuable new reference 
works to their already impressive 
list of publications on Japanese 
art among previous books that 



76 



AN&Q 



have described the miniature art 
form of netsuke and the compart- 
mented lacquer boxes known as 
inro. Melvin and Betty Jahss, Inro 
and Oilier Miniature Forms of Ja 
panese Lacquer Art ( 1971; 488pp.; 
$27.50), covers the entire range of 
the art more thoroughly than any 
earlier work in English. Compre 
hensive information is given on the 
history, techniques, and subject 
matter of lacquer art. For the col 
lector there is an entire chapter 
on netsuke and one on the names, 
family trees, and signatures of the 
artists, with reproductions of 59 
representative signatures. The text 
is illustrated by 256 superb plates, 
76 of them in full color. There is 
a convenient glossary as well as 
a bibliography and index. Yuji Abe, 
ed., Modern Japanese Prints, A 
Contemporary Selection ( 1971; un 
paged; $2.25), presents in paper 
back form an up-to-date collection 
of prints from the Yoseido Gallery 
in Tokyo. The book contains 121 
reproductions of the latest works 
of 62 artists, many of international 
standing; individual prints can be 
ordered from the Yoseido Gallery. 
(S. E. T.) 

Stig Boberg, Pressens historia 
(Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 
1970; 239 pp.; Sw. kr. 2S.-3), is 
richly illustrated with facsimiles 
and other pertinent iconographic 
documentation of the history of the 
newspaper, vice, news-sheet, from 
the 16th century to the present. 
There is, naturally, a heavy empha 
sis on European, especially north 
ern European papers, but, in gen 
eral it is well balanced as a history 
of the press in general. 



John Landwehr, Splendid Cere 
monies; State Entries and Royal 
Funerals in the Low Countries, 
1515-1791 (Nieuwkoop: B. de 
Graaf; Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff, 
1971; 206 pp., 67 plates) is the 
documentation of state ceremonies 
by the rulers of the Netherlands in 
the period covered, viz., the Habs- 
burgs, the house of Orange-Nassau, 
and the house of Nassau-Dietz. 
Over and above the original intent 
of the publications, they are valu 
able as local history. 

Glaus Nissen, Die zoologische 
Buchillustration, ihre Bibliographie 
und Geschichte (Stuttgart: Anton 
Hiersemann, 1969- ; DM36. 
per "Lieferung"; eight tf< Lieferung- 
en" in v. 1; one so far in v. 2), is 
a monumental work which com 
plements Nissen s Die illustrierten 
Vogelbucher. The first volume is 
the bibliography, and the second 
volume will be the history of zo 
ological illustration. 

The Verzeichnis lieferbarer Bticher, 
1971/72 (Frankfurt am Main: Ver- 
lag der Buchhandler-Vereinigung; 
New York, R. R. Bowker Co., 1971; 
2 vok; $35.00) records some 160,- 
000 books in print that are on the 
lists of West German, Austrian, 
and Swiss publishers. There is a 
title index, an ISBN index, a most 
useful list of series, and a directory 
of publishers. 

Michel Leiris, Andre Masson, Mas 
sacres et autres dessins (Paris, 
Hermann, 1971; 11 e., 90 plates), 
is another handsome Hermann art 
book with a sensitive critical in 
troduction. Lines, forms, and ac 
tions are handled masterfully. 



January 1972 



77 



BOOK REVIEWS 

MURPHY, James J., ed. Three Medieval 
Rhetorical Arts. Berkeley: University o 
California Press, 1971. $7.50 

The problem confronting many English 
majors who enjoy Chaucer is that an 
inadequate knowledge of Latin hampers 
them in their attempts to understand 
many aspects of medieval culture. In 
particular a knowledge of the rhetori 
cians, essential for an appreciation of 
Chaucer s art, is difficult to acquire first 
hand. For students not specializing in 
Medieval Studies Edmond Faral s Les 
arts poetiques du XII et du XIII 9 
Siecles is formidable stuff; secondary 
materials, with a few exceptions, are 
intended for the more advanced scholars. 

Now, armed with Three Medieval 
Rhetorical Arts, the student can dis 
cover for himself why fair Emelye s hair 
"was broyded in a tresse / Bihynde hir 
bak"; why it had to be yellow; why 
Criseyde s hair, was also "ytresed at hire 
bak byhynde", and bound by "a thred 
of gold"; why Blanche had "ryght faire 
shuldres and body long . . . Ryght white 
handes". "Let the color of gold be gilt 
in her hair . . .", advises Geoffrey de 
Vinsauf, "let her shoulders adjust to 
gether with a certain discipline, and 
neither fall away as if sloping downward, 
nor stand, as it were, upraised, but rather 
rest in place correctly; and let her arms 
be pleasing, as slender in their form as 
delightful in their length". 

Geoffrey de Vinsauf s work comes sec 
ond in the book, and righdy so. The ars 
dictaminis was regarded as more im 
portant, and according to Curtius an 
attempt was made in the llth century 
to subordinate all rhetoric to it. Profes 
sor Murphy s book of translations of 
medieval treatises on rhetoric contains 
first the anonymous Rationes dictandi, 
written in 1135, in Bologna, the centre 
of the ars dictaminis, then The New 
Poetics, the Poetria nova by Geoffrey 
de Vinsauf, which was composed be 
tween 1208 and 1213, and finally The 
Form of Preaching, Forma praedicandi 
by Robert of Basevorn, written in 1322. 
An appendix contains excerpts from two 
University textbooks on dialectic: Aris 
totle s Topics and On Sophistical Repu 



tations. The translators are James J. 
Murphy himself, Jane Baltzell Kop, Leo 
pold Krul O.S.B., and W.A. Pickard- 
Cambridge. Before each translation is a 
well-written preface which shows briefly 
but clearly the importance of the work 
under consideration. In addition, Profes 
sor Murphy, whose own studies have 
made such a substantial contribution to 
our knowledge of medieval rhetoric, 
provides an admirable introductory essay 
which considers the relative importance 
in the development of medieval rhetori 
cal precept of four antecedents, the 
Aristotelian tradition, the Ciceronian tra 
dition, the "grammatical tradition* stem 
ming from Donatus and Horace, and the 
more minor tradition of discourse that 
might be termed "sophistic rhetoric". 
The essay also analyzes the nature of 
ars dictaminis, ars praedicandi, and ars 
poetria. Professor Murphy concludes that 
the sources of these artes were mainly 
rhetorical and grammatical, with ancient 
logic or dialectic exercising little appar 
ent influence. 

Particularly helpful are the annotations 
which, in many instances, amount to 
commentary on the text. The Poetria 
nova especially requires such annotation 
and its translation is accompanied by 
abundant footnotes which include expli 
cation where required, comparison with 
other texts, and reference to modern 
studies, 

This book is obviously intended to 
assist students of medieval studies in 
their understanding of medieval rhetoric 
as a whole, by providing ready access 
to examples of the three preceptive 
traditions. One might wonder at the 
selection of Robert of Basevorn s lengthy 
work. Fortunately the opinion of Guibert 
de Nogent that, after the Bible, personal 
experiences were a good source of ma 
terial for a sermon, seems to have been 
shared by others. Had Basevorn s pre 
cepts been rigidly adhered to the graphic 
revelation of contemporary life given 
by Bromyard, Ripon and others might 
have been lost to us. There is, however, 
good reason for the choice. It is a very 
complete textbook and painstakingly il 
lustrates all its precepts. According to 
the preface: "Basevorn s treatise repre 
sents an extremely popular type of 
theorizing about oral discourse the 
medieval analogue to the oratory of 



78 



AN&Q 



ancient pagan Rome. It was itself ex 
tremely influential, finding imitators well 
into the fifteenth century; one of the 
most famous, the historian Ranulph Hig- 
den (died 1349), followed Basevorn s 
lead and buried his own name in the 
acrostic pattern of initial letters when 
he wrote a preaching manual. And Base- 
vorn s obvious knowledge of his field 
enables him to range over the work of 
his contemporaries to give the modern 
reader a revealing insight into other 
preaching theories prevalent in the early 
fourteenth century". 

Basevorn s views of other techniques 
are, indeed, illuminating. The exemplum, 
the entertaining stand-by of the homilist, 
is nothing more than a means of fright 
ening sinners "by some terrifying tale 
or example, in the way that Jacques de 
Vitry talks about some one who never 
willingly wanted to hear the word of 
God; finally when he died and was 
brought to the church, and the priest 
in the presence of the parish began the 
eulogy which is wont to be spoken over 
the body of the dead, the image of 
Christ standing between the choir and 
the church tore away and pulled His 
hands from the nails piercing them and 
from the wood to which they were fixed, 
and plugged His ears, as if to intimate 
that He did not wish to hear the prayer 
for him who once spurned to listen to 
Him in His preachers" (cap. xxiv). 

Nevertheless Basevorn shows a very 
comprehensive awareness of various 
preaching practices, and is not adverse 
to including the most down-to-earth 
advice. The preacher, he suggests, must 
be ready for any emergency: "It is also 
always useful to have a few prepared 
sermons which can provide for every 
saint and for the Dedication (of a 
church), because it frequently happens 
that the church or place where the 
preacher happens to be preaching sol 
emnizes a saint or dedication of which 
he has not even a thought. Therefore, 
the theme for any saint and even the 
dedication can be: Wisdom built for 
herself a house, truly the Lord is in that 
place, etc." (cap. xxix). 

Altogether, the book should prove 
most useful. Beryl Rowland, York 
University., Toronto 



MAAS, Henry, ed. The Letters of A. E, 
Housman. Illus. xxii, 458pp. Cambridge: 
Harvard University Press, 1971. $11.50 

Why gather together and edit a poet s 
letters, anyway? Emily Dickinson s let 
ters, which came out almost simultane 
ously with her poetry at the close of the 
19th century, were as unique as her 
verse and gave further insight into her 
personality. As for The Correspondence 
of Walt Whitman, edited by Edwin 
Haviland Miller as part of the New York 
University Press multi-volume edition of 
Whitman s Collected Writings (1961- 
1969), these letters were produced as 
a monument to scholarship and as ref 
erence tools. Somewhere in between 
these two editions we have Henry Maas s 
Housman Letters. He says, in his pref 
ace, that though the letters "reveal noth 
ing startling, at least [they] provide 
solid material for the study of his life 
and character". Attractive in design, for 
mat, and printing, this first collection of 
AEH s letters might well be called a 
reader s edition, although admirers of 
A Shropshire Lad and anyone working 
on Housman, whether he is writing the 
biography that should now be written 
or not, will doubtless be particularly 
pleased by Mr Maas s editorial labors. 
The book is almost wholly Housman s: 
only on eight occasions does the editor 
intrude with commentary, usually of a 
biographical nature (of a page or less 
except for the first, pp. 3-5), and the 
footnotes on virtually every page largely 
identify people, places, and publications. 
The arrangement of the 882 unnumbered 
letters is chronological; however, 81 of 
them, dealing with Latin studies, are by 
themselves in the back of the book. 
The letters are given in full (except 
when only excerpts are extant), with a 
heading which give the recipient, and 
the location of the MS. or (when that 
is not located) of the previously pub 
lished text. 

Following the short preface is a list 
of manuscript and other locations, a 
biographical table (of AEH), and a Hous 
man family chart; then the letters, dating 
from 9 January 1875, when Housman 
was 16, until 25 April 1936, five days 
before he died. There is a select bib 
liography, an index of recipients, and 
a general index, The illustrations are of 



January 1972 



79 



the first and last letters, two in between 
(1911 and 1926), and four photographs 
of AEH at 19, at 35, in his 50s, and 
at 70. 

If these letters are meant, as Mr 
Maas says, to provide "solid materials" 
for a biographer, they certainly do that; 
and they make intriguing even fas 
cinating reading in themselves, in 
spite of Percy Withers s comment (in 
A Buried Life, p. 73) that "Housman 
was not a letter-writer". He may not 
have written many letters, for 1500 was 
all that the editor was able to trace, and 
many of them, especially late in AEH s 
life, are very short; but everything that 
Housman wrote has a strong and indi 
vidual stamp further, he says some 
thing and one never mistakes what that 
something is. 

Pleasurable, quite satisfactory, and 
adequate as this edition of Letters is, 
there are some reservations worth point 
ing out. First, there are no letters to 
Moses Jackson, AEH s great friend, but 
this is not Mr Maas s fault for they were 
not available to him. He writes that he 
has seen a specimen of them, and they 
"will not seriously affect what is al 
ready known of Housman s relations 
with Jackson" (p. xi). Second, as I have 
indicated above, Mr Maas has traced 
1500 letters but includes only 882: why 
the selection? He says, "With certain 
exceptions I have excluded only short 
notes dealing with appointments and 
minor matters of business, and letters 
whose content is repeated in others" 
(p. xi). 

I should personally have liked the 
edition to be complete: though I am 
aware this would have almost doubled 
the size of the book and made it more 
expensive, without telling us much more 
about Housman, I want everything; fur 
thermore, Td have printed the letters 
exactly as the author left them, not 
"almost exactly" (to quote Mr Maas) 
and would not have regularized dates 
and titles or corrected slips of the pen 
without comment. As the editor does 
print letters dealing with business mat 
ters and appointments and contents re 
peated elsewhere, what are the bases 
for including or excluding a letter? In 
the Bulletin of Bibliography (22: 80-82, 



September-December 1957), I published 
a survey of Housman letters in print, 
noting about 722 letters in 33 sources 
the two substantial ones Grant Rich- 
ards s Housman: 1897-1936 (1941) and 
Laurence Housman s A. E. H. (1937), 
with 467 and 107 letters. Of course Mr 
Maas does not use all the letters in 
Richards and Laurence Housman, and 
he certainly adds a large number to 
those heretofore published; but how 
much does he contribute to our knowl 
edge since the 1957 survey and the two 
or three groups published since then, 
for instance Thirty Housman Letters to 
Witter Bynner (1957) and A. E. Hous 
man to Joseph Ishill: Five Unpublished 
Letters (1959)? The new Letters does 
add to our knowledge, and having all 
the material between the covers of one 
solid book is convenient, useful, and 
valuable. 

It would be helpful to know more of 
Mr Maas s criteria for what he prints. 
Some of the letters seem irrelevant. 
The title of Grant Richards s book on 
p. xviii is wrong; occasionally footnotes 
are wrong (such as "Ann Arbor Univer 
sity, Michigan"); names in the index 
are omitted or wrong (such as "Nook" 
on p. 454 for "Nock"); and in the bib 
liography, Mr Maas neglects "Additional 
Poems", and if he leaves out books by 
Oliver Robinson, Robert Hamilton, and 
Tom Burns Haber, which can be justi 
fied, I think he should have included 
fine essays by R. W. Chambers, Ed 
mund Wilson, and H. W. Garrod, the 
Housman bibliography in The New Cam 
bridge Bibliography of English Litera 
ture, Vol. Ill (1969), and two books, 
Ian Scott-Kilvert s A. E. Housman (1955, 
1965) and B. J. Leggett s Housman s 
Land of Lost Content: A Critical Study 
of "A Shropshire Lad" (1970), the best 
book on AElFs poetry. 

Despite these strictures, this collection 
of the Housman correspondence should 
be in every library beside A Shropshire 
Lad, Last Poems, the Collected Poems, 
Selected Prose, The Confines of Crit 
icism, and the books by A. S. F, Gow, 
Leggett, Grant Richards, and Laurence 
Housman. William White, Wayne 
State University 



80 



AN&Q 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 66) 

Foundations Directory, Edition 4. Pre 
pared by the Foundation Center, Mari- 
anna O. Lewis, Ed. Introd. by F. 
Emerson Andrews. 642pp. N.Y.: Co 
lumbia University Press, 1971. Price ? 

Howard, C. Jeriel; & Tracz, Richard 
Francis. Tempo: a Thematic Approach 
to Sentence /Paragraph Writing. Illus. 
542pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1971. 
Paper, Price ? 

Kalmykow, Andrew D. Memoirs of a 
Russian Diplomat: Outposts of the 
Empire, 1893-1917. Ed. by Alexandra 
Kalmykow. Illus. 290pp. New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1971. $12.50 

Mackenzie, Alexander, Voyages From 
Montreal on the River St. Laurence 
Through the Continent of North Amer 
ica ... (London, 1801), Numerous 
Fold. Maps, xx, cxxxii, 414pp. Rut 
land, Vt: Charles E. Tuttle Co,, 1971. 
$19.25 

Middendorf, John H., ed. English Writers 
of the Eighteenth Century. [16 papers 
by different authors, former students 
of James Lowry Clifford]. 298pp. 
N.Y.: Columbia University Press, 1971. 
$10. 

Montague, Ashley. The Elephant Man: 
a Study in Human Dignity [developed 
from Sir Frederick Treves* notable 
case described in his "The Elephant 
Man (1923)]. Illus. 140pp. N.Y.: 
Outerbridge & Dienstfrey (distributed 
by E. P. Dutton), 1971. $5.95 

Montale, Eugenio, The Butterfly of 
Dinard. Trans, by G. Singh. 186pp. 
Lexington: University Press of Ken 
tucky, 1971. $5.95 

Proof: the Yearbook of American Bib 
liographical and Textual Studies, Vol. 
1, 1971. Ed. by Joseph Katz. Facs. 
Illus. 435pp. Columbia: University of 
South Carolina Press, 1971. $14.95 

Ruskin, John. The Elements of Drawing 
(1904, i.e. 1857). New Introd. by 



Lawrence Campbell. 51 Illus 228pp. 
N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. Paper, 
$2.50 

Tanselle, G. Thomas. Guide to the Study 
of United States Imprints. 2 vols. 
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 
1971. 

Tate, Allen, ed. Six American, Poets, 
From Emily Dickinson to the Present: 
an Introduction. [Dickinson, Robinson, 
Moore, Aikin, Cummings, Crane; first 
published as University of Minnesota 
Pamphlets on American Writers, sepa 
rately, c. 1964-69.] 266pp. Minneapo 
lis: University of Minnesota Press, 
[1971]. $8.50 

Toch, Ernst. Placed as a Link in This 
Chain; a Medley of Observations [Es 
says], Los Angeles: Friends of the 
UCLA Library, University of Califor 
nia, 1971. Illus., 27pp. $3 (payable 
to the Regents of the University of 
California), from the Gifts & Exchange 
Section, UCLA Library, California 
90024. 

Veaner, Allen B. The Evaluation of 
Micro-publications: a Handbook for 
Librarians. (LTP Publication No. 17). 
Illus. 59pp. Chicago: American Li 
brary Association Library Tech 
nology Program, 1971. Paper, $3.25 

Walker, Louisa. Graded Lessons in Ma- 
crame, Knotting, and Netting (former 
title: Varied Occupations in String 
Work, 1896). Illus. 254pp. N.Y.: Do 
ver Publication, 1971. Paper, $2. 
Wall, James M. Church and Cinema: a 
Way of Viewing Film. Illus. 135pp. 
Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans, 1971. 
$4,50 

Webber, F. R. Church Symbolism: an 
Explanation of the More Important 
Symbols of the Old and New Testa 
ment, the Primitive, the Mediaeval, 
and the Modern Church. 2d edn, rev. 
(1938). Numerous Illus. 413pp. De 
troit: Gale Research Co., 1971. $16.50 
Weeks, Kent M. Adam Clayton Powell 
and the Supreme Court. 311pp. N.Y.: 
Dunellen Co., 1971. $8.95 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 



Volume X Number 6 



February 1972 



NOTES 
QUERIES & REPLIES 

RECENT FOREIGNiJREFEjRJENCE B.OQKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



FREE! On application, one year s 
subscription to AN&Q for individ 
uals who Reply to previously 
unanswered Queries, Vols. I-V, 
before the conclusion of Volume X, 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

(American Slavery). Freimarck, Vincent; 
& Rosenthal, Bernard, eds. Race and 
the American Romantics. [Writings on 
slavery by Poe, Whitman, etc., etc.]. 
( Sourcebooks in Negro History). 
328pp. N.Y.: Schocken Books, 1971. 
$12.50 

Amis, Kingsley. Girl, 20 [a novel]. 253pp. 
London: Jonathan Cape, 1971. $5.95? 

Backus, Rev. Isaac; A Memoir of the 
Life and Times of the: by Alvah Ho- 
vey. (1858). 369pp. N.Y.: Da Capo 
Press, 1972. $15. 

Barber, Edwin Atlee. Tulip-Ware of the 
Pennsylvania-German Potters . . . (2d 
edn., 1926). New Introd. by Henry 
J. Kauffman. Illus. 233pp. N.Y.: Do 
ver Publications, 1970. Paper, $3. 

Bell, Eric Temple. The Time Stream: a 
Science-Fiction Novel by John Taine 
[pseud.]. (1931-32). Illus. 186pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1971. Paper, $1.75 

(Bestiary). Barber, Richard; & Riches, 
Anne. A Dictionary of Fabulous Beasts. 
lUus. by Rosalind Dease. 167pp. N.Y.: 
Walker & Co., 1971. $6.95 

(Bogan, Louise). Smith, William Jay. 
A Woman s Words. A Lecture . . . 
1970 [and a Checklist and Bibliog 
raphy.]. 81pp. Washington: Library 
of Congress [order from Supt. of Docs., 
USGPO], 1971. Paper, 45<; Stock No. 
3016-0017. 

Camehl, Ada Walker. The Blue-China 
Book: Early American Scenes and 
History Pictured in Pottery of the 
Time. (1916). New Introd. & Check 
list of British Blue-China Potters. 200 
Illus. xliii, 327pp. N.Y.: Dover Pub 
lications, 1971. Paper, $5. 

Chigounis, Evans. Secret Lives (The 
Wesleyan Poetry Program, Vol. 60). 



80pp. Middletown: Wesleyan Univer 
sity Press, 1972. $4.75; Paper, $2.45 

Chinese Rhyme-Prose: Poems in the Fu 
Form from the Han and Six Dynasties 
Periods. Trans., with an Introd. by 
Burton Watson. 128pp. N.Y.: Colum 
bia University Press, 1971. Paper. 
Price ? 

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Spy: a 
Tale of the Neutral Ground. Ed. by 
James H. Pickering. (Masterworks of 
Literature Series). 26, 29-432pp. New 
Haven: College & University Press, 
1971. $8.50; Paper, $3.95 

Corvo, by Donald Weeks [a new biog 
raphy of Frederick William Rolfe]. 
Illus. xxix, 450pp. London: Michael 
Joseph, 1971. $12.50? 

Drama: a Critical Collection, Ed. by 
James K. Bowen & Richard van der 
Beets. 761pp. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 
1971. Paper, $7. 

Eckholm, Gordon F.; & Bernal, Ignacio. 
Archaeology of Northern Mesoameri- 
ca. (Handbook of Middle American 
Indians, Robert Wauchope, General 
Editor, Vols. 10 & 11). Illus. 2 vols. 
Austin: University of Texas Press, 
[c!971]. Each vol., $15. 

Franklin, John. Narrative of a Second 
Expedition to the Shores of the Polar 
Sea in the Years 1825, 1826, and 
1827. (1828). Illus., inch fold, maps 
in pocket, xl, 320, clvii pp. Rutland, 
Vt: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1971. 
$23.10 

Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins. Pembroke. 
Ed. by Perry D. Westbrook. (Master- 
works of Literature Series). Illus. 35, 
37-254pp. New Haven: College & 
University Press, 1971. $6.50; Paper, 
$2.95 

(Continued on p. 95) 



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Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies, and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, and Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Book Review Index; in 
cluded in The Year s Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
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torian Bibliography**, etc. 




AN&Q 

AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

POSSIBLE SOURCE FOR 
LYLTS EUBULUS 

EAKLY IN LYLY S Euphues: The 
Anatomy of Wit (1578), Eubulus, 
an old man, gives valuable though 
unheeded advice to Euphues, a 
young wastrel. The counselor s 
name, as many critics have pointed 
out, is well chosen, for Eubulus, 
euovAos in Greek, signifies a wise, 
prudent adviser. Emphasizing com 
pletely the allegorical importance 
of the name, John Dover Wilson 
claimed that Lyly borrowed this 
character from Gnapheus, who him 
self took the name from Aristotle s 
Nicomachean Ethics where Eubu 
lus was nothing more than a per 
sonification of virtue. 1 Without 
denying the importance of the 
allegorical implications behind the 
name, I should like to suggest an 
actual historical source for Lyly s 
fictional paragon. 

Active in the politics of Hellenistic 
Greece was an Athenian statesman 
named Eubulus. 2 He was famous 
for his productively conservative 
economic policies, and as minister 
of finance he saved Athens from 
bankruptcy. A strong advocate of 
nonaggression, Eubulus belonged 



to the peace party that denounced 
the military conquests of Philip of 
Macedon. Later, however, Eubu 
lus did unsuccessfully try to unite 
the Greek states against him. He 
was equally praised for the power 
of his rhetoric. Plutarch, for exam 
ple, notes that together with other 
distinguished Athenians Eubulus 
was one of the "common speakers 
and preferrers of matters in coun- 
sells and Senate". 3 It is not unlikely 
that with his detailed knowledge 
of the classical world Lyly was 
aware of the historical Eubulus. 
His own sage instructor seems to 
resemble this Athenian politician 
in a number of ways. 

Although Lyly s old gentleman 
is a citizen of Naples, it is inter 
esting to note that his advice is 
directed to a former resident of 
Athens, the beautifully endowed 
Euphues. Engaged in a battle of 
wits over the relative merits of 
Nature and Nurture, Eubulus tries 
to educate Euphues about the ob 
ligation of duty to the state and 
the necessity of thrift. Eubulus 
"knew that so rare a wit would in 
time either breed an intolerable 
trouble or an incomparable treas 
ure to the common weal; at the 
one he greatly pitied, at the other 
he rejoiced" (Euphues, edited by 
Croll and Clemons [1916], p. 13). 
For, if Euphues acted like a dutiful 
citizen, Eubulus realized that "it 
had been hard to conjecture wheth 
er [he] shouldest have been more 
fortunate by riches or happy by 
wisdom, whether more esteemed 
in the common weal for wealth 
to maintain war or for counsel to 
conclude peace" (p. 25). Repeat 
edly he cautions the young gallant 
to spend his time and money wise 
ly: "Ah Euphues, little dost thou 
know that if thy wealth waste thy 
wit will give but small warmth, 
and if thy wit incline to wilfulness 



84 



AN&Q 



that thy wealth will do thee no 
great good" (p. 25). For proof 
Eubulus cites many examples, clas 
sical and contemporary, of how 
the unwary youth must avoid evils 
like lewd women who "with one 
hand rob so many coffers and with 
the other ... rip so many corses" 
(p. 16). Not buying this "counsel 
at the first hand good cheap", 
Euphues is told that "thou shalt 
buy repentance at the second hand 
at such an unreasonable rate that 
thou wilt curse thy hard penny 
worth and ban thy hard heart" 
(p. 25). Like the historical Eubu 
lus, Lyly s schoolmaster stresses 
the cost of immoderate conduct. 
But he fails. In response to Eubu 
lus "aged and overworn elo 
quence", Euphues mockingly boasts 
that "here I found you and here I 
leave you, having neither bought 
nor sold with you but changed 
ware for ware. If you have taken 
little pleasure in my reply, sure 
I iam that by your counsel I have 
reaped less profit" (p. 24). 

Lyly may have modeled the 
character of his prudent adviser 
on the Greek statesman, but, of 
course, we cannot be sure. Certain 
ly the points of similarity between 
the two figures allow for a plausi 
ble comparison. And with a rec 
ognition of the classical heritage 
behind Eubulus Euphues and his 
bravado seem only that much more 
foolish to an informed reader. 

Philip C. Kolin 
Northwestern University 



1. "Euphues and the Prodigal Son", The 
Library, X, no. 40 (October 1909), 
355. Another Eubulus who indeed is 
only an abstraction of good counsel 
appears in Sackville and Norton s 



BACON S DE AUGMENTIS, 
TRANSLATED AND 
MISCATALOGUED 
IN LIBRARIES 

IN THE COURSE OF preparing a new 
volume of Thomas Fuller s writ 
ings, it was discovered that a trans 
lation of a work which influenced 
him greatly Bacon s De Digni- 
tate et Augmentis Scientiarum 
(1623) is not to be had in the 
ordinary city or university library. 
In those few libraries where* a 
translation can be found, it seenls 
always to be miscatalogued as the 
Advancement of Learning (1605). 
It would be invidious to cite li 
braries since the error appears to 
be general. It has been encoun 
tered in three large public librar 
ies, in a college library, and in a 
library specializing in 17th-century 
science and English literature. 

