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4ICHELIN 
TO THE BA 



VOLUME IL 
THE BATTLE OF SAINT Mi 

MIHIEL, PONT'ii-MOUSSON. .METZ'i 











MiCHE 


1! 



MICMELKN TYRI: 



:.ijmmi, k 



?tn'«jR ici 



You don't know 
what a 

Good Road Map 

is, if you haven't used the 

Michelin Map 



SCALE: 1 : 200.000 
(3.15 Miles to the inch.) 





On Sale 

at Michelin 

Stockists 

and 
Booksellers 



THE tourist finds his 
way about easily in a 
town, if he has a'plan giving 
the names of the streets. 

He gets about with the same ease 
and certainty on the road, if he has 
a Michelin Map, because it gives 
the numbers of all the roads. 



The Michelin Wheel 

BEST of all detachable wheels 
because the least complicated 




Elegan t 

It embellishes even the finest coachwork. 

Simple 

It is detachable at the hub and fixed by six 
bolts only. 



Strong 



The only wheel which held out on all fronts 
during the war. 



Practical 



Can be replaced in 3 minutes by a7iybody and 
cleaned still quicker. 

It prolongs the life of tires by cooling them. 
AND THE CHEAPEST 



THE ^'TOURING CLUB DE FRANCE'' 



WHAT IS IT? WHAT ARE ITS USES? 

The "Touring Club de France" (founded in 1890), is at 
the present time the largest Touring Association in the whole 
world. Its principal aim is to introduce France — admirable 
country and one of the loveliest on earth — to French people 
themselves and to foreigners. 

It seeks to develop travel in all its forms — on foot, on 
horseback, on bicycle, in carriage, motor, yacht or railway, 
and soon in aeroplane. 

Every member of the Association receives a badge and 
an identity ticket free of charge, also the "Revue Men- 
suelle" every month. 

Members have also the benefit of special prices in a certain 
number of affiliated hotels; and this holds good for the 
purchase of guide-books and Staff (Etat-major) maps, as well 
as those of the "Ministere de I'lnterieur," the T. C. F., etc. 
They may insert notices regarding the sale or purchase of 
traveling requisites in the "Revue" (1 fr. per line). The 
"Comite des Contentieux" is ready to give them counsel 
with regard to travelling, and 3,000 delegates in all the 
principal towns are able to give them advice and information 
about the curiosities of art or of nature in the neighbor- 
hood, as well as concerning the roads, hotels, motor-agents, 
garages, etc. 

Members are accorded free passage across the frontier for 
a bicycle or motor-bicycle. For a motor-car the Association 
gives a "Triptyque" ensuring free passage through the 
"douane," etc. 

ONE TRAVELS BEST IN FRANCE WHEN A MEMBER 
OF THE "TOURING CLUB DE FRANCE" 



IN MEMORY 

OF THE MICHELIN WORKMEN AND EMPLOYEES WHO 

DIED GLORIOUSLY FOR THEIR COUNTRY 



THE AMERICANS 



IN THE 



GREAT WAR 

VOLUME II. 

THE BATTLE OF ST. MIHIEL 

(ST. MIHIEL, PONT-A-MOUSSON, METZ.) 



Published fcp 
Michelin & Cie, Clermont-Ferrand, (France) 



Copyright, 1920, by Michelin h Cie 

All rights of translalion, adaplalion or reproduction (in part or ivhole), reserved 

in all countries. 



Digitized by the Interiiet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/americansingreat02cler 



'I'llK LIBllARY 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

SANTA BARBARA 



FOREWORD 



THE ST. MIHIEL VICTORY, SEPTEMBER, 1918 

The world already knows of the undying glory achieved in the Great War 
hy the American Soldiers, but perhaps less is known about the historic ground 
over which they fought. 

The purpose of the present volume is more to describe, for the benefit of 
the tourist, that section of France where the battle of Saint-Mihiel raged, than 
to dwell on the splendid achievements of the brave troops from across the seas, 
\vho took that ancient stronghold, and thus opened the way to Metz. 

At the same time it is fitting to remind the reader that at Saint-Mihiel the 
Americans liberated over 150 square miles of French territory ; took over 15,000 
German prisoners, and captured upwards of 200 guns. 

President Poincare, in a message to President Wilson, expressed in the fol- 
lowing words, the feelings of France regarding the glorious achievements of the 
American troops : " I congratulate you, Mr. President, on a victory which has 
been completed so brilliantly. General Pershing's magnificent divisions have 
just liberated with admirable dash, cities and villages of Lorraine which have 
been groaning for years under the yoke of the enemy. I express the warmest 
thanks of France to the people of the United States." 

Marshal Foch, also, expressed the greatest possible admiration for the way 
the American troops fought their way to the great victory at Saint-Mihiel. In 
describing the battle Marshal Foch said : " This was where the Americans for 
the first time showed their worth. This is where we were able to judge of these 
admirable soldiers, strong in body and valiant in soul. In one swoop they 
reduced the famous salient, which during so long we did not know how to 
approach." 

In closing this brief introduction the publisher wishes to say that it would 
have been an easy matter to fill the pages following with many high-sounding 
phrases and verbose descriptions, but it has been thought better to adhere to 
the facts (they speak for themselves), and to furnish the tourist as briefly as 
possible with an historically correct account of the great victory of Saint-Mihiel. 



AMERICAN FORCES ENGAGED 



FIRST ARMY CORPS 
Major-General Hunter Liggett 

ciiinprising the 

'S'Znd Diiisioii Miijor-General 11 . /'. Hiiiiiham 

gOlli „ ,, Henry T. Allen. 

5j/j „ „ John McMahon. 

2,1(1 „ ,, John A. Le Jeune. 




MAJOR-GENERAL HUNTER LIGGETT 

Commanding the 1st Army Corps. 



FOURTH ARMY CORPS 
Major-General Joseph T. Dickman 

(•i)iii|irising the 

89//) Division Brig.-Genend Frank L. Winn. 

42nd „ Mdjiii -General C. A. Flagler. 

l-''^ .. " " E. F. McGlachU 

?,r(l .. {Res:\ " " B. B. Buck. 




via.|(ju-(;i;m:kai. .ioski-h t. I)ICKMA^J 
Commanding the 4th .Inny Corps. 



FIFTH ARMY CORPS 
Major-General George H. Cameron 

comprising the 



26th Division 
4th 



Major-General Harry C. Hale. 
„ „ Mark L. Hersey. 




MAJOR-GENERAL GEORCE H. CAMERON 

Commanding the Sth Army Corps. 



MAJ.-GEN. 
J. A. LE JEUNE, 

2nd Inf. Divn. 




MAJ.-GEN. E. F. 

MCGLACHLIN, 

JR. 

Jst Inf. Divn. 



MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY T. ALLEN 

gotli Inf. Divn. 





MAJ.-GEN. C. A. F. FLAGI.KK 
7-'H(/ Inf. Dit'n. 



MAJ.-GEN. M. L. HERSEY 
4th Inf. Divn. 




THE FRONTIER IN 1914 AND DEFENCES OF THE MEUSE 

In constriictiny these defences, Gen. Shi' de Rivieres' plans provided for 
the concentration of the French Armies to the zvest of the Meuse, the bridges 
being within range of the guns of the forts on the Meiise Heights. The quadri- 
lateral formed by IVoevre Plain was open to the enemy. 



THE MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE 
ST. MIHIEL SALIENT (1914-1918). 

The Frontier in 1914 

(See map, p. 8.) 

If we look at a map of the Franco-German frontier of 1914, between Nancy 
and Verdun, it will be seen that two rivers — the Meuse and the Moselle — ran 
parallel with the frontier, forming a double line of defences. The Moselle is 
protected by the hills of that name, and the Meuse by the Heights of Meuse, 
the eastern side of which, facing Germany, consists of a series of steep cliffs. 

When, in 1875, General Sere de Rivieres was instructed to fortify this 
frontier, his plans provided for the construction of a line of forts along the 
Meuse Heights, capable of holding the bridges across the Meuse under gunfire, 
and thus enable the French Armies to concentrate behind the river near 
Neufchateau. The three northern forts, therefore, faced the Meuse ; the 
southern forts, viz., Gironville and Liouville, commanded both the Meuse and 
the Woevre. 

The drawback to this plan was that the vast Woevre Plain lying between 
Stenay, Longwy, Toul and Nancy, would be sacrificed in the event of a surprise 
attack. The importance of this possible loss was made all the greater by the 
discovery of coalfields in the Briey district. It was therefore decided that a 
number of battalions of Chasseurs should be garrisoned in the Woevre towns. 
Moreover, the passing of the Three Years' Military Service Bill made it possible 
to increase considerably the number of covering troops. In 1914, the Plan of 
Concentration provided for the grouping of the French Third Army in the 
Woevre Plain. However, no permanent defences were erected. The fortress of 
Longwy, being isolated and of little military value, could not give effective 
protection. 

The German Government had on several occasions given the French 
Government to understand that they would disapprove the erection of forti- 
fications in Woevre. On the other hand, the Germans unceasingly strength- 
ened their own frontier from Alelz to Thionville, increasing the perimeter 
of the entrenched camp of Metz from 25 to 90 kilometres and erecting ten 
new forts. All the attacks against the Meuse Heights started from this vast 
entrenched camp, which, for four years, also furnished the German lines of 
.St. Mihiel with troops. 

September 7, 1914, and the following days were particularly anxious ones 
for General Sarrail's army which, resting as it did on Verdun, was to form the 
pivot of jofTre's famous manoeuvre [see the Michelin llluslrated Guide : "The 
Battlefields of the Marne, 1914"). 



HOW THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT WAS FORMED 
First Attempt during the Battle of the Marne 

[See map. p. 10. i 

A furious frontal attack was made on this army by the ex-Crown Prince 
of Germany, while at the same time it was taken in the rear, on the Meuse 
Heights, by the Bavarian Crown Prince. Had the latter succeeded in crossing 
the Meuse, Ver(hin wimld liave iiecome unlciiahlc; (icncial Sarraii would have 



10 

been forced to retreat southwards, and, as in this gigantic battle of the Marne 
all the armies were interdependent, such a withdrawal would have been felt 
nil along the line, and Joffre's plans for a strategical recovery would have 
failed. 

On Sei)lt'nibfr 8, ihe Germans bombarded the Fort of Troyon. The 
Governor of Verdun telegraphed to the officer in connnand of the fort that 
victory depended upon his resistance, and requested him to hold out " in- 
definitely." As a precautionary measure. General Sarrail ordered several of 
the bridges across the Meuse to be destroyed. 

On September 9, the fort's guns were put out of action, but the defenders 
repulsed several assaults. Genicourt Fort was next bombarded. 




THK FIKST (;i;HMAN attacks A(;AINST THK MKdSK HEIGHTS 

While the Battle of the Marne Teas ragiiui, the (ierinans atteintfted in vain 
to eaptnre the Meii.ie Iteiglits. in order to ltil;e Ceu. Sarrail's yU my — the pivot 
of Joffre's manoeuvre — in the rear. 



On the 10th, the forts were still holding out, although deluged with shells. 
Meanwhile the German infantry advanced towards St. Mihiel. 

However, the Battle of the Marne had now been won on the left wing, and 
the German retreat, which was to extend as far as the Verdun — St. Mihiel 
district, had begun. 

General de Castelnau despatched the 73rd Reserve and 2nd Cavalry Divisions 
of his army to Troyon, and the fort was relieved on September 13. The mobile 
defence forces of Verdun pursued the retreating Germans across the Meuse 
and established themselves to the east of tlie town, while General Sarrail's 
army advanced towards the north and west. 

The German jjlan liad rom])|ptely failed. 



11 




Qt^'azMoussi}n 



THE FORMATION OF THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT (Sept. 20-29, 1914) 

Their set-back at Troyon did not prevent the Germans reforming, and they 
attacked the Meuse Heights again on September 20, in an endeavour to 
outflank Verdun from the south. Four army corps under General von Strantz, 
starting from Metz, advanced rapidly on the 22nd to the Combres-Vigneulles- 
Thiaumont line, and began a methodical bombardment of the forts on the 
Meuse Heights. These were soon pounded into shapeless heaps of debris, but 
the gallant defenders still held on and repulsed all assaults. 

On the 23rd, the enemy advanced to Seicheprey. The mobile defence 
forces of the region, greatly outnumbered (two or three to one), formed only 
a very thin line, the depth of which steadily decreased as it extended Ijcyoiul 
Verdun to the south. 

On September 24, the German attacks were renewed with increased fury. 
On the 25th, they succeeded in gaining a footing on the Meuse Heights near 
Vigneulles, whence they advanced to St. Mihiel, which they entered without, 
however, crossing the Meuse. At this point the river was only defended by 
one battalion of Territorials, and the Germans were able to cross on the 26th, 
after which they began to advance towards the valley of the Aire, in the 
direction of Verdun. The situation was critical. The 16th Corps from Nancy 
met and defeated the German forces, and obliged them to fall back in disorder 
on the suburbs of St. Mihiel, but were unable to force them back across the 
river. On September 29, the front line ran through Combres, Chauvoncourt, 
Apremont and Seicheprey. 

The salient liad been made. 



12 




THE DESTROYED BRIDGE AT ST. MIHIEL 

III the backyround : Trniiiorary foot-bridjjc Imilt li\ the Alii 



in St'iit.. 1918. 



THE ST. MIHIEL SALIENT — Oct., 1914, to Sept., 1918 

(See map, p. 13. 1 

From November 17-20 the French endeavoured to drive the Germans from 
the bridgehead which the enemy held at Chauvoncourt, opposite St. Mihiel. 
In a spirited attack they drove the Germans from the suburb and barracks of 
Chauvoncourt. However, the latter had been mined, the Germans, taking 




FORTIFIED STREET IN FEY-EN-HAYE (191.5) 



13 

advantage of the confusion caused by the explosion, counter-attacked and 
reoccupied Chauvoncourt. 

This was the last attack made at the point of the salient. Only local 
fighting of extreme violence now took place in Apremont Forest, the result 
of which was, the French prevented the Germans extending the salient. 

French offensives were launched against the northern and southern sides 
of the salient, at Eparges and Prctre Wood, in the hope of narrowing the salient 
and forcing the Germans to evacuate it. Eparges Crest was conquered after 
more than two months of the fiercest possible fighting, ending on April 9. 1915. 

However, these local actions were insufficient, and little by little the line 
became fixed. Both sides entrenched themselves and jjombarded each other 
unceasingly, while the sappers carried out long and strenuous mining opera- 
tions. Attacks were henceforth confined to small local objectives: a wood. 




ST. MIHIIX SALIK.NT. FROM OCT., 1914, TO SEPT.. 1918 



liouse, bridge or crater, and il rcciuiicd I he great American ofleusive (if 
Septend)er, 1918. to flatten out this saiicTil which, for four years. Iiad lormcd 
a huge "pocket "" inside tlie French lines. 



The Salient during the Battle of Verdun 

The German offensive, which began on February 21, 1916, caused a sliglil 
withdrawal along the whole of the French Verdun-Nancy line (see the Miclielin 
Illustrated Guide: "Verdun"). The French line was withdrawn jidiind 
Fresnes, passing thence round Eparges Crest, which formed a hinge. 

After the French counter-offensive of July-September, 1917, which 
disengaged Verdun and the immediate vicinily. their positions were further 
improved by a series of local operations at Eparges and around Pont-a- 
Mousson. 



14 







:" I. 



ON BEAUMONT HEIGHTS 

Gen. F. 11. Bamford. connnandiiui the American 2nd Brigade, 
tvatchintj the advance of his troops before Beaumont, Sept. 12, jqi8. 



THE AMERICAN OFFENSIVE OF SEPTEMBER, 1918 

It has been seen in the Michelin Illustrated Guide : " The Americans 
in the Great War," Vol. I., that the 1st and 3rd American Corps, under the 
respective commands of Major-Generals Liggett and Ballard, reached the 
V'esle at the beginning of August, 1918. General Pershing's intention at 
that time was to use these two army corps to form the American First Army 
which, under his personal command, was to relieve the French 6th Army 
(General Degoutte). However, the Germans having given proof of their 
intention to defend the Vesle line at all cost. Marshal Foch decided to attack 
at another point of the front, and entrusted the task of flattening out the 
salient to the American Army. 




FLIREY VILLAGE {Sept. 14, 1918) 

American Sappers pulling down the walls of the ruined houses 
to fill in the German trenches across the roads in the salient. 



15 

This operation had already been carefully studied by the American Staff, 
for it was in this region that the first American divisions were trained in 
active warfare. 

The 1st Division was holding the sector extending from Ailly Wood to 
Mortmare Wood, when it was relieved by the 26th Division on April 2, 1918, 
and despatched to the Somme, where it covered itself with glory by the capture 
of Cantigny. On April 20, the 26th Division withstood a powerful surprise 
attack at Seicheprey, where, after losing part of the village, it succeeded in 
fully re-establishing its front. On July 10, it was sent from the Woevre 
district to take part in the Battle of the Ourcq. 

From January, 1918, the 2nd Division held that part of the front lying 
between Eparges and Spada Pass, where it received a thorough training, the 
effects of which the Germans were destined to feel around Chateau-Thierry in 
June, 1918. 

On August 30, General Pershing took over the command of the First 
Army, with Headquarters at Ligny-en-Barrois. At that time, the front line 
of the salient ran as follows: from Eparges Crest it descended in an almost 
straight line to St. Mihiel, along the Meuse Heights ; passing thence round 
St. Mihiel. the great bend in the Meuse and tlie Camp des Romains, it described 
a vast semicircle ; then turning sharply eastwards, it proceeded towards 
Pont-a-Mousson, passing through the woods of Apremont, Ailly, Mortmare 
and Le Pretre. 

The total length of the salient front was about 65 km., and its width along 
the German lines between Eparges and Regnieville (near Pretre Wood) 
about 39 km. It penetrated the French lines to a maximum depth of 22 km. 




ST. MIHIEL SALIENT PRIOR TO THE OFFENSIVE OF SEPT., 1918 

It measured sg km. across its greatest iindtli, 22 km. in depth, and about 65 km. 

along its front. 



16 



Since 19Ut lliis iinpoilaiil salietil liad Lioeii iaiily quiet, and beyond inler- 
niilteat l)oniiiardnients — which showed that the lines on both sides were de- 
fended and that the artillery was on the alert — and a few local attacks, the 
conuiuiniques had notliinji to report. This salient, however, greatly hampered 
liie French lines of conuminication, cutting as it did the railway between Ver- 
dun and Told. This line, which runs as far as Epinal and Belfort, linked u]) 
these four great eastern fortresses before the war. 



The Defences of the Salient 

{See map beloiv.) 

Through aerial observations and prisoners taken during raids, the American 
High Command knew that the enemy possessed several lines of defences, one 
behind the other, in the salient, and that beyond the first line of trenches 
facing the front was a second line known as the Schroeter Zone, which formed 
a second salient about 5 km. within the first. This line began northeast of 
Eparges, and went southwards across the Meuse Heights, then descending east- 
wards near Varvinay as far as Buxieres, afterwards passing behind the deep 
valley of the f-iupt-de-Mad, and lastly going in a north-easterly direction 
ihniugh Nonsard. Lamarche, Beney and Xanimes, where it joined up with the 
Michel line. The latter formed part of the system of defences known as the 
lliudcnburg Line or KricmhiUle Position — considered impregnable by the Ger- 
mans, and of which they said to the Allies: "Thus far, and no further" — and 
it was there that the final enemy stand in the salient was to be made. 




THE GERMAN DEFENCE WORKS IN THE SALIENT 

The German lines of defence extended in echelons over the whole depth of the 
salient, and rested on the zone of the advanced forts of Mets. 



17 



The Opposing Forces 

{See map below.) 

Lieutenant-General Fuchs, Commander of the German forces in the salient, 
had eight divisions in the line and five divisions of reserves. 

These divisions formed part of the forces of General von Gallwitz, com- 
manding tlie army group, and it was he who really opposed the Americans. 

On this front General Pershing had four army corps disposed as follows: — 

The 1st Corps, comprising the 82nd, 90th, 5th and 2nd Divisions, com- 
manded by Major-General Hunter Liggett, operated from Clemery, east of the 
Moselle, to Limey. 

The 4th Corps, consisting of the 89th. 42nd and 1st Divisions, commanded 
by Major-General Joseph T. Dickman. operated from Limey to Xivray. 

To these two Corps was assigned the task of carrying out the main attack. 




THE OPPOSING FORCES AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 1918 OFFENSIVE 

their objective being the Vigneulles-St. Benoit-Xammes line, which was to be 
reached in three successive rushes. 

The 5th American Corps, composed of the 26th and 4th Divisions under 
\iajor-General George H. (Jameron, and supported by the French 15th Division, 
carried out a secondary attack from Mouilly to Watronville. the objectives be- 
ing, first the capture of the crests of Eparges and ("omijres, then the Combres- 
Vigneulles line. The Corps was to join hands in the latter village with the 
troops engaged in the main attack. 

