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The American-Scandinavian 
review 

American-Scandinavian Foundation 



PScavv w^j 



l^arbarli College l^ibrarg 





FROM THE BBqyBST OP 

GEORGE FRANCIS PARKMAN 

(CUM Of 1844) 
OF BOSTON 

A fund of $25,000. Mtablish^d in 1909. the Income 
of lAfhich it used 

'• For the purchase of books for the Library " 



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|— ^^ <^a > i- II 



The American- 
Scandinavian Review 



VOLUME II 



Containing" Issues of 

January, March, May, July, 

September, November 

1914 



Published by the 

American-Scandinavian Foundation 

New York 



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INDEX 

Number and Page 

Aalholm, Danish Castles — II Mch.-32 

Alliance, A Swedish-Norwegian Defensive July-38 

"Aphrodite," Figurehead of the Pleasure Yacht Mch.^0 

Architecture, Glimpses of Swedish. 0. Sir^n Sept.-?, Nov.-16 

Arreskov, Danish Castles — IV July-28 

Ballad, The Medieval; Review of. H,G.L July-42 

Baltic. The May-36 

Baltic, The— Exhibition May-11 

Baltic, The — Exhibition, Bird's-eye View of May-8 

Baltic, The — Exhibition Poster. E. Norlind Cover, May 

Bang, Translations from Mch.-42, July-19 

Bjornson. Three Plays; Review of. A. R. Shelander July-39 

\Bjornson, Translations from Mch.-28, May-23, Sept.-26, Nov.-27 
Bondetaget May-34 

Bonnier's College Series of Swedish Text-books; Review of. H. G. L. .July-40 

Books Jan.-53, Mch.-50, May-39, July-39, Sept.-43 

Brandes, Georg. A, R, Shelander Nov.-30 

Brandes in America .Sept.-40, Nov.-33 

Brief Notes Jan.-56, Mch.-53, May-42, July-42, Sept.-44, Nov.-42 

Canute the Great ; Review of. A. M, Wergeland Mch.-51 

Centennial Exposition. See " Norway*' 

Child That Plays by the River, The— B. Bjornson. Tr. 0. T. Arneson . . May-23 
Church, The — A Factor in Norwegian-American Development. D. G. Ristad 

Mch.-34 
Contributors to the Review. .Jan.-8, Mch.-ll, May-7, July-5, Sept.-5, Nov.-2 
Dagmar, The Death of Queen. Danish Popular Ballad. 

Tr. E, M. Smith-Dampier . .July-24 

Dagmar, The Death of Queen. Relief by A. Slott-M oiler July-24 

Danish Castle. A Sonnet. M, F, Egan Sept.-25 

Danish Castles. Jan.-32, Mch.-32, May-24, July-28, Sept.-24, Nov.-24 

Denmark's American Society July-34, Sept.-38 

Denmark, Two Visits to; Review of. L. M, Hollander Mch.~5I 

Descendants of Joran Kyn, The; Review of. A, Johnson Sept.^3 

Drachmann, Holger; Translation from July-15 

Dybbol, Veterans of July-37 

Dybeck, Richard; Translation from Nov.-23 

Editorials Jan.-50, Mch.-43, May-34, July-33, Sept.-37, Nov.-38 

Elverhoj .••;•. July-23 

Engineers to Meet in Christiania Mch.-48 

European Dramatists; Review of. A. R, Shelander Mch.-50 

Expositions, At the Sept.-38 

Festskrift, Norsk- Amerikanernes, 1914; Review of. H. A. L July-39 

Foundation, The American-Scandinavian Mch.-47 

Associates of Jan.-51, July-34 

Endowments, Future July-34 

Fellows of Nov.-41 

Fellows and Scholars July-33 

Fourth of July in Norway, The. H. A, L Sept.-29 

Frederiksborg, Danish Castles — III May-24 

Gade, Fredrik Herman Nov.-37 



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"Gj5a," The. A Sonnet. £. R. Taylor Mch.-40 

Great Mother, The; Review of. A. R. Shelander July-40 

Gustaf s Speech to the Yeomen, King May~9 

Hamsun, Knut: An Appreciation. C. C. Hyllested Mch.-13 

Hamsun, Knut; Portrait of. H. Lund Frontispiece, Mch. 

Harvard Fellow, A July-36 

H4vamal, From. Tr. M. B. Ruud Mch.-38 

Hedin's, Dr. — Warning Mch.-43 

Heidenstam, Verner von; Translation from May-26 

Hoflding, Harald: A Personal Tribute. E. Bjdrkman July-12 

Holberg Revival, A May-39, Sept.-41 

Holberg and Tegner Nov.^0 

Hunter, The. Painting by B. Liljefors Frontispiece, Jan. 

Hymn to the Fatherland— R. Dybeck. Tr. 0. W, Peterson Nov.-23 

Ibsen; Review of July-41 

Interesting People: Fredrik Herman Cade Nov.-37 

Jacobsen, Carl May-20 

Karen Borneman; Review of. L, M, H July-41 

King of Sweden to the Swedish People, The May-9 

King's Karin. Painting by Anders Zorn Cover, Jan. 

Lagerl5f, Selma; Translation from Jan.-9 

Review of Jan.-53 

Lapland — Sweden's America. H, G. Leach Jan.-35 

Lisbeth Longfrock; Review of Mch.-53 

Little Paul — B. Bjornson. Tr. W. von M. af Morgenstieme Sept.-26 

Lovenborg. Danish Castles — V Sept.-24 

Luther College Concert Band Mch.-41 

Lynggaard & Co.; Review of. L. M, H July^l 

Madness of the Monarchs, The. Poem. J. Grondahl Nov.-26 

Magazines, The July-44, Sept.-45, Nov.-43 

Maihaugen Open- Air Museum July-16 

Mathilda Wrede— Selma Lagerlof. Tr. V, S. Howard Jan.-9 

Midsummer Dance. Painting by Anders Zorn Cover, July 

Midsummer Eve at Helene's Grave. Painting by J. Sonne. . . Frontispiece, July 

Midsummer Play — V. von Heidenstam. Tr. J, W. Hartmann May-26 

Ministry, The New May-35 

Moens Klint. D. S. Hage May-19 

Mountains. Painting by H, Sohlberg Cover, Mch. 

Music, Recognition of Northern Jan.-5I 

Neutral America Nov.-38 

Neutrality Alliance of Norway and Sweden, The. H. A. Larsen Nov.-8 

New Sweden Sept.-41 

New^ Sweden and Her Churches, Some Account of. M, A, Leach Sept.~16 

New Sweden Company, First Page in the Journal of the Frontispiece, Sept. 

Nobel Prizes, The Mch.-45 

Nordmandsforbundet Sept.-39 

Norway Abroad at the Centennial Exposition in Christiania. F. G. Gade . . Nov.-3 

Centennial Exposition. H, Kr. Lehmkuhl Mch .-1 8 

Home to Norway. H. A. Larsen Mch.-25 

Song for Norway — B. Bjornson. Tr. A, H. Palmer Mch.~28 

The New Norway Mch.-43 

The Norway Centennial July-38 

To Norway. Poem. 3f . B. Ruud Mch.-25 



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Nyhuus, Haakon — Librarian. V. Slomann Sept.-42 

O Pioneers! Review of. H. A. L Mch.-52 

Peace Monument on Kjolen, The Nov.-15 

Peer Gynt; Review of. L, M, H July-41 

Pernille— H. Bang. Tr. J, E, GyUich July-19 

Plymouth of Swedish America, A. E, S. Farman Sept.-30 

Poulsen, The, Wireless Telegraph Mch.-46 

Printz, Governor; Portrait of Cover, Sept. 

Review, The American-Scandinavian Jan.-50, Mch.-48 

Riis, Jacob A July-30 

Rochester Memorial Art Gallery, The Mch.-41 

Rosenborg, Danish Castles — I Jan.-32 

Sonnet. M. F, Egan Jan.-33 

Rosenborg Park, In — H. Bang. Tr. J, W, Harimann Mch.-42 

Rudbjerggaard, Danish Castles — VI Nov.-24 

St. Olaf Singers in Norway, The. P. G. Schmidt Jan.-34 

Saltsjobaden Church Portal — F. Boberg Cover, Nov. 

Scandinavian Languages in American Schools May-38 

Libraries Mch.-46 

Mission of the Scandinavian. A, Teisen Mch.-48 

Study July-35 

School System of Norway, The; Review of. E. J, Vickner Sept.-43 

Second Generation, The Sept.-40 

Shallow Soil; Review of. H. A, L Mch.-52 

Sibelius, To Jean. Poem. N. J, (V Conor Sept.-28 

Skansen May-37, May-40 

Sloyd, Swedish, in America Nov .-28 

Smokeless Marine, A. /. Knudsen Jan.-21 

Society, The American-Scandinavian Mch.-47 

Strindberg, August — Samlade Skrifter; Review of. J. W, Hartmann. , .Mch -50 

In 1913; Review of. J. W. Harimann Jan.-54 

Interpretation Mch.-48 

To August Strindberg. Poem. H. Drachmann. Tr. A'^. J. O'Conor. .July-15 

Summer Colonies in Denmark. E. D. Winslow May-18 

Swedish Midsummer Night. Painting by H. R. H, Prince Eugen Jan.-20 

Tegner, Holberg and Nov .-40 

Tips, How to Give. E, D. Winslow Mch.-39 

Tisvilde and Helene's Spring, ff. Olrik July-6 

Two Empty Hands. W. Ager Sept.-13 

Union of the North, The Mch.-44 

Unique Danish Work, A July-36 

Voices of Tomorrow; Review of. L, D. Abbott Jan.-53 

Voyages of the Norsemen Nov.-41 

W^aldemar Nielsen's Homecoming. Nina, Countess Raben-Levetzau Jan.-29 

Wanderer's Necklace, The; Review of. B, M, P May-39 

War. J. A,G Sept.-37 

War, In the Shadow of Nov.-39 

Wergeland, Agnes Mathilde. M, Michelet July-32 

Wilson, Mrs. Woodrow. Stanzas in Memoriam. P. MacKaye Nov.-7 

Wonderful Adventures of Nils, The; Review of. H. A. L Jan.-53 

Wounded, For the. Poem — B. Bjornson. Tr. A, H. Palmer Nov.-27 



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•THE-ifl^ERIOftM- 

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The American-Scandinavian Review 

Volume II JANUARY, 1914 Number 1 

Published Bi-Monthly by Thb AifSBiCAN-ScANDiNAyiAN Foundation, 85 West 45th Street, New York 

Yeariy Subscription, $1.50. Single Copies, 25 cents. Christmas Number, 50 cents 

Entered as second-class matter. January 4, 1913 at the post-office at New York. N. Y., under the act of March 3. 1879 

Copyright. 1913. The American-Scandinavian Foundation 

Hknbt Goddabd Leacb, Managing Editor Hanna Astbttp Labskn, Literary Editor 

AdvUory Editors 
New York, Hamilton Holt Copenhagen,. Harald Nielsen 

Stockholm, Carl Laurin Christiania, Christian Collin 



CONTENTS 

"KINGS KARIN," in Three Colors. By Anders Zorn ... Cover 

"THE HUNTER," in Three Colors. By Bruno Liljefors Frontispiece 

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE YULE NUMBER 8 

MATHILDA WREDE. By Selma LagerlSf. Translated from the 

Swedish by Velma Swanston Howard 9 

••SWEDISH MIDSUMMER NIGHT." By H. R. H. Prince Eugen . 20 

A SMOKELESS MARINE. With Five Illustrations. By Ivar Knudsen 21 

WALDEMAR NIELSEN'S RETURN. By Nina, Countess Raben- 

Levetzau 29 

DANISH CASTLES.— I. ROSENBORG. With a Sonnet by Maurice 

Francis Egan 32 

THE ST. OLAF SINGERS IN NORWAY. With Two Illustrations. 

By Paul G. Schmidt 34 

LAPLAND — SWEDEN'S AMERICA. With Eleven Illustrations. 

By Henry Goddard Leach 38 

EDITORIALS: The Review, Associates of the Foundation, Recognition of 

Northern Music 50 

BOOKS: Voices of To-Morrow, The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, Strind- 

berg in 1913, Brief Notes 53 




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THE FEE INCLUDES SUBSCRIPTION TO THE 

AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Patron Associate, $25 annually; Life, $100 once for all; Sustaining, $5 annually; Regular, $1 

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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE YULE NUMBER 

Selma Lagerlof, the foremost living author in the Scandinavian North, has 
contributed her "Mathilda Wrede" to the Yule Review at the request of her 
kinsman in America, Mr. Hans Lagerlof of New York. This is practically the 
first narrative written by Miss Lagerlof since she received the Nobel Prize, to be 
translated in America. The sympathetic English interpretation is the work of 
Miss Lagerlof's friend and representative in America, Velma Swanston Howard. 
Baroness Wrede, the subject of this biographical tale, has devoted a life of 
service to the prisons of Finland, and while this service has recently been taken 
from her by the Russian government, Mathilda Wrede is a national heroine 
among her Finnish people. 

The recent unfortunate death of Dr. Diesel, the German inventor, has awak- 
ened a worldwide interest in the Diesel motor. Ivar B. Knudsen is recognized 
on the continent as one of Denmark's most brilliant inventors and constructors; 
his article on the Diesel motor ship, generously prepared at the urgent solicitation 
of the editor, Mr. Knudsen modestly desired to be anonymous, but the announce- 
ment of its authorship was deemed necessary to give the full weight of authority. 

Like her mother, Madame Hegermann-Lindencrone, author of "In the Courts 
of Memory," Countess Raben-Levetzau is an American girl happily married to 
a Danish nobleman. Her husband, Count Raben, is heir to Aalholm Castle and 
other fine old Danish estates. From 1905 to 1908 he was Danish Minister of 
Foreign Affairs. 

Our readers will welcome the reappearance of Maurice Francis Egan, our 
first contributor, who follows the "Three Danish Sonnets" with which the 
Review opened last January, with a delicate sonnet dedicated to Rosenborg 
Castle. The new administration at Washington has retained Dr. Egan as 
Minister to Denmark. 

Paul G. Schmidt, A.M., is Vice-President and Professor of Mathematics in 
St. Olaf College, Minnesota. He was President of the St. Olaf Choir during their 
tour abroad last summer. 

Leonard Dalton Abbott is a native of England who came to New York in 
1897 and became prominently identified with the Socialist movement. Since 
1905 he has been an editor of Current Opinion. Mr. Abbott is a gentle belligerent, 
a foe to convention and a friend of the radical tendencies in Scandinavian thought. 

Jacob Wittmer Hartmann, Ph.D., of the College of the City of New York, 
is a confirmed contributor to the Review. 

Henry Goddard Leach, editor of the Review, though born in Philadelphia 
in 1880, is not of Quaker, but of Mayflower descent. After two years' residence 
in Scandinavia he became a contributor on Northern topics to English and 
American magazines. Formerly instructor in English and Old Norse literature 
at Harvard University, he has during the past year devoted all his time to the 
educational work of the American-Scandinavian Foundation. 

The portrait of a Dalecarlian girl reproduced on our cover, "Kings Karin," 
was painted by Anders Zorn in 1905 for Dr. Hjalmar Lundbohm, in whose study 
it hangs today at Kiruna, far north in Lapland. The Review thanks Mr. Zorn 
and Dr. Lundbohm for their kind permission. The young lady herself is a 
daughter of the Kings farm in Zorn's own parish of Mora. The cover was 
planned by Mr. Henry Reuterdahl, the design executed by Mr. Brynjulf Strand- 
enses, while the plates for the portrait, as well as the frontispiece by Liljefors, 
were made in Stockholm. 



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HUNTSMAN ON THE ALERT 

Oil painting by BRUNO LILJEFORS 



Three-colour blocks by BORTZELLS, 
Stockholm, Sweden. 



Printed by IDUNS TRYCKERI. 

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-■■\ JAN zi iai3 



6. P-^RK^gl FUND 

American Scandinavian 

Review 

Volume II JANUARY • 1914 Number 1 



Mathilda Wrede 

A SKETCH FROM LIFE 

By Selma Lagerlof 
Translated by Velma Swanston Howard 

I 

THE first time I visited the Art Museum at Helsingfors — the 
winter of 1912 — I remember well that my Finnish guide sud- 
denly halted before a certain picture. 

"This canvas," he remarked, "we prize more than anything else 
in the Museum." 

I glanced at the picture. It was the portrait of a woman in a 
plain, dark dress, with hair brushed smoothly back. She was no 
longer young, neither was she beautiful. 

"Whom does it represent.'^" I asked, trying to discover a reason 
for his enthusiasm. 

"That is Mathilda Wrede, by Arvid Jarnefelt," said the Finn; and 
it was evident from his tone that he thought it needless to say any- 
thing further to make me understand. 

I had never before heard of Mathilda Wrede; therefore the name 
told me nothing; but before my guide had finished speaking a veil 
seemed to drop from my eyes, and I saw who was before me. I saw 
it in the thin, strong hands, and in the dress, which had not a button, 
or fold, or loop more than was strictly necessary. Above all, I saw 
it in the radiant lustre of the upturned eyes — a lustre not wrought 
by tears or by anything else earthly. Before me was one of those 
divinely appointed to fight the world's evil and misery, with never 
a thought of self. 

"Mathilda Wrede must be a saint," I observed, struggling hard 
to control my voice; for there was something indescribably touching 



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10 THE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

about the lone woman who bore her burden with enthusiasm, though 
it was apparently crushing her to earth. 

"Yes, she is something of that sort," returned the Finn. She 
devotes her time to rescue work among convicts. She must be forty 
now, and has been in this work from girlhood. She is of the Old 
Nobility, yet nothing exists for her but the poor criminals. They get 
all she can give them — time and money, care and consideration." 

We talked long of Mathilda Wrede. My guide informed me that 
she kept in touch with her "wards," even after their release from 
prison, and was their counsellor also in purely practical matters. Her 
home was always open to them; she, if no one else, received them as 
friends. 

At my request he also told me what she was like. The portrait 
was to some extent misleading; it revealed only the dominant purpose 
of her life. Meeting her under ordinary circumstances and noting the 
slim figure and the strong aquiline nose one could not forget that she 
was descended from a race of fighters. She was happy, buoyant and 
open-hearted; nothing troubled her save that she had not money 
enough to give her wards all the help that was needed. It was self- 
evident that she should sacrifice herself for her friends, the criminals. 
That was her work, and she loved it. She knew how to call forth 
their best qualities. She liked to talk of them, and always described 
them with as much love as humor. 

Finally I asked if she had met with success. 

"You yourself see," said the Finn, pointing to the picture, "that 
it isn't easy to resist her!" 

Some days later I met Mathilda Wrede. However, it is not of 
our meeting that I would tell. Here I shall only record a few inci- 
dents in her life, some details of which she told me herself; the rest 
I have from her friends. 

II 

When a girl of eighteen, Mathilda Wrede dreamed several con- 
secutive nights that a man cried out to her for help. She saw him 
plainly, heard his moans and sobs, was moved to pity, and wanted 
to help him. But as is usual in dreams, she could not carry out her 
purpose and presently awoke, feeling troubled and anxious, the tears 
coursing down her cheeks. This man whom Mathilda Wrede had 
seen in the dream she one day met in reality. 

Her father, who at that time was Governor of the province of 
Vasa, had sent for a penal convict, a painter by trade, and had 
ordered him to repaint some old furniture. While the convict was 
at work the young daughter of the Governor came by, and he looked 
up. She stood stock still, unable to move. It was the man of her 
dream ! She recognized every feature of his face. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 11 

The man, after a casual glance at her, resumed his work without 
a word. This amazed her. In the surprise of the moment she had 
expected him to recognize her and to take advantage of this oppor- 
tunity by appealing once more for help. 

Although the man had said nothing, she could not get away from 
the thought that his soul was in a state of torment, and that some- 
thing must be done for him. Yet he stood there, quietly working, 
nothing about him betraying any inner upheaval. Nevertheless she 
was certain that such was the case. 

The dream and the spirit of the dream returned now with a force 
so overpowering that she could but believe they possessed full reality. 
To her the only thing of import was to do something for the man 
at once, and thus spare herself another night of agony on his account. 

Without knowing how it came about, she began to talk to him 
of his soul; of the burden of sin, and of salvation. 

Even at that time she must have been deeply religious, but she 
was also timid and afraid of ridicule. 

When she realized what she had taken upon herself, she felt as 
if she were treading on dangerous ice, which might at any moment 
break under her. On recovering herself, she hastily added a few 
significant words, then stood silent, and decidedly ill at ease. What 
had she said.'^ Had she been beguiled into betraying her love for 
Christ, which constituted her young heart's sweetest secret.^ 

The man was perhaps laughing at her, or resented, maybe, that 
she, a mere child, should try to comfort him — a mature and experi- 
enced man. The convict continued silent, working carefully but 
slowly, as if to stretch out the time. Presently his task was com- 
pleted; a few minutes more were consumed in cleaning the brushes. 
Only after that did he turn to her. Then she saw that the man was 
moved. He had not laughed at her. He had wept while bending 
over his work. He looked as if he had experienced great things; but 
of these he did not speak. To her he only said: 

"Pity you can't come down to the prison and talk to the others, 
too!" 

Then he went. But his words were to the young girl an inspiration. 

All that had happened that day seemed to her a direct command 
from the Most High. In her heart she felt the presence of her God, 
and, in devotion and obedience, she folded her hands. 

"If it is Thy will I shall go to those who languish in prison and 
tell them of Thee." 

Ill 

One morning, some years later, Mathilda Wrede sat in the ante- 
room of the Governor General at Helsingfors, awaiting an audience. 
She was very pale, and held her hands tightly clasped so that no one 



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12 THE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

would notice how they trembled. Her suspense and unrest were not 
to be wondered at, for unless she could persuade the powerful official 
in the adjoining room to take pity on her, she must abandon her 
life's mission. 

Almost up to that time there had been nothing to prevent her 
from carrying on the work which God had entrusted to her. Her 
father had allowed her full liberty to visit the prison at Vasa, where 
she made her first experiments. She had failed now and then, but 
on the whole her service had been a blessing. That she should not 
be allowed to continue seemed incredible. 

But now her father had left his post, the family had moved to 
Helsingf ors, where those in authority refused to open the prison gates 
to her. She had knocked at many a door, but nowhere had she found 
a willing ear. So, after many futile attempts, she decided to present 
her petition to the Governor-General himself. 

One must try to understand just what this meant to her. She 
must needs go to a Russian official, a stranger to her faith, and place 
in his hands her most precious interest. She had carefully thought 
out what she would say to him to make him understand that she was 
divinely called; that she really did have the power to reach criminals, 
and change the bent of their minds. Yet, every second she was 
becoming more and more convinced that her petition would meet 
with no response. She tormented herself, as one habitually does 
when sitting waiting. God would have helped her had she been 
worthy of help, which she was not, of course. He had tried her, and 
this was His way of showing her that she was unfit to labor for Him. 

She started and turned crimson, like a culprit caught red-handed. 
She had made a sudden discovery. At that moment she perceived 
that her work among criminals was of supreme importance to her own 
happiness. She loved this work, and to be deprived of it would be 
a terrible loss. 

All the time when visiting the dark cells, spending hours and 
hours trying to awaken in some criminal a sense of guilt, she had 
imagined that she was doing it for love of God; but God knew that 
it was simply a means of self -gratification. Therefore the work was 
to be taken from her. 

She searched her heart, again and again. Why had she chosen 
to work among convicts.^ Only because it interested her more than 
anything else. Now that it was over, her life would be empty. She 
needed these poor people far more than they needed her. For them 
Almighty God could call another helper at any time. 

This conviction fell upon her like a crushing weight. She was 
already prepared to go her way and let the matter drop, when the 
attendant motioned to her that it was her turn. 

On her way to the audience chamber she thought: "The power of 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 13 

decision does not rest with this man. I am already judged. I know 
that this interview is to no purpose." 

When she came out, some ten minutes later, she had the Governor 
General's promise. By his decree she was to have unrestricted entry 
to all prisons in Finland. Thus all obstacles were removed; the 
way was open. 

But how could this be? How had this come about .^ 

While with the Governor General she had certainly not said 
what she intended saying when leaving home that morning. The 
words that were to have convinced him that she was called of God 
had been taken from her the instant it had dawned upon her that 
she worked merely for her own pleasure and satisfaction. What she 
did say had sounded cold and colorless. Her own coldness had 
frightened her into outbursts which were not of the heart, and had 
therefore created a false impression. She had instantly detected 
that he did not take her seriously. Nor could she forget that she 
strove only for herself; this had robbed her of courage. 

On reaching the street she was still dazed and mystified. But 
presently she recalled the look on the Governor General's face and 
immediately interpreted what had taken place in his mind. 

He had been thinking that there were two kinds of enthusiasts in 
the world: The genuine, who hold to one idea through life. These 
were troublesome and dangerous persons. For such one must set up 
every conceivable obstacle from the start. The other kind burn vio- 
lently for a time, but soon tire and long for change; for these one 
need raise no barriers. On the contrary, they should be encouraged 
to go ahead, in which case they will invariably tire of their own accord. 

Now she understood that she had been classed with the latter 
kind; and therefore her request had been granted. She had suc- 
ceeded because of her failure to make him believe in her mission. 

Yet why had she been alarmed at the thought of her calling as a 
pleasure.'^ Where was the wrong in this.^ Was it not a sign that the 
Lord had created her for just this work? That He needed her, and 
had fashioned her thus for His instrument? 

IV 

o 

In the prison-house at Abo was an old convict named Lauri. 

One morning Mathilda Wrede spent a full hour in his cell, helping 
him write letters home. There was so much she was to say and so 
much she was not to say ! The old man rambled on and on. She 
tried to be patient, but that day he was more tedious and long-winded 
than ever, and she was utterly worn out before he had finally said all. 
The same day she was summoned by the Governor of the prison, who 
detained her until half after two. 



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U THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

She usually dined in town between two and three o'clock, but 
this time she thought it best to forego the midday meal, since she 
had to be back at the prison by three, at which hour she held daily 
what might be termed a public reception. The Governor had 
assigned to her a special room where she could receive convicts who 
desired her aid. 

She felt rather tired after her busy morning, and when she entered 
the reception room and found old man Lauri standing there, waiting 
for her, she was provoked. 

"Why, Lauri!" she protested, thinking she could not endure a 
second recital of his long-winded tales. "I have given you a whole 
hour today; so you mustn't take up the time of the others." 

But Lauri did not mind the rebuke. "Don't be afraid. Miss," he 
said. "I shan't be so long this time. It so happens that I've been 
working in the courtyard today, doing a little tinkering on a wagon, 
and I haven't seen you go home; so you can't have had any dinner." 

"That is true, Lauri. Therefore " 

The old man beamed with satisfaction. 

"I thought of you. Miss, when I was having my dinner," he said. 
"By good luck we had meat soup and potatoes. Now if it had been 
peas it wouldn't have been possible to hide any; but as it was I have 
managed to spare both bread and potatoes for you." Whereupon 
old man Lauri dived down into his pocket and brought up two small 
potatoes and a hunk of grimy bread, which he held out to her in a 
wet, dirty hand. 

"What sunshine and flowers are to those who live in a free world, 
you. Miss, are to us who sit behind bars," said the old man. "That's 
why " 

She herself did not know when accepting the offering whether 
she was most touched or most afraid lest he should also want the 
pleasure of seeing her appease her hunger. But, happily, he left at 
once without even expecting thanks. 

Then she hastened after him. 

"Lauri!" she called. "You may talk as long as you like next 
time. You have given me more than bread. You have given me 
something of which I can think with joy all my life." 



One Saturday evening Jaho Jokkinen and his comrade, Eino 
lUonen, sat on a bench in Brunnsparky at Helsingfors. It was windy 
and drizzly, but Jokkinen and Illonen, who paid little heed to wind 
and weather, were in high spirits — and with good cause. Were they 
not seated in an out-of-the-way corner, their pockets bulging with 
bottles, ready to make a night of it 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 15 

Jokkinen was an old Helsingforser, while Illonen was a newcomer 
to the Capital, and unfamiliar with city ways. He had come from 
the country to be a cabman and considered himself too good to 
associate with Jokkinen, who was an ex-convict. However, he had 
been unable to resist the seductive bottles whose necks protruded 
from Jokkinen's pocket. While Jokkinen was forcing the corkscrew 
into the neck of the first bottle he was loud in his praises of the spot 
where they were. 

"I say, old pal — nothing the matter with this, eh.^ Fine sea 
view! And not a policeman has been seen around here in ten 
years." 

The whole park was as good as deserted. Only the dim outline 
of a solitary woman could be seen moving forward among the trees. 
Illonen couldn't imagine anything less formidable; but Jokkinen let 
out a volley of curses because she of all people should be strolling in 
BrunnsparJc when a poor devil had been looking forward to a pleasant 
hour, after the wear and tear of the week's work. 

"Who are you so afraid of .^" asked Illonen. 

"Don't you know her.^" exclaimed Jokkinen. "True, so far 
you've had no business with her. She is the lady who used to come 
to us in the prison." 

Illonen laughed derisively: "So it's one of those who talk religion 
to you while you sit caged. But you're not going to be a fool, man! 
You're free now." 

Jokkinen glanced around, perplexed, and hid the bottle behind 
his back. 

"Can you see if she's coming this way.'^" 

"I believe she is. Aw, brace up!" said Illonen, with a coarse 
laugh. "Just you let her come here and preach! I'll give her as 
good as she sends." 

This brought Jokkinen to his senses. The ex-convict braced him- 
self and began to draw the cork. 

"Well, you see, she isn't like the others," he said, apologetically, 
"she doesn't preach. In prison we used to count the days till she 
would come. Then, too, she went to see my wife and kind of made 
things easy for her while I was away. I felt then that I had no friend 
but her in all the world. It's a confounded shame that she should 
happen along to-night!" 

" Bah ! Don't mind her ! " said Illonen. " All that is only a dodge 
to make you soft. That kind want to convert you so that they them- 
selves may live quietly and safely in their fine houses." 

"That may be true of a lot of them, but not of this one," Jokkinen 
retorted. "Although she's a governor's daughter she lives in a single 
room; and it's not so grand but that you and I could go there to 
see her." 



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16 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

"Well, if you're so seared, let's throw the bottles into the sea and 
go home," proposed Illonen. 

"Haven't I said it was the devil's own luck that she should show 
up just now? But I'm not afraid. Not I! I'll show you." 

The cork came out of the bottle with a challenging pop just as 
the lone woman passed. She had been walking with head bent and 
had taken no notice of the men by the wayside. Now she sent them 
a long look, then paused a second; but presently continued up the 
slope. 

When she had passed Jokkinen nudged Illonen. "Did you see 
those eyes!" he said, with a note of awe in his rum-coarsened voice. 

He had been talking so loud that the passer-by must have heard 
him, but she still went on. Jokkinen's grip on the bottle tightened. 
He wanted to raise it for a drink, but put it down again. 

"Come, now, Jokkinen!" protested Illonen, trying to seize the 
bottle. But Jokkinen pushed him back. 

"Miss!" he called. 

The woman turned, hesitatingly. 

"Look here!" he shouted, and raised the bottle. 

"Mathilda Wrede's health!" he roared, in a tone that cannot be 
described. At the same time he tipped the bottle and let its contents 
run out upon the ground; while Illonen, reluctantly impressed by this 
procedure, saw all the liquor flowing away without making a move. 

The next moment Mathilda Wrede had come back to them. 

"Ah, Jokkinen, how happy you have made me!" she said. This 
morning I felt very sad, for I thought that all my strivings were 
useless. I came out hoping the fresh air would give me a little more 
<?ourage. But when I saw you sitting here I was more disheartened 
than ever. I was too tired even to speak to you. What would be 
the use, anyway, I thought. But now you have cheered and strength- 
-ened me. Now both of you must come to town with me, to have 
some coffee." 

"But, Miss, you can't be seen with us!" 

"Indeed I can!" 

She walked into the city in company with Jokkinen and Illonen, 
the two proudest men in Helsingfors. 

VI. 

A cell in Helsingfors Prison. 

A tall, slender lady, simply attired in a close-fitting gray gown, 
had just been let in and the door closed. Stretched full length on 
the floor w^as a man in prison garb. He made no movement when the 
door opened and continued motionless, his right arm thrown over his 
^yes. 

The visitor stood quietly, for a time, looking down at the prostrate 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 17 

man. He was one of whom she had heard much — no petty thief or 
forger, but a great criminal, an outlaw who had murdered half a 
dozen people, who had plundered wayfarers and had made several 
parishes over by the Russian border unsafe. Having finally been 
captured and sentenced to penal servitude for life, he proved to be 
so savage that the guards could not handle him. They considered it 
a menace to life to enter his cell. She who stood there, alone and 
defenceless, had been compelled fairly to battle with the governor of 
the prison before obtaining his consent to visit this prisoner. 

"Hallonen," she said, in a low but masterful tone, "I come to you 
with greetings from your relatives back at Vasa." 

The man made no response. He was asleep or shamming — she 
did not quite know which. She waited a moment; then began anew. 

"I bring greetings to you from your relatives.** 

He continued stubbornly silent; whereupon she bent down and 
twitched him by the sleeve. 

Instantly the man, who was fettered hand and foot, sprang to 
his feet and stood upright, as if by magic. She marveled at his 
agility, and even more at the man himself as he stood before her. 
He was the biggest man she had ever seen, a veritable giant with the 
bearing of a prince, and so perfectly formed that he might well have 
been the original man himself. 

Naturally she stepped backward when he bounded to his feet. 
She had cause for alarm; the look on his face was that of one whose 
patience had been tried to its utmost limit, and who, on the least 
provocation, was ready to raise his fettered hands for a deadly blow. 

He saw that he had frightened her, and smiled contemptuously. 

"Who are you?" he asked, as if addressing a crawling worm. 

She spoke her name and repeated that she had come to him with 
a message. She was provoked at herself, for she realized that she 
had spoken in a dejected tone, notwithstanding that she had con- 
quered her momentary fear. What she then felt was an overwhelm- 
ing hopelessness. She had the sensation of having entered the cage 
of some beautiful forest beast, which she could neither tame nor 
master. 

The outlaw still ignored her greeting, but took notice of her name. 

" Mathilda Wrede " — he pondered. Then perhaps you are related 
to the General at Vasa.'^" 

"My father was a general and the Governor of Vasa. Did you 
know him, Hallonen.^ He is dead now." 

The big prisoner measured her with a disdainful glance. 

"The General was a handsome man. What apityyou^re not like 
him!" After which sally he crouched for a spring, his eyes glittering 
evilly. Obviously, he was trying to provoke his visitor into giving 
him a sharp retort, that he might have an excuse for attacking her. 



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18 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

While Mathilda Wrede deliberated whether or not to answer him, 
her glance met his and she instantly caught the murderous gleam in 
his eyes. She realized that her life was at stake. This quickened 
her special gift, the intuition which told her how criminals and 
derelicts must be dealt with. Her confidence being restored, she was 
amused by the wild man's palpable assurance of his own superiority, 
despite what had befallen him. 

"We cannot all be as handsome as yourself and my father," she 
pluckily returned, "but we must try to live just the same." 

The outlaw straightened himself. This was not the moment to 
strike. Her answer had disarmed him. 

"You are a sensible person," he laughed. "I thought you were 
here to preach." 

Again the glint of evil was in his eyes. In all that he said lay a 
snare. He wanted to trap her into some retort that would give him 
cause for attack. 

Her answer came with dignity and assurance: 

" If God some day allows you to approach Him, I shall be very 
happy to show you the way to His throne. Until then, we had best 
talk of other things." 

Evidently the man did not wish to understand her. 

"Why do you come here, then, if you don't want to preach?" he 
gruffly demanded. 

"I come to Hallonen as I go to others in this prison, to give such 
service as I may. I can write letters for you. I can bring news of 
your kindred; and should there be some woman or child back in the 
forest who suflFers want while you are in captivity, I can send aid to 
them." 

"These are only excuses!" the outlaw exclaimed. "The upshot 
of all this is repentance and conversion. You have come here to 
make me repent; but I won't — I'm beyond that." 

During this speech he had worked himself into a frenzy. Purple 
with rage, he edged closer to her and shook his clenched fists in her 
face. She perceived that he was determined to pick a quarrel; and 
yet, in the stress of mortal danger, she pictured to herself the des- 
peration of this poor barbarian. She understood how this man who 
had gloried in his strength and prowess, who had been a power among 
his own, must suflFer as a despised prisoner. She had an instinctive 
fellow feeling for this captive eagle. It was this which prevented her 
from becoming either angry or fearful. She answered him in the 
same gentle manner: 

"I'm not here to harm you, Hallonen." 

He was perchance agreeably moved by a tremor of sympathy in 
her tone. He had met with nothing of this nature since the beginning 
of his trouble. He dropped his hands and dragged his shackled feet 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 19 

a step or two, then sat down upon a narrow bench — the only seat in 
the cell. 

"Do you dare to come and sit beside me?" 

This was, of course, a new ruse. He had been at pains to seat 
himself so as to be between her and the door. He searched eagerly 
for some sign of hesitancy in her. 

She saw what would be the less dangerous course, and sat down 
beside him. 

"I'd like to tell you something," he began; "but of course you'd 
go tell it all!" 

"Do you think I would repeat what a person tells me in confi- 
dence!" she protested. 

He was silent a moment, then, quite unexpectedly, he began to 
tell her of sun-ups and stormy nights, of mystical lakes and crafty 
beasts, whose manner of living he would emulate. He told it all 
better than any poet, and, moreover, with the most intimate knowl- 
edge. She listened with such eager interest that she almost forgot 
to whom she was listening. 

Suddenly he sprang up so quickly that his chains rattled, and he 
cried, with passionate yearning: 

"Can't you see that one who has lived back yonder can't stand 
being shut up in a hole like this! Ohe must be free somehow!" 

"I understand your longing for freedom," she replied. 

He stood bracing himself against the wall. His face had become 
hard and stolid; and with sinister calm he explained: 

"Now, I will tell you what I was thinking of when you came in. 
I swore to myself that I would kill the first person who entered this 
cell." 

He stopped a moment, but seeing that she sat quite still and made 
no reply, he continued: 

"That I must free myself in one way or another you can under- 
stand. I thought I had already done enough killing for a death 
sentence; but it seems not. Therefore I'll have to kill one or two or 
three more — ^in fact as many as necessary to end it all." 

"Then, Hallonen, it is your intention to kill me," she said, without 
rising or giving any signal that would attract the turnkey, who was 
undoubtedly near the door, and probably on the watch for anything 
which might occur. 

"That had been my intention the whole time," he declared. 
"But now I'm thinking it was a man I had in mind when I made 
that vow. Therefore you may go, unharmed — but you must be 
quick about it!" 

"But suppose I don't want to go, Hallonen.^" 

"There's no time now for joking. I have said my last word." 

The man expected her to go, but she made no move. 



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20 



THE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



"You must go quickly, or " 

She turned upon him a calm, questioning gaze. 

*'But it is your purpose to kill the first person who comes in after 
I have gone," 

"That's what I said." 

"Then surely you understand, Hallonen, that I must remain." 

"Must you remain, Miss.^" 

"I could not save myself at another's cost. If some one has to 
die, why should not I be the one." 

She turned from him, clasped her hands and lost herself in prayer, 
glancing no more in his direction. At the same time her face took 
on a look of yearning and celestial hope. The hour of freedom had 
come. This sojourn in a world of evil and misery was at last over — 
the end of all weariness, of all failure; the end of a battle which can 
never be brought to any final victory. Now only deliverance, free- 
dom, eternal peace awaited her. 

She heard the man by the wall rattle his chains. She could hear 
his labored breathing. Presently he came close to her, and then she 
heard a hoarse, agonized shriek — but no blow fell. Instead, the 
outlaw sank to the floor and lay at her feet, sobbing painfully, uncon- 
trollably. 

She bent over him with a sigh. 

Spared, then; spared to wander further upon wearisome steeps 
among piercing thorns and venomous reptiles. 



END 




H. R. H. PRINCE EUGEN— Swedish Midsummer Night 



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A Smokeless Marine 

Denmark's Recent Development of the Diesel Motor 
By IvAR Knudsen 

THE telegram of congratulation which Emperor Wilhelm sent 
King Christian X of Denmark, on June 25, 1912, from the 
deck of the new Danish motor ship, eagerly purchased in 
Germany on her maiden voyage, was not only a tribute to Danish 
technical skill but an earnest of revolution in the merchant marine 
of the world. Seven of these smokeless ships are now on the high 
seas carrying their cargoes over vast distances; they need not stop 
en route to take on coal; depending only on petroleum for their fuel, 
the new vessels of the East Asiatic Company load at Singapore once 
for each round voyage. The almost silent, swan-like passage of 
these ships through the water, without a smoke-stack, gave cause 
for an American's description of one of them as a "phantom ship,'' 
and accounted for the narrow escape of the Swedish captain who 
failed to respond to the signalled warnings of the Selandia on her 
first trial trip, running his ship directly across her bows, "because he 
saw no smoke." No sweating stokers are in the hold firing the 
furnaces of the new motor vessel. 

The peculiar type of motor with which these ships are equipped,, 
was originally the patent of a German inventor, Rudolf Diesel, of 
Munich, in the year 1894. The Diesel motor is useful for a plant 
in which considerable horse-power is required and differs from the 
ordinary motor in that no electric spark or lighting apparatus and 
no explosives are required, the oil being continuously ignited by 
contact with air previously heated by intense compression. 

To Germany and other countries, the Diesel motor was, and has 
remained a generator for stationary plants on dry land. In 1901 
the Danish rights to the Diesel motor were purchased by the machine 
and ship-building firm of Burmeister & Wain, at Copenhagen. The 
engineers of this house perfected their own type of motor, which 
has been supplied to hundreds of commercial electric stations and 
private plants throughout Denmark. After ten years of patient 
experimentation, they had reached such a uniform standard that 
they felt the moment had come to make the bold step of construct- 
ing the much larger engines necessary to win a foothold in the world's 
merchant marine. 

It was the president of the Danish East Asiatic Company, Etats- 
raad Andersen, whose foresight and business courage made possible 
the construction and realization of the first motor ocean ship. 
Scarcely more than two years ago, in the autumn of 1911, the first 



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22 THE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

negotiations began between the East Asiatic Company and the house 
of Burmeister & Wain for the eventual construction of a ship equipped 
with Diesel motors. After relatively short deliberation, President 
Andersen courageously resolved to order two large vessels, each 
370 feet long, 53 feet wide and 30 feet deep, with a capacity of 7,200 
tons, equipped with four motors — two Diesel motors of 1,250 and 
two auxiliary motors of 250 indicated horse-power. These ships 
were christened after two of the great divisions of Denmark — 
Selandia and Fionia. 

Negotiations were also in progress with a Scottish dockyard, 
Messrs, Barclay, Curie & Co., and a contract was concluded with 
them for taking over the construction of Diesel motors after the 
Danish system, by which the Scottish house should deliver to the 
East Asiatic Company a third ship provided with Diesel motors. 
This ship was to be a counterpart of the Selandia and the Fionia^ and 
was to be named Jutlandia. 

The work advanced briskly. In January, 1912, the Selandia 
was ready, and after several successful trial trips in the 0resund, in 
which all the local authorities participated, together with many 
distinguished guests from abroad, including ship-builders, represen- 
tatives of Lloyd's and of the foreign press, the ship was formally taken 
over by the East Asiatic Company. 

Shortly after its delivery, the Selandia made its first voyage by 
way of Aalborg to London. At its departure from Copenhagen, 
the crown prince, the crown princess, the Princes Valdemar, Erik 
and Viggo, and Princess Margrethe came on board to make the 
journey to Elsinore. Here the royal party landed, while Etatsraad 
Andersen and Director Schmiegelow, from the East Asiatic Company, 
and Admiral Richelieu, Director Ivar Knudsen, and Chief Engineer 
Jorgensen from Burmeister & Wain, remained on board. The 
voyage to Aalborg, as well as to London, proved successful in every 
respect, and on February 27th, the Selandia arrived in London and 
was anchored at the West India Docks. Naturally, the boat created 
a legitimate sensation as the first large sea-going motor ship. It 
was at the time of the great coal strike in England, and the sudden 
appearance of a great freight carrier, designed for trans-oceanic 
travel, and entirely independent of the dreaded strike, was hailed as 
a good omen for the future, and a possible solution of the coal problem. 

During the passage up the Thames the Selandia was often hailed 
by sympathetic skippers with offers of assistance, for none had ever 
before seen a great ship without a smokestack, and they thought 
that it must be the victim of some mishap. 

While the Selandia lay at the West India Docks, a great number 
of the most influential men in shipping circles, came on board. The 
English Minister of Marine, Winston Churchill, accompanied by 



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several admirals, inspected the ship and expressed his most unquali- 
fied praise; in his congratulations he declared that Englishmen remem- 
bered the stamp which the Vikings had set upon England, and were 
thankful for the new lesson now taught the British Isles by Denmark. 
After having lain some days at the West India Docks and taken 
on a cargo, the Selandia sailed for Antwerp, carrying over the guests 
mentioned above, together with Earl Grey, formerly Minister for 
Canada, Sir Henry Oram, the Engineer-in-Chief of the Fleet, and 




In the Machine Room of the " Selandia" 

representatives of the English technical press. The journey to 
Antwerp proved auspicious, and a telegram was sent en route to 
the King of Denmark, in recognition of what had been accomplished. 
Earl Grey telegraphed: ''On behalf of the English guests who at 
present find themselves under the Danish flag, on board the motor 
ship Selandia, Earl Grey takes the liberty most respectfully, to send 
your Majesty their congratulations on the significant progress in the 
domain of marine machinery made possible by the courage and 
enterprise of Etatsraad Andersen and the East Asiatic Company, 
once again giving proof of the genius of the Danish nation." From 
the King there arrived a telegram of thanks in reply. Likewise 



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Earl Grey sent a telegram to King George, communicating the great 
achievement; throughout the journey the Selandia had been under 
complete control. Arriving at Antwerp, the English guests returned 
to London, while the Selandia continued her voyage to the east. 

The Selandia's sister ship the Fionia^ was completed June 20, 
1912, and after a successful trial trip, was likewise delivered to the 
East Asiatic Company. As just at this time, there was a great 
regatta in Kiel, Etatsraad Andersen resolved, Uke the man of action 
he is, to go to Kiel and show the ship to the great gathering of yachts- 
men and maritime experts who would assemble there. The Fionia 




The Home of the Diesel Motor Ship — the Shops op Burmeister & Wain in Copenhagen 

arrived at the Bay of Kiel, June 23, and created a tremendous 
sensation. Director Ballin, chief of the Hamburg American Line, 
came on board and was so much impressed that negotiations were 
completed on the spot for the sale of the boat to the German com- 
pany. At a celebration on board the ship the following day, in which 
250 of the guests on the Kdnigin Louise participated, the Fionia 
passed into German hands, at the same time being christened in 
honor of Denmark, after the new Danish King Christian X. 

The next day Emperor Wilhelm, who was at the regatta, an- 
nounced that he wished to see the ship and came on board at the 
head of a large staff of admirals and technical experts to inspect the 
whole installation. The emperor expressed his most unquahfied 



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The " Sbiandia," the Fir8T Diesel Motor Ship, as She Appeared in the Harbor 
OF Aarhus After Her First Voyage to Siam 

recognition of what had been accompHshed, as manifested by the 
telegram sent to the King of Denmark: "I am on board the Fionia 
and hasten to send you my congratulations on the remarkable work 
of the Danish technologists. The ship indicates an entirely new 
chapter in shipbuilding which deserves admiration. The engineers 
of Denmark may justly claim the fame of having taken the first 
practical step on the new path and have become teachers to all." 

With the emperor on board, the Christian X sailed out of the 
Bay of Kiel in order to let him see how the machinery operated, 
and, just then, the twin ship Selandia suddenly appeared, having 
accomplished its first voyage to Bangkok. This was regarded by 
all as a happy omen, and judging from the good luck which has fol- 
lowed the ship since that time, the omen has held. The Christian X 
went, a few days later, with a German party around Skagen to 
Hamburg. Since then the boat has been in regular service between 
Hamburg and Santos in Brazil, though it is destined later for traflSc 
between North and South America. 

The good results attained by these ships, induced the Asiatic 
Company to give Burmeister & Wain an order for two still larger 
boats with a capacity of 7,600 tons each, length of 410 feet and 3,000 
horse-power, and still another boat to take the place of the Fionia 



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27 




The "Ann^ui" Built for the East Asiatic Service, One of the Two Largest 
Motor Ships Afloat 

which was sold to Germany, though with somewhat larger dimensions 
and of 4,000 horse-power. Later, four more boats were ordered 
of 9,600 tons capacity and 3,000 horse-power machinery. In addi- 
tion, the Swedish Steamship Company, "Nordstjernan," whose 
managing owner is Consul-General A. Johnson, ordered six ships 
with a capacity of 6,600 tons and a machinery of 2,000 horse-power. 
The first of these, the Suecia^ has already made two trips between 
Stockholm and Buenos Ay res, while the second, the Pedro Christo- 
pherseUy named after the Norwegian consul at Buenos Ayres, was 
delivered on August 1, 1913. A boat of 2,600 horse-power capacity of 
7,200 tons, the California^ is also under construction for the United 
Steamship Company of Denmark, destined for Danish- American trade. 

Of the two boats of 9,600 tons capacity, ordered by the East 
Asiatic Company after the Selandia and the Fionia had shown 
themselves so satisfactory, the Siam has just returned from her first 
journey to Japan, while the second, the Annam, is in eastern waters 
on the same journey; these two are the largest motor ships afloat. 

After it became generally known that such success had attended 
the construction of motor ships by the house of Burmeister & Wain, 
a company was formed in England, the Atlas Mercantile Company, 
Limited, which has taken over the rights to Burmeister & Wain's 
patents and constructions outside of Denmark, and on this initiative 
a large factory has been erected in Glasgow, the Burmeister & Wain 
(Diesel System) Oil Engine Company, Limited, for the manufacture 
exclusively of Diesel motors. The manager is a Dane, former chief 



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28 THE AMERICAN SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

engineer O: E. Jorgensen, who has had special experience in the 
construction of Diesel motors as head of Burmeister & Wain's 
drafting room in Copenhagen. Further, the Danish firm has sold the 
right of constructing Diesel motors in Norway to the firm of Akers 
Mechanical Workshop in Christiania: for Holland, to the Rotterdam 
Droogdok-Maatschappij, for Belgium, to the house of John Cockerill; 
while at the present time, Burmeister & Wain are negotiating with 
firms in various cities of Europe for the utilization of these patents. 

What ultimate future has the Diesel motor in the shipping of the 
world? For all sorts of freight as now carried on, and for passenger 
service where excessive speed is not required, the ship propelled by 
petroleum is more economical and in many ways more satisfactory 
than the vessel driven by steam. More than 95 per cent, of all 
ships now afloat, have less than 3,000 horse-power, while new vessels 
can be fitted with Diesel motors of at least 5,000 horse-power. From 
this it may readily be seen how small a percentage of ships, taking 
the present average as a standard, will be barred by their size from 
employing the new motor. 

The accessibility of oil and the length of the voyage will be the 
two determining factors in the choice between the Diesel motor 
and the steam engine. Naturally, it is of the utmost importance 
to the Diesel motor boat that its fuel supply should be within reach, 
and countries where oil is abundant and easy to get at, will therefore, 
find its use especially advantageous. 

The Diesel ships are able to go a longer distance with a smaller 
quantity of fuel than the coal-burning craft, and for this reason they 
have a great advantage in a long voyage. The Selandia on its trip 
from Copenhagen to Bangkok and back again, consumed only 800 
tons of oil; the Suecia finished its trip from Gothenburg to Buenos 
Ayres and back again with only 500 tons of oil, while a coal-burning 
boat of the same capacity w^ould have used at least 2,000 tons in a 
voyage of the same length. It is only necessary to point to the great 
saving in cubic and dead weight, amounting to at least a thousand 
tons of cargo each way, in order to make clear the enormous advan- 
tage of the motor boat. In addition, the actual outlay for fuel is 
much smaller. True, the initial expense of equipment is somewhat 
greater; the Pedro Christopherseriy launched last July, may have cost 
about $30,000 more than a steam-boat of the same size, but this 
sum is small compared to the saving in space and coal bills. 

Whether the Diesel engine will gain admittance to ships requiring 
great horse-power, such as fast mail boats and battle-ships, is a 
question for the future. If it can be adapted to their use, it will 
prove of immense value; its introduction will reduce the number of 
men needed in the engine room and will eliminate the great funnels 
with their clouds of black smoke. 



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Waldemar Nielsen's Homecoming 

By Nina, Countess Raben-Levetzau 

WALDEMAR NIELSEN had come back from America; he 
had found his way through the snow-covered fields to his 
old birth-place. They were all well. His mother, yes, ah, 
she had been pleased to see him; his father — ^the country postman — 
had just looked up, nodded and said, "Naa, my boy, are you back 
again?" — and had gone on eating his evening meal as if seeing his 
son after an absence of eight years were not an event; but later, 
when Waldemar began relating his adventures, he let his pipe go out 
and listened with interest to all that his newly returned son had to tell. 

Waldemar had much to tell — how he had gone with some other 
Danes to a little colony of compatriots in Iowa, had stayed there 
and had helped them for some time. He left them and had gone 
farther oflF. Then he had had the great luck to fall in with some 
Americans. It was then he began to feel how helpless he was speak- 
ing only Danish, but by always "being on the spot," and helpful 
and "being quick about it," he soon discovered that talking was 
not so necessary. 

He was called "Walter Mar," Nielsen never coming into con- 
sideration. Later they dropped even "Walter." There was only 
time for "Mar." Two years he stayed with these good people and 
earned fair wages, but he began to long for something by which he 
should be more independent and earn more money; so he wandered 
oflF to a little town in Nebraska, called Flatbank. He arrived there 
just as the old milkman died from having been thrown oflF his cart 
and trampled on by his horse. Here was Waldemar's chance. Those 
who might have proposed to drive were old men and rather afraid 
of "Moses," as the old horse with the blind eye was called; so Walde- 
mar oflFered to begin with low wages, and finally, he secured the whole 
business. He became "Mar," the milkman of Flatbank. 

Urged by his inborn love for farming, he began to buy sick 
calves. He nursed them back to life, often sitting up all night with 
a bad case, or even taking them to bed with him; his little kitchen 
was a hospital. Soon Moses' stable became too small, as the calves 
grew bigger. The calves, as Waldemar expected, became cows, and 
Waldemar began selling his own milk; then he skimmed off the 
cream and made butter. His butter became famous. Orders from 
the other settlements came pouring in. Passing Danes were engaged 
by him to help in the milking. He bought land — much land — 
around the cow-stable, and then built himself a dwelling-house with 
a large and low veranda where he could sit and watch his cattle 
grazing. 



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80 TEE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

He was a prosperous man, but the longing to see his folk and the 
old country crept over him, and at last the time had come when he 
could proudly fetch his faithful sweetheart to his new home. So 
he decided to cross over on the Hellig Olav which would sail just 
in time to bring him home for Christmas Eve. He would get married 
in the Spring, and then Karen and he would start their new life. 

When Waldemar came to this point, he saw that his mother was 
weeping for joy. His father rose and gripped his hand. His little 
sisters and brothers were speechless with admiration as he stood 
there in the low-ceilinged room with his blond head well thrown 
back, his clean shaven face all aglow, his large blue eyes glittering. 
Any mother or father would have been proud of such a son. 

"Yes, she has been faithful to you, that she has — Karen Morten- 
sen — ^she has never looked at any other man since you left eight 
years ago," said his mother proudly. 

Waldemar blushed. He wore a very low, wide flannel collar, 
and the red flush could be seen all over his strong brown throat, 
mounting to the roots of his long yellow hair. 

"How is it," said the mother, "that you have never been photo- 
graphed all these years, so we could see how you have changed.^" 
"Have changed.^ How.'^ In what way?" 

"Well, you look like none of us over here; it must be American," 
the mother answered shyly. 

"Do you think so, too, father.^" 

"Yes my boy, you look different, but I can't tell you what it is. 
I'm no good at that, but" — hesitatingly — "you look foreign." 

"Hurrah! all the better If I'm not like the other fellows around 
here, Karen will love me all the more." And as he tossed his head 
back, the parting in his long straight hair became disordered. Never 
had there been such a glorious Christmas Eve. Joyfully did Walde- 
mar distribute to them all his presents; he proudly showed them 
the gifts he had for Karen — a ring, a large gold locket with "Good 
Luck" written on it, a blue sash with big horseshoes embroidered 
in blue silk — and when at last, tired out, he slept, he held in his 
hand Karen's photograph, taken three months ago. 

The next morning he started out, a little late, for he had taken 
pains with his appearance, and he felt that he looked well. In 
some places the snow was very deep, but his feet were shod in real 
American shoes with round toes and large bows and very broad 
soles, so he minded nothing. He wore the most open of his flannel 
shirts, the blue collar ending in a tassel, and his Norfolk jacket with a 
pronounced broad belt. His cap had a very large rim, but it fitted 
well over his yellow hair; much care had been given to the part in 
the middle, and he had used plenty of water to keep it there in its 
place. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW SI 

As he came nearer and nearer to Karen's house, his heart beat 
faster and faster; how well he remembered that spot where he and 
she had kissed goodbye! How fervently she had promised to wait 
for him until he came to fetch her. Well, she had remained faithful, 
and here he was with a home to oflFer her. He thought of those 
large golden letters over there in Flatbank: 

WALDEMAR NIELSEN's 
DAIRY FARM 

FRESH DANISH BUTTER EVERY DAY 

FLATBANK — NEBRASKA 

A girl was pulling up the pole that held the pail of water at the 
bottom of the well; it was Karen. 

"Karen, Karen,*' he called. She gave a scream and let go the 
pail; a look of bewilderment came over her face. "Karen, it is 
Waldemar!" 

She had fled into the house; he ran after her, tried to take her 
in his arms; she warded him oflF. 

"Why did you never send me a photograph.'^'' she said looking 
at him with big frightened eyes. "I feel as if you were a stranger; 
you are so changed!" 

Poor Waldemar groaned, and his arms dropped discouraged to 
his sides. 

"That is what I hear constantly since I have come home!" 

The young girl moved away from him. 

"Then you have not been faithful to me; you do not love me any 
more!" he moaned, and covered his face with his hands. She 
answered him solemnly, "I have been faithful to the Waldemar who 
left me eight years ago; but you are a new Waldemar with different 
clothes and ways. I can not marry you, you do not belong to us 
any more." 

She looked at him once more, at his shaven face, at his fair, 
flatly brushed hair parted in the middle, at his low and open blue 
flannel collar with the tassel. She took him in, down to the broad 
"walkovers." When her eyes met the despairing look in his tear- 
ful blue eyes, she hesitated a moment. 

"I can change all that, the clothes — I mean." He had seen that 
hesitation, and a glimmer of hope rose in him. He stepped toward 
her. "Oh, Karen! I love you so." 

"No-no-no!" she cried, and with a long shudder, she turned 
away and walked out of the room. 



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m 



m 




DANISH CASTLES.— I. 
ROSENBORG 



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A stately garderiy pent in city wcdlsy 

Frames this old ca^tle^ where he laid his head, — 
Christian the Fourthy who well his people led! — 

Here in this room his spirit wakes and calls; 

He built this royal palace, — marble halls 
Grew at his touch; the men of war he wed 
To maids of peace; his ancient doublet red 

And battle-smolced his prowess still recalls. 

Now he is gone, and nothing's left unchanged; 
This cattle is a shell for by-gone things. 

The meeting place of eager, curious crowds, — 
Even the rose trees, once so primly ranged. 
Bear modern blooms, — a newer fountain flings 
Stars to the S7in beneath the changing clouds! 

— Maurice Francis Egan. 



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The St. Olaf Singers in Norway 

By Paul G. Schmidt 

THE initial steps for the visit of the St. Olaf Student Singers to 
Norway in 1913 were taken by Prof. J. Jorgen Thompson. He 
had been for years a member of the Choir; while studying in 
Christiania with a scholarship from the United Church, he missed 
the chorus singing in the churches to which he had been accustomed 
and conceived the idea that the St. Olaf Choir should make a concert 
tour to Norway. Financial backing was secured from men who 
knew the work of the Choir at home, and practice began under the 
leadership of the Director, Prof. F. Melius Christiansen. A repertoire 
consisting chiefly of chorals and religious songs was selected. The 
Choir was limited to fifty voices. 

In the spring of 1913 Professor Thompson sailed for Norway to 
make the business arrangements. He was most courteously received 
by the Department of Church and Education, and the Honorable 
L. S. Swenson, then American minister to Norway, rendered him 
invaluable service. The coast steamer Lyra was chartered for the 
trip from Trondhjem, and an itinerary was arranged, including 
thirty-two concerts in Norway, two in Sweden, and one in Denmark. 

The Choir left Northfield on June 13. Ten concerts were given 
on the way, the last being in Brooklyn, before embarking on the 
Kristianiafjord. When the stately ship sailed on her maiden voyage 
eastward across the Atlantic, on June 24, thousands of hearts here 
and at home beat in unison — mothers and fathers, brothers and 
sisters and friends, anxious for the welfare and success of this company 
of boys and girls, venturing across the sea to visit the land of their 
fathers and bring its people a greeting in song. 

It was an expectant company that stood on the forward deck of 
the Kristianiafjord on the evening of July 3, straining their eyes for 
the first glimpse of the land about which they had heard so much. 
Unfortunately a dense fog hid the weather-beaten shore, but early in 
the morning the passengers awoke to the sight of quaint, old, beautiful 
Bergen, spread out among the rugged hills, all bathed in sunshine, the 
piers full of multitudes that had gathered to see the young Norwegian 
Americans. 

It was no ordinary applause that greeted the Choir at its first 
concert, given that night in "Logen" to an audience as large as the 
moderately sized hall could accommodate. It was a hearty outburst 
of pleasure in the song and of welcome to the visitors, continuing after 
the close of the programme, until the Choir appeared again and 
responded with additional songs. After the concert the singers were 
the guests of the Anglo-American Club. 



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35 




Rehearsing on the Outward Votagb 

When the ship reached Christiania, though the hour was eight in 
the morning, a chorus of over three hundred voices waited on the pier 
to welcome the visitors with song. Beyond them a large mass of 
people had gathered. There was no doubt of the reception of the 
St. Olaf Choir in Norway! 

Long before the hour set for the beginning of the concert in the 
University "Aula," thousands of people gathered in the streets, 
unable to get into the hall, but anxious to secure even a glimpse of 
the singers. Precisely at eight o'clock their Majesties the King and 
Queen appeared and were escorted to their seats by the President 
of the Choir. When the royal pair reached their places, the Choir 
intoned Gud sign vor konge god. The effect was thrilling. Not only 
was it a surprise to most people that the young singers from America 
used the Norwegian language, but that they should sing Kongesangen 
with such enthusiasm was absolutely astonishing. The press reports 
were very favorable, and among them it was pleasing to read the com- 
ment of Mr. Johannes Haarklow in Morgenhladet: 

"If any in the audience had come with the intention of displaying 
an overbearing spirit toward these brethren, they soon changed their 
minds. It may just as well be confessed at once; in old Norway 
there cannot be found a choir that even approximately measures up 
to this one composed of Norwegian students from Minnesota, and 
this reflects very little credit on us." 

The short stay in Christiania was a succession of festivities. 



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Minister L. S. Swenson and his daughter entertained at their residence 
and presented the choir to a large gathering of distinguished Nor- 
wegians. The United Choirs of Christiania, together with the Stu- 
dent Singers and Nordmandsforbundet, arranged a splendid banquet 
at Holmenkollen. Rev. N. B. Tvedt presided and introduced the 
following speakers: Minister of Church and Education Bryggesaa, 
President of the Storting Lovland, Dr. Otto Jensen and Rev. Birger 
Hall speaking on behalf of the Christiania Pastoral Conference, 
Professor H. Gran on behalf of the University of Christiania, Dr. 
Louise Isachsen for the Ladies' Student Singers, Dr. H. Gade for 




Going Ashore at Molde 

Nordmandsforbundet, Mr. C. Winterhjelm for the Student Singers, 
Mr. C. J. Hambro, editor of Morgenbladet^ and Minister L. S. Swen- 
son. Rev. T. H. Haugan and Paul G. Schmidt responded on behalf 
of the St. Olaf singers. On the following day Director Christiansen, 
Mr. Haugan, Professor Thompson and the president of the Choir were 
received in audience by his Majesty King Haakon, w^hom they found 
very congenial and democratic. 

After concerts given to capacity audiences in a large church of 
Drammen and in ''Vor Frelsers Kirke" in Christiania, the Choir 
began their journey through a country rich in beautiful landscapes, 
stopping to sing in Fagernses, Gj5vik, Hamar and Lillehammer. 
With this, the first lap of the journey was successfully accomplished, 
and it was "all aboard" for Trondhjem. It seemed as though the 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 37 

whole country knew the schedule of the Choir, for at every station 
crowds gathered. Wherever the stop was of sufficient duration, the 
Choir stepped out and sang to the assembled people. 

Trondhjem was not reached until midnight, and as it was raining, 
the Choir naturally did not expect the usual crowd at the station. 
But what was their surprise to find the large depot and the platform 
and even the streets packed with people. It was estimated that fully 
six or seven thousand persons had gathered there. A large male 
chorus greeted the visitors with songs of welcome. Two concerts 
were given in the Cathedral of historic Drontheim, and on both 
occasions the house was sold out. After the second concert, a recep- 
tion and banquet was given by the Anglo-American Club. At a 
late hour the party broke up and the members of the Choir wended 
their way to the docks and boarded the steamer Lyra for the trip 
down the coast. 

All the St. Olaf students will bear in fond remembrance the 
delightful days spent on board this comfortable boat, drinking their 
fill of the wonderful scenery, sometimes stopping to climb the moun- 
tains, fish in the fjord or visit the peasant people. Probably the 
largest gathering that greeted the Choir on the whole trip was that at 
Haugesund, where tickets to the church holding 1,800 people were 
sold out, and the Choir finally had to give a free open-air concert 
from the deck of the Lyra. 

The third concert in Christiania was given in " Calmeyergadens 
Bedehus," and was attended by fully 3,000 people. After an excur- 
sion to the historic Eidsvold the trip southward began, and the last 
concert in Norway was held in Fredrikshald. This day being the 
birthday of the King, a congratulatory message was sent him, to 
which the following reply was received: 

"I thank the Norwegian American singers most heartily for their 
visit, and wish them a safe return.'' 

The Hellig Olavy of the Scandinavian-America Line, leaving 
Copenhagen on August 7, brought most of the singers home, a few- 
remaining behind to visit relatives and friends or to travel or study 
in Europe. 



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The New Church at Kiruna 



Photograph by Borg Mesch 



Lapland — Sweden's America 

By Henry Goddard Leach 

Rise my clang to the sun, to the northern lights my tiding. 
Waken the dreaming fells, the moors in slumber deep; 

Bless the laboring fields, their fruitfidness abiding. 
Consecrate at last to the peace of eternal sleep. 

— Translated from Albert Engstrdm's inscription on the great church bell in Kiruna. 

THE House of God at Kiruna dedicated last December marks the 
transition of the old Lapland into the new. Its fresh red 
shingles rise like a pillar of flame over the growing city, a hun- 
dred miles above the Polar Circle. Its noble outlines inspire rever- 
ence for art and for religion in the hearts of the Finnish miners toiling 
on the slopes of the great iron mountain across the lake; they awaken 
memories of home in the minds of the Swedish guards on the ore 
trains thundering past to the Norwegian coast; while its belfry, 
visible far out over the desolate tableland, serves as a beacon to the 
homeless Lapps following their herds of reindeer, carefully avoiding 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



89 



the mining town in their migrations by swinging past in a great 
circle. In its design this curious church follows the plan of a Lap- 
pish kola or wigwam, and the Lapps, although they have no architec- 
ture, recognize in the design of Gustaf Wickman, the architect, and 
the sculptures of Christian Eriksson, an incarnation of their struc- 
tural traditions. 

This attempt to create a Lappish architecture is an instance of 
the sincere efforts of the Swedes to win the sympathy of the shy, 
primitive people, whose last retreat they are now invading. For 
with the Swedes, unlike the Americans, the astonishing technical 
development of the past two decades is accompanied by an anxious 
desire to preserve what is good in the old traditions. Thus it has 
come to pass that in some rural communities the introduction of the 
telephone has been accompanied by a revival of quaint national dress. 
And in Lapland, a place of contrast startling enough to delight even 
the American tourist, one sees a truce and harmony between the old 
and the new. 

This new industrial Lapland has three centers, less than half a 
day's journey apart — Gellivare, Porjus and Kiruna. Gellivare and 
Kiruna have each a mountain of iron. Gellivare was opened up to 




"The Slow-Minded Pbophets of the Mountains* 



Photograph by Borg Mesch 



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40 THE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

the world in 1888, 
when the first ore 
train rolled south 
to the port of Lulea 
on the Gulf of 
Bothnia. In 1902 
Kiruna was con- 
nected by rail with 
Narvik, north on 
the coast of Nor- 
way. Porjus, the 
third center, is a 
waterfall near Gel- 
livare, which a city 
of workingmen are 
now harnessing to 
supply electrical 

..^ ^ ^ P^^iraphbyH.G.Uack ^^^,^j. f^j. practi- 

Taking A Photograph OF THE Polar Circle ^ ,, n . i . i 

cally all the indus- 
trial operations of Lapland. Since 1903, to cross Lapland, and reach 
the port of Narvik, requires only two nights and a day from Stockholm 
by the famous Lapland Express. A French author has described this 
Grand Express de Laponie as a bejeweled phantom of luxurious con- 
tent hurrying across the bleak steppes through the mysterious North- 
ern night. The Grand Express de Laponie runs only three times a 
w^eek and pulls into Gellivare at 2 a.m. — an hour which appeals more 
agreeably to the imagination of a Frenchman than to an American. 
When I visited Lapland last summer I happened to arrive on an off 
day, and therefore traveled with the miners up from Boden on the 
Lnie River, where i had spent the previous evening in the bright sum- 
mer night, admiring the frowning defences which Sweden is erecting 
to give her miners and investors confidence against the menace of 
the Russian Bear; for the purposes of war the expense may be un- 
warranted, but for the industrial development of Lapland it is an eco- 
nomic necessity. 

