(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "American slavery as it is: : testimony of a thousand witnesses"

Uij'iVJitih. 



!»': 



,i-:^^ 












f 1 1 i '(' \' '■''''■■.;•'■;','" : 



■ Viblb.b 




^_ 



Given Bv > 



MERICAN SLAVERY 



AS IT is: 



TESTIMONY 



OF 



A THOUSAND WITNESSES, 



" Behold the wicked abominations that they do !" — Ezekiel, viii. 9. 

"The righteous considereth the cause of the poor; but the wielded regardeth not to know it." — Prov. 29, 7. 

True humanity consists not in a squeamish ear, but in listening to the story of human suifering and endea- 
voring to relieve it." — Charles James Fox. 



N E W Y O R K ; 
PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY, 

OFFICE, No. 143 NASSAU STREET, 

1 8 3 9„ 



V 



ADVERTISEMENT TO THE READER. 

A MAJORirr of the facts and testimony contained in this work rests upon the autliority of 
SLAVEHOLDERS, whose names and residences are given to the pubhc, as vouchers for the truth of 
their statements. That they should utter falsehoods, for the sake of proclaiming their 
own infamy, is not probable. 

Their testimony is taken, mainly, from recent newspapers, published in the slave states. Most 
of those papers will be deposited at the office of the American Anti-Slavery Society, 143 Nas- 
sau street. New- York City. Those who think the atrocities, which they describe, incredible, 
are invited to call and read for themselves. We regret that all of the original papers are not io 
our possession. The idea of preserving them on file for the inspection of the incredulous, and the 
curious, did not occur to us until after the preparation of the work was in a state of forwardness . 
in consequeuce of this, some of the papers cannot be recovered. Nearly all of them, however 
have been preserved. In all cases the name of the paper is given, and, with very few excep- 
tions, the place and time, (year, month, and day) of publication. Some of the extracts, however 
not being made with reference to this work, and before its publication was contemplated, are 
without date ; but this class of extracts is exceedingly small, probably not a thirtieth of the whole 

The statements, not derived from the papers and other periodicals, letters, books, &c., pub- 
lished by slaveholders, have been furnished by individuals who have resided in slave states, many 
of whom are natives of those states, and have been slaveholders. The names, residences, &c. 
of the witnesses generally are given. A number of them, however, still reside in slave states ;— 
to publish their names would be, in most cases, to make them the victims of popular fury. 

Ne7v.Yorlc, May 4, 1839. 



NOTE. 

The Executive Committee of thn American Anti-Slavery Society, while tendering their prate 
fill arkiiiiwl(-(j)rnicnt)<, in the nani<- of American AI>'>litioniiitN, and in lichalf of the iilavc, to those 
who iiavc- fiiniiNlicii for lliis puhliration the rcHult of their nRidcncc and travel in the slave ■tatcM ol 
(hit< Tnion, announce their determination to puhlixh, from time to time, a« they may have the ma- 
torials and the fnndH, tractb, eontainin^r well authenticated facta, tertimony, pcrnonal narralivcn, 
ic. fully 8cttin(r forth the condition of American nlave«. In ordiT tJiat tlicy maybe fumtDhcd wit}i 
the requibitc materialB, they invite all who have had perwinal knowl<-d(re of the condition of »laves 
in any of the states of this Union, to forward their testimony with their name« and residences. To 
prevent impoHilion, it is indinprnsable that persons forwarding testimony, who are not pcnonally 
known to any of the Executive Committee, or to tlie Secretaries or Editors of the American Anti. 
Slavery Society, should furnish references to some person or persons of rcspcctabthty, with whom, if 
necessary, the Committee may communicate respecting the writer. 

F'acts and testimony resiK;cting tlic condition of slaves, in all retprctg, arc desired ; their food, 
(kinds, quality, and quantitj',) clothing, lodging, dwellings, hours of lalxjr p^nd rest, kinds of labor, 
with the mode of exaction, super\i8ion, &lc. — the number and time of meals each day, treatment 
wJien sick, regulations respecting their social intercourse, marriage and domestic tics, the system 
of torture to which tlicy are subjected, with its various modes; and in detail, their intelltctual 
and moral condition. Great care should be observed in the statement of facts. Well-weighed 
tcstwnony and well-authenticated facts, with a responsible name, the Committee earnestly desire 
and call for. Thousands of persons in the free states have ample knowledge on tJiis subject, de- 
rived from their own olisen-ation in the midst of ulavery. Will such hold their peace ? That which 
maketli manifest is lip/it; he who kecjK-lli his candle tmder a b ushel at such a time and in sneh 
a cause as this, forges fetters for himself^ as well as for the slave. Let no one withhold his tcsti. 
mony because others have already testified to similar facts. The value of testimony is by no 
means to be measured by the uocellij of the horrors which it describes. Corroboratire testimony, 
— facts, similar to those established by the testimony of others, — is highly valuable. Who that 
can give it and has a heart of flesh, will refuse to the slave so small a l)oon ? 

Communications maybe addressed to Theodore D. Weld, 1 13 Naasau-slrcct, New York. 
Now York, May, 1833. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction.— 7-10. 

Tweiily-sevcn huiidiiMl tliou.sniul free born citizens of 
t'lc U. S. in slavery, 7 ; Tender mercies of Hliiveliolderu, 8 : 
Al)oniiMations of shivery, 9: Cliaracter of llic leslimo- 
ny, 9-10. 

I'ersonal Narratives — Part I. pp. 10-27. 

Narr.\.tive op Neiiemiah Cai;lkin.9, 102; Nortli 
Carolina slavery, 11 ; Methodist prcacliiiiK slavcdrivcr, 
Galloway, 12 : Women at cliildhirtli, 12 : Slaves 
at labor, 12: Clothing of slaves, 13; Allowance of 
provisions, 13 ; Slavo-fetters, 1.3 ; Cruelties to slaves, 13, 
14, l.'i , Burying a slave alive, 15 ; Licentiousness of Slave- 
holders, 15, IC; Rev. Tliomas P.Hunt, with his "hands 
tied," 16 ; Preachers cringe to slavery, 15 ; Nakedness of 
slaves, 16 ; Slave-huts, IC ; Rleans of subsisteme for 
slaves, 16, 17 ; Slaves' prayer, 17. 

Narruative op Rev. IIoRAnr, Moblton, 17 ; Labor 
nf tlie slaves, 18 ; Tasks, 18 ; Whipping posts, 18 ; Food, 
IS; Houses, 19; Clotliing, 19; Punishments, 19, 20; 
Scones of horror, 20 ; Constables, savage and brutal, 20 ; 
Patrols, 20; Cruellies at night, 20,21; Paddle-torturing, 
20 ; Cat-haulinff, 21 ; Branding with hot iron, 21 ; Murder 
with unpunity, 21; Iron collars, yolves, clogs, and bells, 21. 

Narrative of Sarah M-Grimke, 22; BarbaxausXtsak, 
unent of slaves, 22-; Converted sla ve, 22 ; Professor of reli- 
gion, near ^saXlj j^torturc ti his" slave for visiting his com- 
pacion, r>3; Counterpart of James Williams' description of 
Larrimore's wif\ 3. 23 ; Head of runa way slave on a pole, 
23 ; Governor of NorthjCarolina left liis sick slave to per- 
ish, 23 ; Cruelty "to Jk3ioaien slaves, 34 ; Christian slave a 
mart)T for Jesus , 24. 

Testimo ny o p Rev. John Graham, 25 ; Twenty-seven 
slaves whippecl^ ~6. 

Testimo^SSp-William Poe, 26 ; Harris whipped a 
ghl to death, 26;_Captain of the U. S. Navy murdered 
his boy, was tried and acquitted, 2G ; Overseer burut a 
slave, 26 : Ci-uelties to slaves, 26. 

Privations of the slaves, pp. 27 — 44- 

FOOD, 28-31 ; Suffering from hunger, 28 ; Ration? in 
tlie U. S. Army, &c , 32 ; Prison rations, 33-34 ; Testimo- 
ny, 31, &5. LABOR, 35 ; Slaves are overworked, 35 ; Wit- 
nesses, 35, 36 ; Henry Clay, 37 ; Child-bearing preveuted, 
37 : Dr. Channing, 38 ; Sacrifice of a set of hands every 
seven years, 38 ; Testimony, 39 ; Laws of Georgia, Louis- 
iana, Maryland, South Carolina, and Virginia, 39. 
CLOTHING, 40 ; Witnesses, 40, 41 ; Advertisements, 
41 ; Testimony, 41 ; Field-hands, 41 ; Nudity of slaves, 
42 ; John Randolph's legacy to Essex and Hetty, 42. 
DWELLINGS, 42 ; Witnesses, 43 ; Slaves are wretchedly 
sheltered and lodged, 43. TREATMENT OF THE 
SICK, 44. 

Personal Narratives, Part II. pp 45-57. 

Testimony of the Rev. Wiilliam T. Allan. 45; 
Woman delivered of a dead child, being whipped, 40 ; 
Slaves shot by Hilton, 46 ; Cnielties to slaves, 46 ; 'vVliii> 
ping post, 46 ; Assaults, and mairaings, 46, 47 ; Mur- 
ders, 47; P urvear. " th e Devil," 47; Overseers always 
armed, 44 ; Licentiousness of Overseers, 47 ; " Bend your 
backs," 47 ; Mrs. H., a Presbyterian, desirous to cut Arthur 
Tappan's throat, 47 ; Clothing, Huts, and Herding of 
slaves, 47 ; Lon yokes with prongs, 47 ; Marriage un- 
known among slaves, 46 ; Presbyterian minister at Huats- 
viUe, 47 ; Concubinage in Preacher]s house, 47 ; Slavery, 
the great WTong, 47. 

Narrative of William Lfftwich, 48, 49 ; Slave's life, 
48, 49. 



Testimony of Lrmtel SArisoTOK, 49 ; Nakedaew of 
slaves, 49 ; Traffic In slaves, 49. 

Ti'.sriMONY OK Mr.-!. Ijtlwuy, 50 ;. Long, a profitaor of 
rt'lig|on killed three men, .50 ; Salt water applied to 
wouihU to keep them from putrefacti(m,50. 

Testimony of William C. Gildersleeve, 50 ; Act* of 
cruelty, .50. 

Testimony oc Hiram White, 51 ; Woman with a child 
chained to h«r neck, 51 ; Amalgamation, and mulatto 
children, 51. 

Testimony op John M. Nelson, 51 ; Rev. Conrad 
Speece influenced Alexander Nelson when dying not to 
emancipate his slaves, 52 ; George Bourne opposed slavery in 
1810, 52. ^^ 

Testimony of Angelina Grimke Weld, 52 ; House- 
servants, 52 ; Slave-driving female_ptQfess2rs_pf religion at 
Ciiarloston, S. C, 53 ; Wliippuig v iomcn and praye r in the 
same room, 53 ; Tre ad-mill^. 53 ; Slaveholding- religion, 
54 ; Slave-driving-jnistress prayed for the divine blessing 
upon her wlnpping of an ''af'^l.'^'^""^''"i n^ I Gir| .J^jllfd yith 
impunity, 54 ; Jewish law, 54.;- Baxharities, 54 ; M«*lical 
atlendanco upoT slaves, 55 ; Young man ieatetio epilepsy 
and insanity ,_554J^istrcsscs_JlDg-their slaves, 53; Blood- 
bouglit luxiities,.55^-IJ.arxQ\.vlng^Q£ slaves, 55 ; Meals of 
slaves, 55 ;_AlLcaiiiiJLl£Lof slaves disregarded, 56 ; Severance 
ofcorapaniguJoaiia. 56 : Separation of jiarents and children, 
50 ; Slave espionage, 57 ; Sufferings of slaves, 57 ; Horrors 
of slavery indescribaDte7^6. 

Testimony of Cruelty inflicted tjpon slaves, 57 ; 
Colonization Society, 00 ; Emancipation Society of North 
Carolina, 60 ; KcntuckyTBT. ~' 

PUNISHMENTS, 62^72 ; Floggings, 62; Witne^es aiid 

Testimony, 62^ 63. - — - ' 

Slave Driving, 69 JJxovcs of slaves, 70. 
Cruelty to Slaves, 70 ; ^laves like Stock \vithout at 

shelter, 71 ; "Six pound paddle," TlT" ^- 

Tortures qf-IEaves ^ Iron' coUars, chaiis, fetters, and 
hand-cuffs, 72-76 : Adxertisemeirts fotJusitive slaves, 73 : 

Testimonyj^ 74, 75j Iron head-frame, 76': Ciiain coffles, 

76 ;"Droves.^QJiuman cattle,' 7(5 : Washington, the Na- 



tional slave market, 76 : TestiiuBny of James K. Pauld- 
ing, Secretary of the Navy ; Literary fraud and pretended 
prophecy by Mr. Paulding, 77 : Brandings, Mainiings, and 
Gun-shot wounds, 77 : Witnesses and Testimony, 77-82 : 
Mr. Sevier, senator of tlie U. S. 79: Judge Hitchcock, ot 
Mobile, 79 : Commendable fidelity to trutli in the advertise- 
ments of slaveholders, 82 : Thomas Ayletliorpe cut off a 
slave's ear, and sent it to Lewis Tappan, 33 : Adveetise- 
mants for runaway slaves with their teeth muti- 
lated, 83, 84 ; Excessive cruelty to slaves, 85 : Slaves 
burned alive, 86 : Mr. Turner, a slave-butcher, 87 : 
Slaves roasted and flogged, 87 : Cruelties common, 88 : 
Fugitive slaves, 88 : Slaves forced to cat tobacco worms, 
88 : Baptist Clu-istians escaping from slavery, 83 ; Chris- 
tian whipped for praymg, SS : James K. Paulding's testi- 
mony, 89 : Slave driven to death, 89 : Coroner's inquest on 
llarney's nnirdered female slave, 89 : Man-stealing en- 
couraged by law, 90 : Trial for a murdered slave, 90: Fc 
male slave whipped to death, and during tlie torture deliv- 
ered of a dead infant, 90 : Slaves murdered, 90,91,92: 
Slave driven to death, 92 : Slaves killed «-itIi impuiniy, 
93 : George, a slave, chopped piece-meal, and burnt by 
Lilburn Lewis, 92 ; Retributive justice in the av.-ful death 
of Lilburn Lewis, 94 : Trial of Ishain Lenis, a slave mur- 
derer. 94. 



Cfmtenis. 



PlMOMAL Nabritiveii— Pa^RT III. Paoc M-100. 

Nar«4tiv> or Rtv. KnAxriii IIawlkt, M ; PUntAtlonii, 
M ; Ovi'r«rcr«, Vi ; Nu -iptK-oJ I'rum Ovcnoere to Mattcrt, 
K. 
Curnnnn, Ki ; Nudity of ulnvc*, 05. 
WuKK, U5i ('••llim |ilrkiii|!, 06 ; Mnltum of iilnvr«,On; 
Pmbylrrlnii niliilirt>T killrcl hln lUv, 96 ; M>-(h»«li«t ri>- 
loml pn-uchi-r liuiiB.lH'i ; l.lccntlouMiOB, ir7 ; HInvr irnJTic, 
V7 ; Mulit III a .SInvi lioldiT't ImuiM-, S»7 ; Twi-lvi: ulavi-H 
murtl'-riil, 117 ; SInvc ilrlvliig Itaiitlut pri-nrlnf», 97 ; limit- 
ing u( ruimw.-iyn rlnvva, 97 ; .Vmalgninntlmi, 07. 

Tr»TlMosv cir Rkirkm C. Mai v, amd Kiciurd MArr, V*. 
WhIppliiR or dlnvi-s, »*, 00. Tmtlniiiiiy iif Eltiuwr I'owil, 
90 i OviTwiT •■t'lliiuU Sliinrt, uliot ii nJave for op|>ciiiln|; tlit- 
Inrtiirf of liU rrinnlrnirniuinliMi, KNI. 

Tc-HTisiosv or Hkv. William Hi alkk, 100. Three dlavi-" 
murdori-tl with inipiiiiUy, 100 ; tM-jmratiim or lovi-rx, |>ar- 
piitu, niiil i-hililrrn, 101. 

TrjTiMo.Nv iir JnH. Id«, 101. Mm. T. a PrMhyliTliui kind 
woniiui' kllliT, KM; Trinalir Hlnvu w)iip|i<-d to di-ath, 101; 
Food, 101 ; NakcdiKtM ol' Hlnvt-n, 101 ; Uld iiinii floec'd 
after prnyiiii! for Iiih tyrant, 101 ; Slavu-huta not oscoiiirurt- 
nblf oil pig fiiiiti, 101. 

Tr.K riMoNV or Rev. riiixEAii ."mith, 101. Tcicaji, 102 j 
Suit for tin; vnliic of Binve ' property," 102; Anxoii Jont-n, 
Amli.-iiauidor from Ti'xaii, 102 ; No trial or punbthini'iit for 
the niirdtT of Hlnvps, 102 ; Slavc-huntliiR In Tcxa-i, 102; 
SiitTcrini; drives the slaves to desijalr and suicide, 102. 
Tr.jiTlMONY or Phil's Bi.ih.i, 102. lenoranceof iiortliern 
citizens res^M.TtiiiE slavery, 102,Bettins ujKin cropw, 103 ; Kx- 
tciitond cr\ieltyoftlie punishment of slaves, 103; Slavehold- 
ers excuse llieir crueltie.-! by file example of Preachers, 
and professors of religion, and Nortlieni citizens, 104 ; Novel 
torture, i'uloci/.i'd by a profes^ir of religion, KM ; Whips as 
common as tlie plough, 104 ; L'adies use cowliidi/s, witJi 
•hovel and toiij;8, 1(H. 

Testimosy or Rtv. Wm. A. Cuapis, 105. Slave-labor, 
105; Starvalion of slav-s, 103 ; Slaves lacerated, without 
clothiiie, Hnd without food, 105. 

Te^timon-s'ofT. >I. Mac-y, 105. Cotton plantations on St. 
SimiHi's Island, 105 ; Cultivntion of rice, 106 ; No time for 
relaxation, lOG ; Sabballi a nominal rest, 106 ; Clothing, 
106; Floeciiii!, in«j. 

TIST1.MOSY- or F. C. Mact, 106. Slave cabins, 106 : Food, 
106; Wliiii\)ine every day, 106; Treatment of slaves as 
brutes, lOti : Slave. itnys fwlit for slaveholder's amUboDimti 
107 ; AiniUKmiiatlon coinmo-i, 107. 

Testimony or a C'l£movman, 107. Natchez, 107 ; ' I>|e 
down,' for wliippinE, 107 ; Slave-huntine, lOf ; ' Hall and 
otmin' nun, UIH ; WhippinE at tJie snine time, on three 
plnnlationx, lUH ; Hours nf Labor, 10?*; Chriftinns slavf- 
hontinc, 108 ; M.ny runoway slaves annually shot, 108 ; 
Slaves in the s'.orks, 108 ; Slave-hrandinit, 108. 

noMniTios or Slaves, lOH. Slavery Is unmixed cruelty, 
108 ; Fear the only motive of slavi-s, 100 ; Pain U the 
ruoans, not the end of slavedrivini;, 109 ; Characters of 
Slave drivers and OvenH**'™, bnital, 8>'nsiial, and violent, 
100 ; OwnersJiip of human beings utterly destroys Ueir 
comfort, 1110. 

OnJKmONa considered :— Paor I'JO— 210. 
I. Stirh rnieliti-s are inrriililile. 110. Slaves deeuu^l to 
'M working niilinals, or mirrlmndize ; and calbd ' Slock,' 
' Increase," ' Rre< dem," ' Drivers," ' Proixcty," ' Hunion 
cattle," 1 10 ; Ti-stimony of Thomas Jeiferson, 110 ; Slav<'s 
wopx" irinted than iiuadnip<Hls, 111,112; Contrast N'twei-n 
the uK.iGe of Hlaves and anim.ils, 112; Ti-slimnny, 112 • 
Northern Inrreilulily discritlitable lo ronslsleiicy, 112; 
Rrllltlous pi'nuTulions, 113; Iteri'nl ■ l.ynrhlnes," and Riots, 
In the I'nilnl Si.nteii, 113; Many nut rnennis FeWiiiii-s ;>i'rpe- 
Iraliil with Impunity, 113 ; harje fallhof the obj<-clop< who 
■ can't li-llevi',' 114 ; • lK>e faces," and" IX>ucli fnrm,' 114, 
Slave drivers arknowl«lge riielr own enormities, 114; 
Slave planlalloiis in Alaluimn. l.oui«lana, .and Missiasippi, 
' second only to hell,' 114 ; Legislature of North CrtdIIiw, 



115; Inererl ' ■ ' -— ; fable to Intellleenee, 115; Abii« of 
power bill 'ircli<-s. 115; I..ei;alm>trainl>. lli".; 

,\mi'riran - -.tai>'«« al>~ilute power, IIG: .■^lavri 

deprlv<-d oflJx Mii<i!UUiil«of|nw,ll6; 5Iuliial av>-ri>i<in be- 
lw«-n tlie upprcMHir and the ■!«% e, 1 16 ; Cruelly ihe pr<jducl 
«f a/bllmry |»jwtr, 117 ; Tcjiilmony of Thomxt Jeir< rw.ii, 
117; Jiids'- Turker, 117; Prwhylerian Synxl of .-^..uth 
Cofolina, and timrgla, 117 ; Cenenil William II. HarrlMjn, 
117; Prealdeni fldwards, 118 ; Munlatquleu, 118; WUber 
force, IIR ; Whllbrend. IIH Chnriu-«iT«, 1|H, 121. 

OnjaiTiow II.- iey irc-aith«-ir 

slaves well.'" 121 ij-i, • (iood 

treatment" of »l.n\ ■ ...liy, 125. 

<»BJEc-no!« III' c-iaveliolders are pruvrrbial for lll< ■ 

klii<lnesN,nnd K«ier(M[||y, 125; llosfiilality and bo»cr\o|ct. 
contrasted, 12.'., 126; Slavi hoideni In Congrow, re«|«eriirig 
Texas and Hayti, l'J6 ; ' Fictiliouj kindiKsa and iMxpiuUity,* 
138. 

f»Bjrr-no!i IV.— "Northern vWton at the south twtr 
that the slave* arc not cruelly treated," iX. Toitiimor.; 
128,120; ' Cubner i)r.l«ennl,' 120; Field hond.", 120; Poi 
lor slavi-s, 130 ; Chief Jii»ilcc Diirell, 131. 

OiuieeTioji v.— " It is for llic Interrst of the roa.»tcnito 
tnat their slaves well," J32 ; Tertlmony, 133. Rev . J. N 
Maffill, 134 ; Masters Interi'st to treat cruelly the gn-at body 
of the slaves, IW, 138 ; Various clawws of slaves, 135, 1>' 
Hired slaves, 136 ; Advertisements, 136, 137. 

OBJECTin> VI:—" SIiivis multiply ; a proof that lliey are 
not inhumanly treat<'<l and are in a comfortable condition, 
130. Testimony, 13S»; M.-utln VaiiBunn, 130; Foretint 
slave trade, 130 ; ' Beware of Kidnappers,' 140; ' Citizens 
sold OS slaves," 141 ; Kidnapping at New Orlc-an«, 141 ; Slave 
breeders, 142. 

OojEmos VII. — " Public opinion is a protection to the 
slave, 143." Deciiiion of the Supreme Court of North and 
South Carolina, 143; ' Protection of »lav(^' 143; Mlschkv 
ous cfr<>ct8 of 'public opinion' concerning elaver}°, 144; 
Laws of different states, 144 ; Heart of slaveholders, 145 ; 
Reaiions for enacting the laws concemin? cruelties m 
slaves, 147 ; ' Moderate correction,' 148 ; Hypocrt-iy and 
malignity of slave laws. 148 ; Testimony of slaves excluded, 
140 ; Capital crimes for slaves, 140 ; ' Slnvohoidins brutali- 
ty,' worse tha-i that of Cali::ula. 140 ; 1' ^ ilestroys 
fundamental right.'), 150; Character < -' advcr- 
tisemenL-i, 1.V2 ; Public opinion Is ; 132,1^4; 
Hrutol indecency, 154 ; Murder of slavi's by law, 15">, lj«; 
Judge Lawless, 157; Slave-huntiiis, 150. ICO; Health of 
sloves, 161 ; .Acclimation of slaves, IS2 ; Liberty nf Sla\-es 
162 ; Kidnapping of free citizens. 1G2 ; Law of Louixiiina, 
16;i ; Friends', memorial, 164 ; Domestic fla^-erj-, 164 ; .\4- 
verti.<rments, 164, 1G7 ; Childhoodjold agr, 167: Inhumani 
ty, 169; Butchering dead slave*. 169; S'lulh Caixilina 
Medical college, 169 ; Charleston Medical InttmiarT, 172; 
Advertisements, 172, 173 ; Slave murders, 173 ; John Ran- 
dolph. 173; Charli-sloii slave auction.^, 171 ; ' Never Insr • 
day's work,' 174 ; Storks. 17.i ; Slave-bri-- ding. 173 ; I.>-ncil 
law, 175 ; Slavi-s nmrdered,lT6 ; Slaveiy among Christiana, 
176. ISO ; Licentiousness encouraged by preacher*. 190; 
'Fine old preacher who de.ilt In slaves,' li'O: Cniehv to 
slaves by profi-ssairs of nllBiim. ISI ; SIiv. ■' ' ' ^2 ; 
D.-uiiil O'Connel, and .\niln-w Stevenson 1 ■ 
negro raising menagerie, lr'2 • lA<gislature ' : ^J; 
Coloniznllon Society,!^ ; Inter-state sla^TlriUlit, l»4. Bat- 
tles In Concn-as, 184; Duelling, IM ; CockfuthUog, 196; 
llonw-raring. 186; Igiiornncc of sUvcholde/s, l?7; 'Slave- 
holding civilization, .vid morality,' I*; .Artansas. 188; 
Slave driving rulhans, li«. 190; MiMnuri, 191 ; Alahama, 
192 ; nuirherirsiii Miisiivippi, IM ; I^iouisiana. I»8 ; Ten- 
nessee, 200 ; Fatal .Affray In ColnmSio, 301; Prrsaentment 
of the (^rnnd Jury of Sli" Iby County, '2U3 : Ti«iniony of 
Bishop Smith of Kentucky. SiVJ, '2116. 

.\TLAvnr SLAvr.iiai.oiKo Rtoioji.iWI. Georgia, »8 s 
North (~arulh.a, 200 } Trading with Ncgroei, «» ; Conclu 
aion, SIO. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Reader, you arc cmpannellcd as a jiiror to try 
a plain case and bring in an honest verdict. , 
The question at issue is not one of law, but of 
fact — "What is the actual condition of the 
slaves in the United States?" A plainer case 
never went to a jury. Look at it. Twenty- 
seven HUNDRED THOUSAND PERSONS in this Coun- 
try, men, women, and children, are in slavery. 
Is slavery, as a condition for human beings, 
good, bad, or indifferent ? We submit the 
question without argument. You have common 
sense, and conscience, and a human heart ; — pro- 
nounce upon it. You have a wife, or a husband, 
a child, a father, a mother, a brother or a sister — 
make the case your own, make it theii-tj, and 
bring in your verdict. The case of Human 
Rights against Slavery has been adjudicated in 
the court of conscience times innumerable. The 
same verdict has always been rendered — " Guil- 
ty;" the same sentence has always been pro- 
nounced, " Let it be accursed ;" and human na- 
ture, with her million echoes, has rung it round 
the world in every language under heaven, " Let 
it be accursed. Let it be accursed." His heart is 
false to human nature, who will not say "Amen." 
There is not a man on earth who does not be- 
lieve that slavery is a curse. Human beings 
may be inconsistent, but human nature is true 
to herself. She has uttered her testimony 
against slavery with a shriek ever since the mon- 
ster was begotten ; and till it perishes amidst the 
execrations of the universe, she will traverse 
the world on its track, dealing her bolts upon its 
head, and dashing against it her condemning 
brand. We repeat it, every man knows that 
slavery is a curse. Whoever denies this, his lips 
libel his heart. Try him ; clank the chains in 
his ears, and tell him they are for him. Give 
him an hour to prepare his wife and children for 
a life of slavery. Bid him make haste and get 
ready their necks for the yoke, and their wrists 
for the cofHe chains, then look at his pale hps and 
trembling knees, and you have nature's testimony 
against slavery. 



Two millions seven hundred thousand persons 
in these States arc in this condition. They were 
made slaves and are held such by force, and by 
being put in fear, and this for no crime ! Reader, 
what have you to say of such treatment ? Is it 
right, just, benevolent ? Suppose I should seize 
you, rob you of your hberty, drive you into the 
field, and make you work without pay as long as 
you live, would that be justice and kindness, or 
monstrous injustice and cruelty? Now, every 
body knows that the slaveholders do these things 
to the slaves every day, and yet it is stoutly af- 
firmed that they treat them well and kindly, and 
that their tender regard for their slaves restrains 
the masters from inflicting cruelties upon them. \ 
We shall go into no metaphysics to show the 
absurdity of this pretence. The man who rohs 
you every day, is, forsooth, quite too tender- 
hearted ever to cuff or kick you ! True, he can 
snatch your money, but he does it gently lest he 
should hurt you. He can empty your pockets 
without qualms, but if your stomach is empty, it 
cuts him to the quick. He can make you work 
a life time without pay, but loves you too well 
to let you go hungry. He fleeces you of your 
rights with a relish, but is shocked if you work 
bareheaded in summer, or in winter without 
warm stockings. He can make you go without 
your liberty, but never without a sliirt. He can 
crush, in you, all hope of bettering your condition, 
by vowing that you shall die his slave, but though 
he can coolly torture your feelings, he is too com- 
passionate to lacerate your back — he can break 
your heart, but he is very tender of your skin. 
He can strip you of all protection and thus ex- 
pose you to all outrages, but if you are exposed 
to the weather, half clad and half sheltered, how 
yearn his tender bowels ! What ! slaveholders 
talk of treating men well, and yet not only rob 
them of all they get, and as fast as they get it, 
but rob them of themselves, also ; their very hands 
and feet, all their muscles, and limbs, and senses, 
their bodies and minds, their time and liberty and 
earnings, their free speech and rights of con- 



6 



Introduction. 



ncicncc, tluir riRht to acquire knowUd|jr, and 
property, and r> pntation ; — and yet Ui<y, who 
plundi-r them of all tluw. would fain inaki; m 
hclk'vc thai thiir Hofl hcarlH oo/.o out ho lovingly 
tsward tlu-ir wlavin tlial they alwayH ktcp ihtin 
wtll houitcd and wi:ll dad, never pu^li Un;ni Uxt 
hard in the llc-ld, never make Uieir dear backi< 
HHiart, nor let their dear oloinaciiH jjel empty. 

But there M no end to theHc ainturditieii. 
Arc Blavelioldcm dunccH, or do tiicy take all 
Ujc n-Hl of the world to Iw, that they think 
to handage our eyes with ouch thin (gauzes 7 
Prolentinu ihcir kind regard for those whom 
they hoiu-ly plunder of all they have and all 
they get I AVhat ! when they have seized their 
victimH, and annihilated all their riphts, Htill 
claim to bo the special guardians of their happi- 
ness ! Plunderers of their liberty, yet the careful 
suppliers of their wants 7 Robbers of their earn- 
ings, yet watchful sentinels round their interests, 
and kind providers of their comforts 7 Filching all 
Uieir time, yet granting generous donations for rest 
and sleep ? Stealing the use of their muscles, yet 
thoughtful of their ease ? Putting them under rfn'r. 
crs, yet careful that they arc not hard-pushed 7 
Too humane forsooth to stint the stomachs of 
their slaves, yet force their minds to starve, and 
brandish over them pains and penalties, if they 
dare to reach forth for the smallest crumb of 
knowledge, even a letter of the alphabet I 

It is no marvel that slaveholders are always 
talking of their kind treatment of their slaves. 
The only marvel is, that men of sense can be 
gulled by such professions. Despots always insist 
that they arc merciful. The greatest tyrants that 
over dripped with blood have assumed the titles 
of *' most gracious," •* most clement," " most 
merciful," &.c., and have ordered their crouching 
vassals to accost them thus. When did not vice 
lay claim to those virtues which arc the opposites 
of its habitual crimes ? Tlic guilty, according to 
their own showing, arc alwaj's innocent, and 
cowards brave, and drunkards sober, and harlots 
chaste, and pickpockets honest to a fault. Every 
body understands tliis. When a man's tongue 
grows thick, and he begins to hiccough and walk 
cross-legged, we expect hiui, as a matter of course, 
to protest that In- is not drunk ", so when a man is 
always singing the praises of his own honesty, wc 
instinctively watch his movements and look out 
for our |iocket.books. Who<'ver is simple enough 
to Ik; hoaxed by such professions, shouM never be 
trusted in the streets without sonirlHidy to lake 
care of him. Human nature works out in slave- 
liolders jnsl ns it does tn other men, and in Ame- 
rican slaveholders just as in English, Frenrh, 
Turkish, Algerine, Roman and (Jrecian. The 
Spartans lK)a.«led of their kindness to their slaves, 
while they whipped them to death by thousands at 



liic altars of tlieir gods. The Romans lauded 
their own mild treatment of their Ixindmen, while 
they branded their nameii on their flesh with hot 
irons, and when old, threw them into their fish 
jwnds, or like C'alo "ihc Juitt," starved them to 
death. It ia tlic boast of the Turks that they 
treat their slaven a« though they were their chiU 
drcn, yet their common name for them is " dogs," 
and for the merest trifles, their fi.-ct are batitina. 
doed to a jelly, or their h'-ads chpped off with tlic 
seimetar. The Portuguese pride thcmselveg on 
their gentle bearing toward their slaves, yet the 
streets of Rio Janeiro are filled with naked men 
and women yoked in pairs to carts and wagons, 
and whipped by drivers hke bcasU« of burden. 

Slaveholders, the world over, have sung th' 
praises of their tender mercies towards their 
slaves. Even the WTctches that plied the African 
slave trade, tried to rebut Clark.son's proofs of 
their cruelties, by speeches, affidavits, and pub- 
lished pamphlets, setting forth the accommoda- 
tions of the " middle passage," and their kind 
attentions to the comfort of those whom they 
had stolen from their homes, and kept slowed 
away under hatches, during a voyage of four 
thousand miles. So, according to the testimony 
of the autocrat of tlie Russias, he exercises great 
elcniency towards the Poles, though he exiles 
them by thousands to the snows of Siberia, and 
tramples them down by millions, at home. "Whn 
discredits the atrocities perpetrated by Ovando in 
Hispaniola, Pizarro in Peru, and Cortez in Mexi- 
CO, — because they filled the ears of tlie Spanish 
Court with protestations of their benignant rale ^ 
While they were yoking the enslaved natives 
like beasts to the draught, working them to death 
by thousands in their mines, huntmg them with i 
bloodliounds, torturing them on racks, and 
broiling them on bods of coals, their repre^enta- 
tions to the mother rounlry teemed wiU> eulogies 
of their parental sway I The bloody atrocities of 
Philip II., in the exptilsion of his Moorish sub- j 
jeets. are matters of imperishable histopi-. Who ' 
dislK'lieves or dotibts tliem ? .And yet his coiir 
tiers magnified his virtues and chanted his cK 
mency and his mercy, while the wail of a million 
victims, smitten down by a tempest of fire and 
slaughter let loose at his bidding, rose alx>ve tli. 
Tc Drums that ihunclt red from all Spain's cath> - 
drals. When Ixiuis XIV. revoked the edict of I 
Nantz, and proclaimed two millions of his sub- 
jeets free plunder for persecution, — when fmm 
the English channel to tlie Pyrennres the man- 
gled Inidies of the Protestants wen' dracsred on 
riH-king hurdles by a shouting populace, ho claim- 
ed to U' " the father of his people," and wrote 
hintself " His most Christian Majrtty." 

But we will not anticipate topics, the full dis- 
cussion of which more naturaliv follow* Ihaa 



Introduction. 







precedes the inquiry into the actual condition and 

treatment of slaves in the United States. 

As slaveholders and their apologists are volun- 
teer wili\esses in their own cause, and are Hood- 
ing the world with testimony tliat their slaves 
are kindly treated ; that they arc well fed, well 
clothed, well housed, well lodged, moderately 
worked, and bountifully provided with all tilings 
needful for their comfort, we propose — first, to dis- 
prove their assertions by the testimony of a multi- 
tude of impartial witnesses, and then to put slave- 
holders themselves through a course of cross-ques- 
tioning which shall draw their condemnation out 
of their own mouths. We will prove that the slaves 
in the United States arc treated witli barbarous in- 
humanity ; that they are overworked, underfed, 
wretchedly clad and lodged, and have insufficient 
sleep ; that they are often made to wear round 
their necks iron collars armed with prongs, to 
drag heavy chains and weights at their feet while 
working in the field, and to wear yokes, and bells, 
and iron horns ; that they are often kept confined 
in the stocks day and night for weeks together, 
made to wear gags in their mouths for hours or 
days, have some of their front teeth torn out or 
broken off, that they may be easily detected 
when they run away ; that they are frequently 
flogged with terrible severity, have red pepper 
rubbed into their lacerated flesh, and hot brine, 
spirits of turpentine, &c., poured over the gashes 
to increase the torture ; that they are often strip- 
ped naked, their backs and limbs cut with knives, 
bruised and mangled by scores and hundreds of 
blows with the paddle, and terribly torn by the 
claws cf cats, drawn over them by their tormen- 
tors ; that they are often hunted with blood hounds 
and shot down like beasts, or torn in pieces by 
dogs; that they are often suspended by the 
arms and whipped and beaten till they faint, and 
when revived by restoratives, beaten again till 
they faint, and sometimes till they die ; that their 
ears are often cut off, their eyes knocked out, 
their bones broken, iheir fler-h branded with red 
hot irons ; that they are maimed, mutilated and 
burned to death over slow rires. All these things, 
and more, and worse, we shall prove. Reader, 
we know whereof we affirm, we have weighed 
it well; more and worse WE WILL PROVE. 
Mark these words, and read on ; we will establish 
all these facts by the testimony of scores and hun- 
dreds of eye witnessses, by the testimony of slave- 
holders in all parts of the slave states, by slavehold- 
ing members of Congress and of state legisla- 
tures, by ambassadors to foreign courts, by 
judges, by doctors of divinity, and clergy- 
men of all denominations, by merchants, 
mechanics, lawyers and physicians, by presi- 
dents and professors in colleges and profes- 
sional seminaries, by planters, o-^orgeers and 



drivers. We shall flhow, not merely that such 
deeds are committed, but that they are frequent ; 
not done in corners, but before tJie sun ; not in one 
of the slave stales, but in all of them ; not perpe- 
trated liy brutal overseers and (Irivers merely, but 
by magistrates, by legislators, by professors of 
religion, by preachers of the gospel, by governors 
of states, by " gentlemen of property and stand- 
ing," and by delicate females moving in tlie 
" lughcst circles of society." We know, full 
well, the outcry that will be made by multitudes, 
at these declarations ; the multiform cavils, the 
flat denials, the charges of " exaggeration" and 
" falsehood" so often bandied, the sneers of af 
fected contempt at the credulity that can believe 
such things, and the rage and imprecations 
against those who give them currency. We 
know, too, the threadbare sophistries by which 
slaveholders and their apologists seek to evade 
such testimony. If they admit that such deeds 
are committed, they tell us that they are exceed- 
ingly rare, and therefore furnish no grounds for 
judging of the general treatment of slaves ; that 
occasionally a brutal wretch in the free states 
barbarously butchers his wife, but that no one 
thinks of inferring from that, the general treat- 
ment of wives at the North and West. 

They tell us, also, that the slaveholders of the 
South are proverbially hospitable, kind, and 
generous, and it is incredible that they can per- 
petrate such enormities upon human beings ; fur- 
ther, that it is absurd to suppose that they would 
thus injure their own property, that self interest 
would prompt them to treat their slaves with 
kindness, as none but fools and madmen wantonly 
destroy their own property ; further, that Northern 
visitors at the South come back testifying to the 
kind treatment of the slaves, and that the slaves 
themselves corroborate such representations. All 
these pleas, and scores of others, are bruited in 
every corner of the free States ; and who that • 
hath eyes to see, has not sickened at t'he blind- 
ness that saw not, at the palsy of heart that felt not, 
or at the cowardice and sycophancy that dared 
not expose such shallow fallacies. We are not 
to be turned from our purpose by such vapid bab- 
blings. In their appropriate places, we propose 
to consider these objections and various others, 
and to show their emptiness and folly. 

The foregoing declarations touching the inflic- 
tions upon slaves, are not hap-hazard assertions, 
nor the exaggerations of fiction conjured up to 
carry a point ; nor are they the rhapsodies of en- 
thusiasm, nor crude conclusions, jmnped at by 
hasty and imperfect investigation, nor the aim- 
less outpom"ings either of sympathy or poetry ; 
but they are proclamations of deliberate, well- 
weighed convictions, produced by accumulations 
of proof, by affirmations and affidavits, by writ- 



10 



PeTsomal Narralives — Mr. Caulkins. 



ten tofltimonioti and irtalrmcntu of a cloud of wit- 
iicuMCii who xpt-ak what thry know and Utttify 
whal th< y liav<; men, and all thono impn'i^iiahly 
fortified by |;ro<ifM iniitiinrrahli', in t\\v n-lation of 
tho nlavt holdi-r to liiH itlavi;, tlio iiatun; of arbitrary 
power, and tlit; natiin- and hixtory of man. 

Of the wittii'HWH whoHi! tcHtiniony i» i-mlKidird 
in the ftdlowiii); |ia(rcH, a majority aro Hlavehold. 
en, many of tln! ri'iiiaindcr have Ix-en ulavrholdcru, 
but now n-Hide in free Slatix. 

Anollicr claxH wlioiic tmlimnny will b«? given, 
comiiiitH of thow who have fiirniHhed tlic reflultji 
of their own obncrvation diirin|r jM-riodH of resi- 
dence and travel in the nlavc StateH. 

Wc will fimt prewnt the reader with a few Pkr- 
HoNAi, NAnRATivt'.H furnished by individualH, na- 
tivcH of Hlavc 8lale8 and othern, embodying, in the 
main, tlie reHultH of their own obBcr\'alion in the 
raidst of Blavery — facts and hcchch of which they 
wore oycwitncsscR. 

In tho next place, to pivc the reader as clear 
and definite a view of tlic actual condition of 
slaves as pOHoible, wc propose to make specific 



points, to paM in review the variolic particulars 
in the slave's condition, simply presenting sulii- 
cient testimony under each head to Bcttle the 
question in every candid mind. The examination 
will t>e conducted by stating difftinct propobilions, 
and in the following order of topics. 

1. The rooi> oc the siJiVKs, the kinds, qcalitv 

AND QL'A.NTITV, ALSO, THE NUMBKE AND TIME OV 
MF.AIJi KACU DAT, &C. 

2. TllKIR HOI'RS op LABOR AND REST. 

3. TuKia cLoTmNG, 

4. Their dwkllinus. 

f). Their privations and inplictionb. 

G. Jn coiiclimion, a variety of objections and 
AR<;i->!ENTs will be connidcred which are u»cd 
by the advocates of slavery to sf-t axide the 
force of testimony, and to show tliat the slaves 
arc kindly treated. 
Between the larger divisions of the work, brief 

personal narratives will be inserted, contauiing a 

mass of facts and testimony, both general and 

specific. 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES. 



Mr. Nehemiaii Caulkins, of Watcrford, New- 
London Co., Connecticut, has furnished the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the American Auli-Slaverj' 
Society, with the following statements rela- 
tive to the condition and treatment of slaves, in 
the south eastern |)art of North Carolina. Most 
of the facts ri lati-d by Mr. Caulkins fell imder 
his personal observation. The air of candor 
and honesty that pervades the narrative, the 
manner in which Mr. C. has drawn it up, the 
> good sense, just views, conscience and heart 
which it exhibits, are sufficient of themselves to 
commend it to all who have cars to hear. 

Tlie Committee have no personal acquaintance 
with Mr. Caulkins, but they have ample testimo- 
nials from the most respectable sourres ; all of 
which n-present him to be a man whoso long es- 
tablished character for sterling integrity, sound 
moral principle and piety, have secured for him 
the uniform respect and confidence of those who 
know him. 

Without further preface the following Icstimo- 
nialfl are submitted to the rcad< r. 

" Tlil.i niny rrrlily, llint wo llir mihwrlliorfi hnvr WvcA 
for n nnnilxT »( vrnrn pnst in tlir n<'ii;lili<<rliii<Ml with Mr. 
Ni-lii'iiilnh C'niilKliiK. nnil hnvr nn holi.itinn in •Inling IhnI 
we T'liiiiilir hlni n iniin <>)° hich r<.«|Mvinlilhly niiil llinl h\r 
cliaiarl'T r>ir (riiih iiiiil verncily U iinhn|i.'.-n linlilr." 

Petkr CoMtToi k. I». c;. ih-i». 

A. K. I'khrimm, M.I). 1*1111. ir Mouoam. 

Ihaac- ItirnK. Jajib* KouRRs, M. D." 

l.onowirK HricBc. 
Waterjord, Ct.,. Un. ICU, 1638. 



^Ir. Comstork is a Justice of the Peace. Mr. 
L. Bccbe is tlie Town Clerk of Waterford. Mr. 
J. Beebc is a member of the Baptist Church. 
Mr. Otis is a member of the Congregational 
Church. Mr. Morgan is a Justice of the Peace, 
and Messrs. Perkins and Rogers are designated by 
their titles. All those gentlemen arc citizens of 
Waterford, Connecticut. 

" To whom it m.iy rnnrrrn. Thts nnv <-."tir\ •h-'.t >fr. 
NchcnilnliCaiilkiui. of Wnifrford. in N 
is n near iieiglibor lo tin- iniljsrrilMT. nn. 
years. I do ronsidrr him n ninii ormii,' j 

nnil rrrlily Hint h<- is eo coitniilon-d by (k i^! ii> uln.m lie 
is ix'rMin.VHv kii"wn. Kdward R. Warrc!*.'' 

Jan. 15/i, 1KB. 

Mr. Warren is a Commissioner (A.«sociate 
Judge) of the Coimty Court, for New London 
County. 

"Tliin niny rertify that Mr. Nrhrmiah ra«lkin=,of the 
town of Wnlerloril, founly of Niw I.<inil<in. ami Hinip of 
CnnniTtiriil. i» a nienitx-r of ihi' lirrt llnptist Cliiirrh in raid 
Wntirforil, i* In eoo.1 !<i.intlin)t. and in i-mnuHni by us a 
man of Until and vrrariiy. 

FRANri^ lUnnow. rasiorofsaid Churdi.** 

H'alrrforiL, Jan. 16rt, lK»t. 

" Thin mny ccrlify ihat Nchrmiah ranlkinc. of Wairr- 
ford, livr* near me, ami I ahvny.4 <-Mrrmcd him. and belicra 
him (u bo a mnii of miUi and veracity. 

Eu«nA ncrKwiTH." 

Jan. lea, ira9. 

Mr. Beekwith is a Justice of tho Peace, a Post 
Master, and a Deacon of tlie Baptist Church. 

Mr. Dwight P. Janes, a menilx-r of Uie Stcond 
Congregational Church in the city of New Lon- 
don, in a recent letter, say» ; 



Personal Narratives — Mr. Caulkins. 



11 



*' Mr. Caulkins is a member of the Baptist Church 
m Watcrford, and in every rcwpcct a very worlliy 
citizen. I have labored witli him in the .Sahbatli 
isehool, and know him to be a man of active 
piety. The most entire cotijidoice may bcjjiaced 
in the triitii of his statements. Where he is 
known, no one will call them in question." 

We close these testimonials with an extract, of a 
letter from William Bolles, Esq., a well known 
and respected citizen of New London, Ct. 

" Mr. Nehcmiah Caulkins resides in the town 
of Watcrford, about si.K miles from this City. 
His opportunities to acquire exact knowledge in 
relation to Slavery, in that section of our country, 



to which his narrative is confined, have been very 
f^reat. lie is a carpenter, and was employed 
j)rincipally on tiie plantations, workinjj at hiii 
trade, hv'uifr thus almost constantly in the com. 
pany of the slaves as well as of their masters. 
His full heart readily responded to the call, [for in- 
formation relative to slavery,] for, as he expressed 
it, lie had long desired that others might know 
what he had seen, being confident that a general 
knowledge of facts as they exist, would greatly 
promote the overthrow of the system. He is a 
man of undoubted character ; and where known, 
his statements need no corroboration. 

Yours, &.C. William Bolles. 



NARRATIVE OF MR. CAULKINS. 



I feel it my duty to tell some things that I 
know about slavery, in order, if possible, to awak- 
en more feeling at the North in behalf of the 
slave. The treatment of the slaves on the plan- 
tations where I had the greatest opportunity of 
getting knowledge, was not so bad as that on 
some neighboring estates, where the owners 
were noted for their cruelty. There were, how- 
ever, other estates in the vicinity, where the 
treatment was better; the slaves were better 
clothed and fed, were not worked so hard, and 
more attention was paid to their quarters. 

The scenes that I have witnessed are enough 
to harrow up the soul ; but could the slave be 
permitted to tell the story of his sufferings, which 
no white man, not linked with slavery, is allowed 
to know, the land would vomit out the horrible 
system, slaveholders and all, if they would not 
unclinch their grasp upon their defenceless vic- 
tims. 

I spent eleven winters, between the years 
1824 and 1835, in the state of North Carolina, 
mostly in the vicinity of Wilmington ; and four 
out of the eleven on the estate of Mr. John 
Swan, five or six miles from that place. There 
were on his plantation about seventy slaves, male 
and female : some were married, and others 
lived together as man and v/ife, without even a 
mock ceremony. With their owners generally, 
it is a matter of indifference ; the marriage of 
slaves not being recognized by the slave code. 
The slaves, however, think much of being mar- 
ried by a clergyman. 

The cabins or huts of the slaves were small, 
and were built principally by the slaves them- 
selves, as they could find time on Sundays and 
•moonlight nights ; they went into the swamps, 
cut the logs, backed or hauled them to the 
quarters, and put up their cabins. 

When I first knew Mr. Swan's plantation, his 
overseer was a man who had been a Methodist 
minister. He treated the slaves with great 
cruelty. His reason for leaving the ministry 
and becoming an overseer, as I was informed, 
was this : his wife died, at which providence he 
was so enraged, that he swore he woultl not 
preach for the Lord another day. This man 
continued on the plantation about three years ; 
at the close of which, on settlement of accounts, 
Mr. Swan owed him about ^400, for which he 
turned him out a negro woman, and about twen- 



ty acres of land. He built a log hut, and took 
the woman to live with him ; since which, I 
have been at his hut, and seen four or five mu- 
latto children. He has been appointed a. justice 
of the peace, and his place as overseer was after- 
wards occupied by a Mr. Galloway. 

It is customary in that part of the country, ta 
let the hogs run in the woods. On one occasion 
a slave caught a pig about two months old, which 
he carried to his quarters. The overseer, getting 
information of the fact, went to the field where 
he was at work, and ordered him to come to 
him. The slave at once suspected it was some- 
thing about the pig, and fearing punishment, 
dropped his hoe and ran for the woods. He had 
got but a few rods, when the overseer raised his 
gun, loaded with duck shot, and brought him 
down. It is a common practice for overseers to 
go into the field armed with a gun or pistols, and 
sometimes both. He was taken ujj by the 
slaves and carried to the plantation hospital, and 
the physician sent for. A physician was employ- 
ed by the year to take care of the sick or wound- 
ed slaves. In about six weeks this slave got bet- 
ter, and was able to come out of the hospital. 
He came to the mill where I was at work, and 
asked me to examine his body, which I did, and 
counted twenty-six duck shot still remaining in 
his flesh, though the doctor had removed a num- 
ber while he was laid up. 

There was a slave on Mr. Swan's plantation, 
by the name of Harry, who, during the absence 
of his master, ran away and secreted himself in 
the woods. This the slaves sometimes do, when 
the master is absent for several weeks, to escape 
the cruel treatment of the overseer. It is com- 
mon for them to make preparations, by secreting 
a mortar, a hatchet, some cooking utensils, and 
whatever things they can get that will enable 
them to live while they are in the woods or 
swamps. Harry staid about three months, and 
lived by robbing the rice grounds, and by such 
other means as came in his way. The slaves 
generally know where the runaway is secreted, 
and visit him at night and on Sundays, On the 
return of his master, some of the slaves were 
sent for Harry. When he came home he was 
seized and confined in the stocks. The stocks 
were built in the bam, and consisted of two 
heavy pieces of timber, ten or more feet in length, 
and about seven inches wide ; the lower one, on 



12 



Personal NarraUves — Mr. Caulkins. 



the floor, ha« a number of hole* or places cut in 
it, for th<- anrlcii; the uj)p<r piece, being of the 
■sine (linK-nmotia, is fastincd at one end by a 
hinifc, and :• brought down after t)ie ancliii are 
placed in the holes, an«l mcurrd by a clasp and 
padlock at the other i iid. In this manner the 

Ccnion is left to »it on the tloor. Harry was 
ppt in the stocks Jay an<l ••■ ' ' ' - • ' -• i 

flogged rrmi momxni;. A ' 
out one niortiin^, a log eha 

neck, the two «nds dragging on the ground, and 
he sent to tiie field, to do his task with the other 
■laves. At night he was again put in the stocks, 
in the morning he was sent to the field in the 
same manner, and thus dragged out anoUicr 
week. 

The overseer was a very miserly fellow, and 
restricted hw wife in what arc con.<<idcrcd the 
Comforts of life — such as tea, sugar, ic. To 
make up for this, she sol her wits to work, and, by 
the help of a slave, named Joe, used lo take from 
tlie plantation whatever she could conveniently, 
and watch her opportunity during her hu.sband'8 
absence, and send Joe to !>ell them and buy for 
her such tilings as she directed. Once when 
her husband was away, she told Joe to kill and 
dress one of the pigs, sell it, and get her some tea, 
•ugar, &.C. Joe did as be was bid, and she gave 
him the ofTal for his ger\-icc8. When Galloway 
returned, not suspecting his wife, he asked her if 
»hc knew what had become of his pig. She told 
him she suspected one of the slaves, naming him, 
had stolen it, for she had heard a pig squeal the 
evening Ix'fore. The overseer called the slave 
up, and charged him with the theft. He denied 
it, and said he knew nothing about it. The over- 
seer still charged him with it, and told him he 
would give him one week to think of it, and if he 
did not confess the theft, or find out who did steal 
the pig, he would flog every negro on the planta. 
tion; before the week was up it was ascertained 
that Joe had killed the pig. He was called up 
and questioned, and admitted that he had done 
•o, and told the overseer that he did it by the or- 
dcr of Mrs. Galloway, and tJiat she directed him 
to buy some sugar, &c. with the money. )Nfrs. 
Galloway gave Joe the lie ; and he wai; terribly 
flogged. Joe told me he had been several times 
to tlie smoke-house with Mrs. G, and taken hams 
and sold them, which her husband told me he 
•apposed were stolen by the ncfjroes ob a neigh- 
boring plantation. .Mr. Swan, hearing of the cir- 
cumstance, told mc he believed Jo«^'s story, but 
that his statement wi.nld not be taken as proof; 
and if every slave on the plantation told the same 
■tory it could not be received as evidence against 
a white person. 

To show the Tianner in which old and worn- 
out slaves arc letimes treated, I will state a 
fact (•allowav owned a man about seventy 
Tears of age. The old man wa.s jsirk and went to 
nip hut ; laid him.self down on some straw with 
his feet to tin- firr, coven-d by a piece of an old 
blanket, and thire lav four or five da\-s. groaning 
In great distn-ss, withont any attention b<-ing paid 
him by his master, until death entled his miseries ; 
Tie was then taken out and buried with as little 
Ceremony ami r'-j-jvct a.-; would be paid to a hnitc. 

Ther-' IS a |irarti'i- prevalent ami>ng the plant- 
ers, of letting a nc^j oft" from severe and long- 



continued p"' i"!"""'.' '■" -./-^....^^t --■fihc inlcrc- ». 

•ion of tu' :■. in his be- 

half, that ; nave better; 

that he I ■ a, and ho believe* be will 

k«'«'p his i > . The planters sometime* 

get tired ul [Hiii^.-hug a negro, and, v.. 
senici-s in the field, tliey get s<^)me \'. 
* '■ me, and, in the presence of tli<> m.i.' , ...■ 

inr him. .\t one time a negro, nam' i 
I rlis, was confined in the stocks in the bu I'i 
iiig where I was at work, and had been se\ ' : 
wliip|)cd several times. He begged me to .ij'- r- 
cede for him and trj- to get him released. 1 told 
him I would ; and when his master came in to 
whip him again, I went up to him and told him I 
had been talking with Charles, and he had pro- 
mised to behave better, &;c., and requested turn 
not to punish him any more, but to let him go. 
He then said to Charles. " As Mr. Caulkins ha" 
been pleading for you, I will let you go on hib 
account ;" and accordingly released him. 

Women are generally shown some little in''.iil- 
gcncc for tlirce or four weeks previotis to ei,.l<; 
birth ; they arc at such limes not often punj*hiil 
if they do not finish the task assigned them ; it is, 
in some ca.«es, passed over with a sercrc repri- 
mand, and sometimes without any notice being 
taken of it. They arc generally allowed four 
weeks after the birth of a child, before they arc 
compelled to go into the field, they then take the 
child with them, attended sometimes by a httle 
girl or boy, from the age of four to six, to take 
care of it while the mother is at work. When 
there is no child that can be spared, or not young 
enough for this service, the mother, after nursing, 
lavs it under a tree, or by the side of a fence, and 
goes to her task, returning at stated intervals to 
nurse it. AMiilc I was on this plantation, a little 
i negro girl, six years of age, destroyed the life of a 
child about two months old, which was left in her 
care. It seems this bttlc nurse, so called, got 
tired of her charge and the labor of carrying it to 
the quarters at night, the mother being obliged to 
work as long as she could see. One evening she 
ntuscd the infant at snnsct as usoal, and sent it 
to the quarters. The little girl, on lier way home, 
had to cross a run, or brook, which led down into 
the swamp ; when she came to the brook she fol- 
lowed it into the swamp, then took the infant and 
plunged it head foremost into the waterand mud. 
where it stuck fast ; she tliere left it and went to 
the negro quarters. When the mother came in 
from the field, she asked tiie girl where the child 
was ; she told her she bad brought it home, but 
did not know where it was ; the overseer wasim- 
mediately informed, search was made, and it was 
foimd as above stated, and dead. The little giri 
was shut up in the b»m. and confined there two 
or tlirre weeks, when , r came along and 

bought her for two iv r*. 

The slaves arc o!..- .. ... .. rk from dayhght 

I till dark, as long as they can see. When they 
! have tasks aiisigned, which is oftrn the case, a 
j r \vof the strongest and mo»t c.\]>ert. sometime* 
I finish them before simset ; others will b«* obliged 
' lo work till eight or nine o'clock in the evcnmg. 
I .Ml must finish tlieir tasks or take a flogging. 
j The whip and gtin, or pistol, are companions of 
th- oviTwcr; the former he u«.-s ycjy frrnuently 
1 up .n the negTf(.», dunng ihcir houn of labor. 



Personal Narratives — Mr. Caulkins. 



19 



without regard to age or sex. Scarcely a day 
pasHcd whili' I was on the plantation, in which 
Homc of the HJaves were not whipjiod ; I do not 
moan that thoy wcrcttrnck a few hlotos merely, but 
)iad a Hct Jii,ir;ring. Tlic same labor is commonly 
a8si;jn(d to men and women, — such as digging 
ditches in the rice marshes, clearing up land, 
chopping cord-wood, threshing, &c. 1 have 
known the women go into the barn as soon as 
they could sec in the morning, and work as late 
as they could see at night, threshing rice with the 
flail, (they now have a threshing machine,) and 
when they could eec to tiiresh no longer, they had 
to gather up the rice, carry it up stairs, and de- 
posit it in tlie granary. 

The allowance of clothing on this plantation to 
each slave, was given out at Christmas for the 
year, and consisted of one pair of coarse shoes, 
and enough coarse clotii to make a jacket and 
trowsers. If the man has a wife she makes it 
up ; if not, it is made up in tlie house. The 
slaves on this plantation, being near Wilmington, 
procured themselves extra clothing by working 
Sundays and moonlight nights, cutting cord- 
wood in the swamps, which they had to back 
about a quarter of a mile to the river ; they would 
then get a permit from their master, and taking 
the wood in their canoes, carry it to Wilmington, 
and sell it to the vessels, or dispose of it as they 
best could, and with the money buy an old jacket 
of the sailors, some coarse cloth for a shirt, &-C. 
They sometimes gather the moss from the trees, 
which they cleanse and take to market. The 
women receive their allowance of the same kind of 
cloth which the men have. This they make into 
a frock ; if tliey have any under garments they 
must procure them for theJnselves. When the 
slaves get a permit to leave the plantation, they 
sometimes make all ring again by singing the fol- 
lowing significant ditty, which shows that after 
all there is a flow of spirits in the human breast 
%vhich for a while, at least, enables them to forget 
their wretchedness.* 

Hurra, for good olc Massa, 
He giv me de pass to go to de city 

Hurra, for good ole I^Iissis, 
She bile dc pot, and giv me de licker. 

Hurra, I'm goin to de city. 

Every Saturday night the slaves receive their 
allowance of provisions, which must last them 
till the next Saturday night. " Potatoe time," as 
it is called, begins about the middle of July. The 
slave may measure for himself, the overseer being 
present, half a bushel of sweet potatoes, and 
heap the measure as long as they will lie on ; I 
have, however, seen the overseer, if he think the 
negro is getting too many, kick the measure ; and 
if any fall off, tell him he has got his measure. 
No salt is furnished them to eat with their pota- 
toes. When rice or corn is given, they give them 
a little salt; sometimes half a pint of molasses 
is given, but not often. The quantity of rice, 
which is of the small, broken, unsaleable kind, is 

* Slaves sometimes sing, and so do convicts in jails under 
sentence, and both for the same reason. Their sinking 
proves that they irant to be happy not that they arc so. ~h is 
Uie means tliat they use to make themselves happy, not the 
evidence that they' are so already. Sometimes, doubtless, 
the excitement of song whelms their miser>- in momentary 
ohli\ion. He who ai^es from tliis tliat they have no con- 
scious misery to forget, knows as little of human nature as 
of slavery.— EpiTOR. 



one peck. When corn i« eivcTi them, their allow, 
ancc w the Kanxr, and if Uicy gel it ground, 'Mr. 
.Swan had a null on hii) plantation,; Ihcy mu«t 

give one quart for grinding, Iha-i rcd'^' r 

weekly allowancu to hcvcu qiiartH. ^ 
(mullet) were j»li.tily, they were alloW' i 
tion, one fish. As to m(-at, they »eldom iiad iiay. 
I do not think they had an allowance of meat 
oftencr than once in two or tlircc months, and 
then the quantity waa vi ry small. When they 
went into the field to work, tliey took some of 
the meal or rice and a pot with tliem; the pots 
were given to an old woman, who placed two 
poles parallel, set the pots oi: them, and kindled 
a fire underneath for cooking ; she took salt with 
her and seasoned the messes as she thought pro- 
per. When their breakfast was ready, which 
was generally about ten or eleven o'clock, they 
were called from labor, ate, and returned to work; 
in the afternoon, dinner was prepared in the sama 
way. They had but two meals a day while in 
the field ; if they wanted more, they cooked for 
tliemselves after they returned to their quarters 
at niglit. At the time of kiUing hogs on the 
plantation, the pluck, entrails, and blood were 
given to the slaves. 

When I first went upon Mr. Swan's plantation, 
I saw a slave in shackles or fetters, which were 
fastened around each ankle and firmly riveted, 
connected together by a chain. To tlie middle 
of this chain he had fastened a string, so as in a 
manner to suspend them and keep them from 
galling his ankles. This slave, whose name was 
Frank, was an inteUigent, good looking man, and 
a very good mechanic. There was nothing vi- 
cious in his character, but he was one of those 
high-spirited and daring men, that whips, chains, 
fetters, and all the means of cruelty in the power 
of slavery, could not subdue. !Mr. S. had em- 
ployed a Mr. Beckwith to repair a boat, and told 
him Frank was a good mechanic, and he might 
have his services. Frank was sent for, his shackles 
still on. Mr. Beckwith set him to work making 
trunnels, 6ic. I was employed in putting up a 
building, and after Mr. Beckwith had done with 
Frank, he was sent for to assist me. Mr. Swan 
sent him to a blacksmith's shop and had his 
shackles cut off with a cold chisel. Frank was 
afterwards sold to a cotton planter. 

I will relate one circumstance, which shows 
the Uttle regard that is paid to the feelings of the 
slave. Dm-ing the time that Mr. Isaiah Rogers 
was superintending the building of a rice machine, 
one of the slaves complained of a severe tooth- 
ache. Swan asked Mr. Rogers to take his ham- 
mer and knock out the tooth. 

There was a slave on the plantation named 
Ben, a waiting man. I occupied a room in the 
same hut, and had frequent cr . rsations with 
him. Ben was a kind-hearted man, and, I be- 
lieve, a Christian ; he would always ask a bless- 
ing before he sat down to eat, and was in tlie con- 
stant practice of praying morning and night. — 
One day when I was at the hut, Ben was sent 
for to go to the house. Bon sighed deeply and 
went. He soon returned with a girl about seven- 
teen years of age, whom one of Mr. Swan's 
daughters had ordered him to flog. He brought 
her into the room where I was, and told her to 
stand there wiiile he went into the next room : I 



14 



Personal Narratives — Mr. Caulkins. 



heard him |>TO«n a(rain an hn went. While there 
I heard hm voice, and he wa» enga|;cd in prayer. 
Alter a few niinute« he n liinud with a large cow- 
hide, and HtcMid I h Tore llie (rjrl, withnut navini; a 
Word. I eonehided he wixlied nie to have thi' 
hut, whieh I did ; and inmiediately after I hi ard 
the girl nereain. At every hlow nhi: wonld Hhriek, 
" Do, Hen ! oh do, Ik-n I" Thin iM a eomrn'm v\. 
prewnion nf tlie tilavcH to the |icnuin whipping 
them : " Do, ManHa !" or, " Do, MiwtunI" 

After che liad gone, I a^ked Hen what hIh- wa*. 
whipped for : lie told nie nlie liad done fuiinething 
to dinplease lier voung nii)*Him ; and in Uixing 
her earn, and otherwine )H-ating her, hIw had 
nrratehed her finger hy a |)iii in the g'rl'H drerji, 
for whieh nhe went her to Im> flogged. I ahked 
liini if ho Btrippe<l her b«'fnre flogging; he naid. 
yes ; he did not like to do thin, Inil waw ohliprd 
to: he said li<' was onre ordered to whip a wo. 
man, whirh he did without stripping her: on lier 
retiini to the hniifio, her iiiislre.«s examined her 
haek ; and not seeing any marks, he wa,s sc'nt for, 
and u.iked why he had not whipped her : he re- 
plied that he liad ; she said she saw no markc, 
and asked him if he had made her pull her clothes 
off*; he said. No. She then told him, that when 
lie whipped any more of the women, he must 
make tiurn stnii otV their elothes, as well as the 
men, and flog them c»n their bare backs, or Jic 
should be flogged himself. 

Ben often appeared very gloomy and sad : I 
have frequently heard him, when in his room, 
mourning over his condition, and exclaim, "Poor 
African slave! Poor African slave!" Whipping 
v:nB so common an occurrence on this plantation, 
that it wonld be too great a repetition to state 
the many and severe floggings I have scon in- 
flicted on the slaves. They were flogged for not 
performing their tasks, for being careless, slow, 
or not in time, for going to the fire to warm, &.c. 
fee. ; and it often seemed as if occasions were 
nought as an excuse for punishing them. 

On one occasion, I heard the overseer charge 
the hands to be at a certain place the next morn- 
ing at sun-rise. I was present in the morning, 
in company with my brother, when the hand.s ar- 
rived. Joe, the slave already sjjoken of, came 
running, all out of breath, about five minutes Ix'- 
Iiind the time, when, without asking any ques- 
tions, the overseer told him to take ofl' his jacket. 
Joe took off bis jacket. He bad on a piece of a 
pliirt ; he told bun to take itofV: Joe took it ofT: 
he then whipped him with a heavy cow-hide full 
fix feet long. At ever}' stroke Joe wonld spring 
from the cronnd, and scream, " O my (Jod ! Do, 
Massa (Calloway I" My brother was so exasper- 
ated, that he limied to me and said, " If I were 
Joe, T would kill the overseer if 1 knew I should 
l)e shot the next minute." 

In the winter the horn blew at alwiit four in 
the morning, and all the threshers wen' reqiiireil 
to be at the threshing floor in fifteen minutes after. 
Thry had to go altoiit a quarter ol a mile from 
their qiLirters. flallowav would stand near the 
rntranre, and all who did not eome in time would 
jfct a hlow over tlie back or bead as heavy as he 
could strike. I have seen him, at such times, 
follow after them, striking furiously n niiinlx-r of 
blows, and every one followed i>v their screams. 
I have accn the women go to ihcir work after 



Kuch a flogging, crying and taking on moat pi(«. 
ouHly. 

It i« almoiit impofwible to liclicTC Uiat human 
nature can endure Huch hardshipK and suffering* 
as the slaves have to go through : I have seen 
them driven into a ditch in a nee Kwatnp to bad 
out the water, in order to put down a flood-gate, 
when they had to break the ice, and there titand 
in tlie water among the ice until it u-aH bailed 
out. I have often known the hand* to be taken 
from the fiild, itent down the river in flats or b<>al» 
to Wilniingt<in, absent from twenty-four Ut thirty 
hours, irilhuut any thing to eat, no provision being 
made for Ibese occasions. 

(jallrtway kept medicine on hand, that in cai>e 
any of the Hiaves were sick, he could give it to 
them without iw-nding for the physician ; but hv 
always kept a good look out that they did not 
sham sickness. When any of Uiein excited his 
suspicions, he would make; them t-akc the medi- 
cine in his presence, and would give them a rap 
on the top of the head, to make them swallow it. 
A man once came to him, of wlvom he raid he 
waA suspicious : he gave him two {Kitione of salts, 
and fastened him in the st/jcks for the night. His 
medicine soon began to operate ; and there he lay 
in all hi* filth till he xean taken nut the next fluty. 
One day, Mr. Swan lieat a slave severely, for 
alleged carelessness in letting a iKiat get adrifi. 
The slave was told to secure the boat : wb' tin r 
he took sufficient means for this purpose I ih> ml 
know ; he was not allowed to make anv defence. 
Mr. Swan called him up, and asked why he did 
not secure the boat : he pulled off bis hat and be- 
gan to tell his storv. Swan told him he was a 
damned liar, and eommenced heating him over 
the head with a hickory cane, and the slave re- 
treated backwards ; Swan followed him about 
two rods, threshing him over the bead with tlie 
hickory as he went. 

As 1 was one day standing near some slaves 
who were tbri!;hing, the driver, thinking one of 
the women did not u.s<' her flail quick enouirh, 
struck her over the head : the end of thi- whip 
hit her in the eye. I thought at the time he had 
put it out ; but, after poulticing and doctoring for 
some days, she recovered. Speaking to him about 
it, he said that he once struck a slave so as to put 
one of her eyes entirely out. 

A patrol is kept upon each estate, and rvery 
slave found ofT the plantation without a pass is 
whipjied on the spot. I knew a slave who started 
without a pass, one night, for a neiehboring 
plantation, to see his wife : he was caught, tied 
to a tree, and flogged. He stated his business to 
the patrol, who was well acquainted with him, 
but all to no purpose. I spoke to the j>atroI al>'iut 
it aftiTwards : he said he knew the necm. that 
he was a very rlever fellow, hut lie had to wliip 
him ; for. if he let him pass, he must another. &c. 