The French 2nd Colonial Corps, first under General Hlondlat and after- 
wards General Claudel, operated in the centre of the salient, from Xivray to 
Mouilly, with orders to protect the flanks of the two American attacks. 

The attacking forces consisted of some 216 000 Americans and 48,000 
French, in addition to the American Reserves (190,000 men), who were ready 
at a moment's notice to take part in the battle. 

In his official report General l^ershing stated that he had mustered a body 
of troops three times as large as General Grant's Army of the Potomac in 
1864-1865. 



18 




SHOWING THE AMERICAN-FRENCH ADVANCE FROM SEPT. 12 (12/9) TO 
NOV. 11 (11/11), 1918 

Two secondary attacks on Sept. li held the enemy at the bottom of the 
salient, while the main attacks on the flanks crushed in the latter, as in the 
jaws of a vise. On Sept. 13, the Germans, in danger of being cut off, were 
forced to evacuate the salient. 



Flattening out the Salient, Sept. 12, 1918 

{See map above.) 

Despite all the precautions taken by General Pershing to ensure the secrecy 
of his troops' movements in the St. Mihiel sector, the Germans expected the 
attack, and as early as the beginning of September began to withdraw their 
heavy guns, and to make active preparations for the total evacuation of the 
salient. However, General Pershing did not give them time to do this, and 
ordered the attack to be made on September 12, at 5 a. m. for the 1st and 4th 
Corps, and at 8 a.m. for the 5th Corps. 

The attack had been worked out in minute detail, and the time-table of 
the advance exactly laid down. Everything took place as arranged. After an 
artillery preparation lasting four hours, the American divisions advanced, sup- 
ported by a certain number of tanks, half of them driven by Americans and the 
other half by Frenchmen. Accompanied by soldiers whose duty it was to cut 
the barbed wire, and by men armed with " bangalore torpedoes," the Ameri- 
cans advanced in successive waves. They soon reached the enemy trenches 
and fell unexpectedly on the demoralized foe in the middle of a fog. 

On September 12 (12/9) the 1st Corps quickly took Thiaucourt, whilst the 
4th Corps, operating on the left, advanced beyond Montsec and reached Non- 
sard, further north. At the point of the salient, the 2nd French Colonial Corps 
gradually attained the objectives assigned to it. The 2nd Cavalry Division 
captured more than 2,500 prisoners with a loss of only fourteen men killed 
and 116 wounded. At the other end, the 5th American Corps carried the crests 
of Eparges and Combres, repulsed a counter-attack, and quickly joined hands 
with the patrols of the 4th Corps at Vigneulles. 

On the morning of September 13 (13/9), Generals Pershing and Petain 



19 

entered St. Mihiel. In the evening the new front line ran as follows: Herbeu- 
ville, Thillot-sous-les-Cotes, Hattonville, St. Benoit, Xammes, Jaulny, Norroy. 

It was a fine victory: 16,000 prisoners, 443 guns of all calibres, and huge 
quantities of stores and munitions were captured, with a loss of only 7,000 
killed and wounded. 

The German retreat continued on September 14 and 15 (14/9 and 15/9) 
to the line Fresnes — Hautmont — Rembercourt. 

The offensive was finished ; ihe jaws of the vise had closed on the salient, 
and the latter had disappeared. From the American advance-posts the out- 
works of Metz were now plainly visible, and Wagner Fort, situated in front 
of the town, was already under the fire of the American guns. 

German Comments on the Attack 

A German report on the American attack of the St. Mihiel salient contains 
the following: — " The Americans made a clever use of their machine-guns. 
They are stubborn in defence, and rely greatly upon this tveapon, of ivhich they 
have large numbers. 

" The artillery preparation, which preceded the attack, was well carried out. 
The objectives were efficiently bombarded. The American gunners were able to 
change their targets in the minimum of time, and with great accuracy. The 
liaison between the infantry and the artillery ivas faultless. Whenever the in- 
fcntry ivere stopped by a nest of machine-guns, they immediately fell back, and 
their artillery promptly shelled the nest of machine-guns. 

"Numerous tanks were ready, but only a feiv actually used ; the masses of 
infantry alone ensured the victory." 

COMRADES IN ARMS 




MARSHAL FOCH 



CENF.RAL PERSHING 



•20 

France's Congratulations 

Immediately after tlie tii^t Ameriean successes in the salient, the President 
of the French Republic cabled his warmest coniiratuhilions to President Wil- 
son for the victory of "General l'ershiiif:'s inapjifu-rnt divisions, jniternallv 
seconded by French troops." 

The praise was well deserved, as in two (la\s liie Americans had liberated 
150 square miles of French territory which had been occupied four years by 
the enemy. 




THE OPPOSING FORCES ON ARMISTICE DAY 

A crushing offensive ivas on the eve of being lannched. The enemy, iucapabic 
of effectual resistajicc. hauled tloivji their flag and capitulated. 



St. Mihiel Front from Sept. 15 to Armistice Day 

During the •;reat Meuse- Ar^oiine ISattie. fouiiiit by General Pershing's 
troops after September 26, the operations on the St. iMihiel front were limited 
to intermittent bombardments and local attacks. 

When the Armistice was signed on November 11, General Pershing was 
making dispositions to invest Metz by an offensive towards Longwy with the 
1st Army, and towards Briey with the 2nd Army, while a detachment of six 
American divisions was to co-operate on the right bank of the Moselle with 
General Alangin's Army, in an attack on Chiiteau-Salins. Meanwhile, the Ger- 
mans had already begun to evacuate Metz. The Allies' advance began on 
November 10 and 11, but the general capitulation of the Germans, on terms 
dictated by the Allies, robbed the Americans of a new and crushing victory, 
which would have fittingly crowned their fine success at St. Mihiel. 



21 



A VISIT TO THE BATTLEFIELDS 

IN THREE ITINERARIES 




FIRST ITINERARY ip. 22) 
Distance: 80 km. iSee pp. 23-71) 

VERDUN to COMMERCY, via Calonne Trench, Eparges, Apremont 

Forest, Ailly Wood and St. Mihiel, iii(luiliiii; 
A VISIT TO ST. MIHIEL ( />p. ">5-()9i 

SECOND ITINERARY [pp. 72-137 1 
Distance: 112 km. (.Sec pp. 72-137) 

COMMERCY to METZ, via Pont-k-Mousson, indiidinji 
A VISIT TO PRETRE WOOD ^ pp. 102 1 19) 

A VISIT TO METZ (120 137) 



THIRD I'llNKIi \IIY i pp. 138-1 IS) 
METZ to VERDUN, via Etain (/</'. 138-145) 



22 




FIRST DAY — VERDUN TO COMMERCY 

Follow the roads indicated by the continuous black lines, in the direction of 
the arrows. See sheets 7 and 12 of the Michelin Touring Map. 



23 




FAljAlJL Ul lliL iiUlLL UL SILLE, VERDUN, OVERLOOKliNG 
THE PUBLIC GARDENS 

(From the Michelin Guide: The Battle of Verdun.) 



FIRST DAY 

FROM VERDUN TO COMMERCY 

Leave Verdun by the Rue de I'Hdtelde-Ville, Rue St. Sauveur, Rite and Gate 
of St. Victor {photo below} and N. 3. 

Ten kilometres down this road, Rozellier Fort will be seen on the left. One 
kilometre further on, take the strategic l.C. 3. also known as Caloiinc Trench, 
on the risht. 




VERDUN — ST. VICTOR S GATE 
(From the Michelin Guide: The Battle of Verdun.) 



24 




CALONNE TRENCH 

French Post of Commandment on the left, about 200 yds. before 
the fork In the road to Haudiomont (see sketch map. p. 25). 

Calonne Trench 

This picturesque road eual)les the tourist to follow the phases of the strug- 
gle which took place in the district of l^es Eparges. The road crosses in an 
almost straight line the whole forest of Amblonvllle, Bouchot Wood, and La 
Montague Forest, and comes out about twelve miles further on at the Hattan- 
chatel cross-roads. Formerly this road was used only by poachers, game- 
keepers, and shooting-parties, being a well-known haunt of game. 

Calonne Trench will, in future, evoke more tragic memories. The name 
" Trench " might lead one to suppose that it dates from the Great War, but 
this is not the case. For more than a century the road, cut out of the crest 
of the hills, has borne this name. It was made by order of M. de Calonne, 
-Minister of Finance under Louis XVL, to give access to his chateau at the 
foot of the Meuse hills. This chateau was destroyed during the Revolution. 




CALONNE TRENCH 

The "Ronee" Post of Commandment, i km. after the fork, and 
101) yds. in the 7vood on the left of the road (see sketch map. p. 2^). 



25 




CALONJNE TKENCH 

French Trenches and Observation-Post on the riyltt, before rcachiny the 
to Eparges (sec sketch map, p. 3b). 



road 



It is said that M. de Calonne, hoping some day to cnleiiaiii the king at 
his chateau, had rose-trees planted the whole lengili oi this road. However 
that may be, it is a fact that during the War wild roses were seen in bloom 
all along this forest road, at that time really a '" trench " in the military sense 
of the word. 

The battle-front crossed Calonne Trench a little to the south-west of St. 
Remy, in Bouchot Wood. Both adversaries bondiarded each other and were 
kept constantly on the alert by attacks and counter-attacks. In March, 191.S, 



5.5-in. naval guns with a range of 13,000 yards were placed in 
fire over Les Eparges, behind the enemy lines. 

The marines had great difficulty in bringing these heavy guns 
owing to the slippery, clayey soil. 

Their effective bombardment ir- 
ritated the Germans so much 
that on April 20 they bombarded 
the French lines and, four days 
later, launched a massed attack 
which reached the third line of 
support. 

The marine officers, cut off from 
their base and unable to com- 
municate with the infantry — the 
telephone wires being cut — hastily 
organised defences. They swept 
the ground with the fire of their 
heavies and some 75"s brought up 
by hand, wiiirh (ii)ened at fuse 0. 



position, to 



into action. 




-f Upper photo, p. 
+ 4- Lower photo, p. 



26 




CALONNE TRENCH 

Oh the left: Road to Epargcs (impracticable). 



Meanwhile the Germans continued to advance. On the 25th they were 
within a thousand yards of the guns, and only vestiges of the trenches and 
of the original barbed wire entanglements lay between them and the guns. 
On the 26th, while the marines were preparing a vigorous resistance, two 
l)attalions of French Chasseurs, summoned to reinforce them, crept through 
the brushwood and began a counter-attack. On the 27th, the firing became 
more distant, but the Germans re-formed and renewed the attack on May 5. 
At first they met with some success, but this was quickly changed by the 
intervention of the Moroccan Brigade and six battalions of Chasseurs, who 
retook in a few hours all the ground lost on April 24. 

Calonne Trench enters the forest almost immediately. On both sides of 
the road are numerous engineer and artillery parks, ambulance stations, shel- 
ters, rail-tracks and gun-pits. 

Three kilometres from N. 3 and 
on the left, 200 yards before reaching 
t/ie fork in I.C. 59, which leads to 
Haiidiomont, there is a French Post 
(if Commundment {photo, p. 24); 
fifty yards to the right, beyond the 
fork, a military cemetery ; 1 km. be- 
yond the fork, on the left of the road, 
a hundred yards in the wood, the 
" Bouee " Post of Commandment 
(photo, p. 24) ; 2 km. further on, to 
the left, a French military cemetery. 
Leave the fork of Mont-sous-les- 
+ Photo, p. 2~i. Cotes on the left and follow the road. 

+ + Photo, p. 26. In the " Taillis de Sauls" the 




27 




ROAD FROM CALONNE TREiNCH TO ST. REMY 

German shelters and dug-outs. 

French first lines (trenches, shelters, dug-outs, barbed wire entanglements and 
observation-posts) begin ; on the left, a military cemetery ; on the right, a 
concrete shelter. 

From this point to where the destroyed road to Eparges begins {photo, p. 
26) the forest consists of little more than blackened shell-torn tree-stumps. 

Continue along Calonne Trench which, for 1,500 yards, crosses Senoux Hill. 
Here the spectacle is appalling, especially on the site of the German trenches. 
Bear to the left and take l.C. 13 toivards St. Remy. It is a bad road, but ivith 
care passable. For 2% km. it descends to the Eparges stream. 

All along this road, cut out of the left side of the hill, are concrete shelters, 




ULI.NEU CHLKCll AM) VILLAGE OF ST. REMY 
In the background: Combres Crest (right), Eparges Crest (left). 



28 




THE CHOIR OF ST. REMY CHURCH 

Note the German stone and concrete Gun Shelter. The Germans 
bombarded Eparges from here. 

dug-outs, underground passages, German posts of commandment, and a few 
German graves. 

In the valley, a cross-road is reached, close to the stream. Take the road 
to the right to St. Remy, the ruins of which are seen in the distance. 

Climb up to the church (German graves in the cemetery). Fine extensive 
view across the valley towards Conihres and Eparges. 

In the church, where the altar formerly stood, is a German shelter of stone 
and concrete, which concealed a big gun firing on Eparges (photo above). 

Return to the cross-road and continue along the bottom of the valley (I.C. 54) 







J^-JLt^mi 




i:i'AK(;i:s vh.lace [coming from St. Remy) 
On the right: Montgirmont Hill; on the left: Hures Hill. 



29 




m: 



'^ 



JLLi 



*^ '■'' ^ 



KPARGKS VILLAGE 

The Cemetery is in front of the last house on the right of the road to Tresanz'aii.v. 

to the village of Eparges. The road ciosse? the original Gernian and F'rencli 
front lines. 









(,KM;HAI, VIKVV OF KI'AKGES HEIGHTS, SEEN FROM MONTCIRMONT CREST 

A, 'J'lie ll'oevre ; IB. Trench along Montgirmont Crest (the photo ivas 
taken from here); C, Eparges Crest ; D, Death Ravine ; E, Shelters in the 
sides of Eparges Crest ; F, Trench. 



30 




Go through the village, of which only a few walls remain standing. Numer- 
ous French defence-works, including some of concrete. 

At the last house the road turns to the right in front of a French cemetery, 
and goes towards Tresauvaux, passing bettveen Montgirmont Crest on the right 




DEATH RAVINE (1915) 



31 



-eoWoeyre 
Tresauvaux 




je Combres j^(?rCottibres 



L 



uud Hures Hill on the left i photo, p. 28). All along the trenches, shelters and 
numerous graves. 

At the top of the hill the houses of Tresauvaux come into view. Here leave 
the car and climb the slopes of Montgirmont (trenches, boyaux, etc.), from the 
top of which there is a fine panorama of Eparges on the French side {photo, p. 
29). 

It is a desolate scene. The side of the hill is full of craters and shell- 
holes, forming so many grey patches on the reddish earth on which no vege- 
tation survives. The glorious crest, entirely bare, stands out against the sky. 
Death Ravine, where so many brave men fell in the first assault on Eparges, 
lies between Montgirmont {where the tourist stands) and Eparges. 

Eparges Spur 

Eparges Spur. 1,.500 yards in length and over a thousand feet high, forms 
the end of Woevre Plain. Its sides are steep and slippery, while numerous 
springs and rivulets run down its slopes. It has been rightly called " a moun- 
tain of mud." Eparges Heights form part of a series of hills, among which 
are Hures. Montgirmont. Conibres and St. Remy. Of these, Eparges Crest is 
the most important. By nature an observation-post, its possession enabled 
those who held it to keep all the surrounding roads under gunfire. 

The Germans captured it on .September 21. 1914. and immediately made 
several lines of trenches between the summit and the valleys. At some points, 
five rows of batteries, one above another, were placed, and nowhere were there 
less than two. 

Facing Eparges Crest, the French held the brow of Montgirmont to the 
north, and below, the village of Eparges, only 600 yards from the German 
trenches. Between Montgirmont and the northern slopes of Eparges Heights, 
an earth track crosses the pass between the two hills. It was on the western 
side that, at the end of October, the Fren('h began the attack, sapping step by 
step, while at the same time they slipped into the woods on the north-east, 
which cover the side of the ravine. 

From February onward, attacks and counter-attacks took place almost daily 
and only came to an end early in April, after the French had captured the 
crest. On February 17, the explosion of a mine enabled the French to enter 
the west sector of the enemy's first line. Attacks and counter-attacks con- 
tinued for five days, during which Colonel Baccjuet was mortally wounded 
while leading his troops. The French held the whole of the western bastion, 
and began to make progress towards the eastern bastion. From March 13 lo 
21 they renewed their attacks and captured the enemy's first line. 



32 



EPARGES IN 

1915. 

SENTRY IN 
TRENCH 




On March 27, a battalion of Chasseurs made a fresh advance, and on 
April 5 began the last great attack which was to continue day and night until 
the 9th. 

Two regiments attacked in the ruin, but the muddy ground greatly impeded 
their movements, and it seemed at times as if the attack would fail. 

In the evening the French occupied some of the trenches, but the use of 
aerial torpedoes, which pulverized whole rows of men, and a massed counter- 
attack launched at 4.30 on the morning of the 6th. forced them to give up 
part of the ground gained in the first advance. On the evening of the 6th, and 
throughout that night, in spite of the incessant rain, the trenches were retaken 
and the enemy driven back foot by foot, with a loss of 100 prisoners, including 
several officers. The French replied to the German counter-attacks with bay- 
onet charges or barrage fire. The communicating trenches were bombarded, 
levelled, or blocked up. On the 8th, two regiments of infantry and a battalion 
of Chasseurs made a fresh bayonet charge. At 10 o'clock the summit and the 
western crest were strongly held, and by midnight, after fifteen hours of stren- 
uous, uninterrupted figliting, almost the whole of the crest was in the hands 
of the French. 

During the night of the 8th. the relief of the troops was carried out, but 
the ground was so muddy that men sank into it. stumbling and slipping at 
every step. Fourteen hours passed in blinding rainstorms before the fresh 
troops were established in position. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon of the 9th 
the attack was resumed. The ground was full of deep holes in which men 
sometimes disappeared. At the moment when the eastern edge of the plateau 
was reached a cloud of fog descended over the crest. Firing was out of the 
question. The Germans counter-attacked and forced the French to retreat 
momentarily, but half an hour later the French retook the lost ground in a 
furious charge, and by 10 o'clock at night held the whole of the Eparges 
Heights. Only Combres Hill, threatened by the machine guns of Eparges and 
St. Remy, remained in the hands of the Germans. 

The enemy had left nothing undone to put the position in a state of defence. 
Their cave-shelters contained a narrow-gauge railway, sleeping quarters, and 



33 




EPARGES IN 
1915. 
POST OF 
COMMANDMENT 
IN THE SIDE 
OF THE CKEST 



even an officers' club. Their relief reinforcements were concealed from the 
French, while their cannon and machine-guns were unceasingly turned on the 
muddy slopes up which the French laboriously climbed. Unwounded men were 
drowned in the mud. while many of the wounded could not be rescued in time 
from the quagmires into which they had fallen. 

The victory of Eparges has been described as '' a work of giants." But it 
was a costly victory. Most of the officers and thousands of men fell. The 
German losses were at least as heavy as those of the French. 

Return to the Tresauvaux road. The village of Tresauvaux, the ruins of 
which were organised militarily by the French {photo, p. 34), is reached shortly 
afterwards. 



iJT 




EPARGES IN 1915 

Making rings at the entrance to a dug-out during a lull. 



34 




TKI>\I \AI \ VILLAGE 




Folloif I. C. 54 to Fresnes-en-Woevre, the 
houses of which are seen in the distance. 
Go through the ruined village i photos, p. 35), 
The statue of General Margueritte has been 
severely damaged, while the church is entirely 
in ruins. 

Leaving Fresnes, take the Manheulles road 
iC.C.D. 7) on the left, which joins N. 3, 2% 
Lnis. further on. 

Continue as far as Manheulles, ivhere 
there are numerous military ivorks, includ- 




THE SQUARE, TRESAUVAUX, IN 1915 



35 



I 







FRESNES-F.N-WOEVRE CHURCH. AUG. 11, 1915 




FRESNES-Ex\-VVOEVRE. MUTILATtU slATUE UF GEN. MARGIKKITTE 





GERMAN l-OST UF COM V] AiNUMKiN T AT EiNTRAfvCE TO 
MANHEULLES VILLAGE (see p. 36) 



36 




MANHEULLES. THE MAIN STREET 

ing concrete blockhouses and a German post of commandment established in 
the first house on the right at the entrance to the village. The ground-floor 
of this house, which appears to be an absolute ruin, is lined throughout with 
concrete {photo p. 35). Several concrete shelters have been added outside, 
on the front facing Woevre Plain. 

At the cross-roads, in the middle of the village, stands a machine-gun block- 
house, built of concrete {photo below). 

From Manheulles return to Fresnes-en-W oevre. 

Take G.C.D. 10, which passes through the villages of Champion and Hannon- 
ville (severely damaged), Thillot, St. Maurice and Billy. Leave the village of 
Vieville on the right and, 500 yards further on, take the road which leads up a 
steep slope to Hattonchatel. 