En route from Boden to Gellivare I enjoyed the novel experience 
of taking a photograph of the Polar Circle — a station of that name 
near the actual line — and arriving at Gellivare, was delighted at find- 
ing on the platform a full-blooded Lapp awaiting the arrival of the 
train; in gender he was masculine, by name Lars Pilto, by profession 
a traveling salesman, whose wares consisted of various articles made 
from the hide and bones of the reindeer. Though not interested in 
the bone paper cutter which he pulled out of his capacious bag, I 
was anxious to obtain a portrait of this gentleman, and bought a 
hunting knife by way of establishing amicable relations. When I 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



41 



saw that his philosophic smile had reached from ear to ear, I ven- 
tured the request in my broken Swedish: "May I take the Lapp's 
picture?" 

"If you please," the dwarf replied, without relaxing an inch of his 
smile, "but money." 

"How much?" 

"Twenty-five ore," he replied. I gave Mr. Lars Pilto his six and 
a half cents, and he generously posed for his photograph, not one film 
only, but three other films for which he had not bargained. 

The power station at Porjus is two hours from Gellivare and its 
iron mountain. It is the aim of the Swedish government to add 
another to the long list of technical demonstrations w^hich Sweden 
has given the world, by being the first nation to electrify all its rail- 
roads. Electrification is profitable only w^here the traffic is heavy, 
and the experiment, therefore, is to be tried out first on the most 
heavily used strip of railroad in Sweden, the 129 kilometers from 
Kiruna to the Border, with 
its freightage of 12,000 tons 
of ore a day. At Porjus it 
is the expectation of the gov- 
ernment to harness the great 
waterfalls of the Lule River 
with dam, tunnel and tur- 
bine, and have ready by 
January 1, 1915, 50,000 
horse -power, necessary to 
generate a current of 80,000 
volts, which is to be carried 
on poles across the wastes 
of Lapland to Kiruna and 
Gellivare to operate both 
mines and trains. If the 
experiment succeeds, 250,- 
000 additional horse-power 
at Porjus and a little lower 
down the river, can be util- 
ized to extend the electrifi- 
cation of the railroad from 
Gellivare southeast to the 
Bothnian Gulf. 

The construction at Por- 
jus under Engineer Gran- 
holm proceeds in magnitude 
and with a precision sug- 

^ , . , -" Photograph bv 11. C. Leach 

gestJng comparison with the - a Lapp Awaiting the Arrival of the Train " 




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42 



THE AMERICAN^SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 




* KiRUNA — Sloping Like Naples to the Bay " 



Photograph by Borg Mesch 



Panama Canal. At Panama, however, the engineers have had to 
overcome the drawbacks of a tropical climate; at Porjus, the intense 
cold and Stygian darkness of winter, shadowless nights and the 
mosquitoes of summer. The darkness is dissipated by spreading a 
perpetual halo of electric light above the great dam and the City of 
Workmen — so, too, far away across the tableland, the iron mountain 
of Kirunavara is suffused with electricity; the cold is dispelled by 
running heated rocks through the back water of the dam and by 
heating shelters for the workingmen. One enemy Panama and Porjus 
have in common — the mosquito. At Panama the enemy has been 
practically annihilated; in Porjus the Swedish engineers simply 
endure, though not, I take it, in silence, the pest which drives the 
hardy reindeer high up to seek the line of perpetual snow. 

Porjus will be the subject of a special story, which my obliging 
host at the Engineers' Mess, Mr. Gunnar Dahlbeck, has promised 
to write some day for the Review. 

Kiruna, however, the northernmost center of the Swedish iron 
fields, is the greatest industrial marvel of Lapland. In 1885 the 
region had not a single house; today it is a mining city of more than 
10,000 inhabitants. It boasts of moving picture shows and a Salva- 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



43 




* PoRJUs — TO Supply Electrical Power for Lapland * 



Photograph by L. Wastfelt 



tion Army. Its tram line, the most northern "trolley" in the world, 
collects 532,442 fares a year. The town fringes in a half-moon the 
eastern shores of Lake Luossajarvi, sloping like Naples to the Bay, 
while the iron mountain of Luossavara behind it adds a Vesuvius to 
the comparison. Luossavara is the property of the Swedish nation. 
The nation also owns an interest in the loftier iron mountain of 
Kirunavara, on the opposite side of the lake, a mighty hill of iron, 
estimated to hold 740,000,000 tons of ore, containing often as high as 
70 per cent, pure metal. The workmen of Kirunavara are said to be 
the highest paid miners anywhere east of the AUeghanies, and though 
the work is in its infancy, the mines are beginning to yield the 
Kirunavaara-Luossavaara Company 3,000,000 tons a year. 

Behind all these operations is one directing mind. He sits at the 
end of a network of telephones — the Sw^edish service is the clearest 
and quickest in the world — either in his official residence at Kiruna 
or two days south in Stockholm in the headquarters of the vast 
Grangesberg Traffic Company, of which the companies that operate 
in Lapland are only subsidiaries — and yet you will find Swedish 
financiers who tell you that Sweden has no "trusts." His name is 
Hjalmar Lundbohm and he is addressed as "Doctor" or "Manager" 
— Disponent — of Kiruna. 

If you picture Disponent Lundbohm merely as a geologist with 
marvelous administrative powers, you are far short in your estimate 



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44 



THE AMERICAN-SCAXDIXAVIAN REVIEW 




Photograph by H. G. Leach 
' Hjalmar LrxDBOHM, Disponent of Kiruna " 



of his wonderfully 
sympathetic per- 
sonality; for Dr. 
Lundbohm is a 
patron of the fine 
arts, an art critic 
of no mean ability, 
and a civic and so- 
cial reformer and 
educator in the 
broad sense. 

Among the 
model institutions 
which Disponent 
Lundbohm has es- 
tablished in Kiruna 
is an out-of-doors 
*' school" for the 
small boys of the 
town during the 
summer vacations. Youngsters of ten and twelve impress themselves 
voluntarily into the public service in section gangs to transform rocky 
paths into highways and to grade neat little lawns in front of the 
cottages. They receive a small payment for the day's fun, and I 
have never known boys do anything resembling work with such 
vim and rivalry as these youngsters handle their pickaxes and push 
their wheelbarrows loaded with stones, at least not outside the pages 
of "Tom Sawyer" or "Huckleberry Finn." 

The mining company that operates Kirunavara is constantly 
striving, under Dr. Lundbohm's direction, to aid and educate the 
community. It makes loans to builders up to three-fourths the value 
of their properties. It provides excellent schools and libraries. A 
few years ago an art exhibit was held in Kiruna, and last December 
the new Lutheran church was dedicated. Here a painting by Prince 
Eugen, above the church altar, contributes to the sense of Divine 
Presence. This painting, a quiet landscape bathed in bright sun- 
shine, breathing the spirit of the Twenty-third Psalm and devoid of 
all religious symbolism, brings the beholder, as does all true art, "into 
touch with the harmony which is the base of the Universe." "He 
leadeth me beside still waters." 

The exterior of Disponent Lundbohm's residence at Kiruna has 
the appearance of a collection of disconnected barracks; the interior, 
by way of contrast, is a succession of galleries of pictures and sculp- 
ture. Prince Eugen, Zorn, Carl Larsson, Wilhelmson, Jansson, most 
of w^hom have been the guests of the hospitable Disponent^ have 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 45 

added to his store of treasures. The painting reproduced on the 
cover of this Review, entitled "Kings Karin," is by Zorn, and adorns 
Dr. Lundbohm's study. 

It was in this room, in a corner by Eriksson's fireplace, among 
idols and curios of the Lapps, that I enjoyed the distinguished 
pleasure of meeting the Lapp philosopher, Mr. John Turi, author 
and wolf slayer. Mr. Turi had not come to dinner in evening clothes 
— ^his yellow and red raiment gave a distinction and artistic tone to 
the otherwise conventional group of dinner guests. His features 
were characteristic of the Lapp — thin, tapering nose, narrow, pointed 
chin and scant beard. He had that mysterious smile, half politeness, 
half the repose of conscious superiority to the mad ways of our world. 
Every Lapp has the look of a wizard, but Mr. Turi is a seer, even 
among his own people. 

When Dr. Lundbohm presented me, Mr. Turi was examining a 
large Italian work on Lapland, written, as I remember, two centuries 
ago. The Lappish author does not read Italian, but that does not 
deter him from criticisms of the illustrations, for he is an illustrator 
as well as an author, as you may see from the accompanying sketch 
of a Lapp settlement in winter, reproduced from his book on "The 
Life of the Lapps." 

In conversation Mr. Turi said that the attempt across the Border 
in Norway to make farmers of the Lapps had proved a failure. The 
Swedish people, however, are helping the Lapps to continue their 
own nomadic way of life, sending sympathetic teachers to their 
wigwams, instead of compelling the children to come to conventional 
schools. The Swedish government realizes the economic value of 
the reindeer, both as a means of support for the Lapps and for their 
fur and meat, just as the United States, which has recently imported 
reindeer for the Eskimos in Alaska, with gratifying results. 

Turi's "Life of the Lapps" was published two years ago, with 
the moral and financial support of Dr. Lundbohm. For a long time 
the great wolf slayer had meditated on this subject, but in the rest- 
lessness of his wandering life he had denied himself the repose of 
mind and body. At length the needed psychological stimulus was 
supplied by a Danish woman, Emilie Demant, herself a devoted 
student of the Lapps. In an abandoned miner's lodge by Lake 
Tornetrask she cooked and shared the author's meals and gently 
induced him to write on week after week, until he had expressed 
what had been treasured up all these years in his mind. Then she 
took the scraps of manuscript with her south to Copenhagen, trans- 
lated them into Danish, and published both the Lappish original 
and her Danish translation in the same volume. 

"Presumably it was half a century ago," says Emilie Demant, in 
her Danish introduction to this book, "that Turi was first swaddled 



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Photograph by Borg Mesch 
"JoHAN TuRi, Author and Wolf Slater '* 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



47 






^m 




m 



" M^f 




Sketch of a Lapp Settlemest in Winter, Reproduced from Turn's Book, 
" The Life of the Lapps " 

in the skin of a reindeer calf; himself he does not know how many 
summers' suns nor how many winters' snowstorms have bitten and 
burned his face and set their marks on his soul. Johan Turi is a 
mountain Lapp; he has lived all his life as a nomad and traveled 
with the reindeer in the wilderness; but for him the reindeer was not 
the only consideration, as for most other Lapps. Turi has in him 
primeval hunter-blood. From the time he was a small urchin, the 
life and ways of wild animals have interested him. A few years ago 
he gave up herding animals and abandoned himself to his passion 
for fighting the reindeer's worst enemy, the wolf." 

Turi says he has written the book to explain to the Swedes, repre- 
senting the modern world, the point of view of the Lapps, w^hich they 
themselves have never been able to make clear. The moment, 
says Turi in his book, that a Lapp finds himself shut within four 
walls, he loses self-possession. His mind refuses to act unless the 
wind is blowing about his head. But give him the mountains and 
his thoughts become clear; if there were an assembly place upon some 
high mountain where the Lapp could meet the Swede face to face, 
the Lapp could perhaps give a coherent account of himself. 

The book is full of pathetic passages prophetic of the passing of 
the Lapps. Turi's friend. Dr. Lundbohm, however, is more optimis- 



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48 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

tic than Turi about their future. He feels that these mysterious 
dwarfs who have for several centuries been in contact with the 
Aryan races and persisted in their own manner of life, will continue 
to preserve their integrity; the Lapp is not a "mixer." 

To the Lapps far and wide Dr. Lundbohm is a "Little Father," 
and the mention of his name evokes more than the usual Lappish 
smile. A Stockholmer recently visiting an aged Lapp in his wigwam 
or kata stated that he brought greetings from Disponent Lundbohm. 
The Lapp enthusiastically exclaimed, "Lundbohm! Lundbohm! 
My papa ! My papa ! " 

The gentleman from Stockholm wondered how Dr. Lundbohm 
could be the "papa" of the aged Lapp. The Lapp, however, cleared 
the mystery by adding, " Father of the Lapps ! Father of the Lapps ! " 

The Finns also are not denied their share of attention from Dr. 
Lundbohm. Many of the Finns — unlike the Lapps — are employed in 
the mines. Though their language resembles the Lappish, both being 
members of the Finno-Ugrian group of tongues, the Finns belong 
to a different order of civilization and live in permanent houses. 
Dr. Lundbohm makes occasional visits to the old Finnish culture 
center at Jukkasjarvi, a few miles from Kiruna, to chat with the 
Finns on household subjects, and to buy dried reindeer flesh and 
woven rugs. On stated festival days each year it is at Jukkasjarvi 
that the Lapps of the province assemble for marketing and divine 
worship. 

To the American who loves sharp contrasts Lapland has a never- 
failing appeal. In the background are the Lapps with their reindeer, 
the persistent barbarians, the slow-minded prophets of the mountains; 
in the foreground the hustling Swedish engineers, with their machines 
and constructions, harnessing to the chariot of economic progress the 
unfettered fastnesses of the North. But sharpest of all contrasts is 
the artistic repose of Disponent Lundbohm's study and the view which 
he sees from his window of the great iron mountain across the lake. 
In this soft-rugged study he hears three times a day the roar of the 
blasting on Kirunavara and all day long the thunder of ore trains, 
coming and departing, twelve long trains a day, each bearing its 
burden of a thousand tons of iron far into the north, past the shelter 
for tourists in the mountains at Abisko, past Lapp encampments on 
the shores of Lake Tornetrask, across the Border through snowsheds 
and dark tunnels that pierce the mountain wall of Norway, out to 
the ice-free port of Narvik, the northernmost railway terminal of the 
world, w^here a fleet of fifteen steamers lies waiting to carry the wealth 
of Sweden's America to southern markets across the sea. 



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Photograph by V. O. Preeburg 
' Lapp Encampments on the Shores of Lake Tornetrask " 




" The Lapps Assemble at Jukkabjabvi ' 



Photograph by Borg Mesch 



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Editorial 



The Review With this Yule Number The American-Scandi- 
navian Review begins its second year. A year ago 
the editors announced that their modest magazine would "grow in 
size and frequency in proportion to the growth of subscriptions and 
advertisements/* With the present issue the Review doubles its 
size and increases its circulation to five thousand copies. It contains 
more illustrations than formerly, including elaborate reproductions 
in color. 

During 1914 the Review will continue to appear every other 
month, six issues in all. In each number the center pages will be 
occupied by an illustration of one of Denmark's famous old castles. 
The coming March issue will be a Home to Norway number, con- 
taining an illustrated article by Herman Kr. Lehmkuhl about the 
great Norwegian Exposition opening in May, which will draw thou- 
sands of good Americans back to the home of their fathers. Simi- 
larly, the May issue will be a Baltic number, describing the Exposi- 
tion at Malmo in Sweden, where the four nations of the Baltic will 
join hands, Russia and Germany with Sweden and Denmark. Among 
the attractions promised for the July number is a new illustrated 
translation of the favorite Danish ballad on Queen Dagmar's Death; 
while the September number will chronicle the career of Bishop Hill 
and other notable achievements of the Swedes in America. 

A glance at our title page will show that the Review has increased 
its editorial staff by an advisory editor from each of the Scandinavian 
countries. Sweden is represented by the famous art critic, Mr. Carl 
G. Laurin, whose first service as advisory editor is the selection of 
the two beautiful pieces of color, the reproductions from Zorn and 
Liljefors, which decorate this Yule number. Denmark is represented 
by Mr. Harald Nielsen, the essayist, editor of the independent weekly, 
Ugens Tilskuer. In Norway the Review has secured the advice of 
Mr. Christian Collin, BjSrnson's biographer, author of standard works 
on literary and social problems, one of the profoundest thinkers of 
the North. Mr. Hamilton Holt, of New York, will continue to 
represent America on the advisory board; the old-established weekly, 
the Independent of which Mr. Holt is president and editor, has 
recently taken on a new and more attractive form and a renewed 
hold upon American life and thought. 

The editors wish their readers a Merry Yule-tide indeed and ask 
for the continued co-operation of all good friends and true of the life 
and literature of the North. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 51 

Associates of The Trustees of the American-Scandinavian 
The Foundation Foundation at their meeting, November 1, passed 
a resolution reading in part: "Whereas there 
appears to be great need of a large international organization through 
which the American-Scandinavian Foundation can work more effi- 
ciently to promote widespread interest for Scandinavia in America 
and for America in Scandinavia, be it resolved, that the Board of 
Trustees invite all who sympathize with their work to become asso- 
ciates of the American-Scandinavian Foundation." 

Regular associates of the Foundation will receive the American- 
Scandinavian Review and will have the privilege of buying the 
other publications of the Foundation at special rates, upon payment 
of a nominal membership fee of one dollar a year, though provision 
is made for those who wish to help the movement further to become 
sustaining, patron, or life associates. Scandinavian societies at home 
and abroad may associate with the Foundation unitedly. Already, 
the Trustees of the American-Scandinavian Society have accepted the 
invitation of the Foundation, subject to the ratification of the mem- 
bers at their annual meeting. 

This resolution has grown naturally out of the rapidly expanding 
work of the Foundation. Letters are constantly received from indi- 
viduals and organizations inquiring how they can become associated 
with the Foundation, urging that the Foundation assume the position 
of an international center of Scandinavian interests for which it is 
fitted by the Royal patronage it enjoys, by its position in the city 
that links the old world with the new, and by its firm financial basis. 

Recognition of The Concert of Scandinavian Music given by the 
Nortliem Music American-Scandinavian Society and arranged by 

a committee of the Society under the chairman- 
ship of Dr. Johannes Hoving, in Carnegie Hall, October 26, was an 
event of scarcely less importance in the history of Scandinavian cul- 
ture than the Art Exhibition of last year. For the first time in New 
York, Northern music was adequately presented to an audience com- 
posed largely of people not of Northern descent, and the eyes of 
music lovers were opened to the fact, as expressed by the New York 
PresSy "that the musical literature of Norway, Sweden, and Den- 
mark is far richer than most of us realize." Among the numerous 
illuminating press notices, we quote from that of Musical America: 

Carnegie Hall was the scene last Sunday afternoon of one of the most interest- 
ing concerts which the present season is likely to bring forth, when a program of 
Scandinavian music was given by the Scandinavian Male Chorus of New York 
and the Scandinavian Symphony Orchestra, Ole Windingstad conductor, with 
Julia Claussen, mezzo-soprano; Charlotte Lund, soprano; Gustaf Holmquist, 
basso, and Cornelius Rubner, pianist, as soloists. 

The concert gained in individuality because of the high standard maintained 



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52 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

in the selection of the groups of songs which the three singers offered, most of 
them novelties to a New York audience, and the two orchestral pieces, which 
were also new. 

For the singers there was great enthusiasm for Mme. Lund, who offered 
Lange-Muller's "En Engel," Binding's "Sylvelin," Sigurd Lie's "Sne," Kjerulf's 
"Synnove's Song," and Backer-Grondahl's "Eventide," five songs which she 
interpreted with rare art, each in the spirit of the composer. 

Mme. Claussen, who made her New York debut on this occasion, was heard 
in a cycle called "Dyvekes Sange," by Peter Arnold Heise, a Danish composer, 
established herself at once as an artist of the highest attainments. A glorious 
voice, produced with a freedom such as is not often heard, handled with that 
complete control which only the greatest are able to command, is her possession. 
In addition to all of this she has a dramatic sense which made vivid every inflection 
of the six songs. Her cry of despair at the close, ** Jesu, Maria, Would I Were 
Dead!" was poignantly voiced and intensely gripping. 

Mr. Holmquist, well-known in the Middle West, gave of his best in Sbder- 
mann's "King Heimer and Aslog," Sjogren's "Evening Star," Stenhammar's 
"Sverge" and Peterson- Berger's "Autumn Song," displaying a voice of excellent 
quality, especially in the medium register. Professor Rubner, who is widely 
known as head of the department of music at Columbia University, outdid him- 
self in the performance he gave of the familiar Grieg A Minor Concerto. 

To Mr. Windingstad, who conducted both orchestra and chorus, must be 
given the highest praise. An energetic, young and gifted musician, he showed 
himself to be from the opening measures of the Overture "Helios," by August 
Carl Nielsen, now conductor at the Royal Opera in Copenhagen. This work and 
the fascinating " Midsommarvaka " (Midsummer Eve), by Hugo Alfv^n, two 
novelties, proved to be so much finer than many of the new lesser Russian and 
German pieces which we have heard in recent years that it might be worth while 
for the conductors of our American orchestras to look at the works of contem- 
porary Scandinavian orchestral composers occasionally. 

Most potent, perhaps, in its immediate results was the work of 
the orchestra. The establishment of a permanent Scandinavian 
Symphony orchestra has long been a cherished plan of the conductor, 
Mr. Ole Windingstad. The concert demonstrated not only the pos- 
sibilities of Scandinavian orchestral music and the presence in New- 
York of splendid material for such an organization, but above all the 
high qualities as a musician and a director that fit Mr. Windingstad 
for the leadership of this movement toward the recognition of 
Northern music. 

The expenses of the concert were as follows: Soloists, $700; 
orchestra, $810; expenses of Male Chorus, $65; rent of Carnegie Hall, 
$400; the services of a musical bureau, $200; advertising, $359.30; 
printing and miscellaneous, $195.40; total expenses, $2,729.70. The 
imcome was: Sale of tickets, $2,338.35; donations, $35; total income, 
$2,373.35. These figures do not include expenses for music notes, 
flowers, receptions and other social events incident to the concert, 
which were defrayed by private subscription. 



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Books 

Voices of To-morrow: Critical Studies of the New Spirit in Literature. 
By Edwin Bjorkman. Mitchell Kennerley, New York, 1913. 

The sentence that left the deepest impression upon me in a recent perusal of 
Edi\dn Bjorkman's ** Voices of To-morrow" was this: "Eternal disharmony is the 
price which must be paid for eternal progress." A whole philosophy of life is 
contained in that statement. Unrest is surely the word that best characterizes 
the dominant mood of most of the writers whom Mr. Bjorkman interprets. 
Strindberg, Bjornson, Maeterlinck, Bergson, Selma Lagerlof, Francis Grierson, 
Edith Wharton, George Gissing, Joseph Conrad and Robert Herrick — none of 
these, with the possible exception of Maeterlinck, suggests anything quiet or 
stationary. At the heart of all tugs the Zeitgeist summoning to fuller and freer 
expression. 

They are contradictory — divided not only against one another, but against 
themselves. And so we find Strindberg, for instance, passing from mood to mood ; 
fiercely misogynist, yet lover of woman; an individualist and a Socialist. Bergson 
is a similarly contradictory figure. Yet from writers such as Strindberg and 
Bergson have come great inspiration for us all. We feel in them and in their 
kind a passionate idealism, a passionate sincerity, and an impulse that puts truth 
ahead of all else. I feel this same impulse in Edwin Bjorkman and honor him 
for it. 

There is one quality, however, that I think all the writers he describes have 
in common. They are all trying to extend the boundaries of life and thought. 
They all believe in freedom. They probably recognize that it will be a richly 
varied, and not a uniform freedom. They have given up the idea of enclosing 
existence under dogmas. They are willing to let life play free, even though 
liberty sometimes leads to disorder. It is this quality, perhaps, that chiefly 
entitles them to be called the true "Voices of To-morrow." 

Leonard D. Abbott. 

The Wonderful Adventures of Nils. From the Swedish of Selma Lagerlof, 
translated and edited by Velma Swanston Howard. Illustrated by Mary 
Hamilton Frye. Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, N. Y., 1913. 

The story of the little boy who was changed to an elf and saw Sweden from 
the back of a goose was written by Miss Lagerlof at the request of the National 
Teachers' Association as a reader for schools. She spent three years gathering 
the animal lore and the folk legends for the story that has become the best seller 
in Sweden, next after the Bible. Its popularity in America makes it possible for 
the publishers to present it a new holiday dress, with twenty-four full-page 
illustrations in color. 

Mrs. Howard has revised her earlier translation, and, with the consent of the 
author, has elided some of the original that seemed of too exclusively local 
significance. Mrs. Howard's work illustrates the fact that the successful trans- 
lator should have also some of the gift of the creative writer. She weighs the 
value of every word in the Swedish text, and when the meaning is clear in her 
mind, even to the finest shade, she writes her translation in such language that 
the writer's thought seems to have taken life in English. 

The illustrations were made by Miss Frye at first merely as an expression of 
her pleasure in the book. They were acquired by the Houghton Memorial 
Library in Michigan, and used there to illustrate the reading in the children's 
study hour. In this way they came to the notice of the publishers, who at once 
bought the right to reproduce them in the present edition de luxe. H. A. L. 



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54 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

STRINDBERG IN 1913 

Plays by August Strindberg. Translated, with an Introduction, by Edwin 
Bjorkman. Third Series. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1918. $1.50 
net. 

The Red Room. By August Strindberg. Authorized Translation by EUie 
Schleussner. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1913. $1.50 net. 

The Son of a Servant. By August Strindberg. Translated by Claud Field, 
with an Introduction by Henry Vacher-Burch. New York and London: 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1913. $1.25 net. 

The Inferno. By August Strindberg. Translated by Claud Field. New York 
and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1913. $1.25 net. 

Zones of the Spirit: A Book of Thoughts by August Strindberg. With an 
Introduction by Arthur Babillotte. Translated by Claud Field, M.A., New 
York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1913. $1.25 net. 

By the Open Sea. By August Strindberg. Authorized translation by EUie 
Schleussner. New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1913. $1.25. 

On the Seaboard: A Novel of the Baltic Islands. From the Swedish of August 
Strindberg. Translated by Elizabeth Clarke Westergren. Cincinnati: 
Stewart & Kidd Company, 1913. $1.25 net. 

In Midsummer Days, and Other Tales. By August Strindberg. McBride, 
Nast & Co., 1913. $1.25 net. 

August Strindberg: The Spirit of Revolt. Studies and Impressions by 
L. Lind-af-Hageby. New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1913. With twenty- 
eight illustrations in half-tone. $1.50 net. 

Does Bjorkman intend to give us a complete set of Strindberg's plays in the 
fine series that Scribner's have been adding to steadily since the first volume early 
in 1912? There is no reason why Mr. Bjorkman's set should not ultimately be as 
full and as noteworthy as the thirty volumes of Strindberg that Emil Schering 
has done into German. The third series, which is now before me, is particularly 
interesting, because it gives us material from three distinct decades of Strind- 
berg's activity. "Samum" goes back to 1888, and therefore is twin sister to 
"The Father." If either of these two is more venomous, it is "Samum." The 
source of the hatred is, in this case, racial difference, whereas in the other it was 
sex. "Debet och Credit" was written in 1892, and shows signs of the approach- 
ing brainstorm. "Advent" is the resignation after the storm (1899). The other 
plays in the volume — "Swanwhite," "Thunderstorm," "After the Fire," — are 
products of the twentieth century, two having been written within a few years of 
Strindberg's death. This excellent collection, perhaps the most typical of many 
phases of our author that has yet appeared, is introduced by one of Mr. Bj6rk- 
man's authoritative and instructive essays on Sweden's greatest writer. 

When "The Red Room" {Roda rummet), Strindberg's first novel, was printed 
(1879), the author was scarcely more than thirty years old. It is not surprising, 
therefore, that the work should be one of stormy lives, of hunger and cold and 
terror, of all the dramatic elements in life that appeal to the young man who has 
struggled. There are passages in this book that have the warmth of intimacy 
that one feels in the recent works of H. G. Wells, and there are other passages 
that drop the tender idealistic reverence and plunge you into an icy bath of 
scepticism, of doubt, of atheism and of superciliousness. 

"The Son of a Servant" {Tjensteqvinnans Son) is the first long instalment of 
Strindberg's autobiographical material. I do not believe that any finer presenta- 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 55 

tion exists of the miseries and sins of boyhood; the physiological terrors, the 
cruelty of parental authority, the malice of the pedagogical engine and of its 
crew — there can hardly be another equally honest and clear statement of the 
effects of these things on a delicate child than this bitter outburst. The trans- 
lator has tempered or elided some of the frankest passages, so that the book 
may be placed on the shelves of any library without fear of contamination. 

Of the other autobiographical books, only "Inferno" is available in English, 
and that is regrettable, for the reader may judge from the specimen of "Alone" 
that Mr. Josephson did for the Review a few months ago, what a model of sedate, 
stately resignation that book is. "Inferno," like "The Red Room," is volcanic. 
But with the fire of approaching insanity, not with that of youth. Its prevailing 
mood is one of persecutory mania. There is an indecent quality about the rev- 
elations of hatreds and suspicions, but for that very reason "Inferno" is inter- 
esting. For what man besides Strindberg would have been willing to forfeit 
our good will in this way? In "Inferno," moreover, there are the beginnings 
of a coquetting with Catholicism that we shall meet again in later considerations 
of Strindberg, though he never became a Catholic. 

His "Blue Book," of which Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons print the first 
volume, under the title of "Zones of the Spirit," is a fine example of his later 
discursive phase. Turn its leaves, and on every page there is an opinion, 
or a wrath, or a mystical resignation, or a remnant of Misogyny, that is interest- 
ing. He tells you about Oscar Wilde's "De Profundis," about Swedenborg in 
hell, about the futility of learning, and about many things not at all literary — all 
arranged under convenient headings, frankly disconnected and quite enjoyable 
each without regard to the rest of the book. There are things about Strindberg's 
past that do not become clear before one has read the " Blue Book," and the other 
volumes should therefore be presented to English readers as soon as possible. 

The most interesting of Strindberg's novels in the one of which two translations 
are listed above, for both "By the Open Sea" and "On the Seaboard" are English 
versions of " / hafsbandet,*' This novel appeared in 1890. It begins as a rebellion 
against domination of the aristocracy — the natural aristocracy of ability — by the 
lower classes, and ends in insanity. No other man has so well pictured the weak- 
ness of exceptional talent when opposed by misunderstanding and malice. The 
story is relieved frequently by the flame of man's tenderness for woman, but the 
Strindberg of 1890 could not see anything in the woman but an ally of supersti- 
tion. The description of Swedish life and Swedish scenery make one positively 
homesick for the skdrgard and its moods. 

The reader of the volume that begins with the story, "Midsummer Days" can- 
not fail to notice a side of Strindberg's work that has thus far been neglected. 
It is his brilliance as a writer of short stories and impressionistic prose poems. 

The study of Strindberg by Miss Lind-af-Hageby is the first volume to 
appear in English dealing exclusively with this subject. We have had many 
single essays on the greatest literary figure of Sweden; in importance they range 
all the way from the masterly studies by Mr. Edwin Bjorkman, now reprinted in 
his "Voices of To-morrow," to the uninstructed and pretentious claptrap of Mr. 
James Huneker. But here is a whole volume at last and many others will 
follow it. Miss Lind-af-Hageby's book surprises us by its thoroughness and 
completeness. The author seems to have read everything Strindberg has 
written, a colossal task, which alone would impress one with the seriousness of 
her work. Her judgments are sound and acceptable, her English style fluent and 
graceful, even brilliant, and she has, in addition, had access to data concerning 
the life and relations of Strindberg, that are far from accessible to everybody — to 
the present reviewer, for instance, Jacob Wittmer Hartmann. 



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56 ADVERTISEMENTS 



Plays by August Strindberg and Bjornstjerne Bjornson 

Translated and with Introductions by Edwin Bjorkman. 

By AUGUST STRINDBERG 

FIRST SERIES With portrait, SL50 net 

"The Dream Play," "The Link," "The Dance of Death," Parts I and II 

" No one can read a play of Strindberg's without receiving an intellectual jolt. There comes the start- 
ling conviction that here is the transcript of a great mind. One may or may not agree that what one 
reads is great drama or great literature; but there is no doubt that the big, restless, cutting, probing spirit 
of the man who wrote it is a :»tupendous human spectacle." — The Dial. 

SECOND SERIES $1-50 net 

"Creditors" "Pariah," "Miss Julia," "The Stronger," "There Are 
Crimes and Crimes." 

THIRD SERIES ${^50 net; by mail §1.65 

A new volume of the authorized edition of Strindberg's Plays, containing "Advent," *' Simoom." 
** Swanwhite," " Debit and Credit," " The Thunderstorm," and '* After the Fire." Most of these plays 
have never before been translated into English. 

By BJORNSTJERNE BJORNSON 

"The New System," "The Gauntlet," "Beyond Our Power." 

Frontispiece $1.50 net; by mail SI. 65 

** These three plays reflect the great essentials and the special characteristics of all of Bjornson's work. 

The modern mould of this writer's mind, the big and timely themes with w^hich it dealt, the melliod of 

embodying these themes in dramatic form, and the picturesque simplicity of Bjornson's manner are here 

in full fcrce." — Washington Star. 




Charles Scribner's Sons (lia)| Fifth Ave., New York 



Brief Notes 

o o 

The edition de luxe of "Julstamning," published by Ahl^n & Akerlund, 
Goteborg-Chicago, contains a veritable gallery of beautiful pictures. Eight 
reproductions in color of paintings by Liljefors, six autochrome landscapes of 
Sweden, and numerous other full-page pictures are all mounted on rich, heavy 
paper and suitable for framing. Roald Amundsen contributes an article on 
"Christmas at the South Pole." The book is sold by Carl Dahlen in New York. 



"Valda Berattelser" (Selected Stories) by Selma Lagerlof, edited by 
Professor Jules Mauritzson, is a volume in the College and High School Series of 
Swedish Authors published by the Augustana Book Concern. The stories are 
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book extremely valuable to American students of Swedish. 



The Augustana Book Concern also publishes "The Song of the Rose," by 
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Captain Neils Heiberg, of the Norwegian Akershus Dragoons, who has just 
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stories. His "White-Ear and Peter: The Story of a Fox and a Fox Terrier" 
has been published by Macmillan & Co. with sixteen attractive colored plates by 
the English illustrator, Cecil Aldin. H. A. L. 



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BOOKS BY AUGUST STRINDBERC 

THE INFERNO ZONES OF THE SPIRIT (Das Blau-Buch) 

Translated and with Introduction A Book of ThoughU 

By Claud Field, M.A. With Introduction by Arthur Babillotte 

THE SON OF A SERVANT Translated by Claud Field. M.A. 

Thinslated and with Introduction THE RED ROOM 

By Claud Field, M.A. Translated by Ellie Schleussner 

Each It. $1.25 net. By mail, $1.35 
** Readers of Strindberg in English are now furnished with works from his pen more illuminating as to his life and out- 
look than any which have previously appeared." 

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Reprinted from The Century of the Child 

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It. Ready shorUy 



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It. With PoHrait, $1.50 net. By mail, $1.65 

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It, $1.50 net. Bymaa,$1.65 

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A Portrait 

It. With Portraiia. $1.50 net. By mail, $1.65 

" It is needless to say that whatever is written by Ellen Key has a serious purport, that her contentions have a hearty 
conviction behind them, and that they are advanced with a logical and forceful precision that is compatible with both 
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A Critical Study. By Louise Ntstrom Hamilton. TransUted by Anna E. B. Fries 
It. With Portrait. $1.50 net. BymaU,$1.65 
The author is one who has been intimate with Ellen Key since her youth. She is herself the wife of the founder of the 
People's Hospital in Stockholm, where for over twenty years Ellen Key taught and lectured. 

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Where can I buy Scandinavian Books? 

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A Norwegian- American Magazine 


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tion and refinement; the heroine a beautiful woman, the in- 
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FA^TFR (A Play in ThrM Aett) AND STORIES. Authorized 

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STATEMENT 

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AuERicAN - Scandinavian Review, published 
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CHICAGO BOSTON PHILADELPHIA MINNEAPOLIS 



ESTABLISHED 1879 



STATE BANK OF CHICAGO 

Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago, III. 



Capital & Surplus $4,200,000 Deposits $25,000,000 



OFFICERS 

L. A. GODDARD 
President 

Hexry a. Haugan 

\'ice- President 

Henry S. Henschen 

Cashier 

Frank I. Packard 

Assistant Cashier 

C. Edward Carlson 

Assistant Cashier 

Walter J. Cox 

Assistant Cashier 

Edward A. Schroeder 
Assistant Cashier 

Samuel E. Necht 
Secretary 

WiLUAM C. Miller 
Assistant Secretary 



CHECKING ACCOUNTS 

of individuals, firms and corpora- | 
tions are solicited. Loans made on 
approved names or collaterals. 



WILLS AND TRUSTS 

This bank's Trust Department is 
equipped to handle with skill and 
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INVESTMENTS 

Clients wishing to avail themselves 
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These can be had in amounts from 
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DIRECTORS 

David N. Barker 

Manager Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. 

J. J. Dau 

President Reid. Murdoch & Co. 

Thbo. Freeman 

Retired Merchant 

L. A. GODOARD 

President 

Henry A. Haugan 

Vice-President 

H. G. Haugan 

Ex-Comptroller Chicago. Milwaukee 

and St. Paul Railway Co. 

Oscar H. Haugan 

Manager Real Estate Loan Dept. 

A. Lanquist 

President Lanquist & Illsley Co. 

Wm. a. Peterson 

Proprietor Peterson Nursery 

Geo. E. Rickcords 

Chicago Title & Trust Company 

Moses J. Wentworth 

CapitaUst 



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Fast, modem constructed, twin-screw Passenger Steamers: 
"Frederik Yin" New. 12,000 tons, "Oscar II." 10,000 tons, "Hellig Olav," 10.000 tons, "United SUtes," 10.000 tons 



/ fll 



/ 



/ ^ Ia ''\ 







Proposed Sailings 


1914 




from New York: 


HeUigOIav . . 


Jan. 2 


Oscar II . . . 


Jan. 29 


United Stotes . 


Feb. 12 


Frederik VIII . 


Feb. 25 


Oscar II . . . 


Mch.l2 


United SUtes 


Mch.26 


HelUgOUv . 


Apr. 2 


Frederik YOl . 


Apr. 8 


Oscar II . . . 


Apr. 23 


United States . 


May 2 


HeUigOUv . . 


May 14 


Frederik VIII . 


May 20 


Oscar U . . . 


June 4 


United SUtes . 


June 11 


HelligOUv . . 


June 25 


Frederik VIII . 


July 1 


Oscar II . . . 


July 14 


United States 


July 80 


Frederik VIU . 


Aug. 12 


Oscar II . . . 


Aug. 27 


HelligOlav . . 


Sept. S 


United States 


Sept. 10 


Frederik VIII . 


Sept.2S 


Oscarll . . . 


Oct. 8 


HelligOUv . . 


Oct. 15 


United SUtes 


Oct. 22 


Frederik VIII . 


Oct. 81 


Oscarll . . . 


Nov. 19 


HelligOlav . . 


Nov. 26 


United States 


Dec. 8 


Frederik VIII . 


Dec. 9 


Steamers route: 


New York — Christiansand, 




Copenhagen 


Splendid Cuisine 


Home Comfort 


Moderate Rates 



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MONTREAL to PLYMOUTH and LONDON 
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The American-Scandinavian Review 

Volume II MARCH, 1914 Numbeb 2 

Published Bi- Monthly by The American-Scandinayian Foundation, 25 West 45th Street, New York 

Yearly Subscription, $1.50. Single Copies, 25 cents 

Entered as second-class matter. January 4. 1913. at the post-office at New York. N. Y., under the act of March 3. 1S79 

Copyright, 1913. The American-Scandinavian Foundation 

Henbt Goddard Leach, Managing Editor Hanna Astrup Larsen, Literary Editor 

Advisory Editors 
New York, Hamilton Holt Copenhagen, Harald Nielsen 

Stockholm, Carl Laurin Christiania, Christian Collin 



CONTENTS 



page 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE MARCH REVIEW 11 

KNUT HAMSUN, from a Painting by Henrik Lund 12 

KNUT HAMSUN : AN APPRECIATION. By Carl Christian Hyllested 13 
NORWAY'S CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION. With Five Illustrations. 

By H. K. Lehmkuhl 18 

TO NORWAY. Poem. By Martin B. Ruud 25 

HOME TO NORWAY. By Hanna Astrup Larsen 25 

SONG FOR NORWAY. With Four Illustrations. By Bjornstjerne 

Bjornson. Translated by Arthur Hubbell Palmer 28 

DANISH CASTLES— 11. AALHOLM 32 

THE CHURCH A FACTOR IN NORWEGIAN AMERICAN DEVEL- 
OPMENT. With Three Illustrations. By D. G. Ristad .... 34 

FROM THE HAVAMAL. By Martin B. Ruud 38 

HOW TO GIVE TIPS. By Edward J. W^inslow 39 

THE "GJOA." Sonnet. By Edward Robeson Taylor 40 

FIGUREHEAD OF THE PLEASURE YACHT "APHRODITE" . . 40 

THE ROCHESTER MEMORIAL ART GALLERY 41 

THE LUTHER COLLEGE CONCERT BAND 41 

IN ROSENBORG PARK. By Herman Bang. Translated by Jacob 

Wittmer Hartmann 42 

EDITORIALS: The New Norway, Dr. Hedin's Warning, The Union of the 
North, The Nobel Prizes, The Poulsen Wireless Telegraph, Scandi- 
navian Libraries, The Foundation, The Society, The Review, Strind- 
berg Interpretation, Engineers to Meet in Christiania, The Mission of 

the Scandinavian 43 

BOOKS: European Dramatists, August Strindberg — Samlade Skrifter, 
Canute the Great, Two Visits to Denmark, Shallow Soil, O Pioneers! 
Lisbeth Longfrock, Brief Notes 50 




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Spend Your Vacation in 

NORWAY 

During the Celebration of 

THE CENTENARY EXHIBITION OF NORWAY 

to be held in Christiania, May 15-Sept. 15, 1914 



Scandinavian -American Line 

Fast, modern constructed, twin-screw Passenger Steamers : 

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Sails from Christiania : 

Frederik Mil May 1 
Hellig Olav May 15 
Unitetl States May 22 
Oscar II . June 5 
Frederik VIII June 12 
Hellig Olav June 26 
United States July 10 
Frederik VIII July 24 
Hellig Olav Aug. 7 
Os«ir II Aug. 14 

United States Aug. 21 
Frederik VIII Sept. 4 
Hellig Olav Sept. 18 
Oscar II Sept. 25 

United States Oct. 2 
Frederik VIII Oct. 14 
Hellig Olav Oct. 30 




Sails from New York: 



Oscar II f 
Frederik VIII 
Hellig Olav 
United States 
Oscar II . 
Frederik VIII 
Hellig Olav 
United States 
Oscar II . 
Frederik VIII 
Hellig Olav 
United States 
Frederik Mil 
Hellig Olav 
Oscar II. . 
United States 
Frederik VIII 



Apr. 2 
Apr. 8 
Apr. 23 
May 2 
May 14 
May 20 

June 4 
June 11 
June 25 

July 1 
July 14 
July 30 
Aug. 12 
Aug. 27 

Sept. 3 
Sept. 10 
Sept. 23 



"Frederik VIII" is the newest, largest, fastest and most modern con- 
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Solid Home Comfort 



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In order to obtain best possible westbound reserx-ations Cabin passengers should secure their return accom- 
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open. Connection with the North Cape steamers can be made at Bergen or Trondhjem by rail from Christiania. 

Passengers to Bergen can leave the ocean steamer at Christiania and proceed from there via the famous 
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Excellent connections at Copenhagen twice daily with all the principal cities on the continent. 

A. E. JOHNSON & CO., Inc., General Passenger Agents 1 Broadway, Ncw York 

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ADVERTISEMEXTS 



''"^Toll 'g"o\\\"o""" S C a N D I N AV I a 

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Let us help you to plan a trip. 
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Passengers carried direct from Philadelphia to Christiania. 
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Authorized agent for all Steamship Lines. 
Books now open for reservation of choice 
rooms in the 1st, 2nd. and 3rd class on 
all steamers. List of sailings, prices and 
further information sent gladly on request. 

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A Tale Worth 
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When you go home to Norway tell 
them what a wonderful country 
this is; tell them that sincerity of 
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Secure a Copy of Burpee's Annual for 1914 

IT WILL NOT ONLY HELP YOU TO SOLVE 

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The health, comfort and happiness of your family depend largely on what 
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ADDRESS 

W. ATLEE BURPEE & CO., Burpee Buildings, Philadelphia 



Recommendation for Associate 

of the 

AMERICAN- SCANDINAVIAN FOUNDATION 

International Organization to Promote Intellectual Relations Be- 
tween Americans and the Peoples of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 

THE FEE INCLUDES SUBSCRIPTION TO THE 

AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Patron Associate, $25 annually; Life, $100 once for all; Sustaining, $5 annually; Regular, $1 

(in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, four crowns) 

Please detach and fill in the blank below and return to the Secretary: 

I nominate 

Address 

for Associate of the Foundation. 

(name and address op associate) 



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Dear Reader: 

WE might have obtained two more advertisements for our Christmas 
Number but we did not. We did not know that there was any- 
thing the matter with these advertisements but were not entirely sure 
that we could recommend them to our readers, and as we had no means 
of finding out definitely, we omitted them, d^ You may have confidence in 
our advertisers, as we have. We do not advertise a steamship line or 
railroad that we would not be quite willing to travel on ourselves, nor a 
bank or banker to whom we would not entrust our own money. That 
the merchandise of our other advertisers is good we know from actual 
use. dL You can help the organ of the Foundation by patronizing its 
advertisers. Will you not do so.^ And if there is anything you want 
not advertised here, drop a line to the advertising manager and say so. 
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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE MARCH REVIEW 

Carl Christian Hyllested, who is introducing the great Norwegian, 
Hamsun, to American readers by his article in the Review and by his translation 
of "Shallow Soil" reviewed in this number, is himself a native of Denmark, now 
living in New York. His interest in Norwegian writers and particularly in 
Hamsun dates from a trip around the North Cape, when he fell under the spell 
of the Arctic wonderland. 

Herman Kr. Lehmkuhl, of Bergen, is secretary of the Publicity Bureau of 
the Centennial Exposition. He has been a contributor to various periodicals in 
Norway, and in 1912 visited America as correspondent to Aftenposten. 

It gives the editors especial pleasure to print the sympathetic poem "To 
Norway," by Martin B. Ruud. Mr. Ruud was born of Norwegian parents in 
Minnesota, and has studied at Western universities. Since 1912 he has been a 
traveling scholar of the American-Scandinavian Foundation and the University 
of Chicago, and has spent a semester at each of the Universities of Christiania, 
Copenhagen, and Uppsala. 

The Norwegian national anthem appears in this issue of the Review in a new 
and spirited translation by Arthur Hubbell Palmer, Professor of Germanic 
Languages and Literature at Yale University. Mr. Palmer is the editor of 
various text-books of the works of Goethe and Schiller, and has under preparation 
a volume of translations of Bjornson's lyrics. He is a trustee of the American- 
Scandinavian Foundation. 

Rev. D. G. Ristad is a native of Norway. He has been for a number of years 
a pastor in the Norwegian Synod of America, and is now the president of the 
Park Region Luther College, a young and flourishing institution in Fergus Falls, 
Minnesota. 

Edward Delbert Winslow, of Chicago, has since 1911 been American 
Consul-General in Denmark. Twice in his consular career he has represented 
his government in Sweden. 

Dr. Edw^ard Robeson Taylor was elected mayor of San Francisco by the 
reform element after the retirement of Mr. Schmitz in 1907. He has published 
several books of graceful verse. The Review prints in this issue his sonnet to 
Amundsen's good ship Gj'da, now cresting a hill in Golden Gate Park. 

Dr. J. W. Hartmann, instructor in German in the College of the City of 
New York, contributes another review to this issue and follows his translation of 
Hallstrom's " Symposium " with a page from the works of Herman Bang. 

Axel Teisen is a Philadelphia barrister, who contributes to law journals on 
both sides of the Atlantic. He is a Dane by birth and a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Copenhagen. 

Asaph Robert Shelander, clergyman, lecturer and writer, is a Swedish- 
American, a graduate of Augustana College and sometime Fellow in Philology 
at Columbia University. 

Agnes M. Wergeland, a member of a distinguished Norwegian family of 
that name, is Professor of History at the University of Wyoming. In 1912 she 
published a volume of poems in Norwegian. 

The painting reproduced on the cover of this number is a winter landscape 
entitled "Mountains," by the Norwegian artist, Harald Sohlberg, one of the 
favorite paintings in the Scandinavian Exhibition in America in 1912-13. 

The illustrations used in connection with Professor Palmer's translation were 
reproduced from plates courteously loaned by the Norwegian America Line. 



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American - Scandinavian 

Review 

Volume II MARCH • 1914 Number 2 

Knut Hamsun: An Appreciation 

By Carl Christian Hyllested 

FOR more than a score of years Knut Hamsun's European fame 
has been firmly estabhshed ; his works are translated into seven- 
teen languages, and a whole literature has grown up around his 
name. He is even considered by many the foremost of modern 
Scandinavian writers, not excepting the great Ibsen himself. Yet 
in the enthusiastically acclaiming or stridently dissenting chorus of 
literary critics that greets his books, no English voice is heard. So 
far, he has not "crossed the channel," though other continental 
writers of far less originality and power have leaped the barriers of 
language and climbed the steep trails that lead to universal recogni- 
tion. It is certain that much in Hamsun's literary production can 
never appeal to our American taste. Especially in his early works, 
there is a note of erratic, almost hectic violence that appears over- 
strained and morbid, and there are passages that are coarse to the 
verge of brutality. Yet there remains, when all dross is sifted, so 
much of art's pure gold, of lyric beauty, of dramatic insight and 
power, of bewitching artistry of style, that it would be enough to 
endow half a dozen ordinary talents with fame everlasting. 

To find the key to Hamsun's literary activity in his maturer years 
it is necessary to go back to his early bitter struggles, and even 
farther back, to his childhood, spent in surroundings that were bound 
to exert the greatest influence on a mind of his impressionable nature. 
He grew up on one of the Lofoten Islands — a chain of rocky outposts, 
torn from Norway's lacerated coast line, and flung into the teeth of 
the Arctic Sea — "a drama in granite," Bjornson called them. Here 
life swings, pendulum like, from extreme to extreme, from midnight 
sun to wintry gloom, from storm to brooding calm, from the dreamy 
solitude of inactivity to feverish life, when the thousand-sailed fishing- 
fleet swoops down upon migrating schools of cod and capelan. 



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14 TEE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

There Hamsun lived in an atmosphere of nature sagas — a 
gaunt, taciturn, spectacled youth, inured to danger and hardship, 
strong of body, but with a mimosa soul. He had the passionate 
independence and the restlessness of the Nordland people, with all 
their inability to fit into the scheme of an artificial civilization. The 
years of his early manhood were devoted to persistent but futile 
efforts to gain recognition in intellectual fields. This chapter in 
Hamsun's life story stretches over ten long years, and from many of 
his subsequent books, especially "Hunger," we learn how terrible was 
the struggle, how great the mental and physical suffering. Yet he 
never refers to this time with bitterness; indeed, there are passages 
showing that he looks back upon this period of hard manual labor as 
a useful and beautiful experience. His love of sheer physical exertion 
has remained w4th him through life. "Under the Harvest Star" and 
"A Wanderer Plays with Muted Strings" depict the weary slave 
of city life who — even at the age of fifty — ^goes out to support him- 
self as a road laborer and man of all work in order to find peace and 
contentment. 

Hamsun's struggles for existence brought him as an immigrant to 
America, where his occupations varied from that of a dish-washer to 
that of a lecturer on French literature. His term in the college of 
hard knocks terminated in a post-graduate course as one of the crew 
on a Newfoundland fishing-smack. In "Hunger," Hamsun's first 
book after his return to civilization, we find in embryo all the poets 
that dwell in the author — the keen, almost clairvoyant psychologist, 
the virile realist, the master of descriptive style, the lyric nature 
singer. The story is partly autobiographical and is that of a super- 
sensitive, impractical youth, who runs afoul of life's orderly forces in 
his struggles to live, and who starves and dreams and philosophizes 
through three hundred pulsating, brilliant pages. The progressive 
stages of hunger insanity and the excesses and aberrations induced 
by physical suffering are portrayed with masterly art and with an 
astonishing fertility of imagination. The depressing nature of the 
subject is relieved by flashes of humor and by a gentle raillery at 
himself and his improvidence. Nevertheless, "Hunger" could not 
but rouse horror and repugnance, and the feeling against the author 
was still further inflamed by his next book, "Mysteries." Such reck- 
less audacity, such arrogant irreverence had never before appeared in 
print. The famine-crazed youth in " Hunger " hurled his blasphemies 
in the face of Providence; Nagel, in "Mysteries," scoffed at every- 
thing that carried the general stamp of approval. It is no wonder 
that Hamsun was regarded by the conservatives as a firebrand, a 
heretic to whom nothing was sacred; no wonder, perhaps, that this 
unjust and superficial characterization has clung to him in spite of 
all the evidences to the contrary furnished by his later works. 



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TEE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 15 

Fresh from the silences of the fishing-banks, with the memory of 
ten years' stifled aspiration and futile effort pressing his shoulders as 
a yoke, it was inevitable that the first expression of his genius should 
have some of the violence of an eruption. Yet there is, as a matter 
of fact, far more veneration than scorn in Hamsun's philosophy. The 
very intensity of his capacity for worship determines the violence 
of his attacks upon everything which appears to him artificial and 
untrue. 

*'I do not despise all great men," says Nagel, "but neither do I 
measure a man's greatness by the extent of the movement he may 
have started; I judge him from my own sense of appraisal, my inborn 
faculty of appreciation; I judge him, so to speak, by the taste his 
activities leave in my mouth. In doing this I am not assuming any 
superiority; I am simply expressing the subjective logic of my blood." 
And again: "The world may say that this or that sensible person 
would never have acted in this manner, and consequently it must 
be imbecility. But I stand forth alone, and I stamp my foot and 
say that it is common sense. What does the world know ? Nothing ! " 

From these premises he proceeds to pronounce judgment on 
Ibsen, Tolstoy, Shakespeare, Gladstone, morality, religion, patriotism, 
— all that happens to come within view. It is all interesting, nay, 
fascinating; his eloquence is phenomenal; the brilHance of his style 
carries him safely over the most glaring paradoxes. His sincerity and 
absolute good faith are so apparent that it is impossible to take 
offense. Even a book like that amazing collection of misinformation 
and prejudice, "Intellectual Life in Modern America," is written 
with such refreshing humor and such boundless conviction that one 
reads it with a sense of pleasure, wholly apart from its really excellent 
portions, such as the weighty and well-considered estimates of the 
pseudo-philosophy of Emerson and Walt Whitman. 

In volume alone Hamsun's production is monumental. Since 
1888 he has published twenty-five novels, dramas, lyrics and essays, 
all of a high order and each one so different from the other that it is 
difficult to say what are the main currents in his work, while to give 
any exhaustive analysis of him would be impossible within the scope 
of this article. There is "Pan," that sublime symphony of nature- 
romanticism, and there is "Munken Vendt," a drama in rhymed 
stanzas of a plasticity and finished beauty comparable only to 
"Brand" and "Peer Gynt." Again, there is the exquisite love idyl, 
"Victoria," in which Hamsun has penned some of his most glorious 
passages to love. 

Professor Morburger has pointed out that few poets have ventured 
to give to the world such a number of intimate self-portrayals, and 
still fewer have succeeded in stamping all these changing pictures 
with a common impress, and yet never repeat themselves. " Ibsen was 



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16 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

concerned with the sentimental love affairs of the rich middle class; 
Strindberg's best works are those dealing Avith matrimonial degen- 
eracy; but I feel much at home in handling the romantic subjects of 
eccentric dreamers and intellectual vagabonds," Hamsun has con- 
fessed of himself. Nagel, in "Mysteries," is the most exaggerated 
example of this intellectual vagabond type, which recurs again and 
again, Coldevin, in "Shallow^ Soil," is Nagel under different condi- 
tions, just as he is Hoibro in "Editor Lynge," or the Miller's Son in 
"Victoria," or the wanderer in "The Harvest Star" — that is, he is 
Hamsun himself at different times and under different circumstances. 
It is always the wanderer, life's exile, the restlessly aspiring soul, 
unable to find its place amid the realities of a practical world, in a 
constant state of rebellion against the decrees of civilized life. This 
mental attitude is mirrored in such trivialities as dress and manner; 
he is awkward in social intercourse, stubs his toes on the convention- 
alities, and offends by his blunt directness. He is, in short, thor- 
oughly natural in an atmosphere of refined artificiality, and this out- 
ward incongruity expresses the deeper conflict, the struggles of the 
soul. "It is extremely difficult," says Hamsun, in "Editor Lynge," 
"to sum up a human soul in a definite equation; it is composed of 
shades, of contradictions, of fractions innumerable; the more modern 
it is, the more complex does it become, and it is hard for such a 
composite soul to find a resting-place." 

Hamsun's art is an effort to portray the soul in its relation to the 
fixed facts of life and to the mystery of the unknown, the borderland 
between life and nature, to show its struggles in the inexorable grip 
of fate and depict the disintegrating effect of advancing years. From 
the same viewpoint he sees the sex problem, and one of his favorite 
situations is that where a man is drawn with his soul to one woman, 
by his senses to another. 

In a trilogy of dramas, "At the Kingdom's Gate," "The Play of 
Life," and "In the Gloaming," Hamsun has shown how life pushes 
the aged to the wall. "When a wanderer reaches fifty years, he plays 
with muted strings." He is an outsider; life, with its throbbing 
passions and bitter struggles have become "literature" to him, some- 
thing to watch and philosophize about with gentle sarcasm or mild 
sympathy. He still loves, but he does not desire. Like Coldevin, in 
"Shallow Soil," the wanderer simply reserves to himself the role of 
guardian and protector toward the beloved. And yet — ^how easy it 
is to deceive oneself even in this, how^ hard to keep to the role at all 
times! "How hard it is to understand people," sighs the wanderer, 
and the book, which is a masterly description of the gradual con- 
tamination and ultimate destruction of a proud and passionate 
woman, ends with this note of ineffable sadness: "It is getting colder 
as I wander homeward to my log cabin; soon the frost will have 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 17 

covered swamps and moor and made walking easier. I saunter along, 
slowly and indifferently, my hands in my pockets. I am in no hurry; 
it matters little whither I am drifting." 

In his latest works, however, Hamsun has altogether emancipated 
himself from the feeUng of weariness, which cast a somewhat depress- 
ing shadow over his production during the period of transition from 
his intense subjectivity to the more objective portrayal of which he 
has made himself master in recent years, and in which he has found 
newer, surer, fuller notes, rich in the promise of perennial rejuvenation. 

While portraying nature, Hamsun has given us pages that will live 
as long as language lasts. He does not need a flaming sunset or a 
spectacular storm to inspire him to lyric flights; a blade of grass is 
to him a miracle, a summer zephyr a blessing. A bird's twitter, an 
insect's flight is enough to set his soul vibrating. He encompasses all 
nature with his tenderness, and here he does not find his God-given 
faculty of veneration checked and thwarted. Even Nagel, the icono- 
clast, voices his nature worship in the following beautSful words: "I 
feel as if I were a part of this wood and this field, a branch on a 
spruce or a rock, yes a rock even, but one that was suffused and 
permeated with all this fragrance and brooding peace. Look at that 
juniper over there — see how it almost bends towards us and looks so 
good and friendly. And from fir and spruce the spider is spinning 
his webs; they look like some fragile Chinese bead- work, Uke suns 
spun from water; I am sure that warm and smiling elves are dancing 
around us now." 

The cover of Hamsun's works in a popular edition has a picture 
of the poet growing out of the soil, as much a part of it as are the 
mountains and trees, dominating the landscape with his rugged 
features and his far-seeing, contemplative gaze. To one who knows 
and loves Hamsun and Hamsun's Norway, there is nothing incon- 
gruous in the picture. For Hamsun is more than Nordland's poet — 
he is the saga-filled Nordland itself, in all its weird and imposing 
splendor. In his art we find again the untamed fury of its Arctic 
storms, the eerie gloom of its endless nights, but with a dazzling aurora 
play of color above the snow peaks. We see his fairyland in all its 
moods, in the gentle, ineffable calm of its summer evenings and the 
brooding peace of its solitudes, and we feel the throb of thcr fierce, 
passionate, restless life-hunger that fills the breasts of its roving sons. 



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Frck^ner — The Stately Manor-House Near Christiaxta, Used as the Administration 

Building of the Exposition 

Norway's Centennial Exposition 

By H. Kr. Lehmkuhl 

ONE hundred years ago, a stately manor-house could be seen 
near Christiania — a handsome two-story dwelling, half hidden 
under venerable shade-trees and surrounded by a wide, 
beautiful park. In the shelter of spreading boughs and w^ell-cHpped 
yew hedges were prim garden paths, and against the dark green 
gleamed Uttle white benches, suggestive of a shepherd scene k la 
Watteau. Tiny bridges led across the purling brook to the elevation 
on the other side of the park, w^here an octagonal belvedere supported 
by white columns lifted a quaint silhouette against the sky. Beyond 
the park stretched a large estate, guarding the exclusiveness of the 
manor against the inroads of a growing city. 

The manor w-as called Frogner. In the two centuries of its 
history the most brilliant period fell in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, when it w^as the home of Bernt Anker, and it is probable 
that the present building dates from his time. The mansion and 
park w^ere then the center of all that Christiania possessed of culture 
and social Ufe. In the summer he gathered the aristocracy of 
the city and country for his elegant Sunday assemhlees. On June 26, 



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THE AMEBIC AX-SCAXDIX AVI AX REVIEW 



19 



1813, his successor, Morten Anker, gave his famous fete for Prince 
Christian Fredrik, whose presence in Norway led to the events of 1814. 

The estate passed afterward into the hands of the Gade family, 
who maintained its traditions. When General Grant visited Europe 
after his second presidential term, Consul Gade gave a splendid din- 
ner in his honor. Among the distinguished Americans who have 
been his guests at Frogner are Mr. Astor and Mr. Carnegie. 

With the passing of the years, the city came nearer and nearer. 
Bit by bit, the estate was sold. The house and the nearest grounds 
have been kept intact, but in recent years the stately halls have been 
desolate, and the park has been allowed to run wild. 

A century has gone by since the historic fete of Morten Anker, 
and again the house and park are astir with life and bustle, but of 
what a different nature from that of a hundred years ago. Archi- 
tects, engineers, and landscape gardeners have invaded the manor 
house, and in the great ballroom, still faintly colored by graceful 
Empire decorations of faded roses and fruit and dimmed peacock 
feathers, the directors of the Exposition meet for serious consulta- 
tions. Work at high pressure goes on outside, and one after the 
other the large Exposition buildings rise from the rich memories of 
the past, imposing symbols of a new time that in its way may be as 
glorious. 

The opening of Norway's Centennial Exposition on May 15 will 
be without comparison the most important link in the chain of festi- 
vals that will commemorate the 
Centenary of our Constitution. 
Its object is not only to demon- 
strate w^hat has been accom- 
plished in a hundred years of free- 
dom, but still more to give 
expression to the full and varied 
activities that characterize our 
time — to give impetus, wake to 
new achievements and point out 
new paths for the coming century. 

The Exposition is truly na- 
tional in its nature. It is given 
by the State, which contributes 
500,000 kroner directly and 800,- 
000 kroner from the Norwegian 
State Lottery. The municipality 
of Christiania contributes 300,000 
kroner. To this must be added 

W^hat the State and all the com- Mr. Torolf Prytz, Chairman op the 

munes of the country give indi- Executive Committee 




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TEE AMEBIC AN'SCANDIN AVI AN REVIEW 



rectly by their exhibits. King Haakon is the patron of the Exposition, 
and its presidency consists of representatives of the cabinet and Stor- 
ting and of Christiania and its magistracy. The Executive Committee 
in charge of the actual administrative work is appointed by the State. 
The chairman is Mr. Torolf Prytz, architect; the vice-chairman, Mr. 
Bernt Holtsmark, minister of agriculture. The other members of the 
Committee are: Dr. A. Rseder, rector of Christiania Cathedral School; 
Mr. A. L. Thune, manufacturer; Mr. A. F. Klaveness, ship-owner; 
Consul Jacob Schram; Mr. O. Stang, cand. jur.; Professor Chr. Krohg; 
Captain Chr. Aug. Thome; Mr. Carl Berner, president of Nordmands- 
forbundet; Mr. H. Monsen, banker; Mr. F. G. Gundersen, contractor; 
Mr. I. C. Roschauw, engineer-in-chief; Director H. J. Darre-Jensen; 
Dr. Aug. C. Mohr, Chamberlain; Director T. A. Heiberg, and 
Director K. Oppegaard. 

The Exposition is national in the character of its exhibits as well 
as in administration. Only Norwegian commodities and the prod- 
ucts of Norwegian industry are admitted. An exception is the 
department contained in the attractive pavilion devoted to "Norway 
Abroad," in so far as its exhibits are brought from beyond the bound- 
aries of the country; but even here the display of foreign manufac- 




'*NoBWAT Abroad," A Meeting-Point for All Norwegian Americans 



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THE AMERIC AX SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 21 

tures will not be permitted. The exhibit will consist entirely of 
photographs, drawings, models, plates and statistical reports that 
throw light on the life and conditions of our emigrated countrymen 
in their new home. The building is also designed to minister to the 
comfort of Norwegians coming from abroad. It has been given an 
excellent site in the very heart of the Exposition, near the Domestic 
Handicraft Building, the main post office and the main restaurant. 

A part of the building will be used for the exhibition. In another 
part Nordmandsforbundet will have an office with an information 
bureau, a place where our countrymen from beyond the sea may get 
their mail, make appointments with one another, read their home 
papers — in short, have a club room. Refreshments will be served, 
and a special rest-room has been fitted up for our visiting country- 
women. The pavilion of "Norway Abroad" will be a meeting point 
for all Norwegians from abroad who pass through Christiania whether 
homeward or outward bound. 

The entire budget of the Exposition calls for a sum of 2,750,000 
kroner. It may be of interest to note by way of comparison that 
the Swedish Exposition in Stockholm in 1897 had a budget of 
3,924,600 kroner, the Danish Exposition in Copenhagen in 1888 one 
of 2,117,100 kroner. The most expensive, as well as the largest of 
the buildings is the Hall of Industry, with an estimated cost of 
250,000 kroner and a floor area of 11,000 square meters. Meas- 
ured by European standards, this is a very considerable exhibition 
area. 

The Exposition will make a brave appearance, its white buildings 
shining against the blue waters of Frogner Lake, the green lawns 
intersected by walks and bordered by flower-wreathed colonnades 
that bind house to house in intimate union. In front of the buildings 
and in the inner courts are splashing fountains and masses of flowers. 
Especially gay are the exhibits of gardening, agriculture, forestry and 
the domestic arts. And beyond them the wind soughs in the massive 
crowns of the same trees that swayed to the breezes of a hundred 
years ago. 

Norwegian motifs are used as much as possible. The Agricultural, 
Forestry and Horticultural Buildings and the Model Farm are all 
close imitations of the characteristic style of building that still pre- 
vails in the old-fashioned peasant homes of the country, while in the 
more modern structures of the Exposition many features are reminis- 
cent of the same Norwegian origin. The perfect assimilation of these 
motifs and the architectural harmony of the whole are in themselves 
not the least valuable feature of the Exposition. There are in all 
twenty-seven official buildings and departments, and about fifty 
private exhibits; yet the architects have been able to combine all 



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22 THE AMERICAX-SCAXDIXAVIAN REVIEW 

these into a perfect entity, in which no part seems superfluous or 
accidental. 

The official Exposition consists of the following divisions: 1. The 
Entrance. 2. Christiania Building. 3. The State and Municipal 
Building. 4. The Hall of Fine Arts. 5. The Domestic Handicrafts 
Building. 6. ** Norway Abroad." 7. Post and Telegraph. 8. 
Amusements. 9. Stadium and Sporting Restaurant. 10. The Main 
Restaurant. 11. Conditori. 12. Music Hall. 13. The Horticul- 
tural Building. 14. The Agricultural Building. 15. The People's 
Restaurant. 16. Forestry Building. 17. The Hall of Industry. 18. 
The Arts and Crafts Villa. 19. The Model Farm. 20. The Small 
Farms Exhibit. 21. The Church Exhibit. 22. The Hall of Machin- 
ery. 23. The Railroad Exhibit. 24. The Automobile and Transpor- 
tation Hall. 25. Frogner Mansion. 26. Experimental Agriculture, 
27. Cattle Show. Among the numerous private exhibits are two 
pavilions for Norway's most recent world industry, the Rjukan 
saltpeter manufactures; they are placed near the Hall of Industry. 

The Maritime Exhibit at Skarpsno is a department by itself, con- 
sisting of the following main features: 1. The Lighthouse. 2. The 
Life-saving PaviUon. 3. The Restaurant. 4. Exhibit of Shipping 
and Fisheries. The Navy Exhibit is also placed near Skarpsno. 
The Maritime Building, like the main Exposition structures, is gleam- 
ing white, and has a splendid view over Frognerkilen, Bygdo and 
Christiania. 

x\fter a general bird's-eye survey of the Exposition, it is in order 
to examine the buildings one by one. To the left, immediately upon 
entering, we see the State and Municipal Building and Christiania 
Building. The very important part played by State and city initia- 
tive in the development of Norw^ay's resources make this exhibit of 
peculiar significance. It is grouped around a large plastic chart, 
which clearly and strikingly demonstrates the characteristic topogra- 
phy and the natural conditions of Norway. 