I He stated that he had sometimes caught and flog- 

I ged four in a night. 

In conversation with Mr. Swan about mnaway 

' slaves, he stated to me the following fact : — .\ 
slave, by the name of Luke, was owned in Wd. 

! niingltin ; he was sold to a sj>eculator aiul carried 
to (oorgia. After an aliwnce of alx>ut two 

I months the slave rrtnmcd ; he watched an oppnr- 

[ liinity to enter his old master's house when the 

I family were absent, no one being at home but a 



Personal Narratives — Mr. Caulkins. 



15 



young waiting man. Luke went to the room 
where his master kept his arms ; took his gun, 
witli some ammunition, and went into the woods. 
On the return of his master, tlic waiting man told 
him what had been done : this threw him into a 
viplent passion ; he swore he would kill Ijukc, or 
lose his own life. He loaded another gun, took 
two men, and made search, but could not find 
him : he tlien advertised him, offering a large re- 
ward if delivered to him or lodged in jail. His 
neighbors, however, advised him to offer a reward 
of two hundred dollars for him dead or alive, which 
he did. Nothing however was heard of him for 
some months. Mr. Swan said, one of his slaves 
ran away, and was gone eight or ten weeks ; on 
his return he said he had found Luke, and that 
he had a rifle, two pistols, and a sword. 

I left the plantation in the spring, and returned 
to the north ; when I went out again, the next 
fall, I asked Mr. Swan if any thing had been 
heard of Luke ; he said he was shot, and related 
to me the manner of his death, as follows : — Luke 
went to one of the plantations, and entered a hut 
for something to eat. Being fatigued, he sat down 
and fell asleep. There was only a woman in the 
hut at the time : as soon as she found he was 
asleep, she ran and told her master, who took his 
rifle, and called two white men on another planta- 
tion : the three, with their rifles, then went to the 
hut, and posted themselves in different positions, 
so that they could watch the door. When Luke 
waked up he went to the door to look out, and 
saw them with their rifles, he stepped back and 
raised his gun to his face. They called to him 
to surrender ; and stated that they had him in 
their power, and said he had better give up. He 
said he would not ; and if they tried to take him, 
he would kill one of them ; for, if he gave up, he 
knew they would kill him, and he was determined 
to sell his life as dear as he could. They told 
him, if he should shoot one of them, the other 
two would certainly kill him : he replied, he was 
determined not to give up, and kept his gun mov- 
ing from one to the other ; and while his rifle was 
turned toward one, another, standing in a differ- 
ent direction, shot him through the head, and he 
fell lifeless to the ground. 

There was another slave shot while I was 
there ; this man had run av/ay, and had been 
living in the woods a long time, and it was not 
known where he -vvas, till one day he was dis- 
covered by two men, who went on the large 
island near Belvidere to hunt turkeys ; they shot 
him and carried his head home. 

It is common to keep dogs on the plantations, 
to pursue and catch runaway slaves. I was 
once bitten by one of them. I went to the 
overseer's house, the dog lay in the piazza, as 
soon as I put my foot upon the floor, he sprang 
and bit me just above the knee, but not severely ; 
he tore my pantaloons badly. The overseer 
apologized for his dog, saying he never knew 
him to bite a white man before. He said he 
once had a dog, when he lived on another planta- 
tion, that was very useful to him in hunting run- 
away negroes. He said that a slave on the 
plantation once ran away ; as soon as he found 
the course he took, he put the dog on the track, 
and he soon came so close upon him that the man 



had to climb a tree, he followed with liis gun, 
and brought the slave home. 

The slaves have a great dread of being f-old 
and carried south. It is generally said, and I 
have no doubt of its truth, that they arc much 
worse treated farther south. 

The following arc a few among the many facts 
related to me while I lived among the slavehold- 
er. The names of the planters and plantations, 
I shall not give, as they did not come under my 
own observation. I however place the fullest 
confidence in their truth. 

A planter not far from Mr. Swan's employed 
an overseer to whom he paid ^400 a year ; he be- 
came dissatisfied with him, because he did not 
drive the slaves hard enough, and get more work 
out of them. He therefore sent to South 
Carolina, or Georgia, and got a man to whom he 
paid I bcheve $800 a year. He proved to be a 
cruel fellow, and drove the slaves almost to 
death. There was a slave on this plantation, 
who had repeatedly run away, and had been 
severely flogged every time. The last time he 
was caught, a hole was dug in the ground, 
and he buried up to the chin, his arms being 
secured down by his sides. He was kept in this 
situation four or five days. 

The following was told me by an intimate 
friend ; it took place on a plantation containing 
about one hundred slaves. One day the owner 
ordered the women into the barn, he then went 
in among them, whip in hand, and told them he 
meant to flog them all to death ; they began immedi- 
ately to cry out " What have I done Massa ?" 
What have I done Massa ?" He replied ; " D — n 
you, I will let you know what you have done, 
you don't breed, I haven't had a young one from 
one of you for several months." They told him 
they could not breed while they had to work in 
the rice ditches. (The rice grounds are low and 
marshy, and have to be drained, and while dig- 
ging or clearing the ditches, the women had to 
work in mud and water from one to two feet in 
depth ; they were obliged to draw up and secure 
their frocks about their waist, to keep them out 
of the water, in this manner they frequently had 
to work from daylight in the morning till it was 
so dark they could see no longer.) After swear- 
ing and threatening for some time, he told them to 
tell the overseer's wife, when thev got in that way, 
and he would put them upon the land to work. 

This same planter had a female slave who was 
a member of the Methodist Church ; for a slave 
she was intelligent and conscientious. He pro- 
posed a criminal intercourse with her. She would 
not comply. He left her and sent for the over- 
seer, and told him to have her flogged. It was 
done. Not long after, he renewed his proposal. 
She again refused. She was again whipped. 
He then told her why she had been twice flogged, 
and told her he intended to whip her till she 
should yield. The girl, seeing that her case 
was hopeless, her back smarting with the scourg- 
ing she had received, and dreading a repetition, 
gave herself up to be the victim of his brutal lusts. 

One of the slaves on another plantation, gave 
birth to a child which lived but two or three 
weeks. After its death the planter called the 
woman to him, and asked her how she came to 



16 



Personttl Narratives — Mr. Caulkins. 



) ' •' ^'M dif ; raid it waM all owinp to her 
' ami that li'" iii<:inl Icj fluu luT for it. 

Ml ;..iii with all the f< ilinj( of a mother, 

Iht! cirriimntanccH of itH death. Hut her Htory 
availi-d her notlnng a(jain»t the navapc brutality 
of h<r tnaxtcr. Shi! wa.s wv<t< ly whipped. 
A healthy (*hild four inonthfi old waH then cuniiiU- 
ered worth $11 00 in North Carolina. 

'I'lie for'i,'i»in(j faetH were n-lntrd to me by 
whit<' perxoiiM iif character and ruspi-ctabilily. 
The follfiwiiig fa<'t waH related to mc on a plan- 
tation wlure I havo Hpenl comtiderablo time 
and when- tin; punishment wan intlicted. I 
have no duiiht of itM truth. A idavu ran away 
from lii.H ma.sler, and (jnt a.» far an Nrwix-ni. 
He took provisiomi that lantid him a week ; but 
having eaten all, iie went to a houfe to get pome, 
tliinij to Hatisfy bin liungi-r. A white man mis. 
pccting him to be a runaway, (h'manded liiHriaHH: 
as he had none lie wan neized and put in iS'ew- 
bem jail. He was thcriT advertised, his descrip- 
tion |jiv«n, &.C. His ma«lcr saw the advertise- 
menl and sent for him ; when he was brought 
hack. Ills wrists were tied topetlu-rand drawn over 
his knees. .\ stick was tlu'U (lassed over his 
arms and under his knees, and he weured in this 
manner, his trowscrs were then stripped down, 
and he turned over on his side, and severely 
In-aten with the paddle, then turned over and 
severely beaten on the other side, and then turn- 
ed back again, and tortured by another bruising 
and beating. He was afterwards kept in the 
stocks a week, and whipped every morning. 

To show the disgusting pollutions of slaverj', 
and how it covers with moral filth every thing it 
touches, I will state two or three facts, which I 
have on sjch evidence I cannot doubt their truth. 
A planter offered a white man of my acijainfanee 
twenty dollars for every one of his female slaves, 
whom he would get in the family way. This 
offer was no doubt made for the purpose of im. 
proving the stock, on the same principle that 
farmers en«leavotir to improve their cattle by 
crossing the breed. 

Slaves belonging to merchants and others in 
the city, often hire their own time, for which 
tliev [»av various prices per week or month, ac- 
cording to the cipacity of the slave. Tlie fe- 
males who tints hire their time, pursue various 
modes to procure the money ; their ma.sters mak- 
ing no inquiry how they get it, provided the 
money comes. If it is not regularly paid they 
are fl(jgged. Somr take in washing, some cook 
on board vessels, pick op.kuin, sell peanuts, v^c, 
while others, younger and more comely, often 
resort to the vilest pursuits. I knew a man from 
the north who, though married to a respeclable 
soiitheni woman, kept two of these mulatto girls 
in an iipjier room at his sfon- ; liis wife told some 
of her fVieniis that he had not lodged at home 
for two weeks together, I have seen these two 
krpt miimrM, as they are there called, at his store ; 
he was aflerwards stabbed in an attempt to ar- 
rest a runaway slave, and dud in about ten 
days. 

The clergv at the north cringe Ivneath Ihc 
rnrriipting inlliienee of slavery, ami thi'ir moral 
rounige is iKime down by it. Not the hrpocriti- 
eal and nnprineipled alone, bnt even fiurh as can 
hardiv be s(ii)|M)i.id to b' diyliU*** of ^•in^e^ltv. 



(ioing one momintf to the Baptist Sunday 
scho«d, in Wdmington, in which I was engaged, 
I fell in with llie Key. Thomas 1*. Hunt, who 
was going to the rn-sb^nerian Kchool. I asked 
him how he could btar to nee the hltlc negro 
children beating their hoops, hallooing, and run- 
ning about the streets, as we ihi-n saw them, 
their moral condition • ' ' !, while 

the whites were so c;i- i.to the 

scIkkjIs. His n-plv w.i„ : „.;, :,.,^ . — "I 

can't fiear it, .Mr. Caulkins. I feel as dc< p!y as any 
one canon this subject, bat what can 1 do .' Mr 

lU.NDS ARK TIED." 

Now, if Mr. Hunt was gniltj of ne^lectini; bis 
duty, as a servant of Him who never failed to re- 
buke sin in high place s, w hat shall be said of 
those clergymen at the north, where the power 
that closed his mouth is comjiaralivcly unfelt, 
who refuse to tell their people how tiod abhoia 
oppression, and who seldom open their mouthaoR 
this subject, but to denounce tlie friends of eoita- 
cipation, thus giving the strongest 8Upj)ort to the 
accursed system of slavery. 1 b« lieve Mr. Hunt 
has nincc become an agent of the Temperance 
Society. 

In slating the foregoing facts, my object haa 
been to show the practical workings of the sys- 
tem of slavery, and if possible to correct the mis- 
apprehension on tiiis subject, so common at the 
north. In doing tiiis 1 am not at war withsIaTC- 
holders. No, my soul is moved for them as weD 
as for the poor slaves. May God send them re- 
pentance to the acknowledgmeni of the truth I 
Principle, on a subject of this nature, is dearer to 
me than the applause of men, and should not be 
sacrificed on any subject, even though the ties of 
I friendship may be broken. We have !oo long 
I been silent on this subject, the slave has been too 
I much considered, by our northern states, as being 
kept by necessity in his present condition. — Were 
wc to ask, in the language of Pilate, " what evil 
have they done" — wc may search their history, 
wc cannot find that they have taken up arms 
against our government, nor insulted us as a na>. 
tion — that they are thus compelled to drag out a 
life in chains ! subjected to the most terrible infl.?- 
tions if in any way tlicy manifest a wij.h to be 
released. — Let us reverse Uie qui-stinn. W'iiat evil 
has been done to them by those who call them- 
selves masters? First let us look at ilieir per- 
sons, •* neither clothed nor oakeil" — I have veon 
instances where this phrase would not apply to 
boys and girls, and that too in winter. I knew 
one young man m-venteen years of agr. by the 
name of Dave, on Mr. J. Swan's [dan'ation, 
worked day after day in the ricr machine as nak. 
cd as when he was bom. The rra.«on of his 
being so, his master said in my hearing, was, that 
he could not keen clothes on him — he would gel 
into the fire and bum them off. 

Follow them next to their huts : some with and 
some without floors : — Go at night, vii w their 
means of bulging, see them lying on lvneh«H^ 
some on the floor or ground, some sitting on stools, 
dozing away the night ; — others, of younger age, 
with a bare blanket wrapped about them ; ajnd 
one or two lying in the aidies. These things / Acve 
ofirn Krrn irilh my own ryr*. 

Kxamine their means of subsistence, which 
coii!(isti generally of seven quarts of meal -cr 



Personal Narratives — Rev. Horace Moulton. 



17 



eight quarts of small rice for one week ; then 
follow them to their work, with driver and over- 
eeer pu.shing them to the utmost of their strength, 
by threatening and whipping. 

If they are sick from fatigue and exposure, go 
to their huts, as I have often been, and see them 
groaning under a burning fever or pleurisy, lying 
on some straw, their feet to the fire with liarely a 
blanket to cover them ; or on some boards nailed 
together in form of a bedstead. 

And after seeing all this, and hearing them 
tell of their sufTerings, need I ask, is there any 
evil connected with their condition ? and if so ; 
upon whom is it to be charged ? I answer for my- 
self, and the reader can do the same. Our govern- 
ment stands first chargeable for allowing slavery 
to exist, under i-ts own jurisdiction. Second, the 
states for enacting laws to secure their victim. 
Third, the slaveholder for carrying out such 
enactments, in horrid form enough to chill the 
blood. Fourth, every person who knows what 
slavery is, and does not raise his voice against 
this crying sin, but by silence gives consent to its 
continuance, is chargeable with guilt in the sight 
of God. " The blood of Zacharias who was 
slain between the temple and altar," says Christ, 

" WILL I REQUIRE OF THIS GENERATION." 

Look at the slave, his condition but little, if at 
all, better than that of the brute ; chained down 
by the law, and the will of his master ; and every 
avenue closed against relief; and the names of 
those who plead for him, cast out as evil ; — must 
not humanity let its voice be heard, and tell Israel 
their transgressions and Judah their sins ? 

May God look upon their afflictions, and deliver 
them from their cruel task-masters ! I verily be- 



lieve he will, if there be any efficacy in prayer. I 
have been to their prayer meetings and with tlinm 
ofTered pra3'er in their behalf. I have heard Home 
of them in their huts before day-light praying in 
their simple broken language, tolling their hea- 
vcnfy Father of their trials in the following and 
similar language. 

" Fader in heaven, look upon de poor slave, 
dat have to work all do day long, dat cant have 
de time to pray only in de night, and den massa 
mus not know it.* Fader, have mercy on massa 
and missus. Fader, when shall poor slave get 
through the world ! when will death come, and de 
poor slave go to heaven ;" and in their meetings 
they frequently add, " Fader, bless de white man 
dat come to hear de slave pray, bless his familv," 
and so on. They uniformly begin their meet- 
ings by singing the following — 

" And are we yet alive 

To see each other's face," &c. 

Is the ear of the Most High deaf to the prayer 
of the slave ? I do firmly believe that their de- 
liverance will come, and that the prayer of tliis 
poor afflicted people will be answered. 

Emancipation would be safe. I have had 
eleven winters to leani the disposition of the 
slaves, and am satisfied that they would peacea- 
bly and cheerfully work for pay. Give them 
education, equal and just laws, and they will be- 
come a most interesting people. Oh, let a cry 
be raised which shall awaken the conscience of 
this guilty nation, to demand for the slaves im- 
mediate and unconditional emancipation. 

Nehemiah Caulkins. 

* At this time there was some fear of insurrection and 
the slaves were forbidden to hold meetings. 



NARRATIVE AND TESTIMONY OF REV. HORACE MOULTON. 



Mr. Moulton is an esteemed minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in Marlborough, 
Mass. He spent five years in Georgia, between 
1817 and 1824. The following communication 
has been recently received from him. 

Marlborough, Mass., Feb. 18, 1839. 
Dear Brother — 

Yours of Feb. 2d, requesting me to write out a 
few facts on the subject of slavery, as it exists 
at the south, has come to hand. I hasten to 
comply with youir request. Were it not, how- 
ever, for the claims of those " who are drawn 
unto death," and the responsibility resting upon 
me, in consequence of this request, I should for- 
ever hold my peace. For I well know that I 
shall bring upon myself a flood of persecution, 
for attempting to speak out for the dumb. But 
I am willing to be set at nought by men, if I 
can be the means of promoting the welfare of 
the oppressed of our land. I shall not relate 
many particular cases of cruelty, though I 
might a great number; but shall give some 
general information as to their mode of treat- 
ment, their food, clothing, dwellings, depriva- 
tions, &c. 

Let me say, in the first place, that I spent 
nearly five years in Savannah, Georgia, and in 
2 



its ^acinity, between the years 1817 and 1824. 
My object in going to the south, was to engage 
in making and burning brick ; but not immedi- 
ately succeeding, I engaged in no business of 
much profit until late in the winter, when I took 
charge of a set of hands and went to work. 
During my leism-e, however, I was an observer, 
at the auctions, upon the plantations, and in al- 
most every department of business. The next 
year, during the cold months, I had several two- 
horse teams under my care, with which we used 
to haul brick, boards, and other articles from the 
wharf into the city, and cotton, rice, corn, and 
wood from the country. This gave me an ex- 
tensive acquaintance with merchants, mechanics 
and planters. I had slaves under my control 
some portions of every year when at the south. 
All the brick-yards, except one, on which I was 
engaged, were connected either with a corn field, 
potatoe patch, rice field, cotton field, tan- works, 
or with a wood lot. My business, usually, was 
to take charge of the brick-making department. 
At those jobs I have sometimes taken in charge 
both the field and brick-yard hands. I have 
been on the plantations in South Carolina, but 
have never been an overseer of slaves in that 
state, as has been said in the public papers. 
I think the above facts and explanations are 



18 



Personal Narralivcs — Rev. Horace Moulton. 



0e<SMMrj to bo connected witli tho account I 
may give of ulavery, Uiat the reader may have 
aomo knowlcd^)! of my acquaintanc4! wilh 
practical ulavtry : for many nit^clianics and 
niisrchanln wlm (;o to tin- Si.uili, and clay tlic re 
for yrani, kmiw but liltio of the dark hide uf 
alavcry. IMv arroiiril (if HlaviTy will apply to 
fifld haiidit, who roiiipotic much the large hI por- 
tion of th<' !)!ack [Mjpulation, (prohahly nim?- 
tonthH,) and not to thoHo who arc kept for kitchen 
maidit, iiuntt-H, waiteni, &.C., about tliu Iioumck of 
llu; plantiTH and public hotrlH, whir<: p( rnonw 
from the north obtain moHt of tluir kncjwledfjc 
of the ivilH of slavery. I will now proceed to 
take up specific pointw. 

TIIK LABOR OK THE HI.AVKfl. 

Malt's and femalcH work topt-tln-r promiscuously 
on all the |ilantations. ( )n many plantations la^ka 
am jfiven them. The best working hands ran 
have some leisure time; but the feeble ami unskil- 
ful ones, together with slender females, have in- 
deed a hard tinu; of it, and very often answer for 
non-performance of tasks at the irhijijtiiifr.poatg. 
None who worked with me had tasks at any 
time. The ride was to work them from sun to 
■un. But when I was burning brirk, they wire 
obliged to take turns, and xit up all iiif^lit about 
every other night, and work all day. On one 
plantation, where I spent a few weeks, the slaves 
were called up to work long before daylight, 
when business pressed, and worked until late at 
night ; and sometimes some of them all nipht. 
A large portion of the slaves arc owned by ma.s- 
ters who keep them on purpose to hire out — and 
they usually let them to those who will give the 
highest wages for them, irrespective of their 
mode of treatment ; and those who hire them, 
wdl of course try to get the greatest possible 
amount of work performed, with the least possi- 
ble expense. Women arc seen bringing their 
infants into llic field to their work, and leading 
others who are not old enough to slay at the 
cabins with safety. When they get there, they 
must set them down in the dirt, and go to work. 
Sometimes they arc left to cry imtil they fall 
alsccp. Others are left at home, shut up in their 
hutB. Now, is it not barbarous, that the mother, 
with licr child or children aroimd her, half 
atarvcd, must be whipped at night if she does not 
^icrform her task ? But so it is. Some who 
have very young ones, fix a little sack, and place 
Uie infants on their backs, and work. One 
reason, I presume is, that they will not cry so 
much when they can hear their mother's voice. 
Anotliir is, the mothers fear that the poison. 
ouH vipers and snakes will bite them. Truly, I 
never knew any plare where the land is so in. 
fested with all kinds of the most venomous 
snakes, as in the low lands rounil about Savan- 
niih. The moccasin snakes, so called, and water 
rattle-snakes — the bites of both of which arc as 
poisonous as our upland rattle-snakes at tlie 
north, — are fuiind in myriads about the stag- 
nant waters anil swamps of tlie South. The fe- 
males, in ordi-r to secure their infants frnm Uiew 
poisonous snnki's, do, as I have said, often work 
witli their infants on their backs. PVmales arc 
aoroctimes calli-d to tnke the hardest part of the 
work. On some brick yards where I have been, 



the women have l>een selected aji the moulder* 
of brick, instead of ilie men. 

ri. THK rooD or riir suives. 

It waa a general ruiitom, wherever I have been, 
for the mantera to give each of his slaves, male 
and female, one peek of com per iceck for their 
food. This at fifty cent* pi-r bushel, which waa 
all that it was worth when I wan there, would 
amount to twelve and a half centu per week for 
board {ter head. 

It cost me upon an average, when at the south, 
one dollar p<r day for Iward. The price of four- 
teen bushels of c<im |><;r w<-ek. This would make 
my board equal in amount to the board o{ fortysix 
tilarcM .' This is all that good or bad masters al. 
low their slaves round about Savannah on tlio 
plantations, (^nc jieck of goiu-d-»«cd com is to 
l>c measured out to each slave once every week- 
(Jnc man with whom I lalxircd, however, being 
desirous to get all the work out of his hands 
he could, before I left, ("about fifty in number,) 
bought for them every week, or twice a week, a 
beef's head from market. Wilh this, they made a 
soup in a large iron kettle, around which the 
han-ls came at meal-time, and dipping out tho 
soup, would mix it with Uieir hommony, and eat it 
as though it were a feaj-t. This man pt nnitted his 
slavesto cat twice a day while I was doing a job for 
him. He promised me a beaver hat and as good a 
suit of clotlies as could be bought in the city, if I 
would accomplish so much for him Ixfore I return- 
ed to the north ; giving me the entire control over 
his slaves. Thus you may sec the temptations 
overseers sometimes have, to get all the work 
they can out of llic poor slaves. The above is an 
exception to the general rule of feeding. For in 
all other places where I worked and visited ; tho 
slaves had not hi n;s from thrir master* but the corn, 
or its equivalent in potatoes or rice, and to this, 
they were not permitted to come but onee a day. 
nic custom was to blow the horn early in the 
morning, as a signal for the hands to ri.se and go 
to work, when commenced ; tliey continued worl^ 
until about eleven o'clock, A. M., when, at the 
signal, all hands left off, and went into their huts, 
made their fin-s, made their com-meal into horn- 
monv or cake, ate it, and went to work again at 
the signal of the horn, and worked until night, or 
until their tasks were done. Some cooked their 
breakfast in the tield while at work. Each slave 
must grind his own corn in a lund-mill after he 
has done his work al night. There is generally 
one hand-mill on ever}" plantation for the use of 
U>e slaves. 

Some of the planters have no com, others often 
get out. The siilvstitnte for it is, the equi\-alcnt of 
one peek of com either in rice or sweet potatoes ; 
neillier of which is as good for the slaves as com. 
They complain mon- of being faint, wh-.n fed on 
rice or potato«>», than when fed on com. I was 
with one man a fi-w weeks who gave me his 
hands to do a job of work, and to save time one 
cooked for all the rest. Tlie followinc coun»e was 
taken. — Two cmtched sticks wen- driven down at 
one end of the yard, and a small |>.>le l>cing laid 
on the crotches, they swung a large inm kettle on 
the middle of the pole; then m.iiie up a dm 
under the kettle and boiled tlie hommony ; when 
ready, tlic hands were ca.llcd around this kettle 



Personal Narratives — Rev. Horace Moulton. 



19 



with their wooden plates and spoons. Tiicy dip- 
ped out and ate standing- around the kettle, or sit. 
ting upon the ground, as best suited tlieir eonve- 
nicnce. When they had potatoes they took them 
out with their hands, and ate thcin. As soon as it 
was thought they had had sufficient time to swal- 
low their food they were called to their Work again. 
This 2vas the only weal Ihe.y ate throu<rh the day. 
Now think of the little, almost naked and half- 
starved children, nibbling upon a piece of cold 
Indian cake, or a potato ! Think of the poor fe- 
male, just ready to be confined, without any thing 
that can be called convenient or comfortable ! 
Think of the old toil-worn father and mother, with- 
out any thing to eat but the coarsest of food, and 
not half enough of that! then think of home. 
When sick, their physicians are their masters and 
overseers, in most cases, whose skill consists in 
bleeding and in administering large potions of Ep- 
som salts, when the whip and cursing will not 
start them from their cabins. 

in. HOUSES. 

The huts of the slaves are mostly of the poor- 
est kind. They are not as good as those tempo- 
rary shanties which are thrown up beside rail- 
roads. They are erected with posts and crotches, 
with but little or no frame-work about them. 
They have no stoves or chimneys; some of them 
have something like a fireplace at one end, and a 
board or two off at that side, or on the roof, to let 
off the smoke. Others have nothing like a fire- 
place in them ; in these the fire is sometimes made 
in the middle of the hut. These buildings have 
but one apartment in them ; the places where 
they pass in and out, serve both for doors and 
v/indows ; the sides and roofs are covered with 
coarse, and in many instances with refuse boards. 
In warm weather, especially in the spring, the 
slaves keep up a smoke, or fire and smoke, all 
night, to drive away the gnats and musketoes, 
v/hich are very troublesome in all the low country 
of the south ; so much so that the whites sleep 
under frames with nets over them, knit so fine that 
the musketoes cannot fly through them. 

Some of the slaves have rugs to cover them 
in the coldest weather, but I should think more 
have not. During driving storms they frequently 
have to run from one hut to another for shelter. 
In the coldest weather, where they can get wood 
or stumps, they keep up fires all night in their 
huts, and lay around them, with their feet to- 
wards the blaze. Men, women and children all 
lie down together, in most instances. There may 
be exceptions to the above statements in regard 
to their houses, hut so far as my observations 
have extended, I have given a fair description, 
and I have been on a large number of planta- 
tions in Georgia and South Carolina up and down 
the Savannah river. Their huts are generally 
built compactly on the plantations, forming villa- 
ges of huts, their size proportioned to the number 
of slaves on them. In these miserable huts the 
poor blacks are herded at night like swine, without 
any conveniences of bedsteads, tables or chairs. 
O misery to the full ! to see the aged sire beating 
off the swarms of gnats and musketoes in the 
warm weather, and shivering in the straw, or 
bending over a few coals in the winter, clothed 
in rags. I should think males and females, both 



lie down at night with their working clothes on 
them. God alone knows how much the poor 
slaves suffer for the want of convenient houses 
to secure them from the piercing winds and Iiowl- 
ing storms of winter, especially the aged, sick 
and dying. Althougfi it is much warmer there 
than here, yet I suffered for a number of weeks 
in the winter, almost as much in Georgia as I do 
in Massachusetts. 

IV. CLOTUING. 

The masters [in Georgia] make a practice of 
getting two suits of clothes for each slave per year, 
a thick suit for winter, and a thin one for summer. 
They provide also one pair of northern made sale 
shoes for each slave in winter. These shoes usu- 
ally begin to rip in a few weeks. The negroes' 
mode of mending them is, to loire them together, 
in many instances. Do our northern shoemakers 
know that they are augmenting the sufferings of 
the poor slaves with their almost good for nothing 
sale shoes ? Inasmuch as it is done unto one of 
those poor sufferers it is done unto our Saviour. 
The above practice of clothing the slave is cus- 
tomary to some extent. How many, however, 
fail of this, God only knows. The children and 
old slaves are, I should think, exceptions to the 
above rule. The males and females have their 
suits from the same cloth for their winter dresses. 
These winter garments appear to be made of a 
mixture of cotton and wool, very coarse and 
sleazy. The whole suit for the men consists of 
a pair of pantaloons and a short sailor-jacket, 
without shirt, vest, hat, stockings, or any kind' of 
loose garments ! These, if worn steadily when 
at work, would not probably last more than one 
or two months ; therefore, for the sake of saving 
them, many of them work, especially in the sum- 
mer, with no clothing on them except a cloth 
tied round their waist, and almost all with nothing 
more on them than pantaloons, and these fre- 
quently so torn that they do not serve the pur- 
poses of common decency. The women have 
for clothing a short petticoat, and a short loose 
gown, something like the male's sailor-jacket, 
without any under garment, stockings, bonnets, 
hoods, caps, or any kind of over-clothes. When 
at work in wann weather, they usually strip off 
the loose gown, and have nothing on but a short 
petticoat with some kind of covering over their 
breasts. Many children may be seen in the sum- 
mer months as naked as they came into the world. 
I think, as a whole, they suffer more for the want 
of comfortable bed-clothes, than they do for wear- 
ing apparel. It is true, that some iDy begging or 
buying, have more clothes than above described, 
but the masters provide them with no more. They 
a^re miserable objects of pity. It may be said of 
many of them, " I was naked and ye clothed me 
not." It is enough to melt the hardest heart to 
see the ragged mothers nursing their almost nak- 
ed children, with but a morsel of the coarsest 
food to eat. The Southern horses and dogs have 
enough to eat and good care taken of them, but 
Southern negroes, who can describe their misery ? 

V. PUNISHMENTS. 

The ordinary mode of punishing the slaves is 
both cruel and barbarous. The masters seldom, 
if ever, try to govern their slaves by moral influ- 



20 



PcrsoiuU Narratives — Rev. Horace MouItoD. 



once, but by whippin;;, kickingf beating, atarrini;, I 
bnnidini;, raLhauliim, loadini; with iron*, iraprix. 
oning, cir by imiiiii! citlu-r cruul iiiudi' of tortiinni;. 
Tljcy ofliii bnaiit <il liaviri;j invcnu-d hohh! nrw 
mod" of torlim-, liy wlii<:li tlu-y liavo " lani' d 
lljc rum-alH." What Ih railed a iiiodi-nitr llotcijinK 
at llii- noulli m horribly tnicl. Should we whip 
ourhontcH fi>raiiy otii-nce an they whip their xlavcM 
for Hmall (jIlVntTH, wo> Hhoidd cxijohc oiintclve» to , 
tlic penally of lite law. 'J'hi! tnoHtem whip for the i 
■malleMt oireiici H, Much aH nol p<Tf'iriiuii;j flii-ir 
tajikn, Iniini; caught by llie yiiard or patrol by 
niffht, orfor taking; any tliin(; from the niaxler'H yard 
witlioiit leave. For Uiese. and the like crinieH, 
the nlaveH are whippi d thirty-nine latdiCH, and , 
t*oni''tiinc8 wventy or a hundred, on the bare back. , 
One slave, who wan un<l'r my care, wa» whipped, 
I think one hundred laMiie«, frtr [belting a hiiiall 
haiult'ul of Wood from bin ma.stcr'H yard without 
leave. I heard an (»ven<cer boa-ttiiig to iIiIh Hamc 
mai^ter that he pave oni;ofthe boys seventy laxhis, 
for not doinjj a job of work just aH h(^ lhou(jht it 
ought to in- done. Tlio owner of tlie nlave ap. ' 
pcared to be ploa«cd that the overseer had been ho , 
faitlilul. Tlie apolojyy tliey make for whipping ' 
so cruellv in, that it w to frichten the rest of the 
ganfr. The m.istcrH nay, that what we call an 
ordinary flopiriiijr will not subdue tlie slaves ; . 
hence the most cruel and barbarous srourijings 
ever witnessed by man are daily and hourly in- 
flicted upon tiic naked bodies of those miserable ; 
iKindmen ; not l)y masters and negro-drivers only, 
but by the con.stables in the common markets ! 
and jailors in their yards. | 

When th(^ slaves anr whipped, either in public j 
or private, they have their hands fastened by the 
wrists, with a rope or cord prepared for the pur- ' 
pose : this being thrown over a beam, a limb of a 
tree, or somethinp else, the culprit is drawn up j 
and strelclu'd by the arms as high as possible, ; 
without raising bis feet from the ground or floor : \ 
and sometimes they are made to stand on tip-toe ; 
then the feet are made fast to something prepared 
for them. In this distorted posture the monster : 
flies at them, sometimes in gn^at rage, with his I 
implements of torture, and cuts on with all his j 
might, over the shoulders, under the arms, and \ 
sometimes over the Ix-ad and ears, or on parts of > 
the iMxly where he can inflict the greatest torment. ! 
Occasionally the whipj)er, cs[ieciallv if his victim 
does not beg enough to suit him, while UTider the j 
lash, will fly into a passion, uttering the most hor- 
rid oaths; while the victim of his rage is crying, ' 
at every stroke, " Lord have mercy ! Lord have , 
mercy I" The scenes exhibited at the whijiping ' 
I»08t are awfully terrific and frightful to one whos'j | 
lioart has not turned to stone ; I nevi-r could look 
on but a moment. While tmder the lash, tlja 
bleeding victim writhes in agony, convulsed willT 
torture. Thirty.nine lashes on the l)are back, 
which tear the skin at almost every stroke, is 
what the ."^oulh calls a very modrrntr puiiishmrnl .' 
Many masters whip until they an' tired — until 
•he back is a gon< of blood — then rest upon it : 
after a short <'>'!4sation, get up and go at it again ; 
and after liaving satiated their n'vengi" in the blood 
of their victims, they sometimes /rnrr Ihrm tied, 
for houri togrthrr, hlrrding at rrrry iroiiud. — 
Sometimes, after being whipped, they an- b;ithod 
with a brine of salt and water. Now ajid then a 



majiter, but more frequently a miKtrcM who hai 
no husband, will send tiiem to jail a few days, 
giving orders to have tiiem whipned, so manv 
luHlieM, iinrc or twice a day. ^ ii't- 1 

Ix'Uig whi[ip<'(l, wjme have txcii lark 

place and d«'prived of fotnl, in <--: . ... rcasu 
their tonx-nts : and I have heard of some who 
have, in such circuinstaneot, died uf their wounds 
and stanatiun. 

Such scenes of horror t» above described are •• 
common in (Jeorgia that lb' y attract no atten* 
tion. 'I'o thr aten them with death, with break, 
ing in their te< tli or jaws, or cracking their heads, 
is common talk, wh« n scolding at the slaven.— . 
Those who nin away from tlieir niasti-rs and ar« 
caught again gi nerallv fare the worst. They are 
generally lodged in jai), with instpictions from the 
owner to have them cniellv whip|K-d. Some or- 
der the constables to whip them publicly in tho 

market. Constables at the iwnith ar r.i;.. 

Havage, brutal men. They have Ix cou 
tomed to catching and whipping ii' • c 

they are as fierce as tigers. Slaves wlm are ab. 
Bcnt from their yards, or plantations, after eight 
o'clock P. M., and an- taken by the guard in tbo 
cities, or by the patn>la in the countn-, arc. if not 
called for before nine o'clr>ck A. M. the next day, 
secured in prisons; and hardly ever e«e.i[>c, until 
their backs arc torn up by the cow.liide. Oo 
jilantations, the errningt usually present scenes 
of horror. Those slaves against whom charges are 
preferred for not having performed their tasks, 
and for various faults, must, after work-hours at 
night, undergo their torments. I have often heard 
tlie sound of the la.sh, the curses of the wbippcr, 
and the cries of the poor negro rending the air, 
late in the evening, and long before daj.hght m 
the morning. 

It is very common for masters to say to iho 
overseers or drivers, "put it on to them," "don't 
spare that fellow," " give that scoundn-i one hun- 
dred lashes," &c. Whipping tlie women when 
in delicate circumstances, as thev sometimes do, 
without any regard to their entreaties or the en- 
treaties of their nearest friends, is trulv barbarous. 
If negroes could testify, they would tell vou of 
instances of women being whipped until tliey 
have miscarried at the whipp:ng.}>ost- I heard 
of such things at the south — they arf> undoubted, 
ly facts. Children an." whipped nnmereifiilly for 
the smallest oftinees, and that before their mo- 
thers. A large proportion of the blacks have their 
shoulders, backs, and arms all scarn^d up, and 
not a few of them have had their heads laid open 
with clubs, stones, and brickbats, and with tJio 
butt-end of whips and canes — some have had 
their jaws bniken, others their leolh knocked in or 
out ; while others have had their ears cropped 
and the sides of their cheeks gashed out. Soma 
of tlie |>oor creatures have lost the sight of one of 
th<'ir eyes by the careless blows of the whipper, 
or by some otlvr vi<ilenee. 

Hut punishing of slaves as aboTC dcsrribod, is not 
tin- only moile of torture. Some tie them up in 
a very iineasv ]>oslure, where they must stand 
all night, &nd thev will then work them hard all 
day — that is, work Uiem hard all day and tor- 
in. nt them all night. Others punish by fastcninff 
them down on a log, or somrlhing else, and 
strike them on the bare skin witli a board paddlo 



Personal Narratives — Rev. Horace Moulton. 



21 



full of holes. This breaks the skin, I should 
presume, at every hole where it eomcs in 
contact with it. Others, when other modes of 
punishment will not subdue them, cat-haul them 
— that is, lake a eat by the nape of tlie neek and 
tail, or by the hind legs, and drag the claws 
across the back until satisfied. This kind of pun- 
ishment poisons the flesh much worse than the 
whip, and is more dreaded by tlie slave. Some 
are branded by a hot iron, otiicrs have their 
flesh cut out in large gashes, to mark them. 
Some who are prone to run away, have iron fet- 
ters riveted around their ancles, sometimes they 
are put only on one foot, and are dragged on the 
ground. Others have on large iron collars or 
j'okes upon their necks, or clogs riveted upon 
their wrists or ancles. Rome have bells put upon 
them, hung upon a sort of frame to an iron collar. 
Some masters fly into a rage at trifles and knock 
down their negroes with their fists, or with the 
first thing that they can get hold of. The whip- 
lash-knots, or rawhide, have sometimes by a 
reckless stroke reached round to the front of the 
body and cut through to the bowels. One slave- 
holder with whom I lived, whipped one of his 
slaves one day, as many, I should think, as one 
hundred lashes, and then turned the hutt-cnd 
and went to beating him over the head and ears, 
and truly I was amazed that the slave was not 
killed on the spot. Not a few slaveholders whip 
their slaves to death, and then say that they died 
under a " moderate correction." I wonder that 
ten are not killed where one is ! Were they not 
much hardier than the whites many more of 
them must die than do. One young mulatto 
man, with whom I was well acquainted, was 
killed by his master in his yard with impunity. 
I boarded at the same time near the place where 
this glaring murder was committed, and knew 
the master well. He had a plantation, on 
which he enacted, almost daily, cruel barbarities, 
some of them, I was informed, more terrific, if 
possible, than death itself. Little notice was 
taken of this murder, and it all passed off without 
any action being taken against the murderer. 
The masters used to try to make me whip their 
negroes. They said I could not get along with 
them without flogging them — but I found I could 
get along better with them by coaxing and en- 
couraging them than by beating and flogging 
them. I had not a heart to beat and kick about 
those beings ; although I had not grace in my 
heart the three first years I was there, yet I sym- 
pathised with the slaves. I never was guilty of 
having but one whipped, and he was whipped 
but eight or nine blows. The circumstances 
were as follows : Several negroes were put under 
my care, one spring, %oho were fresh frotn Congo 
and Guinea. I could not understand them, nei- 
ther could they me, in one word I spoke. I 
therefore pointed to them to go to work ; all 
obeyed me willingly but one — he refused. I told 
the driver that he must tie him up and whip him. 
After he had tied him, by the help of some others, 
we struck him eight or nine blows, and he 
yielded. I told the driver not to strike him ano- 
ther blow. We untied him, and be went to work, 
and continued faithful all the time he was with 
me. This one was not a sample, however — many 
of them have such exalted views of freedom that 



it is hard work for the masters to whip fhrm into 
brutes, that is to subdue their noble spirits. Tho 
negroes being jjiit under rny care, did not prevent 
tlie masters from whipping tjicm when th(.-y 
pleased. But they never whipped much in my 
presence. This work was usually left until I 
had dismissed the hands. On the plantations, 
the masters chose to liave the slaves wliipped in 
the presence of all the hands, to strike them with 
terror. 

VI. RUNAWAYS. 

Numbers of poor slaves run away from their 
masters ; some of whom doubtless perish in tlie 
swamps and other secret places, rather than re- 
turn back again to their masters ; others stay 
away until they almost famish with hunger, and 
then return home rather than die, while others 
who abscond arc caught by the negro-hunters, in 
various ways. Sometimes the master will hire 
some of his most trusty negroes to secure any 
stray negroes, who come on to their plantations, 
for many come at night to beg food of their 
friends on the plantations. The slaves assist 
one another usually when they can, and not be 
found out in it. The master can now and then, 
however, get some of his hands to betray the run- 
aways. Some obtain their living in hunting after 
lost slaves. The most common way is to train 
up yomig dogs to follow them. This can easily 
be done by obliging a slave to go out into the 
woods, and climb a tree, and then put the 3'oung 
dog on his track, and with a little assistance he 
can be taught to follow him to the tree, and when 
found, of course the dog would bark at such 
game as a poor negro on a tree. There was a 
man living in Savannah when I was there, who 
kept a large number of dogs for no other pur- 
pose than to hunt runaway negroes. And he 
always had enough of this work to do, for hun- 
dreds of runaways are never found, but could he 
get news soon after one had fled, he was almost 
sure to catch him. And this fear of the dogs re- 
strains multitudes from running ofF. 

When he went out on a hunting excursion, to be 
gone several days, he took several persons with him, 
armed generally with rifles and followed by the 
dogs. The dogs were as true to the track of a 
negro, if one had passed recently, as a hound is 
to the track of a fox when he has found it. When 
the dogs draw near to their game, the slave must 
turn and fight them or climb a tree. If the latter, 
the dogs will stay and bark until the pursuers 
come. The blacks frequently deceive the dogs 
b)^ crossing and recrossing the creeks. Should 
the hunters who have no dogs, start a slave from 
kjs hiding place, and the slave not stop at the 
ifunter's call, he will shoot at him, as soon as he 
would at a deer. Some masters advertise so much 
for a runaway slave, dead or alive. It undoubt- 
edly gives such more satisfaction to know that 
their property is dead, than to know that it is 
alive without being able to get it. Some slaves 
run away who never mean to be taken alive, I 
will mention one. He run off and was pursued 
by the dogs, but having a weapon with him he 
succeeded in killing two or three of the dogs ; 
but was afterwards shot. He had declared, that 
he never would be taken alive. The people 
rejoiced at the death of the slave, but lamented 



Personal Narratives — Sarah M. Grimkfe. 



Ihr death of the dofrii, tliry wtrrn mich ravcnoim 
JiiintiTH. Poor fellow, lie (oiigUl for life ami 
liberty tikr a li<;ro ; but lli<: IiuIIcIh linm^lit litii 
down. A in'i^Tci can Imrdly walk nriiiioii •>!' il 
at tlir noutli. — l'>i ry roUin d nlrainjtT that walk.i 
tho ■trt'rtR ill Kimiii'ctcd orbciri^ a runaway Mlavr, 
hence he must be inlerro(rated by every mgro 
liater wituni In- lucetii, and lihould he not have a 
pa«a, he inuxt \>r arrcHted and hurried of)' to jail. 
Some manterH lioant that tlir^ir claveN would not 
be free if thi-y could. How little they know of 
their nlavcH ! They arc all Hijjhing and proaning 
for freedom. May (iod haxten Uie time ! 

VII. CO.NKINKMK.NT AT NIOIIT. 

When the slaves have done their day's work, 
they must be herded together like Nhecp in their 
yards, or on their plantationx. They have; not as 
much liberty as norllprn men have, who are 
sent to jail fur drbt, for they have liberty to 
walk a larger yard than the slaves have. The 
slaves must all be at their homes precisely at 
eight o'clock, r.M. At this hour the drums beat 
in Uie cities, as a signal for every slave to be in 
his den. In the country, the signal is given by 
firing guns, or some other way by which they 
may know the liour when to be at home. After 



this hour, the guard in the cities, and patrob in 
the country, biing well armid, arc on duly until 
daylight in tin- morning. If ihey catch any 
negroes during the night without a {>aM, Uiey ar 
imnu'diati^ly iM;izr;iJ and hurriLd away to ti.' 
guard-house, or if in the country Ut some plar 
of confinement, where they are kept until nirv 
o'clock, A. M., tlic next day, if not called for by 
that time, thiy ar<.- hurried off to jail, and thcro 
remain until called for by thtir master and bi< 
jail and guard house fcs paid. The guards am! 
patrols receive one dollar extra for every on- 
they can catch, who has not a pays from h^- 
mastcr, or ovemcr, but few ma«U.-rs will giv 
their.slaves passes to be out at nightunk-sson s^^m' 
special business : notwithstanding, many ventiin 
out, watching every step they take for the guard 
or patrol, th« conw-quence is, some arc caught 
almost every night, and some nights many are 
taken ; some, flreing after being hailed by the 
watch, are shot down in attempting their escape, 
others are crippled for life. I find I shall not b- 
ablc to write out more at present. My ministf - 
rial duties are pressing, and if I delay this till th' 
next mail, I fear it will not be in season. Yout 
brother for Uioec who arc in bonds, 

Horace Moulton. 



NARRATIVE AND TESTIMONY OF SARAH M. GRIMKE. 



Miss Grimke is a daughter of the late 
Judge Grimke, of the Supreme Court of South 
Carolina, and sister of the late Hon. Thomas S. 
Grimkti. 

As I left my native state on account of slave- 
ry, and deserted the home of my fathers toescapc 
the sound of tho lash and the shri< ks of tortured 
victims, I would gladly bury in oblivion the re- 
collection of lhos«^ scenes with which I have been 
familiar; but this may not, cannot be; they 
come over my memory like gory spectres, and 
implore mc with resistless jiowor, in the name of 
a God of mercy, in the name of a crucified Sa. 
vior, in the name of hunianity; for tho sake of 
the slaviholder, as well as llie slave, to bear 
witness to the horrors of the sf)Uthem i>ris<in 
house. I feel impelled by a sacred sense of 
duty, by my obligations to my coimiry, by sym- 
pathy for the bleeding victims of tyranny and 
lust, to give my tesliinonv respecting the system 
of American slavery, — to detail a frw faets, most 
of which came under my prrsonnl olisrirntinn. 
And here I n>ay preniis<-, that the actors in these 
tragedies were all men and women of the high- 
est res|K>ctability, and of the first families fn 
South Carolina, and, with one exccfition, citi- 
zcns of Charleston ; and that tlieir cruelties did 
not in the sliglitcst degree alVect tlicir standing 
in society. 

A hand.iomo mulallo woman, about IH or 20 
years of age, whose independent spirit could not 
brook th<' digradation of slavery, was in the 
habit of rtinning away: for this oflenee she had 
b<!en rep'-ateiilv H<-nl by her master aiul mistress 
to l»o whipped bv the kcep«'r of the Charleston 
jvork-houix'. Tliis liad been done with snrh in- 
human severity, as to lacerate licr Itack in a 



most shocking manner; a finger could not br 
laid between the cuts. But the love of hbcrtv 
was too strong to l>c annihilated by torture ; and, 
as a last resort, she was whipped at several dif- 
ferent times, and kept a close prii»f)ner. A heavy 
iron collar, with three long prongs projcclinp 
from it, was placed round her neck, and a 
strong and sound front tooth was extracted, to 
ser\-e as a mark to describe her. in case of es- 
cape. Her sufTerings at this time were agonir- 
ing ; slie could lie in no position but on her back, 
which was sore from scourgings, as I can testifv, 
from persrnal insjiection, and her only phu' ■ 
rest was the floor, on a blanket. Tlicsc on" 
wer>- committed in a family where tlie nu-in.--- 
daily read the scriptun\», and assembled her 
children for family worship. She was account- 
ed, and was nally, so far as alms-giving wa,*! 
concerned, a charitable woman, and tender 
hearted to the ptxir; and yet this sufTering slave, 
who was the seamstress of the family, was con- 
tinually in hrr pres<'nee, .fitting in her chamber 
tr) sew, or engaged in her other household work, 
with h< r lacerated and bleeding back, her muti- 
lated mouth, and heavy iron collar, without, so 
far as appeared, exciting any feelings of com- 
passion. 

A highly intelligent slave, who panted afUr 
fnedoin with ceast less longings, made many at- 
tempts to get possession of himself. For every 
offence he was ]iiini.>>hcd with exin ni'' severity. 
.\t one time he was tied up by his hands to a 
tree, and whipp<Ml until his back was one gore 
of blood. To this terrible infliction he was sub- 
jected at intervals for several weeks, .ind kept 
heavily ironeil while at his work. His m.!.--!! r 
<uie day accused him of a fatilt, in the iimi.t! 
terms dictated by pawion and arbitrary power ; 



Personal Narratives — Sarah M. Grimke. 



23 



the man protested his innocence, but was not 
credited. He again repelled the charge with 
honest indignation. His -master's temper rose 
almost to frenzy ; and seizing a fork, he made a 
deadly plunge at the breast of the slave. The 
man being far his superior in strength, caught 
his arm, and dashed the weapon on the floor. 
His master grasped at his throat, but the slave 
disengaged himself, and rushed from the apart- 
ment. Having made his escape, he fled to the 
woods ; and after wandering about for many 
months, living on roots and berries, and enduring 
every hardship, he was arrested and committed 
to jail. Here he lay for a considerable time, 
allowed scarcely food enough to sustain life, 
whipped in the most shocking manner, and con- 
fined in a cell so loathsome, that when his mas- 
ter visited him, he said the stench was enough 
to knock a man down. The filth had never 
been removed from the apartment since the poor 
creature had been imrnm-cd in it. Although a 
black man, such had been the effect of starva- 
tion and suffering, that his master declared he 
hardly recognized him — his complexion was so 
yellow, and his hair, naturally thick and black, 
had become red and scanty ; an infallible sign of 
long continued living on bad and insufficient 
food. Stripes, imprisonment, and the gnawings 
of hunger, had broken his lofty spirit for a season ; 
and, to use his master's own exultmg expression, 
he was " as humble as a dog." After a time he 
made another attempt to escape, and was absent 
so long, that a reward was offered for him, dead 
or alive. He eluded every attempt to take him, 
and his master, despairing of ever getting him 
again, offered to pardon him if he would return 
home. It is always understood that such intel- 
ligence will reach the runaway ; and according- 
ly, at the entreaties of his wife and mother, the 
fugitive once more consented to return to his bit- 
ter bondage. I believe this was the last effort to 
obtain his liberty. His heart became touched 
with the power of the gospel ; and the spirit 
which no inflictions could subdue, bowed at the 
cross of Jesus, and with the language on his 
lips — "the cup that my father hath given me, 
shall I not drink it ?" submitted to the yoke of 
the oppressor, and wore his chains in unmurmur- 
ing patience till death released him. The mas- 
ter who perpetrated these wrongs upon his slave, 
was one of the most influential and honored citi- 
zens of South Carolina, and to his equals was 
bland, and courteous, and benevolent even to a 
proverb. 

A slave who had been separated from his 
wife, because it best suited the convenience of 
his owner, ran away. He was taken up on the 
plantation where his wife, to whom he was ten- 
derly attached, then lived. His only object in 
running away was to return to her — no other 
fault was attributed to him. For this offence he 
was confined in the stocks six weeks, in a mis- 
erable hovel, not weather-tight. He received 
fifty lashes weekly during that time, was allow- 
ed food barely sufficient to sustain him, and when 
released from confinement, was not permitted to 
return to his wife. His master, although him- 
self a husband and a father, was unmoved by 
the touching appeals of the slave, who entreated 
that he might only remain with his wife, promis- 



ing to discharge his duties faithfully ; his master 
continued inexorable, and he was torn from his 
wife and family. The owner of this slave wan a 
professing Christian, in full membership with the 
church, and this circumstance occurred wlien he 
was confined to his chamber during his last ill- 
ness. 

A punishment dreaded more by the slaves 
tlian whipping, unless it is unusually severe, is 
one which was invented by a female acquaint- 
ance of mine in Charleston — I heard her say so 
with much satisfaction. It is standing on one 
foot and holding the other in the hand. After- 
wards it was improved upon, and a strap was 
contrived to fasten around the ankle and pass 
around the neck ; so that the least weight of the 
foot resting on the strap would choke the person. 
The pain occasioned by this unnatural position 
was great ; and when continued, as it sometimes 
was, for an hour or more, produced intense 
agony. I heard this same woman say, that she 
had the ears of her waiting maid slit for some 
petty theft. This she told me in the presence of 
the girl, who was standing in the room. She 
often had the helpless victims of her cruelty se- 
verely whipped, not scrupling herself to wield 
the instrument of torture, and with her own 
hands inflict severe chastisement. Her husband 
was less inhuman than his wife, but he was often 
goaded on by her to acts of great severity. In 
his last illness I was sent for, and watched be- 
side his death couch. The girl on whom he had 
so often inflicted punishment, haunted his dying 
hours ; and when at length the king of terrors 
approached, he shrieked in utter agony of spirit, 
" Oh, the blackness of darkness, the black imps, 
I can see them all around me — take them 
away !" and amid such exclamations he expired. 
These persons were of one of the first families in 
Charleston. 

A friend of mine, in whose veracity I have en- 
tire confidence, told me that about two years ago, 
a woman in Charleston with whom I was well 
acquainted, had starved a female slave to death. 
She was confined in a solitary apartment, kept 
constantly tied, and condemned to the slow and 
horrible death of starvation. This woman was 
notoriously cruel. To those who have read the 
narrative of James Williams I need only say, that 
the character of young Larrimore's wife is an ex- 
act description of this female tyrant, whose coim- 
tenance was ever dressed in smiles when in the 
presence of strangers, but whose heart was as the 
nether millstone toward her slaves. 

As I was traveling in the lower country in 
South Carolina, a number of years since, my at- 
tention was suddenly arrested by an exclamation 
of hoiTor from the coachman, who called out, 
" Lookthere, Miss Sarah, don't you see?"-I looked 
in the direction he pointed, and saw a human 
head stuck up on a high pole. On inquiry, I found 
that a runaway slave, who was outlawed, had been 
shot there, his head severed from his body, and 
put upon the public highway, as a terror to deter 
slaves from running away. 

On a plantation in North Carolina, where I was 
visiting, I happened one day, in my rambles, to 
step into a negro cabin ; my compassion was in- 
stantly called forth by the object which presented 
itself. A slave, whose head was white with age, 



24 



Fersonal Narratives — Sarah M. Grimkfe. 



wan lyinjj in one comer (»f \.\n- Imvcl ; ho had uii- 
clrr hutlicad a fiw fillliy rajfi". hiil lh<; l>oardn win- 
inn oiilv h« (1, il wait the diplh of winter, and tin- 
wind uhintUd throU|,'h I'Viry part of tlio dilapi- 
datrd huililiiii; — h<! f)]icned \\\» lan(ruid <-vcn wh< n 
I irpoki", and in reply to niy«|ii<Hlioii, " What in the 
matter .'" h<- said, " I am dyiiii; i>f a ranrer in my 
■idr." — Ak \u- reniov«'dthe rags winch eovend lln- 
wire, I IdimkI that il exlindc-d half r<nmd the Ixidy, 
and \\\i> hijiockiiifjly ne(;lfcled. I inquired ifhe had 
«ny nuriH:. " No, mi«»cy," wan Inn anMwer, " hut de 
pcoploftJie HiavcH) very kind tome, diy oftf^n ttleal 
lime tci run and see mc and fetrli me nomr 
tinp to cat ; if dcy did not, I micht Hlarve." 
The muster and mmtrcsH of thiH man, who had 
hcen woiii ont in their Bervire, wen? riniarkahlc 
for their intelligence, and their honpitahty knew 
no hoiindH towards tlione who were of their own 
prade in Bocicly : the master had for nonic time 
held the hifrjicst military oftiec in North Carolina, 
and not loni; previous to the time of which I 
apeak, was the (jovernor of the .Stale. 

On a plantation in South Carolina, I witnessed 
a 8imilareas(^ of sufl'ering — an aged woman suffer. 
injT under an incurahle disease in the same miser- 
ably nepleetid situation. The " owner" of this 
slave was jiroverbially kind to her negroes; so 
much 80, thai Uic planters in the nei>rhborhood 
aaid the spoiled them, and set a had e.xam|>lc, 
which jnic^ht produce discontent among the sur. 
roundinjnr slaves ; yet I have seen this woman 
treiahle wilh rage, when herslaves displeased her, 
and heard her use language to them which could 
only be expected from an inmate of Bridewell ; 
and have known her in a gust of passion send a 
favorite slave to the workhoUBe to be scvcrclj- 
whip|>ed. 

Another fact occurs to me. A young woman 
about eighteen, stated some circumstances rela- 
tive to her young master, which were thought de- 
rogatory to his character ; whctht r true or false, I 
am unable to say; she was threatened with 
punishment, but f>crsisted in aflirming that she 
had only sjioken the truth. Finding her incorrigible, 
it was concluded to send her to the Charleston 
workhouse and have In r whipt ; she pleaded in 
vain fora comnmtation of her sentence, not so 
much because she dreaded the actual suffering, 
as because her delicate mind shrunk from the 
shocking exposure of her person to the eyes of 
brutal and licentious men ; she declared to me that 
death would he preferable ; hut her entr< aties 
were vain, and as there was no means of escaping 
but by running awav, she resorted to it as a des- 

E crate remedy, for her timid nature never could 
avc braved the perils necc-ssarily encountered by 
fugitive slaves, had not her mind been thrown into 
a state of despair. — Slu! was ap|)rehended after a 
few wecka, by two slave-catchers, in a deserted 



hotnu:, and aft it wan late in the evening tfacy con- 
•rliided to RiN-nd tlie night there. What inhuman 
treatment she received fnini them han never been 
n vvaled. They tied her with lordii to their bo- 
died, and su))p(Miing they had Btcured their victim, 
nmu fell into a deep sleep, probably rindercd 
more profound by intoxication and fatigue ; but 
the miserable captive ■■ ' — i not; by Homo 
means she- di*-ngage<! , her bonds, and 

again fled through ihi rnehS. After a 

f I w daya she wa»t discovered in a wretched hut, 
which beenied to have been long uninhabited ; 
she was s(Mcc bless; a raging fever consumid her 
vitals, and when a phyiiician f-aw her, he said she 
was dying of a diw;ase brought on by over fatigue ; 
her mother was pennitted to visit her, but en.- sho 
reached her, the damps of death stood upon her 
brow, and she had only the sad consolation of 
looking on the deatli-struck form and convulsive 
agonies of her child. 

A beloved friend in South Carolina, the wife 
of a slaveholder, with whom I often mingled my 
tears, when helpless and hopeless we deplored 
together Uic horrors of slavery, related to me 
some years since the following circumstance. 

On the plantation adjoining her husband's, 
thercwasaslavc of prc-cmincntpicly. His master 
was not a professorof religion, but the superior ejb 
cellencc of this disciple of Christ was not unmark* 
ed by him, and I believe he was so sensible of the 
good influence of his piety that he did not dc- 
f)rivc him of the few religious privileges within 
his reach. A planter was one day dining with 
the owner of this slave, and in the course of con- 
versation observed, that all profession of religion 
among slaves was mere h3pocrisy. The other as- 
serted a contrary opinion, adding, I have a slave 
who I believe would rather die than deny his Sa- 
viour. This was ridiculed, and the master urged 
to prove the assertion. He accordingly sent foe 
this man of (iod, and peremptorily ordered bin 
to deny his belief in the Lord Jesus Christ. The 
slave pleaded to be excused, constantly affirming 
that he would rather die tlian deny tJie Redeemer, 
whose blood was shed for him. His master, 
after vainly trying to induce obedience by threats, 
had him terribly whipped. The fortitude of the 
sufferer was not to be sltaken ; he nobly reject- 
ed the offer of exemption from turthcr chastise, 
nicnl at the expense of destroying his soul, and 
this blessed martyr ditd in consequmce of thi* 
srrrre infiiction. Oh, how bright a gem will 
this victim of irnsponsible power be, in that 
crown which sparkles on the Redeemer's brow ; 
and that many such will cluster llicrc, I hare 
not the shadow of a doubt. 

Sarah M. Grimkk. 
Fori I.er, Bergen County, 
New Jersey, 3rd Monik, 26th, 1830. 



Personal Narratives — Rev. John Graham. 



25 



TESTIMONY OF THE LATE REV. JOHN GRAHAM, 



of Townscnd, Mass., who resided in S. Carolina, 
from 1831, to the latter part of 1833. Mr. Gra. 
ham graduated at Amherst College in 1829, 
spent some time at the Theological Seminary, in 
New Haven, Ct., and went to South Carolina, for 
his health in 1830. He resided principally on 
the island of St. Helena, S. C, and most of the 
time in the family of James Tripp, Esq., a 
wealthy slave holding planter. During his 
residence at St. Helena, he was engaged as an 
instructer, and was most of the time the staled 
preacher on the island. Mr. G. was extensively 
known in Massachusetts ; and his fellow students 
and instructors, at Amherst College, and at Yale 
Theological Seminary, can bear testimony to 
his integrity and moral worth. The following 
are extracts of letters, which he wrote while in 
South Carolina, to an intimate friend in Concord, 
Massachusetts, who has kindly furnished them 
for publication. 



Springfield, St. Helena IsL, S. C.,Oct. 22, 1832. 
" Last night, about one o'clock, I was awaken, 
ed by the report of a musket. I was out of bed 
almost instantly. On opening my window, I 
found the report proceeded from my host's cham- 
ber. He had let off his pistol, which he usually 
keeps by him night and day, at a slave, who had 
come into the yard, and as it appears, had been 
with one of his house servants. He did not hit 
him. The ball, taken from a pine tree the next 
morning, I will show you, should I be spared by 
Providence ever to return to you. The house 
servant was called to the master's chamber, 
where he received 75 lashes, very severe too ; and 
I could not only hear every lash, but each groan 
which succeeded very distinctly as I lay in my 
bed. What was then done with the servant I 
know not. Nothing was said of this to me in 
the morning and I presume it will ever be kept 
from me with care, if I may judge of kindred 
acts. I shall make no comment." 

In the same letter, Mr. Graham says : — 
" You ask me of my hostess" — then after 
giving an idea of her character says : " To day, 
she has I verily believe laid, in a very severe 
manner too, more than 300 stripes, upon the 
house servants," (17 in number.) 

Darlington, Court House. S. C. March, 28tJi, 1838. 
'' I walked up to the Court House to day, 
where I heard one of the most interesting cases 
I ever heard. I say interesting, on account of 
its novelty to me, though ithad no novelty for the 
people, as such cases are of frequent occurrence. 
The case was this : To know whether two 
ladies, present in court, were lohite or black. 
The ladies were dressed well, seemed modest, 
and were retiring and neat in their look, having 
blue eyes, black hair, and appeared to under- 
stand much of the etiquette of southern behav- 
iour. 



"A man, more avaricious than humane, as is 
the case with most of the rich planters, laid a 
remote claim to those two modest, unassuming, 
innocent and free young ladies as his propiTty, 
with the design of putting them into the field, 
and thus increasing his STOCK ! As well as 
the people of Concord arc known to be of a 
peaceful disposition, and for their love of good 
order, I verily believe if a similar trial should be 
brought forward there and conducted as this 
was, the good people would drive the lawyers 
out of the house. Such would be their indigna- 
tion at their language, and at the mean under-hand- 
ed manner of trying to ruin those young ladies, 
as to their standing in society in this district, 
if they could not succeed in dooming them for 
life to the degraded condition of slavery, and all 
its intolerable cruelties. Oh slavery ! if statues 
of marble could curse you, they would speak. 
If bricks could speak, they would all surely thun. 
der out their anathemas against you, accursed 
thing ! How many white sons and daughters, 
have bled and groaned under the lash in this 
sultry climate," &c. 

Under date of March, 1832, Mr. G. writes, 
" I have been doing what I hope never to be 
called to do again, and what I fear I have badly 
done, though performed to the best of my ability, 
namely, sewing up a very bad wound made by a 
wild hog. The slave was hunting wild hogs, 
when one, being closely pursued, turned upon his 
pursuer, who turning to run, was caught by the 
animal, thrown down, and badly wounded in the 
thigh. The wound is about five inches long and 
very deep. It was made by the tusk of the ani- 
mal. The slaves brought him to one of the huts 
on Mr. Tripp's plantation and made every exer- 
tion to stop the blood by filling the wound with 
ashes,(their remedy for stopping blood) but finding 
this to fail they came to me (there being no other 
white person on the plantation, as it is now hoh- 
days) to know if I could stop the blood. I went 
and found that the poor creature must bleed to 
death unless it could be stopped soon. I called 
for a needle and succeeded in sewing it up as 
well as I could, and in stopping the blood. In 
a short time his master, who had been sent for 
came ; and oh, you would have shuddered if you 
had heard the awful oaths that fell from his lips, 
threatening in the same breath " to pay him for 
that .'" I left him as soon as decency would per- 
mit, with his hearty thanks that I had saved him 
^500 ! Oh, may heaven protect the poor, suffer- 
ing, fainting slave, and show his master his wan- 
ton cruelty — oh slavery ! slavery !" 

Under date of July, 1832, Mr. G. writes, " I 
wish you could have been at the breakfast table 
with me this morning to have seen and heard 
what I saw and heard, not that I wish your ear 
and heart and soul pained as mine is, ' with 
every day's' observation 'of wrong and out- 
rage' with which this place is filled, but that you 
might have auricular and ocular evidence of the 
cruelty of slavery, of cruelties that mortal lan- 
guage can never describe — that you might see 
the tender mercies of a hardened slaveholder, 
one who bears the name of being one of the mild' 



26 



crsonal Narratives — Mr. Poc. 



fMt and most mrrri/ul tnastrm uj which this int. I waiihcd off the blood and came in before wc rose 
and can boatt . Oil, my friend, anoUicr iisBcrcain- 1 from tabic, one of the nioxt pitiable objects I 
ini; tiiidur \\n: laHli, in the Klicd.rooni, l>iit for \ ever law till I came to the .South. IIlt cars 
wliat I know not. The Hccnc thin moniini; wa.t urro almofit an thick as my hand, her eyes aw- 
truly (IwlreHHiMg to me. It wan thiH: — Aftrr thr \ fully hlood-Khotten, her iij»», n<^»!e, chcekB, chin, 
bleBnin^ trag (i«A'ri/ at the lireakfaMt table, one of i and whole head itwollen mj that no one would 
the »ervant», a woman grown, in (living one of' have- known it wan Ella — and for all thix, she had 
tlie rliildrt'ii hoihi: mol.aswH, happemd to|iourout to turn roimd as nhe wa.s (joing out and thank her 
a lilllc! more llian unual, Ihough not more than ihe nianter ! Now, all thiH wa* done wliilr I wa* »it- 
child UHually eaU. Her nia«iir waH angry at ihr ling at breakfaiit with tin- rent of the famdy. 

r<-tlyand indillerent miHtak(\or Hlip of the hand. ' Think you not I winhed my«elf sitting with tiic 
lo row; from the table, took both of her handn pfaceful and happy circle around your table 7 
in one of hirt, and with the other Ingan lo brat , Think of my feelingo, but pity the poor negro 
her, firht on one Hide of her bead and then on tlie nlave, who not only fan» bin cruel mahter when 
othi-r, and npeating this, till, as he naid on Hitting he eatu and xleeps, but bears the stripes his ca- 
down at table, it burl Inn hand too much to con- price may inflict. Think of this, and let heaven 
tinuc it longer. Hi- then took ofl" his ehor, and j hear your prayers." 



with the heel began in the same manner aH 
with his hand, till the poor creature could no 
longer endure it without Kcreecliesand raiHing her 
elbow aH it iH natural to ward otFthe blowH. He 
then calb-d a great overgrown negro to hold her 
hands behind hrr while he should wreak his vcn- 
gcanrc upon the poor servant. In this position 
he began again to beat the poor suftcring wretch. 
It now became intolerable to bear ; she fell, 
Bcreamins to me for help. After she fell, he beat 
her until I thought she would have died in his 
hands. She got up, however, went out and 



In a letter dated .St. Helena Island, S. C, Dec. 
3, 1^3i,^ Mr. G. writes, " If a slave here complains 
to his master, that his task is too great, his master 
at once calls him a scoundrel and tells him it is 
only because he has not enough to do, and on!, rs 
the driver to increase his task, however unal>'' i- 
may be for the performance of it. I saw TWi.MT. 
SEVEN ichipprd at one time just bccaiwc they did 
not do more, when the poor creatures were so 
tired that they could scarcely drag one foot after 
the other." 



TESTIMONY OF MR, WILLIAM POE. 



Mr. Poc is a native of Richmond, Virginia, and 
was formerly a slaveholder. He was for several 
years a merchant in Richmond, and subsequently 
in Lj'nchburg, Virginia. A few years since, he 
emancipated his slaves, and removed to Hamil- 
ton County, Ohio, near Cincinnati ; where he is 
a highly respected ruling elder in the Presbyterian 
church. He says, — 

I am pained exceedingly, and nothing but my 
duty to God, to the oppressors, and to the poor 
down-trodden slaves, who go mourning all their 
days, could move me to say a word. I will 
state to you a few cases of the abuse of the 
slaves, but time would fail, if I had language to 
tell how many and great are the inflictions of 
slavery, even in its mildest form. 

Benjamin James Harris, a wealthy tobacconist 
of Richmond, Virginia, whipped a slave girl 
fifteen years old to death. While he was whip- 
ping her, his wife heated a siiiixithing iron, put it 
on her body in various places, and burned her 
severely. 'I'he venliet of the coroner's inquest 
was, " Died of excessive wliipping." He was 
tried in Richmond, and neqiiitted. I attended 
tlie trial. Some yiars after, this same Harris 
whipped another slave to death. The man had 
not done so much work as was required of him. 
After a nunilier of prolraeled and vi<dent seoiirg- 
ings, wilh short intervals between, the slave died 
under llie lash. Harris was tried, and again 
acquitted, Ix'eanse none but blacks saw it done. 
Tlie same man afterwards whipjH'd another slave 
severely, for not doing work to please him. After 
repeated aud severe floggings in quick succes- 



sion, for tlic same cause, the slave, in despair of 
pleasing him, cut off his own hand. Harris soon 
after became a bankrupt, went to New Orleans 
to recruit his finances, failed, removed to Ken- 
tucky, became a maniac, and died. 

A captain in the United Sutes' Navy, who 
married a daughter of the collector of the port 
of Richmond, and resided there, iKcame offended 
with his negro boy, took him into the meat 
house, put him upon a stool, crossed his hands 
before him, tied a rope to them, threw it over a 
joist in the building, drew the boy up so that he 
could just stand on the stool witli his toes, and 
kept him in that position, flogging him severelv 
at intervals, until the hoy became so exhausted 
that he reeled off the stool, and swung by his 
hands until he died. The master was tried and 
acquitted. 