MAMIEULLES 

German Machine-Gun Blockhouse of concrete, in the middle of 
the village, on left of the road. 



37 




HATTOlNCHATEL CHURCH AND CLOISTER 



Hattonchatel 

Hattonchatel stands on one of the promontories of the chain of hills which 
stretches from Verdun to Toul and which separates the Valley of the Meuse 
from the Plains of the Woevre. It derives its name from a castle built in 
the 9th century by Hatton. Bishop of Verdun. The 
fortress has long been demolished. The church, erected 
as a collegiate in 1328. but united with the Collegiate 
Church of Apremont in 1707, remained standing until 
1914. Since then it has been damaged by bombard- 
ments, especially the apse and north aisle. The little 
13th century cloister, crossed by a public road, has 
suffered relatively little damage. 

The church contained the tomb of G. de Harau- 
court, Bishop of Verdun (16th century), and a remark- 
able altar piece. They were carried off by the Germans, 
but it is hoped that they will be returned. 

The altar-screen, dating from 1523. is the earliest work attributed to 





HATTONCHATKI. CLOISTER 



38 




CELEBRATED ALTAR-SCREEN, BY LIOIER RICHIER. STOLEN BY THE 
GERMANS FROM THE CHIRCH OF HATTONCHATEL 



Ligier Richier (see p. 57). It rested on a marble altar shaped like an antique 
tomb. 

This altar-screen, the projecting paris of which were of gold on a blue 
background, is divided into three sections, separated by pilasters with finely 
moulded bases. 

On the central keystone, in the shape of a shield, are the arms of Duke 
Antoine of Lorraine. Two medallions between the archivolt and the first 
projection of the coping represent St. Peter and St. Paul. 

The subjects of the three groups are: on the left, the Carrying of the 
Cross; Christ, in a long flowing robe, is in the centre, while behind Him stands 
Simon the Cyrenian wearing a pointed cap with turned-up edges ; around 
stands a group of three women, two of whom are easily recognized — Mary 
Magdalene with long hair falling over her shoulders, and Veronica holding the 
Cloth of the Holy Face. Two executioners complete the scene. 

In the centre of the altar-screen is The Crucifixion. In the foreground 
is the swooning Virgin supported by St. John. Kneeling at the foot of the 
Cross is Mary Magdalene, and opposite her, Stephaton holding the long reed 
with a sponge dipped in vinegar. Lastly come the three soldiers of Pilate, one 
of whom carries the spear which pierced Christ's side. On a pennant held by 
the second soldier are inscribed the words which affirm the divinity of Christ: 
" Vere hie homo filius Dei erat." 

The third section of the altar-screen represents the Burial Scene. In the 
background is a bishop wearing a mitre, and kneeling at his feet a priest in a 
surplice. According to custom, the sculptor has here represented the donor, 
doubtless Gaucher or Gauthier Richeret, Dean of the Collegiate Church, whose 



39 




THE OLD 

GUARD HOUSE OF 

HATTONCHATEL 

{before the War) 



initials. '' G. R.," frame the blazoned shield. The bishop is St. Maur, Bishop 
of Verdun, whose relics belonged to the Collegiate Church. 

Unfortunate restorations were carried out in 1764 by Cellier Delatour, 
whose name appears on the background of the third picture. The date of the 
work C'a.d. 1.000.500.23."). is inscribed on each of the curtains of the four 
pilasters which surround it. 

The 18th century pulpit is almost intact. 

Behind the church there is a fine view over the Heights of the Meuse towards 
Apremont. 

In the village square is the old guard-house with an arcade, and some old 
houses, most of which are uninhabitable. 

At the end of the village, in tlie direction of Hattonville. are the ruins of 




ENTRANCE 
To A 

TUNNEL IN 
THE OLD 
CHATEAU 

(since 

destroyed b\ 
fire) 



the old chateau. The cellars serveil as homlj-proof shelters, the walls being 
several yards thick. 

From the terrace of the chateau is seen the immense Plain of Woevre — 
partly occupied by the Germans from September, 1914. 

The Woevre Plain 

The Woevre forms a district by itself, geologically rather than geograph- 
ically, and corresponds approximately to the " pays vabrensis " of the Mero- 
vingians. It lies between the Heights of the Meuse and Moselle. The soil of 
marl and clay becomes a slough after rain, and numerous pools and hidden 
sheets of water, known locally as " gorittis,"' " noues," or " cracheltesj' make 
the ground slippery and treacherous. 

Here may be followed step by step the stages of the Franco-American 
offensive of September, 1918 (see pp. 18-20), which reduced the whole salient 
of St. Mihiel, and advanced the lines several kilometres to the outworks of the 
Forts of Metz, thus placing the Allied forces in strong positions in readiness 
for the new offensive planned for November 16, which the signing of the 




H 



VIGNEULLES 

Entrance to concrete shelter near the Church, at the side of the road. 



Armistice on November 11 prevented from being carried out to overwhelming 
victory. 

After visiting Hattonhdtel, proceed to VigneuUes by a road which de- 
scribes a large loop. 

Leaving Hattonchdtel, a German cemetery ivill be seen on the left, beside the 
village cemetery. 

VigneuUes is a country town of considerable importance, built on the western 
fringe of the Woevre Plain, at the foot of the chain of hills which separates 
the latter from the Valley of the Meuse. In the original plan of mobilisation 
it was to be the main French Headquarters. 

Numerous houses have been destroyed. 

From VigneuUes to St. Mihiel there is a choice of two roads : one, direct, 
via Chaillon (Itinerary A, p. 41 ) ; the other, less direct, passes through Apre- 
mont, Brule Wood and Ailly Wood, and is much more interesting {Itinerary B, 
p. 42). 



41 

A. — From Vigneulles to St. Mihiel, via Chaillon 

At Vigneulles take G.C.D. 10 on the left, 100 yards from the church, and 
follow it for about 500 yards, then take G.C. 9 on the right, which passes, 
through the village of Creiie. 

The woods which rise above the village form a kind of curtain, and the 
Germans, well aware of its importance (the Grand French Manoeuvres of 1891 
had taken place in this district ) , seized it at the end of September, 1914, and 
later built a light railway which formed their main line of communication with 
St. Mihiel. Hidden in this recess, the railway escaped observation and was 
worked, with but little damage, throughout the war. 

Leaving Creiie, the road folloivs the valley through which runs the Creiie 
Brook. 

Before entering Chaillon, the tourist passes a German cemetery on the right. 
Many of the houses in this village, as well as the church, were destroyed. 




GERMAN CEMETERY 

This cemetery is m Moiiton li'ood, betzveeii Chaillon and St. Mihiel, on the left 
of the road when going toivards St. Mihiel. One of the monuments represents 
a lion on a pedestal. 



After Chaillon the road turns to the right and continues to follow the valley 
as far as the crossing of I.C. 62. It there climbs to the plateau, leaving the 
valley, which continues to the right in the direction of Spada. This valley is the 
only one which crosses the Heights of the Meuse in their entire width, uniting 
the Plain of Woevre with the river. It is the " Spada Pass," of inmiense 
strategical importance. 

At the top of the slope the wood is entered just beyond a military cemetery, 
200 yards to the left of the road. Cross Mouton Wood, dotted with German 
graves, shelters, cantonments, etc. 

Leaving the Varvinay road on the left, a 100 yards further on the tourist 
comes to a German cemetery by the roadside, with several monuments, one of 
which represents a lion on a large pedestal. 

Follow the road as far as St. Mihiel. 



42 



GERMAN 

SHELTER ON 

THE ROAD 

FROM 

VIGNEULLES 

TO 

IlEUDICOURT 

4 km. from 
the latter. 




B. — From Vigneulles to St. Mihiel. via Apremont, Brule Wood 
and Ailly Wood 

At Vigneulles, 100 yards from the church, take G.C.D. 10 to the left, in the 
direction of Heudicourt. 

One kilometre from I igneulles are several large concrete shelters to the 
right and left of the road. Creiie Wood, seen on the left of the road, 2 km. 
further on, is full of German defence works. 

The greatly damaged village of Heudicourt is next reached. Numerous 
houses were destroyed by fire. Beside the cemetery is a German cemetery. On 
leaving the village there is a stone and concrete blockhouse. 

Beyond Heudicourt, the road passes through Buxieres (ruined houses) ; 
Buxerulles (slightly damaged), containing German cemetery; Woinville 
(German cemetery with a monument in the middle (see photo below), on the 



WOINVILLE 

German 

monument 

at entrance 

to village. 

on the right. 

coming from 

Heudicourt. 




43 




APREMOiM. RIINS OF VILLAGE AND CHURCH 

right, before entering the village, and a roofless church) ; Varneville, entirely 
in ruins. Leaving the village, the tourist passes several concrete shelters and 
blockhouses. 

One and a half kilometres from \ arneville, G.C.D. 10, crosses G.C.D. I bis. 
Take the latter to the right towards Apremont. 800 yards from the fork, after 
crossing a bridge over the stream, the village of Apremont i.s reached. 

Immediately after the bridge there is a very comfortable shelter of stone, 
cement and logs in a garden, behind a house on the right [the least damaged in 
the village ) . 

Apremont is entirely in ruins. Of the church, only a few broken walls 
remain. In the Rue de VEglise, fifty yards from the church, to the left, near the 




APREMONT 

Shelter, 
on the left 
before crossing 
stream, going 
toivards 
Uoiiconville. 



44 




end of the village, is a large concrete shelter, on the wall of which a German 
machhie-gun has been carved (see photo above). 

Apremont was a very important place during the war. At this point the 
road from St. Mihiel to Flirey and Pont-a-Mousson crosses the Vigneulles 
road, along which the tourist has just come, and which, beyond Apremont, 
goes down to Fort Gironville after skirting Fort Liouville on the right. 

G.C.D. 1 bis, tains to the right in the village, then mounts a steep slope 
totvards Brule Wood. 




END OF API!1;MI)NT VI1,I.A(,I:, (,0I,\G TflVVAKllN ST. MIHIEL 

On the right: a Michelin sign; in the background : Hill and Fort of Gironville, 
Reine Forest and Vignot Wood. 



4S 



APREMONT 

The road to 
St. Mihiel. 




One kilometre beyond Aprcmont. in a quarry on the left of the road, the 
Germans built a veritable village in concrete and cement, with deep shelters 
under the rocks. Terraces and flowering plants ornament the houses. The 
rooms are decorated with carved woodwork and tapestry. The furniture was 
either taken from the surrounding villages or made in rustic style (see photo 
belotv) . At the top of this camp, beyond the terrace of the Officers' Mess, a 
cement staircase leads to a concrete trench which dominates the position in 
Briile Wood. The latter is furrowed with numerous German defence works. 




ON THE ROAD TO ST. MIHIEL, 1 KM. FROM APREMONT 

German village built in the side of the quarries and occupied by the General 
commanding the sector. Above: Briile Wood. 



46 



n the german 

village of 

brul6 wood 

American 

soldier looking 

at Insiania 

of the 

jSth Engineers. 




Brule Wood 

Lying almost on the edge of the Forest of Apremont, Brule Wood com- 
manded the cross-roads on which the village of Apremont stands. 

The German trenches were only fifty yards from the French lines at this 
point. For months, bombs, grenades and rockets made an inferno of the place. 
The proximity of the respective lines required the utmost precautions, constant 




AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN GERMAN VILLAGE OF BRULE WOOD 



47 




flfarhoite} 



watching and listening, with finger on tlie trigger of the rifle, absolute silence, 
no sleep and no smoking (smoking might give an objective to the bombers). 
The nervous tension was so great that tlie average stay of a battalion was only 
eight days. 

Brule Wood was the scene of the sublime rallying call " Debout les Moris " 
(Stand up, ye Dead!) — see beloiv. 

While early in April, 1915. important attacks were taking place in Ailly 
Wood, the 95th Infantry Regiment was ordered to create a diversion in Brule 
Wood. On April 5, 6 and 8 bloody fights took place for the possession of a 
trench. On the morning of the 8th the captured trench was consolidated, and 
the attacking troops relieved and sent in reserve to the second line. 

-Suddenly a strong German coiinler-attack was launched. The new occu- 
pants were thrown into confusion and. seized with panic, retreated through 




(;F.RMAN BLOCKHOISI-; AT TETK-A-VACHE 



48 




FRENCH FIRST LINES AT TETE-A-VACHE 



the trenches, when Adjutant Jacques Pericard, who had taken part in the action 
the day before but was now in reserve, called for volunteers from his company 
to face the enemy. The trench was retaken after a prolonged and terrible 
struggle, in the course of which Pericard, feeling his men wavering and seeing 
only dead and wounded around, cried " Debouts les Morts." 

Continue up the road. Near the crest on the left, in a quarry, are several 
concrete defence works which communicate with one another. 

The crossing of Strategic I.C. 3 is next reached. Here leave the car and 
take the road to the left towards Marbotte. 400 yards further on the German 



GERMAN 
POST OF 
COMMAND- 
MENT ON 
THE ROAD 
TO ST. MIHIEL, 
AT THE FOOT 
OF HILL 362. 



? 




49 







GERMAN 

BLOCKHOUSE 

ON THE ROAD 

TO 

ST. MIHIEL, 

about 
,')o yds. 
from Hill J62. 








first-line trenches, built entirely in concrete with numerous shelters and block- 
houses, are reached. This is the crest of the " Tete-a-Vache " position, which 
for so long formed a salient in the French lines. All the soldiers knew it 
because, when passing through the trenches on a level with this salient, it was 
necessary to stoop to avoid being seen by an obsei'ver at his loop-hole. Woe to 
the curious or the careless who risked walking upright past this point ! The 
ever-ready automatic spoke at once. 

A 100 yards beyond are the French first-line trenches (equipments and 
soldiers' graves I . All the ground here is torn up, and the woods are completely 
destroyed. 

Return to G.C.D. 1 bis, and follow it in the direction of St. Mihiel. All 
along the road are numerous military works of all kinds, especially across Ailly 
Wood. 




MILITAKV K|TCHi:\ IN AIt.LY WOOD, 1915 



50 




Ailly Wood 

Ailly Wood covers the brow of the hill, the ■southern slopes of which descend 
steeply towards a ravine. 

Here the attacks took place which, between April 5 and 13, 1915, gave the 
French definite mastery of the position. The Germans held one corner of 
the wood a;id the outskirts at the foot of the slopes. The French trenches 
followed the ravine, mounted half-way up the unwooded part of the hill, 




GERMAN TRENCH UNDER THE APREMONT-ST. MIHIEL ROAD 



51 

and ran alongside the wood. The entrenchment, known as the " Le Fortin," 
was in the corner. In the wood the German trenches rose in three tiers, linked 
together by narrow trenches. At certain points the Germans had constructed 
" chevaux-de-frise" twelve yards deep by two yards high. 

The bombardment began on the morning of the 5th. The 7.5's opened 
breaches in the defences, and the observers, who were only 130 yards from the 
enemy line, gave accurate directions to the gunners. In their turn, 6-in. 
shells crushed the machine-gun emplacements, and at mid-day the explosion 




IN AILLY WOOD 
German Post »f Commandment at the side of the road, A km. from St. Mihicl. 



of five mine-fields annihilated the garrison and threw the enemy into a panic. 
A bayonet-attack was launched at once, wltiiout the firing of a single 
shot. 

Two companies attacked on the western side of the wood, two others on 
the southern side. 

The attack on the west was successful and, going bcNond the third German 
line, reached the northern fringe of the wood. The machine-gunners, who 
followed the advance, at once took up their positions. 

The attack on the south, after tiic llisi rush forward, was forced to with- 
draw slightly before an enfilading fiir. \\ three o'clock in the afternoon 
the German artillery thundered ; at bmr o\lock a counter-attack was launched 



52 

but failed ; and at 5.30 the Germans tried to retake the lost ground by a 
terrific bombardment. In an hour and a half, on a front of 360 yards, 
twenty thousand shells of all sizes (4-in., 5.5-in., 6-in. and 8-in.) cut the French 
lines of communication, but failed to force a retreat. The attack was resumed 
next day. but in the evening, after fierce hand-to-hand fighting, the French 
still held the three lines of German trenches. On the 7th and 8th they 
repulsed eight counter-attacks, which left the shell-leveled ground in their 
hands. 

On the 10th, after an artillery preparation lasting all day, a fresh attack 




IN AILLY WOOD SECTOK 
German Dcfcncc-lVorks in quarry by roadside, i km. from St. Mihiel. 



was launched at seven o'clock in the evening. The whole of the wood was 
quickly occupied and immediately consolidated, in view of counter-attack. Five 
machine-guns, five trench-mortars, thousands of grenades and large quantities 
of equipment and stores, were left in the hands of the French. 

From that time scarcely a month passed without some communique stating 
that the Germans had bombarded or counter-attacked Ailly Wood. 

St. Mihiel is entered via the Faubourg de Nancy, in which are the burnt 
ruins of the Senarmont Barracks. 

Follow the Rue Porte-d-Nancy, then the Rue Grande, as far as the Rue de 
I'Eglise, into tvhich turn to the left to reach the Church of St. Etienne, 



53 

St. Mihiel during the War 

On September 24, 1914, St. Mihiel was taken by the Germans, who held 
it until September 12, 1918. 

Up to the latter date only one attempt was made to retake the town — 
the attack of November 17-20, 1914, during which a French unit succeeded in 
occupying the suburb of Chauvoncourt, but was forced to retire as the Germans 
had mined this section. 

The Franco-American offensive of September, 1918, finally cleared 
St. Mihiel. 

General Pershing, in the disposition of his forces, generously arranged that 



Casernes de Chauvoncourt 

I Lacr01X-sur^MeiL_ 



- y} ,^ ^'~- _.^ ■>, .• '•i. , , .^. •..■•'. Bins Gobiisard 



kA.h 







> '# 



el' 



\,>'rt"' 



"' ^.*''/ yy\arhoUn.'^%?g^^ 






PANORAMIC SKETCH OF THE ST. MIHIEL REGION, SHOWING THE FRONT-LINE 
UNTIL SEPT. 12, 1918 



a French regiment, the 25th Colonial, should have the honour of being the first 
to enter St. Mihiel. The Prime Minister's son, Captain Michel Clemenceau, 
was among those who marched into the town. 

On the whole the town had suffered little. The bridges had been blown 
up, trenches cut up the streets, and a German narrow-gauge railway ran 
through the town. The monument of 1870, " Aux Marts pour la Fatrie" was 
damaged. As everywhere else, all copper had been removed, the machinery 
had disappeared or had been broken, while the optical-glass factory and the 
copper foundry had ceased to exist. 

On Friday, September 13, General Pershing, accompanied by General Petain 
and Mr. Baker, American Secretary of State for War, visited St. Mihiel. The 
next day President Poincare, in his turn, paid homage to the valiant city. 



54 

Little hy little, wlieii llie first excilemeiU was over, the inhabitants told 
the story of the occiiiiatiiiii ; ol the war hnies imposed by the Germans, as 
in every town which tiit'\ luul lucuiiicil ; first a million francs in 1914, when 
the commandeering without payment or vouchers ; the fines (20 francs for 
omitting to salute an officer i ; children forced to work in the trenches ; people 
sent to prison, and even to the convict prison on the slightest pretext ; an 
abbe deported as a hostage because he had said in a sermon, " After the thorns 
will come the roses : " a whole family placed in solitary confinement for forty 
days because they were suspected of having telephoned to the French, etc., 




ST. MIHIEL DELIVERED 

Group of children in French Officers' Car on Sept. IJ. igrS. 



not to mention the systematic looting and removal of objects of art, pictures 
and silver. 

On Tuesday, the 10th, the Germans, knowing the attack was imminent, 
made their final preparations for departure. On the 11th they ordered the 
inhabitants, on pain of death, to remain indoors until noon on the following 
day. 

During the night of the 11th they blew up the bridges and removed their 
guns. On the morning of the 12th the French entered the town. 

Several days later the American Headijuarters which, until then, had been 
at Souilly, on the road from Verdun to Bar-le-Duc, moved into St. Mihiel. 



5S 



A VISIT TO ST. MIHIEL 

ITINERARY 

Enter the toivn via the Faubourg de Naucy and the Rue Porte-a-Nancy (1). 
St. Etienne Church (A); Place Ligier-Richier (4); H6tel-de-Ville (Hi; Rue 
Porte-a-Metz (6) ; Promenade des Capucins ; Les Sept-Roches. 

Cross the Meuse by the temporary bridge (14), Chauvoncourt. and Paroches 
Fort. 

Return to St. Mihiel by the temporary bridge. Place des Halles (17) ; Place 
du College (20) ; Church of St. Michel' (B) ; and Hotel de la Division. 

Leave St. Mihiel by the Commercy road. 