Opposite this building is the House of Domestic Handicrafts, 
covering an area of 2,000 square meters, and near by, with a facade 
turning toward the tiny lake, is the Hall of Fine Arts, containing a 
remarkable collection of historic paintings, as w-ell as departments of 
modern painting, sculpture and applied art. Continuing our walk 
around the lake, we may pass from one building to another; we may 
see the making of candy, pastry, butter and cheese, and the utilization 
of peat, then pass through the exhibits of gardening, agriculture and 
forestry, through the great Hall of Industry, where the products of 
Norwegian manufacture are gathered, through the model farm and 
the small farm exhibit to the Hall of Machinery, with its noisy whirl 
of modern machines, through the Railway Exhibit Building and the 
Hall of Transportation — both dedicated to our modern means of 



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THE AMERICAX-SCANDIXAVIAN REVIEW 



23 




The Great Hall of Industry with a Floor Area of 11,000 Square Meters 

communication — and, lastly, to the exhibit at Skarpsno, the seat of 
our two great world-circling activities, our shipping and our fisheries. 
One hundred years of work ! Our great muster of achievement ! 

The Exposition will be open from May 15 to October 15. In 
addition to the permanent exhibitions there will be several of a tempo- 
rary nature. The Spring Flower Show will be open from May 15 to 
May 20; the Dairy Exhibit from May 18 to May 25; the Cattle and 
Poultry Show from June 17 to June 25; the first Summer Exhibit of 
Garden Products from July 9 to July 12, and the second from August 
13 to August 16; a Bindery Exhibit from September 3 to September 6. 
Between September 20 and September 28 there will be an Agricultural 
Week, with exhibits of Farming Products, peat utilization and the 
reclaiming of marsh land, together with an exhibit of Domestic 
Economy. Finally there will be a large Autumn Exhibition of Fruit 
from October 1 to October 5. 

Nor will the inspiration of song and poetry be forgotten. Nils 
CoUett Vogt has written a festival cantata for the official opening, 
and Christian Sinding is composing the music to accompany it. The 
large Music Hall which has room for 1,700 singers and an audience of 
5,000, will be the scene of the great Midsummer Song Festival, and 
in May of the Music Festival. The athletic grounds of the Exposi- 
tion and Christiania's Stadium, seating 12,000 people, will be dedicated 
at the Eighth National Athletic Contest, to be held between the days 
of May 31 and June 3. After that, Congresses and Festivals come 
thick and fast. Practically all the usual summer meetings will this 



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24 



THE AMERICAS SCANDiyAVIAX REVIEW 



year be held in connection with the Exposition. Fishermen, farmers, 
merchants, manufacturers, artisans and technologists — all those 
whose work comes within the scope of the Exposition — will come 
singly or for congresses and meetings with their fellows. To all 
these the Exposition will be of incalculable value. 

For all who labor with hand and brain for the development of 
Norwegian resources, the Exposition will have a significance as the 
opening of a new era. It is gradually becoming clear to our people 
that Norway, at the same time as she commemorates a century of 
liberty, is also greeting the dawn of a new day of achievement. Our 
industries are flourishing; new and great enterprises are being founded; 
in our agriculture, our shipping, our science and art, there are new 
powers at work. It is only within the very last years that these new 
forces, especially in the domain of manufacturing, have made them- 
selves felt so strongly that we can point to actual results. The great- 
est value of the Exposition of 1914 is, therefore, not so much in what 
it tells of the past as in what it promises for the future. 




The Music Hall Where the Chorus of 2,800 Will Sing 



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To Norway 

By Martin B. Ruud 

Oft have I dreamed in summer nights agone 

Of jyine-topped forelands touched by midnight sunSy 
Of leaping waters^ and a fjord that runs 

In leaves of blue to greet the reddening dawn. 

Oft have I lived in hero-tales of old — 

Stem sagaSy sounding vnth the crash of arms. 
Where yet, untroubled all by war's alarms. 

The tragedies of human love unfold. 

Yea, all thy history goes out to me — 

Thy art and stories, and thy world of song. 

Thy mighty deeds, with mighty destiny fraught. 

Ah, gracious Mother, throned across the seal 
Thy memory gives us hope and makes us strong 
To live and labor cw our fathers wrought. 



Home to Norway 

By Hanna Astrup Larsen 

Two distinct currents of Norwegian patriotism in America have 
grown marvelously in strength and volume during the last 
decade, and have together swelled the wave of enthusiasm that 
culminates with the Centennial of 1914. The one has found expres- 
sion in the numerous literary societies and publications tending to 
preserve and revive a knowledge of Norwegian intellectual life, in 
the building of Norwegian schools, and lately in the eflFort made in 
conjunction with the Swedes and Danes to make the Northern 
languages a part of the curriculum in the public schools, as it has 
long been in the universities of the States where Scandinavians are 
most numerous. With the coming of leisure and plenty after the 
conquest of the prairies, the immigrant has found himself, has realized 
his inheritance, and resolved to set the stamp of Northern thought 
on the institutions of his adopted country. The other, more inti- 
mately personal, has created the Bygdelag, or associations of people 
from the same bygd or district in Norway. They hold reunions every 
summer, when they listen to the tunes of their own fiddlers, spin 
yarns in their own dialects, and eat the holiday dishes of their home. 



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26 THE AMERICAS-SCASDINAVIAS REVIEW 

With the old folks meet the young people, to whom the fells and 
fjords are suffused in the light of romance. There is hardly a bygd in 
Norway that is not richer for some gift of its emigrated sons and 
daughters — ^perhaps an organ or a bell for the old church, a young 
people's assembly room or an old people's home. 

When the idea of a Mindegave or Memorial Gift to Norway for 
the Centennial was broached six years ago, it naturally fell in fertile 
soil, though the harvest has been somewhat different from what was 
expected. The general Mindegave has reached a sum of only $25,000 
at the present writing, though the energetic work of various com- 
mittees and of the secretary, Mr. Bjarne Svanoe, will undoubtedly 
add much to the sum in the course of the next few months. At the 
same time, the various hygdelag have collected almost as large 
donations for their own individual home parish or valley, to be used 
generally for establishing a charitable fund or institution. The 
members of the Hallinglag alone will send a delegation to Hallingdal 
with $20,000. The general Mindegave will form a permanent endow- 
ment for relief in the case of sudden calamities that fall on a whole 
district, such as the snowslides or landslides not uncommon in 
Norw^ay, or a storm wrecking a whole fishing fleet. 

The rise of the plain people in Norway, the new national con- 
sciousness and the broadened horizons of modern time have all 
contributed to the more generous and sympathetic interest of the 
Norwegians at home in their countrymen abroad. The ''Norway 
Abroad" pavilion has been set aside for their peculiar needs, and 
through the legation in Washington the call has gone out to all 
Norwegians in America to contribute whatever may help to throw 
light on their life and activities in their new home. The exhibit, 
which will consist of charts, drawings, photographs, books and 
newspapers, will be in charge of Nordmandsjorhindet. It has proved 
an incentive to gathering much historical material that might other- 
wise have been neglected. The Symra magazine in Decorah, edited 
by Mr. Johs. B. Wist and Mr. Kristian Prestgard, will appear in a 
Centennial edition of 350 pages, containing articles on Norwegian 
churches, schools and associations in America, on Norwegians in 
politics, and in literature, and on the Northern languages in the 
schools. An especially complete article will deal with the history of 
the 400 Norwegian newspapers that have appeared from time to 
time and run a long or short course, according to the publisher's 
patience and pocketbook. The history of North Dakota and the 
part played by Norwegians in the development of the State is being 
prepared by Mr. Alfred Gabrielson, who is also collecting material 
for an exhibit, including a complete model of a North Dakota farm, 
the property of Mr. John Steen. Dr. J. S. Johnson is in charge of 
the exhibit from Minnesota. He is preparing a book giving a 



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THE AMERICAX-SCASDIXAIIAX REVIEW 27 

description of the State, its history and resources, the history of its 
settlement by Norwegians and their subsequent activities. 

In North Dakota the legislature has appropriated $10,000 for 
participation in the Centennial Exposition. Efforts to obtain similar 
action in Minnesota and Wisconsin failed, but in each case the work 
is in charge of a semi-official committee under the direction of the 
governor of the State. The Fourth of July w^ill be North Dakota's 
day at the Exposition. Governor Hanna will then present in person 
a statue of Lincoln, the man who more than any one else embodied 
in his life the American principles that appeal to the Norwegian 
immigrant. The monument is the w^ork of the young North Dakota 
sculptor, Paul Fjelde, and the funds were collected privately by a 
committee headed by the governor. 

The Kristianiafjord, sailing from New York, June 12, and carrying 
Governor Hanna and his staff, will take over, also, a delegation of 
four hundred singers and their friends. These go to represent the 
Norwegian Singers' Union of America at the great Midsummer Song 
Festival at the Exposition. Mr. Emil Bjorn, of Chicago, has been 
for many years the conductor of the united choruses, and is greatly 
beloved by the singers. He will gather his forces in Chicago at the 
Song Festival in June, and will give a final concert in New York 
' before saiUng. For many months the singers have been drilling and 
looking forward to the day when their voices will blend in the old 
songs with the most famous Norwegian choirs, making a united 
chorus of 2,800 voices. 

A younger group of enthusiasts, many of whom have never seen 
Norway before, w^ill sail on May 5. The Luther College Concert 
Band, consisting of sixty-one members, all students of the college, 
has accepted an invitation to take part in the Centennial celebration, 
and will reach Norway in time to assist in the festivities of the 17th 
of May at the Elxposition. The band, under the leadership of 
Mr. Carlo A. Sperati, has attained a skill that ranks it with the 
foremost bands in the West. This is a type of music not yet so 
well known in Scandinavia, and the boys will, no doubt, be warmly 
welcomed, not only as students of the oldest Norwegian college in 
America, but as exponents of American music. 

Numerous societies wall send representatives; the Sons of Norway 
having even chartered a steamer for their members. But most im- 
pressive of all is the unofficial participation of the thousands who 
will come singly and in groups from every city and every township 
in America where Norwegians live, bringing the atmosphere of the 
prairies, the energy of the new world, the love and loyalty toward the 
old — Home to Noncay. 



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Song for Norway 

By Bjornstjerne Bjornson 
Translated by Arthur Hubbell Palmer 

Yes, we love this land that towers 

Where the ocean foams; 
Rugged, storm-sv^ept, it embowers 

Many thousand homes. 
Lore it, love it, of you thinking^ 

Father, mother dear; 
And that night of saga sinking 

Dreamful to us here. 




This the land that Harald guarded 

With his hero-throng; 
This the land that Haakon warded. 

Hailed by Eyvind's song. 
Olaf here the cross erected. 

While his blood he shed; 
Sverre's word this land protected 

^Gainst the Roman dread. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 29 

Peasants whetted axes carried 

Where the foe was known; 
Tordenskjold flashed forth and harried. 

So it homeward shone. 
Women oft to arms were leaping, 

Manlike in their deed; 
Others^ lot was nought but weeping — 

Tears that brought their meed. 




Many truly were we never. 

But we did suffice. 
When in times of testing ever 

Worthy was the prize. 
For we would the land see burning. 

Rather than its fall; 
Memory our thoughts is turning 

Down to Fredrikshaldl 



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THE AM ERICAX-SCAXDIX AVIAN REVIEW 



Harder timers we bore that tried us. 

Were cast off in scorn; 
In that crisis teas beside us 

Blue-eyed freedom born. 
That gave father-strength for bearing 

Famine-need and sirord, 
Honor death itself outwearing. 

And it gave accord. 




Far our foe his weapons flinging 

Up his visor raised; 
We in wonder to him springing 

On our brother gazed. 
Both by wholesome shame incited 

Southward made our way; 
Brothers three, in heart united. 

We shall stand for aye! 



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THE AMERICAN'SCAXDIXAVIAX REVIEW 



31 



Men of Nonvay, high or Imrly^ 

Give to God the praise! 
lie our land's Defender Holy 

In its darkest days! 
All our fathers here have striven 

And our mothers tvept; 
Hath the Lord His guidance given ^ 

So 02ir right ire kept. 




Yes, ice love this land that towers 

Where the ocean foams; 
Rugged, storm-sivept, it embowers 

Many thousand homes. 
As our fathers fought y acquiring 

Victory at the end. 
We shall heed the call inspiring 

And its peace defend. 



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o 



H 

a 

en 



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Aalholm 

To COPENHAGEN, a few weeks ago, the telephone flashed the 
alarm from the peaceful island of LoUand that Aalholm, one of 
Denmark's oldest and noblest feudal castles, was on fire. It 
was a relief to learn later that the blaze had been quenched with the 
loss of only one wing of the venerable building. 

Unlike the Castle of Rosenborg, reproduced in the Yule Number 
of the Review, Aalholm is not the property of the crown or of the 
nation. The history of Rosenborg is complete. It was begun by 
the Architect-King Christian IV in 1610, as a royal residence, in the 
finished style of the Dutch Renaissance. The history of Aalholm, on 
the other hand, is lost in the dim antiquity of the twelfth century, 
when it was probably a crude breast- work of coast defence against the 
incursions of the Wends. First mentioned in 1326, it served a few years 
later as a prison for the unfortunate Kristoff er II ; it has been successively 
the residence of dukes, the dower of queens, the seat of feudal counts; 
wing by wing, tower by tower, they have added and torn down again; 
in 1366 the Kings of Sweden and Denmark signed a treaty here; two 
years later the fortress held out successfully against the siege of the 
Hansa cities; for a period in the eighteenth century the old castle was 
inhabited only by rats, the owner being obliged to live in a humble 
dwelling in the neighboring town of Nysted; in 1884 the structure 
was completely restored in a Renaissance style, reminiscent of 
Gothic. 

Aalholm came into the possession of the family of Raben-Levetzau 
in 1725, when King Frederick IV sold the manor to the Lady Emer- 
entia von Levetzau. The present owner. Count Frederick Raben- 
Levetzau, was Danish minister of foreign affairs during the eventful 
years from 1905 to 1908. Weary of politics, he has since retired to 
the management of his magnificent estates, where he entertains, with 
generous Northern hospitality, guests from every nation. His wife, 
the present Lady of Aalholm, is not a Danish queen, but an American 
girl, once Miss Suzanne Moulton, of Boston. It was at Aalholm that 
Countess Raben wrote the delicate little story which appeared in the 
last number of this Review. 

Set beside some of the mighty feudal castles of England, Germany 
or France, perched on river-bank or crag, the Danish manors may 
seem less imposing, but contrasted with their own environment — 
reposeful beechwood and idyllic island landscape — these moated 
memorials of medieval life in Denmark exert their own spell and 
mystery. Nor do the red war-scarred towers of Aalholm, rising from 
the silent waters of the moat, surrounded by budding gardens, escape 
this grandeur and this charm. 



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The Church a Factor in Norwegian 
American Development 

By D. G. RisTAD 




E 



< f 



!'r 



VERY ship that deposits a 
load of immigrants at our 
nation's door brings not 
only a certain amount of 
muscle and a store of per- 
sonal belongings, but it 
brings an invisible treas- 
ure of character, individ- 
uality, mental capacity, 
spiritual experience, and 
moral worth; it brings 
customs and manners that 
are the result of centuries 
of patient struggle in 
adaptation to social con- 
ditions; it brings the pro- 
duct of the wise and costly 
training of many nations 
in habits of thrift, indus- 
try, skill, discipline: it 
brings courage and am- 
bition, for the immigrant 
is the self-reliant, the ag- 
gressive, the fit represen- 
tative of his people. He dreams dreams that are stronger than 
many men's action. There may be a difference in the intrinsic 
value, in the refinement and loftiness of the ideals our immigrants 
carry with them, but they are all alike in that they bring of their 
own, they contribute something of their sacred individuality. They 
are more than the agents of the culture of their native land; they are 
the red blood of that culture itself transfused into the veins of the 
Western hemisphere. While Norway's art, literature, and music 
would have reached America in the same way that they have reached 
other nations, their message has been more deeply impressed upon 
the minds of the American people by the presence in this country of 
such a large contingent of sons and daughters of Norway. 

The immigrants represent all classes in Norwaj\, but the great 
majority came from the rural districts, where the training and tradi- 
tions of centuries had developed a feeling of the sacredness of home 




^^-Mi, 



"Our Savior's", the Splendid New Norwegian Lutheran 

Church in Minne.apolis. Not Yet Completed. 

John A. Gade, Architect 



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THE AMERICAX'SCAXDIX AVIAN REVIEW 35 

and family ties, and a pride in the past history of their people. All 
had been educated in the common schools under well-trained school- 
masters, and their spiritual life had been fostered in communities 
where the church occupied a lofty place in the regard of the people. 
Home industries such as wood-carving and weaving were practiced 
in every peasant's hut; folklore and music furnished food for the 
imagination and emotional life, and wholesome outdoor sports kept 
them in touch with nature. The institutions of a free government 
were sacredly upheld, and the opinions, customs and manners 
prevailing in the valley had the binding authority of a written 
code. 

These observations apply especially to the immigrants who came 
before 1880; the men and women who laid the foundations of the 
strong and populous Norwegian settlements in America. To them 
we owe the work of organizing and developing the church, the press, 
and the educational system. Their character and individuality, 
their opinions and aspirations have been and are the determining 
factors in the intellectual tendencies among the Norwegians in 
America today. The immigrants of the last two decades have simply 
joined the movement under the accepted leadership of the pioneers. 
Though some of the later arrivals may have brought with them the 
spirit of modern Norway, most of these came from the cities and 
have taken up their abode in x\merican cities, only to lose their 
identity in the industrial and commercial whirlpool, and to become 
a part of that nameless mass which nowhere in the world has con- 
tributed to the cultural progress of nations. 

In acknowledging the supremacy of the Norwegian Lutheran 
Church as the foremost of the carriers and promoters of cultural 
movements and tendencies among the Norwegians in America, we 
must bear in mind that the various church organizations are the 
largest and the best equipped for effective and sustained work. And 
yet the church does not include all Norwegians in America. A great 
majority think of themselves as Lutherans, but not half of the whole 
number are formally members of Lutheran congregations. Never-the- 
less, so powerful and well directed are the forces operating within the 
church, and so faithfully do they express the intellectual, moral, and 
national peculiarities of all the people, that the aspirations, ideals, 
and tendencies which are vital and moving in the church may truly 
be said to represent the cultural tendencies of Norwegian America 
as a whole. There are, of course, organizations bearing the name 
'* Norwegian" which are not in accord with the church, but these 
organizations do not, as a rule, stand for anything either cultural or 
national. On the other hand, there are societies which are not 
religious, but aim in their own way to represent something purely 
national. Among these last may be mentioned the Norwegian Sing- 



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36 



THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 




ers' Association of America, 
the Norwegian Society, and 
the Bygdelag, none of which 
are in conflict with the church. 
The church has not limited 
its endeavors to the strictly 
religious life, though this nat- 
urally has been its direct mis- 
sion, but has also fostered 
general culture. The acade- 
mies and colleges maintained 
by the different denominations 
are not alone schools for Chris- 
tian discipline, but offer a lib- 
eral education in ancient and 
modern languages as well, in 
literature, mathematics and 
other subjects generally oflFered 
by the modern academy and 
college. They have kept alive 
the spirit of learning; the lan- 
guage, history, hterature and 
art of the old country have 
been preserved and made a 
vital element in the minds and hearts of the generations born on 
American soil. As the years have passed, this labor has borne fruit, 
and the esteem in which the culture of our forefathers is held has 
grown from year to year. 

Instrumental music and singing occupy a prominent place at these 
schools. No one who has had the good fortune to hear any of the 
large college bands or the St. Olaf College a capella choir of mixed 
voices will doubt the significance of music as a cultural agency. But 
this is not all; from these schools the young people have been organ- 
ized in the congregations throughout the land, and there are now two 
national associations of church choirs among the Norwegian Luth- 
erans in America. At a concert given in St. Paul in connection with 
the Synod meeting in 1911, a chorus of twelve hundred delegates 
from the Choral Union of the Synod was a most impressive feature. 
k' Nearly fifteen hundred pastors, serving more than twice as many 
congregations, are conducting, in all the communities where they are 
stationed, an active and efficient campaign in behalf of the Norwegian 
immigrant and his descendants in the new home. While this move- 
ment for preserving the traditions of the forefathers is going on, the 
tendency is not to view it in any selfish spirit, not as something to 
be enjoyed by our own church or nationality alone, but rather as a 



Dr. H. G. Stub, President of the Norwegian 

Synod, Active in Promoting the Unity of 

Norwegian American Church Bodies 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDIX AVIAN REVIEW 37 

contribution to the adopted fatherland, precious because so personal. 
For while the church upholds the sacred rights of spiritual and per- 
sonal liberty, it fosters loyalty to American institutions by an active 
promulgation of the knowledge and correct understanding of these 
institutions and their value. 

The history of the Norwegian Church in America is not without 
its chapters of sadness. Controversies concerning doctrine and prac- 
tices have caused schisms from time to time. The progress of the 
church work and of its cultural mission has been retarded and much 
strength misspent. However, better times are dawning, committees 
representing three of the divisions of the Norwegian Lutheran Church 
have worked together for years in order to remove misunderstanding 
and obtain harmony in their interpretations of doctrinal questions, 
which have kept them apart in the past. These committees have 
been successful, and an agreement has been eflFected. Other com- 
mittees have now been appointed to confer about practical coopera- 
tion and ultimate union of the Norwegian Synod, the United Church 
and the Hauge Synod, the three parties to the doctrinal agreement. 

What has been said of the tendencies prevailing in the church is 
true also of the Norwegian press in America, not only of the oflScial 
publications of the church, of which there are many, both in the 
Norwegian and the English language, but also of the secular press. 




Thb Oldest Norwegian Church in America; Built at Muskbgo, Wis., 1844, Now Moved 
TO THE Grounds or the United Church Seminary in Minneapous 



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38 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Some of the earliest papers were published by pastors and laymen 
together. The tone of the Norwegian papers is sane, sober, and con- 
servative. What they may lack in literary brilliance they make up 
in solidity and reliability. They have kept close to the people, and 
if they have not furnished any epoch-making leadership in thought 
or action, they have supported every movement of uplift and general 
progress that arose among the people. The great amount of attention 
and space devoted to news of the churches and to doctrinal discussions 
shows how large a part these things play in the minds of the readers. 
The publishers of newspapers, together with the publishing houses of 
the churches, have acted as dealers in and distributors of books of 
all kinds, and in this way have stimulated intellectual and esthetic 
tastes among the people. Again, it may be noted that by far the 
largest proportion of books and pamphlets printed among the Nor- 
wegians in America deal with religious subjects. In the field of pure 
literature, no work of commanding merit has yet appeared, but the 
spark of creative effort has been kindled. In music, painting and 
sculpture some American-born Norwegians have produced work of 
real merit, and the artistic impulse is strong in the Norwegians. 

It may be freely admitted that taking the word culture in its 
narrower sense, as denoting high specific attainments in an intellectual 
field, that of the Norwegian Americans is yet in its beginning. I 
have used the word here in a wider sense. Aspirations and activities 
that spring from a desire to bring about in the Hfe of the individual 
or in that of the community or nation fuller, freer and happier con- 
ditions, are cultural in their nature. The result of these activities 
may vary. Culture does not express itself alike in all persons, nor is 
it the same the world over, but if it is true culture it always stands 
for character, individuality, progress; it is an honest effort to give 
expression to the best in oneself and to grow continually. In this 
sense, the Norwegian Americans possess a cultural life of vigorous 
development and rich possibilities. 



FROM HAVAMAL 



Riches faiL 
And kinsfolk fail. 
At last doth life fail; 
But fame faileth never — 
The glory ice gain. 

— M. B. RuuD 



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How to Give Tips 

By Edward Delbert Winslow 

DURING the summer months there is hardly a resort in Den- 
mark, Norway, or Sweden, that has not among its guests an 
American citizen. No better or healthier part of the world 
could be found in which to spend the glorious summer time. One 
question, however, perplexes the American visitor not a little: that 
is what tips to distribute on leaving and to whom. A leading news- 
paper in Copenhagen recently offered a prize for the best solution of 
the problem, the judges being certain leading hotel men and waiters. 
The ruling of the committee is just and specific, and may well be 
followed all over Denmark. 

The American tourist must first of all understand that porters, 
waiters and, in many cases, chambermaids, receive no salary, but are 
even required to pay for their places a certain amount per month. 

I am submitting the figures in the coinage of Denmark. The unit 
of value is the krone, equaling about 27 cents. A tourist remaining 
for one night only at a resort or hotel is expected to make the follow- 
ing disbursements, based on a charge of 5 kroner for his room: 

Tip to waiter Kr. 1.00 

Tip to porter .75 

Tip to chambermaid .50 

Tip to "boots" .25 

Total Kr. «.50 

A tourist, remaining at a resort for two weeks on the American 
plan, paying, say, 4 kroner a day for his board and lodging, is expected 
to tip as follows: 

Head waiter Kr. 5.00 

Table waiter 4.00 

Chambermaid 3.00 

"Boots" 1.00 

making about 20 per cent, of his bill. 

A tourist staying at an absolutely first-class hotel on the American 
plan, for a period of a week, and paying for room and board, say, 
10 kroner a day, is expected to give on leaving as follows: 

Head waiter Kr. 6.00 

Table waiter 4.00 

Porter . 4.00 

Chambermaid 3.00 

Errand boy 2.00 

"Boots" 1.00 

the total making about 25 per cent, of his bill for board and lodging. 

These rules, if followed carefully by tourists, will please all con- 
cerned and relieve the traveler of much thought and trouble. 



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The ''Gjoa" 

By Edward Robeson Taylor 

From "Lavender and Other Verse" 

The "Gjoa,*' in which Captain Amundsen navigated the Northwest Passage, 
is now the property of San Francisco, and is preserved in Golden Gate Park. 

At last I rest in peace, where nevermore 

The waves shall whip my stout-resisting side; 
Ignobly rest, and swell with bitter pride 

As casual eyes all lightly scan me o'er — 

Me, thai have dared the Arctic's awful shore. 
And yyith the bold Norwegian as my guide 
Sailed the dread Pa^s to other keels denied. 

Where we shall dwell with Fame for evermore. 

Ah, it is pleasant here with birds and trees. 

With laughter-loving children, and the sea's 
Keen winds that romp upon my orphaned deck; 

Yet, mid this fatal peace at times I yearn 
To face again the dangers of a wreck; 

To see once more the great Aurora burn. 




Fiqure-Head of the Pleasure Yacht 
Aphrodite, the Property of Mr. O. H. 
Patne. One of the Graceful Designs 
Executed at the Hecla Iron Works 
IN Brooklyn. Niels Poulson was 
Succeeded as President of the Com- 
pany BY C. M. Eger 



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The Rochester Memorial Art Gallery 

was presented to the University of Rochester by Mrs. James Sibley Watson. The architects of the 

beautiful building of stone and marble were the firm of Foster and Gade. The decorations in true 

fresco painting under the vaulting were executed under the direction of Mr. Frode Rambusch 




The Luther College Concert Band 

practicing imder the famous oaks of the campus in Decorah, Iowa. The band of sixty-one pieces, 

under the direction of Mr. Carlo A. Sperati, will play at the Centennial 

Exposition in Norway this summer 



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In Rosenborg Park 

By Herman Bang 

Translated by Jacob Wittmer Hartmann 

[Herman Bang was bom in Denmark on the Island of Als, April 20, 1857, and died on a transcon- 
tinental toiin near Ogden, Utah, January 29, 1912, while touring the United States for the purpose 
of delivering Danish lectures and obtaining new literary impressions. His reputation as a novelist is 
very high in the Scandinavian countries and in Germany, but as yet there does not exist a single trans- 
lation from his works into English. The prose poem given below is illustrative of his style — short, 
nervous, irritatingly simple sentences — a bitter, tortured situation. The method is that of individual 
observation; the result in all of his stories is a feeling that no man can have suffered more from all the 
little stings of life than Herman Bang. And no man has more mercilessly exploited his own writhing 
sensibilities than the author of " Ved Veien," "HaabUse Siaegter'* and "Det graa Hus." — ^J. W. H.] 

EVERY morning in spring, as I went to work, I met a young 
man and a young woman. Every morning they were walking 
under the young trees in the King's Park. 

They came at the same time every day, and I formed the habit 
of looking at them. For the morning seemed to grow brighter at 
their coming. 

By the inclination of their heads, if by nothing else, you could see 
that they loved each other, his bending down to hers. But at the 
band-stand they always stopped a moment, and as they exchanged a 
smile, they caught a strain passing through the air. 

The lilacs were in blossom and the many bushes were fragrant. 

Then it happened that I left town or, at any rate, stopped walking 
through the park. 

But the next time I went the accustomed way to my daily work, 
I saw the same woman walking on ahead of me — alone. I passed 
her, quickly, so as to make quite sure. 

Yes, 'twas she. But her walk was much slower, and in her eyes 
there was a look as of a surprised sorrow. 

At the band-stand — I was slowly walking after her — she stopped 
as they had both so often done. And on her face I saw a sudden 
smile, more painful than any tears could be. 

x\nd then she walked away. 

But involuntarily I asked myself: 

"Through what streets does he go to work now.^" 



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Editorial 

The New ^^^^ ^^^ death of Bjornson, "Norway's uncrowned 
Norwav ^i^g' ' ^^^e mantle fell not on poet or philosopher, but 
^ on the man of industry. Dr. Samuel Eyde is the 
untitled leader of the new Norway that draws its life-blood from 
industrial activity. In a speech at the anniversary of the "Christ- 
iania Society for Trades and Industry/' Dr. Eyde pointed to the 
glorious possibilities for the future of his country. At the same time, 
he criticized the caution of the government, which in its anxiety to 
keep foreign influence from fastening on Norwegian industries, 
retarded the development of natural resources. He deplored the 
timidity that made Norwegian banking institutions reluctant to 
invest money in Norwegian enterprises. "Our people," he said, 
"need new ideals and new aims; they want progress and better 
economic conditions; they can no longer live on cant and promises. 
They demand deeds. Our people are pushing forward into the light; 
they are no longer content to stand in the shadow pondering legal 
paragraphs, while other nations are marching on to the sound of 
music. I see a great future in store for us, a future bringing national 
independence, and in independence happiness for many. We need a 
more joyous outlook on life and not so many anxious faces. But 
more than all else we need to forget the old discords and each put 
his shoulder to the wheel in one united effort to push our country 
forward. I have seen w^hat united action may accomplish, and how 
much quarrels and bickerings may retard and destroy. Our factories 
are like any other community, requiring a steady purpose in order 
that peace and harmony may prevail. But I have seen that it is 
possible. I have seen Notodden and Vestfjorddalen lit by hundreds 
of torches in the hands of workers, who were rejoicing because united 
action and good feeling had been restored to our factories. Think 
what it would be, if we might one day see fires flaming from mountain 
top to mountain top, the whole length and breadth of our land, in 
joy that we had at last agreed to pull together and to lift our Father- 
land." 

Dr Hedin's ^^^ Russian menace has advanced another step upon 
Warnini^ Scandinavia, with the extension of the Russian rail- 

* roads to Sw^eden's border, the strengthening of the 

Baltic naval stations, and the displacement of Finnish pilots. This 
is the opinion not only in Sweden and Norw^ay, who live hourly in 
the shadow of the bear's paw, but abroad. A German military paper 



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44 THE AMERICANSCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

thinks that the attack of Russia upon Scandinavia is inevitable as 
the expansion of enclosed steam, and that it will mean a life and 
death struggle for the two countries. In Sweden Dr. Sven Hedin 
has sounded the note of preparedness for war; with burning, passion- 
ate eloquence, he invokes the spirit of resistance against annihilation. 
Speaking to the working men of Stockholm, he said: "Russia is the 
most expansive power in Europe, as her neighbors have learned to 
know — ^Turkey, Poland, and Sweden, each in their turn. Since the 
time of Czar Peter, Russia has robbed us of one province after 
another. For the last four hundred years Russian territory has 
increased at the rate of 140 square kilometers per day. One hundred 
years ago Finland was taken, but even fifteen years ago Finland was 
still a buffet between us and Russia. That buffet is no longer there; 
Russia is at our door. Very soon the strategical railroads which unite 
St. Petersburg with the Bothnian coast of Finland will be ready. The 
next step must go toward the open harbors of the Atlantic through 
Norrland! Whatever Russia does in Finland — the building of rail- 
roads, barracks, bridges, mobilization of troops, changes in the pilot 
service — and all that she does in our country through her spies, points 
to an imminent war against us." Unfortunately, Dr. Hedin has 
weakened the effect of his warning by adding that Norway might 
make common cause with Russia, a suggestion that has been met 
with displeasure and even with derision on both sides of Kjolen. 
A dramatic scene ensued at a meeting where, after Dr. Hedin's 
speech, the chairman called upon all who believed that war with 
Norway was an impossibility to rise, and the audience rose as one 
man. Nevertheless, Dr. Hedin 's warning, uttered with so much 
earnestness, and based on a thorough inside knowledge of Russia, 
has sunk deep into the minds of the people. In his speech from the 
throne. King Gustaf announced plans to increase Sweden's arma- 
ments as a measure against possible attack by Russia. 



The Union of ^^ Norway, too, the question of preparedness for 
the North ^^^ ^^ uppermost in the public consciousness. Last 

December a deputation of both political parties 
presented to the prime minister a letter bearing the signatures of 
leading men and women in the country, urging the strengthening of 
the mihtary defenses. It was pointed out that the battleground of 
the European navies had shifted from southern waters to the North 
Sea, and that the next great naval battle would with practical cer- 
tainty be fought off the Norwegian coast. With the tremen- 
dous interests at stake, it might be easily foreseen that Norway 
would have diflSculty in guarding her neutraUty. This new danger, 
added to the constant fear of Russia, has given a very serious tone 



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THE AMERICAN-SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 45 

to the Norwegian press at the entrance to the Centennial year. 
Docent Christian Collin, advisory editor of the Review for Norway, 
writes that the new feeling of solidity among the Northern people 
may be worth the price of a common danger and a common effort. 
He looks forward to a time when the three crosses — the yellow and 
blue of Sweden, the white and red of Denmark, and the blue, white 
and red of Norway shall wave together. But before that hope can 
be realized he believes a longer and more severe military training 
must bring the Norwegian army up to the level of the Swedish. 
"The union of the three flags that carry aloft the cross. How 
would they not salute one another with the common sign in distant 
waters; how would not their colors sing together of the power of 
brotherly union. Then we shall be lifted high above our present 
humiliating impotence and assume an honorable place among the 
nations. Then we shall have courage to begin a new historic period. '* 



The Nobel ^^^ Nobel Committee of the Norwegian Storting, 
Prizes which last year declared itself unable to find a worthy 

recipient of the. Peace Prize for 1912, has now awarded 
it to Mr. Elihu Root. That for 1913 has been given to M. Henri La 
Fontaine, professor of International Law and president of the Per- 
manent International Peace Bureau at Berne. In Sweden the prize 
in physics has been awarded to Professor Kamerlingh Onnes of the 
University of Ley den; that in chemistry to Professor Werner of the 
University of Zurich; that in medicine to Professor Charles Richet 
of the University of Paris. The prize for the most remarkable work 
of an idealistic nature in the field of literature was awarded to the 
Hindu poet, Rabindranath Tagore, said to be one of India's greatest 
spiritual leaders and philosophical thinkers, as well as a lyric poet of 
cogent appeal. 

In awarding the Peace Prize again to a distinguished American, 
the Storting has paid honor to a statesman whose public career has 
been marked by a long series of practical services in the cause of 
world peace. As Secretary of State Mr. Root negotiated no less than 
twenty-four general arbitration treaties, and as Secretary of War he 
was instrumental in settling peacefully the troubles in Cuba and the 
PhiHppines. Mr. Root stands for the principle of "the substitution 
of judicial action for diplomatic action in the arbitration of inter- 
national disputes." Instead of a court chosen for the occasion from 
representatives of both interested parties, he would have a permanent 
impartial tribunal of judges residing at the Hague and receiving per- 
manent salaries. This principle, as outlined by him, has been made 
the basis of the permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague, of 
which Mr. Root is a member. 



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46 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

The Pnulsen ^^^ Navy Department of the United States 

Wireless Tele^aoh ^^^ recently conducted a series of experi- 
^ ^ ments to test the relative carrying power of 
the arc and spark sending systems of wireless telegraphy. Mes- 
sages sent from Arlington to St. Augustine, 530 nautical miles aw^ay, 
were received with about equal regularity from the continuous arc — 
Poulsen — and from the intermittent spark — the Marconi — generators, 
but at Colon, 1,800 miles away, Poulsen dispatches were registered 
day and night, while the Marconi messages could be heard only at 
night. The Salem also carried the two systems on her recent voyage 
to Gibraltar, demonstrating that the Danish waves were more reliable 
than the Marconi at distances over 2,100 miles. 

It is not yet oflBcially announced that one of the largest navies in 
Europe has been using the Poulsen system for six years. In America 
it is in operation from Hawaii to Chicago, and today newspapers in 
Honolulu are printing Poulsen messages received over California 
through the Federal Wireless Telegraph Company from all parts of 
the world. It is claimed for the Poulsen generator that it requires 
less horse-power and that it can transmit 300 words a minute against 
the 25 of the Marconi method. Further, it cannot be intercepted by 
schoolboys with toy instruments on the New England coast. The 
great inventor is confident of the ultimate triumph of his system. 



Scandinavmn ^^ splendid gift of 6,500 volumes has been added to 
T ihrarie^ ^^^ library of Luther College in Decorah, through 

the generosity of Honorable L. S. Swenson, late 
American minister to Norway and himself a graduate of the college, 
and Mr. H. G. Haugan, the banker of Chicago. They secured prac- 
tically the entire collection of the late Bishop Bang, of Norway, an 
acquisition that will make the Luther College library one of the 
most valuable in the United States for research workers in Northern 
fields. The University of Minnesota has recently received, largely 
through the efforts of Professor A. A. Stomberg, the O. N. Nelson 
collection of 600 bound volumes and 1,000 pamphlets and numerous 
newspaper clippings. It includes books written by Scandinavians in 
America, publications of churches and catalogues of schools from an 
early date, and is said to be the most complete record in existence of 
Scandinavian activities in America. The importance of Scandinavian 
studies is being more and more realized by the libraries. Harvard 
University, through the acquisition of the Maurer collection in 1904, 
became especially rich in historical material, and possesses many rare 
early works and many important books relating to Iceland and 
Greenland. There is also a fair representation of modern writers. 



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THE AM ERIC AN -SC Ay Diy AVI Ay REVIEW 47 

Thp Fnundatinn '^^^ American-Scandinavian Foundation, at its 

meeting on January 17, re-elected the following 
oflScers : Frederick Lynch, president; Chr. Ravn, vice-president; W. H. 
Short, treasurer; H. G. Leach, secretary; H. E. Almberg, counsel. 
Arthur Young and Company, were appointed auditors. Mr. Eckardt 
V. Eskesen was elected a trustee to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Mr. Louis S. Amonsdn. Mr. Eskesen combines the view- 
point of the business man with that of the artist. His early training 
was in Denmark in the hard school of practical experience. He came 
to America as a young man and assumed the business management 
of the New Jersey Terra Cotta Company, now a large and flourishing 
organization. Mr. Eskesen shares with other members of his family 
an interest in art and literature, and has published a book of poems. 
He takes an active part in Danish-American cultural work. 

The work of the pubhcation department will be pushed vigorously 
in 1914, and in order to facilitate it the Foundation has moved into 
more spacious ofiices at 25 West 45th Street, New York. Not only is 
the Review increased in size, but two volumes of the Scandinavian 
Classics and one of the Scandinavian Monographs will appear during 
the year. Dr. Oscar James Campbell, of the University of Wisconsin, 
and Mr. Frederick Schenck, of Harvard, have prepared translations 
of three of Ludwig Holberg's most popular plays — "The Tinker 
Politician," "Jeppe of the Hill," and ''Erasmus Montanus." Dr. 
Campbell spent a year in Denmark as traveling Fellow of Harvard, 
studying Holberg in the setting of his time and country, and familiar- 
izing himself with the idioms of his language. Mr. Schenck is a 
master of English dramatic style. This presentation of the great 
humorist to English readers will therefore be of high scholarly as 
well as literary merit. It is likely that the second volume in the 
Classics will be a novel by Geijerstam. The first of the Scandi- 
navian Monographs will be a finely illustrated account of the Old 
Norse voyages to Vinland by Professor William Hovgaard, of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Publication Committee 
is also considering a plan for publishing popular biographies of 
Scandinavians at prices within the reach of all. 

The Societv ^^^ American-Scandinavian Society, at its annual 
^ meeting on December 1 voted that its members, now 
numbering 1,100, become unitedly Associates of the Foundation, thus 
giving formal recognition of that relation of mutual helpfulness which 
has always existed between the two organizations. Mr. John Aspe- 
gren, president of the New York Produce Exchange and recently by 
King Gustaf made commander of the order of Vasa, was elected presi- 
dent. A rising vote of thanks was given the retiring president, 



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48 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Mr. John A. Gade, for his self-sacrificing labor in behalf of the Art Ex- 
hibition and other activities of the Society. The following officers 
and trustees were elected: John Aspegren, president; Frederick Lynch, 
vice-president; Julius de Neergaard, treasurer; T. Langland Thomp- 
son, secretary; trustees, H. E. Almberg, Baron Joost Dahlerup, Mrs. 
Gudrun Lochen Drewsen, Rev. A. O. Fonkalsrud, John D. Hage, Hans 
Lagerlof, H. G. Leach, A. N. Rygg, Professor Calvin Thomas, A. 
E. Cappelen Smith. There are twenty-one trustees in all. 

The Review ^^^ ^^^ g^^^g to Scandinavia in the summer.'^ If so, 
you will probably visit the Baltic Exposition at 
Malmo, where four nations — Sweden, Denmark, Germany and 
Russia — will meet in peaceful competition. You will wish to know 
as much as possible about it before you go. The next number of 
The Review will contain a full and profusely illustrated article on 
the Exposition, which is now engaging the attention of the daily press 
in Sweden and Denmark. The beautiful poster design by E. Nor- 
lind will be reproduced in color on the cover. Among the other 
interesting features of this number will be a Swedish-American story 
of Minnesota. 

The following issue of the Review will be devoted to Danish 
folklore and literature. 

Strindber^ "^^^ ^^^^^ P'^^' ''Lucky Pehr," is probably the 

InterDretation °^^st beloved in Sweden of all Strindberg's plays. 
^ The translation by Velma Swanston Howard will 

be given a dramatic interpretation by Edith Cline Ford at the 
McDowell Club in New York, on February 20. 

Engineers to Meet The N j Society of Engineers the 

in Christiania Polytechnic Society and the Christiama 

bociety oi Architects have issued an invita- 
tion to Norwegian engineers living abroad to be present at the sixth 
Norske landsmbde for teknik to be held in the month of July, in 
connection with the Centennial Exposition. Those who wish to 
attend are requested to communicate with the secretary of the 
invitation committee, Engineer V. S. Bull, Rosenkrantzgate 7, III, 
Christiania, Norway. 

The Mission of Has he a mission ? Indeed he has. Are not all 
The Scandinavian *^^ magazines publishing articles about Swedish 
movements, Norwegian folk dances and songs, 
Danish butter; about cooperation, conservation, rural high schools, 
and sick benefits.^ And now we have even learned that there is a 



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THE AMERICAN -SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 49 

Scandinavian art. When all the children and young people have 
acquired the movements, the songs and dances, when the farmers can 
make butter like the Danes, and we have a little general education 
and art thrown in, will the Scandinavian have fulfilled his mission? 
Not quite yet; the advertising is necessary, but it is not the essential 
any more than the poster is the play. 

Is not the essential fact, after all, that the Scandinavian is an indi- 
vidualist.'^ In three thousand years of unmixed racial development 
he has shown deep-seated in his character the art of balanced self- 
government. Other European nations have drifted toward anarchy 
on the one hand or universalism on the other. The Scandinavian 
allows no tyrant over his mind and conscience; at the same time 
he is a strong social being, hating anarchy. He has little veneration 
for authority as such, and is law-abiding, not because it has been 
commanded, but because it is just and socially sane to respect the 
rights of others. For nearly four hundred years there have been no 
civil wars in Scandinavia, yet today the northern nations have the 
most eflScient social organization. They do not lean to paternalism, 
but take good care to control their government and to get out of it 
full value for its cost. The Scandinavian has tried all forms of social 
organization, of labor associations, of education, but he has never 
gone to extremes. From each experiment he has learned something 
which he has carried with him into the next. He does not and never 
did believe in the absolute on earth. 

They say he is not religious. That is a calumny. He does not 
put his faith in words and formulas, and he refuses to fight about 
dogmas. He has an absolute distrust in rubbing any philosopher's 
stone, and his war song is, ''One step enough for me.'' While he 
knows that the ideal cannot be reached, he believes, with fire in his 
soul, that it can be approached, and each sure step forward is to 
him a holy inspiration to take the next and the next, until men 
shall attain to the sense that the kingdom of heaven is within them. 

But what about his mission.^ Has he any.^^ His mission is to be 
true to himself. Not that he should be puffed up with pride; when- 
ever he has been afflicted in that way great has been his fall, whether 
in the times of Waldemar the Victor, or in those of Charles XII. 
Neither should he allow himself to be so overpowered by the greatness 
and riches of other nations that he succumb to an attack of exag- 
gerated modesty and allow himself to be submerged. Let him adver- 
tise, even assert himself. But above all things, whether he lives in 
one of the dear old countries or in the United States, or in any other 
part of the earth, let him live and speak as a sane individualist, as 
a true Scandinavian. Then, perhaps, the world will some day realize. 
On that day our race shall have fulfilled its mission, and the world will 
be the better for it. Axel Teisen. 



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European Dramatists. By Archibald Henderson, M.A., Ph.D., author of 
"George Bernard Shaw: His Life and Works," etc. Photogravure frontis- 
piece of the author. Stewart & Kidd Company, Cincinnati, 1914. Price 
$1.50. 

It is a feat of inner vision, of what Bergson would call intuition, which is but 
another name for sympathetic understanding, to see a human soul in its true 
nature. That feat has been remarkably well accomplished by Archibald Hender- 
son in his new book, "Modern Dramatists," dealing with Strindberg, Ibsen, 
Maeterlinck, Oscar Wilde, Shaw, and Granville Barker. 

He finds in Strindberg that above all the jangle and confusion and discord 
there "sounds the clear strain of persistently lofty idealism." He sees in Ibsen 
more than the progenitor of the race of muck-rakers — even the miracle of a 
new earnestness — tihe realization "that the artist's attitude toward life must be 
redemptive as well as revelative." He is sure the reputation of Maeterlinck is 
not due to fad, decadence, nor to his symbolism, but rather to his fundamental 
sincerity as a literary artist, and to his "ever striving for that Truth which is 
Beauty." Even Oscar Wilde, who is still, like Byron, "a fascinating trouble," 
is treated not apologetically but interpretatively. 

Dr. Henderson proves himself to possess also the rare faculty of seeing the 
forest as well as the trees. By occasional flashes he illumines a whole epoch. 
He can think in terms of world cycles. He sees in all of these types — differing, 
as they do, from Strindberg, "the knight of the sorrowful countenance," to 
Maeterlinck, the incurable optimist; from Oscar Wilde, who believed that even 
truth is "so personal a thing that the moment it becomes the property of more 
than one person it becomes falsehood," to Bernard Shaw the socialist — the 
partial, tentative realization of the Nietzschean ideal of supermandom. He sees 
that these "links between man and superman" follow "so-called parallel lines 
of human endeavor, which are said to meet at some Utopian infinity." 

The essay on Strindberg is the only one of the six which has not appeared 
in print before. Dr. Henderson is to be congratulated that he finds Strindberg 
at his best in such plays as Master Olof, Lucky Pehr, Easter, and the Dream 
Play. These are the very plays in which the idealistic note breaks through and 
for which Strindberg is most loved in his own country. A. R. Shelander. 

August Strindberg— Samlade Skrifter. Stockholm, Albert Bonnier: 1912, etc. 
561 Third Avenue, New York. 50 volumes, $35, $60, $175. 

This collected edition of the works of Strindberg seems destined to remain, 
for many years, after its completion, the definitive form of the total output of 
Sweden's greatest literary worker. There will be in all about two hundred 
numbers, bound in paper, at the popular price of 50 ore each, though a de luxe 
edition is also included in the plan. Each number contains 80 pages, and as 
sixty-six numbers have already appeared, this means that more than 5,000 
pages of Strindberg's original versions, with excellent variorum notes, are at 
the disposal of such scholars and libraries as are wise enough to subscribe now. 
Much of the material has not been available before, as many of the works now 
being republished have long been out of print, and some of them are scarcely 
known by name, even to devoted students of Strindberg. Among these are the 
author's Ungdomsdramer, and a reprint of Svenska FolkeU with all the original 
illustrations. Jacob Wittmer Hartmann. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAX REVIEW 51 

Canute the Great. By Lawrence M. Larson. (Heroes of the Nations Series). 
Putnam, New York, 1913. XL and 375 pages. Price $1.50. 

The biographies of this series have a fairly good reputation for accuracy. 
Few if any of them, however, can claim a more careful scholarship than this 
biography of Canute, by Professor Larson. The difficulty of the task lay in 
the necessity for building up the life story from circumstantial rather than from 
documentary evidence, and from scant material at that. In doing this, the 
author has been successful and has made his book interesting reading. English 
writers usually treat the reign of Canute briefly, almost as a negligible quantity 
in the history of the Old English kings. And yet his reign arrested, for a time, 
the collapse of the kingdom, giving it a period of calm before its final absorption 
into the mighty complex of Norman conquests. To the average student, 
Canute, the emperor of the North, appears a creature of fortunate circum- 
stances, rather than a commanding personality, his imperial power fitting him 
like a too large coat; but the present author is of a diflPerent opinion. He calls 
Canute a genius and emphasizes his yearning for power and imperial honors. 
Canute's treatment of the Church, to him, shows diplomatic power, his legisla- 
tion — kingly ambition. His cruelty the author ascribes to his Slavic ancestry. 
For the convenience of English readers, Norse names are translated more or 
less freely. 

It is joyful evidence that times are changing for the better, when scholars of 
Professor Larson's type are called upon to contribute in the field of Mediaeval 
history and especially the history of the Scandinavian Middle Ages. The 
knowledge of this branch is absolutely nil in this country, and the great store- 
house of laws and sagas practically untouched. To open up this wealth of 
information will naturally be reserved for American scholars of Scandinavian 
descent who alone possess the racial and linguistic equipment for the work. 

A. M. Wergeland. 

Two Visits to Denmark. 1872, 1874. By Edmund Gosse. Smith, Elder & 
Co., London. Imported by Dutton & Co., $2.50 net. 372 pages. 

This is an altogether delightful book. For all Sir Edmund Gosse's protests, 
it may be aptly described as a record of intellectual adventure into lands unknown 
— to the Denmark of forty years ago. His avowed purpose is **to convey an 
impression of the moral and intellectual aspect of one of the smallest, but one 
of the most cultivated nations of Europe," hoping that he might call attention 
to "a theme which is in danger of being completely neglected and ignored by 
the inhabitants of an empire like ours, namely, the function and value of the 
small nations in the civilization of the world." In a graceful style, redolent of 
the somewhat esoteric beauty of English poesy, and rich in tender humor, the 
author introduces us to some interiors and many of the eminent personages of 
the Denmark of the early seventies, which he was fortunate enough to learn 
from the vantage point of the hospitality of the noted divine, Brunn Juul Fog. 
The book resulting is a series of luminous glimpses of the Danish cultural life 
during that crucial time after the last war which saw the dying away — not without 
an agony — of a belated romanticism and the ingrafting of a new shoot from the 
intellectual life of western Europe. It also adds personal information of exceed- 
ing interest on the latter days of H. C. Andersen, Paludan-MliUer, Gade, and 
others, and the rise of such as Brandes, Jacobsen and Drachmann. And for 
all the gulf then fixed between the two generations, both are treated with the 
same sympathy and discrimination. Would that many more reminiscences of 
Scandinavia were as informing, as well told, as tactful. L. M. Hollander. 



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52 THE AMERIC AX-SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 

Shallow Soil. By Knut Hamsun. Authorized translation from the Norwegian 
by Carl Christian Hvllested. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1914. 
Price $1.25. 

The translation of "Shallow^ Soil" {Ny Jord) is important as the first serious 
attempt to introduce the greatest living writer of Norway to American readers. 
The book is well chosen. It is terse, vivid, full of cut and thrust, abounding in 
keen character analysis. The plot, which is too often the weak point in Scandi- 
navian novels, is well knit, and holds the interest. Mr. Hyllested in his trans- 
lation shows a sensitive perception of Hamsun's style and an ability to reproduce 
the color of the original. In some minor points his work would have benefited 
by a less literal adherence to the text. The preface by the translator is interest- 
ing and elucidating. 

"Shallow Soil" has a peculiar interest to the student of modern Scandinavia, 
because it is an expression of the new ideals with which Norway has entered 
upon this century. It is a reaction against the artistic cult of the late nine- 
teenth century and satirizes the pseudo-literary gentlemen who, after contem- 
plating their own souls for a year or two, managed to produce a few poems and 
expected on the strength of these to be supported by the State. In contrast to 
the moral and mental disintegration that follows the lack of sustained work, 
Hamsun has placed two young business men of clean lives and strong wills, men 
who have not shattered their faculties for friendship or deep love. In them he 
sees the hope of the new Norway; they are the men who are creating values and 
keeping alive the old power to dream and to dare. "There is in your circle a 
young man who has lost heavily in rye," says Coldevin, the author's spokesman, 
in the face of the jeering clique. "I am more interested in him. Do you know 
what this man is doing? He is not crushed or broken by his loss. He is just 
now creating a new article of export; he has undertaken to supply a foreign 
enterprise with tar, Norwegian tar." The moral is perhaps a little too obvious. 
Hamsun seems to have taken over Bjornson's role as pedagogue to the nation, 
and, like him, he has an almost naive confidence in the regenerative influence of 
practical work, but, like Bjornson again, he is absolutely sincere, and his ad- 
vice is not only sound, but very readable. H. A. L. 

O Pioneers! By Willa Sibert Cather. Boston and New York. Houghton 
Mifflin Company, 1913. Price $1.25 net. 

To any one who has ever waited for a train in a Middle Western village the 
description of the Nebraska town "trying not to be blown away," with its squat 
red station and its drab houses huddling in the whirling snow, strikes a chill of 
recollection. To one who has lived his childhood there, the "long, empty roads, 
sullen fires of sunset fading," wake memories of hours spent in dreaming of softer 
climes and more romantic countries. There is little of romance on the prairies, 
but there is an epic in the conquest of the wild land, with its ugly moods and 
treacheries, and in its transformation into an obedient friend. It is this epic 
which Miss Cather has written in "O Pioneers!" a book of unusual power and 
sincerity. Its heroine is the Swedish girl, Alexandra, a figure of saga proportions, 
endowed with the land hunger of the old Northmen and their power of seeing 
visions; a woman also gifted with a slow tenacity and practical sense. In the 
face of droughts and discouragements, she takes her resolve to stay by the land, 
and sets her radiant face toward the Divide, as she sings an old Swedish hymn. 
"It seemed beautiful to her, rich, strong, and glorious. Her eyes drank in the 
breadth of it, until her tears blinded her. Then the genius of the Divide, the 
great, free spirit which breathes across it, must have bent lower than it ever did 



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THE AMERICAN-SCAXDiyAVIAN REVIEW 53 

to a human will before. The history of every country begins in the heart of a 
man or a woman." 

Around the massive structure of that epic of the land is twined the love-story 
of the Bohemian girl, Marie, a creation of singularly vital charm. Nor are there 
wanting the tragedies of those who fall by the wayside: The Swedish father, the 
dreamer and visionary, who toils and at last dies with victory in sight; the German 
lad with his artistic yearnings, who can neither take hold of the practical pioneer 
realities nor wholly liberate himself, and who is destined to be of that soil of 
nameless mediocrities from which genius grows; the youngest son, in whom pros- 
perity and college training cannot soothe the ** itching foot." We know them 
all, and know the elder brothers made sordid and dull by toil and narrow con- 
ditions. Only in Alexandra is there complete victory over the tremendous 
forces against which humanity is pitted. So few are chosen to be pioneers! 

H. A. L. 

Lisbeth Longfrock. Translated from the Norwegian of Hans Aanrud by Laura 
E. Poulsson. Illustrated by Othar Holmboe. Ginn and Company, Boston. 

Norwegians whose children cannot read the language of the old country are 
indebted to Miss Poulsson for making accessible in English Hans Aanrud's 
charming little book, "Sidsel Sidscerk" ("Lisbeth Longfrock.") It is a truthful 
picture of Norwegian peasant life, with its patriarchal relations and significant 
old customs. Moreover, it is a delightful child's story. The author has a 
faculty of seeing things from a child's point of view, and perhaps the fact that 
he was writing for his own daughter helped him to create so singularly sweet 
and natural a little person as Lisbeth Longfrock. 



Brief Notes 

The "Jubil^ums-Kalender," published by Halvorsen and Larsenin Chris- 
tiania, is warmly recommended to Norwegian- Americans who are going home to 
Norway this year. It is generously illustrated and contains many maps, as well 
as much compact information for sightseers, while the blank pages facilitate the 
keeping of a travel diary. It may be obtained from Norwegian book stores in 
the United States and on the steamers of the Norwegian America Line. 



The article "Lapland — Sweden's America" in our Yule number was repro- 
duced in part, with illustrations and editorial comment in the Review of Reviews, 
Among the letters received by the editor in regard to the article was one from 
Emilie Demant, who edited and translated into Danish Turi's book on the 
Lapps. This letter was accompanied by a copy of her new book, "With the 
Lapps in the Mountains," being the second volume in a series on Lapp life 
founded by Dr. Hjalmar Lundbohm, disponent at Kiruna. Miss Demant was 
allowed the unusual privilege of living for a year with the Lapps in their wander- 
ings, and she records their customs in entertaining fashion. 



Mr. Carl Laurin, who wrote the introduction to the Swedish section of the 
Catalogue of the American-Scandinavian Art Exhibition, is the author of "Ros 
OCH Ris," an artistically illustrated volume dealing with the theatres of Stock- 
holm and published by P. A. Norstedt & Soner. 



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54 THE AMERICAN'SCANDIXAVIAS REVIEW 

Professor J. G. Richert, one of Sweden's distinguished engineers, recently visited 
America as official delegate to the Third International Refrigerating Congress. 
In his report to the government Professor Richert praises the high development 
of their natural efficiency attained by Swedish engineers in this "land of endless 
possibilities." He urges that the work begun by the American-Scandinavian 
Foundation in giving stipends to Swedish students for study in America should 
be extended by the government and by patriotic individuals in order that the 
valuable experience to be gained in the United States might be utilized in the 
home country. Professor Richert is a member of the Swedish Advisory Com- 
mittee of the Foundaton. 

From Captain A. B. Reck, of Copenhagen, the American-Scandinavian 
Foundation has received a large bas-relief portrait of the late Niels Poulson, 
executed by the sculptor, R. Magnussen in Copenhagen. Professor W. H. 
Schofield has presented the offices of the Foundation with a lithograph of the 
famous portrait in color of Bjornstjerne Bjornson, by Kroyer. 



Two essays have reached us from the hand of Dr. David Nyvall, president of 
North Park College in Chicago. "The New Romanticism in Scandinavian 
Letters" reviews the romantic revival of the nineteenth century and concludes 
with the view that there is really no fresh revival of romanticism in the North; 
he looks upon Selma Lagerlof as an "afterbloom" of romanticism, "Its Indian 
summer, wholly unexpected and gorgeously rich." "The Map of Sweden" 
sketches in vigorous outlines the geography of Sweden and constructs in a fairy 
tale the future development of Norrland. The essays are published in dainty 
booklets by Forbundets Bokhandel in Chicago. 



The little pamphlet, "Northern Literature," published by the Engberg- 
Holmberg Company in Chicago, gives in sixteen pages a useful and most welcome 
list of books by Scandinavian writers in English. Copies can be obtained from 
the office of the Review- or from the publishers. 



Professor P. H. Pearson, of Bethany College, author of "The Study of 
Literature," recently lectured before the State Teachers' Association of Kansas 
on the People's High Schools of Denmark. He showed how these institutions 
have already solved the modern problems of bringing the school into vital 
relations with practical life and educating the pupils back to the farm, problems 
now being dealt with in the University Extension courses. 



Rev. Wilhelm Sundelof , rector of St. Ansgarius Church in Boston, has recently 
published a volume of Swedish verse, said by many Swedish- American critics to 
be the best collection of poems ever produced in this country in the language of 
their fatherland. Particular praise is given to the poems written for special 
occasions. 

Swedish-Americans and the hundreds of others who are interested in the 
chronicles of the Lutheran faith in the North will welcome the illustrated volume, 
"Life Pictures from the Swedish Church History," by Rev. Nils Forsander, 
published by the Augustana Book Concern. The author brings home to us in a 
vital way the lives of the heroes of the church, from Ansgar in the ninth century 
to Fjellstedt in the nineteenth. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 55 

"Songs of New Sweden," by Arthur Peterson, have been published in a 
third and revised edition by the Engberg-Holmberg Company in Chicago. The 
author is a descendant of the Swedes who colonized the Delaware half a century 
before William Penn. These poems, written in the stirring meters of " Evangel- 
ine" and "Tales of a Wayside Inn," constitute the only epic of those half- 
forgotten days, "when o'er the Delaware floated, unchallenged, the flag of 
Christiania." 

The Almanac for 1914, "Danmark," published by Gyldendal, is made 
especially interesting to Americans by a map showing the numerical strength of 
Danes in America. Among the numerous other noteworthy features are an 
article on the Panama Canal and an array of photographs of the paintings of 
L. A. Ring, whose work was so popular in the American-Scandinavian Art 
Exhibition last year. 

The editor has received an autograph copy of "Through Scandinavia to 
Moscow," from the author. Honorable William Seymour Edwards, of West 
Virginia. It may be remembered that Mr. Edwards married Miss Hope Christen- 
sen, daughter of the late General Christensen, at one time the most distinguished 
Danish citizen of America. The book was written on their honeymoon. 



"Pelle the Conqueror, Boyhood," by Martin Andersen Nexo, published 
by Henry Holt & Co., in a translation by Jessie Muir, with a note by Professor 
Otto Jespersen, is the first in a series of four largely autobiographical novels, 
which have made the young author famous in Denmark. It deals with the 
conquest of a puzzling world by Pelle, the lusty-limbed, steady-eyed herdboy, 
with a revealing sympathy for the lives of the very poor. The other three 
volumes, in which Pelle meets the problems of modern industrial life and conquers 
them, should also be made accessible to English readers, though, it might be 
wished, in a better translation. 



Another book full of an intimate charm peculiarly Danish is "The Four 
Seasons," by Carl Ewald, translated by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos, and 
published by Dodd, Mead & Co. It is a prose poem telling of the battle of the 
seasons for mastery over the earth. 

"Northmen in History," published by the Mohn Printing Company in 
Northfield, Minn., contains a series of chapters from the works of P. A. Munch, 
J. R. Greene, John Fiske, M. Guizot and other well-known historians, each deal- 
ing with §ome epoch of the age when Northmen were influential in shaping the 
history of the greater world outside of Scandinavia. 



"Henrik Ibsen, Poet, Mystic and Moralist," by Henry Rose, published 
by Dodd, Mead & Co., contains a considerable amount of information, but in 
attempting to deal with so large a subject within the limits of 154 pages, the 
author is necessarily somewhat superficial, and his work suffers from a desire to 
reduce Ibsen to a moral formula. 



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56 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




A Great Norwegian Novel 

Shallow Soil 

By KNUT HAMSUN 

Translated from the Norwegian by Carl Chr, Hyllestedt 

This novel introduces to the English-speaking world a 
writer already classical in his own country, and indeed 
throughout Europe. The publication of ** Shallow Soil " is accordingly a literary 
event of the first magnitude in the sphere of fiction. Hamsun is the greatest 
living Scandinavian novelist, and this work alone justifies his fame. It is a social 
picture of Christiania, and indeed of generally modern life in which the shallow 
literary'' and art circles are contrasted with bourgeois substance in a telling way, and 
is at the same time crowded with characters both brilliantly and subtly portrayed. 

$1,25 net; postage extra. 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 



NEW YORK 











ZS^^fSSS AUGUST STRINDBERG'S°':r8SS: 






A Norwegian-American Magazine 

SYMRA 

is the only Norwegian - American Magazine. 
It is edited by Krisiian Prestgard, Jobs. 
B. Wist, Prof. Dr. K. Gjerset, and Prof. 

P. J. £lKEL.^JS'D. 

SYMRA has been endorsed by a larfi^e num- 
ber of well-known men in this country and in 
Norway for its many excellent articles on 
Norwegian-American history, current literary 
events, and high class contributions on other 
subjects. Especially it has paid much atten- 
tion to our pioneer history. The contents 
are wholly original, the contributors being men 
of high standing on both sides of the ocean. 

Price: One Dollar per Year 


HM TUr CPARnADn A powerful romance of tho Baltic 
Un int OtADUAHU viands. Authorized translation 

tion and refinement; the heroine a beautiful woman, the in- 
carnation of sex lure; the story takes place on an island of 
the Baltic, picturesque and romantic, and the result is an 
unusual and fascinating story showing Strindberg's keen 
insight into human nature and broad understanding of life 
and its meaning. Handsomely bound, gilt top. Net $1.23. 

PA^TFD (A nay in ThrM Acts) AND STORIES. Authorized 
tAO 1 tn translation by Velma Swanston Howard. The Dial: 
" There is a sweet life-giving spirit about it." Photogravure 
frontispiece of Strindberg after Zom. Handsomely bound, 
gilt top. Net $1 .30. 

1 IIPKY PPHR Authorized translation by Veima Swanston 
LUUHI rtnn Howard. A)itonC/ofe«; "In grace of man- 
ner and charm of imagery * Lucky Pehr ' may not be un- 
fairly classed with 'The Bluebird' and 'Peter Pan.'" 
Photogravure frontispiece of Strindberg after Zom. 
Handsomely bound, gilt top. Net $1.30. 

THE MOST IMPORTANT BOOK OP ITS KIND 
PUBLISHED THIS YEAR 

EUROPEAN DRAMATISTS H'j^^nS!! a^tr^f 

"George Bernard Shaw: His Life and Works." etc. This 
scholarly volume by an author of international fame 
deals with six of the most formidable figures in European 


berg and Barker. Photogravure frontispiece of author. 
Handsomely printed and bound. Net $1.30 


The Symra Company 

Publishers 
DEC OR AH, IOWA 


STEWART & KIDD COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 

CINCINNATI 



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57 




Pioneers! 

A Story of the Love and Achievement of a Scandinavian Girl 
By WILLA SIBERT GATHER 



BOSTON 

"*0 Pioneers' has many missions ; it is a 
disclosure of the splendid resources in our 
immigrant population ; it is the revelation of 
a changed and changing country ; it is, indi- 
rectly perhaps, an embodiment of the feminist 
theory ; and finally, it is more than worth read- 
ing for its literary value." — Transcript, 

NEW YORK 

" A great romantic novel, written with strik- 
ing brilliancy and power, in which one sees 
emerge a new country and a new people. — 
Throughout the story one has the sense of 
great spaces; of the soil dominating every- 
thing, even the human drama that takes place 
upon it ; renewing itself while the generations 
come and pass away." — McClure^s Magazine, 

ROCHESTER 

** This book will be a landmark in the 
American fiction of to-day. It is a strong, 
lifelike and finely written story." — Post Ex- 
press, 

SAN FRANCISCO 

"The book is big in its conception and 
strikes many great live topics of the day — 
the feminist movement and the back-to-the- 
soil doctrines being two of the most conspicu- 
ous. There is a spirit of the open spaces 
about this story — a bigness that suggests 
that Miss Gather has taken more than her title 
from Whitman's hymn to progress, * Pioneers, 
O Pioneers ! ' " — Chronicle, 



CmCAGO 

" The book is beautiful. Its simplicity is 
remarkable. There are pictures so serene, so 
powerful, so completely characteristic, that 
they must long live in the memory. — The 
most finished piece of work, speaking from a 
literary point of view, of the many Nebraska 
stories which have been written. It is human 
and warm as well, and faithful to the facts." — 
Tribune, 

SPRINGFIELD 

" Miss Gather truly has found a new field, 
the great plains of the West, where the hardy 
Swedes, Bohemians, Norwegians and French 
Canadians are taming nature and making the 
soil bring forth the corn and wheat. She has 
taken the plain people there and has given us 
a picture of their innermost hearts." — Union, 

RICHMOND 

** As a study and representation of a hitherto 
little known side of our national life, it is very 
distinctly an achievement." — Times Despatch, 

PHILADELPHIA 

"One seldom finds such perfect restraint, 
or such a sense of form, in the writing of a 
woman. Yet we question whether any man, 
in the whole course of American literature, 
has produced as good a book as this about 
the actual soil of our country, out of which 
has sprung the nation's wealth, its silent hero- 
ism in time past, its silent strength today." — 
Press. 



Boston 



With frontispiece in color. $1.25 net. Postage extra. 

HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY New York 

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58 



ADVERTISEMENTS— \ORWAV SECTION 




The Tourist Steamer ** Finmarken " 



Vesteraalens S. S. Co. 

Stokmarknes, Norway 

Regular passenger service between: 

Bergen — Kirkenes — S. S. " Finmarken ** 
Trondhjem — Hammerfest — S. S. "Richard With'* 
Trondhjem — North Cape — S. S. "Andensss ** 

Tourist service to Spitzbergen-Ice-Pack. 
Local service in Lofoten and Vesteraalen 
Lslands. 



NORWAY MEXICO GULF LINE AND 
SWEDISH AMERICA MEXICO LINE 

Regular service between GOTEBORG, KRISTIANIA and STAVAN- 
GER and NEWPORT NEWS, VA., VERA CRUZ and TAMPICO, 
MEXICO., GALVESTON, TEX., and NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Passengers Carried. Wireless Apparatus. 

AGENTS 

G M. BRYDE, Kristiania SANDSTROM STRANNE CO., Goteborg 

FURNESS WITHY & CO., Ltd.. New York and Newport News, Va. 