In Goochland County, Virginia, an overseer 
tied a slave to a tree, flogged him again and 
again with great severity, then piled brush around 
him, set it on fire, and burned him lo death. 
The overseer was tried and imprisoned. Tlie 
whole transaction may bo found on tlie records 
of the court. 

In traveling, one day, from Petersburg to 
Richmond, Virginia, I heard cries of distress at a 
distance, on the road. I rode up, and found two 
white men, beating a slave. One of thera had 
hold of a rope, which was passed nndi r t lie bottom 
of a fence; the other end was f:>;iniil aioiind 
the neck of the slave, who was thrown flat on 
the ground, on bis face, with bis hack bared. 
The other was beating him furiously with a 
large hickory. 

A slaveholder io Ucnrico Coimty, Virginia, 



Privations of the Slaves — Food. 



27 



had a slave wlio used frequently to work for my 
fatlK^r. Oik; ru()rniii}f lie came into tin: ChIiI with 
hJH bae.k (;oin|)letely cut vji, and nianirlcd from 
hifl head to liis heels. I'hc man waH wj Blifl' 
and sore ho could scarcely walk. This same 
person (fot ofFcridiul with another of his slavcH, 
knocked liim down, and struck out one of his 
eyes with a maul. The eycH of several of hiu 
slaves were injured hy similar viokuice. 

In Itichniond, Vir{jinia, a comjiany occupied 
UB a dwelling a large warL-housc. They got an- 
gry with a negro lail, one of their slaves, took 
him into the cellar, tied his hands with a roi)e, 
bored a liolc through the floor, and passed the 
rope up through it. .Some of"the family drew uj) the 
boy, while others wliipjied. Tliisthry continued 
until the boy died. 'I'he warehouse was owned 
by a Mr. Whillock, on the ecite of one formerly 
owned by a Mr. riiilpot. 

Joseph Chilton, a resident of Campbell County, 
Virginia, purchased a quart of tanners' oil, for 
the purpose, as he said, of putting it on one of 
his negro's heads, that he had sometime previous 
pitched or tarred over, for rumiing away. 

In the town of Lynchburg, Virginia, there was 



a negro man |)Ut in priHon, charged with having 
pillaged some packagers of g'xjd.H, which hi-, zn 
head man of a hoat, received at Richmond, to 
be d(diver<:d at iyynchburg. Tlir goods b<dongcd 
to A. U. Nichols, of Liberty, Bedford County, 
Virginia. II<: came to Lynchburg, and desired 
the jailor to perm it him to whiptlie negro, to make 
him confess, as there was no proof airainHt him. 
Mr. Williams, (I tliink lliat is his name,; a 
pious Methodist man, a great stickier for law 
and good order, professedly a great friend to the 
black man, delivered the negro into the hands of 
Nichols. Nichols told me that he took the slave, 
tied his wrists together, then drew hi.s arms down 
so far below his knees as to permit a staff to 
pass above the arms under the knees, thereby 
placing the slave in a situation that he could not 
move hand or foot. He then commenced hie 
bloody work, and continued, at intervals, until 
.'JOO blows were inflicted. I received this state- 
ment from Nichols himself, who was, by the way, 
a son of Ihe land oj " steady habits," where there 
arc many like him, if we may judge from their 
writings, sayings, and doings. 



PRIVATIONS OF THE SLAVES. 



I. FOOD. 

We begin with the food of the slaves, because 
if they are ill treated in this respect we may be 
sure that they will be ill treated in other respects, 
and generally in a greater degree. For a man 
habitually to stint his dependents in their food, is 
the extreme of meanness and cruelty, and the 
greatest evidence he can give of utter indiffer- 
ence to their comfort. The father who stints his 
. children or domestics, or the master his appren- 
tices, or the employer his laborers, or the officer 
his soldiers, or the captain his crew, when able 
to furnish them with sufficient food, is every 
where looked upon as unfeeling and cruel. All 
mankind agree to call such a character inhuman. 
If any thing can move a hard heart, it is the ap- 
peal of hunger. The Arab robber whose whole 
life is a prowl for plunder, will freely divide his 
camel's milk with the hungry stranger who halts 
at his tent door, though he may have just waylaid 
him and stripped him of his money. Even sava- 
ges take pity on hunger. Who ever went fam- 
ishing from an Indian's wigwam. As much as 
hunger craves, is the Indian's free gift even 
to an enemy. The necessity for food is such a 
universal want, so constant, manifest and impe. 
rative, that the heart is more touched with pity 
by the plea of hunger, and more ready to supply 
that want than any other. He who can habitu- 
ally inflict on others the pain of hunger by giv- 
ing them insufficient food, can habitually inflict 
on them any other pain. He can kick and cuff 



and flog and brand them, put them in irons or 
the stocks, can overwork them, deprive them of 
sleep, lacerate their backs, make them work with- 
out clothing, and sleep without covering. 

Other cruelties may be perpetrated in hot 
blood and the act regretted as soon as done — the 
feeling that prompts them is not a permanent 
state of mind, but a violent impulse stung up by 
sudden provocation. But he who habitually 
withholds from his dependents sufficient suste- 
nance, can plead no such palliation. The fact 
itself shows, that his permanent state of mind 
toward them is a brutal indifference to their 
wants and sufferings — A state of mind which 
will naturally, necessarily, show itself in innu- 
merable privations and inflictions upon them, 
when it can be done with impunity. 

If, therefore, we find upon examination, that 
the slaveholders do not furnish their slaves with 
sufficient food, and do thus hab.'tually inflict upon 
them the pain of hunger, w'e have a clue furnish, 
ed to their treatment in other respects, and may 
fairly infer habitual and severe privations and in- 
flictions ; not merely from the fact that men are 
quick to feel for those who suffer from hunger, 
and perhaps more ready to relieve that want 
than any other ; but also, because it is more for 
the interest of the slaveholder to supply that 
want than any other ; consequently, if the slave 
suffer in this respect, he must as the general rule, 
suffer more in other respects. 

We now proceed to show that the slaves have 



28 



Frivations of the Slaves — Food. 



inBufHcicnt food. TIi'ih will be eliown first from 
the cxjiroiw dcclarationH of Blavcholdcrti, and other 
competent witnesHeH who arc, or have been reHi- 
dcntsof BlaveHlateH, tliat the slaves generally are 
under-fed. And tlien, by tlic laws of slave states, 



and by the testimony of slaveholders and others, 
the kind, quantity, and quality, of their allowance 
will bo given, and the reader left to judge for 
himself whether the slave must not be a sufferer. 



THF. PLWES SUFFER FIIOM HUNGER DhXLAKATIONS OP 8LAVE-II0LDEKS AND OTUZR8 



WITNESSES. 
Hon. AI'Taiiilir Sniylh, n Hiavn hold- 
er, niul lor till yinrs, McinbiT <>l' 
ConcriTW from Virsiiiia, in liis sju'itIi 
on tliu Mistiourl quoslioii. Juii i»Ui, 
18S0. 



TESTIMONY. 

" By confinin(T the slaves to the Southern states, where crops 
are raisf;d for exportation, and bread and meat are purchased, 
3'ou dno7n them to scarcity and hunger. It is proposed to hem in 
the blacks where they are ill fed." 



Rev. George Whifpfirld, in liis jnttrr, "My blood has frequently run cold within me, to tliink how 

to tlic Blay.t liold.rH ol M''- V". N C. „f ^\ f , sujTi dent food to eat ; they are scarcely 

8. C. and Gn. imlilisli'din (.<wKm,ju8t •' -' . , ., . r n r ^u • . _j . ui i 

one hundred years ago, \.T.Vi. permitted to pick up the crumbs, that fall from thcu' masters table." 

Rfiv. John Uanltin, of Riploy, Ohio, a •' Thousands of the slaves are pressed with the gnawings of 
native of 'IVnnessce, and for Bome year's ^^^^.-^ hunger durinjr their whole Uves." 
a preacher in slave suites. ° ° 

Speaking of the condition of slaves, in the eastern part of 
that state, the report says, — " The master put.*! the unfortunate 
wretches upon short allowances, scarcely sufficient for their 
sustenance, so that a great part of them go half started much of 
the time." 



Report of the Gradual Emancipation 
Society, of North Carolina, 1820. Sign- 
ed Moses Swain, Prt-sideut, and VVil- 
liom Swain, Secretory. 



Mr. Asa A. Stone, a Tlieolopical 
Student, who resided near Natcliez, 
Miss., in 1834-5. , 



Thomas Clay, Esq., of Georgia, a 
Slaveholder. 

Mr. Tobias Boudinot, St. Albans, 
Ohio, a nicmbor of the Methodist 
Church. Mr. H. for some years navi- 
gated the Mississippi. 

President Edwards, the yotinper, in a 
sermon hil'ore the Conn. Abolition So- 
ciety, 17'Jl. 

Rev. Horace Moulton, a Methodist 
Clercynian of Marlboro" Mass., who 
lived live years hi Georgia. 

Rev. George Bourne, late editor of 
the Protestant Vindicator, N. Y., who 
was sevi.'ii years pastor of a church in 
Virginia. 



Hon. Robcr. rumbull, a slavehold- 
er of Charleston, South Carolina. 



Mr. Elea/Jir PowcU, Chipjvwa, 
Bcavor Co., Pi'nn., who resided in Mis- 
■isBlppi, in 18:ir>-7. 

Rcnlwn G. Marv, n mrmlier of the 
Society of rri'-mlH.lIndHon, N. Y., who 
rcflidcfl hi Houth C'lrolina. 

Mr Willl.iMi I,.li\vi.li, n nativp of 
Vlrglnln, iiiul n-rinilv of M;idi.*in Co., 
Alabama, iii>»' mrinbtr. of tile I'rcsby- 
turlan Church, Delhi, Ohio. 



" On almost every plantation, the hands suffer more or less 
from hunger at some seasons of almost every year. There ia 
always a good deal of suffering from hunger. On many planta- 
tions, and particularly in Louisiana, the slaves are in a condition 
of almost utter famishmerJ, during a great portion of the year." 

" From various causes this [the slave's allowance of food] is 
often not adequate to the support of a laboring man." 

" The slaves down the Mississippi, arc half-started, the boats, 
when they stop at night, are constantly boarded by slaves, begging 
for something to eat." 

" The slaves are supplied with barely enough to keep them 
from starting." 

"Asa general thmg on the plantations, the slaves suffer ex- 
tremely for the want of food." 



The slaves are deprived of needful sustenance." 



2. KINDS OF FOOD. 

" Tlic subsistence of the slaves consists, from March until 
August, of corn ground into grits, or meal, made into what is 
called homini/, or l)aked into corn bread. The oilier six months, 
they arc fed upon the sweet potatoc. Meat, when given, is only 
by way of indulgence or favor." 

" The food of the slaves was generally com bread, and some, 
times meat or molasses.'' 

" Tlie slaves had no food allowed them besides corn, except- 
ing at Christinas, when Uiey had beef." 

" On myuneli's plantation, the food of the slaves, was com 
pone and a small allowance of meat." 



Privations of the Slaves — Food, 



29 



William Ladd, Esq., of Minot, Mc, prcBidont 
of the American Peace Socicly, and formerly a 
slaveholder of Florida, gives the following testi- 
mony as to the allowance of food to slaves. 

" The usual food of the slaves was corn, with 
a modicum of salt. In some cases tiie master 
allowed no salt, but the slaves boiled the sea 
water for salt in their little pots. For about 
eight days near Christmas, i. e., from the Satur- 
day evening before, to the Monday evening after 
Christmas day, they were allowed some 7neat. 
They always with one single exception ground 
their corn in a hand-mill, and cooked their food 
themselves. , 

"^rtract of a letter from Rev. D. C. Eastman, 
a preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
in Payette county, Ohio. 

" In March, 1838, Mr. Thomas Larriraer, a 
deacon of the Presbyterian church in Blooming- 
bury, Fayette county, Ohio, Mr. G. S. Fullcrton, 
merchant, and member of the same church, 
and Mr. William A. Ustick, an elder of the 
same church, spent a night with a Mr. Shep- 
herd, about 30 miles North of Charleston, S. 
C, on the Monk's comer road. He owned 
five families of negroes, who, he said, were 
fed from the same meal and meat tubs as himself, 
but that 99 out of a 100 of all the slaves in that 
county saw meat but once a year, which was on 
Christmas holidays." 

As an illustration of the inhuman experiments 
sometimes tried upon slaves, in respect to the kind 
as well as the quality and quantity of their food, we 
solicit the attention of the reader to the testimony 
of the late General Wade Hampton, of South 
Carolina. General Hampton was for some 
time commander in chief of the army on the 
Canada frontier during the last war, and at the 
time of his death, about three years since, was 
the largest slaveholder in the United States. The 
General's testimony is contained in the following 
extract of a letter, just received from a distin- 
guished clergymen in the west, extensively known 
both as a preacher and a writer. His name is 
with the executive committee of the American 
Anti-Slavery Society. 

"You refer in your letter to a statement made 
to you while in this place, respecting the late 



General Wade Hampton, of South Carolina, and 
task mc to write out for you the circurnHianccs of 
the case — considering them well calculated to 
illustrate two points in the history of slavery : 
Ist, Tliat the habit of slaveholding dreadfully 
blunts the feelings toward tlic slave, producing 
such insensibility that his sufTerings and death 
arc regarded with indifference. 2d, That the 
slave oilen has insuflicient food, both in quantity 
and quality. 

" I received my information from a lady in the 
west of high respectability and great moral worth, 
— but think it best to withhold her name, although 
the statement was not made in confidence. 

" My informant stated that she sat at dinner 
once in company with General Wade Hampton, 
and several others ; that the conversation turned 
upon the .treatment of their servants, &c. ; when 
the General undertook to entertain the company 
with the relation of an experiment he had made 
in the feeding of liis slaves on cotton seed. He 
said that he first mingled onc-fourth cotton seed 
with three-fourths corn, on which they seemed to 
thrive tolerably well ; that he then had measured 
out to them equal quantities of each, which did 
not seem to produce any important change ; af- 
terwards he increased the quantity of cotton seed 
to three-fourths, mingled with one-fourth com, 
and then he declared, with an oath, that ' they 
died like rotten sheep ! !' It is but justice to the 
lady to state that she spoke of his conduct with 
the utmost indignation ; and she mentioned also 
that he received no countenance from the com. 
pany present, but that all seemed to look at each 
other with astonishment. I give it to you just as I 
received it from one who was present, and whose 
character for veracity is unquestionable. 

" It IS proper to add that I had previously 
formed an acquaintance with Dr. WitTicrspoon, 
now of Alabama, if alive ; whose former resi- 
dence was in South Carolina ; from whom I re- 
ceived a particular account of the manner of 
feeding and treating slaves on the plantations of 
General Wade Hampton, and others in the same 
part of the State ; and certainly no one could 
listen to the recital without concluding that such 
masters and overseers as he described must have 
hearts like the nether millstone. The cotton 
seed experiment I had heard of before also, as 
having been made in other parts of the south ; 
consequently, I was prepared to receive as true 
the above statement, even if I had not been so 
well acquainted with the high character of my 
I informant." 



2. QUANTITY OF FOOD. 

The legal allowance of food for slaves in North Carolina, is in the words of the law, " a quart 
of corn per day." See Haywood's Manual, 525. The legal aUowance in Louisiana is more, a 
barrel [flour barrel] of corn, (in the ear,) or its equivalent in other grain, and a pint of salt a month. 
In the other slave states the amount of food for the slaves is left to the option of the master. 



TESTIMONY. 



" The quantity allowed by custom is a peck of corn a week ! 



WITNESSES. 

Thos. Clay, Esq., of Georgia, a slave 
holder, in his address before die Georgia 
Presbytery, 1833. 

" A single peck of corn a week, or the like measure of rice, is 

The Maryland Journal, and Balti- the ordinary quantity of provision for a hard-icorking slave ; to 

, more Advertiser, May 30, 1788. which a small quantity of meat is occasionally, though rarely, 

added." 



30 



Privations of the Slaves — Food. 



W. C. GUderriMTO, B«)., • native of 
OeoruitL, niul Rlili-r In Uia I'mibyicrlaa 
Church, Wilkiiharrf, IV-un. 

Wm. I.ivlil, fif MInnt, Maine, fonner- 
Ijr ailavt'hiilil'T In Florida. 

Mr. Jnr\-l!i Browntor, In hU " Kiponl- 
ttonorUii' irc-ntni'-nt of hIdvp* In llin 
Southern SiatLit," published la N. 
Jemyy, 1816. 

Rov. Iliiraro Moulinn, a Mnthnillut 
CtcrKyinaii oi" MnrllKiro'. M.-ikm., who 
Uvea livt; yrnrn lii (ieurKln. 

Mr. F. ('. Mnry, Nanturkrl, MtiM., 
who re«i(Jcd in Ui-orgia iu IKJU. 

Mr. Ni'liTDJah Cniilking, a mombrr of 
thi! BDpliKt Chiirrh in Wiitirfnrd, 
Conn., wli(» rmidcd In North Carolina, 
eleven wlntera. 

VVillinni t<:iviT%-, late of I'hilndrlphia, 
an cmliK'til MinUHT of ihr Sm-jfty of 
Frieiidn, Willi tnivi'llcd i-Kim^ivcly In 
the alavr HlntPii, on n Ki'lleiou!< VihI- 
tatiou, fi|H'nkinK of the HubsiHli'nci- of 
the hlnvt-M, xiiyK, In hU luiblisbtd 
Journal, 

Thrlnt.'Johnrarrish.ofPhiladrlphia, 
anotluT liit'hly nwixTtrd Miiiislcr of 
the Soririy of Frlcndu, who travrrsod 
the Soiilli, on a xiuillar iiii.x.xion, in 
lfl04 and 5, snv« In IiIh " Ri'iiiarka on 
the slavery of blacks ;" 



" Tbo weekly allowance to (^rown Hlavcfl on this plantation, 
where I wan l>LHt acquainted, wa« one peck of corn." 

" The umial allowance of food wan one quart of com a day, 
to a full tahk hand, with a modiciiin of salt ; kind masters allow* 
ed a peck of corn a week ; some inaaterti allowed no salt." 



" The allowance of proTitiona for tho slaves, is oru peck o, 

corn, in the grain, per vseek." 



" In (Icoruia the i)lantcr.<* g^ivo each iilavc oniy one peek of 
their pourd need corn per week, with a Hmall quantity of salt." 

" The ffKjd of the nlavcswaii three perks of potalos a week 
during the |)otato ne^on, and one peck of corn, during the rc- 
inaindt-r of tlic year." 

" The Kubxi.Htrncc of the slaves, consists of teven quart* qfvteal 
or eight quarts of small rice for one week! 



" A peck of corn is their (the slaves,) miserable subeistencc for 
a week." 



" They allow them but one peck of meal, for a whole week, in 
some of the Southern states." 



./I 



Richard Mnry, Hndpon, N., Y. a 
Member of tlii' Hocioty of Friends, who 
has ri'sidcd iu Uuorgiii. 



Rev. C. ;S. Rrnshaw, of Quincy, III., 
(the tvsiiinony of a Virginian.) 



" Their usual allowance of food was one peck of com per 
week, which was dealt out to them every first day of the week. 
They had nothing allowed them besides the corn, except one 
quarter of beef at Christmas." 

" The slaves are generally allowanced : a pint of com meal 
and a salt herring is the allowance, or in lieu of the herring a 
" dab" of fat meat of about the same value. I have known the 
sour milk, and clauber to be served out to the hands, when there 
was an abundance of milk on the plantation. This is a luxury not 
often afforded." 

Testimony of Mr. George W. Westgate, member of the Congregational Church, of Quincy, Illi- 
nois. Mr. W. has been engaged in the low country trade for twelve years, more than half of each 
year, principally on the Mississippi, and its tributary streams in the soutli-westem slave states. 

" Fredivrr is not siiffirimt, — let facts speak. On the coast, i. e. Natchez and the Gulf of Mexico, 
tho allowance was one barrel of ears of com, and a pint of salt per month. They may cix>k tJiis in 
what manner they please, but it must be done after dark ; they have no day light to prepare it by. 
Some few planters, but only a few, let them prepare their com on Saturday afternoon. Planters, 
over8<'ers, and negroes, have told me, that in pinchinp times, i. e. when corn is high, they did not 
get near that quantity. In INIiss., I know some jdanters who allowed their hands three and a halt 
pounds of meat per week, when it was cheap. Many prepare their com on the Sabbath, when they 
are not worked on that day, which however is frequently the case on sugar plantations. There 
are very many masters on " the coast" who will not suffer their slaves to come to the boats, be- 
cause tliey steal molas-ses to barter for meat ; indeed they generally trade more or less with stolen 
property. Hut it is impossible to find out what and when, as their articles of barter are of such 
trifling importance. They would often come on board our Iwats to beg a l>one, and would tell how 
badly they were fed, that tliey were almost starved ; many a time I have set up all night, to pre- 
vent them from stealing something to eat." 

3. QI'Al.ITV OF FOOn. 

Having a.«certained the kind and quantity of fond allowed to the slaves, it is important to know 
■omething of its qualittj, that we may judge of the amount of sustenance which it contains. For, 
if their provi.sions arc of an inferior quality, or in a damaged state, then, power to sustain labor 
roust be greatly diminished. 

WITNKSSKS. Tr,.TriMOXY. 

Thomnn d.-iy. IV-i). i>f (;«>on;l«. In nn 
addrrw \n\\v <;<'<iri!in l'ri-«>hvt<'ry, IKM, ,, Tn,«~. •.„ ^fi.^ ^ J f ,i l— •« 

«p.aklne..r Ihr n.mllty of Uiccoi^ liven ^'<="' 18 o//en a defect here." 

to liic »lave», «ay«, 



Privations of the Slaves — Food. 



SI 



\lcv. ITornco Moiilton, a Mothndint 
. r;'yin:ui at Mailburo', ManH. and livu 
iri ;t rcwi(l(!iit of CJcorflii. 

I'lii! "WcHtorn Modicnl Roforninr," 
; iM article (in thi,- dlsi.-aws poculiur to 
I iiH, liy a KtmiucUy physician, auy< 
I In: diciof ilic bIuvcs; 



I'rnfcssnr A. O. Smith, of thn Nfw 
Yorit Mr'dic.al Oollcf,"' ; formerly u pliy- 
Biciaii ill Louisville, Kciitucliy. 



" The food, or ' feed ' of slaves is generally of the poorest 

kind," 



" Tlicv live on a coarse, crude, unwholesome diet." 

I have myself known numerous instances of large families of 
hadlyfc.d negroes swept ofl' by n prevailing epidemic; and it in 
well known to many intclligenl piaiitcrs in tiif; wjuth, that the best 
method of preventing that horrible inalad}', Chac/iexia Africana, 
is to feed the negroes with nutritious food. 



4. NUMBER AND TIME OF MEALS EACH DAY. 

In dctcnnining whether or not the slaves suffer for want of food, the number of hours intervening, 
and the labor performed between their meals, and the number of meals each day, should be taken 
into consideration. 



WITNESSES. 

Philemon Bliss, Esq., a lawyer in 
Elyria, Oliio, and member of the Presby- 
terian cinircli, who lived in Florida, in 
1834, and ia3r>. 



President Edwards, the younger. 

Mr. Eleazav Powell, Chippewa, Bea- 
ver county, Prnn., wlio resided in Mis- 
sissippi in 1830 and 1837. 

Mr. Nehcmiah Caulkins, Waterford, 
Conn., who spent eleven winters in 
North Carolina. 

Rev. Phincas Smith, CentreviUe, N. 
Y., who has Uvcd at the south some 
years. 



Rev. C. S. Rcnshaw, Qulncy, Illinois, 
-the testimony of a Virginian. 



" The slaves go to the field in the morning ; they carry with 
them corn meal wet with water, and at noon build a fire on the 
ground and bake it in the ashes. After the labors of the day 
arc over, they take their second meal of ash-cake." 

" The slaves eat twice during the day." 

" The slaves received two meals during the day. Those who 
have their food cooked for them get their breakfast about eleven 
o'clock, and their other meal after night." 

" The breakfast of the slaves was generally about ten or eleven 
o'clock." 

" The slaves have usually two meals a day, viz : at eleven 
o'clock and at night." 

" The slaves have two meals a day. They breakfast at from 
ten to eleven, A. M., and eat their supper at from six to nine or 
ten at night, as the season and crops may be." 



The preceding testimony establishes the fol- 
lowing points. 

1st. That the slaves are allowed, in general, no 
meat. This appears from the fact, that in the 
only slave states which regulate the slaves' rations 
by law, (North Carolina and Louisiana,) the legal 
ration contains no meat. Besides, the late Hon. 
R. J. Turnbull, one of the largest planters in 
South Carolina, says expressly, " meat, when 
given, is only by the way of indulgence or favor." 
It is shown also by the direct testimony recorded 
above, of slaveholders and others, in all parts of 
the slaveholding south and west, that the gene- 
ral allowance on plantations is corn or meal and 
salt merely. To this there are doubtless many 
exceptions, but they are only exceptions ; the 
number of slaveholders who furnish meat for 
theivfield.hands, is small, in comparison with the 
number of those who do not. The house slaves, 
that is, the cooks, chambermaids, waiters, &c., 
generally get some meat every day ; the remain. 
der bits and bones of their masters' tables. But 
that the great body of the slaves, those that 
compose the field gangs, whose labor and expo- 
sure, and consequent exliaustion, are vastly greater 



than those of house slav.es, toiling as they do from 
day light till dark, in the fogs of the early morn- 
ing, vmder the scorchings of mid-day, and amid 
the damps of evening, are in general provided 
with no 7neat, is abundantly established by the 
preceding testimony. 

Now we do not say that meat is necessary to 
sustain men under hard and long continued labor, 
nor that it is not. This is not a treatise on dietetics ; 
but it is a notorious fact, that the medical facul- 
ty in this country, with very few exceptions, do 
most strenuously insist that it is necessary ; and 
that working men in all parts of the country do 
believe that meat is indispensable to sustain them, 
even those who work within doors, and only ten 
hours a day, every one knows. Fiu-thcr, it is no- 
torious, that the slaveholders themselves believe 
the daily use of meat to be absolutely necessary 
to the comfort, not merely of tliose who labor, 
but of those who are idle, is proved by the fact 
of meat being a part of the daily ration of food 
provided for convicts in the prisons, in every one 
of the slave states, except in those rare cases 
where meat is expressly prohibited, and the con- 
vict is, by loay of extra punishment confined to 



99 



Privations of Hie Slaves — Food. 



bread and water ; hn is occasionally, and for a lit- 
tle time only, confimd to bread and water ; tliat 
ip, to the ordinary dirt of I'iavcs, with thin diffi.T- 
cncc in favor of the convict : his hrcad in made for 
him, whcnaH the n!ave iH forced to pound or priiid 
his own corn and make liis own bread, when e.x- 
haufltod with toil. 

The preceding testimony Bhows also, tliat 
vegrlalilfs form generally nr> part of tiie slaves' 
allowance. The sole food of the majority is corn : 
at every meal — from day to day — from week to 
week — from month to month, corn. In South 
Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, the sweet pota- 
to iH, to a considerable extent, substituted for 
com during a part of tiic year. 

2d. The preceding testimony proves conclu- 
Bively, that the quantity of Jood generally allow, 
cd to a full-grown field-hand, is a peck of corn a 
week, or a fraction over a quart and a gill of 
com a day. The legal ration of North Carolina 
is less — in Louisiana it is more. Of the slave- 
holders and other witnesses, who give the fore- 
going testimony, the reader will perceive that no 
one testifies to a larger allowance of corn than a 
peck for a week ; thouirh a number testify, that 
within the circle of their knowledge, seven quarts 
was the usual allowance. Frequently a small 
quantity of meat is added ; but this, as has al- 
ready been shown, is not the general rule for 
field.hands. Wc may add, also, that in tlie sea- 
son of '• pumpkins," " cimblins," " cabbages," 
"greens," &,c., the slaves on small plantations 
are, to some extent, furnished with those articles. 

Now, without entering upon the vexed ques- 
tion of how much food is necessary to sustain the 
human system, under severe toil and exposure, 
and without giving the opinions of physiologists 
as to tiic insufficiency or sufficiency of the slaves' 
allowance, we affirm that all civilized nations 
have, in all ages, and in the most emphatic man- 
nor, declared, that eight quarts of com a week, 
(the usual allowance of our slaves,) is utterly in- 
sufficient to sustain the human body, under such 
toil and exposure as tliat to which the slaves arc 
Bubjected. 

To show this fully, it will be necessary to make 
acme estimates, aiid present some statistics. 
And first, the northem reader must bear in mind, 
that the com fumislird to tlic slaves at tlie south, 
is almost invariably the white gourd seed com, 
and that a quart of this kind of corn weigiis five 
or six ounces less than a quart of " flint com," 
the kind generally raised in tlio northem and 
oastem states ; consequently a jieck of the com 
generally given to the slaves, would bo only 
oquivalent to a fraction mon' than six quarts and 
a pint of tlie com commonly raised in the New 
England Statis, New York, Now Jersey, Slc. 
Now, wlial would be said of t^« nurtliem capital- 



ist, who flliould allow his laborerBbut six quart, 
and five gills of corn for a week's prorision* ? 

Further, it appears in evidence, that the com 
given to the slaves is often defective. This, the 
reader will recollect, is tlie voluntary testimony 
of Thomas Clay, Esq., the fjcorgia planter, whose 
testimony is given above. When this > the 
case, the amount of actual nutrimi-nt contained 
in a peck of the " gourd seed," may not be more 
than in five, or four, or even three quarts of 
" flint corn." 

As a quart of southem com weighs at least 
five ounces less than a quart of northem com, it 
requires little arithmetic to perceive, that the 
daily allowance of the slave fed upon that kind 
of corn, would contain about one third of a pound 
less nutriment than though his daily ration were 
the same quantity of northem com, which would 
amount, in a year, to more tlian a hundred and 
twenty poimds of human sustenance I which 
would furnish the slave with his full allowance 
of a peck of com a week for two months ! It is 
unnecessary to add, that this difference in the 
weight of the two kinds of com, is an item too 
important to be overlooked. -\s one quart of the 
southem com weighs one pound and eleven-six- 
teenths of a pound, it follows that it would be 
about one pound and six-eighths of a pomid. We 
now solicit the attention of the reader to the fol- 
lowing unanimous testimony, of the civilized 
world, to the utter insufficiency of this amount of 
food to sustain human beings under labor. This 
testimony is to be found in the laws of all civil- 
ized nations, which regulate the rations of sol 
dicrs and sailors, disbursements made by govern, 
mcnts for the support of citizens in times of pub 
lie calamity, the allowance to convicts in prisona 
&c. We will begin with the United States. 

The daily ration for each United States' soldier, 
established by act of Congress, May 30, 1796. 
was the following : one pound of l)eef. one pound 
of bread, half a gill of spirits ; and at the rate ol 
one quart of salt, two quarts of vinegar, twa 
poimds of soap, and one pound of candles to 
cver^' i)unda-d rations. To those soldiers " who 
were on the frontiers," (where the labor and ex 
posure were greater.) the ration was one pound 
two ounces of beef and one pound two ounces of 
bread. Laws U. S. vol. 3d, sec. 10, p. 431. 

After an experiment of two years, the preced- 
ing ration hcing found insujiicient, it was in- 
creased, by act of Congress, July Ifi, 1798, and 
was as follows : beef one pound and a quarter, 
bread one pound two ounces ; salt two quarts, 
vinegar foiu" quarts, soap four poimds, and can- 
dles one and a half pounds to tlie hundred ra- 
tions. The preceding allowance was afterwardi 
still furtlier increased. 

Tiu- present daily ration for the United Statea^ 



Privations of the Slaves — Food. 



33 



soldiers, is, as we learn from an advertisement of 
Captain Fulton, of the United States' army, in a 
late number of the Richmond (Va.) Enquirer, as 
follows : one and a quarter pounds of beef, one 
and three-sixteenths pounds of bread ; and at the 
rate of eight quarts of leans, eight pounds of 
sugar, four pounds of coffee, two quarts of salt, 
four pounds of candles, and four pounds of soap, 
to every hundred rations. 

We have before us the daily rations provided 
for the emigrating Ottawa Indians, two years 
since, and for the emigrating Chcrokces last fall. 
They were the same — one pound of fresh beef, 
one pound of flour, &c. 

The daily ration for the United States' navy, 
is fomteen ounces of bread, half a pound of beef, 
six ounces of pork, three ounces of rice, three 
ounces of peas, one ounce of cheese, one ounce 
of sugar, half an ounce of tea, one-third of a 
gill molasses. 

The daily ration in the British army is one and 
a quarter pounds of beef, one pound of bread, &c. 

The daily ration in the French army is one 
pound of beef, one and a half pounds of bread, 
one pint of wine, &c. 

The common daily ration for foot soldiers on 
the continent, is one pound of meat, and one and 
a half pounds of bread. 

The sea ration among the Portuguese, has be- 
come the usual ration in the navies of European 
powers generally. It is as follows : " one and a 
half pounds of biscuit, one pound of salt meat, 
one pint of wine, with some dried fish and 
onions." 

Prison Rations. — Before giving the usual 
daily rations of food allowed to convicts, in the 
principal prisons in the United States, we will 
quote the testimony of the " American Prison 
Discipline Society," which is as follows : 

" The common allowance of food in the peni- 
tentiaries, is equivalent to one pound of meat, 

ONE POUND OF BREAD, AND ONE POUND OF VEGETA- 
BLES PER DAY. It varies a little from this in some 
of them, but it is generally equivalent to it." 
First Report of American Prison Discipline So- 
ciety, page 13. 

The daily ration of food to each convict, in the 
principal prisons in this country, is as follows : 

In the New Hampshire State Prison, one and 
a quarter pounds of meal, and fourteen ounces 
of beef, for breakfast and dinner; and for sup- 
per, a soup or porridge of potatos and beans, or 
peas, the quantlly not limited. 

In the Vermont prison, the convicts are al- 
lowed to eat as much as they wish. 

In the Massachusetts' penitentiary, one and a 
half pounds of bread, fourteen ounces of meat 
half a pint of potatoSj and one gill of molasses, 
I or one pint of milk. 

3 



In the Connecticut State Prison, one pound 
of beef, one pound of bread, two and a half 
pounds of potatos, half a gill of molasses, with 
salt, pepper, and vinegar. 

In the New York State Prison, at Aubum, 
one pound of beef, twenty-two ounces of flour 
and meal, half a gill of molasses ; with two 
quarts of rye, four quarts of salt, two quarts of 
vinegar, one and a half ounces of pepper, and 
two and a half bushels of potatos to every hun- 
dred rations. 

In the New York State Prison at Sing Sing, 
one pound of beef, eighteen ounces of flour and 
meal, besides potatos, rye coflee, and molasses. 

In the New York City Prison, one pound of 
beef, one pound of flour ; and three pecks of po- 
tatos to every hundred rations, with other small 
articles. 

In the New Jersey State Prison, one pound 
of bread, half a pound of beef, with potatos and 
cabbage, (quantity not specified,) one gill of 
molasses, and a bowl of mush for supper. 

In the late Walnut Street Prieon, Philadel- 
phia, one and a half pounds of bread and meal, 
half a pound of beef, one pint of potatos, one 
gill of molasses, and half a gill of rye, for coffee. 

In the Baltimore prison, v/e believe the ration 
is the same with the preceding. 

In the Pennsylvania Eastern Penitentiary, ojie 
pound of bread and one pint of coffee for break- 
fast, one pint of meat soup, with potatos without 
limit, for dinner, and mush and molasses for sup- 
per. 

In the Penitentiary for the District of Colmn- 
bia, Washington city, one pound of beef, twelve 
ounces of Indian meal, ten ounces of wheat flour, 
half a gill of molasses ; with two quarts of rye, 
four quarts of salt, four quarts of vinegar, and 
two and a half bushels of potatos to every hun- 
dred rations. 

Rations in English Prisons, — The daily ra- 
tion of food in the Bedfordshire Penitentiary, is 
two pounds of bread; and if at hard labor, a 
quart of soup for dinner. 

In the Cambridge County House of Correction, 
three pounds of bread, and one pint of beer. 

In the Millbank General Penitentiary, one and 
a half pounds of bread, one pound of potatos, six 
ounces of beef, with half a pint of broth there- 
from. 

In the Gloucestershire" Penitentiary, one and a 
half pounds of bread, three-fourths of a pint of 
peas, made into soup, with beef, quantity not 
stated. Also gruel, made of vegetables, quantity 
not stated, and one and a half ounces of oatmeal 
mixed with it. 

In the Leicestershire House of Correction, two 
pounds of bread, and tliree pints of gruel; and 
when at hard labor, one pint of milk in addition, 



34 



Privations of the Slaves — Food. 



and twice a week a pint of meat Boup at dinner, 
instead of pruul. 

In tlic liuxton IIoiiBC of Correction, one and a 
lialf pounds of bread, one and a half pintii of 
j.'riiel, one and a lialf pints of soup, four-fiftha of 
a pound of jxjlalos, and two-Bcventli.sof an ounce 
of hvvf. 

Notwitlistaiiding the preceding daily ration in 
the IJuxton I'rison in about double the UHual 
daily allowance of our blavcs, yet the visiting 
physicians decided, that for tliose prisoners who 
were requin d to work the tread. mill, it was en- 
tirclij inxujficicnt. This question was considered 
at Icngtii, and publicly discussed at the sessions 
of the iSurry magistrates, witii the benefit of 
medical advice ; which resulted in "large addi- 
tions" to the rations of those who worked on tlic 
tread-mill. Sec London Morning Chronicle, 
Jan. 13, 1830. 

To the preceding wc add the ration of the Ro- 
man slaves. The monthly allowance of food to 
slaves in Rome was called " Dimcnsum." The 
" Dimcnsum" was an allowance of wheat or 
of other grain, which consisted of five modii a 
month to each slave Ainsworth, in his Latin 
Dictionary estimates the modius, when used for 
the measurement of grain, at a peck and a half 
our measure, which would make the Roman 
Blave's allowance two quarts of grain a day, just 
double the allowance provided for the slave by 
law in North Carolina, and six quarts more per 
week tlian the ordinary allowance of slaves in 
the slave states generally, as already established 
by the testimony of slaveholders themselves. 
But it must by no means be overlooked that this 
" dimcnsum," or monthly allowance, was far from 
being the sole allowance of food to Roman slaves. 
In addition to this, they had a stated daily allow- 
ance (diarium) besides a monthly allowance of 
money, amounting to about a cent a day. 

Now without further trencliing on the reader's 
time, we add, compare the preceding daily allow- 
ances of food to soldiers and sailors in this and 
other countries ; to convicts in this and other 
countries ; to bodies of emigrants rationed at 
public expense ; and finally, with the iixed al- 
lowance given to Roman slaves, and we find the 
states of this Union, the slave states as well as 
the free, tlic United Slates' government, the dif- 
ferent European governments, the old Roman 
empire, in fine, wc may mid, the world, ancient 
and modern, uniting in the testimony that to 
furni.«h men at hard labor from daylight till dark 
with but Ijl lbs. of corn per day, their sole suste- 
nance, is to MIJKDF.R TUKM I!V IIKCK-MEAL. The 

reader will perceive by examining the preceding 
slatistirs tliaf the arrrage daily ration throughout 
this Country antl Kurope exceeds the usual slave's 
allowance at least a pound a day ; also that onc> 



liiird of this ration for soldiers and convicts in 
the United States, and for soldiers and sailors in 
Europe, is rnru/, generally beef ; whereas the al- 
lowance of the maita of our slaves is com, only. 
I'lirther, the convicts in our prisons are sheltered 
from thu heat of the sun, and from the damps of 
the early morning and evening, from cold, rain, 
&.C. ; whereas, the great body of the slaves are 
exposed to all of these, in their season, from day- 
light till dark ; besides this, they labor more 
hours in the day than convicts, as will be shown 
under anolhrr head, and arc obliged to prepare 
and cook their own food after they have finished 
tlie labor of the day, while the convicts have 
theirs prepared for tliem. Tliesc, with other cir- 
cumstances, necessarily make larger and longer 
draughts upon the strength of the slave, produce 
consequently greater exhaustion, and demand a 
larger amount of food to restore and sustain the 
laborer than is required by the convict in his 
briefer, less exposed, and less exhausting toils. 

That the slaveholders themselves regard the 
usual allowance of food to slaves as insufficient, 
both in kind and quantity, for hard-working men, 
is shown by tlie fact, that in all tlic slave states, 
wc believe without exception, trhite convicts at 
hard labor, have a much larger allowance of food 
than the usual one of slaves ; and generally more 
than one third of this daily allowance is meat. 
This conviction of slaveholders shov.s itself in 
various forms. "When jicrsons wish to hire slaves 
to labor on public works, in addition to tlie in- 
ducement of high wages held out to masters to 
hire out their slaves, the contractors pledge them- 
selves that a certain amount of food shall be 
given the slaves, taking care to specify a larger 
amount than the usual allowance, and a part of 
it 7ncat. 

The following advertisement is an illustration. 
We copy it from the " Daily Georgian," Savan- 
nah, Dec. 11, lb3S. 

NEGROES WANTED. 

Tlic Contractors upon the Bninswick and Al 
atamaha Canal are desirous to hire a number of 
prime Negro IVIen, from the 1st October next, for 
fifteen months, until the Ist January, 1840. They 
will pay at the rate oi' eighteen dollars per month 
for eacii prime hand. 

These nc p^roes will be employed in the ex'^a- 
vation of the Canal. They will be provided with 
three and a half pounds of pork or hamn, and 
ten quarts of gourd seed corn per trcek, |(>cl[Trd in 
comfortable shantccs, and attrndcd constantly by 
a skilful ])hvsician. 

.1. 11. CoiTF.R, 

r. yi. NlOini.NGALK. 

Put we have direct testimony to this point. 
The late Hon. John Taylor, of Caroline Co. Vir- 
ginia, for many years Senator in CongresB, and 
for many years president of ibc Agricultural So- 



Privations of the Slaves — Labor. 



35 



ciety of the State, says in his "Agricultural Es- 
says," No. 30, page 97, " Bread alone ought 

NEVER TO BE CONSIDERED A SUFFICIENT DIET FOR 
SLAVES EXCEPT AS A PUNISHMENT." Hc Urges UpOn 

the planters of Virginia to give their slaves, in ad- 
dition to bread, " salt meat and vegetables," and 
adds, " WG shall be astonished to discover upon 
trial, that tliis great comfort to them is a profit 
to the master." 

The Managers of the American Prison Disci- 
pline Society, in their third Report, page 58, say, 
" In the Penitentiaries generally, in the United 
States, the animal food is equal to one pound of 
meat per day for each convict." 

Most of the actual suffering from hunger on the 
part of the slaves, is in the sugar and cotton-grow- 
ing region, where the crops are exported and the 
corn generally purchased from the upper country. 
Where this is the case there cannot but be suffer- 
ing. The contingencies of bad crops, diiScult 



transportation, high prices, &c. &c., naturally 
occasion short and often precarious allowances. 
Tiie following extract from a New Orleans paper 
of April 26, lb37, affords an illustration. The 
writer in describing the effects of the money 
pressure in Mississippi, says : 

" They, (the planters,) are now left without 
provisions and the means of living and using their 
industry, for the present year. In this dilemma, 
planters wliose crops liave been from 100 to 700 
bales, find tliemselves forced to sacrifice many of 
their slaves in order to get tlie common necessaries 
of life for the support of themselves and the rest of 
their negroes. In many places, heavy planters 
compel their slaves to fish Jor the means of sub. 
sistence, rather than sell them at such ruinous 
rates. There are at this moment THOUSANDS 
OF SLAVES in Mississippi, that KNOW NOT 
WPIERE THE NEXT MORSEL IS TO 
COME FROiM. The master 7nust he ruined to 
save the wretches from being STARVED " 



The Senate and House of Hepresent- 
atives of the State of South Carolma. 



II. LABOR. 

THE SLAVES ARE OVERWORKED. 

This is abundantly proved by the number of hours that the slaves are obliged to be in the field. 
But before furnishing testimony as to their hours of labor and rest, we will present the express decla- 
rations of slaveholders and others, that the slaves are severely driven in the field. 

WITNESSES. TESTIMONY. 

" Many owners of slaves, and others who have the manage- 
ment of slaves, do confine them so closely at hard labor that they 
have not sufficient time for natural rest. — See 2 Brevard's Di- 
gest of the Laws of South Carolina, 243." 

" So laborious is the task of raising, beating, and cleaning 
rice, that had it been possible to obtain European servants in 
sufficient numbers, thousands and tens of thousands must have 

PERISHED." 

" Is it not obvious that the way to render their situation 7norc 
comfortable, is to allow them to be taken where there is not the 
same motive to force the slave to incessant toil that there is in 
the country where cotton, sugar, and tobacco are raised for ex- 
portation. It is proposed to hem in the blacks where they are 
HARD WORKED, that they may be rendered unproductive and the 
race be prevented from increasing. * * * The proposed 
measure would be extreme cruelty to the blacks. * * * 
You would * * * doom them to hard labor." 



History of Carolina. 
E20. 



-Vol. i, page 



Hon. Alexander Smyth, a slavehold- 
er, and member of Congress from Vir- 
ginia, in his speech on tlie " Missouri 
question," Jan. 28, 1820. 



"Travels in Louisiana," translated 
from the French by John Davies, Esq. 
—Page 81. 



The Western Review, No. 2, — article 
" Agriculture of Louisiana." 

W. (/. Gildersleeve, Esq., a native of 
Georgia, elder of the Presbyterian 
church, Wilkesbarre, Penn. 

Mr. Asa A. Stone, a theological stu- 
dent, near Natchez, Miss., in 1834 and 
1835. 



Philemon Bliss, Esq., a lawyer of 
Elyria, Ohio, who lived in Florida in 
1834 and 1835. 



" At the rolling of sugars, an interval of from two to three 
months, they work both night and day. Abridged of their sleep, 
they scarce retire to rest during the whole period." 

" The work is admitted to be severe for the hands, (slaves,) 
requiring when the process is commenced to be pushed night 
and day." 

" Overworked I know they (the slaves) are." 

" Every body here knows overdriving to be one of the most 
common occurrences, the planters do not deny it, except, per- 
haps, to northerners." 

" During the cotton-picking season they usually labor in the 
field during the whole of the daylight, and then spend a good 
part of the night in ginning and baling. The labor required is 
very frequently excessive, and speedily impairs the constitution." 



fl6 



rrivations of tlie Slaves — Labor. 



WITHK88RB. 

Him. R. J. Tiiniliiill orHoiilh •nmll- 
nii, n Hlnvclmlilrr, i>|M'uklng »l' tin; liur- 
T«»Uiig urcuttuL, Myii: 



TEflTlMOMT. 

' All thr prrtrjiant women even, on tlic plantation, and weak 
and Mirkhj ncgrotH incapable of olhur lalnjr, arc then in rt'jut. 
tition." 



IIOL'RII op I.AHOR AND RKST. 

" It in a jjcncral rule on all ri*pnlar plantations, that the xlavea 
be in the fii;ld uh goon as it m lii^ht rnoufrh for thrm to aee to 
work, and remain there until it is to dark tliai they cannot tee." 

" It is thf rommon rule for the slavcB to be kfpt at work fif- 
trrn luiura in tlic tiny, and in the time of piekinp cotton a certain 
niunhiT of pounds ih rcquirid of each. If this amount i.s not 
brought in at night, Uic slave w whipped, and the numlK-r of 
pounds laekinjj is added to the next day's job; this courue iti ofkn 
rupcat('d from day to day." 

" It was customary for the ovcrsccrH to eall out the EunR" 
lonir hffore driij, Fay three o'clock, in the winter, while drerain^ 
out tlic crops ; such work as could be done by fire light rj)itch 
pine was abundant,) was provided." 

" From dawn till dark, the slaves are required to liind to their 
work." 

" The slaves arc obliged to work from daylight till dark, as 
long as they can sec." 

" The slaves had to cook and cat their breakfast and be in the 
field by daylight, and continue there till dark." 

"The slaves commence labor ht/ daylight in the raomin(j, and 
do not leave the field till dark in the evening." 

" Both in summer and winter the slave must he in ike field by 
the first dawning of day." 

" The slaves were made (o work, from as soon as thev could 
Christ ian . luir.ii in Fiirmingtoii. Ohio, «<''' '" the momiUj^r, till as late as they could see at night, bome- 
wlio livid ill Mlsslssliipi in 1337 aiid times they were made to work till nine o'clock at night, in such 
*'**^' work as they could do, as burning cotton stalks, &c." 



Ann A Hton*-, IllfTilntrirnJ ntiiil>-nl, .i 
•ISMtcaJ tearJiiT uuar iNulclii/, Mixri., 
lt£U. 



Mr. romolliif! Johnunn, of Fnmrini;- 
tuii, <^)lilo, who lived lu M)«siMKi|ipi a 
part o( 1U37 luid 1834. 



W. r. C;ildor!<Ie<>ve, Esq., Wilkw- 
burri', IVnu., a imtivi- of Ofurgia. 



Mr. Willinni Lcfiwirh, n n.ilivp of 
Vlrulnin nnd son of n slaviliiildr-r— In; 
has rc'ci.'Mlly rrniovi-'d to IX-llii, Hamil- 
ton county Ohio. 

Mr. Ni'hcniinh Caiilkin<<, W-TtPrt'ord, 
Oonn., a resident in »Nortli C'urolinu 
eluvt'n wiiit<:rs. 

Mr. Kleaznr Powel, Chippewa, Bea- 
ver rouiuv, Pfiin., who lived in Missis- 
hippi in lff.W and 1837. 

Phili'nion Bliss, Esq., a lawyer in Elj'- 
ria, < ihio, wliu resided in Florida in 
ltS4 aiid 1835. 



"Travels in Louisiana," page 87 



A New Orleans paper, dated March 23, 182fi, 
nay.s : " To judge from the activity reigning in 
the cotton presses of tlie suburbs of St. Mary, 
and the late hours during which their slaves 
work, the cotton trade was never more brisk." 

Mr. Gf.orof. W. Wf.stoati", a member of the 
Coi):,'regational Churcii at Quincy, Illinois, who 
lived in the south western slave states a num- 
ber of vears, says, " The slaves are driven to the 
fii'ld in the morning about four o'clock, the gene- 
ral calculation is to get them at work by day- 
light ; the time for breakfast is between nine and 
ti-n o'clock, lliis nn-al is sometimes eaten ' hitr 
and icork,' others allow filtien minutes, and this 
in the only rest tlu^ slave has while in the field. 
I have never known a case of stopping an hour, 
in l/ouisiana ; in Mississippi the rule is milder, 
tlioiigh entirely subject to the will of the ma^iter. 
On cotton ])lanfations, in cotton picking time, that 
IH I'rinii October to Chrislnms, caeli liaiul lias a 
certain quantify to pick. 8iid is flogged if his task 
is not acenniplishcd ; their tasks are sueh aa to 
keep them all the while biwy." 

The preccdnig testimony under this head has 
•olc reference to the actual labor of the slaves ih 
the field. In order to determine how many hours 
are left for sleep, we must take into the account, 
tlio timo spent in going tu and from the field, 



which is often at a distance of one, two and 
sometimes three miles; also the time necessarv 
for pounding, or grinding their com, and prepar- 
ing, over night, their food for tlie nc\t day ; also 
the preparation of tools, getting fuel and prepar- 
ing it, making fires and cooking their suppers, if 
they have any, the occasional mending and wa.«h- 
ing of their clothes, «Sic. Besides this, as everr 
one knows who has lived on a southern planta- 
tion, many little errands and chores arc to Ik- 
done for their masters and mistresses, old and 
young, which have aeeumulated during the dav 
and been kept in resene till the slaves return 
from the field at night. To this we may add that 
the slaves arc social bt^ngs, and that during the 
day, silence is generally enforced by the whip of 
the overseer or driver.* When they return at 
night, their pent up social feelings ^ill seek vent, 
it is a law of natun% and though the body may 
be greatly worn with toil, this law cannot be 
wholly stifled. Sharers of the same woes, they 
are drawn together by stron|{ affinities, and seek 

• We do not mean timt thrjr iirr nol mfTpreH to niriti. 
iMit. IhnI, n.« ronversnliun would Iw n hindranrr- to ialnrr. 
Ill) y an- generally |Knuilted to iiidul^- In It tnil little. 



Privations of the Slaves — Labor. 



37 



the society and sympathy of their fellows ; even 
" tired nature" will joyfully forego for a time 
needful rest, to minister to a want of its being 
equally permanent and imperative as the want of 
sleep, and as much more profound, as the yearn- 
ings of the higher nature surjiass the instincts of 
its animal appendage. 

All these things make drafts upon time. To 
show how much of the slave's time, which is ab- 
solutely indispensable for rest and sleep, is neces- 
sarily spent in various labors after his return from 
the field at night, we subjoin a few testimonies. 

Mr. Cornelius Johnson, Farraington, Ohio, 
who lived in Mississippi in the years 1837 and 38, 
says : 

" On all the plantations where I was acquaint- 
ed, the slaves were kept in the field till dark ; af- 
ter which, those who had to grind their own corn, 
had that to attend to, get their supper, attend to 
other family affairs of their own and of their mas- 
ter, such as bringing water, washing clothes, &c. 
&c., and be in the field as soon as it was suffi- 
ciently light to commence work in the morning." 

Mr. George W. Westgate, of Quincy, Illinois, 
who has spent several years in the south western 
slave states, says : 

" Their time, after full dark until four o'clock 
in the morning is their own ; this fact alone 
would seem to say they have sufficient rest, but 
there are other things to be considered ; much of 
their making, mending and washing of clothes, 
preparing and cooking food, hauling and chop- 
ping wood, fixing and preparing tools, and a va- 
riety of little nameless jobs must be done between 
those hours." 

Philemon Bliss, Esq. of Elyria, Ohio, who re- 
sided in Florida in 1834 and 5, gives the follow- 
ing testimony : 

" After having finished their field labors, they 
are occupied till nine or ten o'clock in doing 
chores, such as grinding corn, (as all the corn in 
the vicinity is ground by hand,) chopping wood, 
taking care of horses, mules, &e., and a thousand 
things necessary to be done on a large plantation. 
If any extra job is to be done, it must not hinder 
the ' niggers' from their work, but must be 
done in the night." 

W. C. GiLDERSLEEVE, Esq., a native of Georgia, 
an elder of the Presbyterian Church at Wilkes- 
barre, says : 

" The corn is ground in a handmill by the slave 

after his task is done — generally there is but one 

mill on a plantation, and as but one can grind at 

' a time, the mill is going sometimes very late at 

night." 

We now present another class of facts and tes- 
timony, showing that the slaves engaged in 
raising the large staples, are overiDorked. 

In September, 1834, the writer of this had an 
interview with James G. Birney, Esq., who then 
resided in Kentucky, having removed with his 
family from Alabama the year before. A few 
hours before that intcrvieWj and on the morning 



of the same day, Mr. B. had spent a couple of 
hours with Hon. Henry Clay, at his residence, 
near Lexington. Mr. Birney remarked, that 
Mr. Clay had just told him, he had lately been 
led to mistrust certain estimates as to the in- 
crease of the slave population in the far south 
west — estimates which he had presented, I think, 
in a speech before the Colonization Society. He 
now believed, that the birllis among the slaves in 
tliat quarter were not equal to the deaths — and 
that, of course, the slave population, independent 
of immigration from the slave-selling states, 
was 7iot sustaining itself. 

Among other facts stated by Mr. Clay, was 
the following, which we copy verbatim from the 
original memorandum, made at the time by Mr. 
Birney, with which he has kindly furnished us. j 

" Sept. 16, 1834.— Hon. H. Clay, m a conver- 
sation at his own house, on the subject of slave- 
ry, informed me, that Hon. Outerbridge Horsey, 
formerly a senator in Congress from the state of 
Delaware, and the owner of a sugar plantation 
in Louisiana, declraed to him, that his overseer 
worked his hands so closely, that one of the wo- 
men brought forth a child whilst engaged in the 
labors of the field. 

"Also, that a few years since, he was at a brick 
yard in the environs of New Orleans, in which 
one hundred hands were employed ; among them 
were from ticenty to thirty young tuoinen, in the 
prime of life. He was told by the proprietor, that 
there had not been a child born among them for 
the last two or three years, although they all had 
husbands.'''' 

The preceding testimony of Mr. Clay, is 
strongly corroborated by advertisements of 
slaves, by Courts of Probate, and by executors 
administering upon the estates of deceased per- 
sons. Some of those advertisements for the sale 
of slaves, contain the names, ages, accustomed 
employment, &c., of all the slaves upon the 
plantation of the deceased. These catalogues 
show large numbers of young men and women, 
almost all of them between twenty and thirty- 
eight years old ; and yet the number of young 
children is astonishingly small. We have laid 
aside many lists of this kind, in looking over the 
newspapers of the slaveholding states ; but the 
two following are all we can lay our hands on 
at present. One is in the " Planter's Intelligen- 
cer," Alexandria, La., March 22, 1837, contain- 
ing one hundred and thirty slaves ; and the other 
in the New Orleans Bee, a few days later, April 
8, 1837, containing fifty-one slaves. The for- 
mer is a " Probate sale" of the slaves belonging 
to the estate of Mr. Charles S. Lee, deceased, 
and is advertised by G. W. Keeton, Judge of the 
Parish of Concordia, La. The sex, name, and 
age of each slave are contained in the advertise- 
ment, which fills two columns. The following 
are some of the particulars. 



38 



rrivalioru of the Slaves — Labor. 



The whole number of itlavrR in one hundred 
and thirty. Of ihcsc, only three are over forty 
years old. Tlierc aro ihirly.five femalea between 
the agcN of aixteen and thirty-three, and yet llicre 
arc only tmihtecn children under the age of 
thirteen yen ra ! 

It is iin|>uBAiblo satiafactorily to account for 
such a fact, on any other BUppnsilion, than that 
thoflc Ihirly-five females were so overworked, or 
underfed, or both, a« to prevent child-bearing. 

The other advertisement is that of a " Probate 
«ale," ordered by the Court of tlie PariBJi of Jef- 
ferson — including the slaves of Mr. William 
fjormJey. The whulc number of slaves is fifly- 
onc ; the sex, age, and accustomed labors of 
each are given. The oldest of these slaves is but 
thirty.nine yenrg old : of the females, thirtcm are 
between the ages of sixteen and thirty-two, and 
tiic oldest female is but thirty.cif^ht — and yet 
there are but two children under eight years 
old! 

Another proof that the slaves in the south- 
western slates arc ovcr-workcd, is the fact, that 
po few of them live to old age, A large majori- 
ty of them are old at middle age, and few live 
beyond fifty-five. In one of the preceding ad- 
vertisements, out of one hundred and thirty 
elavcs, only three arc over forty years old I In 
the other, out of fifty-one slaves, only two are 
over thirty-fire ; the oldest is but thirty-nine, and 
the way in which he is designated in the adver- 
tisement, is an additional proof, tliat what to 
others is " middle age," is to the slaves in tlic 
Bouth-wcst " old age :" he is advertised as " old 
Jeffrey." 

But the proof that the slave population of the 
Bouth-wcst is so over- worked that it cannot supply 
its own waste, docs not rest upon mere infenn- 
tial evidence. The Agricultural Society of Ba. 
ton Rouge, Tia., in its report, published in 1829, 
furnishes a labored estimate of the amount of ex- 
penditure necessarily incurred in conducting " a 
Well-regulated sugar estate." In this estimate, 
the annual net loss of elavcs, over and above the 
supply by propagation, is set down at two and a 
1IAI.K PER CENT ! The latc Hon. Josiah S. John- 
pon, a member of Congress from Louisiana, ad- 
dressed a letter to the Secretary of the Ignited 
f>tat(8' Trcasur}', in 1830, containing a similar 
estimate, ap|>arently made with great care, and 
going into minute details. !\Iany items in lliis 
CHtiuiate diflVr from the preculing; but the esti- 
mate of the annual decrease of the slaves on a 
plantation was the same — two and a half per 
ckntI 

The following testimony of Rev. Dr. Chan- 
NINO, of Hotlon, who rcdidcd some time in Vir- 
ginia, hhow« that the over.workinj of jilaves, to 
•uch IU1 extent an to abridge life, and raunc a 



decreaM of population, is not confined to Uie £ar 
south and south-west. 

'* I heard of an cittate managed by an Individ 
uai who was considered as singularly successful, 
and who was able to govern the slaves without 
the one of the whip. I was anxious to sec him, 
and trusted that luime diocovcrv had been made 
favorable to humanit}'. I ajiked him how he 
was able to disjvnM: with corporal punishment. 
Hi; replied to me, with a very determined look. 
'The flavcb know that the work must be done, 
and that it is belter to do it without pimishmcnt 
than with it.' In other words, the certainty and 
dread of chastiKcmcnl were so impressed on 
them, tliat they never incurred it. 

" I then found that the slavr-s on this well- 
manag(;d estate, decreased in numln-r. I asked 
the cause. Me replied, with p< rfect frankne&s 
and ease, ' The gang is not large enough for the 
estate.' In other words, they were not equal to 
the work of the plantation, and yet were made to 
do it, though with the certainty of abridging life. 

" On this plantation the huts were uncom- 
morily convenient. There was an unu.sual air 
of neatness. A superficial obser\'cr would have 
called the slaves happy. Yet they were living 
under a severe, subduing discipline, and were 
orrr.worked to a degree that shortened life." — 
Channing on Slavery, page 162, first edition. 

Pjulemon Bliss, Esq., a lawyer of Elyria, Ohio, 
who spent some time in Florida, gives the fol- 
lowing testimony to the over.working of the 
slaves : 

"It is not uncommon for hands, in hurrying 
times, beside working all day, to labor half llic 
night. This is usually tlie case on sugar planta- 
tions, during the sugar-bciling season ; and on 
cotton, during its gathering. Beside the regular 
task of picking cotton, averaging of tjje short 
stajilo, when the crop is good, lOU pounds a day 
to the hand, the ginning (eilrac*"ng the seed,) 
and baling was done in the night. Said Mr. 
to me, while conversing upon the cus. 



tomary lalwr of slaves, * I work my nigjjers in a 
hurrying time till 11 or 12 o'clock at night, and 
have them up by four in the morning.' 

" Beside the common inducement, the desire of 
gain, to make a large crop, the desire is increased 
by that spirit of gambling, so common at tlic 
south. It is very common to hel on tjie is«>-uc ol 
a crop. A. Ia^•p a wa^erlhat, from a given num- 
ber o( hands, he will make more cotton than B. 
Tlie wag>T is accepted, and then begins Uie con- 
test ; and who Ix-ars the btuden of it ? How 
many tears, yea, how many broken ronstitutions, 
and pn^nature deaths, have been the effect of 
this spirit ? From the desperate energy of pur- 
pose with which the gambler pursues his object, 
from the passions which U»e practice calls into 
exerciso, we mi^ht conjecture mnuy. Such is 
the fact. In Middle Florida, a hrokni-winded 
negro is more common than a broken-xtinded 
hors4' ; though usually, when tliey arc declarrd 
imsound, or when theu* constitution is m broken 
ih.Tt their recovery is despaired of. they arc ex. 
I>orled to N'W Orleans, to drag out fbe remain- 
der of their days in the cune-field and sugar 
house. I would not insinuate that all planters 
gamble upon their crops; but I mention tho 



Privations of the Slaves — Labor. 



3a 



practice as one of the common inducements to 
'pusli nifTfTcrs,' Neither would I asKcit tliat all 
planters drive tlic hands to the injury of their 
health. I {^ivo it as a general rule in the district 
of Middle Florida, and I have no reason to think 
that n(;groes are driven worse there Uian in otiicr 
fertile sections. People there told mc tliat the 
situation of the slaves was far better tlian in Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana. And from comparing 
the crops witli those made in the latter states, 
and for other reasons, I am convinced of the 
truth of their statements." 

Dr. Demming, a gentleman of high rcspcctabili- 
ty, residing in Ashland, Richland county, Ohio, 
stated to Professor Wright, of New York city, 

" That during a recent tour at the south, wliilc 
ascending the Ohio river, on the steamboat Fame, 
he had an opportimity of conversing with a Mr. 
Dickinson, a resident of Pittsburg, iji company 
with a number of cotton-planters and slave-deal- 
ers, from Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi. 
Mr. Dickinson stated as a fact, that the sugar 
planters upon the sugar coast in Louisiana had 
ascertained, that, as it was usually necessary to 
employ about twice the amount of labor during 
the boiling season, that was required during the 
season of raising, they could, by excessive driv- 
ing, day and night, during the boiling season, 
accomplish the whole labor with one set of hands. 
By pursuing this plan, they could afford to sacri. 
jjce a set of hands once in seven years .' He fur- 
ther stated that this horrible system was now 
practised to a considerable extent ! The cor- 
rectness of this statement was substantially ad- 
mitted by the slaveholders then on board." 

The late Mr. Samuel Blackwell, a highly re- 
spected citizen of Jersey city, opposite the city of 
New York, and a member of the Presbyterian 
church, visited many of the sugar plantations in 
Louisiana a few years since ; and having for 
many years been the owner of an extensive sugar 
refinery in England, and subsequently in this 
country, he had not only every facility afforded 
him by the planters, for personal inspection of 
all parts of the process of sugar-making, but re- 
ceived from them the most unreserved commu- 
nications, as to their management of their slaves. 
Mr. B., after his return, frequently made the fol- 
lowing statement to gentlemen of his acquain- 
tance, — " That the planters generally declared 
to him, that they were obliged so to over-work 
their slaves during the sugar-making season, (from 
eight to ten weeks,) as to use them up in seven 
or eight years. For, said they, after the process 
vs commenced, it must be pushed without cessa- 
tion, night and day; and we cannot afford to 
teep a sufficient number of slaves to do the extra. 
ft'ork at the time of sugar-making, as we could 
<iot profitably employ them the rest of the year." 

It is not only true of the sugar planters, but of 
the slaveholders generally throughout the far 
south and south west, that they believe it for their 
interest to wear out the slaves by excessive toil in 
eight or ten years after they put them into the 
field.* 

* Alexander .Tones, Esq., a large planter in Wesr Feliciana, 
LiOiiisiniia, pu'ilislied a coinniuiiication in the " North Ca- 
rolina True American," Nov. 25, 1838, in wliicti, speaking 



Rev. Doctor Reed, of London, who went 
through Kentucky, Virginia and Maryland in the 
summer of ]b3t, gives the following testimony: 

" I was told confidently and from excellent 
authoritij, that recently at a meeting of planters 
in youth Carolina, the question was seriously din. 
cussed whether the slave is more profitable to tlv 
owner, if well fed, well clothed, and worked 
hghtly, or if made the most of at once, and ex- 
hausted in some eight years. The decision was 
in favor of the last alternative. That decision 
will perhaps make many shudder. But to my 
mind this is not the chief evil. The greater and 
original evil is considering the slave as property. 
If he is only property and my property, then I 
have some riglit to ask how I maj' make that 
property 7nost available." 

"Visit to tlio American Churches," by Rev. L)rs. R'led 
and Matthct^on. Vol. 2. p. 173. 

Rev. John O. Choules, recently pastor of the 
Baptist Church at New Bedford, Massachusetts, 
now of Buffalo, New Yo.k, made suljstantially 
the following statement in a speech in Boston. 

" While attending the Baptist Triennial Con- 
vention at Richmond, Virginia, in the spring of 
1835, as a delegate from Massachusetts. I had 
a conversation on slavery, with an officer of 
the Baptist Church in that city, at whose house 
I was a guest. I asked my host if he did not 
apprehend that the slaves would eventually rise 
and extermmate their masters. 

" Why," said the gentleman, " I used to ap- 
prehend such a catastrophe, but God has made a 
providential opening, a merciful safety valve, and 
now I do not feel alarmed in the prospect of 
what is coming. ' What do you mean, said Mr. 
Choules, ' by providence opening a merciful rafetv 
valve ?' Why, said the gentleman, I will tell 
you ; the slave traders come from the cotton and 
sugar plantations of the South and are willing to 
buy up more slaves than we can part with. We 
must keep a stock for the purpose of rearing 
slaves, but we part with the most valuable, and 
at the same time, the most dangerous, and the 
demand is very constant and likely to be so, for 
when they go to these southern states, the average 
existence is only five years I" 

Monsieur C. C. Robin, a highly intelligent 
French gentleman, who resided in Louisiana 
from 1802 to 1806, and published a volume of 
travels, gives the following testimony to the over- 
working of the slaves there : 

" I have been a witness, that after the fatigue 
of the day, their labors have been prolonged se- 
veral hours by the light of the moon ; and then, 
before they could think of rest, they must pound 
and cook their corn ; and yet, long before dav, 
an implacable scold, whip in hand, would arouse 
them from their slmnbers. Thus, of more than 

of the horses emploj'ed in the mills on the plantation? for p-in- 
nins cotton, he says, they " are much whipped and jaded :" 
and adds, " In fact, this service is so severe on ))orses, as to 
shorten their lives in many instances, if not actually kill 
them in pear." 

Those who work one kind of their " live stock" so as to 
" shorten their lives," or "kill tliem in pear," would not 
stick at doing the same thing to another kind. 



40 



Privations of l1ie Slaves — Clothing. 



twenty negroes, who in Iwc-nty years Bhould have 
doubled, the t\inii\n T wtiH reduced to four or Jivr." 
In concliiHioii we add, that slaveholdvni have 
in Uic inoHt pubhe and cniphntic manner declan-d 
thcnitielvi-8 (^niity of l>arbarou8 inhninanity toward 
tJioir ftlavcH in exacting from them surh lotif^ 
rontiniied dailij labor. The Ix-giHlalurcH nf 
Marylaiiil, Virginia and Georgia, have iiasHcd 
lawH providing that convicts in their Ktatc prisons 
and penitentiaricH, " shall be employed in work 
each day in the year except Sundays, not ex- 
ceeding ei'rht hours, in the months of November, 
December, ond January ; nine hours, in tlie 
months of February and October, and ten hours 
in the rest of the year." Now contrast this Irfral 
exaction of lal)or from convicts with the exaction 
from plaves as establislicd by the preceding tes- 
timony. The reader perceives that the amount 
of time, in which by tlic preceding laws of Mary- 



land, Virginia, and Georgia, the eonticts in thcii 
prisona are required to labor, is on an average 
during the year but little more than .m.ve uoura 
daily. Whcrcaw, the laws of South Carolina 
permit the master to compel his slaves to work 
KiKTKKN nouns in the twenly-four, in summer, 
and FoiRTEKN in the winter — which would be in 
winti r, from daybreak in the morning until /o«r 
huum after sunset! — See 2 Brevard's Digest, 213. 

The other slave slates, except L/juiiiiana, have 
no lawn r.;»ipecting the labor of slavcK, conne. 
qucntly if the master should work his slaves day 
and night without sleep till they drop dead, he 
violates no law ! 

The law of Louisiana provides for the slaves 
but TWO AM) A HALF HOURS in tlic twenty. four for 
" rest I" Sec law of Louisiana, act of July 7, 
1806, Martin's Digest G. 10—12. 



in. CLOTHING. 



Wc propose to show under this head, that the clothing of the slaves by day, and their covering by 
night, arc inadequate, cither for comfort or decency. 



WIT.NESSES. 

Hon. T. T. noiildin, a slave-holder, 
and nicnibur of Coiiijrcss from Virginia, 
in a speecti in Congrcas, Feb. 16, 1835. 