(^ (A) '^^liP'Erz 63 

SEPT9'|i """ 




THE STREETS TO BE FOLLOWED ARE SHOWN BY THICK BLACK LINES 



Plan of St. Mihiel 



Arbitrary Signs 



A.- 
B.- 
C.^ 
CC- 
("S.- 
H. 
J.- 
O. 

1. 
2.- 
3.- 
4.- 
5.- 
6.- 



-St. Ktifiine Churcli. 
-St. Michel Church. 
-Cavalry Barracks. 
-Chauvoncourt Barracks 
-Senarmont Barracks. 
-H6teI-(ie-VilIc. 
-Palais fie Justice. 
-Octrois. 

-Rue Porte-a-Nancy. 
-Rue Grande. 
-Rue de I'Eglise. 
-Place Ligicr-Richicr. 
-Rue de la Vaux. 
-Rue Porte-a-Metz. 



7. — Kuc Carnot. 

S. — Rue du General Blaise. 

9. -Rue Haute des Fosses. 
10. — Rue des Annonciades. 
1 1. — Avenue des Roches. 
12. -Place du Marchc. 
1.?. — Place du Manege. 
14. — Temporary Bridge. 
IS. — Destroyed Bridge. 
16.^Rue du Saulcy. 
17. — Place des Halles. 
18. — Rue du Pont 
ly. — Rue Notre-Dame. 
20. — Place du College. 
21. — Place aux Moines. 



S6 








THE "sepulchre," by Ligier Richier, i.n st. LiiLA.Mi's church 

Starting point: The Church of St. Etienne. 

The Church of St. Etienne, often called the " Eglise du Bburg," contains 
several remarkable Renaissance sculptures, chief among which are a bas-relief 
in St. Joseplr's Chapel {photo, p. 58), a large reredos behind the high altar 
{photo, p. 58), and above all, in the central bay of the south aisle, behind 
a railing {photo, p. 57) in a sort of grotto or crypt, the chef-d'oeuvre of Ligier 
Richier, commonly known by the incorrect title of the "Sepulchre of 
St. Mihiel." 

The "Sepulchre," by Ligier Richier 

This comprises a group of thirteen figures, rather more than life size, 
executed between 1554 and 1564, and placed after Richier's death in the 
church, where it stands to-day {photo above). 

The figures are arranged as follows : on the left, Salome lays in the coffin, 
the shroud which is to enwrap Christ, while two disciples, Joseph and Nico- 
demus, carrying the body of their Divine Master, stand in the foreground. 
Nicodemus carries the body by the shoulders, while the unsupported head 
rests against his arm. Joseph of Arimathaea, one knee on the ground, 
supports the legs of Our Lord. Near him Mary Magdalene helps to carry 
the feet, which she touches with her lips. In the background the Virgin, 
leaning on St. John, and Mary, the wife of Cleophas, turn a last look on 
Christ. 

Between Mary, the wife of Cleophas, and Salome, stands an angel bearing 
the Cross — an unfounded tradition says that this is a portrait of the artist. 

On the right of the central group, and next to Nicodemus, a woman, often 
called Veronica, carries the crown of thorns. Behind her, in the background, 
two men-at-arms are casting lots for the seamless coat. At the other end, on 
the right, a Roman officer, often, without justification, called the Centurion, 
is seated on a shield with a sword in his left hand. He is the captain of the 
guard in charge of the tomb. 

This is a strong, touching work by a French master-sculptor, who had not 
yet come under Italian influence and methods. 



57 




THE RAILING OF LIGIER RICHIER's " SEPULCHRE " 



Ligier Richier 

Numerous legends surround the life of the " Master of St. Mihiel." The 
only son of Jean Richier. a master-sculptor, he was born at St. Mihiel about 
1500. Brought up as a Catholic, he was converted to Calvinism about 1560. 
There is a legend that Michael Angelo came to St. Mihiel, admired the work 
of the boy Ligier Richier, and took him to Rome ; but it is known that Michael 
Angelo never visited Lorraine. 

Ligier Richier, not being able to carry out his commissions single-handed, 
gathered around him apprentices and companions, who have been called 
his brothers. It is true that he had a son (Gerald) in 1534, and that the 
latter worked in his father's studio, and had in his turn five sons, also sculptors, 
who settled in Nancy, Metz, Lyons and Grenoble. In 1764, in consequence 
of the persecution of the Protestants, he settled in Geneva, where he died 
about 1567. 

Numerous groups of sacred figures, scattered over this district, attest the 
happy skill of Ligier Richier : a reredos of many-coloured stone in the church 
at Hattonchatel (p. 38) ; Christ Crucified between the Virgin and St. John, 
in the church at Genicourt, on the road from Verdun to St. Mihiel ; Group of 
Notre Dame de-Pitie, in the Sacre-Coeur Chapel of the church at Etain ; a 



58 



tl'Ti'j >t r« »f iM »' 















ST. ETIENNE S CHURCH 

Renaissajicc Bas-rclicf in St. Joseph's Chapel. 

Calvary (six statues of wood variously coloured) in the chapel of the new 
cemetery at Briey ; a large Christ carrying the Cross in the Chapel of 
Notre-Dame-de-Pitie in tlie Church of St. Laurent, at Pont-a-Mousson (p. 92) ; 
and lastly, in St. Mihiel itself, two of his masterpieces : " The Swooning 
Virgin," in the cliurcli of St. Mihiel (p. 67) and the important group, "The 
Sepulchre" in tlic (ihurch of St. Etienne (p. 561. 




.ST. ETIENNE S CHURCH 
Renaissance Reredos in the Choir. 



59 




ST. MIHIEL. LIGIER-RICHIER SQUARE 

After visiting the Church of St. Etienne take on the right the Rue de VEglise, 
at No. 3, of ivhich there is a ciirimic old house. 

.Folloiv the continiKitiiin of thi Riif de FEglise i Rue du General Audeoud), 
which leads to the Place Ligier-Richier. 

The statue of Ligier Richier used to stand in the centre of this Place. It 
was removed by the Germans during the occupation. 

At the left-hand corner of the Place take the Rue de la f aux. On the right 
of the street is the 17th century Hotel-de-Ville, at the corner of the 
Rue Porte-d-Metz. On the left of the Rue Porte-d-Metz, stairs lead to the public 




ST. MIHIEL TOWN HALL 



60 




>i'-iav/',>.,^ieiM« 



MONUMENT IN GERMAN CEMETKUV (see bi'lojv) 

garden called " La Promenade des Capueins," which overlooks the town and 
the valley of the Meuse (fine panorama) . 

If the tourist enters St. Mihiel by the Rue Porte-d-Metz, he will see a large 
cemetery containing more than two thousand granite monuments, opposite the 
first houses of the town. Over six thousand Germans were buried there, killed 
for the most part during 1915, and a few in 1916. 

No Frenchman, soldier or civilian, has been buried in this cemetery. 

The cemetery can also be reached by returning along the Rue Porte-d-Metz 
as far as the last houses. 




GERMAN CEMETERY AT THE PORTE-A-METZ ENTRANCE TO ST. MIHIEL (see aboVC) 



61 




THE " MAISON AUX BOEUFS " 
(No. 3, Rue dc la Vaux.) 

Return to the Rue de la Vaux, ivhich take on the right. 

At No. 3, on the right, is an old Renaissance house with curious gargoyles ; 
and at No. 2, opposite, a curious old house. 

At the beginning of Rue Carnot, which is a continuation of Rue de la Vaux, 
see the 16th century house called " Du Narrateur," at No. 36. 

Opposite this house, take the terraced Rue du General Blaise (old house at 
No. 30). 

Folloiv its continuation i Rue Haute des Fosses), at No. 7 of ivhich is Ligier 
Richier's house. 

Take the Rue des Annonciades as far as the Avenue des Roches, which leads 
to the "Seven Rocks," situated at the gates of the town (see p. 62) . 




KENAISSANCE HOUSE 
{Nq. 36, Rue Cc^rnot.) 



62 



The Seven Rocks 

On the edge of the Verdun road, wliich is an extension of the Avenue 
dcs Roches, and overhanging the Meuse just beyond the town, rise seven rocks, 
known as the " Cliffs of St. Mihiel." 

In the first, surmounted by a stone cross, a grotto has been liollowed out, 
containing a tomb in which lies a great stone Christ. A 
staircase in the rock gives easy access to it. 

This calvary is a place of pilgrimage on Good Friday. 
The sixth rock, worn away by water, resembles a gigantic 
mushroom and is called the " Devil's Table." 

These rocks are represented in the St. Mihiel coat of 
arms, which is : " Tlnee rocks argent on an azure field, 
two in chief and one in pile." 

Across the intervening wooded slopes are seen the large 
Iniihlings of the old Benedictine Abbey of St. Michel, of 
which the name St. Mihiel is a corruption. 

Founded in 709 on a site known to-day as St. Chris- 
topher's Farm, in Vieux-Moutier Wood, it was transferred 
in 819 to the village of Godinecourt, which then took the 
name of St. Michel or St. Mihiel. It was closed in 1791. 

A romanesque tower, dating from about 1060. dominates the abbey. 




THE COAT OF 

ARMS OF ST. 

MIHIEL 

Three rocks argent 
on an asure field, 
tzvo in chief, and 
one in pile. 




DESTROYED BRIDGE OVER THE MEUSE 



Return by the Avenue des Roches to the market ; behind the latter, take the 
Place du Manege, which leads to the temporary bridge across the Meuse. 

Cross the bridge and take G.C.D. 1, which passes through the suburb of 
Chauvoncourt. 



63 



Chauvoncourt 



Chauvoncouit. occupied by the Germans from the beginning of their 
advance in September. 1914, was an important bridgehead which the French 
had an interest in retaking. Its capture and subsequent evacuation (November 
16-18) are famous. 

In the evening of November 16, French heavy batteries took up their 
position at Fresnes-au-Mont, on the left bank of the Meuse, five miles from 
St. Mihiel; but before attacking, the German howitzers on the Paroches 
position had been destroyed. 

The bombardment began at dead of night. Four hundred shells fell on 
the enemy, causing the Bavarian ammunition dump to explode. At dawn, 
French infantry, massed in the peninsula of Les Romains, crossed the Meuse on 
a pontoon bridge, whilst the cavalry on the Fresnes road threatened Chauvon- 
court from the west. By ten o'clock the infantiy were in sight of the village. 
The Bavarians advanced by successive rushes — at each of which they fired 
a salvo — then halted behind a little glen. The fight became a fusilade, and 
would have continued indefinitely but for the arrival of the French dragoons, 
who, with lances fixed, charged furiously. The enemy, afraid of being cut off, 
retreated, followed by the cavalry, who began the siege of the houses. Every 
window, door and roof sheltered a Bavarian marksman. All day on the 17th 
the fighting continued in favour of the French, who by night occupied the 
western part of Chauvoncourt and slept in a French barracks. On the left 
bank of the Meuse the Germans, two hundred of whom had surrendered, now 
occupied only a few ruined houses. 

But at five o'clock on the morning of the 18th an explosion was heard. At 
the end of the main street three houses, luckily unoccupied, had been 
wrecked. Orders were at once given to evacuate the occupied portion of the 
town, which proved to be a wise precaution, for at eight o'clock the whole south- 
west portion blew up. over an area of four acres. No soldiers were killed, but 
civilians, who stayed on in spite of orders to the contrary, were victims of 
their own imprudence. 

Trenches and shelters are to be seen all along the road. 




RUINS OF CHAUVONCOURT BARRACKS 



64 



Paroches Church 



" Seven Rocks " 



St. Mihiel 




PANORAMIC VIEW OF ST. MIHIEL AND THE VALLEY OF THE MEUSl 




Leaving Chauvon- 
court, take to the 
right G.C. 34, which 
leads to Paroches. 

The village of 
Paroches is an ab- 
solute ruin. The 14th 
century church, with 
the exception of part 
of the belfry, has 
been almost entirely 
destroyed {photo op- 
posite). 

At the end of the 
village, on the right, 
near the Calvary and 
skirting the wall of 
the last house, there 
is a military ceme- 
tery. Take, on the 



PAPOCHES VILLAGE CHURCH 



65 



omenade Chauvoncourt 

des between 

apucins dotted lines 



Road to Bar-le-Duc, 
crossed by trenches 



Camp des Romains 
Fort 




EN FROM THE TOP OF PAROCHES FORT 



left, the narrotv road 
to Fort Paroches. 

Around the fort are 
numerous defence 

works and the graves 
of French soldiers. 

Paroches Fort, 
liuill to jirotect thr 
approaches to Spaihi 
Pass, which Troyuii 
Fort defended on tin 
north, is an ohi 
masonry fort. Visii 
the shelters, inm i 
works in concrete. 

From the sumnni 
there is a fine sweeji 
ing view (panorama 
above) over the 




ENTRANCE TO PAROCHES FORT 



66 




THE PLACE DES HALLES, ST. MIHIEL 



battlefield, the Valley of the Meuse, St. Mihiel, tiie " Camp des Romains " 
Fort (p. 65), Versel Wood and Spada Pass. 

Return to St. Mihiel by the same road as far as the temporary bridge over 
the Meuse and the Place du Manege. 

From the Place du Manege, take, on the right, the Rue du Sauley, which 
leads to the Place des Holies. 

To the right, on reaching the " Place," is the Rue du Pont, which leads to 
the ruined bridge. Turn to the left, cross the " Place," and take the Rue Notre- 
Dame on the right. 

At No. 1 of this street is a I5th century house ivith a polygonal turret. 
Opposite at No. 2 is a 14th-15th century house, known locally as the " Maison 
du Roi." 




THE MAISON DU ROI 



67 




THE PLACE DU COLLEGE AND CHURCH OF ST. MICHEL 

Folloiv the Rue des Carmes, ivhich is a continuation of the Rue Notre-Dame, 
then the Place des Regrets to the Place du College. 

On the left stands the Church of St. Michel. 

This 17th century church is recognisable by its old Romanesque tower, 
which forms a vestibule in front of the building. It has three naves with 
side-chapels divided into five bays by fluted columns. 

Note the fine organ (photo, p. 68), the pipes of which were removed by the 
Germans. In the Chapel of the Baptismal Fonts is a stone Cupid holding 
skulls. 

The Church of St. Michel mntains one of the finest of Ligier Richier's works. 




THE SACRISTY, CHURCH OF ST. MICHEL 
As the Germans left it. 



68 



THE ORGAN, 
CHURCH OF 
ST. MICHEL 




known as " The Swoon," or '" The Fainting I irgin." It stands to the right of 
the choir in a chapel with a door. 

In the Middle Ages it was customary to represent the Virgin standing in 
contemplation of the wounds of lier Divine Son, as described in the famous 
chant, Stabat Mater Dolorosa. In the 15th century, on the contrary, the 
Virgin was generally represented as described in the Gospel of Nicodemus. 
In Richier's group we see the Virgin, supported by St. John, fainting at the 
foot of the Cross. The extreme simplicity of the work renders it most 
pathetic. 

This work is only a fragment of a much larger group which comprised a 
large Crucifix, and on either side of the Virgin, St. Longin, Mary Magdalene and 




THE HOTEL DE LA DIVISION AND CHEVET OF 
ST. MICHEL CHURCH 



69 




■■ CAMP-DES-ROMAINS FORT 

four angels, each holding a chalice to catch the Saviour's blood. The work was 
in painted walnut, as had been the custom from the Middle Ages, but the 
worm-eaten wood gradually crumbled away. In 1720 the Benedictines man- 
aged to save the crucifix and the group of " The Swoon." The crucifix is sup- 
posed to have been burnt during the Revolution (1792). Now all that remains 
is a moulding of Christ's head. 

Leaving the Church, skirt the front of the adjoining College, and pass under 
the arch of the Palais-de-J ustice, thus reaching the Place des Moines. In 
this square is the fine fagade of the old abbey, restored in the 17th and 18th 
centuries, the buildings of which have been transformed into the Hotel de la 
Division, Palais-de-Justice and prison. Above the latter is the famous mon- 
astic library containing 13,000 volumes and valuable manuscripts. 

Besides the Hotel de la Division is the chevet of St. Michel Church, looking 
on to the square of that name. By turning to the left in the latter, the tourist 
comes back to the Place du College, which cross to take the Conimercy road 
(N. 64). 

On leaving St. Mihiel, N. 64 climbs up a steep slope. A mile from the toivn, 
on the left, is a concrete blockhouse at the corner of the Conimercy road and 
that leading to Fort Camp-des-Romains. Take the latter to the fort. 



Fort of the Camp-des-Romains 

This is one of the two forts which protect St. Mihiel. Standing on the end 
of a narrow peninsula formed by a loop in the Meuse, it dominates the town 
from a height of 4.50 feet above the valley. (The hill itself is 1,200 feet high.) 
It owes its name to the remains of Roman entrenchments, still existing when 
the fort was built. 

When the German Army of Metz occupied St. Mihiel on September 24, 1914, 
and crossed the Meuse, the Fort of the Camp des Romains remained isolated, 
without troops in the plain to defend it, and absolutely dependent on its own 
guns. The Germans left it alone for the time being, confident of being able to 
take it whenever they wished. The 16th Corps hastened to the rescue, but 



70 



POST OF 
CARRIER 
PIGEONS 
AT FORT 
CAMP-DES- 
ROMAINS 



Stopped in front of St. Mihiel. The 
( Germans finally dug themselves in 
ind were able, from a position near 
I lie town, to begin the bombardment 
'f the fort with the aid of Austrian 
heavy guns. 

The guns were very quickly 
placed in position, and in a few 
days they silenced those of the 
French fort, the turrets and bas- 
tions of which were destroyed. In 
the end the heroic garrison were 
smoked out by the enemy, who had 
reached the base of the fort. When 
the surviving defenders, half suf- 
focated, were able to leave the ruins, 
the Germans presented arms as a 
tribute of admiration for their valour, 
and permitted the captured officers 
to retain their swords. 

All this sector, with a few slight 
rlianges, was to remain in the hands 
i>i the Germans until September, 
1918. 

In spite of the terrific gunfire to 
which it was subjected, the fort was not completely destroyed. In the moats 
and on the bastions are numerous concrete blockhouses built by the Germans. 
Near the entrance is the grave of Captain of Artillery Cordebard, killed in 1914. 
From the fort there is a fine view on all sides over the valley of the Meuse 
and the Forest of Apremont. 

Return to N. 64 ivliich descends in. a long zig-zag to the Meuse, which it 
crosses. 

The road passes through Sampigny — considerably battered — where President 
Poincare's country house was completely ruined by the German bombardments. 
It next crosses the railway before entering Vadonville and again on leaving 
that village. 

Lerouville, then Commercy, are soon reached. The night should be spent at 
the latter (see information on the fly-leaf inside cover). 

Commercy is of no particular interest from a picturesque or artistic point of 
view, but its " Madeleine " cakes enjoy a world-wide reputation. 




ENTRANCE 

TO THE 

FORT 




-;^^^^» yy < M^,j 



71 




PRESIUEM rOIN'CAlKE S HOUSE AT SAMPIGNY 




icooj 



Plan of Commercy 



Arbitrary Signs 



A. — Old Chateau, now a Barracks. 

C. — Barracks. 

H.— H6tel-de-Ville. 

O. — Octrois. 

P. — Sous-Prefecture. 

T.— Theatre. 

1.— Place de I'Hotel-de-Ville. 

2. — Rue du Pont des Religieuses. 

3. — Road to Metz. 



4. — Rue des Capucins. 

5. — Road to Nancy. 

6. — Rue Levee-de-Breuil. 

7. — Road to Bar-le-Duc. 

8.— Rue Carnot. 

9. — Rue de Lisle. 
10.— Road to Verdun. 
II. — Rue du Four. 
12. — Rue de I'Eglise. 
13. — Rue de la Gare. 



72 




VandieresiA'^'/ 



, "^'v-' 4^ ... 

■'■ '■•Four ■v, '" ' '.' "_ . -"iS"!?^^.-!! 






iMontsec n- ?^^^^/ ^ \", 

Richecourt(' }\ ,;|' rii 
Sei^egrey 

^crBeaumo 

\\\ ^"^ '' 
\\\ C/ronde/ 



--3=-Mt)'usson 

P«A'rT7 



ARremont EtangdeVar^, 





SECOND DAY 



COMMERCY — PONT-A-MOUSSON— METZ 

A. — Commercy to Pont-a-Mousson (See above.) 

B. — Pont-a-Mousson to Metz (See p. 109.) 

Leave Commercy (Place de VHotel de Ville) by the Rue du Pont-des-Re- 
ligieuses ivhich, after crossing the Meuse, joins N. 58. Take the latter. 

Pass through Vignot (2 km.) and enter Vignot Wood (French gun em- 
placements). 

After crossing the wood the tourist approaches Gironville. Before enter- 
ing the village, on the crest to the right, is Gironville Fort. 

In the village immediately beyond the church, N. 58 turns to the left. Con- 
tinue along it for 500 yards beyond the church, then leave it where it turns to 
the right, and take G.C.D. 10 towards Apremont. 