JAS. P. ROBERTSON 
III Wett Jackson Boulevard, Chicago. 111. 



FOWLER & McVITIE 
Galveston, Tex. 



H. VOGEMANN 
1 1 19 Whitney Central Bldg.. New Orleans, La. 



NORGE 

Jubilaeums-Kalender for 1914 

has been published by Halvorsen & Larsen lid., in Christiania. It represents the whole of Norway in 
small, carefully cho.sen pictures, which, at the same time, give typical aspects of our country at all 
seasons: such as the fisheries, shipping, forestry and manufactures. National customs and architecture 
are shown in such pictures as that of a peasant wedding and the view of an old house in Scetersdalen. 
The significance of the historical places is briefly explained, and there is a summary of the growth 
of our industries since 1814. 

We have taken for granted that many Norwegians, not least those who come from America, will 
be interested in keeping a diary of the ei'ents of this memorable year, at the same time as the pictures 
and maps will aid them in fixing in their mind the places that remind them of the home country and 
the incidents that bind them more closely to the land of their fathers. 

NORGE 

Jubilaeums-Kalender 1914 

Paper cover Kr. 1.50 Cloth Kr. 2.00 

Leather with lead pencil attached Kr. 3.50 

For sale on the S. S. BERGENSFJORD and KRISTIANIAFJORD and at American book dealers 



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ADVERTISEMENTS— NORWAY SECTION 59 

Tivoli-Haven 

The Only Open-Air Variety 
in Kristiania 

First-Class Programme with the Best Artists 

First-Class Restaurant 



Tivoli- Bodega 

The Only Open-Air Bodega 
in the Town 

Open Every Day from One O'clock P. M. 



Circus - Verdensteater 

The Largest Kinematograf 
in the Country 

Room for 2000 Persons 

3 Great Performances Daily 
at 5.30 - 7 - 9 o'clock 

When answering advertisemenU. pleas* ra»itiD.i Tas, A\«iiiic.\>i-3: vv.>ix\vi\v Rs/iavv. r^r^f-^ ■ r> 

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60 



ADVERTISEMEXTS—XORWAV SECTIOX 



The Most Fashionable Establishment 

on Land and Sea of Kristiania, and the 
most beautiful spot by the ocean 




Brilliant vieic 

Only 10 minutes 
from city 

Frequent steamship 
connection 

First class restaurant 
Dinner and supper 
a la carte 

Hungarian Orch- 
estra 



Wilhelm Olsens Restaurant 



in Frimurerlogen 

Opposite the Parliament Building 



The most elegant dining-rooms^ 

German-room, Pillar-room and 

Grecian-room in town 

Dinner and supper a la carte 

In the coffee-roomsy meals 

served a la carte 

The most renowned kitchen in 

toivn 

Dinner and evening concert by 

Hungarian orchestra on both 

floors 




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ADVERTISEMENTS— NORWA Y SECTION 



Vatnahalsen Hotel 

Near Myrdal station, on the Bergen- 
Kristiania highland railroad 




2,800 feet above sea level, amid the most magnificent scenery, commanding the view of the famous 
Flaams Valley, the Reinonga Lake (fishing) and Tjorsfos are situated. 

V atnahcdsent on account of its pure and salubrious air, is very suitable for a longer stay. 
Center for tours and expeditions of all kinds. Glorious ski-ing in the winter. Baths. Modern 
sanitary arrangements. One hundred beds. Telegraph. Telephone. Carriages from the hotel. 
Gotxl cooking. 

Vatnahalsen is reached by train from Bergen in five hours and from Kristiania in nine hours. 
Another route from Bergen is by steamer through the Sognef jord and then through the Flaamsdal. 

However, should the tourist not have much time at his disposal and yet wish to make a 
memorable three-days' excursion from Bergen, he should take the train to Vossevangen and then 
drive to Stalheim on the first day. The following day through the grand Nierodal \'alley to 
Gudvangen and through the narrow Niprefjord, which is bordered on both sides by steep, gigantic 
rocks, as far as Flaam. From here the road leads to Vatnahalsen, gradually mounting upwards 
through the wild, romantic Flaamsdal Valley (20 km.). On the third day one can either return by 
train to Bergen, or travel on to Kristiania. 



Breakfast . 
Dinner . . . 
Supper. . . 



.Kr. 1.50 from 8-10 a.m. 
. . '* 3.00 ** 2 p.m. 
. . •• 2.00 ** 8 p.m. 



Full pension in June and September from Kr. 7.00 pr. day (by the week.) 
Full {tension in October and May from Kr. 7.00-Kr. 8.00 per day (by the week). 
Rooms from Kr. 2.00. 

EDV. HOLTE, proprietor 



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ADVERTISEMENTS— NORWAY SECTION 



For Brystsvage 

Granheim Sanatorium 

i det for sin torre luft og jevne klima bekjendte 

FoUebu i 

Gausdal 

Pris: kr. 140.00 a 150.00 pr. maaned 
Indehaver: DOKTOR L. WIEGAARD 



0vre Slotsgade 15 b. /^ T^TTD/^ 0vre Slotsgade 15 b. 

CHRISTIANIA 

GULD — og S0LVARBEIDER af alle Slags. 

FILIGRAN— og EMAUEARBEIDER 

i nationale Monster. 

EN GROS & EN DETAIL 

UDSTILLER IKKE! 



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ADVERTISEMENTS— NORWAY SECTION 63 



FREDRIKSSTAD 

er biandt Norges driftigste Byer, midt i Industridistrikt, billig elektrisk Energi, 
enestaaende heldige Industritomter, isfri Havn, regultere Exportlinier — europaeiske 
og oversjoiske — bedste Jernbane Postforbindelse med Indland og Udland. 
Bankf orretninger udfores af 

Fredriksstad : Privatbank 

Aktiekapital ^J^KiW Reservefond 

Kr. 3,000,000.00 Jm^^^k Kr. 1,350,000.00 

fuldt indbetalt. W^^" ' Diskont, Inkasso, 

Telegrafadresse: ^||^^| '% tuP Valutaomssetning, 

Privatbank,Fredriksstad ^ tf Fondsavdeling. 

Indskydere faar h'oieste Rente. 



Stavanger Privatbank 

N^R DAMPSKIBSKAIEN 
Aktiekapital og oplagte Fonds pr. 31. December 1912 

KR. 3,125,000. 

Penge modtages til Forrentning 
efter hoieste Rentesatser. 

Amerikanske Checks og Myntsorter kjobes og saelges. 

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jf'r£ier/<£j/r.\ r-— A '.-»".ir ^E' tios 



Centralbanken for Xorgt 



rVpfc-fc^-Sf »»• u ■■ 1 .- fc— i:n -* t I'C 13* MH •» 

Pr:ii:rt .■•.'tl^^-o.a x N.t^^^^t '-:»-* — i-i«— * iz 3i««>-r*t^ roxrrrr* IVpixt- 

CHRtsTIAXlA. NORWAY 



STATE BANK OF CHICAGi 

Ckvv?vx ."f C wf>« t F.r.nxj:^ Ce:-:a>x III. 
C.vriT.VL 4 Si KFirS 54.i-y\ >» DFF\>>nv: $25.000.C 



^ *. :;c 






irvvt:> J. ,, .., _. • V , ^ -*i^r^ aE« A =%ric« 









V. ». -•• >e. -. -V 



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ADVERTISEMENTS— NORWAY SECTION 



Centralbanken for Norge 

Amalgamated with the Christiania Banking Houses 

THO. JOH. HEFTYE & SON and SEV. CHR. ANDERSEN 

(Established 1769) (Established 1845) 

CAPITAL : 
Covered by stocks and bonds easy of realization deposited 

in the State Bank of Norway .... Kr. 7.500.(XN) 

Paid up in cash '* 3.000.000 

Reserve fund ** 4.500.000 



Deposits and current accounts. 



Kr. 15.000.000 
Kr. 105.358.096.40 



Prompt collection of Norwegian inheritances at moderate charges. Deposits 
received free of commission at the highest rate of interest. Cheques issued 
on all points of America. Remittances made to all parts of Scandinavia. 

CHRISTIANIA, NORWAY 



ESTABLISHED 1879 



STATE BANK OF CHICAGO 

Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago, III. 



Capital & Surplus $4,200,000. Deposits $25,000,000 



OFFICERS 

L. A. GODDARD 

President 

Hkkrt a. Haugan 

Vice-President 

Henrt S. Henschen 

Cashier 

Frank I. Packard 

Assistant Cashier 

C. Edward Carlson 

Assistant Cashier 

Walter J. Cox 

Assistant Cashier 

Edward A. Schroedbr 
Assistant Cashier 

Samuel E. Nbcht 
Secretary 

WiLUAM C. Miller 
Assistant Secretary 



CHECKING ACCOUNTS 

of individuals, firms and corpora- 
tions are solicited. Loans made on 
approved names or collaterals. 



WILLS AND TRUSTS 

This bank's Trust Department is 
equipped to handle with skill and 
experience its clients* wills, estates, 
agencies, trusteeships, etc., and is 
authorized by law to act in such 
matters. 

INVESTMENTS 

Clients wishing to avail themselves 
of the bank's experience in selecting 
safe investments are invited to call 
on or write our Bond Department 
or Real Estate Loan Department 
for choice bonds and mortgages 
yielding 5 and 5K per cent interest. 
These can be had in amounts from 
I500 and upwards. 



DIRECTORS 

David N. Barker 
Manager Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. 



J. J. Dau 
I Reid. Murdoch & Co. 



President ] 

Trbo. Frbeman 
Retired Merchalat 

L. A. GODDARO 

President 

Henry A. Haugan 

Vice-President 

H. G. Haugan 

Ex-Comptroller Chicago. Milwaukee 

and St. Paul Railway Co. 

Oscar H. Haugan 

Manager Real Estate Loan Dept. 

A. Lanquist 

President Lanquist & Illsley Co. 

Wm. a. Peterson 

Proprietor Peterson Nursery 

Geo. E. Rickcords 

Chicago Title & Trust Company 

Moses J. Went worth 

Capitalist 



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CUNARD LINE 




LUSITANIA— MAURETANIA 

Centenary Exhibition of Norway— Christiania 

MAY— SEPTEMBER 

FASTEST STEAMERS IN THE WORLD 

Record trip. New Yoric to Gothenbuift, 7 day*. 7 boun, 45 minutM 

Fastest Route to Europe via Fishguard and London 

SERVICES AS FOLLOWS: 

NEW YORK to FISHGUARD and LIVERPOOL 

Luritaola— Maoratania— Aqultamia (The targeit Britlih StcuMr— Completlnc) 

NFAV YORK to QllEENSTOVVN, FISHGUARD and LIVERPOOL 

Cafonia— Campania— Oumante 



I 



BOSTON to QUKENSTOWN. FISHGUARD and LIVERP'^» 
Franconla — UiconU, and Other St«am«n 

MONTREAL to PLYMOUTH and LONDON 
Andanla (New) Alaunla (New) Aaaudm, Auaonla 

NEW YORK to MADEIRA, GIBRALTAR. ALGIERS. MONACO (MONTE CARLO), GENOA, 

NAPLES. ALEXANDRIA, TRIESTE, FIUME, MESSINA and PALERMO 

Iterala--Can»thia--Saxonla— IHmnonia--*Caronla— ^Franconla— ^lAConla— TreniylvaiU^ (BulldloK) 

^Flidl and Winter Sea«m 

Special through ratee to Kftypt, India* China. Japan, Manila, 
Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and South America 

TRIPS AROUND THE WORLD: $474.85 First CUm. $880 Second CUm 

THE CUNARD STEAMSHIP COMPANY, Ltd. 



21-«4 STATE STREET 



Offices or Affdnta Everywhere 



D i y i i i LLUUi 



NEW YORK 

C, ■ 



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flO' l jOU i I I I II .1 



C' 



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THE • A^ft^BiCAN • 

SCANDINAVIAN 

REVIEW 



# 



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Baltic Exhibition Nuiwbei 

MALMO. SWEDEN - MAY 15 to S^t*t7tSs?ife L 



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The American-Scandinayian Review 

Volume II MAY, 1914 Number 3 

Published Bi-Monthly by The American-Scandinavian Foundation, i5 West 45th Street, New York 
Yearly Subscription, $1.50. Single Copies, 25 cents 

Entered as aecond-class matter. January 4. 1913, at the post-office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1870 
Copyright, 1914, The American-Scandinavian Foundation 

Hbnbt Goddard Leach, Managing Editor Hanna Astrup Larsen, Liierofy Editor 

Advisory Editors 
New York, Hamilton Holt Copenhagen, Harald Niei^en 

Stockholm, Carl Laurin ChristianJa, Christian Collin 

CONTENTS 

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE MAY REVIEW 7 

BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE BALTIC EXHIBITION 8 

THE KING OF SWEDEN TO THE SWEDISH PEOPLE. King 
Gustaf's Speech to the Yeomen 9 

THE BALTIC EXHIBITION. With Four Illustrations and a Chart . 11 

SUMMER COLONIES IN DENMARK. With Two Illustrations. By 
Edward Delbert Winslow 18 

MOENS KLINT. With an Illustration. By Daniel S. Hage ... 19 

CARL JACOBSEN. With an Illustration 20 

THE CHILD THAT PLAYS BY THE RIVER. By Bjornstjerne 
Bjomson. Translated from the Norwegian by O. T. Arneson ... 23 

DANISH CASTLES— III. FREDERIKSBORG 24 

MIDSUMMER PLAY. By Verner von Heidenstam. Translated from 
the Swedish by Jacob Wittmer Hartmann 26 

EDITORIAL: "Bondetaget," The New Ministry, The Baltic, Skansen, 
Scandinavian Languages in American Schools .34 

BOOKS: A Holberg Revival, The Wanderer's Necklace 39 

SKANSEN. Twelve Illustrations 40 

BRIEF NOTES 42 




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Visit 

The Baltic Exposition in Malmo 

May 15— Sept. 15, 1914 

Scandinavian -American Line 

Fast, modern constructed, twin-screw Passenger Steamers: 

"Prederik VHI," new, 14.000 tons. "Oscar II," 10,000 tons. "Hellig Olav," 10.000 tons. 

"United States." 10.000 tons. 

PROGRAM 

for 

amost Delightful Trip 

From NEW YORK 

To Copenhagen, Direct 

See Copenhagen, the Metropolis of the 
North, and its environments. 

To Malmo, m hours »au 

See the Baltic Exposition 

To Stockholm, hyraU 

See Stockholm, the Venice of the 
Nortli. and its environments 

To Gothenburg 

through to the picturesque G5tha 
canal with its 74 locks. The 
length of the canal is 228 miles 

To Copenhagen, by rau 

via Hebingborg. and from Copen- 
hagen 

To NEW YORK 
Without Any Change, via the 

Scandinavian-American Line 




Excellent Meals 



Moderate Rates 



Solid Home Comfort 

In order to obtain best possible westbound reservations Cabin passengers should secure their return accom- 
modations at the same time when booking for the outward passage from New York. Reservation lists are now 
open. Connection with the North Cape steamers can be made at Bergen or Trondhjem by rail firom Christiania. 

Passengers to Bergen can leave the ocean steamer at Christiania and proceed from there via the famous 
Bergen railway without extra charge. First Cabin Passengers to Copenhagen will on application be allowed to 
stop over in Christiania from one Steamer to the next following. 

Excellent connections at Copenhagen twice daily with all the principal cities on the Continent. 

A. E. JOHNSON & CO., Inc., General Paaaenger Agents 1 Broadway, Ncw York 

A. E. JOHNSON & CO.. General Western Passenger Agents . 155 West Kinzie Street. Chicago, 111. 

A. E. JOHNSON CO., Inc., General Northwestern Passenger Agents, 300 First Avenue, South. Minneapolis, Minn. 
A. E. JOHNSON CO., General Northwestern Passenger AgenU. Cor. 6th and Jackson Streets. St. Paul, Minn. 
GEO. E. MARSTERS, General New England Passenger Agent, 248 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 

HALVOR JACOBSEN & CO., General Passenger Agents for California, Arizona and Nevada, 

250 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

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ADVERTISEMENTS 



To Norway, Sweden and Denmark 

by the 

NORWEGIAN AMERICA LINE 




•KRISTIANIAFJORD" AND " BERGENSFJORD ' 
Twin-Screw Steamers S3o feet long 



NeWy fast and 
modern tvnri'Screw 
steamers of the new 
direct service via 
Bergeriy StavangeVy 
Kristiansand and 
Kristiania. 

Voyage about 
83^ days. 

Passengers may 
use the famous 
Bergen-Kristiania 
Railway without 
extra charge by the 
special N. A, L. 
express train for 
Kristiania in con- 
nection with the 
arrival of steamers 
at Bergen. 

Two trains daily from 
Chrittiania to Gothen- 
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and the continent. 



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Dear Reader: 

WITH this issue we present the third of a series of special numbers. 
Like its predecessor, it is significant as coming in the face of a 
Scandinavian Exodus. (J^In our advertising pages you will find several 
steamship lines to aid you in selecting the way you will travel, and some 
goods that will be useful to take with you or give to friends on the other 
side. Here is where we can be of help to each other: You by purchasing 
from our advertisers, we by displaying advertisements of such goods only 
as we know will be worthy of your confidence. (J^You will remember that 
last year the REVIEW was smaller than at present, and we feel sure that 
the change pleases you. Whether we continue to increase the size, or even 
keep to the present form, will depend largely on the amount of advertising 
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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE MAY REVIEW 

Edward Delbert Winslow, of Chicago, has since 1911 been American Consul- 
General in Denmark. Twice in his consular career he has represented his government 
in Sweden. Mr. Winslow has already appeared as a contributer in the March Review. 

Daniel S. Hage is a descendant of a long line of government officials in the little Danish 
town of Stege, on the island of Moen. His home on Staten Island, N. Y., is filled with 
pictures of Moens Klint, which he describes in this issue of the Review, and he considers 
no trip to Denmark complete without a visit to his boyhood haunts. 

O. T. Arneson was born in Iowa of Norwegian parents, and has been for many years 
identified with Norwegian-American publishing houses. Many of his translations from 
Norwegian religious verse have been included in the English Hymnary of the Norwegian 
Synod of America. 

The story by Verner von Heidenstam, translated by Dr. Jacob Wittmer Hartmann 
for this issue of the Review, is from his masterpiece, "Karolinarna," a series of short 
stories from the campaigns of Charles XII, which ranks with Selma Lagerlof's books 
among the "best sellers*' erf Sweden. The author is one of the leading orators in the 
present campaign for strengthening the national defenses of Sweden, inaugurated by 
Dr. Sven Hedin. 

By kind permission of the directors of the Baltic Exhibition the Review is enabled 
to reproduce as its cover design the attractive poster of the Exhibition in five colors, 
designed by E. Norlind. Ten thousand special reprints from the May Review have been 
printed and mailed, containing the article about the Exhibition, bound in these covers. 



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THE FEE INCLUDES SUBSCRIPTION TO THE 

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,' 3CT £9 1914 ) 




.si ^ 



American - Scandinavian 

Review 

' ■ ' I. ■ - 

Volume II MAY • 1914 Number 3 

The King of Sweden to the Swedish People 

On February the Sixth King Gustaf Addressed Thirty Thousand Farmers Who Had Marched 
TO the Royal Castle in Stockholm to Assure Htm of Their Wiluxgness to Bear any 
Added Burden of Taxation Required for the National Defense. 

Good Men and True, Yeomen of Sweden: 

From my lieart I fender you my royal thanks^ because you have come 
from all the realm of Stceden, frovi the midst of your daily toil and 
pursuits to meet with me for the welfare of our fatherland, here at the 
Castle of Stockholm. At the same time I thank all the thousands who 
have otherwise given expression to the same patriotic spirit that brought 
you here. Tfie standard that I have received from your hands will always 
remain to me a dear and precious memorial of this day and all that it 
imports. 

You have come in order to voice your opinion regarding the preserva- 
tion of our country a fid the safe-guarding of its honor. You are here in 
order to make it evident before me and to all men that no demand is too 
high and no burden too heavy tchen required for the maintenance of our 
ancient liberties and the assurance of our future development. 

From times so distant that they are wrapped in saga mists, the 
structure of our realm has rested on the firm and immutably fused con- 
fidence between king and people. You know also that this close bond 
alone has had power under God to make the Swedes honored before other 
nations, and to give them strength to fight and mn in the battle for right- 
eousness and truth. In times of need the commoners of Sweden have 
been the rock upon which the king could safely rely. And I feel that I, 
too, have a place in your hearts. In times both good and evil this bond 
Ims held, and God willing, it shall never burst asunder. 

Our times are grave. Our task now, as of old, is to guard the heritage 
we have received from our fathers, and which they built with their labor 
and their blood. We must administer rightly the talent entrusted to us 
and develop it — to our gain, but to no man's loss. Herein lies our com- 



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10 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

mon duty in the present — and for the future. It is this feeling which has 
brought you here. It is your anxiety about the safety of the fatherland 
that has caused you in these winter days to leave your comfortable homes. 
It is the demand for a firm foundation on ivhich to build the future of 
our realm that in this moment unites the glorious standards of your 
provinces under the royal flag of Sweden^ waving here on high over us all. 

You have expressed to me your fixed desire to see the most vital 
problem of the land and the people definitely solved as early as possible, 
and you have declared yourselves ready and willing to take upon your- 
selves the burdens and make the sacrifices involved therein. Nothing can 
be dearer to a king than to receive from the lips of the people themselves 
the evidence of their wish and tvill to give him their loyal support in the 
discharge of the often heavy duties of his royal office. No king of those 
who before me have worn the crown of Sweden has in the same manner as I 
been allowed the privilege of standing in this spot face to face with the 
commoners of Sweden and listening to their voices. The knowledge of 
your unshakable confidence in your king invests my royal duty with a 
doubled responsibility ^ but at the same time makes it easier of fulfillment , 
and I promise that I will not fail you. You may be assured that I will 
never compromise with my conviction in the question of tchat I regard 
right and necessary in order to guard the independence of our fatherland. 

There are certainly not lacking in our land those tvho hold the opinion 
that the question of the length of training for the infantry ought not to be 
solved noWy but I do not share this opinion; on the contrary, I have the 
same view which you have just expressed to me, namely, that the problem 
of our defenses should be treated as a whole and solved unthout delay and 
in its entirety. The standards of readiness for service and preparation 
for war formulated by experts within my army I will not recede from. 
You all know that this means an extended time of military service for 
citizens^ especially with regard to the winter training. In order to 
perform the great tasks before it^ my navy must, ftirthermare, not only 
be maintained but very considerably increased. 

May we together labor for the defense of our country! Then toe shall 
succeed in bringing this problem^ which is of such vital importance to 
our fatherland^ to a happy conclusion. I shall, in accordance toith my 
duty as king, endeavor to show you the way to our common goal. Follmc 
and support me, then, in the future as in the past! 

Before the generations that have gone and before the generations that 
are to come, ice shall answer to God for our actions. May the Most 
High, who has held his hand over the realm of Svea so long, continue to 
guard our land and our people! 

God bless you all! 
Long live our beloved fatherland! 
Long live Stveden! 



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The Baltic Exhibition 



WHITE storks flying over Skane, cutting the blue sky with 
outstretched wings, brushing the Great Tower with its red 
Scanian roof — this is the poster that calls the migrating chil- 
dren of Sweden back to the homeland this summer, to the Exhibition 
at Malmo. The Great Tower, a massive campanile with round 
arched windows and the characteristic Baltic gable topping its white 
square structure, is visible far and wide. From its glass-walled arcade 
sixty-five meters above the ground the eye can 
reach all the nations that ha\ e contributed to 
the Exhibition, except distant Russia. Below 
are the Exhibition grounds, with white and red 
buildings set around two lakes, the old town of 
Malmo, and the luxuriant plains of Skane — 
from which it is believed that all of Scandinavia 
takes its name — and beyond, the glittering- 
Sound, stretching to the north and to the south 
until lost in dim mists. Through a magnificent 
telescope it is possible to look across the silvery 
belt of water to Sjaelland and even to discern the 
towers of the royal city of Co])enhagen, wliilc 
on a bright day the Germans may catch a 
glimpse of an outpost of the fatherland in the 
lighthouse on the Island of Riigen. 

The Exhibition to be opened on the 15th of 
May is the largest ever held in Scandinavia. 
It has been placed in Malmo, a 
100,000 inhabitants, in 
preference to the capital, 
because this is the geo- 
graphical center of the 
countries that take part. 
While the Exhibition is 
organized by Swedish 
forces, Germany, Den- 
mark, and Russia have 
eagerly seized the oppor- 
tunity of participating, 
and requests have been 
received from south Euro- 
pean countries, but it has 
been thought best to limit 

the Exhibition to the na- "The Great Tower, a Massive Campantle 




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12 THE AMERICAN 'SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 

tions surrounding the Baltic Sea. To Sweden it has proved a stimulus 
to reassert in the peaceful activities of modern culture that dominant 
position on the Baltic which she once held through the bravery of 
her soldiers. 

Ferdinand Boberg, the famous architect of Swedish churches, 
public buildings and expositions, has been given the task of designing 
a plan at once unique and adapted to the territory. With character- 
istic originality, he seized on the typical Skane style, with the peculiar 
red stepped gable. Its square, massive walls have been well simu- 
lated in wood and plaster, and the whole effect is one of repose and 
solidity. The grounds are in the so-called Pildam locality, at a dis- 
tance of five minutes on the electric railway from the heart of the 
city. Two natural lakes have been made the center of the plan, the 
one retaining its long, rectangular canal-like effect, leading up to the 
Fine Arts Building, the other enlarged to an irregular shape, with 
undulating beaches rich with blossoming verdure. 

A railway crossing, which threatened to intercept the traflSc to 
the grounds, has been utilized to lend added beauty to the approach. 
A wide, gently rising viaduct, with large side portals, carries the 
visitor over the tracks to the Exhibition, and affords a view of the 
buildings from a slight elevation. Continuing on the same level, the 
road swings to the left and ends in a large open space, with garages 
and street railways. In front is the Main Entrance, leading to the 
first court, and through its arched passages the Amusement Grounds 
are visible to the left, the Danish, German, and Russian Buildings to 
the right, while straight ahead the Great Tower rises to an imposing 
height. Within the court are the administration buildings, the post- 
and-telegraph-oflSce, the fire department, the press bureau, the 
information bureau, and the dressing-rooms. 

A large vaulted arcade, flanked by two towers, leads into an inner 
court. On the left is the Malmo Exhibit in ten large halls, where the 
city has endeavored to give an adequate representation of its history 
and development. Here are also rest rooms and reading-rooms, in 
which the city of Malmo makes its visitors welcome at the threshold 
of the Exhibition. The Great Tower stands at the entrance to the 
Central Court, which is the nucleus of the entire plan. The Court has 
a diameter of 150 meters and is enclosed by a two-story arcade, from 
which access is had to the various exhibits. In the center is a basin 
thirty-six meters in diameter, from which a broad column of water 
rises to a height of fifteen meters, then widens out like a plume and 
falls in myriads of twinkling drops. Flowering bushes and tall trees 
have been transplanted to the court; rose creepers twine about the 
columns and the lattice work; thousands of tulips and hyacinths gleam 
like a jeweled setting around the pergola that circles the great basin, 
and from hundreds of poles flutter the flags of four nations. 



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THE AMERICAN -SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 13 

The fagades of the main exhibit halls form a circle around the 
Central Court. Straight opposite the entrance and the Great Tower 
is Congress Hall, a splendid granite building capped by a n^assive 
dome of tile and flanked by two high towers in the prevailing square, 
step-gabled style. There a special orchestra selected from the best 
musicians in Sweden will give concerts every night at a nominal 
admission fee. On either side of Congress Hall are the Hall of Indus- 
try and the Hall of Machinery, vast buildings that turn only a small 
fagade toward the court while stretching long, complicated structures 
toward the outer boundary of the Exhibition grounds. To the right 
the German Building is visible, then the Danish Building in the style of 
an old moated castle, and, lastly, the cupolas of the Russian Building. 
To the left is the large field of private pavilions, the Amusement Court 
and the Main Restaurant. 

From the refreshment terraces of the Main Restaurant a wonderful 
view may be enjoyed. There is the old park with the water tower, 
an idyllic spot, the only part of the grounds that was left untouched 
by the architect and landscape gardener, when they made the bare 
plain blossom like a rose. There is the Amusement Court with its 
kaleidoscopic life, and on the smooth surface of the two lakes gondolas 
and motor boats vie with each other, while stately swans glide about, 
undisturbed by the traflSc. Between the two lakes is the Fisheries 
Building, in the style of an old log-house, with the aquarium, where 
multi-colored fishes dart about. In the center is a wide basin for the 
landing of the boats that ply across the lakes. 

Leading from the Fisheries Building is a complicated system of 
double arcades, covered stairways, and courtyards, making a fantastic 
perspective. Stepping out from a high vaulted arch, the visitor 
comes suddenly upon the long, narrow lake, terminating in the Fine 
Arts Building, a massive structure with a hundred meter fagade 
rising directly from the water. A boat carries the visitor across the 
lake to the great stairway. A dim vestibule leads to the large hall 
of sculpture, with its glass cupola surrounded by the various halls of 
painting; the vestibule is continued in an arcade leading to a smaller 
hall of sculpture and ending finally in a pergola encircling a water 
basin, and here refreshments are served. There are fifty exhibition 
rooms, the hall of sculpture excepted, having in all a wall length of 
1,700 meters. The exhibit is in the hands of Professor Oscar Bjorck, 
who has succeeded in persuading the collectors in the several countries 
to lend their priceless treasures. The great masters of Sweden will 
naturally be represented and will demonstrate the very high place 
occupied by Sweden in the domain of painting. The exhibit of 
German art will be especially complete. It will occupy a wall length 
of 400 meters, and will comprise both the futurist and the conservative 
schools, Professor Bjorck believing that the Northern nations have a 



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14 



THE AM ERIC AX-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 




By Courtrsf of " Ord och Bild " 

"Central Court — The Pergola that Circles the Great Basin ** 

great deal to learn from the modern development of German art. He 
hopes, also, to present a unique collection of Danish and Russian 
works. 

The Flower Walk runs obliquely on one side of the lake, and is 
bordered by a park ending in a formal garden, in which is the Royal 
Pavilion designed for the reception of royal and possibly of imperial 
visitors. The Crown Princess has planned the Flower Walk, with a 
combination of expert knowledge and enthusiastic interest resulting in 
an almost tropical display of horticulture that dispels all thought of 
Sweden as a cold country. Behind the Pavilion rises a picturesque 
terraced hill, with artificial waterfalls and grottos, and along its high- 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 15 



By Counesy of " Ord och Bild" 

"The Restaurant Kastellet, Built in the Dutch Renaissance Style" 

est part runs an arcade from which one may see the plains of Skane, 
with fields and farm buildings, with lanes and clusters of trees. In 
the park is the woman's exhibit called Arsta, after the home of 
Fredrika Bremer, the first feminist of Sweden. 

In one corner of the lake are several small basins hedged off from 
the larger body of water by tiny headlands and grass plots connected 
by bridges. These are designed as the home of the various Scanian 
water-fowl. Nearby is the restaurant Kastellet, built in the Dutch 
Renaissance style with three stories, affording a view over the 
Amusement Grounds. 

The state railways of Sweden have a separate building, with an 



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16 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

exhibit consisting of several locomotives, among them one propelled 
by electricity, models of a Diesel motor wagon, refrigerator car and 
hospital car, graphic representations of the extension of railway 
traffic, the method of loading ore and of handling the problems of a 
great snowball, w^ith paintings of the most interesting bridges and 
crossings, and in general all that tends to show the extraordinary 
modern development of the Swedish railways. Above this lies the 
electric power station, which sets in motion the various wheels of the 
Exhibition. The accomplishment of Swedish engineers is also dem- 
onstrated in the Machinery Hall, with a floor area of 10,200 square 
meters and an arch 25 meters wide. Everything that Sweden has 
produced in the manufacture of machinery is there to vindicate her 
title of "the iron country." Built in a similar style is the gigantic 
Hall of Industry, originally designed with an area of 12,500 square 
meters, but owing to the number of exhibitors afterwards enlarged to 
almost double that size. With a floor area of 22,000 meters it is the 
largest of all the Exhibition buildings. In uninterrupted succession 
the masters of Swedish trade, handicraft and domestic industry have 
collected their treasures. Especially rich and interesting is the peas- 
ant art of Sweden. 

Germany has an imposing building designed by the architect, 
Hans Alfred Richter, and covering a base of 20,000 square meters. 
The Emperor has personally contributed a large exhibit of majolica, 
which occupies the middle of the building, while the court behind it is 
executed exclusively in majolica and promises to be an unusual 
attraction. The exhibit of royal China is in the German Festival 
Hall. The graphic, paper, optical and textile departments are placed 
in modern surroundings. A large iron front divides the Machinery 
Hall from the rest of the exhibit, and joined with it is the exhibit of 
automobiles and railways, the largest that Germany has ever shown 
abroad. 

Nearby is the charming Danish Exhibition surrounded by its 
moat like a feudal castle. A bridge leads to the principal building, 
in which are rooms for the reception of royal visitors. In front lies 
the Industrial Arts Hall, where ceramic art is given especial promi- 
nence. The Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Company exhibits the 
fountain of porcelain and stone ware to be presented by Denmark to 
the Peace Palace at The Hague. There are f ajances, silver embroideries, 
jewelry and home-woven silks, and in the Hall of Industry a textile 
division. The Machinery Hall is probably the largest division of the 
Danish exhibit, and has various workshops showing the process of 
manufacture. Copenhagen has an important municipal exhibit, con- 
taining models of various institutions, paying particular attention to 
the hospital service. There is also a Greenland exhibit, an electric 
exhibit, and a hunting and forestry exhibit. An idyllic garden plot. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



17 



with colonnades, fountains and flower beds, will form a delightful 
place of rest in the center of the Danish Exhibition. 

The field set aside for the private pavilions looks like a little city 
and contains many interesting exhibits. Near this is the Amusement 
Court, where the various lighter forms of entertainment will even 
make the Danes forget gay Copenhagen. Throughout the whole 
Exhibition grounds nothing has been spared that can add to the 
beauty of the scene and the convenience of the visitors. In addition 
to the larger restaurants mentioned there are numerous smaller places 
where refreshments can be had. Music will be a constant feature of 
the Exhibition. Numerous rest rooms and dressing-rooms even con- 
taining baths will refresh the tired traveler. In the arcades and in every 
convenient nook there are comfortable seats, where the sight-seer can 
sit sheltered from the traffic and collect the impressions gained from 
his tour of the exhibits. Every available nook has been utilized for 
the planting of flowers and creepers that will soften the harsh outlines 
and give richness of color to the newness of the buildings. And at 
night the grounds will twinkle with myriads of lights, while the boats 
will glide like fireflies over the lakes, and the spirit of the brief 
Northern summer will make the place gay with laughter and music. 




By Courtesy of " Ord och Bild" 



"C0.VGRE88 Hall — Flanked by Two High Towers' 



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Summer Colonies in Denmark 

By Edward Delbert Winslow 

THE fight against the increasing cost of living is as keen in 
Copenhagen as in any of the large cities of America, but the 
thrift and intelligence of the middle class and well-to-do working 
people have devised a plan by which they can spend the summer in 

the city and yet at a very slight ex- 
pense be among green fields and 
flower gardens. The city authori- 
ties come to their assistance by 
turning over unused plots of land 
to cooperative companies, and in 
this way it is possible for any one to 
rent a bit of land, 20 feet wide and 
from 50 to 100 feet deep, for from 
$2.70 to $8.00 for the season. The 
whole family usually takes part in 
the work of erecting a bungalow 
from old packing cases, rejected boards or any other material that is 
obtainable. 

When the warm weather comes 
they spend long days there, and 
every inch of ground is made pro- 
ductive. The women bring their 
sewing and the children play about. 
Those that are old enough learn to 
till the soil and to know that all riches 
come from the earth. Sometimes 
the little plot is made to yield enough 
vegetables for the whole winter. 
Often it is made into a bower of flow- 
ers, for in no country is the love of 
flowers more intense, and the devo- 
tion of the Danes to their gardens is 
such that to be without a retreat of 
this kind is to be an outcast. In the 
evening the head of the family joins 
the others in the "club," and neigh- 
bors visit and exhibit to one another 
the results of their work. In the fall prizes are often distributed 
for the best garden plot. When cold weather comes the family return 
to their winter quarters looking sunburned and vigorous after the sum- 
mer spent in rusticating within a stone's throw of their daily labor. 




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Moens Klint 

By Daniel S. Hage 

CHALK cliffs are found elsewhere in the world than on the 
Danish island of Moen, but nowhere else has nature so excelled 
in their staging. The elements have shaped to fantastic forms 
the soft material of the snow-white cliffs, which rise to a sheer height 
of four hundred feet from the blue Baltic, and are crowned by luxuriant 
light-green beech woods. So steep and wild is the formation that 
only in two or three places in the four miles of rugged coastline could 
steps be cut to guide visitors down to the narrow beach, though easy 
foot paths skirt the brow of the cliffs, and an automobile road leads 
from the nearest town, Stege, about ten miles distant, to the hotel 
recently built near the edge of the cliffs. The sea bottom is of white 
chalk, on which sun and shadows play through the waters in colors 
rarely seen in the North. The vegetation is singularly rich, and it 
would be hard to imagine a more delightful place in which to spend a 
vacation. It is to be hoped that success will attend the agitation 
now going on in Denmark to preserve the unique beauty of Moens 
Klint by turning the region into a national park. 



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Carl Jacobsen 

"T"^ENMARK'S first citizen," according to Georg Brandes, was 
If Dr. Carl Jacobsen, the brewer and art patron, who died in 
Copenhagen on January 11 of this year. His life was the 
flower of three generations of patriotic service. The Carlsberg Fund, 
established by his father, J. C. Jacobsen, and added to by Carl 
Jacobsen, though almost as large as the Xobel Fund, is little known 

outside of Scandinavia. A Swedish 
writer has pointed out the charac- 
teristic difference between the two 
endowments. Nobel's plan, magnifi- 
cent in conception and widely diffused 
in its effects, was to find men and 
women of genius in any part of the 
world and give them the substantial 
encouragement that would insure the 
continuance of their w^ork. The 
Jacobsens, father and son, devoted 
practically their entire income, their 
time, zeal and genius to the most in- 
tensive work within their own 
countrj' along certain lines with which 
they were intimately identified. The 
Carlsberg Laboratory, now a sepa- 
rate institution, grew out of J. C. 
Jacobsen 's efforts to produce by the 
most perfect scientific methods a 
healthy, slightly stimulating bever- 
age that should supplant the prevail- 
ing brandy. Old Carlsberg became 
a model brewery, to which experts 
traveled from all over the world, and in donating it, finally, to the 
Carlsberg Fund for scientific research and the publication of learned 
works, he stipulated that the quality of the product should never be 
allowed to deteriorate. 

The son, Carl Jacobsen, l)orn in 1842, built up independently of 
his father but in the same spirit and traditions, the New Carlsberg 
brewery. With as great a singleness of purpose as his father, he 
gave the brewery, representing his fortune, to the Carlsberg Fund, 
on condition that it be kept separate from the Old Carlsberg, and that 
the proceeds be all given to art. He also established several smaller 
legacies, and like his father leaves but little of the great wealth he 
accumulated to be disposed of after his death. He was a thinker and 
a man of wide culture. In conversation with an editor of the Review 




By Courtesy of "Norden" 

The Late. Dr. Jacobsen, " Denmark's 
First Citizen *' 



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THE AMERICAN -SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 21 

last summer he compared the relations of America and Europe in our 
day to those of Rome and Greece. ''The grandeur that was Rome" 
had its counterpart in the magnificent vitality, energy and adminis- 
trative ability of America, but as Rome went to Greece for the glory 
of art, so America had still to come to Europe for her intellectual 
traditions. In his zeal for educating his countrymen to an apprecia- 
tion of art, Carl Jacobsen turned the streets and market places of 
Copenhagen into an open-air museum, and the mere enumeration of 
the statues he raised in the city would fill three-quarters of a 
column in a newspaper. He gathered at New Carlsberg a priceless 
collection of ancient and modern plastic art and offered it to the 
municipality on condition that a fitting gallery be provided, and for 
this purpose the state and city in conjunction built the beautiful 
Glyptotheky now one of the chief attractions of Copenhagen. Jacobs 
sen's religious spirit and his feeling for the suggestiveness in the 
modern city sky-line were united in his admiration of the delicate 
beauty of church spires. He built the lovely Jesuskirke in Valby, 
with a tower separate from the building, and the Nikolaj tower in 
Copenhagen. At time of his death he was engaged in a controversy 
over the addition of a spire to Vor Frue Kirke^ a project that was 
very dear to him, but roused unexpected opposition from the lovers 
of Copenhagen in its present aspect. The reverence and admiration, 
mingled with a slight sense of irritated protest, which his forceful 
personality roused in his countrymen, is well expressed in an article 
by Francis Beckett, in Ugens Tilskuer, from which we quote: 

"Mr. Jacobsen was not an art collector like those of other coun- 
tries; for who has ever heard of any of these that he has from the very 
beginning made his collection accessible to the public.^ It must he 
remembered that he was six years old when Thorvaldsen's Museum 
was opened, and that he went about as a little boy on Sundays in a 
forest of statues; he was an only child, and the first impressions, 
deepened by the loneliness of his childhood, became, a generation 
later, the New Carlsberg Glyptothek. And yet his relation to plastic 
art remained to the day of his death that of the educated public in 
the time of the forties; it was to him something elevated, distant, 
an abstraction, though he lived with it every day. He could surely 
have made his own the words about works of sculpture as 'calm 
thoughts divested of earthly desire.' His relations with them never 
became intimate; one might almost say they never became natural. 

"All other patrons of art the world over have collected because 
they loved art (or simply because they knew it to be valuable). Mr. 
Jacobsen from the very beginning collected because he believed and 
felt that art was an educational power. For that reason his collec- 
tions have no personal flavor; his chief effort was to have them fully 
representative. Nor can it be denied that he somewhat undervalued 



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22 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

the general appreciation of art in Denmark. He declared that once 
when he had offered a statue to one of the smaller towns of Denmark 
the inhabitants had supposed it to be something edible, and he was 
under a misapprehension in believing that it was merely ignorance 
that prompted the municipality of Copenhagen to refuse his proffered 
statues. He did not understand that a work of art is deeply rooted 
in the artist's personality, his age and his people, and that it may be, 
therefore, a violence against a nation to raise foreign statues in the 
parks and market places of its capital city. 

"The art of Thorvaldsen carried Mr. Jacobsen to the antique, 
such as Thorvaldsen and his age saw it — a revelation of harmonious 
beauty of line — and he also took much personal pleasure in the most 
formal, least subjective of all art, the Egyptian. The strongest 
element in art, the demoniacal, which at times is so violent that it 
almost stuns, as for instance in the productions of Donatello and 
Michelangelo, he did not understand at all. But neither did Thor- 
valdsen and his age understand them. Like the age of Thorvaldsen, 
he loved the clarified and tempered in art. His relations with the 
stormy art of Rodin were purely official; he bought Rodin's works, 
because the French artist had gained a world-wide celebrity, and his 
purchases were, in fact, made too late, for only one of the works of 
Rodin in the Glyptothek has the importance of a first-hand produc- 
tion. To one and one only of the foreign modern sculptors did he 
bring a true understanding — the Belgian, Constantin Meunier. No 
doubt it was the mighty laborer in Jacobsen that recognized and 
valued Meunier as the artistic glorifier of labor. 

"A memory of his childhood which had a determining influence on 
his activity as an art collector was the opening of the Old Norse 
Museum in Prinsens Palce when he w^as eleven years old. He was 
fond of telling how old Thomsen showed the contents of the Museum 
to the Sunday public, and when the bronze rings were to be tried on, 
he pushed forward in order to get a ring around his neck. The fact that 
the Museum appealed directly to the people — suffered the little children 
to come unto it — became determining in his work as a collector. 
Bring art to the people, was his guiding principle, and it was char- 
acteristic of him that he did not ask himself whether that which he 
offered could be in a personal sense assimilated by the rank and file 
of the people. It was there for them to see, that was all. If he had 
been a Czar, he would have issued an ukase that all Russians should 
visit the Museum on Sundays. 

"Such were the underlying principles of Mr. Jacobsen's activity 
as a collector, but these principles were carried forward with an 
indomitable will, an admirable self-confidence, an infectious energy 
and glowing enthusiasm. He was no critic; he had but one word, 
* beautiful,' the meaning of which he had probably never defined 



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THE AMERICAN -SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 23 

even to himself. But the word was repeated again and again with 
a force so impossible of contradiction that it may well be said, in this 
word he has conquered. Nor was he what we call an art connoisseur. 
He cared only for the finished work, not for its origin or the way it 
came into being. He w^as an art enthusiast and nothing else. 
Through enthusiasm, not through knowledge and critical acquisition, 
he understood art. That which did not rouse his enthusiasm he did 
not understand, and only w^hat roused his personal enthusiasm did 
he love. In enthusiasm he has created the New Carlsberg Glypto- 
thek to be a source of enrichment as long as Denmark remains a 
civilized country, and for so long will Jacobsen be remembered with 
the most profound admiration and veneration. 

"In medieval times people believed that the chosen of God were 
surrounded by a nimbus of light. Jacobsen's personality, more espe- 
cially in his later days, needed no such external radiance. His appear- 
ance, his manner, his speech, his keen look, all w^ere those of a chief- 
tain, a kingly citizen, a citizen king. Involuntarily, all bowed before 
him, the born ruler. Now we bow for the last time before his grave." 



The Child that Plays by the River 

By Bjornstjerne Bjornson 

Translated from the Norwegian by O. T. Arneson 

Father y take in Thy hand, I pray. 

The child that plays by the river. 
Send Thy Spirit to share his play 

And from all evil deliver. 
The bank is slippery ^ the water deep^ 

But if Jesus the child icill keep, 
Drowneth he not, but liveth 

Through the strength which He giveth. 

The tveary mother y alone and poor^ 

Knows not tvhere he is roaming; 
Calls his name from the open doar — 

No answer comes from the gloaming — 
Says to herself: 'Til have no fear; 

Guardian angels are ever near; 
JesuSy his little brother^ 

Leadeth him home to his mother. ^^ 



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Frederiksborg 



FEW there will be who cross the sea to the Baltic Exhibition at 
Malmo this summer who will not also make a pilgrimage over 
the Sound to Denmark, and visit the Castle of Frederiksborg. 
Many w^ho have the leisure will approach it directly, not by rail from 
Copenhagen, but by cycle or automobile from the Northeast, from 
'* Hamlet's Elsinore," hurrying along the sparkling coast of North 
Sjaelland and then down through the long, shadowy forest of beeches 
that are one of the crowning glories of Denmark, to where Frederiks- 
borg rises from the islands, its towers mirrored in the Lake. 

Frederik the Second acquired this estate, then known as Hillerods- 
holm, in 1560, by trading with Herluf TroUe, the naval hero, an 
exchange still recorded on an old mortared stone in a rhyme which 
may be roughly translated into: 

*^ Frederik the Second of good renown ^ His grace made this exchange y 
That HiUerholm went to the crovm^ And Herluf to Forest Grange,*^ 

Hence the name, but not the castle. In 1577 Denmark's archi- 
tect-king, Christian IV, was born at Frederiksborg. The same hand 
that designed Rosenborg at Copenhagen ordered the removal of the 
old hunting lodge and planned a larger structure of red brick and sand- 
stone in Danish adaptation of the Dutch Renaissance. The work 
under Christian IV proceeded from 1602 until 1620. 

Frederiksborg became a favorite resort of the Danish kings, most 
of whom were crowned there, although in the eighteenth century it 
ceased to be a permanent residence. Frederick VII, however, 
actuated by national feeling and romantic sentiment, made Frederiks- 
borg his home and was married there in 1850, to Countess Danner. 
While the King and Countess were living at Frederiksborg, December 
17, 1859, at half -past three in the morning, a violent fire broke out 
which in a few hours reduced the main building to ashes. 

In Denmark, when royal residences are damaged or partly 
destroyed, they are often fated to be made the property of the state. 
Frederiksborg, like Rosenborg, has become a national historical 
museum. By royal gift, by national budget, by popular subscription, 
the walls were raised again on the site of the old foundations, but the 
interior, the priceless portrait gallery, had been wiped out. To 
restore these galleries a single man contributed more than 500,000 
crowns. The donor. Dr. J. C. Jacobsen, founder of the Old Carlsberg 
Brewery and the Carlsberg Fund, the father of Dr. Carl Jacobsen, 
Denmark's recently deceased Maecenas, obtained in 1877, royal con- 
sent to establish a museum at Frederiksborg and provided for its 
maintenance from the Carlsberg Fund. 



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Midsummer Play 

By Verner von Heidenstam 
Translated from the Swedish by Jacob Wittmer Hartmann 

IN THE yard stood the little girls, holding a sieve, and near them, 
on a mossy stone, lay their brother. Axel Fredrik, half asleep. 
On that day he was celebrating his twentieth birthday. His 
betrothed, the bashful little Ulrika, who had come to the farm on a 
visit, was bending the juniper brush into the sieve and chopping it 
with her sickle. The little girls stretched out their hands to help 
hold the branches, while the melting snow was dripping from the 
birches and the alder bushes. 

"Just see! Even Grandfather has come out in this glorious 
weather," said Ulrika, pointing to the big house. 

Then the little girls began shouting and dancing and, taking the 
sieve between them they started down toward the big house, swinging 
the sieve to the rhythm of the words they were singing: 

And the birds of Spring, they sing so welly 

Come shepherd-girlj come! 

To-night we vnll dance , and to-night we will play. 

On the other side of the barnyard, just where the firs began, the 
farmhand Elias was bringing down the last load of wood from the 
forest. The water was splashing all around his wooden shoes, and 
the two red oxen, Silverhorn and Farmer, had branches of ash in their 
yoke as a protection against witchcraft. Elias also joined in the song: 

And the birds of Spring, they sing so soft. 

Come, little goats, come! 

To-night on the hillocks the flowers will bloom. 

But then he ceased singing and, leaning over the fence, said to 
Axel Fredrik: '*The powder has a bad smell when you shoot, and the 
soot comes down the chimney, so I guess the thaw will last." 

Over the entrance of the big house was a thatched roof, now cov- 
ered with snow, on which in summer a goat grazed among the leeches 
and the catchfly. 

Below, on a bench, sat Grandfather, in his gray housecoat, with 
tin buttons, and Ulrika was bringing the little girls to greet him. 
They were dressed in their shortened skirts, which had been dyed at 
home with whortie-berry juice, and every time the little girls 
courtsied they left a faint purple ring on the wet steps. 

Grandfather caressed Ulrika's cheek with the back of his hand. 

"You will grow up after a bit, little one, and be a great help to 
Axel Fredrik." 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 27 

*'0h! If I were only really sure of that, Grandfather! This is 
such a big place, and there are so many things to do that I am not 
yet accustomed to." 

"Alas ! Yes, that is true ! And it is such a pity about Axel Fredrik, 
who lost both father and mother so early in life, and who has never had 
any other relatives than his aunts and his old grandfather. But we 
have taken care of him, and you will have to learn, little one, to fill 
our place. The greatest diflSculty of all is his feeble health, the dear 
boy. Oh, dear child ! Thank God for this fine spring day, and for 
these blessed years of peace!" 

Grandfather felt of the chopped juniper twigs, and praised them 
for their moisture, which would absorb all the dust. Behind him, in 
the kitchen window, stood the two aunts, cooking a bayberry porridge 
for a sick cow. Both wore plain black dresses and had their ice-grey 
hair combed close to their heads. 

Ulrika went quickly into the servants' room, where the latter were 
picking oakum, but she had not taken many steps, before her timid 
and immature little face again assumed an anxious and listening 
expression. 

"But Ulrika!" called Grandfather, "I don't understand this. 
Ulrika! Come here, Ulrika!" 

She hung up again on the doorpost the bunch of keys she had just 
taken and went out. 

"Isn't that some one on horseback who is coming over yonder.^" 
asked Grandfather. "For three months I have been spared any let- 
ters. It always worries me so to get a letter. Just look at him! 
Just look at him! He is diving into his bag with his paw." 

The horseman stopped at the steps for a moment, and left a folded 
and sealed paper. 

The aunts elbowed their way forward on both sides of Grand- 
father, and handed him his spectacles, but his hands were shaking so 
that he could hardly break the seal. They all wanted to read the 
writing at once, and Ulrika even forgot herself so far as to lean over 
Grandfather's arm and spell out the lines for the others. 

Finally she clapped her hands together and gazed off into the 
distance, great tears coming into her eyes. 

"Axel Fredrik! Axel Fredrik!" she cried, running over the 
sanded court to the enclosure. "For God's sake!" 

"What's the matter with you now?" answered Axel Fredrik, 
casting aside the shrunken fern which he had been chewing. He 
had a full, fair face and a pleasant but apathetic voice. 

She did not stop until she had taken his hand. 

"Axel Fredrik, you don't know the news ! It is a command to the 
regiment to hold itself in readiness to be mustered for the country's 
service. It's all on account of that Danish invasion of Holstein." 



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28 THE AM ERIC AS SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 

He went with her back to the big house, while she squeezed his 
wrist harder and harder. 

''Dear, dear child," stammered Grandfather, "that I should ever 
live to face such an ordeal. War is upon us." 

Axel Fredrik stood and pondered. Finally he looked up and 
answered: ''I don't want to go." 

Grandfather walked up and down on the stoop, and around him 
walked the aunts, back and forth. 

"But you are already enlisted, my dear child. The only way out 
of it would be, if w^e could perhaps hire some one else." 

"Oh, that's easily done," answered Axel Fredrik, indifferently. 

In the evening, when the honey pudding had been eaten and all were 
sitting at the table. Grandfather tried to do his usual stint of a hundred 
knots in the fish-net he was tying, but his hand trembled too much. 

"Things have not been going well up in Stockholm," said he. 
"Balls, masquerades, streets strewn with food, clowns and magicians 
of all sorts — this, Kristina, has been our King's daily food. I've 
heard all about it. When his money was all gone, he began giving 
away his royal jewels. Now His Royal Highness will have quite a 
different lesson to learn." 

Axel Fredrik pushed back his plate and leaned forward with his 
elbows on the table, while the aunts and poor little Ulrika, all 
exhausted with weeping, cleared off the table. Grandfather, nodding 
and coughing, continued to speak. 

"In all these years of peace, we have heard of nothing but greed 
and extortion, and the worst rascals have forced themselves into the 
favor of the throne. Now these gluttons will have to walk the 
straight and narrow path, I think. Ha! Ha! You should have seen 
the days when Grandfather was young, and was called to serve under 
the old noble flag. The royal flag, which had been preserved in the 
royal wardrobe, was unfurled, and the drumhorse, which had been 
stabled with the colonel, was decked in his long saddle cloth, with 
crowns in the corners, and then we gathered in our tight gold-laced 
coats, with the trumpets beginning to play." 

Grandfather took the yarn and tried to tie it, but threw it aside 
again and rose. 

"You should have seen that. Axel Fredrik! Even in the moon- 
light, when we had been drawn up on the icy fields, and sang our 
song before we began the march, I recognized the red uniform of the 
men of Nerike, trimmed with white, looking like striped tulips, and 
the yellow uniforms of Kronoberg, and the gray boys from Kalmar, 
and the blue regiments from Dalarne, and the yellow and black men 
of Vastgotland. It was a sight worth seeing, but it was as still as in 
the house of the Lord! Well, this is a time for other men and other 
coats. Now everything must be simple and severe." 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 29 

For a moment there was silence in the room. Then Axel Fredrik 
said, as if to himself: 

"If my uniform and weapons were in good condition, a few jolly 
days in camp mightn't be so bad." 

Grandfather shook his head. 

"Your health is poor. Axel Fredrik, and there will be many forced 
marches right through the kingdom, all the way down to the Danes." 

"Yes, of course, I don't want to walk, but I could take Elias 
with me, and the long brown w^agon." 

"Of course, you can have them at any time, but you haven't any 
camping tent with pins and stakes and all the other things you need." 

"Well, Elias could buy all that on the way, and as for the uniform, 
I have one that is fairly good." 

"Let me see, now, let me see!" Grandfather suddenly became 
animated and hobbled across the floor and opened the wardrobe. 
"Ulrika, come here, Ulrika! and read what His Royal Majesty's" — 
he bowed at the words — "orders that are lying on the table, say. 
Now, there's a cloak with brass buttons, and lined with smooth 
Swedish baize. That tallies all right. And here's the vest, too. 
Now read about the coat!" 

Ulrika trimmed the candle and sat down at the table with her 
hands up to her brow, and spelled the words in a monotonous, high- 
pitched tone: 

"Coat of blue, unstretched cloth, collar red, lining of madder red, 
twelve brass buttons in front, four over the pocket and three under 
the pocket, and a button on each side, and three small ones on each 
sleeve." 

"Eight, twelve — that's all right. Now for the trousers." 

"Trousers of good buckskin or doeskin, with three buttons covered 
with chamois." 

"They're disgracefully worn. Soon there'll be holes in the 
breeches. But Elias could surely manage to get you a new pair on the 
way. But how about the hat and gloves.'^ Where in the world are 
the hat and gloves, anyway?" 

"They are in the chest out in the hall," said Axel Fredrik. 

Ulrika continued reading: 

"Gloves with large cuffs of yellow^ chamois-dressed, strong, tough 
oxhide, with hand of buck or goatskin. Shoes of good Swedish wax 
leather, with straps in one piece. Bottoms to be double-soled. 
Buckles of brass." 

"The shoes and the wax-leather boots are here; they are passable, 
and you can have my spurs. You will make a handsome Swedish 
soldier, my dear boy." 

" Neckerchiefs : one of black Swedish wool, two and a half feet long, 
with attached ends, half an ell long, each, as well as two white ones." 



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30 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

"Elias will have to buy them for you in Orebro." 

"Pistols, two pairs. Pistol-holsters of black leather with collar of 
frizzled chamois." 

"You may take mine. My broadsword, also, is in good condition 
with a calfskin sheath and guards of elkskin. That's the way a 
Swedish warrior should look! Now we will have to think about 
fitting out Elias, and the provisioning of the knapsack, and so on." 

Axel Fredrik stretched himself. 

"I guess I'd better go upstairs and lie down and take a good rest 
while I have the chance." 

Now there was noise and much running about in the big house. 
All day long they would hammer and beat; the fire blazed and 
crackled in the fireplace and at night there were candles burning. 
The only room that remained dark was Axel Fredrik's. 

The last night no one went to bed except Axel Fredrik, and when 
daylight had advanced to the point where they could put out all the 
lights, his aunts waked him and gave him something warm to drink 
while he was still in bed, and some strong drops, too, for they had 
heard him cough during the night. 

When he came down to the room later, the others had already 
gathered there, including the maids and the hands, and the table was 
set for them all. They ate without a word, but when the meal was 
over and they were about to rise, the Bible was carried to Grand- 
father's place, and Ulrika read a passage in a choked voice. When 
she had finished, Grandfather clasped his hands and spoke with eyes 
closed. 

"Even as my fathers have done before me, so do I now, in the 
hour of departure, place my hands upon thee, my daughter's son, and 
bless thee; for my years are many, and who knows when my hour- 
glass may run out. Beneath my lowly roof I call to God on high, 
that he may lead thee to honor, that the heavy trials which await us 
may serve only to raise our little nation and make it greater and 
more glorious." 

At the corner of the table stood Axel Fredrik, fingering and tilting 
his plate, while from without could be heard the rumbling of the long 
brown wagon, as it drew up. 

Then all went out, and Axel Fredrik climbed to a seat alongside 
of Elias. He was dressed in his grandfather's wolfskin coat and, in 
consequence, felt very hot, for the warm spring weather was melting 
the snow on roof and tree. 

"Here is the butter-crock," said the aunts, "and here is the bread 
sack. Elias, listen! Under the driver's seat is a cheese cake and a 
bottle of strong drops. And if the journey should become too strenu- 
ous, dear Axel Fredrik, never forget that the way home is always 
open." 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 31 

But Grandfather pushed himself between them and felt of the 
back of the wagon. 

"Is the chest tied on securely? Well, let's see now! Here is the 
currycomb and the brush, and here you have the food bag and the 
canteen. Just the way it ought to be And bullet-mould and shears 
and casting-ladle are in the chest." 

Ulrika stood behind them without being noticed and said softly: 
"Axel Fredrik, when it is summer, some evening I will go out and 
tie Happythread and Sorrowthread on the wheat and see which will 
grow highest by next morning." 

"Now we're ready" broke in Grandfather, who had not heard her. 
''And God be with you and Elias!" 

On both sides of the road and round about stood the house ser- 
vants and the day workers. 

But just as Elias raised his whip, Axel Fredrik laid his hands upon 
the reins. 

"This trip may end badly!" said he. 

"It would look ill," said Elias, "to unhitch now and to go back." 

Axel Fredrik put his hand back in the arm of his fur coat, and 
between the rows of silent people the wagon rolled away. 

The weeks passed, and the trees blossomed. It was a very lone- 
some trip with Narike's regiment through the wildernesses of Sweden, 
and Axel Fredrik, in his fur coat and w^ith gloves of fluffy goat-skin 
sat with a hot forehead and slept alongside of Elias. Not far from 
Landskrona the long brown wagon had dropped behind the regiment's 
rearguard and the horse stood in the broiling hot sun and grazed off 
the sides of the ditches. Master and servant slept shoulder to 
shoulder. 

The horse struck after a gadfly, and the water purled and gurgled 
in the ditch. A couple of vagabonds yelled after the sleepers, but 
they remained in the same carefree lethargy. 

Just then they heard a gallop behind them, and a plainly dressed 
young man with a large linen-colored periwig, stopped his bay horse 
beside their wagon. 

Elias poked Axel Fredrik in the side and took the reins himself, 
but Axel Fredrik felt disinclined to open his eyes and merely said, 
"Yes, you drive, Elias! I need to get a good rest, so as to be ready 
for the march." 

Elias poked him in the side once more. 

"Wake up, wake up," he whispered. 

Drowsily Axel Fredrik opened his eyes, but in the same instant he 
blushed deeply and, jumping up, he stood at attention in the middle 
of the wagon. 

From pictures he had immediately recognized the eighteen-year- 
old King himself. And yet, what a change! Was this rapidly 



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32 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

matured and majestically self-controlled youth the same who only a 
month ago was decapitating calves and breaking window panes ? He 
was not over medium height, his face was small, but his forehead was 
high and noble, and the large, deep, blue eyes seemed to give out a 
sunny light that was irresistible. 

"The gentleman might throw aside his fur cloak so that one may 
see his uniform," he said, formally. "The grass has been green for 
a long time." 

Axel Fredrik puffed and labored to get off that cursed fur of his 
grandfather's. The King looked at the coat and the buttons, fingered 
them, pulled them and counted them. 

"It'll do," said he, with precocious gravity. "And now we must 
all become new men." 

Axel Fredrik stood still, dazed but erect, and he looked fixedly at 
the wagon wheel. Then the King added slowly : 

"In a few days it will probably be our fortune to meet the enemy. 
I have been told that nothing on the field of battle is harder to bear 
than thirst. If the gentleman should perhaps meet me on the field 
of battle would he kindly offer me his canteen?" 

The King spurred his horse on and Axel Fredrik sat down. He 
had never loved nor hated, never been transfigured nor enraptured, 
and he pondered on the King's words. 

The fur cloak remained lying between him and Elias, and when 
the long wagon finally rolled into Landskrona during the twilight, the 
regiment had pitched its tents. 

Axel Fredrik looked around for the abundantly provided drinking 
table of which he had dreamed. Instead he found a few taciturn 
comrades who pressed each other by the hand and stood about in 
groups, looking out over the sound, where the waves were storming 
under the cloudy summer sky and where flags and pennants waved 
over the Swedish fleet, with its forest of masts. 

The next morning Elias put the horse and the long wagon into a 
stable. The Crown had already taken possession of all vessels, and 
not until the day after the fleet sailed could he follow to Sjaelland on 
board a fishing boat. He remained standing there upon the sandy 
shore when the monster anchors, dripping with moisture, were 
raised on rattling chains. From one mast after another the swelling 
sail was unfurled and the sunshine glistened upon the lanterns and 
glass windows of the poops. The waves danced and reflected in 
flaming rings the lofty figure-heads, which, with their laurel branches 
and tridents, pointed away over the sea toward unpathed lands of 
miracle, toward adventure and prowess. The cloud masses had sunk 
and drifted far out to sea on the waves, and the air was blue as in a 
fairy tale. 

Then the King forgot himself, the child in him came uppermost. 



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THE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 33 

and he began to clap his hands. He stood at the lookout house, right 
before the lanterns, and the gray-haired warriors, who had fought 
with his father, smiled a little and began to clap their hands, also. 
Even His Excellency Piper sprang up the steps like a sailor boy. On 
the ship there were no longer any old or disabled men; it seemed an 
army of youths. 

Then, as if on a secret signal, the band began to play, the drums 
beat, and swords flew from their sheaths, while, drowning Admiral 
Anckarstierna's words in the trumpet, the hymn rang out from nine- 
teen battleships and one hundred smaller yessels. 

Elias recognized Axel Fredrik, who was sitting upon Grandfather's 
fur coat, squeezed in between gabions and earth-bags and spiked 
beams. But when Elias saw that he also was getting up and drawing 
his sword with the rest, and saw the fleet gradually disappearing over 
the water, he drew his hand across his eyes and shook his head. He 
went back to the barn, murmuring: 

"How shall he, with his feeble health, take care of himself until I 
reach him.^^" 

A few days afterwards Elias was driving his long wagon alone 
over the roads of Smaland. The farmer's wives, who recognized him 
as the man who had driven past with the sleeping officer, looked out 
from the cottage doors and asked if it was true that the Swedes had 
landed on Sjaelland, and that the King had thanked God upon his 
knees for the victory, but had stammered in his embarrassment. 
Elias nodded affirmatively but said nothing. 

Day after day he drove slowly toward the north and, holding the 
reins, he walked the whole way beside the wagon, which was covered 
with a piece of an old sail. When he finally came, one evening, into 
the enclosure before the big house, every one knew by the noise that 
it was the long, brown wagon, and the horse whinnied. Frightened, 
they all ran to the window; Grandfather himself came out upon the 
stoop and Ulrika stood in the middle of the garden. 

Elias walked as slowly as before, with the reins in his hand, and 
when he reached the stoop, the horse stopped of his own accord. 

Then Elias very carefully drew the covering from the wagon and 
there stood a long, narrow, wooden box, with a yellow wreath of 
beech leaves on the cover. 

"I have brought him home with me," said Elias. The ball struck 
him in the chest as he was springing forward to give his Majesty the 
King a drink from his bottle." 



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Editorial 

**Rondetaflet'' '^^^ drab expanse of modern political history has 
** been broken by an event so vivid and colorful that 

we must go back centuries to find a parallel. Perhaps no nation 
today but Sweden, where personality and spontaneity are not yet 
wiped out, could have produced such a demonstration as the Bondetdg 
or Yeoman's March to the King on February 6. Often enough, 
starving city mobs have tried to approach their ruler with appeal or 
menace, or the citizens of a country, grown strong, have gone to wrest 
their rights from an unwilling government. But the freeholders of 
Sweden came thirty thousand strong from all parts of the country, 
under the provincial banners that led their fathers in glorious wars, 
not to demand anything, but to offer the King their wealth in the 
service of the fatherland. It must be remembered that the Swedish 
bonde or odabnan is no "peasant," in the South European sense, but 
a freeholder accustomed from ancient times to meeting his king face 
to face, accustomed to make generous response to the personal 
appeal of the sovereign. "From time immemorial the yeomen of 
Sweden have tilled the soil over which they themselves and no foreign 
intruder held sway," said the call issued by a group of odcdmdn to 
their fellows. "We who now till the free soil of Sweden wish to 
preserve it for our descendants. We wish to leave them undisturbed 
the right to reap new harvests for their own livelihood and for the 
prosperity of the fatherland from this soil, which must always remain 
Swedish. The fatherland is the one thing that must be guarded 
above all else. To lose its liberty or independence is to lose life 
itself." 

The King's manly and direct reply to the yeomen is printed in 
another part of this issue. Espousing as it did the programme of 
military experts for immediate action, the speech, which was made 
without consultation with the Prime Minister, Mr. Staaff , caused the 
resignation of the liberal ministry, who were committed to a more 
gradual strengthening of the defenses of the country. Whatever may 
be the political outcome, there can be no doubt that King Gustaf has 
the sympathy of the people of Sweden. Although a counter- 
demonstration, organized by the Socialists to protest against the bur- 
dens of taxation demanded by the military program numbered 30,000, 
its influence was swept away in the wave of enthusiasm that followed 
in the wake of the Bondetag. Seventy thousand names were signed 
to the telegrams assuring the King that other yeomen all over the 
country were as ready to sacrifice for the fatherland as those who 
brought him the message in person. One group of citizens after 
another hastened to add their promise of loyal support. Addresses 
were sent by scientists, artists, authors and business men. From the 



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THE AMERICAN 'SCAN DIN AVI AN REVIEW 35 

universities of Lund, Uppsala and Goteborg 3,300 students came to 
assure the King that the youth of the country was with him — no 
mere lyrical outburst, since one of the points in the new army pro- 
gram is the lengthening of military service for students. The white- 
capped singing crowds "like the onward rush of white-crested spring 
floods,*' were as impressive in their fresh young enthusiasm as the grave, 
earnest ranks of the Bondetdg. 

While King Gustaf has declared that he has no desire to revive a 
"personal monarchy," the late events have shown how deep a hold 
monarchical institutions have over the Swedish nation. By his quick 
and true comprehension of his people the King has become, in fact, 
the personal leader in that new movement which has fused radical 
and conservative, peace worker and militarist in devotion to the 
fatherland. Even where some technical criticism of the King's action 
in addressing the Bondetag without consulting his ministers is 
admitted, there is a tendency to brush it aside as immaterial. The 
idea that the King alone in all Sweden should be denied the right of 
free speech seems to the Swedes a ridiculous parliamentary tyranny 
unworthy of a free people. 