TESTIMOVY. 



Mr. Bouldin said " he knew that many negroes had died from 
exposure to weather," and added, *' they are clad in a. fiimfy 
fabric, that icill turn neither wind nor water." 



Goorpo Biirhanan, M. f)., of n,ilti- , rni. ^ 7 j j . j i-j /■ n • • , 

niurr, iiiPiiibirof ilio .Aniirican Phikh^ Jihe slaves, n/jA:cd ana Starved, 0/ /en tail victims to the 

!io|)liical.Siicii'iy, in an oration at Haiti- inclemencies of the weather." 
ruorc, July 4, 1791. 

Wm. Snvrry of Pliil.tdolpliia an 
eminent Minister of the Society of 
Friends, who went through the Sonth- 
em 9tati-s in 1791, on a relisriou.-i visit ; 
after lejiviiij; ^avannnh, Ga., we find 
tie' fiilliiwiiir! entry in hid journal, Gtli, 
month, ift<, 1791. 

*' In every slave-holding state, many slaves suffer extremely, 
nauCI-om-ime^i."' "''^'P""^' *^'"''' "^ both while they labor and while Uiey sleep, for tcant of clothing 

to keep them warm." 



" We rode through many rice swamps, where tlie blacks were 
very numerous, great droves of these poor slaves, working up to 
the middle in water, men and women nearly naked." 



John Parrisli, late nf Pliijadelphi.i, a 
hiclily esteeini'd niiniHter in the Society 
of Friendii, who travelled tliroagh the 
South in 18(M. 



Rev. riiine.Ti Smith, renlreville, Alle- 
fany, Ck., .\. Y. Mr. S. has ju.-it re- 
tiirii-d frnin n residi'nre of sever.-J 
V'-.-irn nt thw w)nth, rhielly in Viriiinin, 
I.eiiitd.'inn, nnd among the American 
HfUlcrs 111 Texas. 



Wm. T.ndd, K't]., of Minnl, Maine, 
r«ccnUy a iilavehuldex In Florida. 



" It is shocking to tlic feelings of humanity, in travelling 
tlirough some of those states, to see those poor objects, [slaves,] 
especially in the inclement sea'son, in rags, and trembling with 
the cold." .... 

" They suffer them, both male and female, to go without cloth, 
ing at the age of ten and twelve years." 

" The apparel of ihe slaves, is of the coarsest sort and exceed- 
ingly Jcficirnt in quantify. I have been on many plantations, 
where children of eight and ten years old, were in a state of 
perfect nudity. Slaves arc in general wretchedly clad." 

" They were allowed two suite of clothes a year, vi?.. one pair 
of trowsers with a shirt or frock of osnabtirgh for .Glimmer ; 
and for winter, one pair of trow.sers, and a jacket of nejr-n cloth, 
with a baize sliirt and a pair ot' nhoes. Some allowed hats, and 
some did not ; and they were generallv. I b<dicve. allowed ono 
blanket in two years. Ganncnts of similar materials were allow- 
vi\ th'- wninon." 



A Kenturky physieinn, wtiiin^c in 
thi Wi-fllerii Medirnl Ki former, in tW>, 
on Uic difcaaes peculiar to slave*, snyn. 



They arc imperfectly clothed both summer and winter.' 



Privations of the Slaves — Clothing. 



41 



Mr. Stephen E. Maltby, Inspector of 
provisions, Skeneateles, N. Y., wlio re- 
sided soiuetiiiie in Alabama. 



Reuben G. Macy, Hudson, N. Y. 
member of the Society of Friends, wiio 
resided in South Carolina, in 1818 and 
19. 



Mr. Lemuel Sapington, of Lancaster, 
Pa., a native of Maiyland, and former- 
ly a slaveholder 



Philemon BUss, Esq., a law^'er in 
Elyria, Oliio, who lived in Florida in 
1834 and 35. 



Richard Macy, a member of the 
Society of Friends, Hudson, N. Y., who 
has lived in Georgia. 



W. C. Gildersleeve, Esq., Wilkesbarre, 
Pa., a native of Georgia. 



" I was at, Tluntsvillo, Alabama, in 181B-19, I frequently saw 
slaves on and around tliu public square, wit/i hardly a rag of 
clothing on ihcin, and in a great many instances with but a single 
garment both in summer and in winter ; generally the only bod- 
ding of the slaves was a blanket." 

" Their clothing consisted of a pair of trowscrs and jacket, 
made of ' negro cloth.' The women a petticoat, a very short 
' short-gown,' and nothing else, the same kind of cloth ; some of 
the women had an old pair of shoes, but they generally went 
barefoot" 

" Their clothing is often made by themselves after night, 
though sometimes assisted by the old women, who arc no longer 
able to do out-door work ; consequently it is harsh and uncom- 
fortable. And I have very frequently seen those who had not 
attained the age of twelve years go naked." 

" It is very common to see the younger class of slaves up to 
eight or ten without any clothing, and most generally the labor- 
ing men wear vo shirts in the vs'arm season. The perfect nudi- 
ty of the younger slaves is so familiar to the whites of both 
sexes, that they seem to witness it with perfect indifference. 
I may add that the aged and feeble often suffer from cold." 

" For bedding each slave was allowed one blanket, in which 
they rolled themselves up. I examined their houses, but could 
not find any thing like a bed." 

" It is an every day sight to see women as well as men, with 
no other covering than a few filthy rags fastened above the hips, 
reaching midway to the ankles. Inever knew any kind of cover- 
ing for the head given. Children of both sexes, from infancy to 
ten years are seen in companies on the plantations, in a state of 
perfect nudity. This was so common that the most refined 
and delicate beheld them unmoved." 



Mr. William Leftwich, a native of 
Virginia, now a member of the Presby- 
terian Church, in Dellii, Ohio. 

Advertisements like the following from the 
' New Orleans Bee," May 31, 1837, are com- 
mon in the southern papers. 

' 10 DOLLARS REWARD.— Ranaway, the 
slave Solomon, about 28 years of age ; badly 
CLOTHED. The above reward will be paid on 
upplieation to Fernandez; &. Whiting, No. 20, St. 
Louis St. y^ 

RANAWAY from the subscriber the negress 
Fanny, always badly dressed, she is about 25 or 
26 vears sold. John Macoin, 117 S. Ann st. 

The Darien (Ga.), Telegraph, of Jan. 24, 1837, 
in an editorial article, hitting off the aristocracy 
of the planters, incidentally lets out some secrets, 
about the usual clothing of the slaves. The editor 
says, — " The planter looks down, with the most 
sovereign contempt, on the merchant and the 
storekeeper. He deems himself a lord, because 
he gets hie two or three ragged servants, 1o row 
him to his plantation every day, that he may in- 
spect the labor of his hands." 

The following is an extract from a letter lately 
received from Rev. C. S. Renshaw, of Quiney, 
Illinois. 

" I am sorry to,be obliged to give more testi- 
mony without the name. An individual in whom 
I have great confidence, gave me the following 
facts. That I am not alone in placing confi- 
dence in him, I subjoin a testimonial from Dr. 
Richard Eells, Deacon of the Congregational 
Church, of Quiney, and Rev. Mr. Fisher, Baptist 
Minister of Quiney. 



" The only bedding of the slaves generally consists of iico old 
blankets." 



" We have been acquainted with the brother 
who has communicated to you some facts that 
fell under his observation, whilst in his native 
state ; he is a professed follower of our Lord, 
and we have great confidence in him as a man 
of integrity, discretion, and strict Christian prin- 
ciple. Richard Eells. 
Ezra Fisher. 

Quiney, Jan. 9th, 1839. 

Testimony. — " I lived for thirty years in Vir- 
ginia, and have travelled extensively through 
Fauquier, Culpepper, Jefferson, Stafford, Albe- 
marle and Charlotte Counties ; my remarks apply 
to these Counties. 

" The negro houses are miserably poor, general- 
ly they are a shelter from neither the wind, the 
rain, nor the snow, and the earth is the floor. 
There are exceptions to this rule, but they are 
only exceptions ; you may sometimes see pun- 
cheon floor, but never, or almost never a plank 
floor. The slaves are generally without beds or 
bedsteads ; some few have cribs that they fastjn 
up for themselves in the corner of the hut. Their 
bed-clothes are a nest of rags thrown upon a crib, 
or in the corner ; sometimes there are three or 
four families in one small cabin. Where the 
slaveholders have more than one family, they put 
them in the same quarter till it is filled, then 
build another. I have seen exceptions to this, 
when only one family would occupy a hut, and 
where were tolerably comfortable bed-clothes. 

" Most of the slaves in these counties are inise. 



42 



rrivations of the Slaves — Clotliing. 



rabhj clad. I havr ktiown hlaveii wlio wont wilh- 
oiil ^ll«M•l^ all wint<r, p<r(Vclly bar<ff>ot. 'I'hr 
fi>«!t of many <>f thim an; frozen. An a (jini-ral 
fact till' |il:iiiliTn do not Hrrve out to th<ir flav« «, 
drawer", or any uiulrr rlolliinir, or vcrtH, cr ov»r- 
coatn. Slavi'H Huim-linnw, by workini; at night 
and on Sunclayn, frul bettor UiingH t)ian their niufl- 
Xtsn Rcrve to tlicin, 

" Whili't fhrHiithinpii arc true of fteld.handii, it 
ia alrto tnii' that many Nlaveholdcra clothe thi-ir 
tcnitrrg ant! coachni<-n like (jentlfinen. I do not 
think thiTi; in any liill'i-rencc between the Flaveit 
of profcfl.sin|r CliriAtianx and othem; atallcventu, 
it i« no umall as to be scarcely notinaljlt-. 

" 1 have wen men and women at work in the 
field more liian half naked : and more than once 
in paRsin^r, when the overseer was not near, they 
would «to|> and draw round them a tattered coat 
or 80UIC ribbons of a skirt to hide their nakcdnees 
and xliame from tlie stranger's eye." 

Mr. GicoRUE W. WK3T<iATE, a member of the 
Congrepational Church in Quincy, Illinois, who 
has Bpent the larger part of twelve years navigat- 
ing the rivers of Uie south-weptem slave states 
with keel Iwats, as a trader, gives the following 
testimony as to the clothing and lodging of the 
slaves. 

" In Lower Tennessee, Mississippi and Louisi- 
ana, the clothing of the slaves is wretchedly 
poor; and grows worse as j'ou go south, in 
the order of the states I have named. The only 
niatiTial is cotton bagging, i. c. bagging in which 
cotton is />«/<• r/, not bagging made of cotton. In 
Louisiana, especially in the lower country, I 
have frequently seen them with nothing but a 
tattered coat, not snfHriont to hide their naked- 
ness. In winter their clothing seldom serves the 
purpose of comfort, .ind freinicntly not even of 
decent covering. In T/ouisiana the pluntrrn tirrrr 
think of serving out shoes to slareit. In Missis- 
sippi they give one pair a year generally. I never 
saw or heard of an instance of masters allowing 
thorn stoekingfi. A f^iiutll poor blanket is pener- 
ally the onli/ hrd-clothirig, and this they fn-qucntlv 
wear in tin- field \\\un they have not suflieii-nt 
clothing to hide their nakedness or to keep them 
warm. Their manner of sleeping varies with 
the season. In hot weather they stretch them- 
selves anywhere and sleep. As it Ix-eomes cool 
they roll themselves in their blankets, and lav 
scattered about the cabin. In cold weather ihey 
nestle together with their feet towards the firi", 
pron)iscuoii>'ly. .\s a general fact the earth is 
(heir only floor and bed — not one in ten have 
anything like a bedstead, and then it is a mere 
bunk put up by themselves." 

Mr. GKonr.r. A. AvKnv, an elder in the fourth 
Congregational Church, Rochester, N. Y., who 
spent f«)ur years in Virginia, says, *' The slave 
children, very commonly of l»oth sexes, up to 
the aiT'-s of eight and ti n years, and I think in 
some in'tanecs lx>yond this ape, go in a slate of 
dispHflioj; nudity. 1 have often sc-en them with 
their low shirt (their only article of summer 
clothing, whieh. to all hmnan appiaranco, had 
not been takin nfT from IJic time it was first put 
on. worn off from Ibi' Imttom npwanls. sbred by 
Kluxd, until notlung remained but tlic straps 



wl,:. ■ " 

ejtp 

low ill" iiiiii', j'ii^iri;; in< I'lui'ijiii j'ji 

chest, as well as tlic liinbH, entirely unco% 

Samiti r,>,..v - '- ' r,f the S«.< 

Friendh. 'on (^"o., \ 

now of M , Ohio, »a i 

kucw a MuihuUini wiiu wui ilie owner of a luju- 
ber of slaves. The cl»ildrtn of lx>th rvxv*, be 
longing to him, under twelve years of a^e, were 
entirely destitute of clothing. I haM !"■ n an 
old man com] <'Ued to lalx>r in the fi>tids, nut liav. 
ing rags enough to cover his nakedness." 

Rkv. II. LvMA.N, It!' ''-■ -f the Free IV'"- 

hyterian Clhureh, in i Y., in do- • : 

a tour down and uji :npi river . 

winter of 1832-3, eayii, '"At the wr,<>d .s 

where the boats stop, it is not uncommon o 

female slaves employed in can". ' " r 

dress which was quite uniform ' 
out any referenrc to comf"-'. i 
cring for th< ir h'-ads ; Ur ! 

the outer garment was k:i' l 

in which brown domestic gof)ds are done up. It 
was then December, and I thought that in such 
a dress, and being as they were, without stock, 
ings, tiiey must suffer from Uie cold." 

Mr. Benjamin -\nderFon. Colerain, \Azi^\^'.'t 
Co., I'a., a member of the Society of Fri<: ■ -. n 
a recent letter describing a short t'"' '• - -h 
the northern part of ^larilar.d in ! f 

l^SC, thus speaks of a place a few : i 

Chestcrtown. ''.\bout this place there \ ' \ 
number of slaves ; very few, if any, bad • r 
stockings or shoes; the weatlier was inttiiscly 
cold, and the ground covered willi snow." 

The late Major Stoddardof the I'.i ' '''' ' ' 
artillery, who took possession of Loii: 

U. y. government, .under the cess;. '., 

publislied a book entitled " Sketches of I 
ana," in which, speaking of the planters of !,<■•■.■ r 
Louisiana, he says, " Fete of thrm allow antf 
clothing to their slates." 

The following is an extract from the Will of 
the late celebrated John Randolph of Virinnia. 

"To my old and faithful servant?, Esm \ . : «I 
his wife fletty, I give and bequeath a j r' .- ■ f 
strong sliocs, a suit of clothes and a blanker lin Ii, 
to U- paid them annually ; also an annual hat to 
Esses." 

No Virginia slaveholder lias ever had a better 
name as a "kind master," and "good provider" 
fur his slaves, tJian John Randolph. Elssex and 
Hetty were/nrori/* servants, and the niemorv of 
the long uncompensated services of Uiosc "old 
and faithful s<'rvant»," seems to have touelit d 
tlicir master's heart. Now as this master was 
John Randolph, and as those fer\-ant8 were 
" faithful,"' and favorite servajits. advanced in 
years, and worn out in his sen-ice, and as th-^T 
allowance was, in tjieir master's < y«~s, of sufl". i 
moment to constitute a piragraph in his last iri./ 
and testament, it is fair to infer that it would be 
rrry liberal, far better than the ordinary allow- 
ance for slaves. 

Now we leave tlic reader to judge what must 



Privations of the Slaves — Dwellings. 



43 



be the usual allowance of clothing to common 
field slaves in the hands of common masters, 
u'bcn Essex and Hetty, the "old" and " faith- 
ful" slaves of John Randolj)h, were provided, in his 
latt will and testament, with but one suit of clothes 



annually, with but one blanket each for beddin;T^ 
witli no stockings, nor socks, nor cloaks, nor over- 
coats, nor handkerchiefs, nor towels^ and with no 
change either of under or outside garments I 



IV. DWELLINGS. 

THE SLAVES ARE WUETCHEDLY SHELTERED AND LODGED. 



Mr. Stephen E. Maltby, Inspector of 
provisions, Skaiicalules, N. Y. who has 
lived in AJabaiua. 



Mr. George A. Avery, elder of the 
4tli Presbyterian Churcli, Kncliester, 
N. y. wJio lived four years in Virginia. 



William Ladd, Esq., Minot, Maine. 
President of the American Peace Socie- 
y, formerly a slaveholder in Florida. 



Rev. Joseph M. Sadd, Pastor Pros. 
Qmrch, Castile, Greene Co., N. Y., 
v.iio lived in Missouri five years previ- 
ous to 1837. 



Mr. George W. Wostgate, member of 
the Congregational Church in Gnincy, 
Illinois, who has spent a number of 
years in slave states. 



Mr. Cornelius Johnson, a member of 
Christian Church in Farmington, 
Ohio. Mr. J. lived in Mississippi in 
1837-8. 



The Western Medical Reformer, in 
an article on the Cachexia Africana by a 
Kentucky physician, thus speaks of the 
huts of the slaves. 



Mr. William Leftwich, a native of 
Virginia, but has resided most of his 
life in Madison, Co. Alabama. 



Reuben L. Macy of Hudson, N. Y. a 
member of the Religious Society of 
Friends. He Uved in South Carolina 
in 1818-19. 



" The huts where the slaves slept, generally contained but 
one apartment, and that without floor." 

" Amongst all the negro cabins which I saw in Va., / can. 
not call to mind one \n which there was any other floor than the 
earth; any thing that a northern laborer, or mechanic, white or 
colored, would call a Serf, nor a solitary partition, to separate the 

sexes." 

" The dwellings of the slaves were palmetto huts, built by 
themselves of stakes and poles, thatched with the palmetto leaf. 
The door, when they had any, was generally of the same materials, 
sometimes boards found on the beach. They had no ^oors, no 
separate apartments, except the guinea negroes had sometimes a 
small inclosure for their ' god house.' These huts the slaves 
built themselves after task and on Sundays." 

" The slaves live generally in miserable huts, which are with- 
out floors, and have a single apartment only, where both sexes are 
herded promiscuously together." 

" On old plantations, the negro quarters are of frame and 
clapboards, seldom affording a comfortable shelter from wind or 
rain ; their size varies from 8 by 10, to 10 by 12, feet, and six or 
eight feet high ; scMnetimes there is a hole cut for a window, but 
I never saw a sash, or glass in any. In the new country, and in 
the woods, the quarters are generally built of logs, of similar 
dimensions." 

" Their houses were commonly built of logs, sometimes they 
were framed, often they had no floor, some of them have two 
apartments, commonly but one ; each of those apartments con- 
tained a family. Sometimes these families consisted of a man 
and his wife and children, while in other instances persons of 
both sexes, were thrown together without any regard to family re- 
lationship." 

" They are croicded together in a small hut, and sometimes 
having an imperfect, and sometimes no floor, and seldom raised 
from the ground, ill ventilated, and surrounded with filth." 

" The dwellings of the slaves are log huts, from 10 to 12 feet 
square, often without windows, doors, or floors, they have 
neither chairs, table, or bedstead." 

" The houses for the field slaves were about 14 feet square, 
built in the coarsest manner, with one room, without any chim 
ney or flooring , with a hole in the roof to let the smoke out." 



' The descriptions generally given of negro quarters, are 
Mr. Lemuel Sapmgton of Lancaster, correct ; the quarters are imthout floors, and not sufficient to keep 

ojf the inclemency of the weather ; they are uneomlortable both 
in summer and winter." 

" When they return to their miserable huts at night, they 
find not there the means of comfortable rest ; but on the cold 
ground they must lie without covering, and shiver while they 
slumber. 



Pa. a native of Maryland, formerly 
u slaveholder. 



Rev. John Rankin, a native of Ten- 
nessee. 



Philemon Bliss, Esq. Elyria, Ohio., '' The dwellintrs of the slaves are usually small open log hut9 

who lived in Forida, in 1835. ^j^j^ but one apartment^ and very generally without floors." 



44 



Privations of Uie Slaves — Trcairncni of ihe Sick. 



barrv 



witlifiul fluom, and wilh a auiglc aparUncnL" » 

•' The nlavti4 live in elay cabins." 



Hon. n. J. Tiimbull, orttouUi (.'aroll 
■a, a aUvi'liuUJcr. 

V. IRKATMENT OF THE SICK. 



TIIE SLAVKB HlTTKS F>OM INiroUAM KEGLKCT 

whkn hick. 

In proof of Uiis wo subjoin tho following tcsti. 
mony : 

Rev. Dr. CiiANNhvo of Doiiton, who once re. 
nidvd in Virginia, rclaloH the following fact in hia 
work on slavrry, pagi; 1G3, Int edition. 

"I cannot forget my ficlingn on vi.siting a 
honpital lu'longing to the plantation of a gentle- 
man hifrhlij exlrrmeil Jur hia rirlura, and whose 
maniier.-4 and converHation expresse-d much bene, 
rolenre and citnacirntioumtrss. When I entered 
witJi him the hospital, the first ohjcct on which 
my eye fell wa.s a young woman, very ill, proba- 
bly approaching death. She was Htretched on 
the floor. Her head rested on something like a 
pillow ; hut her bodi/ and limbs mere extended on 
the hard boardn. Tho owner, I doubt not, had 
at least as much kindness as myself; but he was 
so used to sec the slaves living without common 
comforts, that the idea of unkindness in tiic pre- 
sent instance did not enter his mind." 

This dying young woman " was stretched on 
the floor" — "her body and limba extended upon 
the hard boards," — and yet her master "was 
highly esteemed for his virtues," and his general 
demeanor produced upon Dr. Channing the im- 
pression of " benevolence and conscientiousness." 
If the sick and dying female slaves of such a mas. 
tor, suffer such barbarous neglect, whose heart 
does not fail him, at the tliought of that inhu- 
manity, exercised by the »"rt/ori7y of slaveholders, 
towards their aged, sick, and dying victims. 

The following testimony is furnished by Sarah 
M. <«RniKE, a sister of the late Hon. Thomas S. 
Grimk6, of Charleston, iSouth Carolina. 

"When the Ladies' Penevolent Society in 
Charleston, S. C, of which I was a visiting com- 
missioner, first went into operation, we were ap- 
plied to for the rehef of several siek .ind aged co- 
lored persons ; one case I particularly rememlvr, 
of an aged woman who was dn^adlully burnt from 
havnii; fallen into the fire ; she was livmg with 
Home frei' blacks wlio had taken her in out of 
conjpassion. On inquiry, we found that nearly 
all tJic colored persons who had solicited aid, 
werr slaves, who btMng no longer able to work 
for their " owners," were thus inlunnanly cast 
out in their sickness and old age, and must have 
pcrisheil, but for the kmdness of their friends. 

" I was once visiting a siek slave in who!»e spi- 
rilunl welfare jn^culiar circumslances had led me 
to be deepiv interested. I km \v that she had 
been early s<-duced from U»e path of virtue, as 
nearly all the female slaves an>. I knew also 
that her mislnss, though a pnife<i.«or of ri'ligion, 
had never taucht her a single precept of Chrisli- 
anitv. yet that -ihe had had lur s«'venly puniidted 
for Oiia departure from them, and tJiat the poor 



girl wan then ill of an incurable diaeaap, oceft.l' 
sioned partly by her own nuttronduct, and partly 
by the cruel tn atinent sin- had n ceived, in a ^ lu. 
ation that called for tenderneiw and care. Her 
heart ncemed truly touched wilh rrj>cntance for 
her sins, and she was inquiring, " What shall I 
do to bo saved T I waa silting by her aa she la/ 
on the floor upon a blanket, and' was trvinp to 
establish her trembling spirit in the fulii- s- of 
Jesus, when I heard the voice of her mistr' -- la 

loud and angrj* tones, as idie apprr>ach- -. 

I read in the countenance of tlic pro 
er, the terror which she felt at the , f 

seeing her mistress. I knew my prc-scnce would 
be very unwelcome, but staiJ, hoping that it 
might restrain, in some measure, the pa.-o '>na 
of the mistress. In this, however, I was nii^ti- 
kcn ; she passed mc without apparcntlv oV>*- rv. 
ing that I was there, and seated herseff on tlio 
other side of tlie sick slave. She madcnoinqury 
how she was, but in a tone of anger commene. d . 
a tirade of abuse, violently reproaching her v.ith 
her past misconduct, and telling her in the most 
unfeeling manner, that eternal destruction await* 
ed her. No word of kindness escaped lier. 
What had then roused her temper I do not kniw. 
She continued in this strain several minutes, 
wlien I attempted to soften her by remarking, 

that was very ill, and she ought not thua 

to torment her, and that I believed Jejius ha^i 
granted her forgiveness. But I might as well 
have tried to stop the tempest in its career, a, to 
calm the infuriated pa-tsions nurtured bv liie ex- 
ercise of arbitrary jxiwer. She looked at mo 
with ineffable scorn, and continued to poiu fortJii 
a torrent of abuse and n-proach. Her helpleai 
victim listened in terrified silence, until nature 
could endure no more, when she uttered a wild 
shriek, and casting on her tormentor a look of 
unutterable agony, exclaimed. ' Oh. mistress, 
I am dying I' This appeal arrested her attention, 
and she soon left the room, but in the same .<;i.nt 
wilh which she cnten-d it. Tlic girl survived but a 
few days, and, I l>clieve, saw her mistress no morr." 
Mr. GroRai: A. .\vi:rt. an elder of a Presbyte- 
rian church in Rochester, N. Y., who lived some 
years in Virginia, gives the following : 

'• Tlie m.inner of treating tJie siek slaves, and es. 
necially in chronic cases, was to my mind |>eculiar- 
iv revolting. My opportunities for observation in 
this department were Utter than in. perhaps, any 
other, as the friend under whose dirrel.on I com. 
nienred my medical studies, enjoyed a high re- 
putation as a fiirireon, I rode eon.iiderablv with 
him in his practice, and assisted in the mirgical 
oj>emlions and dressings from tune lo time. In 
confirmed eas«<s of disease, it was common for the 
master to place tlie subject under the cam of &• 
physician or surgeon, at w)ii>*o erpense the pa. 
tient should W kept, and if death . iiMud to the 
patient, or the disease was not curvd. up com- 
pensation was to be made, but if cured a bonus of 



Personal Narratives — Rev. William T. Allan. 



45 



nc, two, or three Iiundred dollars was to be 
iven. No provision was made a][rainst tlic har- 
irity or neglect of the physician, dfe-c. I have 
len fifteen or twenty of tkatc helpless sufferers 
■owdcd together in the true spirit of slavclioldinjr 
humanity, like the " brutes that perish," and 
riven from time to time like brutes into a coni- 
on yard, wlicrc they had to suffer any and 
rery operation and experiment, wliieh interest, 
iprice, or professional curiosity might prompt, 
-unresf rained by law, public sentiment, or the 
aims of common humanity." 
Rev. William T. Allan, son of Rev. Dr. Allan, 
slaveholder, of Huntsville, Alabama, says in a 
tter now before us : 

" Colonel Robert H. Watkins, of Laurence 
>unty, Alabama, who owned about three hun- 
■ed slaves, after employing a physician among 
em for some time, ceased to do so, alleging 
I the reason, that it was cheaper to lose a few 
5groes every year than to pay a physician. 
his Colonel Watkins was a Presidential elector 
1836." 

A. A. GoTHRiE, Esq., elder in the Presbyterian 
lurch at Putnam, Muskingum county, Ohio, 
Imishes the testimony which follows. 

I" A near female friend of mine in company 
th another young lady, in attempting to visit a 
ik woman on Washington's Bottom, Wood 
■f-iunty, Virginia, missed the way, and stopping 
'! ■ ask directions of a group of colored children 
■I the outskirts of the plantation of Francis 
een. Sen., they were told to ask ' aunty, in the 
)use.' On entering the hut, says my inform- 
it, I beheld such a sight as I hope never to see 

tain ;- its sole occupant was a female slave of 
e said Keen — her whole wearing apparel con- 
ited of a frock, made of the coarsest tow cloth, 
I'Sid so scanty, that it could not have been made 
i ore tight around her person. In the hut there 
3 1 as neither table, chair, nor chest — a stool and a 
li ide fixture in one comer, were all its furniture. 
li ! n this last were a little straw and a few old rem- 
li mts of what had been bedding — all exceedingly 
•■ tliv'- 



♦' The woman thus situated had been for more 
than a day in travail, without any assistance, 
any nurse, or any kind of proper provision — 
during the night she said some fellow slave wo- 
man would stay with her, and tlie aforesaid 
cliildrcn througii the day. From a woman, who 
was a slave of Keen's at tlie same time, my in- 
formant learned, tiiat this poor woman sufFered for 
three days, and then died — when too late to save 
her life her master sent assistance. It was un- 
derstood to be a rule of his, to neglect his women 
entirely in such times of trial, unlcfis they previ- 
ously came and informed him, and asked for aid." 

Rev. PiiiNEAS Smith, of Ccntreville, N. Y., 
who has resided four years at the south, says : 
" Often when the slaves are sick, their accus- 
tomed toil is exacted from them. Physicians are 
rarely called for their benefit." 

Rev. Horace Moulton, a minister of the Me- 
thodist Episcopal church in Marlborough, Mass., 
who resided a number of years in Georgia, says ; 

" Another dark side of slavery is the neglect 
of the aged and sick. Many when sick, are 
suspected by their masters of feigning sicluiess, 
and are therefore whipped out to work after dis- 
ease has got fast hold of them ; when the mas- 
ters learn, that they are really sick, they are in 
many instances left alone in their cabins during 
work hours ; not a few of the slaves are left to 
die without having one friend to wipe off the 
sweat of death. When the slaves are sick, the 
masters do not, as a general thing, employ physi- 
cians, but " doctor " them themselves, and their 
mode of practice in almost all cases is to bleed 
and give salts. When women are confined they 
have no physician, but are committed to the care 
of slave midwives. Slaves complain very little 
when sick, when they die they are frequently bu- 
ried at night without much ceremony, and in 
many instances without any ; their coffins are 
made by nailing together rough boards, frequent- 
ly with their feet sticking out at the end, and 
sometimes they are put into the ground without a 
coffin or box of any kind. 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES-PART II. 

TESTIMONY OP THE REV. WILLIAM T. ALLAN, LATE OF ALABAMA 



5. Mr. Allan is a son of the Rev. Dr. Allan, a 
!i ! aveholder and pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
'J". Huntsville, Alabama. He has recently become 
J- :ie pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Chat. 
,j.![a,m, Illinois. 

i' "I was born and have lived most of my life in 
jl iie slave states,mainly in the village of Huntsville, 
III i|.labama, where my parents still reside. I seldom 
ne i'ent to a plantation, and as my visits were con- 
ned almost exclusively to the families of pro. 
sssing Christians, my personal knowledge of 
lavery, was consequently a knowledge of its 
lirest side, (if fairest may be predicated of foul.) 



father's house in the suburbs of Huntsville, be- 
longing to Judge Smith, formerly a Senator in 
Congress from South Carolina, now of Himts- 
ville. The name of his overseer was Tune. I 
have often seen him flogging the slaves in the 
field, and have often heard their cries. Sometimes, 
too, I have met them with the tears streaming 
down their faces, and the marks of the whip, 
(' whelks,') on their bare necks and shoulders. 
Tune was so severe in his treatment, that his 
employer dismissed him after two or three ^-ears, 
lest, it was said, he should kill off all the slaves. 
But he was immediately employed by another 
planter in the neighborhood. The following fact 



" There was one plantation just opposite my was stated ^^ ^^h^ ^rr h 



40 



Personal Narratives — Rev. William T. Allan. 



now romdini; at Richmond, Henry coanty, Illi- 
noi.1, and clerk of tlie circuit and county cuurtit. 
'I'lini; became diMjilcant-d willi onu of the women 
who wan prr^rnant, he made h':r lay down ovcra 
log, with hiT I'aru towardH the (rround, and b<;at 
bcr HO inuni-riittdly, tliat aim wan huuii after dc 
liverrd of a (ie<til child. 

" My lirolhcr also htatcd to mc the following, 
wliirli occiirrtd marmy falhcr*!! house, and willi- 
in HJirlil and hiarinK of llto acadi-niy and jiubhc 

fjardin. C'liarli-n, a fine a(!livi! nejrro, who \k. 
on|;ed to a bricklayer in II untit villi-, exchanged 
the bnrninjj nun of the brickyard lo enjoy for a 
neation the pleasant Hhade of an adjacent moun- 
tain. When hiH masl'T (rot him back, he tir'd 
him by ]m hands so that his fed Cfnild just touch 
the prouiid — siri|)|)cd r)tr his clothes, took a pad- 
die, bored full of holes, and i)addlcd him leiHurcly 
&11 day lonp. It was two weeks before they could 
tell whether he would live or die. Neither of 
thciic coiics attracted any particular notice in 
Huntsvillc. 

" While I lived in Ilunlsvillc a slave w^as killed 
In the mountain near by. The circumftlances 
were these. A while man (James Helton) hunt- 
ing in tiic woods, suddenly came upon a black 
man, and commanded him to stop, the slave kept 
on runnin[r, Helton fired his rifle and the negro 
was killed.* 

" Mrs. Barr, wife of Rcv.II. Barr of CarroUton, 
Illinois, formerly from Courtland, -Vlabama, told 
nie last sprinj;^, that she has very often stopped 
her ears that she mi^•|lt not hear the screams of 
slaves who were under the lash, and that some- 
times she has loft her house, and retired to a place 
more distant, in order to get away from their 
agoniziniT cries. 

" I have often seen groups of slaves on the pub- 
lic ."(luarcs in Huntsville, who were to be sold at 
auction, and I have often seen their tears [jush 
forth and their countenances distorted with an- 
guinh. A considerable number were generally 
sold publicly every month. 

"The followinjj facts I have just taken down 
from the lips of Mr. L. Turner, a rejjiilar and 
respectable member of the Second Presbyterian 
Church in Sprin'.rfield, our county town. He was 
born and broufjht uj) in Caroline county, Vir- 
ginia. He says that the slaves arc neither con- 
eidercd nor treated as human beiHjjs. One of his 
neighbors whose name was Barr, he says, on one 
occasion stripped a slave and lacerated liis back 
with a handeard (for cotton or wooh and then 
washed it with salt and water, with j>eppor in it. 
Mr. Turner Mir this. He furilur remarked that 
he believed there were mant/ slav<s then! in ad- 
vanced life whoso backs liad never been well 
■occ they began to work. 

• Thin miiriW w.i» rrimnilitfcl nboiit iwrlvo year* ^\nro. 
Al llinttliTiP, Jnm>i< <;. Ilimiy. \'*>\., now ("orirnixintlliig .>!<■• 
crt'tiiry iif the Ann-rirnn Ault Sl.ivcry .'<<>rli|\ u k ih.- S.. 
Ilrltnr (pnw (•iillni: ntlnmryi fur iliat )>-. \. 

HI* vip\v< niid I'l- liiejM ii|<<>M IIk- iiiili|iTt M 
rvrn at tli.it |x'f|o«l. in nilvnnn-nr tin' Minf«- ■: 
■ml In' ili'ii-rniiin d H'lKtmilili' tn hrinc tin- nninliu i l-i jn.-ii. i-. 
I!r nrrorilinclv ilrrw up nn inrl'rinn'nt nnil iHix-nr'il tin- 
Aiutlni; nf n tnin hill nftnlnst Ilill.m. lleliiMi, nn-.inwliil.-, 
movi<l .iviT 111.' Iin<- Into iIip ttnU- «( T. nnc-nwf, .inil mirli 
waa the np.illiy <il Uir rominnniiN , i;iili\ iduni rll'iin iin«vi-«l 
unuvalllns : ni<l tlmngli ihi- nintil'-rrr liml gonr no hinlirr 
Uiiin ti> an adjoitilni; roiinty (vrhrrr |K-rha|« he sUII reside*) 
be wai Dcirer biouflit (u trial— Kd. 



" He Rtatcd tltat one of hi* uncle* had killed a 
woman — broke her akull with an axhe! v 
had iniiultcd her mivtriDii ! No notice w. 
of the affair. Mr. T. said, further, th^; 
wcTiifrequtiilly murdered. 

"He mentioned llic ca«c of one tlavchoMTj 
whom ho had ix-cn lay bin itlavea on a 1 . . 
wliich he kept for Uie pur]>(jsc, atrip 1 
them with the face downward, tlien ' - 
tie of hot water brought — take tlu .e 

of hard wood, and perforat<:d witii ,■ i| 

into the hot water and Htrike — before ercry blow 
dipping it into the water— every hole al every 
blow would raise a ' n helk.' This waa the usual 
punishment for running away. 

" Another slaveholder had a slave who hn ' r f' n 
run away, and often bicn severely v. h •• d. 
After one of his floggings he burnt his in;.. !■ r'l 
bam : this so enraged the man, that when )m 
caught him he took a pair of pincers and pulled 
his toe nails out. The negro then murdered t 
of his master's children. He was taken ar 
a desperatt; pursuit, (having been shot throu^t 
the shoulder) and hung. 

" One of Mr. Turner's cousins, was employ A ai 
overseer on a larjje plantation in Jkliswis^i] ; . < >n 
a certain morning he called the slaves to_. 'iifr, 
to give some orders. While doing it, a .'■lav* 
came running out of his cabin, having a knift 
in his hand and eating his breakfast. Th- "■. r- 
seer seeing him coming with the knife, wa-- - i.;e- 
what alanned, and instantly raised his {.'liii and 
shot him dead. He said a(ter\vard8, th.it he bo. 
licved the slave was perfectly innocent of anj 
evil intentions, he came out hastily to hear tb( 
orders whilst eating. No notice was taken of tbi 
killinir. 

" .Mr. T. related tlie whipping habits of oncdl 
his uncles in Virginia. He was a wealthy man, 
had a splendid house and grounds. Air ir 
his front yard, was iis<.'d as a whippiu;^ ]■<■'( 
When a slave was to l>o puni.shcd. he would it^ 
qticntly invite some of his friends, have a tabla 
cards and wine .•sot ont under the shade ; ht 
would th»'n flog his slave a little while, and thcf 
play cards and drink with his friends, occ.-\>;on. 
ally taunting the slave, givinp him the pn\ ^--p. 
of confe.«sing such and such things, al h\- lei. 
sure, after a while flog him again, thus k. • . ;jij 
it up for hours or half tlie day, and Bometiinta 
all day. This was his habit. 

"FrhriiaryAfh. — .""^ince writing the preceding.) 
have been to Carrollion, on a vi.-it lo niv unria 
Rev. Huch Barr. who was originally from 'l\n 
ncssee, lived 12 or 1 1 ye.\rs in Courtland. I,a» 
rcnre county, Alabama, and moved to Ilin..' ■• j 
l.'^S.'i. In conversation with the family. ?■■ '.< 
U>e fireside, they stated a mullitiide or 
facts, that were perfectly notorious in th.- 
borhood of Courtland. I 

" William P. B.irr, an intclligrnt young man 
and meiubi-r of his father's church in (':■.- n I 
ton, staled the following. Visit ;nij at 
Moseh's, near Courtland, William Most! 
in witfi a bloody knife in his hand, havi: 
stabln-d a negro man. Tlir ne^ro wa.« 
qtiielly in a liniiso in the villajre, keeping a \\ .ii 
company who had boon left in charge c.f' ihi 
house. — when Monrly, passing alonsr, went ii 
and demanded bis business t.'icrc. Probably hi 



Personal JSarrativcs — Rev. William T. Allan. 



47 



inHwnr was not an civil as BlavcholdinK rcf|uirc'B, | tempted to lull liim once, bccaunc of hL« treat- 



mil Moscjy luslicd upon liini and Hlabhcd liini. 
riu! wound laid him up for a waHou. .MoNi;ly 
Afas called to no account for il. Winn he came 
in with the hloody knife, ho said ho wiishod lie 
fiad killed him. 

".loliti Brown, a filavoholdcr, and a memberof 
Lhit Presbyterian church in Courtland, Alabama, 
Uated tiui following a few weeks since, in Car- 
rollton. A man near Courtland, of the name of 
Thompson, recently shot a negro woman (hrou<;!i 
Ihe head; and put the pistol so close tiiat her 
hair was sinired. lie did it in conHefiU(Mice of 
jome difficulty in his dealinjjs witli her as a con- 
:5ubinc. Ho buried iier in a loij heap ; she was 
Jiscovc'nnl by liie buzzards jjathering around it. 

" William P. Barr stated the followinir, as facts 
(VcU known in the nciirhborhood of Courtland, 
>ut not witnessed by himself. Two men, by the 
lame of Wilson, found a fine looking negro man 
it ' Dandridgc's Quarter,' witiiout a pass; and 
logged him so that he died in a short time. 
They were not punished. 

"Col. Blocker's overseer attempted to flog a 
legro — he refused to be flogged ; whereupon the 
jversecr seized an axe, and cleft his skull. The 
[Colonel justified it. 

•' One Jones whipped a woman to death for 
'grabbling' a potato hill. He owned 80 or 100 
legrocs. Plis own children could not live with 
lim. 

"A man in the neighborhood of Courtland, Ala- 
jama, by the name of Puryear, was so proverbi- 
illy cruel that among the negroes ho was usually 
:alled ' the Devil.' Mrs. Barr, wife of Rev. H. 
Uarr, was at Purycar's house, and saw a negro 
firl about 13 years old, waiting around the tabic, 
vith a single garment — and that in cold weather ; 
irms and feet bare — feet wretchedly swollen — 
irms burnt, and full of sores from exposure. All 
he negroes under his care made a wretched ap- 
)earance. 

"Col. Robert H. Watkins had a runaway slave, 
,vho was called Jim Dragon. Before he was 
;aught the last time, he had been out a year, 
iVithin a few miles of his master's plantation. He 
lever stole from any one but his master, except 
when necessity compelled him. He said he 
lad a right to take from his master ; and when 
:aken, that he had, whilst out, seen his master a 
lundrcd times. Having been whipped, clogged 
tvith irons, and yoked, he was set at work in the 
field. Col. Watkins worked about 300 hands — 
generally had one negro out hunting runaways. 
A.fter employing a physician for some time 
imong his negroes, he ceased to do so, alleging 
aia the reason, that it was cheaper to lose a few 
negroes every year than to pay a physician. He 
was a Presidential elector in 1836. 

"Col. Ben Sherrod, another large planter in that 
neighborhood, is remarkable for his kindness to 
his slaves. He said to Rev. iNIr. Barr, that he 
had no doubt he should be rewarded in heaven 
for his kindness to his slaves ; and yet his over- 
seer, Walker, had to sleep with loaded pistols, 
for fear of assassination. Three of the slaves at- 



mrnl of Ihcir virrn. 

" (Jid Major Hilly WatkinB wa* noted forhia v.. 
verity, i well renienilK;r, when he lived in Mad. 
ison county, to liav<; often ln:ard him yell at IiIh 
negroes with the mottt wavagu fury. He would 
stand at his Iiouhc, and watch the HiavcH picking 
cotton ; and if any of them HtraiUiud their l)ack/j 
for a moment, lii8 savage yell would ring, ' bend 
your backs.' 

" .Mrs. Barr stated, that Mrn. H , of Court- 
land, a mendier of the Presbyterian cliurcli, sent 
a little negro girl to jail, suKpcuUing that she had 
attempted to put poison into the water pail. The 
fact was, that the child had found a vial, and 
was playing in the water. This Hame woman 
(in high standing too,) told the Rev. .Mr. .McMil- 
Ian, that she could 'cut Arthur Tappan's tliroat 
from ear to ear.' 

" The clothing of slaves is in many cases com- 
fortable, and in many it is far from being so. I 
have very often seen slaves, whose tattered rags 
were neither comfortable nor decent. 

" Their huts are sometimes comfortable, but 
generally they arc miserable hovels, where male 
and female are herded promiscuously together. 

" As to the usual allowance of food on the plan- 
tations in North Alabama, I cannot speak confi- 
dently, from personal knowledge. There was a 
slave named Hadlcy, who was in the habit of vis- 
iting my father's slaves occasional!}-. He had 
run away several times. His reason was, as he 
stated, that they would not give him any meat — 
said he could not work without meat. The last 
time I saw him, he had quite a heavy iron yoke 
on his neck, the two prongs twelve or fifteen 
inches long, extending out over his shoulders and 
bending upwards. 

^^ Legal marriage is unknown among the slaves, 
they sometimes have a marriage form — generally, 
however, none at all. The pastor of the Presby- 
terian church in Huntsville, had two families of 
slaves when I left there. One couple were mar- 
ried by a negro preacher — the man was robbed 
of his wife a number of months afterwards, by 

her ^ owner.'' T he othe r couple just 'took up 

together,' without ^aiw-form of marriage. They 
are both mc_nibcrs-of churches — the man a Bap- 
tist deaco Hi s ober and correct in liis deportment. 
They have ^.-hrr^e family of children — all child- 
ren of concubinage — living in a minister's family. 

"If these statements are deemedofany value by 
you, in forwarding your .glorious entergrize, you 
are at liberty to use them ai" you please. The 
great wrong is enslaving a man ; all other wrongs 
are pigmies, compared with that. Facts might 
be gathered abundantly, to show that it is slavery 
itself, and not cruelties merely, that make slaves 
unhappy. Even those that are most kindly treat- 
ed, are generally far from being happ)% The 
slaves in my father's family are almost as kindly 
treated as shirrs can be, yet they pant for liberty. 

" May the Lord guide you in this great move 
ment. In behalf of the perishing. 

Your friend and brother, 

WlLJJAM T. AUJIN." 



48 



Personal Narratives — William Lcftwich. 



NARRATIVE OF MR. WILLIAM LKI-TVVICH, A NATIVE OF VIRGINTA. 



Mr. I/<-n\vicli JH a ^andtion of (tin. JaJH / 
Lcftnicli, who wan for Home y«.an< a mcmlxT of 
ConifrccH from Virginia. Thougli born in Vir- 
(rinia, he lian rexidcd moHt of IiIh lift; in Alabama. 
He now liven in Delhi, Hamilton county, Oliio, 
near Cincinnati. 

As f n introduction to his letter, the reader in 
furnished with tiie following testimonial to his 
chanicter, from the Kcv. Horace Buhhneli, pastor 
of the Presbyterian church in Delhi. Mr. B. 
says : 

" Mr. Leflwich is a worthy member of this 
church, and is a young man of sterling intc^ty 
and veracity. H. Bushnell." 

The followin)T is the letter of Mr. Lcftwich, 
dated Dec. 26, 1838. 

" Dear BROTiiEn — Though I am not ranked 
amon^r the abolitionists, yd I cannot, as a frii-nd 
of humanity, withhold from the public such facts 
in relation to the condition of the slaves, as have 
fallen under my own observation. That I am 
Bonuwhat acquainted with slavery will be seen, 
as I narrate some incidents of my own life. My 
parents were slaveholders, and moved from Vir- 
ginia to Madison county, Alabama, during my in. 
fancy. My mother soon fell a victim to the cli- 
mate. Being the youngest of the children, I was 
left in the care of my aged grandfather, who 
never held a slave, though his sons owned from 
90 to 100 (luring the time I resided with him. 
As soon as I could carry a hoe, my uncle, by the 
name of Neely, persuaded my grandfather that 
1 should be placed in his hands, and brought up 
in habits of industry. I was accordingly placed 
under his tuition. I left the domestic circle, little 
dreaming of the horrors that awaited me. My 
mother's own brother took me to the cotton field, 
there to learn habits of industrj', and to be bene- 
filed by his coimsels. But the sequel proved, that 
I was there to feci in my own person, and witness 
by exjiericnce many of the horrors of slavery. 
Instead of kind admonition, I was to endure the 
frowns of «)i)c, whose sympathies coulil neither 
be reached b^- the prayers and cries of his slaves, 
nor by the entreaties and sutTerings of a sister's 
Bon. Ijct those who call slaveholders kind, hos- 
pitable and inmiane, mark the course the 
nlaveholder j>ursues with one born free, whose 
ancestors fought and bled for liberty ; and then 
say, if tbev can witlmnt a blush of shame, that 
he who robs f lie helpless of every right, can be 
truly kind and hospitable. 

" In a short time aftr-r I was put upon the plan- 
tation, there wa8 hut little difference between me 
and the slaves, except being white, I ale at tjie 
maater's table. The slavt-s wen- my compan- 
ions in niiserv, and I well learned their condition, 
both in the |i..nse and field. Tlnir dwellingK are 
log but.H, trnin ten to twelve feet squire ; often 
without windows, doors or floors. Thev have 
neither eh.iirs, tables or brd»tea<is. Thepe huts 
ar« uccupicU by eight, tea or twelve pcnotw 



eacli. Their b<ddmg g<n( rally eonsint" of iw. . 
<dd blank) ts. Many of tlum Khep night afi. r 
night sitting upon tneir blocks or Mlrj«jls; 'iH.. ■ 
sleep in the oj«n air. Our task wait app«. 
and from dawn till dark all must bend to • 
work. Tlu ir meals were taken without knife or 
plate, dish or spoon. Their food wafl com j*ovr. 
prepared in the coarsc-st manner, with a • ' 
allowance of meat. Their meals in th' 
were taken from the hands of the carrier, ^vi.' > 
ever he found them, with no more certmony than 
in the feeding of swine. My uncle was his own 
overseer. For punishing in the field, he preferred 
a large hickory stick ; and wo to him whos- 
work was not done to please him, for the hicko. 
ry was used upon our heads as remorselessly a" 
if we had been mad dogs. I was often the objcc 
of his fury, and shall bear the marks of it on ni\ 
body till I die. Such was my suffering and de- 
gradation, that at the end of five years, I hardlv 
dared to say I \\a.s/rrr. When thinning cotton, 
wc went mostly on our knees. One day, whil< 
thus engaged, my uncle found my row behind ; 
and, by way of admonition, gave me a few blows 
with his hickory, the marks of which I carried 
for weeks. Often I followed the example of thi 
fugitive slaves, and betook myself to the moun- 
tains; but hunger and fear drove me back, tc 
share with the wretched slave his toil and strii»e>. 
But I have talked enough about my own bon<i 
age ; I will now relate a few facts, showing tin 
condition of the slaves pnicrally. 

*' ^ly uncle wishing to purchase what is callrii 
a good ' house wench,* a tradrr in human flesh 
soon produced a woman, recommending her a> 
highly as ever a jockey did a horse. She was 
purchased, but on trial was found wanting in th^ 
rcqtiisite (|ualil'ications. ."^lic Uicn IV II a victinj 
to the disappointed rage of my uncle ; innocent 
or guilty, she sufTered greatly irom his fury. Hi 
used to tie her to a jwach trie in the yard, an<i 
whip her till there was no sotind place to lav anoUir r 
stroke, and repeat it so ollen that her back wa.-- 
kept continually sore. Whipping the females 
around the legs, was a favorite mode of punidi- 
mentwith him. They must stand and hold U[' 
their clothes, while he plietl his Iiickor^-. He did 
not, like s<inie of his neighbors, ke«'p a pack of 
hounds for hunting nniaway negroes, but he kept 
one dog for that ]»iirpo8o, and wlien he came up 
witli a nmaway, it would have been death to 
attempt to fly, and it was nearly so to stand. 
Sometimes, when my unelc attempted to whip 
the slaves, the dog would rush upon thi in and 
relieve them of Uieir rags, if not of the ir flesh. 
One object of my imcle's special hal<' was "Jcr- 
ry," a slave of a proud spirit. Ho defied all the 
curses, rage an<l stwpos of his tyr»nl. ThoTjgh 
he was often overpowered — for my uncle would 
frequently wear otit his stirk upon his brad — yet 
be Would never Siibmit. As he was not expert 
in picking cotton, he woubl sometimes run .iwav 
in the fall, to escape Bbus«'. At one time, al'l<r 
an al»sence ot' »nme monllis, hr was am-«ited 
and bruugbt back. Aa is customary, he wm 



Personal Narratives — Samuel Sapington. 



49 



stripped, tied toaloff, and the cow-skin applied 
to his naked body till his master was exiiausted. 
Then a large log chain was laKt^ned an)iiiid one 
ankle, passed up his back, over iiis slioulders, tiien 
across his breast, and fast'jncd under his arm. In 
this condiLion he was forced to perform his daily 
task. Add to this he was chained each night, 
and compelled to chop wood every .Sabbatli, to 
make up lost time. After being (luis manacled 
for some months, he was released — but his spirit 
W"as unsubdued. Soon after, his master, in a pa- 
roxysm of rage, fell upon him, wore out liis staff 
upon his head, loaded him again with chains, and 
after a month, sold him fartlier south. Another 
slave, by the name of Mince, who was a man of 
great strength, purloined some bacon on a Christ- 
mas eve. It was missed in the morning, and he 
being absent, was of course suspected. On re- 
turning home, my uncle commanded him to 
come to him, but he refused. The master strove 
in vain to lay hands on him ; in vain he ordered 
his slaves to seize him — they dared not. At 
length the master hurled a stone at his head 
sufficient to have felled a bullock — but he did not 
heed it. At that instant iriy aunt sprang for- 
ward, and presenting the gun to my uncle, ex- 
claimed, ' Shoot him ! shoot him !' He made 
the attempt, but the gim missed fire, and Mince 



fled. He was taken eight or ten months after 
that, while crossing the Ohio. Wiien brought 
back, the master, and an overseer on another 
plantation, took him to the mountam and pun- 
ished him to their satisfaction in secret; after 
which lie was loaded with chains and set to his 
task. 

" I have spent nearly all my life in the midst of 
slavery. From being the son of a slaveholder, I 
descended to the condition of a slave, and from 
that condition I rose (if you please to call it so,) 
to the station of a ' driver.^ I have lived in 
Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky; and I 
knoiv the condition of the slaves to be that of 
unmixed wretchedness and degradation. And 
on the part of slaveholders, there is crncMy untold. 
The labor of the slave is constant toil, wrung out 
by fear. Their food is scanty, and taken without 
comfort. Their clothes answer the purposes nei- 
ther of comfort nor decency. They are not allow- 
ed to read or write. Whether they may worship God 
or not, depends on the will of the master. The 
young children, until they can work, often go 
naked during the warm weather. I could spend 
months in detailing the sufferings, degradation 
and cruelty inflicted upon slaves. But my soul 
sickens at the remembrance of these things." 



TESTIMONY OF MR. LEMUEL SAPINGTON, A NATIVE OF MARYLAND. 



Mr. Sapington, is a repentant " soul driver" or 
slave trader, now a citizen of Lancaster, Pa. 
He gives the following testimony in a letter 
dated, Jan. 21, 1839. 

"I was born in Maryland, afterwards moved to 
Vn-ginia, where I commenced the business 
of farming and trafficking in slaves. In my 
neighborhood the slaves were ' quartered.' The 
description generally given of negro quarters is 
correct. The quarters are without floors, and 
not sufiicient to keep off the inclemency of the 
weather, they are uncomfortable both in summer 
and winter. The food there consists of potatoes, 
pork, and corn, which were given to them daily, 
by weight and measure. The sexes were hud- 
dled together promiscuously. Their clothing is 
made by themselves after night, though some- 
times assisted by the old women who are no 
longer able to do out door work, consequently it 
is harsh and uncomfortable. I have frequently 
seen those of both sexes who have not attained 
the age of twelve years go naked. Their pun- 
ishments are invariably cruel. For the slightest 
Offence, such as taking a hen's egg, I have seen 
them stripped and suspended by their hands, 
their feet tied together, a fence rail of ordinary 
size placed between their ankles, and then most 
cruelly whipped, until, from head to foot, they 
V'cre completely lacerated, a pickle made for the 
purpose of salt and water, would then be appli- 
ed by =. fellow-slave, for the purpose of healin-o- 
the wounds as well as giving pain. Then taken 
down und without the least respite sent to work 
witli tlisir hoe. 

Pursuing my assumed right of driving souls, I 



went to the Southern part of Virginia for the 
purpose of trafficking in slaves. In that part of 
the state, the cruelties practised upon the slaves, 
are far greater than where I lived. The pun- 
ishments there often resulted in death to the 
slave. There was no law for the negro, but 
that of the overseer's whip. In that part of 
the country, the slaves receive nothing for food, . 
but corn in the ear, which has to be prepared 
for baking after working hours, by grinding it 
with a hand-mill. This they take to the fields 
with them, and prepare it for eating, by holding 
it on their hoes, over a fire made by a stump. 
Among the gangs, are often young women, who 
bring their children to the fields, and lay them in 
a fence corner, while they are at work, only being 
permitted to nurse them at the option of the 
overseer. When a child is three weeks old, a 
woman is considered in working order. I have 
seen a woman, with her young child strapped to 
her back, laboring the whole day, beside a man, 
perhaps the father of the child, and he not being 
permitted to give her any assistance, himself being 
under the whip. The uncommon humanity of 
the driver allowing her the comfort of doing so. 
I was then selling a drove of slaves, v.'hich I had 
brought by water from Baltimore, m}' conscience 
not allowing me to drive, as was generally the 
case uniting the slaves by collars and chains, 
and thus driving them under the whip. About 
that time an unaccountable something, which I 
now know was an interposition of Providence, 
prevented me from prosecuting any farther 
this unholy traffic ; but though I had quitted it, I 
still continued to live in a slave state, witnessing 
every day its evil effects upon my fellow beings. 



80 



Personal Narratives — William C. Gilderalec-vc. 



Ainon^ which wan a lirart.mndinijr Hccno that 
look place in my fallicr'H lioutiu, w)iich hd inc 
tu Ivavi) u aiavc Htatr, aw >v<-ll an all the inia|rina- 
ry coiiilortrt ariMJnu from «lavfry. On |>rfi>arin(,' 
for my rr-nmval I'l llu; Htale <if I'ninHylvania, il 
hccainr niicxMary for mi; lo (jo to Ixjumvillf, in 
Kcntiir-ky, where, if poHHihlc, I lH;camu more 
horrilie<l with the impoxitiunH practiced upon the 
nc(rro than liefore. Ttu-rc a xlavc waH sold to 
go farther Koiilii, and was hand-cuflVd fur the" 



purpoK of keeping him nccore. But chooninc 
death ratlu-r than niavery, he jumped overi" :;•(! 
and waM drowned. When I nlumcd four w i 
alterwardit hm lM>dy, that iiad floated thnx- u, .■ . 
Ixlow, wan ycl nnburied. (Jnc fact; it ih m.- 
IKMtHible for a p<:nu>n lo pa>>ii through a » .ivi 
Hlalc, if h(! iiaH cyt-H o|icn, without lM.'hoidingcvcrv 
day cnicltien repu|rnant to humanity. 
liChpcctfuUy Your«, 

Lbmdel SArixaroy. 



TESTIMONY OF MRS. NANCY LOWRY, A NATIVE OF KENTUCKY. 



Mrs. IjQvrry, is a member of the non-conform- 
ist church in Osmahurfj, Stark County, Ohio., 
she is a native of Kiiitucky. Wc have received 
from her the followinR testimony. 

** I rcHided in the family of Reuben I/onp, the 
prineipal part of the time, from s'-vcn to twenty. 
two years of ajrc. Air. Long had 16 slaves, 
among whom were time who were treated 
with neveritv, although Mr. I^ong was thought 
to boa vcryliumane master. These three, namely 
John, Ned, and Janus, had wives ; John and 
Ned had theirs at some distanee, but James had 
his with him. All time died a prcnialure death, 
and il was gencr-illy believed by his ni'ighhors, 
Uiat extreme \vlii])ping was the cause. I believe 
so too. Ned died about the age of 25 and John 
34 or 35. The cause of their flogging was com- 
monly staying a little over the tinii", with their 
wives. Mr. Long would tic them uj) by tlie 
wrist, so liigh that their toes would just touch 
the ground, and then with a cow-hide lay the lash 
upon the naked back, until he was e.vhauslcd, 
wlien he would sit down and rest. As soon as 
ho had resteii sufliciently, he would ply the cow. 
hide again, thus he would continue until the 
whole back of the poor victim was lacerated 
into one imilbrm coal </f blood. Yet he was a 
strict professor of the Chrislian religion, in the 
southern eliureh. I frecjurnll)- washed the 
wounds of John, with salt water, lo prevent 
putrefaction. This was the usual course pursu. 
e.d after a severe flogging ; their backs would be 
full of gashes, so deep that I could almost lay my 
finger in them. They were generally laid up after 



the flogging for several days. The laiil flogging 
Ned got, he was confined to Ihe Ud, which he 
never left till he was carried to his grave. 
During John's confinement in his last sicknctis 
on one occasion whili; attending on him, he ex- 
claimed, 'Oh, Nancy, Miss Nancy, Ili.i. '. 
much longer in this world, I feel as if mv \v 
body inside and all my Ixines were beaten u.'. j a 
jelly.' Soon afUr he died. John and Ned were 
both professors of religion. 

" John RufTner, a slaveholder, had one slave, 
named Piney, whom he as well as .Mrs. RufTni r 
would often flog very severely. I frequently 
saw Mrs. Rufi'ntr flog her with t{ic broom, shovel, 
or any thing she could seize in her rage. Sin 
would knock her down and then kick and stamp 
her most uimiercifully, imtil she would he ap- 
parently so lifeles.s that I more tlian once thought 
she would never recover. Often Piney would 
try to shelter herself from the blows of her mis- 
tress, by creeping under the l»cd, from which 
Mrs. RulVner would draw her by the feet, and 
then stamp and leap on her body, till her breath 
wiuild be gone. Often Piney, would cry, ' Oh 
Rlisscc, don't kill me I" " Oh Lord, don't kill 
mc I' ' For God's sake don't kdl me I' IJi.i 
Mrs. Rufl'ner would l>eat and stamp awav. with 
all the venom of a demon. The eau>e of Pinev> 
flogging was, not working enough, or makin-j 
some mistake in baking, &.c. Ac. Many a 
night Piney had to lie on the ban* flo<ir. by thT 
side of the cradle, rocking tlie baby of her mis. 
tress, and if she would fail a.«leep, and suffer the 
child to cry, so as to waken Mrs. RufTner, sjie 
would be sure to receive a flogging." 



TF:ST1M0\Y of MR. W.M. C. GILDERSLEEVE, a N.VTIVE OF GEORGIA 



Mr. W.C.(Mt.i)KRsi.ErvK, analive of (Jeorgia, is 
an elder of the Presbyterian Church at Wilkes- 
barre, Pa. 

" AriM of cruelly, irilhout nnmher, fell under m»/ 
obtrrralion while I lived in Georgia. I will 
mention but one. A slave of a Mr. Pinkney, on 
his way with a wagon lo Savann.ah, ' camped' 
for the uighi by the road side. Thai night, the 
nearest hen-riMtsl was robln-d. On his return, 
the hen-roost was again visited, and the fowl 
eount'<d one le-is in the njoming. The oldest son, 
with sonie attendants made search, and came 
upon Uie poor l^llow, in the act of dn«sing his 
spoil. lie wns too nimble for them, and made 
■is retreat good into a dense situnp. When 



much efltirt to sl.irt him fmm his hiding plaeo 
had proved unsueeesstul, it was rvsohxd lo lav 
an ambu.sh tor him, sonic distance ahead. The 
wagon, meantime, was in charge of a lad. who 
accompanied the teamster as an assistant Tlie 
hull' lM>y lay still till nearly night, m the hniM? 
probaldy that the leamster would n uiru. ^^lun 
lie otarted with his wagon. .Vfter tr.tvel!iiig 
stnne distanee, the lost one made hisaj>peara:iee, 
when the ambush sprang upon him. The poor 
fellow wa.s conducted back to the plantation. 
He expected little mercy. lie Wgged for him- 
self', in the mo>t snpliealing manner, ' pray 
' inassa give me 100 lashes and hi me go.' He 
{ w;is then tied by the hani!s, lo a limb of a large 
mulberry tree, which grew in the yard, so Uiat his 



Personal Narratives — Hiram White — J. M. Nelson. 



51 



feet were raised a few inches from the <rrourid, 
while a sliar pencil stick was driven undernealh, 



witnessed tlic whole, without as I recollect, 
feciinjf tlic least compassion. Ho hardcninjj is 



that he mi<rht rest his weifjlit on it, or swinjj tlic influence of slavery, that it very much de- 
by his hands. In this condition 100 lashe:; stroys feeling for the slave." 
were laid on his bare body. I stood by and | 



TESTIMONY OF MR. HIRAM WHITE— A NATIVE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 



Mr. White resided thirty-two years in Chat- 
ham county. North Carolina, and is now a mem- 
ber ofthe Baptist Church, at Otter Creek Prairie, 
Illinois. 

About the 20th December, 1830, a report was 
raised that the slaves in Chatham county, North 
Carolina, were going to rise on Christmas day," 
in consequence of which a considerable commo- 
tion ensued among the inhabitants ; orders were 
given by the Governor to the militia captains, to 
appoint patrolling captains in each district, and 
orders were given for every man subject to mili- 
tary duty to patrol as their captains should di- 
rect, I went two nights in succession, and after 
that refused to patrol at all. The reason why I re- 
fused was this , orders were given to search every 
negro house for books or prints of any kind, and 
Bibles and Hymn books were particularly men- 
tioned. And should we find any, our orders were 
to inflict punishment by whipping the slave until 
he informed who gave them to him, or how they 
came by them. 

As regards the comforts of the slaves in the 
vicinity of my residence, I can say they had no- 
thing that would bear that name. It is true, the 
slaves in general, of a good crop year, were 
tolerably well fed, but of a bad crop year, they 
were, as a general thing, cut short of then- allow- 
ance. Their houses were pole cabins, without 
loft or floor. Their beds were made of what is 
there called " broom-straw." The men more 
j. commonly sleep on benches. Their clothing would 
compare well with their lodging. Whipping was 
common. It was hardly possible for a man with 
a common pair of ears, if he was out of his house 
but a short time on Monday mornings, to miss of 
hearing the sound of the lash, and the cries of 



the sufferers pleading with their masters to desist. 
These scenes were more common throughout the 
time of my residence there, from 1799 to 1831. 

Mr. Hedding of Chatham county, held a slave 
woman. I traveled past Heddings as often as 
once in two v/eeks during the winter of 1828, 
and always saw her clad in a single cotton dress, 
sleeves came half way to the elbow, and in order 
to prevent her running away, a child, supposed to 
be about seven years of age, was connected with 
her by a long chain fastened round her neck, and 
in this situation she was compelled all the day to 
grub up the roots of shrubs and sapplings to pre- 
pare ground for the plough. It is not uncommon 
for slaves to make up on Sundays what they are 
not able to perform through the week of their 
tasks. 

At the time of the rumored insurrection above 
named, Chatham jail was filled with slaves who 
were said to have been concerned in the plot. 
Without the least evidence of it, they were punish- 
ed in divers ways ; some were whipped, some had 
their thumbs screiued in a vice to make them con- 
fess, but no proof satisfactory was ever obtained 
that the negroes had ever thought of an insiur- 
rection, nor did any so far as I could learn, ac- 
knowledge that an insurrection had ever been 
projected. From this time forth, the slaves were 
prohibited from assembling together for the wor 
ship of God, and many of tliose who had previ- 
ously been authorized to preach the gospel were 
prohibited. 

Amalgamation was common. There was 
scarce a family of slaves that had females of 
mature age where there were not some mulatto 
children. 

Hiram White. 
Otter Creek Prairie, Jan. 22, 1839. 



TESTIMONY OF MR. JOHN M. NELSON— A NATIVE OF VIRGINIA. 



Extract of a letter, dated January 3, 1839, from 
John M. Nelson, Esq., of Hillsborough. Mr. Nel- 
son removed from Virginia to Highland coimty, 
Ohio, many years since, where he is extensively 
known and respected. 

I was born and raised in Augusta county, 
Virginia ; my father was an elder in the Presby- 
terian Church, and was " owner" of about twen- 
ty slaves ; he was what was generally termed a 
" good master." His slaves were generally toler- 
ably well fed and clothed, and not over worked, 
they were sometimes permitted to attend church, 
and called in to family worship ; few of them, 
however, availed themselves of these privileges. 
On some occasions I have seen him whip them 
severely, particularly for the crime of trying to 
cbtain their liberty, or for what was called, " run- 



ning away." For tliis they were scourged more 
severely than for any thing else. After they have 
been retaken, I have seen them stripped naked 
and suspended by the hands, sometimes to a 
tree, sometimes to a post, until their toes 
barely touched the ground, and whipped with 
a cowhide until the blood dripped from their 
backs. A boy named Jack, particularly, I have 
seen served in this way more than once. 
When Iwas quite a child, I recollect it grieved me 
very much to see one tied up to be whipped, and I 
used to intercede with tears in their behalf, and 
mingle my cries with theirs, and feel almost wil- 
ling to take part of the punishment ; I have 
been severely rebuked by my father for this kind 
of sympathy. Yet, such is the hardening nature 
of such scenes, that from this kind of commisse 
ration for the suffering slave, I became so bluet. 



93 



Personal Narratives — Angelina Grinikt Weld. 



cd that I could not only witnc«» tljcir Mlrijx'n with 
componurc, but my»Af inrtict tlicni, and that 
willioiit n-inon«<". Onr cumo I have at"l«.'n lonk'-d 
back to Willi Horrow and ronlrition, particularly 
■incc I have Ix-cn convinced that *' ncgrocH arc 
njcn." Wh<'n I was piThaps fourteen or fiftrcn 
ycani of aiji', I undrrtooli to correct a youni; ful- 
low nan)e(| Ned, for noinc mippoMcd offence ; I 
think it was leaving a bridle otit of itx proper 
place ; lie beinj; larger and stronger than niynolf 
took hold of my arnia and held inc, in order to 

fin-vent my Htriking him ; thi.M I considered tliu 
luighl of ni^olencc, and cried for help, when 
my father and mother buth came runnin{r to my 
r-scue. My father stripped and tied him, and 
took him into the orrhanl, where Hwitehes were 
plenty, and directed me to whip him ; when one 
switch wore out he Hiipplied mc with othi-ra. After 
I had whipped him a while, he fell on hia knees 
to implore fortjiveness, and I kicked him in the 
face; my lather said, "don't kick him, but whip \ 
him ;" this I did until his back was literally cov- 
ered with irrllg. I know I have repented, and 
trunt I have obtained pardon for these things. I 
My father owned a woman, (wc used to call , 
aunt (trace,) she was purchased in Old Virj^inia. I 
She has told mc that lier old master, in his will, ' 
gave her her freedom, but at his death, his sons | 
had sold her to my father : when he bought her I 
ehe manifested some unwillingness to go with 
him, when she was put in irons and taken by 
force. This was before I was born ; but I rcnii;ra- 
ber to have seen the irons, and was told that was | 
what they had been used for. Aunt Grace is 
still living, and must be between seventy and 
eighty years of age ; she has, for the las,, forty 
years, been an exemplary Christian. When I w^as 
a youth I took some pains to learn her to read ; 
this is nciw a great consolation to her. Since age 
and infirmity have rendered her of little value to 



■ her "owners." who in permitted to read a« nrir-S 
an she pleases; this shi- can do, with the :i, ! 
glasses, in the old family Bible, which is aim . •. 
the only book she has ever looked into. This w ith 
some little mending for the black children, is all 
she dors ; she is still held as a slave. 1 well re. 
member what a hrarl. rending m-rur there was in 
the family when my father told her htuthnnd; this 
was, I suppoKi', thirty-five years apo. And yet my 
fatlier was considered one of the btst of masters. 
I know of few who were better, but of many 
who were worse. 

The la.it time I saw my father, which wa« in 
the fall of 1-532, he promised mc that he would 
free all his nlavc5 at his death. He died however 
without doing it ; and I have understoiid since, 
that he omitted it, through the influence o.*" Rev. 
Dr. Specce, a Presbyterian rainii^ter, who lived in 
the family, and was a a warm friend of the Co. 
Ionization Society. 