The road crosses the old French and German lines (shelters and block- 



73 




BOUCONVILLE VILLAGE 



houses), then rejoins, 200 yards east of Apremont, G.D.C. 1 bis, which take to 
the right towards Bouconville. 

Before going to Bouconville, visit Apremont, Brule Wood and Ailly Wood, 
if this ivas not done on the first day {see pp. 42-52 i . 

Notice, in succession, on the left, the ruins of Loupmont Village, 1,500 
yards from the road ; Montsec, further north, dominating the wliole district ; 
and Vargevaux Pond, near the road. 

Fulloiv G.C.D. 1 bis, to Bouconville. Enter the village, leaving the fine 
Girondel Pond on the right. 




NO-MAN S LANn, NKAR KAMBUCOURT 



74 



"%^l^^ 




TliJi4 



lil.Ai \l<).\ 1 LHl KtH 

The 13tli-14tli century Church of Bouconville with its three naves is very 
curious. 

In the cemetery are numerous French graves. 

The front line, after passing south of Apremont, continued first to the right 
of the Bouconville road, then crossed the road to the west of Vargevaux Pond, 
making a bend to include the latter within the French lines, as also the village 
of Xivray, which was the junction of the French armies with the American 
divisions. It then passed through the hamlet of Seicheprey, and at Flirey re- 
joined the main road leading to Pont-a-Mousson. 

Keep along the road towards Rambucourt. 

A little before this village, N. 58 is picked up again. All the way the road 
is camouflaged and bordered by numerous trenches. Rambucourt was badly 
damaged. Numerous shelters were made along the road against the houses, the 
basements of which were occupied. 

After passing through Rambucourt, N. 58 leads to Beaumont (in ruins). 





AMERICAN AMMUNITION CONVOY ENTERING SEICHEPREY 



75 




ROMANESQUE i:HI IM II 



-I ICHEPREY 



Notice the shelters in the houses. The curious church suffered badly {photo, 
p. 74) . 

Four hundred yards beyond Beaumont, leave the National road and take the 
Seicheprey road on the left. 

Trenches, shelters and gun-emplacements are met with, especially in a 
hollow on the left. Seicheprey is next reached. 

This village was the scene of one of the first successes of the American 
Army. The Germans had taken it by surprise in April, 1918, and had kept it 
for some time, when it was retaken by the 26th (New England) Division. 

Part of the belfry of the 12th century church is still standing (photo 
above) . 

Near the church the road bends to the right and goes towards St. Baussant. 
Half a mile further on the French and German first line trenches are crossed. 
On entering St. Baussant, notice in a house on the right in front of the stream 







SEICHEPREY. THE MAIN STREET ON SEPT. 12, 1918 






76 



u 



^ 



% 



'^r>^'-:tJrT. ^v-*- 







ST. BALbSAiM Vll.LAGt,, OiN EiM tlUNG 

The house on the left zvas transformed into a concrete Blockhouse. 

Aboz'e the ruined wall : Loop-holes for the niachine-gnns. 
In the background : Ruins of old Castle. 

a large machine-gun blockhouse in concrete. The loopholes are on a level with 
the roof. 

St. Baussant is almost entirely in ruins. To the right, on the hill, stood the 
old chateau, of which only a few broken walls are left. 

This village, being an important road junction, had been strongly fortified 
by the Germans. It is one of the places where the American tanks performed 
wonders, taking the position in less than half an hour. 

The last house of the village, at the l.C. 13 crossing, on the right, bears the 
inscription " Cafe Hocqiiard." Here are three large concrete shelters, the walls 
of which are five feet thick. At the fork in the road is a machine-gun block- 
house in concrete. 




ST. BAUSSANT VILLAGE AND RUINS OF THE OLD CASTLE 



77 




RICHECOL'RT VILLAGE AND THE RUPT-DE-MAD STREAM 

1)1 the foreground : The bridge over -.chieh I.C. 19 passes. 
In the background : Montscc Hill. 

Take I.C. 13 to the left, iiliich jolloivs the Rupt-de-Mad .stream and becomes 
G.C. 33 on reaching Lahayville. 1.600 yards beyond this village (greatly 
damaged ) , leave G.C. 33 and take I.C. 19 to the right. After crossing the bridge 
over the Rupt-de-Mad, Richecourt, razed to the ground, is reached (photo 
above) . 

Near a house on the left, at the end of the village, is a German concrete 
shelter with the inscription " Pommernburg." Other shelters of less im- 
portance are to be seen among the ruins. 




GERMAN SHELTER IN RICHECOURT VILLAGE 

This concrete shelter is seen on leaving the village by the road to 

Montsec. Over the door is the word " Pommernburg." The 

village is a heap of ruins. 



78 



^{\My 




MONTSIX 

Gcrtnan Telephone Exchange on the road to Woinville. 

Folloiv I.e. 19 05 jar as Montsec (3 km.). 

The village of Montsec is at the foot of the hill ; it was badly damaged. 

Montsec Ridge, or Hill 380, made a first-class observation-post for the 
Germans, as it dominates the whole district from Apremont to Flirey. 

Montsec was the scene of the fiercest fighting on June 17, 1916. The French 
were unable to take it on account of its formidable defences. From that 
time no surprise-attacks took place in this district. 

On the crest, the Germans had constructed a system of tunnels, the entries 
of which overlooked the region of Heudicourt — Buxieres, and at the end 
of which chimneys over 30 feet in height opened In the summit of the hill. 




MONTSEC BiriNS OF CHURCH AND VILLAGE 



79 




MONTSEC 
German Signalling Post. 

The observers climbed up the chimneys by means of ladders and directed the 
firing of the artillery, which was massed in the surrounding woods. 

The system of trenches and shelters was remarkable. In some places the 
shelters were furnished with electric light. 

To visit the military works of Montsec, go beyond the village along I.C. 19 
and stop at the last houses on the left, where there is an enormous concrete 
shelter, which served as an artillery telephone exchange, {photo, p. 78). A 
narroiv road leads from this shelter to the entrances of the tunnels on the crest. 
{Time required to visit : one hour.) 



•#>«i»»*wr,.:;,a». m;..--*K^ 




y^^ 



AMEKiCAiS COLUMNS MAKCHllNO lOWAKUS MOMStC (SEPT. 13, 1918) 



80 



ESSEY 
CHURCH 




After visiting Montsec return to St. Baussant by the same roads (I.C. 19 to 
Richecourt, then G.C. 33 and I.C. 13). 

FolloH' I.C. 13 beyond St. Baussant to Maizerais (completely ruined), seen 
on the left of the road, and Essey on the Rupt-de-Mad stream. 

From December, 1916, the village of Essey was close to the front, and 
occupied by the Germans. The inhabitants and mayor remained during the 
occupation, but were forbidden, on pain of death, to go more than a short 
distance from their homes. 

In the village, at the corner of the Rue Bequille and the Grand Rue, is a 
concrete blockhouse. 

The church was partly destroyed. On its north front, protected by the 
church belfry, were the Kommandantur's quarters — an important concrete con- 
struction with walls five feet thick. 

After visiting Essey, take D. 3, which passes in front of the church, and 
follow it towards Flirey, 




SONNARD WOOD 

American Cemetery. In the background, at the ■foot of the 
er trees, is the road D. 3. 



81 



To the right and left are numerous shelters. Turn to the right alongside 
Sonnard Wood, beside ivhich, 50 yards from the road, are an American cemetery 
and, on the left, Mort-Mare Wood. 

Mort-Mare Wood is famous for the terrible struggles that took place for 
its possession. 

It was while reconnoitring over this wood in an aeroplane that Senator 
Reymond was killed on October 22, 1914. He was returning from a flight over 
Mars-la-Tour, Chambley and Thiaucourt, with Pilot Adjutant Clamadieu, and 
the machine was turning to the right of the southern edge of the wood, when 
it was seen descending, apparently normally, between the French and German 
lines. Machine-guns at once opened fire ; the Adjutant was killed and Senator 
Reymond wounded. The French came out of their trenches and a fierce 
struggle, which lasted until night, took place round the machine. Only then was 
Reymond able to crawl into the lines, while the French carried back the body 
of the Adjutant. 

Reymond was taken to the hospital at Toul, and was able, before he died, 
to give an exact account of the mission in the fulfilment of which he had met 
such a glorious end. 

On reaching the crest, the road crosses the old German first-lines (concrete 
blockhouses). Flirey next comes into sight. 

This village, which formed part of the first French lines from 1914, is 
almost completely in ruins, while the whole country around is laid waste. 

On the right are seen the ruins of Toul-Thiaucourt railway bridge. 

Half a mile from the village, keep along D. 3, to visit the famous Flirey 
Quarry, where there are numerous shelters and French graves. The sur- 
rounding woods contain the emplacements of several batteries. 

Return to Flirey and take, on the right, N. 58 towards Pont-a-Mousson. 




KIINS OK FLIRKV VILLACi; 
A^. 58, seen in the photo, passes through the village. 



82 




FLIREY QTTARRY 

]n titc backc/round : D. ,5 and Soiiiiard IVood. 

One kilometre from Flirey, at the top of the crest, on the right, is a military 
cemetery. The road runs parallel with the old French first-lines, which followed 
the crest on the left. 

At the entrance to Limey, ihiou^h iihich A. 58 runs, there is a large French 
cemetery on the left. 

The village of Limey, famous for tlie hard and Ijloody battles fought there 
in September. 1914, is in ruins. The west front of the church was torn open. 
Numerous shelters are seen, two of them, in cement, being very large ; 
the first, in the middle of the village on the right of the main road ; the other, 
a machine-gun blockhouse, in the last house on the right. 

Beyond Limey the road crosses a vast wooded district, known as La Haye, 
which covers the whole plateau. 

Ttco and a half kilometres from Limey, on the left side of the road, a place 
called Fond-des-Vaux contains numerous French shelters (several in concrete), 
and also a inililary cemetery. This is Lampe Camp. 




Ll,\ii;\ \lLLA(,t, 



Concrete shelter on the right of N. 58, when coiiiinc/ from Flirey 
in the middle of the village. 



83 




LAMPE CAMP 

At the back, on the left : N. 58. 

Three hundred yards further along the road there are American graves to 
the right. 

The Inn of St. Pierre is next reached, jrom ivhich D. 15 leaves to the left 
toiiards Thiaucourt. Take this road. 

Throughout the war St. Pierre Inn. wliich is at the entrance to Pretre 
Wood, was the nearest dressing-station to the front. The buildings suffered 




ST. PIERKK ]\N UUEbbliNG STATlUiN 
Arrival of wounded soldier. 



84 



FEY-EN-HAYE 

CHURCH AND 

CEMETERY 

IN 1915 










■ff 



little, thanks to the sheltering lurest. Pretre Wood ivill be visited on leaving 

Pont-d-Mousson. 

Eight hundred yards from the inn, to the right of D. 15, the Fey-en-Haye 

road debouches. This road is not available 
for motors. A visit to the village is inter- 
esting, as it was in the first French lines 
(distance there and back, 3 Arm.). 

Fey-en-Haye is about 100 yards from 
the western edge of Pretre Wood. At the 
end of September, 1914, a bloody engage- 
ment took place there. Up to the end of 
March, 1915, this unfortunate village was 
continuously bombarded, and it was en- 
tirely demolished when, on April 2, 1915, 
it was taken by a French battalion (169th 
Infantry). Its capture was the prelude to 
the last series of attacks which, after seven 
months of terriffic fighting, ended on May 
31, in the capture of Pretre Wood. 
Fey-en-Haye is now merely a heap of ruins. A number of trenches run 

through it, and a few shelters still exist. 

After coming back to D. 15, continue along it as far as Regnieville, a 

village of which nothing remains but part of the belfry of the church {photo, 

p. 85 ) . 




FEY-EN-HAYE. 
PLACE DE 

l'eglise 

IN 1915 












jiT. 



85 




RECNIEVILLE VILLAGE AND THE RUINED BELFRY OF THE CHURCH 

For a long time Regnieville was the advance-post of the French line 
between Mort-Mare Wood, on the left, and Pretre Wood, on the right. At the 
beginning of April, 1915, the French advance was especially dangerous for 
the enemy, whose counter-attacks became more frequent. It was evident 
that the slightest advance in the direction of Thiaucourt would hamper the 
German communications between Metz and St. Mihiel, and would hinder the 
revictualling of the troops as well as the steady supply of reinforcements and 
munitions. That is why, on April 9, the Germans made fifteen successive 
attacks to drive the French from their trendies and the edge of Mort-Mare 
Wood. 

Keep on toivards Thiaucourt. To the left of D. 15 there is an American 
cemetery {photo beloivU 500 yards from Regnieville. 1 km. further on, fifty 






^^^^.r'^'.-y^ 





AMERICAN GRAVES AT REGNIEVILLE 



86 




yards from the road, and before entering Four Wood, lies a derelict Renault 
tank (photo above), and beside it the graves (if its drivers. //( the Wood are 
numerous German gun emplacements. 

On reaching the crest (Hill 340). on the right, alongside Saules Wood, are 
two German gun shelters. 

Further on, at the " milestone " 4 km. from Thiaucourt, is a concrete block 
house {photo below). 

From I.e. 13, D. 15 descends in a large bend across Heiche Wood. 

One kilometre from Thiaucourt, in a ravine on the right of D. 15, there stood 
a large railway station and an important German military depot. On the other 
side of the road there is a. German cemetery containing 600 graves. 

Thiaucourt, altitude 750 feet, stands in an amphitheatre, in the centre 
of a loop described ljy the Rupt-de-Mad stream. 

A large number of its houses are in ruins, especially on the banks of the 
Rupt. 

Thiaucourt was a rest-camp behind the German lines. Numerous huts 
were erected on the banks of the stream, many vestiges of which still remain. 

After crossing the Rupt-de-Mad in Thiaucourt, keep along the street luhich 
continues the bridge and rises to the- end of the town. On the right, totvards the 
last of the houses, is l.C. 13, leading to Jaulny. 

Recross the Rupt-de-Mad at the entrance to jaulny. Take to the left, along 



THIAUCOURT 

ROAD (D. 15). 

MACHINE-GUN 

BLOCKHOUSE 




87 




THIAUCOURT. BRIDGE «JVER THE RL'PT-DE-MAD 

the river, the road running through the village, many of whose houses were 
damaged by shells. 

On leaving Jaulny there is a large German cemetery on the right. 

I.e. 13 runs through a pretty valley, alongside the Rupt-de-Mad and passes 
near the railway station. The old road having been destroyed by the explosion 
of a German ammunition train, a new road enables the tourist, by crossing the 
river, to reach the village of Rembercourt on the left bank. The bridge was 
blown up and many of the houses are in ruins. 

I.e. 13, which continues alongside the Rupt-de-Mad as far as the Moselle, 
is next reached. This road is extremely picturesque. 




Wll.lilC \N CI.MI.I IK 'I 
HALF A 



\l IIIIM (111 lil. \r THE !SI1)E OF D. 15, 
MILE FROM THE VILLAGE 



88 

Lediing f'illecey-sur-Mad, slightly damaged, on the right, go towards 
Onville. Three hundred yards this side of the village, to the left of I.C. 13, is 
a large German cemetery. The village, on which a few shells fell, contains a 
fine church. 

Vandeiainville, ivhich is the continuation of Onville, contains several 
liouses ilaniaged by the bombardments. 

Passing through the villages of Bayonville and Arnaville, A'. 52 bis, which 
runs along the left bank of the Moselle, and which take to the right in the 
direction of Pagny-sur-Moselle. 

This village, also called Pagny-sous-Preny, from the name of the hamlet 
and chateau which dominates the surrounding country, was for forty-eight 
years the Custom House, being the last French railway station before the 
frontier. 

Preny Chateau, the ruins of which are visible from here, was one of the 
most famous castles of the Middle Ages. Built by the Dukes of Lorraine, 




VILLAGE OF PAGNY-SUR-MOSELLE, NEAR THE CHURCH 



it was dismantled by Richelieu. It formed a square flanked by high, strong 
towers connected with one another by walls and subterranean passages 
hollowed out of the rock. At one end there was a second building, also 
surrounded by moats and flanked by towers, in one of which was the famous 
" Mande-Guerre " bell. The keep with the chapel and living-rooms stood 
there. 

Pagny suffered severely, most of the houses being in ruins. 

The road turns to the left into the valley, then to the right beyond the church, 
which is left on the right. 

Just outside Pagny-sur-Moselle the Germans built a concrete barrier across 
the road to stop the tanks. 

About 500 yards from Pagny, near the bridge over Mouton stream, is a 
machine-gun blockhouse in concrete on the right. 

N. 52 bis next passes through Vandieres, which was burnt down by the 
Germans during their retreat of September 16. All the houses along the road, 
especially those on the left, are in ruins. 

Five kilometres further on, after crossing the railway, Pont-a-Mousson is 
entered by the Rue du Port, Place Colombe and Rue St. Laurent ; the latter 
brings the tourist to the Grand Place or Place Duroc. 



89 




PONT-A-MOUSSON. THE BANKS OF THE MOSELLE 



PONT-A-MOUSSON 
Origin and Chief Historical Events 

Pont-a-Mousson is an old town, in whose archives are found deeds dating 
back to 896 and 905. At that time it was called " Villa Pontus sub castro 
Montionis" (The Town of the Bridge under the Castle of Mongon). 

In the 16th century there was a long controversy between the professors of 
the University and those of the Jesuit College as to whether the town (" Pont ") 
or the castle ("' Mongon "' or "Mousson") should have precedence, i.e. if 
one should say " Ponti Mussum " or " Mussi Pontum." The dispute was 
settled and the name ''Ponti Mussum" (Pont-a-Mousson) decreed by Duke 
Charles III. Nevertheless, the inhabitants still insist on calling themselves 
" Mussipontins." 

Renaud I., Count of Bar, living a retired life in his chateau of Mousson, 
founded near the town in 1106 a prioiy dedicated to St. Michel, which he 
gave to the Abbey of St. Mihiel. In 1239 the " Messins" (inhabitants of Metz) 
broke down the bridge to prevent the Count of Bar communicating with his 
castle, but three years later they joined the Count of Bar against Duke Mathieu 
who, in revenge, burned down the little town of Pont. 

Enfranchised in 1263 by Count Thiebaut II., Pont-a-Mousson was raised 
to a marquisate in 1355 by Emperor Charles IV., and, in 1356, was granted the 
rights and privileges of an imperial town. 

Charles-the-Bold took possession of it in 1476, but it was retaken later by 
Duke Rene. However, the defection of his Swiss troops forced him to surren- 
der it again to the Duke of Burgundy. 

What made the glory and prosperity of the town was the foundation of a 
University in 1572. The influx of students and the renown of the professors 
made Pont-a-Mousson famous until 1763, when the University was transferred 
to Nancy. 

The University encouraged the establishment of printing works, and volumes 
printed by Marchand and Melchior Bernard are still justly prized. 

Although an open town, Pont-a-Mousson was violently bombarded by the 
Germans as early as August 11, 1914. After a short occupation the town was 
liberated by the French on September 13, 1914. The bombardments were 
resumed and lasted till the end of the war. 

As to the part played by Pont-a-Mousson in the Battle for the Grand 
Couronne Heights, see the Michelin Guide, " Nancy and the Grand 
Couronne." 



90 




PLAN OF PONT-A-MOUSSON 

Arbitrary Sig/is 



A. — Church of St. Laurent. 
B.— Church of St. Martin. 
C. — Lesser Seminary. 
H.— H6tel-<k-\'illi-. 



.1. — Place Duroc. 



-Rue du Port. 
-Rue St. Laurent. 



— Rue de I'Union. 
— Rue Gamhetta. 
— Rue St. Martin. 
— Rue Victor Hugo. 
— Place Thiers. 
: — Avenue Carnot. 



A VISIT TO PONT-A-MOUSSON. 

Starting-point : Place Duroc (or Grand Place), in which stands the Hotel- 
de-] ille. 

Place Duroc, with its irregular arcades and Renaissance houses, presents a 
very characteristic appearance. 

Visit first the " House of the Seven Capital Sins," decorated with 



PLACE DUROC, 

WITH ITS 

ARCADED 

HOUSES 

Maison Leguy: 

the 3 first 

arcades. 

beginning at 

the turtet. The 

4th and 5th 

arcades belomi 

to the 

House of the 

Seven Capital 

Sins. 




91 




THE HOUSE 
OF THE 

SEVEN CAPITAL 
SINS 



caryatids. At the bottom of a court there is a fine bas-relief representing The 
Conversion, of St. Paul. 

A little further on is the Maison Leguy, recognisable by its hexagonal 
turret, which rests on one of the corner pillars of the arcades. Tradition 
attributes its construction to the Templars, and says that a subterranean passage 
led from it across the Moselle and up to Mousson. 

The turret is at the corner of Rue Victor-Hugo, ichich take to see, in the Rue 
de TUnion {first street on the left), two curious doors at Nos. 6 and 8. 