One important study of Thomas 
Fuller 1 has been vitiated by ref 
erence to only the Advancement 
of Learning (1605) when exan>- 
ining Bacon s influence upon him; 
whereas Fuller was much more 
likely to have read the De Aug 
mentis (since he was one of the 
great Latinists of his period). That 



Gorboduc, written some sixteen years 
before Lyly s novel. Secretary to the 
willful king, Eubulus offers wise ad 
vice that is neglected for the pleasing 
tales of flatterers, and, consequently, 
England suffers from misgovernment 
and dissension. 

2. Consult H. B. CotteriU, Ancient 
Greece (New York, 1913) and N. G. L. 
Hammond, A History of Greece to 
322 B.C. (Oxford, 1959). 

3. "Life of Phocion" from Plutarch s 
Lives translated by Sir Thomas North 
(1579). 



February 1972 



85 



it was this work that he did read 
can in fact be shown by his writ 
ings. 2 Here, then, is but one ex 
ample of the type of error that has 
resulted from miscataloguing Ba 
con s book. 

There have been two translations 
of the De Augmentis, one by Wats 3 
in 1640 and a version by Shaw 4 
in 1733. A revision by Joseph De- 
vey of Shaw s translation appeared 
in 1858. 5 A third translation, by 
"Eustace Gary", is mentioned by 
Devey in his preface, but this 
translation now appears to be a 
"ghost book". 6 Devey implies that 
it was published after Wats and 
before Shaw. If it actually exists, 
a perhaps better possibility is that 
it was prepared by William Carey, 
Professor of Oriental Languages at 
the College of Fort William, Cal 
cutta; a Eustace Carey (his son?) 
wrote a memoir of this man in 
1837. 7 

Devey s revision of Shaw gives 
us our best translation of the De 
Augmentis and the only one that 
is readily obtainable. Devey s work 
was published first by Bohn, was 
continued in the Bell series of 
classics (1868 and later) and was 
last reprinted in a "great books" 
series published by P. F. Collier 
& Son in 1902. 8 It is not, therefore, 
a particularly scarce work. The 
problem is that Devey issued it as 
the Advancement of Learning. Li 
brarians, unaware that a confusion 
of titles exists, have naturally not 
troubled to acquire Devey s *edi- 
tion". 

Another edition, "with an intro 
duction by James Edward Creigh 
ton", 9 also appears in a "great 
books" series, but this is simply 
Devey s edition stripped of all 
prefatory material, including Fran 



cis Bacon s, and of all footnotes. 
The volume does, however, eon- 
tain the Novum Organum (this is 
also from Devey s edition of Shaw). 

Library of Congress catalogue 
cards for Creighton (c.1900) and 
for Devey ( 1902 ) mention in small 
type that the works are transla 
tions of the De Augmentis rather 
than editions of the Advancement 
of Learning of 1605. However, it 
is most unlikely that a person using 
a catalogue which employs these 
cards will actually read to the 
bottom of the cards, where these 
notes appear. A cross-reference 
card, from De Augmentis Scien- 
tiarum to the Devey and Creighton 
cards, would appear to be neces 
sary. Where typed cards are used, 
they should of course be corrected 
to include the Library of Congress 
notes; and again, a cross-reference 
card is recommended. 

For acquisition purposes, "De 
vey s edition" is probably the best 
brief specification; but for all other 
short references I would recom 
mend, "the Advancement of Learn 
ing [translated]", or simply, "the 
De Augmentis, translated". 

James D. Lucey 

Glendale, California 
Submitted, May 1965 



1. Walter E. Houghton, Jr., The For 
mation of Thomas Fuller s Holy and 
Profane States , Cambridge, Mass., 
Harvard University Press, 1938, pp. 
155-168, 172-173. 

2. Compare the Fuller passages Hough- 
ton cites as influenced by the Ad 
vancement of Learning (1605) with 
comparable passages in the De Aug 
mentis. Fuller and Bacon parallels 
can also be found in the De Aug 
mentis only. 



86 



AN&Q 



AMBIGUITIES OF TESS AS A 
"PURE" WOMAN 

W. EUGENE DAVIS provocative ar 
ticle in the March 1968 issue of 
NCF raises some interesting prob 
lems relating to Hardy s claim that 
Tess is indeed a "pure" woman af 
ter twice yielding herself up to 
Alec and her subsequent murder 
of him. Davis is quite right in 
pointing out that Hardy has so 
managed the seduction scene and 
the events immediately following 
as to suggest that while Tess is per 
haps an innocent victim of Alec s 
advances, nevertheless there is per 
haps a certain acquiescence on her 
part. She is both innocent and 
guilty. This is, I think, clearly to 
Hardy s credit as a novelist; for he 
succeeds in giving to the scene 
and its consequences much greater 
depth than if he had treated the 
seduction merely as rape. 

I think, however, that Davis has 
overlooked one important point 
which would have made his argu 



ment that much stronger and one 
which might suggest that Hardy 
himself would have agreed with 
Davis own conclusions regarding 
Tess compliance in her own se 
duction. I refer to the scene de 
picting Tess visit to the peasant 
dance the evening of the seduction, 
an episode ignored by virtually all 
the commentators on the novel. It 
is here (I would suggest) that 
Hardy has provided the reader 
with a subtle hint as to why Tess 
allows herself to succumb to Alec 
a few hours later that same night. 
The most noticeable thing about 
the peasant dance that evening is 
that it represents nothing less than 
a sort of rural carnival of misrule 
which becomes ultimately some 
thing very much like a pagan mat 
ing ritual, an English Bacchanalia 
in which one s sexual inhibitions are 
stripped away entirely. As such, it 
contrasts sharply with the May Day 
dance in the book s second chap 
ter, a rite which had in pagan times 
been closely associated with cele- 



3. Lord Francis Bacon, Of the Advance 
ment and Proficience of Learning 
. , . writtin in Latin. Interpreted by 
Gilbert Wats, Oxford, [for] R. Young 
and E. Forrest, 1640. 

4. Francis Bacon, [De Augmentis Sci- 
entiarum in] The Philosophical Works 
of Francis Bacon . . . Methodized, 
and made English ... by Peter 
Shaw, M.D. London, for J. J. & P. 
Knapton [et al], 1733, vol. 1, pp. 
(3) - 270. 

5. , The Physical and Metaphysical 

Works of Lord Bacon, including the 
Advancement of Learning and Novum 
Organum; edited by Joseph Devey, 
London, Bohn, 1858. 

6. I am greatly indebted to Mrs Eliza 
beth S. Wrigley, Director, The Francis 
Bacon Library, Claremont, California, 



and to Hugh G. Dick, Chairman, 
Department of English, University of 
California, Los Angeles, for their very 
extensive labors in attempting to iden 
tify the Gary translation. Dr Dick 
is preparing a bibliography of Bacon 
from 1750 to the present. If any 
reader identifies the Gary translation., 
would he please write to Dr Dick 
of his discovery. 

7. Letter from Hugh G. Dick, April 
19, 1965. 

8. Lord [Francis] Bacon, [De Augmen 
tis, translated as] Advancement of 
Learning, edited by Joseph Devey, 
N. Y., Collier, 1902. 

9. Francis Bacon, Advancement of 
Learning and Novum Organum, with 
an introduction by James Edward 
Creighton, Rev. ed. [sic], N. Y,, Co 
lonial Press, c.1899; reprinted c.1900. 



February 1972 



87 



brations of fertility in both man 
and nature, but had over the gen 
erations been subdued and ritu 
alized, the sexual passion, which 
it had once celebrated being driven 
underground and unacknowledged 
in the present ceremonies. 

The participants in the evening s 
dance, in sharp contrast, make no 
attempt to disguise its obvious 
sexual nature. The frenzied danc 
ing inside the barn is described by 
Hardy in terms which clearly sug 
gest sexual release, the expurgation 
of sexual energy through the dance 
forms themselves: "The movement 
grew more passionate . . . the pant 
ing shapes spun onwards. They did 
not vary their partners if their 
inclination were to stick to pre 
vious ones. Changing partners sim 
ply meant that a satisfactory choice 
had not as yet been arrived at by 
one or other of the pah-, and by 
this time every couple had been 
suitably matched. It was then that 
the ecstasy and the dream began, 
in which emotion was the matter 
of the universe, and matter but an 
adventitious intrusion likely to hin 
der you from spinning where you 
wanted to spin". (Ch. 10) 

Furthermore, the cloud of dust 
hanging over the dance floor blurs 
the dancing couples, so that Hardy 
can image them in terms of the 
Ovidian stories of illicit love and 
metamorphoses: "the indistinctness 
shaping them to satyrs clasping 
nymphs a multiplicity of Pans 
whirling a multiplicity of Syrinxes; 
Lotis attempting to elude Priapus, 
and always failing". (Ch. 10) 

Tess stands to one side. Signifi 
cantly, she herself does not enter 
into the dancing, so that her sexual 
energies are not drained off, as are 
those of the participants. Hardy 



has throughout his narrative to this 
point been hinting by means of 
his imagery of a strong undercur 
rent of sexuality in Tess, an under 
current of which she herself is 
probably quite unaware and un 
prepared to counter when it does 
surface. This is first suggested by 
Hardy in the second chapter when 
his heroine is introduced to the 
reader during the May Day dance. 
The participants, including Tess, 
are all dressed in white, which in 
retrospect suggests their innocence 
and purity, and each carries in her 
right hand "a peeled willow wand" 
and in her left hand a bunch of 
white flowers. The wand is clearly 
a phallic symbol which generations 
ago had some symbolic significance 
when the May Dance was then a 
viable ceremony. Significantly, Tess 
alone of these women wears a red 
ribbon in her hair, and this is 
clearly symbolic of her latent sexu 
ality. The innocence is suggested, 
to be sure, but qualified by the 
introduction of the symbolic red 
ribbon, here a symbolic foreshad 
owing of what will eventually be 
her undoing. 

And throughout the first part of 
the book Hardy continues to re 
mind the reader of this side of 
Tess character. For instance, in 
the scene in which she rides home 
from her first visit to the Slopes 
her lap heaped full of strawberries 
and roses, she pricks her chin on 
the thorn of the rose and thinks 
this an "ill omen". Certainly it is; 
not only does it recall the stabbing 
of the horse, but it foreshadows 
the pain that her involvement with 
Alec will bring to her. But more 
than this, she has allowed Alec to 
force his will upon her; her pas 
sivity is stressed, especially in the 



88 



AN&Q 



scene in which he feeds her a 
strawberry against her will. But 
the red strawberries and the red 
roses keep before the reader her 
latent sexuality and suggest that 
this, as much as Alec s duplicity, 
will bring her pain in the coming 
months. Significantly, all these sym 
bolic images of redness are as 
sociated with Tess only in the one 
hundred pages or so before her 
seduction; there are no appear 
ances afterwards, for Hardy has 
already made his point. Later in 
the great middle section set at the 
Talbothays Tess sexuality will 
fructify in a natural confirmation 
with the seasons and the nature 
about her. But there it will be as 
sociated with love, not lust. The 
dairy people at the farm will not 
be likened at any point to satyrs, 
Sileni, and nymphs. And, for 
Hardy, Tess will become once 
again his "pure" woman. 



James C. Simmons 



Boston University 
Boston, Mass. 



QUERIES 



Chateaubriand quote from where? 
I am working on Chateaubri 
and s works, published in the *Bib- 
liotheque de la Pleiade* collection, 
and the next volume will contain 
the Essai historique sur les Revo 
lutions. At the beginning of Chap 
ter XIII of the Second Part of the 
Essai, Chateaubriand quotes these 
two lines: "Thrice happy you, who 
look as from the shore/ And have 
no venture in the wreck you see". 
In the EssaL these two lines are 



supposed to refer to Richard II in 
his prison, elsewhere Chateaubri 
and says, to Edward II. I have 
found them neither in Shakespeare 
nor in Marlowe, and my English 
and Canadian friends have been 
unable to locate them. Maurice 
Regard, Toronto, Canada 

Declaration of Independence 
If as is traditionally thought, the 
Declaration was sent to George III 
of England, how does it come to 
be in the possession of the United 
States of America? A student 
brought this question after asking 
it at several libraries in the Cleve 
land area, each time receiving no 
information. Was the Declaration 
of Independence sent to England? 
Was more than one copy made 

and signed? (Ms) Paige Gibbs, 

Whitewater, Wise. 

William Dean Howells I would 
appreciate information on the 
whereabouts of manuscripts and 
letters containing poetry written 
by William Dean Howells, as well 
as the names of anthologies and 
gift books which contain poems by 
him but which are not recorded in 
the standard bibliographies. An 
edition of the complete poetry will 
become one of the forty volumes 
of A Selected Edition of W. D. 
Howells now in progress. Da 
vid J. Nordloh, Department of Eng 
lish, Indiana University, Blooming- 
ton, Indiana 47401 



Readers comments on the de 
sirability of a 10-year Cumula 
tive Index to AJV&Q would be 
welcomed. 



February 1972 

A collection of Junius gone? 
One of the great collections of edi 
tions of the Letters of Junius and 
of books and other materials on 
the authorship of the Letters was 
assembled by the bibliographer, 
John Edmands at the Mercantile 
Library of Philadelphia in the late 
19th century. Much of what Ed 
mands collected was described in 
his "Junius Bibliography", Bulletin 
of the Mercantile Library of Phila 
delphia ( 1 July 1890 - 1 January 
1892); and the collection was, in 
my judgment, the largest ever as 
sembled and provided me with 
much material for A Junius Bibli 
ography (1949). 

The Mercantile Library became 
part of the Free Library of Phila 
delphia in 1945, and until 1952 
the Mercantile holdings were man 
aged and maintained by the Free 
Library. However, in 1952 the 
Mercantile collection was dispersed 
into various units of the Free Li 
brary system. The Edmands col 
lection of Juniana was stored and 
eventually deposited in the Rare 
Book Department of the Free Li 
brary (Logan Square), according 
to Howell J. Heaney, Hare Book 
Librarian. What remains of the 
Edmands material at the Free Li 
brary are some 170 volumes of 
Juniana; over 20% of the collection 
seems to have been dispersed or 
lost. Unfortunately, I have been 
unable to locate an invaluable col 
lection of articles and clippings (3 
vols.) about Junius which, in the 
Mercantile Library, was in The 
Locked Case Collection [EC 4554] 
and assembled in three slip-cases. 
Must it be presumed lost? Fran 
cesco Cordasco, Upper Montclair, 
N. J. 



39 



REPLIES 



"Love" in tennis (1:136) The 
term is an Anglicized form of the 
French I oeuf meaning "egg". We 
convey the same association when 
we refer to a zero as a goose-egg. 
There is also the commonplace 
identification of "love" with "noth 
ing" from early Renaissance times 
to the present, e.g., the Italian 
dolce far niente, Shakespeare s 
Much Ado about Nothing, and 
even "sweet nothings/ It may well 
be of more than incidental interest 
that when King Lear asks his 
daughters what they each can say 
to express their love for him, Cor 
delia twice replies: "Nothing". It 
is probable that this use of "noth 
ing", however, relates more to the 
morality play tradition, especially 
the most popular play of the 15th 
century, Mankind, with its puns 
on nothingness as idleness and 
vanity by way of the character 
Nought. The idea that the love- 
nothing relationship derives from 
a vaginal image is too far-fetched 
for me and would have no bearing 
on a tennis match anyway. Perhaps 
it is best to account for the ex 
pression "love" in tennis as simply 
a convenient and very pleasant 
way of making up and not throw 
ing the racquet. Robert F. 
Fleissner, Wilberforce, Ohio 

Dante quotation (11:137) If 
the words emporter la depouille 
des lions, "take away the lions* 
skin", had been set off by quota 
tion marks, identification of Miche- 
let s reference to Dante would 
have been facilitated. Line 108 of 
Canto VI of the Paradiso is the 
source. It reads as follows: Ch* a 
piu alto Won trasser lo vello. (C. H. 



90 



AN&Q 



Grandgent, ed., Dante s Divim 
Commedia, Boston: D. C. Heath, 
rev. ed, 1933, page 708). The 
reference is to the artigli, "claws, 
talons", of the Roman eagle, which 
"took away the skin of a loftier 
lion" than Charles II of Apulia. 
E. H. Plumptre comments in a 
note on page 49 of his translation 
of the Paradise that the words may 
refer to any such king, and gives 
as possible examples Pyrrhus, Ju- 
gurtha, and Ptolemy. Presumably 
the first part of the quotation from 
Michelet is not based on Dante; 
it is the expression emporter la 
depouille des lions that echoes a 
piu alto lean trasser lo vello, with 
slight modifications. Edgar C. 
Knowlton, jr, University of Hawaii 

"Shift-marriage" (111:40) B. A. 
Botkin in his A Treasury of New 
England Folklore (p. 727-9) and 
volume one of the Frank C, Brown 
Collection of North Carolina Folk 
lore (p. 237-8) discuss this custom 
and connect it with English "debt- 
evading" marriages. It was appar 
ently fairly common in New Eng 
land but less so in the South. Ac 
cording to one of the documents 
quoted in Botkin there was a legal 
basis for this. As he says, "It is 
plainly stated in many of these 
Narragansett certificates that it 
was according to the law in such 
cases . The marriages were cer 
tainly degrading in character, and 
were gone through with only for 
the express purpose of debt eva 
sion, and they must have been 
successful" (p. 729). Presumably 
the idea behind the ceremony was 
that by not taking anything from 
her former marriage with her and 
by being wed in public, the woman 
was indicating clearly that she was 



renouncing everything connected 
with her former husband. Why 
she had to cross the highway four 
times is not accounted for in any 
of the stories about this which I 
have seen. Norman D. Stevens, 
Starrs, Ct 

MORE REPLIES, p. 94 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky. 

Valerie Himmler and Klaus Thiel- 
mann, Worterbuch der Biochemie, 
Russisch-Deutsch (Leipzig: VEB 
Verlag Enzyklopadie, 1970; 391 
pp.; DM28.), is a practical glos 
sary which is also useful for bio 
chemists in English-speaking coun 
tries. Biologists and medical peo 
ple who argue that there is no sig 
nificant literature in their field 
not in English might yet find a 
use for this book. 

Theun de Vries, Baruch de Spinoza 
in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddoku- 
menten (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 
Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 
1970; 190 pp.; "Rowohlts Mono- 
graphien", 71), is a useful, prac 
tical, and eminently readable study 
of a thinker who conceived an "in 
tellectual love of God" that has 
pervaded the thought of the fol 
lowing three centuries. Illustrated 
with judiciously selected photo 
graphs of places and people, paint 
ings, and facsimiles, this relatively 



February 1972 

slight work is a point of departure 
for Spinoza studies. The selective 
bibliography covers all basic ma 
terial, but Adolph S. Oko s Spinoza 
Bibliography (1964) must always 
be waded through. 

Bilingual dictionaries of English 
and Scandinavian languages have 
many deficiencies, perhaps due 
mainly to the fact that Scandinavi 
an languages are not (and should 
not be) accepted as languages for 
undergraduate foreign language re 
quirements. Bokforlaget Prisma AB 
(P.O.B. 49 041, S-100 28 Stock 
holm) has filled the gap to some 
extent. The fourth edition of Bror 
Danielsson, Modern engeUk-svensk 
ordbok (1969; 296 pp.; Sw. kr. 
17.70) contains some 30,000 en 
tries with emphasis on British and 
American linguistic traditions in 
equal proportion. The Modern 
svensk-engelsk ordbok (1970; 566 
pp.; Sw. kr. 24. ) has more than 
50,000 entries, substantially more 
than any other Swedish-English 
dictionary in print, and vastly more 
up to date. 

The rich production of Reclams 
Universalbibliothek continues 
steadily. The Greek satyr plays, 
of which Euripides Cyclops is the 
only surviving complete example, 
are pulled together in German 
translation and commentary by 
Oskar Werner in Griechische 
Satyrspiele von Euripides, Sopho- 
kles und Aischylos (1970; 72pp.; 
no. 8387). In German literature 
there are Martin Opitz, Buch von 
der deutschen Poeterey (1970; 
112pp.; nos. 8397/98); G. W. F. 
Hegel, Grundlinien der Philoso 
phic des Rechts (1970; 504pp.; 
nos. 8738/93); Friedrich Leopold 



91 

Graf zu Stolberg, Uber die Fulle 
des Herzens (1970; 62pp. ; no. 
7901); E. T. A. Hoffmann, Meister 
Floh (1970; 239pp.; nos. 365/367); 
and Heinrich Lautensack, Die 
Pfarrhauskomodie ( 1970; 67pp.; 
no. 7905). 

In parallel English and German 
texts, distinctively indicated by 
orange covers, there are Gisbert 
Kranz, ed. and transl., Englische 
Sonette (1970; 224pp.; nos. 8372/ 
74); Emily Dickinson, Gedichte 
(1970; 222pp.; nos. 7908/10), se 
lected and translated by Gertrud 
Liepe, with a commentary by 
Klaus Liebers; and Samuel Beck 
ett, Embers (1970; 53pp.; no. 
7904). Reclam s series ofJ Erlau- 
terungen und Dokumente" is an 
important innovation of the firm s 
current policy. Josef Schmidt, 
Goethes Hermann und Dorothea 
(1970; 125pp.; nos. 8107/07a) is 
the most recent number. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

ROWLAND, Beryl. Blind Beasts: Chau 
cer s Animal World. lUus. 198pp. Kent, 
Ohio: The Kent State University Press, 
1971. $10. 

During the past decade Beryl Row 
land s widely ranging articles about 
Chaucer and animals have appeared in 
a number of journals on both sides of 
the Atlantic; and the present volume 
would be useful enough if it simply 
brought together these scattered articles. 
But it does more: Professor Rowland 
has restructured those studies and pre 
fixed them with a compact discussion 
of the traditions . The result is a read 
able, indeed at many points, a fascinat 
ing book. 

The author begins by discussing tra 
ditions of writing about animals from 
Pliny and Isidore down to the 14th cen- 



92 



AN&Q 



tiny, and the sense of 14th-century at 
titudes and conventions is firm and con 
fident. She then discusses Chaucer s uses 
of animals, from tradition and from na 
ture, with special emphasis on those 
animals rich in traditional significance; 
the boar, hare, wolf, horse, sheep, and 
dog. One must agree with the conclu 
sion that Chaucer characteristically ex 
ploits associational values as a part of 
his techniques of oral delivery and com 
plex characterization. Thus, Chaucer 
"shares the double vision of the Gothic 
world, and from it arise some of the 
complexities of his most successful ani 
mal figures": the Wife of Bath as the 
promiscuous lioness, or Alison as the 
untamed weasel (traditionally a crea 
ture of ill-luck but also the fierce little 
animal of the hearth). We rise then 
towards a sense of Chaucer s vision as 
one, which for all his delight, soberly 
recognizes man as "but a poor, bare, 
forked animal, only rising above the 
brute when the soul is in control of the 
body". The animal, Professor Rowland 
concludes, is in fact a kind of Yahoo, 
a creature of which it may be said 

Lo, heere hath lust his dominacioun, 
And appetit fleemeth discrecioun, 

and which may be apostrophized as *Ye 
blinde bestes, ful of lewednessel * 

There are a few flaws, but they are, 
it seems to this reviewer, only minor 
ones. Thus in the first chapter, which 
is an adequate outline of the inherited 
tradition, there are several points at 
which one would wish for fuller dis 
cussion or documentation e.g. (p.3), 
the statement that "the Physiokgus 
seems to have been banned as heretical 
in 469 A.D." is both too cryptic and 
too sweeping: banned how and by what 
authority? There is both overlap and 
fragmentation at different parts of the 
book, the result doubtless of the re 
casting of separate studies e.g., the 



* It is interesting to consider the ana 
logues to *blind as a beast in B. J. 
Whiting s Proverbs, Sentences, and 
Proverbial Phrases (Harvard, 1968), 
which run from 1426 to 1509, and to 
observe that the tradition moralizes 
and intensifies. 



lion is sketched on p. 21, but without 
mentioning the Wife of Bath, who is dis 
cussed in terms of lion imagery only 
on p. 48, At several points in the bib 
liography Chaucer Criticism, vol. I by 
Schoeck and Taylor is cited as Chau 
cerian Criticism. But these, again, are 
minor flaws. 

Begun as a dissertation and enriched 
by years of research in the British Mu 
seum, the Warburg, the Bodleian, and 
other libraries, and tested and refined 
in years of teaching in Canada at York 
University, the book is a model of a 
right kind of growth. It is mature schol 
arship, and a welcome addition to Chau 
cerian studies and a most valuable ad 
dition to reference materials on animals 
in literature. The Kent State University 
Press is to be commended on a well- 
designed and pleasing book R. /. 
Schoeck, Folger Shakespeare Library, 
Washington, D. C. 



SOMETHING ABOUT THE AUTHOR, 

Ed. by Anne Commire. Facts and Pic 
tures About Contemporary Authors and 
Illustrators of Books for Young People. 
Vol. I. Numerous Illus. 233 pp. Detroit: 
Gale Research Co., 1971. $15. 

America has spawned a generation of 
literate children to whom libraries, in 
the school and in the public square, 
are easily accessible. Meantime book 
titles have proliferated to the point of 
overabundance. The problem now con 
fronting librarians, parents, and teachers, 
and more particularly the literate child 
himself, is one of selection. And this 
process of selection is likely to be more 
effective when it is accompanied by an 
understanding of the authors. 

Gale s ktest venture in the field of 
reference Something About the Author 
is aimed at achieving this kind of 
understanding. It may be best described 
as a junior version of the extensive and 
much-used Contemporary Authors. It 
is the first volume of a proposed series 
intended, says the Introduction, to "pro 
vide the information you need when your 
teacher tells you to do a library project 
or a book report, and find something 
about the author ". 



February 1972 



93 



Doubtful of his own judgment, this 
reviewer submitted the volume to a 
panel of his own grandchildren. The 
stated purpose aroused little enthusiasm. 
There seemed to be a lingering hope 
that no such assignment would be called 
for. But as they began to find their own 
favorite authors, and to recognize fa 
miliar illustrations, their interest grew. 
It became fun rather than a project, and 
in due course Something About the 
Author was voted not only "neat" but 
"groovy". 

This first volume contains over two 
hundred authors, and "hundreds of other 
equally important and interesting au 
thors will be listed in additional volumes 
being planned". The general format of 
Contemporary Authors is followed. The 
personal and career statistics of each 
author are given in considerable detail, 
the writings are listed, and the work in 
progress, if any, described. "Sidelights* 
provide more intimate details of the 
author s life and work, often supple 
mented by autobiographical quotes. Bio 
graphical/Critical sources are also given, 
a particularly helpful feature for those 
who require more complete information 
than any general compilation could be 
expected to supply. 

The photographs of the authors de 
serve special commendation. An obvious 
effort has been made to show them, 
whenever possible, in familiar surround 
ings; Edward Ardizzone at his drawing 
board, Isaac Asimov in his laboratory, 
Vivian Gurney Breckenfield in her gar 
den, Sterling North gingerly fondling 
the original "Rascal", Patricia Lauber 
with her favorite horse, Jane Andrews 
Hyndman (Lee Wyndham) at her busy 
desk backed by a display of her nu 
merous writings, and Russell Hoban 
perched on a roof-top flanked by an 
amusing weathercock, presumably of 
his own making. 

The size of the book - 8" X 11" 
provides ample space for illustration 
from the books, and these appear on 
almost every page. An Index of Illus 
trators directs the youthful reader to 
the work of more than a hundred artists. 
Kate Seredy s prancing horse from The 
Good Master fills a page, and Ralph 
Moody s Little Britches fills another. The 
fantastic fishes of McEUigot s Pool by 
Dr. Seuss (appropriately cross-referred 
to Geisel, Theodore Seuss) dance across 



a double-page spread. It surprised the 
children to find how often the names 
attached to their favorite books are not 
the authors* real names, and they were 
not easily convinced that the reasons 
for these pseudonyms were either neces 
sary or desirable. Harriet Stratemeyer 
Adams conceals her identity under no 
less than five aliases. "Why?" say four 
sets of wondering eyes, and echo an 
swers "Why?" 