About the year 1809 or 10, I became a student 
of Rev. George Bourne ; he was the first aboli- 
tionist I had ever s:'cn, and the firm I had ever 
heard pray or plead for tlie oppressed, which 
gave me the first misgivings about the innocence 
of slaveholding. I received impressinns from Mr. 
Bourne which I could not get rid of,' and deter- 
mined in my own mind that when I settled in 
life, it should be in a free state ; this determina- 
tion I carried into effect in 1813, when I removed 
to this place, which 1 supposed at that time, to 
be all the opposition to slavery that was ncccs- 
sar}', but the moment I became convinced that 
all slaveholding was in itself sinful, I became an 
abolitionist, which was about four years ago. 

* Mr. Bonme residwl seven years in Vinrinin, " In pcrlli 
aiiioni; false hretliren," fiercely pcrw-cuietl fur hia faiUifiil 
tititlinoiiy .-icaiiist slavery. Mon- Ih.iii Iweiity veanstnci- 
iu- piililislii'il a work eiitiUrd "The Bouk and Slavery im'~ 
concUeable." 



TESTIMONY OF ANGELINA GRIMKE WELD. 



•w Jersey, ) 
h r.lh, 1,839. \ 



Mrs. Weld is the youngest daughter of the 
late Judge Grimk6, of the Supremo Court of 
South Carolina, and a sister of the late Hon. 
Thomas S. Grimko, of Charleston. 

Fort Lee, Bergen Co., New Jersey, 
Fourth montl 

I ait down to comply with thy request, prefer- 
red in the name of the K.xeeutive Committee of 
tho .Vmerican Anli-Slavery Society. The re- 
B|ionsihility laid upon me liy such a request, leaves 
liio no 0|>tioii. W^hile I live, and slavery lives, I 
muHt testify against it. If I should hold my 
peace, " tho stone Would cry out of the wall, and 
the U-ain out of the timber would answer it." 
But thoiiuh I feel a necessity upon me, and "a 
vnt: unto me," if I withhold my testimony, I 
Jive it wilh a heavy heart. My flesh erieth out, 
•'if it be possible, let /Ai» riip pa.«ts fn>m me;" 
but, " Father, thy will Ik; <lone," is, 1 trust, the 
breathing of my spirit. Hh, the slain of tho 
daughter of my people I they lie in all the waj**; 
their tears fall ns the rain, and an> their meat 
day and night ; their blood ninnetli down like 
water ; tiiuir plundered hearths arc desolate ; 



they weep for their husbands and children, be- 
cause thev arc not ; and the jirouil waves do con- 
tinually go over them, while no eye pitieth, aud 
no man carcth for their souls. 

But it is not alone tor the sake of my poor 
brothers and sisters in bonds, or for the cause of 
truth, and righteousness, and humanity, that I 
testify; the deep yeaniings of atTection for the 
mother thit Iwrc me, who is still a slaveholder, 
Ixifh in fact and in heart ; for my brothers and 
sisters, (a large family circle.) and for my nu- 
merous other slaveholding kindred in South Ca- 
rolina, constrain me to speak : for even were 
slavery no eurso to its victims, tlie exercise of 
arbitrary power works such fearful ruin upon the 
hearts n( slave /loldrrs, that I should feel impelled 
to lalwr and pray for its ovcrtlirow with my last 
enoriiiisand latest breath. 

I lliink it imiM.rtant to premise, that I have 
seen almost nothing of slavery on plttntation*. 
My testimony will have nsprt inclusively to 
the treatment of *' houne-serrantx," and chiefly 
tlKwe belonging to the first families in the city of 
Charleston, Iwtli in iIk" religious and in the fash- 
ionable world. And here let mc say, that the 



Personal Narratives — Aii"olina Grirnke Weld. 



03 



treatment ol plantation ulavcH cannot be fully 
known, cxccj)! by the poor HUllererH tiieniselvcH, 
and llieir drivers and ovcrHeerH. In a multitude 
of inBluncus, evt^n the inuHter ean know vi ry lit' 
tie ol' the actual condilion of liiH owit lield-HlaveH, 
and hiH wife and (lan^htcrn far lesn. A few facts 
eone('riiin<( my own lamily will nIiow iImh. Our 
])ennanent residence was in (/'harli'ston ; our 
eoimtry.Beat (liellrmonl,) was iJ(J(J miles distant, 
in the north-western part of the; slati; ; where, for 
some years, our family spiuit a lew months annu- 
ally. Our pluiilalion was thnu; miles from this 
family mansion. 'I'iiere, all the lield-slaves lived 
and worked. Occasionally, once a inonth, per- 
haps, some of the family would ride; ovit to the 
plantation, hut I never visited tin; //'/^/.v i/7(»';c i/ie 
slaves were at work, and knew ahnost nothing of 
their condition ; but this I do know, that the 
overseers who had eharsjc of them, were jrcnc- 
rally unprincipled and intemjicrate men. But I 
rejoice to know, that the general treatment of 
slaves in that rc<fion of country, was lar milder 
than on the plantations in the lower conritr}'. 

Throu(rhont all the eastern and middle por. 
tions of the state, the planters very rarely reside 
permanently on their plantations. They have 
almost invariably two residences, and spend less 
than half the year on their estates. Even while 
spendintr a few months on them, politics, ficld- 
cports, races, speculations, journeys, vij^ils, com- 
pany, literary pursuits, »fcc., absorb so much of 
their time, that they must, to a considerable ex- 
tent, take the condition of their slaves on trust, 
from the reports of their overseers. I make this 
statement, because these slaveholders (the wealth, 
icr class,) are, I believe, almost the only ones who 
visit tlie north with their families ; — and northern 
opinions of slavery arc based chiefly on their tes- 
timony. 

But not to dwell on preliminaries, I wish to 
record my testimony to the faithfulness and ac- 
curacy with which my beloved sister, Sarah M. 
Grimkd, has, in her ' narrative and testimony,' on 
a preceding page, described the condition of the 
slaves, and the effect upon the hearts of slave- 
holders, (even the best,) caused by the exercise 
of unlimited power over moral agents. Of the 
particular acts which she has stated, I have no 
personal knowledge, as they occurred before my 
remembrance ; but of the spirit that prompted 
them, and that constantly displays itself in scenes 
of similar horror, the recollections of my child- 
hood, and the effaccless imprint upon my riper 
years, witli the breaking of my heart-strings, 
when, finding that I was powerless to shield the 
victims, I tore myself from my home and friends, 
and became an exile among strangers — all these 
throng around me as witnesses, and their testi- 
mony is graven on my memory with a pen of 
fire. 

Why I did not become totally hardened, under 
the daily operation of this system, God only 
knows ; in deep solemnity and gratitude, I say, 
it was the Lord's doing, and marvellous in mine 
eyes. Even before my heart was touched with 
the love of Christ, I used to say. " Oh that I had 
the wings of a dove, that I might flee away and 
be at rest ;' for I felt that there could be no rest for 
mc in the midst of such outrages and pollutions. 
And yet I saw nothing of slavery in its most 



vul^r and repuUivc formH. I mw it in lliccity, 
among the fuMhionablc and tlie lionorablc, where 
it wa« garniHhed by refinement, and deck'd out 
for hIiow. a few factn will unfold the utatt: of 
society in the circle witli which I wan fannliar, 
far better than any gimeralasHertionH I can make. 
I will first introduce the reader to a woman 
of the highest reKpeetabilily — one who wan fr>re- 
moat in every benevolent entcqirisc, and ntitod 
for many years, I may say, at the head of the 
fashionable dlilc of the city of Charleston, and 
afterwards at the head of the moral and reii^ioiu 
female society there. It was after she liad made 
a profession of religion, and retired from the 
i'ashionable world, that I knew her ; therefore I 
will present her in her religious character. Thig 
lady used to keep cowhides, or small paddles, 
(called 'pancake sticks,') in four different aj)art- 
ments in her house ; so that when she wished to 
puni.sh, or to have punished, any of her slaves, she 
might not have the trouble of sending for an in- 
strument of torture. For many years, one or 
oth(;r, and often more of her slaves, were flogged 
erery daij; particularly the young slaves about 
the house, whose faces were slapped, or their 
hands beat with the ' pancake stick,' for every 
trifling offence — and often for no fault at all. 
But the floggings were not all ; the scoldings 
and abuse daily heaped upon them all, were 
worse: 'fools' and 'liars,' ' sluts' and ' husseys,' 
' hypocrites' and ' good-lbr-nothing creatures,' 
were the common epithets with which lier mouth 
was filled, when addressing her slaves, adults as 
well as children. Very often she would take a. 
position at her window, in an upper story, and 
scold at her slaves while working in the garden, 
at some distance from the house, (a large vard 
intervening,) and occasionally order a flogging. 
I have known her thus on the watch, scolding 
for more than an hour at a time, in so loud a 
voice that the whole neighborhood could hear 
her ; and this without the least apparent feeling 
of shame. Indeed, it was no disgrace among 
slaveholders, and did not in the least injure her 
standing, either as a lady or a Christian, in the 
aristocratic circle in which she moved. After 
the ' revival' in C'harleston, in 1825, she opened 
her house to social prayer-meetings. The room 
in which they were held in the evening, and 
where tlie voice of prayer was heard around the 
family altar, and where she herself retired for 
private devotion thrice each day, was the very 
place in which, when her slaves were to be whip- 
ped with the cowhide, they were taken to receive 
the infliction ; and the wail of the sufierer would 
be heard, where, perhaps only a few hours pre- 
vious, rose the voices of prayer and praise. This 
mistress would occasionally send her slaves, male 
and female, to the Charleston work-house to be 
punished. One poor girl, whom she sent there 
to be flogged, and who was accordingly stripped 
naked and whipped, showed mc the deep gashes 
on her back — I might have laid my whole finger 
in them — large pieces of flesh had actually been 
cut out III/ the torturing lash. She sent another 
female slave there, to be imprisoned and worked 
on the tread-mill. This girl was confined several 
days, nnd forced to work the mill while in a state 
of suffering from another cause. For ten days 
or two weeks after her return, she was lame, from 



04 



Personal Narratives — Aii"f:iina Grimk6 Weld. 



the violent pxcrtion ncccararj lo rnahlc hrr to 
kc«p tlio Mtcp nil tlif niachinL'. Sin; Hpokc tunic 
with intciiM- f<-<-liii|r of llim i)iitni(r<: upon her, ax 
a iromuti. Hit riit'ii turvaiita were Minictiiiu'H 
floUjri (I iImt<- ; and no c.vrifdiinjly <»firiiHivf han 
boeii the |Mitrul IIihIi of ihi-ir larcral* d liarkH, for 
dtyH aft) r the intlii-tion, that they would he k< pt 
out of the houw — tlio tiiiH-ll ari«in(; from Ihrir 
wounrlo hnnu too horrible lo be rndiircd. 'I'hrv 
y^'^•n: alwavH Htifl'and Horc for mimo dayt<, and not 
in a ronditioii lo ho nrcu by viNJton'. 

'I'hJH profcrtMcdly ('liriMtian woman was a motit 
awful illustration of tin- ruinous influtncc of 
arbitrary power u\>t>n the temper — her bursts 
of ]iasHion upon the headn of Iht victiniH were 
dreadt^d even by her own children, and very 
©nen, all the i)lea8ure of social inlercourso around 
the domestic hoard, was destroyed by her order- 
in" the cook into her presenc(\ and storminp at 
liim, when tlie dinner or breakfast was not pre. 
j)ared to lur taste, an<l in the presence of all her 
children, commandinp the waiter to slap his face. 
fault -jindi It [T, was with her the constant accom- 
paniment of every meal, and banished that peace 
which should hover annmd the social board, and 
smile on every face. It was common for her to 
order brothers to whip their own sisters, and sis. 
tors their own brothers, and yet no woman visited 
amonjj the poor more than she did, or pave more 
liberally to relieve their wants. This may seem 
perfectly unaccountable to a northerner, but these 
eeeminfj contradictions vanish when we con- 
Rider that over them she possessed no arbitrary 
power, they were always presented to iier mind 
as unfortunate sutTerers, towards whom her sym- 
pathies most freely (lowed ; she was ever ready 
to wipe the tears from thrir eyes, and open wide 
lier purse for thrir relief, but the others were her 
vassals, thrust down by jjublic opinion beneath 
her feet, to' be at her beck and call, ever ready to 
f^Tvc in all humility, her, whom (iod in his pro- 
vidence had set over them — if was their dttty to 
abide in abject submission, and hers to cntnpcl 
them to do so — it iras thun that she rrasonrit. 
Kxcept at family prayers, none wen'" permitted 
to sit in her presence, but the seamstresses and 
waiting maids, and they, however d<'lieatc mipht 
he their circumstances, were forced to sit upon 
low stools, without backs, that they mij^ht be 
constantly reminded of their inferiority. .\ slave 
who waited in the house, was jjuilty on a partieu. 
lar occasion of poin'/ to visit his wife, and kept 
dinner wailing a little, (his wile was the slave 
of a lady who lived at a little distance.) When 
the family sat down to the tabic, the mistress 
bejjan to scold the waiter for the offence — he at. 
tempted to exeusi' himself — she ordered him to 
liold his tonsrue — he v<'ntured another apolotjy ; 
her son then rose from the tabli- in a raije. and 
beat the face and ears of the waiter so dreadfully 
that the blood pushed from his mouth, and now, 
and ears. This mistress was a jtrnfrssor of re- 
Ugion ; her dattiyhtcr who related the rirrwm- 
irtance, was a fellow mrmhrr of the Presbyterian 
rhureli \rilh the poor outroc^fil slave — instead of 
fpolini; inditrnatinn at this oufmtteous abuse of 
her bnither in the church, she iuotilied the deed, 
and said "he c"' j"rt what he di served." I 
polemnly believe this to be a true picture of 
tlareholding religion. 



The followinfr is another illustration of it : 

A niistriM in Charleston sent a ^ey ht^adad 
female slave lo the workhouw, and had her »e. 
verely f]o;f(»ed. The po<jr old woman Went to a . 
ae<)uaiii(anee of mine and bi x't'eil hir to buy }i< 
and told I:-, r liow cruelly hhe had been whi; ;•■ 
.My friend examined her lareratrd back, ar.o .: 
of compassion did purchase- her. The cire ,i: • 
stance was mentioned lo one of the former own 
er's relatives, who akkcd her if it were trti' 
The mistress told her it was, and said that sh > 
had made the st-ven- whippinfr of Uiis aired wd- 
man a «u/»/Vr/ o//>r(/vr, and that '• ' ' ' ' 
had done right to have it iii' 

Tlic last ' <»wiicr' of the jioor oM ._ , . .. . 

had no fault to find with her as a servant. 

I remember very well that when I was acliild. 
our ne.xt door iici(»iilx>r whippi^d a joung woman 
so brutally, that in order to escape his IiIowb sh> 
rushed through the drawing-room window in tl ■ 
second story, and fe-ll upon tlie street pav< i.i' , ■ 
below and broke her hip. This circumilaiie. 
produced no excitement or inquiry. 

'I'he following circumstance occurred in 
Charleston, in 1828 : 

A slaveholder, after flogging a little gi/-l 
about thirteen years old, set her on a tabic with 
her feet fastened in a jiair of stocks. He tlien 
locked the door and took out the key. When !)t 
door wa,s opened she was found dead, lia\,M^ 
fallen from the table. When I asked aproi;i ■ ' 
lawyer, who lielonged to one of the first f.->i 
in the t>tate, wlutlier the murderer of tlii-^ 
less child could not be indicted, he coolly r 

that the slave was Mr. 's property, . 

he chose to siifTer the loxs, no one else hrn 
thing to do with it. The loss of human Ir 
distress of the parents and other n^latives 
little girl, seemed utterly out of bis tlio. 
it was the loss of property onlv that pn.-- 
its<lf to his mind. 

I knew a gentleman of great benevolence ani 
generosity of character, so essentially to injur- 
the eye of a little boy, about ten years old, as \'> 
destroy its sight, by tlic blow of a cowhide, in- 
flicted whilst he was whipping him.* I hav- 
heard the same individual speak of " break in-.; 
down the spirit of a slave under the laah " as per- 
fec'ly right. 

I also know that an aged slave of hi.s '^^■ 
marriage. > was allowed lo get a se.Tnty aad pr- 
carious subsistence, by begging in the streets oi 
Charleston — he was too old to work, and there- 
fore his alloiranre teas sinpyrd, and he was 
tuniejl out to make his living by bi-gging. 

When I was al>out thirtet-n years old. I attend- 
ed a seminary, in Charleston, ^^ ' ' !>' r. 
inti'niied bv a man and iiis wife • • .!■:- 
cation. They had under their ... ■ .. thr 
il.iuch'.ers of n.-arly all the aristocracy. Thcr 
cruelly to their slaves, both male and female, I 
can never forgi't. I remember one dav then' was 
called into llie school room to o|Hn a window, a 

• Tlie Jett-lHh l-iw wi.iiW have "^ tlit« »rr«-nni fr»*, f.»r 

\:U .\. •» -rA. tut h< V.15 hi-til In •t-iv-v n~il =r^'A fVnm 



I lihrHf 10 Ul' ni!" !v« and tkt* 



Personal Narratives — Angelina (iriinkii Welti. 



55 



Doy whoHo lioad liail hrcii Hliavcd in ordiT to <li«. 
}jnic<! Iiiin, and Ik^ had hccn ho drradlnlly wlup- 
piil that ]w ciuiUi hardly walk. Sn horiihlo was 
th(; iniiJrcHsion [)rodiircd upon my iniiid hy Ihh 
licart-liroliiTi cotintnianco and crif)[)l<:d iiernon 
that I faiiitt'd away. 'I'lx" f'ad and (rhaslly couii- 
tcnaiicii f>roiic of tlioir I'l'inalc ninlatto Hlavfs who 
Used to sit on a low stool at her Hi-winir '" •■'"■ 
l)ia//a, is now froHJi hcforc me. She ol'tcn told 
in(;, Kcorc'lly, how rruclly who was wiiippcd wJicn 
tliey Hcnt Ikt to tlic work hoiiHc. I had knf>wn so 
much of the tcrrihli; HCoiirgin>jH indicted in that 
house of blood, that when I was once o])li[rcd to 
pasH it, the very B\,rhl smote nie with such horror 
that my limbs could hardly sustain me. J felt as if 
I was passing the precincts of hell. A friend of mine 
who lived in the neiirhi)orliood, told mc she often 
heard the screams of the slaves under their 
torture. 

I once heard a ])Iiysician of a hifrh family, and 
of great respectability in his profession, say, lliat 
when he scut his slaves to the work-house to be j 
flogfi't^d, he always went to see it done, that he 
might be sure liiey were properly, i. c. scvereli/ 
whijjped. lie also related the following circnm- 
stance in my presence. He had sent a youth of 
about eighteen to this horril)le place to be wiiip- 
ped and afterwards to be worked upon the tread- 
mill. From not keeping tlic step, wliicli probably 
he coi'1,1) NOT do, in consequence of the lacerated 
state of liis body ; his arm got terribly torn, from 
tlio shoulder to the wrist. Tliis physcian said, 
he went every day to attend to it himself, in order 
that he might use those restoratives, which iconld 
inflict, the greatest possible pain. Tiiis poor boy, 
after being imprisoned there for some weeks, was 
then broaglit home, and compelled to wear iron 
clogs on his ankles for one or two months. I 
saw him with those irons on one day when I was 
at the house. This man was, when young, re- 
markable in the fasiiionable world for his elegant 
and fascinating manners, but the exercise of the 
slaveholder's power has thrown the fierce air of 
tjTanny even over these. 

I heard another man of equally high standing 
sivy, that he believed lie suffered far more than his 
waiter did, whenever he Hogged him, for he felt 
the exertion for days afterward, but he could not 
let liis servant go on in tlie neglect of his business, 
it was /; (.9 rf(U?/ to chastise him. " His duty" to 
flog this boy of seventeen so severely that he felt 
the exertion for days after ! and yet he never felt 
it to be his duty to instruct him, or have him in- 
structed, even in the common principles of mo- 
rality. I heard the mother of this man say, it 
would be no surprise to her, if he killed a slave 
some day, for, that, when transported with pas- 
sion he did not seem to care what he did. He 
once broke a Inrixe stick over the baclc of a slave, 
and at another time the ivory butt-end of a Ion"' 
coach whip over the head of another. Tliis last 
was attacked with epileptic fits some months 
after, and has ever since been subject to them, 
and occasionally to violent fits of insanity. 

Sourliern mistresses sometimes flog their slaves 
themselves, though genovally one slave is com- 
pelled to flog another. Whilst staying at a friend's 
house some years ago, I one day saw the mistress 
with a cow-hide in her hand, and heard her scold- 
ing in an under tone, her waiting man, who was 



about Iwenty.fivc yearn old. Whether iihc actu- 
ally inllie.tid the hlowH I do not know, for I haul. 
ene<| out of night and h<;arin|^. It wan not Uii- 
firxt time I lud Nuen a iiiiiitrcHii tliUH enfragiH. I 
knew kIk! wa.4 a cruel iniHtrew, and had h<ard her 
rlaughter.-i disputing, whether thejr mother did 
right or wrong, to wnd the nXayc children, (whom 
nIic Bent out to sweep chimncyH; to the work 
house to be whipped if they did not bring in their 
wages regularly. Tiiin woman moved in the inont 
fashionable circle in CharlcHton. The income of 
this family was derived moKtly from the hire of 
their slaves, about one hundn d in nundier. Their 
luxuries were blood-bouglit lu.\urie.i indi ed. And 
yet what stranger would ever have inferred their 
cruelties from the courteous reception and bland 
manners of the parlor. Everj' thing cntel and 
revolting is carefully concealed from strani^cn*, 
especially those from the north. Take an jn- 
stance. I have known the master and mistrcw* 
of a family send to their fricnd.s to Iwrrow ser- 
vants to wait on company, because their own 
slaves had been so cruelly flogged in the work 
house, that they conid not walk without limping at 
every step, and their putrified flesh emitted such an 
intolerable smell that tht^y were not fit to be in 
the presence of company. How can northerners 
know these things when they arc hospitabh* re- 
ceived at southern tables and firesides ? I repeat 
it, no one wlio has not been an integral part of a 
slavcholding community, can have anv idea of its 
abominations. It is a wliited sepulelirc full of 
dead men's bones and all unclcanncss. Blessed 
be (lod, the Angel of Truth has descended and 
rolled away the stone from the mouth of the se- 
pulchre, and sits upon it. Tiie abominations so 
long hidden arc now brouijht forth before all Israel 
and the sun. Yes, the Angel of Truth sits vpon 
this stone, and it can never be rolled back again. 

Tlie utter disregard of the comfort of the 
slaves, in little things, can scarcely be conceived 
b}' those who have not been a component part of 
slavcholding communities. Take a few particu- 
lars out of hundreds that might be named. In 
South Carolina musketoes swarm in myriads, 
more than half the year — they arc so excessively 
annoying at night, that no family thinks of sleep- 
ing without nets or " musketoe-bars" hung over 
their bedsteads, yet slaves are never provided with 
them, unless it be the favorite old domestics who 
get the cast-off pavilions; and yet these very mas- 
ters and mistresses will be so kind to their horses 
as to j)rovide them with fit/ nets. Bedsteads 
and bedding too, are rarely provided for any of 
the slaves — if the waiters and coachmen, wait- 
ing maids, cooks, washers, &c., have beds at 
all, they must generally get them for them- 
selves. Commonly they lie down at night on 
the bare floor, with a small blanket wrapped 
round them in winter, and in summer a coarse 
osnaburg sheet, or nothing. Old slaves generally 
have beds, but it is because when younger they 
have provided them for themselves. 

Only two meals a day are allowed the house 
slaves — the first at twelve o'clock. If they cat 
before this time, it is by stealth, and I am sure 
there must be a good deal of suffering among 
tlicm from hunger, and particularly by ehildren. 
Besides this, they are often kept from their meals 
by way of punishment. No tabic is provided for 



56 



Personal Narratirrx — Angelina Grimk6 Welci. 



thom to eat from. They know notbinfr of the ] at all. I know an inatance of a woman who han 
Comfort an. I j>l<-:» hti- of i^'afin-riiip round llic »<i. ' Iw-cn rnarr;' ' ' ' * ' . li , u 

rial lioaril — i-.n-li l.ikfH I. in plaU- or tui paji aiitl iillowcd |c. r. — 

iron afiouii ami Imltl.t it in tlm hand or on l)u- 'i'lim if a ;,'< • _ ,; i. ..„. . ■,,;i. 

lap. 1 rtrrrr Haw nlavcH avatcd round a /a/>/« to | mdir llial houiio iilav<it arc ran ly allowed k<'< ;^i| 
partake of any meal. inUrcoumc during <Ae f/ay, a* tiH-ir work ^'Mi r. 

Aa the (,'<iiiral ndc, no lighla of any kind, no ally sepuraleg llieni ; the larharilv of Kiirh an ar- 
fircW(M)d — no towfla, liaHinN, or iwin[>, no talilcM, ' ranirenii.-nt in obvious. It m |M'eiiliurl\' :< liard#l)i;> 
chaim, or other furniture, are provided. Wo'id for i in tlio above cskc, an the huDbarid oi i' 
cooking and waHlnnjj./or tfir ftimili/ in found, l)ut | docs not "belon|^" to In r ''owni r;" ; 
whnn the nia«ler'H work in dom-, the filave niiiHt ! he in nubjecl todren<<i'i -.n-.. '^ - .1 .,,,,j 

find wood for himiicir if he lian a fire. I have : can have but little a" 1 i!i.- 

n-pcatedly known ulavc cliildren kejit the whole day. And yit lier n. lady, 

wintor'H evininjj. Bitting on the Btair-eaxc in a ' (jivea her the hiirhe.-.l ciiaracier aa a luitiitul act- 
cold entry, just to be at iiand to Hnuti'eaiidleK or | vant, and told a friend of mine, that ulie was "en. 
hanil a luinbler of water from tlic; Hide-board, or go I tirely dependent upon her for all her comfort* ; 
on errandH from one room to another. It may Ik; I bIic drenscd and undrcHwd her, gave her all her 
asked why tliey were not pennilted to stay in the I ftnid, and was so iircaanart/ to her that nhe coidd 



parlor, when lliev would be still more at hand. I 
answer, beeauHc waiters arc not allowed to nit in 
the presence of their owners, and as children 
who were kept running all day, would of course 
gfct very tired of standing for two or three hours, 
they were allowed to go into the entry and sit on 
the Btaircase until rung frjr. Anolhi r reason is, 



not do without her." I may add, that this couple 
arc tenderly attached to each other. 

I also know an instance in which the hasband 
was a slave and the wife wan free : durinir the ill- 
ness of the former, the latter was a/Zoirrti to come 
and nurs<r him ; hIic was obliged to leave the work 
by which she had made a living, and come to stay 



that cv»n hiaveholders at times find the presence i with her hus)>and, and thus lost we< k«< of her 



of slaves very annoying ; they cannot exercise 
entire freedom of speech before them on all sub- 
jects. 



time, or he would have hiiffc-rcd for want of pro- 
per attention ; and yet his "owner" made her no 
comf)ensat;on for her services. He had long been 



I have also known instances where seamstress- i a faithful and a favorite slave, and his owner was 
es were kept in cold entries to work bj' the stair ' a woman very benevolent to tlie poor whiten. — 
case lamps for one or two hours, every evening ' She went a great deal among tliese. as a visiting 
in winter — they could not see without ^landing 1 commissioner of tiie I^adies' Benevo!« iil Societv, 
np all tin- time, though the work was often too 1 and was in the constant habit of ■ •• ' ''x" rrfn. 
large and heavy for them to sew upon it in that j tire.i of the poor tc/iitrx for m: h .> 

position without great inconvenience, and yet 1 bands, fath'-rs, and other rclatim y.n. 

they were expected to do their work as »cr// with | thought it very hard, when their time «•«» taken 
their cold fingers, and standing up, as if they had I up, so that they could not cam their daily bmd, 
been sitting by a comfortable fire and provided ! that th( y should be Ictt to suffer. Now. such is 
with the necessary light. House slaves suffer a j the stiipifying inlluence of llie "challrl principle"' 
frreat deal also from not being allowed to leave on tlie minds of slaveholders, that I do not s-,;p. 
the house witiiout permission. If they wish to ' pose it ever occurred to her th^il this inmr rn'^ 

!',o even for a draught of water, they must ask 1 wife ought to be paid for her servic*^ and jia,'',- 
eate, and if they slay longer than the mistress j eularly as she was spending her time and strrngth 
thinks necessary, they are liable to be punished, in taking care of hrr " properit/." She no doubt 
and often are scolded or slapped, or kept from only thought how kind she wan, to nUntr her to 
going down to tlie ne.xt mial. | come and stay so long in her yar«l ; tV.r, lit it be 

It frequently happens that relatives, among ' kept in mind, that f'^-- ' '' - '-- • ' 

slaves, are separated for weeks or months, by the power to separate In. 

husband or brother being taken by tlu- master on and children, however , . _ . : 

a joiirncy, to attend on his horses and himself. — | and if this inistnss had chns< n to dn ii, siie could 
When they return, the whiU- husband seeks the ! have debarred this woman from all intcrccurse with 
wife of his love ; but tlie black husband must wait I her husltand, by forbidding her to enter her pre- 
to Bcc hin wife, until mistress pleases to let her ' miscs. 

rhambermaid leavir her room. Yes, such is the | Persons who own plantations . ' * ' . in 
di spotism of sl.vverv, that wives and sisters dnp' cities, often take chiKiren fr<'m '■ :.-; 

not run to meet their husbands and brothers after ] soon as they are wean<d, and b*ii.. :,. i!u 

such Bcparations, and hours sometimes elapse be. countrA' ; because Oiev do not want tli- tijue of 
foro they are allowed to nn'ct ; and, at times, a Uie mother taken up by attendance «!>-•• '1. r own 
fiendish pleasure is taken in keeping them asun- I ehildnMi, it h ing loo valuable to :'' \< 

der — this I'urnishes an opportunity to vent feelings i n Jaror, she is. in home cases, p' ■ •.. 

of spite for aiiv little neglect of "duly." j see them once a V'-ar. So. ■> .'. , 

Til'- ^M'T rmi^s to which slav<-s nn- subjected by j fiei«l slaves happi n to have <■' ; ■. 

neparuthiiw i>( various kimls, cannot be imagined | able to the ctnu- " ■ '!■- ■ ■•< ' ,,t- 

by thoiK' unnci|iii(iiited with the wirking out of Inke.i from the 



the ayntrm behuul the curtain. Take the follow, 
ing instnnee«. 

Chamlxmiiiid'' and senmstreMies often sleep in 



Pannts on* alni" 

pfwition to l>e m.nii i.i' il.t ,r • 

hitle control over them, as Ii 



their mislicsses' a|iartmentB, but witli no bedding over tiic disposal of their youfij 



■ .iir- 

> iiavea<i 

' animals 

I ■ ' < ry natural 



General Testimony — Cruelliea. 



57 



and Hocial feeling and affuction aro violated with 
I indiirorciicc ; tilavcs arc treated uh though tiiey 
did not pusHess them. 

Aii()th<'r wav in which the feelings of slaves arc 
trifled witii and often d(;e|)ly wounded, is by eiiang- 
wr their names; if, at the time tliey are hrouglil 
into a family, there is another slave of tiie same 
nami ; or if the owner happens, for some other 
reason, not to like the name of the new comer. 
I Iiavc known slaves very much grieved at having 
the names of their children tlms changed, when 
they had been calli^d after a dear relation. In- 
deed it would be utterly impossible to recount the 
multitude of ways in which tlio heart of the slave 
is continually lacerated by the total disregard of 
his feelings as a social being and a human crea- 
ture. 

The slave suffers also greatly from being con- 
tinually matched. The system of espionage which 
is constantly kept up over slaves is the most wor- 
rying and intolerable that can be imagined. Many 
mistresses are, in fact, during the absence of their 
husbands, really their drivers ; and the pleasure 
of returning to their families often, on the part of 
the husband, is entirely destroyed by the complaints 
preferred against the slaves when he comes home 
to his meals. 

A mistress of my acquaintance asked her ser- 
vant boy, one day, what was the reason she could 
not get him to do his work whilst his master was 
away, and said to him, " Your master works a 
great deal harder than you do ; he is at his office 
all day, and often has to study his law cases at 
night." '' Master," said the boy, " is working for 
himself, and for 3'ou, ma'am, but I am working 
for Jiim." The mistress turned and remarked to 
ja friend, that she was so struck with the truth of 
the remark, that she could not say a word to him. 



But I fcirbcar — the Buffirings of the tilavcH aro 
not only innumerable, but they are indcscribuhle, 
I may paint the agony of kindred lorn from each 
other's arms, to meet no more in time ; I may de- 
pict tile inflictions of the blood-stained la-ih, but I 
cannot describe the daily, liourly, cea.^elesa torture, 
endured by the heart that is constantly trampled 
under the foot of despotic power. Th:9 is a part 
of the horrors of slavery whicii, I believe, no one 
has ever attempted to delineate ; I wonder not at 
it, it mocks all power of language. Who can de- 
scribe tiie anguish of that mind whicii feels itself 
impaled upon the iron of arbitrary power — its liv- 
ing, writhing, helpless victim ! every human sus- 
ceptibility tortured, its sympathies torn, and stung, 
and bleeding — always feehng the death-weapon 
in its heart, and yet not so deep as to kill that 
humanity which is made the curse of Its exisU 
enre. 

In the course of my testimony I have entered 
somewhat into the minuticB of slavery, becau.se 
this is a part of the subject often overlooked, and 
cannot be appreciated by any but those who have 
been witnesses, and entered into sympathy with 
the slaves as human beings. Slaveholders think 
nothing of them, because they regard their slaves 
as property, the mere instruments of their conve- 
nience and pleasure. One who is a slaveholder 
at heart never recognises a human being in a slave. 

As thou hast asked me to testify respecting the 
physical condition of the slaves merely, I say no- 
thing of the awful neglect of their minds and souls. 
and the systematic effort to imbrute them. A 
wrong and an impiety, in comparison with which 
all the other unutterable wTongs of slavery are 
but as the dust of the balance. 

Angelina G. Weld. 



GENERAL TESTIMONY 

TO THE CRUELTIES INFLICTED UPON SLAVES. 



Before presenting to the reader particular de- 
tails of the cruelties inflicted upon American 
slaves, we will present in brief the well-weigh- 
ed declarations of slaveholders and other resi- 
dents of slave states, testifying that the slaves 
are treated with barbarous inhmiianity. All de- 
tails and particulars will be drawn out under 
their appropriate heads. We propose in this 
place to present testimony of a general character 
— the solemn declarations of slaveholders and 
others, that the slaves are treated with great 
cruelty. 

To discredit the testimony of witnesses who 
msist upon convicting themselves, would be an 
anomalous scepticism. 

To show that American slavery has always 
had one uniform character of diabolical erueltv,we 
will go back one hundred years, and prove it by 
unimpeachable witnesses, who have given their 
deliberate testimony to its horrid barbarity, from 
1739 to 1839. 



TESTIMONY OF UEV. GEORGE WHITEFIELD, 

In a letter written by him in Georgia, and ad- 
dressed to the slaveholders of Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, North and South Carolina and Georgia, in 
1739. — See Bcnezet's "Caution to Great Britain 
and her Colonies." 

" As I lately passed through your provinces 
on my way hither, I M'as sensibly touched with a 
fellow-feeling of the miseries of the poorneorocs, 

" Sure I am, it is sinful to use them as bad, 
nay worse than if they were brutes ; and what- 
ever particular exceptions there may be, (as I 
would charitably hope there are some.) I fear the 
generality of you that own negroes, are liable to 
such a charge. Not to mention what numbers have 
been given up to the inhuman usage of cruel task. 
7}iasters, who by their mirelenting scourges, have 
ploughed their backs and made long furrows, and 
at lensfth brought them to the grave I « * • 

" The blood of them, spilt for these many years, 
in your respective provinces, icill ascend up to 
heaven against you .'" 

The following is the testimony of the cele- 
brated John W'oolman, an eminent minister of 



58 



General Testimony — Cruelties. 



the Society of Fricndti, wlio traveled cxteiwivrly 
in the hlavc Htatcn. Wo rojiy it from a '• Mr- 
moirof John Wooi.man, cliirfly rxtracted from & 
Journal of IiIh Life and Travels." It wan pub. 
liahed m riiibdclphia, by the ''Society of 
Friondn." 

" Tin- fullowinff reflectionB, were written in 
ITf)?, wliil-' be wad Iravrlinjj on a religious ac 
count aiitnup slavtluildent." 

" Many of tlie white jicople in thewe provinces, 
take little or no care of m-jfro marriaijcH ; and 
when ncjjroeB marry, after their own way, tumv 
make m little account of thodc niarriafjcM, that, 
with views of outward interrnl, th<ry often part 
men from their wives, by nilh?i}r them far asun- 
der; which i» common when estates are sold by 
executors at vendue. 

" Manv whose lalwr is heavy, being followed 
at their bn.siness in the field by a man with a 
whip, hired for that purpose, — have, in common, 
little else allowed them but one peck of Indian 
com and some salt for otie week, with a few |>o- 
tatoes. (Tiic potatoes they commonly raise by 
their labor on the first day of the week.) The 
correction ensuinfj on their disol>odience lo over- 
Bccrs, or slothfulness in business, is often vrrij 
arrcrc, and sometimes (Irxpcrale. Men and wo. 
men have many times grnrrr clothrs enniirrfi to 
hide tlirir nnkedmss — and boys and pirls, ten 
and twelve years old, arc often qnilr nuhrd 
amonjj their masters' children. Some use en- 
deavors to instruct tliose (nef^'o children) they 
have in readinjj; but in common, this is not only 
neglected, but disapproved." — p. 12. 

TEaTIMONV OF THE ' MAUVLANO JOURNAL AND BAL- 
TIMORE ADVERTISKR,' OK .MAY 30, 1768, 

" In the ordinary course of the business of the 
country, the punishment of relations frequently 
happens on the same farm, and in view of each 
other: the father often sees iiis beloved son — the 
son his venerable sire — th(! mother her niuel> 
loved daiinhter — the daufrliter her afl'i ctionate 
parent — the Inisband sees the wife of his bosom, 
and she the husl)and of her atleetion, rriifUii 
bound up witliout delicacy or mercy, and witimut 
darinjr lo interpose in each other's behalf, and 
punished with all tlie extremity of incensed rape, 
and all the ripor of unrelentinix severity. \a\ us 
reverse the case, and suppose it ours : all is si- 
lent JIORROR I" 

TESTIMO.NV OF THE UON. WILLIAM riNirKNF.V, OF 
MARY LAN n. 

In a speech before the Maryland House of 
Delegates, in 17>^'.». Mr. V. calls slavery in that 
state, "a speaking |>ieturc of ahnminnhle oppres- 
sion ;" and adds : " It will not do thus to 

act like unrelenlinff tyrnnts, perpelually sermon, 
izing it with lilMriy as our text, and actual op- 
jtression for our commentary. Is she [Mar>'landl 
not .... the foster mother «»f petty despots, — the 
patron of xranton oppression "' 

Extraet fr»)m a speech of Mr. Rirr, in the 
Convention for forming the Constitution of Ken- 
tucky, in 17110; 

•' i'bo master may, and often does, inflict upon 



him ail the aeverity of punishment the human bod ■ 
is capable of bearing." 

Preiidenl Ld wards, the Younger, in a sermon 
l>cforc the Connecticut Abolition Society, 1791, 
says : 

" From these drivcns for every imagined, a- 
well as real neglect or want of exertion, they r- 
ceivc the lash — the smack of which is all <\.:\ 
long in the tars of thohe who an on the ji! :.:i:a. 
tion or in the vicinity ; and it is used witli i • u 
dexterity and severity, as not only to lactrat. ili • 
skin, but lo tear out small portions of the fl< .-:i ut 
almost every stroke. 

" This is the general treatment of the slaves. 
But many individuals suftVr still more t^'r 1,-. 
Many, jmniy are knocked down; some hai' t''>r 
eyes beaten out : some hare an arm or a Ir , 
en, or chopped off ; and many, for a very • :, 
or for no crime at all, have b« en beaten to «.■ .it;., 
merely to gratify the fury of an enraged mattlLr 
or overseer." 

Extract from an oration, delivered at Bali i- 
more, July 4, 1791, by George BtniANA.N, M. I> 
member of the American Philosophical Society. 
Their situation (the slaves') is insupporlnhU ; 
misery inhabits their cabins, and pursues 1i: i ri 
the fuld. Inhumanly biatcn, liicy often 1. a- 
crifices to the turbulent tempers of llicirni:i • - '. 
Who is there, unless inured lo savajrc rrn 
that can hear of the inhuman ; ' / 

inflicted upon the unfortuna" t 

feeling for them ? Can a man '...■. ■ ....• . 
a Christian, coolly and deliberately tie up, f '■• 
screw, torture vilh pincers, and b<-at uiii. - • 
fully a poor slave, for perhaps a trifling ucgk» I 
of duty ? — p. 14. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. JOHN RANnOLPIl, OF ROANOKE 

A 6LAVKH0LUER. 

In one of his Congressional speeches. Mr. R. 
says : " .\varice alone can drive, as it dm s drive, 

I this infernal traffic, and ih ' ' ' • •' in-! of 

it. like so many post-hor-- • '" a 

I mail coach. Ambition h- "i tlie 

i pride, pomp, and circumsUncc oi glorious war: 
; but wljen- arc the trophies of avarice .' The 
j hand.cuff, the manacle, the blood-stained coir- 
hide .'" 

Major SronnARn, of the United States' army, 
who took possession of Louisiana in behalf of the 
Cnited Slates, under the ci ssion of 18W, in hii- 
Sketches of I^iuisiana, page 332, sajrs : 

" The feelings of humanity arc outraged — the 
most odious tyranny exercised in a land of frre- 
dom, and hunger and nakedu' - 
plenty. • • • Cruel, and < 
ishinents an- daily inflicted o;. ; . •■ d 

creatures, enleebl.-d with hungrr. lalx.r and the 
la:>h. The scenes of misery and <ii-iir.-ss con- 
st.intly wilni s.-;ed along the coa.«t of the Helta, 
of the Mississippi.^ the woiind« ond lacerations 
occasioned by dem and over. 

soeri«. tort un< "the f. n;: stranger, 

and wrinc blood fnnu i" 

Though only the third of the following nerie* 
of resolutions is directly relevant tn the subjert 
now under consideration, we msert the other 



General TeslinKyivj — Cruellies. 



59 



resolutions, bolh because they arc explanatory of 
the lliirci, and also serve to reveal the put)lle sen- 
timent of Indiana, at the date of the resolutions. 
As a larije majority of the citizens of Indiana 
at that time, vfcvti natives nf slave states, they well 
knew the actual condition of the slaves. 

1. "lti;soLVKU UNANIMOUSLY, by the Lerrislativc 
("Council and House of Reprcsentalives of In- 
diana Territory, that a suspension of tiic sixlli 
aiticde of compact between the United Slates 
and tiie (erritories and states north west of the 
river Oiiio, passed the 13lh day of .January, 1783, 
for the term of ten years, would bo highly ad- 
vantageous to the territory, and meet the a])- 
probation of at least nine-tenths of the good citi- 
zens of tiie same. 

2. " Rksolveu UNANiAiousLV, that tlie abstract 
question of liberty and slavery, is not considered 
as involved in a suspension of the said article, 
inasmuch as the number of slaves in the United 
States would not be augmented by the measure. 

3. " Rr.soLVED UNANIMOUSLY, that the suspen- 
bion of the said article would be equally advanta- 
geous to the territory, to the states from whence 
the negroes would be brought, and to the negroes 
themselves. The states which are overburtliened 
with negroes, would be benefited by disposing of 
the negroes which they cannot comfortably sup- 
port ; * * and the negro himself would ex- 
change A SCANTY riTTANCE OF THE COARSEST FOOD, 

for a plentiful and nourishing diet ; and a situa- 
tion which admits not the most distant prospect 
of emancipation, for one which presents no con- 
siderable obstacle to his wishes. 

4. " Resolved unanimously, that a copy of 
these resolutions be delivered to the delegate to 
Congress from this territory, and that he be, and 
he hereby is, instructed to use his best endeavors 
to obtain a suspension of the said article. 

J. B. Thomas, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
Pierre Mlnard, 
President pro tern, of the Legislative Council. 
Vincennes, Dec. 20, 1806. 

" Forwarded to the Speaker of the United States' 
Senate, by William Henry" Harrison, Gover- 
nor." — American State Papers, vol. 1. p. 467. 

Monsieur C. C. Roein, who resided in Lou- 
isiana from 1802 to 1806, and published a volume 
containing the results of his observations there, 
thus speaks of the condition of the slaves : 

" While they are at labor, the manager, the 
master, or the driver has commonly the whip in 
hand to strike the idle. But those of the ne- 
groes wlio are judged guilty of serious faults, are 
punished twenty, twenty-five, forty, fifty, or one 
hundred lashes. The manner of this cruel exe- 
cution is as follows : four stakes are driven down, 
making a long square ; the culprit is extended 
naked between these stakes, face downwards ; 
t his hands and his feet arc bound separately, with 
strong covds, to each of the stakes, so far apart 
that his arms and legs, stretched in the form of 
St. Andrew's ercjss, give the the poor wretch no 
chance of stirring. Then the executioner, who 
is ordinarilv a negro, armed with the long whip 
of a coacliman, strikes upon the reins and thighs. 



The crack of his whip resounds afar, like that of 
an angry cartman beating his horses, 'i'ho blood 
flows, the long wounds cross eaeli otlier, strips of 
skin are raised without softening either the fiand 
of the executioner or the heart of the master, 
who cries ' sting liim harder.' 

"The reader is moved ; so am I : rny agitated 
hand refuses to trace the bloody picture, to re- 
count how many times the piercing cry of pain 
has interrupted my silent occupations ; how many 
times I have shuddered at the faces of those bar- 
barous masters, where I saw inscribed the num- 
ber of victims sacrificed to their ferocity. 

" The women are subjected to tliese punish- 
ments as rigorously as the men — not even preg- 
nancy exempts them ; in that case, before bind- 
ing them to the stakes, a hole is made in the 
ground to accommodate the enlarged form of the 
victim. 

" It is remarkable that the white Creole wo- 
men are ordinarily more inexorable than the men. 
Their slow and languid gait, and the trifling servi- 
ces which they impose, betoken only apathetic in- 
dolence ; but should the slave not promptly obey, 
should he even fail to divine the meaning of 
their gestures, or looks, in an instant they are 
armed with a formidable whip ; it is no longer 
the arm which cannot sustain the weight of a 
shawl or a reticule — it is no longer the form 
which but feebly sustains itself. They them- 
selves order the punishment of one of these poor 
creatures, and with a dry eye see their victim 
bound to four stakes ; they count the blows, and 
raise a voice of menace, if the arm that strike*! 
relaxes, or if the blood does not flov/ in sufficient 
abundance. Their sensibility changed to fury 
must needs feed itself for a \vhile on the hideous 
spectacle ; they must, as if to revive themselves, 
hear the piercing shrieks, and see the flow of 
fresh blood ; there are some of tliem who, in their 
frantic rage, pinch and bite their victims. 

" It is by no means wonderful that the laws 
designed to protect the slave, should be little re- 
spected by the generality of such masters. I 
have seen some masters pay those unfortunate 
people the miserable overcoat which is their due ; 
but others give them nothing at all, and do not 
even leave them the hom-s and Sundays granted 
to them bylaw. I have seen some of those bar- 
barous masters leave them, during the winter, in 
a state of revolting nudity, even contrary to their 
own true interests, for they thus weaken and 
shorten the lives upon which repose the whole of 
their own fortunes. I have seen some of those 
negroes obliged to conceal their nakedness with 
the long moss of the country. The sad melan- 
choly of these wretches, depicted upon their coun- 
tenances, the flight of some, and the death of 
others, do not reclaim their masters ; they wreak 
upon those who remain, the vengeance which 
they can no longer exercise upon the others." 

Whitman Mead, Esq. of New York, in his 
journal, published nearly a quarter of a centurv 
ago, under date of 

" Savannah, January 28, 1817. 

" To one not accustomed to such scenes as 
slavery presents, the condition of the slaves is 
impressively shocking. In the course of nay 



60 



General TcsUmony — Cnielties. 



waikH, I wan every where witncM to their wretch- 
I'diic-Hx. Likf ihf hrulc crratiircH «jf the mirlli, 
they are (lriv<-n abi>iit at thr jileaHiin: of all wlio 
uieet Ihfiii : hull' uakrd and half »lnrtrd, liny 
drag out a pitittil I'xiHtciicr, apjiarinlly ainioitt 
uncoiih<-ii>tiH of what llicy Huilcr. A tlirt-at ac- 
o<iiii|>aiiic'H every eoniiiiaii(), and a baaluiado ih 
the UKUaJ reward of diitobvdiencu." 

TKSTIMONr OP REV. JOIIS RANKIV, 

Anal ire of Trntirs»ee, rduralrd thrrc, and for a 

numhrr iif ijrarx n prnirlur in nhirr glales — now 

jxinliir of a church in Rijilti/, Ohio. 

" .Many jioor Hlaven are htri|>|K'(l naked, Ktretcli- 
ed and tied acrutix barrel.i, orlarjje bac«, and tor- 
tured with the lanh dnriun hourii,tiiid rcen tchole 
days, until their jlrnh is wani^lrd to the very 
bonet. Others are Hlripjud and liun^ up by tiie 
arms, their feet are tied t(i(r(tlirr, and llie end of 
a heavy i>iece of liinbrr is put between their \v\i» 
in orcirr to streteh their bodies, and so j)repare 
tlicui for the torlurinti lasli — and in tliis situation 
they arc often \vhipj)ed initil tlieir bodies are 
covered xcith blood and mangled flesh — and in 
order to add the greatest keenness to tlieir Buffer- 
ings, their wounds are washed witli liquid salt .' 
And some of the miserable ereaturt s arc permit, 
ted to hanp in tliat ]»osition until they aetually 
expire; some die under tiu- lash, others linger 
about for a time, and at length die of tlieir 
wounds, and many sun'ive, and endure a^ain 
similar torture. Tliese bloody scenes are con- 
stantlij cxhiliilinpr in crcry slaveholdinfC country/ 
— thousands of whips are every dai/ stained in 
African blood ! Kven the poor females are not 
permitted to escape these shocking cruelties." — 
Ravkin's Letters, popes 57, CiS. 

These letters were published fifteen years 
ajro. — They were addressed to a brother in Vir- 
ginia, who was a slaveholder. 

TESTI.MOXV OK TUK AMKRICAN COLO.NIZATIO.N SO" 
CIKTV. 

" Wc have heard of slavery as it exists in 
Asia, and Africa, and Turkey — we have heard of 
the feudal slavery under which the peasantry of 
Europe have jjroaned from the days of Alaric 
until now, but excepting only the horrible system 
of the West India Islands, we have never heard 
of slavery in any country, ancient or modern, 
Pagan, >Iohammedan, or Christian ! so terrible in 
its chnracirr, as the slavery which exists in these 
United .'states." — Serenlh Hcport American Colo- 
nization Society, 1624. 

TK8T1M0XY OF TIIK onAnt'AI. KMANCIPATIOX 80CIE. 
TV OK NORTU CAROLINA. 

Signed by Moses Swain, President, and William 
Swain, Secretary. 
" In the eastern part of the state, the slaTcs 
ronsiderably outnunjlx-r the free population. 
Their situation is there wretched beyond de- 
nrription. Impoverinlu'd by the mismanaifement 
which we have a]n<ady attempted to describe, 
the master, unable to support his own jjrandenr 
and maintain his ulavcH, puts the unfortunate 
wrclcbe>< U|>on ohort allowances, scarcelv suffi. 
rient for their snstennncc, so that n cnat {wrt 
of thrin go hall' naked and half starved much of 
tiic lime. Generally, tiiroiighout tlic state, liie 



African is an abused, a monMtrounly outragt'. 
creature." — See Minutes of the American Contti 
lion, convened in Baltimore, Oct. 25, 182G. 

r%OM .NtLKlt' BALTIMORE RKOISTER FOR 1829, VOL 

35, p. i. 
*• Dealing in wlavcn hait liecomc a larp'^ 
neas. Kstablishrnentu arc made at severa: 
in Maryland and Virginia, at which l! 
like cattle. Thes<' plue<-K of dep^jsit . 

built, and well supplied with iron /.'. 

and pags, and ornamented with cow skint au 
other whips — often times bloody." 

Judge Ruiti.n, of the Supreme Court of Nortii 
Carolina, in one of his judicial deciiiion<>, savii — 

" The slave, to remain a slave, must feci th- 
there is no api-kai. from his master. No m:i 
can anticipate the provocations which the sla\ 
would give, nor the consequent wrath of tl 
master, prompting him to BLOODY VEN. 
GEANCE on the turbulent traitor, a vtngeanee 
penerallif practiced with impunity, by reason of 
its PRiVAcv." — Sec Wheeler's Law of Slavery y. 
247. 



A 

V<l* 



Mr. Moore, of Virginia, in his f>peoch bcft 
the Legislature of that state, Jan. 15. 1832. says 

" It must be confessed, that although the 
treatment of our slaves is in the general, as iii;I<| 
and humane as it can be, that it must :ii.. ^vs 
happen, that there will be found hundnds oi m- 
dividuals, who, owing either to the natural fe. 
rocity of their dispositions, or to the effects of 
intemperance, will be guilty of cruelty and bar- 
barity towards their slaves, which is almost tu. 
tolerable, and at which humanity revolts." 

TKSTIMONV OF B. SWAIN, ESQ., OF NORTH CAROLIXA. 

" Let any man of spirit and feeling, for a mo- 
ment cast his thoughtB overUiis land of slavery — 
think of the nakedness of some, the Ai/nirrv yearn, 
inps of others, the flowing tears and hearing 
s»/.'A.? of parting relations, the tcrt/'iV, - ' •■ /. 
the bloodi/ cut of the keen lash, and ' l 

scream that rends the very skies — ai: '.>i 

gratify ambition, lust, pride, avarice, vanity, and 
other depraved feelings of the human heart. . . . 
THi: WORST IS yOT GENERALLY 
A'.Vnir.V. Were all tlie miseries, the horrors of 
slavery, to burst at once into view, a peal (f 
seven-fold thunder could scarce strike greater 
alarm." — See " Swain's Address," I83J. 

TKSTIMOXT OF OR. JAMF.S C. rtNLET. 
Sou of Dr. Finlry, one of ■' 
onisation Society, and 

a^ent nf the American ( •-. n.. •. • -.-iv. 

Dr. J. C. Finley was formerly one of the edi- 
tors of the Western Medical Journal, at Cincir- 
' nati, and is well known in the weist as utterly 
I hostde to immediate alwlition. 
i '* In almost the last converration I had with 
yon beforV I left Cincinnn*' ' ..r .,, . ., •.. „ , .. 
you some account of «-•; 
crui-ltv towards slaves, << 

I lived at the south. I ainJ<>^l ri grel havin;; 

made the promise, for not only arc they m a/ic- 

noiM that von will with difficulty believe them. 

, but I also ^eai that ihev will have tlic effect of 



General Testimony — Cruelties. 



61 



riviiifr yon into that cholilioni-tm, upon the bor- I 
jiors of wliicli yon liavf; bci-n so lonjr liositaling. 
riio jk;i>i)I(; of tlic north .irc ignorani of the lior- 
ors (if nlnvcry — of tlio a'locities which it com- 
nits njioii the; unprotected slave. * * » 

" I do not know that any thing could bo j^ain- 
d ])y particularizing the scenes of horrible bar- 
urili/, which fell under my observation during 
iiy short, residence in one of tlie wealthiest, most 
ntelligent, and rno;it moral [.arts of (joorgia. 
Their niunbcr and v.lrocity arc „ueh, that I am 
onfident they would gain credit with none but 
bolitionists. Every tiling will be conveyed in 
he remark, that in a state of society calculated 
3 foster the worst passions of our nature, the 
lave derives no protection either from law or 
Vnhlic opinion, and that all the cruelties which 
lii^ liussians are reported to have acted towards 
In: Poles, after their late subjugation, are 
iiNios oi.' EVEK,Y-DAY occuKUENCE in the Southern 
iaii's. Tiiis statement, incredible as it may 
■ III, falls short, very far short of the truth." 

'i' he foregoing is extracted from a letter writ- 
rn l)y Dr. Finlcy to Rev. Asa Mahan, his former 
■ ::sii)r, tlicn of Cincinnati, now President of 
'liirliu Seminary. 

■I.SII^IONY OF REV. WILLIAM r. ALLAN, OF ILLINOIS, 

'inii of a Slaveholder, Rev. Dr. Allan of Hunts. 

ville, Ala. 

"At our house it is so common to hear their 

, Iho slaves') screams, that we think nothing of 

t : and lest any one should think that in general 

he slaves are well treated, let me be distinctly 

mderstood : — cruelty is the rule, and kindness 

he exception." 

Extract of a letter dated July 2d, 1834, from 
Mr. Nathan Cole, of St. Louis, Missouri, to 
Arthur Tappan, Esq. of this city : 

" I am not an advocate of the immediate and 
mconditional emancipation of the slaves of our 
country, yet no man has ever yet depicted the 
oretchedness of the situation of the slaves in co- 
ors too dark for the truth. ... I know that many 
rood people are not aware of the treatment to 
ohich slaves are usually subjected, nor have they 
my just idea of the extent of the evil." 

TESTIMONY OF REV. JAMES A. THOME, 

|4 native of Kentucky — Son of Arthur Thome 
Esq., till recently a Slaveholder. 

" Slavery is the parent of more suffering than 
lias flowed from any one source since the date of 
its existence. Such sufferings too ! Suffer, 
'lings inconceivable and innumerable — unmingled 
'wretchedness from the tics of nature rudely 
proken and destroyed, the anutest bodily tortures, 
groans, tears arid blood — lying for ever in weari- 
ness and painfulness, in watchings, in hunger 
and in thirst, in cold and nakedness. 

" Brethren of the North, be not deceived. 
These sufferings still exist, and despite the ef- 
forts of their cruel authors to hush them down, 
and confine them witliin the precincts of their 
own plantations, they will ever and anon, strug- 
gle up and reach the ear of humanity." — Mr. 
Thome's Speech at New York, May, 1834. 



testimony of tiik maryvillk (tkn.xkhhee; 

I.NTKLLlGliNCKIl, OK OCT. 4, 183.'). 

Tlic Editor, in speaking of the sufTcrings of 
the slaves which are taken by the internal trade 
to the South West, says : 

" Place yourself in imagination, for a mo- 
mcnt, in their conditicjn. With heavy galling 
chains, riveted upon your person ; half-naked, 
half-stanied ; your back lacerated with the 
' knotted VVliij) ;' traveling to a region where 
your condition througli time will be second only 
to the ivretched creatures in Hell. 

" This depicting is not visionary. Would to 
God that it was." 

TESTIMONY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN SYNOD OF 
KENTUCKY ; 

A large majority of whom are slaveholders. 

" This system licenses and produces great 
cruelty. 

" Mangling, imprisonment, starvation, every 
species of torture, may be inflicted upon him, 
(the slave,) and he has no redress. 

" There are now in our whole land two mil- 
lions of human beings, exposed, defenceless, to 
every insult, and every injury short of maiming 
or death, which their fellow-men may choose to 
inflict. They suffer all that can be inflicted by 
wanton caprice, by grasping avarice, by brutal 
lust, by malignant spite, and by insane 
anger. Their happiness is the sport of every 
whim, and the prey of every passion that may, 
occasionally, or habitually, infest the master's 
bosom. If we could calculate the amount of 
wo endured by ill-treated slaves, it would over- 
whelm every compassionate heart — it would 
move even the obdurate to sjonpathy. There is 
also a vast sum of suffering inflicted upon the 
slave by humane masters, as a punishment for 
that idleness and misconduct which slavery na- 
turally produces. * * * 

" -Br«<«i sifrzjoes and all the varied kinds of 
personal indignities, are not the only species of 
cruelty which slavery licenses." * * 

Testimony OF THE Rev. N. H, Harding, Pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church, in Oxford, North 
Carolina, a slaveholder. 

" I am greatly surprised that you should in any 
form have been the apologist of a system so full 
of deadly poison to all holiness and benevolence 
as slavery, the concocted essence of fraud, sel- 
fishness, and cold hearted tyranny, and the fruit- 
ful parent of unnumbered evils, both to the op- 
pressor and the oppressed, the one thousandth 

PART OF which HAS NEVER BEEN BROUGHT TO 
LIGHT." 

Mr. Asa a. Stone, a theological student, who 
lived near Natchez, (Mi.,) inlS34and 5, sent the 
following with other testimony, to be published 
under his own name, in the N. Y. Evangelist, 
while he was still residing there. 

" Floggings for all offences, including defi- 
ciencies in work, are frightfully common, and 
most terribly severe. 

" Rubbing with salt and red pepper is very com. 
mon after a severe lohipping." 



62 



Punishments — Floggings. 



Tehtimonv op Kp.v. rniNKAH Smitu, Ccntn-villc. 
Allcjfany.Co., N. Y. wlio lived four yearn at llie 
t<oiiUi. 

" 'I'Ikv arc liadly clothed, ba«lly fed, wrcilcli- 
fdiy l(i(l;,'(-(l, tiniiicrril'tilly \vlii|i|><'d, from inuiith 
to inoiitli, from year to year, Iroiu cliildhood to 
old ajje." 

Uev. Joscrii "M. Sadd, Caatilc, Genewsee Co. 
N. Y. who was till recently a preacher in Mis- 
Houri, Hayn, 

" It i8 tnie that barbaroua crurlties arc inflict- 
ed ii|)on tiuni, such a8 tcrnhle lactralionH with 
tlic whi|), and cx('niciatiii)r torturcH are vonietimcs 
experienced from the tiiuinb screw." 

Kxtract of a letter from Sarah M. Grimkb, 
dated Ith Month, 2nd, 1839. 

" If tiic foiiowirif,' extracts from letters which 
I have rcciivcd from .South C^aroiina, will be of 
any use thou art at libi-rty to publish them. I 
need not say, tlial tlie names of the writers are 
withheld of necessity, because such sentiments if 
uttered at the south would peril tlieir lives. 

EXTRACTS. 

' South Carolina, Ith Month, 5th, 1835. 

• With rejjard to slavery I iiiii.st confess. 



thoufrh we had heard a ^rat deal on lii > 
jeel, we found on cuining South the /i- 
wor»t half ti>o, had not Ix'i-ntold uh; not i. 
have ournelven nrrn much oppreHriiun, ' 
truly wc have felt its deadenini;^ influei. 
the accounts wc have received from everj 
that nobly dares to sfM-ak upon the 
are indeed driilorabU. To quote the la. 
of a lady, who with true .Soutliem hoi-j 
received us at h'T mansion. *' The- n 
people don't know anythin|; of slavery 
they think it is prrprlual lnjnda(rr mertly. 
the drpth of dcf;rnjaiiun that that word n 
they have no conception ; if they had ai 
idea of it, they would I am sure u«e ever 
until an end was put to such a shocking >■ 
" Another friend writing from South ( . 
and who sustains herself the legal rel:> 
slaveholder, in a letter date<l April -llli. 
says — ' I have eonic time since, given \ 
views on the subject of slaver}', which h' 
cngro.ss<;s your attention. I would most ■• 
ly forget what I have seen and heard in i. 
family, with regard to the slaves. / ' 
tchen I think of it, and increasingly fe> i i: 
slavery is a curse since it leads to such cruelty. 



P U N I S 11 31 E N T S 

I. FLOGGINGS. 



The slaves are terribly lacerated with whips, 
paddles, «!t,c. ; red pepper and salt arc rubbed 
into Ihcir mangled flesh ; hot brine and turpcn- 
tine arc poured into their gashes ; and innumer- 
able other tortures inflicted upon them. 

We will in the first place, prove by a cloud of 
witnesses, that the slaves arc whipped with such 
inhuman wverity, as to lacerate and mangle 
their flesh in the most shocking manner, leaving 
permanent scars and ridges; after establishing 
iJiis, wc will present a mass of testimony, con- 
cerning a great variety of other tortures. The 
testimony, Ibr the most part, will be that of the 
elavcbolders lhcnisdve?iand in thrir own chosen 
Wntds. A large portion of it will be taken from 
the advertisements, which they have published 
in their own newspapers, describing by tlic 



scars on their bodies made by the whip, their 
own runaway slaves. To copy these advertise- 
ments fntire would require a great amount of 
space, and flood the reader with a vast mass of 
matter irrelevant to the point before Us ; we 
shall therefore insert only »o much of each, as j 
will intelligibly sot forth the precise point under 
consideration. In the column under tlie wo 
" witnesses," will be found the name of the in- 
vidual.who signs the advertisement, or for when; ; 
is signed.with his or her place of residence, and' 
name and date of the paper, in which it app< 
cd, and generally the name of tlic place wher^ 
is published. OpjioMte the name of each witn< 
will Ik- an extract, from the advertisement, r 
taining lii« or her tcstiroooy. 



wirNKssFj*. 



Mr. T). JikM, Jailor, llnvl.lwn Co.. 
Ti'imr>wi>, in ilic " Niu«livllle Uaiiner, 
IKc lOOi, 183H. 



Mr. Rnttrrt NIrnll, Daupliln Kt. ho- 
twiwn I'liiiiinniirl nnd Coiiri'iillnii St'*, 
Molillr, Alnlmnin, In the " Mubtlc tVmi- 
mocinl AdviTtlwr." 

Mr. Ilrvani Johiimn, Fort Vnllry, 
Hnu'ioM t n.. (Jfiirnln, In tlio " Hl.tiil.Tni 
nC linlim," Millr«l)|rvilli> Ua. (Vi. '2, 
ItCW. 

Mr. JniTim T IV Jnmrtt, Vnmon, 

Autaiit«<' Mnlininn, in the " Pnwa- 

cot* Uoxcttc," July, M, ItOrt. 



TTSTIMOXV. 

"Committed to jail as a runaway, a negro woman named,-, 
Martha, 17 or IS yeare of age, has twmerau* tear* uf th** 
trhip on her back." 

"Ten dollars reward for my woman Siby, rery much scan 
about the neck nnd ears by vchipping." 

" Ranawav, a nepro woman, named Maria, »vme »r<ir* en h'r 
hack occaswiird />i/ the whip." 

" Stolen a negro woman, named Celia. On examining her 
back you will find markt caused by the tcAip." 



Punishments — Floggings. 



63 



Maurico Y. Garcia, Sheriff of the 
County of Jctft'rrion, La., in the " Now 
^rloans Bee," August, 14, 1838. 

R. J. Bland, Sheriff of Claiborne Co, 
Vliss., in the " Charleston (S.G.) Cou- 
rier," August, 28, 1838. 

Mr. Jainns Noe, Red River Landing, 
La., in the " Sentinel," Vicksburg, 
yiiss., August 33, 1837. 

William Craze, jailor, Alexandria, La. 
n tlie " Planter's Ditelligencer," Sept. 
!0, 1838. 



John A. Rowland, jailor, Lumberton, 
orth Carolina, In the " Fayetteville 
;N. C.) Observer," June 20, 1838. 

J. K. Roberts, sheriff, Blount county, 
\li.., in the Huntsville Democrat," 
3ec. 9, 1838. 

Mr. H. Varillat, No. 23 Girod street, 
'^&yv Orleans — in the " Commercial 
JBulletin," August 27, 1838. 

Mr. Cornelius D.Tolin, Augusta, Ga., 
n the " Chionicle and Sentinel," Oct. 
% 1838. 

W. H. Brasseale, sheriff, Blount coun- 
ky, Ala., in the " Huntsville Democrat." 
rune 9, 1838. 



TESTIMONY. 

" Lodged in jail, a mulatto boy, having large marlcs of the 
whip, on his shoulders and other parts of his body." 

" Was committed a negro boy, named Tom, is much marked 
with the whip," 

" Ranaway, a negro fellow named Dick — has many scars on hi^ 
back from being whipped." 

" Committed to jail, a negro slave — his back is very badly 
scarred." 

" Committed, a mulatto fellow — his back shows lasting im- 
pressions of the whip, and leaves no doubt of his being a sl.we." 

" Committed to jail, a negro man — his back much marked by 
the whip." 

" Ranaway, the negro slave named Jupiter — has a fresh mark 
of a cowskiu on one of his cheeks," 

" Ranaway, a negro man named Johnson — he has a great 
many marks of the whip on his back." 

" Committed to jail, a negro slave named James — much scarred 
with a whip on his back." 

" Ranaway, my man Fountain — he is marked on the hack with 
the whip." 

" Ranaway, Bill — ^has several large scars on his back from a 
severe whipping in early life." 

" Committed to jail, a negro boy who calls himself Joe — said 
negro bears marks of the whip." 

" Ranaway, negro fellow John — from being whipped, has scars 
on his back, arms, and thighs." 

" Ranaway, a boy named Jim — with the marks of the whip on 
the small of the back, reaching round to the flank." 

" Ranaway, the mulatto boy Quash — considerably marked on 
the back and other places with the lash. 

" Ranaway, my negro man Billy — he has the marks of the 
whip." 

" Left, my negro man named George — has marks of the whip 
very plain on his thighs." 

"Committed to jail, negro man Toy — ^he has been badly 
whipped." 

" Brought to jail, a negro man named George — he has a great 
many scars from the lash," 

»' One hundred dollars reward, for my negro Glasgow, and 

Mb. L. E. Cooner, BranchviUe Orange- -^^^^ j^jg .^yifg_ Glasgow is 24 years old— has marks of the whip 

a^'fenge? M^y^MisT. '"' on hi^ back. Kate is 26-has a scar on her cheek, and several 

marks of a whip." 

' Committed to jail, a negro boy named John, about 17 years 
— his back badly n 
chin severely bruised." 

The preceding are extracts from advertise- 1 dreds of similar ones published during the same 
raents published in southern papers, mostly in the period, with which, as the preceding are quite 
year 1838. They are the mere samples of hun- 1 sufficient to show the commonness of inhuman 



Mr. Robert Beasley, Macon, Ga., in 
he " Georgia Messenger," July 27, 1837. 

Air. Jolm Wotton, Roclcvitie, Mont- 
romcry county, Maryland, in the " Bal- 
■jmore Republican," Jan. 13, 1838. 

D. S. Bennett, sheriff, Natchitoches, 
a., in the " Herald," July 31, 183S. 

Messrs. C. C. Whitehead, and R. A. 

vans, Marion, Georgia, in the Mil- 
edgeville (Ga.) "Standard of Union," 
rune 26, 1838. 

Mr. Samuel Stewart, Greensboro', 
Ma., in the " Southern Advocate," 
Huntsville, Jan. 6, 1838. 

Mr. John Walker, No. 6, Banks' Ar- 
:ade, New Orleans, in the " Bulletin," 
ii.ugust 11, 183S. 

Mr. Jesse Beene, Cahawba, Ala., in 
he "State Intelligencer," Tuskaloosa, 
,)ec. 25, 1837. 

Mr. John Turner, Thomaston, Upson 
;ounty, Georgia — in the " Standard of 
[Jnion," Milledgeville, June 26, 1838. 

James Derrah, deputy sheriff, Clai- 
borne county, Mi., in the " Port Gibson 
Uonespondeut," April 15, 1837. 

B. Murphy, sheriff, Willdnson 
county, Georgia — in the Milledgeville 
"Journal," May 15, 1838. 



Penc'L'I;K'in\t°'stTF?anSe old-his back badly marked with the whip, his upper lip and 
Journal," July 6, 1837. 