The New '^^^^ *^^^ ^^ forming a new cabinet has been entrusted 
M inisf rv ^^^ Hjalmar Hammarskjold, Governor of Uppsala, a noted 
^ jurist who has twice before been a member of the govern- 
ment. He has represented Sweden in several international arbitra- 
tion cases, in the Karlstad conference with Norway in 1905, and at 
the last World Peace Congress at The Hague. The Prime Minister 
has himself taken the portfolio of War, while the Foreign Minister is 
K. A. Wallenberg; the Minister of Justice, B. Hasselrot; the Civil 
Minister, O. von Sydow; the Marine Minister, Daniel Brostrom; the 
Minister of Finance, A. Vennersten; the Church Minister, K. G. 
West man; the Minister of Agriculture, J. G. Beck-Fries. The new 
ministry, w^hich commands the respect of all factions, has formed a 
program resting entirely on the strengthening of the military defenses, 
and the dissolution of the Riksdag makes it possible to put this pro- 
gram before the people in a special election, while other matters can 
be left to the regular fall elections. Special stress is laid on the fact 
that the increase in the army and navy is for defense only. It is 
believed in Sweden that the coming special election will be one of 
the most hotly contested campaigns ever held there, and in the con- 
fusion of old party lines and the moving of political landmarks the 
outcome is by no means certain. Whatever may be the results, 
however, the new issue has in fact already conquered in the wills of 
the Swedish people, conquered in opened hearts and quickened spirits 
and in a time of visitation that is already glorious history. 



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36 THE AMERICAN-SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 

The '^^^ Baltic lies across the map like a huge fish, with its tail 

Baltic frozen away far in the north, wedged in between Sweden* 
and Finland, stretching southwest near a thousand miles 
to where its three mouths seem to engulf the Isles of Denmark. The 
Baltic may be said to have three shores. East and West, Russia and 
Sweden gaze anxiously, facing each other; on the south the German 
Empire encroaches upon shrunken Denmark. Russia and Prussia 
are, comparatively, newcomers to the coast of the Baltic, for the gray 
old sea has seen many vicissitudes of fortune since the days when 
the Aesir were worshipped at Uppsala — an eastward waterway of 
Swedish Vikings, a shore for Danish conquests, a harbor for the 
Hansa trade, a Swjedish inland sea, an outlet for a time for Poland, 
and now for Russia, a naval base for Germany. 

Indeed, the Russian Empire owes its origin to the band of Swedish 
Vikings, the Rus^ the rowers from over the sea, who came under Rurik 
and his brethren in the ninth century to found a principality at 
Novgorod and Kieff. In the centuries following, the kings of Den- 
mark were extending their dominion eastward along the southern 
Baltic, subduing the Slavic Wends, and assuming the title borne to 
this day by Danish rulers, "King of the Danes and Wends." In 
1219 Valdemar the Victorious made Esthonia — far east on the Gulf 
of Finland almost to the site of St. Petersburg — ^a Danish province; 
that time the Dannebrog, the Danish standard, according to tradi- 
tion, fluttered down from heaven upon the Danish army, and its 
emblem was set in the arms of Rival, a city founded by the Danes. 
During the fourteenth century Denmark was disputing the mastery 
of the Baltic with the Hanseatic League of German traders, who had 
established themselves even at Visby in the midst of the sea. All 
this time bands of German colonists were gradually creeping north, 
across the marshes to the Baltic's southern shores, and crowding out 
the Slavic natives and the Danish garrisons. Sweden, meanwhile, in 
the north, had carried the Christian cross and the Swedish flag across 
into Finland, which became virtually a Swedish province. The sev- 
enteenth century witnessed Sweden's ascendancy under the arms of 
Gustavus Adolphus and other kings of the House of Vasa, who 
annexed for a time the Polish and German shores and made the 
Baltic a Swedish inland lake. In 1658 the cession by Denmark of 
Skane brought Sweden down to Malmo and the southern tip of the 
Scandinavian peninsula. But Sweden's domain, like that of Den- 
mark, soon began to shrink, after Peter the Great planned his sys- 
tematic advance for a northern outlet. Peter took the Swedish fort- 
ress on the Neva and laid in 1703 the foundation of St. Petersburg. 
Under Charles XII the Swedes assumed again the aggressive and 
carried the war far into Peter's own country, in a campaign which, 
although it resulted in apparent disaster and great economic suffering 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 37 

for Sweden, served, after all, perhaps, to moderate Russia's headlong 
advance. Peter ultimately acquired the Swedish provinces south of 
the Gulf of Finland, and later in the century the partition of Poland 
brought the boundaries of Russia south to Prussia, near the Memel 
River. In 1809 Sweden was obliged to relinquish Finland also to 
Russia. Although for a century Finland has been regarded as a 
buffer between Sweden and Russia, of late its Russification has pro- 
ceeded more rapidly, and military railroads make the length of its 
western shores easily accessible from St. Petersburg. Hence "The 
Warning Word" of Sven Hedin, the popular subscription for battle- 
ships, the Bondetdg and the recent political crisis in Sweden. 

Although Sweden and Denmark are separated only by the narrow 
Sound that flows between Malmo and Copenhagen, the contemporary 
foreign policies of the two governments are radically different. Both 
nations preserve an armed neutrality, ready for any general European 
conflict. Sweden technically is armed against Russia, and is appar- 
ently making every effort to maintain friendly relations — in com- 
merce, in politics and in education — with the German Empire, with 
which the kingdom is being closely knit by rail and sea. To Den- 
mark, on the other hand, Russia seems relatively remote; Denmark 
is ever vigilant against Germany and fosters a friendship for England. 
Behind Sweden and Denmark, Norway looks also to England for sup- 
port and cultivates a polite suspicion at the same time, both of 
Russia and Germany. 

We cannot expect the Baltic to preserve its poHtical equilibrium in 
the future any more than it has in the past, but this summer war and 
rumors of war will be forgotten, when the four nations of the Baltic 
unite at Malmo in the peaceful rivalry of industries and arts. In 
these friendly contests, also, the fittest will survive. The race is to 
the swift and the battle to the strong. 

Skaimpti ^^ ^^^^ issue of the Review we reproduce two pages of 
illustrations of perennial interest from the open-air 
museum of Skansen on the heights that overlook the city of Stock- 
holm, an exhibition which will rival Malmo as a Mecca for Americans 
who visit Sweden this summer. Probably no other nation can show 
thus grouped together in the open air the daily life of its country dis- 
tricts to the most remote and picturesque provinces. Here are not 
only the houses, but their furnishings, not only the national costumes 
but the people who w ear them ; while the dance pavilion in the park 
gives opportunity for the perpetuation of those beautiful old rhythmic 
movements which are both national art and religious ritual. Skan- 
.sen is a monument to the enthusiasm and patriotism of one man. 
Dr. Arthur Hazelius, founder of the Northern Museum. 



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38 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Sr^andinavi&n '^^^ Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian 
T anfliiafle^ in ^^udy has performed a significant public service in 
y. *l * preparing the "Report on the Scandinavian Lan- 

^1^ I guages in the Secondary Schools," printed in the 

c^cnoois Publications of the Society for November, 1913. A 

committee, of which Prof. A. A. Stomberg, of the University of 
Minnesota was chairman, sent out to the various schools a list of 
twenty -five questions, which resulted in collecting a body of definite 
information on this very confused subject. The report shows that 
the study of Swedish or Norwegian, heretofore confined to the univer- 
sities and special Scandinavian colleges, has since 1910 found a place 
in the curriculum of free public schools — high schools and upper 
grammar school grades — in five states, Minnesota, Illinois, Iowa, 
Wisconsin and North Dakota. Of these, Minnesota far outnumbers 
the other states in the number of schools and pupils. Usually 
Scandinavian is an elective study, placed on the same basis as Ger- 
man, French or other foreign languages. '*In one place, Cokato, 
Minnesota, Swedish is compulsory for all pupils in the eighth grade.'' 

"It will thus be seen," reads the report, '*that there are six schools that have 
courses in both Swedish and Norwegian, with an enrollment of ^243 for Norwegian 
and 320 for Swedish. Norwegian alone is found in fourteen schools, with an 
enrollment of 311 and Swedish alone in eight schools, with an enrollment of 316. 
This makes a total for Norwegian of 554 and for Swedish of 636, or a total for the 
two languages of 28 schools and 1,190 students. 

"In 1910, when Scandinavian classes were begun for the first time in five high 
schools, the total enrollment was 203. ... It may be of interest to note 
that 45 students taking Scandinavian (8 per cent.) are non-Scandinavian, i.e.y 
neither father nor mother is Scandinavian." 

The committee reports the need of more text hooks with vocabu- 
laries and English notes. At present two Swedish grammars and five 
reading books are in use, three Norwegian grammars and eight reading 
books. Apparently the favorite edited texts are Lagerlof : En Herr- 
gardssdgen, edited by Professor A. L. Elmquist, of Northwestern 
University and Bjornson: Synn'Ove Solbakken, edited by Professor 
G. T. Flom of the University of Illinois. 

With such an encouraging situation, the committee will, no doubt, 
be able to report still greater progress at the annual meeting of the 
Society in Minneapolis, May 1 and 2. More and more children of 
Scandinavian origin realize the advantage of choosing a language 
which preserves their inherited literary traditions. A visit to the 
schools of Europe, especially to those of Scandinavia, soon discloses 
the absurdity of our inherent Yankee fear of confusing the youthful 
mind with a multiplicity of tongues. The child masters languages 
easily, and each acquisition means a new avenue of culture, a broad- 
ening of outlook and interest. 



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A HOLBERG REVIVAL 

"A Forgotten Dramatist" is the heading with which the Harvard University 
Press announces "The Comedies of Holberg," by Oscar James Campbell, Jr., 
assistant professor in English in the University of Wisconsin. The book will be 
reviewed in a later issue of the Review, together with the volume of plays by Hol- 
berg to be published by the American-Scandinavian Foundation. For the present 
we quote from the Harvard Literary Notes: 

"The announcement of a new star in the literary firmament of two centuries 
ago might well be received with suspicion. But Ludvig Holberg, the greatest of 
Danish dramatists, will be such to most American readers. A mere sketch of his 
life shows a man of extraordinary versatility and interest; professor, in turn, of 
law, metaphysics, history and eloquence at the University of Copenhagen, and 
author, moreover, of works in these subjects which were authorities in that day; 
a famous traveler, familiar with life in England and the Continent; a shrewd man 
of business, who made himself, unaided, both millionaire and baron; a prolific 
writer and, chief of all, the first to establish the drama in Denmark and write for 
the stage. "Polite learning in Denmark," says Goldsmith, enthusiastically, 
"rose and fell with the celebrated Baron Holberg." He was, as it happened. 
Goldsmith's own prototype, in his meagre student days, when he traveled through 
France and Italy afoot, and spent two and a half years at the University of 
Oxford. The Italian commedia dell' arte and the classic essays of Addison alike 
affected his style, but none so much as his master, Moliere. As a result, none of 
the great eighteenth century dramatists show so cosmopolitan a blend of tenden- 
cies and influences. The life and study of Holberg, which has just appeared from 
the Harvard University Press, gives a truly fascinating picture. The author. 
Professor Campbell of the University of Wisconsin, has traced with much skill 
and interest the many relationships that made Holberg the most cosmopolitan 
figure in the literature of his time. It is a volume well worthy of following its 
predecessors in the Harvard Studies in Comparative Literature." 

The W^anderer's Necklace. By H. Rider Haggard. Longmans, Green & 
Company, New York, 1914. 

A tale of adventure and romance is the story of Olaf the Norseman, a hero 
of the ninth century. The life of the hardy sea rovers is vividly described, and 
a fierce battle on the sea heightens the excitement. The reader then follows 
Olaf southward to Greece, where he takes service with the Empress Irene, and 
where various dangers and bloody vicissitudes lead to the happy termination 
presaged by the finding of the necklace. 

It is a story of contrasts: The faithfulness of Olaf to his foster-brother 
Steinar, his loyalty to the Empress, the mutual love between him and Heliodore, 
and the fierce steadfastness of Jodd are set in opposition to the scheming cruelty 
of the royal household, while the rugged, slashing bravery of the Norsemen 
throws into relief the fickleness and treachery of the effete Greeks. The mystery 
of the story is deepened by the psychic element: Olaf the Norseman is reincar- 
nated in the writer, and centuries before his appearance as the hero of the present 
tale he was Olaf the Wanderer. B. M. P. 



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Brief Notes 



The reproduction of Rosenborg Castle and the dedicatory sonnet by Mr. Egan in the 
Yule number of the Review preceded by a few weeks the announcement that the new 
title. Count of Rosenborg, had been created by King Christian for his nephew. Prince 
Aage, who renounced his claim to the throne in marrying an Italian lady, the Countess 
Calvi. The American minister in Copenhagen has had the picture and sonnet in the 
Review effectively framed for presentation to the first Count of Rosenborg. 



Mr. John A. Gade has undertaken to maintain the department of modern Norwegian 
literature in the library of Harvard University. The library is very rich in Scandinavian 
literature, both ancient and modern. 



The book compiled by Mr. Alfred Gabrielson for the State of North Dakota in honor 
of the Norwegian Centennial, shows that no less than one-fourth of the taxable property 
of the State is held by Norwegians. 



A Scandinavian Art Society has been formed in Minneapolis under the auspices of 
the Odin Club. The American-Scandinavian Foundation was represented at the organi- 
zation by the Honorable Lauritz S. Swenson, who has been chosen president of the 
Society. Its first vice-president is Governor Eberhart. 



The story of Ole Buirs ill-fated Norwegian colony, Oleana, in Pennsylvania, is the 
foundation for a romance called "Olea," by Samuel Haven Glassmire, published by the 
Knickerbocker Press. The author modestly makes no claim to historic dignity, but has 
written his little tale in a sympathetic spirit as a tribute to the visionary and idealist, 
Ole Bull. 



The need for a scholarly magazine of Scandinavian literature has been met by the 
new quarterly, Edda. While published in Norway and edited by Professor Gran, it is 
of international scope and contains reviews of the literature of Sweden, Denmark, 
England and Germany, written by scholars of the several countries in their own languages. 



The Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study has doubled its membership 
in the past year, and with the financial aid of the American-Scandinavian Foundation has 
increased the size of its publication. New members should send their application with 
one dollar for annual dues to the secretary'. Professor A. Louis Elmquist, Northwestern 
University, Evanston, 111., before the annual meeting to be held in Minneapolis, May 1 
and 2. 

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JlS^i'SS!: AUGUST STRINDBERG'S<>^,SS 




The Wanderer's 
Necklace 

By SIR RIDER HAGGARD 

Author of "She," "Allan Quatermain." "King 
Solomon's Mines." etc. 


ON THE SEABOARD ^JSSTtJSSSli'i^JSS'n 

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The American-Scandmavian Review 

Volume II JULY, 1914 Number 4 

Published Bi-Monthly by The Ambbicam-Scandinatiam Foundation, 25 West 45th Street, New York 

Yearly Subscription, $1.50. Single Copies, 25 cents 

Entered as second-class matter, January 4. 1913. at the post-office at New York. N. Y.. under the act of March 3. 1870 

Copyright, 1914. The American-Scandinavian Foundation 

Henbt Goddaro Lbagh, Managing Editor Hanna Astrup Labskn, LiUrary EdUor 

Advisory Editors 
New York, Hamilton Holt Copenhagen, Harald Nibiben 

Stockholm, Carl Laurin Christiania, Christian Collin 

CONTENTS 

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE JULY REVIEW 5 

TISVILDE AND HELENE'S SPRING. By Hans Olrik. With Five 
Illustrations 6 

HARALD HOFFDING: A PERSONAL TRIBUTE. By Edwin Bjork- 
MAN. Illustration 12 

TO AUGUST STRINDBERG, 1891. By Holger Drachmann. Illus- 
tration. Translated from the Danish by Norreys Jephson O'Conor . 15 

MAIHAUGEN OPEN-AIR MUSEUM. With Five Illustrations ... 16 

PERNILLE. By Herman Bang. Translated from the Danish by Julia 
E. Gyllich 19 

ELVERHOJ. Illustration 23 

THE DEATH OF QUEEN DAGMAR. With Three Illustrations. Trans- 
lated from the Danish by E. M. Smith-Dampier 24 

DANISH CASTLES— IV. ARRESKOV. Illustration 28 

JACOB A. RIIS. Illustration 30 

AGNES MATHILDE WERGELAND. By Maren Michelet. Illustra- 
tion 32 

EDITORIAL: Fellows and Scholars, Future Endowments, Associates, Den- 
mark's American Society, Scandinavian Study, A Harvard Fellow, A 
Unique Danish Work, Veterans of Dybbol, A Swedish-Norwegian Defens- 
ive Alliance ?, The Norway Centennial 33 

BOOKS: Three Plays, Festskrift, The Great Mother, Bonnier's College 
Series, Karen Borneman, Peer Gynt, The Medieval Ballad ... .39 

BRIEF NOTES 42 

THE MAGAZINES 44 




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FOR THE CONSIDERATION of any who may be 
interested in California timber, an owner of 
many acres of timber land oflFers the following: 

AN ADVANCE of from $1.00 to $15.00 per 
thousand feet has taken place in Minnesota 
during the past twenty years. 

THE REPORT of the Government Forestry 
Department three years ago stated that the 
forests of the country would be practically 
denuded in 25 years. 

THERE IS STILL a class of timber in California 
used extensively for building and other pur- 
poses which cannot be killed by fire and which 
does not decay if blown down. 



Readers of the REVIEW who are interested 
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Dear Reader: 

In this issue you will find, among 
other advertisements, one page de- 
voted to books published in this city. 
They have been especially selected as 
being those most likely to interest our 
readers. 

Contrary to the custom of the 
Review, which is to accept advertise- 
ments on a cash basis, we are running 
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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE JULY REVIEW 

Professor Hans Olrik of Copenhagen is the eminent historian in a family 
whose members have won distinction in various pursuits of science and art. 
His fine and subtle impression of the legend of St. Helene was written on the 
invitation of the editor, who visited Tisvilde in 1913. 

Probably no living American has done more to arouse public interest in con- 
temporary Northern literature, as essayist, translator, and editor, than Edwin 
Bjorkman, who was recently appointed traveling scholar of the American- 
Scandinavian Foundation. Mr. Bjorkman was born in Stockholm in 1866. 

Drachmann's confident ode to Strindberg was composed by the Danish poet 
at a time when Strindberg was reviled and misunderstood in Sweden. It has 
proved a startling prophecy of the fame that came to Strindberg twenty years 
later. The verses are translated by the young Harvard poet, Norreys Jephson 
O'CoNOR, author of "Celtic Memories." 

A story by Herman Bang appeared in the March Review. The translator of 
"Pernille," Miss Julia E. Gyllich, of Copenhagen, perfected her knowledge of 
English while residing in the Danish West Indies. 

The English poetess. Miss E. M. Smith-Dampier, in her volumes ''Ballads 
from the Danish" and "The Norse King's Bridal" has shown the same rare 
power of interpreting folk poetry which she manifests in her present translation 
of "Queen Dagmar's Death." 

Miss Maren Michelet is instructor in Norwegian in the South High School 
of Minneapolis. 

Asaph Robert Shelander appeared among the contributors to the March 
number. Dr. Lee M. Hollander, of Wisconsin University, is also a frequent 
contributor. 

The Cover is designed from a screen by Anders Zom now in Buda-Pest. 
The Frontispiece is after Jiirgen Sonne, one of Denmark's favorite genre paint- 
ers. The photographs from Tisvilde are by Mr. Knud Hendriksen. An added 
interest is attached to the relief reproduced as a Centerpiece, in that the artist 
is a cousin of the decorator, Frode Rambusch, of New York. 



Recommendation for Associate 

of the 

AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN FOUNDATION 

Internfttional Organisation to Promote Intellectual Relations Be- 
tween Americans and the Peoples of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 
THE FEE INCLUDES SUBSCRIPTION TO THE 
AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Patron Associate, $25 annually; Life, $100 once for all; Sustaining, $5 annually; Regular, $1 

(in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, four crowns) 

Please detach and send with name to the Secretary. 



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American - Scandinavian 

Review 

Volume II JULY • 1914 Number 4 

Tisvilde and Helene's Spring 

By Hans Olkik 

Written for the Review in Danish and Translated from the Original Manuscript 

NORTH SJAELLAND— the wide peninsula between the Oresund 
and Roskilde Fjord — is known the world over for its smiling 
loveUness. There are undulating hills, luxuriant beechwoods, 
idyllic lakes embedded in the forest, and picturesque moors. The 
pointed gable of the village church peeps out from clusters of trees, 
and royal palaces are mirrored in the quiet waters. 

In the northwest, however, toward the wide expanse of the Katte- 
gat, the country changes. This is the region of Tisvilde. Here the 
western wind is a stern master. The trees strain and stretch their 
branches to the east, trying to escape the wild embrace of the storm, 
and often the fresh leaves are blighted by the ravages of the sand. 
The air is keen as in West Jylland. Nature is sterner and harsher 
than in other parts of Sjaelland, but not less beautiful. 

Here it was that the wind, centuries ago, whipped the beach sand 
in over the fertile meadows, when men had thoughtlessly cut away 
the forest, the living guardian of their civilization. The sand hills 
grew and grew, and the western wind carried them farther and farther 
to the east. Very soon the drifting sand drove every living being 
from the proud castle of Asserbo, the battlements crumbled, and the 
ramparts became a heap of ruins. Then it wiped out a whole village 
with sixteen dwelling houses, leaving no stone upon stone, and after 
that it began to choke the next village, Tibirke. The dunes came up 
to the church roof, and the tree-tops lifted ragged branches to heaven 
in pleading, while the trunks, closely packed with sand, could not 
breathe, and the clay-built cottages collapsed under the heavy 
pressure. It looked as though the whole beautiful district would 
become a plain of desolation. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCAXDINAVIAS REVIEW 



The unhappy peasants were quite powerless against the mighty 
play of natural forces, but at last their desperate appeals reached the 
Government in Copenhagen, and in the year 1723 the matter was 
taken up by an energetic governor. An efficient German, who knew 
the dunes along the North Sea, offered wise counsel, which at last 
prevailed. By covering the wide sand dune with seaweed and sod, 
in which he planted beach-grass, he put a stop to the ravages. It 
was a great deed, and therefore a monument was raised to him at 
the easternmost point of the dunes, to tell the wayfarer of coming 
generations how man's wisdom and man's will conquered in the long, 
hard battle. 

Later on, pines and firs were planted over the death-like grayish 
white expanse of the plain. Slowly and with difficulty they grew, 
for the sand was barren, and the wind was hard. The trees did not 
venture to lift their branches, but spread them cautiously along the 
ground, as though they had been a growth of the polar regions at 
the uttermost edge of life. Yet one tree sheltered another, and after 
a while tall, slender trunks were lifted. Where the mountain fir and 
white pine had gone before, the birch followed, and sometimes even 
the Danish beech woods would rise from the sand. But farthest west, 
where there is no shelter, the trunks even now writhe along the ground 
like gigantic snakes, and the branches are closely interwoven in their 
endeavor to stand together against the storm. It is an almost 
imj>enetrable wilderness, where the wanderer must often creep, and 
can but seldom walk erect; it is the Troll Forest, a bit of nature so 
unique that the Government has taken steps to guard it forever. 

From these weird woods Tisvilde has gained a well-deserved fame; 
and yet Tisvilde was one of the most famous spots in Denmark many 
centuries earher. 

If you will walk along the high dune east of Tisvilde Forest, 
looking out over the frothing waves of the Kattegat, you will come to 

a spot where the sand recedes a 

little, and where the grass is green 

£ ■ . K ' and thick. There, on the edge of 

^ ^i-AA l]j^ dune is a little spring, not a 

gushing or bubbling fountain, but 
simply a basin made of flat stones 
filled with water, which is not very 
clean. This deep well in such an 
unusual place is the origin of the 
fame that centers around the spot 
and, for that matter also, of the 
name, Tisvilde, or "Ti's vseld," 
meaning Tyr's well, while Tibirke 
Helens*8 Grave means Tyr's birch-grove. In other 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 9 

words, we are standing before a sacred tradition so old that it is 
connected with the god Ti or Tyr. 

It is a sorry fate that has been allotted the god Tyr. In the 
*'Edda," which mirrors the spiritual life of late paganism, he plays 
but a subordinate part; he must even forfeit his right arm in the 
mouth of the Fenris Wolf as a penalty for the treachery of the Aesir 
to the brute. But there was a time when he occupied the first place. 
The Ti of the Scandinavians, the Tin or Ziu of the Germans, is lin- 
guistically the same as the Diuas of the ancient Hindus, the Zeus of 
the Hellenes, and the Ju-piter (pater, father) of the Romans, the 
powerful and radiant lord of heaven, the king of the gods. Among 
the Goths he was also the highest deity, and the Schwabians are called 
simply "Tin- worshippers." Furthermore, Prokopios, in the sixth 
century, testifies that he was the chief god of the Scandinavians, and 
that human beings were sacrificed to him. It follows, therefore, that 
the sacred well in the sand dunes has been a noted place of worship, 
and that slaves and captives of war have been sacrificed to the god 
in Ti's birch-grove. 

Four hundred years after the narrative of Prokopios, Christianity 
became dominant in Denmark, and the bloody horrors of the Tibirke 
sacred grove ceased forever, but faith in the holy well remained, and 
no doubt many a convert to Christianity has gone in secret to 
sacrifice a penny or a precious trinket to the spirit of the water. 

In this way the sacred tradition of paganism survived, until a 
strange thing happened, and it was transformed into a Christian 
tradition: Ti's well became Helene's spring, and an adjacent grave 
mound of the later stone age or the earlier bronze age became Helene's 
grave. 

The Helene whose name is perpetuated here is an historical 
person, though, strange to say, not of Danish, but of Swedish origin. 
She lived in West Gotland in the first half of the twelfth century, 
and is said to have built the church 
at Skofde in the years of her 
widowhood ; as a saint she is there- 
fore known as Helene of Skofde. 
In some mysterious way this Swed- 
ish saint has been transplanted to 
Tisvilde. Popular tradition has 
seized on various well-known legen- 
dary motifs, notably the one about 
the stone which carries a perse- 
cuted woman over the water. This 
reappears in different forms. The 
commonly accepted form of the 
legend is as follows: The pious Tibibke Church 




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10 THE AMERICAX'SCAXDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Helene is drowned in the sea by 
wicked people. A large stone rises 
to the surface and, like a boat, 
carries her dead body to Tisvilde. 
The inhabitants find it, and are 
about to bury it in Tisvilde Church; 
the dune is cleft in two to open a 
way for them, and the fissure is 
still pointed out to support the 
tradition. Where the bier is set 
down, the spring gushes forth. The 
Heine's Wmx in 191S bearers pass on over the plains, 

but when they speak unseemly 
words, the body sinks deep down into the ground. This is "Helene's 
grave." On the beach a stone is visible when the water is low; 
it is that on which "Helle-Lene" (the Holy Lene) sailed over the 
Kattegat, and it still shows the imprint of her hands, her feet and 
her hair. 

The spring that had once been the sanctuary of the bloody god 
of war became a place of pilgrimage. Numerous gifts of pious visitors 
made it possible to extend the little church of Tibirke, with a dispro- 
portionately large choir, and to give it a precious carved altar, now 
in the National Museum of Coj>enhagen. Even in early medieval 
times, people flocked to the spring on Saint Hans Eve, June 23, or 
on Saint Helene's Day, July 31. The gloomy superstition and the 
abandoned merrymaking that mingle in the observance of Midsum- 
mer Eve both became associated with the memory of "Helle-Lene." 
It was customary that he who would drink of the spring should first 
throw a few drops of water over his head, so that it fell on the ground 
behind him, and the sick were supposed to spend the night at 
Helene's grave. At the spring and at the grave crosses and crutches 
were raised as evidences of the gratitude of those who had been healed 
and the grave was also marked by a larger crucifix and a chapel. 

The Reformation made its entry into Denmark; worship of saints 
was forbidden, and both crucifix and chapel were destroyed. The 
pilgrimages to Helene's spring and Helene's grave were continued, 
however, and it became customary to hold annual markets in con- 
nection with them. Clerical coirferences issued Ti^rnings against 
these observances as Papistical superstitions, but the pastors of the 
neighboring parishes took a different view of the matter. One of 
them sent out, in 1650, with the approval of his colleagues, a brief 
for the spring, attributing all glory to God for the cures effected, 
but at the same time enumerating the forms of illness which the 
waters had power to heal. 

At that time, Helene's spring was actually fashionable, and the 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 11 

medical faculty gave out a favorable statement regarding its healing 
power. King Christian the Fourth liked to visit the famous spot, 
and for his own convenience had an inn built in the village of Tisvilde, 
furnished with a stove, a kettle to heat the water, and three large 
bathtubs. When the king was not there, people of quality were 
allowed to use it. 

In Holberg's time, pilgrimages to Helene's spring were yet fre- 
quent, as we may gather from his comedy, ^' Kilderejseriy'' and even 
so late as the middle of the nineteenth century advertisements in the 
Copenhagen papers announced that parties were organized to visit 
the spring at Tisvilde. It was chiefly the peasants of the neighbor- 
hood, however, who sought healing of Saint Helene. 

Soren Kirkegaard visited the old haunts of the pilgrims in 1835. 
He calls Tibirke Church a memento of the unhappy village that was 
choked by sand, and indulges in profound reflections over the locks of 
hair, rags, crutches, and boards carrying naive descriptions, left by 
those who had been healed at the grave. 

Twelve years later Jorgen Sonne painted that pathetic picture of 
the sick and their faithful relatives spending the night at Helene's 
grave, which is reproduced in this number of the Review. The calm, 
poetic summer night forms the setting for the alternate hoi>e and 
fear that hold the minds of the sick in tension, while their friends 
gently try to alleviate their suffering. 

As the years pass, the traditions that have clung to the spring 
for a thousand years fade from the popular mind. It is only old 
people who can remember seeing crutches and crosses at Helene's 
grave, and rarely does it happen that some one fills a pitcher at the 
spring and carries it to a sick friend. The spots that commemorate 
Helene's name are very insignificant to the casual observer, but 
invisible memories hover over the spring and the grave, where sick 
I>eople have slept in the hope of being healed of the treacherous 
illness that was destroying them, and where young men and maidens 
have played and dreamed in the intoxicating summer night, when 
sunset and sunrise mingle in a red glow over the sea, when Midsum- 
mer Eve bonfires crackle, and the waves hum their melodies on the 
beach. 




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Harald HofFding: A Personal Tribute 



By Edwin Bjorkman 

At the Death of Dr. ('arl Jacobsen, the Stately Vill.\ Bi'ilt by His Father, J. C. Jacobsen, 
Was Set Aside, in Accordance with the Wish of the First Owner and His Wife, to Be For- 
ever AN Honorary Dwelling for a Man Who Has in Some Special Way Deserved the Grat- 
miDE OF His Countrymen. The Choice Was Left to the Society of Sciences, and It Fell 
Upon Harald Hoffding, Profrssor of Phiujsophy at the University of Copenhagen. 

AS THE life work of Pro- 
/A fessor Hoffding stands be- 
fore us today— practically 
completed, one must fear — it 
strikes me as the most com- 
prehensive and most balanced 
survey of available human 
knowledge. Its superiority is 
conditioned not only by the 
tremendous quantity of infor- 
mation stored within its several 
parts — ^such as the " Psychol- 
ogy," the "Ethics," the "His- 
tory of Modern Philosophy" 
and the " Philosophy of Re- 
Hgion" — but still more by its 
author's remarkable sense of 
perspective and proportion, as 
well as by his unsurpassed grasp 
on other men's intentions. I 
know of no other living mind 
equipped with an equal power 
to deal sympathetically with 
matter not its own. To read 
a volume like Professor Hoff- 
ding's "Contemporary Philos- 
ophers" is like getting the map of a city through which one has been 
passing back and forth more or less unthinkingly. 
\' It has been said that, as a thinker, he is lacking in originality. 
The nature of his work goes far to explain this charge. He has never 
sought quick success by the enunciation of brilliant but doubtful 
theories. Nor has he for any length of time been found burrowing 
in the mole holes of the specialists. At a period when the division of 
labor had been carried so far in science and philosophy that further 
progress seemed seriously hazarded, he undertook calmly the neg- 
lected task of generalization. This implied on his part not only a 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 13 

foregoing of the easier honors offered by a restricted field, but also 
the sinking of more than one personal contribution into the vast 
fund of common thought which he had set out to organize. I 
should not wonder if the future came to discover unmistakable origi- 
nality at more than one point where the hurried estimate of our own 
day has found only an unusually lucid interpretation of certain 
prevailing tendencies of thought. But even his most ardent admirers 
grant that he is above all an organizer, and only incidentally an 
originator. As such, however, he has probably done more than any 
other man to give the present day a clear understanding of its own 
intellectual character. 

My own case will serve pretty well to illustrate what the synthe- 
tizing efforts of Professor Hoffding may mean to one striving vainly 
to bring innumerable clashing or divergent thought currents into 
some kind of coordination. I had passed my fortieth year before 
he became more than a name to me. At the time I was suffering a 
spiritual as well as physical crisis. To go on seeing life as a series of 
disconnected moments had become impossible. At the same time all 
prevailing systems, religious as well as philosophical, had totally 
ceased to satisfy me. In order to live I must create for myself a 
viewpoint from which existence would appear as a game played with 
some purpose at the bottom of it. Through the study of such men 
as William James and Lester F. Ward, I had become enabled to pick 
up suggestions of orderly connection and of meaning reaching beyond 
the narrow scope of individual Uves. But my progress was slow 
and stumbling. What I thought I saw one day had disappeared 
the next. 

At that juncture several of Hoffding's principal volumes fell into 
my hands, and thereafter I moved onward with a speed and a pre- 
cision that seemed miraculous. Other men had told me more or 
less convincingly what to think; he, as no other one, told me how to 
think. But the principal thing he did for me, I believe, was to prove 
that thought, in the widest sense, is a collective, and not merely an 
individual product. Until then I had regarded philosophy as a 
battleground for rival systems, above which resounded unceasingly 
the old cry: "The king is dead; long live the king!" 

Reading Professor Hoffding's "History of Modern Philosophy," I 
perceived for the first time that the science of sciences, like every 
other branch of knowledge, is a living and growing organism, to which 
the individual workers bear the relation of cells. I saw for the first 
time, with a force that was convincing, how truth itself is a thing of 
gradual shaping, not of sudden discovery. Evolution, which until 
then had been little more than a phrase, became the law of daily as 
well as of eternal life; and the unity of all life shone with inextin- 
guishable light through the lifting fog of doubt. For the first time 



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14 THE AMERICAN'SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 

in my life I felt at home in life — felt myself a needed and welcome 
member of a vast family. 

Of course, trying to tell things like these makes them seem 
hopelessly vague and intangible. It is all so much a matter of feeling. 
And then it may be, too, that there might exist between the thinking 
of this one man and my own some subtle, predestined kinship enabling 
him to send floods of light into my soul when others could offer me 
no more than the feeble rays of a bull's-eye. But I know of other 
men who have had the same experience with his work; I have heard 
of similar cases in far-off countries where one might expect to find 
the gentle, unassuming Danish professor unknown even by name. 
And I believe firmly that he has something to give us, groping and 
struggling men of today, that, to say the least, we cannot find in 
such perfection or in such abundance anywhere else. 

The secret of his power to give so largely lies probably in the fact 
that he is not only a thinker, but a sage. And the thinkers, even 
those of a very high type, are apt to regard ideas and truths and 
theories as so many pieces on a chess board, which they move this 
way or that in order that they may confound and conquer some 
rival player. To the sage a truth is as real and as humbly useful a 
thing as air or food or love; to him it is a thing to live by — and to 
die by. The thinker tends always away from life — ^and the more so 
the more professionalized his thinking is. The sage is always eager 
to restore to life as actually lived whatever he has gained by placing 
himself momentarily above and beyond it. The thinker is fearful 
lest his thought be sullied by falling into the hands of the common 
people. The sage knows that with those lesser brethren lies, in the 
last instance, the crucial testing of all truth. The thinker is apt to 
see Ufe in fragments, and to rest satisfied with that partial view. 
The sage strives unceasingly to embrace the entirety of life within 
his vision. And however futile his effort may seem, however far he 
may fall short, there is nevertheless about his utterances a certain 
significance, a certain depth, that stirs and fructifies related elements 
within ourselves, so that soul and soul suddenly commune with a 
clearness and a directness usually denied to human life. 

To me Professor Hoffding is just such a man — one of the rare few 
through whom life's never-ending revelation is destined to reach the 
less sensitive ears of their fellow men, and by far the most potent 
voice in the Scandinavian North of today. 



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HOLOER DrACHMANN 

To August Strindberg 

1891 
By HoLGER Drachmann 
Translated from the Danish by Norreys Jephson O'Conor 

Unresting thou. 
Who in Sweden, where all can sing, smotest thy harp asunder; 

Wound the harpstrings with twigs: smote, to be smitten by all — 
What shall I say to thee, who beginnest where I, bowed under 

By weariness, renounce, and let the weapons fall ? 

Storm-king thou! 
Broken thy brow in battle; torn the high mind with pain. 

When waging, through sad days and glad days alike, war against all. 
Heart throbbing, and eager, and valiant, in thee am I conscious again 

Of courage thy people cherish — in conflict first must thou fall. 

Future's herald ! 
Who, when poets of Sweden were writing in metre of ''roses,'' 

Tore rudely the blossoms in twain, letting the crushed petals fall — 
Thou wovest thy vyreath lohich, faded, today's garish sun discloses. 

Wait! Tomorrow, my brother, shall crown thee master of all ! 



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Maihaugen Open-Air Museum 

THE Review in its last issue presented a collection of pictures 
from the Northern Museum at Skansen, overlooking the heights 
of Stockholm. This first attempt in Sweden to show the life of 
a people in its natural setting has been the incentive to the estabUsh- 
ment of numerous outdoor museums in different countries. Norway 
is peculiarly rich in material for the collector, and possesses in the 
national museum at Bygdo, near Christiania, a remarkable group of 
old timber buildings. The open-air museum at Maihaugen, near 
Lillehammer, while of a more local character, preserves even better 
the charm of the old time, and forms a quaint background for the 
national song dances and the Midsummer Eve revelry. White- 
stemmed birches lift their feathery crowns over the dark-brown 
timber houses, glowing with almost a wine color where the southern 
sun has played upon their resinous surface for centuries. Below is 
a tiny lake set in dark pines. 

The open-air museum of Maihaugen, like that of Skansen, is due 
to the devotion of one man. Dr. Anders Sandvig, who has been to his 
neighborhood what Dr. Arthur Hazelius was to Sweden. Dr. 
Sandv^ig began almost thirty years ago to collect peasant treasures of 
carved chests and furniture, hand-woven tapestries and silver drink- 
ing cups. Gudbrandsdalen, one of the richest and proudest com- 
munities of peasant freeholders in Norway, yielded a generous har- 
vest, and Dr. Sandvig's collections soon grew to such proportions that 
he could no longer keep them in his own home. He therefore bought 
eleven old houses and transported them with infinite care to his 
private garden in 
Lillehammer, where 
they were erected. 
But the museum out- 
grew the garden of 
its founder, and the 
present beautiful site 
was found for it at 
Maihaugen. It is 
now administered by 
a local society. 

Dr. Sandvig, ac- 
cording to Mr. Georg 
Brbchner, expressed 
his ultimate ideal for 
Maihaugen to be "a 
collection of homes, 

where one, as it were, The Interior of an Aaretftue, the Oldest Type of Dwelling 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



17 




A Siabur oB Storehouse 



can walk straight into the hearts of the 
people who have Hved there, learn to 
know their mode of hving, their tastes, 
their work; for the home and its equip- 
ment are a picture of the people them- 
selves, and in the old hereditary home- 
steads it is not only the single individual 
who is mirrored, but it is the whole race, 
generation after generation. 

*'Nor is it simply an incidental se- 
lection of isolated homes that, in Mai- 
haugen, I wish to save from destruction 
or neglect. No, I want to place the 
entire village, as a complete whole, in 
this big picture book; not only what 
might be called the manor house, with its many buildings, and its 
equipment bearing witness to hereditary pride and affluence, but also 
the house of the humblest peasant, the village craftsman's out-of- 
the-way cottage, and the sdter hut from the vast and distant forest. 
And from the top of the hill the old village church shall send forth 
the peal of its bells over these relics of bygone ages." 

Wood architecture has reached a very high development in Nor- 
way, the old stavkirker or churches of upright timber being perhaps 
the most unique wooden structures ever erected, while the decorative 
artist has covered with fantastic carvings even the humble stabur or 
storehouse, which held the wealth of the peasants. Maihaugen Mu- 
seum shows the evolution of the timber house from the old aarestue of 
four or five centuries ago — innocent of windows and with the smoke 

from the fire in the 
center of the room 
seeking an outlet 
through the square 
hole in the roof — to 
the more elaborate 
dwellings of the mod- 
ern well-to-do odels- 
honde. In the present 
revival in Norway, 
the old timber houses, 
now happily con- 
served in the various 
outdoor museums, 
have been adapted 
with much success to 

The Lake at Maihaugen Open-Air Museum the modcm homC. 




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The Lokre Stue, the Timber House in Its Later Development 




The Peer Gynt Siue 



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Pernille 

By Herman Bang 

Translated from the Danish by Julia E. Gyllich 

DO MAKE haste, Olsen," she said, as she stood tapping her 
foot in the small, buckled shoe of her Pernille costume, "it 
is past nine o'clock already!" 

Oh, how she was looking forward to this carnival! It was her 
first carnival, though to be sure she had once been to a fancy dress 
ball given at the minister's house at home, dressed as "Pierrette," 
and the agent of a neighboring estate had proposed to her during a 
mazurka. He represented a lancer of the time of Wallenstein, and 
wore a big moustache to hide his harelip. But that was nothing; 
they were all intimate there, and masks were speedily removed. 
Tonight it was real, something grand and wonderfully beautiful — 
something — ^she hardly knew what — but she was eagerly looking 
forward to the evening, as she stood, drawing on her long gloves and 
fingering Pernille's white apron. 

"Please, Miss, could you stand still for one moment?" said her 
maid, austerely. "I am afraid of pricking you." 

"Oh, but Olsen, I am so happy, so i>erfectly wild about tonight, 
Olsen." 

"Surely, Miss, you have danced before now," answered the maid, 
as she fastened the Pernille cap to the girl's hair. 

" Of course I have danced," said Pernille, pityingly, " but you don't 
go to a carnival for the sake of dancing. No, it is for something 
quite different." 

And Pernille laughed into her mirror. 

"Do you think there will be many Pernilles, Olsen?" she asked. 

"I really don't know. Miss." 

"At any rate there won't be many so correct, for Uncle Bernhard 
designed the whole costume himself," and again she smiled at the 
image reflected in the glass. "Perhaps there will not be many there 
so pretty," thought Pernille, and at the thought she blushed, for the 
picture in the glass seemed to her charming. 

She looked at the pretty bodice, and at the cap just a little on 
one side. "Yes, I am pretty," she thought, and she began to sing 
softly to herself from sheer gladness. 

"Have you never been to a carnival, Olsen?" she asked, still 
gazing at herself. 

"No, Miss." 

"Poor Olsen," said Pernille. 

Then she drove off with Uncle William and Aunt Fanny. Her 



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20 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

heart beat as they rolled along, her color came and went, and her 
hands were cold. 

"How now, Marie?" said Uncle William. 

"Oh, Uncle, you know I am wild about it, and yet I don't know — 
if we were only there! I feel quite foolish, but it is only because I 
am so happy " 

"But, Uncle William, it's horrid, not at all what I expected," said 
Pernille, a little later. "The masks stare so grimly at me!" She 
clutched his arm, quite terrified. "And that awful Henrik is follow- 
ing me everywhere." 

"I hardly thought you would enjoy it," said her aunt. 

"Oh, but I do enjoy myself," she replied, clinging closely to her 
uncle, "but I had expected — I wonder where Mr. Herlov is," she 
continued, in the same tone. 

"Heaven only knows. He has dined with the Beckwiths, and of 
course he cannot leave his party and the beautiful Mrs. Kramer." 

"No," said Pernille, "of course he can't," and she walked on 
silently for a little while. "Of course not," she repeated. 

But Mr. Herlov came, nevertheless, and he and Pernille were 
soon seated in a nook behind some tall plants. They sat there for a 
full hour, and Uncle William was in despair at not being able to find 
them. 

" I recognized you at once, Mr. Herlov. I should have known you 
among a thousand, but you did not know me." She peeped out 
through the foliage. "How absurd these people look. Don't you 
think so.^" 

"Yes, it is sometimes hard to play our own part, but to adapt 
ourselves to that of others is almost impossible." 

"I had thought that a carnival would be something quite differ- 
ent," said Pernille, as she thrust out her little foot from under her 
skirt. 

"What had you fancied it would be.^" he asked, smiling. 

"Oh, I had very silly fancies; I realize that now, but I expected 
the people to be much more beautiful and that there would be many 
more gallant knights." 

He laughed. The confused noise of the carnival reached them as 
they sat secluded by the thick foliage. From the ballroom sounded 
the crash of the orchestra, as it rose and fell. From time to time, 
when the noise was loudest, they had to bend their heads very close 
together in order to hear each other's voices. 

Pernille thought they had found a delightful corner, here behind 
the laurels, and Herlov quite forgot his party. She was fascinating; 
this lovely little Pernille was like spring. There were many Mrs. 
Kramers; he could see Mrs. Kramer tomorrow and the day after — 
any day, in short — but Pernille was an incarnation of spring, so fresh, 



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THE AMERICAN SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 21 

so dainty, so lovely and enchanting. He gave himself up to her 
spell, and as he sat by her side he wondered that he had never before 
felt her attraction. He had always known that she was pretty and 
unaffected, and yet he had never really seen her as she appeared this 
evening. She had completely bewitched him. 

"You are lovely. Miss Holm," he said, abruptly, "perfecty 
lovely." And she was lovely, the red lips smiling, the eyes laughing, 
the radiance of happiness lighting up her whole countenance, for little 
Pernille was in love, and it was a first love, when all is dreams and 
stuff vaguer than dreams, unconscious pleasure and longing. The 
first fruit of love is born in the childhood of the heart, in the spring- 
time of the soul. The flower is half opened, and the sunbeams kissing 
its white calyx steal softly in between the petals. It is the first time 
it is kissed by the sun. 

Marie had been in love with him ever since the beginning of the 
winter when she had come to town to take lessons. It was a love 
that had fed on such trifles as a look, a brief meeting, a clasp of the 
hands. But love like hers needs no words; it is content with such 
trifles and asks for nothing more — for no homage; she would have felt 
unworthy of it. On the days when she had met him, people seemed 
happier, the sun shone more brightly. She felt his clasp on her 
fingers long after they had parted and longed for him when she did 
not see him, but her thoughts had never gone beyond this. Here in 
this quiet corner, shaded by the laurel bushes, her love awoke, roused 
by the music, unfolding in the heat of the carnival, taking courage 
from the joyous night. 

"Shall we not dance .^" he said, presently. 

So they danced, and the music was beautiful as the singing of 
birds, Pernille thought, but she did not say so, lest he should laugh. 
He often laughed when she expressed her innermost feeling, but of 
course the things you think like that — deep in yourself — are often 
silly and affected. 

She had no desire for speech; she would rather lie quite still in 

his arm and be borne away, away Her head drooped toward 

him — how safely he guided her! How secure she was within his arms. 
If her mother were here, how she would cry — simply hide on her 
breast and cry and cry 

Her heart told her that he was hers, her very own. He looked 
down at her tenderly with a smile and a question in his glance. There 
was in that smile perhaps something she did not wholly understand — 
something that thrilled her with a strange, bashful fear — but still — 
she was happy. Only love could look so and lead her so safely. Yes, 
this must be love. 

He led her from the ballroom. They were both flushed and out 
of breath. She clung to his arm, and he was very much afraid that 



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22 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

anyone should jostle her in the crowd. They took refuge in the cool 
ante-room. 

"This is lovely," she said, and leaned against the edge of the 
fountain. *'But it was lovely in the ballroom, too," she added, look- 
ing up into his face. 

"Yes, but it was a frightful crush," he replied. 

"Do you think so.?" 

They sat close together, deep in an embrasure at the edge of the 
basin. They spoke but little, and in the silence they heard the 
distant sound of music, to which the soft drip of the fountain beat 
time. There was no need for words, their mutual presence suflSced. 
But at last she felt a longing to break the silence, which began to 
embarrass her. 

"How have you enjoyed yourself.'^" she asked, her cheeks flushing 
as she spoke, for she well knew how he had enjoyed himself. 

"Immensely, of course," he answered, and as their eyes met they 
both smiled. "And you.^^" 

"I.^^ Oh, I never knew it was possible to enjoy oneself so much." 

Again the silence fell; only the fountain murmured on. Pernille 
thought it spoke, but she dared not interpret its words. He looked 
at her; he took her hand and spoke softly and as the night wore on, 
broken words were uttered, and fervent vows were exchanged. 

As he wrapped her cloak around her at parting, he kissed her neck 
right below her hair. She felt her blood burn like fire under the kiss 
and, blushing furiously, she looked up in his face. Her eyes were 
full of tears. 

"No, Auntie, I shall not catch cold," she exclaimed, as she closed 
and double-locked her door. She must be alone, quite alone, to 
compose her mind and and think over all that had happened. But 
not yet — first she would get into bed, and there she would lie still 
and live it over again in her dreams. 

Ah, how w^onderful it is to love, so wonderful that she cannot 
fathom it. She could sink herself into her happiness as into the sea. 
She lay thus a long time, quite still, her hands folded, her eyes closed. 
From time to time she smiled a soft, lingering smile. Then she lifted 
her head, rose to put out the candle, but grasped it and set her feet 
on the rug. 

Carrying the candle, she walked across the floor, stopped before 
the mirror, and lifted the light so it fell on her face, smiled, blushed, 
and quickly blew out the light, then tripped in the darkness over the 
rug. Suddenly she began to hum the music of the waltz they had 
danced together. She lay long, singing it over and over, till at 
length she fell asleep to her own lullaby. 

She awoke late the next day. At first she could not grasp the 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



23 



events of the past night, but Httle by little its reality dawned on her, 
and a flood of bliss overwhelmed her, which she could not explain, 
but which bore her far, far away. Then a great longing to see him 
possessed her. But of course he would come that day ! 

That afternoon her uncle brought her a letter. *'This is for you, 
Marie. Who the deuce can it be from.^ " 

Marie's breath came quickly, and with a little gasp she seized the 
letter. Yes, it was from him — she knew his writing — he had once 
before written a few words to her aunt on his visiting card. Why did 
she not dare to open it .^ 

At last she unfolded it. It contained only three lines. How her 
hand shook. 

"For you doubtless, as for me, what passed between us last night 
was but an innocent jest.'' 

The letter dropped from her hand. Her power of feeUng was 
numbed, and her breath died in her throat with a piping sound. She 
saw nothing but the letter lying at her feet — a gray blotch on the 
surrounding darkness. 

"Well, and who is it from.^'' asked her uncle. 

"From my music master," she said. "He wishes me to have my 
lesson tomorrow." 

She longed to rush from the room, but something was weighing 
her down, and she could not move. "A jest — a jest" — she leaned 
her head against the wall and closed her eyes. Her cheeks felt cold 
as ice. " A jest — an innocent jest " 



Elverhoj 




o 



^X THE banks of the Hudson, 
near Poughkeepsie, a group 
of Scandinavian artists have 
formed a colony under the pictur- 
esque name Elverhoj^ with its sugges- 
tion of midsummer romance. A 
quaint old Colonial house has been 
utilized for the School of Art and 
Handicrafts, which is under the 
direction of the painter, H. A. 
Andersen, and on the spacious 
grounds the pupils may pitch their 
tents for the summer. The paint- 
ing reproduced on this page is by 
David Ericson, instructor in painting 
at the school. Danish metal work and Norwegian art weaving are 
among the handicrafts taught. Foreign craftsmen are welcomed 



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The Death of Queen Dagmar — ^Reuef by Agnb 



The Death of Queen Dagmar 

DANISH POPULAR BALLAD 
Translated by E. M. Smith-Dampier 

Queen Dagmar lies in Ribe sick — 

To Ringstead she must pass — 
She sent for them all to come to her, 
Eax^h Danish vnfe and lass. 
In Ringstead tarries Queen Dagmar. 

^' Go fetch me four, go fetch me five. 

Go fetch me one and all! 
Go fetch me Kirsteen of Rise, 

The sister of Sir Karl.'' 

Little Kirsteen came to the bower door 
And she came right modestly; 

Queen Dagmar raised her head again. 
So fain of her was she. 



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\.:M bLOrr-MoLLER AT ASKOV HiGH ScHOOL IN JuTLAND 



^^ Canst thou read and canst thou torite. 

To help me in my need; 
Then shalt thou wear the scarlet fine 

And ride my good grey steed,''' 

" Could I read and could I ivrite, 
I would do it 2mth fair good-iinll; 

For this of a troth I tell you. 

Your pain is sharper than steel.'' 

And syne she took Saint Mary's book — 
And the light of the golden croum 

She could not see tvhenas she ready 
So fast the tears ran down. 

They led her out and they led her in. 

And sorer was still her pain: 
" Now send ye word to the King, our lordy 

To speak vnth me once again." 



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26 



THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



JEKI 




RiBE Cathedral 
' Queen Dagmar lies in Ribe sick '* 



Up he stoody the little page^ 
Full fain was he to speed — 

lie took his saddle down from the beam 
And mounted the milk-white steed. 



The King stood on the lofty tower 
And looked out far and wide: 

*' Yonder I see a little foot-page y 
And sadly doth he ride. 

*' Yonder I see a little foot-page 
And sorrowful is his mien — 

Now grant Almighty God in heaven 
That all he well vnth the Qu£enr 



In he came, the little page^ 
Before the board stood he: 

''Now, will you speak vnth the Queen 
again 
You must speak right speedily'' 



The King he smote upon the board 

Till all the goblets rung: 
''Almighty God in heaven forbid 

That Dagmar should die so young!' 

The King he rode by Skanderborg 
With a hundred swains and one. 

But when he rode by Ribe 
Then rode he all alone. 



There was woe in the women's boirer — 
The ladies wept all so sore — 

The Queen she died in Kirsteen's arms 
When the King rode up to the door. 

The bier it stood in the ladies' bonder 
When the King he entered there: 

" Noiv help me, mighty God in heaven. 
My bitter woe to bear! 



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THE AMERICAS SC AS DIS A VI AS REVIEW 



^7 



\yoic pray for me^ xrites and maidens 
all. 

And see that ye pray not in rain! 
dfain am I to speak a irord 

With Dagmar once again. ^^ 



In' Queen she raised her on the bier^ 
And red were her eyes so sweet: 
Woe, itoe is me, my noble lord. 
That thus we twain should meet! 



The first boon that I beg of you 
I beg for love of me — 
i'i>e peace to every outlawed man, 
ind set the captives free. 



The second boon that I shall beg 
I beg for love of you — 
)i take not Bengerd for your mate, 
^he is ,?o sour a shretr. 




Beneath the floor of Rixgsteao Abbet 
Chi'rch are three graves, side bt htdc, 

WHERE King VaLDEMAH the VlCT(»R]i*T'S 
(l«0i-41) LIES BURIED BETWEEN* HIS TWO 

QiEENs, Dagmar ant> Bengerd 



** The third boon that I beg of yon 

I beg for lore of me — 
That Knudj my youngest son so dear. 

May King in Denmark be. 



''AWr need I hare borne these bitter paius- 

By nighi and eke by day 
Had I ne'er on the Sabbath samjltt my jnrds 

And dontted my bracelets (jay. 



**A'ow time If ij< I ir^re air oik 

So Ujnycr itioij I bid/: 
Th/' bf'Us (f{ luafcfi are rtiKjiiKj fnr vk^ 
And the uioels va'tt hfstdi." 
In Hifiust/ad lurries Qid^rn iJdijmftr. 



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26 



THE AM ERIC AN-SC AN DIN AVI AN REVIEW 




RiBE Cathedral 
* Queen Dagmar lies in Ribe sick" 



Up he stood, the little page^ 
Full fain was he to speed — 

He took his saddle down from the beam 
And mounted the milk-white steed. 



The King stood on the lofty tower 
And looked out far and vnde: 

" Yonder I see a little foot-page y 
And sadly doth he ride. 

" Yonder I see a little foot-page 
And sorrowful is his mien — 

Now grant Almighty God in heaven 
That all he ivell unth the Qu^enr 



In he came, the little page. 
Before the hoard stood he: 

" Now, will you speak vnth the Queen 
again 
You must speak right speedily.'' 



The King he smote upon the board 

Till all the goblets rung: 
''Almighty God in heaven forbid 

That Dagmar should die so young!'' 

The King he rode by Skanderborg 
With a hundred swains and one. 

But when he rode by Ribe 
Then rode he all alone. 



There was woe in the women's bower — 
The ladies wept all so sore — 

The Queen she died in Kirsteens arms 
When the King rode up to the door. 

The bier it stood in the ladies' bower 
When the King he entered there: 

'' Notv help me, mighty God in heaven, 
My bitter woe to hear! 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



Now pray for vie^ toives and maidens \ 
all, 
ikk And see that ye pray not in rain! 
' sld h fain am I to speak a word 

With Dagmar once again.'' 



rer 



The Queen she raised her on the bier. 
And red were her eyes so sweet: 

' Woe, woe is me, my noble lord. 
That thus we twain should meet! 



" The first boon that I beg of you 
," I beg for love of me — 

Give peace to every outlawed marij 
And set the captives free. 



*' The second boon that I shall beg 

I beg for love of you — 
Oh, take not Bengerd for your mate. 

She is so sour a shreir. 




Beneath the floor of Ringstead Abbet 
Church are three graves, side by side, 
WHERE Kino Valdemar the Victorious 
(1202-41) lies buried between his two 
queens, Dagmar and Bengerd 



*' The third boon that I beg of you 

I beg for love of me — 
That Knud, my youngest son so dear. 

May King in Denmark be. 



^' Ne'er need I have borne these bitter pains 

By night and eke by day 
Had I ne'er on the Sabbath sought my jewels 

And donned my bracelets gay. 



''Now time it is I were away, 

No longer may I bide; 
The bells of heaven are ringing for me. 

And the angels wait beside." 
In Ringstead tarries Queen Dagmar. 



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DANISH CASTLES— IV 



ARRESKOV 



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Arreskov 

FYX is an island rich in manor halls. A verdant landscape, 
rolling and wooded, dotted with picturesque farmhouses of 
''binding work," surrounded at harvest time by fields of warm 
Danish yellow, makes Fyn one of the most idyllic of all the isles of 
Denmark. Far from its highroads of travel, hidden save where a 
tower rises out of a beech-grove, lies many an ancient manor hall 
to remind modern social Denmark of a paternal past. 

While the drawbridge is never lifted now from over the aban- 
doned moat, the old-time hospitality still continues, balls in summer 
time, hunting parties in the autumn; a cavalcade of guests will ride 
laughing from one house party to another. Nor are these functions 
always merely social; a manor will open its doors to a congress of 
foresters or a meeting of antiquarians, to house a volunteer bicycle 
corps or a young people's Christian conference. At such times the 
stables and garden pavilions become improvised dormitories, and the 
song, "There is a Lovely Land" rings out through the night across 
the lawn. Some day a gifted writer of romance or an illustrator will 
discover these manors, the herregaarde of Fyn. 

Arreskov is said to have been the property of one of Queen 
Dagmar's oflScials, and later of her husband, King Valdemar himself. 
The present castle, situated on the shores of Arreskov Lake, was built 
in 1558-'72 by Erik Rosencrantz. 

Arreskov Castle is the hereditary seat of the Counts Schaflalitzky 
de Muckadell. Its halls are hung with ancestral portraits, and the 
polished inlaid floor of its ballroom is almost an invitation to dance. 
Of late, however, the castle has led a quiet existence, for here the aged 
widow of the late count is spending her declining years, while her son, 
the present Lensgreve^ dispenses hospitality at Brobygaard, one of the 
several manors that constitute the Muckadell estate. 



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Jacob A. Riis 

Born in Ribe, Denmark, 1849. Died in Barre, Mass., 1914 



Pl»-%v 



T' 



I WO books tell the story of Jacob 
Riis's life. In "The Making of an 
American" he has recorded the work 
of his manhood for social betterment in 
his own chosen city of New York. His 
struggles as a friendless immigrant boy 
of twenty-one gave him a knowledge of 
the misery that hides in back streets of 
the city, and his faculty for finding and 
expressing the human element beneath 
the 'squalor afterwards made him a star 
police reporter on metropolitan newspa- 
pers. His agitation in his newspaper and 
magazine articles and in his books, as well 
as from the lecture platform, have resulted 
in many tangible reforms. The abolition 
of the iniquitous police lodging houses, 
in one of which Jacob Riis had spent a 
miserable night twenty-five years earlier, 
was accomplished with the aid of Theo- 
dore Roosevelt, then police commissioner 
of New York. Before the rise of the present wave of sociological in- 
vestigation, Jacob Riis gained an intimate understanding of the lives 
of the poor by personal visits to their homes. He found then the only 
principle which if applied earlier might have prevented the war be- 
tween the classes from becoming so acute as it is today, and the only 
one that may eventually solve the problems of modern society: the 
practical application of the spirit of human brotherhood. There is 
little doubt that future histories of the United States will give him an 
even higher rank as a pioneer in sociological work than he has held 
in the estimation of his contemporaries. 

In "The Old Town," written after he had become a famous citizen 
of his adopted country, Jacob Riis has described the quaint little town 
of Ribe, with its drowsy charm and its historic traditions centering 
around the cathedral where King Valdemar and his two queens, the 
beloved Dagmar and the hated Bengerd, are buried. There Jacob 
Riis, a member of a large family, lived in his childhood the frugal, 
thrifty, simple life of the village. From it he drew his kindly phil- 
osophy, his humor with the odd mixture of subtlety and simplicity so 
characteristically Danish, and the tenacity of purpose that enabled 
him to pursue an evil until he demolished it. Perhaps he owed to the 
spirit of the Old Town also that power of receiving lasting impressions 
which was one of his rarest literary gifts. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 31 

THE MESSAGE OF THE OLD TOWN* 

The Old Town moves with deliberation, it is true. 'But, then, the rest of us 
are in too much of a hurry. No one ever is, there. What is there to run after .'^ 
The clock that has counted the hours since before Napoleon stirred up the dry 
bones of Europe still stands in its corner and ticks the seconds, the hours, the 
years, twice a day pointing its slow finger to the date graven on its face — 1600, 
1700, 1800 — why should one hurry .-^ If we but wait, the years will come to us 
and carry us with them to our long rest. And there will be others where we are 
now. The world will move; men will live and labor and love; and the old clock 
will tick in the hall, counting the hours, the days, the years. It is the Old 
Town's philosophy. If it has not made it rich, or powerful, or great, it has 
made it content. Who shall say, then, that it is not as good as the best? 

There is one that ticks in a house I know of where eyes I loved smiled to it 
and nodded to it every day in passing. In 1792 it was made in Ribe, where 
famous clock-makers lived then. I tried to buy it; I oflFered two hundred kroner 
for it, which was a small fortune to the Old Town. But its owner shook his head. 
It had been in the family since his great-great-great-grandfather, and it would 
stay there as long as there were any of them left. I shook his hand. I should 
have been sorry had he been willing to sell. It would have been like betraying 
an old friend. They were poor, but they were loyal. It was the Old Town all 
over. Years ago the last of the clock-makers lived in Black Friars Street, in our 
block. One morning there was a great crash. It was their house that had fallen 
down. The neighbors hastened up to help, and when a way had been made 
through the wreck, found the old man and his wife lying calmly in bed. The 
beam had formed a shelter over them, and they were safe till the next cave-in. 
They urged them to hurry out, but the old couple refused. It was their home. 
They had always lived in it and now, they were old, would die in it, if need be, 
rather than seek another. They were like Heine's lovers: 

Wir Beide bekummern uns um nickU 
Und bleiben ruhig liegen. 

They had to take them out by force. 

No need of haste. The mail-coach waited for you in the old days, once you 
were registered as a passenger, till you came. It would have been base to desert 
you. The train waits now till you climb aboard, and the station-master and 
conductor have exchanged the last item of news. The red-coated mail-carrier 
taps on your window with the expected letter and a sympathetic "It's come." 
The telegraph messenger who meets you in the street with his message, goes home 
with you to hear the good news; he knows it is good. The mill-wheels drone in 
the stream their old drowsy lay, that was old when you were born. Down by 
the castle garden a worn wheel whirs and hums in the rope-walk, where father 
and son go spinning their endless cord, side by side, as did their people before 
them, as far back as any one can remember. Why should one hurry ? The sun 
sinks low in the west. Far upon the horizon there is a gleam of silver; it is the 
sea sleeping in a calm. The bells of the Old Town peal forth their even song. 
The cows come home from the meadows. In the cloister shadows trembling 
hands are trimming the evening lamp, tired old feet tottering to their rest. A 
day is ended. Above blossoming gardens the stork looks down from the nest, 
wiser than the world of men. Another will dawn. So that its evening be peace, 
what matters the rest? It is the message of the Old Town. 

From "The Old Town/' by Jacob A. Riis, Macmillan Co., 1909. 



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Agnes Mathilde Wergeland 

By Ma REN Michelet 




R' 



ICH in inherent powers, 
born to the great name of 
Wergeland, but poor and 
often sorely tried, Agnes Mathilde 
Wergeland rose above almost in- 
surmountable obstacles and won a 
name in her own right. She was 
born in Christiania May 8, 1857, 
and lived her girlhood there. In 
1884 she left for Munich, and for 
two years studied with Dr. Konrad 
Maurer; returned to Norway, but 
found no field there for her labors 
and so again went abroad. She 
studied history at the University of 
Zurich, and in 1890 obtained her 
degree as doctor of philosophy 
for a scholarly thesis on an old 
Icelandic law of inheritance — the 
first Norwegian woman who had 
ever received such a distinction. 
While at Zurich, she had won in 
competitive examination a scholar- 
ship at Bryn Mawr College, and so came to America, working first 
at Bryn Mawr, afterwards at the University of Illinois and Chicago 
University. In 1902 she was called to the University of Wyoming as 
professor of history and French, later as professor of history and Spanish, 
which position she kept until her death. Her first years in this 
country were a bitter strife for existence, which, however, could not 
extinguish the spiritual fire that dominated her inner life. Coming to 
Wyoming, with its new, expansive fields of labor, given a professor's 
salary and position, surrounded by congenial friends, she spent the 
sunset of her life in fruitful labors. She was an educator of promi- 
nence, a recognized authority on history, could speak fluently seven 
languages, and has written two volumes of poems in her mother 
tongue, as well as numerous magazine articles in Norwegian, German, 
French and English. A rich life of unusual accomplishments ended 
peacefully on March 6, 1914. 



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Editorial 

FpllnwQ and ^* ^^^ regular meeting of the trustees of the Ameri- 
Scholar^ can-Scandinavian Foundation the appointment of 

twelve traveling students was announced for the 
academic year 1914-15. Six of these are Fellows appointed by the 
Advisory Committees of the Foundation abroad, and six Scholars 
recommended by the Committee on Applications in America. 

FELLOWS 

FROM DENMARK 

GudmundHatt, master of arts, of the University of Copenhagen, to study ethnology 

at Columbia University. 
Malcolm Westergaard, bachelor of science, of the Royal Danish Technical 

College, to study structural engineering in American universities. 

FROM NORWAY 

Lars Berg, electrical engineer, of the Technical Institute of Darmstadt, to study 

high voltage problems in America. 
Arne Toralf Sunde, bachelor of laws, of the University of Christiania, first 

lieutenant in the Norwegian army, to study political science at Harvard 

University. 

FROM SWEDEN 

Dr. Abraham Troell, lecturer at the Karoline Medical Institute of Stockholm, 
to study clinical and experimental surgery in New York, Chicago, and 
Rochester. 

K. GuNNAR SiLVERSTOLPE, master of arts, of the University of Uppsala, to study 
national economy at Columbia University. 

SCHOLARS 

Edwin Bjorkman, author and translator, of New York, to visit Sweden, Den- 
mark, and Norway to collect material for a history of modern Scandinavian 
literature. 

Axel Brett, master of arts, assistant at the University of Minnesota, to study 
Swedish literature at the University of Uppsala. 

Pauli Christiansen, machine constructor, of Horsens Technical School, Den- 
mark, Scholar of the American-Scandinavian Foundation 1913-14, to study 
mechanical engineering at the Carnegie Institute of Technology. 

Ingebrigt Larsen Lillehei, doctor of philosophy, of the University of Illinois, 
to study Scandinavian philology in Norway. 

Anna M. Monrad, bachelor of science, librarian, reviser at the Yale University 
library, to study Scandinavian literature and history at Copenhagen Univer- 
sity, and the arrangement of books at the Royal and the University libraries 
in Copenhagen. 

GusTAV Adolf Peterson, master of arts, professor in Swedish literature at 
Bethany College, Lindsborg, Kansas, to study Scandinavian philology at 
the University of Uppsala. 