Almost anyone conversant with the 
children s book field will be likely to 
note some startling omissions, but the 
editor, Anne Commire, who has cut 
her eye-teeth as one of the editors of 
Contemporary Authors has wisely fore 
stalled criticism by asking for suggestions 
for inclusion in later volumes of the 
series. Notable among the absentees are 
Lloyd Alexander, William Cole, David 
McCord, Phyllis McGinley, Ogden Nash, 
Elizabeth Coatsworth, Ivy Eastwick, 
C. S. Lewis, Eve Merriam, William Jay. 
Smith, J. R. R. Tolkien, and Jack Pre- 
lutsky. One member of the review panel 
respectfully suggests that EsteUe Barnes, 
Clapp, Joseph Wharton Lippincott, Jim 
Kjelgaard, Margaret Henry, and Clyde 
Robert Bulla be considered for Volume 
Two, and when challenged, produced 
her own copies of books by these authors. 

Most of the authors included are livr- 
ing and writing today. But there are 
enough exceptions to raise an interest 
ing speculation as to the ultimate scope 
of the work. If the editors are to devote 
three pages to such a conglomerate 
among writers as Edward L. Strate 
meyer, who gave us "The Bobbsey 
Twins", "The Hardy Boys" and a dozen 
like series and who died in 1932, it 
must give them some qualms to omit 
A. A. Milne who was twenty years 
younger than Stratemeyer and who out 
lived him by twenty-four years. And a 
good case could be made for Edward 
Lear and Lewis Carroll whose books 
are constantly re-issued, embellished by 
the best-known present-day illustrators, 
and whose names are better known to the 
modern child than most living writers: 

It will be a matter of interesting spec 
ulation for the antiquarian, though cold 
comfort for the publisher, to contem 
plate the uses that may be made of 
this compilation in some distant decade. 
Did we now have such a record of the 
children s literature of 1821 or 1871, 



94 



AN&Q 



what light would be thrown into the 
dark corners of oblivion to reveal lost 
data concerning the works of the Taylors 
of Ongar, or William Roscoe, as well as 
hundreds of authors and illustrators 
whose names or pseudonyms were well- 
known to our grandfathers through the 
pages of Chatterbox and St. Nicholas, 
and whose books littered the floors of 
19th-century nurseries! Gale, always the 
innovator, has made a bold beginning. 
John M. Shaw, Florida State Uni 
versity Library, Tallahassee, Florida 



REPLIES 

(Continued from p. 90) 

"To ride a hobby . . ." (IX:87) 
This phrase harks back to the 
derivation of hobby from hobby 
horse. Hobby-horses originally 
were actual animals; by Eliza 
bethan times, the term described 
toy or stage horses. In the 18th 
century, a pastime engaged in 
merely for amusement came to be 
compared to riding a toy horse; 
eventually, hobby-horse came to 
signify these amusing pursuits. 
Laurence Sterne uses the term in 
this sense throughout Tristram 
Shandy, as for example in I, vii 
(1759): "Have not the wisest of 
men in all ages . . . had their 
HOBBY-HORSES; - their running 
horses, their coins and their 
cockle-shells, their drums and their 
trumpets, their fiddles, their pal 
lets their maggots and their but 
terflies? and so long as a man 
rides his HOBBY-HORSE peace 
ably and quietly along the King s 
highway ... pray, Sir, what have 
either you or I to do with it?" 

The phrase became a dead meta 
phor in the 19th century. Sir 



Walter Scott was the first author I 
know of who used the shortened 
form of the phrase, in chapter 10 
of Peveril of the Peak, 1823: ". . . it 
is surprising how much real power 
will be cheerfully resigned to the 
fair sex, for the pleasure of being 
allowed to ride one s hobby in 
peace and quiet". 

Finally, Darwin himself used 
the old term in 1867, as recorded 
in Life and Letters, III, 134: "I 
shall not make so much of my 
hobby-horse as I thought I could". 
Bradley Strickland, University 
of Georgia 

"To ride a hobby.. ." (IX:87) 
OED suggests the origin of hobby 
and hobby-horse. The meaning of 
the term in a sense of belonging 
and devoted to a hobby or (riding 
a) hobby-horse dates from the 
14th century. Hobby is referred to 
an Irish breed. Some use of the 
term is as follows: 1375 Barbour 
Bruce xiv. 68 Hobynis, that war 
stekit thar, Rerit and flang . . . And 
Kest thame that apon thame raid; 
c!400 Eel Ant. II 23 An lyrysch 
man, Uppone his hoby. . . . 1676 
Hale Contempl i. 201 Almost every 
person hath some hobby horse or 
other wherein he prides himself; 
1768 Mad. D Arblay Early Diary 
17 July, I never pretend to be ... 
above having and indulgine a 
Hobby Horse; a!791 Wesley Serm. 
Ixxxiii. II. 2 Wks. 1811 IX. 434 
Every one has (to use the cant 
term of the day...) his hobby 
horsel Something that pleases the 
great boy for a few hours; 1817 
Coleridge Biog. Lit. 43 Meta 
physics and psychology have long 
been my hobby-horse; 1867 Darwin 
in Life & Lett. (1887) III. 134, I 



February 1972 



95 



shall not make so much of my 
hobby-horse as I thought I could. 
Jerome Drost, Buffalo, N.Y. 

"Jim Work" and "Gin Work" 
(IX:120f.) Mr Gaskins seems 
to have gone far toward answering 
his own question. For the balance 
of the answer I suggest that the 
explanation be sought not in 
recorded occurrences but in the 
universals of sound behavior. That 
"Jim Work" should in one dialect 
have become "Gin Work", and not 
the other way round, as (for his 
torical reasons) he convincingly 
argues, would seem to reflect the 
simultaneous and associated opera 
tion of a phonetic dissimilation 
and a folk etymology: under the 
influence of following w-, -m (like 
wise labial) became the alveolar 
nasal -n a common fluctuation 
(cf. the coexistence of pronuncia 
tions of sandwich with -n[d]w- 
and -m[b]w-) 9 all the more possi 
ble, after Abolition, because of the 
lapse of the term f< ]im in the sense 
of "old or disabled slave given 
light duties". As in the case of all 
folk etymologies, whether due to 
the fading of a once meaningful 
form (as here) or to the re-analysis 
of unknown constituents into 
phonetically-similar known ones 
( asparagus > sparrow-grass 7 , 
dent de lion [Mod. Fr. pisse-en- 
litl] > dandelion , etc.), the result 
may or may not make sense as a 
phrase, but its components must 
make sense taken singly. Gin 
(more likely as in cotton gin 
not the liquid) was a word known 
to all and, however nonsensical, 
fitted these other requirements 
admirably. To the linguist it is also 
of interest, to be sure, that the 



development of the verbal idiom 
("to go jimming) [or ginning) 
around town") is in its meaning 
identical in the two subdialects, 
notwithstanding the phonological 
divergence on the signifier level. 
B. Hunter Smeaton, The Uni 
versity of Calgary, Canada 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 82) 

Guns and Hunting Supplies . . . [Cata 
logue of the] John P. Lovell Arms 
Co., 1890 [Boston]. (1890). (Ameri 
can Historical Catalog Collection Se 
ries). Profusely Illus. Princeton, N.J.: 
The Pyne Press, 1971. Paper, $4. 

Harris, Charles B. Contemporary Ameri 
can Novelists of the Absurd. 159pp. 
New Haven: College & University 
Press, 1971. $6; Paper, $2.95 

Hart, Harold H. The Complete Immor- 
talia [an anthology of the bawdy: 
riddles, limericks, folk rhymes, ribald 
songs, verse, parodies, etc.]. Illus, 
475pp, N.Y.: Hart Publishing Co., 
1971. $12.50 

Hearne, Samuel. A Journey from Prince 
of Wales Fort in Hudson s Bay to the 
Northern Ocean . . . 1769-1772. 
(1795). Illus., incl. fold, maps & plates. 
Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Turtle Co., 
1971. $19.25 

Hind, Henry Youle. Narrative of the 
Canadian Red River Exploring Expe 
dition of 1857, and of the Assiniboine 
and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedi 
tion of 1858. (1860). Illus., incl. fold, 
maps. 2 vols. in 1. Rutland, Vt: 
Charles E. Turtle Co., 1971. $23.10 

(Huxley). Birnbaum, Milton. Aldous 
Huxley s Quest for Values. 230pp. 
Knoxville: University of Tennessee 
Press, 1971. $6.95 

James, M. R. Ghost Stories of an An 
tiquary (1904). lUus. 153pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1971. Paper, $1.75 

Kelly, Dave. Instructions for Viewing a 
Solar Eclipse. (The Wesleyan Poetry 
Program, Vol. 61). 72pp. Middletown: 
Wesleyan University Press, 1972. 
$4.75; Paper, $2.45 



96 



AN&Q 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

MacDermot, Violet. The Cult of the 
Seer in the Ancient Middle East: a 

Contribution to Current Research on 
Hallucinations Drawn from Coptic and 
Other Texts. 829pp. Berkeley: Uni 
versity of California Press, 1971. $24. 

Mackenzie, Alexander. Voyages from 
Montreal . . . Through the Continent 
or North America . , . 1789 and 1793 
. . . (1801). Port. & fold. maps, cxxxii, 
414pp. Rutland, Vt: Charles E. Tutde 
Co., 1971. $19.25 

Marsh, Reginald. Anatomy for Artists. 
(1945). Hundreds of Illus. 209pp. 
N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1970. Paper, 
$3.50 

(Milton). Fletcher, Angus. The Tran 
scendental Masque: an Essay on Mil 
ton s "Comus". [Incl. A Note on 
Blake s Illustrations]. Illus., incl. color 
plates. 261pp. Ithaca: Cornell Uni 
versity Press, 1971. $10. 

Mooney, Michael Macdonald. The Hin- 
denburg. Illus. 278pp. N.Y,: Dodd, 
Mead & Co., 1972. $8.95 

Odahi, Charles Matson. The Catilinarian 
Conspiracy, Illus. 143pp. New Haven: 
College & University Press, 1971. $6; 
Paper, $2.95 

Onions, Oliver, The Collected Ghost 
Stories of. (1935). 689pp. N.Y.: Do 
ver Publications, 1971. Paper, $4. 

Ottemillers Index to Plays in Collections 
. , . 1900-mid-1970. 5th Edition, Rev. 
& EnL, by John M. Connor & Billie 
M. Connor. 452pp. Metuchen, N.J.: 
Scarecrow Press, 1971. $11. 

(Perse, Saint-John). Emmanuel, Pierre. 
Saint-John Perse: Praise and Excel 
lence . . . With a Bibliography. 82pp. 
Washington: Library of Congress [or 
der from Supt of Docs., USGPO], 
1971. Paper, 45tf; Stock No. 3000-0053 

Polisensky, J. V. The Thirty Years War. 
Trans, from the Czech by Robert 
Evans. Maps. 305pp. Berkeley: Uni 
versity of California Press, 1971. $10, 

(Pound, Ezra). Brooke-Rose, Christine. 
A ZBC of Ezra Pound. 297pp. Berke 
ley: University of California Press, 
1971. $7.95 

(Pound, Ezra). Kenner, Hugh. The 
Pound Era, Illus. 606pp. Berkeley: 



University of California Press, 1971. 
$14.95 

Rees, Robert A.; & Harbert, Earl N., eds. 
Fifteen American Authors Before 1900: 
Bibliographic Essays on Research and 
Criticism. 442pp. Madison: University 
of Wisconsin Press, 1971. $12.50 

Schmeckebier, L. F. Catalogue and In 
dex of the Publications of the Hayden, 
King, Powell, and Wheeler Surveys. 
(1904; U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 222). 
208pp. N.Y.: Da Capo Press, 1971. 
$12.50 

Strachan, Michael; & Penrose, Boies, eds. 
The East India Company Journals of 
Captain William Keeling and Master 
Thomas Bonner, 1615-1617. (Publica 
tion of the James Ford Bell Library, 
University of Minnesota; Ltd to 1000 
copies). Incl. fold, map in pocket. 
237pp. Minneapolis: University of 
Minnesota Press, 1971. $10,75 

Till Eulenspiegel, A Pleasant Vintage of: 
. . . 95 of His Tales. Trans, from the 
Edition of 1515, with Introd. and 
Critical Appendix by Paul Oppen- 
heimer. Illus. xxv, 293pp. Middle- 
town: Wesleyan University Press, 
1972. $12.50 

Tobias, Phillip V. The Brain in Hominid 
Evolution. (The James Arthur Lec 
ture at the American Museum of Nat 
ural History, 30 April 1969, revised). 
Illus. 170pp. N.Y.: Columbia Univer 
sity Press, 1971. $10. 

Twain, Mark: the Critical Heritage. Ed. 
by Frederick Anderson, with the as 
sistance of Kenneth M. Sanderson. 
(The Critical Heritage Series). 347pp. 
N.Y.: Barnes & Noble, 1971. $14.50 

Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Stud 
ies. Vol. I (1970). Published under 
the auspices of the Center for Medi 
eval and Renaissance Studies, UCLA. 
[19 specialist papers]. Illus. 344pp. 
Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1970 [sic; published Jan. 1972]. 
$12.50 

Woodcock, George. Into Tibet: the 
Early British Explorers. (Great Trav 
ellers Series). Illus., incl. maps. 277pp. 
N.Y.: Barnes & Noble, 1971. $8. 

Writer s Market 72. Ed. by Lynne El- 
linwood & Jo Anne Moser. 797pp. 
Cincinnati: Writer s Digest, 1971. 
$8.95 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 

Volume X Number 7 March 1972 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 
EDITORS NOTES AND READINGS 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEWS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

American Indian Periodicals in the 
Princeton University Library. A Pre 
liminary List by Alfred L. Bush and 
Robert L. Fraser. 78pp. Princeton: The 
University Library, 1970. Price ? 

The British Look at America During the 
Age of Samuel Johnson: an Exhibition, 
With an Address by Herman W. 
Liebert. Illus. 55pp. (One of only 250 
copies for sale.) Providence, R.I.: As 
sociates of the John Carter Brown Li 
brary, 1971. Paper, $10. 

British Museum publications: William 
Fagg, The Tribal Image: Wooden Fig 
ure Sculpture of the World; Fagg & 
John Picton, The Potter s Art in Africa; 
Shelagh Weir, Palestinian Embroi 
dery: a Village Arab Craft; Weir, 
Spinning and Weaving in Palestine. 
All Illus. London: British Museum 
[N.Y.: Columbia University Press], 
1970. Paper, each $1.50 

Carroll, Lewis. "The Rectory Umbrella , 
and "Mischmasch". (1932). Illus. 
193pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. 
Paper, $2.50 

Confucius. Confucian Analects, The 
Great Learning, and the Doctrine of 
the Mean. Trans., with Critical and 
Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, Co 
pious Indexes, and Dictionary of All 
Characters, by James Legge. (1893). 
Facs. Illus. 503pp. N.Y.: Dover Pub 
lications, 1971. Paper, $4. 

Harris, Charles B. Contemporary Ameri 
can Novelists of the Absurd. 159pp. 
New Haven: College & University 
Press, 1971. $6; Paper, $2.95 

Leland, Charles Godfrey. Gypsy Sorcery 
and Fortune-Telling. Illustrated by 
Numerous Incantations, Specimens of 



Medical Magic, Anecdotes, and Tales. 
(1891. Edition of only 150 copies). 
Illus. 271pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 
1971. $3. 

MacDermot, Violet. The Cult of the 
Seer in the Ancient Middle East: a 
Contribution to Current Research on 
Hallucinations Drawn from Coptic and 
Other Texts. 829pp. Berkeley: Uni 
versity of California Press, 1971. $24. 

Mencius. Works, Trans., with Critical 
and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, 
and Copious Indexes, by James Legge. 
(1895). Facs. Illus. 587pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1970. Paper, $4.50 

Rees, Robert A.; & Harbert, Earl N., 
eds. Fifteen American Authors Before 
1900: Bibliographic Essays on Re 
search and Criticism. 442pp. Madison: 
University of Wisconsin Press, 1971. 
$12.50 

Silberer, Herbert. Hidden Symbolism of 
Alchemy and the Occult Arts (for 
merly titled: Problems of Mysticism 
and Its Symbolism. 1917). Illus. 451pp. 
N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. Pa 
per, $3. 

Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Stud 
ies. Vol. I (1970). Published under 
the auspices of the Center for Medi 
eval and Renaissance Studies, UCLA. 
[19 specialist papers]. Illus. 344pp. 
Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1970. [sic; published Jan. 1972]. 
$12.50 

Whitman, Walt: the Critical Heritage, 
ed. by Milton Hindus. (The Critical 
Heritage Series). 292pp. N.Y.: Barnes 
& Noble, 1971. $12.75 

Wickham, Glynne. Early English Stages, 
1300 to 1660. Vol. II: 1576 to 1660, 
Part II. Illus. 266pp. N.Y.: Columbia 
University Press, 1972. $15. 



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Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies, and Abstracts of Folklore 
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AN&Q 

AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachoto 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

IS TOUCHSTONE MARSTON? 

As You Like It (Act III. See. iii. 
The Forest: Enter Touchstone and 
Audrey; Jaques behind.) 

Touchstone: Come apace, good Au 
drey: I will fetch up your goats, Audrey. 
ABO* how, Audrey? am I the man yet? 
doth my simple feature content you? 

Audrey: Your features! Lord warrant 
us! What features? 

Touchstone: I am here with thee and 
thy goats, as the most capricious poet, 
honest Ovid, was among the Goths. 

Jaques (Aside): O knowledge iU-rn- 
habited, worse than Jove in a thatched 
house! 

Touchstone: When a man s verses 
cannot be understood, nor a man s good 
wit seconded with the forward child 
understanding, it strikes a man more 
dead than a great reckoning in a little 
room. Truly, I would the gods had made 
thee poetical. 

Although a good deal of com 
mentary has arisen on the phrase 
"a great reckoning in a little room", 
which has now been shown to be 
an oblique reference to the death 
of Marlowe in suspicious circum 
stances in the Deptford inn, cer 
tain other significant implications 
in the speech of Touchstone quoted 
last do not seem to have been paid 



the attention these deserve. The 
repetition of the idea of under 
standing would seem to be an in 
teresting instance of Shakespeare s 
wordplay, in which a particular, 
clear and familiar Elizabethan and 
seventeenth-century meaning of 
"understand" and "understanders" 
("to stand under on the ground or 
floor esp. in a theatre", "ground 
lings who stood in the playhouse 
yard") is exploited, rather than 
the more general, quibbling sense, 
"to stand under and to act as a 
prop or support", which Shake 
speare puns upon elsewhere. 1 What 
Shakespeare says through Touch 
stone here is that, if the poetry and 
sallies of wit of a playwright like 
himself were to fail to be caught 
and understood by the understand- 
ers, if these were to be lost upon 
the groundlings, it is a far worse 
plight for him than being over 
taken by sudden death in one s 
prime, as Marlowe was. Indeed, 
it is one of those rare occasions on 
which Shakespeare would seem to 
speak his mind, to make a reflex 
revelation of his naturally and un 
derstandably ambivalent attitude 
towards the groundlings. But, what 
is really striking, and quite char 
acteristic of Shakespeare, is the 
fact that he uses the phrase, "the 
forward child understanding", a 
telling allegory one may call it, to 
designate the groundlings standing 
at the front ("forward") in the 
playhouse yard. 2 The groundlings 
as a group are to be taken exactly 
as a froward child, better seen 
than heard in the theatre, at times 
a really pleasant presence and de 
sirable company, at times, unpre- 
dictably, a naughty lot, to be ca 
joled out of their refractoriness. 
Only Shakespeare, and none of his 
contemporaries, could have taken 
this tolerant, genial, fatherly, yet 



100 



AN&Q 



realistic and fully aware attitude to 
the groundlings, with his heart im 
mensely in the right place, and 
with his head, at the same time, 
keen yet cool. 

Taking the bare, surface mean 
ing of the words, the "seconding" 
of man s wit by man s understand 
ing, which Shakespeare postulates 
as desirable, is in accordance with 
Elizabethan notions of the psy 
chological norm and ideal, of the 
right relations between reason, will, 
wit and understanding, as these 
were conceived in those days. 3 

It is possible, though it can by 
no means be held certain, that As 
You Like It, with its notable, al 
most deliberate lack of dramatic 
action and stage business, with its 
abundance of discourses and dis 
cussions and of the parody of legal 
language and rhetorical modes of 
utterance, was originally meant for 
performance before an Inns of 
Court audience or some such spe 
cial audience. 4 Perhaps in such a 
play Shakespeare took the oppor 
tunity of making a reference to the 
difficulties of the playwright s com 
munication with the audience es 
pecially the groundlings in the 
public theatres. There is, it may 
be noticed, a trompe I oeil effect, 
characteristic of Shakespearean 
irony, of the question and wonder 
whether the implication of this 
complaint about the problem of 
communication would itself be 
communicated to the spectators at 
all, whether they be public or pri 
vate theatre audience or a special 
audience. 

The suggestion that Shakespeare, 
while portraying Touchstone, might 
have had a fellow and rival play 
wright, Marston, very much in mind 
might appear too fanciful at first 



sight. But the surmise is tempting, 
and not absolutely groundless. 
There is, first, the resemblance in 
the second element of the two 
names. (This is not to deny that 
the profession of Armin s goldsmith 
father might have first suggested, 
as Leslie Hotson thinks it did, 
the name Touchstone.) Secondly, 
it is clear that Shakespeare is pre 
occupied with satire and satirists, 
and that he, true to his inclusive- 
ness, engages in satire on satire 
and satirists as well, in this play. 5 
The Oxford and Middle Temple 
scholar and satirist Marston seems 
to have taken to playwriting for 
the theatre first around this time 
and started producing drama main 
ly in the satirical vein. As You Like 
It and plays around the turn of 
the century seem to register Shake 
speare s complex response to the 
influence of his (and also Ben 
Jonson s and Chapman s) new sa 
tirical drama. Marston s problems 
of adjustment and of communica 
tion in his new role as a playwright 
(and slightly later, as an antag 
onist, though for a time only, of 
Ben Jonson, though not as a whole 
hearted champion of the cause of 
the public theatres against the pri 
vate ones, in the poetomachia of 
the War of the Theatres) are very 
likely to have been noted by 
Shakespeare. Phrases such as "the 
most capricious poet, honest Ovid 
among the Goths", "knowledge ill- 
inhabited, worse than Jove in a 
thatched house" (the thatched 
roof of the public theatre of those 
times, especially the Globe) are 
fit descriptions of Marston s condi 
tion then, the scholar-poet among 
the men of the theatre. The com 
bination of epithet and substantive 
in "honest Ovid" would appear to 



March 1972 



101 



be a sly dig at the early erotic 
poetry and at the bawdy double 
entendres of Marston in his verse 
and drama and probably, the rath 
er loose life of Marston (?), for 
Tionesf as well as "capricious" 
("goatish") could carry that sug 
gestion too. "Honest" could with 
piquant irony remind us of the 
dichotomy between the moral ear 
nestness of Marston displayed in 
his writings and the obscene sug 
gestions underlying the verse of 
his plays. Similarly, the repeated 
reference to the "features" of 
Touchstone in this passage could 
be an indirect allusion to the no 
toriously ugly features of Marston 
the man. 6 Even if Shakespeare did 
not have to face any problem of 
communication with the ground 
lings himself, he could have put 
these words into the mouth of 
Touchstone by way of mentioning 
Marston s problem in this respect. 
The comparison of the scholar- 
playwright, Marston, with his 
great predecessor, the university 
wit, Marlowe, would have natu 
rally occurred to Shakespeare. 

It is worth noting that in the 
scene in question, besides the men 
tion of two poets in the great tra 
dition of poets (Ovid and Mar 
lowe), we have, subsequently, a 
discussion of the "poetical" and 
"Doetry". Likewise, we have, in 
this play, several other discussions 
on verse, besides parodies of Pe 
trarchan love-sonneteering and love- 
prate. Could it be that Marstons 
(and some other playwrights ) in 
adequately dramatic, much too 
"poetical" and bombastic, though 
down-to-earth handling of the 
verse medium in drama put Shake 
speare on his guard and drove him 
to the reaction of using prose more 



extensively in As You Like It and 
of reserving verse only for either 
purposes of parody or deliberately 
formal, stilted or elevated utter 
ance? 7 While refraining from mak 
ing an absolute claim that Shake 
speare must have, on purpose, con 
ceived and drawn Touchstone as 
a satirical portrait of Marston, one 
may conclude that Shakespeare 
could have been thinking of his 
fellow playwright. 

S. Viswanathan 

Sri Venkateswara University 
Tirupati, South India 



1. For example, in A Comedy of Errors 
(II. i. 49); in The Two Gentlemen 
of Verona (II. v. 28); and in Twelfth 
Night (III. i. 90). 

2. "The quality of spectators is usually 
referred to in Elizabethan times as 
their understanding ". Alfred Har- 
bage Shakespeare s Audience p. 121. 

3. Lily B. Campbell Shakespeare s Trag 
ic Heroes: Slaves of Passion. (Barnes 
& Noble reprint, 1960) esp. pp. 63-68. 

4. J. M. Nosworthy in his Shakespeare s 
Occasional Plays (p. 2) considers 
only part of the internal evidence and 
concludes that the " All the world s 
a stage speech virtually establishes 
that it was simply written for the 
new Globe Theatre". 

5. O. J. Campbell in his Shakespeare s 
Satire has stressed the element of 
satire in the play, and pointed to the 
probable influence of satirical drama 
tists like Marston, Ben Jonson and 
Chapman on Shakespeare. 

Celia: . . . you ll be whipped for 
taxation one of these days. 

Touchstone: The more pity, that 
fools may not speak wisely what wise 
men do foolishly. 

Celia: By my troth, thou sayest 
true; for since the little wit that fools 
have was silenced, the little foolery 
that wise men have makes a great 
show. (I. ii). 



102 

The passage is a topical allusion not 
only to the Bishop of London s 1599 
ban on satirical writing of which 
there was a deluge by then, but also 
to the fact that satirists, turned drama 
tists, came to use the drama as a 
medium for satire. The traditional 
idea of the fool as satirist which be 
longs with "the fool" convention and 
the idea of the playwright as "Fool", 
an idiosyncratic association on the 
part of Shakespeare ("Alas, tis true, 
I have gone here and there,/ And 
made myself a motley to the view**. 
Sonnet 110), are involved here. 
Looked at in this light, if Shakespeare 
could have been thinking of Ben 
Jonson when he portrayed Jaques, 
Jaques clamor for motley is meant 
to suggest the fascination of the role 
of the satirical dramatist for him. 

6. See the chapter "Chapman, Marston, 
Dekker" by W. Macneile Dixon in 
The Cambridge History of English 
Literature Vol. 6. (1910 edn.) p. 44 
for contemporary strictures on the 
physical appearance of Marston. More 
over, if Thersites in Troilus and Ores- 
sida is a caricature of Marston, as 
generally believed, the attribution of 
"Mastic" or "Mastiff jaws to Ther 
sites ("When rank Thersites opes his 
Mastic (Mastiff) jaws" I. iii. 73.) is 
another Shakespearean hit at Mar- 
ston s ugliness. 

7. R. H. Goldsmith in his Wise Fools 
in Shakespeare (1955) points out that 
the blustering fustian which Touch 
stone talks at times is a parody of 
Marston s bombast, p. 50. Incidental 
ly, Goldsmith holds the view that 
Shakespeare "ridicules" Marston in 
his portrait of Jaques (pp. 91-92). 
The curious mixture of stilted bom 
bast and a bald earthiness of utter 
ance in Touchstone would suggest 
the same quality in Marston. So 
would the occasional, uncharacteristic 
moral sententiousness of Touchstone 
(II. iv. 49-52; II. vii. 22-28), and 
his parodic pedantry, and, especially, 
his Elyot-like play with high-sound 
ing "ink-horn" terms (V. i. 41-52). 
Marston had a vice of using learned 
words unseasonably, for which he 
was flayed by Ben Jonson in his 
Poetaster. Moreover, there is the anec 
dote in the Diary of John Manning- 



AN&Q 



QUERIES 



An unknown Lear? Thomas 
McLean, 26 Haymarket, was the 
publisher of Edward Lear s Book 
of Nonsense". We have recently 
acquired a copy of "Day: A Pas 
toral", by John Cunningham (1729- 
1773), which also bears the Mc 
Lean Haymarket imprint, and is 
dated 1854. McLean also pub 
lished the second edition of the 
"Book of Nonsense" in 1856 before 
turning it over to Routledge. We 
can find no record of this 1854 
book, although the British Museum 
lists an 1855 edition published by 
George Cox of London, "with 
twenty-seven engravings". Each of 
the twenty-seven verses is on one 
page, in a neat script, and above 
it a 5x4^" engraving, bearing a 
family resemblance to the work of 
Lear as reproduced in his "Journal 
of a Landscape Painter in Corsica". 
The introduction, addressed to 
"The Little People of Great Brit- 
has also a Learical quality, 



am 



ham (1602-03) (p. 86): "Jo. Marstone 
the last Christmas he daunct with Al 
derman Mores wives daughter, a 
Spaniard borne. Fell into a strang 
commendacion of hir wit and beauty. 
When he had done, shee thought 
to pay him home, and told him she 
though [t] he was a poet. "Tis true , 
said he, for poets fayne and lye, 
and soe dyd I when I commended 
your beauty, for you are exceeding 
foule *. Despite Manningham s "the 
last Christmas , there would seem 
to be enough in common between 
the anecdote and As You Like It 
(III. iii) to suggest that the anec 
dote could have been current in cer 
tain circles as early as 1599 and 
present in the mind of Shakespeare 
when he wrote the scene. 