Return to Place Duroc, turn to the left into Rue St. Laurent and see, in the 
court of No. 9, a fine gallery delicately carved in Renaissance style (slightly 
damaged by the l)omi)ardment ) ; at No. 11, a handsome facade with a charm- 
ing court, an old well, the railing of the old terrace, a spiral staircase and 
timbered ceilings ; at No. 19, the facade, door and entrance. 




92 



CHURCH OF 
ST. LAURENT 




Opposite No. 19 is the Church of St. Laurent ; it was slightly damaged, 
the roof being pierced by siiells in several places. 

This church, frequently restored, offers no particular interest. 

Inside there is a reredos in the form of a tryptich, which came from the 
neighbouring Convent of the Poor Claires at Pont-a-Mousson. This work is 
by " Georgia le painctre," and dates from the 16th century. 

It represents : the Baptism of Christ, the Resurrection of Lazarus, the Heal- 
ing of the Blind at the Pool, and the Burial of Christ. 

The Chapel of Our Lady of Pity contains a celebrated " Christ carrying 
the Cross" by Ligier Richier. (See note, p. 56, regarding this famous sculptor's 
works.) 



TEMPORARY 

BRIDGE 

OVER THE 

MOSELLE 

(left bank) 







kJIh 


/'' M^m^^' '^''^^^im;> 


^•_. -r--*- 1 — - ^^^ 'mHk^^ 



93 




DESTROYED STONE BRIDGE OVER THE MOSELLE, WITH TEMPORARY WOODEN 
FOOT-BRIDGE 




CHURCH OF 
ST. MARTIN. 
WEST FRONT 



94 



CHURCH OF 
ST. -MARTIN 

14f/t century 

tomb of a 

kiiiglit and 

his 7vife. 




Return to the Place Duroc, take the street leading to the bridge, ivhich comes 
out opposite the " House of the Seven Capital Sins." The fine stone bridge was 
partly destroyed. A temporary footway, however, makes it possible to cross the 
Moselle here and reach the Rue Gambetta. 

On I he lei I. at the corner of Rue St. Martin, stands the greatly damaged 
Church of St. Martin. All the stained-glass windows were destroyed. Several 
shells pierced the walls and roof. 

The Cluirch of St. Martin {Hist. Mon.) is the old church of the Antonists, 
and was I)iiill in 1474. 




Till, si ri I ( ni;i, U6th century) in the church of st. martin 



95 




CHURCH OF THE 

PETIT 

SEMINAIRE 

h'agade facing 
the Rue 
St. Martin. 




The very narrow facade is in florid pointed style. The interior of the 
church has undergone numerous unfortunate restorations. In the aisles are : 
on the left, the funeral statues of a 14th century knight and his wife ; on the 
right, the tomb of Estiier of Apremont, with her coat-of-arms (1592), and a 
particularly interesting late 16th century sepulchre (see photos, p. 94). 

A triforium runs round the nave, and the tribune is closed by a fine open- 
work gallery dating from the end of the 16th century. Unfortunately, the choir 
is disfigured by a facing of marble which conceals the frescoes that decorated 
the walls. 




THK LIBRARY OF THF, PETIT SKMINAIRE 



% 



SPIRAL STAIRCASE 

OF THE PETIT 

SEMINAIRE 




Beside the church, in the Rue St. Martin, is tlie Petit Seminaire, housed in 
the sumptuous Abbey of the Premonstrants, dating from the early part of the 
18th century. 

It was very seriously damaged by the bombardments. The chapel and 



REFECTORY 

OF THE 

PETIT 

SEMINAIRE 




97 




NAIiKUW lUSLXC ROAD TO MOUsSOX, WITH IsHELTEK IN 
THE FOREGROUND 

its facade, the parlour, in very outlined rock-work style, splendid staircases, 
large cloisters and, above all. the famous wood-carvings in the library, were 
especially noteworthy. 

Mousson 

To reach Mousson. proceed to the end of the Rue Gambetta, in the opposite 
direction to the Moselle. 

Leave the car at the entrance to the Avenue de Metz ion the left) and walk 




CEMETERY OF PONT-A-MOUSSON 

At the side of the above road (.continuation of Rue Gambetta). 



98 




RUINS OF TOMBS IN THE CEMETERY AT PONT-A-MOUSSON 

up the holloiv road {opposite the Rue Ganibetta) , luhich skirls the cemetery. 
{Time required : half an hour.) 

Along this road artillery batteries were posted, the emplacements of which 
may still be seen. 

Take a glance at the cemetery, where a number of graves have been 
destroyed. 

The village of Mousson is at the top of a hill where there have been suc- 
cessively : a Roman camp, an Austrasian fortress and, in the 10th century, the 
chateau of the Countess Sophie de Bar. reduced to ruins by Richelieu. 

The fortifications consist of a first-line covering the village, and a second 
surrounding the chateau. The houses thus form a semicircle between the two 
ramparts. 

The village was greatly damaged during the war. Most of the houses are 
in ruins. Some of them had tricusped windows and curious 15th and 16th 
century doors. 

Skirt the ancient Chapel of the Templars to reach the terrace of the old 
chateau. 

All that remains of the chateau is the central chapel (llth-12th century) 




I H 



■W-S 



,ft^^[^:\ 


: -^^^^^ 



1^ ^" 




A CORNER OF MOUSSON VILLAGE 
In the background : JOAN-OF-ARC TOWER AND STATUE 



99 



Road leading to the 
Pere Hilarion Fountain 



Pretre Wood 



Hill 372 




PONT-A-MOUSSON AND PRETRE WOOD, SEEN FROiM MOUSSON 



(Hist. Mon.), which was unhappily enlarged about 1895, and to which a battle- 
mented tower surmounted by a gilt statue of Joan-of-Arc was added. 

The chapel (Hist. Mon.), with a semicircular vaulted roof on curious pillars, 
contains fine baptismal fonts (1085) decorated with sculptures. 

These fonts, resembling the curb-stone of a well, are decorated with bas- 
reliefs representing: John the Baptist preaching repentance to publicans and 
soldiers who came to him in the nilderness ; John baptizing two naked Jews 
immersed in a cistern; John baptizing Jesus ChrLst, plunged up to the waist in 
the waters of Jordan. 

On the terrace are numerous trenches, in addition to shafts dug by the 
engineers to reach the underground passages which communicate with concrete 
shelters. One of these shelters may still be seen along the southern ramparts 
of the old chateau. All these niililarv works are very interesting to visit. 

There is a splendid panorama fmin tiiis terrace : on one side (photo, pp. 
inO and 101) the town of Ponl-a-\Iousson and the valley of the Moselle with, 
behind Ponf-a-Mousson, Puvenellc Forest and Pretre Wood ; on the other side, 
the valley of the Seille, with Metz Cathedral in the distance. To the south-east 
is seen the Grand Couronne. 

Mousson was a first-rate observation-post for the French gunners, which 
explains the fortifications that were erected there during the war. 



100 



Puvenelle Forest 




PANORAMIC VIEW OF PONT-A-MOUSSON AND T: 




RUINS OF THE OLD FORTIFIED CASTLE OF MOUSSON 

On the right : joan-of-arc tower and statue 



101 



Road to the Pere 
Hilarion Fountain 



Pretre Wood 




.LEY OF THE MOSELLE, SEEN FROM MOUSSON 




MOUSSON CEMETERY 

In the background : walls OF the olu koktifiku castle 



102 



A VISIT TO PRETRE WOOD 

A. — From Pont-aMousson to the Croix des Carmes, via Montauville, 

returning to Pont-a-Mousson 

The Fighting in Pretre Wood 

Pretre Wood dominates all the soulliern part of the I'laiii of Woevre (alti- 
tude : 1,200 feet). 

From October. 1914, to May, 1915, it was the scene of a continual struggle, 
at the end of which the wood remained in the hands of the French. 

It was in September. 1914, that the Germans installed themselves in Pretre 
Wood, which they at once fortified with barbed wire, chevaux-de-frise, etc. 

On September 30, 1914, the French obtained a footing in the south-western 
edges of the forest. A month later (October 29) they captured a German post 
in the south-eastern salient. Their efforts were next concentrated on Pere 
Hilarion Ravine, which they gradually occupied after many fights in the rain 
and snow of November and December. 

Their troops advanced by short rushes as far as the principal line, which 
had to be taken by a direct attack. First, artillery was brought up by night 
to prepare the attack. Sappers, by long and patient sapping, blew up the 
minor defences and penetrated the blockhouses. The adversaries were at times 
less than a hundred yards apart. 




PRETRE WOOD. SHELTERS IN CARRIERES RAVINE 



103 



From January, 1915, the French operations were directed against the west- 
ern portion, towards Quart-en-Reserve and Croix des Carmes Hill. Four 
lines of trenches bristling with machine-guns and defences held up the attack. 
The ground had to be taken bit by bit, and often a counter-attack would win 
back in the evening the gains of several days' hard fighting. The first line was 
carried on January 17, and the second on February 16. At this point aerial 
torpedoes and hand grenades caused progress to slow down. The third line 
was captured on March 30. Attacks and counter-attacks followed. Fighting 
with hand grenades took place in the communicating trenches, behind barrages, 
and the artillery on both sides covered this narrow strip of ground with pro- 
jectiles, breaking down the parapets and destroying the communicating 
tienches. The Germans, who lo?t heavily, brought up endless reinforcements 





ti^[-t!.-4i,**r;i^';f^ 




CI. Ml.ll.li1 IN I'liKIKK WUOI) 



— in all about sixteen battalions — thus showing the importance which they 
attached to this position. 

The final attack wa.s launched on May 12. The French carried the block- 
houses and the northern slopes beyond the crest, but the enemy still clung to 
the eastern and western slopes. However, the wood was won, and the splendid 
observation-post which the hill afforded was thenceforth in the hands of the 
French. 

In the little cemetery on the hillside hundreds of heroes sleep their last 
sleep. 

The slopes near the road tlirou<;h()ut this district are one vast cemetery, 
while the wood proper hides beneath its soil hundreds of dead entombed by 
the explosion of mines or the falling-in of trenches. 

This wood of tragic memories was called by the Germans " The JFood of 
Death," or " The Widows' Wood." 



104 




Leave Pont-a-Mousson by Avenue Carnot, cross the railway (I.e.), leaving 
A^.57 on the left {ivhich joUoius the railway towards Nancy) and continue along 
A'.SS to Montauville, 2 km. from Pont-d-Mousson. 

This village did not suffer much. On entering, there are several large con- 
crete machine-gun blockhouses on the right. 

The nearest dressing station was at Montauville, in the cellar of a ruined 
house. First aid was given in the trenches or in the little hut near the big 
oak tree. From Montauville the wounded were taken in motors to Pont-a- 
Mousson. There was a constant procession of ambulances, stretcher-bearers 
and hospital attendants on the road. 

Beyond a knoll opposite the church of Montauville, take on the right a down- 
hill road which turns sharply and leads to the village cemetery. Here the road 
forks. Take the road on the left, which first dips and then a little further on 




ENTRANCE TO PRETRE WOOO 

Motors stop at the fork. The road to the left leads to Fey-en-Haye, 

Tourists should take the one to the right leading to the Pere 

Hilarion Fountain and the Croix des Carmes. 



m 




FRENCH AND AMERICAN GRAVES ON THE ROAD TO 
THE PERE HILARION FOLNTAIN 



rises in the direction of Pretre Wood. This road is in bad condition, but in 
dry weather motors can go as far as the entrance to the wood. 

About 800 yards from the cemetery the road branches, that on the left going 
to Fey-en-Haye. Take the road on the right, which soon leads to Pretre Wood. 

On the right, at the roadside, about 1,200 yards from the fork, are two 
graves : one of an American, the other of a French soldier. 

Three hundred yards further on. in a ravine to the right of the road, are the 
fountain and house of Father Hilarion. All around are numerous trenches, 
shelters and military works of all kinds. 

Pere Hilarion fountain remained for some time between the opposing lines. 
Germans and French alike came there every day to draw water, and by a tacit 
understanding each side came at the definite hour. During this respite no 
shot was fired from the trenches. 

Follow the road (leaving on the right a steep uphill road, 150 yards from 
the fountain) which for 800 yards, dotvn a gentle slope, crosses the part of the 




THE I'EKL HlLAKlON FOUNTAIN AND HOUSE 



106 




THE HUL^K Ut tAlHEK HILAKl(li\ IiN FKETRE WOOD 

wood called the " Mouchoir " and " Croix des Carmes " Sector. This 
formed the first Franco-German lines. 

The sight is a moving one : destroyed trees, the ground torn up by shells, 
trenches fallen in and battered shelters. 

When the road reaches the crest, look back. The sight is more tragic still. 
In the distance is seen Mousson Crest, which stands out above the trees of 
Pretre Wood and. to the right, on a small hill, 100 yards from the road, the site 
of the famous " Croix des Carmes." 




GERMAN THi:N(:fn> IN " MOI CHOIK SECrOH. I'KEIKK 
WOOD, NEAR PERE HILARION FOUNTAIN 



107 




PRETRE WOOD, THE ' PELLEMENT TRENCHE; 
" MOUCHOIR " SECTOR 



When the position was taken by the French, sappers of the Engineers 
Corps piously removed the cross from its place and carried it to the cemetery 
in the valley where the heroes of these battles lie buried. There they erected 
it, and surrounded it with some of the barbed wire from the late German 
trenches. 

Return to Montauville, then to Pont-a-Mousson by the same road. 







PRETRE WOOD. " MOICHOIR " SECTOR 
Gen. Le Bocq in a Trench, twenty yards from the enemy lines. 



Road through Road 
the forest to to 

Montauville Norroy 



Moussott 
Crest 




I'RETRE WOOD. CROIX-DES-CARMES SECTOR 



Hill 372 



Pere Site of the 

Mousson Hilarion Croix des 
Crest Fountain Carmes 




PRETRE WOOD. BETWEEN THE FRENCH AND GERMAN LINES 
Seen from near the Croix-des-Carmes, on the road to Montauville (in the foreground). 



m 




SECOND DAY (continued) 
B. — From Pont-a-Mousson to Metz 



no 



BARRICADE 

ON THE 

ROAD FROM 

PONT-A- 

MOUSSON TO 

NORROY 




SECOND DAY {continued) 

B._PONT-A-MOUSSON TO METZ 

From Pont-a-Mousson to Norroy and Hill 372 

At Pont-u-Mousson. on returning from MontaurilJc. cross the railway {I.e.), 
take Avenue Carnot, then Rue Victor Hugo to Place Duroc. Turn to the left 
into Rue St. Laurent, ivhich leads to N. 52 bis. 

Follow the latter 3 km. to a narrow road on the left leading to Norroy. Cross 



Norroy 





Roa.l 




from 




Norroy 


oad from 


Champey 


Norroy Hill 


to Villers 


to Fey 324 


Heights 




iNUKKUY AND THE MOSELLE VALLEY, SEEN FUOM HILL 372 TO THE 
S. W. OF NORROY, ON THE NORROY-FEY ROAD 



Ill 

the village to the Place de VEglise. Leave the church on the right and keep 
along the road which rises sharply towards the crest of Hill 372. The entrance 
to Pretre Wood, on the German side, is here. 

On this crest several fortified quarries served as shelters for the guns. In 
the wood are a number of concrete shelters, trenches and observation-posts, 
one of which, cupola-shaped, is well worth a visit. 

Return to Norroy. then, in front of the church, take on the left the road 
toicards Villers-sous-Preny, which winds round Hill 372. 




GERMAN OBSERVATION-POST ON THE TOP OF HILL 372. ENTRANCE TO PRETRE 

WOOD (coming from Norroy) 



On leaving Norroy, the road rises sharply, then zigzags doivn the side of 
Hill 372. One kilometre from Norroy, and 100 yards to the left of the road, is a 
veritable village of concrete and stone, built in a quarry by the Germans, 
with shelters in the rock more than thirty feet deep. It served as a Post 
of Commandment, and was fitted with a telephone exchange which directed 
the artillery-fire in the Pretre Wood sector. 

The road continues to descend to Villers-sous-Preny (2 km.). There is a 
German cemetery on the left, before entering the village, many houses of which 
are in ruins. 

At Villers take I. C. 13 on the right to Vandieres (3 km.), where N. 52 bis 
is joined. Take same on the left to Metz. 



112 

This road, which runs alongside the Moselle, is picturesque, but in bad 
condition, especially between Arnaville and Metz. (A'. 57 from Pont-a-Mousson 
to Metz, on the right bank of the Moselle, is in much better condition, but less 
picturesque. ) 

The road passes through Pagny-sur-Moselle (see p. 109). 

The valley of the Moselle becomes prettier and prettier ; varied scenery, 
picturesque landscapes and villages nestling in the sides of the hills. The 
road turns to the left and crosses the Rupt-de-Mad stream at Arnaville — the 
last village on the frontier since 1870, and the boundary of the old '* departe- 
ment " of the Meuse. 

It next passes through Noveant, where for a long time the German custom- 
house was installed. The village contains a chateau ; in the church there is 
a carved ivory figure of Christ. 




GERMAN POST OF COMMANDMENT BELOW HILL 372 

(1 km. from Norroy on the left of Norroy-Villcrs road.) 

After passing through Dornot and Ancy, the tourist soon reaches Ars-sur- 
Moselle. 

The name "Ars" (Arches) is derived from the arcades of the Roman 
aqueduct, the imposing remains of which are still to be seen. Known locally 
as the " Devil's Bridge," it extended as far as the village of Jouy on the right 
bank of the Moselle, and served to bring water to the baths and swimming- 
pool of the amphitheatre of the ancient Divodurum (Metz). It was 3,240 feet 
long, and 50 feet high. The church, burned down in 1807, was rebuilt in 1816 
on the site of an ancient Roman fortress. Ars contains important ironworks 
and a paper factory. 

Moulins and Longville are next passed, after which Metz is entered by 
France Gate. Take the Rue de Paris, Fonts des Marts, Rue du Pont des Marts, 
Pont Moyen, Rue St. Marie, Rue du Faisan, Place de Chambre, then Rue 
d'Estrees on the right, to Place d'Armes, in which stands the Cathedral. 



113 



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METZ SEEN FROM THE FORT OF ST. QUENTIN 



M ETZ 



ORIGIN AND CHIEF HISTORICAL FACTS 

The origin of Metz dates back to the Celtic epoch, when it was the capital 
of the Mediomatrici. The Romans fortified it, to defend the frontiers of the 
empire against the barbarians. Metz then became the centre of six great 
Roman roads leading to distant provinces : two from Metz to Rheims, two 
from Metz to Treves (one on the right, the other on the left bank of the 
Moselle), one from Metz to Strasburg, and one from Metz to Mainz. 

A very rich and populous town, it Avas embellished by numerous Roman 
buildings, of which excavations have laid bare important remains : an 
amphitheatre, near Porte Mazelle, and above all Groze Aqueduct (4th cen- 
tury I, more than thirteen miles in length, which brought water from Gorze 
to Metz. Some fine remains of the aqueduct may still be seen at Jouy-aux- 
Arches. 

The Roman Emperors who visited Metz stayed at the Governors' Palace, 
which stood in Place St. Croix. 

Metz was taken and laid waste by the Huns in 451. 

Half a century later it was rebuilt and, on the death of Clovis (5111, be- 
came the capital of Austrasia and the cradle of the Carolingian dynasty. Louis- 
If-Debonnaire was buried in the Abbey of St. Arnoul. The Treaty of Verdun 
(843) gave it to Lothaire. who made it the capital of his kingdom Lotharingia 
(afterwards Lorraine). Thirty years later the Treaty of Mersen (870) handed 
it over to Louis the Germanic. 

It was governed, in the name of the emperor, first by the counts and later 
by the bishops. In 1220. on the death of Count Thiebault, the town became 
a sort of republic under the title of " Free Imperial Town," and was governed 
by the sheriffs until 1552. 

Under Henri II. the French, led by Montmorency, occupied the town, 
after a treaty concluded with Maurice of Saxony. The Duke of Guise, 
appointed Governor, energetically defended Metz, besieged by Emperor 
Charles-Quint (October 19, 1552). On January 1, 1553, Charles-(^uint raised 



114 



the siege, after having lost 30,000 men. For a long time the kings of France 
bore the title of " Protector." Henri 111. was the first to call himself 
'■ Sovereign Ruler."' The Parliament of Metz, created in 1633, completed the 
ruin of its municipal independence, and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) 
definitely incorporated it with France. It was the capital of the " Three 
Bishoprics" formed by the union of Metz, Toul and Verdun. 

Until the Revolution (1789) Metz, while escaping the horrors of war. 
constantly felt its effects. Troops were continually passing through it, and 
its barracks became a mustering-ground. Turenne, Villars, the Marquis de 
Crcquy, and Marshal de Villeroy camped within its walls, and it was at Metz 
that in August, 1744, Louis XV. was taken seriously ill, on which occasion the 
whole of France prayed and fasted for their " well-beloved " King. 