61 



i'u7iM/im<'n/«— Floggings. 



flopRinRH in the «lavc hUIcb, wc need not burden 
tin) reader. 

The for. troinft U>iitimony is, aa Uio reader p«r- 
C0ive«,lhat of ih.HlavcholdirHthemw-lvem voliin- 
Urily crlifvinj; to the oiitraRci. which their own 
haiidM havo' onunilU d upon def..ncelcnH and in- 
nocent men and women, over whom they have 
awumci ai.liiorily. Wc have given to Ihcir tc«tu 
mony preccd.ncc over that of all other w.tneH«.H. 
for the reawn that wlun men testify against 
thniLfrlres liny are under no temptation to ex. 

agfjerate. 

Wc wo will now preHont the tcfltimony of a 
large number of individuals, with their names and 
rcHidenccs. of persons who wilness^-d the inflictions 
to which thev testify. Many of then, have been 
Blavholdcrs, and«// residents for longer or sliort- 
er periods in slave states. 

Rev John II. Curtiss, a native of Keep Creek, 
Norfolk eountv, Virginia, now a local preacher of 
tlic Methodist" Episcopal Church in Portage co., 
Ohio, testifies as follows :— 

•• In 1829 or 30, one of my father's slaves was 
accused of taking the key to the ollVce an.l steal- 
ing four or five dollars : l.c denied it. A consta 
ble by the name of Hull was called ; he took the 
ne.rro, very deliberately tied his hands and wlupped 

him tiU tile bloud ran freely down his legs. By 
this time Hull appeared tired, and slopped , he 
then took a rope, put a slip noose around h^ neek 
and told the negro he was going to kill him, at 
Uic same lime drew the rope and began whipping: 
the negro fell; his checks looked as though thej 
would burst with strangulation. Hull whipped 
and kicked him, till I really thought he was go- 
i„g to kill him ; when he ceased, the negro was in 
a complete gore of blood from head to foot. 

Mr. David Hauxev, a class-leader in the Me- 
thodist Church, at St. Alban's, Licking county. 
Ohio, who moved from Kentucky to Ohio in 1831, 
testifies as follows : — 

.. In the year 1821 or 2. I saw a slave hung for , 
killing his master. The master had whipped the 
slave's mother to df.ath. and, loekmg hun in a I 
room, threatened him with the same fate; ami, 
cowhide in baud, had begun the work, when U.e 
■lave joined battle and slew the master.' 

Samiki. Ki.i.isoN, a member of the Society of 
Friends, firmerlv of Southampton county, Vir. 
pinia. now of Marlborough, Stark county, Ohio, 
gives the following testimony :— 

•' While a resident of Southampton county. Vir- 
Cinia, 1 knew two men. after having b.en seven-- 
fv lre.ited. endeavor to make iheir escape. In 
tL thrv faile.l-werc taken, tied to trees, and , 
whipped to d.alh by n.eir overseer I hvcd a 
mile from Ihe uegrr.nuartens and. at that distance, 
could frenu, utlv hear the screams of the poor 
crraturrs when'lM-aien, and could also hear the f 
blows given by the ovemrcr with some lieavy in- ^ 
•trument." , 



the following tcrtimony of Mr. Wm. Armstr 
of that place, a captain and supercargo of I 
descending the Mississippi river: — 

"At Bayou Sarah. I saw a slave glakf! 
with his face to the grotmd, and whipped v. 
largo whip, which laid oinn the fii-sh for; 
two and a half inehi-s rreri/ ulrokr. 1 ^' 
about five minutes, but could stand it no lo 
and Icfl them whipping." 

Mr. Stepiikn E. Maltbt. inspector of pruvi 
Skencatelcs. New York, who has nsided in 
bama, speaking of the condition of the ^ 
says: — 

"I have seen them crucllv whip:> ' ' 
relate one instance. One Safcbath n- 
fore I got out of my bed, I heard an ■ 
got uj) and went to the window, when I > ■■ 
some six or eight boys, from eight to tweh< r* 
of age. near a rack (made for tying ho- 
public square. A man on horseback r 
otr his horse, took a cord from his poek> i. < 
of the boyn by the thumbs to the rack, and h 
his horsewhip lashed him most severely. H • 
then untied him and rode off without saymg a 

word. .IT t 

" It was a general practice, while I wa* ai 
Iluntsville, Alabama, to have a patrol every n^zht; 
and, to mv knowledge, this patrol was in the iial.it 
of travers'ing the streets with cow.skms. »"''•'' 
they found any slaves out after eight o'clock -.vith- 
out a pass, to whip them until they were out of 
reach, or to confine tliem until moming." 



Major IIoRAcr Nvk, of Putnam, Ohio, gives i 



Mr. J. G. Baldwin, of Middletown. Connecti- 
cut, a member of the Methodist Episcopal Churc!.. 
gives the following testimony : — 

" I traveled at the south in 1827 : when near 
Charlotte, N. C. a free colored man fell into the 
road just ahead of me. and went on peaceably.— 
When passin" a ])ublir-house. the landlord ran out 
with a large'^eudsel, and applied it to the head 
and shoulders of the man with such force as to 
shatter it in pieces. When the reason of his con. 
duet was asked, he rei.lied. that he owned slaves, 
and he would not permit free blacks to come mto 
his neighborhood. 

" Not long after, I stopped at a pubhc-houfc 
near Halifax. N.C.. between nine and ten o'clock 
P .M.. to Slav ovi r night, A slave sat upon a 
»>cnch in the Wr-room asleep. The master cam 
in. seized a large hor« whip. and. wiOmut any 
warning or apparent provocation, laid it over Uie 
face and eves of the .^lave. T! "—"■ ^ "'^^'1. 
swore, and swung his lash— the • t'" 

trembled, but said not a word, i ?. ''^ 

next morning. I sisrertained that the on.v ■ • 'i-e 
was falling asleep, and this too in conses" ■ ■ "' 
having Wen up nearly all the previous uiglit, in 
attendance upon company." 

Rev. JosF.rnM.SAPP. of Castile. N.Y.. who has 
l.itely lea Missouri, whorv' he was j«*lor of a 
chureh for some years. »«▼» '• 

•• In one ease, near where we lived, a runaway 
slave, when brought back, was mos- cniclly !> at- 
en— bathed inthduwa/ liqni.!- bid mib- ..n. 
and a physician cniplovcd to h' a! his wounds :— 
then Ujc same proccw of puni*hmcnl and hcahng 



Punishments — Floggings. 



65 



was TP.pp.atr.d, and repeated affain, and then the 
poor creature was sold for the New Orleans mar- 
ket. This account we had from the physician 
himself." 

Mr. AnaAiiAM Bki-l, of Poughkccpsie, New 
York, a member of the Scotch Presbyterian 
Church, was employed, in 1837 and 38, in level- 
ling and grading for a rail-road in the state of 
Georgia : he had under his direction, during the 
whole time, tiiirty slaves. Mr. B. gives the fol- 
lowing testimony : — 

1 " All the slaves had their backs scarred, from 
jthe oft-repeated whippings they had received." 

Mr. Alonzo Barnakd, of Farmington, Ohio, 
iwho was in Mississippi in 1837 and 8, says : — 

" The slaves were often severely whipped. I 
jsaw one woman very severely whipped for acci 
idcntally cutting up a stalk of cotton.* When 
iithcy were whipped they were commonly held 
idown by four men : if these could not confine them, 
they were fastened by stakes driven firmly into 
||the ground, and then lashed often so as to draw 
ijblood at each blow. I saw one woman who had 
lately been delivered of a child in consequence of 
•cruel treatment." 

Rev. H. Lyman, late pastor of the Free Presby- 
kerian Church at Buffalo, N. Y. says : — 

" There was a steam cotton press, in the vicinity 
jof my boarding-house at New Orleans, which was 
driven night and daj', without intermission. My 
curiosity led me to look at the interior of the estab. 
ilishmcnt. There I saw several slaves engaged 
■in rolling cotton bags, fastening ropes, lading 
Ijparts, &c. 

If " The presiding genius of the place was a driver, 
[who held a rope four feet long in his hand, which 
lie wielded with cruel dexterity. He used it in 
'single blows, just as the men were lifting to tight- 
en the bale cords. It seemed to me that he was 
desirous to edify me with a specimen of his autho- 
rity ; at any rate the cruelty was horrible." 

Mr. John Vance, a member of the Baptist 
Iphurch, in St. Albans, Licking county, Ohio, who 
Imoved from Culpepper county, Va., his native 
state, in 1814, testifies as follows : — 
I " In 1826, I saw a woman by the name of 
jMallix, flog her female slave with a horse-whip so 
horribly that she was washed in salt and water 
several days, to keep her bruises from mortifying. 

" In 1811, I was returning from mill, in She- 
nandoah county, when I heard the cry of murder, 
in the field of a man named Painter. I rode to 
the place to see what was going on. Two men, 
by the names of John Morgan and Michael Sig- 
ilar, had heard the cry and came running to the 
; place. I saw Painter beating a negro with a tre- 
iimendous club, or small handspike, swearing he 
I would kill him ; but he was rescued by Morgan 
I and Siglar. I learned that Painter had com- 
Imenced flogging the slave for not getting to work 

m * Mr. Ccmelius Johnson, of Farrnin^oii, Ohio, was also 
* a witness to this inhuman outrage upon an uniJiotected wo- 
man, for the unintentional destruction of a stall;; of cotton ! 
In his testimo7iy he is more particular, and says, tliat the 
number of lashes inflicted upon her by tlie overseer was 

" ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY I " 

5 



soon enough. Ho had escaped, and taken refuge 
under a pile of rails that v/c.rc on some timljcrs up 
a little from the ground. The master had put firo 
to one end, and stood at the other with his club, 
to kill him as he came out. The pile was still 
burning. Painfer said he was a turbulent fellow 
and he would kill him. The apprehension of P. 
was TALKiorv AiiouT, but, as a compromise, the ne- 
gro was sold to anotJicr man." 

Extract from the published Journal of the 
LATE Wm. Savery, of Philadelphia, an eminent 
minister of the religious Society of Friends : — 

"6lh mo. 22d, 1791. We passed on to Au- 
gusta, Georgia. They can scarcely tolerate us, 
on account of our abhorrence of slavery. On the 
28th we got to Savannah, and lodged at one 
Blount's, a hard-hearted slaveholder. One of his 
lads, aged about fourteen, was ordered to go and 
milk the cows : and falling asleep, through wea- 
riness, the master called out and ordered him a 
flogging. I asked him what he meant by a flog- 
ging. He replied, the way we serve them here 
is, we cut their backs until they are raw all over, 
and then salt them. Upon this my feelings were 
roused ; I told him that was too bad, and queried 
if it were possible ; he replied it was, with many- 
curses upon the blacks. At supper this unfeeling 
wretch craved a blessing ! 

" Next morning I heard some one begging for 
mercy, and also the lash as of a whip. Not know- 
ing whence the sound came, I rose, and presently 
found the poor boy tied up to a post, his toes 
scarcely touching the ground, and a negro whip- 
per. He had already cut him in an unmerciful 
manner, and the blood ran to his heels. I step- 
ped in between them, and ordered him untied im- 
mediately, which, with some reluctance and as- 
tonishment, was done. Returning to the house I 
saw the landlord, who then showed himself in his 
true colors, the most abominably wicked man I 
ever met with, full of horrid execrations and 
threatenings upon all northern people ; but I did 
not spare him ; which occasioned a b3'stander to 
say, with an oath, that I should be "popped 
over." We left them, and were in full expecta- 
tion of their way-laying or coming after us, but 
the Lord restrained them. The next house we 
stopped at we found the same wicked spirit " 

Col. Elijah Ellsworth, of Richfield, Ohio, 
gives the following testimony : — 

" Eight or ten years ago I was in Putnam coun- 
ty, in the state of Georgia, at a Mr. Slaughter's, 
the father of my brother's wife. A negro, that 
belonged to Mr. Walker, (I believe,) was accused 
of stealing a pedlar's trunk. The negro denied, 
but, without ceremony, was lashed to a tree — the 
whipping commenced — six or eight men took 
turns — the poor fellow begged for mercy, but with- 
out effect, until he was literally cai to pieces, from 
his shoulders to his hips, and covered with a gore 
of blood. When he said the trunk was in a stack 
of fodder, he was unlashed. They proceeded to the 
stack, but found no trunk. They asked the poor 
fellow, what he lied about it for ; he said, " Lord, 
Massa, to keep from being whipped to death ; I 
know nothing about the trunk." They commenced 
the whipping with redoubled vigor, until I really 
supposed he would be whipped to death on the 



60 



VuniahmcnU — Fluggings. 



■pot : and Burli •hm-kii and crying for mercy ■ — ' ran away a|;aia, be would kill him. Tbo n^f^p. 
Again \w ar-knuwl<-(l[,'<-(l, and a(rain ihcy wen- df. »om>ou aiian oniK^rtunitvofTiri'd, ran away again. 
temXtid in tindintr, and Uii: Kaine nsiion (rtv<-n a* Ilu waa cau(;lil and (irxucht bark. Agaui Lu 
before. Sonii' wrrr for wlil|i|iing Bi;aiii, olhi:nt wan fronrgi'd, iin'.il ht« fl'hli, iii: ' ' 

thuu|;ht In- would not Hiirvivi- ajiotlirr, and tli< y u»d lliirk nullified with tin- cl< 

oowcd. AInjiiI two niontlu* afltT, th<; tnink wax from biit back, lie tM-canic ap]>;i. 

found, and it wax tlu-n BKcerlainid who the Ihii-f and beneatli the hcavicat Mtrukc would arar 
WB« : and llii; |>oor fellow, afli r beinij nearly iM-at utter a groan. 1 lie Diai<tc-r got tired, laid ■;■ 
to death, and twiro niadv to liu about it, wai< an liin wbi|> and nailed the negrr/a ear to a tree ; in 
buiocent an 1 wan." I thin condition, nailed faal to the rugged wood, be 

_,.,,. , . . f • 1 1 u \t ' remained all ni^ht! 

Tlie following Htatement- ar.- fumi^hrd by Ma. .. ^„„.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^, j^ ^^ conclusion, that 

jor HonACE Nvk, of rutnaiii, Muhkingiini county, n.-xt ,J.,v he wan fo'und dead ! 
Ohio. I "Wfll, what did tiiey do with tlio master' 

•' In the Kumnierof 1HU7. Mr. Joii\ Jl. .MooRr- | The num total of it in thin: He wan Uken bcfof 
1IRAD, a partner of mine, deHcinded the MiasinMippi | a niagintratc and gave bonda. for bin apfxarane 
with aeveral Inrnt loadn of flour. Ht told mc that ! at the next court. Well, to be nurc he bad pki 
floating in a place in the MinHineippi, where he tv of canh, no he paid up bin bond* and mov 
could nee for miles a head, he perceived a con. i away, and there the matter ended, 
coume of people on the bank, that for at Ica.st a "If the above fact will be of any ncnrice 
mile and a half above he saw t}i< m, and h.ard ■ J'ou in exhibiting to the world tlie condition 



Uic Bcri-ams of koiiu' pemon, and for a great dis 
tance, the crack of a whip, he run near the shore, 
and imw them whipping a black man, who waa 
on the ground, and at that time nearly unable to 
■cream, but the whip continued to be plied 
without iiitermis>;ion, as lon<| an lie wa!> in sight, 
any from on(; mile and a half, to two miles be. 
low — he probably saw and heard tliem for one 
hour in all. lie cx])reR8cd the opinion that the 
man could not survive. 

" About four works since I had a conversation 
•with Mr. Porter, a respectable citizen »( Morgan 
county, of this statt , of about fifty years of age. 
He told me that he formerly traveled about tlve 
years in the H&uthcrn states, and that on one oc- 
casion he stopped at a private house, to stav all 
night ; (I think it was in Virginia,) while he was 
conversing with the man, his wife came in, and 
Complained that the wench had broken some ar- 
tide in the kitchen, and that she must be whip. 
pcd. He took tln^ vomnn into the door yard, 
stripped her clothes down to her hips — tied her 
hands logcthiT, and drawing thmi uj) to a limb, 
so that she could just touch the ground, took a 
very large cowskin whip, and commenced flog. 
(jing ; he said that every stroke at flr^t raiseil lli-- 
akin, and immediately the blood came through; 
this he continued, until the blood stood in a pud- 
dle at her feet. He then turni d to my informant 
KZkA said, *' Well, Yankee, what do vou think of 
Uiat "" 

Extract of a u.ttkr from Mr. W. Drsrix, a 
member of tlic Methodist Episcopal Chiu-ch, and, 
when the letter was written, 1835, a student of 
Marietta College, Ohio. 

" I find by looking ovi-r my journal that the 
murdering, which 1 c[iiiki- of vestcrday, took 
place about the first of .luiie, lS3"j. 

" Without commenting upon thin act of ertirl. 
ty, or giving vent to my own fi-elings, I will siin. 
ply give yon a statement of the fact, an known 
from prr»nnnl obncr\'ali<>n. 

" Dr. K. a man of wealth, and a prmclining 
phynicmn in the county of Ya/oo. siatr of Mis. 
aiiMippi, personallv known to iiu-. having lived 
ui the iranii- niii;hbi>rh«M>(l nii>n- than twelve 
month*. atl> r having scourged one of \\\>i nrgrr^s 



the unfortunate negroes, yon arc at liberty 
make use of it in any way you tliink bent. 
Yours, fiatcmally, 

M. Drrrw. 

Mr. Ai.FRF.D Wilkinson, a membcrof the Ba| 
tist Church in .Skencatelen, IS. Y. and the 
scs.sor of that town, has furnished the foUowliig' 

" I went down the Missisoippi in Dcr 
1808, and saw twelve or faurtceii negroes ;■ 
ed, on one plantation, by stretching them on 
ladder and tying them to it ; tlicn stripping off" lh< 
clothes, and whipping them on the nak' <; 
with a heavy whip, the lash fcvcn or ii_ 
long : most of the strokes cut the skin. 1 uou' ■ 
stood they were whipped for not doing the tasks 
allotted to them." 

From the Puii.amthropi«t, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Feb. 26, 1839. 

" A very intelligent lady, the widow of a high- 
ly respectable preacher of the gospel, of the Pr> - 
bvterian Church, formerly a resident of a fr' 
state, and a colonizationist, and a strong ar' 
aliolitionist, who, altliough an enemy to slaver . 
was opposed to alwlilion on Uie ground that 
v.as for csrrying things too rapidly, and witho 
regard to circumstances, and e>p<ciallv who h 
lieved that abolitionists exaggi rated willi r 
to llic evils of slavery, and n.sod to s.iy tl: 
men ought to go to slave statesandstc for •.. 
sclven, to be convinced that they did the niav 
holders injustice, has gone and seen for hersc'.. 
Ilcsr her IcsUroony. 

Kentucky, Der. 25, 1835. 

" Pear Mm. W. — I am still in the land of op. 
prrssion and enieltv, hut hope noon to brvsthe 

the air of a free state. My ' ■ • >-' ' ''avery, 

and I n-joice tJiat my tiir 1 : but 

tlie scenes that I have wr • .ido an 

impression that never can be iiVaerd. and have 
inspired me with the determination to unite my 
feeble efforts with those who are laboring to sup. 
press this liomd system. lam »ioir an olxti.tion. 
"t. You will cease to !« surj'rirri! at ih's, when 
I inform \t>ii. that I have r:"' »( . n a p.«>r ?!avc 
who was l>ealen by his irKuman ina.-trr nnlil lie 
could neither walk nor sl.ind. I faw him from 



for ruanmg away, docUxvd with so oatlt, llwt if be I my window carried from the b&m whom be bad 



Punishments — Floggings. 



67 



been whipped) to llic cabin, by two negro men ; 
and ho now lies tlicre, and if he rceovcr.s, will be 
a sufferer for niotitlis, and probably for life. You 
will doubtless suppose that he com milted Komo 
great crime ; but it was not so. lie was called 
upon by a young man (tlic son of his master,) to 
do sonietiiing, and not moving as quickly as his 
yoimg master wislied him to do, he drove him to 
the barn, knocked him down, and jumped upon 
him, stamped, and then cowhided him until he 
was almost dead. Tliis is not the first act of 
cruelty that I have seen, thouirh it is the worst; 
and I am convinced that those who have des- 
cribed the cruelties of slaveholders, have not ex- 
aggerated." 

Extract of a letter from Gerrit Smith, 
Esq., of Peterboro', N. Y. 

Peterboro', December 1, 1838. 
To the Editor of the Union Herald : 

"My dear Sir : — Y ou will be happy to hear, that 
the two fugitive slaves, to whom in the brotherly 
love of your heart, you gave the use of your 
horse, are still making undisturbed progress to- 
wards the monarchical land whither republican 
slaves escape for the enjoyment of liberty. They 
had eaten Iheir breakfast, and were seated in my 
wagon, before day-dawn, this morning. 

" Fugitive slaves have before taken my house in 
their way, but never any, whose lips and persons 
made so forcible an appeal to my sensibilities, and 
kindled in me so much abhorrence of the hell- 
concocted system of American slavery. 

"The fugitives exhibited their bare backs to my- 
self and a number of my neighbors. Williams' 
back is comparatively scarred. But, I speak with- 
in bounds, when I say, that one-third to one-half 
of the whole surface of the back and shoulders 
of poor Scott, consists of scars and wales result, 
ing from innumerable gashes. His natural com- 
plexion being yellow and the calloxis places be- 
ing nearly black, his back and shoulders remind 
you of a spotted animal." 

The Louisville Reeportr (Kentucky,) Jan. 15, 
1839, contains the report of a trial for inhuman 
treatment of a female slave. The following is some 
of the testimony given in court. 

" Dr. Constant testified that he saw Mrs. Max- 
well at the kitchen door, whipping the negro se- 
verely, without being particular whether she 
struck her in the face or not. The negro was la- 
cerated by the whip, and the blood flowing. Soon 
after, on going down the steps, he saw quantities 
of blood on them, and on returning, saw them 
again. She had been thinly clad — barefooted in 
very cold weather. Sometimes she had shoes — 
sometimes not. In the beginning of the winter 
she had linse.y dresses, since then, calico ones. 
During the last four months, had noticed many 
scars on her person. At one time had one of her 
eyes tied up for a week. During the last three 
months seemed declining, and had become stupi- 
fied. Mr. Winters was passing along the street, 
heard cries, looked up through tlie window that 
was hoisted, saw the boy whipping her, as much 
as forty or fifty licks, while he staid. The girl 
was stripped down to the hips. The whip seem- 
ed to be a cow-hide. Whenever she turned her 



face to him, he would hit her across the face cither 

witli the butt end or small end of the whip to 
iriakc l)(;r turn liir back round square to the lath, 
that he might get a fair blow at her. 

" Mr. Say had noticed several wounds on her 
person, chiefly bruises. 

" Captain Porter, keeper of the work-house, into 
which iVlilly had been received, thought the inju- 
ries on her person very bad— some of them ap- 
peared to be burns — some bruises or stripes, as of 
a cow-hide." 

liETTER OF Rev. John Rankin, of Ripley, 
Ohio, to the Editor of the Philanthropist. 

Ripley, Feb. 20, 1839. 
" Some time since, a member of the Presbyte- 
rian Church of Ebenezer, Brown county, Ohio, 
landed his boat at a point on the Mississippi. Ho 
saw some disturbance among the colored people 
on the bank. He stepped up, to see what was 
the matter. A black man was stretched naked 
on the ground ; his hands were tied to a stake, 
and one held each foot. He was doomed to re. 
ceive fifty lashes ; but by the time the overseer 
had given him twenty-five with his great whip, 
the blood was standing round the wretched vic- 
tim in little puddles. It appeared just as if it had 
rained blood. — Another observer stepped up, and 
advised to defer the other twenty-five to another 
time, lest the slave might die ; and he was releas- 
ed, to receive the balance when he should have 
so recruited as to be able to bear it and live. The 
offence was, coming one hour too late to work." 

Mr. Rankin, who is a native of Tennessee, 
in his letters on slavery, published fifteen years 
since, says : 

" A respectable gentleman, who is now a citi- 
zen of Flemingsburg, Fleming county, Kentucky, 
v/hen in the state of South Carolina, was invited 
by a slaveholder, to walk with him and take a 
view of his farm. He complied with the invita. 
tion thus given, and in their walk they came to 
the place where the slaves were at work, and 
found the overseer whipping one of them very 
severely for not keeping pace with his fellows — 
in vain the poor fellow alleged that he was sick, 
and could not work. The master seemed to 
think all was well enough, hence he and the gen- 
tleman passed on. In the space of an hour they 
returned by the same way, and found that the 
poor slave, who had been whipped as they first 
passed by the field of labor, was actually dead ! 
This I have from unquestionable authority." 

Extract of a letter from a Member of Congress, 
to the Editor of the New York American, dated 
Washington, Feb. 18, 1839. The name of the 
writer is with the Executive Committee of the 
American Anti-Slavery Society. 

" Three days ago, the inhabitants in the vicini- 
ty of the new Patent Building were alarmed by 
an outcry in the street, which proved to be that 
of a slave who had just been knocked down with 
a brick-bat by his pursuing master. Prostrate on 
the ground, with a large gash in his head, the 
poor slave was receiving the blows of his master 
on one side, and the kicks of his master's son on 
the other. His cries brought a few individuals to 



68 



Ptinishme nls — Floggings . 



tho iipot ; bat no one dared to intcrfcrt;, nvo to 
exclaim — You will kill him— which wa* mrt '■• 
tli<! Tvn\M->uiu\ " llr. It mini-, and I have a ri(ri 
do what I |ilrniu- with hiiii." 'I'lu- hfart-nii': 
■ecnc wan rhm- d from public view by drajjum'^' 
tho poor bniiw <l aiul wounded ulave from (li< |iul). 
lie ■trcet into hiii iiiaMler'H irtabje. What fcillowcd 
M not known. The oiitcricM were heard by mcin- 
bers of (,'oni;re«H and othrnt al tho dmtance of 
near a quart'-r of a mill' from tlie ncene. 

" And now, iierliapM, you will a»k, iH not the 
city arou.sed by thin ila(;raiit cruelty and breanli 
of tlje jK;aco ? I answer — not al all. Kvery 
thini; iH quiet. If the oecurrenco ia mentioned at 
ail, it is Hpokcn of in whixpcrB." 

From thr Mohilr Kxaminrr, Avguiit 1, 1837. 

" roLICK RKroIlT — mayor's OKKICE. 

Saturday moritinir , Auguat 12, 1837. 

" His Honor the Mayor ijreHiding. 

"Mr. Mii.i.KR, of the foundry, brought to the 
office tluH moniiiijj a small ncijro girl aj;ed about 
eif^ht or tni venrs, whom he had taken into hix 
house Homi- time durinjj llie previous iiicht. She 
had crawled under the wintlow of his bed room to 
screen herself Irom the nifrht air, and to find a 
wanner shelter than the open canopy of heaven 
afforded. Of all objects of pity that have lately 
come to our view, this poor little jrirl most needs 
the protection of authority, and the pympathiea 
of the charitable, l-'rom the cruelty of In r mas- 
ter and mistrc.vs, bIio has been whipped, work« d 
and starved, until she is now a breathing skclc. 
ton, hardly able to stand upon her feet. 

"The back of the poor little suflcrcr, (which we 
ourselves saw.) if «s arlualUj cut into stringx, and 
HO perfectly ira.i the flesh worn from her limh.f, 
by the wretched treatment she had received, that 
every joint showed distinctly its crevices and pro. 
tubcrances through the skin. Her little lips clung 
clos<-ly over her teeth — her cheeks were sunken 
and her head narrowed, ami when licr eyes were 
closed, Uie lids resembled film more tlian ilchli or 
:ikin. 

"Wc would desire of our northern friends such 
as choose to publish to the world their own ver- 
sion of the case wc have related, not to forget to 
add, in conclusion, that the owner of this little 
jjirl is a foreigner, speaks against slavery as an 
institution, and n-ads his Bible to his wife, with 
the view of finding proofs for his opinions.'' 

Rev. William Scalks, of Lyndon, V'ermont, 
gives the following testimony in a recent letter: 

" I had a class-mate at the Andovcr Theologi- 
cal Seminary, who spent a season at the south, 
— in Georgia, I think — who ri'lated the following 
fact in an address before the Seminary. It ocea- 
••Kined verv deep sensation on the part of op- 
ponentj). The gentleman was Mr. Julius C. An- 
thony, of Taunton, Mass. He graduated at the 
Senunarv in l.'^3."). I do not know wl^re he is 
now wttled. I have no doubt of the fact, as he 
WM an ryr.iritnrss of it. The man with whom 
he rcsidi-d bnd a very atliletic slave — a valuable 
fellow — a lilarkxmith. On a certain day a small 
strep of le.Ttlu-r was miiwing. The man's little 
•on nceus»'d thi^ slave of ntealing it. He denied the 
charge, while the Ixiy most confidently asserted it. 
Tlio alavc was brought out into the yard and 



bound — his hands below his kn«^, and ft stick 

— " hin kneci, MI that he would tic ujKin 

II form of the |i-lti r S. One of the 
ud on fifty laKlies — he still denied the 
lli< it — waj» turned over and fifty more put on. 
.Sometimes ihu master and Komctinica the OTcr. 
seers whipping — as ilicy relieved each other to 
take brcatli. Then he was for a time left to 
hims'-lf, and in the ri.--- ' ■' • v received 
Poi'R iiiMiRKU ijksiiK- ' charge. 

Next murning .Mr. Af.' ' — the sun 

was just rising — he saw the man greatly enfee- 
bled, leaning against a stump. It wa-t time lo go 
to work — he attempted to rise, but fi II back — 
again attempted, and again fell back — still mak- 
ing the attempt, and still falling bark, Mr. .An- 
thony thought, nearly twenty timet before he 
succeeded in standing — he then staggereil off to 
his shop. In course of the morning .Mr. A. went 
to the door and looked in. Two overseers were 
standing by. The slave was feverish and sick — 
his skin and mouth dr}' and parched. He was 
V( ry thirsty. One of the nver^eers, while Mr. A. 
was bxiking at him, inquired of the other whether 
it were not Ix'st to give him a little water. * No . 
damn him, he will do well enough,' was the rr- 
|)ly from the other overseer. This was all the 

' n-lief gained by the poor slave. .\ few davs after, 
the slaveholder's sou confrtsed that he stole the 

, strap himself.'^ 

I Rev. D. C. Eastman, a minister of the Mclho- 
j dist Episcopal church at Bloomingburg, Fayette 
I county, Ohio, has just forwarded a letter, from 
which the following is an extract : 

j "George Rokbick, an old and respectable 
farmer, nt ar Bloomingburg, Fayette rountv, 
, t)hio, a member of llie Methodist Episcopal 
j church, says, that almost forty.thrrc years ago, 
he saw in Bath county. Virginia, a s'ave girl 
wilii a sore between the shoulders of the size and 
! shape of a smoothing iron. The girl was • owned • 
I bv one M'Neil. A slaveholder who boarded at 
M'Neil's staled Uiat Mrs. M'Neil had placed the 
afon'said iron when hot, between tlic girl's shoul- 
ders, and produced the sore. 

" Roebuck was once at this M'Neil's father's, 
and whilst the old man wt»s at morning prayer, 
ho heard the son plying the whip upon a slave out 
of doors. 

"Eli West, of Concord township, Payette 
coimty, Ohio, formerly of North Carolina, a 
farmer and an exhorter in the Mtthodisl Pro- 
testant church, says, that many years since he 
went to Uve with an uncle who owned about fifty 
negroes. Soon after his arrival, his uncle ordered 
his waiting l)oy, who was naked, to be tici," — his 
hands to a bnr<;e rack, and his feet togri.'v r. with 
a rail paitscd between his legH, and held down by 
a p< rson at each end. In tliis pa«<iti><n he was 
whipped, from neck to feet, till covered with 
blood ; af\er which he was salted. 

" His uncle's slaves received one quart of com 
each day, and that only, and were allowed one 
hour each day to cook and cat it. They liad no 
nie.it but onc<- in tlie year. Such was the gcneiml 
usage in Uiat country. 

" W'rst. after this, lived one year with Eaqoire 
Starky and mother. They had two hundred 



Punishments — Floggings. 



69 



slaves, who received the usual trcatixicnt. of stan-- 
ation, nakedness, and the cowhide. Tiicy had one 
likely nejrro woman wlio bore no children! For 
thifinefrleet, her Hiistrcss had her back made naked 
and as(!vere whipping inflicted. JJut as she con- 
tinued barren, she was sold to the ' negro buyers.' 

" Thomas JjAIIiumeii, a deacon in the Presby- 
terian church at JJloominirburg, Fayette county, 
Ohio, and a rcspectal)le larnicr, says, that in April, 
1837, as he was going down the Mississij)j)i river, 
about fifty miles below Natchez, he saw ahead, 
on the left side of the river, a colored person tied 
to a post, and a man with a driver's whip, the 
lash about eight or ten feet long. With this the 
man commenced, with much deliberation, to whip, 
with much apparent force, and continued till he 
got out of sight. 

" When coming up the river forty or fifty 
miles below Vicksburg, a Judge Owens came on 
board the steamboat. He was owner of a cotton 
plantation below there, and on being told of the 
above whipping, he said that slaves were often 
whipped to death for great offences, such as steal- 
ing, &c. — but that when death followed, the 
overseers were generally severely reproved 1 

"About the same time, he spent a night at Mr. 
Casey's, three miles from Columbia, South Caro- 
lina. Whilst there they heard him giving orders 
as to what was to be done, and amongst other 
things, ' That nigger must be buried.' On in- 
quiry, he learnt that a gentleman traA'eling with 
a servant, had a short time previous called there. 
and said his servant had just been taken ill, and 
he should be under the necessity of leaving him. 
lie did so. The slave became worse, and Casey 
called in a physician, who pronounced it an old 
case, and said that he must shortly die. The 
slave said, if that was the case he would now tell 
the truth. He had been attacked, a long time 
since, with a difficulty in the side — his master 
swore he would 'have his ovv'n out of him,' and 
started off" to sell him, with a threat to kill him 
if he told he had been sick, more than a few 
days. They saw them making a rough plank 
box to bury him in. 

" In March, 1833, twent3'--five or thirty miles 
south of Columbia, on the great road through 
Sumpterville district, they saw a large company 
of female slaves carrying rails and building fence. 
Three of them were far advanced in pregnancy. 

" In the month of January, 1838, he put up with 
a drove of mules and horses, at one Adams', on 
the Drovers' road, near the south border of Ken- 
tucky. His son-in-law, who had lived in the 
south, was there. In conversation about picking 
cotton, he said, ' some hands cannot get the 
sleight of it. I have a girl who to-day has done 
as good a day's work at grulibing as any man, 
but I could not make her a hand at cotton-pick- 
ing. I whipped her, and if I did it once I did it 
five hundred times, but I found she could not ; 
so I put her to carrying rails with the men. 
After a few days I found her shoulders were so 
raw that every rail was Moody as she laid it down. 
I asked her if she would not rather pick cotton 
than carry rails. ' No,' said she, ' I don't get 
whipped now.' " 

William A. Ustick, an elder of the Presbyte- 
rian church at Bloomingburg, and Mr. G. S. Ful- 
lerton, a merchant and member of the same 



church, were with Deacon Larrimcr on this jour- 
ney, and are witnesses to the jireccding facts. 

Mr. Samuel Hall, a teacher in Marietta Col- 
lege, Ohio, and formerly eecrctary of the Coloni- 
zation society in tiiat village, has recently 
communicated the facts which follow. We 
quote from his letter. 

" The following horrid flagellation was wit- 
nessed in part, till his soul was sick, by Mr. 
Gliddk\, an inhabitant of Marietta, Ohio, who 
went down the Mississippi river, with a boat 
load of produce in the autumn of 1837 ; it took 
place at what is called ' Matthcw.s' or ' Ma- 
tlieses Bend' in December, 1837. Mr. G. is 
worthy of credit. 

" A negro was tied up, and flogged until the 
blood ran down and filled his shoes, so that when 
he raised either foot and set it down again, the 
blood would run over their tops. I could not 
look on any longer, but turned away in horror ; 
tiie whippmg was continued to the number of 
500 lashes, as I imdeistood ; a quart of spirits of 
turj)entine was then applied to his lacerated 
body. The same negro came down to my boat, 
to get some apples, and was so weak from his 
wounds and loss of blood, that he could not get 
up the bank, but fell to the ground. The crime 
for which the negro was whipped, was that of 
telling the other negroes, that the overseer had 
lain with his wife." 

Mr. Hall adds :— 

"The following statement is made by a 
young man from Western Virginia. He is 
a member of the Presbyterian Church, and a 
student in Marietta College. All that prevents 
the introduction of his navie, is the peril to his 
life, which would probably be the consequence, 
on his return to Virginia. His character for in- 
tegrity and veracity is above suspicion. 

' On the night of the great meteoric shower, in 
Nov. 1833. I was at Remley's tavern, 12 miles 
west of Lcwisburg, Greenbrier Co., Virginia. A 
drove of 50 or GO negroes stopped at the same 
place that night. They usually ' camp out,' 
but as it was excessively muddy, they were per- 
mitted to come into the house. So far as my 
knowledge extends, ' droves,' on their way to 
the south, eat but twice a day, early in the morn- 
ing and at night. Their supper was a compound 
of ' potatoes and meal,' and was, without excep- 
tion, the dirtiest, hlackestlookingmessleversaw. 
I remarked at the time that the food was not as 
clean, in appearance, as that which was given to 
a drove of hogs, at the same place the night 
previous. Such as it was, however, a black wo- 
man brought it on her head, in a tray or trough 
two and a half feet long, where the men and 
women were promiscuously herded. The slaves 
rushed up and seized it froin the trough in hand- 
fulls, before the woman could take itoff'her head. 
They jumped at it as if half-famished. 

' They slept on the floor of the room which 
they were permitted to occupy, lying in every 
form imaginable, males and females, promiscu- 
ously. They were so thick on the floor, that m 
passing through the room it was necessary to 
step over them. 

' There were three drivers, one of whom staid 



70 



Punisliments — Floggings. 



in Uio room to walch the drove, and the othrr 
two t(I('j)t in uti a'ljoinin;; room. Each of i\\>- 
latter took a fi-malr from Uu- drove to lodge with 
him, B« JH lli<- roiiiiiion practice of the driviDt 

(^••nrrally. Tht-ri- m* no dmilil ahoiit thin particu. 
ar inKlaiicf, for t/irij trrrr iirru lujirthrr. The; 
mud waM HO tlitck on tho floor whcru thiw dmrr 
•Icpt, that it was nccciwary to take a nhovrl, th<; 
next rnoriiin^, and clear it nut. Six or ei(rht in 
thiH drove Wire chained ; all were for the wjulh. 
' In the autunin of the hanie year i-aw a 
drove of iipwarijH of a hundred, bilwe<n 41) and 
51) of iheni were faHtened to one chain, the linkH 
bein^jf made of iron rodH, a» thick in diameter an a 
nian't) little finper. Thin drove waH honnd west, 
ward to the Ohio river, to be shipped to the 
south. I have seen many droves, and more or 
less in each, almost without exception, were 
chained. I never saw hut one drove, that went 
on their way making merry. In that one they 
were blowinp horns, Hinfjinir, Sec , and appear- 
ed as if they had been drinkinp vvhiskv. 

* They fjenerally appear extremely dejected. I 
have seen in the course of five yean-', on the road 
near where I reside, 12 or 1.') droves at least, pas- 
sing to the 8outh. They would average 10 in 
each drove. Near the first of January, 1831. I 
started alwut Bunrise to go to Lewisburtr. It 
was a bitter cold morninp. I met a drove ol' 
nejrroes, 30 or 10 in numb' r, remarkably rapped 
and destitute of clothing. One little boy partic- 
ularly excited my sympathy. lie was some dis- 
tance behind the others, not bciiip able to keep 
up with the rest. Although he was shivcrinp 
with <!old and cryinp, the driver was pii?hinfr him 
up in a trot to overtake tlie main panp. All of 
them looked as if they were half frozen. There 
was one remarkable instance of tjTannj-, ex. 
hibited by a boy, not more than ei^^ht years old, 
that came under my observation, in a family by 
the name of D — n, six miles from I/'wisburp. 
This younpster would swear at the slaves, and 
exert all the strenplh he possessed, to flop or 
beat tlieni, with whatever instrument or weapon 
he could lay hands on, provided tlicv did not 
obey liim inntanter. He was cncouraped in this 
by his f;ilher, the master of the slaves. The 
slaves often fled from lliis young tyrant in terror." 

Mr. Hall adds:— 

•' The followinp extract is from a letter, 
to a student in Marietta College, by his fnend 
in Alabama. With the writer, Mr. Isaac 
Knapp, I am perfectly acquainted. He was a 
student in the above College, forthc space of one 
year, Wfore poinp to Alabama, was formerly a 
resident of Dummerstim, Vt. lie is a professor of 
religion, and as worlliv of bilief as anv in « in her 
ot"thc community, ^fr. K. has returned from the 
South, and is now a member of the HOJne college. 

'In Jan. (1K38) a negro of a widow Phillips, 
ranaway, was taken up, and confined in Pulaski 
jail. One Ciibbn, ovcnw-er for Mrs. P., mounted 
on horseback, took him from ronfinement, com- 
pelled him to run back to Klklnn. a dislance of 
fifteen miles, wlii|)ping him all the way. When 
he roacluii home, the negro exhausted and worn 
out, exclaimed ■ yon have broke my heart,' i.e. 
you have kdled me. For thin, (libbs fli-w into 
a violent passion, tied the negro to a (take, and, 



in the language of a witness, * cut hit back to 
miiire.tnrat.' Ilul the fiend was not satisfied with 
this. He burnt hin legs to a bliirter, with hot em. 
bcrs, and then chained him uaked^ in the ('pen 
air, wory with running, weak from the !'• • : 
blood, and smarting from his burns. It wu' a 
cold night — and in the morninp the nrpro %t>a» 
drnd. Yet this monster escaped withtjut even 
thf shadow of a trial. * The negro,' said the 
doctor, 'died, by — he knew not what ; any how, 
(Jibbs did not kill him.'" A sliort time f;- -'-, 
(the letter is dated, April, IKW.) ' (;ibb» v . 
pcd another negro unmercifully because ' / 
iiorse, witli which he was ploughing, broke tho 
reins and ran. He then rais'd his whip against 
Mr. Bowers, (son of Mrs. P.) who shot him. 
.Since I came here,' (a period of about six 
months,) ' there have been eight white men 
and two negroes killed, within 30 miles of mc* 

* Mr. Knnpp, (?ivp« me fnme *" ' ' ' • 

nl)f)iit tliin iitlnir. II'- iciyB iti.il 1 
ili'.iil til'-* n<-.\t mnmiiiK, tlint hl- 
thiit III'! iii-t'rix-ii niririmd llial ' 
throw <'inlx-r>i u|><>ii liiiii. Ilui ' 
till- hllnlcririi.' wa.< the rlTi rt < : 
niiirli i-xnowd I'l Ittx-I'ori" d'-iiic i-"v- '■ "i- •" 
win ijf Wrx. riillliiw by n Inrini-r liui-'b.'inu. 
huvx- (iibtn* br'>ii;;lit to ju^lir'-, but hiy ui' ' 
(!ibb!<, ami nnthiii); was tliiri'lnn' ilono nt)nul i\. > ■>• ». 
fair took place io Upper Klkloo, Temicwcc, ncarUic y\ia- 
buina line. 

" The following is from Mr. Knapp's own lips, 
taken down a day or two since. 

' Mr. Buster, with whom I boarded, in Lime- 
Btono Co., Ala., related to mc the following inci- 
dent : ' George, a slave Ixlonging to one of the 
estates in my neighboriiood, was lurking about 
my residence williout a pass. Wc were mak:- _' 
preparations to give him a flogging, but lir 
caped from us. Not long afterwards, me' • ^• 
a patrol which had just taken a negro in custody 
without a pass, I inquired. Who have j-ou there 7 on 
learning that it was C'eor^'*-, well, I rejoined, there 
is a small matter betwei-n him and myself, that 
needs adjustment, so give me the raw hide, which j 
I accordingly took, and laid 60 strokes on liis 
back, to llic utmost of my strrngth.' I was 
speaking of this barbarity, afterwards, to Mr. 
Bradley, an overseer of the Rev. ^Ir. Doonell, 
who lives in the vicinity of MoresvUlc, Ala., 
' Oh,' replied he, * wc consider that a very light 
whipping here.' Mr. Rradley is a professor of 
religion, anti is esteemed in that vicinity a very 
pious, exemplary ChriBtian,' " 

Extract of a lktter from Ret. C. Stewart 
Rensiuw, of Quiney, Illinois, dated Jan. 1, 1839. 

" I do not feel at liberty to disclose the name 
of the broihc' who has furnished the following 
facts. He is highly esteemed as a man of srni- 
puloiis veracity. I will confirm my own lertimo- 
nv by llie certificate of Judge Snow and Mr. 
Keyes, two of the oldest and most re-jH-ctablc 
settlers in Quiney. 

Qllinry. IV,- il. )«3?. 

" n.-nr f Ir,— \\V horr lirpn Vmf scqnalnted with the 
I'lirimlnn bmllier who han named Io you wnnr farta thai 
(■ II iinitT III* nh!H*r\-nli«n nrhllsl a midrnl nf riziVf sUUc*. 
Ill- \* n nirnthrr of n rhrlatian rluirrh. in cuod landt in ; 
and i« a man ufMrict iiilqurlly of -haiarirr. 

ilr^RT n. Snow, 

'-' l.LARD KbTBS. 

Rev. C. Suwart RcMiian 



Punishments — Flogjrings. 



71 



" My informant spont thirty yearn of his life in 

Kiiitiiclty and Missouri. Wliiist in Kcntiu^ky ho 

ri'sidcil ill Hurdiii CO. I noted tlowii liis Ittstiiiio- 

ny very nearly in lii.s own words, whicli will ac- 

"iiiit for thuir cvidencc-likc form. On llii; {fen- 

'111 condition of tho slaves in Kentucky, tlirougli 

Mardin CO., lie Baid, their Iiouhcih wore very un- 

•oMifortable, generally without floors, other liian 

earth : many had ])iirichcon lloors, hut he 

' r rcimemhiTS to have seen a plank lloor. In 

;ud to clothinrr they were very hadly oiK In 
. iiiiimcr they cared little for thing ; but in win- 
1' r they almost froze. Their rags might hide 
;ii ir nakedness from the sun in summer, hut 
•,\' iild not protect them from the cold in winter. 
'i'lieir bed-clothes were tattered rags, thrown into a 
eunier by day, and drawn before the fire by night. 
' The only thing,' said he, ' to which I can com- 
pan^ them, in winter, is stock without a shelterJ' 

" lie made the following comparison between the 
f-ondition of slav(;s in Kentucky and Missouri. .So 
fa)- as he was able to compare them, he said, that 

Missouri the slaves had better quarters — but 
iiot so well clad, and are more severely pun- 
..^in(l than in Kentucky. In both states, the 
slaves are huddled together, without distinction 
of sex, into the same quarter, till it is filled, then 
another is built ; often two or three families in a 
log hovel, twelve feet square. 

" It is proper to state, that the sphere of my in- 
formant's observation was mamly in the region 
of Hardin co., Kentucky, and the eastern part of 
Missouri, and not through those states generally. 

"Whilst at St. Louis, a number of years ago, as 
he was going to work with Mr. Ilunry Males, and 
another carpenter, they heard groans from a barn 
by the road-side : they stopped, and looking 
through the cracks of the barn, saw a negro 
bound hand and foot to a post, so that his toes 
just touched the ground ; and his master, Captain 
Thorpe, was inflicting punishment ; he had whip- 
ped him till exhausted, — rested himself, and re- 
turned again to the punishment. The wretched 
ButFcrcr was in a most pitiable condition, and the 
warm blood and dry dust of the barn had formed 
a mortar up to his instep. Mr. Males jumped the 
fence, and remonstrated so eflcctually with Capt. 
Thorpe, that he ceased the punishment. It was 
six weeks before that slave could put on his shirt ! 

"John Maekey, a rich slaveholder, lived near 
Clarksville, Pike co., Missouri, some years since. 
He whipped his slave Bill}'^, a boy fourteen years 
old, till he was sick and stupid ; he then sent him 
homo. Then, for his stupidity, whipped him 
again, and fractured his skull with an axe-liclve. 
He buried him away in the woods ; dark words 
were whispered, and the body was disinterred. A 
coroner's inquest was held, and Mr. R. Anderson, 
the coroner, brought in a verdict of death from 
fractured skull, occasioned by blows from an axe- 
handle, inflicted by John Rlacke}'. The case was 
brought into court, but Mackcy was rich, and 
his murdered victim was his slave ; after ex- 
pending about ,'$500 he walked free. 

" One Mrs. Mann, living near , in co., 

Missouri, was known to be very cruel to her 
slaves. She had a bench made purposely to whip 
them upon ; and what she called her " six pound 
paddle," an instrument of prodigious torture, 
bored through with holes ; this she would wield 



with both iiands as she stood over her prostrate 
victim. 

" She thill. i)uniHhnd a hired slave woman namfid 
Fanny, belonging to Mr. CiiarlcH Trabiie, who 
lives near I'almyra, Marion co., Mi.twiuri ; on the 
morning afle-r the punishment Fanny was a 
corpse ; she was silently and quickly buried, but 
rumor was not mt easily stojipcd. Mr. Trabuo 
heard of it, and commenced wuit for his properly. 
The murdered slave was disinterred, and an in- 
quest held ; her back was a mass of jellied muiu 
cle ; and th ; coroner brought in a verdict of death 
by the 'six pound paddle.' Mrs. Mann fled for 
a few months, but r(;turned again, and her friends 
found means to protract the suit. 

"This same Mrs. Mann had another hired slave 
woman living with her, called Pattcrsjjn's Fanny, 
she belonged to a Mr. Patterson ; she had a 
young babe with her, just beginning to creep. 
One day, after washing, whilst a tub of rinsing 
I water yet stood in the kitchen, Mrs. Mann came 
out in haste, and sent Fanny to do something out 
of doors. Fanny tried to beg oft'— she was afraid 
to leave her babe, lest it should creep to the tub 
and get hurt — Mrs. M. said she would watch the 
babe, and sent her off. She went with much re- 
luctance, a' id heard the child struggle as she 
v/cnt out the door. Fearing lest Mrs. M. should 
leave the babe alone, she watched the room, and 
soon saw her pass out of the opposite door. Im- 
mediately Fanny hurried in, and looked around 
for her babe, she could not see it, she looked at 
the tub — there her babe was floating, a strangled 
corpse. The poor woman gave a dreadful scream ; 
and Mrs. M. rushed into the room, with her 
hands raised, and exclaiincd, ' Heavens, Fanny ! 
have you drowned your child ?' It was vain 
for the poor bereaved one to attempt to vindicate 
herself: in vain she attempted to convince them 
that the babe had not been alone a moment, and 
could not have drowned itself; and that she had 
not been in the house a moment, before she scream- 
ed at discovering her drovi'ned babe. All was 
false ! Mrs. Mann declared it was all pretence — 
that Fanny had drowned her own babe, and now 
wanted to lay the blame upon her ! and Mrs. 
Mann was a white woman — of course her word 
was more valuable than the oaths of all the slaves 
of Missouri. No evidence but that of slaves could 
be obtained, or Mr. Patterson would have prose- 
cuted for his 'loss of property.' As it was, every 
one believed Mrs. 31. guilty, though the affair 
was soon hushed up." 

Extract of a letter from Col. Tiio.mas Rogers, 
a native of Kentucky, now an elder in the Pres- 
byterian Church at New Petersburg, Higliland 
CO., Ohio. 

" When a boy, in Bourbon co., Kentucky, my 
father lived near a slaveholder of the name of 
Clay, who had a large number of slaves ; I remem- 
ber being often at their (juarters ; not one of their 
shanties, or hovels, had any lloor but the earth. 
Their clothing was truly neither fit for covering 
nor decency. We could distinctly, of a still morn- 
ing, hear this man whipping his blacks, and hear 
their screams from my father's farm : this eould 
be heard almost any still morning about the dawn 
of day. It was said to be his usual custom to re- 



79 



Punuhnicnts — Tortures. 



luir, about tlio hrrak of day, to thrir cabin doon, 
and, an th'- ItlarkH paNMt J <jiii, (o (;ivc ihcni oh 
many Hlrnk'n «>f ha* r<nv»kin an ojtfwrtunily aC 
forded; and h<- would proceed in lliiii manner 
from cabin to cabin until tlioy were all out. (^cca. 
■ionailv komi- of liia Hlarcn would aliMCond, and 
upon boiiij; retaken tliey were puninlud Hcven ly ; 
and Ronix of tlu-ni, it i.i believed, died in conce- 
qucncr of tin: cruelly of llicir UMpc. I Haw «»tie 
of this niaij'H Hlavett, about Hcvintern yearn old, 
waring; a collar, with Um'ji iron hornn cxtcndmg 
from li:.i nliouldem far above iiin head. 

" In Ihr winter of lbi>H-i,'I» I traveled throuirh 

Iiart of the tttatcn of Maryland unci Virginia to 
Saltirnori'. At Front Town, on the national road, 
I put up for the ni;;ht. Soon after, then: came in 
a Blaver with Iuk drove of xlavcH ; ainoii[fthem 
voro two younjj men, chained tojretlur. The bar 
room was aosij^ned to tlu in for their place of 
lodping — those in chains were guarded when they 
had to (»o out. I anked the ' owner' why he kept 
thc8C UK-n chained ; he replied, that they were 
Btout younirlVllow8, and should they rebel, he and 
his son would not be able to nianaire them. I 
then left the room, and shortly alter heard a 
scream, and when the landlady inquired the cause, 
the slaver coolly told hernotto trouble herself, he 
Was only chastisinu one of hi.n women. It appear- 
cd that three days jireviou-xly her child had died 
on the road, ami beeu thrown into a hole or cre- 
vice in the mountain, and a few stones thrown 
over it ; and the inotlii r weeping for her child 
was chasti^J d by her master, and told by him, 
she ' should have something to cry for.' The 
name of this man I can give if called for. 

" When engaged in this journey I spent about 
one month with my relations in Virginia. It be- 
ing shortly after new year, llic time of hiring was 
over; but i saw the pounds, and the snallblds 
■which remained of the pounds, in which the slaves 
had been penned up." 

Mr. George W. Wkstgati^, of Quincy, Illi- 
nois, who lived in the southwestern slave states a 
number of years, has furnished the following btate. 
incnl. 

"The great mass of tlie slaves arc under drivers 
and overseers. I never saw an overseer without 
a whi]> ; the whip usually carried is abhort loaded 



Block, witJi a heavy huiii from five to six feet lon^. 
When they whip a utave they make him puii < K 
hiH Hhirt, it' )ie has one, tli-n make him he <; < .: n 
on hid face, and taking tJieir ktand at the I ' . 
of t)ie latdi, they inflict the puniithmcnt. \'> . .. 
pings are w> umrcrMal that a negro ihat has n-.i 
been whip|>ed iH talked of in ail the rtgion as . 
wonder, liy whipping 1 do nut mean a lew laiJi, b 
aeroHH the Hhoiildcrii, but a net flogging, and gen- 
erally lyiug down. 

" On nugar plantationH generally, and on »omc 
cotton planlationn, they liavc ne;;ro drivern, who 
arc in such a dc gree res|)oniiibIe for tJieir i.'-'''g. 
that if tlicy are at fault, tlic driver in wh ;: ■ li. 
The result is, the gang are conntantly dnv. n Lv 
him to the extent of the influence of the lash ; and 
it is uniformly the case that gangs dread a negro 
driver more than a white overne<T. 

" I spent a winter on widow Calvert's planta- 
tion, near Rodney, Mississippi, but wa« not in a 
situation to see extraordinary punishments. Bel- 
lows, the overseer, for a trifling ofT nee, took one 
of the slaves, Htrifiped him, and with a piece of 
burning wood applied to his posteriors, burned 
him cruelly ; while the poor wretch screamed in 
the greatest agony. The principal preparation 
for punishment that Bellows had, was single hand- 
cufls made of iron, with chains, by which tlic of- 
fender could Ik; chained to four stake* on the 
cround. These are very common in all ihe lower 
country. I noticed one slave on widow Calvert's 
plantation, who was whipped from twenty-five to 
tifty lashes every fortnight during the whole win- 
ter. 1 he expression ' whipped to death,' as ap- 
plied to slaves, is common at the south. 

" SevcTal years ago I was going below New-Or- 
leans, in what is called the Plaqueminc countr}-, 
and a planter sent down in my boat a runaway he 
had found in New.Orleans, to his plantation at 
t)range .'> Points. As we c.ime near the Points he 
told nie. with deep feeling, that he expected to be 
wh pped almost to death : pointing to a grave 
yard, he said, ' There lie five who were whipped 
to death.' Overseers generally krcp some of the 
womenon the plantation; I scarce know an ex- 
ception to this. InJefd, iheir int<rc(.urse with 
them is very much promiscuous, — they show lliem 
not miieh, if any favor. Masters frequently fol- 
low the example of tiieir overseers in this tiling. 
"GcoROE W. Wkstqate." 



II. TOUTURKS, BY IRON COLLARS, CMALNS, FK'ITF.RS, IIANOCUFFS, Ac. 



The slaves arc often tortured by iron collars, 
with long prongH or " horns." and sometimes bells 
attached to them — they are made to wear chains, 
handcufl's, fetters, iron clogs, bars, ringa, and 
bands of iron upon thrir limbs, iron mnrks upon 
their faces, imn gaga in their mouths, &e. 

In proof of this, wc give ihi- testimony ofslavr. 
holders theinselven, under their own namca ; it 
will be mostly in the form of extracts from their 
own advertiwment», in southern newHpBj)eni, in 
which, describing their runaway slaves, thej-spc. 



cify the iron collars, liandcufTs, chain*, fettera, 
&C., which they wore upon their necks, wrists, 
ankles, and other parts of their bodice. To pub- 
lish the tthoU of each advertisement, would need- 
lessly occupy space and lax the reader : we shall 
consequently, as heretoforr, give menly the name 
of the advertiser, the name and dale of the news- 
paper containing the advrrti»cm<nt with the place 
of publication, and only so much of the advertise, 
ment as will give the particular I'afI, proving tho 
truth of the asnertion contained in the general ktad. 



Punishments — Tortures. 



7» 



WITNKSSR8. 

Will'mtn ToUt, Hlinriir of Plmpion 
county, MiKsisHippi, in tliu " HiiiiUicrii 
ciuti," .l.-icksoii, Miusiaaippi, Scpluiiibur 

22, laay. 

Mr. jQm(!S R. Crcr:!, in tlic " Ileacon," 
Gn.'i-iisborougli, Aliibuina, Aiij^ust "3, 

Mr. Hazlot Loflano, in the " Spocia- 
tor," Staunlon, Virginia, Sept. 27, 1838. 



TESTIKONV. 



" Was committed to jail, a vfllow boy named Jim — Iiad on & 
larirc luck chain around his neck." 



llanaway, a negro man named Squire — had on a chain locked 
with a house.lock, around his neck." 

" Ranaway, a negro named David — witli some iron Iwhblet 
around each ankle." 



Mr. T. Eiifrpty, Now Orleans, Galla- 
tin Hlrrci, bulvvcf'ii Hospital and liar- 
racks, N. O. " B';c," Oct. iJ7, 1837. 

Mr. John Ht'nderson, VV.iHliincton, 
county. Mi., in tlie " Grand Gulf Adver- 
tiser," August 21), 1833. 

William Dyer, sheriflT, Claiborne, 
i Louisiana, in" tlie " Herald," Natclii- 
toches, (La.) July2G, 1837. 

Mr. Owen Cooke, " Mary street, be- 
tween Common and Jackson streets," 
New Orleans, in the N. O. " Bee," Sep- 
tember 12, 1837. 

II. W. Uice, sheriflT, Colleton district, 
Soutli Carolina, in the "Chaileston 
Mercury," September 1, 1838. 

W. r. Reeves, jailor, Shelby countj', 
Teimessee, in tlie "Mcmpliis Enquirer, 
June 17, 1837. 

M r. Francis Uurett, Lexington, Lau- 
derdale county, Ala., in tlie " Hunts- 
ville Democrat," August 29, 1837. 

Mr. A. Murat, Baton Rouge, in tlie 
New Orleans " liee," June 20, 1837. 

Mr. Jordan Abbott, in the " Hunts\TUe 
Democrat," Nov. 17, 1838. 

Mr. J. Macoin, No. 177 Ann street, 
New Orleans, in the "Bee," August 11, 
1838. 

Menard Brothers, parish of Ber- 
nard, Louisiana, in the N. O. ''Bee," 
August 18, 1838. 

Messrs. J. L. and VV. H.Bolton, Shel- 
by county, Tennessee, in tlie " Memphis 
Enquirer," June 7, 1837. 

H. Gridly, sheriff of Adams county, 
Mi., in the " Memphis (Tenn.) Times," 
September, 1S34. 

Mr. Lambre, in the "Natchitoches 
(La.) HeriUd," March 29, 1837. 

Mr. Ferdinand Lemos, New Orleans, 
in the " Bee," Ja:iuaiy 29, 1833. 

Mr.T. J. De Yampert, merchant, Mo- 
bile, Alabnma, of the linn of De Yam- 
pert, King & Co., iu the " Mobile Chron- 
icle," June 15, 18J8. 

J. H. Hand, jailor, St. Francisville, 
La., in the '■ Louisiana Chionicle,"July 
26, 1837. 



Mr. Charles Curcner. New Orleans, in 
the " Bee," July 2, 1838. 

Mr. P. T. Manning, Huntsville, Ala- 
bama, in the " Huntsville Advocate," 
Oct. 23, 1S3S. 

Mr. William L. Lambeth, Lynch- 
burg, Virsrinia, in the " Moultou [Ala.] 
Whig," January 30, 1836. 



" Ranaway, ncgrcss Caroline — had on a collar with one prong 
turned doion." 

" Ranaway, a black woman, Betsey — had an iron bar on her 
right leg." 

" Was committed to jail, a negro named Ambrose — has a ring 
of iron around his neck." 



" Ranaway, my slave Amos, had a chain attached to one of 

his legs." 

♦' Committed to jail, a negro named Patrick, about forty-five 
years old, and is handcuffed." 

" Committed to jail, a negro — had on his right leg an iron band 
with one link of a chain." 

" Ranaway, a negro man named Charles — had on a drawing 
chain, fastened around liis ankle with a house lock." 

"Ranaway, the negro Manuel, much marked with irons." 

" Ranaway, a negro boy named Daniel, about nineteen years 
old, and was handcuffed." 

" Ranaway, the negress Fanny — had on an iron band about 
her neck." 

" Ranaway, a negro named John — having an iron around his 
right foot." 

" Absconded, a colored boy named Peter — had an iron round 
his neck when he went away." 

"Was committed to jail, a negro boy — had on a large neck 
iron with a huge pair of horns and a large bar or band of iron 
on his left leg." 

" Ranaway, the negro boy Teams — he had on his neck an iron 
collar." 

" Ranaway, the negro George — he had on his neck an iron 
collar, the branches of which had been taken off." 

" Ranaway, a negro boy about twelve years old — had round 
his neck a chain dog-collar, with ' Dc Yampert engraved on it." 



" Committed to jail, slave Jolin — has several scars on his wrists, 
occasioned, as he says, by handcuffs." 

" Ranaway, the negro, Hown — has a ring of iron on his left 
foot. Also,Grisee,his wife, having a ring arid chain on the 
left leg." 

" Ranaway, a negro bov named James — said boy was ironed 
when he left me." 



cuffs: 



Ranaway, Jim — had on when he escaped a pair of chain hand- 



74 



Punishments — Tortures. 



'' Ranaway- 



Mr. n. P. Oupi, fVvrrtmry of llie 
"!■ II CulUin rtcnK (■oiii|iniiy, New ()r- 
' iri llir " Cuiiiiiiurclal liullelui," 

M .. ... I8J7. 

Mr. Frnnrlii niirrli, I^xlnrton, AIs- 

bainn, hi (I lluii(«vlllv Uvuiocrnl," 

March H, 1H38. 

n. \V. llndRc-*, Jrillor, Pike county, 
Alahniiin, hi (hr " AIniitgoiuvr)' Ailvcr- 
Uwr," civpl. 'Mi, 1H37. 

r. nayhi, rnptnin of police, bi itic N. 
O. "H"c," Jmicli, ItCt). 

Mr. ('Iinrim Kimln, parlili of J'-fTcr- 
50I1, I<<>iiiiiinii:i, In ibf N. O. " Ili'<-," 
Au«UHt 11, ltJ37. 

The foregoing advcrliucmcntH arc sufficient for 
our purpose, scores of fiiniilar onrs may be gather- 
cd from the ncwnpapcrs of tiio slave states every 
montii. 

To the prccpding testimony of slaveholders, 
puhliphcd by themselves, and vouched for by their 
own signatures, \vc subjoin tlic following testi- 
mony of other witnesses to the same point. 

John M. Nki-son, Esq., a native of Virginia, 
now a lii^iily respected citizen of IIi|rhland county, 
Ohio, and member of the Presbyterian Church in 
Hillsborougii, in a recent letter states the fol- 
lowing : — 

" In Staun'on, Va., at the house of Mr. Robert 
M'Dowell, a merciiant of that place, I once saw a 
colored woman, of intelligent and dijrnificd ap- 
pearance, who appeared to be attending to the 
business of the hou.se, with an iron collar around 
her neck, willi horns or prongs extending out on 
either side, and up, until they met at sftmething 
like a foot aljovo her h<ad, at which point Uiere 
was a bell attached. This tjnke, as they called 
it, I understood was to prevent her from running 
away, or to punish her for liavinj; done so. I had 
frequi ntly seen mm with iron collars, but this was 
the first instance that I recollect to have seen a 
femalr thus degraded." 

Major Horace Nvk, an elder in the Presbyte- 
rian Church at Putnam, Muskingum county, 
Ohio, in a letter, dated Dec. 5, 1838, makes the 
following statement : — 

'Mr. Wm. Armstrong, of this place, who is 
frequently emi>loyed by our citizens as captain 
and supercargo of descending boat.i, wliose word 
maybe relied on, has just made tome the follow, 
ing statement : — 

•' VSIule layinjr at Alexandria, on Red River, 
saw a slave brought to a black- 



" Ranaway, Rdmtuid Colcman- 
iron shark leu on hin ankUa." 



it is Kippoaed he must have 



-, a mulatto— had on when he led, a pnr ( 



handcuffi and a pair of drawing chains." 

" Committed to jail, a man whocalla liis name John — he 
a cU)f! of iron on hit right foot which will weigh four or^ 
pounds.'^ 

" Detained at the police jail, the negro wench Myra — t 
several marks of lashing, and haa irons on her f'tlT 

" Ranaway, Betsey — when she left she had on her ntck an iroulp 
collar." 

To the preceding Major Nye adds : 
" When I was about twelve years of age I livedo 
at Marietta, in this state : I knew little of slaves,, 
as there were few or none, at that time, in tlie 
part of Virginia opposite that place. But I rr. 
member seeing a slave who liad run away iroin 
some place beyond my knowledge at that time : 
he had an iron collar round his neck, to winch 
was a strap of iron rivettcd to the collar, on each 
side, passing over the top of the head ; and ano. 
tlier strap, irom the back side to the top of the 
first — thus inclosing the head on thn-c sides, ft 
looked on while the blacksmith severed thec^illaf' 
with a file, which, I tliink, took him more than > 
an hour." 

Rev. JoiiN DiDi.FV, Mount Morris, Micliitran, 
resided as a teacher at the mi.ssionary 6iat:wn, 
among the Choctaws, in Mississippi, during tlie 
years 1S30 and 31. In a letter just received .Mr. 
Dudley says : — 

" During the time I was on missionary groiind, 
which was in 1830 and 31, I was frequently at tlie 
residence of the a^ent, who was a slaviholdrr. — 
I never knew of his treating his own slaves v iih 
cnielty ; but the poor fellows who wire csc^j;:i;:, 
and lodged with him whm detect* d, found no 
clemency. I once saw there a fett. r for •tie 
d — d riniaxraytt,^ the weight of which can l.c 
judged by its size. It was at least thnrc me'-.' ■* 
wide, half an i)>eh thick, and something over a ; ■ t 
long. At this time I saw a poor fellow conii" ' J 
to work in the field, at ' logjjing.' with siiiii a 
galling fetter on his ankles. To prevent it •■>. mi 
wearing his ankles, a siring was tied to ihecin!', 
by which the victim suspended it when he walk' i!, 
witlt one hand, and with the other earned his bur- 
den. Whenever he lift«d. the fetter rested on his 
bare ankles. If he lost his balance and niade a mis- 
step, which must very often occur in liHine and 
rolling lops, the torture of his fetter \' r 



timo a tier 
•ken crea. 
who were 



Ijouisiana, h' 

smith's shop and a collar of iron fastened round i Thus he was doomed to work while v 
his nick, with two pieces riveifed to the sides, j torlurinc iron, day after day. and at i 
mcetine some distance above bis head. .\t the confined in the runaways' jail. Som 
top of the arch, thus formed, was attached a larffe thi^ I saw the same dejected, heart.! 
cow-Im 11. the motion of which, while walking the | turc obliged to wait on the other bar. 
streets; made it necrssan,- for the slave to hold his ' huskinc com. The privilcjrc of ullrs: with the 
hand to one of its sides, to steady it. others was ton much for him l'> < u • y ; he was 

" In New Orleans he saw sev< ral with imn col. I made to hobble Irom house to Larii aid Iwrn to 
lars, with boms attached to them. The first be ' house, to carry food and drink for tlx- rrst. Wc 
saw had time prongs projecting fnun the collar I'a-^scd round the end of the house where I was 
t( n or twelve inches, with the letter S on the eml silling with the ajjrnt : hr si-emrd to take no no. 
of each. lie says iron coUan are quite frequent 1 lice of me. but fixed hisc}-cson his tormentor tdl 
Uicrc. ho passed quite by us." __^ 



Punishments — Tortures. 



75 



Mr. Alfred Wilkinson, member of the Baptist 
.Churcli in Skeneateles, N, Y. and an assessor 
of that town, testifies as fallows : — 

" I stayed ih. New Orleans three weeks : during 
that time there used to pass by where I stayed a 
number of slaves, each with an iron band around 
fiis ankle, a chain attached to it, and an eighteen 
bound ball at the end. Tliey were employed in 
;wheeling- dirt with a wheelbarrow ; they would 
ut the ball into the barrow when they moved. — 

recollect one day, that I counted nineteen of 
hem, sometimes there were not as many ; they 
ivere driven by a slave, with a long lash, as if they 
were beasts. These, I learned, were runaway 
■slaves from the plantations above New Orleans. 
' " There was also a negro woman, that used 
daily to come to the market with milk ; she had 
m iron band around her neck, with three rods 
proj ecting from it, about sixteen inches long, 
crooked at the ends." 

I For the fact which follows we are indebted to 
Mr. Samuel Hall, a teacher in Marietta College, 
jDhio. We quote his letter. 

I " Mr. Curtis, a journeyman cabinet-maker, of 
Marietta, relates the following, of which he was 
an eye witness. Mr. Curtis is every way worthy 
pf credit. 

j " In September, 1837, at ' Milligan's Bend,' in 
.the Mississippi river, I saw a negro with an iron 
band around his head, locked behind with a pad- 
Jock. In the front, where it passed the mouth, 
there was a projection inward of an inch and a 
half, which entered the mouth. 
i " The overseer told me, he was so addicted to 
running away, it did not do any good to whip him 
for it. He said he kept this gag constantly on 
him, and intended to do so as long as he was on 
jthe plantation : so that, if he ran away, he could 
not eat, and would starve to death. The slave 
asked for drink in my presence ; and the overseer 
made him lie down on his back, and turned wa- 
ter on his face two or three feet high, in order to 
torment him, as he could not swallow a drop. — 
The slave then asked permission to go to the ri- 
ver ; which being granted, he thrust his face and 
head entirely under the water, that being the only 
way he could drink with his gag on. The gag 
was taken off when he took his food, and then re- 
placed afterwards." 