March 1972 



103 



reading: "I have endeavoured to 
illustrate this Poem, in the hope 
of calling your attention to it, per 
haps you will read it, probably 
learn it by heart, but if you wish 
to enjoy it, you must become like 
Your Humble Servant, An early 
riser. P.S. Books were written to 
be read, and intended to be used, 
therefore, as soon as you have done 
with it, lend it to one of your little 
friends who has not seen it. "You 
know who ". Can anyone identify 
for us the anonymous aitist and 
free us from the tantalizing specu 
lation that this is an unknown 
"Lear". John M. Shaw, Curator, 
Childhood in Poetry Collection, 
Florida State University, Talla 
hassee 

"Rosebud" In Orson Welles 
classic film Kane the question 
about what the dying millionaire 
meant by his last word rosebud is 
left unanswered. Recently Mr 
Welles was asked on a television 
show whether he could tell the 
audience now the meaning of this 
cryptic expression. His response 
was more abstract than factual. 
Since the picture is tied in so close 
ly with Coleridge s "Kubla Khan 
(the pleasure palace being called 
Xanadu and lines from the poem 
being quoted at the outset), I won 
der if some reader might detect a 
hidden Coleridgean reference? 
Surely the possibility, mentioned 
in the film, that it was the name 
of some obscure love of Kane s is 
not very convincing. More so is the 
suggestion that the word is a piece 
to the jigsaw puzzle mentioned 
(a favorite game of his second 
wife). My only guess is that there 
is allusion to the Sybaritic Carpe 



Diem piece "Gather ye rosebuds 
while ye may", and that Kane was 
using the word ironically. (In other 
words, the rosebuds he gathered 
did not produce happiness for him 
in the long run.) Possibly another 
literary detective may come up 
with something more subtle. 
JR. F, Fleissner, Wilberforce, Ohio. 

Swan marks I believe they 
were used in the 17th century 
(earlier?), but what were they? 
Is there a list of them? Were they 
different like cattle brands 
and are there reproductions of 
them? John White, Jackson- 
ville, Florida 

MacArthur Day Schedule What 
is the source of the following dia 
tribe, "A Schedule for MacArthur 
Day, Washington, D. C., 19 April 
1951"? The schedule: "12:30 - 
Emerges from snorkel submarine 
and walks across water to the Wa 
tergate; 12:30 - Navy Band plays 
Sparrow in the Treetops and Til 
Be Glad When You re Dead, You 
Rascal You ; 12:40 Leads parade 
to Capitol, riding pink elephant; 
12:47 Beheading of General 
Vaughan at the Rotunda; 1: 
Congressional Speech by Him; 
1:30-1:49 Applause for Speech; 
1:50 Burning of the Constitu 
tion; 1:55 Lynching of Dean 
Acheson; 2: 21 Atom Bomb Sa 
lute; 2:30 - 500 naked DARs leap 
from Washington Monument; 3: 
Basket-case lunch on Monument 
grounds; 3:01 MacArthur s As 
cension". Was this widely printed 
in the news media, and are there 
any important variations? Don 
ald Plaque, Flagstaff, Arizona 



204 



AN&Q 



Irving refers to the President of 
the Bank of Poland I am pres 
ently editing the letters of Wash 
ington Irving and would appreciate 
your help in identifying one of his 
references. On 22 July 1831 Irving 
reported to Livingston, U.S. Secre 
tary of State, that "An Active ne 
gotiation is going on with the 
French and English governments, 
under the management of the pres 
ident of the Bank of Poland, who 
is at present here [London]; the 
object of which is to obtain the 
intervention of those two powers 
in behalf of Poland, and it is 
thought the agent feels sanguine 
of success". Can you help me to 
identify the president of the Bank 
of Poland and suggest why he was 
acting in this capacity? Jenifer 
S. Banks, East Lansing, Mich. 



I believe that a published answer 
is forthcoming. Edgar C. 
Knowlton, jr, University of Hawaii 



REPLIES 

Dying Thoughts (111:71) It 
is difficult to answer definitely 
how old beliefs found in folklore 
are, but this particular one seems 
related to the motif numbered 
D2012, "Moments thought years," 
in Stith Thompson s Motif-Index of 
Folk Literature, Vol. II ( Blooming- 
ton, 1956; page 356). Reference is 
made there to Edwin Sidney Hart- 
land s The Science of Fairy Tales 
(London: Walter Scott, 1891; pp. 
226 ff.), and to other works. A 
related motif is the following, 
D2012.1: "King in the bath: years 
of experience in a moment". Query 
as to the reference made by Mrs 
Gaskell to a version of the latter 
motif was made in Notes and 
Queries for July 1971, page 263; 



"The Italian Dickens (IV: 120) 
In "A Quartette of Italian 
Novelists", (p. 75), an anonymous 
article in Blackwood s Edinburgh 
Magazine, Vol. CXXXVII, January 
1885, we read: "In TTesoro di Don- 
nina (1873), Farina strikes his 
own keynote . . . The book earned 
for Farina the title of an Italian 
Dickens, one of those unfortunate 
designations that cling to a man, 
and are so apt to mislead". Salva- 
tore Farina, the novelist, was born 
in Sorso on Sardinia in 1846 and 
died in Milan in 1918. Comparisons 
between Dickens and Italian nov 
elists are not limited to Farina, 
however. For example, Professor 
Ernest H. Wilkins in A History of 
Italian Literature ( Cambridge, 
Mass., 1952. p. 471) has comment 
ed on a similarity in the humor of 
Dickens and that of a contempo 
rary of Farina, the more famous 
Antonio Fogazzaro (1842-1911). 
Edgar C. Knowlton, jr, Uni 
versity of Hawaii 

Detective fiction as textbooks 
(VIII:40) Philip G. Ander 
son s "Murder in Medical Educa 
tion", Journal of the American 
Medical Association, 204 (April, 
1968), 21-25, suggests that the 
writings of Doyle, Amber, Simen- 
on, Chesterton, Carr, and Stout 
are a "useful model for the study 
of puzzles, puzzle solving, and puz 
zle solvers" and speculates on "the 
value of the common murder mys 
tery story" to the study of heuris 
tics. Donald H. Cunningham, 
Southern Illinois University., Car- 
bondale 



March 1972 

Cannibalistic defenses (VIII: 153) 
The classic-times tale about 
a town whose citizens resorted to 
cannibalism rather than surrender 
is the siege of Jerusalem by the 
Romans under Titus, A.D. 66-70. 
An extended description of the 
siege is given by Flavius Josephus 
in his work The Wars of the Jews. 
Josephus dwells upon the severity 
of the famine throughout his ac 
count of the siege. A particularly 
painful example of the cannibalism 
can be found in Book VI, Chap. 3 
of the above work. The works of 
Josephus are available in the Loeb 
Classical Library. Naseeb Sha- 
heen, Dept. of English, Memphis 
State University 

Lane Coopers Method of Con- 
cording (X:27) In Cooper s 
article, which was reprinted in a 
pamphlet, The Making and the 
Use of a Verbal Concordance, 1919, 
there are suggestions on compiling 
a concordance. The article appear 
ing under the same title was pub 
lished in The Sewanee Review, 
vol. 27, 1919, p. 188-206 and gives 
details on the manner in which 
Cooper s Concordance to Words 
worth was formed. A footnote in 
the article discloses A Concord 
ance to the Works of Horace was 
prepared by the method described 
in the article. Jerome Drost, 
Buffalo, N.Y. 

Hanns Hesse (IX: 135) b. 22 
Sept. 1895 in Munich, d. by acci 
dent 21 July 1935 during a skiing- 
holiday in the Alps in South Tyrol. 
In his time he was praised as one 
of the most talented Helden tenors 
of the German opera. His last en 
gagement was at the Stettin Opera 
in 1934/35 where he was to sing 



105 

for only one season. It is one of 
life s ironies that in his last role 
as Pedro in Eugen d Albert s Tief- 
land his words "Hinauf in meine 
Berge! Hinauf zu Licht und Frei- 
heit 1 should seal his own fate. 
He was an impulsive artist who 
put this element in his roles. It 
has been recorded that in the first 
few days at Stettin Hesse saved 
five people s lives from drowning 
and was awarded the life-saving 
medal "am Bande" by the presi 
dent of the Stettin police. Bio 
graphic sources: Deutsches Buhn- 
en-Jahrbuch (Berlin, 1936), vol. 47, 
p. 130; Wilhelm Kosch, Deutsch- 
es Theater-Lexikon (Vienna, 1953), 
vol. 1, p. 779. Hartmut Breit- 
kreuz, 34 Gottingen, Lotzestr. 9, 
West Germany 

Pictorial calendar (X:8) Mr 
Cahill owns one of a series of cal 
endars prepared for the use of the 
Abnaki Indians by Father Eugene 
Vetromile (1819-1881), a Jesuit 
missionary. (The term "Alnambay 
Patlias" after his name on the cal 
endar signifies "Patriarch of the 
Indians" in the Abnaki language.) 
The Main Catalog of the Library 
of Congress records two copies of 
a similar calendar for the year 1876 
in the collections of the Rare Book 
Division. The National Union Cata 
log contains only a report from 
the American Antiquarian Society, 
which holds the issues for 1859, 
1866, 1867, 1873, 1874, 1875, and 
1876. However, copies may well 
exist in other public and private 
collections. 

Born in Gallipoli, Apulia, and 
educated there and in Naples, 
Father Vetromile became a Jesuit 
in 1840 and went to America in 
1845. Here he continued his stud- 



106 



AN&Q 



ies at the Jesuit college in George 
town, D.C., was ordained priest in 
1848, and in 1854 went to Bangor 
and Oldtown as a missionary to 
the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy 
Indians. Among his writings are 
books of religious instruction and 
rituals for worship in several Ab- 
naki dialects, a history of the Ab- 
nakis, and a large dictionary (un 
published) of the Abnaki language. 
These and other items are de 
scribed in Filling s Bibliography of 
the Algonquian Languages. Father 
Vetromile was a corresponding 
member of the Maine Historical 
Society, and a brief sketch of his 
life and work by Hubbard Winslow 
Bryant, from which the biographi 
cal statements in this letter are 
derived, was published in the Col 
lections and Proceedings of the 
Society, 2d ser., v. 1 (Portland, 
1890), p. 309-312. 

An article entitled "The Indians 
of Hudson s Bay, and Their Lan 
guage", selected from Umfreville s 
"Present State of Hudson s Bay" 
by William Willis and published 
in the Collections of the Maine 
Historical Society, v. 1 (Portland, 
1859), quotes Father Vetromile as 
follows on the Abnaki calendar 
and the names of the months: "The 
Indians commence the year from 
the new moon preceding Christ 
mas; they count the months by 
moons, and the first day of each 
new moon is the first day of the 
month. As in some years there are 
thirteen moons, then the Indians 
skip the moon between July and 
August, and they call it Abonam- 
wikizoos, let this moon go; Janu 
ary, Onglusamwessit, it is very 
hard to get a living; this was for 
merly called Mekwas que, the cold 
is great; but after they were de 



prived of their rich settlements on 
the Kennebec, it is called as above. 
February, Taquask nikizoos, Moon 
in which there is crust on the 
snow; March, Pnhodamwikizoos, 
Moon in which the hens lay; April, 
Amusswikizoos, Moon in which we 
catch fish; May, Kikkaikizoos, 
Moon in which we sow; June, 
Muskoskikizoos, Moon in which 
we catch young seals; July, Atchit- 
taikizoos, Moon in which the ber 
ries are ripe; August, Wikkaikizoos, 
Moon in which is a heap of eels 
on the sand; September, Mont- 
chewadokkikizoos, Moon in which 
there are herds of moose, bears, 
&c; October, Assabaskwats, there 
is ice on the borders; November, 
Abonomhsswikizoos, Moon in 
which the frost fish comes; De 
cember, Ketchikizoos, the long 
moon. Kizoos is the term for moon, 
the other parts of the compound 
words are the qualifying terms". 
Ruth S. Freitag, Library of 
Congress 

Eskimo finger rings (IX: 153) 
In Naomi Musmaker Giffen s book 
The Roles of Men and Women in 
Eskimo Culture (The University 
of Chicago Publications in Anthro 
pology, Ethnological Series, 1931), 
the following statement is made: 
"Fringe, beading, and other at 
tachments are more often used by 
women. The wearing of bead neck 
laces, bracelets, and ring and ear 
ornaments is principally confined 
to women, while in some localities 
bracelets are universal among both 
men and women, the men finding 
them useful in closing the cuffs of 
the kayak frock at sea. Formerly 
the wearing of ornaments among 
the Eskimo was confined entirely 
to the men, and in regions less 



March 1972 



107 



accessible to outside influence we 
find the women still almost or 
entirely without ornaments of this 
kind" (p. 50). References to the 
research dealing with ornaments 
are made to Whymper, Birket- 
Smith, Beechey, Elliott, Hall, 
Hawkes, Kroeber, Lanman, Lyon, 
Murdoch, Nelson, Petroff, Stefans- 
son, Thalbitzer and Cranz. 
Jerry Drost, Buffalo, N.Y. 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

Molesworth Street 
February 1972 
Letter from Dublin 

THIS MONTH ( 1 February ) saw the 
launching of the Friends of Thoor 
Ballylee Society at a press recep 
tion at the Bailey, Duke Street, in 
this graceful, slightly shabby, yet 
elegant city of Dublin. Senator 
Michael Yeats made a spontaneous 
and evocative speech in which he 
reminisced about his childhood. 
Mr Noel Lemass read a short script 
about Thoor Ballylee and the need 
for its continued preservation, its 
upkeep, and the enlargement of its 
still embryonic collection. 

Yeats tower house is in a beauti 
ful, remote corner of Co. Galway, 
a few miles from Gort. It is a 16th- 
century tower, originally known as 
Islandmore Castle, and stands on 
a tiny island of the Cloone River. 
Yeats had stayed with the poet, 
Edward Martyn, at Tulira Castle, 
and he was introduced to Lady 
Gregory at Coole, and this fruitful 
association developed enriched 



by the circle of writers and paint 
ers - Shaw, O Casey, A. E., J. M. 
Synge, Violet Martin, and others, 
who were it seems often at Coole. 
Yeats bought Thoor Ballylee and 
repaired it in the years which fol 
lowed. His restoration took a great 
deal of time and money; he lec 
tured in France and Italy to "earn 
enough to roof the castle". He 
eventually moved into what be 
came his home, his monument and 
symbol. Ten years later he left it 
and eventually this de Burgo tower, 
one of thirty-two Norman towers 
built by this family of landowners 
in the area, gradually came to 
ruin again. 

In June 1965, the centenary of 
the poet s birth, the tower, which 
had been restored by the Kiltartan 
Society, was opened to visitors 
scholars, students and lovers of 
Yeats. There were many old Irish 
literary associations too. This was 
the magical place of the blind poet 
Raftery with his Gaelic ballads, 
many of which had been translated 
into English by Lady Gregory of 
Coole and others. Near to the 
tower had lived Mary Hynes, "the 
shining flower of Ballylee", and the 
memory of her living there sixty 
years before had been a source of 
continual inspiration to Yeats. He 
felt ". . . our feet would linger 
where beauty has lived its life of 
sorrow to make us understand that 
it is not of this world". 

Unfortunately, already the tow 
er s upkeep is proving much more 
expensive than was ever envisaged. 
The tower house in this quiet valley 
in the west of Ireland, has not at 
tracted quite the increase of vis 
itors that was expected. Its re 
moteness and isolation which so 
attracted Yeats, have also contrib- 



108 

uted to its present financial state. 
Shortage of funds has meant that 
many interesting and important 
relics, first editions, and manu 
scripts which have come up, have 
had to be passed over; all items 
which would have given extra rich 
ness and meaning to Yeats castle 
home. Financial difficulties sug 
gest that once again this land, 
which produces ruins possibly 
more quickly than any other, is 
threatening. To stave off the threat, 
the Friends of Thoor Ballylee So 
ciety has been founded. It is be 
lieved that the castle s potential 
as a cultural centre and meeting 
place has not yet been fully re 
alised. Lectures, seminars, film 
shows, meetings, and publications 
would attract scholars and laymen 
alike, but for the moment this re 
mains only a dream, for there is 
insufficient heating, fittings and 
money for its proper upkeep. If 
any reader can help in any way 
or would like further information 
regarding the Friends of Thoor 
Ballylee Society, please write to 
Miss Frances MacNally, the Cura 
tor, Thoor Ballylee, Co. Galway, 

Eire - Rigby Graham 



In 1949 there appeared in South 
Pembrokeshire a magazine subti 
tled A National Review, in English, 
of Welsh Arts and Letters. Many 
of the writers who founded the 
magazine lived in Pembroke Dock: 
and for the first eight years of its 
life it was called Dock Leaves. The 
magazine provided a forum for 
Anglo- Welsh writers having con 
nections with Wales either by birth 
or residence, but whose medium 
of expression was English; and it 



AN&Q 

encouraged good writing, in prose 
and verse, to entertain, inform and 
enlighten its readers. Gradually, 
the high quality of the material 
published poetry, short stories, 
essays, articles and criticism at 
tracted growing interest in Great 
Britain and in other countries; and 
in 1957 the name of the magazine 
was changed to The Anglo-Welsh 
Review. The first editor was Ray 
mond Garlick - a distinguished 
writer in prose and verse; and he 
was succeeded by Roland Mathias: 
poet, writer, broadcaster and schol 
ar. Among many well-known liter 
ary figures who have contributed 
to The Anglo-Welsh Review are 
David Bell, Sir Idris Bell, Nevil 
Braybrooke, Aneirin Talfan Davies, 
Idris Davies, T. S. Eliot, Idris Fos 
ter, James Hanley, Daniel Jones, 
David Jones, Saunders Lewis, 
Louis MacNeice, Huw Menai, John 
Cowper Powys, Henry Treece, R. S, 
Thomas, Graham Sutherland and 
Sir Ben Bowen Thomas. Of the 
44 numbers comprising Volumes 
1 19, 18 numbers have been out 
of print or in very short supply. 
These are now being reprinted 
(by complete volumes where whole 
volumes are out of print or vir 
tually so): Volumes 16 have three 
numbers each: volumes 7 onwards 
have two numbers each. Among 
the numbers that were out of print 
are the Memorial Number devoted 
to Dylan Thomas (13): the David 
Jones Number (16): An Anthol 
ogy of Poetry ( 17) : the John Cow 
per Powys Number (19): and 
Number 39, containing articles on 
and paintings by Ray Howard- 
Jones. All are again available from 
Wm Dawson and Sons, Ltd., Can 
non House, Folkestone, Kent, Eng 
land. Write for details. 



March 1972 



109 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics f 
University of Kentucky. 

An invaluable reference work, even 
for the most skilled student of 
early printed books and the most 
competent Latinist, is Helmut 
Plechl, ed., Orbis Latinus, Lexikon 
lateinischer geographischer Namen; 
Handausgabe; Lateinisch-Deutsch, 
Deutsch-Lateinisch (Braunschweig: 
Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1971; 579 
pp.; DM120.-), in a fourth edi 
tion revised from the work of 
Graesse and Benedict and with 
the collaboration of Giinter Spitz- 
bart. Who would guess that Moray 
Firth is Varae Aestuarium, that 
Saint-Cyr-du-Vaudreuil is Ruoli 
Vallis? He is a bit weak on the 
New World, failing to identify 
Puebla de los Angeles as Angel- 
opolis (also the name used of Los 
Angeles, California, also omitted), 
and he gives the somewhat unusual 
Eboracensis nova civitas rather 
than Novum Eboracum for New 
York. But anyone who complains 
about sins of omission in such a 
vast field is captious. 

Didrik Arup Seip, Norwegische 
Sprachgeschichte (Berlin: Walter 
de Gruyter, 1971; 533 pp., xxii pL 
of facsimiles; folding map in pock 
et at end; "Pauls Grundriss der 
germanischen Philologie", Vol. 19; 
DM218.-), has been edited and 
expanded by Laurits Saltveit In 
many respects the history of the 
Norwegian language is the most 



revealing one for the development 
of Scandinavian linguistic tradi 
tion; and, moreover, the work is a 
model for similar histories of lan 
guages. 

Carl Wehmer, Deutsche Buch- 
drucker des fiinfzehnten Jahr- 
hunderts (Wiesbaden: Otto Harras- 
sowitz; New York, Abner Schram, 
1971; 237 pp.; $38.00), records 100 
significant texts of German print 
ers before 1501. They are in fac 
simile, with a commentary by 
Wehmer. Hermann Zapf designed 
the book. 

R. F. Lissens, Fldmische Literatur- 
geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahr- 
Ivunderis (Cologne and Vienna: 
Bohlau Verlag, 1970; 337pp.; DM 
28. ), is a survey of a "minor" 
Germanic literature not well 
known even among professional 
Germanists and comparatists in the 
United States. It is illustrated and 
thoroughly indexed. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

BAKER, James Thomas. Thomas Merton, 
Social Critic. 173 pp. Lexington: Uni 
versity Press of Kentucky, 1971. $8. 

For those familiar with Thomas Mer- 
ton through his popular autobiography, 
The Seven Story Mountain, Baker s title 
will seem a contradiction. Merton s ac 
count of himself as a young man, iso 
lating himself from the world behind 
the walls of a Trappist monastery is 
more popularly known than are his later 
writings in which he mirrored the world 
from a monk s viewpoint. 

The idea of rejecting the world to 
find happiness is attractive because it 
provides a scapegoat for unhappmess. 
The wars, racial and religious violence, 



110 



AN&Q 



crime, poverty, starvation, and general 
unhappiness of our earthly environment 
make it easy to blame the world for 
our disenchantment. This thinking mo 
tivated Thomas Merton to enter the 
Trappist order. In his autobiography and 
early writings, Merton urged others to 
abandon the world and to seek their 
happiness in God through silence and 
meditation. Thomas Merton, Social Critic 
shows the progression in Merton s writ 
ings from this isolationist theology to 
a reconciliation with the world and a 
deep personal involvement with and 
commitment to his fellow man. 

When the gates of the monastery 
closed behind him, Merton believed that 
he had seen the last of the world. He 
felt that his only social obligation was 
to pray for the spiritual welfare of his 
fellow man. But in attempting to break 
away from the world, Merton discovered 
how much a part of the world he was. 
Being human, he had carried the world 
with him into the monastery. And trying 
to reject the world did not bring him 
happiness. He had only attributed to 
the world those characteristics in him 
self which caused his unhappiness. 

In his journals, Merton wrote often 
of being pushed into the spotlight by his 
monastic superiors. They wanted him to 
continue his writing as a source of in 
come for the monastery. Merton felt 
that this was contrary to the spirit of 
his monastic vocation and interfered 
with his contemplation. Baker s book 
hints that there was another side to this 
story. Merton s unhappiness was more 
the result of conflict within himself. 
While he desired solitude and contem 
plation, he equally wanted to write and 
enjoyed the association with the world 
that writing provided. Baker quotes one 
of Merton s superiors who felt that given 
Merton s intellectual abilities and artistic 
personality, binding him strictly to soli 
tude, silence, and contemplation would 
have endangered his mental health. Ac 
cordingly, Merton was allowed to con 
tinue his study and writing. 

Merton emerged from the internal 
struggles of this early period of his 
monastic life with an awareness of the 
bonds between the spiritual and material 
in man. This growth in his thinking 
required that he re-establish the basis 
for his religious vocation. He now saw 
that one does not become a monk to 



escape the world, but rather to find it. 
As Merton s thinking matured, he found 
that his contemplation, instead of lead 
ing him away from his fellow men, led 
him closer to them. He found God, first 
in his fellow monks, and then in all 
of mankind. 

Merton s identification with his fellow 
men extended strongest to the suffering 
and the oppressed. His earliest writings 
had called on men to forget about the 
cares of the world and to return God 
to the center of their lives. Merton now 
realized that it was unrealistic to call 
for such a spiritual revolution, without at 
the same time pointing out that this spir 
itual revolution involved social changes. 
The suffering and unhappiness among 
men were largely the result of man s 
selfishness and greed. The spiritual revo 
lution would be all sham if men did not 
at the same time change their attitudes 
and Me styles. 

In his books, articles, reviews and 
letters, Merton urged Christians to get 
involved in social problems. He wanted 
them to examine, through contempla 
tion, their own activities, and those of 
their leaders and governments, and then 
to do whatever was necessary to change 
whatever did not correspond to Christian 
morality. He urged strikes against com 
panies responsible for manufacturing nu 
clear weapons, and encouraged young 
men to refuse to fight in the armies of 
nuclear powers. He told American whites 
that they should trust the leaders of the 
Black Power movement. Merton demand 
ed such involvement of all who called 
themselves Christians. 

Liberals find it easy to identify witih 
Merton s thinking. But Merton made no 
converts from outside these ranks. His 
liberalism did not extend to those against 
whom he wrote. Merton was convinced 
of his own righteousness. He could call 
down the wrath of God upon war 
mongers. He was free in his condemna 
tion of militarist thinking. This positive- 
ness in Merton s writings closes the door 
to dialogue. One does not convince others 
to change their way of life without ex 
posing himself. He must be willing to 
admit the fallibility of his own thinking. 
He must attempt to understand his op 
ponent s point of view, and to see his 
opponent as a source of good. Merton 
urged his readers to love the poor, the 
oppressed, the blacks, the communists. 



March 1972 



111 



As much as Merton had studied Gandhi 
and the principles of nonviolent revo 
lution, he wrote little about loving also 
the rich, the oppressors, the racists, the 
bigots, the capitalists. This might well 
have changed, had it not been for Mer- 
ton s accidental death in 1968. 

Thomas Merton, Social Critic is en 
joyable and provoking, but chiefly be 
cause of its subject matter. The book 
is a re-editing of Baker s doctoral dis 
sertation, and often reads like a coUege 
research paper. The author tries too 
hard to establish Merton as the equal 
of Gandhi and King. He unnecessarily 
apologizes for and explains Merton s 
faults and shortcomings. Merton s early 
writings urging a rejection of the world 
were a necessary stage in the develop 
ment of his thinking. They need not be 
apologized for. Nor is it necessary to 
explain Merton s oversimplifying of world 
problems as the result of his lacking 
full information because he was in a 
monastery. The complexity of the world 
is too often used as an excuse to remain 
silent and inactive. 

However, Baker does remain close 
to his sources and provides a good sum 
mary of Merton s background and social 
thinking. For those unfamiliar with the 
social writings of Thomas Merton, this 
book will serve as a good introduction. 
Joseph E. Jensen, Medical and Chi- 
rurgical Faculty of the State of Mary 
land Library, Baltimore 



Letter from Leicester on Landmarks 

IN 1965 the Verlag Dokumentation Miin- 
chen-Pullach produced a volume Weg- 
marken der Entwicklung der Schreib 
und Drucktecknik by Hans Karl Scholl. 
It marked the opening, in May of that 
year, of the Department of Writing and 
Printing Techniques in the Deutsches 
Museum in Munich. This book made 
no attempt to give a complete account 
of the development of writing and of 
printing types and techniques from 
their origin to the present, but what 
it did, and most successfully, was to 
give an outline and refer the reader to 
those parts of the Deutsches Museum 



which present visually what is available 
in these particular fields. 