In 1790, Metz became the chief town of the new " Departement " of Moselle. 
Two sieges, in 1814 and 1815. were victoriously resisted. 

. 1870 was a black year in the annals of the town — till then known as 
"Virgin Metz."* The battles of Borny (August 14), Rezonville (August 15), 
St. Privat (August 18), forced Marshal Bazaine to retire under the walls of 
the town. He resisted feebly, contenting himself with awaiting events, and 
did not even attempt to cut his way through, which would have saved the 
honour of the armies under his command. On October 28 he signed the capitu- 
lation, and on the following day surrendered with 173,000 men. 60 generals, 
6.000 officers, 58 standards, 622 field-guns, 876 siege-guns, 72 machine-guns, 
260,000 rifles and huge quantities of stores and munitions. Six months later 
(May 10, 18711, by the Treaty of Frankfort, Metz and part of the '' departe- 
m.ent " of Moselle were ceded to Germany. Metz thus became the capital of 
German Lorraine. 

It was from Metz that La Fayette set out in 1775 on his immortal expedi- 
tion to help America win her freedom and independence. In grateful re- 
membrance of that glorious event the " Knights of Columbus " recently de- 
cided to erect a statue of La Favette in Metz (to be inaugurated in 1920). 




GICNKRAL POST-OFFICE AND RAILWAY STATION 



* Its coat-of-arms" consists of an escutcheon argent and sable surmounted by a 
maiden crowned by towers and holding a palm in her left hand. It was, in fact, the 
proudest claim of Metz, until 1870, that it had never been taken since it had become 
a fortified city. In 1815 the armies of the "' Holy Alliance " were refused permission 
to march through, when they evacuated French territory, and were obliged to cross the 
Moselle over a bridge which the people of Metz erected at the very foot of the 
ramparts, just outside the town. 



115 



The Fortifications 



From its position ]\Ietz was destined to become a stronghold of the first 
importance. The Romans fortified the town built by the Gauls, and erected 
the first citadel. The walls were preserved for a long time, and Bishop Robert, 
in the 10th century, utilised their remains. It was only in the 12th century 
that the new ramparts included the island formed by the two arms of the 
Moselle. They consisted of a high wall protected by sixty-eight towers. In 
1552 the Duke of Guise commissioned an engineer. Pierre Strozzi. to restore 
these fortifications, which had withstood two sieges (1444 and 1552), and were 
in a dilapidated condition. Four years later (1556) Marshal de Vieilleville 
erected a citadel flanked by four bastions, on the site of the old convents. 
This citadel (which remained standing until 1802) stood on the site of the 
present Esplanade. 

About a century later Vauban. fully aware of the strategic value of Metz, 
conceived a great scheme, which was carried out in the 18th century by an 
engineer, M. Cormontaigne. Vauban. for his part, added eleven new bastions 
to those which already guarded the citadel, but it was Cormontaigne who 
perfected the plan? for inundating the valley of the Seille by utilising the 
waters of Lindre Pond. 

Metz became finally one of the most forniidalile fortresses of Europe. 

Under Louis-Philippe the fortifications were entirely restored, and in 1866 
preparations were made to rebuild them on a new plan, better adapted to the 
exigencies of modern armaments and technique. Of the four detached forts 
of St. Quentin, Plappeville, Queuleu and St. Julien. only the first two were 
completed in 1870. 

The Germans considerably strengthened the fortifications by means of 
nineteen bastions surrounded by moats, the latter being protected by thirteen 
out-works. The length of the line of forts was increased to eighteen miles, 
and eleven new forts were added. 




Mi-TZ. ST. yLENTKN KOHT {seen jroiu l/ic K.sjjlunadt) 



116 




MLTZ. Al T1:R the ARMISTICE. ENTRY OF FKL.NCU IKOiiP: 
November 19, 1918. 



METZ AFTER THE SIGNING OF THE ARMISTICE 

When the Armistice was signed on November 11, the forts of Metz were 
within range of the American artillery, which had already bombarded them 
several times, while the troops had taken up the positions from which the 
offensive, arranged for the 16th, was to have been launched. The terms of 



ill*'.'*' 
!-Tf I 




THE FIRST FRENCH NEWSPAPERS TO ARRIVE 

November 19, 1918, 



117 




FRENCH TROOPS DEFILLNG BEFORE MARSHAL PETAI\ 

November 19, 1918 




PLACE UAH.ML.S, NO\ L.MRLR I'J, 1918 
In the background : Statue of Marshal Fabert. 



118 



the Armistice called for tlie evacuation of the invaded territory, including 
Alsace and Lorraine, before the 26th. It was into Metz, freed of German 
soldiers, that the French troops made a solemn entry on Tuesday, November 19, 
1918, amid scenes of indescribable enthusiasm. 

The march jiasi look jilace on the Esplanade, before General Petain, 
made Marshal thai moniinjr. Abmnted on a white horse and wearing his 
large blue coat, lie had taken his stand in front of the statue of Marshal Ney. 
He was assisted by General FayoUe, commanding a group of armies, and by 
Major-General Buat. General Mangin. commanding the 10th Army, had met 
with an accident while riding, and his place was taken by General Leconte. 




METZ. GENERAL PETAIN MAUE MARSHAL OF FRANCE 

After the ceremony : President Poincare embraces Prime Minister Clemenceau. 



On the same day M. Mirman, who had been appointed Commissioner of the 
Republic, was received by General de Maud'huy, Governor of Metz. Salvos 
of cannon and the ringing of the famous '• Mutte " bell in the Cathedral cele- 
brated this joyful day. 

On the following Sunday, November 24, the leading men of Metz elected 
the new Town Council, and decided to restore the naines of the streets in use 
prior to 1870, and to name new streets after generals and prominent men 
who had distinguished themselves in the Great War. The list was published 
in a decree dated December 7. 

On Sunday, December 8, President Poincare, accompanied by the French 
Prime Minister, M. Clemenceau, the Presidents of the Chambers, Ministers, 



119 



Marshals, and French and Allied Generals, proclaimed the definite return 
to France of the lost provinces. It was a day never to be forgotten by those 
who witnessed it. Young girls in the national costume of Lorraine — birth- 
place of the French President — marched through the streets, and flowers were 
showered from the windows on the procession. 

In the morning there was a review on the Esplanade, and a Field-Marshal's 
baton was presented to General Petain. The President of the Republic opened 
the proceedings with an address, after which an unforeseen and touching in- 
cident occurred ; overcome with emotion, M. Poincare and M. Clemenceau 
embraced each otiier. 




METZ. LORRAINE GIRLS GROUPED AROUND THE FRENCH FLAG 

November 19, 1918. 



In the afternoon there was a reception in the H6tel-de-Ville, at which Presi- 
dent Poincare summed up in a stirring speech the whole history of Metz, and 
concluded with the following words : — 

" Years have gone Ijy. but Metz has not clianged. The protests formerly 
made to the ' Reichstag ' in the name of the people of Metz, in the name of 
all the people of Lorraine, by that great Bishop, Mgr. Dupont des Loges. 
continued calmly and firmly after his death. Citizens of Metz, you renewed 
them, year after year, by pilgrimages to Mars-la-Tour, by visits to the ceme- 
teries, and by fostering French memories. . . . Beloved town of Metz, your 
nightmare is over — France returns and opens her arms to you! " 

The procession was then received with great ceremony by Mgr. Felt at the 
Cathedral, and finally went to the cemetery of Chambiere, to pay homage to 
the dead of 1870. 



120 



PLAN OF METZ 




METZ 



1. 


"Place d'Armes. 


18. 


Rue Vauban. 


2. 


Prefecture Bridge. 


19. 


Rue de Magny. 


3. 


Prefecture Square. 


20. 


Rue des Clercs. 


4. 


Rue Pont-Moreau. 


21. 


Avenue de la Citadelle. 


S. 


Rue Belle-Isle. 


32 


Rue de Nancy. 


6. 


Thionville Bridge. 


23^ 


Rue de Pont-a-Mousson. 


7. 


Rue'de I'Hopital Militaire 


24. 


Chambre Square. 


8. 


Route de Thionville. 


25. 


Rue de la Paix. 


y. 


Rue Fabert. 


26. 


Rue Pont-des-Morts. 


10. 


Rue de la Tete-d'Or. 


27. 


Rue de Paris. 


11. 


Rue de la Grande Armee. 


28. 


Avenue Serpenoise. 


12. 


Rue des Allemands. 


29. 


Rue Harelle. 


13. 


Rue de St. Julien. 


30. 


Rue de la Gare. 


14. 


Rue de Sarrebruck. 


31. 


Rue de Thionville. 


15. 


Rue Haute-Seille. 


32. 


Rue du Haut-Poirier. 


16. 


Rue de Strasbourg. 


33. 


Rue Serpenoise. 


17. 


Avenue du Marechal . 


34. 


Rue de President Wilson 




Foch. 


35. 


Rue de Verdun. 



36. Avenue de Marechal 

Joffre. 

37. King George Square. 

38. Bd. Georges Clemenceau. 

39. Bd. President Poincare. 

40. Place de la Republique. 

41. Rue Fournirue. 

A. Cathedral. 

B. German Gate. 
('. Barracks. 

D. St. Eucaires Church. 

E. St. Vincent's Church. 
H. Hotel-de-Ville. 

J. Palais-de-Justice. 
M. Museum. 

P. Prefecture. 
P.S. Serpenoise Gate. 
T. Theatre. 



121 



A VISIT TO METZ 

Starting-point : the Place d'Armes. 

The Place d'Armes, in which the Cathedral and the H6tel-de-Ville stand, 
is a handsome square embellished with noble buildings. On its site formerly 
stood the Cathedral cloister, the musicians' quarters, several chapels and 
private houses. 

In 1753 the Governor, Marshal de Belle-Isle, decided that a square should 
be laid out there and a portal erected giving access to the Cathedral. 

The plans of the architect (Blondel) for the portal made it necessary to 
lower the level of the ground. For months and years, canons and sheriffs 
alike stopped or impeded the work. During the night of August 9, 1755, 




STATUE OF MARSHAL FABERT, 
PLACE d'aRMES, METZ 



M. de Belle-Isle called out tlie garrison, and had the work linished by lorcii- 
light. By morning the excavation was complete. 

In the Place d'Armes stands a statue of Marshal Fahert (by Etex, 1840). 
The only inscription on the statue of the great Metz general (1599-1662), who 
was governor of Sedan, is one of his own sayings : " //, to prevent the enemy 
taking a place entrusted to my care by the king, it were necessary, I should not 
hesitate for an instant to sacrifice myself, my family, and all my belongings." 



]22 








METZ CATHEDRAL 




The Cathedral 

The whole of one side of the Place d" Amies is occupied by the Cathedral 
of St. Etienne. a masterpiece of Gothic architecture. The body of the church 
reminds one of Amiens and Beauvais. If, on the outside, it appears some- 
what narrow, the interior (393 feet long, 71 feet wide, 139 feet high), with its 
magnificent stained-glass, is imposing and of exceeding beauty. 

The oldest portions of the Cathedral date from the 13th century. 

The nave, completed in the 14th century, has eight bays. At the fourth 
bay it is flanked by two square towers. 

The northern tower, called the " Mutte " Tower, contains the town-bell. 
It is surmounted by a fine spire, from which there is an extensive view of 
the surrounding country. It was there that the city watchman was installed, 
whose duty it was to give the alarm in case of fire. On the other side of the 
nave stands the Chapter Tower, which was finished in 1839. There is a fine 
doorway at the foot of each tower. 

Another, smaller polygonal tower, called the Clock Tower, is built over 
the southern aisle. 

On each side of the choir, where it meets the arms of the transept, are the 
two small " Charlemagne " towers, so called in memory of those which existed 
in the romanesque building. They give access by spiral stairways to the 
outside terraces over the Cathedral. 

While the nave is 13th century the transept dates from the 15th, and the 
choir, built over a great sepulchral crypt, is contemporary with the last Gothic 
period. 

Although completed in 1546 the Cathedral later underwent many altera- 
tions. Fires necessitated repairs, and in 1753, by order of the Governor 
(Marshal de Belle-Isle), the laying out of a square in front of the Cathedral 
necessitated the demolition of the outbuildings of the bishop's house and the 
erection of a portal. 



123 




INTERIOR OF METZ CATHEDRAL 



The gioLiiid wa? excavated lu a deptli nl sume eight or nine feet, and the 
architect (./. B. ISlondeh was instructed to prepare plans on a grand scale. 

This was dune between 1761 and 1764, after which the work was at once 
put in hand, and completed in 1771. While endeavouring to respect the old 
building, Blondel sought, not so much to build the portal in the style of the 
Cathedral, as to erect an independent portal in front of the church. Its 
irregular lines contrast with the general style of the Cathedral. 

In 1791, the rood-loft, old altars and vaults were removed, in accordance 
with the plans of Gardeur Lebriin. The roof, destroyed by fire on the night of 
May 6, 1877 — the day Emperor Wilhelm I. entered Metz — was replaced in 
1880-1882 by a copper roof several yards higher than the original. 

Lastly, the Doric projection of the main front was pulled down in 1903 
to make room for a portal planned in the style of the rest of the church. 
Statues of the prophets were carved at the corners, one of which — that of the 
prophet Daniel — is a likeness oi the iw-Einperor of Germany, W ilhelni II. 
The people of Metz would not liavc the ex-Kaiscr-prophet take part in the 
entry of the Frencli. and during the night bound liis hands witii a c-hain 



124 



THE EX-KAISER 

WILLIAM 11. 

AS DANIEL 

Statue on Metz 
Catlicdrat. 




attached to which was a board bearing the inscription, " Sic transit Gloria 
Mundi" (thus passes away man's glory) i photo above). 

The offending statue is to be replaced by a work of the Metz sculptor 
Hannaux, who designed the French monument at Noisseville. 

In no other church is there so large an area of window space. It is calcu- 
lated that in the transept and choir there are 4,071 square metres of glass 
and it is no exaggeration to say that the whole building seems to be one 
immense window. 




METZ CATHEDRAL. WEST FRONT 



125 




METZ CATHEDRAL. SOUTH FRONT AND PORTAL 



Among the windows are several dating from the 13th century. The large 
rose-window at the end of the nave, which dates from the 14th century, is 
the work of the master-glassworker Hermann. The windows of the north 
transept and the Chapel of Our Lady date from the 15th century. 

Those of the south transept. Chapel of St. Nicholas, choir and apse are 
16th century. 

The bell called " La Mutte," which hangs in tlie tower of the same name, 
did not belong to the church, hut to the town. The present bell, which is 
rung on all special occasions, was cast in 150.5. It weighs thirteen tons and. 
when set in motion, causes the large and small spires to rock perceptibly. 
It bears the following inscription : 



" llanie Mutte suis baptisee, 
I^e par la Cite ci-posee, 
Pour servir a la Cite 
Aux jours do grandcs solennites : 
Et aussi pour crier justice. 
Prendre ban de bonne police ; 
I^es contrcdirc quand bon me semble 
pt pour convoquer gens ensemble," 



126 

The best view of Metz and the surrounding country is to be obtained from 
the top of the Cathedral tower. Here one realizes the immense importance 
of the forts, of which the Moselle is a kind of natural moat. On the left bank 
the steeply rising hills form natural defences, while the lower hills on the 
right bank are reinforced by the line of forts. From their gleam in the 
distance one gets a better idea of the number of waterways which surround 
and run tiirough Metz — the River Seille, the streams of St. Pierre, Noisse- 
ville, and Chatel-St. -Germain, the River ]\Ioselle (which divides), and the 
canal running parallel to it. Before Metz lies the large island of St. Sym- 
pborion ; then, near the Wadrineau dyke, the smaller island of Saulcy. At 
the foot of old Metz there is yet another arm of the Moselle, which divides, 
forming an island, on which stand the Prefecture and Theatre. Beyond lies 
the large island of Chambiere, recognisable by its parade-ground and 
cemeteries. 




METZ. PLACE D ARMES A>'l) HC)TEL-DE-VILLE 

The Hotel-de-Ville 

On leaving the Cathedral the tourist should next visit the Town Hall, also 
in the Place d'Armes (1766-1771). The architecture is simple: fagade 
embellished with two pediments and handsome railings. A portico leads to 
a fine staircase. Opposite the balustrade is a bas-relief in white marble on 
which are engraved the famous lines of Ausonius : "Salve magna parens 
frugiimque virumque Mosella ..." (" Hail, O Moselle ! illustrious mother of 
fruits and of men.") 

In the interior are large rec('i)ti(in-roonis. in which the public meetings 
of the Academy are held. The Academy of Metz was founded in 1760 by 
Marshal de Belle-Isle under the title of " The Royal Society of Literature, 
Science and Art," and endowed with the sum of sixty thousand " livres." 
Suppressed at the Revolution, then restored on March 14, 1819, with the 
motto " Useful," it obtained the title of "Royal Academy " from Charles X. 
on September 5. 1828. It consists of thirty-six titular members, eighteen 
resident members, and four honorary corresponding and associate members. 
The Academy largely contributed to maintain French culture in Lorraine 
during the German annexation. 

In the grand staircase there are three windows, erected in 1852, in the 
middle, the Duke of Guise after the siege of Metz ; on the right. Bishop Bertram 
of Metz ; on the left. Sheriff Pierre Baudoche (1464-1489). 

The flag which now flies over the building is the one which was there in 



127 




PLAN OF ESPLANADE 

1870, and which was carefully preserved in the Carnavalet Museum in Paris. 
It was restored to the Mayor of Metz by the Vice-President of the Town 
Council of Paris on December 25, 1918. 

Leaving the Town Hall take Rue Fabeit on the left of the Place d'Arrnes, 
then its continuation (Rue des Clercs). At the end of the latter, on the left, is 
the Place de la Republique, and on the right the Esplanade. 

The fine Promenade de I'Esplanade served as a parade-ground for the 
garrison troops, who defileil ahiiii; the first row of plane-trees, past the statue 
of Marshal Ney {by Petre, 1855). Ney. Duke of Elchingen and Prince of 





{.KOtJP OK LOHKAINE (;IKL.S AT FOOT OF 
MARSHAL NEY's STATUE 



128 




STATUE OF EMPEROR WILHELM I. TAKEN DOWN BY 

HIS " GRATEFUL SUBJECTS " OF METZ. IT WAS 

REPLACED BY A STATUE OF " LE POILU " 

Moskowa, was bi»rr. al Sarrelouis. He is represented, rifle in hand, ready 
to fire. 

Go to the end of the Esplanade, beyond the handstand on the terrace; mag- 
nificent view of the Hill and Fort of St. Quentin, Fort Plappeville and the 
Moselle. The island of Saulcy, on which stands the powder-factory, is just 
opposite. 

It was on this terrace that the bronze equestrian state of Kaiser Wilhelm I. 




THE " POILU " STATUE, WHICH REPLACES 
THAT OF WILHELM \. 



129 




PROMENADE DE LA MOSELLE 



(18921 used to stand. According to the inscription on the pedestal the statue 
was erected by the Emperor's " grateful people/' The conqueror was repre- 
sented pointing to the Moselle and the powerful forts of Plappeville and 
St. Quentin which protect the town. 

The "grateful people" dragged this statue off its pedestal into the mud 
a few days before the French entered the town, and on the night of January 6 
replaced it with a statue " To the Victorious Poilu," bearing the inscription 
" On les a " (variation of the famous rallying cry " On les aura ") as a pleasant 
surprise for Marshal Petain who. next day, was to decorate sixteen regiments 
with the " fourragere " cord and bestow decorations on various officers and 
soldiers. This statue was made in seven days by the local sculptor Bouchard 
(photos, p. 128). 

In the Esplanade stands the Palais-de- Justice (1776), on the site of the 
former Hotel de la Haute-Pierre, the property of the Duke of Suffolk, lover of 
Mary Tudor. Queen of England. He had this mansion pulled down and the fine 
Hotel de Suffolk built, which, for a long time, served as the Government 
House. Finally, in 1776, Clairisseaux built the present palace. The iron 
railings of the grand staircase and, in the inner court, two bas-reliefs — 
one recalling the humanity of the Duke of Guise in succouring the soldiers 
of the Duke of Albe after the raising of the siege ; the other glorifying the 
peace concluded in 1783 between England, France, Spain, the United .Slateg 
of America and Holland, are especially noteworthy. 



130 



STATUE OF 

KAISER 

FREDERICK 

CHARLES 

DRAGGED 

DOWN FROM 

ITS 

PEDESTAL 

BY THE 

PEOPLE OF 

METZ 




Rt'liini lo the Place de la Repuhlique and take on the right the Avenue de la 
Citadelle, which separates the Esplanade from the Place de la Republique. Fol- 
low this avenue, ivhich soon skirts on the left the Engineers' Barracks, and a 
garden. 

Beyond the garden, turn to the left into the Avenue da Marechal Joffre, 
which leads to the Place du Roi-George iin front of the old railway station). 
It was here that the statue of Kaiser Frederick III. was pulled down by the 
people. Not far from this sqmtre may be seen a round tower — a relic of the 
ramparts of the Middle Ages. 