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34 THE AM ERIC AN'SC AN DIN AVI AN REVIEW 

Future ^^^ appointments present forcibly the great educa- 

Endowmentfi ^^^^^^^^ future before the Foundation in this field of its 
usefulness when suflBcient funds have been provided; 
for example, from the United States alone the Trustees received appli- 
cations amounting to $38,210 from fifty-five applicants, most of them 
students desirous of study at Scandinavian universities. It is not 
improbable that each of the three Advisory Committees abroad 
received as many applications. While the Trustees are empowered 
by their charter to administer bequests of a general nature, they can 
also receive gifts for special purposes. Ten thousand dollars will 
establish a scholarship yielding an annual stipend of $400 to be 
applied, for example, to the study of theology or literature at one of 
the Scandinavian universities, to the investigation of forestry in 
Norway and Sweden or of agriculture in Denmark. An increasing 
number of machinists and trade school students of the Scandinavian 
countries are applying for the privilege of study at American technical 
schools, and the Foundation is clearly in need of funds for this purpose. 

Associates During the past six months 628 new Associates have 
joined the Foundation. These 628 Associates are 
divided according to nationalities of parents, as follows: 

Americans, 73; Norwegians, 243; Swedes, 268, and Danes, 44. 

These 628 new Associates reside in 44 States, Territories and foreign 
countries, including Oklahoma, Alaska, Cuba, Canada, Iceland, 
England, Japan, Porto Rico, and Uruguay. In numbers the State 
of Minnesota leads with 149 Associates, more than double the next 
State, Illinois, with 62. Massachusetts has 40, Iowa 37, Wisconsin 
36, North Dakota 26, and New York 22. 

Denmark's ^^^ members of the Danish Advisory Committee of 
American *^^ American-Scandinavian Foundation have issued an 
Societv invitation to form Danmarks amerikanske Selskab. It 

^ will be associated with the Foundation, and its members 

will receive the Review. The proposed Constitution states the pur- 
pose of the Society to be "in cooperation with the American-Scandi- 
navian Foundation to promote eflForts leading to the exchange of 
scientific and practical experience with the United States, of America, 
and to support the Danes and Danish- Americans living there in their 
endeavor to preserve their connection with Denmark." The invita- 
tion mentions as a special task of the Society assisting Americans 
who wish to study or to form connections in Denmark. It is signed 
by Prof. Bernhard Boggild, Mr. Alex. Foss, Prof. Otto Jespersen, 
Prof. W. L. Johannsen, Mr. H. O. Lange, Dr. H. L, MoUer, Prof. 
M. Ostenfeld, and Departementschef A. P. Weis. The first meeting 
of the new Society was held in Copenhagen May 4. 



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THE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 35 

Scandinavian ^^^ fourth annual meeting of the Society for the 
Studv Advancement of Scandinavian Study was held in 

^ the University of Minnesota on May 1 and May 2. 

The growth and activity of the Society, since its organization in 
Chicago only three years ago, are gratifying indications of the in- 
creased interest in scholarly work in the various fields of Scandinavian 
literature and philology. The secretary-treasurer. Professor A. Louis 
Elmquist, reported that 262 new members had joined during the past 
year, the total membership now being 435. The fifth number of 
Volume I of the "Proceedings" of the Society is now being published, 
with the aid of the American-Scandinavian Foundation, in a book of 
110 pages, and the editor, Professor George T. Flom, hopes to bring 
out issues of 120 pages in November of this year and in March, 1915. 

In his welcoming address to the meeting. President George E. 
Vincent, of the University of Minnesota, spoke of the opportunities 
for making that University a center of Scandinavian study for 
America. Papers dealing with a wide range of subjects were read, 
including: 

1. " OcUenschlager and German Romanticism," by Professor W. K. Stewart, 
of Dartmouth College, read by Professor A. M. Sturtevant. 2. ''Bjarkamal 
Restored," by Professor Axel Olrik, of the University of Copenhagen, read by 
Dr. Lee M. Hollander. 3. "Strindberg and the Woman Question," by Professor 
Jules Mauritzson, of Augustana College. 4. "A Note on Sigrdrifumal," by 
Professor A. M. Sturtevant, of the University of Kansas. 5. "Swedish-German 
Relations in the Seventeenth Century," by Professor Amandus A. Johnson, of 
the University of Pennsylvania, read by title. 6. "Three Notes on Ibsen's Peer 
Gynt," by Professor Dr. H. Logeman, of the University of Ghent, read by Pro- 
fessor George T. Flom. 7. "Scandinavian Study in Public and High Schools," 
by Mrs. A. P. Andrews, of the Central High School in Minneapolis. 8. "Nor- 
wegian Poetry and Linguistic Reform," by Professor Julius E. Olson, of 
the University of Wisconsin. 9. "Beginnings of the Swedish Settlements in 
Nebraska," by Professor Joseph Alexis, of the University of Nebraska. 10. 
"A Group of Eddie Words and Names in the Light of Modern Norwegian and 
Icelandic Dialects," by Professor George T. Flom, of the University of Illinois. 11 . 
"Psychological Abnormalities in Strindberg," by Axel Brett, at the University of 
Minnesota. 12. "On the Composition of the Jomsvikingasaga," by Dr. Lee M. 
Hollander, of the University of Wisconsin. The president read by title: "A 
Study of Gerd in Ibsen's Brand," by Mr. Howard M. Jones, at the University of 
Wisconsin; "Swedish as Spoken in America," by Professor A. Louis Elmquist, of 
Northwestern University; and "Local Color in Ibsen's Social Dramas," by 
Professor D. K. Dodge, of the University of Illinois. 

The oflBcers elected were: Professor Jules Mauritzson, president; 
Professor A. A. Stomberg, vice-president; Professor A. M. Sturtevant, 
secretary-treasurer; Professor George T. Flom, editor. 

The members of the Society were entertained by the University, 
by President Vincent and the Odin Club, taken on an automobile tour 
of the schools of Minneapolis, St. Paul and vicinity, and made to feel 
that the twin cities constituted an important center for Scandinavian 
studies in America. 



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36 THE AMERICAN SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

A Harvard Harvard University has promoted the work of the 
Fellow Foundation by awarding another fellowship for 

studies in Scandinavia. The successful candidate is 
Sigurd Bernhard Hustvedt, of Decorah, Iowa, who will spend the 
academic year 1914-15 in the Scandinavian countries as a Parker 
Traveling Fellow, to study ballad criticism and the relations of the 
ballad to literature, Mr. Hustvedt graduated from Luther College, 
Iowa, in 1902, and Luther Seminary, Minn., in 1905. He received 
the degree of master of arts from the University of California in 1912, 
and is now a candidate for the degree of doctor of philosophy at 
Harvard University, where he has studied in the past two years in the 
Department of Comparative Literature, under the direction of 
Professor W. H. Schofield. 

Since the days of Longfellow, Harvard University has sent four 
travehng fellows to Scandinavia: W. H. Schofield, 1898-99; H. G. 
Leach, 1908-10; O. J. Campbell, Jr., 1910-11, and Mr. Hustvedt, 
1914-15. Several other scholars at the present time are pursuing 
Scandinavian studies at Harvard, in preparation for the doctor's 
degree. 

A Uniaue Among the distinguished Scandinavians who have 

Danish Work recently visited America is Dr. Oscar Bloch, pro- 
fessor at the University of Copenhagen, and for- 
merly physician to the late King Frederick VIII, who attended the 
International Congress of Surgeons meeting in New York. He is 
known as the author of a work called "Death," which has been trans- 
lated into Swedish and German and has run through several editions. 
The gentle and kindly Danish professor in his work as a physician 
and surgeon witnessed continually the fear of physical suffering at 
the moment of death which tortures the patient in his last illness and 
harrows the hearts of his relatives and friends. His own observation, 
strengthened by reading on the subject, led him to believe that this 
suffering is largely imaginarj% and to bear out his theory he compiled 
a vast number of examples from the deaths of famous men of history 
as well as people in ordinary walks of life of whom we have records. 
The result was the two-volume work, which is unique in its purpose 
and in its exhaustive treatment of the subject. Dr. Bloch does not 
attempt to minimize the mental suffering due to remorse and fear of 
future punishment, but he contends that one whose conscience is at 
rest can meet death with perfect serenity, untroubled by any fear of 
physical agony. He holds that the death struggle, which seems ter- 
rible to the onlooker, is usually not felt by the patient himself, and 
that the actual moment of death is as unconscious as the moment 
of birth. In order to reach the general public. Dr. Bloch presented 
his subject in a popular way, and his publishers are now bringing out 
the work in an inexpensive edition. 



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THE AMERICAN'SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 37 

y . - While Norway is rejoicing in the centenary of her 

Dvbbol Constitution and, together with Sweden, commem- 

^ orating a hundred years of peace on the Scandinavian 

peninsula, while England and America are preparing to celebrate a 
century of peace between the Anglo-Saxon nations, and America is 
living over again the events that cemented the Union fifty years ago, 
Denmark is remembering the two great losses which the little nation 
has sustained in modern times. One hundred years ago, an arbitrary 
decree of the European powers cut Norway loose from Denmark. 
The forcible isolation of Norway during the Napoleonic wars had 
already weakened a union which in those days of diflScult communica- 
tion had never been organic, and the loss of a nominal dominion has, 
in the case of Denmark, been amply compensated by the gain of a 
strong and friendly neighboring State. A much deeper wound was 
inflicted fifty years ago, when Sonderjylland, an integral part of 
Denmark, was torn away. This loss the Danish people have never 
ceased to mourn. 

The more honor to them for that almost religious fervor — often 
hidden under a jest — with which they have rehabilitated their country 
and created new values. Through the cultivation of the heath they 
have won more land than they lost in the war; through the perfection 
of agriculture they have made every acre enormously productive, and 
by the recent development of manufacturing they have prepared to 
meet the day when agriculture can no longer support the increasing 
population. In social legislation Denmark is in the van of modern 
progress. In art and literature the Danes have not only produced 
great men, but by their subtler perceptions they have been the first to 
recognize men of genius among their neighbors. At the same time 
the People's High Schools have raised the general intelligence of the 
population to a remarkably high level. 

It is in the hght of this progress that we must see the meeting of 
the veterans of Dybbol in Copenhagen on April 18, to receive the 
homage that was all too sparsely doled out to them after the patient, 
desperate stand in 1864. It was the homage of a nation that has 
found itself and has wrested victory from defeat. Four thousand 
gray-haired men marched again after the bullet-riddled flags that led 
them long ago, bent limbs straightened and old heads were lifted at 
the sound of the old tunes. King Christian X, addressing the vet- 
erans assembled before the royal palace of Amalienborg, found the 
words that expressed the sentiment of the nation when he thanked 
them for the heritage of "a Danebrog unspotted" still waving over 
the land. Then the old men broke rank and pressed forward to 
shake the hand of the king, who remained sitting on his horse until 
the last of the veterans had passed him with a hearty handshake and 
gone on to the various festivities prepared by a grateful city. 



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38 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

A Swedish-Norweilian ^ bitterly contested election in Sweden 
npf Pn Aivo Alllani^ resulted in the following constitution of the 

special Kiksdag, which assembled on May 
18: Conservatives 85, Liberals 70, Social Democrats 75. This means 
that the Conservatives, with their slogan, "defenses first," from being 
the weakest party have become the strongest; the Social Democrats, 
taking a stand against heavier military burdens, have also made some 
gain, while the Liberals, making their fight on a theoretical question 
of constitutional monarchy, have lost heavily, and from being the 
strongest have become the weakest of the three. No party has a 
majority, but the leaders of the Liberals and many of the more 
moderate Socialists have declared themselves in favor of strengthen- 
ing the military defenses of their country, and unless the issue is 
allowed to be confused by party strife, it would seem that decisive 
steps in this direction must now be taken. The recent discovery of 
Russian spies in Sweden, of Russian maps and a Russian military' 
handbook giving detailed information about both Sweden and Nor- 
way, as well as the increased activity of the peregrinating Russian 
"saw-filers," who have long been regarded as spies, have deepened 
the sense of danger from the East in both countries. 

The untiring Sven Hedin has issued a passionate appeal to coun- 
trymen in America to raise money for a battleship, and fourteen 
infiuential Swedish-American papers have responded by jointly offer- 
ing to receive contributions. On April 2 Dr. Hedin was the guest of 
the Students' Society in Christiania and received an ovation, as he 
argued that only a weak Norway could be a danger to Sweden, and 
that the interests of the two people were identical. Preliminary steps 
were taken on the occasion of his visit to Norway toward informal 
conferences between influential Swedes and Norwegians to discuss the 
best form for a defensive alliance. 

Thft Norwav Through the courtesy of the management of the Cen- 
Centennial tennial Exposition in Norway, a representative of the 
Foundation has been allowed the privilege of a desk 
on the Exposition grounds. The trustees, at their meeting on May 2, 
decided to send Hanna Astrup Larsen, assistant to the secretary and 
literary editor of the Review. Miss Larsen, though born in Iowa, 
is of Norwegian extraction, being the great-granddaughter of one of 
the Eidsvold men of 1814, Provst Lauritz Oftedal, and the daughter 
of President Emeritus Laur. Larsen, of Luther College in Decorah. 
She will arrive in Norway on June 15, and will be ready to meet 
Norwegian-Americans who wish information about the activities of 
the Foundation. 



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Books 

Three Plays (second series). By Bjornstjerne Bjomson. Translated from the 

Norwegian by Edwin Bjorkman. Introduction by Edwin Bjorkman. New 

York. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. 

It no doubt seems somewhat venturesome for both publisher and translator 
to bring out in America plays which were written primarily for a Norwegian 
public from fifteen to thirty years ago, and yet such is the vigor and charm of 
Bjomson's personality that he can be trusted to win favor wherever he is known. 

"Love and Geography," the first of the three plays in this volume, is comedy 
of the best quality. It is the story of a domestic episode with a happy ending. 

The second, "Beyond Human Might," as the title indicates, deals with 
weightier matters. A casual reading might give the impression that it treats of 
the problem of capital and labor. Closer study, however, reveals that the local 
setting is quite incidental, though it lends itself admirably to the purpose of the 
author. This play is born of Bjornson's reaction against existing conditions, and 
its almost invariable concomitant — ^the questioning of all authority, whether 
natural or supernatural. But the play is not primarily a dramatization of pro- 
test. The idea of the futility of catastrophic reform measures is quite as impor- 
tant an element. The thing Bjomson here seeks to dramatize is the micro- 
struggle which takes place on the battleground of each human heart, between the 
spirit within and the world without, also its counterpart, the macro-struggle which 
rages in the great world, and, furthermore, the outcome of this struggle which, 
in Bj5rnson's opinion, is not altogether in our hands; there is a limit to human 
power; there are things beyond human might. 

"Laboremus," the third play, is a clever psychological study, somewhat 
Ibsenesque in style. 

Mr. Bjorkman has contributed an introduction full of pertinent comment and 
of much value, especially to those just making their acquaintance with Bjomson. 

A. R. Shelander. 

NoRSK-AMERiKANERNES Festskrift, 1914. Under hovedredaktion af Jobs. B. 

Wist. Med bidrag av Carl Hansen, Th. Eggen, M. K. Bleken, Waldemar Ager, 

Juul Dieserud og Gisle Bothne. The Symra Company, Decorah, Iowa. 

By far the most valuable part of this publication in honor of the Norwegian 
Centennial is the history of the Norwegian- American press after the Civil War, 
by Johs. B. Wist, occupying more than half of the large volume. The Norwegian- 
American papers, whatever their shortcomings, stand in a singularly vital relation 
to their public; their history is the history of the people. Mr. Wist has not only 
compiled a vast amount of material never before gathered, but has succeeded in 
finding the intellectual currents that run through the seemingly confused mass. 
He writes with objective impartiality and in a spirit of justice, tempered — a 
thought too much tempered, perhaps — with mercy. 

Much has been said of the mission of the Scandinavian-American papers in 
keeping the immigrant in touch with his homeland. Perhaps not enough recog- 
nition has been given their usefulness in teaching him to understand the institu- 
tions of his new country. In a survey of the press before the war, Carl Hansen 
puts forth the claim that one-sixth of the Norwegians in America enlisted in the 
Northern army, while native-born Americans sent only one-eighth of their num- 
bers to the war. The credit for this devotion of the adopted sons Mr. Hansen 
ascribes to the work of their own pioneer newspapers. 

The articles on Norwegian-American churches, societies and educational, 
literary and political activities are valuable chiefly as presenting in condensed 
form material that is already available in other publications. H. A. L. 



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40 THE AMERICAN SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

The Great Mother — A Gospel of the Eternally Feminine. By C. H. A. 
Bjerregaard, author of " Mysticism and Nature Worship," etc., with chapters 
by Eugenie R. Eliscu, William F. Fraetas and Grace Gallatin Seton. New 
York. The Inner-Life Publishing Company, 191S. Price $2.50. 

This book, which is the result of thirty years of labor, contains more than 
the title would seem to indicate. It is an exposition of the author's "Weltan- 
schauung," and to those who, with G. K. Chesterton, think "the most practical 
and important thing about a man is his view of the universe," it cannot but prove 
interesting. The author attempts nothing less than to solve the riddle of the 
universe. 

His view is a species of pantheism. He prefers to call it " Nature-mysticism." 
Nature is thought of as a personality (p. 182), "a Living Presence" (p. 183), and 
this nature he names "The Great Mother." "The Great Mother," he says, "is 
absolute spirit and also self -consciousness in me" (p. 28). "Nature is both the 
cause and the process of proceeding of all things, corporeal and incorporeal, and 
there is nowhere anything which is not nature" (p. 20). 

Having described the source of all in this manner, he proceeds to say that 
whatever this source be called, "it is the feminine principle, and it is self-pro- 
creative" (p. 41), wherefore the sub-title, "A Gospel of the Eternally Feminine." 
The feminine principle finds its highest manifestation on earth in woman. Thus 
the author would seem to hand over the universe without strings to woman. He 
makes but one saving qualification. It is that we are justified in distinguishing 
between "woman as a phenomenon" — an imperfect expression of the feminine 
principle — "and the feminine principle" itself (p. 36). The mark of woman's 
superiority is aspiration, and aspiration is that "which irresistibly lifts us" (p. 59). 
"It carries creative energy within itself" (p. 64). Man is not yet a "full-grown 
soul," because he still lingers on the plane of desire. 

This, in brief, is the argument. The latter part of it has something in common 
with the late Professor Lester F. Ward's gynecocentric theory constituting one 
of the chapters of his famous book, " Pure Sociology." No doubt, there are those 
who would disagree with the author's sociological conclusions, as well as with his 
theology. However, with all due allowance for his theorizing and for certain 
eccentricities of style, there is a remainder of the stufiF of which food for the 
spirit is made. He has harvested in many fields and the golden grain he has 
gathered bears evidence of the sunshine and showers of many lands. 

A. R. Shelander 

Bonnier's College Series of Swedish Text Books. Edited by A. Louis 
Elmquist, Stockholm, 1910-1912. I. Selma Lagerlof's "En Herrgardssagen." 
11. Helena Nyblom's "Det Ringer." III. Selections from Selma Lagerlof's 
"Nils Holgerssons Underbara Resa Genom Sverige." 

The publishing house of Albert Bonnier in Stockholm is to be congratulated 
upon providing American schools with a series of Swedish text books. They are 
edited by a competent and well-trained scholar. Professor A. Louis Elmquist, of 
Northwestern University, who studied three semesters at the University of 
Leipzig and a year at the University of Uppsala. The volumes are illustrated and 
the machinery of editing is simple, but thorough. The introductions are brief and 
to the point. Each volume is supplied with a complete vocabulary at the back, 
and a set of notes to explain historical allusions and idioms not otherwise made 
clear by the dictionary. Mr. Elmquist is the author of a Swedish grammar, and 
a phonology of the Swedish language now in press; also a text edition of Rune- 
berg's "Fanrik Stals Sagner." xi i- t 

il. vjr. Lt, 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 41 

ICaren Borneman. Lynggaard & Co. Two plays by Hjalmar Bergstr5m. 
Translated from the Danish, with an Introduction by Edwin Bjorkman. 
(The Modern Drama Series, No. 1; New York, Mitchell Kennerley, 1913.) 

A translation from so uncertain an author as Bergstr5m can hardly be called 
an auspicious beginning for the Modern Drama Series started but lately under the 
general editorship of Bj5rkman; for while unquestionably clever and entertaining, 
neither play is original in the best sense. Somehow, both action and actors have 
been seen behind the footlights numberless times. And, while quite pretentious 
in matter and treatment, both plays really are very light stuff. With Bergstrom 
we are definitely among the imitators. His work points backward — not forward, 
as Mr. Bj5rkman opines — backward to a stale, flat and unprofitable naturalism, 
Karen Borneman closes the play named after her with the trite but true remark : 
"I suppose it is the law of life that nothing new can come into the world without 
pain." She is mistaken, however, if she — and the author — thinks that the ideas 
about sexual freedom which she proclaims are anything "new." In "Lynggaard 
& Co." the author presents the "problem" of a rather stage-made-labor-war from 
all possible angles. We are given the viewpoint of the rich but rather helpless 
brewer, his ambitious and resourceful secretary, who really runs the business and 
is a Jew (of course), the dreary mother tormented by the responsibility of her 
wealth, her son who is going to help "reform" society, the unpleasant, megalo- 
maniac workman from the penitentiary, etc. — where have we seen them before.? 
For originality of observation and invention is not in evidence. 

The translation is, on the whole, well done, but it is regrettable that Mr. 
Bj5rkman has not yet succeeded in ridding his English of Scandinavianisms. 

L. M. H. 



Peer Gynt. Translated in the Original Meter, with an Introduction by R. Ellis 
Roberts. (The Modem Drama Series, No. 3; New York, Mitchell Kennerley, 
1913.) 

There is probably no poem in the world's literature that is equal in boisterous 
dash and lusty vigor to "Peer Gynt"; nor, probably, any in which these elements 
are so intimately and effectively interspersed with words of orphic wisdom and 
passages of poignant sweetness. Mr. R. Ellis Roberts' version of the great poem, 
adhering faithfully to the rhyme scheme and meters of the original, is a brave 
attempt to do the well-nigh impossible. It is no ignominy if, in my opinion, he 
has failed. It is not difficult, unfortunately, to point out one cardinal reason for 
his failure, which is his seeming insensitiveness to rhythm. Many of his lines are 
sheer prose capped with rhyme words. Surely, if a metrical translation has any 
raison d'etre it must be to re-create the effect of the original; or else we might as 
well be satisfied with prose, with its possibility of greater faithfulness in the ren- 
dering of the sense. It requires a poet to translate a poet. With Roberts, most 
of the poetry has evaporated in the process. The first act is particularly bald, 
with its overworked present participles for feminine endings and occasional 
atrocious grammar. But even at its best, the translation is heavy and labored, 
and fails to give the English reader a fair conception of the rush and gleam of 
Ibsen's lines — ^to be sure, an exceedingly difficult task! In the opinion of the 
present reviewer, Mr. Roberts* introduction is quite misleading, and his compari- 
sons mostly beside the point. For the whole of the poem, as well as for an 
intelligent introduction, Archer's translation is still the only one to be recom- 
mended. T Tir XT 

L. M. H. 



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42 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

The Medieval Ballad. Translated from the Danish of Johannes C. H. R. 
Steenstrup by Edward Godfrey Cox. Ginn & Company, Boston, 1914. 

It is a great pity that several Danish works of vital importance to the study of 
Anglo-Saxon history and literature are inaccessible, save to the fortunate few 
who read Danish. Professor Steenstrup's indispensable work on the invasions 
of the Northmen, first published in 1877, still remains untranslated into English. 
We are indeed indebted to the translator and the high educational interests of 
the house of Ginn for providing English readers with Steenstrup's treatment of 
the Danish ballads. In this work the author develops the critical method by 
which the popular ballad may be shorn of the accretions of time and restored to 
its original form in the thirteenth and follo^ang centuries. He is more conserva- 
tive than Grundtvig in dating the ballads; the earliest are from the twelfth 
century, and there is a sharp cleavage in genre between these rhymed poems of the 
people, made to be sung to the dance, and the earlier alliterative heroic ballads, 
recorded by Saxo, composed for recitation. 

The translation is scholarly and the ballad extracts are Anglicized with some 
genuine folk flavor. This book, based on the ballads of Denmark, is a fitting 
companion to the similar discussion of the English and Scottish ballads by 
Professor F. B. Gummere, and becomes at once an essential book of reference 
for the desk of every ballad lover. H. G. L. 



Brief Notes 

Professor J. N. Lenker has issued "A Popular Appeal in Three Languages for 
a Three-Language Education." The author argues that, with the growth of 
intercourse among the nations, Americans cannot hold their own in modern 
culture unless they will make the study of living languages general in the graded 
and high schools, as it is in the corresponding schools of Europe, ln the North- 
west, where the German and Scandinavian elements are strong, he believes 
children should be taught these two languages, which would be most easily 
acquired and most useful in practical life. 

Rev. C. A. Lonnquist, of Axtell, Nebraska, has recently published a volume 
of poems entitled "Sundet vid Tresk&r." The name is taken from that of the 
first poem, which is an epic telling in blank verse the story of a young man who 
was carried to sea in a fishing-smack. The lyrics, as well as the poems written 
for special occasions, are expressive and show a high degree of originality. We 
need only mention a sonnet like "Min Gangstig'* or a playful ditty like **Kal- 
stock-Smide" as fair examples of LSnnquist's happy temperament. 

A prize of 100 kronor offered by the Review for the best Danish rendering of 
Dr. Egan's sonnet on Rosenborg in our Yule Number, brought 287 translations 
to the editor of Politiken, through whose good offices the award was made. Two 
of these, one by Rev. Uffe Birkedal and one by Mrs. Agnete Hindenburg Krabbe, 
were of such high merit that the prize was divided between them. The contest 
was limited to Denmark. 

Mr. A. R. Holmen, of Columbus, Ohio, has donated the sum of 50,000 kronor 
to his Alma Mater, Boras Technical Elementary School, in Sweden. The donor 
has made the condition that he is to receive, during his lifetime, an interest of 
five per cent, of the fund, but after his death the entire income is to be applied to 
scholarships for deserving students in the school, preferably sons of day laborers 
or small farmers. 



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THE AMERICAN -SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 43 

Another graduate of the Boras Technical School, Mr. Erik Oberg, of Chicago, 
is associate editor of Machinery ^ the leading mechanical review in America. He 
was compiler and chief author of a " Machinery Handbook," which appeared in 
January of this year, and has been sold in 12,500 copies. The volume^ which 
is the first complete work of its kind, is beautifully bound and illustrated and is 
a model of accuracy and practical arrangement. 



Mathilde Wrede, the subject of Selma Lagerlof 's sketch, which appeared in the 
Yule Number in a translation by Velma Swanston Howard, recently celebrated 
her fiftieth birthday. Laudatory articles on her work appeared in the newspapers 
of Finland; it will be remembered that Miss Wrede's mission to the prisoners was 
recently forbidden by the Russian authorities. 

The Norwegian-American newspapers and magazines for May devote much 
space to the Norway Centennial. Symra, the bi-monthly magazine edited by 
Johs. B. Wist and Kristian Prestgaard, is packed full of instructive material. 
Eidsvold appears in a 17th of May edition with a poem to Norway by Johan 
Seines. Tne prize offered by the Sons of Norway for the best Norwegian- 
American national song was won by Sigurd Folkestad. 

A lecture course especially for Norwegian-Americans will be given at historic 
Eidsvold in the week immediately following the Fourth of July, America's Day 
at the Exposition in Christiania. The subjects will include the political and 
sociological development of Norway, and the progress of art, science, and industry. 
A moderate price covers the lecture course, concerts, and room and board for the 
week. Inquiries should be addressed to Norgeskurset, Eidsvold, Norway. 

Among the lecturers at the course to be given in Eidsvold will be Professor 
Gisle Bothne, of the University of Minnesota; President C. K. Preus, of Luther 
College, Decorah, Iowa, will lecture at the University in Christiania this summer. 

The next issue of the Review will be a New Sweden Number, containing 
valuable articles, illustrated, about Swedish colonies in America. It will also 
discuss the reaction upon American thought of several recent visitors from 
Scandinavia, notably Georg Brandes, Maurice Francis Egan, J. Gust Richert, 
and Osvold Sir6n. 

Gift to the Foundation : An autograph letter with a drawing of machinery 
by John Ericsson, designer of the "Monitor"; framed and presented by John 
Aspegren, president of the American-Scandinavian Society. 

THE MEDIEVAL POPULAR BALLAD 

Translated from the Danish of Professor Johannes C. H. R, Steenstrup, by Edward Godfrey Cox, 
The standaid Danish work on the ballad, "Vore Folkeviser fra Middelalderen," translated into English. 

Professor Steenstrup's study is based on Grundtvig's collection of Danish ballads, and deals in a broad 

way with questions vital to all students of the ballad. 

What the author attempts is unique. In place of accepting ballads at their face value, he endeavors 

to isolate the genuine medieval features, "to know the ballads as they issued from the poet's mouth." 

His method is both intensive and comparative. It lays bare in great detail the original conditions 

of production, the nature and purpose of the refrain, and the structure of the rime, rhythm, and melody. 

The comparisons with the Norse sagas and the ballads of Germany, together with the plenteous use of 

extracts from the ballads of Denmark, all combine to set forth attractively the perplexing and fascinating 

question of ballad origins and distributions. Price $1.75, 

GINN AND COMPANY, Publishers 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON 



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The Magazines 



The fourth instalment of the Publications of the Society far the Advancement of 
Scandinavian Study includes valuable philological essays by M. Larson, J. E. 
Olson, M. Sturtevant, Ingebrigt Lillehei, G. N. Swan, G. Schutte, A. G. S. 
Josephsson, and the editor, G. T. Flom, as well as a report which was the basis of 
an editorial recently in The Review. 

If there be any occupation exclusively Norwegian, it is whaling, whether 
carried on off the coast of Japan or in the Straits of Magellan. James B. Con- 
nolly, in Scribner's for September, describes in his slashing, picturesque, sailor 
fashion, "The Battle Cruise of the Svend Foyn," which put off from Punta 
Arenas, where an old Norwegian whaler "uncorked four soud hours of the old 
Sagas, finishing up in the big front room, with flat bread and goat's cheese and 
dried ptarmigan chips and Trondhjem beer." Mr. Connolly once spent a summer 
off the Norwegian coast with Henry Reuterdahl, the Swedish-American artist 
whose daring color sketches illustrate a story in the September number of 
Everybody's^ and a series of three paintings "With the Navy," in the March 
Scribner*s. 

The Literary Digest, July 5, prints a portrait of Maurice F. Egan, Minister 
to Denmark, in an article on "Our Literary Diplomats." Two translations from 
the Swedish appear in recent numbers of Poet Lore; "King Lear's Wife," a critical 
fragment from Strindberg by A. H. Swan, and "Song," from Topelius, by 
A. Louis Elmquist, melodiously rendered in the meter of Kalevala and Hiawatha. 

Harper's Magazine for November contains three articles of Scandinavian 
interest: Madame de Hegemann Lindencrone begins a new series of charming 
memoirs with "A Danish Diplomat's Wife in Washington, 1875-1878"; Vilhjal- 
mur Stefansson, the Icelandic-American explorer, writes entertainingly on 
"Religious Beliefs of the Eskimo," while John L. Mathews compares the methods 
of cooperative farming in Denmark and Italy in an illustrated article entitled 
"The Art of Mutual Aid." Recent numbers of Harper's Bazar contain articles 
by Edwin Bjorkman, the Swedish-American critic, and a series of essays by 
Ellen Key. The Century for April presents an essay by Mr. Bjorkman, entitled 
"In Behalf of American Literature," addressed to President Wilson. 

"A Trip Through Denmark, Norway and Sweden" is the title of an article 
full of careful observation which escapes the ordinary traveler, an interview with 
Mr. Luis Jackson in the Erie Railroad Employees Magazines for November and 
December. Articles on Swedish scientific-industrial subjects appear in the 
Engineering and Mining Journal for June and the Scientific-American Supplement 
for October. The Harvard Alumni Bulletin, February 11, publishes an account of 
the "Scandinavian Foundation." In the New Review for November Dr. J. W. 
Hartmann translates a story of Per Hallstrom, "Doctor Braun." 

In the realm of art in American magazines Anders Zorn, of Northern artists, 
still occupies the most conspicuous place, his work being the subject of recent 
articles in The International Studio, The Craftsman, and the Cosmopolitan. The 
musical magazines manifest a renewed interest in Scandinavian music and 
Miss Willa Sibert Cather writes about Olive Fremstad in the December JfcCZwr^'*. 

The ministerial crisis in Sweden is reviewed editorially in the American Review 
of Reviews for March, which comments also on the industrial development of 
Denmark, which was the subject of an essay by Mr. Alexander Foss in the 
November issue of The American-Scandinavian Review. 



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The American-Scandinavian 
Foundation 

announces that orders will be received for the following books now 
in press, to be delivered early in the autumn: 

Scandinavian Monographs, Vol. 1 

printed on suede finish paper, bound in blue cloth, with a seal stamped in gold. 

The Voyages of the Norsemen to America 

By WILLIAM HOVGAARD 

Professor of Naval Construction in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Late 
Commander in the Royal Danish Navy. 

An objective treatment of the whole problem, including reliable translations of all parts of the 
Sagas that concern Vinland, and a thorough discussion of the nautical aspects. About 300 pages 
of text, 83 illustrations, and 7 maps. 

Free to Patron Associates of the Foundation. 

Scandinavian Classics, Vols. 1 and 2 

printed on suede finish paper, bound in red cloth, with a seal stamped in gold. 

COMEDIES OF HOLBERG. Jeppe of the Hill, The Political Tmker, Erasmus Montanus: 
Translated by Oscar James Campbell, Jr., Assistant Professor of English in the University of Wisconsin* 
and Frederic Schenck, B.Litt. of Balliol College. Introduction by Dr. Campbell. 

POEMS OF TEGNER. The Children of the Last Supper, translated by Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow; Frithiofs Saga, translated by Rev. W. L. Blackley; with a critical introduction by Paul 
Robert Lieder, of Harvard University. 

Both volumes are free to Sustaining, Life, and Patron Associates of the Foundation. 

The American-Scandinavian Review: 
Vol. 1, 1913 

Twenty-two copies remaining, bound with title page and index; cover 
stamped with seal in gold. 
Price $5.00. Postage free. 

Order by mail direct from 

The American-Scandinavian Foundation 

New York 

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46 ADVERTISEMENTS 



Books That Will Appeal to All 
Scandinavian-Americans 

Three worth-vhUe books by EDWIN BJORKMAN 

THE VOICES OF GLEAMS IS THERE ANYTHING 

TO-MORROW Flaehes of Hua truthe NEW UNDER THE SUN? 

A study of the New Spirit in clearly seen and keenly An optimistic analysis 

Literature Price $1.50 felt • • Price 75c. Price $1.25 

THE POWER OF A LIE Two Strong Novels TREACHEROUS GROUND 

A great work that has been crowned by by Vivid, simple, powerful. Translated 

the French Academy • Price $1.25 JOHAN BOJER by Jessie Muir • • Price $1.S6 

THE MODERN DRAMA SERIES, Edited by edwin bjorkm an 

OF SPECIAL INTEREST 
HJALMAR BERGSTROM— Karen HENRIK IBSEN— Peer Gynt 

Borneman Translated in the original metre by R. Ellis 

Translated by Edwin Bjorkman ' Price $1.50 RoberU, Price $1.25 

Published by MITCHELL KENNERLEY 



LILIECRONA'S HOME, By Selma Lagerlof • Price $1.25 

Translaled from the Swedish by Anna BarweU. thrown a spell of romance, half-homely, half-magical, but 

Readers of "Gfieto BcrUng " will remember that one of *" ?***^9^ ^^ *" ^^^ ^^lu- * *u i- u ^ 

GCsta's companions at the Cavalier House-that strange ^^,^"1^5,;?? ^IZ "^n^SSiA^^^SS^t^y^^^r. 

Home for Decayed Gentlemen established by the master- fSn JniS? fi^4 ^K^k^wi h^r ^L^SJS « J^^h^ 

ful Mistre^of Ekeby-^asLUiec^na the yto^^^^ Of ^J??y^^i*e"^|cs^iL^to'^di '^^ 

him It IS related that, unhke the other Cavaliers, he had a thoughts, she describes the peasanU and their doings in 

good home of his own, but was driven to Ekeby by the realistic detail; but she sees it all suffused in a glow of 

craving of his artist nature for luxury and change. This is tender romance, which takes the mould of the faDy tale 

the story of his home and how he came to it, and why he because the fairy tale is the sublimated essence of romance, 

had need of distraction. It is a village idyll from the always fresh and imperishable. Those who can appre- 

same loom as "GOsta Berling." and woven of the same ciate her will not wonder at the award of the Nobel Pnze; 

pattern. It takes us back to the enchanted Vftrmland. those who caimot arc not to be envied. — The London 

the far Northern region over which Selma LagerlOf has Times, January 9, 1914. 

FBOM THE EVERYMAN'S LIBRARY. Cloth, 35c.; Leather. 70c. 

BJORNSON PLAYS HENRIK IBSEN 

Vol. I. The Newly Married Couple, Leonardo, 494. A DolFs House, and Other Plays. 

A Gauntlet. 552. Ghosts, and Other Plays. 

Vol. II. The Editor, The Bankrupt, The King. 059. The Pretenders. Pillars of Society, etc. 

Published by E. P. BUTTON & CO. 
STRINDBERG, The Growth of a Soul 

A valuable addition to the works which reveal the true character and struggles of August 
Strindberg. Filling the gap between "The Son of a Servant" and the "Red Room," this work is 
an introspective analysis showing the effect of constant defeat and misfortune upon Strindberg's 
early life. 

The first edition of "The Growth of a Soul" was completely sold out within ten days after 
publication. Price $1.25. 

IN MIDSUMMER DAYS 

A collection of charming stories delightful for their good humor and keen philosophy. Price $1.25 

Published by McBRIDE, NAST & CO. 



All these books may be obtained by sending order and remittance direct to the 
American-Scandinavian Review, 25 West 45th Street, New York 

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The American-Scandiiiayiaii Review 

Volume II SEPTEMBER, 1914 Number 5 

Published Bi-M9nth]y by Thk Amsrican-Scandinaviam Foundation, 25 West 45th Street, New York 

Yearly Subscription, $1.50. Single Copies, 25 cents 

Bnteied aa second-class matter. January 4. 1913, at the post-office at New York. N. Y., under the act of March 3. 1870 

Copyright, 1014. Th^ American-Scandinavian Foundation 

Hknbt Goddabd Lkach, Managing Editor Hanna Astbup Labsbn, Literary Editor 

Advisory Editors 
New York, Hamilton Hoi;t Copenhagen, HAHAT^n Nielsen 

Stockholm, Cabl Laubin Christiania, Christian Colun 

CONTENTS 

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SEPTEMBER REVIEW 5 

FRONTISPIECE. First Page of the Journal of the New Sweden Com- 
pany, 1637 6 

GLIMPSES OF SWEDISH ARCHITECTURE. By Osvald Siren. With 
Six Illustrations 7 

TWO EMPTY HANDS. By Waldemar Ager 13 

SOME ACCOUNT OF NEW SWEDEN AND HER CHURCHES. By 

M. Atherton Leach. With Five Illustrations 16 

DANISH CASTLES— V. LOVENBORG. Illustration 24 

A DANISH CASTLE. Sonnet. By Maurice Francis Egan. Illustration. 25 

LITTLE PAUL. By Bjornstjerne Bjornson. Translated from the 
Norwegian by W. von Munthe af Morgenstierne 26 

TO JEAN SIBELIUS. Poem. By Norreys Jephson O'Conor ... 28 

FOURTH OF JULY IN NORWAY. By Hanna Astrup Larsen. One 
Illustration 29 

A PLYMOUTH OF SWEDISH AMERICA. By Emma Shogren Farman. 
With Five Illustrations 30 

EDITORIAL: W^ar, Denmark's American Society, At the Expositions, 
Nordmandsforbundet, Brandes in America, The Second Generation, New 
Sweden, A Holberg Revival, Haakon Nyhuus 37 

BOOKS: The Descendants of Joran Kyn, The School System of Norway 43 

BRIEF NOTES 44 

THE MAGAZINES 45 




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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SEPTEMBER REVIEW 

The editors wish to thank Professor Amandus Johnson, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, for his assistance in preparing the New Sweden Number. 

Professor Osvald Siren, of Stockholm, was invited to America last spring 
to deliver a series of six lectures on Leonardo da Vinci at Yale University. 
He also lectured at the Universities of Harvard, Princeton and Columbia; at 
the Art Museums of Boston, New York and Chicago; before the American- 
Scandinavian Society in New York, and the Swedish Colonial Society in Phila- 
delphia. 

Waldemar Ager is an American writer of Norwegian descent. 

M. Atherton Leach, of Philadelphia, is active in biographical and genealogi- 
cal work relating to American families. 

Minister Egan returned to Denmark in August. He is recovering from a 
serious operation. The banquet arranged in his honor in New York by the 
American-Scandinavian Society was indefinitely postponed. 

W. von Munthe af Morgenstierne was formerly in the Norwegian foreign 
service at Washington. He is now secretary of Nordmandsforbundet. 

The poem to Jean Sibelius is by a former contributor to the Review; the great 
Finnish composer visited America early in the summer. 

Emma Shogren Farman, of Napa, California, is a native of St. Paul, 
daughter of the Rev. Erick Shogren. She is a graduate of Knox College, and has 
studied at the University of California, and pursued graduate work in literature 
at Cornell University. Her sketches and stories have for many years appeared in 
Swedish-American newspapers, in the New York Christian Advocate^ Scribner^s 
Magazine and I dun (Stockholm), and she has published in English a book of short 
stories, the scenes of which are laid among the Swedish settlements in America, 
entitled "Where the Mississippi Flows." 

Vilhelm Slobiann, Fellow of the American-Scandinavian Foundation, has 
completed two years in America studying our library methods. 

Edwin John Vickner is Professor of the Scandinavian Languages in the 
University of Washington. 

The Cover design of this issue is from a portrait of Johan Printz, third gov^ 
ernor of New Sweden (1643-1653), presented by King Gustav V to the Swedish 
Colonial Society in Philadelphia. This portrait is a copy from the original paint- 
ing now at Bottnaryd, near Jonkoping, in Sweden, where Governor Printz is 
buried. The Frontispiece is a reproduction of the first page of the Journal 
of the New Sweden Company, giving items of expense connected with the first 
expedition and articles sent to the Delaware in 1637. (From Johnson*s Swedish 
Settlements.) 



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/'(OCT 29 1914 ] 




American - Scandinavian 

Review 

Volume II SEPTEMBER * 1914 Number 5 

Glimpses of Swedish Architecture 

By OsvALD SmfcN 

The Editors of the Review Have Asked Osvald Sib^n, Professor of the History op Art at the 
University of Stockholm, Who Visited New York During March and April, to Discuss the 
Tendencies and the Men that Have Made Swedish Architecture what It Is Today, in the. 
Truest Sense a Creative Art. In Kindly Consenting to be Interviewed, Professor Sir6n 
Wishes to State that the Richness of the Material Makes It Impossible to do Anything but. 
Dwell on a Few Points that Best Illustrate the General Trend of Swedish Architecturb, 

IN SWEDEN, as in other countries, architecture of the last century 
was successively influenced by the different historic styles — 
Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque — ^perpetuated more or less in the 
academies and accepted by their pupils without much reference to 
the special conditions in their own country* This copying of historic 
models led not only to the deadening of creative power, but also to 
the improper use of building materials, as, for instance, when plaster 
and stucco were used for elaborate decorations that obscured the 
structure. 

The first step in the new national movement beginning in the last 
decade of the nineteenth century was to abolish false ornamental 
patch-work and use genuine materials, allowing the beauty of the 
building to be worked out through its real form, stuff and construc- 
tion. Most of the modern buildings in Stockholm are of the Swedish 
red or gray sandstone, or brick of a dark reddish brown, with fine tone 
variations, some even partly of granite, and in the case of the more 
monumental structures the decorations are worked in the stone by 
our great sculptors. For roofs we mostly use brown, red or glazed 
black tiles. 

Wood was, of course, the earliest building material used in Sweden, 
and the most truly national style is developed from the bondegard, or 
farm-house, made of timber. But this has naturally no connection 
with the constructions of a modern city; we have in this space only to 
speak of buildings in stone and brick. Monumental architecture 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 




Timber Bondegard from Mora 

began in Sweden, as in most other countries, with the ecclesiastical 
buildings of the Middle Ages. The best of the churches and monas- 
teries were constructed by the monastic orders coming from France 
and Germany. The Cistercians, in the twelfth century, brought a 
splendid style, of which we still have examples in the beautiful though 
partly ruined churches at Alvastra, Varnhem, and Roma on the 
island of Gottland. The later Gothic style was brought by the great 
preaching orders, the Dominicans and Franciscans, coming in the 
thirteenth century, and we can still see it very well illustrated in 
many churches, for instance, the Riddarholm church in Stockholm 
and the churches of Sigtuna, Strengnas and Uppsala. 

There were, of course, also a number of small churches going up 
all over the country, and these followed the leading principles of the 
cathedrals and monasteries, but applied them in a simpler and coarser 
form. Thus a national style was developed, though mainly founded 
on the foreign models. The only spontaneous Swedish expression in 
ecclesiastical architecture during the Middle Ages was that of Saint 
Birgitta, who designed and began the building of the church at 
Vadstena, and whose ideas were subsequently followed in other 
churches of her order. She departed from custom in building monas- 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 9 

teries for monks and nuns together, and therefore had to adapt her 
construction to the new needs; another innovation was that of placing 
the choir of the church to the west instead of to the east. 

In glancing over the history of Swedish architecture, we find that 
while the construction of wooden buildings was going on all the time, 
the higher kind of architecture was — besides the churches — confined 
to castles, which were, in fact, mainly fortifications needed in those 
restless times. Not till the latter part of Gustaf Vasa's reign was 
attention again paid to the more artistic side. The so-called Vasa 
architecture is a combination of the medieval fortified castle with the 
Renaissance idea of a palace for feasts — there is very little attention 
paid to comfort or to the practical needs of daily life. The best 
examples of this period are the castles at Gripsholm, Vadstena, and 
Kalmar. Gustaf Vasa's son, Johan the Third, was interested in 
rebuilding parts of Stockholm, and it was owing to his work that the 
Royal Castle became in part a beautiful Renaissance building. 

The next important period in artistic evolution was the Caro- 
line era, including the reigns of Charles the Tenth, Charles the 
Eleventh and Charles the Twelfth. The material prosperity follow- 
ing the Thirty Years' War and the ideas of culture and luxury gained 
by the men who had visited southern countries combined to make 




Vadstena, a Castle of the Vasa Period 



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10 



THE AMERICAN^SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 



this the greatest era of Sweden in an artistic as well as in a political 
sense. More buildings were erected during the latter half of the 
seventeenth century than at any other time, and now finally the 
aristocratic country dwelling was developed under influences from 
France and Italy. Men of unusual artistic power, like Nicodemus 
Tessin, the older, and Jean de la Vallee, who had studied abroad, 
created a kind of national style by adapting to the actual needs of 
the people the principles of the late renaissance and classicist ic 
l)arcque styles, which at that time were prevailing in southern Europe. 
They originated the characteristic city dwellings of the noblemen, 
as well as the country manor. 

This was, then, during the following century, somewhat modified, 
according to the principles of the lighter and more decorative rococo 
style. But before this modification actually took place, there 
appeared in Sweden, at the end of the seventeenth century, a greater 
architectural genius than ever before, Nicodemus Tessin the younger, 
who created the present Royal Palace in Stockholm, replacing the 
old one, which had been destroyed by fire in 1697. This palace, like 
most of Tessin's buildings, is a purely Italian creation, with marked 
classicistic character, allied to Lorenzo Bernini's Roman palaces. 

Toward the close of 
the eighteenth century 
the influence of the neo- 
classic trend in culture 
became prevalent in 
Sweden and found ex- 
pression in the style of 
architecture that is called 
Gustavian, from King 
Gustaf the Third. This, 
I may say, is the latest 
purely national style in 
Swedish architecture, and 
it is at present p)erhaps 
the most popular, its prin- 
ciples being applied es- 
pecially to the indoor dec- 
orations and also to the 
furniture; the combina- 
tion of decorative quali- 
ties with an element of 
comfort makes it still liked 
as a model for modem 
home construction. It is 
Uppsala Cathedral the Swedish Counterpart 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



11 



of the colonial style of New England, and I feel sure that the colonial 
style also contains artistic elements which could be utilized more than 
has yet been done for a special American architecture. This would be 
a great help in the evolution not only of taste but of that sense of a 
national culture which grows from a continuity of development. It 
is evident that the so-called colonial style is most easily applicable 
to smaller country houses and private homes, where finish and beauty 
of details play an important part, although the sense of proportion 
and beauty of line often found in colonial buildings contain elements 
that ought to be utilized in the large constructions of American cities 
more than yet has been the case. I suppose the question of applying 
the colonial principles in private houses is largely a question of creat- 
ing real family homes — not hotels — which seems to be at present 
one of the main problems of American national life. If there is a 
home life, the architect will express it, but he cannot remodel the 
national life, and, therefore, I am afraid that there will be no domestic 
architecture before there is a soil for it. When individual and family 
life exists, it will call out the setting which it requires, such as we see 
in the eighteenth century houses. 

Swedish architects of the present day, in their efforts to liberate 
themselves from all that 
is false and to create a 
national style, have 
sought inspiration in the 
old buildings of their 
country. The severely 
simple, solid structures 
of the medieval ecclesi- 
astical buildings and the 
castles of the Vasa peri- 
od are especially appro- 
priate for public build- 
ings, while the Caroline 
style is a favorite for 
country manors, and 
with its rich decorative 
character seems to ex- 
press the sumptuous 
habits and expansive 
hospitality of the Swed- 
ish country estate. 

At the same time a 
large number of less ex- 
pensive buildings are 
going up in the suburbs 

of the cities, simple Ridderholm Church 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 




Reception Room in Tid5 Palace, the C?ointry Home of Axel Oxenstierna 

modifications of the old Swedish farm house, little two-story dwellings, 
painted yellow or red, usually with a broken roof line and a little 
porch. The artistic importance of these buildings lies not in monu- 
mental proportions or rich elaboration, but in the ability to connect 
them with the surrounding nature. 

{To be continued in the November number) 




Dbottninoholm, a Palace of the Caroune Period 



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Two Empty Hands 

By Waldemar Ager 

THERE was a boy who went to America. He had struggled 
hard to get away, but when he stood ready to go on board the 
little fjord steamer, his throat seemed to close, and he could 
not bear to see his mother's tear-stained face, for he knew that if he 
did he, too, w^ould begin to cry. He looked at the bent back of the 
father, who lifted his trunk for him, and at the brothers and sisters 
standing there in a row — ^from the sister whom he loved unutterably 
to the smallest boy, with his quaint air of manliness, who did not 
understand anything. He saw the group of his childhood friends, 
whom he had gone to school with and w^ould never, never forget. 

There was the house, small and poverty-stricken, huddled under 
the hillside, but with the sunlight over it. He remembered every- 
thing within there, and he saw the mountains opposite with the weird 
outline on which his eyes had rested when he was a child. Thousands 
of times he had seen the sun rising over those mountains. 

Yet he was happy even in his sadness. "I am coming back," 
sang the voice within him. He would only be gone a few years, and 
he would see so much that was new. He would show the people 
over there that he could work — he would save money and come home, 
as others had done, wearing a fine suit and carrying a thick pocket- 
book. He took the measure, as it w'ere, of the parish — ^he would 
build a large and splendid house; his mother should be comfortable, 
his father should not have to toil, the children should go to school, 
and he would stride with lifted head to church, and people should 
look after him as he passed. 

He took the measure of himself, too, and involuntarily his large 
hands were clenched in his pockets. He would show the people over 
there that he could work, and that there was no one like him. 

And afterwards he would go home. 

As the distance from his home increased, the land rose before 
him, and he felt his chest expand with the thought that he was a 
Norw^egian and owned such a country as Norway. Never would he 
forget his homeland as so many others had done. It held all that 
he loved; it seemed as though God himself dwelled among those high 
mountains; he had often felt it when he had seen the sun rising on 
a beautiful spring morning or heard the church bells reverberating in 
the light, still air through the wondrous peace of Sunday forenoon. 

He stretched out his hands to the land that was vanishing in the 
horizon, and the exultant voice in him cried: " I am coming back," and 
his heart made a vow to that spirit which he had felt hovering over 
the jagged peaks, and which seemed a part of the church bells and 



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14 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

the rising sun over the hills: "I am coming back, — my soul is here 
among the mountains, and how should a man part from his own 
soul?" 

He did show the people over there. Never was a man more willing 
to work; but in the evening, after a hard day's labor, he wrote letters, 
and the letters always carried the same happy refrain: "I am coming 
home." 

The boy became a man and owned a large field that had to be 
plowed, but while he plowed, in his thoughts he was on the way home. 
Every furrow was the road to home, and every sprouting blade was 
swelling with the promise of home. The harvest would bring in 
thousands, and it did bring thousands, but there was always some- 
thing that had to be done first. In the spring he said: *'I am going 
in the fall," and in the fall he said: "I am going in the spring." 

The years passed, and one day a letter came with the message: 
"Your father is dead." His heart writhed, for he remembered his 
father's bent back, which had never been straightened, and he wrote: 
"I am coming home." 

He sold his fields, but not in order to go home; there was a splendid 
chance to do business in the town. He felt the want of a home, and 
a girl joined her life with his. He built a large house, but it was not 
on the site he had dreamed of. 

Again a letter came, saying: "Your mother is dead." 

"I am going home," he thought, but he did not go. There was 
always something that hindered him. When he no longer had his 
fields to plow, he had business to look after. To be sure, he had 
helped to build a Norwegian church with a large tower, but the bell 
did not have the right sound. The more he struggled to free himself 
the more he was bound. 

The years passed quickly, and the days were terribly short. One 
day he made the discovery that he was old, and that he could not 
speak intelligently with his grown children. He could discuss busi- 
ness with his sons, for that was something he understood, and he 
could discuss expenses with his daughters, for that, too, was some- 
thing he understood: but apart from this, they lived in different 
worlds. That which interested his children was strange to him, and 
that which interested him was strange to his children. His wife 
could not make him conform to her ideas of refinement, and his 
daughters were embarrassed by his large hands and clumsy manners. 
They blushed when he spoke Norwegian to them in the hearing of 
others, and his wife wept with anger when he forgot himself and told 
of the little cottage at home with the one window where he had 
seen the sun rising over high mountains. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 15 

And the years rolled by. His wife had long been under the 
ground, and his sons were old men, who spoke in low voices and 
walked quietly through the large rooms. A new generation had risen 
with new, strange names, and they sang new songs, and their laughter 
sounded distant and strange to the old man, as he lay in his room 
alone, waiting for death, which did not come. 

Again there came a letter from home. It was from his youngest 
brother, now the only one who remained of the family. The letter 
lay unread on the table, for the old man's eyes were almost sightless, 
and in the large house there was no one who could read it, but he 
knew that it was his brother's last farewell, and with his mist-dimmed 
eyes he could see the letter like a light spot on the dark table-cover. 

The spot of light grew and grew, until it became a whole fjord 
in the sunshine — morning sunshine. A little boy stood on his knees 
at the window and saw the sun rising over all the hills and bathing 
all the houses and all the trees in the most wonderful golden light. 
Then he saw his father's back no longer bent, and his mother's face 
with no traces of tears any more, and he cried out with joy; for he 
felt that he was being smothered under the great happiness that came 
to him so unexpectedly. 

"I am coming home," he said to himself — and he laughed and 
repeated: "I am going home — I am going home after the spring 
plowing, I am going home after the harvest, I am going home for 
Christmas, I am going home in the spring — ^I want to go home and 
build a large house and to hear the church bells on Sunday morning, 
and to pick flowers on my way to church." He spread out his large, 
empty, lean hands and cried: "I am coming home; for I am a Nor- 
wegian," and he murmured happily: "I have been so busy, but now 
I am not busy any more, and now I am coming home." 

At his bedside stood several young ladies in elegant evening gowns, 
and thev looked at one another questioningly, as they asked in 
English :" What does he say .^ " 

Then they nodded sadly and comprehendingly: What a pity if he 
were to die tonight, when they had a party. It would be a perfect 
scandal. 

The old man's lustreless eyes see nothing of this. They are full 
of tears, tears of joy; for now once more he sees the sunrise from the 
tiny window in a cottage that has long since disappeared and with 
eyes from which the light has long since departed. 

The local papers pubHshed his picture, and he was held up as a 
shining example of what industry and thrift may accomplish. 
He had begun with two empty hands. 



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Some Account of New 

Sweden and Her 

Churches 

By M. Atherton Leach 

The first expedition to New Sweden 
landed on the shores of the Delaware in 
1638. The last Swedish missionary sent 
out to the descendants of the early 
colonists died in Philadelphia in 1831. 



A^ 



From Johnson 5 "Swedish SeUlements" 

The Seal of Governor Johan Printz, Used 

FOR Ten Years as the Official 

Seal of New Sweden 



S EARLY as 1624, Gustavus 
Adolphus, the great Prot- 
estant soldier and states- 
man, became imbued with the idea 
of the Swedish colonization of 
America. Two years later the 
Swedish South Company, so called, 
was formed, with a charter of elab- 
orate provisions and extraordinary 
powers, to further the commerce of 
Sweden and *'for the spread of the Holy Gospel." The real signifi- 
cance of the kingly project, backed by the powerful resources of a 
realm w^as, doubtless, to provide a home beyond the seas, not alone 
for Swedes, but where Danes and Germans, persecuted for conscience 
sake by the pitiless fury of the Thirty Years' War, then at its height, 
might live in peace under the protection of the Swedish crown. 
Dying at Lutzen, November 6, 1632, a sacrifice to religious liberty, 
and changing by his victorious death the political and religious 
history of northern Europe, Gustavus Adolphus bequeathed his pro- 
phetic vision — "the jewel of his kingdom," as he called the coloniza- 
tion plan — to his chancellor, Oxenstierna. Under the patronage of 
that master of statecraft, twelve expeditions were fitted out in the 
fatherland, betw^een 1637 and 1656, of which a noble memorial has 
been given to the reading world by the Swedish-American scholar, 
Amandus Johnson, in The Swedish Settlements on the Delatrare, 1638- 
1664. 

In March, 1638, after delays innumerable, two stout little ships 
from Sweden, the Kalmar Nyckel and the Fogel Grip, sailed up 
the broad, beautiful waters of Delaware Bay, and the First Sw^ed- 
ish Expedition had been accomplished. Peter JVIinuit, the com- 
mander and governor, bearing a commission in the name of the girl- 
queen, Christina, met in the cabin of the Kalmar Nyckel five Indian 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



17 




From Johnson's "Swedish SfUlemetUs" 

Queen Christina as a Child 

sachems, appointed from the different Lenfipe tribes, who sold "the 
lands on all parts and places of the river, up the river and on both 
sides," as Minuit requested. This done, the ship's company went 
ashore, where a pole was erected bearing aloft the royal arms of 
Sweden, and, to the booming of cannon, New Sweden was born. The 
land purchased embraced the western shore of the Delaware or South 
River, from Duck Creek to a point north of the site of the future city 
of Philadelphia. 

Preparations for the construction of a fort moved apace, which, 
before May 10 following, was completed and named Christina. 



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18 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Situated on a small stream, within the city limits of Wilmington, 
where nature had provided a wharf of stone, it was built of palisades 
and earth in the form of a square, resembling a Swedish fortress. 
The two corners on the river front and the northeast one toward the 
land were mounted with guns from the Kalmar Nyckel, while over all 
the gold, blue cross banner of Sweden floated in the spring breezes. 
Inside were two houses, one a magazine storehouse, the other a 
dwelling, with oven and fireplace made from bricks carried over in 
the ships. This accomplished, Minuit sailed homeward, leaving the 
little colony in command of Mans Kling and Hendrick Huygens. In 
1903 the site of the fort was marked with an inscribed stone by the 
Delaware Society of Colonial Dames, many of whose members 
descend from those Swedes who settled *'in that delightful land 
which is washed by the Delaware's waters." 

Nearly two years elapsed before the arrival of the Second Exi>edition, 
in April, 1640, with Commander Peter Hollender Ridder, new settlers, 
additional stores, and the Rev. Reorus Torkillus, the first Lutheran 
clergyman to serve in America. The first religious services in the colony 
were undoubtedly held in the fort, in one of the houses built by Minuit. 
It is probable that a chapel or place of worship was constructed in 
1641 or 1642. Under Governor Ridder the territory of New Sweden 
was extended, on the west bank of the river from Cape Henlopen to 
the falls of the Delaware, above Trenton, and on the east side from 
Cape May to Raccoon Creek. 

The advent of Governor Johan Printz, in 1643, brought a new note 
of prosperity to the young settlement, though the early years of his ad- 
ministration were clouded by sickness among the colonists, the death 
of the Rev. Mr. Torkillus, and a fire which destroyed much prop- 
erty, the church and Printz Hall, "a stately palace of bricks," in 1645. 
Early in the next year plans were made for general rebuilding and 
for a church, with a belfry, doubtless at its side, after the manner of 
Sweden, to accommodate the bell brought over in the Fama in 1644. 
On September 4, 1646, the new edifice was dedicated, with appropriate 
ceremonies, by the Rev. Johan Campanius Holm, the noted scholar 
and author, assisted by the Rev. Israel Holg Fluviander, a nephew 
of Governor Printz. This was at Tinicum, about nine miles south- 
west of Philadelphia, to which the seat of government had been trans- 
ferred from Christina, and where Governor Printz discharged his office 
with no small abihty. In 1653 Printz returned to Sweden, and Johan 
Rising became director-general and last governor of New Sweden. 

Swedish rule on the Delaware River never reached the comprehen- 
sive conception of the great King Gustavus and his chancellor, both 
of whom gave of their strength to accomplish that religious toleration 
made possible by the treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which closed the 
thirty years' struggle. Meanwhile the kingdom of Sweden was torn 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



19 



by internal dissensions and financial impoverishment, and after an 
ineffectual reign, Queen Christina, the only offspring of the "Lion of 
the North," resigned her crown June 6, 1654, and the noble Oxenstierna 
breathed his last earthly sigh a few months later. This was some 
thirteen months before Sweden's royal standard in America was 
lowered to Dutch domination, September 25, 1655, which, in turn, 
was supplanted by the English in 1664. Under English rule the 
Swedes were held in high regard, and at the commencement of the 
Duke of York's government on the Delaware three of his six coun- 
cillors there were natives of Sweden — ^Peter Rambo, Peter Cock and 
Israel Helm; while all the justices of the earliest English tribunal on 
the soil of Pennsylvania — the Upland Court — were Swedes, save one. 
The great Quaker proprietary, William Penn, did not differentiate 
against his settlers from the Northland; so it came to pass that New 
Sweden merged into his "Holy Experiment" of a hoped-for perfect 
democracy in the province of Pennsylvania and the counties of New 
Castle, Kent and Sussex-on-Delaware, which counties later became the 
State of Delaware. 

After the Swedish control in government had lapsed, the Swedes 
and Hollanders merged into one church association. The Tinicum 
church was in good condition and ordinarily used until 1700. The 
church at Christina held services at the fort until 1667, when a 
small wooden place of worship was built at Tranhook, and this was 
in use until 1699. Later churches were erected on the other side of 
the Delaware at Raccoon Creek (Swedesboro) and Penn's Neck, and 
these for some years were embraced in the parish of Christina. At 




Copyright by Amandus Johnson, 1908 

Holy Trinity Church ("Old Swedes'"), Wilmington. Built 1699. 



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20 



THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 




Copyright by Amandus Johnson, 19c 8 

Interior of Gloria Dei Church ("Old Swedes'"), Philadelphia 
Erected 1700 

Wicacoa stood a block-house, which, in 1677, was changed for religious 
purposes, and on Trinity Sunday of that year the Rev. Jacobus 
Fabritius held the first service on the site of the present Gloria Dei. 
There and then was established the first Christian congregation within 
the borders of w^hat was to become the fair city of Philadelphia. This 
congregation later embraced those at Kingsessing and Upper Merion, 
but Christina and Wicacoa always remained the leading churches. 
A full description of these parishes is to be found in A History of 
New Siveden, by Israel Acrelius, Provost of the Swedish churches 
in America, and Rector of Old Swedes' Church, Wilmington, Del- 
aware, published under the joint auspices of the Historical Societies of 
Pennsylvania and Delaware. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 21 

Mr. Fabritius, though not a Swede, was engaged by the church- 
wardens of Wicacoa Parish in 1677, but oflSciated at Christina after 
the death of Pastor Lars Karlsson Lock in 1688, the latter having 
been the rector there from Governor Printz's time. The former 
resided above Philadelphia and, though blind late in life, executed 
his duties at Wicacoa and Christina, traveUng between these points 
in a canoe or guided by the hand of an attendant. His death in 
1693 left both churches utterly destitute of ministers for nearly five 
years. 

At this distressing juncture a combination of circumstances led 
to an appeal to Sweden by Carl Christopherson Springer, of Christina, 
and others, "for ministers and books, that the children of Sweden do 
not become as the heathen among whom they dwell." This appeal 
eventually reached the attention of the king, Charles XI, which 
resulted in the establishment of the Swedish Mission to America and 
the appointment of three clergymen for the congregations on the 
Delaware: Andreas Rudman, of Gestricia; Eric Bjork, of Westmania, 
and Jonas Auren, of Wermeland. His Majesty's personal farewell 
to his first missionaries was accompanied with the words: "Goj now, 
in the name of the Lord, to the place to which I send you. God go 
with you and make your undertaking successful. If any opposition 
is made or any injury done you, return. I will remember you." 

At Wicacoa, on June 30, and at Tranhook July 8, 1697, the clergy 
met and, contrary to general usage, selected their congregations. 
Mr. Rudman, the first called to the work, selected Wicacoa, and 
Mr. Bjork took Tranhook, leaving Mr. Auren to enter upon his 
missionary travels over the country. On July 2, 1700, at Wicacoa, 
the home of the fir tree, the present Gloria Dei church was conse- 
crated, on land given by the family of Swan Swanson. Eight years 
thereafter Mr. Rudman lived, loved and labored, and, dying in Phila- 
delphia, was buried the next day, September 18, 1708, in the church, 
before the chancel, attended to his last resting-place by a long pro- 
cession of Swedes and English and by his fellow-laborer, Pastor Bjork. 
Somewhat back from Swanson Street stands the church, beautiful in 
its simplicity, with a note of Dutch influence in its interior construc- 
tion. Eastward its chancel window faces the river, once so quiet, 
now blocked by the marts of trade. Its God's Acre is filled with 
memorial stones to Swedish members, some of whom have added 
lustre to the Commonwealth they helped to found. In the belfry 
hangs its bell, with the inscription: "Cast for the Swedish Church in 
Philad'a, Stiled Gloria Dei. G. Hedderly. Fecit 1806 Partly from 
the Old Bell Dated 1643. I to the Church the Living Call and to the 
Grave do Summon All." 

The Christina congregation was equally fortunate in its new head. 
Under Pastor Bjork a substantial building was quickly built by 



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>0»!(•IN•COM^fEMORAT[ON•OF• )^ 
•THESWEDfSH ^ 

SETTLEMENTS 
•ONTHE- DELAWARE 
1638-1655 

•NEW-SWEDEN- 
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By Courtesy of the Society of Colonial Wars 

Tablet to Commemorate the Swedish Settlements on the Delaware, Erected 
TO THE Right of the South Portal of the City Hall of Philadelphia 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW ^S 

workmen from Philadelphia, which still stands among its dead, a 
testimony in stone to the piety and zeal of that servant of the Swedish 
Mission. In a certain sense it serves, too, as a monument to the 
Rev. Mr. Torkillus, who was buried by Campanius in the fort, at 
the now southern end of the church. On Trinity Sunday, July 4, 
1699, "after the assembly had been called together by the ringing of 
the bell, the consecration took place in the presence of many hundred 
persons of various religions besides our own," says the diary of 
Mr. Bjork, printed in "The Records of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes') 
Church, Wilmington." Then follows: "My colleague from the other 
congregation, Magister Andrew Rudman and myself, clad each in his 
surplice (but not with a chasuble, as they could not be obtained here), 
went in before the altar, as also our colleague, Mr. Jonas Auren, 
though he had only a long cloak with cape. Then Magister Rudman 
and myself stood in front next to the altar, and Mr. Auren before 
us, and we began. And the church was named Holy Trinity Church." 
The service, fully described in the good pastor's record book, is 
not unlike that used in the Anglican Communion today. He 
uses the old term, "High Mass," and shows how fully his people 
observed the festivals of Christmas, Easter and Whitsuntide, with 
service in the early morning, at four or five o'clock, followed later in 
the day with High Mass and sermon. New Year's Day, Epiphany, 
Candlemas, the Day of the Annunciation, Good Friday, Ascension 
Day, Midsummer Day, the Visitation of Our Lady, St. Michael's 
Day and All Saints were also solemn anniversaries. 

Magister Bjork returned to Sweden in 1714 to become pastor 
of Great Kopparberg Church at Falun in Dalecarlia, where he 
preached until his death in 1740, and from which town in 1718, 
through him, was sent to Holy Trinity Church a beautiful chalice, 
paten and wafer box of silver, which is still used in the parish at 
special services. 

In her churches New Sweden lived, preserving through the aid 
of the Swedish Mission the simple liturgy of her national faith, in 
her national tongue, for nearly two centuries. There is not upon 
record a more remarkable example of disinterested care for its 
expatriated citizens than that of the Swedish crown for these scat- 
tered members of its race, living in pastoral simplicity along the 
banks of the Delaware, no longer bound by political ties, and separ- 
ated by the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1696 and 1786 the Swedish 
government sent to Christina, Wicacoa and their dependencies no 
less than twenty-four clergymen, and expended not less than one 
hundred thousand dollars — ^possibly double that amount. Not only 
did Sweden send clergy of distinguished scholarship, but, after years 
of faithful labor, welcomed them home again, often investing them 
with benefices of a most desirable character. 



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o 



CD 

-< 
p. 