This has now been translated from the 
German by Douglas Martin and pub 
lished in England as Landmarks in the 
Development of Writing and Printing 
Techniques. Landmarks deals with the 
evolution of writing, pictorial represen 
tation and the way it came into closer 
correspondence with speech by stages; 
from primitive drawings by way of picto- 
grams and cuneiform to alphabetic writ 
ing; the Greek alphabet, Roman capitals, 
and the way in which the evolution of 
writing instruments was conditioned by 
the writing surface; Gutenberg s inven 
tion of type casting, early printed books 
and the spread of the art of printing; 
its centres and those of papermaking 
in the 15th century; private presses, 
modern type founding and early methods 
of letter assembly; mechanical compo 
sition and recent developments; the in 
vention of cylinder and rotary presses; 
flexography, stereo and electrotypes; 
methods of reproducing illustration; 
woodcuts, wood engraving, copper plate 
and steel engraving, etching; the pro 
duction of line and half tone blocks 
through photography, etching and elec 
tronic engraving; photogravure, roto 
gravure and the development of its ma 
chinery; Senefelder s inventions, auto 
graphic lithography and offset; collo 
type and silk screen; and a note on the 
craft of hand binding and mechanised 
edition binding. 

The book gives a technical outline 
which is crisp, lucid and easily read 
and to be assimilated by layman and 
specialist alike. It is written by a scholar 
and enthusiast and has been translated 
by a typographer who knows the sub 
ject and the Department of Writing and 
Printing Techniques intimately. He is a 
lecturer in the School of Graphic De 
sign at the City of Leicester Polytechnic 
and has himself lectured on several oc 
casions in Germany and was recently 
invited to deliver two papers at the 
International Buchkunst Ausstellung at 
Leipzig last year. Douglas Martin also 
ran the Orpheus Press in Leicester and 
Munich twelve or thirteen years ago 
and was responsible for, among other 
things, Rainer Maria Rilke s Die Sonette 
an Orpheus, copies of which are now 
much sought after. The translation has 
a quiet brilliance which is reflected in 



112 



AN&Q 



the fact that translator and typographic 
designer of this edition are one and the 
same man. 

Thus one has a small, concise survey, 
clear and attractively produced, a book 
which fulfills so many conditions of 
content and presentation, with an ob 
vious sympathy for and understanding 
of both. 

The cover and dustwrapper are of 
particular interest, for they reproduce 
by lithography a block printed paper 
which probably dates from about the 
turn of the 19th century. It was part 
of a collection bought in Prague by 
Douglas Martin. This collection had 
been bound up by the binder to Otto, 
Count Stolberg, and contained a mass 
of bibliographical pamphlets and news 
letters of various military campaigns, 
and these had been printed in a variety 
of towns throughout Europe, at Leipzig, 
Brno, London, and elsewhere. The col 
lection contained a variety of these 
block printed papers which though 
they generally resemble and suggest 
Augsburg designs, could in fact have 
come from almost anywhere. They were 
generally wretchedly printed, crude and 
uneven, but they have a period charm 
and were widely used until well into 
this century. One still occasionally comes 
across examples of these blocks with 
their characteristic clusters of nail heads 
and pieces of bent metal, in sales and 



junk shops in Prague and elsewhere. 
These blocks, like similar ones used 
for wallpaper and linings to chests and 
cupboards, were frequently quite small 
with a printing area of perhaps 10" 
x 15". 

This cover is printed (albeit upside 
down!) and the lithography though un 
derstandably quite flat, has reproduced 
the unevenness of the inking, which on 
the original has oozed, spread and thick 
ened, and the whole effect has a vitality 
characteristic of German Insel-Bucherei 
volumes of before the war. This volume 
of ScholTs Landmarks has at the same 
time something of the quality inherent 
in the best of present day German pri 
vate presses; a certain sophisticated com 
mercial flavour, quite different in kind 
from many normal "private press" books. 
It is not offered for sale but is produced 
by the Leicester School of Printing which 
is part of Southfields College of Further 
Education, and copies may be obtained 
by writing to the Principal, E. Beech. 
The edition is not large, I estimate 
perhaps 750 copies, and because a fair 
proportion of these are normally dis 
tributed to "prestige" rather than book 
ish people, the bulk of the edition is 
very likely to disappear. It would be 
right that some at least should get into 
libraries or bibliographical collections 
where they would be appreciated 
Rigby Graham 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 



Volume X Number 8 



April 1972 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 

EDITORS NOTES AND READINGS 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 

BOOK REVIEW 

REVIEW LETTER 

PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 



FREE! On application, one year s 
subscription to AN&Q for individ 
uals who Reply to previously 
unanswered Queries, Vols. I-V, 
before the conclusion of Volume X. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

Armstrong, Edward A. The Folklore of 
Birds: an Enquiry Into the Origin & 
Distribution of Some Magico-Religious 
Traditions. (1958). 2d Edn, Rev. & 
Enl. Illus. 284pp. N.Y.: Dover Publi 
cations, 1970. Paper, $3.50 

Ballantyne, Robert M, Hudson s Bay; or, 
Every-Day Life in the Wilds of North 
America . . . (1848). Introd. by 
George Woodcock, xxii, 328pp. Rut 
land, Vt: Charles E. Tuttle, [1972]. 
$8.25 

Binyon, Laurence, et al. Persian Minia 
ture Painting . . . (1933). Illus. 212pp. 
N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. Paper, 
$6. 

British Museum, Treasures of the. Ed. & 
Introd. by Sir Frank Francis. 439 
Illus., 64 in Colour. London: Thames 
& Hudson, 1971. Price? 

Budge, E. A. Wallis. Egyptian Magic 
(1901). Illus. 234pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1971. Paper, $2.50 

Diethelm, Oskar. Medical Dissertations 
of Psychiatric Interest Printed Before 
1750. 211pp. N.Y.: S. Karger, 1971. 
$11.50 

Duns any, Lord. Gods, Men, and Ghosts: 
the Best Supernatural Fiction of Lord 
Dunsany. Selected, with an Introd. by 
E. F. Bleiler. Illus. by Sidney H. Sime. 
260pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1972. 
Paper, $3. 

Eliot, T. S.: the Literary and Social 
Criticism, by Allen Austin. (Indiana 
University Humanities Series, No. 68). 



131pp. Bloomington: Indiana Univer 
sity Press, 1971. Paper, $5. 

The Faber Book of Popular Verse, EdL 
with an Introd. by Geoffrey Grigson. 
376pp. London: Faber & Faber, 1972. 
2.50 

Fa-hien. A Record of Buddhistic King 
doms. Being an Account by the Chi 
nese Monk Fa-hien of His Travels in 
India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in 
Search of the Buddhist Books of Dis 
cipline. Trans. & Annotated by James 
Legge. (1886; 1965). Illus., incl. Chi 
nese Text. 168pp. N.Y.: Dover Pub 
lications, [1971]. Paper, $2. 

Filby, P. W.; & Howard, Edward C., 
comps. Star-Spangled Books: Books, 
Sheet Music, Newspapers, Manuscripts, 
and Persons Associated with "The 
Star-Spangled Banner . Numerous 
Illus. 175pp. Baltimore: Maryland 
Historical Society. [201 West Monu 
ment St.], 1972. $13. 

Hurwood, Bernhardt J. Passport to the 
Supernatural: an Occult Compendium 
From All Ages and Many Lands. 
319pp. N.Y.: Taplinger Publishing Co., 
1972. $7.50 

Klimt, Gustav, 100 Drawings. Introd. by 
Alfred Werner. N.Y.: Dover Publica 
tions, 1972. Paper, $3. 

Laude, Jean. The Arts of Black Africa. 
Trans, by Jean Decock. 201 Illus. 
Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1971. $12. 

Lloyd, Harold. An American Comedy 
(1928). Illus. 138pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1971. Paper, $3. 

(Continued on p. 128) 



American Notes & Queries is published monthly, except July and August, 
by American Notes & Queries, 31 Alden Road, New Haven, Conn. 06515. 
Lee Ash, Editor & Publisher. Subscription, including annual index, $6.50 
a year; $12.00 for two years. Single copies and back issues 75tf each. 
Printed in the U.S.A. by United Printing Services, Inc., New Haven, Conn. 
Second-class postage paid at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Abstracted in Abstracts of English Studies, and Abstracts of Folklore 
Studies, and Review of [Book] Reviews; indexed in Book Review Index; in 
cluded in The Years Work in English Studies, and Annual Bibliography 
of English Language and Literature, MHRA. Appropriate items included 
in the Annual MLA International Bibliography; Victorian Studies "Vic 
torian Bibliography", etc. 




AN&Q 

AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 

THE FIRST GERMAN FAUST 
PUBLISHED IN AMERICA 

THE IMPORTANCE OF GOETHE in the 
cultural life of 19th-century Amer 
ica has been so well documented 
that any further evidence may 
seem superfluous and ail but im 
possible. Yet a footnote, in the 
form of a previously underesti 
mated "first", may now be added 
to the towering superstructure of 
the bibliography on the subject. 

From the time of Edward Ev 
erett s return from abroad in 1819, 
the fame of German literature and 
philosophy began to spread in this 
country. The foreign seeds were 
sowed here by Margaret Fuller, 
Emerson and others. Carlyle s in 
fluence was effective and in time 
copies of Goethe s writings ap 
peared upon American shelves and 
articles on Goethe enriched Amer 
ican periodicals. James Freeman 
Clarke wrote in the Western Mes 
senger (August, 1836): "Five years 
ago the name of Goethe was hardly 
known in England and America. 
. . . But now a revolution has taken 
place. Hardly a review or a maga 
zine appears that has not some 
thing in it about Goethe". Mar 
garet Fuller planned a biography 



of the great German poet. At Har 
vard, at Longfellow s Rowdoin and 
elsewhere, German lessons and 
German readings prepared the 
ground for an understanding of 
that "restorer of faith and love" 
whose universality and whose af 
firmations began to infiltrate 
American transcendental thought. 

Goethe s Werke, published in 
forty volumes between 1827 and 
1830 at Stuttgart and Tubingen, 
were followed between 1832 and 
1834 by fifteen volumes of the 
Nachgelassene Werke. These fifty- 
five volumes found their way to 
Emerson s shelves and when Eliza 
beth Peabody opened her Foreign 
Libraiy at 13 West Street, Roston, 
Items 15-70 consisted of Goethe s 
Sammtliche Werke in 55 Banden. 

Of all Goethe s works, his Faust 
that "national poem of the Ger 
man people" seemed most mean 
ingful to the American mind. As 
Margaret Fuller put it in The Dial 
(July 1841): "Faust contains the 
great idea of his life, as indeed 
there is but one great poetic idea 
possible to man, the progress of a 
soul through the various forms of 
existence. All his other works . . . 
are mere chapters to this poem". 
Faust was known to this country 
both as part of the Werke and in 
translation. A copy of Lord Fran 
cis Leveson-Gower s verse transla 
tion of Part I (London: J. Murray, 
1823) was in Thomas Dowse s li 
brary in Cambridge; Emerson read 
the Gower translation. Abraham 
Hayward s prose version, published 
in London by Edward Moxon in 
1833, was the first translation to be 
published in this country, bearing 
the 1840 imprint of Lowell: Daniel 
Rixby; New York: D. Appleton and 
Company. A copy of that edition 
"in which Emerson wrote his name, 
is still in his house, at Concord". 



116 



AN&Q 



The Hayward translation of Faust 
was also in Elizabeth Peabody s 
circulating foreign library despite 
the feeling expressed in The Dial 
(July 1841) that "All translations 
of Faust can give no better idea of 
that wonderful work than a Silhou 
ette of one of Titian s beauties". 

Although it appears to have es- 
scaped general notice, Faust in the 
original German was made avail 
able in this country three years be 
fore the American edition of the 
Hayward translation. The Curator 
of the William A. Speck Collection 
of Goetheana at Yale cites as the 
"earliest Faust in German with an 
American imprint" the 1864 edition 
published by S. R. Urbino of Bos 
ton and F. W. Christern and others 
of New York. Yet a generation ear 
lier in 1837 a German Faust 
was published in this country. Its 
title-page reads simply: Faust./ 
Eine Tragodie/ von/ Goethe./ New- 
York:/ Zu haben in der Verlags- 
Handlung,/ 471 Pearl-Strasse./ 
1837. An octavo of 432 pages, it 
contains both parts of Faust in con 
tinuous pagination with a second 
title-page, no more informative 
than the first, preceding the "Zwei- 
ter Their. 

This edition was actually pub 
lished by the New York firm of 
Radde and Paulsen as the second 
volume of a five-volume set issued 
between 1837 and 1840 entitled 
MUSEUM DER DEUTSCHEN KLASSIKER 
and its appearance as part of a set 
is probably the reason why it seems 
to have eluded the bibliographers. 

In their own way, Radde and 
Paulsen were sowing the foreign 
seeds as actively as Margaret Fuller 
and Elizabeth Peabody. William 
Radde and George Henry Paulsen 
were agents of J. G. Wesselhoeft 



and importers of French and Ger 
man books. At 471 Pearl Street they 
offered the works of Jean Paul and 
Wieland, Schiller and Korner, as 
well as all the advantages of a Ger 
man intelligence office and a ho 
meopathic apothecary shop. Indeed 
in this the Verlags-Handlung re 
sembled the Peabody bookshop 
where homeopathic remedies were 
also available along with German 
literature. Besides the works of 
Hahnemann, Radde and Paulsen 
sold tinctures, milk sugar, and ho 
meopathic chocolate. 

In 1840, when Elizabeth Pea- 
body published a Catalogue of her 
Foreign Library, her fourteenth en 
try was "Faust, Tragedie von 
Goethe. (See Hayward s Faust )" 
One wonders if this was a copy of 
the edition published in New York 
by Radde and Paulsen. Its appear 
ance, preceding Miss Peabody s 
entry for the 55-volume set of 
Goethe s Sammtliche Werke, seems 
to indicate that it was indeed a sep 
arate edition and if so it may well 
have been the Radde and Paulsen 
edition. 

At all events, that New York firm 
merits the distinction of issuing the 
first German Faust with an Ameri 
can imprint and so of helping to 
stir up that tempest in the tran 
scendental teapot that has been en 
gaging the attention of scholars 
ever since. 

Madeleine B. Stem 

New Yorfc, N.Y. 



Readers comments on the de 
sirability of a 10-year Cumula 
tive Index to AN&Q would be 
welcomed. 



April 1972 



117 



RESPONSE TO A NOTE ON 
MILTON AND 
COMMON PRAYER 

BENJAMIN W. GRIFFITH S NOTE, 
"Milton s Meditations and Sonnet 
XIX" AN&g, (X: 7-8), invites re 
sponse on two accounts, one inter 
pretive and the other factual. His 
suggestion is that the content of 
the sonnet is related to Psalm 123, 
which the Book of Common Prayer 
directs is to be read on the Tues 
day after the fourth Sunday after 
Trinity Sunday. Accordingly, he 
infers that Milton composed the 
poern near this date in early June 
1655. But this is to assume that 
Milton still practiced the liturgy 
of his youth, the daily reading 
which the Book of Common Prayer 
enjoins. There is no evidence that 
he did so after the 1630s, and the 
entire tenor of religious develop 
ments which made it a crime to 
read the Prayer Book from 1643 
to 1660 strongly imply that the dis 
senting Milton would not have 
done so. 

Furthermore, as a matter of fact 
this Psalm was not prescribed in 
1655 for the Tuesday after the 
Fourth Sunday. In those days of 
unhurried devotion the psalter was 
read all the way through every 
month, Psalm 1 appearing on the 
fkst day and Psalm 150 on the last. 
As a matter of fact, Psalm 123 was 
one of the readings for the 27th 
of every month. Only later were 
the readings adjusted more season 
ally as they appear in the modern 
Book of Common Prayer which 
Mr Griffith consulted. 

Wm B. Hunter, jr 



"HETEROGENT - 

A WORD HAWTHORNE MADE 

ACCORDING TO AN ENTRY in his note 
book dated 15 August, 1838, Na 
thaniel Hawthorne attended a com 
mencement at Williams College, an 
occasion accompanied by what 
was, in effect, a country fair. He 
especially admired the spiel of "a 
pedler there from New York state, 
who sold his wares by auction . . .". 
Hawthorne wrote: "Sometimes he 
would put up a heterogeny of ar 
ticles in a lot, as a paper of pins, 
a lead pencil, and a shaving-box, 
and knock them all down, perhaps 
for a ninepence". 

Sophia Hawthorne edited Pas 
sages from the American Note- 
Books (1868) severely but silently 
except for two footnotes glossing 
vocabulary items. One of them 
comments on heterogeny: "This is 
a word made up by Mr. Haw 
thorne, but one that was needed". 
Curiously, it is not included in the 
Dictionary of American English or 
the Dictionary of Americanisms, 
and the more so since the passage 
is attractive mainly because it re 
veals Hawthorne s interest in ver 
nacular speech and Sophia s pride 
in her husband s verbal inventive 
ness or perhaps his verbal re 
straint, for he had more of the lat 
ter than the former. The OED does 
include heterogeny, defining it as 
cc concr. A heterogeneous assem 
blage, rare". The OED cites as its 
sole example an excerpt from the 
above quotation taken from the 
1883 edition of the American Note 
books. 

Hennig Cohen 



University of New Hampshire University of Pennsylvania 



118 



AN&Q 



"ARANDA" IN 
BENITO CERENO 

ONE OF THE CENTRAL FIGURES IN 

Benito Cerent} is Don Alexandro 
Aranda, the owner of the San Dom- 
inick s slaves, whose corpse adorns 
the bow of the ship. Although Mel 
ville changed the names of other 
characters from Amasa Delano s 
original account in A Journal of 
Voyages and Travels, he may have 
retained the name "Aranda" for a 
specific reason: the Peruvian word 
arana, which derives from the 
Quechua harana, is veiy close to 
"Aranda" and carries a meaning 
which fits the theme and plot of 
Benito Cereno. In Peru, arana 
means "a lie, trick, fraud, trap, or 
snare". This meaning reinforces the 
symbolic irony of other names in 
the novel, such as "Cereno" (sereno 
means both "serene" and "watch 
man"), the Bachelors Delight, and 
the San Dominick. The tie between 
"Aranda" and arana is supported 
by the setting of the trial in Peru. 

/. Chesley Taylor 

Washington State University 
Pullman, Washington 



FRANK NORRIS ON THE 
PURPOSE OF McTEAGUE 

SHORTLY AFTER PUBLICATION of 
McTeague, the Philadelphia Book 
News carried an autographed state 
ment by Norris which appears to 
have escaped the attention of schol 
ars. 1 As the clearest and most direct 
expression of the purpose behind 
Norris first major novel, this state 
ment deserves to be recalled and 
given wider dissemination: 



My chief object in writing "Mc- 
Teague" was to produce an interesting 
story nothing more. It has always 
seemed to me that this should be the 
final test in any work of fiction inde 
pendent of style, "school," or theory of 
art. If I had any secondary motive in its 
production it was in the nature of a pro 
test against and a revolt from the "deca 
dent," artificial and morbid "prose fan 
cies" of latter-day fiction. I believe that 
the future of American fiction lies in the 
direction of a return to the primitive 
elemental life, and an abandonment of 
"elegant prose" and "fine writing/ 

FRANK NORRIS 

[Facs. autograph] 
New York City, March 23, 1899. 

Norris identification of his "chief 
object" buttresses the evidence in 
his letter to Isaac Marcosson writ 
ten just a few days earlier. 2 His 
admission of a "secondary motive" 
of "protest" and "revolt" against 
"decadent" contemporaneous fic 
tion is unique and deserves par 
ticular attention. 

Mtikhtar Ali Isani 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute 
and State University 



1. "Aims and Autographs of Authors," 
Book News, 17 (May 1899), 486. 
This item is not listed in Kenneth 
Lohf and Eugene Sheehy, Frank Nor 
ris: a Bibliography (Los Gatos, Cal 
ifornia, 1959 ) , nor have I come across 
any mention of it in critical or bio 
graphical literature devoted to Norris. 

2. Letter dated March 14, 1899. The 
Letters of Frank Norm, Franklin 
Walker, ed. (San Francisco, 1956), 
pp. 30-31. 



"Henry James and the 

Negro Question" 

a Note. 

See p, 127 



April 1972 



119 



QUERIES 



Philip Henry Gosse publications 
I am working on a study of the 
English naturalist Philip Henry 
Gosse (1810-1888) and, although 
I have located a great deal of man 
uscript material left by him, there 
are still some items which I have 
not been able to find. I list here 
six pamphlets and tracts of which 
no copies have been traced. 

1) The Antichrist: who or what is he? 
London: Morgan and Chase. Adver 
tised in The Revelation, 1866, "to "be 
published shortly". 

2.) Gosse s Gospel Tracts. 1-20. London 
[1859-61]. 

3) Gosse s Gospel Tracts. 2nd Series. 
Nos. 21-40. London [1861]. Written in 
collaboration with Emily Gosse. The 
British Museum copies were destroyed 
by enemy action, 

4) Gosse s Narrative Tracts. Written in 
collaboration with Emily Gosse. The 
British Museum copies were destroyed 
by enemy action. 

5) The great tribulation. A tractate men 
tioned in The Mystery of God, 1884, 
footnote on p. 95. 

6) The 6000 years of the world s history 
now closing . . . London: Morgan and 
Chase, 3d. Advertised in The Revelation, 
1866. 

D. L. Wertheimer, Toronto, Can 
ada 

Michael Gold (Granich) For 
a literary biography of Michael 
Gold, author of Jews Without 
Money (1930) and editor of The 
Liberator and The New Masses, 
can AN&Q help trace a private lo 



cation for two short-lived radical- 
bohemian magazines, published in 
Boston in 1916. They are called 
The Flame and Insurrection. Gold, 
who was then writing under his 
real name of Irwin Granich, was 
involved in the editorship of both 
magazines with Van Kleek Allison. 
Location of files of the two maga 
zines cannot be traced through the 
normal bibliographical channels 
and represent serious lacunae in 
my research into Gold s career. 
Kenneth W. Payne, Essex, England 

Papers of Benjamin Henry Latrobe 
The Papers of Benjamin Henry 
Latrobe is searching for the corre 
spondence (both from and to), 
other manuscript writings, pub 
lished works, watercolors, sketches, 
and architectural drawings and 
plans of the great American archi 
tect for inclusion in a complete 
microfilm edition and a selective 
letterpress edition of his works. 
Persons or institutions owning or 
knowing the whereabouts of La 
trobe works may write to Edward 
C. Carter II, Maryland Historical 
Society, 201 West Monument 
Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201. 

Continuous pagination including 
indexes Although I have exam 
ined some tens of thousands of 
early printed books, I have never 
noted the earliest title which has 
the pagination of the index num 
bered continuously with that of the 
text. The practice of not numbering 
the index pages lasted into the 
early 19th century. What is the 
earliest known book to have index 
pages numbered in sequence with 
those of the text? The reason is, of 
course, that indexes were compiled 
after the author had his page proof. 



120 



AN&Q 



But the compositor could still have 
added page numbers in sequence. 
Why didn t he? Lawrence S. 
Thompson, AN&Q 

"The Perverts", by William Lee 
Howard, M.D., dedicated to E. A. 
Poe I cannot find any con 
temporary reviews or later refer 
ences to this novel or its author. 
Who was he? The volume was 
published in New York by C. W. 
Dillingham Co. [c!901], and is, in 
terestingly, inscribed "To the mem 
ory of Edgar Allan Poe as a tribute 
to his genius and in recognition of 
his struggles with a psychic incu 
bus, this book is sincerely dedi 
cated by the author". The curious 
blue cloth binding shows a silver 
outline of an heraldic shield of un 
usual shape bearing the bend-sin 
ister gules marred by splashes 
azure "the blot on the escutch 
eon". I would especially like to 
have citations to reviews or later 
references. Brian Payer, Port 
land, Maine 

Linnean Society (London) Are 
there any records extant that indi 
cate the size of the print order for 
the Proceedings of the Linnean So- 
ciety (London) Zoology Vol. 
Ill, 1859 (containing the Darwin/ 
Wallace joint contribution)? Any 
clue to print orders in the midcen- 
tury will be helpful. Timothy 
Planter, Kansas City, Mo. 

"Richmond shilling" What was 
(is?) it? Sam Meyers, Peekskill, 

NX. 

"One salmons head is worth all the 
frogs heads in the world" Who 
said it and why? Margaret 
Porter, Marblehead, Mass. 



FREE! On application, one 
year s subscription to AN&Q for 
individuals who Reply to pre 
viously unanswered Queries, 
Vols. I-V, before the conclusion 
of Volume X. 



REPLIES 

M.A. as a "Free degree" (X:71) 
First, I believe Mr Cahill 
means a B.A. Honours degree 
(rather than Honors). Second, I 
think the fact is just the opposite 
of what is suggested: the M.A. 
which can follow (but not auto 
matically) is neither "free" nor 
"given". As I understand it, the 
holder of a B.A. Honours degree 
from Cambridge ( and Oxford, and, 
possibly, Edinburgh) can choose 
to remain a "member" of his col 
lege after the degree is conferred; 
for this there is an annual member 
ship fee. After (five? seven?) years 
of membership, application can be 
made for the M.A,, which is then 
conferred, apparently on the as 
sumption that with this additional 
period of maturation, the holder 
of an Honours degree obviously is 
qualified for the higher degree. If 
you want to put it crudely, the 
M.A. is bought; there are no addi 
tional courses or examinations re 
quired. C. Donald Cook, To 
ronto 

Chateaubriand quote from where? 
(X:88) The quotation is from 
Lucretius On the Nature of Things 
II, 11. 1-2 "Sweet it is, when on the 
great sea the winds are buffeting 
the waters, to gaze from the land 



April 1972 



121 



on another s great struggles; not 
because it is pleasure or joy that 
any one should be distressed, but 
because it is sweet to perceive 
from what misfortune you yourself 
are free". 

The translation of these lines into 
the quotation Chateaubriand used 
is further indicated in Henry P. 
Spring s Chateaubriand at the 
Crossways; a Character Study. An 
alyzing the Non-Literary Sources of 
Chateaubriand s Opinions as Ex 
pressed in the Essai Sur Les Rvo- 
lutions. New York: Columbia Uni 
versity Press, 1924. Jerry Drost, 
Williamsville, N.Y. 

. The quotation in 

Chateaubriand s Essai historique 
sur les Revolutions comes from 
stanza 67 of Book III of Samuel 
Daniel s The Civil Wars. Looking 
"out at a little grate on "the morn 
ing of that day, which was his last", 
Richard II exclaims: "Thrice happy 
you that looke, as from the shore,/ 
And haue no venture in the wracke 
you see;/ No int rest, no occasion 
to deplore/ Other mens trauailes, 
while your selues sit free./ How 
much doth your sweet rest make vs 
the more/ To see our miserie, and 
what we bee!/ Whose blinded 
Greatness, euer in turmoyle,/ Still 
seeking happy life, makes life a 
toyle". See Laurence Michel s edi 
tion of The Civil Wars (New Ha 
ven, 1958), pp. 145-146. An 
thony W. Shipps, Indiana Univer 
sity Libraries 

Trotzky Affair today ( VIIL74) 
Although not a direct answer to 
the Query, readers may be inter 
ested in the very fascinating article 
by Christopher Weaver, "The As 



sassination of Trotsky" in History 
Today, October 1971, pp. 697-707. 
James Klammer, Seattle, Wash. 



EDITORS 

NOTES & READING 

Favoritism? Well, why not: every 
time we open a package of new 
Dover Publications we are pleased 
by the selection of titles and the 
excellence of the reprints (or orig 
inal books, which are coming more 
frequently). This time it s the in 
famous Malleus Maleficarum of 
Heinrich Kramer and James 
Sprenger (circa 1486), with a fa 
mous introduction, bibliography, 
and notes by the scholarly Mon 
tague Summers. This is an un 
abridged republication of a 1928 
volume, with the Summers Intro 
duction prepared for a 1948 re 
print. The exact reproduction is 
more readable though because of 
some amplification of type size on 
a whiter paper; so the well-made 
$3.95 paperback is better than any 
other edition! Another reason to 
favor Dover! 