Extract of a Letter from Mrs. Sophia Lit- 
TX,E, of Newport, Rhode Island, daughter of Hon. 
Asher Robbins, senator in Congress for that state. 

" There was lately found, in the hold of a vessel 
engaged in the southern trade, by a person who 
was clearing it out, an iron collar, with three 
horns projecting from it. It seems that a young 
female slave, on whose slender neck was rivet- 
ed this fiendish instrument of torture, ran away 
from her tyrant, and begged the captain to bring 
her off with him. This the captain refused to do ; 
but unrivetcd the collar from her neck, and threw 
it away in the hold of the vessel. The collar is 
now at the anti-slavery office. Providence. To 
the truth of these facts Mr. William H. Reed, a 
gentleman of the highest moral character, is ready 
to vouch. 

" Mr. Reed is in possession of many facts of 
eruelty witnessed by persons of veracity; but 



these witnesses are not willing to give their names. 
One case in particular he mentioned. Speaking 
with a certain captain, of the state of the slaves 
at tlie south, the captain contended that their 
punishments were often very lenient; and, as an 
instance of their excellent clemency, mentioned, 
that in one instance, not wishing to whip a slave, 
they sent him to a blacksmith, and had an iron 
band fastened around him, with three long pro- 
jections reaching above his head ; and this he 
wore some time." 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Jonathan F. 
Baldwin, of Lorain county, Ohio. Mr. B. was 
formerly a merchant in Massillon, Ohio, and an 
elder in the Presbyterian Church there. 

" Dear Brother, — In conversation with Judge 
Lyman, of Litchfield county, Connecticut, last 
June, he stated to me, that several years since he 
was in Columbia, South Carolina, and observing 
a colored man lying on the floor of a blacksmith's 
shop, as he was passing it, his curiosity led him 
in. He learned the man was a slave and rather 
unmanageable. Several men were attempting to 
detach from his ankle an iron which had been 
bent around it. 

" The iron was a piece of a flat bar of the or- 
dinary size from the forge hammer, and bent 
around the ancle, the ends meeting, and forming 
a hoop of about the diameter of the leg. There 
was one or more strings attached to the iron and 
extending up around his neck, evidently so to 
suspend it as to prevent its galling by its weight 
when at work, yet it had galled or griped till the 
leg had swollen out beyond the iron and inflamed 
and supurated, so that the leg for a considerable 
distance above and below the iron, was a mass 
of putrefaction, the most loathsome of any wound 
he had ever witnessed on any living creature. 
The slave lay on his back on the floor, with his 
leg on an anvil which sat also on the floor, one 
man had a chisel used for splitting iron, and ano- 
ther struck it with a sledge, to drive it between 
the ends of the hoop and separate it so that it 
might be taken ofT. Mr. Lyman said that the 
man swung the sledge over his shoulders as if 
splitting iron, and struck many blows before he 
succeeded in parting the ends of the iron at all, 
the bar was so large and stubborn — at length 
they spread it as far as they could without driv- 
ing the chisel so low as to ruin the leg. The slave, 
a man of twenty-five years, perhaps, whose coun- 
tenance was the index of a mind ill adapted to 
the degradations of slavery, never uttered a word 
or a groan in all the process, but the copious flow of 
sweat from every pore, the dreadful contractions 
and distortions of every muscle in his body, show- 
ed clearly the great amount of his sufferings; 
and all this while, such was the diseased state of 
the limb, that at every blow, the bloody, corrupt, 
ed matter gushed out in all directions several feet, 
in such profusion as literally to cover a large area 
around the anvil. After various other fruitless 
attempts to spread the iron, they concluded it was 
necessary to weaken by fihng before it could be 
got off, which he left them attempting to do." 

Mr. William Drown, a well known citizen of 
Rhode Island, formerly of Providence, who has 



76 



PunuhmcnU — Tortures. 



trmvclcd in nearly all tho alavo Bta*£a, thus tcnti- 
fioa in a recent k-tter : 

•* I rcrollocl Hffing large ^nj^ii of ulavcii, pr. 
noraliv a coniiidcrablu number in each gan|r, be. 
Inif chaiiii il, paKHinp wextward over tlic iiioiin- 
tains rriiiii .Maryland, Vir)rinia, fuc. to the Olii'i. 
On that riv<r I have frojuently neen flat hualH 
loaded with thcni, and thrir kee|H:ni armed with 
pistulM and clirkN tn jruanl them. 

" At New Orleans I n-eolU-ct sccini; {^nps of 
slaveH that were driven out eviry day. the Sab- 
bath not excepted, to work on the streetji. These 
}iad heavy chains to connect two or more to. 
pether, and some had iron collars and ^yokea, &.c. 
]"ho noise as they walked, or worked iji Uicir 
chains, was truly dreadful." 

Ucv. TnoMAs .'^AVAOK, j)astor of the Conjjrcjja- 
tional Church at Hedford, New llanipshire, who 
was for some years a resident of Mississippi and 
Louisiana, (rives the following fact, in a letter dat. 
ed January I), 1839. 

" In 1H19, while employed as an instructor at 
Second Creek, near Natchez, Mississippi,! resided 
on a ]ilantation where I witnessed the following 
circumstance. One of the slaves was in the habit 
of running away. He had been repeatedly taken, 
and rejH'aiedly whipped, with great severity, but 
to no purpose. He would still seize the first op- 

f)orluiiilv to escape from the plantation. At last 
lis owner declared, I'll fix him, I'll yul a stop to 
liis running away. He aecordinnly took him to a 
blacksmith, and had an iron hrad.frnmf made for 
him, which may be called lock-jaw, from the use 
that was made of if. It had a lock and key, and 
was so constructed, that when on the head and 
locked, the slave could not open his mouth to 
take food, and the design was to prevent his run- 
ning away. Hut the device proved unavailing. He 
was soon missing, and whether by his own despe- 
rate etlort, or tlie aid of others, contrived to sus. 
tain himself with food ; but he was at last taken, 
ajid if mv niemory serves me, his life was soon 
terminated by the cruel treatment to which lie 
was subjected." 

The Western Luminary, a religious paper pub- 
lished at Lexington, Kentucky, in an editorial 
article, in the summer of 1833, says: 

'* A few weeks since we gave an account of a 
company of men. women and children, part of 
v/hom weri' m.inacled, passing through our streets. 
Ijast wi'tk, a number of sla res were driven through 
tlic main street of our city, among whom were a 
number manacled together, two abreast, all con- 
nected by, and supporting a hrarij iron chain, 
which extended the whole length of the hne." 

TESTIMONY OK A VIROINrAN. 

The name of this witness cannot be publislied, 
19 it would put him in peril ; but his rrfdibility 
is vouched for by the Rev. Kzra Fisher, pastor 
of the Itaptist Church, Quiney, Illinois, and Dr. 
RtniARO Keiji, of the same place. These gen- 
tlemen say of him, " Wc have great confidence | 
in his integrity, discretion, and strict Chrwlian 
principli'." He says — 

" About five years ago, I remember to havi' 
puat'd, in a tingle day, four droves of slaves fur 



the sonth west ; the largnrt drove had 350 slare 
in it, and the smalhiit upwards of 2(M). I count, 
ed Ol or 70 in a single mfflr. The ' coffit chaui> 
IS a chain fahtencd at oik md to the centre of j 
the bar of a pair of haiul eu;!'-, which arc fa-tco.; 
ed to the right wrist of <■• • ' '■ ■ i- " >■ - • of< 

another slave, th'^y st.. Jk 

chain between them. 'J i. lis, 

coOle. The other end is pitnr« <i Uirout;)! a nogt 
in tlic twit of the next handeufi-, and ih<- «!av< 
being manacled thus, two aini ■ Hi 

Up, and the eoffle chain is j 
up towards the Jiead of the < ».. . i- ■ . li 
they are clontr or wider apart in the c«>fi!.-, ae^ 
cording to the nuinbtr to l>c c/jflled, and to I 
length of tiic chain. / hare Metn in ndp.ei>8 of 
droves and chain-roJJIes of this dencription, and 
every cofllc was a scene of misery and wo, of 
tears and brokennoas of heart." 

Mr. Samcel Hall, a teacher in Marietta Col. 
lege, Ohio, gives, in a late letter, the following 
statement of a fellow student, from Kentucky, of 
whom lie says, " he is a professor of religion, and 
worthy of entire confidence." 

" I have seen at least fifteen droves of ' human 
cattle,' passing by us on their way to the south ; 
and I do not recollect an exception, where tlierw 
were not more or less of tliem chained together." 

Mr. George P. C. HissEV, of Fayetteville, 
Franklin county, Pennsylvania, writes thus : 

" I was born and raised in Ilagcrstown, Wash- 
ington county, Maryland, where slavery is per- 
haps milder than in any otiicr part of the slave 
states; and yet I have seen hundreds of e ! .r-d 
men and women chained together, two !•. t ,'.o, 
and driven to the south. I have seen slaves ! u J up 
and lashed till the blood ran down to their heels." 

Mr. GiDDiNos, member of Congress from Ohio, 
in his speech in the House of Representatives, 
Feb. 13, 1839, made the following statement : 

" On the beautiful avenue in front of the Capi. 
tol, members of Congress, during this s< s=^:,-in, 
have been compelled to turn as.de from t;:rir 
path, to permit a coflle of slaves, males and fe- 
males, chained to each other hy ihrir necks, to pasa 
on their way to this national slave market." 

Testimony of James K. PAfLDixo, E.«q. the pre- 
sent Secretary of the United States' Navy. 

In 1817, Mr. Paulding published a work, en- 
tilled ' Letters from the Soutli, written during 
an excursion in the summer of 181G.' In the 
first volume of that work, page 123, Mr. P. give« 
the following description : 

" The sun was shining out verv hot — and in- 
turning the angle of the road, wr encountered the- 
following group: first, a little cart diawn by on«' 
horw', in which five or six half naked black child- 
ren were tumbled like pigs together. The cart 
had no covering, and thev seem, d to have beett" 
broiled to sleep. Rehind the earl marched three 
black women, with head, neek and breasl.s un. 
covered, and without shoes or storkini^s : %iext 
came three men, bare.luadrd. and chained to- 
i^rther irith an ox-chain. I^st of all, came •• 
while roan on hone back, carrying lua ptstola ui> 



Punishments — Brandinjis. 



77 



lis belt, and who, as we passed him, liad the im- 
Imdeiieo to look us in tlic face witliout l>liishiri;r. 
\t a houso where wo Htop[)c;d a little further on, 
ye learned that he had lioufrjit tliese niiserai)le 
>oingH in Maryland, and was rnarehing them in 
his inarmer to one of the im^re Houtlii;rn states, 
^haine on th<; Slate of Maryland ! and I say, 
hanie on the State of Virf^inia I and evciry state 
Ihrouffh which lliis wretelicd eavalead<; was per- 
hitted to pass ! I do say, that when th(;y (the slave- 
ioldors) jjerniit sueh flagrant and i)idecent out- 
lages upon litinianity as that I have deserihed ; 
Vhcn tliey sanction a villain in thus marching 
ialf naked women and men, loaded with chains, 
ivithout being charged with any crime but that 
^f being black, from one section of the United 
jUates to another, hundreds of miles in the face 



of day, they disgrace thcmnelvcs, and the coun- 
try to which Ihcy belong."" 

* TIk! fuel Ui.ii Mr. rriiildin?, In ihc roprint of tbeM 
" Ij|-'Ui.th," in I'^.'J.j, ulruckout lliin patnage Willi all otlirt* 
(lirH|)aragin? to sl.ivcry ami \in HiipiKirlcrit, dof.-? not impair 
the I'orce olliis u.-stinm/iy, Jjowcvtr mur.li U may liinic ihc 
mill. Nor will the next g<,ni;ratli)!i rL-jjafd willi any more 
rcvcTcnce, liiu cliara<;ti.-r an a prophet, bt'caUHf; in llie I'dltiori 
of IH.'i.O, two yearn af«r tin; Anii:rican Anil-rjlav<;ry aocimy 
w;w (brmod, and wlii:n Iih auxiliarieg wen; numb.Tt'd tiy 
liuiidrodH, he inserted a prediction, thai Huch niovenimitd 
would bo ni:ulc at the North, with most diHastrnuH rcmilts. 
" Wot ye not that such a man as I can certainly divine!" 
Mr. I'auldinp liaa alrr.'ady been taught by Judge Jay, that 
ho who aspire.s to tlie fame of an oracle, without ila iu 
spiralion, must resort to other expedients to prevent 
dutcction, llian the clumsy one of antedating bis reoponws. 



III. BRANDINGS, MAIMINGS, GUN-SHOT WOUNDS, &c. 



j The slaves arc often branded with hot irons, 
I'lUrsuedwilh fire arms and shot, hunted with 
iogs and torn by them, shockingly maimed with 
|nive3, dirks, &-c. ; have their cars cut off, their 
lyes knocked out, their bones dislocated and 
Token with bludgeons, their fingers and toes cut 
,fF, their faces and other parts of their persons 
ijisfigured with scars and gashes, besides those 
siadc with the lash. 
" We shall adopt, under this head, the same 



course as that pursued under previous ones, — first 
give the testimony of the slaveholders themselves, 
to tlie nmtilalions, &c. by copying their own 
graphic descriptions of them, in advertisements 
published under their own names, and in news- 
papers published in the slave states, and, general- 
ly, in their own immediate vicinity. We sha J, 
as heretofore, insert only so much of each adver- 
tisement as will be necessary to make the point 
intelligible. 



WITNESSES. 

iMr. Micajah Rirks, Nash County, 
tortli Carolina, in the Raleigh " Stand- 
M," July 18, 1838. 



TESTIMONY. 



" Ranaway, a negro woman and two children ; a few days be- 
fore she went off, / burnt her loith a hot iron, on the left side of 
her face, / tried to make the letter M." 

;|Mr. Asa B. Metcalf, Kingston, Adams " Ranaway Mary, a black woman, has a scar on her back and 
iineYs; 1632!"' "^^''^'"^ Courier," ^j^j^j ^^^ ^^^^ tlie shoulder, caused by a rijlc hall." 

Mr. William Overstreet, Benton, 
' azoo Co. Mi. in the " Lexington 
Kentucky) Observer," July 23, 1838. 



Mr. R. P. Carney, Clark Go. Ala., 
llic Mobile Register, Dec. 22, 3832. 

Mr. J. Guvlcr, Savannah Georgia, in 
e " Repubiicaii," AprU 12, 1837. 



J. .A. Browi, jailor, Charleston, South 
iroliua, iu the " Mercury," Jan. 12, 
137. 

Mr. J Scrivener, Herring Bay, Anne 
rundel Co. Maryland, in the Anna- 
jilis Republican, April 18, 1837. 

(Madame Burvant, corner of Chartres 
(.id Toulouse streets, New Orleans, in 
iie " Bee," Dec. 21, 1838. 

•Mr. O. W. Lains, in the "Helena, 
jlrk.) Journal," June 1, 1833. 

Mr. R. W. Sizer, in the " Grand Gulf, 
li.] Advertiser," July 8, 1837. 



Mr. Nicholas Edmunds, in the 
f etersburgh [Va.] Intelligncer," May 
:,1838. 



" Ranaway a negro man named Henry, his left eye out, some 
scars from a dirk on and under his left arm, and much scarred 
with the whip." 

One hundred dollars reward for a negro fellov/ Pompey, 40 
years old, he is branded on the leftjaio. 

" Ranaway Laman, an old negro man, grey, has only one 
eye:' 

" Committed to jail a negro man, has no toes on his left 
foot." 

" Ranaway negro man Elijah, has a scar on his left cheek, 
apparently occasioned by a shot." 

'' Ranaway a negro woman named Rachel, has lost all her toes 
except the large one." 

«' Ranaway Sam, he was shot a short time since, through the 
hand, and has several shots i?? his left arm and side." 

'' Ranaway my nsgro man Dennis, said negro has been shot 
Jin the left arm between the shoulders and elbow, which has 
jparalyzed the left hand." 

'* Ranaway my negro man named Simon, he has been shot 
badly in his back and right arm." 



Funishments — Brandings. 



Mr. J. nuiiop, ni«hop\-HlB. flumptrr " Ranawav a ncOTo named Arthur, has a cotiKidcrablo #r 
dlmTH^VTwi;^^^^^^ arro,.»nH /.;«,/ an5,«rA«rrn.u.adc by a knUb ; love, lo t. 

inucli of the ((uouncM of God." 



Mr. B. N<7lr, J.llllc OgMThrr, Gcor- 
■ta. In llir "Mavaiinaii IU-|nibilcaii," 
July 3, l^-JT. 



Mm. 8nrnh WnUh, Mnbllr, Ala. In 
Utc " Utti();lu Jouiiiul," Morctl 77, ItST, 



*' Ranaway George, he has a tword cut lately received on 
left arm." 

" Twenty fivp dollam reward for my man Inac, he ha» a ■ 
on hm forehead cauM<d by a blow, and one on hw back made bj< 
*hol from a pistol." 



" Ranaway a no(rro u'lrl called Marr, ban a umall near ow 

Mr. J. P. .\Khford, Adnm» Co. Ml. In hrr rye, A eoud rnanv Irri/i mifmnf tl'ii- 1. it. r A. i* hranded o 

U..- •• Nuichez Courier," Au«u.i iM, IKW. ^„ cheek and forehead." 

" Ranawav nc^ro Ben, has a scar on hij* rijrht hand, bis thtimi 
Mr. Kly Towwnd, Plko Co. Ala. In and fure fiujrrr Ining injured bv beir.?»Aof Iai.1 fall, a part of the boB' 
Ihc •• IVnjiocolaGawUf, Sep. 10, 1M3<. „.„.. ,11 1 ." i l 1 1 ii 

came out, lie has aUo one or two large tcari on hiaback and hips. 

" Committed a negro man, wvery badly shot in the right ndi 
and right hand." 

'' Detained at tho jail, a mulatto named Tom, has a near a 
the right check and appears to have been burned icith powii 
on the face." 



S. n. Murphy, Jailor, IrvliiRtnn, Oa. 
In Uie " Millcjgcvlllu JuuniaV' May 
S», IK». 

Mr. .\. I.umlnalK, PnrUh of St. John, 
I.ouiftiniwi, in the New Orlcaiiii " Uee," 
Marcli 3, ItW. 



Mr. Innac Johnson, PulBskl Co. 
Gcorpin, italic " MiUcilgevUle Journ.il," 
June lU, leiaa 



Mr. Thoma.") Iludnnll, Madison Co. 
Ml. Ill llii- " Vicksburg Uegister," 
September 5, 1838. 



Mr. John MrMiirrain, CoUimbu?, Ga. 
In iliu " ."^outliLTn Sun," .-Vugust 7, 
18.1H. 

Mr. Sloses Onn»>, Annnp<ills, Mary- 
lajid, in lliu " Aniiupulid Republican," 
June 'JO, If 37. 

Winiani Strickland, Jailor, Kershaw 
Di.-<trict, S. C. in the " Cainden (d. C] 
Coiiritr," July H, lt«7. 

Tlie Kditor of the " Grand Gulf Adver- 
tiser," Dec. 7, leO;*. 

Mr. Willintn Bnteman, In the " Grand 
Gulf Advcrtwir," Ucc. 7, 183!^. 

Mr. B. O. Piinmoiis, In llic " Soulhnm 
Argus," May 30.1X17. 

Mr. Jomra .\rtop, in the " Macon 
fGa.JMetecnger, May 125, 1037. 



J. T.. Jnllrv, Shrriir of Clinton, Co. 
MU In Uiu "Clinton Gazette," July 
A 1W5. 



Mr. Thomiui Lrdwllh, Jarlwonvillr 
nn»l Florida, In thi- " Charleston [S. C] 
Courier, SrpU I, lH3e. 

Mr. Jiw-ph Jnmrm Hen, Pleasant 
RUlKr, P..til«liM2 Co. G«., In the " Mlt- 
Irdgcvllli- I nlon," No*. 7, IKT?. 

Mr. \V. nil-v. Ornnsp-biirr Hl't'l'-I, 
floMth Cnrollnn. lnllie"rolumbla l-'^ r.) 
T-lt«:oi«;N..v. 11, 1H37. 

Mr. fnniiirl Mnimn, Wnrrm Cn, Ml., 
In ih«! " Vlckuburs Rtg later," July ttS 



" Ranaway a negro man named Ned, three of hit fingert at 
drawn into the palm of hiH hand by a cut, hati a scar on the bae 
of his neck nearly half roimd, done by a knife." 

" Ranaway a negro named Hamblcton, limp» on his left fix- 
where he was s/iot a few weeks ago, while nmaway." 

" Ranaway a negro boy named Moso, he has a ttound in th 
right shoulder near the back bone, which was occasioned by 
riflr shot." 

'• Ranaway my negro man Bill, he has ^freth vxmnd in k 
head above his car." 

" Committed to jail a negro, ?a)'8 his name is CiifTec, he 
lame in one knee, occasioned by a shot." 

'' Ranaway Joshua, his thumb is off of his left hand." 

" Ranaway William, scar over bis left eye, one between h 
eye brows, one on his breast, and his right leg has been broken 

" Ranaway Mark, his Icfl arm has been broken, right U 
also." 

" Ranaway, Caleb, 50 years old, has an awkward pait oco 
eioncd by his being shot in the thigh." 

" Was committed to jail a negro man, says his name 
Josiah, bis back verv much scarred by the whip, and brandt' 
on the thii:h and hips, in three or four placet, thus (J. M' 
the rim of his right cur has been bit or cut off." 

" Fifty dollam reward, for my fellow Edward, he han a se* 
on the comer of hi.x month, two cuts on and under his arm, aai 
the letter E on his ann." 

" Ranaway, negro boy Elite, has a tear on one of his am ^ 
from the bite of a dog.' 

" Ranawav a negro man. has a tear on the ankle product 
by a burn, and a mark on his ann rcwmWing tjic letter S." 

' Ranaw.nv, a negro man named Alleii, he has a scar 011 b 
bnast. ^\^ a sear under Uic left eye, and has two buck shot 1 
his right arm" 



Punishments — Branding, Maiming, Scara. T9 

" Ranaway from tho plantation of James Surjfcttc, the fol- 
Mr. F. L. C. KdvvanlH, In thR " Houili- lowing riojiroBB, liandal, has one ear cropped ; llob, lias lout ont 
era Tclcgrupli," Hepi. a5, iWil ^^^^ Kentucky Tom, Uuh one jaw broken." 

Mr. Btophrn M. Jnckson, Iti ilif? " [{unawav, Anthony, one of his ears cut off, and hiw left 

« Vicksburg lt,(;UUT," March 10, 1W7. ,,^„ j ^^^^ ^^^^ ^,^ ^^^_,{ 

" WaH committed, a nefrro man, has a scar on his right side 
I'hilip Iloiiprton, deputy Bjicrinr of l,y a burn, one on his knee, and one on the calf of \m lea tni 
llalUUx Co. Virginia, An. 1837. -j^^ ^ .^^. Jj ^ ^^^„ 

Sinnrria & Co. No. ^, New Lovee, « Absconded, the mulatto boy Tom, his finffcrs icarrcd on 
New Orleans, lu llie " Bee," Marclj 23, v.- • i . i i ' j u "^u- • i» i i ,. 

Iyj7 ' ' ' nis right hand, and has a scar on his right check.' 

Mr. John W. Walton, Greensboro , << Ranawav my black boy Frazier, with a scar below and 

Ala. in I ju " Alabama Beacon," „i i •■ i * >> 

Dec. i:),183d. 0"c above his right ear." 

Mr. R. Furmnn, Charleston, S. C. in " Ranaway, Dick, about 19, has lost the small toe of one 
tlie " Cliarlcsluii Mercury," Jan. liJ, r « d 
1839. *°"'" 

Mr. John T.nrf, Sen. in the " Fayette- " Stolen a mulatto boy, ten years old, he has a scar over his 
viUe [N. C] Observer," Dec. 'iC, l«;i8. ^y^ ^yjjjj.jj ^^,^^ j^^j^ by ^^ ^^^„ 

Mr. Rir.hard Overstreet, Broolt Neal, " Absconded my negro man Coleman has a very targe scar 

PvaTufpono,-''S"c%l" 1838.°''"''"''' «" °"° °f '^'^ '°*?^' also one on each arm, by a bum, and his heels 
' ' " ' ' have been frosted." 

Thooditorof the New Orleans "Bee" " Fifty dollars reward, for tlic negro Jim Blake — has a piece 
in tliat paper, August 27, 1837. ' cut out of each car, and the middle finger of the left hand cut off 

to the second joint." 

.rWoif «nmtv!°GLwgi . " -f^anaway, a negro woman named Maria— has a scar on one 

letl^ville "Uiiiou," Oct. 2, 1838. side of her check, by a cut — some scars on her back." 

kif ■■corty:''Mr^f 'tS;'*^''1?Jthem "Ranaway Gabriel-has troo or three scars across his r^eck 
Sum," Sept. 22, 1838. made with a knife." 

Hr. Bezou, New Orleans, in the " Ranaway, the mulatto wench Mary-has a o*« on the left 
" I'.ii.'," May 23, 1838. arm, a scar on the shoulder, and two upper teeth missing" 

Mr. Jnmcs Kimborough, Momphis, „ Ranaway, a negro boy, named Jerry— has a scar on his 
T ;:ii. m tlie " iM'.'inphis Ennmrcr,"July . ,. , i /' • .^ , ■' 'r ^, ^ r i -r ji 

13 if^33_ right check two inches long, from tiie cut of a knife." 

,,„,„,,, _ . " Ranawav, my man Fountain — has holes in his ears, a scar 

Mr. Robert Beaslcv, Macon, Georgia, , ■ r ^- ■ i ex.- r x, j i u i ^ ■ *i t.- ^ * 

in the "Georgia Messen"er " July 27, on the right side of his forehead — has been shot in the hma parts 

1837 ° of his legs — is marked on the back with the whip." 

Mr. B. G. Barrer, St. Louis, Missouri, '' Ranaway, a negro man named Jarrctt — has a scar on the iin- 
iu ii;c •• Republican," Sept. 6, 1837. der part of one of his arms, occasioned by a wound from a knife." 

Mr. John D. Turner, near Norfolk, "Ranaway, a negro by the name of Joshua— he has a ctit 
Viiv.'inia, in the "Norfolk Herald," June across one oi his ears, which he will conceal as much as possible 
-'■ 1838. — one of his ankles is enlarged by an ulcer." 

h/l[;.^Hl[;i;^^?^^;iS?"LSlsi . "Ranaway, negro boy Harper-Aa. a scar on one of his hips 
!2t), 1837. in the form of a G." 

Hon. Ambrose IT. Sevier, Senator in ^"Ranaway, Bob, a slave— has a. scar across his breast ano- 
Coiisress, from Arkansas, in the" Vicks- ther on the right side of his head — his back is 7nucn scarred with 
- l)uig"Register,"ofOct. 13. the whip." 

" Two hundred and fiftv dollars reward, for mv negro man 

Aj!\Ai'^tl!ZSS^?^S^, J'"^-i° - — '^ --kc'i -"^ '^'"^ V^ '- "?h^ tWgh.-the shot 
11837. entered on the outside, half way between the hip and knee 

joints." 

Benjamin Eiisscl, deputy sheriff, Bibb 
' -county, Ga. in tl'^ " Macon Telegraph," " Brought to jail, John — left ear cropt." 
'December 25, 1837. 



i Hon. H. Hitchcock, Mobile, judge of 
;the Supreme Court, in the " Commer- 



»' Ranaway, the slave Ellis — he has lost one of his ears." 



ipre 
ijlcial Register," Oct. 27, 1837. 

III Mrs. Elizab'^th L. Carter, near Grove- t, t u u„„ 7 j *„<■„.,>««* 

'1 ton. Prince William county, Vireiuia, Ranaway, a negro man, Moses— he has lost a part of one of 

'jfin the "Nation;!! Intellisencer," Wasli- his cars." 
ington, D. C. June 10, 1837. 



80» 



runishmenU — Branding, Maiming, Scars. 



Mr. Wllllnm D. niirkil«, Nnirh<% 
Ml. in Oiu " Nalclnii Coum r," July '^, 
1430. 



Takin lip, a nf^> man — in very much scarred ahout the face 



" Takin lip, a nrfrny man — in vrry t 
nd iKjcly, and han the Itfl tar btt off." 



£■ 



Mr. VVoll*^ H. KnirlUh, Monroe roun- 
Aln. Ill Itiu *> Mobile C'limiilclu," 

pt 'i, ixn. 

Mr. Jniin-K Snunilrrn, firnny flnrliijj, 
llawkln-i niiiiilv, Tmn. In tin; " Kiiox- 
rlllo K.islslir," June 0, 1H3«. 

Mr. Jiilin Jinkln!!, Ht. Jowph'd, Flori- 
da, cnplalii or Ihu otrRnibuat Klli'n, 
"Apuliulilfoln Iwizcltr," Juni; 7, IH3.-'. 

Mr. Pi-u-r llnnHon, Lafnyrilir rlly, t,n., 
in tlic iNi-w Orlvaju " Uvv," July 'Jx, 
183H. 

Mr. Orron EIIIb, Gcorgovlllo, Ml. in 
the " Norili Alabnuilan," tkpu 15, 11*37. 

Mr. Zndock Bnwycr, Cuihbcrt, Ran- 
dolpli rimnty, (Jiorgla, in tJie •' MiUcdgo- 
▼illf Union," Ocl. 0, lH3ri. 

Mr. Altrnlinm Cray, Mount Morino, 
PlktTounlv, <;a. in Uiu " MillLdgcville 
Union," Oct. U, IH3rf. 

8. B. Tiiston, jallpr, .Adams county. 
Mi. in till! " Nulcliuz Courier," June 
15, 183d. 

Mr. Joshua Antrim, Nlnovch, War- 
ren couniv, VirRinia, In tlm " Winches- 
ter Virginian," July II, 1837. 

J. B. Randall, jailor, Marietta, Colib 
county, tJii, in tiic ■' Soullicrn Kecord- 
cr," Nov. 0, 1838. 



Mr. John N. Dillahunty, Woodvillci 
Mi., in thi; " N. O. Commercial Bulle- 
tiu,'» July 21, 1837. 

William K. RatclifTp, shoriflT, Frank- 
Jn couniv, Mi. in the " Natchez Free 
Trader,"' August 03, 1838. 

Mr. I'rpslon Ilalley, Ramwoll. South 
Carolina, in the " Augusta [Ga.j Chro- 
nicle," July 27, 1838. 

Mr. Wflromo H. Robbing, St. Charles 
county, Mo. in thr"St. Loiii" Republi- 
can," Juiie 30, 1838. 

G. Goiirdon fc Co. druggists, romorof 
Rampart and Hospital slr"'el.>!, .N'cw Or- 
leans, In the "Commercial Bulletin," 
BepLlS, 18 38. 

Mr. William Brown, in the « Grand 
Gulf Advertiser," August 29, lBi8. 

Mr.Jam'^McTVinnell Talhnt county, 
Gcorcia, in the " Columbun Enquirer," 
Jiui. 18, 1838. 

Mr. John W. Cherrv, Marengo coun- 
ty, Ala. in Uie " Mobile Rcglnter," June 
15, 1836. 

Mr Thos. Brown. Rnnno co. Trnn. in 
the " Knoxvlllc Rcgisrter, " S. pt. 12, 1U.T8. 

Mes-<n«. Taylor, I.awion & Co., 
CliarltHton. Poulh Carolina, In tjie 
" Mercury," Nov. 1938. 

Mr. I^iiif" Pchmidl, Tnubourc, Hi- 
vnudnl-i, I.n. in the New Urleaim" lUx," 
8cpL 5, iitn. 

W. M. Whltphrad, Nntchr*, in the 
" New Orlvaii'. Bullrtiii," Jnlv ''1, IS^l" 

Mr. Conrad Salvn. Clmrledtun, S<Mith 
CkMtlna, in tlio " Mcicury, August 10, 
1837. 



" Ranaway, my slave Lcwi« — he has lost a piece of one ear, 
and a part of one of hit fingern, a part of one of hit toet is Ata 
lofil." j 

" Uanaway, a black girl named Mary — iias a tear on her check, 
and the end of one of her toes cut off." 

" Ilanaway, the negro boy C(c«ar — he ha« hut one eye." 

" Ilanaway, tlic ncgrcas Martha — she has lost her right eye." 

" Ranaway, George — has had the lower part of one of his tart 
bit off." 

" Ranaway, my negro Tom — ha"* a piece bit off the top of hit 
right car, and his little finger in stiff." , 

" Ranaway, my mulatto woman Judy — she has had her right 
arm broke." 

" Was committed to jail, a negro man named Bill — has had 
the thumb of his left hand split." 

" Ranaway, a mulatto man named Joe — his fingers on the left 
hand are partly amputated." 

" Lodged in jail, a negro man named Jupiter — is vctt latne m 
his left hip, so that he can hardly walk— has lost a joint of the 
middle finger of his left hand." 

" Ranaway, Bill — has a scar over one eye, also one on his leg, 
from the bite of a dog—\\:is a burn on his buttock, from a piece of 
hot iron in shape of a T." 

" Committed to jail, a negro named Mike — his left ^aroff." 

" Ranaway, my negro man Levi — his left hand has been burnt, 
and I think the end of his fore finger is off." 

" Ranaway. a negro named Washington — ha« lost a part of his 
middle Jinger and the end of his little finger." 

"Ranaway, a negro named David Drier— lias two toes cut." 

•' Ranaway, Edmund— has a scar on his right temple, and 
under his right ey-", and holes in both ears.'' 

" Runaway, a negro boy tttrlpe or thirteen years old — has *, 
scar on his left check from the bite of a dog." 

" Fifty dollar!^ reward, for my negro man John — he has a con- 
siderablo scar on his throat, done with a knife." 

•' Twenty-five dollars reward, for my man John — the lip of hm- 
nocc is bit off." 

" Ranaway, a negro fellow called Hover— has a cut above Iho 

right vye." 

"Ranaway. the negro man Tlardy— has a scar on tlie upp«rr 
lip, and another made with a knife on bis nerk." 

" Ranaway, Henry— has half of one wr btt off." 

" Ranaway, my negro man Jacob— he has but otu eyt* 



Punw/tmen/.«— Branding, Maiming, Scars. 81 



; Wllllom nakPr, Jailor, Shf^by county, . , ,, , , , , , -r , <- . . ^ 

I AIn., ill Mil- " MiiiiiKoiiiiry (Alu.) Ad- " Lommittcd to jail, Hen — hm left thumb off it the firit joint." 
; vertiHcr," Ocl. 5, 1838. 

i Mr. R. N. Hif, Camp «tropt, Nnw Or- " Twcnty-fivo dollars reward for the ne^ro Blavc Sally— walks 

leanH, in ilio " Ut-e,'' IVb. 19, liCH. as thoujfh crippled in the back." 

J^l:^::r±^^:^:^^Z " I^^^n-way. a negro .nan naa.cd Dick-han a iUtle fimrer off • 

' " lluiitsvillr; Dciiiocrut," Si'pt. 8, iH3H. tlic right hand." 

*JV;;L"Z:^{:^l°BS"*^b:'[S: . "f-away. the negro I^atrick-hashi^nttl.fingcr of the nght 

i 1838. hand cut close lo the kand" 

\ Mr. Ni^cdliam Wliitefiold, Aherdron, t t% • i 

I Mi. in iIpc " Miiupliis (Tciin.) Kii«iiii- " Ranaway, Joe Dennis — has a small notch in one of his cars. 

' rer," Juiii' 15, 1838. 

■ \ CoI.M. J. Slicitli, Cliarlc.'^ton, South 
nCftroliiia, iu tli«) " Mercury," Nov. :J7, " Ranaway, Dick — has lost the Utile toe of one of his feet." 

\\&i7. 

'.Mr R. r-anccttc, Haywood, Nortli » Escaped, my nctrro man Eaton— his little finger of the rieht 

I Carolina, in tlio "Kalcigh Kegistor, ' ■ „„ i i i ; i >, " 

! Mr. G. C. Richardson, Owon Station, « Ranaway, my negro man named Ton — has had one of his lee» 

:,Mo.,iiilhcSt.Louis-'Ropublican,"May Av«7.„„ » j j o i o 

j[5, 1838. orohcn. 

(Mr. E. Flan La Grang.;, Fnyotie coun- » Ranaway, negro boy Jack— has a small crop out of his left 
(ity,Teiiii. Ill tlie Gallatin " Union, Juiiu „ -^ ^ "^ i J J 

23, 1837. earr 

i D. HerriiiR, warden of Baltimore city " ^^^ committed to jail, a negro man — has two scars on his 

jail, in thu " Marylander," Oct. 6, 18.37. forehead, and the top of his left ear cut off." 

,1 Mr. James Marks, near Natchitoches. ,, c?*. i i iir- * i .. j. » t /• 

I,;., in tho"Natchitoclits Herald," July Stolen, a negro man named Winter— has a notch cut out of 

■Ji, lyJS. the left car, and the mark oi four or five buck shot on his legs." 

Mr. James Barr, Amelia Court House, » Ranaway, a negro man — scar back of his left eye, as if from 

Virf;mia, iii the " Norfolk Herald," tu^ ^„* ^e „u^:e^n 

?Sepl 1'2, 1838. *■"« <^"' o^ a, knife." 

" Ranaway, negro man Buck — has a very plain mark under 

(;-!''.;i!rin tilf " A™a" Chronidc-^^ '^'^ ^^^ «" '"^ J==^W' ^^out the size of a dollar, having been inflicted 

Stlit.Vl' 1837. ° ' by a knife." 

Mr. P. Bayhi, captain of the police, ,, in, j. ■ j . i, ■ ■■, .i. i. tt u i_ i 

Guijnrb Washington, third niunici- " Detamed at the jail, the negro boy Hermon — has a scar below 

palitv, Ni'w Orleans, in the " Bee," his left ear, from the toound of a knife." 
, Oct. 13, 1837. 

" Ranaway, a negro man by the name of John — he has a 
Mr Willie Pjiterson, Clinton, Jones , j^ j^ j^ ^ j jg j^n apparently done 

! county, Ga. uitlie"Darien Telegraph," . , ; -r ,. ^ ' ir 

;Dec. 5, 1837. With a kuije." 

\\ Mr SariiuelRagland,Triana, Madison "Ranaway, Isham— has a scflr upon the breast and upon the 
Icountv, Alabama, in the " HuntsviUo i i- j- -^ ^i ; -^ ^ 7 „ ^ ^ 

I iAdvocate," Dec. 23, 1837. under I'P' "om the bite of a dog." 

. ir.'Vi;o''^Sn»b"uftGa:]X°u^t^ . "Ranaway, a negro man-has a .car on his hip and on his 

' Jul} 5, 1838. breast, and two front teeth out." 

( ■. W. Wilkins, sheriff Baldwin Co, " Committed to jail, a negro man, he is crippled in the 

Alu. in tho " Mobile Advertiser," Sept. ...;„i,f i » 

! :,..^ i^.;37 '^ right leg. 

Mr. James H. Taylor, Charleston << Absconded, a colored boy, named Peter, lame in the right 

?iiiutli Carolina, in the " Courier," Au- 1 » 

I- ;ust 7, 1837. ^^S- 

N. M. C. Robinson, Jailer, Columbus, «' Brouo-ht to jail, a negro man, his left ankle has been broke." 
, Georgia, in the " Columbus (Ga.) En- 
' quirer," August 2, 1838. 

Mr. Littlejohn Rvnes, Hinds Co, " Ranaway, a negro man named Jerry, has a small piece cut 

" ;17'l838'"' " ^''^'''"'' Courier," August, ^^^ ^jr ^^^ ^^^ ^j- g,^^^ g^^;, 

i The Heirs of J. A. Alston, near 
J Georgetown, Soutli Carolina, in the « Absconded a neffro named Cuffec, h^s lost one finger ; has 

if' Georgetown [S.C.] Union," June 1 1, 7 / j i, * 

1 1837. '''■•' an cidarged leg." 

I! A. S. B.illinger, Sheriff, Johnston Co, " Committed to jail, a negro man ; has a very sore leg." 
I'lNorth Carolina, in the " RcUcigh Staud- 
iW," Oct. 18, 1838. 

ii Mr. Thomas Crutchfield, Atkins, Ten. " Ranaway, my mtilatto boy Cy, has but one hand, all the 

lin the" Tennessee Journal," Oct. 17, gno-crs of his right hand were burnt off when young." 

1838. 



J'un/j/imentJ— Brarnling, Maimbg. Scars. 



88 

J A Brown. j«lw,Or«nirb..nt.«<««Hl " Wm committed to j»il, a ncpro lumcd Bob, «ppcar« lo be 

Cwollna. Ill llio •• (JUaxIrrtoo Mcicury," cTtppUd in l]i«: right leg." 

fl B.T..rv«. )»"«. Ad.n.. Co. MU-. •• Wm commillcd U, jail, a negro man, ha« In. ^// «A:f A 

to lli« " N»i«:"«T Courier," Hcpi. i», brokt." 

Tm, j.,,.„ ... Kin,. IIl,h «rr^. '• Uanaway. .ny negro man. he ha« the end of om of b.^ 

Ikwift'i"" n, In ihr " NniJoiial IniriU fxn^n broken." 

Mr John .1. F«i. Vlrlubur.. Ml-. " Ranaway. a ycllowbh negro boy named 1 ...n. Jia. a .of^ 

to iho " Itiiiljittr," March 'JU, IKH- i„ ih,; back of one of hi» cara. 

M.^. K.m-.nd.r. «„d Whh.n,. «..r ■• Will be -old Martha, aged nineteen, ha. an* eye ontr 
tl„n««r<i, Niw ()rkoJi». In lli« " '*«•'••' 

"" m! MalTall J.t,. KnrTow.vm.. Fa.. " Ranaway. nogro man Ephraim. haa a v^ark over one of h» 

ouliT «•«. VlriTlnln, In ilm " NaUminl py, «, occajiioiicd by a Wow. 

/nU-Uln-mcr." .May 30, l»rJ7. „ l „ , . u w^^ 

«.n.Tunon,i«.u.r A.n..Co. MJ.. » Wa- committed a negro, call. h.m«lf Jacob, ha. been 

in Oi« " Nnichw Courier," Uct. li, 1W8 crippled in hw nghl leg. 

j..„u Kon.. M...r.,r of Mol.U. Coiiniy. •• Committed to jail, a ne^o man Cary. a lar.e .r.r on ku 

in 111-- " MK-iiwIppimi," Jarlown Ml. forehead." 

l>rc. !», Ib3t). , , . . I 

K W Mnrri,, .hnrlfl" of Wnrrr-n " Committrd aB a runaway, a negro man Jack, he ba. .*r*roI 

County, in ilw '• Virk..bur? [Ml.] Kc-gi*- ^^ar. on lii» face." 
trr," Uurcli 'J8, 1838. 

Mr ,nhnr.IIolro„..K...n.hcChaHa. " Absented him«clf hi. nc<rr^ man ^Bcn, ha. .car, on h«^ 

u« M«Xr>', • April 17, 18i«. throat. occaMoncd by the cut of a kmfe. 

Mr wmiH r.,...n,nn. In tl.. " n,arl«. " Ranaway, a n.^gro man. John a war acro«. hi. check, and: 

vm M.-rrury," i).cin.b.r 11, 1837. one on hiu right arm, apparcnUy done wUh a knife. 

Wm MnRor, .hrrilT, Mnl.ilo To. in the .' Committed to jail, a runaway dave, Alexander, a .^rar tm 

- Mobile Ki-RlKter," IK-c.'rr, 1837. |,ig i^j^ check." 

Mr Henry M. MrOrogor, Prince » Ranaway. negro Phil. «rar /«rouirA//« n^A/ rye fcratc. pari 

Ccorc-- Cuuntv, Mar>land, in tJio".\I.x- ^^ jlic middle toe on the right fool cut ojf. 

•Ddriall). C.flJu/.ell'V" I'eb. 6, 1838. ^ 

Green B Jourdan, naUlwln County " Ranaway, John, has a ^ar on one of hui hand, cxtcnc 

Ca in Die •• S?i^ Journal," .^pril 18. f^om the wrist joint lo Uu- lilUe finger, also a .ear on one of 1... 

1837. l,.p„." 

Mo«.r,. Daniel and Goodman, New •' Absconded, mulatto slave Alick, ha. a large .ear orrr oM 
Orleaiu., In Uie '• N. O. Ikf," Feb. 2. ^f hi. checks." 

'8*^- ^. . , 

JO . 1 -H r« .. onn nni I ARS REW.VRD for >el»n, ha. a .ear on 

vi''7;'tt'^1u:;rl'd"'^'''^"^;i« ••• for:.lS^c''cLi;ned by ^^--^ -d one on h« lower Itp and 

about the knee." 



Jan. 30, 1838. 



. Ranawav. a negro man and hi* ^f<-. "••"''**..^''' " 



" Itanawav, a hik'" ■"-" — ■". • . , ', , .-^ .- 
Samuel nawlins Cwlnot Co. r.a. In PHsciila. he has a small >rar n„ hi. Ufl ch.-^k. Cro •'•# .""^ 
the " Coluwbu. ScnUnel." Nov. JU, ^^^^ ^^.^ ^j^,^^ ,,^„d ...ji), ^ rrin;n..ir *>rr on ihcin ; hu wife ha 
"»8. ,^„,. „„ la-r left arm. and one u]>per tooth out. ' 



Tlie r.a.l.r prrrcivrs thai wr hav un.l.r this 
head, as under previous ones, given to tlio tcsti. 
mony of the slavehol.bni thenm-lvcs, under their 
own names, a precedence over that of ail other 
wiliieHses. Wc now a-k the reader's attention 
to the testimonies which follow. They arr cn- 
dorwd by re»<ponsible nanus— men who ' speak 
what they know, and testify what tJu-y have 
,«,n'— tcstimonie. which show, that the slave- 
holders who wrole the preceding advertise- 
ment., describing the work of their own hands, 
in branding with hot imn^ maiininc, mutilating, 
cropping, .hootine. knocking out the Iccth and 
eyc4i of Uicir .lave, breaking Ihcir bone, Aw;.. 



have mtnifcted, r* far a» they have fone in th > 
description, a commendable fidelity to tnith. 

It is probable Uiat «w>mc of the wars and maim 
ings in the preceding advertisement, were th 
result of accidents ; and wiroc may hr the rcul 
of violence infiieted by Uic slaves upon r^- 
other. Without arguing that point, we say, i< 
i ar.' the f.irr* ; who<ver read, and i>onder« U.. n 
I will need no argument to convince him. that th 
lpn.position which they have b.en employed t 
I sustain. ra«rio( /x .haiem. That any considcni 
: ble portion of them xvertj arcidental is totally m- 
pnibable. from Uic nature of Uie c^k ; and ts i 
most in.lwicc. diaprovcd by U»e advcit»eineai 



Punishments — Mutilation of Teeth, 



themselves. That they have not been produced 
by assaults of the slaves upon each other, is man- 
ifest from the fact, that injuries of that character 
mflicted by the slaves upon each other, are, as all 
who arc familiar with the habits and condition 
of slaves well know, exceedingly rare ; and of 
necessity must be so, from the constant action 
upon them of the strongest dissuasives from such 
acts that can operate on human nature. 

Advertisements similar to the preceding may 
at any time be gathered by scores from the daily 
and weekly newspapers of the slave states. Be. 
fore presenting the reader with further testimony 
in proof of the proposition at the head of this 
part of our subject, we remark, that some of the 
tortures enumerated under this and the preceding 
heads, are not in all cases inflicted by slavehold- 
ers as punishments, but sometimes merely as pre- 
ventives of escape, for the greater security of 
their 'property.' Iron collars, chains, &c. are 
put upon slaves when they are driven or trans- 
ported from one part of the country to another, in 
order to keep them from running away. Similar 
measures are aften resorted to upon plantations. 
When the master or owner suspects a slave of 
plotting an escape, an iron collar with long 'horns,' 
or a bar of iron, or a ball and chain, are often 
fastened upon him, for the double purpose of re- 
tarding his flight, should he attempt it, and of 
serving as an easy means of detection. 

Another inhuman method of marking slaves, 
so that they may be easily described and detected 
when they escape, i.s called cropping. In the 
Preceding advertisements, the reader will per- 



ccive a number of cases, in which the runaway 
is described as ' cropt,^ or a ' notch cut in the 
ear, or a part or the whole of the ear cut ojf,' &,c. 

Two years and a half since, the writer of this 
saw a letter, then just received by Mr. Lewis 
Tappan, of New York, containing a negro's car 
cut off' close to the head. The writer of the let. 
ter, who signed himself Thomas Aylethorpe, 
Montgomery, Alabama, sent it to Mr. Tappan as 
' a specimen of a negro's ears,' and desired him to 
add it to his ' collection.' 

Another method oi marking slaves, is by draw- 
ing out or breaking off one or two front teeth — 
commonly the upper ones, as the mark would in 
that case be the more obvious. An instance of 
this kind the reader will recall in the testimony 
of Sarah M. Grimkd, page 30, and of which she 
had personal knowledge ; being well acquainted 
both with the inhuman master, (a distinguished 
citizen of South Carohna,) by whose order the 
brutal deed was done, and with the poor young 
girl whose mouth was thus barbarously mutilated, 
to furnish a convenient mark by which to de- 
scribe her in case of her elopement, as she had 
frequently run away. 

The case stated by Miss G. serves to unravel 
what, to one unmitiated, seems quite a mystery : 
i. e. the frequency with which, in the advertise- 
ments of runaway slaves published in southern 
papers, they are described as having one or two 
front teeth out. Scores of such advertisements 
are in southern papers now on our table. We 
will furnish the reader with a dozen or two. 



WITNESSES. 

Jesse Debruhl, sheriff, Richland Dis- 
trict, "Columbia (S. C.) Telescope," 
iFeb. 24, 1838. 

Mr. John Hunt, Black Water Bay, 
:" Pensacola (Ga.) Gazette," October 14, 
1837. 

Mr. John Frederick, Branchville, 
Orangeburgh District, S. C. " Charleston 
|[S. C] Courier," June 12, 1837. 

1 Mr. Egbert A. Raworth, eight miles 
'W'Bst of Nashville on the Charlotte road, 
i" Daily Republican Banner," Nashville, 
^Tennessee, April 30, 1838. 

Benjamin Russel, Deputy sheriff, 
i.Bibb Co. Ga. " Macon (Ga.) Telegraph," 

Dec. 25, 1837. 

( 

S F. Wisner, Master of the Work 
\ House, " Charleston (S. C.) Courier." 
3 Oct. 17, 1337. 

I Mr. S. Neyle, " Savannah (Ga.) Re- 
[I publican," July 3, 1837. 

1 Mr. John McMurrain, near Columbus, 
I " Georgia Messenger," Aug. 2, 1838. 

I Mr. John Kennedy, Stewart Co. La. 
I •' New Orieans Bee," AprU 7, 1837. 

Mr. A. J. Hutchings, near Florence, 
Ala. " North Alabamian," August 25, 
IB38. 



TESTIMONY. 

" Committed to jail, Ned, about 25 years of age, has lost his 
two upper front teeth." 

" 100 DOLLARS REWARD, for Perry, one under front 
tooth missing, aged 23 years." 

10 DOLLARS REWARD, for Mary, one or two upper teeth 
out, about 25 years old." 



'' Ranaway, Myal, 23 years old, one of his fore teeth out." 

" Brought to jail John, 23 years old, one fore tooth out." 

" Committed to the Charleston Work House Tom, tu^o of his 
upper front teeth out, about 30 years of age." 

" Ranaway Peter, has lost two front teeth in the upper jaw." 

" Ranaway, a boy named Moses, some of his front teeth out. 

" Ranaway, Sally, her foreteeth out." 

" Ranaway, George Winston, two of his upper fore teeth out 
immediately in front," 



84 



Punuhmcnta — Mutilation of Teeth. 



Uanaway, Jackaon, h*» lout one of his front teeth. 



Mr. Jiniii Purdan, Xl Comnion rtrw-i, 
W. O. " N»w Uriiaiii b>^ ." K< b. 13, 
1888. 

Mr. Bol.rrt Cnlv.n. tn the ■• Arknn- •■ ILinaway, Jack, 25 yctr» old, ha« liwrt onr of hit fore teeth." 

Mr. A. (5. A. ni-nr.lev, In ih'.- M«m " Ranaway, Abraham, 20 or 2*^ year* of aec. Am front teeth 

plitoOaxitu.'MiirchlB, laM. „„, " 



Mr. 8omu<'lT'i*vnwnd. In Ihc " IlunU 
vUlo (AUi.J iKiiiocrul," May 'H, lt)37. 



" Kanaway, Dick, 18 or 20 y<arM of 
out." 



}iitM 07ir front lonlli 



Mr. Philip A. r»< w, In the " Vlrglnlo 
Hwoia," <>l May *t, 1837. 



Mr. John Prrdcrirk, In thf " Charlc*- 
ton Mercury," Augurt 10, 1837. 



JiTW r><l>nihl, HhiTKr of RirhLind 
Dlmrirl. In llir " ColiiniWa [». C.) 
"Trlfgraph." .St-iJl-S, l»37. 

M. K. W. Gilbert, In thr " Oolumboi 
IGa-l Eniiuinr," Oct. 5. 1637. 



Publisher of thp " Charleeton Mj-r- 
enry,"Aug. 3I,183«. 



Mr. Bynl M. (Jraco, in tlu- • Mir.on 
[C«.) Tflq;rB|ih."' t)ct. 15, 1838. 



Mr. Grorgp W. Bumos, in thi' " Mil- 
ksdgevUIe [Ga.] Journal," May ii, 1837. 



*' Ilanawny, Waahingfton, about 25 yean of age, ba."< an upper 

front tooth out." 

"50 DOLLARS REWARD, for Mary. 25 or 26 yc-an old, , 
one or two upper teeth out." 

*■ Committrd to jail, Ned, 23 or 26 years old, haa loct hia (tew 
upper front teeth." 

•• 50 DOLLAR.S RKWARD, for Prince. 25 or 26 years old, 

one or two teeth out in front <jn the iipptr jaw." 

" Ranaway, Seller Saondcrs, one fore tooth out, about 22 years ' 
of age." 

" Ranaway. Warren, about 25 or 20 years old, lias lost tornt ■ 
nf his Jront teeth." 

" Ranaway, Henry, about 23 yeara old, baa one of his upper 

front teeth out." 



I>. Ilrrnnc Wardrn of naltimore " Committed to jail EUizabcth Steward, 17 or 18 years old, has 
i^. '"" " ""'"""''" ChroniclB," Oct. 0, ^^ „y- ^„front teeth out." 



Mr. J. L. Colbom, in thn " Flontsville 
[Ala.j I)(tniucriit," July4, ld37. 



Ranaway Liley, 2G years of ^ge, one fore tooth gone." 



Sanuirl HarmaD Jr. in the 
OrleaiiH Btt" Oct. R, 183«. 



Niw .. 50 DOLLARS REWARD, for Adolphc. 28 ware old, tuf 
of his front teeth arc miseinp." 



Were it nccessarj', we mifjht ca.'iily add to the 
preceding list, hundreds. The reader will remark 
that ail the slaves, whose ajjcs are given, are 
young — not one has arrived at middle age ; con- 
sequently it can hardly be supposed that they have 
lost their tcoth either from age or decay. The 
probability that their teeth were taken out by 
force, is increased by the fact of their being/rojif 
t'.eth in almost every case, and from the fact that 
the loss of no other is mentioned in the adverti.se- 
Dionts. It is well known that the front teeth are 
not generally the first to fail. Further, it is noto- 
ffiiiiis that the teeth of the slaves are remarkably 
Moimdand sc'n'iceable, tiiat they decay far less, and 
at a much later period of life than the teeth of tlie 
whiles: owing partly, no doubt, to original con- 
■tilution ; but more probably to their diet, habits, 
aiul mode of life. 

.\h an illustration of the honibic mutilations 



Sue n.\8 lost iir.R irpEB tketh, and the under 
ones ARE AiA. BROKiv.\. Said reward will be paid 
tn whoever will bring her to her master, No. 172 
Barracks-street, or lodge her in the jail. 

The following is contained in iJie same paper. 
Ranaway. Nel.son, 27 years old, — "All hi» 

TEKTH ABE MI.iSINO." 

This advertisement is signed by "SELrEa," 
Faubourg Marigny. 

We now call the attention of the reader to i 
mass of testimony in support of our general pro- 
position. 

Georoe B. RrrLET, Esq. of Norwich, Connec. 
tieut, has furnished the following sUtcnienL, in i 
letter dated Dec. 12. 1838. 

" lii'ai>o.\ riiAr>HN. Esq., a rrspr--'-'' 

chant of our city, one of our county ' 
ers. — last spring a member of otir s' 
tun", — and wliosc character for veracity is above 
rt- . 1 • ■ I . 1- J I RUPpirion, about a rear since Tisiled the county of 

tometimm snllered by Viem in the breaking and v j \- . ' , r . iL^ ...,r^^« «i- «... . 

•^ * I .Nansi'mond. > irgiiiia, Inr tJie j>iirpc«>c ol hu\itT» 

tearing out of their teeth, we insert the following, j , ^^^^ ^f cp„,. H,. purrhaivd a lanrr quantity 

from tlv Ne« -tlrleans Bee of May 31. 1h37. ' nf >Ir, .with whose fn— '■ > rnt 

$10 RK\VAKD.— Ranaway. Friday. May 12. week or ten ilays; after he nti .led to 

JuLU, a ncgress eiuiiteln ORT»rM> m *hs oi t^ me and several other fjti/cii» tiu j lacls. 



Punishments — Cruelties. 



85 



In order to prepare the com for market by the 
time agreed upon, the slaves were worked as hard 
as they would bear, from daybreak until 9 or 10 
o'clock at night. They were called directly from 
their bunks in the morning to their work, without 
a morsel of food until noon, when they took their 
breakfast and dinner, consisting of bacon and corn 
bread. The quantity of meat was not one tenth 
of what the same number of northern laborers 
usually have at a meal. They were allowed but 
fifteen minutes to take this meal, at the expiration 
of this time the horn was blown. The rigor with 
which they enforce punctuality to its call, may be 
imagined from the fact, that a little boy only nine 
years old was whipped so severely by the driver, 
that in many places the whip cut through his 
clothes (which were of cotton,) for tardhiess of 
. not over three minutes. They then worked with- 
out intermission until 9 or 10 at night; after 
which they prepared and ate their second meal, 
as scanty as the first. An aged slave, who was 
remarkable for his industry and fidelity, was work- 
ing with all his might on the threshing floor ; 
amidst the clatter of the shelling and winnowing 
machines the master spoke to him, but he did not 
hear ; he presently gave him several severe cuts 
with the raw hide, saying, at the same time, 
'damn you, if you cannot hear I'll see if you can 
feel.' One morning the master rose from break- 
fast and whipped most cruelly, with a raw hide, a 
nice girl who was waiting on the table, for not 
opening a west window when he had told her to 
open an east one. The number of slaves was only 
forty, and yet the lash was in constant use. The 
bodies of all of them were literally covered with 
old scars. 

" Not one of the slaves attended church on the 
Sabbath. The social relations were scarcely re- 
cognised among them, and they lived in a stale 
of promiscuous concifoinage. The master said 
he took pains to breed from his best stock — the 
whiter the progeny the higher they would sell for 
house servants. When asked by Mr. C if he did 
not fear his slaves would run away if he whipped 
them so much, he replied, they know too well 
what they must suffer if they are taken — and then 
said, ' I'll tell you how I treat my runaway nig- 
gers. I had a big nigger that ran away the second 
time ; as soon as I got track of him I took three 
good fellows and went in pursuit, and found him 
in the night, some miles distant, in a corn-house ; 
we took him and ironed him hand and foot, and 
carted him home. The next morning we tied him 
to a tree, and whipped him until there was not a 
sound place on his back. I then tied his ankles 
and hoisted him up to a limh — feet up and head 
down — we then whipped him, until the damned 
nigger smoked so that I thought he would take 
fire and burn up. We then took him down ; and 
to make sure that he should not run away the 
third time, I run my knife in back of the ankles, 
and cut off the large cords, — and then I ought to 
have put some lead into the wounds, but I for- 
got it.' 

" The truth of the above is from unquestionable 
authority ; and you may publish or suppress it, as 
shall best subserve the cause of God and hu- 
manity." 

:, Extract OF A LETTER. FROM Stephen Sewall, 



Esq., Winthrop, Maine, dated Jan. 12th, ISr-iO. 
Mr. S. is a member of the Congregational church 
in Winthrop, and late agent of the Winthrop 
Manufacturing company. 

" Being somewhat acquainted with slavery, by a 
residence of about five years in Alabama, and 
having witnessed many acts of slaveholding cru- 
elty, I will mention one or two that came under 
my eye ; and one of excessive cruelty mentioned 
to me at the time, by the gentleman (now dead,) 
that interfered in behalf of the slave. 

" I was witness to such cruelties by an over- 
seer to a slave, that he twice attempted to drown 
himself, to get out of his power : this was on a 
raft of staves, in the Mobile river. I saw an owner 
take his runaway slave, tie a rope round him, then 
get on his horse, give the slave and horse a cut 
with the whip, and run the poor creature barefoot- 
ed, very fast, over rough ground, where small black 
jack oaks had been cut up, leaving the sharp 
stumps, on which the slave would frequently fall ; 
then the master would drag him as long as he 
could himself hold out ; then stop, and whip him 
up on his feet again — then proceed as before. 
This continued until he got out of my sight, 
which was about half a mile. But what further 
cruelties this wretched man, (whose passion was 
so excited that he could scarcely utter a word 
when he took the slave i)ito his own power,) in- 
flicted upon his poor victim, the day of judgment 
will unfold. 

" I have seen slaves severely whipped on planta- 
tions, but this is an every day occurrence, and 
comes under the head of geiieral treatment. 

" I have known the case of a husband com- 
pelled to whip his wife. This I did not witness, 
though not two rods from the cabin at the time. 

" I will now mention the case of cruelty before 
referred to. In 1820 or 21, while the public works 
were going forward on Dauphin Island, Mobile 
Bay, a contractor, engaged on the works, beat 
one of his slaves so severely that the poor crea- 
ture had no longer power to writhe under his suf- 
fering : he then took out his knife, and began to 
cut his flesh in strips, from his hips down. At 
this moment, the gentleman referred to, who was 
also a contractor, shocked at such inhumanity, 
stepped forward, between the wretch and his vic- 
tim, and exclaimed, ' If you touch that slave 
again you do it at the peril of your life." The 
slaveholder raved at him for interfering between 
him and his slave ; but he was obliged to drop his 
victim, fearing the arm of my friend — whose sta- 
ture and physical powers were extraordinary." 

Extract of a letter from Mrs. Mary Cowles, 
a member of the Protestant Church at Geneva, 
Ashtabula county, Ohio, dated 12th, mo. IStli, 
1838. Mrs. Cowles is a daughter of Mr. James 
Colwell of Brook county, Virginia, near West 
Liberty. 

" In the year 1809, I think, when I was twenty, 
one years old, a man in the vicinity where I resid- 
ed, in Brooke co. Va. near West Liberty, by the 
name of Morgan, had a little slave girl about six 
;^ears old, who had a habit or rather a natural infir- 
mity common to children of that age. On this ac- 
count her master and mistress would pinch her ears 



66 



PunifthmeTUa—Cruchica. 



with hot liinjjn, »nd throw hot cmbcni on her lrg«. 
Not (N'iii(; able (<i ncL-oiiiphi<h tliiMr object by thi-m- 
inean«, (Ikv at luxt rcxortcd to a method too in- 
delicate, and loo liorribli; to dei<eribo in d'-tail. 
Nuflire It til !<:ty, it rmm put an end to hir life in 
th») niiiHt r.Ycriieiutiiit; manner. If fiirtln'r texli- 
nionv to antiienlieale \vli:il I have Htuti rl is ne- 
cexitary, I relcr you to Dr. UolM-rt ."Mitelul wlio 
then n-Hided in the vieinily, l>iit now livcH at In- 
diana, I'l tiiiHylvania, almve l'itlr<biir(rh." 

.M \RY Cowi.r.B. 

TrsTiMONv OK Wii.i.iAM Lado, Kmj., now of 
Mlnot, Maine, formerly a nlaveliolder in Florida. 
Mr. I^dd iH now the I'reBident of tlio American 
Peace Society. In a letter dated November 
29, 1H38, Mr. Ladd sayH : 

'* While I livefl in Florida I knew a slaveholder 
whose name was IIiitehinw)n, he liad been a 
jireachcr and a mi'mbcr of tiie .Senate of Cieorijia. 
He told mo that he dan;d not keep a pun in 
his house, because he was so passionate ; and that 
he had hrrn t/ic deat/i of three or four men. I un- 
derstood him to mean slavra. One of his slaves, a 
f;irl, once came to ray house. She had run away 
roni him at Indian river. The cords of one of 
her hands were so much contracted that her hand 
was useless. It was said that lie had thrust her 
hand into the fire while he was in a fit of passion, 
and held it there, and this was the effect. My 
wife had hid the pirl, when Hutchinson came for 
her. Out of compassion for the poor slave, I of. 
fered him more than she was worth, which he re- 
fused. We afterward let the girl escape, and I do 
not know what became of her, hut I believe he 
never got her afrain. It was currently reported 
of Hutchinson, that he once knocked down a 
«fir neijro (one recently from -\frica) who was 
clearinjj up land, and who complained of the cold, 
as it was mid-winter. The slave was stunned 
with the blow. Hutchinson, supposincc he had 
the ' sulks,' applied fire to the side of the slave 
until it w.as so rnasted that he said the slave was 
not worth eurinir, and ordered the other slaves to 
pile on brush, and he was consumed. 

" A murder occurred at the settlement, (Mus- 
quito) while I lived there. An overseer from (ieor- 
gia, who was employed by a Mr. Cormick, in a 
nt of jealousy shot a slave of Samuel Williams, 
the owner of the ne.\t plantation. He was ap- 
prehended, but afterward suffered to escape. 
This man told me that he had rather whip a ue- 
pro than sit down to the best dinner. This man 
had, near his house, a contrivance like that which 
■» us«'d in armies where soldiers are ]iiinished 
with the picket ; bv this the slave was ilrawn up 
from the earth, bv a enrd ]>assinu round his wrists, 
so that his feet could just touch the irrouiul. It 
somewhat res«'mblid :i New F.njjland well sweep, 
and was iwed when the slaves wen- tlo'iged. 

" The treatment of slaves at Musquito I consi- 
der much milder than th:it whiih I havi" witness, 
cd in the I'nited States. Florida was under llie 
Snanish (joveniment while I lived then-. Then- 
wen- about lilteen or twenty plaiit.ntions at Mns. 

?|uito. I havi- an indistinct ncnil. clion of four or 
ivc slavi-s dvinjr of the cold in y\nu-lia Island. 
Thoy ln'lonjjcd to Mr. Runrr of Musipiiio. The 
compensation of the oversccis was a certain por- 
tion of llie crop." 



Oekxit Smith, ¥.m\. of Petcrboro, in x letter 
dated Doc. 15, IH3H, says : 

" I have just been conversing with an inhal.: 
tant of this town, on the subject of the i : 
of slavery. My ncighlHjrs inform me that 
a man of veracity. The candid manner uf 1^ 
eomraunication utterly forliade the suspicion t}i.i 
he was attenii>ting to deceive me. 

"My informant says that he resided in Iy)Ul^ 
lana and Alabama during a great part of tii 
years 1H19 and lc2<) : — thai he frequently sa 
slaves whipped, never saw any killed ; but on< 
heard of tlieir being killed : — that in several in 
stances he had seen a slave receive, in the spa' ' 
of two hours, fivi- hundred lashes — ■ ' "- 
drawing,' blood. He adds that thi.« 
ping was always followed by the a,, 
strong brine to the lacerated parts. 

" iVIy informant further says, that in the sprin. 
of JSl'J, he steered a boat from Louisville to New 
Orleans. Whilst stopping at a plantation on \i\< 
east bank of the Mi.ssissippi, between Natchez an 
New Orleans, for the purpose of making sale ■ 
some of Uie articles with which Uio boat wa 
freighted, he and his fellow boatmen saw a shock- 
ingly cruel punishment inflicted on a couple of 
slaves for the repeated offence of running away 
Straw was spread over the whole of tJieir back-^, 
and, after b-ing fastened by a band of the sani> 
material, was ignited, and left to burn, until en- 
tirely consumed. The agonies and scrcajus d 
tlie suiTcrcrs he can never forget." 

Dr. DA\nD Nelso.v, late president of Marion 
College, Missouri, a native of Tennessee, and till 
forty years old a slaveholder, said in an Anti- 
Slavery address at Northampton, ^la&s. Jao. 
1839— 

" 1 have not attempted to harrow yoor feelings 
with stories of cruelty. I will, however, mention 
one or two among the manv incidents that camo 
under my observation as family physician. I was 
one day dressing a blister, and the mistreats of the 
house sent a little black girl into Uic kitchen to 
bring me some warm water. She nmbablv mis- 
took licr message; for she returned with a bowl 
full of lioiling water ; which her mislnss no 
sooner perceived, than she thrust her hand into 
it, and held it there till it was half cooked." 

Mr. Henry II. LooMts, a member of the Pira 
byterian Tlieological Seminary in tlic city of 
New York, says, in a recent letter — 

*' The Rev. Mr. Hart, recently my pajitor, m 
Otsego county. New York, and who has sjK-nt 
some time at the south as a teacher, stated to 
nje that in llie neighlxirhood in which he n snird 
a »;lave was set to watch a turnip patch near an 
academy, in order to keep off U>c Iniys whoocca- 
sionally trespanst-d on it. Attomplinj: to repeat tlic 
trespass in pn's«'nce of the slave, ihev were told 
that his •' master forbad it.' At this the bora 
Were enmjred. and hurled bricklvits at the slave 
until his face and other parts werx' much injured 
and wounded — but nothing was said or done 
about it as an injurv to the slave. 

" He alse said, that a slave from the same neigh. 

tKirhood was found out in the woods, with his 

: arms and legs bunied almo«t to a cinder, up i 



Putiishments — Cruelties. 



87 



far as the elbow and knee joints ; and then; ap- 
peared to be but little more said or thouglit about 
it than if he had been a brute. It was supposed 
■that his master was the cause of it — maiciny; liim 
an example of punishment to the rest of the 
gang !" 

The following is an extract of a letter dated 
March 5, 1839, from Mr. John Clarke, a highly 
respected citizen cf Scriba, Oswego county, New 
York, and a member of the Presbyterian ehureh. 