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Maurice Francis Egan 



A Danish Castle 

By Maurice Francis Egan 

The young prince dreamed when one 

he loved had died 
That in her memory he would make 

to bloom 
A thousand roses near the little room 
Where she had lived, close to the 

chapeVs side; 



The king, grown old, changed, for a queenly bride. 
His ancient castle. Gobelins gave a loom 
For Fragonard' s[gay1pictures; when his doom 
Struck and he sickened, this was all his pride; 

Yet Time, a friend, remembered. So to-day, 
Though gone the gold-bronze on the oaken stair. 
And broken Cupids the great terrace strew 

Where Venus stands no more, the young Prince May 
Flushes the place unth roses every tvhere: 
The dreams of youth, not plans of age, came true. 



THE above sonnet by Minister Egan is published by courtesy of 
The Century Magazine, in which it first appeared in October, 
1909. The poem has been repeatedly translated into Danish. 
While not composed expressly for the manor of Lovenborg, repro- 
duced on the page opposite as fifth in our series of Danish castles, 
these verses well suit the dream-like beauty of this country seat. 
Lovenborg is situated near Holbeck in northwestern Sjaelland. 
In the twelfth century, the lands on which it lies were in the posses- 
sion of Bishop Absalon, who deeded them to the maintenance of 
Soro Abbey. The oldest portion of the present building dates from 
1550. The Barony of Lovenborg, of which this hall is the chief resi- 
dence, was created in 1773 for the family of Lovenskiold. This family 
is descended from a wealthy Norwegian merchant, Herman Leopoldus, 
knighted in Denmark in 1739 under the name of Lovenskiold, whose 
ancestors in turn had emigrated from Bremen to Christiania* 



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Little Paul 

Adapted by Bjornstjerne Bjornson, from Victor Hugo 
Translated from the Norwegian by W. von Munthe af Morgenstierne 

HIS mother died when she gave him Hfe, and the father was 
young and married again. Paul was then one year old, and 
that is early to be made a stranger, but there was an old man 
who took him under his care; his Grandfather became like a mother 
to the boy. It is good for a little child to find something when it 
stretches out its arms, and this was a delicate child. He got a strong 
nurse, however — a goat with wild eyes, climbing on the steep slope 
behind the garden. This large garden around Grandfather's house 
became Paul's home, and he had a wonderful time there during the 
spring and summer, with the green meadows, the fresh air, the brooks 
and the woods. The flowers became his friends; they are not envious. 
In the garden there were plums and peaches, and there were also wild 
roses. From under the willows came a glimmer of trembling water 
and from the nests love songs with chirping and buzzing, but all the 
voices here were sweet and subdued. It was the joyful song of day- 
break, which was once sung in Paradise, that song which all the earth 
is stammering once again every spring. 

Here Paul felt the love of all and everything around him, and to 
be loved became part of his nature. Here, also, it was that he began 
to walk. If there was too big a stone in his way, he stumbled; a little 
hole, and again he fell. He was just as happy as before, however, for 
Grandfather's hands were after him and around him, took hold of 
him and put him straight. Then the child chuckled. Nobody can 
quite describe the wonderful quality in a child's laughter any more 
than we can paint sunshine in a wood. 

The Grandfather had a face so serious that it might have been 
put in a Bible, but he could not resist the charm of the child. Grand- 
father honored childhood, consulted it, and worshipped it. He care- 
fully watched how it dawned in this little brain, how the thought 
struggled, how the word climbed higher and higher, until it could fly. 
The old house in which they lived was delighted to hear once more 
the voice of a child, and so were the trees; they chatted about him 
between themselves. 

Paul ruled over Grandfather with unrestricted power, the power 
which those who are happy have over us. Grandfather was the boy's 
slave. "Wait, Grandfather!" And Grandfather waited. "No, 
come here!" And Grandfather came. Oh, how happy they were 
together, the Uttle tyrant and the old subjugated slave, the one three 
years old, the other much above eighty; but there, under the singing 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 27 

of the birds, they were both children together. Grandfather taught 
Paul to think, and Paul taught Grandfather to beheve. They spent 
the whole day together, and they slept in the same room during the 
night. They chatted together like the bluebirds in the fairy tale. 

Paul's real father had a new son with his new wife, but Paul knew 
of nothing. He was with Grandfather. "Look out for the water, 
Paul!" "Don't go so near the pond." "Why, PauU your feet have 
got wet." "Yes, Grandfather." "Now we must go home and 
change." Paul was unconcerned and happy. To him Grandfather 
was the whole world. 

Then Grandfather died. 

The little one did not understand it. His eyes looked around; his 
brain tried to think, but he did not understand it. Sometimes the old 
man had been tired and then he had said: "Well, Paul, I shall soon 
have to die and leave you; then you will never again see your poor 
old Grandfather who loves you so much." But it is impossible to 
extinguish the unsuspecting light that is called ignorance. Paul was 
happy and forgot all about it. 

The church was out in the fields, a small, poor church, which was 
now opened, while the bell sounded out over the woods and meadows. 
It was a lovely day. The curate and the friends and relatives came 
with Grandfather from the house of mourning, and on the way they 
were praying aloud, as they walked bareheaded. A big cow was 
lying by the roadside and looked protectingly at the procession. It 
was springtime and the men wore no coats. Paul walked close to 
the coffin. The churchyard was a desolate enclosure, without trees, 
and with no grave rising above any other. The surrounding stone 
wall was nearly crumbling. They passed through the wooden gate 
leading into the yard, and they closed it. Paul looked at the gate 
attentively. He was three years old. . 

"You horrid child! You make me quite furious. Here you are 
wasting the good milk — spilling it on my clothes, too. Into the 
cellar with you. You shall have nothing but dry bread ! " Who is it 
that is thus spoken to.'^ It is Paul, Grandfather's own little Paul. 
When they carried Grandfather away, a strange man moved in. 
That was his father. And later a strange woman appeared; she was 
feeding a child at her breast. She hated Paul from the beginning. 
He was in her way. A mother can be like a sphinx, white on one side 
— the one that loves — black on the other — the one that is jealous; 
tender with her own child, but hard with that of another. 

Suffering! A martyr can take it on himself, or a prophet, or a 
saint — but a little child ? Hatred instead of love ? He did not under- 
stand it. When he went into his little room in the evening, it seemed 
to him quite black, and he wept much when he was alone, wept until 
sleep overtook him. As he awoke, he looked around surprised and 



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28 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

searching. It seemed to him that there was no light and no windows 
in the house, and when he came outdoors it was as though no one 
recognized him there, either; the birds had become silent, and the 
flowers had lost their freshness, while he himself walked in the shadow 
and wanted to hide himself. 

"Ugh! There you are again. How filthy you are. Away with 
you." After the scolding she caressed a little boy, but he was not 
Paul. He could not recall all the words that Grandfather had said 
to him, but he remembered that Grandfather had taken him on his 
knees and put his arm around him. The boy had become dumb, he 
did not talk any more, nor did he weep any longer, but often he 
looked toward the door. 

One evening he disappeared, and they could not find him any- 
where. It was winter, and the tiny footprints were lost in the 
snow. . . . 

The next morning they found him. It appeared that the evening 
before several people had heard a child weep and cry out, "Grand- 
father, Grandfather!" The whole village had been out searching and 
they had found the little one at the gate of the churchyard. How in 
in the world had he been able to find his way ^ And in that darkness ! 

He had not succeeded in opening the gate, and as he was unable 
to get in and wake Grandfather, he himself lay down to sleep. 



To Jean Sibelius 

On Hearing His Second Symphony 
By NoRREYs Jephson O'Conor 

wondrous blossom of the northern world! 
NoWy winter over^ thou haM burst in song: 
The mournful melodies of winter^ s wrong 

Mixed with the scorn upon thy people hurVd. 

Thou singer of the woe of all mankind, 

Z, too, can share thy passion and thy pain. 
That lust of pleasure and the lure of gain 

Besmirch God^s children and then lear>e them blind. 



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The Fourth of July in Norway 

|N the wooded slopes of 
the park below old Frog- 
ner Mansion, in the out- 
skirts of Christiania, a 
bronze bust of Abraham 
Lincoln stands framed in 
two large pines, a perma- 
nent memorial of Amer- 
ica's Dav at the Centen- 
nial Exposition of Nor- 
way. The Stars and 
Stripes mingled their folds 
with the Norwegian cross on the Fourth of July, when the bust was 
formally presented by Governor L. B. Hanna to the Norwegian 
people. With them stood a precious relic now on exhibition in the 
pavilion of "Norway Abroad," the bullet-riddled banner with a 
Norse inscription which led the Fifteenth Wisconsin Regiment, 
— composed almost entirely of Norwegian immigrants — in the bloody 
battles of the Civil War. Successive speakers emphasized the simi- 
larity of ideals which made the Lincoln monument appropriate. 
At the Storting Building, the Mindegavey or Memorial Gift, amount- 
ing to 245,000 kroner, was formally presented by Dr. H. G. Stub and 
accepted on behalf of the Storting by its president, Mr. J. Lovland, 
to be administered for the benefit of sufferers from great national 
calamities, and so to be forever a token of the love of emigrated 
Norwegians for their homeland. A list was also read of the various 
gifts to particular districts in Norway, amounting in all to 237,000 
kroner, thus almost doubling the total sum. 

A monster banquet in the evening was successfully arranged by 
the American Club and Nordmandsforbundet in the great Hall of Song 
on the Exhibition grounds. Two thousand six hundred people took 
part, while many hundreds were turned away for lack of room. 
Norway's democratic king was present to welcome American visitors 
and to send greetings through them to their kinsmen who, though 
present in spirit, were unable to come in person. The visiting 
Norwegian-American male chorus led the singing of the national 
anthems, and it would be difficult to say whether ''My Country, 'Tis 
of Thee," or "Ja, vi elsker dette landety'^ was sung with greater vim; 
while equally thunderous applause greeted Consul H. F. Gade's 
speech on "The Spirit of America," and Governor Hanna's eulogy 
of Norway. A message from President Wilson completed the most 
imposing celebration of Independence Day ever held outside of the 
United States. H. A. L. 



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A Plymouth of Swedish America 

The Town of Bishop Hill and Its Founder, Eric Janson 
By Emma Shogren Farman 




S^ 



Spinning Wheel, Made in Bishop Hill 

IN Colony Days. The Treadle was 

Worn Hollow in those Times when 

the Women Saved the Colony 



WEDISH America has her Ply- 
mouth. Among the emigrants 
from the North were those who 
merited comparison with Pilgrim and 
with Puritan, The town of Bishop Hill 
in Henry County, in the State of Illinois, 
was founded in 1846 by Swedish colon- 
ists under Eric Janson, their religious 
leader, from whom they were called Jan- 
sonists. Persecuted at home, they came 
to America only for religious liberty. It 
is true that the settlement is sometimes 
studied as an experiment in commun- 
ism; but one learns that the commun- 
istic feature developed out of necessity, 
because a few owned worldly goods 
while the hundreds were without. As the son of the founder. Captain 
Eric Johnson, writes in Svenskame i Illinois — a book which will 
probably remain the chief source of information on the Bishop Hill 
colony — they w^ere an uneducated people who had no opportunity to 
study communistic societies had they wished to. They came to 
America for religious freedom, and the history of their material 
progress and communism is not less interesting, though it is an 
incidental development. 

Eric Janson was born December 19, 1808, in BiskopskuUa Parish, 
Uppland, Sweden. BiskopskuUa translated became Bishop Hill, a 
happier result than many attempts to graft Scandinavian names on 
American soil. He was one of five children in a poor family, but his 
parents by work and thrift succeeded in buying a small estate or 
gard. Opportunities for schooling were most meagre, and limited 
to the religious instruction required by the established church. But 
even at this early period Eric showed, during the time of preparing 
for confirmation, uncommon insight into disputed questions, and 
avowed views differing from the usual interpretation. This is stated 
by a friend of his youth. He had a keen mind, was very religiously 
inclined, and eagerly read all the books that were to be had. After 
an unexplained and, as he believed, a miraculous cure from rheuma- 
tism at the age of twenty-six, the eflScacy of faith absorbed his atten- 
tion, and to want of faith he ascribed all misery and illness and the 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 31 

lack of vital piety in the church. He identified himself with the 
Devotionalist movement, which began about 1825. This was not a 
sectarian agitation, but an evangelical reaction among the common 
people against the prevalent laxity of morals and the general indiffer- 
ence to religion. 

The leader, however, until 1842, was Jonas Olson, who became 
Janson's "right hand" both in Helsingland and in Bishop Hill. He 
was a man of executive powers, of deep religious conviction, who in 
Stockholm had been profoundly influenced by the Rev. George Scott, 
an English Methodist clergyman who was chaplain to a Mr. Owen, an 
English manufacturer. Jonas Olson was for a half a century a strik- 
ing figure in Bishop Hill, maintained his vigor long, and preached in 
the Old Colony Church until a few years before his death, which took 
place in 1898, at ninety-six years of age. 

To revert — ^in 1842 Eric Janson identified himself with the evan- 
gelical movement in Helsingland, and became the leader. Crying 
emphasis was now put on the pre-eminent value of reading the 
Bible alone, and other books were denounced as idols and burned 
in public. 

All Sweden was horrified. Janson was arrested, and persecution 
followed. Meetings were forbidden, the Jansonists were refused the 
Lord's Supper in the church and were deprived of civic rights, not 
being able to testify in the courts. An old law against conventicles 
was revived, and an intolerable state of affairs ensued in many 
parishes. 

Janson was hustled from one prison to another, released, rescued, 
hidden, re-arrested and hunted in quick succession. Six times he 
was arrested, feeling ran high, no fair trial could be given, no convic- 
tion secured; and three times he was set free by royal orders. Twice 
Janson was admitted to the King, His Majesty Oscar I, a ruler most 
kindly toward religious freedom. 

Janson preached whenever he could, and in any debate with his 
opponents was vic- 
torious. As hostility ' '^ 
increased, there was ^^^ 
much of denuncia- ^^^^^^^^ ^ 
tion and invective in 
his speech, and he 
sounded the new per- 
sonal note, proclaim- 
ing himself the one 
to restore the true 
church. He adminis- 
tered the Lord's Sup- 
per to his followers, Old Colony Church at Bishop Hill 




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32 THE AM ERIC AN-SC AN DIN AVI AN REVIEW 

and it became dangerous and foolhardy to hold meetings. In the 
churches notices for his arrest were read, and Uberty of worship was 
impossible. As the Prophet hid for weeks at a time, he wrote hymns 
by the dozen and compiled his catechism, none of which were likely 
to soothe the ecclesiastical or secular powers. The. rapidity of his 
composition and its asserted perfection were taken as sure signs of 
divine inspiration. 

Homes of his friends were demolished, and as he hid in cave or 
cellar or mountain wild, Janson planned the exodus of his followers 
from Sweden to the America of which they had heard. There he 
intended to build the New Jerusalem. With a price on his head, he 
fled westward in the winter of 1845-'46, on skis, far from beaten tracks, 
over norska fjellen, and from Norway across the Atlantic. 

Believing that Sweden would be destroyed, about eleven hundred 
Jansonists braved the unknown and almost insurmountable diflSculties 
and emigrated. The parting from friends, the breaking up of fami- 
lies, the superstitions that peopled the unknown regions with monsters 
and pirates and cutthroats, the awful sufferings on the way, the 
courage, the devotion, the patience, would fill a long chapter in 
America's most picturesque records. 

The first question when emigration was forced upon them was 
that of expense. A common purse was the only solution and the 
biblical one. All who had anything sold it to pay the debts of other 
believers; for those who were soldiers, as high as a thousand riksdaler 
was paid to the government. Not one of them felt with the saga 
hero Frithiof that he must take with him a handful of his native soil, 
but all seemed to join in the spirit of Frithiof's sad farewell to that 
"nurse of heroes, the High North"; Eric Janson's Afskeds Psalm, or 
"Farewell Hymn," found in his catechism, is really a farewell to all 
the "unfaithful" left behind. 

They set sail, one company after the other, from Gefle, Soder- 
hamn, Goteborg, and Stockholm, as opportunity offered, in cramped 
and uncomfortable sailing vessels. At the last hour passports were 
withheld, and Jonas Olson, with a delegation, waited upon King 
Oscar I, who at once provided them. Think of rocking on the 
Atlantic eleven weeks in one of those ships, good food gone, friends 
buried in the sea every day, and preached to continually about lack 
of faith! Did ever any people suffer more.'^ One of the pilgrims 
told me that young and strong as she was, had there been a chance to 
set foot on any land, whatever its horrors or inhabitants, nothing 
could have persuaded her back into the ship. One ship was lost with 
all on board. 

New York was the first landing place, and horrors enough material- 
ized for all. In small bands they arrived and pushed on toward 
Illinois. By the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes they reached 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 33 











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Old Colony Buildings at Bishop Hill 

Chicago, "an overgrown village." Thence they walked 175 miles 
to Henry County, where Janson and a few others had bought the 
first land. The largest company, four hundred strong, reached the 
colony in June of 1847. 

The town site was purchased from the government, September 16, 
1846. " It was a beautiful spot, sparsely covered with a small growth 
of oak trees, and located on the south bank of South Edward 
Creek." There stands the quaint, much-loved town of Bishop Hill, 
with a charm and beauty all its own. 

The first winter for the colonists, with its hunger, cold, lack of 
shelter, deaths and homesickness, was one to disillusion the most 
faithful. A sod house served as kitchen and dining hall. The 
"dugouts," with double tiers of beds, were overcrowded every night 
and "nearly every morning a fresh corpse would be pulled out." 
For worship a tabernacle in the form of a cross provided room for a 
thousand persons. Service was held twice each day and on Sundays 
three times. Eric Janson himself, at five o'clock each morning, 
roused the camp for prayers. Schools for adults and children were 
established at once. 

For the propaganda of their faith, Janson appointed twelve 
young men to teach in the New World. In 1847 the manufacture 
of adobe was begun and homes constructed of that material. None 
of them are now standing. Grist mill and saw mill were built, and 
in farming the colonists adopted new methods with alacrity. The 
second winter was equally hard; about two hundred withdrew to 
other communities. In 1848 kiln-dried bricks were made and a 



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34 



THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



four-story brick house built, 100 by 45 feet, extended later to 200 
feet in length. This was common dining hall and kitchen, and is 
known as ''the big brick." Others were built later. 

In 1851 the Old Colony Church was raised and has been used for 
worship to the present time by the few who have adhered to Janson- 
ism. The ground floor was made into airy, light living rooms, the 
upper part being the church. 

Industrial progress attended the settlers, and all worked for the 
common good. The colony came to occupy an important place in 
the history of Illinois. Eleven hundred able-bodied immigrants 
meant no less than a fourth of the entire population of Henry County. 
Bishop Hill put thousands of dollars in gold into circulation at a time 
when money was scarce. It inaugurated the mighty flood of Swedish 
immigration to the entire Northwest. The Jansonists built mills, 
cultivated thousands of acres, engaged in banking; yet the colony was 

always primarily a rehgious 
community. 

The cultivation of flax, 
a staple industry of Helsing- 
land, proved very profitable. 
Look at the graceful old 
spinning wheel reproduced 
at the beginning of this ar- 
ticle. It was made in the 
colony and marked with a 
real Swedish family bomdrke. 
Note the hollow treadle, 
worn thin in those days 
when the women saved the 
society, working day and 
night spinning and weaving 
with Helsingland skill, until 
from the crop of 1847 — only 
one year after grounding the 
colony! — they made 12,473 
yards of linen and matting, 
which found a ready sale. 

Later parties joined the 
pioneers. Cholera ravaged 
their ranks, but they worked 
together. In 1850, on May 
13, they lost their leader, the 
beloved Janson. Of this 

Pioneers' Monlment, Unveiled in Bishop Hill Park tragedy Only the briefest 
ON THE Semi-centennial Anniversary. 1896 mention cau be made here. 




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THE AMERICAN -SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW S5 

A man named Root came to the colony and married a cousin of Eric 
Janson, but it was stipulated in writing that she should never be 
obliged to leave the colony against her will. Soon he left and urged 
her to follow, but in vain. This led to attempts by mob against the 
town, and also to kidnap her. This was frustrated, but Janson was 
arrested for these efforts to restrain the wife, and brought to trial. 
At noon, May 13, in the court room, Cambridge, Illinois, the 
vengeful husband shot Eric Janson. 

Men and women mourned as they had not mourned for all their 
friends. All work stopped. Three days the body lay in state. At 
the funeral service in the old, historic church, a remarkable scene 
took place, when Mrs. Janson laid her hands upon one of the leading 
elders and pronounced him the guardian of the dead leader's young 
son. The mortal remains of Eric Janson were laid in the Bishop Hill 
cemetery, A marble shaft with several inscriptions marks the grave 
of this man of humble birth who so strangely swayed hundreds. 
"As it was, he died," says Mikkelsen, "while the memory of his 
achievements was still fresh in the minds of friends and foes alike. 
He was a man of splendid parts, and had his mind been less untrained 
he might possibly have become the pride and admiration of his native 
country, instead of ending his life before an assassin's bullet as an 
exile in a strange land." 

Jonas Olson returned at once from the gold fields of California, 
and pronounced those in authority usurpers. The people accepted 
him, and under his administration (there were also several trustees) 
the colony was incorporated and advanced to remarkable material 
prosperity. A visitor in 1853 gave vivid pictures of what he saw and 
reported the system and methods as most successful. 

The town was beautified by a park which now boasts trees of 
great size, and where stand the two monuments, one to the pioneers 
and one to the soldiers. For Bishop Hill, like every Swedish settle- 
ment, heard the first shot at Fort Sumter. Buildings were provided 
for the many industries — ^bakery, brewery, laundry, blacksmith 
shops, tailor shop, a hospital and others. The new brick and also 
frame houses were built facing the park and w^ere of fine proportions. 
The most imposing one is the Steeple Building, south of the park, 
from which the old-fashioned town clock rings out even today. This 
building is being carefully restored, and in part of it is located the 
new Bank of Bishop Hill. Southwest of the park is the brick school- 
house, dear to many of our hearts. Three years I ran along those 
picturesque streets to that school, and in its little old library found 
Hawthorne — surely a most fitting author to be there and to be read 
there. 

After steady progress and many improvements, of which but few 
have been named, there came years of more ambitious speculation 



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86 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

and its disastrous results, Financial ventures of such extent involve 
risk, as well as temptation, and the management of the colony money 
matters has been much discussed, and those in power severely cen- 
sured. Finally came the dissolution of the colony, the division of 
the property and prolonged litigation. Twelve years the famous 
lawsuit lasted, costing many all their share of earthly goods. But 
that, too, came to an end, and most of the colonists scattered. Jan- 
sonism decayed and the majority of those who remained in Bishop 
Hill joined the Methodist church. 

Outsiders cannot step into this place and reach for its heart 
treasures at once; but all who had the time found a true, hospitable 
people of great strength of character. NordhoflF, in his "History of 
Communistic Societies," says that the buildings of the Bishop Hill 
colony are in ruins. Actually, however, they are well preserved and 
as seen in these pictures. Like the colony treasures of peasant art, 
they are appreciated. The large houses and regular plan give the 
old town a quaint and individual charm and an air of Old World 
solidity widely different from the usual prairie village. And every 
September, on the twenty-third day, is held the Old Settlers' Re- 
union, to renew friendly intercourse and muse briefly on the old 
colony heritage so dear unto the second and third generations. 
Surely Bishop Hill, unassuming, quaint, picturesque, is not what 
Mikkelsen called it, a deserted village. 

The heroic spirit of its simple-hearted founders can well be repre- 
sented by Helmer Mas OUes' painting, reproduced below, of the 
Northern maiden on the high pasture farm. The contour of the 
wooded hills, the dells and glades, are beautiful in truth, but the 
girl, the graceful, strong, hthe figure, rises above the hills and is 
outhned against the sky, like a triumph of spirit over matter, the 
heroic spirit of the North. 



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Editorial 

War What will be the commercial and economic effects of the 
great European war upon the domestic and foreign business 
of the United States ? 

This country is unquestionably in an unusually strong condition 
to withstand, in the long run, the shock — though we, as well as 
Europe, will have to pay part of the financial bill. The greater por- 
tion of our foreign business will cease immediately, thousands of 
skilled workmen will be thrown out of employment and factories 
closed. Great numbers of our best mechanics, laborers and farmers 
will be called back to service in the armies of the various European 
countries. The prices of food and labor will rise very quickly. 
We will be terribly in need of European raw stuflFs and food supplies 
for our factories and our bodies. 

On the other hand, our opportunities will become immeasurable, 
and our chance should come to extricate ourselves from a debtor 
condition, represented by the large European holdings of American 
securities. Our railroads and industrials are well contracted. We 
have reduced our inflated valuations of some years back, and are 
sound and strong from an economic point of view, and we have 
plenty of capital awaiting legitimate investment. Amid the chaos 
that reigned in the European money market during the early stages 
of the war. Wall Street showed the true solidity and stability of 
American economics. 

With the Civil War we lost our shipping. With no ships, how are 
we now going to sell Europe what she needs or bring back our own 
necessities ? It has been proposed that foreign-built ships owned by 
Americans sail under our own flag. May we not also see the upbuild- 
ing of an American merchant marine, stimulated additionally by the 
Panama Canal and the approaching modernization of our banking 
system.'^ Instead of our docks, as today, swarming with thousands 
of idle sailors, longshoremen and mechanics, watching the river 
frontage of New York crowded with foreign liners, we may see our 
own flag at their mastheads. 

A customs expert has estimated that the United States customs 
revenues will fall oflF at the rate of $100,000,000 a year as long as the 
war lasts. This we can probably stand, just as we have endured the 
sending of $142,000,000 in gold to Europe since January 1. 

Our greatest consolation is our crops. We have the largest 
exportable surplus of wheat in our history, with Europe's grain yield 
far below its usual and necessary amount. Europe will not only be 
compelled to buy it at almost any price, but will be obliged to find 
a way to pay for it and let us transport it. J. A. G. 



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38 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Denmark's The American Society formed in Denmark on the 
American invitation of the Foundation has begun its career under 
Society pecuHarly promising auspices. A board of twenty-four 

trustees elected, May 11, as president of the Society, 
Director H. P. Prior, who acts together with Professor Bemhard 
Boggild, Engineer Alex. Foss, Professor W. Johannsen and Bank 
Director Etatsraad Fr, Norgaard, as a managing committee. The 
list of 262 founders includes the names of prominent educators, 
scientists, agriculturists, industriaHsts, publicists, merchants, man- 
agers of steamship lines; in short, representatives of practically every 
walk of life. One interesting commentary on the progressive ten- 
dency of modern social Denmark, as well as the widespread good-will 
toward America, lies in the fact that representative members of the 
landed gentry are included among the founders: Chamberlain Carl 
Bech, Count A. Brockenhuus-Schack, HofjcBgermester Cederfeld de 
Simonsen, Count Moltke-Bregentved, Count Schaffalitzky de Mucka- 
dell, and others. A generous invitation has been extended to those 
who wish to join to address Danmarks Amerikanske Selskab at its 
office, Vestre Boulevard 18, Copenhagen B. All members of the 
Society become thereby Associates of the Foundation and receive the 
Review. 

Director H. P. Prior, first president of the Society, completed part 
of his training in electricity in the United States. After his return to 
Denmark he founded, in 1891, the Northern Cable and Wire Man- 
ufacturing Company, of which he is managing director, a business 
which raised the production of wire and cable in Denmark from 
two and a half million kroner in 1905 to seven and a half million in 
1911. In 1910-11 he was president of Industriforeningen. 

At the The two expositions held this summer in the North 

Expositions opened with solemn ceremonies on May 15. They 
will be visited by thousands of Americans, some of 
whom have never before set foot in Scandinavia, until the gates close 
late in September. The collections of art at the Baltic Exposition 
will be the subject of an essay in the Review by Carl G. Laurin. 
At the Norwegian Centennial, Miss Hanna Astrup Larsen, the 
literary editor of the Review, opened a bureau, as representative 
of the Foundation, in the tower of the Husflid Building. She 
addressed the Kvindesaksforening at their thirtieth jubilee, on the 
point of view of the Norwegian woman in America, and appeared at 
other public functions. The impressive meeting of Nordmandsfor- 
bundet and the presentation of the Norwegian-American Memorial to 
the nation of Norway on the Fourth of July are described by her 
elsewhere in the Review, She will return to New York in September. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 39 

Nordmands- The annual banquet of Nordmandsforbundet in Chris- 
forbundet tiania, July 1, will be remembered by Norwegians 
from abroad as the quintessence of all that their visit 
to Old Norway in the Centennial year has meant to them. The city 
and fjord below glittering through the pale mist of the summer night, 
dark, aromatic pines closing in around the old-fashioned timber 
house, long tables spread under the carved beams of the HolmenkoUen 
Tourist Hotel — these were the settings of a scene so rare, so intimate 
and deeply moving that all who were present must be spiritually 
enriched by the experience. There was a feeling of drawing near to 
kinsmen under the old roof -tree, and at the same time a widening of 
the heart to feel the pulsing of kindred blood all over the world, and 
a lifting of the mind to unity with a thousand years of national life. 

As the old vikings gathered round the festive board to recount 
their exploits in foreign countries and on distant seas, so these 
inheritors of the restless blood vied with one another in voicing their 
love for the old country, pouring their richest treasures into the lap 
of Mother Norway. The representatives of the large Middle 
Western States, of Chicago — "the second largest Norwegian city in 
the world" — and of the Norwegian-American societies, numbering 
thousands of members, rose, one after the other, to bring oflScial 
greetings from their governments or organizations, and their voices 
rang with pride while they spoke of the place their people held in 
the New World. Then came speakers from New Zealand — "as near 
the South Pole as Norway is to the North Pole" — ^from Australia, 
from China, and from South Africa. It required no stretch of imagi- 
nation to feel that so the chiefs of many centuries ago might have 
returned from Normandy, from Constantinople, from Jerusalem, 
from Vinland even, each with his tale of victories won and of lands 
subjugated. Other exploits were sung by the skalds of those days, 
but the Norwegian spirit is the same in its hunger for adventure and 
in the strong racial feeling which continues to exist underneath the 
characteristic ready adaptation to new conditions. 

At the annual business meeting held in the morning of the same 
day the membership of Nordmandsforbundet was reported as 42,308, 
of whom 6,539 are individual members, the rest members of societies 
that have joined as a body. Of the latter, the largest is the Sons of 
Norway, an American organization numbering about 12,000. The 
geographical distribution of the members is as follows: Norway, 
17,913; other European countries, 1,655; America, 22,056; Africa, 
377; Australia, 194; Asia, 113. The venerable president, Mr. Carl 
C. Berner, was unanimously re-elected, as was also the vice-president. 
Dr. F. G. Gade. As members of the executive committee, the follow- 
ing were elected: Consul F. H. Gade, Mrs. Mariane Naerup, Mr. C. J. 
Hambro, Mrs. Martha Larsen, and Mr. Joh. Ludwig Mowinckel. 



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40 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Brandes in The visit of Georg Brandes to America in May and 
America June probably aroused more comment in the press 

than the advent of any Scandinavian since Roald 
Amundsen. It was not so much the lectures on Shakespeare deliv- 
ered in English by the great Danish critic, which furnished American 
editors from Boston to Kalamazoo with new^ food for humorous and 
serious discussion, as it was our visitor's genial answers to the ques- 
tions put to him on woman suffrage, religion, socialism, the tele- 
phone and the stockyards. In America, Dr. Brandes ^presented prob- 
lems for debate with characteristic candor and pungent phrasing, acrid 
at times, yet always tempered by an underlying sweetness and good 
will toward this land of free speech. A carefully culled selection 
from several hundred press clippings will be served to the readers 
of the Autumn Number of the Review, which will contain, also, 
an essay in appreciation of Brandes. 

Those who heard Professor Brandes lecture in America owe a 
great debt of thanks to the Danish-American Association, and es- 
pecially to its efficient president, Mr. C. A. Quist, of Minneapolis, 
at whose invitation our distinguished guest visited this continent. 

The Second ^^ interest the second generation of Scandinavian- 
Ceneration Americans in the life of the Scandinavian countries is 
one of the aims of the Review, and it welcomes all 
efforts of a kindred nature. The Swedish, Norwegian and Danish 
newspapers have accomplished, on the whole admirably, their task of 
keeping the road open between the immigrants and their old homes. 
Perhaps no single agency has done more than the Norwegian- 
American press to create the Home-to-Norway movement in the 
present Centennial year, and this press will be needed yet for many 
years to come. But the very intimate and local nature of much of 
the news that fills the columns of the Scandinavian press in America 
is a greater bar than even the language to the understanding of the 
second generation. To meet this situation, the Swedish newspaper, 
Hemlandety published in Chicago by Mr. Charles S. Peterson and 
edited by Mr. P. G. Norberg, presents an English page, which in its 
high editorial standard and attractive appearance combines the best 
qualities of the Scandinavian and the American press. The news 
from Sweden is presented in its larger aspects, together with trans- 
lations of Swedish fiction, brief articles on salient points in Sweden's 
history and pictures of historic places. Another successful experi- 
ment is that of Mr. John G. Mohn in Northfield, Minn., who pub- 
lishes the Norwegian- AmericaUy a small but energetic paper printed 
entirely in English. It is self-evident that the immigrant race which 
can best keep its hold on the second generation through the press 
has the best chance of survival in America. 



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THE AMERICAN -SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 41 

New From the time when the first Swedish colonists landed 

Sweden on the shores of the Delaware in 1638, few years have 
passed that the Swedish language has not been spoken and 
the Swedish gospel preached in America. Dr. Nicholas Collin, the 
last pastor of the Swedish Mission, preached in Swedish every other 
Sunday at " Old Swedes' " in Philadelphia. He died October 7, 1831, 
in his eighty-seventh year. To the united churches of Gloria Dei, 
St. James, Kingsessing, and Christ Church, Upper Merion, Pennsyl- 
vania, he ministered forty-five years, and to the congregations at 
Raccoon and Penn's Neck, New Jersey, from 1778 to 1788. 

The second period of emigration began in 1841, when Gustaf 
Unonius planted his little colony on Pine Lake in Wisconsin. During 
the 'forties, colonies followed in rapid succession, settling in the East 
and Middle West. The Review produces an account of one of the 
earliest, the religious settlement of the Jansonists at Bishop Hill — "A 
Plymouth of Swedish America." The Chandlers Valley colony 
of Lutherans near the now prosperous Swedish city of Jamestown, 
New York, will be the theme of a forthcoming essay. These were the 
advance guard of that mighty migration of a million souls who have 
given new sinews to our nation, and to one State of the Union — 
Minnesota— three Governors of Swedish birth. 

The records of this new period, as well as the old, are being col- 
lected by the Swedish Historical Society of America, with head- 
quarters in Chicago. The duty of treasuring the ancient memorials 
of the Delaware is vested chiefly in the Swedish Colonial Society, 
organized a few years since through the efforts of Dr. Gregory B. 
Keen, in Philadelphia. The interest with which the old families of 
Philadelphia have embraced this Society, nearly three centuries after 
the Swedish settlements, testifies to the vitality of Scandinavian 
institutions in America, and is an earnest of the permanence of the 
mission undertaken by the American-Scandinavian Foundation. 

A Holberg Comedies of Holberg have been produced the season 
Revival past, with marked success, in the theatres of Berlin, 

Dresden, and Vienna. In Holberg's humor German 
audiences apparently detect a vein often more human and enduring 
than that of Moliere. In America, Professor Campbell's recent 
volume of essays on Holberg has aroused an appetite for the three 
plays, "Jeppe,'' "Erasmus" and "The Political Tinker,'' that will be 
published this autumn by the American-Scandinavian Foundation. 
The Nation, in commenting upon the need of such a volume declares: 
"Until it is provided, Holberg's laughter, which, according to Mr. 
Campbell, *bids fair to become immortal,' can never be properly 
re-echoed from our shores." 



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42 THE AMERICAN-SCANDIN AVIAN REVIEW 

Uo«>i^#^o Vvkiiiio T^^ recent progress of the libraries in Scandi- 
Librarian navia along courses marked out m the L nited 

States is due more to Haakon Nyhuus, whose 
death occurred in Christiania on December 25 last year, than to any 
other individual. He spent seven years in Chicago, working in the 
Newberry and the Public Library, and he was impressed with the way 
in which the American Ubrary comes close to the people. It is not 
merely a preserver of books for scholars, but a distributor to all 
people of the knowledge and pleasure found in books. As soon as 
the pupil in the public school has mastered the art of reading, he is 
led to the public library and learns how to use it. The public 
libraries in this country aim to fulfill what John Morley calls ''one of 
the most important parts of popular education — to put people in the 
way of amusing and refreshing themselves in a rational rather than 
an irrational manner." In order to reach this aim, new methods 
have been devised for these new libraries. They have been made 
businesslike or scientific or whatever word the period required to 
express the same thing: exactness and detail where the work, in 
order to be well done, requires exactness and detail, and at the same 
time elimination of whatever is superfluous and cumbersome. In 
this respect the American library methods have been eminently 
successful and a stimulus to libraries in other countries. 

Professor Steenberg and Miss Palmgren have been the first and 
most influential advocates of the American system in Denmark and 
Sweden, and both have seen important results from their efforts, but 
without any doubt Norway stands out in this respect as the most 
advanced of the Scandinavian and possibly of the European conti- 
nental countries. This is due especially to the work of Haakon 
Nyhuus. When he returned from the United States in 1898, he 
took charge of the Deichmanske Bibliothek in Christiania. During 
his administration the number of volumes increased from 40,000 to 
120,000, and the number of books taken out rose from 24,600 in 1897 
to 319,000 in 1900 — ^proof conclusive that the public appreciated 
what was offered. In this way he demonstrated what a large field 
for popular education was lying uncultivated right outside of the 
doors of the public schools. He also persuaded young librarians to 
spend a year or two in library studies in this country and thereby 
gave impetus to a movement which I venture to predict will prove 
one of the most fruitful influences of American intellectual life upon 
the Scandinavian countries in our generation. 

ViLHELM SlOMANN* 




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Books 

The Descendants of Joran Kyn. By Dr. Gregory B. Keen. Publications 
of the Swedish Colonial Society, Philadelphia, 1914. 

There is perhaps no country in the world so rich in genealogical literature as 
America. Genealogies have sprung up over-night in the most barren soil, like 
the gourd of Jonah, and have withered as quickly, to be completely forgotten 
except by the few immortals whose brilliant antecedents they are supposed to 
glorify. The writing of genealogies is considered the legitimate occupation of 
any one able to hold a pen or with mentality enough to write a sentence of 
four words, and only recently an ex-university president of natural-science fame 
"proved" that the "majority of all the Americans" are descendants of a certain 
noble lady whose marital relations were somewhat questionable! 

Under such conditions it is refreshing to take up a book on genealogy that 
bears the imprint of the scholar, and every page of which testifies to the diligent 
investigator, not in quest of royal sires, or adventurers of noble blood (in many 
cases known to fame only because they were hung on a tree for horse -stealing 
or brought into court for oppressing the "peepul"), but whose aim has been 
to trace with a sure hand the succeeding generations of a man who was simply 
a brave soldier and a free land-owner on the Delaware River 271 years ago. The 
material is presented in a business-like manner, and a good index of names makes 
it easily accessible. Some of the most eminent men in this country are descend- 
ants of Joran Kyn. The book, therefore, has wide interest "not merely as 
the record of a particular family but also as a striking example of the wide 
diffusion of the blood of an early Swedish settler on the Delaware through 
descendants of other surnames and other races residing both in the United States 
and Europe." Taking it all in all, the reviewer is inclined to believe that it is 
the best genealogy so far published in America. The presswork is good, the 
paper and binding are sumptuous, conforming to the first publication of the 
Swedish Colonial Society. Amandus Johnson. 

The School System of Norway. By David Allen Anderson. Boston : Richard 
C. Badger, The Gorham Press, 1913, pp. 232. $1.25. 

Some time ago Dr. David Allen Anderson, Professor of Education in the 
University of Washington, was commissioned by the University of Iowa, with 
which institution he was then connected, to make a study of the educational 
system of Norway. The result of Dr. Anderson's investigations is now accessible 
to the public in the form of a very attractive volume entitled **The School System 
of Norway," which contains a wealth of information, practical and general^ 
revealing the exceUence and high degree of development which the Norwegian 
school system has attained. The direct and logical presentation and the clearness 
which characterize the book, as well as the interpretative conclusions with which 
the text is interspersed, render it especially suitable for self study. 

The accuracy of Dr. Anderson's study has been attested by Norw^ay's foremost 
pedagogue. Dr. Otto Anderssen, of the University of Christiania, who says: 
"I have, with great pleasure, read through Dr. David Anderson's presentation 
of Norway's school system and found it in all essentials correct, complete and 
illuminating. Through personal observation, conversation with competent men, 
and study of the most important literature, the author has succeeded in getting 
a clear and exact view of the Norwegian school methods and characteristic forms 
of work in their historical development and present condition. His reflections 
and judgments testify to pedagogical insight and independence of views." 

E. J. ViCKNER, 



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Brief Notes 



A third edition of Rev. J. C. Clay's "Annals of the Swedes on the Delaware*' 
has been issued on attractive paper, with a beautiful binding in yellow and gold, 
through the generosity of Mr. Charles S. Peterson, of Chicago, by the Swedish 
Historical Society of America. This valuable reprint of an almost inaccessible 
work is due to the initiative of Henry S. Henschen, former Swedish Consul in 
Chicago, who has supplied an editorial introduction. 



At the last meeting of the Lutheran Augustana Synod held at Sycamore, 
111., a committee was appointed, consisting of Dr. Julius Lincoln, Jamestown, 
N. Y., Consid L. L. Malm, Cleveland, Ohio, and Dr. Amandus Johnson, 
Philadelphia, to visit Wilmington, in the interest of having some kind of a marker 
placed on the spot where the first Swedes landed. These gentlemen expected to 
meet there during the summer and see what could be done. 



The American-Scandinavian Society on June 8 gave a supper at Mouquin's 
in New York in honor of Professor Georg Brandes, following a lecture on Shake- 
speare held under the Society's auspices. The New York Times estimated that 
two thousand persons were turned away from the Comedy Theatre, where the 
lecture took place, and congratulated Miss Catherine D. Groth upon her able 
management. 

Professor J. Gust. Richert, member of the Foundation's Swedish Board, 
visited America again in May and June in the interest of Swedish inventions. 
Professor Richert has kindly consented to edit a series of articles on Swedish 
inventions which will shortly begin to appear in the Review. 



Handel's " Messiah " was presented in April by the Bethany Oratorio Society 
at Lindsborg, Kansas, "the Bayreuth of Swedish America." 



June 10, two thousand New York school girls danced Swedish and Danish 
folk dances in Central Park under the direction of Miss Elizabeth Burchenal. 
The pageant was witnessed by Dr. Brandes. 



The Augustana Colonization Association was organized a year ago to 
strengthen the community interest in Swedish colonies in North America. The 
address of H. Ivarsoii, the central secretary, is 400 Walnut Street S. E., Minne- 
apolis, Minn. That this Society has a vast field of usefulness is evidenced by 
the rapid growth of its membership. 



Swedish engineers in America are making preparations for the Swedish 
Engineering Convention in this country during the year of the Panama Expo- 
sition. The secretary of the Eastern Organization Committee is Mr. Erik 
Oberg, 183 68th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



The Swedish system of gymnastics known as the "Ling" system will be tried 
in four high schools of Chicago, two for girls and two for boys. The innovation 
is the result of the visit of the Swedish gymnasts last fall, when Mrs. EUa Flagg 
Young had an opportunity to convince herself of the excellence of the system. 



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The Magazines 



Sweden "How Sweden Is Developing Lapland," Henry Goddard Leach, 
American Review of Reviews, January, 1914; "Through Sweden's 
Waterways," G. V. Lindner, Travel, January, 1914; " Liliekrona's Home," 
Review, The Bookman, April, 1914; "The Constitutional Crisis in Sweden," 
Editorial, The Economist, London, February 14, 1914; "The Financial and 
Political Position in Sweden," Editorial, The Economist, London, February 21, 
1914; "The Swedish Constitution and Russian Aggression," Ivar Lagervall, The 
Economist, London, March 7, 1914; "King Gustav and the Socialists Differ," 
"The Swedes Demand a Larger Army and Navy," Editorials, American Review 
of Reviews, March, 1914; "Swedish Defence," Editorial, The Independent, Febru- 
arv 23, 1914; "Woman in a New World," Ellen Key, Harper's Weekly, January 
24^, 1914; "Life of Ellen Key," Harper's Weekly, January 3, 1914; "The Essential 
in Theosophy," Osvald Sir6n; "The Legend of Visingso," Oscar Ljungstrom, 
The Theosophical Path, March, 1914; "Sweden's Constitutional Crisis," "Why 
the Swedes are Demanding Increased Defenses," Editorials, American Review of 
Reviews, April, 1914; "Sweden's Call to Arms," Editorial, The Literary Digest^ 
April 11, 1914; "The Descendants of Joran Kyn," Review, The Nation, June 25, 
1914; "RomainRoUand," Ellen Key, The Bookman, May, 1914; "Sweden Torn 
by Militarism," Editorial, The Literary Digest, March 21, 1914. 

Norway "Anti-Babel: Adoption by Norway of Landsmaal," Edgar Mayhew 
Bacon, The Dial, March 16, 1914; "Shallow Soil," Review, The 
Bookman, May, 1914; "Insurance Against Unemployment in Norway and 
Denmark," Katharine Coman, Survey, March 14, 1914; "Woman's Organized 
Work in Norway," Jane A. Stewart, Harper's Weekly, April 11, 1914; "A Nor- 
wegian Dramatist in Translation," Editorial, The Dial, June 16, 1914. 

Denmark "The Quest of a Hen's Egg: Denmark a Country Ruled by Farm- 
ers," Frederick C. Howe, The Metropolitan, January, 1914; "Lessons 
from Denmark," Report, London, 1914; "Home Rule in Iceland," "Industrial 
Progress in Denmark Since Accession of King Christian X," Editorials, American 
Review of Reviews, March, 1914; "Twenty Years of Old-Age Pensions in Den- 
mark," Katharine Coman, Survey, January 17, 1914; "The Comedies of Hol- 
berg," Review, The Nation, June 18, 1914; "A Message to Denmark from a Dane 
in America," C. H. A. Bjerregaard, The Theosophical Path, March, 1914; "In 
Happy Denmark," H. S. Adams, Travel, March, 1914; "My First Visit to the 
Court of Denmark," Mme. de Hegermann-Lindencrone, Harper's Magazine, 
April, 1914. 

General "Eskimos as Aboriginal Inventors," A. L. Kroeber, Scientific 
American, January 10, 1914; "My Life with the Eskimo," Vilhj. 
Stefansson, The Nation, January 22, 1914; "Runeberg, Finland's Great National 
Poet" (translated extracts from a lecture), Lucien Maury, American Review of 
Reviews, February, 1914; "Lapland" (a poem), WilUam Frederick Dix, 
The Independent, January 5, 1914; "Religion — Looking Backwards," C. H. A. 
Bjerregaard, Trend, March, 1914; "An Open Letter to President Wilson on Be- 
half of American Literature," Edwin BjSrkman, Century Magazine, April, 1914; 
"Ellen Key, Romain Rolland and Beethoven," Editorial, American Review of 
Reviews, April, 1914; "The Music of Francis Grierson," "Gleams," Edwin 
Bjorkman, Harper's Weekly, February 14, 1914; "The Story of Sea Breeze," 
Jacob A. Riis, The Outlook, May 9, 1914; "The Scandinavians in America," Ed- 
ward Alsworth Ross, The Century, June, 1914. 



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46 ADVERTISEMENTS 



The American-Scandinavian 
Foundation 



announces that orders will be received for the following books now 
in press, to be delivered early in the autumn: 

Scandinavian Monographs, Vol. 1 

printed on suede finish paper, bound in blue cloth, with a seal stamped in gold. 

The Voyages of the Norsemen to America 

By WILLIAM HOVGAARD, Professor of Naval Corutruetion in the Massachusetts InsHtuU of 
Technology. IxUe Commander in the Royal Dani h Navy. 

An objective treatment of the whole problem, including reliable translations of aU parts of the 
Sagas that concern Vinland, and a thorou^ discussion of the nautical aspects. About 900 pages 
of textp 89 illustrationsp and 7 maps. Free to Patron Associates of the Foundation. 

Scandinavian Classics, Vols. 1 and 2 

printed on suede finish paper, bound in red cloth, with a seal stamped in gold. 

COMEDIES OF HOLBERG. Jeppe of the Hill. The Political Tinker, Erasmus Montanus: 
Translated by Oscar James Campbell, Jr., Assistant Professor of English in the University of Wisconsin, 
and Frederic Schenck, B.Litt. of Balliol College. Introduction by Dr. Campbell. 

POEMS OF TEGNER. The Children of the Last Supper, translated by Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow; Frithiof's Saga, translated by Rev. W. L. Blackley; with a critical introduction by Paul 
Robert Lieder, of Harvard University. 

Both volumes are free to Sustaining, Life, and Patron Associates of the Foundation. 

The American-Scandinavian Review: 
Vol. 1, 1913 

Twenty-two copies remaining, bound with title page and index; cover 
stamped with seal in gold. Price $5.00. Postage free. 

Order by mail direct from 

The Amerlcan- 
Scandinavian Foundation 

New York 




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L The Swedish Settlements on the Dela- 
ware, Their History and Relation to the 
Indians, Dutch and English, 1638-1664. 
In two volumes by Amandus Johnson, Ph.D. 
The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Bi- 
ography, says: — "A masterpiece of historical investi- 
gation." 
Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart, Harvard University: — 
"Dr. Johnson, in his sumptuous ami carefully wrought 
work, has furnished an example of careful scholarship, 
and has set up a permanent monument to the Swedes in 
America." 
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IIL The Scaodinavian Stadies and Friends 
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An important and thorough study of a somewhat neg- 
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and documents. 

Edition de Luxe, (deckle edge, gilt top), $1.50 net. 
The Lenap6 Press, Philadelphia, Pa. 



STATEMENT 

of the ownership, management, etc., of the 
American - Scandinavian Review, published 
bi-monthly at New York, N. Y., required by 
the Act of August 24, 1912. 

Editor, Managing Editor and Business Man- 
ager: Henry Goddard Leach, 25 West 45th 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

Publisher and Owners: The Trustees of the 
American-Scandinavian Foundation, 25 West 
45th Street, New York, N. Y. 

Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other 
security holders, holding 1 per cent, or more, 
of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other 
securities: None. 

HENRY GODDARD LEACH, 

Editor. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 
13th day of March, 1914. — Harry Frank, 
Notary Public. 



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The American-Scandinavian Review 

Volume II NOVEMBER, 1914 Numbbb 6 

Published Bi-Monthly byTea American-Scandinavian Foundation, 25 West 45th Street, New York 

Yearly Subscription, $1.50. Single Copies, 25 cents 

Entered as wcond-claas matter. January 4, 1913. at the post-office at New York. N. Y., under the act of March 3. 1879 
Copyright. 1914, The American-Scandinavian Foundation 

Hknbt Goddard Lbach, Managing Editor Hanna Abtbup Labsbn, Literary Editor 

Advisory Editors 
New York, Hamilton Holt Copenhagen, Harald Nielbien 

Stockholm, Carl Laurin Christiania, Christian Colun 



CONTENTS 

CONTRIBUTORS TO THE NOVEMBER REVIEW '"I 

NORWAY ABROAD AT THE CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION IN 
CHRISTIANIA. By Dr. Fredrik Georg Gade. With Three Illus- 
trations 3 

MRS. WOODROW WILSON. STANZAS IN MEMORIAM. Poem. By 
Percy MacKaye 7 

THE NEUTRALITY ALLIANCE OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. DR. 
SIGURD IBSEN AND DR. KARL HILDEBRAND INTERVIEWED 
ON CONDITIONS IN SCANDINAVIA. By Hanna Astrup Larsen 8 

THE PEACE MONUMENT ON KJOLEN. Illu-stration 15 

GLIMPSES OF SWEDISH ARCHITECTURE. By Osvald Siren. With 
Nine Illustrations. Concluded from the September Number . . 16 

HYMN TO THE FATHERLAND. Poem. By Richard Dybeck. 
Translated by Oscar William Peterson 23 

DANISH CASTLES— VI. RUDBJERGGAARD. Illustration ... 24 

THE MADNESS OF THE MONARCHS. Poem. By Jens Grondahl . 26 

FOR THE WOUNDED. Poem. By Bjornstjerne Bjornson. Trans- 
lated by Arthur Hubbell Palmer 27 

SWEDISH SLOYD IN AMERICA. With Four Illustrations .... 28 

GEORG BRANDES. By Asaph Robert Shelander. Illustration . . 30 

BRANDES IN AMERICA 33 

INTERESTING PEOPLE: FREDRIK HERMAN GADE .... 37 

EDITORIAL: Neutral America, In the Shadow of the War, Holberg and 
Tegner, Voyages of the Norsemen, Fellows of the Foundation .... 38 

BRIEF NOTES 42 

THE MAGAZINES 43 




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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE NOVEMBER REVIEW 

Dr. Fredrik Georg Gade has earned the gratitude of all Norwegian- 
Americans who visited the Centennial this summer. As vice-president of Nord- 
mandsforbundet he was active in organizing the pavilion and exhibits of ** Norway 
Abroad" of which he writes in this number of the Review. Dr. Gade contrib- 
uted 150,000 kroner to the Pathological-Anatomical Institute, which was erected 
in his native city, Bergen, in 1906. He lives now in Christiania, and is the editor 
of Nordisk Magazin for Lcegevidenskab and a frequent contributor to the daily 
press on medical subjects. 

Percy MacKaye, the American dramatist, is the author of "The Canterbury 
Pilgrims, a Comedy," performed as a civic pageant in Gloucester, Massachusetts, 
in honor of President Taft, and of numerous dramas, including the tragedies 
"Jeanne d'Arc" and "Sappho and Phaon." He has also written various odes 
and prologues for special occasions. His beautiful poem on the death of Mrs. 
Wilson is reprinted by permission of the author. 

Professor Osvald Siren, of Stockholm, was invited to America last spring to 
deliver a series of six lectures on Leonardo da Vinci at Yale University. He also 
lectured at the Universities of Harvard, Princeton, and Columbia; at the Art 
Museums of Boston, New York, and Chicago; before the American-Scandinavian 
Society in New York, and the Swedish Colonial Society in Philadelphia. 

Jens Grondahl is a native of Norway, now living in Red Wing, Minn., where 
he is editor of the Red Wing Daily Republican, He has been active in State 
politics, and his refusal to accept railroad passes led to a movement resulting, 
finally, in State and National laws prohibiting the acceptance of passes. He is 
at present a member of the State Senate. 

Arthur Hubbell Palmer is Professor of Germanic Languages and Literature 
at Yale University. Mr. Palmer is the editor of various text-books of the works 
of Goethe and Schiller, and has under preparation a volume of translations of 
Bj6rnson*s lyrics. He is a trustee of the American-Scandinavian Foundation. 

Asaph Robert Shelander, clergyman, lecturer and writer, is a Swedish- 
American, a graduate of Augustana College and sometime Fellow in Philology 
at Columbia University. 

The cover of this number of the Review shows a reproduction of a photograph 
of the great door in the Church of Saltsjobaden described by Professor Sir6n in 
his article, "Glimpses of Swedish Architecture." The design is by the sculptor, 
Carl Milles. 



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INAVIAN 



Review 



VOLXTUE II 



NOVEMBER • 1914 



NXTMBEB 6 



Norway Abroad 

AT THE CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION IN CHRISTIANIA 
By Dr. Fredrik Georg Gade 



T! 



>*'>."'•'', 







(HAT picture of the life and cul- 
ture of the Norwegian race which 
the Exposition of 1914 aimed to 
present would have been incomplete 
without a place for "Norway Abroad/' 
When the idea was first broached by 
Nordmandsforbundety the executive 
committee of the Exposition, in a spirit 
of ready sympathy, at once agreed to the 
erection of a separate pavilion in a cen- 
tral position as befitted its importance 
in the physiognomy of the whole. The 
building was executed from designs by 
Mr. Adolf Jensen, one of the architects 
of the Exposition, and covered five 
hundred square meters, containing, in 
addition to three large halls for the exhibits, a reading room, rest 
rooms for women, and an oflSce for Nordmandsforbundet This society 
was given complete charge of the department, and established a 
branch oflSce in the pavilion in order to assist and welcome visiting 
kinsmen from abroad. 

The program of the Exposition admitted only products of Nor- 
wegian industry, and our countrymen abroad were therefore limited 
to the exhibition of models, charts, pictures, and statistical surveys, 
showing their conditions of living and their social position in their 
new homes. In spite of this limitation, Norwegians all over the 
world, most particularly, however, from the United States of America, 
have devoted much labor to doing their country honor, and their 
exhibits have been a happy surprise to us all. The home people of 



Norwegian Banner Carried by the 
Fifteenth Wisconsin Regiment 



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4 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Norway have been greatly attracted to them, and a steady stream of 
visitors from city and country has filled the pavilion. Practically 
every family in Norway has relatives across the sea, and a survey cf 
the exhibits of Norw^ay Abroad seemed almost like a visit to them. 
School children — boys and girls — usually under the guidance of a 
teacher, have flocked to the pavilion, and have thereby had their 
understanding of our race and its mission widened, while they have 
felt their kinship with the thousands of Norwegians outside of 
Norway. The future will show fruits of this work. 

The pleasing appearance of the inside of the pavilion is due 
largely to the friezes and paintings, showing chiefly scenes from 
pioneer life, with which the Norwegian-American painter, Benjamin 
Blessum, has adorned the rooms. Upon entering the main door 
the visitor is confronted with the exhibit of the Norwegian Synod 
arranged by President C. K. Preus and Dr. T. Stabo. The models 
of those stately institutions of the Synod, Luther College and 
Luther Seminary, speak louder than words of the development that 
has taken place since the time w^hen the first seed was laid in the old 
church of Koshkonong, a model of which stands close by. We see 
the exhibits of pupil work from Norwegian-American schools, the 
Hardanger embroidery of the girls, and the essays of the boys on self- 
chosen themes, such as "A Trip to Norway" or "Our Fatherland," 
by young Norwegian-Americans who have never seen Norway. We 
gain an understanding of that phenomenon, which has so often sur- 
prised and touched us here at home, the numerous Americans of the 
second and third generation who speak our language fluently, and 
who follow our train of thought closely, for it is in our own mother 
tongue that they have found words for the earliest emotions of their 
child hearts, for the first conscious workings of their minds. 

In the opposite end of the large hall are the exhibits of the three 
other church bodies, the United Church, the Free Church, and the 
Hauge Synod. Among them we note the model of the fine buildings 
of St. Olaf College, and here, too, we may see the present imposing 
institutions on the background of a modest past expressed by the 
model of the first church in Muskego. 

The western end of the hall is set apart for the exhibit of North 
Dakota arranged by Mr. Alfred Gabrielsen. A map of the State, in 
which the quarter sections of land owned by Norwegians are marked 
in red, shows better than almost anything else the work and influence 
of our countrymen there; red squares thickly stud the area of the 
entire State and often run together, forming large red stretches of 
Norwegian land. The opposite side of the hall is occupied by the 
exhibit of Minnesota, collected and arranged with a considerable 
sacrifice of personal effort by Dr. J. S. Johnson, who has also given 
much assistance in the adjoining exhibits of the churches. Wall 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 5 




The First Norwegian Emigrants Leaving Stay anger in the Restaurationen, 1825. 
TioN IN "Norway Abroad,** Painted by Benjamin Blessum 



Decora- 



chart and pictures here also tell the story of the part played by our 
countrymen in the development of the State. 

In the next room the Wisconsin exhibit, to which Consul Olaf I. 
Rove, Mr. Waldemar Ager and Dr. J. De Besche have devoted much 
work, compels attention by a glass case containing two flags carried by 
the Fifteenth Wisconsin Regiment in the American Civil War. 
Almost all the members of the regiment, as well as its leader. Colonel 
Heg, were Norwegians, and, curiously enough, it is the only Norwegian 
regiment that has been under fire since 1814. Many a Norwegian 
man and youth, at sight of the bullet-riddled, tattered banners, 
must have thanked in his heart the Fifteenth Wisconsin Regiment 
for the honorable service it has rendered, and w^hispered to himself: 

''Ogsaa vi, naar det blir kraeveV — 

The inner room is occupied by Nordmandsforbundefs own exhibit 
of "Norwegian Homes All Over the World," a collection of photo- 
graphs from practically every part of the world where Norwegians 
live — from Winnipeg to Texas, from New York to Hawaii, from New 
Zealand, Australia, and the Solomon Islands to South Africa, Congo 
and Algiers, from China and Japan to Zanzibar and Madagascar, 
from Constantinople to Glasgow. It warms our hearts when we see 
the Norwegian flag waving from roofs in Africa and over islands of 
the Pacific, and when such names as Norge, Norway, Norrona, 
Bergenhus, Solheim, Fosheim, Roligheden, Storhove, meet us from 
the most distant parts of the world. The photograph of a large 



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6 TEE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

business house in Cape Town is brightened by a tricolor Norwegian 
flag; the Httle daughter of the house would not let the picture go home 
with an empty flag-pole, and she painted it in with her own hands. 

The inner wall is filled by a large map on which the distribution 
of Norwegians all over the world is indicated in red. The red dots are 
most closely scattered over the United States of America, but there 
are few parts of the world where they are entirely lacking. 

*' Norway Abroad" has had two missions at the Exposition, and 
has fulfilled both successfully. It has appreciably increased our 
understanding of and our respect and affection for our emigrated 
countrymen, and has without doubt done the same for Norwegians 
mutually in their various foreign homes. It has been a focus and 
furnished a meeting-point for our visiting countrymen; more than 
three thousand Norwegians have written their names in the Visitors' 
Book of Nordmandsforhundet; new friendships have been formed and 
old ones revived. We have even seen instances where two people, 
both living in America and known to each other by hearsay or 
through interchange of letters, have for the first time taken each 
other by the hand in the pavilion of "Norway Abroad." 

The unifying effect of the exhibition will be felt in the years to 
come, all the more as many of the exhibits will be left here as a 
permanent gift. One thing is certain — without the participation of 
Norway Abroad the Exposition could not have fulfilled its pro- 
gram of giving a complete picture of Norwegian work and culture. 




* Longing for Home." Decoration in "Norway Abroad," Painted by Benjamin Blessum 



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Mrs. Woodrow Wilson 

STANZAS IN MEMORIAM 
By Percy MacKaye 

Her gentle spirit passed with Peace, 
With Peace out of a world at war. 

Racked by the old earth-agonies 
Of kaiser, king, and czar. 

Where Bear and Lion crouch in lair 

To rend the iron Eagle's flesh. 
And viewless engines of the air 

Spin wide their lightning mesh. 

And darkly kaiser, czar, and king. 

With awful thunders stalk their prey — 

Yet Peace, that moves with silent wing. 
Is mightier than they. 

And she — our lady who has parsed — 
And Peace were sisters: They are gone. 

Together through time's holocaust 
To blaze a bloodless dawn. 

How otherwise the royal die 

Whose power is throned on rolling drums! 
HER monument of royalty 

Is builded in the slums: 

Her latest prayer, transformed to law. 
Shall more than monarch's vow endure. 

Assuaging there, vnth loving awe. 
The anguish of the poor. 

And him who, resolute, alone. 

Suffers the surge of war and pain. 

To him his country gives her own 
Heart's peace to live again; 

While we, whose loyalty would scorn 
Kaiser and czar and king's demesne. 

Are hushed in solemn calm, to mourn 
Tlie proud republic's queen. 



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The Neutrality Alliance of Sweden 
and Norway 

DR. SIGURD IBSEN AND DR. KARL HILDEBRAND INTERVIEWED 
ON CONDITIONS IN SCANDINAVIA 

By Hanna Astrup Larsen 

INASMUCH as war has broken out among several foreign 
powers, the Swedish and the Norwegian governments have 
mutually declared their determination, in the state of war that 
has thus arisen, each to maintain to the utmost of their ability, their 
neutrality in relation to all belligerent powers. At the same time 
the two governments have exchanged binding assurances, with a 
view to precluding the possibility that the condition of war in Europe 
might lead to hostile measures being taken by either country against 
the other." 

The above resolution was simultaneously announced, on the 8th 
of August, in the Riksdag of Sweden and the Storting of Norway by 
the respective governments, and was enthusiastically confirmed by 
both legislative bodies. The press was unanimous in greeting it as 
the first glimmer of light in the pall of darkness that had descended 
upon the Scandinavian peninsula with the outbreak of war among 
its neighbors. 

For years past the war which is now a reality has from time to 
time lifted its head in the Scandinavian press as a hideous possibility. 
The fear of aggression from the East has been an ever-present goad 
to Sweden, while Norway has become obsessed with the foreboding 
that the next great naval battle of the world would be fought in 
Norwegian waters and with great danger to the neutrality of her 
harbors. The divergent sympathies of the two countries, Sweden 
looking naturally to Germany as her protector against the Slavs, and 
Norway being drawn by ties of friendship and interest to England, 
has created the fear that the two might be forced to take opposing 
sides in a general conflict. The horror of the present war has brought 
home to both people the sense that, whatever their other affiliations 
may be, their nearest duty and most vital tie is to each other. In 
the Ragnarok of Europe they must stand or fall together. 

There are facts which the dissolution of the Union has not been 
able to alter. Now, as before, Swedes and Norwegians are of one 
race, united by similar language, culture, and ideals. Now, as before, 
they live on the same peninsula; Sweden is Norway's protection 
against the East, while Norway's long seacoast must be Sweden's 
source of supply in case of attack. From a purely strategic point of 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 9 

view, it is a matter of life and death to each that the integrity of the 
other be preserved. 

In both countries a partial mobilization has taken place, and 
appropriations have been made for increased military expenses, but 
it has been strongly emphasized that these measures are only precau- 
tions to guard their neutrality. The Foreign Offices have issued 
warnings to the press and the citizens not to endanger this neutrality 
by taking sides even in an unguarded utterance. In striking contrast 
with their passionate partisanship in 1870, the Norwegian papers have 
preserved a dignified impartiality. The Swedes, by their generous 
aid to the thousands of Russian fugitives passing through the country 
from Germany, have given signal proof of that sense of human 
brotherhood which will perhaps some time in the future be heard in 
the politics of the great nations and render such a war as the present 
impossible. 

The representative of the Review was in Scandinavia at the 
outbreak of the war, and was able to secure comment on the situation, 
for Norway from Dr. Sigurd Ibsen, and for Sweden from Dr. Karl 
Hildebrand. 

Dr. Ibsen, by his education and residence abroad, has acquired a 
broad view of the international relations affecting his country. 
During his connection with the Foreign Office he was at one time 
attache of the Swedish-Norwegian legation in Washington. As 
Minister of State in Stockholm in the years preceding the dissolution 
of the Union, he was at variance with the ultra-nationalist sentiment 
in Norway, and is at present outside party politics. In his beauti- 
ful villa in the spruce woods outside of Christiania, he lives the life 
of a scholar and man of letters, but follows the affairs of his country 
with keen interest. Last May, in a widely quoted speech before the 
Students' Association of Stockholm Hogskola, he made a plea for a 
defensive alliance between Norway and Sweden, a measure which 
was also foreshadowed in the Review. 

*'I rejoice over the agreement between the Swedish and Norwe- 
gian governments," said Dr. Ibsen, "and only hope that this tempo- 
rary precaution will lead to a permanent relation. All that the 
Liberal party asked at the time of the dissolution of the Union was 
that its kernel, the defensive alliance, should be retained, while it 
should be stripped of all husks in the form of unnecessary commixture 
that would only produce irritation. The state of international 
politics, even before the outbreak of this war, made such an alliance 
even more imperative than it was at the time when the Union still 
existed." 

"You do not feel that the difference in the size and strength of the 
two countries would be an element of danger.^" 



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10 THE AMERICAN'SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 

"No; Norway is sufficiently strong to enter an alliance with 
Sweden without the peril that might attach to an alliance of either 
country with one of the great powers. Sweden would be the first 
among brothers, and I for one feel no resentment at the thought. 
The Swedes have a population of five and a half million against our 
two and a half; they are a nation of older traditions and more estab- 
lished culture. Upon my recent visit to Sweden I received an almost 
overpowering impression of material progress. I have unbounded 
faith in the possibilities of my own country, but at present the devel- 
opment in Sweden is much more intense and rapid than among us. 
Sweden is the leader not only in the material but in the moral renais- 
sance of the North. The patriarchal political conditions that have 
existed until a recent date have passed away, and Sweden is now an 
entirely modern state. At the same time, the changes in our own 
politics pave the way for a better understanding. While the Union 
still existed, the questions of our international relations w^ere over- 
shadowed by the special problems of our relations with our neighbor. 
Now that our fate is in our own hands, we have begun to consider 
what possibilities of war we need to guard against, and to see how 
necessary it is for the peninsula to act as a unit. 

"It is conceded by all whose opinions have any weight, that 
solidarity between the two is essential, but as yet there has been 
little disposition to assure this solidarity by a formal alliance. A 
general resolve to stand together in time of trouble is very good, but 
there are certain measures that must be prepared before war breaks 
out, if they are to be effectively put into execution. No one needs to 
be an expert in strategy in order to know that efficient cooperation 
between the Swedish and Norwegian armies would depend upon 
certain preliminary plans decided upon by the military staffs and 
railroad officials of both countries in mutual understanding. This 
mutual understanding, however, must be preceded by a formal 
agreement looking to a common defense." 