Superb from a scholarly standpoint 
and from the standpoint of facsim 
ile reproduction, is the Capitular e 
de Villis. Cod. Guelf. 254 Helmst. 
der Herzog August Bibliothek, 
Wolfeributtel, herausgegeben und 
eingeleitet von Carlrichard Briihl 
(Stuttgart: Verlag Miiller und 
Schindler [Sonnenbergstr. 55], 
1971; 2 vols. [vol. I, commentary, 
glossary, bibliographical data, and 
transliteration, 63 pp.; vol. II, fac- 



122 



AN&Q 



simile in exact format of original, 
13 x 32 cm., 32 pp.]; "Dokumente 
zur deutschen Geschichte in Fak- 
similes", Reihe I, Mittelalter, Band 
I; DM180. -). The "Capitulare" is 
a decree relating to imperial vil 
lages and estates dating from about 
812 A.D., and it is a basic source 
for our knowledge of mediaeval 
administration. The manuscript 
also contains ten letters from Leo 
III to Charlemagne and the "Bre- 
vium exempla", 

A most unusual bibliography is the 
list of American Indian Periodicals 
in the Princeton University Library 
(1970). This "Preliminary List", 
compiled by Alfred L. Bush and 
Robert S. Fraser, reports on a col 
lection begun with a conscious ef 
fort in 1967, a collection which in 
cludes only periodicals produced 
by or for the American Indian, and 
represents only periodicals having 
at least one issue in the Princeton 
University Library, whether in the 
original microform., or photo 
graphed copies. 

The Associates of the John Carter 
Brown Library, at Providence, have 
published a magnificent catalogue 
of an exhibition, The British Look 
at America During the Age of Sam 
uel Johnson, with an Address by 
Herman W. Liebert of Yale. The 
fully indexed catalogue of the 118 
items exhibited is handsomely illus 
trated with facsimiles and other 
pictorial reproductions, and almost 
all items include explanatory an 
notations. Only 250 copies are for 
sale ($10), and should be ordered 
from The John Carter Brown Li 
brary, Providence, Rhode Island 
02912. 



RECENT FOREIGN 

REFERENCE 

BOOKS 

This column is conducted by Dr Law 
rence S. Thompson, Professor of Classics, 
University of Kentucky. 

Gheeraert Vorselman, Eenen nyeu- 
wen coock boeck. Kookboek samen- 
gesteld en van commentaar voor- 
zien door Elly Cockx-lndestege 
(Wiesbaden; Guido Pressler, 1971; 
282 pp.; DM198. -), is edited from 
the unicum in the Rosenwald Col 
lection of the Library of Congress. 
It contains some 500 recipes, re 
corded by Vorselman, a physician, 
with an eye to their medical value. 
Especially valuable are Mme. 
Cockx-Indestege s "lexicographical 
notes" which show the strong in 
fluence of Latin, French, and Ital 
ian on Dutch word formation in 
the field of gastronomic literature. 

The rich collections of Reclams 
Universal-Bibliothek ( Stuttgart : 
Philipp Reclam Jun. ) defy the spa 
tial limitations of this column and 
can only be mentioned by title, but 
they deserve at least this minimal 
attention. In the area of German 
literature there is Hans Jakob 
Christoph von Grimmelshausen, 
Lebensbeschreibung der Erzbe- 
trugerin tmd Landstorzerin Cou- 
msche (1971, 179 pp.; UB 7998/99), 
edited by Klaus Haberkamm and 
Giinther Weydt; Catharina Elisa- 
betha Textor Goethe s Briefe an 
ihren Sohn, Johann Wolfgang, an 
Christiane und August von Goethe 
(1971, 327 pp.; UB 2786/89), edited 
by Jiirgen Fackert from the surviv- 



April 1972 



123 



ing correspondence which Goethe 
did not destroy; Schiller, Kallias 
oder aber die Schonheit, Vber An- 
mut und Wurde (1971, 173 pp.; 
UB 9307/08), edited by Klaus L. 
Berghahn; Adelbert von Chamisso, 
Gedichte und Versgeschichten 
(1971, 160 pp.; UB 313/14), edited 
by Peter von Matt; and in the in 
valuable series of "Erlauterungen 
und Dokumente", an innovation of 
Reclam of Stuttgart, Jiirgen Hein s 
commentary and analysis of Gott 
fried Keller, Romeo und Julia auj 
dem Dorfe (1971, 88 pp.; UB 8114). 
In foreign literatures there is the 
very important parallel English and 
German text of Englische Barock- 
gedichte ( 1971, 440 pp.; UB 9315- 
19/19a), selected, edited and anno 
tated by Hermann Fischer; Geof 
frey James Warnock, Englische 
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert 
(1971, 191 pp.; UB 9309/11), trans 
lated by Eberhard Bubser; Benga- 
lische Erzdhlungen (1971, 103 pp.; 
UB 9306), translated and edited by 
Manfred Feldsieper; Boris Paster 
nak, Sicheres Geleit (1971, 133 pp.; 
UB 7968/69); and August Strind- 
berg, Der Vater (1971, 69 pp.; UB 
2489). Here is a sample which 
should tempt even the most im 
pecunious reader to put in a stand 
ing order for the UB, the prototype 
of the "paperback", still the best 
and least expensive. 

Recent Cambridge paperbacks in 
clude W. K. C. Guthrie, Socrates 
(Cambridge: At the University 
Press, 1971; 200 pp.; $3.45), orig 
inally published Part 2 of A His 
tory of Greek Philosophy, vol. Ill 
(Cambridge, 1969); Guthries The 
Sophists (1971; 345 pp.; $4.75), 



originally published as Part I of 
A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 
Ill (1969); and Richard Graham, 
Britain and the Onset of Moderni 
zation in Brazil, 1850-1914 (1972; 
383 pp.; $3.95), originally pub 
lished in the "Cambridge Latin 
American Studies" vol. 4 (1968). 

The great Deutsches Literatur- 
Lexikon, founded by Wilhelm 
Kosch and continued by Bruno 
Berger with the collaboration of 
some of the ablest students of Ger 
man literature is now in the third 
volume of the third and completely 
revised edition (Bern & Munich: 
Francke Verlag, 1971; 1047 cols.). 
It covers Davidis-Eichendorff. The 
bibliographies are necessarily se 
lective, yet they provide an eligible 
point of departure for special 
studies. Thus the biography of 
Eichendorff is in cols. 1019-1021, 
his bibliography in cols. 1021-1046. 

John Dunn, Modern Revolutions, 
an Introduction to the Analysis of 
a Political Phenomenon (Cam 
bridge: 1972; 346 pp.; $4.95), is a 
collection of case studies of Russia, 
Mexico, China, Yugoslavia, Viet 
nam, Algeria, Turkey, and Cuba, 
with an introduction on the ideo 
logical dilemmas of modern revo 
lution and its analysts and a con 
clusion on approaches to the 
ideological assessment and causal 
explanation of modern revolutions. 
Here is a sound, perceptive, and 
well documented work; but it omits 
the most disastrous revolution of 
modern times, the Machtuber- 
nahme of the National Socialist 
Democratic Workers Party in 1933. 
Comparison in more detail with 
the revolutions of the past such as 



124 

the Hussite, the French, and those 
of the two Americas would have 
been useful. 

Jean Malignon, Dictionnaire des 
farivains frangais (Paris: Editions 
du Seuil, 1971; 552 pp.), is an il 
lustrated biographical dictionary of 
the truly great French writers. It 
begins with the troubadours and 
ends with authors born in 1914. 
There are 143 contemporary au 
thors as against 138 for the nine 
earlier centuries. The articles are 
in a style both lively and learned, 
and the student of French litera 
ture will neglect this book at his 
own peril. 

Andreas Heusler, Deutsche Vers- 
geschichte, mit Einschluss des Alt- 
englischen und altnordischen Stab- 
reimverses (Berlin: Walter de 
Gruyter, 1968; 3 vols.; reprint of 
second ed., 1956; "Pauls Grundriss 
der germanischen Philologie", 8, i, 
ii ? iii; DM102. -), is the classic 
work on the history of German 
(and early Germanic) prosody. The 
reprinting and updating of various 
parts of Pauls "Grundriss" is a ma 
jor contribution to scholarship by 
the firm of Walter de Gruyter. 



BOOK REVIEW 

CAREY, George. A Faraway Time and 
Place: Lore of the Eastern Shore. N.Y.: 
Robert B. Luce (distributed by David 
McKay Co.), 1971. $6.95 

The "Eastern Shore" is that low, 
slender part of Maryland separated from 
the mainland by the Chesapeake Bay 
and bounded on the east by Delaware 



AN&Q 

and the Atlantic. Unlike its modern 
urban neighbor to the west, the East 
ern Shore still maintains many of the 
earmarks of an earlier and simpler time. 
Its people are yet rural, racially homo 
geneous, and dependent upon the water 
for their livelihood. Oysters, clams, 
dredging the bay dictates their lives, 
In this environment old-fashioned evan 
gelical religion retains a vital hold on 
the people; the manners, language, and 
superstitions of the past linger on. A 
visitor from bustling Baltimore or Wash 
ington feels as though he has traveled 
not only a hundred miles but also a cen 
tury back in time. 

One immediately notices that the 
tempo of life is slower. Time seems 
something to be lived with, not fought 
against. The very vocations of the in 
habitants provide leisure hours for con 
versation. On long winter afternoons 
around the heater in a country store, 
through drowsy summer evenings, on 
the slow journey to a fishing bank, dur 
ing the calm periods that still a boat s 
progress, tales are swapped, exaggera 
tions made and challenged, riddles 
posed. The uncertainty of sea, wind, and 
the catch give rise to "signs", good 
luck charms, methods of predicting the 
weather, ways to attract the wind. With 
out the competition until recently of 
movies and television, such folkways 
have survived and indeed almost thrived 
on the Eastern Shore. 

Unfortunately the way of life de 
scribed here which seems so nostalgic to 
most of us is destined to change. The 
beauty and serenity of the land and 
water are attracting increasing thousands 
of tourists, summer residents, and year 
round retirees. The imminent comple 
tion of a second bay bridge connecting 
Baltimore to the Eastern Shore will in 
sure the continuation of the onrush. The 
entire character of the quaint section is 
being rapidly changed. The old customs 
will soon be a thing of the past; new 
tales and tokens will replace those that 
have lingered in virtual isolation from 
the East Coast megalopolis. 

The primary value of George Carey s 
book is that it so faithfully captures and 
recreates this Eastern Shore lore that, 
though rich now, is soon to disappear as 



April 1972 



125 



a viable folk art. Until recently a pro 
fessor at the University of Maryland, Dr 
Carey spent hundreds of hours roaming 
that portion of the Eastern Shore near 
Crisfield and Smith Island. Armed with 
energy, the right questions, and a tape 
recorder, he has elicited every conceiv 
able kind of rural and water lore. Sitting 
around the country stores, interviewing 
old men and women who were reputed 
ly the best story-tellers, oystering and 
dredging along with the watermen them 
selves, he had discovered and quarried 
an immensely rich lode of folklore. And 
he has transcribed these sayings with 
an authenticity of syntax, pronuncia 
tion, and earthiness that keeps them 
alive and vibrant. Never does his re 
counting bear the marks of pedantry or 
affectation. There is little analysis, and 
only a minimum of comparative com 
ments, but his intention has been to 
capture the flavor of Eastern Shore lore, 
and that he has done with remarkable 
skill. 

Certainly a case can be made that 
folklore reflects the historical experi 
ences of a people, and the tales Carey 
relates on religious themes, for example, 
are indicative of the strong Methodist 
heritage of the region. Folklore keeps 
alive the memory of popular heroes and 
villains, remarkable occurrences, acci 
dental phenomena, and so forth the 
stuff for which archival evidence is 
usually lacking. Carey s recitation of 
dozens of stories, ghost tales, skilled 
pilots, lucky boats, famed strong men, 
home remedies for every conceivable 
affliction, cLarms for removing bad luck 
all these help one to understand the 
past and present of the Eastern Shore. 

Yet future scholars will be most thank 
ful to Carey not for what these folk 
tales indicate, but for his saving them 
from extinction. Saints and rogues, anec 
dotes and jests, tall tales and legends, 
folk speech and "belief tales", nick 
names and courting habits, fools and 
heroes, even folk medicine all are here 
in profusion. For example, if you have a 
baby born in your family, immediately 
"take it upstairs or hold it up high so 
that it will be high-minded". Want to 
remove a wart? "Go out in the woods 
and drive a nail in a tree. File on the 



nail the number of warts you have. Then 
walk away and never look back, and 
your warts will disappear". Want to 
keep your dog or cat from straying? 
Then "measure their tail, pluck out one 
hair from their tail, and nail it to the 
doorsilT. And if you re wise, you ll avoid 
"Lickin Billy Bradshaw". Once in a fight 
he kicked at a man and missed, but 
his shoe came off and broke the board 
ing of a wall. If you need a breeze to 
fill your sails, toss a penny over you* 
back. Or stick a knife in the mast in the 
direction, you wish the wind to blow. 
And never paint your boat blue, for 
that only invites bad luck. Be careful 
if you tend to brag or exaggerate; on 
the Eastern Shore you might be bested. 
Haven t you heard about the canyon so 
wide that if you yelled just before bed 
time the echo would waken you in the 
morning? Why, old Uncle Rubin of Tan 
gier Island had such a mighty voice that 
when he hollered whoa to his team, 
horses two miles away stopped. These 
are kinds of voices that can really leave 
an echo. 

Many of the stories Carey relates seem 
ridiculous, strange, maybe foreign. They 
represent the beliefs, speech, and cus 
toms of an America that is very alien 
to most of us. But it is an America that 
was once common, and the Eastern 
Shore was for decades a kind of living 
museum. Those days are numbered. 
Ocean City crowds and urban boating 
and fishing enthusiasts are gradually 
homogenizing all of Maryland. In an 
age of technology run wild and en 
vironmental destruction, in the frenzy of 
modem life, the lore of the Eastern 
Shore, preserved and revealed in color 
ful prose, provides a leisurely and vi 
carious escape into a seemingly faraway 
time and place where life was simpler; 
its joys, frustrations, and achievements 
felt first hand; and where there was a 
quiet harmony between man and na 
ture. We are all the richer for having 
this experience available through the 
source book of author George Carey. 
Thankfully, the lore he lovingly relates 
can now never completely disappear. 
John B. Boles, Assistant Professor of 
History, Towson State College, Balti 
more, Md 



126 



AN&Q 



REVIEW LETTER 

Letter from London, January 1972 
MERVYN PEAKE 

An exhibition of the work of Mervyn 
Peake (1911-68) was held in London 
during January 1972 at the National Book 
League, 7 Albemarle Street. Under the 
title Word and Image 111, it followed 
Wyndham Lewis and Michael Ayrton, 
and preceded David Jones (Word and 
Image IV) which takes place during 
February. 

I write this because I know that there 
is an increasing number of readers in the 
States who admire and collect the books 
and illustrative work of Mervyn Peake, 
and though the exhibition will certainly 
be past long before this note appears, 
copies of the catalogue are still available 
at 1.00, and this evokes much of the 
spirit of the exhibition as well as being 
a useful checklist for the literary (and 
other) excursions of this lyrical and im 
aginative genius. 

Peake s wife, Maeve Gilmore, who was 
both inspiration and model for many of 
his drawings, paintings and illustrations, 
has written a sensitive, interesting and 
very informative introduction to the cat 
alogue, which in f eeling at least has more 
than a little in common with Helen 
Thomas As It Was. She writes of his 
working life, his early but influential 
memories of his boyhood in China, and 
his first journey to the island of Sark in 
the early thirties, where he exhibited 
with the C 20 s Group . She describes his 
wartime experiences in a devastated Ger 
many, and his drawings of the horrors 
of the concentration camps, and the in 
fluence of all this on such a sensitive and 
perceptive being. After the war, in 1946, 
Peake returned to Sark where he lived 
for three years with his wife and young 
family in a near-idyllic life on this tiny 
island where he again busied himself 
drawing, painting landscapes and the 
Sarkees, writing Gormenghast. While try 
ing to eke out a living he illustrated 
among other things Treasure Island 
(Eyre and Spottiswoode), Household 
Tales (Eyre and Spottiswoode), The 
Quest for Sita (Faber), and Alice s Ad 



ventures in Wonderland (Stockholm and 
Zephyr). Some of the paintings he did 
were exhibited at the Arcade Gallery 
and the Adams Gallery. Increasingly, 
however, the lack of immediate contact 
with publishers and others forced Peake, 
as it has done many before him, to re 
turn to England first to Kent then to 
London, and Surrey. 

The exhibition and the catalogue of 
course, deal with Peake s life and work, 
the parallel between his written and his 
visual work, the way each stimulated 
and influenced the other. There are the 
poems, published and unpublished, ar 
ticles, drawings, paintings from his 
early beginnings in 1923 and 4 right up 
to things published posthumously. In the 
catalogue, as in the exhibition, Maeve 
has re-created the spirit of questing hap 
piness, the magic which was the man. 
There is only a hint of the tragic last 
decade, his illness and his decline. For 
those who knew something of his trag 
edy, there is perhaps rather more than 
a hint, for in looking for it with a sym 
pathetic eye, some of the drawings and 
paintings half -anticipate, if unknowingly, 
what was to come the tragic and 
lonely ending to a life that had always, 
whatever the stresses, seemed full of 
hope and gaiety . 

The spirit of the whole thing exhibi 
tion, catalogue, writing, painting, draw 
ing, his approach to Me, his pictorial 
lyricism, was so intense at times as to 
verge on the ridiculous, which was both 
his protection and his weakness. This is 
summed up, perhaps most aptly, in the 
following story. Peake decided to go to 
France, and blindfolded, stuck a pin in 
the map of France, Having arrived at 
the randomly chosen Clermont-Ferrand, 
and deciding to sleep in the open, he 
threw his shoes at the nightingales, ex 
asperated by their relentless singing . 
Rigby Graham, Leicester, England 



Remember! Send comments 

on the desirability of a 
10-year Cumulative Index. 



April 1972 

NOTES 

(Continued from p. 118) 

HENRY JAMES AND THE 
NEGRO QUESTION 

HISTORIANS AND LITERARY CRITICS 
alike have noted that Henry James 
like many of his English and 
American contemporaries had 
strong, though not always well- 
defined, feelings concerning the 
race question. 1 James occasionally 
expressed anti-Semitic prejudices, 
and he seems to have disliked (with 
varying intensity) other immigrants 
from southern and eastern Europe. 2 
When he returned to the United 
States for a visit in 1904, he saw 
the "immigrant intruder" every 
where and was somewhat discon 
certed by the extent to which the 
"alien multitudes" had taken pos 
session of New York City and New 
England. 3 

James 7 view of the Negro ques 
tion in the American South is not 
so well known. His attitude re 
garding this subject is best re 
vealed in his reaction to a group of 
Negro porters he encountered in 
Washington during a trip through 
the southeastern United States in 
1904: "I was waiting, in a cab, at 
the railway-station, for the delivery 
of my luggage after my arrival, 
while a group of tatterdemalion 
darkies lounged and sunned them 
selves within range. To take in 
with any attention two or three of 
these figures had surely been to 
feel one s self introduced at a 
bound to a formidable question, 
which rose suddenly like some 
beast that had sprung from the 
jungle. These were its far outposts; 



127 

they represented the Southern 
black as we knew him not, and had 
not within the memory of man 
known him, at the North; and to 
see him there, ragged and rudi 
mentary, yet all portentous and *in 
possession of his rights as a man , 
was to be not a little discomposed 
.... One understood at a glance 
how he must loom, how he must 
count ... [in the South]". 4 

James concluded his brief com 
mentary on the southern Negro 
and his place in southern life by 
noting that he felt no "urgency of 
preaching, southward, a sweet rea 
sonableness about . . . [the Negro 
question]". 5 

In his Henry James and the 
Jacobites, Maxwell Geismar has 
stated that "perhaps this was Henry 
James s most profound betrayal of 
his democratic American heritage 
. . .". 6 But did James disinclina 
tion to preach or moralize about 
the southern Negro question really 
constitute such a "betrayal"? First 
and foremost a literary artist, 
James* central concerns lay else 
where; in addition, James had had 
little actual contact with the Negro 
and for that matter, with the 
"alien multitudes". 

For James and many of his con 
temporaries, the southern Negro 
question was simply a vaguely- 
defined problem best left for solu 
tion to those (in this case, white 
southerners) who supposedly had 
the greatest understanding of the 
problem. Believing that the "moral" 
sense of a work of art is wholly 
dependent "on the amount of felt 
life concerned in producing it", 
James quite naturally explored 
moral issues in his fiction with 
perception and delicacy. Having 



128 



AN&Q 



little sense of "felt life" with re 
gard to the southern Negro, how 
ever, he perceived no need to lec 
ture southern whites or moralize 
about the southern Negro ques 
tion, 

L. Moody Simm, jr 

Illinois State University 
Normal, Illinois 



1. E. g., Thomas F. Gossett, Race: The 
History of an Idea in America (Dal 
las, Texas, 1963), p. 305; F. W. Du- 
pee, Henry James (New York, 1951), 
p. 236. 

2. Henry James, The American Scene 
(New York, 1907), pp. 124-125, 255- 
256. 

3. Dupee, Henry James, p, 236. 

4. James, The American Scene, pp. 360- 
361. 

5. Ibid., p. 361. 

6. Maxwell Geismar, Henry James and 
the Jacobites (Boston, 1963), p. 352. 



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AN&Q 

AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

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NOTES 

SOME LATE 16TH- AND 
EARLY 17TH-CENTURY 
ANTEDATINGS OF THE OED 

THE FOLLOWNIG MISCELLANY of the 

antedatings of the OED is mostly 
from Thomas Nashe, 1 but is en 
larged with words from George 
Puttenham s The Arte of English 
Poesie and from two early English 
dictionaries, those of John Bullokar 
and of Henry Cockeram. When in 
two instances I have included sev 
eral antedatings of the OED, the 
second and third citations are from 
Bullokar and Cockeram. 

affluence. [OED, 3.elUpt. y "pro 
fusion or abundance of worldly 
possessions; wealth", 1603]. Nashe, 
Christs Teares over lerusalem, 1593 
(II, 145): "Many of the Saints and 
Martyrs of the Primitiue Church, 
when they might haue spent theyr 
daies in all affluence and delicacy". 

anthropophagite. [OED, 1623. 
(With the indication that no "actual 
instance of the word is known to 
us")]. Christs Teares, 1593 (II, 73): 
"Ratifide it is (bad-fated Saturnine 
boy) that thou must be Anthro- 
pophagizd [Nashe s italics] by 
thine owne Mother". 



attic. [OED a. and sb. 2, "having 
characteristics peculiarly Athenian; 
hence, of literary style, etc." 1633], 
Cockeram, The English Diction- 
arie, 1623: "Atticke. Wittie". 

collachrymation. [OED, "weep 
ing together", 1623] Nashe, The 
Vnfortunate Traueller, 1594 (II, 
305): "with a lustfull collachrima- 
tion lamenting my lewish Premu- 
nire". 

combustion. [OED 1. "action or 
process of burning", 1600]. Nashe, 
Noshes Lenten Stuffe. 1599 (III, 
208): "the sacrifizing of it on the 
coales, that his diligent seruice in 
broyling and combustion of it". 

computation. [OED, l.b. "com 
puted number or amount, a reck 
oning", 1713]. Puttenham, The 
Arte of English Poesie, 1589 (p.57): 
"not a bare number as that of the 
Arithmaticall coputation is". Bul 
lokar, An English Expositor, 1616: 
"Computation. An account, or reck 
oning". Cockeram, 1623: "Compu 
tation. An account". 

conjecturally. [OED, "in a con 
jectural manner", 1594]. Nashe, The 
Anatomie of Absurdity, 1589 (I, 
19): "which each amourous Cour 
tier by his veneriall experience may 
coniecturallie conceiue". 

controverted. [OES, ppl.a. fl. 
"made an object of contest", 1632]. 
Lenten Stuffe, 1599 (III, 215): "on 
bare suspito in such cases shal but 
haue his name controuerted 
amongst the". 

cow-boy. [OED 1. "boy who 
tends cows", 1725]. Cockeram, 
1623: "Bubulcitate. To cry like a 
cow boy". 2 

devolution. [OED Li. lit. "rolling 
down", 1623]. Bullokar, 1616: 
"Deuolution. A rolling along". 
[OED 1.2. fig. "the rolling or pass 
ing on of time", 1630]. Vnfortunate 
Traueller, 1594 (II, 256): "The ex 
ecution day aspired to his vtmost 



132 



AN&Q 



deuolution". Lenten Stuffe, 1599 
(III, 194): "in smal deuolution of 
yeres, from his throne he was 
chacecT. 

deminutive. [OED A.4. "of less 
size or degree than the ordinary", 
1602]. Lenten Stuffe, 1599 (III, 
147): "These be to notifie to your 
diminutiue excelsitude". 

energetical. [OED 3. "full of en 
ergy; . . . forcible, emphatic", 
1631] Nashe, Haue with you to 
Saffron-Waldon, 1596 (III, 44): "In 
manie extraordinaire remarkeable 
energeticall lines". 3 Bullokar 1616, 
and Cockeram, 1623: "Energeticall 
Very forcible and strong". 

epitomize. [OED l.b. "to sum 
marize", 1624]. Vnfortunate Trauel- 
ler y 1599 (II, 320): "It is not so nat- 
urall for me to epitomize his im- 
pietie". 

inclusive. [OED 2. "character 
ized by being included or compre 
hended in something else", 1616]. 
Lenten Stuffe (III, 193): "that fable 
of Midas eating gold had no other 
shaddow or inclusiue pith in it". 

personate. [OED 1. "to act or 
play the part of (a character in a 
drama or the like)" 1589]. Saffron- 
Waldon, 1596 (III, 23): "my selfe, 
whom I personate as the Respond 
ent". 

personated. [OED ppl.a. 
"feigned, pretended", 1606]. Saf 
fron-Waldon, 1596 (III, 80): "the 
carrying vp of his gowne, his nice 
gate on his pantoffles, or the af 
fected accent of his speach, but 
they personated". 

scaevity. [OED "perverse, un 
lucky", 1656]. Cockeram, 1623: 
"Scaevity. Vnlucldnesse". 

vociferate. [OED 2. trans, "to 
shout out clamourously", 1748]. 
Lenten Stuff e y 1599 (III, 190): "a 
staffe in his hande and a kirchiefe 



on his head, and very lamentably 
vociferated veale, veale veale". 

James A. Riddell 

California State College 
Dominguez Hills, California 



1. All citations of Nashe are from R. B. 
Mckerrow s edition of The Works, rev. 
F. P. Wilson, 5 vols. (Oxford: Black- 
well, 1958), volume and page num 
bers are given in parentheses. 

2. Cockeram, source, Thomas Thomas" 
Dictionarium (5th ed., 1596), has: 
"Bubucito, ... To crie like a heard- 
man". 

3. Nashe is apparently satirizing Gabriel 
Harvey s use of the word, which use 
would date it even earlier. I have not 
been able to locate the word in Har 
vey. 



POPE S HUMANITARIANISM 

IN ONE CHAPTER of his New Light 
on Pope (1949) Norman Ault di 
rects attention to Pope s "innate 
humanitarianism", a quality which 
had for more than a century been 
denied the "wicked wasp of Twick 
enham . Ault s chapter, "Pope and 
His Dogs", argues persuasively that 
the poet s humanitarianism, though 
demonstrable in a number of ways, 
is most interestingly seen in his 
passionate hatred of cruelty to ani 
mals in general and his passionate 
love of dogs in particular. 

Pope s Guardian essay No. 61 
(May 21, 1713) stands as his most 
thorough animadiversion against 
all forms of barbarity to animals, 
with special attention to cruel 
sports and to culinary preparations 
which required lobsters to be 
roasted alive and pigs to be 
whipped to death. It is to Pope s 



May 1972 



133 



love of dogs, however, that Ault 
directs most of his attention; and 
to the catalogue of epistolary and 
poetic evidences submitted by him, 
I should like to add two remark 
able instances which support the 
thesis that Pope s affection for dogs 
and his pleasant intimacy with a 
long succession of them as pets 
serve to soften the rough edges of 
the poet s character and to help 
establish his humanitarianism. 

In his 1725 edition of Shake 
speare s Works Pope had marked 
with approving commas a great 
many "shining passages" in the 
plays. Among these are two 
speeches which demonstrate his 
love of dogs. In Two Gentlemen of 
Verona Pope marked the witty and 
tender scene in which Launce com 
plains that at his departure his 
family was weeping, "our maid 
howling, our cat wringing her 
hands", but his dog Crab shed 
"not a tear" (Act II, scene 3). 
Again in Two Gentlemen of Ve 
rona, Pope approved the second 
delightful Launce and Crab scene, 
in which Launce humanely takes 
upon himself the guilt for Crab s 
urinary indiscretion, but berates 
the poor animal for not following 
his master s example: "When didst 
thou see me heave up my leg and 
make water against a gentlewom 
an s farthingale?" (Act IV, Sc. 4). 