Turning his back on the old railway station, the tourist next takes Avenue 
Scrpenoise (beside the gardens), along which run the tram lines. On the left is 
the Serpenoise Gate (1852). 

Continue along the Avenue, ivhich skirts, on the left, first the Engineers' 
Barracks, then Place de la Republique. 

Beyond the latter the Avenue is continued by Rue Serpenoise — the busiest 
street in Metz — ivhich take. Rue Ladoucette, ivhich continues it, leads to Rue 
Fournirue. 

Take the latter on the right, then Rue du Change (which continues it to the 
risht) to Place St. Louis. 



SERPENOISE 
GATE, 

leading to 

lite Place dc la 

RcpiihUqne. 




131 








PLACE ST. LOUIS AND THE ARCADES 

In former times, Place St. Louis (or Place du Change) was occupied by 
sixty moneychangers" stalls. Several of the iiouses in the square have retained 
their battlements, pointed or semicircular arches, tricusped windows and 
Renaissance balconies. The name of St. Louis comes from a statue of Louis 
XIII., found among the ruins of the citadel and which the Cure of St. 
Simplice took for one of Louis IX. Mystery plays used to be acted in the 
square, which later was used for the execution of criminals. Finally, it became 
the corn market. 

At the end of the square take Rue Royale, then turn to the left into Rue 
Coislin, which skirts the Coislin Barracks. 

At the end of Rue Coislin take Rue Pont-d-Ssille to Place des Charrons. 
then, at the end of this sqmire. Rue du Grand-Wad, to the Rempart des Alle- 
mands. Follcw the latter to the left as far as the German Gate. 




,^^des 
lemanc 5 



PLAN OF PLACE ST. LOUIS 



132 




ruKTi-: uios ALLi:.\iAM)s ((,i:itMA.\ gate) 
Seen from the Qiiai des Allemands. 

The German Gate, on tlie lianks of the Seille, is a remarkable structure. 

Mention of it occurs as early as 1324. In the 15th century it was com- 
pletely restored by the architect Henri de Banceval. 

Opposite the Gate take the Rue des Allemands ; on the right is the inter- 
esting Church of St. Rucaire. Continue to Place des Paraiges. 




THE GERMAN GATE 



133 




THE 

GERMAN 

GATE 



Seen from 
^^S^5 the right 
-- — ■ hank of 




THE TAN-YAROS 



134 




At the end of the square, lake Rue Saulnerie to the right {continued on the 
left by Rue dii Paradis), which leads to Rue des Capucins. At the end of the 
latter is Place des Marechaux, in which stands the Church of St. Segolene, 
built on the site of an oratory founded by St. Segolene in the 8th century. The 
present church, built at two different periods (the choirs, nave and portal are 
earlier than the aisles), dates from about the 13th century. Long, narrow 
v.'indows, mostly double, end in stanchions. The two side chapels contain fine 
stained-glass. Note the curious open-work gallery of the organ loft, and several 
interesting paintings. 

Turn to the left and take the Rue des Trinitaires. Skirt an old building 
with a square turret, beside a doorway — '' Hostel St. Ligier " — then turn to the 
right into Rue de la Bibliotheque. 

In this street, at the corner of Rue Chevreniont, there is a large building 
(formerly the Church of the Petits-Carmes), the work of Sebastian Leclerc, in 
which are housed both the library (80,000 volumes and 1,987 manuscripts) and 
the Museum (local archaeology, natural history, objects of art and three rooms 
of pictures). 

Besides the museum, take Rue Chevrem^nt, ivhich runs into Rue de la 
Boucherie. in which turn to the left to St. Georges Bridge over the Moselle. 

Cross this bridge, from which there is a lovely view, and take the Rue du 
Pont St. Georges. Rue Chambiere opens at once on the right, and leads to 
Chambiere Cemetery, in which are the graves of the French soldiers who fell 
in the siege of 1870. 

The road passes between the large slaughter house and cattle market, and 



135 




fej^ 



MOSELLE RIVER 
Seen from St. George's Bridge. 

huts serving as iin army .stores. Cross an old cemetery, in the middle of whicli 
are several moiuimeiital tdmbs. Skirt the Jewish cemetery and the Moselle, as 
far as the Military Cemetery : numerous graves under the trees. In the centre 
stands a pyramid thirty-seven feet high, with a great number of piled up 
coffins carved on the base. Here lie the soldiers who died in the Metz hospitals 
of wounds received in the battles of Borny, Gravelotte, St. Privat, Servigny, 
Peltre and Ladonchamps — 7.203 in number. 




MOSELLE RIVER A:<D ST. GEORGE S BRIDGE 



136 

On the priiitipal fa(;aile is a bas-relief in white marble representing religion, 
taken from a disnsed vault belonging lo the de Salse family. On the other side 
are inscriptions. At the base of the i)>rami(l is the insrription : " The W omrii 
of Met: lo lliDsc uhom they nursed." 

Beside the pyramid there is a monument lo the memory of the fallen French 
officers. 

For forty-eight years wreaths, tri-colour cockades and ribbons were piously 
placed on these graves, and on each anniversary day the women of Metz 
covered them with flowers. 

Take Rue du Pont St. Georges to Rue St. Vincent {on the left), which 
follow, then turn to the right into Rue des Benedictins. 

Apply at No. 7 to visit the Church of St. Clement. 




Founded in 1668, the choir, nave and aisles were begun in 1680 by Spinga, 
an Italian. The portal was damaged during the Revolution. To-day the 
church forms part of the college founded by the Jesuits. A fine cloister with 
a well should be visited. 

Return to Rue des Benedictins and follow it as far as Rue St. Vincent {on 
the left), ivhich leads to the square of the same name, ivhere stands the curious 
Church of St. Vincent, founded in 1248. 

Partially destroyed by fire in 1711, by an apostate monk, it was used as a 
stable during the Revolution, and then as a hospital in 1814. Once more a 
church, a portal in composite style was added. The graceful nave on twelve 
shafted pillars, the symmetrical choir and the fine chapels in pointed style are 
well worth seeing. 

Continue along Rue St. Vincent, on the other side of the square. Its con- 
tinuation. Rue St. Marcel, leads to Rue du Pont-d-Mort, into which turn to 
the left. 



137 




ST. MARCEL BRIDGE AND THE PROTESTANT CHURCH 

Seen from Moyen Bridge. 

Cross the Moselle by Moyen Bridge (lovely view). Take Rue St. Marie, 
which continues the bridge, then Rue du Faisan on the left, leading to the 
pretty little Place de Chambre. This square owes its name to the Knights of 
Malta, who in 1323 lived there in a castle called Petit St. Jean. 

From the Place de Chambre return to the Cathedral and to the Place 
d'Armes by the narrow Rue d'Estrees. 




MOYEN BRIDGE 



138 




MOYEN BRIDGE AND THE CATHEDRAL 

^"('('j( from SaiiUy I\-Iaud. 

THIRD DAY 
METZ-ETAIN-VERDUN 

{See Itinerary, pp. 138-139) 

Leave Metz (Place d' Amies) by Rue (FEstrees, cross Place de Chambre 
(soon reached on the left), take Rue Faisan, then Rue St. Marie, leading to 
Moyen Bridge over an arm of the Moselle. Cross the bridge and take Rue du 




139 




THE PREFECTURE BRIDGE 

Pont-a-Mort. Cross the ramparts, then the second arm of the Moselle. Take 
Rue de Paris and follow the tram lines towards Moulins ; after crossing the 
second belt of ramparts and the railivay, the route turns to the left. 

The road hereabouts is bordered with fine trees. After passing through 
Ban-St. -Martin (Infantry Barracks on the right) and Longeville-les-Metz, 
the tourist arrives at Moulins. 

At the fork, take the I erdun road, on the right, nhich passes in front of the 
barracks. 

Two hundred yards beyond Moulins leave on the right the Briey road, and 
at the milestone marked " Metz 7 km.." turn to the left into the uphill road to 
Gravelotte. 



---ffe 



^A>7/^«S 






68 K 



N S^Privat 



CohfJ^S^fenJarnisy 




Doncourt 

<5'7"^S>v. la Malmaison 



Gravelotte) 






'i:o/Z 



^'^'/L 



J™d'A) 



N.5 . 






>:l;x^_-^-.-_^_ ^--^-oflezonville 

l'\, n . ., ''M Chateaii %] |v 

\iChamb/ey Ponta-MoussoUlP/ Ja///?AV '^'.V, 



Jorn 



r 



140 

Near milestone " Metz 9 km." there is a fine view of Melz : in the fore- 
ground the village of Rozerieulles is seen in the valley ; /// the background, the 
Moselle valley and Metz. 

At the top of Hill 342, the road passes near Joan-of-Arc Fort, formerly the 
German fort " Kaiserin." It stands about 300 yards to the right of the road. 
The latter, a little further on, turns sharply to the left near a monument sur- 
rounded with trees, which was erected to the memory of the soldiers who 
fell in 1870. Several graves bear the inscription : " Krieger v. 18 8-1870." 

St. Hubert Farm is soon reached, then the deep Ravine of Mance, along 
which tlie defeated Germans were forced to retreat in the course of the great 
battle of August 16, 1870. fought between the villages of Gravelotte (tvhich the 
tourist soon reaches), Rezonville and Mars-la-Tour {further ivest) . 

In Gravelotte (12 km. 700 from Metz) take the road to Doncourt (D.I.) on 
the right, in front of the Post Office. The road passes close to Mogador Farm, 
from which Kaiser Wilhelm I. saw his troops thrown into confusion and beat- 
ing a hurried retreat under the cover of night. 

After passing in front of Malmaison Farm, /he old frontier is crossed. 

Eight kilometres 900 beyond Gravelotte, Doncourt village is reached. Cross 
through and keep straight on along D.I. After passing by Jarny Mines, the road 
crosses the railivay (I.e.) and enters Jarny village, 4 km. from Doncourt. 
Several houses were destroyed and the church badly damaged. 

Two kilometres beyond Jarny, Conflans-en-Jarnizy is reached. Several 
of the houses were destroyed. Go through the village and at the far end taHj 
the Etain road. 5 Av?;. from Conflans, Jeandelize is reached. The church [on 
the right) was torn open by shells. Note the Renaissance doors of several of 
tlie houses. 

Keep straight on. Olley village [on the right) is passed, 2 km. beyond 
Jeandelize. There is a large German cemetery fifty yards from the road on the 
right. 

St. Jean-les-Buzy and Buzy (the latter 11 km. from Conflans) are passed 
through, after which Hill 198 — on which is a German stronghold with block- 
house, trenches and barbed-wire entanglements — is reached. 

The partly-destroyed village of Warcq is next passed through, after ivhich 
2 km. further on, Etain is reached. 




«i-it^sSS^-. 



NEAR GRAVELOTTE. GRAVES Ol 1KI..M:I1 .sULDllJis 
WHO FELL ON AUGUST 18, 1870 



141 




ETAIN. RUINED CHURCH AND HOUSES 
Seen from the bridge oz'er the Orne, on the road to Verdun. 

ETAIN 

Etain was looted by the Swedes in 1622. during the reign of Louis XIII. 
Later, it was often taken and retaken by the French, Germans. Spaniards and 
Lorrains. Its fortifications were destroyed under Louis XIV. By the Treaty 
of Vienna (I8th century) the town was definitely ceded to France. 

In October. 1792, Kellermann's advance guards, in pursuit of the Prussians, 
encamped at Etain. 




ETAIN. THE TOWER AND SOUTH FRONT OF THE CHLIRCH 

The toivcr was nsed as an observation-post by the Germans. 



142 




ETAIN. CHEVET AxND NORTH FRONT OF CHURCH 

In 1914, the town was bombarded by the Germans on August 24, from 
1 p.m. to 2 a.m. the next day, and again on the 25th at 11 o'clock, with 
incendiary shells. 

Many of the inhal)itants were killed on tlie 24tli. On the 25th others, who 
had taken refuge in the cellars of ihe Town Hall, perished under the ruins of 
that building. 200 fled along the Verdun road. A girl telephonist remained 




ETAIN CHURCH. CENTRAL NAVE SEEN FROM THE CHOIR 



143 

at her post and kept in touch with Verdun every quarter of an hour. Her last 
message (on the 25th) was: "A bomb has just fallen on the office." 

The same day French troops routed the German XXXIIIrd D.R. in a glorious 
battle at Etain. Nevertheless, the enemy occupied the town, which was sys- 
tematically looted. Every two days train-loads of furniture, linen, wines, food, 
cloth, boots, tools and raw materials were sent to Germany. 

In April, 1915, French troops captured Hills 219 and 221, Hopital Farm 
(formerly belonging to Order of St. .lean de Rhodes) and Haut-Bois Farm, 
reaching the immediate vicinity of the town, without, however, entering it. 

In the partly destroyed town, A^. 18 is picked up again, which take to the 
left. The greatly damaged church {photos, pp. 141 and 142) is seen on the 
right. Its belfry was torn open by the bombardments, leaving visible the 
interior, where the Germans had installed an observation-post. 

ViuUet-le-Duc considered the Church of Etain, with its three naves, as one 
of the five most remarkable churches in the Meuse province. Begun in the 
13th century, it was completed in the 15th. The imposing choir, with its 
large, many-mullioned windows, is 15th century. In the right aisle are a 
remarkable holy-water basin, and a statue of Our Lady of Mercy by Ligier 
Richier. The basin is of bell-metal and, like those of Nevers and Bourges, 




Kli 



".h\u sovipsic, RDPo nofp- mDXKvni 



ETAIN (Mil IU:H. LK.IKIi HIIHIKKS "DESCENT FROM THE CROSS 



144 



Tavannes 
Fort 



Vaux Fort 



Douaumont Fort 




PANORAMIC VIEW O 



Moulainville 
Fort 





FIEVETERIi; I- Alf\l AMI \II.1,A(;E OF EIX 

Seen from I he Verdmi roinl, 



145 



Twin Hills 
of Ornes 





HE MEUSE HEIGHT^ 



shaped like a mortar, but the epitaph round it proves its sacred origin. The 
Ligier-Richier group (1528) represents the Virgin Mary gazing on the dead 
body of Christ. It differs slightly from that of Clermont-en-Argonne. attributed 
to the same sculptor. 

Beyond Etain. V. 18 crosses the Onir sticniu ^ photo, p. 1 111 tniil the militdiy 
defences of the town, of luhich several concrete ivorfis remain. 

The road crosses W^oi'vre Plain. Shortly before reaching the level-crossing, 
before arriving at the railivay station and tillage of 
Abaucourt, the Meuse Heights can clearly be seen 
nil tilt- horizon, at the end of Woevre Plain (pano- 
rama above) . 

Go through Abaucourt hazed Id the grmindl to 
Fieveterie Farm i in ruins (. nhich lies at the foot 
of the Mease Heights i photo, p. Mil. / road starts 
on the left oj the jarm and leads to the small ruined 
village of Eix, uliicli was the scene (d fierce fighting 
throughout the war. 

The road up the Meuse Heights is fairly steep and , passes hetneen the 
Forts of Souville and Tavannes ion the right) and Moulainville Fort * on 
the left). It then descends in a gentle slope to i'erdan. nhich is entered by 
the Faubourg Pave and Chaussee Gate. 




146 



CONTENTS 



American Forces engaged ..... 
Map of Meuse Defences in 1914 ..... 
Military Operations in the St. Mihiel Salient, 1914-1918 
American Oflensive in the St. Mihiel Salient. 1918 
General Map of the ground covered by the Itineraries . 

FIR.ST ITINERARY 
Vkrihin to Commf:rcy 

Map 

Calonne Trench 

Eparges .... 

Hattonchatel 

Vigneulles to St. Mihiel. via Chaillon 

Vigneulles to St. Mihiel, via Apreniont. Hn'ile Wood. 

Wood 
Braie Wood . 
Ailly Wood 

St. Mihiel during the War 
Visit to St. Mihiel . 
The Seven Rocks 
Chauvoncourt 
Fort Paroches 
Fort Camp-des-Romains . 
Plan of Commercy . 



and 



Ailly 



PAGES 

4-7 

8 

9-20 

14-19 

21 



22-71 
22 
24-27 
28-33 
37-39 
41 

42-46 

46-49 

50-52 

53-54 

55-69 

62 

63 

61-65 

69-70 

71 



SECOND ITINERARY 
(rt) Commercy to Pont-a-Mousson 

Map . 

Thiaucourt 

Pont-a-Mousson 

Mousson 

Pretre Wood 
(h) Pont-a-Mousson to 

Map . 

Metz 

The Fortifications 

After the Armistice 

Plan of Metz . 

Visit to the Town 

The Cathedral 



72-108 

72 

87-88 

89-96 

97-101 

102-108 

109-137 

109 

113-137 

115 

116-119 

120 

121-137 

122-125 



THIRD ITINERARY 



Metz to Verdun, lia Etain 
Map 
Etain 



138-145 
138-139 
141-143 



w 



> 

A. 

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MICHELIN ILLUSTRATED GUIDES 
TO THE BATTLEFIELDS (1914-1918) 

THE AMERICANS 
GREAT WAR 

VOLUME I. 
THE SECOND BATTLE OF THE >L\RNE 

(CHATEAU THIERRY. SOISSOXS, EISMES j 






'Price $ 1 



MICHELIN & Cie.. CLERMONT-FERRAND 

MICHELIN TYRE Co. Ltd.. 81 Fulham Road. LONDON. S W 

MICHELIN TIRE Co.. MILLTOWN. N. J , U. S. A. 



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o: 



MICHELIN ILLUSTRATED GUIDES 
TO THE BATTLEFIELDS (1914-1918) 

THE AMERICANS 
GREAT WAR 



VOLUME III. 
MEUSE ARGONNE BATTLE 

(MONTFAUCON, ROMAGNE, ST MKNKHOl LD) 






'Price 



$1 



MICHELIN & Cie.. CLERMONT-FERRAND 

MICHELIN TYRE Co. Ltd.. 81 Fulham Road. LONDON. S W. 

MICHELIN TIRE Co.. MILLTOWN. N J , U. S. A. 



PRINTED IN THE U S A 
9Y THE ESSFX PRESS, INC.. NEWARK 



BEAUTIFUL FRANCE 

Paris and its Environs 



PARIS — home of grandeur, elegance, and wit — plays a 
part in France probably unequalled in any other country, and 
may be considered, in many respects, as the chief city of 
Europe, and one of the greatest in the world. Above all, it 
possesses eminently national qualities which ten centuries of 
refinement and taste have handed down to contemporary 
France. 

It is impossible, in a few lines, to paint the exceptional 
charms of Paris which the whole world admires. 

Its vistas of the Champs-Elysees seen from the Tuileries 
and the Arc de Triomphe; of Notre-Dame and the point of 
the City Island seen from La Concorde Bridge; of the River 
Seine, the Institute, the Louvre, seen from the Pont-Neuf 
embankment; Notre-Dame and its quays, seen from the end 
of St. Louis Island; the panorama of the city seen from the 
top of Montmartre Hill; the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne 
and the Bois de Boulogne itself, etc., etc. — all are of incom- 
parable beauty. 

The city's historical monuments are of inestimable value, 
and the most famous art treasures are to be found in its 
Museums. 

The surroundings of Paris join the charm of their landscapes 
to the world-wide fame of their parks and castles: Versailles, 
whose palace and park recall the splendour of the Louis XIV. 
period, and where the "Trianons" have preserved graceful 
traces of the Court of Marie Antoinette; St. Germain, with 
its castle and forest; St. Cloud and its park; Sevres and its 
world-renowned art porcelain factory; La Malmaison, home 
of Bonaparte before he became Napoleon I.; Rambouillet, 
Fontainebleau, Chartres with its marvelous cathedral. Main- 
tenon, Dreux, etc. — all these form a girdle round Paris such 
as no other metropolis in the world can boast of. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
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Drop a line, ring us up, or call at one of our 
Touring Offices and you will receive a carefully 
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AT 

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UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 



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Hotel de Metz, 23, Rue Chanzy. 
E. Depors, 3, Rue Chanzy. 

VERDUN 

Hostellerie du Coq Hardi, 8, Rue du St. Esprit 

(between the Rue Mazel and the Meuse) 

Hotel du Lion d'Or, Place Saint Paul 

(Opposite the Sub-Prefecture) 



Grand Garage Central Rochette, 22, Rue de la 
Riviere. Inspection pit. Petrol. Telephone No. 50. 



The above information may no longer be exact when it 
meets the reader's eye. Tourists are therefore recommended 
to consult the Michelin Touring Office. 

Before setting out on a motoring tour, whethe^ Jn the British 
Isles or abroad, call or write to: 

THE MICHELIN 
TOURING OFFICE 

81, Fulham Rd., London. 
S.W. 3, 

who will be pleased to furnish all desired information and a 
carefully worked-out itinerary of the route to be followed 
free of charge.