*'You do not fear that an alliance would produce irritation or 
suspicion abroad.^" 

'*I do not think so, if the purely defensive character were suffi- 
ciently emphasized. Such an alliance would be the best safeguard 
of peace by making the prospects for a successful invasion less 
inviting. A strong Scandinavia would be an element of stability, 
while two impotent nations would be a temptation to aggression by a 
stronger power. We have heard it reiterated that the Northern 
nations must look to neutrality, and nothing but neutrality, as their 
salvation. That is very true, but neutrality is not a magic word, the 
mere utterance of which dispels difficulties. On the contrary, it is in 
itself a problem. Suppose that one of the belligerents in this war 
should wish to seize on Scandinavia as a basis of operations. Then 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 11 

it would be necessary to have a clearly defined policy, to know whether 
or not we would go to the extent of armed resistance, and if so, 
against which of the contestants, so that we should not run the risk 
of being on terms of enmity with both. Above all, we must guard 
against the possibility that Sweden and Norway might be forced to 
take opposing sides in a conflict and so become involved in war with 
each other. I repeat that I cannot too strongly express my gratifica- 
tion at the step taken by our government and that of Sweden. The 
details of our relations should not be left to accident. Leading men 
in the two countries must agree on a definite plan of neutrality, and 
our foreign policy must be along parallel lines." 

** You believe that the defense of the Scandinavian peninsula is a 
possibility.^" 

"Most assuredly, but we must gain confidence in ourselves. We 
are too prone to say that it is an advantage to be small. It is not an 
advantage; it leads to smallness in our way of thinking and to an 
enervating sense of impotence. We need to strengthen our army. 
At present it is only a militia. A militia with a small standing army 
may be suflBcient for the United States, where danger of attack is 
practically non-existent, though I believe that if the Civil War had 
been a conflict between trained armies, it would have been over in 
six months instead of dragging out for four years. With us, prepared- 
ness is essential. Above all, our soldiers need to be trained. War 
now more than ever before demands skill, coolness, and presence of 
mind; but the consciousness of inferiority is in itself demoralizing, 
and to send men with only three or four months' training against 
those who are hardened by the discipline of years is nothing but 
wholesale murder. Our men are excellent timber from which to 
make soldiers, but their high level of general intelligence and their 
physical fitness cannot compensate for the training that renders action 
almost automatic. A year of service must be the minimum." 

"But is not modern warfare largely a question of money — of more 
money than Norway can afford ? " 

"The expense of strengthening our defenses need not be so 
enormous as we sometimes fancy. We need no dreadnoughts; our 
coast is guarded by the circle of rocky islands within which no battle- 
ship can penetrate, and it may be still better protected by submarine 
mines. We need more submarine boats; they are terrible weapons, 
and they are, comparatively speaking, not expensive. In fact, I 
should not be surprised if the development of modern naval warfare 
would favor the smaller nations, but at this moment it is diflScult to 
make prophecies. We cannot fortify our whole coast-line, but we 
need to strengthen certain places, and I would mention Bergen, 
Larvik, and Christiansand. The Storting some time ago passed 
an appropriation for strengthening the defenses of Christiania. 



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U THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

As a strategic measure, the Nordland railroad, in my opinion, should 
take precedence over all other railroad building. At present, it 
extends only to Trondhjem and does not even touch Nordland, 
which has not, in fact, a single line of railroad except the Swedish 
Kirunavaara-Luossavaara road, merely bisecting it at the narrowest 
point. We must do more to knit the northern part of our country 
to us. Our military burdens are not too heavy for our means. The 
ordinary budget is only twenty-five million kroner, and to this must 
be added an extraordinary appropriation amounting this year to 
twelve million kroner. It is true, we need to develop our material 
resources. Increased prosperity would give us a greater conscious- 
ness of power and would augment our population by creating oppor- 
tunities for work and so keeping at home those who would otherwise 
emigrate." 

The Review has already traced the growth of the defense move- 
ment in Sweden culminating with the Yeomen's March to the King. 
Unfortunately, the issue that had been inaugurated with such a great 
national outburst of enthusiasm was made a party measure. As a 
part of the Conservative program, it was resisted not only by the 
Social Democrats, who are in principle opposed to taxation for 
military purposes, but by the Liberals, who were in favor of strength- 
ening the defenses, but differed from the Conservatives in certain 
details. There seemed little hope of any agreement, when the shock 
of the war subordinated party jealousies to the common patriotism. 
Former Prime Minister Staaff, as leader of the Liberals, made a 
formal declaration that his party was prepared to give way in the 
most important of the contested points in order not to delay the 
necessary measures for the defense, and the program outlined by 
the government will therefore be carried out. 

Dr. Karl Ilildebrand, formerly editor of the strong Conservative 
organ, Stockholms Daghlady and now a member of the Committee on 
Defenses, snatched a few moments from the sessions of the Riksdag 
to discuss the situation in Sweden. "The committee of which I 
have the honor to be a member," he said, ''has been working out a 
detailed plan for our defenses, but dissensions in the Riksdag have 
hitherto retarded action. All parties want our defenses strengthened, 
but they differ in regard to the distribution of the time of military 
training and the kind of ships required by our navy. The most 
important point in our plan is the increase in the training time of the 
infantry to almost one year, distributed as follows: First 250 days; 
then three periods of thirty days each; then, lastly, for the older classes, 
a short period of fifteen days. Stress is laid on the winter training: 
the soldiers must learn how to move rapidly on skis, to take care of 
their health in a winter camp, to build fires and to sleep out-of-doors 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 13 

in the snow, and they must be provided with the proper clothes and 
equipment. 

*'In the matter of our navy, the government program calls for 
eight ships of the Sverige type, that is, fairly large battleships, 
though not of the dreadnought nor super-dreadnought class. We 
could not use vessels of the size of those employed by the great 
powers, for they would not be able to move in the narrow passages 
along our coast-line, but we do need some battleships as ice-breakers 
and to carry supplies to our torpedoes and submarine boats. The 
program also calls for the strengthening of our fortifications in Karls- 
krona, outside of Stockholm and along our coasts, and for the building 
of a fortress in Norrland, to be used as a coaling and repairing station 
for our Baltic squadron." 

*'How will this money be raised.^" 

**It is beyond question that a lengthy and thinly populated 
country like Sweden must bear heavier burdens of expense than a 
compact and thickly settled state. We propose to levy a special tax 
of seventy-five million kronor in order to defray the initial expenses 
of the winter equipment and the fortifications. If we were to levy 
this tax after the system followed by Germany, we should get only 
one-half the amount required. It follows, therefore, that we must 
tax ourselves very much more heavily, but the tax has been carefully 
distributed so that the chief burden falls on the wealthier classes, who 
have already shown a marvelous willingness to sacrifice for their 
country. A much larger percentage of the people will be exempt 
from this tax than from the ordinary taxes." 

*'Do you attach any importance to the anti-mihtary demonstra- 
tions of the Social Democrats ? " 

'*I think these demonstrations are not nearly so serious as might 
appear on the surface. It is true that some of the younger Social 
Democrats have taken the attitude of placing the interests of their 
class before the interests of their country and openly proclaiming 
that the working man has no country, but this has never been the 
position of their best men. The rapid change of Sweden from an 
agricultural to a manufacturing nation has influenced our political 
life by the sudden augmentation of the laboring class. The Social 
Democratic party among us is very strong, and it has taken the same 
form as in Germany. That is, the labor unions as a body are affiliated 
with the party while allowing the individual members to vote as they 
please. Naturally, it takes a great deal of moral courage for the 
working man to go against his union, and the ranks of the party are 
therefore swelled by many who are not drawn into it by political sym- 
pathy but by interest in their labor organizations. It is a pecuHarity 
of our people — as, perhaps, of other small nations — that we borrow 
the ideas of the great world and make them the basis for that theoriz- 



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14 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

ing which forms a part of our national character. When our people, 
for example, hear of the fight against the trusts in the United States, 
or of Lloyd George's land policies in England, they want to start 
something similar here, though as a matter of fact our boldg have 
nothing in common with the American trusts, and there are but very 
few large estates in Sweden. These special conditions must be taken 
into consideration when we gauge the strength of the opposition 
against 'militarism' in our country." 

** Can Sweden bear the expense of a possible war.'^ " 
**That is a diflBcult question to answer, for up to the present time 
there has been no war in the waters of northern Europe since the time 
of wooden frigates; so that we really do not know what a naval battle 
will cost. The economic status of Sweden has improved rapidly 
during the last decade, though it would hardly be correct to say that 
she is a rich country, but rather that she is becoming rich. An 
interruption to her economic progress now would indeed be a serious 
matter, and we have every reason to avoid entanglement in any 
war. We do know that Sweden is able to carry much heavier burdens 
of military taxes than at present. But the question of defending our 
ancient liberties is not one that admits of argument in terms of ore and 
kronor; it is a matter of course with all people who have not lost faith 
in themselves. History shows that the nations who have perished 
from the earth have perished not because they were weak, but because 
they no longer believed in themselves. Poland was subjugated only 
because she was already disintegrated by civil strife. Denmark lost 
heavily in the war with Germany, but her entity as a nation was not 
destroyed. Sweden may be conquered, but she will never be wiped 
out." 

"What are the sentiments in Sweden toward Norway?" 
**The relation between the two countries is in every way correct, 
and I can say that there is no thought in Sweden of any retaliation 
toward Norway. We are brothers in race, and the thought of war 
between us is horrible." 

*'Is there any foundation for the rumor of an alliance between 
Sweden and Germany ? " 

"There is not. The rumor has been categorically denied by the 
Foreign Department under two successive governments, one Liberal and 
one Conservative. I cannot too strongly emphasize that all our 
military preparations are solely with a view to guarding our integrity 
and our neutrality." 



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The Peace Monument on Kjolen 

THE plan for erecting a monument to commemorate a century 
of peace between Norway and Sweden, launched by a small 
group of peace enthusiasts, met but a perfunctory response 
until it was caught up in the mighty swirl of the events that have 
shaken Europe. Dedicated under the shadow of portentous war- 
clouds, with the boom of cannon round about, the simple granite 
shaft on Kjolen became the outward sign of the new compact between 
the kindred races of the peninsula. Nor was Denmark forgotten in 
the solemn assurances of inviolable brotherhood that were exchanged 

by leading men of both countries. The 

crowds that poured from both sides of 
the boundary to the unveiling on Sun- 
day, August 16, are variously esti- 
mated at from ten to twenty thousand 
people. The golden cross of Sweden 
and the blood-red flag of Norway 
mingled their folds with white peace 
banners, and Swedes and Norwegians 
together sang the spiritual battle- 
hymn, *'A Mighty Fortress Is Our 
God." 

The words of the venerable Bishop 
K. H. Gezelius von Scheele rang out 
prophetic over the listening thousands: 
" This picture stands luminous against 
the black night of a background cre- 
ated by the war now raging. The 
consciousness gives our dedication a 
broader foundation and leads our 
thoughts to those larger aims which 
we friends of peace have set ourselves, 
and for which we must continue to 
labor. Now darkness reigns over Eu- 
rope. But the dark is always deepest 
before dawn, and short-sighted must 
he be who does not see that the dawn 
of day, in spite of all, is near. God's 
will shall be done on earth as in heaven, 

(■llHAjli ■IUBMIIEI ^^^ ^ ^^y ^^'^ come when the nations 
HlwHI I lillHiSil sh^II settle their differences, not with 
"^ l iWM I M tiiaMEMm bloodshed, but with the weapons of 

right and justice." 




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The Northern Museum, I. G. Ci^\son, Architect 

Glimpses of Swedish Architecture 

By OsvALD Siren 

Concluded from the September Number 

The Editors of the Review Have Asked Osvald Sir^n, Professor of the History of Art at the 
University of Stockholm, Who Visited New York During March and April, to Discuss the 
Tendencies and the Men that Have Made Swedish Architecture what It Is Today, in the 
Truest Sense a Creative Art. In Kindly Consenting to be INTER\^EWED, Professor Sir^n 
Wishes to State that the Richness of the Material Makes It Impossible to do Anything but 
Dwell on a Few Points that Best Illustrate the General Trend of Swedish Architecture 

WE MUST alw^ays imagine the little Swedish timber house 
imbedded in dark pine or light birch and, during winter, in the 
bright snow; there is, I think, no style of building that more 
completely harmonizes wdth the Swedish landscape. 

A far more diflBcult problem is the making of a whole street into 
an organic unity, by which I do not mean uniformity. The efforts 
of the Swedish architects have been directed toward the use of homo- 
geneous materials and to avoiding all glaring or merely extraneous 
ornamentation. The buildings impress by mass, proportion, and line; 
they melt together in larger organisms. 



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THE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



17 



Modern Stockholm architecture is diflBcult to characterize, because 
the two or three last decades have seen very varied and artistic 
construction, and many parts of the city have been completely 
remodeled. It is possible, therefore, only to mention a few striking 
examples of the buildings which have made Stockholm one of the 
most admired cities of our time in an architectural sense. Among the 
many monumental structures perhaps the first to attract attention 
and the best known is Nordiska Museet built from drawings by 
Professor I. G. Clason, who holds the position of old master in the 
present generation of Swedish architects. It is a good example of 
how historic models are utilized for modern purposes. The style is 
entirely Dutch Renaissance, the building is executed in gray stone, its 
decorative effect depending partly on the beautiful material, and still 
more on the rich silhouette of the gables, towers, and pinnacles rising 
above the green pointed roof. Professor Clason is at present engaged 
in rebuilding some of the houses on the north side of Gustaf Adolf's 
Torg, facing the Royal Castle, and adjoining this new building by 
Clason there is a large bank palace put up by E. Josephsson. Both 
these facades will be composed in the historical classicistic style, with 




OsTERMAi^ School, Ragnar Ostbebc, Architect 



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TEE AMERICAN'SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



high pilasters and some sandstone ornamentations, evidently with 
the intention of forming a homogeneous counterpart to the plain 
monumental north fagade of the Royal Castle, rising in solemn gravity 
on the opposite side of the square and the river. 

None of these buildings, however, represent the most important 
and characteristic effort to revivify Swedish architecture along lines 
of an old national style. We find these fresh tendencies better 
expressed in buildings not so near the heart of the city. Thus we 
must go outside of the city to find the best examples of Ferdinand 
Boberg's art; I refer to the princely villas he has built for members 
of the royal family and for wealthy individuals, notably those of 
Prince Eugen, Prince Vilhelm, and Director Ernest Thiel. They are 
all more or less characterized by an interesting grouping of plain white 
masses, ingenious planning, and very sparing use of outward embel- 
lishments, together with perfect adaptation to the modeling of the 
soil. The plastered white walls stand out in picturesque contrast to 
the surrounding green, but more fascinating are, of course, the 
interiors, where we meet unexpected beauties in the grouping and 
lighting of the rooms. There is seldom a regular disposition of the 

windows, but each is 
placed most eflFectively. 

Among the larger build- 
ings designed by Boberg 
are the Post OflBce and the 
Rosenbad Block, situated 
near the Norrstrom. The 
latter is a huge yellowish 
structure with a green roof 
and small ornamental 
towers. There are no dec- 
orations except on the 
capitals of the loggia. 
Sitting here on a sunny 
afternoon, looking out 
through garlands of roses, 
the visitor may almost get 
the impression of a palace 
on the Riviera. Much of 
Boberg's art lies in not 
cutting the walls nearly 
so much as is usual; he 
seems able to get enough 
light without too many 
large windows on the 

Residence of the Architect, Lars Walhman fagadc. 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



19 



In order to get a full and fair idea of Boberg as a creative artist, 
it would be necessary, however, to study him as an architect of 
exposition buildings. He designed the Swedish Building at the 
St. Louis Fair and the important group of buildings for Svenska 
Slojdforeningens Exhibition in 1909. The latter, which covered a 
large area of land, did not consist of the usual series of houses and 
pavilions, but formed one organic composition centered around two 
or three large courtyards of different sizes and shapes. One large 
rectangular and one triangular court, as well as several smaller spaces, 
were closed in by arched loggias. All decorations were concentrated 
on the fagades surrounding these — none being used on the outside — 
and enchanting effects were created by means of a clever arrangement 
of rhythmic openings combined with living flowers and running water. 

The principle which Boberg applied so happily in this instance he 
has consistently developed on a larger scale in the Baltic Exhibition 
described in the May number of the Review. Here we find again the 
admirably inventive ground plan ; in fact, he has succeeded in creating 
what might almost be called a new spot of nature by utilizing the 
water which was on the 
place and the fertility of 
the south Swedish soil. 
The refined artistry of his 
earlier work is here com- 
bined with a more severe 
national element, which 
is of a more or less local- 
ized nature. The archi- 
tecture is founded on that 
which prevails in Skane, 
and the decorative motifs 
are from the flora and 
fauna of the sea. 

Boberg's recently com- 
pleted church at Saltsjb- 
baden, of dark reddish 
brick, is an interesting 
combination of the medi- 
eval forms with the more 
sunny, decorative, almost 
southern feeling which 
seems a more natural ex- 
pression of this artist. 

Lars Wahlman, who 

,^ ,. J. i-U Valdemarsudde, THE Villa OF Prince Euqen; 

tical arcnitecture at tne Ferdinand Boberg, Architect 




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20 THE AMERICAN-SCAN DIN AVIAN REVIEW 

Institute of Technologj^ in Stockholm, has been for many years 
one of the leading powers in the movement for creating a national 
domestic architecture. He is the builder of the Engelbrekt Church, 
which was recently dedicated with great solemnity in Stock- 
holm. The whole composition, which includes parish house and 
meeting-halls, is dominated by the huge square tower of the cathe- 
dral. It is executed in red brick, and the artistic beauty lies mainly 
in the disposition of the different parts, the adaptation to the uneven 
site, and the rhythmical arrangement of the mass, which is the basis 
of pure architectural beauty, and makes itself felt even at a distance. 
While the style is very severe and shows marked medieval influences, 
the church does not conflict with the surrounding city, but forms an 
organic part of the ensemble. I regard it as a characteristic example 
of the modern tendency in Sweden to create something congruous with 
old national buildings, while not exactly bound by their external 
form and decoration. The work is evidently national, being remin- 
iscent of the Vasa period, and at the same time is strongly original. 

Professor Wahlman is also noted for his activity in creating a 
national domestic archi- 
tecture. He has built a 
number of small villas in 
the vicinity of Stockholm, 
among them his own 
home, of timber cut in 
Dalecarlia and strength- 
ened with a treatment of 
tar. It is a striking exam- 
ple of how the old timber 
house can be utilized for 
a modern dwelling. 

One of the most re- 
markable new buildings 
that will rise in Stockholm 
for the next few years will 
be the much discussed 
City Hall, to be erected 
on the shores of Malaren, 
from drawings by Ragnar 
Ostberg. It will be a huge 
palace of brick with a dom- 
inating square tower, and, 
judging from the draw- 
ings, will be superior in 

strong, monumental qual- ^he Church at Saltsjobadex, Ferdinand Boberg, 

ities to any modern build- Architect 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



21 







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Door-handle of Saltsjobaden 
Church, Designed by Carl Milles 

ish architectural forms, 
the same direction, using 



ing yet constructed in Stockhohn. Some- 
what reminiscent of old churches with 
towering campaniles, it will give Ostberg 
an opportunity to work out on a large 
scale his predilection for medieval models. 
We have already seen something of 
what he can do in this line in Oster- 
malm's Idroverk^ the purest and strongest 
revival of medieval ecclesiastical architec- 
ture in Sweden. It is of red brick with 
tiled roof, and has an open courtyard en- 
closed by a stone wall. In mass effect it 
is compelling, and there is a sincerity and 
boldness in the simple facades which is in 
most striking contrast to the usual cheaply 
decorated modern city houses. 

Ostberg is regarded as the foremost 
representative of the revival of old Swed- 
Many other modern architects follow in 
plain materials and attaining the artistic 
effect by the constructional element, the buildings being propor- 
tioned mainly by rhythmic balance of openings and walls. As a rule 
the finest modern city buildings give an impression of severe solidity 
and, like the palaces of ancient times, do not open to the street with any 
inviting large windows and verandas. Their attractiveness Hes in the 
disposition of the ground planes and in the treatment of the interior. 

Principles of this kind have 
been applied in a more or less in- 
dividual way, even for large busi- 
ness houses, and among these may 
be mentioned aktiebolaget Tryg's 
building by Gustaf Wickman, a 
very dignified construction in dark 
reddish brick on a triangular plan. 
Professor Erik Lallerstedt is one of 
the most scholarly of our architects 
and at the same time very original 
in his use of older motifs. He is 
known as the architect of the Acad- 
emy of Arts, a construction showing 
Italian influence. He is now build- 
ing a large new Institute of Tech- 
nology in Stockholm, a most inter- 
esting composition with a series of ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^„^ ^,^,^ i^^ „^ Saltojobaden 

courts forming an organic complex. Church, Designed by Carl Milles 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



Carl Westman 
has been one of the 
most successful 
architects in build- 
ing small villas and 
homes for people in 
moderate circum- 
stances. He has a 
singular ability for 
achieving good artis- 
tic effects by modest 
means, and with his 
simplicity and 
truthfulness of 
treatment is per- 
haps nearest in feel- 
ing to the old Swed- 
ish peasant architec- 
ture. He has built 
the new Radhus 
(municipal build- 
ing) in Stockholm, a 
remarkable example 
of a monumental im- 
pressiveness arrived 
at only by correct 
proportions. 

The younger 
generation of active 

architects is so numerous that it is impossible even to mention them 
within the allotted space, but in order not to ignore the latest phase 
of the national revival, we must mention tw^o names — Ivar Tengbom 
and Carl Bergsten. Tengbom is perhaps best known by some of his 
buildings in the smaller towns, though his Children's Hospital at 
Sbdermalm in Stockholm is an excellent demonstration of his in- 
telligent penetration of practical problems and his original manner 
of solving them. Bergsten is perhaps better known by the extra- 
ordinary, not to say extreme, modernism of his early work in Norr- 
kbping than by the more restrained art of his Hjorthagen Chapel, 
outside of Stockholm. Here we find utilized in an individual w^ay 
his impressions of old Swedish country churches. 

The latter is the result of that study of the ecclesiastical architec- 
ture from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century which is now so 
earnestly pursued by the younger Swedish architects. In fact, one 
of the most important activities of the present generation of creative 




The Engelbrekt Church, Lars Wahlman, Architect 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDIN AVIAN REVIEW 



23 




ROSEINBAD, AN OfFICE BuILDING DESIGNED BT FERDINAND BoBERG 

artists has been the careful conservation and restoration of older 
monuments. At the Academy of Art a special chair in the history of 
Swedish architecture has been established and includes a course in 
the preservation of national monuments. We therefore have reason to 
believe that they will remain a source of inspiration for the coming 
generations and a basis for the evolution of a national architecture. 



Hymn to the Fatherland 

By Richard Dybeck 
Translated from the Swedish by Oscar William Peterson 

Tliou old home of freedom y thou m^untain-capped Norths 
Thou silenty yet glad in light and shadows^ 
I hail thee^ thou fairest of lands on the earthy 
Thy suny thy skyy thy fields y thy verdant meadows! 

Thou dost glory in memories of great days of yorCy 
When honored thy name flew o'er the Southland. 
Thou art what thou wertand unit he evermore y 
I will live and I will die in the Northland! 



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Pi 

pa 

5 



In 

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Rudbjerggaard 



RUDBJERGGAARD is not properly a castle. It is typical, 
however, of a great number of herregaarde^ the country seats 
which serve as manorial halls for the farming gentry of Den- 
mark. The plain white painted brick, the dark woodwork, the pro- 
jecting upper story, the tiled roof, the octagonal tower and the arms 
of the Ruds and the Hardenbergs over its portal are all expressive 
of solid Danish comfort. Table and bench by the wall invite to 
four o'clock coffee and cakes. Unfortunately, the quaint effect of 
the "binding work" architecture of woodwork intersticed with brick, 
which often in Danish country houses is made effective by staining 
the beams a walnut brown, has here been obliterated. On the tower, 
erected by Knud Rud, appears the date of its building, 1606; the 
rest of the structure is of an earlier period. One can imagine that the 
pails being carried to the door of the butler's pantry contain the rich 
foaming milk of the fertile island of LoUand, third largest of the 
Danish isles. Of late the farmlands of Rudbjerggaard have yielded 
well from the planting of sugar beets which are supplied to the 
Nakskov branch of De danske sukkerfabrikker, Denmark's most pros- 
perous manufacturing enterprise. 

Rudbjerggaard has passed through the hands of many families 
since the village of Rughbiargh was mentioned early in the thirteenth 
century in King Valdemar's Jordebog. It is now the property of 
Hofjoegermester Ludvig Count Reventlow, who purchased the estate 
in 1891 for the sum of 725,000 kroner. 

The family of Reventlow^ is one of the most illustrious in the 
annals of Denmark, and its name is synonymous w^ith broad national 
interests. The name occurs as early as the thirteenth century in 
both Holstein and Mecklenburg, and is supposed to have originated 
in Dithmarschen. Ditlev Reventlow (died 1536) was the first Luth- 
eran bishop of Liibeck. One branch of the family was settled in 
the fourteenth century on the Danish island of Fyn, where the 
Reventlows have now their chief estate, Brahetrolleborg. One lady 
of the family, Anna Sophie Reventlow, became queen of Denmark, 
as the wife of Frederik IV. The most illustrious bearer of the name 
w^as Count Christian Ditlev Frederik Reventlow (1748-1827) of 
Christiansssede on the island of Lolland. For many years he was 
minister of state — and during his life promoted the improvement 
of forestry, agriculture, trade, and education, and the social condi- 
tions of the peasantry. It was largely through his instrumentality 
that the Danish peasants were emancipated from a condition of 
serfdom by the laws of June 20, 1788. 



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The Madness of the Monarchs 

By Jens Grondahl 

Forward^ march! ye bristling legions y time doth strike the hour of doom; 
Ony through lands to distant regions^ uvrap the world in gloom; 
Ask not mercy y give not quarter — deal destruction^ sunft, complete — 
To the carnage, to the slaughter, where the grappling millions meet! 

*Tis the Madness of the Monarchs ^neath whose la^h the nations groan! 
And humanity, obedient, rushes on to slay its own — 
Marches on, in servile millions, to appease the royal vyrath — 
Oh, what feast awaits the vultures in thai dark and bloody path! 

Forward, march! Nor pau^e to ponder on the fate of wife or child — 
Hear ye not the cannon's thunder and the clash of battle vnld? 
See ye not that thrones are trembling while the War Lords play at dice? 
Haste! The legions are assembling for the human sacrifice. 

'Tis the Madness of the Monarchs bound by some satanic spell 

That invokes the help of heaven to perform the deeds of hell — 

That implores the Prince of Peace and cries, " Thy will be done, not mine,^' 

While the Madness grasps the saber to destroy by ^^ right dimne.'' 

Onward plunge ye to destruction and destruction of your kind. 
Be the pawns of Maddened Monarchs who in safety stay behind; 
Perish boasted civilization, perish all, in crimson flood. 
Brute primeval, greedy, gory, satiate thy lu^t for blood. 

Oh, that flower of mighty manhood, strong of heart and head and soul. 
With the engines of man's cunning at their bidding and control. 
Should, unconscious of their power, like the ox to slaughter go — 
Yea, with shouts of joy, exultant, if the War Lords bid them so; 

When one word would end the story of the Maddened Monarchs' power — 
One short word reverberating Wound the world in one brief hour — 
One word spoken by the millions when the War Lords bid them go 
To destroy what God hath given them — and that one word is **N0!'' 

From the funeral pyre of nations, from the drenched and reeking sod. 
There shall rise the soul of freedom to proclaim, ^'one king, one God''; 
But the king no maddened monarch of the crowned and sceptered birth — 
Nay, that king shall be the Manhood and the Womanhood of Earth. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 27 

Then the merchantman shall drive the man-of-war from off the seas. 
And the idle shall be busy and their brothers' burden ease; 
Drones at last shall pass away and so shall unremitting toiU 
And the saner life shall triumph over strife^ war and turmoil. 

Then the iveak and strong shall prosper and the warrior earn his bread. 
For the sword shall turn to plowshare when the dynasties are dead; 
Then the olive branch and dove of peace together shall be seen 
On the coats of arms of nations that profess the Nazarene. 



For the Wounded 

By Bjornstjerne Bjornson 
Translated from the Norwegian by Arthur Hubbell Palmer 

A still procession goes It is all labor's dread 

Amid the battle's booming. Of war's mad waste and murder. 

Its arm the Red Cross shows. Praying that peace may spread; 

It prays in many forms of speech. It is all sufferers who heed 

And, bending o'er the fallen. The sighing of a brother 

Brings peace and home to each. And know his sorrow's need; — 

Not only is it found It is each groan of pain 

Where bleed the wounds of battle. Heard from the sick and wounded. 

But all the world around. 'Tis Christian prayer humane; 

It is the love the whole world feels It is their cry who lonely grope, 

In noble hearts and tender, 'Tis the oppressed man's moaning. 

While gentle pity kneels; — The dying breath of hope; — 

This rainbow-bridge of prayers 
Up through the world's vdld tempest 
In light of Christ's faith bears: 
That love and loving deeds 
May conquer strife and passion; 
For thus His promise reads. 



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Swedish Sloyd in America 



ir 




H 



I 



OW many students of 
manual training realize 
that the word sloyd is 
of Swedish origin ? Instruc- 
tion in training hand and eye 
in Sweden arose out of slojd, 
the household arts and crafts. 
Sloyd in Sweden aims not at 
direct practical results, not to 

L ■ ■ L. I ^^^^ ^^^ skilled mechanics, but 

P I mi_^^-.«d^M^^^^k. I rather to develop in the child a 

sense of form and fitness. On the 
one hand sloyd is identified with 
the astonishing technical and 
inventive genius of the Swedish 
people; on the other, it is associ- 
ated with their recent renais- 
sance of art and architecture. 
The w^orld-famed Sloyd Teachers' Seminary on the manorial 

estate of Naas in Sweden was founded by August Abrahamson in 

1875. Otto Solomon was the director until his death in 1907. The 

course at this school 

consists of a system 

of t went v-f our exer- 

cises in carpentry. 

The two illustrations 

on this page show 

the work of pupils at 

the Sloyd Training 

School in Boston, 

Massachusetts. This 

school, established in 

1888, is a child of 

Naas. Its princi- 
pal, Gustaf Larsson, 

is a native of Vaster- 

gotland. Until 1912 

the graduates num- 
bered 381 sloyd 

teachers, men and 

women. Fifty of these teach in Boston, of whom no less than seven 

are of Swedish nationality. 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 



29 




Prospective Sloyd Teachers at Work in the Bindery of the Sloyd 

Training School in Boston, Massachusetts. Reproduced by Courtesy 

OF the Principal, Mr. Gustaf L.\rsson 




Swedish Sloyd Methods from Xaas ah Taight in the Carpentry 

Rooms of the Sloyd Training School in Boston. Mr. Josef Sandberg, 

THE Instructor, Is a Native of Vastergotland 



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Georg Brandes 

By Asaph Robert Shelander 

GEORG BRANDES is an alembic in which has been distilled an 
essence drawn from all of the streams of culture composing 
European civilization. The alembic was scoured and made 
transparent by the cleansing fires of adversity. Brandes was forced 
to struggle against the obstacle of springing from an unpopular race, 
and the further obstacle of being born in a small country which, on 
account of political reverses, had isolated itself from the intellectual 
life of Europe, and thus become somewhat stagnant. Yet his sym- 
pathies have risen to the height of universality, and he has been 
rewarded with universal appreciation. 

Brandes was influenced in his view of life by men differing as 
widely as the hellenist Hegel, the positivist John Stuart Mill, the 
polemist Ibsen, the poet-philosopher-artist Michael Angelo. He 
received his introduction to Hegel through the works of his country- 
man, Johan Ludvig Heiberg, 
and read almost everything 
Hegel had written, ''in a ver- 
itable intoxication of compre- 
hension and delight," as he tells 
us in "Reminiscences of My 
Childhood and Youth." But 
he could not long remain sat- 
isfied with the speculations of 
Hegel. He found in Taine " an 
antidote to German abstrac- 
tion and German pedantry." 
The influence of John Stuart 
Mill was more permanent. In 
1869 Brandes was writing a 
book on the position of woman ; 
however, "all that I had 
planned," says Brandes, "and 
drawn up, was cast aside when 
John Stuart Mill's book on the 
subject fell into my hands. I 
felt Mill's superiority to be so 
immense and regarded his book 
as so epoch-making, that I 
necessarily had to reject my 
own draft and restrict myself 
to the translation and intro- Georg Brandes 




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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 31 

duction of what he had said. In this manner I introduced the mod- 
ern woman's movement into Denmark." A few years later Brandes 
made the personal acquaintance of Mill in Paris. The rugged philosoph- 
ical empiricism of Mill and his practical ethical utilitarianism struck a 
responsive chord in Brandes, and Mill has remained for him a model. 
Ibsen was perhaps his best comrade. To Brandes belongs the credit 
of having first discovered this master builder, while he still *' encoun- 
tered a reservation of appreciation that scarcely concealed ill-will." 
Brandes and Ibsen had been on friendly terms for several years; in 
1870 their "intimacy began to emit sparks." About this time Ibsen 
wrote Brandes a letter in which he made the memorable remark: 
*'What is all-important is the revolution of the spirit of man; and in 
this you will be one of those who lead." "These words," says 
Brandes, "which were in exact agreement with my own secret hope, 
fired my imagination. It seemed to me that after having felt myself 
isolated so long, I had at last met with the mind that understood me 
and felt as I did, a real fellow fighter." 

The one person who seems to have made the most profound and 
most lasting impression upon Brandes is Michael Angelo. Brandes 
says: "I early felt that although Michael Angelo had his human 
weaknesses and limitations, intellectually and as an artist he is one 
of the five or six elect the world has produced." When he finally had 
the privilege of standing in the Sistine Chapel and gazing upon the 
originals which he had so often admired in reproductions, he mused: 
"So here I stand at last, shut in with the mind that of all human 
minds has spoken most deeply home to my soul. I am outside and 
above the earth and far from humankind. This is his earth and 
these are his men, created in his image to people his world." 

To account for all of the writers with whom Brandes has made 
acquaintance and who have exerted more or less influence on his 
inner life would involve at least the writing of the history of European 
literature. As a youth he became acquainted with the authors of 
his own country in the following order: Ingemann, Oehlenshlager, 
Grundtvig, Poul Moller, Baggesen, Hertz. At the age of eighteen 
his interests changed. He turned to Christian Winther, Homer, 
iEschylus, the Bible, Shakespeare, and Goethe. He tells us that one 
of the first things he did as a student was to read the Bible through 
in Danish and the Odyssey in Greek. 

Throughout his life we may trace, side by side, the two main 
streams of culture in European civiKzation — the Greek and the 
Hebrew-Christian. Intellectually Brandes is unmistakably identified 
with the former, but he has a Hebrew conscience. He has time and 
time again sacrificed comfort, preferment and worldly honors for the 
sake of his soul. In the year 1863 he was mentioned for the chair 
of esthetics in the University of Copenhagen. The matter was first 



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82 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

broached to him in a letter by his friend Professor Brochner. "This 
letter," says Brandes, "agitated me very much; not because at so 
young an age the prospect of an honorable position in society was 
held out to me by a man who was in a position to judge of my fitness 
for it, but because the smiling prospect of an oflScial post was in my 
eyes a snare which might hold me so firmly that I should not be 
able to pursue the path of renunciation that alone seemed to me to 
lead to my life's goal. I felt myself an apostle, but an apostle and a 
professor were very far apart. I certainly remembered that the 
Apostle Paul had been a tent-maker. But I feared that, once 
appointed, I should lose my ideal standard of life and sink down 
into insipid mediocrity." 

At the same time, for all his Hebrew conscience, he was intellec- 
tually wholly inclined toward classicism. He tells us that even as a 
young boy his soul, "feeling the need of something it could worship, 
fled from Asia's to Europe's divinities, from Palestine to Hellas, and 
clung with vivid enthusiasm to the Greek world of beauty and the 
legends of its gods." He considered German-Gothic culture decid- 
edly barbarous in comparison with Hellenism, and he believed this 
to be due largely to the influence of the Hebrew-Christian stream of 
thought. Comparing Shakespeare's treatment of certain Greek char- 
acters in "Troilus and Cressida" with Homer's treatment of the same 
characters, he gives a clear exposition of his own attitude. "In the 
Iliad," he says, "these forms represent the outcome of the imagination 
of the noblest people of the Mediterranean shores, unaffected by 
religious terrors and alcohol; they are bright, glad, reverential fan- 
tasies, born in a warm sun under a deep blue sky. From Shakespeare 
they step forth travestied by the gloom and bitterness of a great 
poet of a northern race, of a stock civilized by Christianity, not by 
culture; a stock which, despite all the efforts of the Renaissance to 
give new birth to heathendom, has become, once for all, disciplined 
and habituated to look upon the senses as tempters which lead 
down into the mire; to which the pleasurable is the forbidden." 

Brandes' head, then, is Greek; his heart is Hebrew. He tells us 
that all bisection, all dualism, was repellent to him, and that his first 
book was "an attack on a division and duality in life's philosophy." 
He tells us further that it was only when his "self-contemplation and 
with it the inward cleavage had at length ceased, that he attained to 
quietude of mind." He attained quietude of mind because intellec- 
tually he chose classicism and rejected the Hebrew-Christian stream 
of culture; but he has not resolved the dualism, for his heart remains 
religious. 



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Brandes in America 

IN PROMISING comments on Georg Brandes from papers 
only between Boston and Kalamazoo, the editors of the Review 
were too conservative. The circle of discussion about the 
brilliant Danish critic, starting from New York, touches Hartford, 
Providence, and Boston, reaches north to Portland, Maine, Montreal, 
and Toronto, swings westward to Seattle, San Francisco, and Los 
Angeles, dips into Denver and completes the orbit by a plunge through 
New Orleans, Beaumont, Atlanta, Savannah, and Philadelphia. A 
smaller circle with a busy center in Chicago takes in Milwaukee, 
Madison, Minneapolis, Red Wing, Sioux Falls, Salt Lake City, St. 
Louis, Springfield, lUinois, Nashville, South Bend, Cincinnati, and 
Louisville. His utterances have been made the text for the particular 
pet doctrines of Suffragists, SociaHsts, Anarchists, Catholics, Protes- 
tants, Jews, anti-noise agitators, and free speech leagues. We hesitate 
whether to marvel most at the power to stimulate thought along every 
conceivable line, serious and frivolous, possessed by Brandes, or at the 
extraordinary faculty for reacting to stimulus shown by the 80,000 
reporters who, according to his own statement, made his life a burden 
while in the United States, though he admits them to be not devoid 
of intelligence. 

An interviewer quotes Brandes as saying that Jack London is the 
most typicallyAperican writer, and that fairly near him stand Upton 
Sinclair and Mbek Norris, while Poe is not without merit as a poet. 
*' Why do we stand for being told things that are not true about our 
books on condition that they be told by people who haven't had a 
chance to learn the facts in the case ? " retorts Collier's Weekly. " And 
who are our leading writers, anyway, and what makes them 'Ameri- 
can' in style and spirit.^" The Dial thinks that "it would have been 
just as easy and just as natural for Dr. Brandes, with his eyes opened 
to certain other qualities undeniably possessed by us, to name Mr. 
Howells as our most truly representative living novelist and Whitman 
or even Emerson as the true type of the American poet." 

** Just what IS the American spirit," comments The A'aitow,'* which finds fullest 
expression in Poe, Jack London, and Frank Norris is rather difficult to define. 
But all foreign estimates of our literature until recently seem to be based on the 
assumption that, since we are a young, energetic, and rather barbarous nation, 
our literature ought to sound the note of youthful freedom from convention, of 
lust of living, of zest in barbaric conflict and victory. The 'raw of life' is some- 
thing quite appropriate to our genius." 

Point is added to the discussion by the fact that Brandes, accord- 
ing to an interviewer in The Independent^ ** disposed of American 
literaTy pretensions" in the following trenchant lines: "Your litera- 
ture, ah, I have no hope ! Your books are written by old maids for 



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34 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

old maids." Editorially The Independent takes exception to the state- 
ment of Brandes that *'sex is the one real problem of life," and says: 

"It is a curious illustration of the shifting tides of public sentiment that 
Dr. Brandes just at the time whea he has attained an authoritative position and 
is loaded with honors at home and abroad, should find himself as much at odds 
with the world as when he began his fight fifty years ago. He who described and 
in part guided *The Main Currents of Nineteenth Century Literature' now 
stands as a rock in the main current of twentieth century literature. All the 
things he hated and which he thought to crush, romanticism, mysticism, intuition, 
moralism, democracy, these are coming again into vogue." 

Among the serious tributes to Brandes is a leading article in The 
Dialy bearing the title, "The Great Dane," from which we quote: "We 
doubt if this country has ever entertained a more distinguished repre- 
sentative of European letters." The writer goes on to say that 
Brandes's works 

"have been to us a revelation of cosmopolitan thought, interpreted in the spirit 
of the broadest freedom, and handled with deep penetration and philosophical 
insight. Many are the minds that have found enfranchisement in his pages and 
learned from him that literary criticism, in a master's hand, may become compre- 
hensive enough to cover the whole of life. Of what may be called creative 
criticism Dr. Brandes is the best example of our time. He has the power which 
bestows upon this form of writing the qualities which make it worthy to be classed 
with the literary categories of belles-lettres, with fiction, the drama, and poetry. 
His work has made good this claim for literary criticism, in the sense in which it 
has been made good before him by Lessing and Goethe, by Sainte-Beuve and 
Taine and Brunetiere, by Coleridge and Walter Pater and Matthew Arnold." 

The Review of Reviews thinks that his "great critical study" on 
Shakespeare "is the most valuable contribution to Shakespearean 
literature ever made by any one born a foreigner to the English 
tongue." 

Mr. James Huneker, in an entertaining interview in Puck, quotes 
Brandes on Nietzsche, Strindberg, Bjornson, and Ibsen. He goes on 
to say: 

"It is steel-colored, the mind of Brandes. When white-hot it is ductile, it 
flows like lava from an eruptive volcano; but always is it steel, whether rigid or 
liquefied. It is preeminently the fighting mind. He has objected to being 
described as brilliant; his model as a portrait painter of ideas and individuals is 
Velasquez, because 'Velasquez is not brilliant but true.' Nevertheless, he is 
brilliant and steel-like and lucid in his style, whether writing of Lassalle or Hol- 
berg, Kierkegaard or Tegner. His various impressions of Poland and Russia 
are interesting; the latter barred for him the entrance to Russia. He has por- 
trayed with amazing objectivity the souls of Germany, Denmark, France, Eng- 
land, and the Slavic nations. An ardent student of Taine and the psychology of 
race, he still asserts that in the individual, not the mob, is the only hope for 
progress. He is all for the psychology of the individual. From Taine he has 
gone back to Sainte-Beuve, and he is the third of the trinity of nineteenth century 
critics, the other two being Sainte-Beuve and Taine. He has the cult of the 
great man. He wrote on the great man, the source and end of culture. . . . 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 35 

*The fundamental question remains — can the well-being of the race, which is the 
end, be attained without great men? I say no, and again no.* And he gives 
most potent reasons for his belief. He calls America a plutocracy, and easily 
sees through the sham and plaster greatness of so many of our so-called great men 
in politics." 

Seen in the light of Brandes's well-known strictures on the organ- 
ized church, the editorial article in The Outlook^ written in a most 
sympathetic spirit, is interesting. It speaks of the "impulse of 
conviction" in his work, and goes on to say: 

'*His face, bearing, and talk express the attitude of a lifetime. He has been 
in an unusual degree a soldier in the war for the liberation of humanity, to recall 
Heine. Born in the Scandinavia of seventy years ago, and in a highly conven- 
tionalized society, Mr. Brandes, like Ibsen, had to fight his way to freedom of 
thought." 

On the other hand, a writer in The Congregationalist sees in 
Brandes's Jewish heritage the explanation of his anti-clericalism and 
his receptivity to a personality like that of Nietzsche, " which embodies 
for many the conception of the Antichrist," while in his handling of 
the Christian genius of Shakespeare 

"the spirituality seen by the great critic seemed a very cold affair. One could 
appreciate instantly the grasp which this fiery, shaggy-haired old Dane held upon 
the teachings of literary production, but for him the blood-stirring struggle of the 
soul with good and evil seemed an alien thing, certainly as it is conceived by the 
average man." 

The great critic seems indeed to *'fall between two stools," for the 
American Hebrew attacks him on the ground that he disowns "his 
greater Yichus as a Cohen for that of a *Dane of the Danes,'" and 
asserts that 

"whatever he may claim for himself, the world at large credits his talent and 
genius to the sum total of what Jews here gave to the civilized world. 

"It is as critics that Jews have distinguished themselves in the past. They 
have been the bearers of civilization, carrying with them from the lands that 
excluded them the germ of culture with which they had been impregnated. And 
it is as critic that Brandes figures in the world's thought. He has not created 
anything new in literature, but has evaluated the creations of others. He sees 
through literature, having that keen sense of appreciation, that subtle feeling for 
values, that wide-sweeping imagination that encompasses everything he reads 
and at once sees it a part of a tendency, of a current of life. 

*'He is a radical, wresting from convention the mask of unreality and giving 
to thought and picture their natural aspects." 

An interview in the New York Sun, in which Brandes is made to 
exclaim, "God give us more divorces!" is naturally the subject of 
much excited comment for and against. It is quoted at length in the 
Literary Digest, in juxtaposition to an article from the New York 
Freeman's Journal on the proposed league of Catholic lawyers in 
Massachusetts to check the spread of divorce, while the Chicago 



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36 THE AMERICAN^SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

Unity is horrified at the effect upon the fate of mulatto children if 
Brandes's wish were to be granted. 

We can almost hear the gasp of fascinated horror with which 
Europeans will survey that specimen of American journalism, an 
interview in the New York World, in which Brandes is seen surrounded 
by the sketches of the funny artist and expresses his views on ''tele- 
phones, sleeping cars, American chivalry, the Chicago stock-yards, 
woman suffrage — of shoes and ships and sealing wax and cabbages and 
kings." His tribute to the clean minds of Americans, which make it 
possible for women to go about unprotected and to earn their living, is, 
naturally, quoted with a great deal of complacency in every city, 
while his assertion that we have less liberty in the United States than 
in any other country is not so well received. His strictures on the 
American habit of hurry provokes the retort from the Boston Tran- 
script that "yet he hasn't time to spell out his front name and 'did* 
the United States in three weeks," while the Springfield Union thinks 
he "has fallen a victim to the dangerous American habit he has 
pointed out," and the Boston Advertiser remarks: "That's how we 
get money to import European lecturers who tell us what we already 
know." The World interview^ also quotes Brandes as calling the 
American telephone "the worst instrument of torture that ever 
existed. The medieval rack and thumbscrews were playthings com- 
pared to it." The plaint elicits much well-meaning advice on how- 
to subjugate the telephone into a slave instead of a master, and even 
calls forth a serious editorial in the London Free Press w^hich solemnly 
claims that "the telephone is indispensable in modern business and 
society." The New York Times ^ commenting on Brandes's strictures 
on the American stock-yards in the same interview, admits that "the 
Chicago stock-yards do, of course, assail the refined visitor with both 
scenes and scents that are unpleasant, offensive or horrible, according 
to the extent and nature of his refinement. But the business carried 
on there must be called honest and even commendable. Nobody sees 
what goes on in the stock-yards who doesn't go there voluntarily." 

The New York Evening Telegram records in a last interview that 
"Dr. Georg Brandes, eminent Danish critic, having seen one of our 
musical comedies, expressed his opinion of it by leaning against the 
wall and gasping. This is Copenhagenese for saying there is some- 
thing rotten outside of Denmark." 

Finally, Dr. Brandes himself, in an article contributed to Politiken 
after his return to Denmark, claps the lid on our curiosity about the 
impression w^e are making by saying that the constant question 
" What do you think of us ? " is a significant sign of weakness. America 
is not sure of herself; that is why we ask. 



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Interesting People 



FREDRIK HERMAN GADE, with other Norwegian-Americans, 
w^as caught in the wave of sympathy for the mother country which 
marked the first decade of this century. He became the first 
Norwegian consul in Chicago, and in 1910 he moved with his family 
to Norway in order to take a place in the Foreign Department. He 
had been assured in correspondence with the foreign minister that his 

services would be welcome, 
but obstacles were placed in 
the way of his resuming his 
Norwegian citizenship, and 
when these were surmounted 
he found himself confronted 
by a wall of departmental 
traditions. The events of 
the " Gade case " led to 
the removal of the disabili- 
ties attaching to Norw^egian- 
Americans who wish to set- 
tle again in the land of their 
nativity. Mr. Gade's main 
work, however, has been his 
agitation for the reform of 
the Norwegian foreign ser- 
vice along business lines. 

As a director in the Nor- 
wegian-America steamship 
line, an officer of Nord- 
mandsforbundet^ and 
president of the American 
Club of Christiania, he has 
been one of the leading 
workers in that movement 
^ „ ^ for better understanding 

Fredrik Herman Gade , , . • i 

and closer cooperation be- 
tween Norwegians at home and Norwegian-born Americans which 
has marked the Centennial year. Among his activities in Norway 
was his work for the Norwegian National Children's Fund, of which 
he was president, and to which he contributed generously. In leav- 
ing Norway this autumn to return to his home near Chicago, his 
public services w^ere as cordially recognized by the press of Norway 
as they have long been by that of Norwegian America. 




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Editorial 

Neutral Scandinavia and America have at this time, probably, 
. more mutual interests than ever before. They share 

America ^^^^^ common bond of thankful anxiety which unites all 
non-belligerent nations the wide world over. The effects of the w^ar, 
just outside their own doors, are more disastrous in the Northern 
nations than in the United States, but even here, with an ocean 
separating us from the fields of carnage, there is probably not an 
American citizen, no matter how situated, who does not feel the 
depressing consequences of the European war, either in the loss of 
his wages or his dividends, or by the complete stoppage of his work. 
For the first time in forty years our stock exchanges, which did not 
close even during our own panics, have ceased operations. Our 
foreign exchange market stands at virtually prohibitive rates. 
Although a nation at peace, we have before our Congress a proposed 
"war tax:" to provide an emergency revenue of $105,000,000 to take 
the place of the deficit in our estimated customs receipts for the next 
year. This tax will be levied upon the luxuries of life, such as wanes, 
theatres, and berths in sleeping cars. Our long-suffering railroads 
have petitioned the Government to allow them to increase their rates 
because of the war's "unparalleled destruction of wealth and disloca- 
tion of capital." 

The President has enjoined upon all citizens neutrality of speech. 
But how diflScult of fulfilment! The newspapers of New York, on 
some days, print only three or four despatches from the interior of 
the United States, so engrossing are the affairs of Europe. Although 
our national egotism has never been at lower ebb, foreign nations have 
never before appealed so earnestly to the United States as their ulti- 
mate tribunal. 

Whatever their political persuasions, all Americans are truly 
thankful that we have in the White House a leader of sane judgment 
and unswerving devotion to peace. With infinite patience, in the 
face of adverse criticism, he has lately kept us from a bloody conflict 
in Mexico. From August 7, 1913, to September 15, 1914, our 
Department of State concluded peace agreements with twenty-six 
nations, who guaranteed to submit all future disputes with this 
Government to arbitration. These signatory powers and their 
colonies, are said to represent a population of 1,200,000,000 out of the 
1,700,000,000 human beings estimated to be now alive. Our Presi- 
dent is indeed a man of sorrows; he was bereaved of his wife at 
the outbreak of the European war. In spite of this, his various 
public utterances and answers to appeals from abroad have been 
couched in a language worthy of record among the memorable docu- 
ments of history. Not least among them was the proclamation for 



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TEE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 39 

a day of prayer for international peace on October 4, requesting "all 
God-fearing persons to repair on that day to their places of worship, 
there to unite their petitions to Almighty God that, overruling the 
counsel of men, setting straight the things they cannot govern or 
alter, taking pity on the nations now in the throes of conflict, in his 
mercy and goodness showing a way where men can see none, he 
vouchsafe his children healing peace again and restore once more 
that concord among men and nations without which there can be 
neither happiness nor true friendship nor any wholesome fruit of toil 
and thought in the world." 

T*. 4-u^ c^u^A^^, Isolated from all but one another and America, 
In the Shadow i.u 4-u c j- • i. • i • I 

of the War three Scandmavian countries are working out 

their own problems of readjustment soberly and 
with a deep sense of gratitude, as week after week passes without 
bringing the dangers of war nearer. The first effect of the war was 
one of paralysis. The pleasure-seekers that used to throng the 
exhibitions of Malmo and Christiania were drifting about in the 
streets to learn the news of battle. "Gay Copenhagen," with one- 
half of the street lights extinguished and the honk of the automobiles 
silenced, with the suburbs transformed by trenches and military 
camps, was a spectre of itself. All tourists left as quickly as the 
limited transportation facilities would allow, and the cities became 
crowded with refugees instead. People whipped themselves into a 
panic, and the run on the banks and on food and coal depots had to 
be dealt with by summary legislation. The sudden cessation of trade 
with the warring countries has thrown thousands out of work by 
closing all export oflSces and foreign agencies. The injunction against 
the exportation of foodstuffs, which was considered a necessary 
measure in all three countries, will work a hardship on the Danish 
farmer for a time. The industries of Norway and Sweden have not 
yet suflSciently utilized their "white coal" to be independent of 
foreign countries, and the uncertainty in the coal supply is a source 
of anxiety to them. Even the shipping partook for a while of the 
general paralysis, and floating mines have been a terror to the 
mariners. 

From these difficulties, however, the braver spirits of the three 
countries have tried to wrest every possible advantage. It is pointed 
out that the products of Scandinavia, such as paper, wood pulp, fish, 
canned goods and agricultural produce, are needed even in war times, 
while iron and cement will assuredly be required to build up what is 
being destroyed in the war. The factories are making heavy sacri- 
fices to retain their workmen, and the problem of the unemployed 
seems not so threatening as at first feared. The ships that have been 
cut off from the Baltic and North Sea are being utilized in traflSc with 



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40 THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 

America, and it is announced that the projected Swedish-American 
line will soon become a reality. Even Iceland has sent a steamer, 
chartered by the government, from Reykjavik, to buy grain in New 
York. It is the first ship of which we have a record to sail directly 
from Iceland to an American harbor. The Bergen railroad has sud- 
denly assumed international importance as the chief mail route of 
Europe, communicating with America, England, Scandinavia, Fin- 
land, Russia, Germany, Southern Europe, and Asia. A large transit 
trade is being built up by Norway along the same route, and the 
government, in order to facilitate the extension of shipping, has 
assumed 80 per cent, of the insurance risk on the sea. 

Holherfl and ®^ ^^^ ^^°^^ ^^^^ issue of the Review reaches its 
, ^ readers the first two volumes of the Scandinavian 

regner Classics will have been issued from the press. The 

two books selected to begin the series are translations of works of 
Holberg and of Tegner. Volume I contains three comedies by Hol- 
berg — Jeppe of the HilU The Political Tinker ^ and Erasmus Montanus. 
They have been translated from the Danish by Professor Campbell, of 
the University of Wisconsin, and Mr. Schenck, of Harvard University. 
These three plays by the chief writer of Denmark — a native, it must 
be remembered, of Norway — are for the first time published together 
in an English translation. Professor Campbell, who has written in an 
introduction an account of Holberg's life and place in literature, has 
recently publi^^hed a volume of essays on Holberg. The translators 
have endeavored not only to give a faithful literary version, but to 
interpret the plays in a style that may be readily adapted for the 
English or American stage. The poems by Tegner that comprise 
Volume II are The Children of the Lord's Supper, translated from the 
Swedish by Henry Wads worth Longfellow, and Frithiofs Saga^ 
translated by Rev. W. Lewery Blackley, with an Introduc- 
tion by Mr. Lieder, of Harvard University. Tegner is the 
one Swedish poet to whose works all his compatriots will at once 
accord a place among Scandinavian classics. This author presents 
the curious situation in literature of a writer who, although his chief 
work has been rendered a score of times into English, is not yet widely 
known in England and America. This has been due partly to the 
rarity of most of the translations. By reprinting the faithful and 
spirited interpretations of Longfellow and of Blackley, the Foundation 
hopes to make Tegner more easily accessible to those who cannot read 
him in the original. The introduction by Mr. Lieder throws new 
light upon Longfellow's indebtedness to Swedish literature, partly the 
result of Mr. Lieder's research among books and letters at Craigie 
House, the Cambridge residence of the American poet. 



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THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 41 

Y ^ At the same time the Foundation publishes the first vol- 

of the "°^^ ^^ ^^^ series of Scandinavian Monographs. It is 

^ an account of The Voyages of the Norsemen to America^ 

by WiUiam Hovgaard,now Professor of Naval Construc- 
tion in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and formerly com- 
mander in the Royal Danish Navy. The question of the Norse dis- 
covery of America by Leif Ericson about the year 1000 has been the 
subject of considerable discussion. The early settlements of the 
Norsemen have been located by various historians on the coasts of 
Labrador, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Maine, Massachusetts, and 
Rhode Island. This book by Commander Hovgaard is designed both 
for the general reader of history and for the scholar. It includes 
reHable translations of all parts of the Icelandic sagas that concern 
Vinland, reviews thoroughly their accounts and surveys candidly the 
opinions of previous investigators. It gives an objective treatment of 
the whole problem, and a particularly complete discussion of the 
nautical aspects. Contrary to the opinion advanced by Dr. Fridtjof 
Nansen, Professor Hovgaard arrives at the conclusion that the two 
principal saga narratives are essentially historic. He believes that 
they describe different voyages or groups of voyages, explaining the 
many apparent contradictions, which at first sight seem to baffle all 
attempt at disentanglement. Some of these voyages, he believes, 
penetrated as far south as Massachusetts. The copious photographs 
of the coasts visited by the Norsemen, as w^ell as of their ships and 
implements, comprising 83 illustrations and 7 maps, add greatly to 
the interest of the w'ork. 

p jj Miss Ellen Gleditsch, of Christiania, Fellow of the 

of the American-Scandinavian Foundation for 1913-14, was 

Foundation ^^'^^^^^ ^^^ honorary degree of Doctor of Science by 
Smith College at the commencement in June last. 
Miss Gleditsch returned to Norway after a year of research in radio- 
activity at Yale University. Lars Berg, Fellow of the American- 
Scandinavian Foundation for 1914-15, has been awarded a special 
fellowship by the University of Minnesota. He will spend one se- 
mester in the study of high-voltage problems in electricity at the 
University, and the following semester visiting electric power stations 
in the United States. Mr. Berg graduated from the Technical Insti- 
tute of Darmstadt in 1912, and was for one year assistant at that 
Institute. After his return to Norway he was a managing engineer 
at the electric works at Bergen. Dr. Gudmund Hatt, Danish Fel- 
low of the Foundation, is studying anthropology at Columbia Uni- 
versity. Dr. Hatt' is accompanied by his wife, who, under her maiden 
name, Emilie Demant, has published books on the Swedish Lapps. 



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Brief Notes 

The Yearbook of the Swedish Historical Society for 1911-13 has been pub- 
lished, and contains numerous articles in Swedish and English, as well as a list 
of valuable accessions to the library of the Society. 



Two poems of Edgar Allen Poe, "Annabel Lee" and "Annie," are translated 
by Elin Storckenfeldt Lindborg, in Ord och Bild. The liquid cadence of the 
Swedish lends itself well to the rendering of Poe's musical metres. Rydberg*s 
translation of Poe's "Raven" is unmistakable, even to ears unacquainted with 
Swedish. 

Axel Teisen, of Philadelphia, the Danish-American barrister, has recently 
contributed an article on Amerikanak Proces Reform to Tidskriftfor Retvidenskab, 



The Scandinavian Club of Milwaukee has published its first monthly, Scandi- 
navia, dated September, 1914. The Club was organized in 1910, with Consul 
Olaf I. Rove as president. The president during the present year is Mr. E. G. 
Bratlie. The prominent Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish citizens of Milwaukee 
have shown a spirit of good-fellowship which we can commend to other Scandi- 
navian centers throughout the country. 



One of Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tales, "The Little Mermaid," has 
been dramatized by the American playwright, Edward Sheldon. "The Garden 
of Paradise," as the play is called, will be produced this autumn by the Liebler 
Company at the Park Theatre, New York. 



Henry Holt and Company will publish as an illustrated Christmas booklet 
"The Legend of the Sacred Image," translated by Velma Swanston Howard from 
the Swedish of Selma Lagerlof. 

Christian Collin, advisory editor of the Review for Norway, has been 
appointed to the chair of European literature in the University of Christiania. 



Arvid Paulson has adapted into English Gustaf af Geijerstam's dramatization 
of Hans Christian Andersen's " Store Claus og Lille Claus." This adaptation wnll 
be read on the Pacific Coast by Lillian Quinn Stark, known for her interpretations 
of Strindberg's plays. 

Ludvig Saxe has written a large book, published by H. Aschehoug in Chris- 
tiania, recording his visits to Norwegians all over the world. His descriptions 
have the spontaneity of the kodak pictures with which they are illustrated. He 
brings to bear on conditions among the antipodes the quick comprehension of the 
trained newspaper man; at the same time he has a conscientious regard for 
accuracy not always seen in rapid travel sketches. 



The voluminous Jubilcpumsbog published by Einar Hilsen holds a unique place 
in the list of Norwegian publications occasioned by the Centenary. It does not 
follow the stereotyped lines of commemorative publications, but offers a series 
of short articles, written in a journalistic way, by noted men of Norway on other 
noted men. There is also a collection of documents and of odds and ends of 
information throwing light on the history of the early part of the century. 



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The Magazines 



Team Work "Team Work in Denmark" is the title of an article on coopera- 
IN Denmark tion in agriculture in The Youth's Companion for September 24, 
by Hon. Maurice Francis Egan, American Minister to Denmark. 
It is written in Dr. Egan's genial and sympathetic style, and illustrated by pic- 
tures of a butter factory, a farmyard, Kserehave School and an interior scene 
from the Folk High School at Askov. 

"The lessons that Americans may learn," says Dr. Egan, "from the success 
of the Danes are that nothing counts so much, where a fixed result is to be 
obtained, as team work, which means the sinking of individual notions for the 
general good, and that no really good work can be done at haphazard. There 
must be education of the mind and the heart as well as of the hands in order that 
a farmer, or any one else, may achieve good results. Moreover, the right kind 
of education cultivates a sense of honor, and among the Danes the sense of honor 
is carried into their commercial relations not only as a moral quality, but as a 
matter of policy. In fact, it is regarded by them as one of the best means of 
keeping up their trade relations with England and Germany. Some years ago, 
when a certain amount of inferior butter had been exported into England by a 
careless intermediary, the whole Danish nation seemed to think itself disgraced. 
The matter was taken up by the government, and such rules were made that a 
similar decline in the quality of the product can hardly occur again. Farming is 
looked on as the most honorable employment into which a Dane can enter." 

Norway and **The proper place for a statue to Liberty, with all the world 

THE Norwegians to choose from, would be on one of these bleak promontories 
on the west coast of Norway, jutting out into the sea toward 
England and America. " 

So says Price Collier in the first installment of his "Norway and the Nor- 
wegians from the American Point of View," in Scribner's Magazine for October. 

The late Price Collier w^as visiting the Northern countries and preparing a 
work to parallel his "Germany and the Germans," "The West and the East," 
and "England and the English," when his career was cut short by his sudden 
death in Denmark last year. He had then completed only the two chapters 
that appear in the October and November issues of Scribners Magazine. 

Mr. Collier was most favorably impressed with the democratic institutions of 
Norway and the general health of the people. "Probably there are no communi- 
ties anywhere else in the world so self-efficient, so independent and so comfortable. 

**Indeed, their size and wholesome aspect prove this, for they are the fairest, 
tallest, broadest-chested, and longest-lived people in the world today. The 
average lifetime in Norway was 49.94 years for both sexes together; or, separately, 
for men 48.73 and for women 51.21 in 1881-90; but for the decade from 1891-1900 
there was a further improvement, for men 50.21, for women 54.14. With the 
exception of Sweden there is nothing comparable to this elsewhere in the world. 
Even more startling are the exact figures of longevity. In 1909 the total deaths 
were 31,708; of these 3,125 were under one year, and 10,889 were over seventy 
years of age, while 5,673 lived to be over eighty!" 

Mr. Collier found that this vigorous condition was not the result of over- 
bathing and an artificial program of health, but was due to the fundamental 
self-reliance engendered by owning property. "For a thousand years now these 
people alone among the nations have been land-owners and self-governors. 
Feudalism has never touched them in the sense that they have been dependent 
upon another for their rights of property, or for the right to dispose of their 
personal prowess in such ways as they themselves deemed best." 



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44 ADVERTISEMENTS 



In Scribners Magazine for October and November 

NORWAY AND THE NORWEGIANS 

From an American Point of View, by Price Coluer 

Mr. Collier lived there to admire, to absorb the traditions, and appreciate the sturdy independence of the 
people of the land of the Vikings. 

"The proper place for a statue to Liberty, with all the world to choose from, would be on one of these bleak 
promontories on the west coast of Norway, jutting out into the sea toward England and America." 

You get a glimpse of the Norway of tradition, the Norway of the Harolds, the Olafs, and Sigurds, of Odin, 
and of the country and life of the people to-day. 

SCRIBNERS MAGAZINE 25 cents a Copy NEW YORK CITY 



SECOND YULE NUMBER 

Of the AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW 
Vol. Ill JANUARY, 1915 No. 1 

The first number of the third year of the Review will be ready for delivery 
December 1st. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
A Cover Design from a screen by Zorn: A Winter Scene in Mora. 

A reproduction in THREE COLORS of the painting by Carl Larsson, My 
Family, in the home of Mr. Thorsten Laurin, in Stockholm. Suitable for 
framing. 

Battlefields cf the North: Selected reproductions from paintings and old 
copperplates of noteworthy battles in which the Northern nations were 
engaged with Germans, Russians, or English, including the landing of Gustavus 
Adolphus in Germany; the battlefields of Liitzen and Narva; the bombard- 
ment of Copenhagen by the English, and the Danish naval victory over the 
Prussians off Helgoland. 

DanIvSH Castles, VII — Kronborg. This series will be continued in 1915. 

ARTICLES 

Autograph Letters of Swedish Monarchs, from the collection of John A. 
Gade. 

Johan Castberg on Social Reform in Norway. 

Scandinavian Artists in America — I. The first in a series of six essays which 
will appear during 1915, and will include sketches of Hesselius, Solon Borglum, 
Haag, Sandzen and others. 

Longfellow and Sweden, by Amandus Johnson. 

Enlarged sizCy price 25 cents 

An excellent Christmas gift Order extra copies at once 

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Now Ready for Delivery 

Scandinavian 
Classics 

Attractively pritUed and bound in red 
cloth, with a gold seal on the itide. Price, 
$1.50 each. 

VOLUME I 

Comedies by Holberg 

Jeppe of the Hill, The Political 
Tinker, Erasmus Montanus 

Translated from the Danish by Oscar James Campbell, Jr., Ph.D., AssiMant Professor of English iii the 
University of Wisconsin, and Frederic Schenck, B.Litt., Instructor in English at Harvard University; with 
an Introduction by Oscar James Campbell, Jr. 1914. xv + 178 pages. 

These three plays are now for the first time published together in an English tr/inslation. The 
translators have endeavored not only to give a faithful literary version, l)ut to interpret the comedies 
in a style that may be readily adapted for the English or American stage. 

VOLUME II 

Poems by Tegner 

The Children of the Lord's Supper, Frithiof's Saga 

Translated from the Swedish by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and the Rev. W. Lewery Blackley, with an 
Introduction by Paul Robert Lieder, A.M., of Harvard University. 1914. xafm + 207 pages. 

Tegner is the one Swedish poet to whose works all his compatriots will at once accord a place 
among Scandinavian classics. By reprinting the faithful and spirited interpretations of Longfellow 
and of Blackley, the Foundation hopes to make Tegner more easily accessible in English. 

Scandinavian Monographs 

Attractively printed and bound in blue cloth, unth a gold seed on the side. Price, $(.00. 

VOLUME I 

The Voyages of the Norsemen to America 
By WILLIAM HOVGAARD, Professor of Naval Construction in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Late Commander in the Royal Danish Navy. 1914. xxi -\- 304 pages. 83 illustrations and 7 maps. 

The abundant and beautiful illustrations in this book add greatly to its interest and value. Professor 
Hovgaard makes a fresh and thorough investigation of the whole problem of the Norse discovery of 
America, about the year 1000, and arrives at new and striking conclusions. The volume includes 
reliable translations of all parts of the sagas that concern Vinland and a special discussion of a matter 
upon which the author is eminently qualified to speak, namely, the nautical aspects of the voyages. 



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ICELAND 

By W. S, C. RUSSELL With SI Illustrations and a Map. 314 pp. 9200 net. $2.15 postpaid 

This volume embodies the results of four summers of labor and observation in Iceland, in 1909, 
1910, 1911 and 1913. In 1911 the author was the geologist of the Matador party of scientists to Jan 
Mayen. In 1913 Mr. Russell led an expedition to the summit of Mt. Askja, the largest volcano in Ice- 
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the homes of the kindly fanners whose customs are a thousand years unchanged. 



SANPRIEL 



By ALVILDE PRVDZ. Authorized Translation from the Norwegian by Hester Coddington. 316 pp. 

$l.i5 net. #1.40 postpaid. 

Both Bjdmson and Ibsen considered Alvilde Pt-ydz Norway's greatest woman writer. "Sanpriel or 
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Speeches and New Letters 



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biblioifraphical appendix. Svo, buckram, paper label, $3.00 net. $3.15 postpaid. 
All of Ibsen's speeches and new letters are here for the first time presented in English. The speeches 
comprise all those included in the Norwegian edition of Ibsen's collected works. An absolutely invalu- 
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The School System of Norway 

By DAVID ALLEN ANDERSON $l.i5 net. 9l.iO postpaid 

A descriptive treatment of a contemporary school system which affords opportunity for comparative 
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When the New Wine Blooms 

A Play by BJORNSTJERNE BJORNSON. 
Authorized Translation by Lee M. Hollander. 
$1.50 net. $1.65 postpaid. 

With Sword and Crozier 

A Play by INRIDI EINARSSON. Author- 
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Renaissance 

A Play by HOLGER DRACHM ANN. Author- 
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He Is Coming 

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