There is, of course, enough hu 
mor in both to make them "shin 
ing" passages, but we can be cer 
tain that their selection was ulti 
mately determined by the charm 
and perception in one poet s de 
scriptions of another s favorite pets. 

Arthur R. Huseboe 

Augustana College 
South Dakota 



MELVILLE AND THE IRON 
CROWN OF LOMBARDY 

THE BRIEF CHAPTER in Moby Dick 
entitled "Sunset" is an interior 
monologue. Melville s use of the 
convention is beyond the scope of 
this paper; 1 I will examine only 
one allusion in the chapter and 
attempt to explore the ways in 
which it illuminates the character 
of Ahab at this juncture in the 
novel. 

The Iron Crown of Lombardy, 
housed in the cathedral at Monza, 
has an interesting history. Presum 
ably a votive crown, being too 
small to be worn by anyone but a 
child, it is composed of a band of 
iron enclosed in a circlet made up 
of six separate pieces of gold 
hinged together and decorated 
with 22 jewels (mostly pearls and 
emeralds), 26 gold roses, and 24 
enamels. Legend has it that the 
iron ring was hammered from a 
nail from the true cross brought to 
Constantinople by Helena, wife of 
Constantine. 2 Although the legend 
has been disproved, the crown can 
be historically associated with 
Christianity, for it was made at 
the command of Theodelinda, 
daughter of Garibald, Duke of 
Turin, and wife of Anthari, King 
of the Lombards. After Anthari 
brought unity to the anarchical 
Italian tribes, Theodelinda brought 
Christianity to Anthari and his uni 
fied nation. 3 The crown was later 
used in the coronations of the Holy 
Roman Emperors Charles IV and 
Charles V and, in 1805, the son of 
a Corsican attorney placed it on 
his head and crowned himself King 
of Italy. 4 

The varied associations of the 
crown can, I think, be applied to 



134 



AN&Q 



Melville s Ahab, for, like Napoleon, 
Aliah is master of a nation, is mo 
tivated by a single idea of con 
quest, is defeated in a single deci 
sive battle, and dies bound to an 
island far from land. Like Charles 
V, Ahab brings unity from national 
diversity only to have his creation 
crumble with his death. 

The crown, a mixture of gold 
and iron from the cross, may be 
both a temporal crown and the 
Biblical Crown of Thorns. Ahab 
says that "the jagged edge galls 
me so". 5 This statement would 
tend to make a Christ-figure of 
Ahab (which he may be if the 
whale is Evil, but that is another 
problem) were it not for the fact 
that the beauty of the crown with 
its gold and jewels is emphasized; 
it is "bright with many a gem". The 
crown of gold thorns "dazzlingly 
confounds" Ahab, who sees "not its 
far flashings", and so pains him 
that his train seems to beat 
against the solid metal". Thus the 
secular is intermingled with the re 
ligious. Ahab can control his secu 
lar world, but he cannot wield ab 
solute power over his mind or emo 
tions. Like Christ, he is separated 
from society by his mission, but 
unlike Christ he brings death to 
those who follow him, not redemp 
tion. 

To urge the validity of one read 
ing over all others is to approach 
Moby Dick with a thesis and there 
fore, I think, to under-read the 
work. The gold and iron crown of 
Lombardy cannot be read apart 
from all the other golden and cir 
cular symbols in the story and thus 
will bear many more interpreta 
tions than the few I have suggested 
based on its historical associations 
alone. Simple equations do not 



solve problems of Romantic sym 
bolism. 

E. Bruce Kirkham 

University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, N.C. 



1. N. Bryllion Fagin, "Herman Melville 
and the Interior Monologue", AL, VI 
(1935), 433-434. 

2. Thomas Hodgkin, Italy and Her In 
vaders (Oxford, 1895), VI, 570. 

3. R. W. Church, "Lombards", Ency 
clopedia Britannica, llth ed. (New 
York, 1910), XVI, 933. 

4. Hodgkin, VI, 571. 

5. Herman Melville, Moby Dick, ed. 
Willard Thorp (New York, 1947), 
p. 157. All subsequent references are 
to this page. 



LONGFELLOW S "SLEEP" 

AND FROSTS 

"AFTER APPLE-PICKING" 

THAT ROBERT FROST admired the 
poetics of Henry Longfellow and 
was in some measure influenced by 
him is generally known, albeit the 
specific character of that influence 
is at best vaguely understood. As a 
contribution to that understanding, 
one might well begin by examining 
Longfellow s sonnet "Sleep" (1875) 
as a highly probable source for 
Frost s "After Apple-Picking". So 
similar in theme, structure and 
tone are they that Frost s artistic 
conception for his poem could not 
have been merely coincidental. 

The themes of both poems center 
about the narrator s world-weari 
ness, his physical and spiritual fa 
tigue and his desire for sleep as 
the only balm for his lassitude. 



May 1972 

feach narrator suggests, moreover, 
that the sleep to which he refers 
is death. Longfellow makes that as 
sociation in his last three lines: 
"Ah, with what subtle meaning did 
the Greek/ Call thee [sleep] the 
lesser mystery at the feast/ Where 
of the greater mystery is death!" 
Frost, with his dark "essence of 
winter sleep" and his long sleep", 
unmistakably conveys the same im 
pression, though in more sugges 
tive and guarded terms. The fall 
ing apples and the conclusion of 
the autumn harvest both reinforce 
the death suggestion. 

Although Frost s poem has pre 
cisely three times the number of 
lines that Longfellow s sonnet has, 
it unfolds in much the same way. 
Longfellow s narrator begins with 
a call for sleep ("lull me to sleep, 
ye winds") while Frost s declares 
that he is "drowsing off. Both 
speakers use eye and sight imagery. 
Longfellow cites the "hundred 
wakeful eyes of thought" and the 
"hundred wakeful eyes of Argus j 
Frost has his narrator declare "I 
cannot rub the strangeness from 
my eyes". Both speakers refer to 
their physical pain. Longfellow s 
speaker wants his "pain released"; 
Frost s complains of the "ache" and 
"pressure of a ladder-round". As 
each poem moves toward its con 
clusion, the speaker cites some "au 
thority" on sleep and death. In the 
Longfellow poem it is the "Greek"; 
Frost s more rustic and less classi 
cal-minded speaker would consult 
only the humble woodchuck. 

The tone of each poem is one of 
obvious fatigue and weathered 
spiritual resignation. Longfellow s 
"For I am weary and am over 
wrought/ With too much toil, with 



135 

too much care distraught,/ And 
with the iron crown of anguish 
crowned." has a curious similarity 
to Frost s "For I have had too 
much/ Of apple-picking: I am 
over-tired/ Of the great harvest I 
myself desired". 

Frost s indebtedness to his 
predecessor is, I think, obvious 
enough. Still temperamentally dif 
ferent from one another, Frost s 
only major departure from Long 
fellow was to substitute a sage and 
mature rusticity for Longfellow s 
allusions to classical mythology. 

Kenneth T. Reed 

Miami University 
Hamilton, Ohio 

(Notes continued, p. 138} 



QUERIES 



Guides to local prostitution 
and a word problem, "creole" 
In my collection of Kentuckiana I 
have a copy of the G.A.R. Souve 
nir Sporting Guide to Louisville 
(N.p.: Wentworth Publishing 
House, 1895; 29 pp.). On p. 29 
there is the note that "Wentworth s 
Souvenir Sporting Guides have 
been published in the following 
cities: Chicago, World s Fair; New 
Orleans, Mardi Gras; Frisco Mid 
winter Fair; Memphis Spring 
Races. Will be gotten out in At 
lanta for the Cotton States Expo 
sition, also Dallas for the fight". 
The National Union Catalog shows 
no locations for any of these, or for 
the Louisville one, for that matter. 
I would like to have locations of 
any copies. Who and where was 



136 



AN&Q 



the Wentworth Publishing Com 
pany? Undoubtedly the procurers 
of Louisville met all of the trains 
coming into the city and pressed 
the little pamphlets into the hands 
of those attending the encamp 
ment. The pamphlets were kept for 
practical use, one assumes, then 
en route back to home and family, 
the veterans were careful to de 
stroy them; hence their rarity. 
Another point on which I would 
like to have a commentary: Much 
as ethnic cuisine is popular today, 
so also was ethnic sporting popular 
in the last century, e.g., the ads for 
Signoretta Alfareta (642 Green 
Street, p. 26), Jew Louie (612 
Green Street, p. 7), and Molly Mc- 
Cormick (1027 Madison Street, p. 
22), each of whom maintained a 
stable of girls of their national ex 
traction. On p. 27 Sallie Scott (624 
and 626 Green Street) and on p. 
28 Kate Payne (640 Green Street) 
are advertised as "creole" houses. 
Does "creole" mean "Negro" in this 
usage? I suspect it does, but I 
would like confirmation. 
Lawrence S. Thompson, 



Origin of a black Judas One of 
the more controversial (yet per 
haps aesthetically redeemable) as 
pects of the popular Broadway hit 
"Jesus Christ, Superstar" is the por 
trayal of Judas; he is depicted not 
only as black, but as heroic, thus 
lending a so-called Calvinistic tone 
to the production. Though the at 
tempted vindication of Judas is evi 
dent elsewhere in modern litera 
ture (e.g., Robinson Jeffers "Dear 
Judas"), I am curious whether the 
particular association of color and 
hero-worship here may not derive 
from the 1623 Folio version of 
Othello, where the Moor is desig 



nated (through a typographical 
slip, I suggest elsewhere) "the base 
Judean". Does the "Superstar" 
Judas have a truly meaningful basis 
elsewhere, or can it be that he is 
descended from such an erratum? 
JR. F. Fleissner, Wilberforce, 
Ohio 

Lakewood, NJ. references I 
would appreciate hearing of any 
references to Lakewood New Jer 
sey (previously known as Bricks- 
burg and Bergen Iron Works) in 
novels, poetry, or general litera 
ture. (I am already aware of Mary 
H. Norris s Lakewood, Edmund 
Wilson s "At Laurelwood", and the 
references in Roth s Portnoys Com 
plaint and Ginsberg s "Kaddish"). I 
would also like to know the date 
and place of composition of ** The 
Pines " by Richard W. Gilder, 
Paul Axel, Newark, NJ. 

M.S. Arnoni, writer Is he still 
writing and/ or publishing? The 
only thing I have to go on is a 
friend s copy of "Rights and 
Wrongs in the Arab-Israeli Con 
flict", by Arnoni, published in 1967 
by "The Minority of One Press", 
155 Pennington Ave. Passaic, NJ. 
07055. Many people would be in 
terested in knowing whether he is 
still alive and writing, and how to 
reach him. Rita P. Solow, Som- 
erville, NJ. 

Solomon Barrett, jr Informa 
tion wanted about him, author of 
The Principles of Grammar . . . 
Founded on the Immutable Prin 
ciple of the Relation Which One 
Word Bears to Another (Boston: 
Ira Bradley, 1872, and possibly 
other editions). Robert Ian 
Scott, Saskatoon, Sask., Canada. 



May 1972 



137 



REPLIES 

Resurrected Bodies (IX: 122; r X:56 
addenda) Instances of exhuma 
tions in the 18th century are cited, 
though not at great length, in 
"Aram", The Monthly Anthology 
(Boston), Vol. 3 (September 1806), 
pp. 468-473. The disinterments are 
for the most part those of religious 
personages. Perhaps the best 
known of these, noted in the speech 
of one Eugene Aram as quoted by 
the anonymous author of the ar 
ticle, is this: "... in May 1732, the 
remains of William Lord Arch 
bishop of this province were taken 
up, by permission, in this cathedral 
[Knaresborough, England]". 

In 1835 the skulls of Jonathan 
Swift and his Stella were taken 
from their burial place in the Ca 
thedral Church of Saint Patrick 
the Apostle in Dublin. The basic 
facts of the removal, and of the 
examination of the skulls by Phre 
nologists, are recounted in Shane 
Leslie s The Skull of Swift: an Ex 
tempore Exhumation. Frank K. 
Robinson, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Mr Dunns Chinese Collection 
(X:71) Various citations indi 
cate the following: Mr Dunns 
Chinese collection, in Philadelphia. 
(Philadelphia: Brown, Bicking & 
Guilbert, printers, 1841). Conse 
quently various editions of a de 
scriptive catalogue were published 
entitled: "Ten Thousand Chinese 
things 9 : a Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Chinese Collection, in Phila 
delphia; With Miscellaneous Re 
marks Upon the Manners, Cus 
toms, Trade, and Government of 



the Celestial Empire, by W. B. 
Langdon, Curator. 1839. 

The collection was deposited in 
the Philadelphia Museum from 
which it was later removed to Lon 
don in 1842 (reference: J. T. Scharf 
and T. Westcott, History of Phila 
delphia, 1884, v. 2. p. 948-949; copy 
not available for inspection). 

A larger edition of the catalogue 
whose Chinese collection was ex 
hibited at St George s place, Hyde 
Park Corner, London came out in 
1842. Various editions of the cata 
logue were printed in England up 
to 1850. Consequently the Chinese 
collection was exhibited in Phila 
delphia and London. 

Another edition of the descrip 
tive catalogue was published in 
1850 in New York. Nevertheless, to 
assure certainty there is in the His 
torical Society of Pennsylvania at 
Philadelphia Nathan Dunn s will 
. . . 1840-1844, Philadelphia, n.d. 
Can the disposition of the collec 
tion be gathered from the will? 
Jerry Drost, Williamsville, N.Y. 

(Replies continued 
on p. 143) 



"Editors Notes & Reading" 
and "Recent Foreign Refer 
ence Books" give way this 
month to the following long 
Note. These columns and 
Book Reviews will be con 
tinued in subsequent issues. 



138 

"DON DIEGO" AND THE 

BEFOULING OF 

ST PAUL S CATHEDRAL 

A "DON DIEGO" (cf. modern Da 
go") was, in Elizabethan times, a 
generic and disparaging term for 
a Spaniard. It was in the late 16th 
century, however, that a certain in 
famous and anonymous Spaniard 
allegedly profaned St Paul s Cathe 
dral by defecating in it, an act 
which earned him the ridicule of 
several contemporary dramatists. 
Some examples are Dekker and 
Webster s Sir Thomas Wyatt (ca. 
1602), IV.ii.56-57 (ed. Bowers): 
There came but one Dundego in 
England, and hee made all Paules 
stincke agen, what shall a whole 
army of Dondegoes doe my sweete 
Countrimen?"; Beaumont and 
Fletcher s The Maid in the Mill (b. 
1623), ILi. (Cambridge ed.): "Oh, 
Diego! the Don was not so sweet 
when he perfumed the steeple"; 
and Middleton s Blurt, Master- 
Constable (1601-2), IV.iii.135-36 
(ed. Bullen): "If you be kin to 
Don Dego that was smelt out in 
Paul s, you pack". 1 

Whenever allusions to this inci 
dent called for annotation in 19th- 
century editions of Elizabethan 
plays, editors were at a loss for 
facts upon which to base an ex 
planation. The Reverend Alexan 
der Dyce, in a note to his edition 
of Sir Thomas Wyatt, 2 confessed 
he could find no adequate explana 
tion of the incident, and proceeded 
to quote an extract from an anony 
mous letter that contained but a 
vague mention of the affair. 3 Wil 
liam Gifford, who annotated the 
allusion to Don Diego in Dyce s 



AN&Q 

1833 edition of Shirley s The Hu 
morous Courtier,* noted with dif 
fidence: "The circumstance took 
place in St. Paul s, and merits no 
further notice". J. Payne Collier, 
finding a reference to the Spaniard 
in the first part of Thomas Hey- 
wood s The Fair Maid of the West 
(1609-10), IV.iv. (Pearson ed., II, 
317), referred the reader to Dyce s 
note in the Webster edition A for a 
more minute explanation of the 
matter"! 5 Modern editions of these 
plays, if they do choose to notice 
the reference, are hardly more 
helpful. 

Regrettably, my own research 6 
has produced no evidence which 
would conclusively confirm or deny 
the existence of a real Don Diego 
who did the foul deed imputed to 
him. There is, however, sufficient 
evidence to permit us to re-exam 
ine completely earlier notions of 
the origin of the allusion. On the 
basis of known facts, then, and in 
the absence of evidence that would 
invalidate it, I offer my conclusion: 
the proverbial canard in which a 
so-called Don Diego, or Spaniard, 
allegedly defecates in St Paul s 
Cathedral, or on its steeple, has no 
basis in fact; rather, it is a facetious 
distortion of an actual historic 
event the destructive fire at St 
Paul s in 1561. 

My reasons are as follows : 
(1) On 4 June 1561, the steeple 
of St Paul s Cathedral was struck 
and destroyed by 

... a marueilous great fyrie lightning, 
and jimmediately insued a most terrible 
hydeous cracke of thunder, suche as sel 
dom hath been heard. . . . And some of 
the parish of saint Martins then being in 
the streate, dyd feele a marueylous strong 



May 1972 

ayre or whorlewynd, with a smel lyke 
brimstone, comming from Paules 
Churche, and withal heard the rushe of 
the stones which fell from their steple 
into the churche. . . . Many fond talkes 
goe abrode of the original cause of this 
fier. Some say it was the negligence of 
plumbers [i.e., repairmen of the lead- 
covered spire]. . . . Others suspect it 
was done by som wicked practise of 
wildfyer or gunpouder, but no iust sus 
picions thereof by any examinacion can 
be founde hitherto. Some suspect con- 
iurers & sorcerers, whereof there is also 
no great likelyhode. . . . The true cause 
as it semeth, was the tempest. . . . 7 

This holocaust was the most mo 
mentous event that ever occurred 
at the Cathedral; it was memorial 
ized by English, French, and Latin 
pamphlets, 8 and by a contempo 
rary ballad. 9 The event had the 
widest publicity, and was to be ex 
ceeded in importance only by the 
Cathedral s total destruction in the 
Great Fire of 1666. On the other 
hand, profanations such as gam 
bling, brawling, and horse-dealing 
were so commonplace at Paul s 
throughout this period, 10 that it is 
unlikely that any one instance 
would command more than scant 
attention, or have sufficient noto 
riety that an allusion to such an 
incident would be understood by 
more than a few members of a 
playhouse audience. To my knowl 
edge, allusions to the Diego s dese 
cration occur for the most part in 
the drama, where a wide general 
knowledge of allusions may be pre 
sumed. No other facts, except for 
these casual allusions, support the 
historicity of the Diego s infamous 
deed. 

It is my contention, therefore, 
that if the doer were important 



139 

enough to be recognized as a Span 
iard, and to be for more than thirty 
years the object of reproach in the 
public playhouses, then there is a 
strong likelihood there would be 
some other evidence, from pub 
lished or unpublished sources, to 
substantiate the incident. Because 
such evidence is lacking, we are 
permitted to look to the Fire of 
1561 as an event of transcendent 
importance, one whose undoubted 
momentousness would impress St 
Paul s and particularly its steeple 
on the public s consciousness in 
the form of a saying or story. 

(2) Beaumont and Fletcher s al 
lusion to the incident in The Maid 
in the Mill, cited above, makes 
specific reference to the steeple: 
"Oh, Diego! the Don was not so 
sweet when he perfumed the stee 
ple". Yet, the steeple of St Paul s 
was destroyed by the fire in ques 
tion and never re-erected! 11 Before 
its destruction, the steeple was the 
admired subject of several bal 
lads, 12 for the tip of its noble spire 
had stood approximately 520 feet 
over the center of London for over 
four hundred years. 13 Therefore, it 
is more reasonable to believe that 
if the authors of this play were go 
ing to recall the fame of Paul s 
steeple nearly fifty years after its 
destruction, the fact of the steeple s 
melodramatic demise would be far 
more memorable than a trivial 
and for that time not really un 
usual profanation. 

(3) Permit me now to re-exam 
ine in a new light certain details 
of the "Poules Burnyng" pamphlet, 
quoted above. To a bystander or 
to one who had first-hand informa 
tion about the Paul s fire, the "most 
terrible hydeous cracke of thunder" 



140 

could suggest, by means of a sort 
of Rabelaisian or "folk" analogy, 
comparison to the excremental 
function. Similarly, the strong rush 
of "ayre or whorlewynd, with a 
smel lyke brimstone" affords an all 
too obvious comparison. The 
pamphlet, moreover, quite clearly 
hints that the origin of the disaster 
was veiled by mystery, and that 
"many fond talkes" were provoked 
about this matter. It is not improb 
able that one or more irreverent 
wags saw the humorous possibili 
ties in what was described as an 
extraordinary "cracke of thunder" 
and a "smel lyke brimstone" and 
gave rise to the Don Diego story 
by way of a facetious explanation. 
(4) Although the pamphlet at 
tempts to allay fears that foul play 
was involved in the disaster, it does 
state that "som wicked practise of 
wildfyer or gunpouder" was sus 
pected this, despite the fact that 
eye-witnesses reported seeing the 
"speare pointed flame of fier" 
descend upon the church! 14 It may 
now be perceived just how, if in 
deed the fire gave rise to a face 
tious explanation as to its origin, 
the resultant joke or saying came 
to involve a "Diego", the uncom 
plimentary term for a Spaniard. 
This is not difficult to understand 
when one recalls that anti-Spanish 
popular sentiment, stimulated by 
national feeling and religious antip 
athy, had been fermenting in Eng 
land even before Elizabeth came 
to the throne. Because Paul s was 
esteemed almost as a national mon 
ument, there could be no more fit 
ting object for an act of Spanish 
reprisal. The attribution to a Span 
iard could thus have become an 
appropriate part of the bawdy joke 



AN&Q 

for apparently everyone knew 
the real cause. Like most good 
jokes, this one had the cachet of 
plausibility, provided in this in 
stance by a pervasive distrust of 
Spanish treachery. And the joke 
would be the more forceful for its 
being made at the expense of Span 
ish immodesty. 

Can there not also be signifi 
cance in the name ascribed to the 
Spaniard? In every instance that 
he is mentioned by name in con 
nection with the infamous deed, 
without exception it is with the 
generic and disparaging term, 
"Don Diego", "Dundego", etc., and 
never with any part of a proper 
name. Admittedly, this fact alone 
tends neither to support nor deny 
my theory, because that may be 
the term by which the alleged de- 
filer of St Paul s came to be known. 
Yet it may be urged that the unex- 
cepted use of a single, impersonal 
slang term for him does lend cre 
dence to my contention that this 
"Diego" has merely a figurative, or 
abstract, reality. It may well be 
that he, like the apocryphal "mon 
sters" celebrated in popular broad 
side ballads, has no existence apart 
from a facetious saying that was 
fabricated to explain the Cathedral 
fire. 

(5) For the reasons that the 
story was an off-color one, and for 
the fact that at its inception the 
story could instantly be recognized 
for a preposterous distortion of the 
St Paul s fire, I maintain that this 
is the very type of tale that could 
be expected to remain in an oral 
tradition for a long time. It is not, 
therefore, unusual that the first 
written reference to the story as 
nearly as I can determine occurs 



May 1972 



141 



in a work published thirty-five 
years after the fire. This is Sir John 
Harington s ribald dissertation 
upon indoor plumbing, The Meta 
morphosis of Ajax (1596). In a sec 
tion of this work in which the 
protagonist, A Jax (with a pun on 
"A Jakes ", an outdoor privy), is 
defended against his detractors, 
this reference is found: "At last to 
take up the quarrell Sir M[atthew] 
A[rundell] and M[aster] R[alph] 
S[heldon] set downe their order, 
that he should not be called Cap- 
taine A /AX, nor Monsieur A JAX, 
but Don A JAX . . ."." 

Elizabeth Donno, the recent ed 
itor of The Metamorphosis, pro 
vides in a footnote the annotation 
to this passage that Harington him 
self wrote in the margin of the 
Markham-Wrenn copy of his work: 
"Don Aiax/ because of/ Don 
Diego &c". In her footnote, Miss 
Donno gives the "Diego" allusion 
its traditional explanation, and re 
fers the reader to an insulting com 
mentary about Harington s work 
contained in a letter written by 
Thomas Nashe to one William Cot 
ton, about whom no precise infor 
mation is known. Miss Donno sur 
mises that Nashe s antagonism to 
Harington stems from the unflat 
tering epigram Harington had writ 
ten during the Nashe-Harvey con 
troversy. Be that as it may, the 
letter itself has a fascinating liter 
ary history, for when Dyce printed 
an excerpt from it to help explain 
a puzzling "Diego" allusion in his 
edition of Webster s Sir Thomas 
Wyatt, he was able to identify 
neither of the correspondents. It 
was R. B. McKerrow who took up 
the letter that Dyce had found 
among the manuscripts of Sir Rob 



ert Cotton at the British Museum 
(Julius C. Ill, 61. 280), and who, 
on the basis of internal evidence, 
identified Nashe as its author and 
placed its date at some time be 
tween August and October 1596. 16 
It is hardly surprising that Nashe 
chose obscenities to express his 
distaste for Harington s work, for 
its subject-matter fairly invited 
such a terminology: 

Only mr Harrington of late hath sett vp 
sutch filthy stinking lakes in pouls 
churchyard, that the stationers wold giue 
any mony for a couer for it. what shold 
moue him to it I know not, except he 
meant to bid a turd in all gentle readers 
teeth, or whereas Don Diego & Brokken- 
bury 17 beshitt pouls, to preuent the like 
inconuenience, he hath reuiued an old 
innes a court tricke of turning [it] out 



in a paper. 



18 



Although the letter contains the 
most explicit word ever to describe 
the Diego s alleged defilement, it 
appears in a non-literal context. 
For this reason, we are not com 
pelled even here to take literally 
the act imputed to Don Diego; 
because the entire passage conveys 
a metaphoric idea, the allusions to 
Don Diego and one TBrokkenbury" 
may also be interpreted metaphor 
ically. Thus, these two men may 
be the authors of "smelly" or other 
wise "offensive" publications, now 
long-lost, which the two attempted 
to foist upon the public at the 
famous booksellers stalls surround 
ing the Cathedral. 

The letter provides no clue as to 
the date of the alleged profanation. 
But, because Harington s marginal 
annotation to his Metamorphosis 
is so casual, and because Nashe in 



142 



AN&Q 



his letter assumes familiarity with 
the incident on the part of his 
correspondent, it is not unfair to 
claim that the joke was, by 1596, 
proverbial. 

To be sure, by the time the joke 
was first preserved in a play 
probably Middleton s Blurt, Mas 
ter-Constable (1601-2) - it could 
doubtless be accepted familiarly, 
at face value, for the historic event 
that gave rise to it had by then 
been long forgotten. Finally, that 
the joke was kept alive for as long 
as it was can be attributed, first, 
to the obvious fact that repeated 
performances of plays mentioning 
it made it continuously topical; and 
second, to the lingering ill-feeling 
toward Spaniards which persisted 
in England long after the Spanish 
Armada was defeated. 

The origin of the story that a Don 
Diego "made all Paules stincke" 
has intrigued not only a number of 
editors of Elizabethan plays, but 
doubtless generations of readers as 
well. It may be a mystery that will 
never be solved to everybody s sat 
isfaction. Although the theory pro 
pounded by this paper that the 
Diego is the fictional, facetious 
"destroyer" of the steeple of St 
Paul s may seem to be based on 
arguable evidence, it has logic, and 
the linguistic principle that makes 
it possible is actually quite simple. 



FREE! On application, one 
year s subscription to AN&Q for 
individuals who Reply to pre 
viously unanswered Queries, 
Vols. I-V, before the conclusion 
of Volume X. 



Until conclusive evidence is found 
that there was a defiler of St Paul s 
Cathedral, there remains the strong 
possibility that he existed not at all. 

Brownell Salomon 

Bowling Green State University 
Bowling Green, Ohio 



1. Cf. also Marston s The Malcontent 
(1604), II.iii.195; Shirley s The Hu 
morous Courtier (ca. 1631), IV.ii. 

2. Works of John Webster (1830), IV, 
293. 

3. R. B. McKerrow later identified its 
author as Thomas Nashe; it is dis 
cussed farther on. 

4. See footnote 1. 

5. J. P. Collier (ed.), Shakespeare So 
ciety Publication No. 42 (1850), p. 
80. 

6. In annotating this allusion for my 
critical edition of Heywood s The Fair 
Maid of the West (Part I), unpub 
lished doctoral dissertation, Tulane 
University, 1966. 

7. "The True Report of the Burnyng of 
the Steple ... of Poules . . . 1561," 
a rare pamphlet having the pressmark 
of 17 June 1561, from Documents 
illustrating the history of S. Paul s 
Cathedral., ed. by W. Sparrow Simp 
son, 1880. Johnson Reprint of Royal 
Historical Publications, new series, 
Vol. 26 (New York, 1965), pp. 
121-24. 

8. Ibid., pp. 203-6. 

9. Ibid., pp. 126-27. Called "The Burn 
ing of Paules" (ca. 1561), it also ap 
pears in Extracts from the Registers 
of the Stationers Co., ed. J. P. Col 
lier, Shakespeare Society Publications 
Vol. 1, p. 40. 

10. Ibid., pp. 124-25. 

11. See entry, "As old as Paul s steeple/ 
Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs. 

12. Documents . . . of S. Paul s, Appen 
dix, p. 210. 

13. Ibid., Appendix, p. 191. 



May 1972 



143 



REPLIES 

(Continued from p. 137) 

"Teddy-bear" (X:53) Par 
tridge s Dictionary of Slang and 
Unconventional English (7th ed.) 
suggest teddy bear as a toy named 
after Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt 
who brought back from his big- 
game hunting expedition baby 
bears for the Bronx Zoo. An inter 
esting exploration of a word and 
possible slang connotations is re 
ported in American Speech. Re 
sponding to teddy-bear as a fem 
inine wearing apparel the report 
goes on to indicate that the ap 
parel is "a sort of overall piece of 
underwear . . . which is known as 
a teddy. I would suppose that this 
was so-called from its real or fan 
cied resemblance in general shape 
(or shapelessness ) to the teddy- 
bear. That is to say a lady so clad, 
without her drawing-room habili 
ments added, was conceived to re 
semble a teddy-bear. If this suppo 
sition of transfer of allusion is cor- 



14. Ibid., p. 121. 

15. Elizabeth Story Donno (ed.), Sir 
John Haringtons A New Discourse 
of a Stale Subject, Catted the Meta 
morphosis of Ajax (London: Rout- 
ledge and Kegan Paul, 1962), pp. 
260-61. 

16. R. B. McKerrow (ed.), The Works 
of Thomas Nashe. Reprint ed. by 
F. P. Wilson (Oxford: Basil Black- 
well, 1958), Vol. V, Appendix D, 
p. 193. 

17. "I can learn nothing o him" (Mc- 
Kerrow s footnote); the name is not 
in the D. N. B. 

18. Nashe, loc. tit., p. 195, 



rect (and I am certain it is) it is 
not merely interesting, but also 
ironic, when one considers the late 
Colonel s gesturings as a raw red- 
blooded he-man. Certainly there is 
something almost dreadful in the 
notion of the Big Game Hunter 
and the Big Stick Wielder s nomen- 
clatural sponsorship of a bewitch 
ment of the boudoir the lion and 
the lingerie lying down together, 
so to speak". Jerome Drost, 
Buffalo, N.Y. 

[Editors Note: Our inquirer sug 
gested the possibility (?) of a some 
what more pornographic defini 
tion]. 

Swan marks (X:103) The 

Query bothered my sleep, so I dug 
around my unconscious and did a 
little searching for a recollection. 
Following is a Sotheby (London) 
auction catalogue description for a 
sale on 30 April 1968, p. 102. I be 
lieve that Sotheby s excellent cata 
loguer has given some pertinent in 
formation for the Reply. The auc 
tion records show that the manu 
script described brought 320 / 
Editor: 

[Lot] 454 SWAN MARKS. CATALOGUE OF 

UPWARDS OF 450 MARKS USED BY OWNERS 

OF SWANS, manuscript on vellum, 42 
leaves, the marks drawn in black ink, 12 
to a page, in double rows between red 
rules, spaces for some marks left blank, 
many of the marks having the swan own 
er s name inserted in red or black ink, 
with some later additions, 5 vellum end- 
leaves bearing various seventeenth-cen 
tury MS entries, including the ownership 
inscription of Thomas Peirson, dated 
1637, and emblazoned arms which, in the 
Visitation of Cambridgeshire, 1619, are 
ascribed to Thomas Personn or Peerson 



144 



AN&Q 



of Wisbech, also, on the same leaf, the 
later signature of Sir Lewis Jarvis, bound 
in 4 strips cut from a fifteenth-century 
(?) liturgical manuscript and calendar, 
rubricated, bearing a few early manu 
script notes of obits, etc., the MS strips 
worn, outermost strip or cover repaired, 
sewn to original thongs, stitching re 
newed, in red morocco pull-off slip case, 
oblong sm. 8t>o (155mm. by 70mm.) 
[First quarter of 17th Century (?] 

* Manuscript records of swan marks are 
rare. The present manuscript begins with 
Royal swan marks, the first mark having 
above it the initials I[acobus] R[ex], fol 
lowed by marks of the Dukes of Norfolk 
and Suffolk, of the Earls of Huntingdon, 
Essex, etc. The inclusion of many Cam 
bridgeshire and Fenland swan marks 
strengthens the probability that the arms 
attributed to Thomas Peerson of Wis- 
bech, are, in fact, his, and that he was 
Royal Swan Master for the region, or 
his deputy. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
(Continued from p. 130) 

McClintock, Francis Leopold. The Voy 
age of the Fox in the Arctic Seas: a 
Narrative of the Discovery of the Fate 
of Sir John Franklin and His Com 
panions (1860). Introd. by William 
C. Wonders. Illus., incl. Fold. Maps, 
ad, 375pp. Rutland, Vt: Charles E. 
Tutfle, [1972], $8.25 

Melville s Drive to Humanism, by Ray B. 
Browne. 394pp. Lafayette: Purdue 
University Studies, 1971, $7.50 

(Poetry), Best Poems of 1970: Bore- 
stone Mountain Poetry Awards, 1971 



, . . Vol. XXIII. 126pp. Palo Alto, 
Calif.; Pacific Books, 1971. $4.50 
Ross, Alexander. The Red River Settle 
ment: Its Rise, Progress, and Present 
State, With Some Account of the Na 
tive Races . . . to the Present Day 
(1856). Introd. by William L. Morton, 
xxviii, 416pp. Rutland, Vt: Charles E. 
Tuttle, [1972], $8.25 

Shakespeare s Use of Music: the Histories 
and Tragedies, by John H. Long. Incl. 
Music Facs. 306pp. Gainesville: Uni 
versity of Florida Press, 1971. 

Shepherd, Walter, comp. Shepherd s 
Glossary of Graphic Signs and Sym 
bols. [Thousands of systematically 
classified symbols]. Facs. Illus. 597pp. 
N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1971. $15. 

Tar River Poets [Julia Fields, Ted Ma- 
lone, Phyl, Karen Ray Dawes, etc.]. 
Winter, 1972; The Julia Fields Issue. 
Ed, by Vernon Ward; Art by Ted Ma- 
lone. (Poetry Forum Series, No. 11). 
42pp. Greenville, N.C.: East Carolina 
University, 1972. Paper, $1. 

Tate, Allen. The Transktion of Poetry, 
Address and Panel Discussion Pre 
sented at the International Poetry Fes 
tival Held at the Library of Congress, 
13-15 April 1970 .... Published for 
the Library of Congress. 40pp. Wash 
ington: [Supt of Documents, GPO], 
1972. Paper, 300 

Viereck, George Sylvester; German- 
American Propagandist, by Niel M. 
Johnson. Illus. 282pp. Urbana: Uni 
versity of Illinois Press, 1972. $9.95 

Zigrosser, Carl. Medicine and the Artist. 
137 Great Prints, Selected, with Com 
mentary. (Ats Medica catalogue, 
Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1959). 
3d Edn Rev. 177pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1970. Paper, $3.75 




AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 



Volume X Number 10 



June 1972 



NOTES 

QUERIES & REPLIES 
EDITORS NOTES AND READINGS 

BOOK REVIEWS 

RECENT FOREIGN REFERENCE BOOKS 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

and the 
ANNUAL CUMULATED INDEX 



FREE! On application, one year s 
subscription to AN&Q for individ 
uals who Reply to previously 
unanswered Queries, Vols. I-V, 
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PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 

(Acronyms & Initialisms ) . Reverse Acro 
nyms and Initialisms Dictionary. 1st 
Edition. A companion to Acronyms 
and Initialisms. Ed. by Ellen T. 
Crowley & Robert C. Thomas. 485 
double-col, pp. Detroit: Gale Research 
Co., 1972. $27.50 

Baughman, James P. The Mallonjs of 
Mijstic: Six Generations in American 
Maritime Enterprise. (American Mari 
time Library, 4). Illus. 496pp. Pub 
lished for the Marine Historical As 
sociation, Inc., Mystic Seaport. Mid- 
dletown: Wesleyan University Press, 
1972. $17.50 

Beardsley s Illustrations for "Le Morte 
Darthur". Reproduced in Facsimile 
from the Dent Edition of 1893-94. 
Arranged by Edmund V. Gillon, jr. 
171pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 
1972. Paper, $3. 

Berrigan, Daniel; and Contemporary 
Protest Poetry, by Harry J. Cargas. 
126pp. New Haven: College & Uni 
versity Press, 1972. $5; Paper, $2.45 

Bihaljc-Merin, Oto. Great Masks. [Trans, 
from the German by Herma Plummer]. 
157 Illus., incl. 24 Color Plates. 231pp. 
N.Y.: Harry N. Abrams, 1972. $17.50 

Bluefarb, Sam. The Escape Motif in the 
American Novel: Mark Twain to Rich 
ard Wright. 173pp. Columbus: Ohio 
State University Press, 1972. $8. 

Book Trade of the World, The. Ed. by 
Sigfred Taubert. Vol. I: Europe and 
International Section. 543pp. N.Y.: 
R. R. Bowker Co., 1972. $18. 

Bridgman, George B. The Human Ma 
chine: the Anatomical Structure & 
Mechanism of the Human Body. 
(1939). Illus. 143pp. N.Y.: Dover 
Publications, 1972. Paper, $2. 



(Calligraphy). Pictorial Calligraphy and 
Ornamentation. 86 Plates Selected by 
Edmund V. Gillon, jr. . . . 86pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1972. Paper, $2.50 

Castaneda, Carlos. Journey to Ixtlan: the 
Lessons of Don Juan. N.Y.: Simon & 
Schuster, 1972. $6.95 

Claerbut, David. Black Jargon in White 
America [with "A Dictionary of Black 
Jargon"]. 89pp. Grand Rapids: William 
B. Eerdmans, 1972. Paper, $1.95 

Clair, Rene. Cinema, Yesterday and To 
day. Trans, by Stanley Applebaum. 
Ed., with an Introd. and Annotations, 
by R. C. Dale. Illus. 260pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1972. Paper, $3.50 

Clapp, Jane. Art Censorship: a Chro 
nology of Proscribed and Prescribed 
Art. Illus. 582pp. Metuchen, N.J.: 
Scarecrow Press, 1972. $16. 

Cocteau, Jean. Beauty and the Beast, 
Diary of a Film. Trans, by Ronald 
Duncan. (1950: Diary of a Film). 
New Introd. by George Amberg. Illus. 
142pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1972. 
Paper, $2.75 

Cocteau, Jean. Drawings: 123 Drawings 
from "Desstos" [1924]. 129pp. N.Y.: 
Dover Publications, 1972. Paper, $3. 

Coe, Wesley Roswell. Starfishes, Serpent 
Stars, Sea Urchins, and Sea Cucumbers 
of the Northeast (formerly Echino- 
derms of Connecticut, 1912). IHus. 
152pp. N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1972. 
Paper, $2.50 

(Crookes, Sir William). Crookes and 
the Spirit World: a Collection of 
Writings By or Concerning [his] Work 
in the Field of Psychical Research. 
Comp. by R. G. Medhurst. Introd. by 
K. M. Goldney. Introd. and Ed. by 
M. R. Harrington. lUus. 250pp. N.Y.: 
Taplinger Pub. Co., 1972. $10. 

(Continued on p. 166) 



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AN&Q 

AMERICAN NOTES & QUERIES 
EDITOR Lee Ash 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR 

Louis A. Rachow 

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Lawrence S. Thompson 



NOTES 



MILTON S ROMANTIC AUDI 
ENCE 

LITERARY HISTORIANS AND CRITICS 

have been extravagant, it seems, in 
their estimates of both the size and 
calibre of Milton s Romantic audi 
ence. James Nelson epitomizes the 
reigning view when he says that in 
the 19th century "Milton, like all 
powerful figures, was loved by 
many, hated by some, but ignored 
by few". 1 An anonymous reviewer 
for The Mirror of Literature, how 
ever, acknowledges that among the 
charmed circle of the enlightened, 
Shakespeare and Milton are 
thought to be immensely popular, 
but die reviewer speaks with 
grave reservation about this "all- 
intelligent public". Shakespeare is 
always mutilated upon the stage, 
he tells us, and though a "fit audi 
ence for the Paradise Lost has 
ever been ... at this moment [it] 
must be, a small one, and we can 
not affect to believe that it is 
destined to be much increased by 
what is called the march of intel 
lect". 2 

Coleridge and Wordsworth re 
peatedly register the same misgiv 



ings about Milton s Romantic audi 
ence. Coleridge wishes that "die 
Paradise Lost were more carefully 
read and studied" than he "can see 
any ground for believing it is, es 
pecially those parts which, from 
the habit of always looking for a 
story in poetry are scarcely read 
at all; as for example, Adam s 
vision of future events in the llth 
and 12th books". 3 In his Note 
books he reveals similar dissatis 
faction with the reading public: 
"the mass of mankind, whether 
from nature or as I fervently hope 
from Error of Reasoning & The 
Worldliness of their after Pursuits, 
are rarely susceptible of any other 
Pleasures than those of amuse 
ment, and gratifications of curi 
osity, Novelty, Surprise, Wonder 
ment from the Glaring, the harshly 
Contrasted, the Odd, the Acci 
dental: and find the reading of 
the Paradise Lost a task, some 
what alleviated by a few enter 
taining Incidents . . .". 4 Less an 
noyed by the vulgar audience, 
Wordsworth, nonetheless, expresses 
the same reservations: "Paradise 
Lost is indeed bought because 
people for their own credit must 
now have it. But how few, how 
very few, read it; when it is read 
by the multitude, it is almost ex 
clusively not as a poem, but a re 
ligious Book". 5 Popular as a "status 
symbol" and conduct book, Para 
dise Lost, Wordsworth elaborates, 
is read as a poem by only a "few 
scattered scholars" 6 and dedicated 
poets, while the multitudes, who 
read it, read it for something else. 
Like Coleridge, Wordsworth re 
grets his culture s craving for extra 
ordinary incident at the expense 
of great art and deplores the di 
rection of life and manners to 
which literature has feebly sub- 



148 



AN&Q 



mitted and steadfastly conformed 
"The invaluable works of our 
elder writers ... of Shakespeare 
and Milton, are driven into neglect 
by frontier novels, sickly and 
stupid German Tragedies, and de 
luges of idle and extravagant 
stories in verse", 7 while the classics 
are consigned to oblivion by the 
mediocre audience who dissipate 
their age s taste for great books. 8 
This tissue of quotations, besides 
correcting an unchecked impres 
sion of what Milton s Romantic 
audience was like, reveals a brood 
ing concern of the Romantic critic 
with audience a concern not un 
like Milton s. Though the poet s 
interest in audience may recede 
into the background during the 
Romantic period, it does not alto 
gether disappear as M. H. Abrams 
suggests, 9 but remains a signifi 
cant auxiliary interest. Milton and 
the Romantics alike cultivate the 
"miscellaneous rabble" and hope 
to gratify those "who extol/ Things 
vulgar V but they are quick to 
perceive that full enjoyment of 
poetry proceeds from an intellec 
tual, as well as an emotional, re 
sponse and may be savored only 
by the sophisticated who bring to 
poetry an acute moral and aes 
thetic sense. Thus for both Milton 
and the Romantics the "poet utterly 
replaces the audience" 11 as the 
generator of moral and aesthetic 
norms. For them the ideal reader, 
the true critic, is not so much an 
adversary as a rival of the poet; not 
"shallow" in himself, he must bring 
a judgment "equal or superior" 12 
to that of the poet he professes 
to admire. The great audience, to 
use the words of Stephen Spen 
der, wear "at their hearts the fire s 



center". And "born of the sun", 
they travel towards it, "leaving the 
vivid air signed with their honor", 
and the poet s. 

These brief remarks, moreover, 
may remind the Miltonist that the 
Romantic critics are not to be mis 
taken for the common reader, that 
far from being promulgators of 
popular attitudes, as it is com 
monly thought, these critics rigor 
ously oppose them. Unencumbered 
by mass tastes and their stifling 
influence, the Romantic critic 
brings to Milton s poetry a deeper 
aesthetic experience, a heightened 
morality, and a vaster knowledge 
than the ordinary reader, whom 
they seek to enlighten and send to 
Milton s poetry as poetry. The 
great myth embedded in Paradise 
Lost appealed vastly and deeply to 
the critics of the Romantic era, 
and "our great myths", Allen Tate 
reminds us, "make their appeal to 
those people, at last remarkably 
few, who have a sense of destiny, 
a poise above life, and who look 
at the vast distraction of the world, 
its shift and disintegration, with 
controlling detachment". 13 If Mil 
ton were living at that hour, he 
might have said, "I fit audience 
found, though few", and if he were 
living at this hour, it is likely that 
his opinion would remain un 
changed. 

Joseph Anthony Wittreich, jr 
University of Wisconsin 



1. The Sublime Puritan (Madison, 
1963), p. 12. 

2. "Shakespeare and Milton", The 
Mirror of Literature, XXIV (1834), 
169. An anonymous reviewer for 
the Quarterly Review, in a long 



June 1972 



149 



paragraph, similarly laments the 
neglect of Milton and Shakespeare: 
"The English flatter themselves by 
a pretence that Shakespeare and 
Milton are popular in England. It 
is good taste, indeed, to wish to 
have it believed that those poets 
are popular. There names are so; 
but if it be said that the works of 
Shakespeare and Milton are popu 
lar that is, liked and studied 
among the wide circle whom it is 
now fashionable to talk of as en 
lightened, we are obliged to express 
our doubts whether a grosser delu 
sion was ever promulgated" ("Cole 
ridge s Poetical Works", QR, LII 
[1834], 35-36). 

3. Coleridge on the Seventeenth Cen 
tury, ed. Roberta Florence Brinkley 
(Durham, 1955), p. 579. 
Goburn (London, 1957), I, 
#2026fb. Coburn notes that the 
phrase "the reading of the Paradise 
Lost a task" is likely an oblique 
reference to Dr Johnson s remark 
that "Paradise Lost is one of the 
books which the reader admires and 
lays down, and forgets to pick up 
again. None ever wished it longer 
than it is". She is assuredly cor 
rect in her suspicions. Johnson s dep 
recation raises the ire of the Ro 
mantic critic who answers that the 
weakness is not to be attributed to 
Milton but to the infirmities of the 
reader. The neglect of Paradise Lost 
is "not a wrong which Milton does* , 
De Quincey argues, "but which he 
suffers". If wearisome to some, 
Paradise Lost is only dull through 
sheer "imbecility of mind, not from 
overstrained excitement, but from 
pure defect in the capacity for ex 
citement" (The Collected Writings 
of Thomas De Quincy, ed. David 
Masson [London, 1897], IV, 115- 
117). Similarly affixing blame not 
to the poet but to his unsophisti 
cated reader, Charles Lamb asserts 
that we should read the poem not 
as a bothersome task but as "a 
celestial recreation" to which the 
dullard mind is unevenly receptive s 
and he casts a dubious eye on 
Johnson s remark, saying no one, 



indeed, has ever wished the moon 
rounder, for it is complete and per 
fect in itself and would be unim 
proved by deletion or addition ( The 
Works of Charles Lamb, ed. Alfred 
Aiuger [Troy, New York, 1888], 
VIII, 183). For an opposing view, 
see William Savage Landor, Imag 
inary Conversations, ed. Charles G. 
Crump (London, 1891), IV, 243. 

5. The Letters of William and Dorothy 
Wordsworth: The Later Years, ed. 
Ernest de Selin court (New York, 
1939), II, 1010. 

6. Ibid., I, 48. 

7. "Preface to The Lyrical Ballads 
(1800)", The Prose Works of Wil 
liam Wordsworth, ed. Alexander B. 
Grosart (London, 1876), II, 82. 

8. These misgivings revealed by 
Wordsworth and Coleridge regard 
ing the size and quality of Milton s 
audience are by no means peculiar 
to them. Like Wordsworth, Byron 
laments the superficial concerns and 
interests of contemporary poets who 
claim public favor, "while Milton, 
Dryden, Pope [are] alike forgot" 
(English Bards and Scotch Review 
ers, I, 187), and James Hamilton 
Brown reports him to have remarked 
"that even Milton was little read at 
the present day, and how few in 
number were those who were famil 
iar with the writings of that sublime 
author . . ." (Ernest J. Lovell, His 
Self Same Voice: Collected Con 
versations of Lord Byron [New 
York, 1954], p. 398). Similarly, 
Hazlitt remarks that every poet 
needs a midwife to bring his works 
to light; "it is a question," he says, 
"whether Milton would have be 
come popular without the help of 
Addison; nay, it is a question wheth 
er he is so, even with it" (The 
Complete Works of William Haz 
litt, ed. P. P. Howe [London, 1934], 
XX, 128). Landor, likewise, com 
ments that "the neglect in which 
I now discover him [Milton] leaves 
me only the more room for the 
free effusion of these sentiments. 
How shallow in comparison is every 
thing around us, trickling and dim 
pling in the pleasure ground of our 



150 



AN&Q 



literature! If we are to build our 
summer-houses against ruined tem 
ples, let us at least abstain from 
ruining them for that purpose" 
(Imaginary Conversations, IV, 305). 
Alone in not imputing the neglect 
of Milton to the inferiority of mass 
taste is William Blake, who in 
"Prospectives" contends that "the 
Labours of the Artist, the Poet, the 
Musician, have been proverbially 
attended by poverty and obscurity; 
this was never the fault of the Pub 
lic, but was owing to a neglect of 
means to propagate such works as 
have wholly absorbed the Man of 
Genius" (The Complete Writings of 
William Blake, ed. Geoffrey Keynes 
[New York, 1957], p. 207). 
mantle Theory and the Critical Tra- 
9. The Mirror and The Lamp: Ro- 
dition (New York, 1953), p. 3. 

10. "Paradise Regained", John Milton: 
Complete Poems and Major Prose, 
ed. Merritt Y. Hughes (New York, 
1957), III, 50-51. 

11. Abrams, p. 26. 

12. Paradise Regained, IV, 321-330. 

13. "Notes on Milton", New Republic, 
LXVIII (1931), 267. 



IRVING S LITERARY PIMPERY 

WASHINGTON IRVING has often been 
accused of borrowing ideas which 
he used in his own writings. And 
indeed he did, as most of the 
Irving scholars have pointed out. 1 
Another accusation of plagiarism 
on his part would hardly be note 
worthy if it were for his personal 
use. It appears, however, that late 
in 1824 he pulled off a coup in 
which he borrowed in Paris a 
literary manuscript for the purpose 
of sending it to England where his 
financially embarrassed friend John 
Howard Payne might sell it clan 
destinely to a British periodical. 



Irving was thus a middleman, .pro 
curing a manuscript for immoral 
purposes. 

All that is known of the affair is 
in Irving s own words and hand 
writing in a previously unpub 
lished paragraph of a letter which 
he wrote to Payne, 17 December 
1823. 2 

I also send you a ms: story in verse in 
the Style of Colman 3 which is excellent. 
It was written several years since by a 
Mr Baldwin 4 of Boston now in Paris 
who gave it to me. You may be able to 
get something for it from one of the 
magazines & it may open the way ttf 
your getting other employ from them. 
If you think it worth while to present it 
copy it off & mention it as written sev 
eral years since by an American gentle 
man but do not mention his name 
as he does not know the use I am mak 
ing of his poem. It was published sev 
eral years since in an Am: paper, but 
that you can keep to yourself of 
course, any thing you get for this trifle 
is for yourself. 

Very likely Payne s success with 
this gift was not spectacular. That 
Irving considered this "story in 
verse" as being "excellent" is not 
necessarily complimentary, for 
Irving s ability to judge poetry ( or 
even verse) was not his forte. 
Then, too, Colmanesque verse of 
an American vintage would have 
had little appeal for a British pub 
lic already somewhat jaded by the 
real thing. 

Ben Hams McClary 
The University of Sussex 



1. In "Supplementary Studies in the 
Writings of Washington Irving" 
Stanley T. Williams (The Life of 
Washington Irving [New York, 1935], 
II, 263-325) discussed Irving s 



June 1972 



151 



sources, though he was apt to view 
this "borrowing" as being typical of 
the period. One of the most recent 
scholars to comment on Irving s debt 
to other writers is Lewis Leaiy in 
Washington Irving (Minneapolis, 
Minn., 1963), pp. 23, 25, 37, 41. 

2. Thatcher T. Payne Luquer, Payne s 
grandnephew, in editing the Irving- 
Payne correspondence for publica 
tion in Scribner s Magazine, XXIV 
(1910), 478, prudently omitted this 
paragraph from his text. It is printed 
here from the original, now in the 
possession of Columbia University 
Library. 

3. George Colman was the author of a 
large amount of coarse comic poetry 
between 1797 and 1820. A dramatist 
whose works had often bordered on 
lite indecent, when he was appointed 
fcxaminer of plays in January 1824, 
Colman censored the fare of the Brit 
ish stage to a point of absurdity. 
See Dictionary of National Biography, 
IV, 849-852. As a playwright and 
former actor and London theater 
manager, Payne certainly knew Col 
man. 

4. Loamrni Baldwin (1780-1838) was 
best known as a civil engineer. In 
1821 he was the engineer involved 
in the building of the Union Canal, 
running from Reading to Middle town, 
Pa. He was in Europe in 1824, re 
turning to the United States in 1825 
to work on the Bunker Hill Monu 
ment. Dictionary of American Biog 
raphy, I, 540-541. 



THE ORIGIN OF LOWELL S 
"AMERICAN PUNCH" 

ATTENTION HAS BEEN DRAWN to the 
origin of James Russell Lowell s 
well known "Miss Fooler" pun lo 
cated in the first two lines of a six- 
line lampoon on Margaret Fuller 
in A Fable for Critics. 1 Interest 
ingly enough, however, the origin 



of "That American Punch" in the 
last two lines of the same lampoon 
"The American Punch, like the 
English, no doubt,/ Just the sugar 
and lemons and spirit left out"/- 
has gone unnoticed. 

It comes., apparently directly, 
from Samuel Johnson s Idler, No. 
34, Saturday, 9 December 1758, 
which concludes that the qualities 
of a conversation "are exactly rep 
resented by a bowl of punch". 
More specifically: "Punch ... is a 
liquor compounded of spirit and 
acid juices, sugar and water. The 
spirit, volatile and fiery, is the 
proper emblem of vivacity and wit; 
the acidity of the lemon will very 
aptly figure pungency of raillery, 
and acrimony of censure; sugar is 
the natural representative of lus 
cious adulation and gentle com 
plaisance; and water is the proper 
hieroglyphick of easy prattle, inno 
cent and tasteless". 3 

There is little published evi 
dence that Lowell was familiar 
with Johnson s writings when he 
was writing A Fable, but Leon 
Howard has stated that during his 
sophomore year in college Lowell 
made "notes from works of Dr. 
Johnson in which he seems to have 
been browsing extensively" at the 
time. 4 And certainly there is abun 
dant proof from his essays that in 
his later life Lowell knew Dr John 
son s writings well. 5 

The similarity between Johnson s 
Idler, No. 34, and Lowell s lam 
poon seems undeniable, however. 
Primarily Lowell is criticizing Miss 
Fuller for her obtuseness in read 
ing his poetry, saying that evi 
dently the kind of poetry she likes 
is the simple, sugary type with 
out lemons or spirit. But, as John- 



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son had said, sugar is too sweet to 
be eaten alone and similarly "meek 
ness and courtesy will always rec 
ommend the first address, but soon 
pall and nauseate, unless they are 
associated with more sprightly 
qualities". 6 

Secondarily, Lowell is saying 
that Miss Fuller s criticism could 
well do with a balancing of the in 
gredients. "Spirit alone is too pow 
erful for use", Johnson had writt