The ' Mrs. 'I'urner' spoken of in Mr. C.'s let- 
ter, is the wife of Hon. Fielding S. Turner, who 
in 1803 resided at Lexington, Kentucky, and 
was the attorney for the Commonwealth. Soon 
after that, he removed to New Orleans, and was 
for many years Judge of the Criminal Court of 
that city. Having amassed an immense fortune, 
he returned to Lexington a few years since, and 
■still resides there. Mr. C. the writer, spent the 
winter of 1836-7 in Lexington. He says, 

" Yours of the 27th ult. is received, and I has- 
ten to state the facts which came to my know- 
ledge while in Lexington, respecting the occur- 
rences about which you inquire. Mrs. Turner 
was originally a Boston lady. She is from 35 to 
40 years of age, and the wife of Judge Turner, 
.formerly of New Orleans, and worth a large 
fortune in slaves and plantations. I repeatedly 
heard, while in Lexington, Kentucky, during the 
.winter of 1836-7, of the wanton cruelty prac- 
tised by this woman upon her slaves, and that 
she had caused several to be ichipped to death; 
but i never heard that she was suspected of 
being deranged, otherwise than by the indulgence 
of an ungoverned temper, until I heard that her 
husband was attempting to incarcerate her in 
the Lunatic Asylum. The citizens of Lexing- 
ton, believing the charge to be a false one, rose 
and prevented the accomplishment for a time, 
until, lulled by the fair promises of his friends, they 
left his domicil, and in the dead of night she was 
taken by force, and conveyed to the asylum. 
This proceeding being judged illegal by her 
friends, a suit was instituted to liberate her. I 
heard the testimony on the trial, which related 
only to proceedings had in order to getting her 
admitted into the asylum ; and no facts came out 
relative to her treatment of her slaves, other than 
of a general character. 

" Some days after the above trial, (which by 
the way did not come to an ultimate decision, 
as I believe) I was present in my brother's 
office, when Judge Turner, in a long conversa- 
tion with my brother on the subject of his trials 
with his wife, said, ' Tliat xooman has been the 
immediate cause of the death of six of my ser- 
vants, by her severities.'' 

" I was repeatedly told, while I was there, that 
she drove a colored boy from the second story 
window, a distance of 15 to 18 feet, on to the 
pavement, which made him a cripple for a time. 

" I heard the trial of a man for the murder of his 
slave, by whipping, where the evidence was to 
my mind perfectly conclusive of his guilt ; but 
the jury were two of them for convicting him of 
manslaughter, and the rest for acquitting him ; 



and as they could not agree were discharged — and 
on a subsequent trial, as I learned by the papers, 
the culprit was acquitted." 

Rev. Thomas Savage, of Bedford, New Hamp- 
shire, in a recent letter, states the following fact: 

" The following circumstance was related to 
me last summer, by my brother, now residing an 
a physician, at Rodn(^y, Mississippi ; and who, 
tjiough a pro-slavery man, spoke of it in terras of 
reprobation, as an act of capricious, wanton cru- 
elty. The planter who was the actor in it I my- 
self knew; and the whole transaction is bo cha- 
racteristic of the man, that, indcjiendent of the 
strong authority I have, I should entertain but 
little doubt of its authenticity. He is a wealthy 
planter, residing near Natchez, eccentric, capri- 
cious and intemperate. On one occasion he in- 
vited a number of guests to an elegant enter- 
tainment, prepared in the true style of southern 
luxury. From some cause, none of the guests 
appeared. In a moody humor, and under the 
influence, probably, of mortified pride, he ordered 
the overseer to call the people (a term by wliich 
the field hands are generally designated,) on to 
the piazza. The order was obeyed, and the 
people came. ' Now,' said he, ' have them seat- 
ed at the table. Accordingly they were seated at 
the well-furnished, glittering table, while he and 
his overseer waited on them, and helped them to 
the various dainties of thfe feast. ' Now,' said he, 
after a while, raising his voice, ' take these ras- 
cals, and give them twenty lashes a piece. I'll 
show them how to eat at my table.' The over- 
seer, in relating it, said he had to comply, though 
reluctantly, with this brutal command." 

Mr. Henry P. Thompson, a native and still a 
resident of Nicholasville, Kentucky, made the 
following statement at a public meeting in Lane 
Seminary, Ohio, in 1833. He was at that time 
a slaveholder. 

" Cruelties, said he, are so common, I hardly 
know what to relate. But one fact occurs to me 
just at this time, that happened in the village 
where I live. The circumstances are these. A 
colored man, a slave, ran away. As he was 
crossing Kentucky river, a white man, who sus- 
pected him, attempted to stop him. The negro 
resisted. The white man procured help, and 
finally succeeded in securing him. He then 
wreaked his vengeance on him for resisting — 
flogging him till he was not able to walk. They 
then put him on a horse, and came on with him 
ten miles to Nicholasville. When they entered 
the village, it was noticed that he sat upon his 
horse like a drunken man. It was a very hot 
day ; and whilst they were taking some refresh- 
ment, the negro sat down upon the ground, under 
the shade. When they ordered him to go, he 
made several efibrts before he could get up ; and 
when he attempted to mount the horse, his 
strength v/as entirely insuflicient. One of the 
men struck him, and with an oath ordered him to 
get on the horse without any more fuss. The 
negro staggered back a few steps, fell down, and 
died. I do Dot know that any notice was ever 
taken of it." 

Rev. Coleman S. Hodges, a native and stiU 



Punvihtncnts — Crueltiea. 



a resident of WcHtcrn Virginia, gave the follow- 
inff ti-Kliniony at tin; hanic meeting. 

" 1 liuvr lr< qiuntly Hcrn tin- niiHtromof a fam- 
ily in Virginia, Willi whom I waH will ac(|iiaint- 
fd, heat ilio Woman who perforiiird the kitchen 
Work, with a sliek two fei t and a half long, and 
nearly um llnek an my wrist ; hlriking her over 
Uic head, and aeroht* (he Fmall of th(! hack, as 
■he was hcnt over at lier work, with uh niueh 
apite as yon would a Hnake, and lor what I Khoiild 
cnnHider no ofl'ence at all. There lived in this 
MTiic family a young man, a nlave, who wa« in 
the lialiit of running away, lie returned one 
time after a week's ahsenee. The master took 
him into the ham, stri|>|>e(l him entirely naked, 
tied him u|) hy liis hands m high that he couM 
not reach the floor, tied his feet logeiher, and put 
a Kiiiall rail between his legs, so that he could not 
avoid the blows, and comiin'nced whi[)|)iiig him. 
He told me that he gave him five hundred lashes. 
At any rate, ho was covered with wounds from 
head to foot. Not a place as big as my hand but 
what wa.s ent. Such things ad ihesi; arc [ler- 
fectly common all over Virginia ; at least so far 
■8 I am acquainted. Generally, planters avoid 
punishing their slaves before strangers." 

Mr. Calvin II. Tate, of Missouri, whose father 
and brother were slaveholders, related the fol- 
lowing at the same meeting. The plantation on 
which it occurred, was in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of his father's. 

" A young woman, who was generally very 
badly treated, after receiving a more severe whi]*- 
ping than usual, ran away. In a few daj's she 
came back, and was sent into the field to work. 
At this lime the garment next her skin was stiff 
like a scab, from the running of the sons made 
by the whipping. Towards night, she (old her 
master that she was sick, and wished to go to 
the house. She went, and as soon as siic reach- 
ed it, laid down on (he floor exhausted. The 
mistress asked her wiiat the matter was ? JShe 
made no reply. Shu asked again ; but received 
no answer. ' I'll see,' said she, ' if I can't make 
you speak.' So taking the tongs, she heated 
ihcm red hot, and put (hem upon the bottoms of 
her iVet ; then ujion her legs and body ; and. 
finallv, in a rage, took hold of her throat. This 
had I ho desired effect. The poor girl faintly 
whispered, "Oh, mitse, don't — I am most gone ;* 
and exi)ired." 

Extract of a letter from Rev. C. S. Ilrxsn.vw, 
pastor of the Congregational Church, Quincy, 
Illinois. 

" .ludge .Menzies of Hoone county, Kentucky, 
an elder in the I'rebbyterian Church, and a slave- 
liolder, told me (hat //<• knew some overycors in 
the (obarco growing region of Virginia, who, to 
make their slaves careful in ]>ieking the tobacco, 
tliat is taking the wonns oil*, (you know what a 
loatlisome thing tlio tobarro worm is") would 
mak<; llieiii rnt t>r>mc of the worm*, and others 
who made them tat every worm (hey miswed in 
picking." 

•' Mm. Nancv Ji'od, a mcniWr of the Non- 
conformist Church in Osnaburg, Stark county, 



Ohio, and formerly arcaidcntof Kentucky, testi. 
, ticM Uiat she knew a ahiveholdcr, 

I " Mr. BrulKJcker, who had a number of si.. >, 
among whom wan one who would frcr|utiiily 
avoid labor by hiding himsrlf; for which h*» 

I would get severe floggings without llw f. 

I feel, and Ihat at lant .Mr. B. would Ic 

j on his naked body and whip them to ji... ^. .■■^..u 
U ar his back, in order to break him of his habit of 
hiding." 

Uev. Horace Moi i.tom, a minister of the Mj- 
Ihooist Epiwopal Church in .Marlborough, Ma« 
sachusctls, says : * 

" Some, when other modes of pun'Mhmcnt will 
not subdue them, cal.hanl tlicm ; that is, take a cat 
by the nap of the neck and tail, or by its Innd 
legs, and drag the claws across the back ntitil 
satisfied ; this kind of jiunirihrncnt, as 1 have un- 
derstood, poisons the flr-sh much worse than the 
whip, and is more dreaded by the slave." 

Rev. Abel Brow.v, Jr. late pastor of the first 
Baptist Church, Beaver, Pennsylvania, in a com. 
munieation to Rev. C. P. Grosrcnor, Editor of 
the Christian Reflector, says : 

" I almost daily sec the poor heart-broken slave 
making his way to a land of freedom. A short 
time since, I saw a noble, pious, distressed, spirit- 
crushed slave, a member of the Baptist church, 
escaping from a (professed Christian) blrwid- 
hound, to a land where he could enjoy that of 
which he liad been robbed dnring forty year?. 
His prayers would have made us all feci. I saw 
a Baptist sister of abou( the same ajjc, her eji:!- 
dren had been torn from her, her head wascr. r- 
cd with fresh wounds, while her upper lip iial 
scarcely ceased to bleed, in consequence of a blow 
with the poker, which knocked out her tcctti ; 
she too, was going to a land of freedom. Only a 
very few days .>iince, I saw a girl of about eigh- 
teen, with a child as white as mvsolf, aged ten 
months ; a Christian master was raising her child 
(as well his own perhaps) to sell to a southern 
market. She had heard of the intcnti-ui. and at 
midnight took her only treasure and traveled 
twenty miles on loot tJirough a land of stranger*— 
she found friends." 

Rev. He.nrv T. Hopkin-s, pa-slor of the Primi- 
tivo Methodist Church in New York City, who 
resided in Virginia Irom 16'21 to 1S26, ivlatcs tho 
following fact : 

•' An old colored man, the slave of Mr. Emcr- 
son, of Portsmouth, Virginia, being under deep 
conviction for sin, went into the back part of his 
master's gar«I n to pour out his soul in prayer to 
God. For this ofTcnco ho was whipj>ed iliirty- 
ninc lashes." 

Extract of n loiter from Doctor F. Jrum Lk 
MovNK, of Washington, Pcnnsyh-ania, dated 
Jan. n, 1839. 

" Ijcst )-ou should not have fcvn the statp. 
ment to which 1 am going to ull'.ii'i . I snhjom a 
brief cutlinj of the facts of a transanion whim 
occurred in Western Virgini.i, adjaei nl to tli.s 
county, a number of years ago — a full account 



Punishments — Wanton Cruellies. 



89 



of which was pnblishcd in the •' Witness" about 
two years since by Dr. Mitchell, who now resides 
! in Indiana county, Pennsylvania. A .slave boy 
ran away in cold weather, and during his con- 
cealment had his legs frozen ; he returned, or was 
retaken. After some time tlic flesh decayed and 
aloug/ied — of course was offensive — he was car- 
1 ried out to a field and left there without bed, or 
i shelter, deserted 1o die. Ilis only companions 
i were the house dogs which ho called to him. Af- 
I ter several days and nights spent in suftlring and 
exposure, he was visited by Drs. McKitehcn and 
j Mitchell in the field, of their own accord, having 
i heard by report of his lamentable condition; ihey 
remonstrated with the master ; brought the boy 
f to the house, amputated both legs, and he finally 

; recovered." 

I ■ 

f Hon. James K. Paulding, the Secretary of the 
J Navy of the U. States, in his " Letters from the 
South" pubhshed in 1817, relates the following : 
" At one of the taverns along the road we 
were set down in the same room with an elderly 
man and a youth who seemed to be well acquaint- 
ed with him, for they conversed familiarly and 
with true republican independence — for they did 
not mind who heard them. From the tenor of 
his conversation I was induced to look particu- 
larly at the elder. He was telling the youth 
something like the following detested tale. He 
was going, it seems, to Richmond, to inquire about 
a draft for seven thousand dollars, which he had 
sent by mail, but which, not having been ac- 
knowledged by his correspondent, he was afraid 
had been stolen, and the money received by 
the thief. ' I should not like to lose it,' said he, 
' for I worked hard for it, and sold many a poor 

d 1 of a black to Carolina and Georgia, to 

scrape it together.' He then went on to tell 
many a perfidious tale. All along the road it 
seems he made it his business to inquire whcie 
lived a man who might be tempted to become a 
party in this accursed traffic, and when he had 
got some half dozen of these poor creatures, he 
tied their hands behind their backs, and drove 
them three or four hundred miles or more, bare- 
headed and half naked through the burning 
southern sun. Fearful that even southern huma- 
nity would revolt at such an exhibition of human 
misery and human barbarity, he gave out that 
they were runaway slaves he was carrying home 
to their masters. On one occasion a poor black 
woman exposed this fallacy, and told the story of 
her being kidnapped, and when he got her 
into a vi^ood out of hearing, he beat her, to use 
his own expression, ' till her back was white.' 
It seems he married all the men and women he 
bought, himself, because they would sell better for 
being man and wife ! But, said the youth, were 
you not afraid, in traveling tiirough the wild 
country and sleeping in lone houses, these slaves 
would rise and kill you ? ' To be sure I was,' 
said the other, ' but I always fastened my door, 
put a chair on a table before it, so tliat it might 
wake me in falling, and slept with a loaded pistol 
in each hand. It was a bad life, and I left it off 
as soon as I could live without it ; for many is the 
time I have separated wives from husbands, and 
husbands from wives, and parents from children, 
but then I made them amends by marryino-^i'Pin 



again as soon as I had a chance, that is to say, I 
made them call each other man and wife, and 
sleep togctlicr, which is quite enough for negroes. 
I made one bad purchase though,' continued he. 
' I bought a young mulatto girl, a lively creature, 
a great bargain. .She had been the favorite of 
her master, who had lately married. The dif- 
ficulty was to get her to go, for the poor creature 
loved her master. However, I swore most bit- 
terly I was only going to take her to her mother's 

at and she went with mc, though she seemed 

to doubt mo very much. But when she discovered, 
at last, that we were out of the state, I thought 
she would go mad, and in fact, tlie next night she 
drowned herself in tJie river close by. I lost a 
good five hundred dollars by this foolish trick.' " 
Vol. I. p. 121. 

Mr. Spillman, a native, and till recently. 

a resident of Virginia, now a member of the Pres- 
byterian church in Delhi, Hamilton co., Oliio, has 
furnished the two following facts, of which he had 
personal knowledge. 

'' David Stallard, of Shenandoah Co., Virginia, 
had a slave, who run away ; he was taken up and 
lodged in Woodstock jail. Stallard went with an- 
other man and took him out of the jail — tied him 
to their horses — and started for home. The day 
was excessively hot, and they rode so fast, drag, 
ging the man by the rope behind them, that he 
became perfectly exhausted — fainted — dropped 
down, and died. 

" Henry Jones, of Culpepper co., Virginia, 
owned a slave, who ran away. Jones caught 
him, tied him up, and for two days, at intervals, 
continued to flog him, and rub salt into his man- 
gled flesh, until his back was literally cut up. The 
slave sunk under the torture ; and for some days 
it was supposed he must die. He, however, slow- 
ly recovered ; though it was some weeks before he 
could walk." 

Mr. Nathan Cole, of St. Louis, Missouri, in a 
letter to Mr. Arthur Tappan, of New-York, dated 
July 2, 1834, says,— 

" You will find inclosed an account of the pro- 
ceedings of an inquest lately held in this city upon 
the body of a slave, the details of which, if pub- 
lished, not one in ten could be induced to believe 
true.* It appears that the master or mistress, or 
both, suspected the unfortunate wretch of hiding 
a bunch of keys which were missing ; and to ex- 
tort some explanation, which, it is more than pro- 
bable, the slave was as unable to do as her mis- 
tress, or any other person, her master. Major Har- 
ney, an officer of our army, had whipped her for 
three successive days, and it is supposed by some, 
that she was kept tied during the time, until her 
flesh was so lacerated and torn that it was impos- 
sible for the jury to say whether it had been done 
with a whip or hot iron ; some think both — but she 
was tortured to death. It appears also that the 
husband of the said slave had become suspected 
of telling some neighbor of what was going on, for 

* The following is the newspaper notice referred to : — 
An inquest was held at the dwelling house of Major Har- 
ney, in this city, on the 27tli inst. by the coroner, on the 
bolty of Hannah, a slave. The jury, on their oaths, and 
after hearing the testimony of physicians and several otlior 
witnesses, found, that said slave " came to her death by 
. ■ :-.ig inflicted bv w^iuiam S. Hai-ney." 



90 



Punishments — Wanton Cruelties. 



which Major Ilarnry commenced torturing him, 
until the man hrnkc from him, and ran into t)i<- 
MiMHiHHi|i|)i and drowned himHclf. The man waH 
a piouM and very indnstrioiiH wlavo, piTliapx not 
aiirpBMi'd by nnv in thiH plac<-. Tiu- uixnan haH 
bofwi in the family of John .Shackford, IOh(i., ihv 
prrwnt doorkcrpcr of the Scnat<; of the Unitr-d 
titatcH, for many years ; wan considered an excel- 
lent wrvant — was the mother of a ninnher of 
children — and I believe was sold into the family 
wlure she met h<r fate, as matt«rof conscience, 
to keep her from being Bcnt below." 

Mr. E/.KKIKI. BiiuisF.VE, a highly respected citi- 
zen of ('ornwall, Litchfield CO., Connecticut, who 
resided for many years at tlie south, furnished to 
the Uev. E. R. 'I'ylcr, editor of the Connecticut 
Observer, the following personal testimony. 

"While I lived in Limestone co., Alabama, in 
lft2()-7, a tavern-keeper of the village of Mores- 
ville discovered a negro carrying away a piece of 
old rar|)et. It was during the Christmas holidays, 
when the slaves are allowed to visit their friends. 
The negro stated that one of tlic servants of the 
tavern owed liim some twelve and a half or 
twenty. five cents, and that he had taken the car- 
pet in |)aymcnt. This the servant denied. The 
innkeeper took the negro to a field near by, 
and whipped liim cruelly. He then struck liini 
with a stake, and punched him in tlie face and 
mouth, knocking out some of his teeth. After 
this, he took him back to the house, and com- 
niitted him to the care of his son, who had 
just then come home with another young man. 
This was at evening. They whipped him by 
turns, with lieavy eowskins, and made the r/Hg.s- 
ahnki him. A Mr. Phillips, who lodged at the 
hou.sc, heard the cruelly during the night. On 
getting up he found the negro in tlie bar-room, 
terribly mangled with the whip, and his flesh so 
torn by the dogs, that the cords were bare. He 
remarked to the landlord that he was dangerously 
hurt, and needed care. The landlord re]died that 
he deserved none. Mr. Pliilliiis went to a neigh- 
boring magistrate, who took the slave home with 
him, where he soon died. The father and son were 
both trie<l, and acquitted I ! A suit was brought, 
however, for damages in behalf of the owner of 
the slave, a young lad)' by the name of Agnes 
Jones. J teas uii thr jury tchm thcsr factx icrre 
atatrd on oath. Two men testified, one that he 
would have given §1000 for him. the other §900 
or ^I>")0. The jury found the latter sum. 

•* At Union Court House, S. C, a laveni-kcep. 
er, bytho name of Samuel Ilavis, procured the 
conviction ami execution of his own slave, for 
stealing a cake of gingerbread from a grog shop. 
The slave raised the I iteli of the back door, and 
took the cake, douig no other injiirv. The shop 
keeper, who.'«e name was Charles (iordon, was 
willing to forgive him, but his master procured his 
conviction ami execution by hanging. The slave 
had bntoni- arm: and an order on the state Irca- 
nury by tin- court that tried him, which also bs- 
Hcmrd his value, brought him more monev than 
he could have obtained for tlie slave in market." 

Mr. , an elder of the Prcsbyteri.Tn Church 

in one of the slave slates, lately wrote a letter to 



3 



an a^ent of the Anti.Slavcry Societr, in which he . 
Htates tlie fidlowing fact. The name of the writer < 
is with the Executive Committee of the Amcricm 
.\nti-Slavery Society. 

" I was paHsing through a piece of timbered land, \ 
and on a sudden I heard a s^iund as of murder; 
I rode in that direction, and at luime distance dit.t 
covered a naked black man, hung to th>; limb of ( 
a tree by his hands, his feet chained together, Avin 
a pine rail laid with one end on the chain betwccai 
his legs, and the other njjon the ground, to steadji 
him ; and in this condition the overseer gave hiioi 
four hundred lashen. The miserably lacerated < 
slave was then taken down, and put to the cajCi 
of a physician. And what do you suppose wa« 
the offence for which all this was done ? Simplj 
this: his owner, observing that lie laid off coi 
rows too crooked, he replied, ' Massa, much coi 
grow on crooked row as on straight oni .' TI; 
was it — this was enough. Hisovcr8<;cr. 
his skill in managing a niggrr, he wa.s 1 

to him, and treated as above." 

David L. Child, Esq., of Northampton, Massa. 
chusetts. Secretary of the United States minister 
at the Court of Lisbon during the administration of 
President Monroe, stated the following fact 
oration delivered by him in Boston, in 1831. ~ 
Child's " Despotism of Freedom," p. 30. 

" An honorable friend, who stands high in the 
state and in the nation,* was present at the burial 
of a female slave in Mississippi, who had hftt 
whipped to death at the stake by her master, he. 
cause she was gone longer of an errand to the 
neighboring town than her master thought ii" rrs. 
sary. Under the lash she protested that she w.is 
ill, and was obliged to rest in the fields. To r 'iii- 
plele the climax of horror, she was delivered of a< 
dead infant while undergoing the punishment." 

The same fact is stated by Mrs. Child in her 
" Appeal." In answer to a recent letter, inqiiir. 
ing of Mr. and Mrs. Child if they were now at 
liberty to disclose the name of their informant, 
Mr. C. says,— 

*' The witness who stated to us the fact v. at 
.Tidm .lames Appleton, Esq., of Cambridge, Mass. 
He is now in Europe, and it is not without .'-. ime 
hesitation that I give his name. He, howivi r, 
has o|M<nly embraced our caust*, and taken a i ..u. 
spicuous part in some anti-slavery public nui t- 
ings since the time that I felt a scruple at puhli.vlw 
ing his name. Mr. Appleton is a gentleman of 
hiuh talents and accomplishments. He has b i n 
Secretary of I,cgalion at Rio Janeiro, .Madrid, 
and the Hague ; Commissioner at Naplc«, and 
Cha.rge d'.'VfTaires at Stockholm." 

The two following facts are stated upon the 
authority of the Rev. JusF.niG. Wiijson. pastor of 
the Pn-sbytcrian Church in Salem, Waslnngton 
CO., Indiana. 

" In Bath co., Kentucky, Mr. L., in the rear 
MJ or '33. wbib- inloxicalrd, in a fit of rairc whip- 
ped a female j^lave until she fainted and t"i II "xx 
the floor. Then he whipjxd her to get up; tlieii 

• " Tlir iiarmlor oflhW fsri l» now nhu-nl from Iho lTnil«4 
Stales', aiid I Jo not fed at Ubcrt}- U> mcnlion tilt naffic" 



Punishments — Cruelties. 



91 



wif.h red hot, tongs he burned off licr cars, and 
\\'hii)ped hcrajrain! but all in vain. He then or- 
dered his n(^Kro men to carry her to tiie cabin. 
'I'here she was found dead next morning. 

" One Wall, in Chester district, S. C, owned a 
slave, wlioni he hired to his brother-in-law, Wm. 
Jfecknian, for whom the slave worked eighteen 
; nionths, and worked well. Two weeks after re- 
I turning to his master he ran away on account of 
bad treatment. To induce hijn to return, the 
;n;tster sold him nominally to his neiglibor, to 
whom the slave gave himself up, and by whom 
lie was returned to liis master : — Punishment, 
nJripes. To prevent escape a bar of iron was fast- 
ened with three bands, at the waist, knee, and 
aukle. Tliat night he broke the bands and bar, 
and escaped. Next day he was taken and 
wliipped to death, by three men, the master, 
^I'liorn, and the overseer. First, he was whipped 
and driven towards home ; on the way he attempt- 
ed to escape, and was shot al by the master, — 
caught, and knocked down with the butt of the gun 
by Thorn. In attempting to cross a ditch he fell, 
with his feet down, and face on the bank ; they 
whipped in vain to get him up — he died. His 
soul ascended to God, to be a swift witness against 
liis oppressors. This took place at 13 o'clock. 
Next evening an inquest was held. Of thirteen 
jurors, summoned by the coroner, nine said it 
was murder ; two said it was manslaughter, and 
two said it was justifiable ! He was bound over 
to court, tried, and acquitted — not even fined !" 

The following fact is stated on the authority of 
Mr. Wm. Willis, of Green Plains, Clark co. Ohio ; 
formerly of Caroline co. on the eastern shore of 
Maryland. 

" Mr. W. knew a slave called Peter White, who 
was sold to be taken to Georgia ; he escaped, and 
lived a longtime in the woods — was finally taken. 
When he found himself surrounded, he surren- 
dered himself quietly. When his pursuers had 
him in their possession, they shot him in the leg, 
and broke it, out of mere wantonness. The next 
day a Methodist minister set his leg, and bound it 
up with splints. The man who took him, then 
went into his place of confinement, wantonly 
jumped upon his leg and crushed it. His name 
was Williair- Sparks." 

Most of our readers are familiar with the hor- 
rible atrocities perpetrated in New Orleans, in 
1334, by a certain Madame La Laurie, upon her 
slaves. They were published extensively in north- 
ern newspapers at the time. The following are ex- 
tracts from the accounts as published in the New 
Orleans papers immediately after the occurrence. 
The New Orleans Bee says : — 

" Upon entering one of the apartments, the most 
appaUing spectacle met their eyes. Seven slaves, 
more or less horribly mutilated, were seen sus- 
pended by the neck, with their limbs apparently 
stretched and torn, from one extremity to the 
other. They had been confined for several months 
in the situation from which they had thus provi- 
dentiall)' been rescued ; and had been merely kept 
in existence to prolong their sufferings, and to 
make th^^m taste all that a most refined cruelty 
could iuHict." 



The New Orleans Mercantile Advertiser says : 
" A negro woman was found chained, covered 
with bruises and wounds from severe flogging. — 
All the apartments were then forced open. In a 
room on the ground floor, two more were found 
chained, and in a deplorable condition. Up stairs 
and in the garret, four more were found chained ; 
some so weak as to be unable to walk, and all co- 
vered with wounds and sores. One rruilatto boy 
declares himself to have been chained for five 
months, being fed daily with only a handful of 
meal, and receiving every morning the most cruel 
treatment." 

The New Orleans Courier says : — 
" We saw one of these miserable beings. — He 
had a large hole in his head — his body, from head 
to foot, was covered with scars and filled with 
worms." 

The New Orleans Mercantile Advertiser says : 
" Seven poor unfortunate slaves were found — 
some chained to the floor, others with chains 
around their necks, fastened to the ceiling ; and 
one poor old man, upwards of sixty years of age, 
chained hand and foot, and made fast to the floor, 
in a kneeling position. His head bore the appear- 
ance of having been beaten until it was broken, 
and the worms were actually to be seen making 
a feast of his brains !! A woman had her back 
literally cooked (if the expression may be used) 
with the lash ; the very bones might be seen pro- 
jecting through the skin .'" 

The New York Sun, of Feb. 21, 1837, contains 
the following : — 

" Two negroes, rimaways from Virginia, were 
overtaken a few da)'s since near Johnstown, Co- 
lumbia CO. N. Y. when the persons in pursuit called 
out for them to stop or they would shoot them. — 
One of the negroes turned around and said, he 
would die before he would be taken, and at the 
moment received a rifle ball through his knee : 
the other started to run, but was brought to the 
ground by a ball being shot in his back. After 
receiving the above wounds they made battle with 
their pursuers, but were captured and brought in- 
to Johnstown. It is said that the young men 
who shot them had orders to take them dead or 
alive." 

Mr. M. M. Shafter, of Townsend, Vermont, 
recently a graduate of the Wesleyan University at 
Middletown, Connecticut, makes the following 
statement : 

" Some of the events of the Southampton, Va. 
insurrection were narrated to me by Mr. Benja. 
min W. Britt, from RiddicksviUe, N. C. Mr. 
Britt claimed the honor of having shot a black on 
that occasion, for the crime of disobeying Mr, 
Britt's imperative ' Stop !' And Mr. Ashurst, of 
Edenton, Georgia, told me that a neighbor of his 
'fired at a hkely negro boy of his mother,' because 
the said boy encroached upon his premises." 

Mr. David Hawley, a class leader in the Me- 
thodist Episcopal Church at St. Albans, Licking 
county, Ohio, who moved from Kentucky to Ohio 
in 1831, certifies as follows: — 

" About the year 1825, a slave had escaped for 



09 



rujushmenta — Cruelties. 



! 



Canada, but waaarrcHtcd in Hardin county. On I 
hiN rt.-turn, I Haw hiin in Hart county — hm wriHtH i 
tied loiji'lluT bfforr, hJH amiH tied i:\tttn: to IiIh IjoiIv, 
tlie rope till II puSNiii); Ixliind liii« Ijody, tlimt-e to 
llic nirk ol' a liorMu on wliieli rodr tin- niaMlrr, 
with a (-liil) about tlirce fict loii|;, and of tin; huv 
of a hii<- liandit- ; wliich, liy tin- aiipcaranco of tlur 
■lavi', liad lu'cn iiwd on liin head, oo aH to wear otV 
the liuir and nliin in HcvtTal placcH, and tlu' idrxid 
waH runiillki; freely from )iiH nioutli and nose ; tnH 
hceU very niucli i)ruiHcd by the iiorweV feet, an iiiH 
Diantrr bail rode on him b(.-rau.se Ik- would not go 
faHt enoii^ii. Such waH tiic Hlavc'H ap|iearance 
when paHHinjj lbri)Ui;ii where I resided. Such 
case!) were not unfr<<iuent." 

The following is rumishcd by Mr. F. A. Hart, 
of Middletown, Connecticut, a manufacturer, and 
an influential nienilxrof tlu; Methodist episcopal 
Church. It occurred in lt<2l, about twenty-five 
niilcH this side of iialtimore, Maryland. — 

" I had Hpent the night with a Methodist bro- 
ther; and while at breakfast, a person came in 
and called for help. We went out and found a 
crowd collected around a carriage. (Jpon ap- 
proaching \vc discovered that a tilavc-tradcr was 
endeavoring to force a woman into his carriage. 
He had already put in three children, tiie yomig- 
est apparently about eight years of age. The wo. 
man was strong, and whenever he brought her to 
the side of the carriage, she resisted so etfectually 
with her feet that he rould not get iier in. The 
woman becoming exhausted, at length, by her 
frantic eflorts, he thrust her in with great violence, 
stamped her down upon lite bottom with hisjret! 
shouted to the di iver to go on ; and away they 
rolled, the miserable captives moaning and shriek- 
ing, untU tlieir voices were lost in the distance." 

Mr. Samuf.l Hall, a teacher in Marietta Col- 
lege, Ohio, writes as follows: — 

" Mr. TstAC C. Fuller is a member of the Me- 
thodist Kpiscopal Church in [Marietta. He was a 
fellow student of mine while in college, and now 
resides in this place. He says: — In |S32, as I 
was descending the Ohio with a flat boat, near 
the ' French Islands,' so called, below Cincinnati, 
I saw two negroes on horseback. Tho horses ap- 
pan-ntly took fright at something and ran. Both 
jumped over a rail lence ; and one of the horses, 
in so doing, broke one of his fore-legs, falling at 
the same time and throwing the negro who was 
upon his Itaek. \ white man came out of a house 
not over two hundred yards distant, and came to 
the Bi)ot. Seizing a stake from the fence, he 
knocked Uie negro down five or six times in suc- 
cession. 

" In the same year I worked for a Mr. Now- 
land, eleven mile*, above Haton Rouge, I^a. at a 
plac<- railed 'Thomas' Hend.' He had an over- 
•err who was aceustomcd to ling more or lew of 
tlio slaves every morning. I heard tlit> blows and 
Kcrt^ams as regularly as we n.'U'd to hear the col- 
lege Ixll that s\immoned ns to any duty when we 
wont to school. This overseer was a ni'pbew of 
Nowland, and thi-re were about filly slaves on 
hiM plantation. Nowland himself related Uie 
i^ollowing to inc. One of his slaves ran away, 
and came to the Huaio Cbitto river, whcrv he 



h 

% 



found no niGann of crramng. Here he fell in with 
a white man who knew his master, lM.-ing on 
journey from tlut vicinity. He induc-d t hi- slave 
to n.turn to Haton li/jugr-, under the ; 
giving him a pass, by whieli he might ' 
III reality, Ui betray him to his master. '1...- 
instirad of fulfilling his promis*-. Now!an<; 
that he l<Kjk tht? slave and inflicted five hu: 
lashes upon hini, cutting his liack all to y. 
and then threw on hot embers. The slav. 
on the plantation at the time, and told ni' 
same story. He also rolled up his sleeves. ■; 
showed me the scars on his arms, wbieli, in 
sequence, appeared in places to be callous t. ;. 
bone. I was with Nowland between fiv<' an^ x 
months." 

Rev. Jon.s Rankin, formerly of T<nni .s.,te, now 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Ripley, OhiO| 
has furnished the following statement : — 

" The Rev. Lidwki.l (J. Gaink.'', now pastof 

of the Presbyterian Church of Goshen < 1. nn'int 

county, Ohio, stated to me, that whi! ,t 

of a slave state, he was summoned t'< ;n 

I taking a man who had made his black womaa : 

! work naked several days, and afterwards mur- 

j dercd her. The murderer armed himself, and 

threatened to shoot the officer who went to take 

1 him ; and although there was ample as-istance at 

j hand, the officer declined further interference." 

Mr. Rankin adds the following : — 

" .\ Presbyterian preacher, now resident in %i 
slave state, and therefore it is not i \ ' ' 'o 
give his name, stated, that he saw oi. a 

I steamboat at Ix)uisville, Kentucky, a v. ..,.o 

had been forced on board, to be carried otl" troni 
all she counted dear on earth. .Siie ran aeroas 
the boat and threw herself into tlie river, in or.ier 
to end a life of intolerable sorrows. She v.as 
drawn back to the lioat and taken up. The bru. 
tal driver Wat her severely, and she immediaii It 
threw herself again into the river. She was hook- 
ed up again, chained, and carried ofT." 

Testimony of Mr. Wiixl\m Hansboroish, "f 
Culpepper county, Virginia, iJie ''owner" of sixty 
slaves. 

" I raw a slave taken out of prison by his ma.s. 
ter, on a hot .summer's day, and driven, by saA 
master, on the road before hiin, till he dro]>p< d 
down dead." 

The altovc statement was made by Mr. H.th*. 
borough to Lindley Coates, of I^ncaster couiily, 
Pa. a distinguished member of the Society of 
Friends, and a member of llie late Convention in 
Pa. for altering the State Constitution. The Ut- 
ter from Mr. C. containing Uiis testimony of Mr. 
H. is now before us. 

Mr. Tonus BocniNOT. m inomlx-rof the Metb.d. 
ist Church in St. .Vlbans, Licking county, Obu;, 
says : 

"In Nicholasvdlo, Ky. in the year 1823, h« 
saw a slave fleeing befon^ the |>atrol, but lie wa« 
overtaken near where he stood, and a man with 
a knotteil cane, as largi* a* his wrist, struck liic 
slave a number of times on his head, until Ui« 



Punishments — Brandings. 



08 



'•.Inb was broken and he made tame ; the blood 
vas thrown in every direction by the violence of 
he blows." 

The Rev. William Dickey, of Bloominghurg, 
?ayctte county, Ohio, wrote a letter to the Rev. 
iJohn Rankin, of Ripley, Ohio, thirteen years 
lince, containing a description of the cutting up 
; \f a slave with a broad axe ; beginning at the feet 
\.nd gradually cutting the legs, arms, and body 
Into pieces ! This diabolical atrocity was com- 
(nittcd in the state of Kentucky, in the year 1807. 
fhc perpetrators of the deed were two brothers, 
Lilburn and Isliam Lewis, nephews of President 
Fefferson. The writer of this having been in- 
.brmed by Mr. Dickey, that some of the facts con- 
lected with this murder were not contained in 
lis letter published by Mr. Rankin, requested him 
o write the account anew, and furnish the addi. 
Lional facts. This he did, and the letter contain- 
•ng it was published in the " Human Rights" for 
August, 1837. We insert it here, slightly abridg- 
ed, with the introductory remarks which appeared 
in that paper. 

" Mr. Dickey's first letter has been scattered all 
jver the country, south and north ; and though 
multitudes have affected to disbelieve its state- 
ments, Kentuckians know the truth of them quite 
. too well to call them in question. The story is 
fiction or fact — if fiction, why has it not been nail- 
3d to the wall ? Hundreds of people around the 
mouth of Cumberland River are personally know- 
ing to these facts. There are the records of the 
3oui't that tried the wretches. — There their ac- 
quaintances and kindred still live. All over that 
region of country, the brutal butchery of George 
IS a matter of public notoriety. It is quite need- 
less, perhaps, to add, that the Rev. Wm. Dickey 
is a Presbyterian clergyman, one of the oldest 
members of the Chilicothe Presbytery, and greatly 
respected and beloved by the churches in South- 
srn Ohio. He was born in South Carolina, and 
was for many years pastor of a church in Ken- 
tucky. 

REV. WM. dickey's LETTER. 

" In the county of Livingston, Ky. near the 
outhof Cumberland River, lived Lilburn Lewis, 
sister's son of the celebrated Jefferson. He was 

f' the wealthy owner of a considerable gang of ne- 
groes, whom he drove constantly, fed sparingly, 
and lashed severely. The consequence was, that 
they would run away. Among the rest was an 
ill-thrived boy of about seventeen, who, having 
just returned from a skulking spell, was sent to 
the spring for water, and in returning let fall an 
elegant pitcher : it was dashed to shivers upon 
the rocks. This was made the occasion for reck- 
oning with him. It was night, and the slaves 
were all at home. The master had them all col- 
lected in the most roomy negro-house, and a rous- 
ting fire put on. When the door was secured, that 
none might escape, either through fear of him or 

■ sympathy with George, he opened to them the de. 

» sign of the interview, namely, that they might be 
effectually advised to stay at home and obey his 
orders. All things now in train, he called up 



George, who approached hia master with unre- 
served submission. He bound him with cords; 
and Ijythc assistance of Isham Lewis, his young- 
est brothf^r, laid him on a broad bencli, the 7itnat- 
block. ilc then proceeded to hack off George at 
the ankles .' It was with the hroad axe ! In vain 
did the unhappy victim scream and roar ! for he 
was completely in his master's [)ower ; not a hand 
among so many durst interfere : casting tiic feet 
into tlie fire, he lectured them at some jength. — 
He next chopped him oS l/elow the knees! George 
roaring out and praying his master to begin at the 
other end .' He admonished them again, throw- 
ing the legs into the fire — then, above the knees, 
tossing the joints into the fire — the next stroke 
severed the thighs from the body ; these were also 
committed to tlie flames — and so it may be said 
of the arms, head, and trunk, until all was in the 
fire ! He threatened any of them with similar 
punishment who should in future disobey, run 
away, or disclose the proceedings of that evening. 
Nothing now remained but to consume the flesh 
and bones ; and for this purpose the fire was 
brightly stirred until two hours after midnight ; 
when a coarse and heavy back-wall, composed of 
rock and clay, covered the fire and the remains 
of George. It was the Sabbath — this put an end 
to the amusements of the evening. The negroes 
were now permitted to disperse, with charges to 
keep this matter among themselves, and never to 
whisper it in the neighborhood, under the penalty 
of a like punishment, 

'' When he returned home and retired, his wife 
exclaimed, 'Why, Mr. Lewis, where have you 
been, and what were you doing ?' She had heard 
a strange pounding and dreadful screams, and had 
smelled something like fresh meat burning. The 
answer he returned was, that he had never enjoy- 
ed himself at a ball so well as he had enjoyed him- 
self that night. 

" Next morning he ordered the hands to rebuild 
the back-wall, and he himself superintended the 
work, throwing the pieces of flesh that still re- 
mained, with the bones, behind, as it went up — 
thus hoping to conceal the matter. But it could 
not be hid — much as the negroes seemed to haz- 
ard, they did whisper the horrid deed. The neigh- 
bors came, and in his presence tore down the wall ; 
and finding the remains of the hoy, they appre- 
hended Lewis and his brother, and testified against 
them. They were committed to jail, that they 
might answer at the coming court for this shock- 
ing outrage ; but finding security for their appear- 
ance at court, THEY WERE ADMITTED TO BAIL ! 

" In the interim, other articles of evidence leak, 
ed out. That of Mrs. Lewis hearing a pounding, 
and screaming, and her smelling fresh meat burn- 
ing, for not till now had this come out. He was 
offended with her for disclosing these things, al- 
leging that they might have some weight against 
him at the pending trial. 

" In connection with this is another item, full 
of horror. Mrs. Lewis, or her girl, in making her 
bed one morning after this, found, under her bol- 
ster, a keen butcher knife ! The appalling disco- 
very forced from her the confession that she con- 
sidered her life in jeopardy. Messrs. Rice and 
Philips, whose wives were her sisters, went to see 
her and to bring her away if she wished it. Mr. 
Lewis received them with all the expressions of 



94 



Personal Naraatives — Rev. Francis Hawley. 



Virginia hofpilality. Am noon an Ihcy were neat. 
<:d they Maul, ' Wc II, l<<:litia, wc i4ti[i|>iiite(J ihat you 
ini|r|it Im; iiiilia[i(>y Inn-, ami afraid lor your lifi- ; 
and wr- liavi- niiin,- to. day to laki- you to your fa. 
thrr'H, if you drsin: it.' .Slic raid, ' Thank you, 
kind brollicrn, I am indcuul afraid for my iifi-.' — 
We need not intirrupt Ihi: story to tell how much 
■urpriwjd hi- articled to he with thin utranj^e 
proccilurc of liiH hrolheni-ui-law, and with thiv 
declaration of hin wife. Jiut all hix profeKxionH 
of fondnesH for her, to the contrary notwith- 
Htandiiijj, they rode olF with her hefore Iuh ey« s. — 
He lollmved and overtook, and went with ihem 
to her father's ; hut iihe was locked up from him, 
with her own <^onH( rit, and he returned home. 

" Now he Haw that his cliara<ler was jfone, liis 
reBpectaliiu friends believed that he had massacn d 
<»eorpe ; hut, wftrst of all, hi: saw that they con- 
fliden d the lifi' ol'tlie harmless Letilia was in dan- 
ger from his perhdious hands. It was loo much 
lor bis chivalry to sustain. Tlie proud Virginian 
Bunk under the accumulated load of public odium. 
IIo proposed to his brother Isham, wlio had been 
his aeconi[)lice in tlie (jeorpc alfair, that they 
should tinish the play of life with a still deeper 
tra^edv. The plan was, thai they should shoot 
one another. Havin^r made the hot-brained bar- 
gain, they repaired with their guns to the grave, 
yard, whieJi was on an eminence in the midst of 
his plantation. It was inclosed with a railing, 
say thirty feet sf|uarc. One was to stand at one 
railing, and the other over against him at the 
other. They were to make ready, take aim, and 
count deliberately 1, 2, 3, and then fire. I.ilburu's 
will was writtiii, and thrown down ojjcn beside 
him. They cocked their guns and raised them to 
tJicir faces ; but the peradvcnturc occurring that 
one of the guns might miss fire, Isham was sent 
for a rod, and when it was broucrht, Lilburn cut 
it ofl" at about the length of two feet, and was 
showing his brother how the survivor might do, I 



provided one of the guns should fall ; (for th> -. 
were determined UfKin going togetlier;) biU lor. 
gettmg, perha[m, m (he p( rturbition of tii< nut. 
menl thai (he gun was cocked, when he tou< hwi 
the (rigger with the rod (he gun fired, and he feQ,. 
and died in a few minuteH — and was wiili CieorgV' 
in the eternal world, where thr alare it free from 
hit ntastrr. Bu( poor Isham wa« so (erri/icd with 
this un'-xp«'Clcd occurrence and so confounded 
by the awful contortions of his broth< r's face, (hat 
he had not nerve enough to follow up (be yl^ffi 
and finish the plan as was intend) d, but sufierani 
Ldburn to go ab>/ie. The negnxs came running; 
!o see u hat it meant that a gun should be fired ia 
the graveyard. There lay their ma«(cr, dead J 
Thev ran lor (he neighbors. Isham still rematn. 
cd on l\u- 8j'o(. The neighbors at (In firB( charged 4 
hifn with the murder of his brother. Hut he, 
though as if he had lost more than half his nund, 
told the whole story; and (he course or rant." of 
the ball in (he dead man's body agreeing wit!, Ins 
statement, I.sham was not farther charged with 
Lilbum's deadi. 

•' The Cour( sat — Isham was judged to bo guilty 
of a capital crime in the affair of (ieorge He was 
to be hanged at Salem. The day was set. .My 
good old lathe r visited him in the prit^m — two or 
three times talked and prayed with him ; I visited 
liim once mysc-lf. We fondly hoped that he was 
a sincere penitent. Before (he day of executioo 
came, by some means, I never knew wha(, Isham 
was missiniT. Alwut two years after, we leann d 
that he had gone down to Natchez, and hat! inir. 
ried a lady of some refinement and piety. I savr 
her let(ers to his sisters, who were worthy mem. 
hers of (he church of which I was pastor. The 
last letter told of his death. He was in Jackson's 
army, and fell in the famous battle of New Or- 
leans. " I am, sir, your friend, 

" Wm. Dickey." 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES-PART III. 

NARRATIVE AND TESTIMONY OF REV. FR.\i\CIS HAWLEY. 



Mr. Hawlev is the pa.'itor of the Baptist Church 
in Colebrook, Litchfield county, (Connecticut. 
He has resided fourteen years in (he slave states, 
North and South Carolina. His character and 
standing with his own denomination at the 
south, may be inferred from the fact, that the 
Baptist Slate Convention of North Carolina ap- 
pointed him, a few years since, their general 
agent to visit (he nap(ist churches within their 
bounds, and to wrure their co.nperal ion in the ob- 
jects of tlie Convention. Mr. H. accepted the 
appointment, and for some (imc traveled in that 
capacity. 

** I rejoice (hat the F.xeculive Committee of 
the Anu-rican .Vnti.Slavery Society have resolved 
to publish a volnmi' of facts ami testunony ri'la- 
livc to the eharaeter and workings of .\mcrican 
slavery. Having n'siiled fourteen years at the 
sflutli, F chierfiillv Comply with your rri|urst, to 
give the result of my observation and cxiH'ncnce. 



.\nd I would here remark, that one may rr-JuUt 
at tJic south for years, and not witni « extrviiic 
cruelties ; a northern man, and one who is not a 
slaveholder, would be the last to have an oppor- 
tunity of witnessing the infliction of cruel pun- 
ishments. 

rUk STATIONS. 

" .\ majority of the large plantations are 
on the banks of rivers, far from tJic publio 
eye. .\ great deal of low marshy ground lies 
in t)ie vicinity of most of the rivers at (he soutJi ; 
consequently the main roads an' s<vcral miles 
from the rivers, and generally no public road 
pasM's the |)iantations. A stranerr travelini: ■•u 
the riilpr, would think hims<lf hi a misornii!/ 
poor Country ; but every (wo or tlin-e mile,« lu- 
will si-e a roatl turning oflT, and leading into the 
swamp; taking one of those mads, and traveling 
fmm two (o six miles, he will come to a largo 
ga(e ; passing whirh, he will find himself in a 
clearing of wveral hundn^d acn-s of Uie first 
quality of land ; passing on, he will sec 30, or 



Personal Narratives — Rev. Francis Hawley. 



95 



\ i40, or more slaves — men, women, boys and girls, 
at their task, every one with a hoe ; or, if in cot- 
ton picking season, with their baskets. The 
overseer, with his whip, either riding or standing 
about among them ; or if the weather is hot, sit- 
ting under a shade. At a distance, on a little 
rising ground, if such there be, he will see a clus- 
ter of huts, with a tolerable house in the midst, 
for the overseer. Those huts arc from ten to 
riftcen feet square, built of logs, and covered, 
not with shingles, but with boards, about four 
Ifeet long, split out of pine timber with a '/rojc' 
The floors are very commonly made in this way. 
Clay is first worked until it is soft ; it is then 
spread upon the ground, about four or five inches 
thick ; when it dries, it becomes nearly as hard 

-as a brick. The crevices between the logs are 
sometimes filled with the same. These huts 
generally cost the master nothing — they are com- 
monly built by the negroes at night, and on Sun- 
days. When a slave of a neighboring plantation 
takes a wife, or to use the phrase common at the 
south, ' takes up' with one of the women, he 
builds a hut, and it is called her house. Upon 
entering these huts, (not as comfortable in many 
instances as the horse stable,) generally, you 
will find no chairs, but benches and stools ; no 
table, no bedstead, and no bed, except a blanket 
or two, and a few rags or moss ; in some in- 
stances a knife or two, but very rarely a fork. 
You may also find a pot or skillet, and generally 
a number of gourds, which serve them instead of 
bowls and plates. The cruelties practiced on 
those secluded plantations, the judgment day 
alone can reveal. Oh, brother, could I summon 
ten slaves from ten plantations that I could name, 
and have them give but one year's history of 
their bondage, it would thrill the land with hor- 
ror. Those overseers who follow the business of 
overseeing for a livelihood, are generally the 
most unprincipled and abandoned of men. Their 
wages are regulated according to their skill in 
extorting labor. The one who can make the 
niost bags of cotton, with a given number of 
jiands, is the one generally sought after; and 
there Is a competition among them to see who 
shall make the largest crop, according to the 
hands he works. I ask, what must be the con- 
dition of the poor slaves, under the unlimited 
power of such men, in whom, by the long-con- 
tinued practice of the most heart-rending cruel- 
tics, every feeling of humanity has been obliterat- 
ed ? But it may be asked, cannot the slaves 
have redress by appealing to their masters ? In 
many instances it is impossible, as their masters 
live hundreds of miles off. There are perhaps 
thousands in the northern slave states, [and many 
in the free states,] who own plantations in the 
southern slave states, and many more spend their 
summers at the north, or at the various watering 
places. But what would the slaves gain, if they 
should appeal to the master ? He has placed the 
overseer over them, with the understanding that he 
will make as large a crop as possible, and that he is 
to have entire control, and manage them accord- 
ing to his own judgment. Now, suppose that in the 
midst of the season, the slaves make complaint 
of cruel treatment. The master cannot get 

^ along without an overseer — it is perhaps very 

I sickly on the plantation — he dare not risk his 



own life there. Overseers are all engaged at that 
season, and if he takes part with his slaves against 
the overseer, he would destroy his authority, and 
very likely provoke him to leave his service — 
which would of course be a very great injury to 
him. Thus, in nineteen cases out of twenty, 
self-interest would prevent the master from pay- 
ing any attention to the complaints of his slaves. 
And, if any should complain, it would of course 
come to the ears of the overseer, and the com- 
plainant would be inhumanly punished for it. 

CLOTHING. 

"The rule, where slaves are hired out, is 
two suits of clothes per year, one pair of shoes, 
and one blanket ; but as it relates to the great 
body of the slaves, this cannot be called a general 
rule. On many plantations, the children under 
ten or twelve years old, go entirely naked — or, if 
clothed at all, they have nothing more than a 
shirt. The cloth is of the coarsest kind, far from 
being durable or warm ; and their shoes fre- 
quently come to pieces in a few weeks. I have 
never known any provision made, or time allow- 
ed for the washing of clothes. If they wish to 
wash, as they have generally but one suit, they 
go after their day's toil to some stream, build a 
fire, pull off their clothes and wash them in the 
stream, and dry them by the fire ; and in some 
instances they wear their clothes until they are 
worn off, without washing. I have never known 
an instance of a slaveholder putting himself to 
any expense, that his slaves might have decent 
clothes for the Sabbath. If, by making baskets, 
brooms, mats, &c. at night or on Sundays, the 
slaves can get money enough to buy a Sunday 
suit, very well. I have never known an instance 
of a slaveholder furnishing his slaves with stock- 
ings or mittens. I know that the slaves suffer 
much, and no doubt many die in consequence of 
not being well clothed. 

FOOD. 

" In the grain-growing part of the south, the 
slaves, as it relates to food, fare tolerably 
well ; but in the cotton, and rice-growing, and 
sugar-making portion, some of them fare badly. 
I have been on plantations where, from the ap- 
pearance of the slaves, I should judge they were 
half-starved. They receive their allowance very 
commonly on Sunday morning. They are left 
to cook it as they please, and when they please. 
Many slaveholders rarely give their slaves meat, 
and very few give them more food than will 
keep them in a working condition. They rarely 
ever have a change of food. I have never known 
an instance of slaves on plantations being fur- 
nished either with sugar, butter, cheese, or milk. 

WORK. 

" If the slaves on plantations were well fed 
and clothed, and had the stimulus of wages, 
they could perhaps in general perform their tasks 
without injury. The horn is blown soon after 
the dawn of day, when all the hands destined for 
the field must be ' on the march.' If the field is 
far from their huts, they take their breakfast with 
them. They toil till about ten o'clock, when 
they eat it. They then contuiue their toil till 
the sun is set. 

" A neighbor of mine, who has been an over- 
seer in Alabama, informs me, that there they as- 
certain how much labor a slave can .perform in a 



06 



Personal Narratives — Rev. Francis Hawley. 



Hav, in the followinjj manner. When they com- 
inrnri! a new coitoii fn-ld, Ux; ovi-n*cvT takcH hin 
watch, and markn how loiifj it takcMthprn to hoc 
one row, and tlicii layn oil" the tank accordinjfly. 
Mv nciijhiHtr also intorniH nic, tJial tlic tdavcH in 
Alahania an- worked very hard ; that llie lanh m 
altnoiit universally applied at the clone of the day, 
if they fail to perform tlieir ta«k in tin- cotton- 
pickinf; season. You will Bee them, with their 
biiikelH of cotton, nlowly bending their way to 
the cotton house, where each on(.''H hanket is 
weijfhetl. Tiuy have no meauH of knowing ac. 
curately, in the conrse of the day, how they make 
progress; ho that they are in BUHpense, until their 
banket i."* weighed. Here romi-H the mother, with 
lier children ; she docH not know whether hcr- 
Bclf, or children, or all of them, must take the 
lash ; thev cannot wei^b tbc cotton themselves — 
tlie whole must be trusted to the overseer. While 
tlu> Weighing goes on, all is still. So many j)ounds 
short, cries the overseer, and takes up his whip, 
exclaiming, * Ste]) this way, you d — n lazy scoun- 
drel,' or ' bitch.' The poor slave begs, and pro- 
mises, but to no purpose. The lash is ap|ilicd imtil 
the overseer is satisfied. Sometimes the whip. 

fing is deferred until the weighing is all over, 
have said that all must be trusted to the over- 
seer. If he owes any one a grudge, or wi.shes to 
enjoy the fiendish j)leasure of whipping a little, 
(for some overseers really tlelight in it,) they have 
only to tell a falsehood relative to tlic weight of 
their basket ; they can then have a pretext to 
gratify their diabolical disposition ; and from 
the character of overseers, 1 have no doubt that 
it is frcf]uently done. On all plantations, the 
male and female slaves fare pretty much alike ; 
those who are with child are driven to tlieir task 
till within a few days of the time of their deliv- 
ery ; and when the child is a few weeks old, the 
mother must again go to the field. If it is far 
from her hut, she must take her babe with her, 
and leave it in tlie care of some of the children — 
perhaps of one not more than four or five years 
old. If the child cries, she cannot go to its re- 
lief; the eye of the overseer is upon her; and if, 
when she goes to nurse it, she slays a little longer 
than the overseer thinks necessary, he commands 
her back to her ta.ik, and ])erhaps a husband and 
father mtist hear and witness it all. Brother, 
you cannot begin to know what the poor slave 
mothers sufTer, on thousands of plantAtions at 
the south. 

" I will now give a few facts, showing the 
workings of the system. Some years since, a 
Presbyterian minister moved from North Caro- 
lina In ( Georgia. lie had a negro man of an 
uncommon luiml. For some cause, I know not 
what, this minister whip|ied him most unmerci- 
fidly. IIo next nearly droirnrd him ; he then put 
him in the fenrr ; this is done by lifting up the 
corner of a ' worm' lence, and then putting the 
feet tlirongh ; llie rails serve as slacks. lie kept 
him th'T'' Bomo time, how lonij I was not inform- 
ed, but Ihc poor slave dird iu a few davs ; and, 
if I was ritrhtly informed, nothing was done ' 
about it, eitlier in church or state. After some j 
time, he moved back to Nortii Carolina, and is 

now a member of Pn sSylery. I have heard 

liim preach, and have Ikcu in the pulpit with him. \ 
May God forgive me! 1 



" At Laurel Hill, Richmond county. North 
t'arolina, it was reported Uiat a runaway slave 
was in the neighborhood. A number of young 
men look their gunn, and went in pun«uit. Some 
of them tfjok their station near the otagc road, 
and ke|)t on the hxik-out. It was early in tlia 
evening — the poor slave came along, when tjie 
ambush rushed upon him, and ordered him to 
surrender. He refus<^^d, and kept them otF •. I'li 
his club. They iitill pressed ujKjn him with 'ii< ir 
guns presented to his breast. Withe;' ,r 

to Ik" daunted, he caught hold of th' i 

one of the guns, and came near getlin^ , i 

of it. At length, retreating to a fence on ■ ik: 
side of the road, he sprang over into a com-f. il. 
and started to run in one of the rows. On. ..i' 
the young men stepped to the fence, fin-d. rnul 
lodged the whole charge between his i-houli:' r- : 
he fell, and died in a short time. He died v. .S- 
out telling who his master was, or whether \>- . ;! 
any, or what his own name was, or where b' . ;•: 
from. A hole was dug by the side of the n kI 
his body tumbled into it, and thus ended the 
whole matter. 

"The Rev. Mr. C. a Methodist minister, h- ' a 
his slave a negro man, who was a menil" r • 
his own chureb. The slave was consider . a 
very |>ious man, had the confidence of his r -. 
ter, and all who knew him, and if I recollect r._ ■ 
he sometimes attempted to preach. Just Im ; .■••• 
the Nat Turner insurrection, in .•^ouihamp'f.:- 
county, Virginia, by which the whole - • ^ 

thrown into a panic, this worthy slav. 
permission to visit his relatives, whoreMi.. >. • 
in Southampton, or the coimty adjoii. • 
This was the only instance that ever cani' 
my knowledge, of a slave being permitted to jro 
so far to visit his relatives. He went and rt tun:- 
cd according to agreement. A few weeks a:"' r 
his return, the insurrection took place, and t;i>' 
whole country was deeply agitated. Susjiir nn 
soon fixed on this slave. Nat Turner wa? a 
Ha|>tist minister, and the south became exci' (!- 
ingly jealous of all negro preachers. It seemed 
as if the whole community were impressed with 
the belief that he knew all almut it ; that he .md 
Nat Turner had concerted an extensive insur: ■■- 
rection ; and so confident were they in this ii - 
lief, that they took the |>oor slave, tried him, ni.) 
hung him. It was all done in a few days, 
protested his innocence to the last. Aftt r 
excitement was over, many were ready to 
knowledge that they believed him innocent, 
was bunir upon suspicion 1 

" In R county. North Carolina, liv> .i n 

Mr. B. who bad the najiie of bemg a cruel n ,- 
ter. Three or four winters since, his slaves \\i •'■ 
engaged in eUaring a piece of new land, lb- 
had a negro girl, alvout 11 years old, whom h'- 
had sever<-lv whi|)p«'d a few days before, for : ' 
performing her ta>ik. She again failed. 1. 
bands left the field for home ; she wrnl with tli> iii 
a part of the way, and I'ell U-hind ; but the :: ■ 
groes thought she would soon 1h^ along: ; 
evening pass«Ml away, and slie did not c< i 
They tinally concluded that she had gone b k 
to the new ground, to lie by the log heaps tint 
were on fire. But they were mistaken: she ii...l 
.•-at down by the fool of a larg.- pine. She v r ■» 
thinly clad — tlic uight waa void and rainy. In 



II. 



II.- 



Personal Narratives — Rev. Francis Hawlcy. 



07 



the morninfj tlin poor girl was foiiiid, but bIio was 

; IspcoclilcHH and tli(!ii in a Hliorl time. 

' ■ " Oni! of my iicij(lil)ors sold to a Hpcciilator a 
ncfjro hoy, about 14 years old. It was more 
iflian his poor mother could bear. Jlcr renson 
fled, and she became a perfcel maniac, and had 
to be kept in close confinement. Slie would oc- 
icasionally fret out and nm oil' to the neighbors. 
On one of these occasions she came to iny house. 
She was indeed a j)itiiil)le object. With tears 
rolling down her cheeks, and her frame shaking 
jwith agony, she would cry out, ' doii't. you. hear 
Ihim — tlicij arc. in/ii/ij)ing him now, and hit is call- 
ling for inr ." This neighbor of mine, who tore 
•the boy away from his i)oor mother, and thus 
broke her heart, was a member of the Preshyteri- 
an church. 

.> jMr. S , o( Marion District, South Caro- 
lina, informed mo that a boy was killed by the 

oicrsecr on Mr. P 's plantation. The boy 

was engaged in driving the horses in a cotton 
iTJn. '17ic driver generally sits on the end of the 
■-wii-p. Not driving to suit the overseer, he 
iiiiockcd him off with the butt of his whip. Ills 
i\vi\[ was fractured. He died in a short time. 

'• A man of my acquaintance in South Caro- 
iiia, and of considerable wealth, had an only son, 
aImiui he educated for the bar ; but not suecccd- 
iig in his profession, he soon returned home. 
'lis father having a small plantation three or 
our miles off, placed his son on it as an overseer. 
!'(il lowing the example of his father, as I have 
niod reason to believe, he took the wife of one of 
lie negro men. The poor slave felt himself 
rrrally injured, and expostulated with him. The 
\!- 'leh took his gun, and deliberately shot him. 
'ii)\identially he only wounded him badly. 
iVIioii the father came, and undertook to remon- 
trate with his son about his conduct, he threat. 
■lied to shoot him also! and finally, took the 
v-rio woman, and went to Alabama, where he 
itill resided when I left the south. 
" An elder in the Presbyterian chureli related 

me the following. — ' A speculator with his 
irovo of negroes was passing my house, and I 
)ou;^]it a little girl, nine or ten years old. After 

1 few months, I concluded that I would rather 
lavo a plough-boy. Another speculator was 
la.^siug, and I sold the girl. She was much dis- 
lesscd, and was very unwilling to leave.' — She 
n;l been with him long enough to become at- 
aciied to his own and his negro children, and he 
j^oncluded by saying, that m view of the little 
Virl's tears and cries, he had determined never to 
io the like again. I would not trust him, for I 
vuow him to be a very avaricious man. 

"While traveling in Anson county. North Ca- 
■olina, I put up for a night at a private house. 
The man of the house was not at home when I 
stopped, but came in the course of the evening, 
and was noisy and profane, and nearly drunk. I 
retired to rest, but not to sleep ; his cursing and 
Swearing were enough to keep a regiment awake. 
About midnight he went to his kitchen, and 
called out his two slaves, a man and woman. 
jHis object, he said, was to whip them. They 
both begged and promised, but to no purpose. 
The whipping began, and continued for some 
time. Their cries might have been heard at a 
distance. 



I " I wan acquainted with a very wealthy plant/r, 
on the Pedeo river, in Sout)i Carolina, who liai 
Hince died in conHeqiience of inti-mpi-ranee. It 
was said that he liad occaHJoned the dedlj. of 
twelve of his Hlaves, by compelling ihi m to work 
in water, o))ening a ditch in the midwl of winter. 
The dis(;ase with which th<:y died was a [ileuritty. 
^^In erossing Pedee river, at (Jawhway Ferry, 1 
observed that the fi-rryman had no hair on ei'Jier 
side of his head. 1 aHked him the cauHc. He 
informed me that it was caused by IiIh master'ti 
cane. I said, you have a very bad ma.ster. 'Ych, 
a very bad master.' I understood that he was 
once a member of Congress from South Carolina. 
" AViiile traveling as agent for the North Caro- 
lina Baptist State Convention, I attended a three 
days' meeting in Gates county. Friday, the first 
day, passed off. Saturday morning came, and 
the jjastor of the church, who lived a few miles 
off, did not make his appearance. The day pass- 
ed off, and no news from the pastor. On Sab- 
bath morning, he came hobbling along, having 
but little use of one foot. He soon explained : 
said he had a hired negro man, who, on Satiir- 
day morning, gave him a ' little slack jaw. ^ Not 
having a stick at hand, lie fell upon him with his 
fist and foot, and in kicking him, he injured his 
foot so seriously, that he could not attend meet- 
ing on Saturday. 

" Some of the slaveholding ministers at the 
south, put their slaves under overseers, or hire 
them out, and then take the pastoral care of 

churches. The Rev. Mr. B , formerly of 

Pennsylvania, had a plantation in Marlborough 
District, South Carolina, and was the pastor of 
a church in Darlington District. The Rev. Mr. 

T , of Johnson countj', North Carolina, has a 

plantation in Alabama. 

"I was present, and saw the Rev. J 

W , of Mecklenburg county, North Carohna, 

hire out four slaves to work in the gold mines in 

Burke county. The Rev. H M , of Orange 

count}', sold for ,'§900, a negro man to a specula- 
tor, on a Monday of a camp meeting. 

" Runaway slaves are frequently hunted with 
guns and dogs. / teas once out on suck an excur- 
sion, tcith my rifle and two dogs. I trust the 
Lord has forgiven me this heinous wickedness ! 
We did not take the runaways. 

" Slaves are sometimes most unmercifully pun- 
ished for trifling offences, or mere mistakes. 

"As it relates to amalgamation, I can say, 
that I have been in respectable families, (so call- 
ed,) where I could distinguish the family resem- 
blance in the slaves who waited upon the table. 
I once hired a slave who belonged to his own 
uncle. It is so common for the female slaves to 
have white children, that little or nothing is ever 
said about it. Very few inquiries are made as to 
who tlie father is. 

" Thus, brother , I have given you very 

briefly, the result, in part, of my observations and 
experience relative to slavery. You can make 
what dis])osition of it you please. I am willing 
that my name should go to the world with what 
1 have now written. 

" Yours affectionately, for the oppressed, 

" Francis Hawlev." 
Colehrook, Connecticut, March IS, 1S39. 



98 



Personal Narratives — Reuben G. Macy and Richard Macy. 



TESTIMONY OF REUBEN G. MACY AND RICHARD MACY. 



Tho fiillowinjj ix an rxtract of a loiter mccntly 
rcccivi-(l fritrn fiiARi.K.i Marriott of HudHoii, 
New York. Mr. Marriott Ih an older in tlx; Uc- 
ligioim Society of I-'riundH, and in cxltnHivtly 
known and rcH|>cctcd. 

" 'I'lif two following brief Htatement)", are fur- 
ninhed by l{ielmrd Maey and K<iibcn <«. Macy, 
brotlicrx, both of Hudson, New York. Tliey are 
head carpentem by trade, and have Ikth well 
known to inc for more than thirty years, aHegtecni- 
cd members of the IliliirioiiK Societj* of Friends. 
They inform me that chirin'^ their stay in .South 
Carolina, a number more similar cases to those 
hero related, eainc under their notice, which to 
avoid repetition they omit. 

C. Marriott. 

TESTISIONV OK REUBKN O. MACV. 

" During the winter of 1818 and 19, I resided 
on an island near the moiitli of the Savannah 
river, on the South ('arolina side. Most of the 
slaves that came under my particular notice, be. 
longed to a widow an<l her daughter, in whose fa- 
mily I lived. No white man belonged to the 
plantation. Iler slaves were under the care of 
an overseer who came once a week to give orders, 
and settled the scores laid up against such as their 
mistress thought deserved punishment, which was 
from twcnty-fivo to thirty lashes on their naked 
backs, with a whip whieli the overseer generally 
brought with him. This whip had a stout handle 
about two feet long, and a lash about four and a half 
feet. From two to four received the above, I be. 
lievc nearly every week during the winter, some- 
times in my pres«;nce, and always in my hearing. 
I examined the backs and shoulders of a numb(T 
of the men, which were mostly naked while Lliey 
were alK>ut their labor, and found them covered 
with hard ridges in every direction. One day, 
while busy in tiie cotton house, hearing a noise, I 
ran to the door and saw a colored woman plead- 
ing with the overseer, who j)aid no attention to 
her cries, but tied her hands together, and pa.ssed 
the rope over a beam, over head, where was a 
platform for spreading cotton, he then drew the 
rope as tight as he could, so as to let her toes 
touch the ground ; then stripped her Ixidy naked to 
the waist, and went deliberately to work with )iis 
whip, and put on twenly-five or thirty lashes, she 
pleading in vain all the tinn-. I in<|uired, the 
CBU8C of sueli treatment, and was informed it wzs 
for answering Ivr mistress rallur ' short.'" 

"A woman from a neighboring plantation came 
where I was, on a visit ; she eame in a Iwat niw- 
ed by six slaves, who, areording to the common 
practice, were left to talii' eare of llicms<-lvcii, and 
having laid thi-m down in the l)oaf and fallen 
asleep, the tide fell, and tlie water filling the stem 
of the bfiat, wet their ntislresses trimk of clotlies. 
Wljen she disroveriMl it, she called them np near 
where i was, and comp<'lled thrm to whip each 
•thi-r, till tiiey all had ncrivrd a M'vere flogging. 
She standing bv with a whip in hrr hand to ^•'>' | 
that they did not s|>are each other. Their usn.il | 
mJlowance of food waa one peck of com per week, I 



wliich wan dealt out to them every first d,»y dt 
Uie week, and «tu«;h as were not there to r< cei»e 
their portion at the appointed time, tiad to li. . aa 
Uiey could during ilic coming week. Eac li 'nc 
had the privilege of planting a small /. 
ground, and rawing j^jultry for their o.' 
which they generally Hold, that ia, »uch 
improve the privilege which were but few. 
had nothing allowed them besides tltv c<<' 
ccpl one fpiarter of In-tf at Christmas w . 

slave brought three miles on his head. I 
were allowed three days rest at Chrihtnias. I r 
clothing consisted of a pair of trows*. r» and .i •, 
madeof whitish wrwilen cloth called iiegri 
The women had notiiing but a pcUicoal, an<: 
short short.gown, made of the same kind <■ 
Some of the women had an old pair of ^ . -, 
but they generally went barrfoot. The I. • 
for the field slaves were atwut fourteen fctt - 
built in the coarsest manner, having I. 
room, without any chimney, or flooring, 
hole at the roof at one end to let the smok 

" F^ach one was allowed one blanket in 
they rolled themselves up. I examined ii»< a 
houses but could not discover any thing like a 
bed. I was informed that when they hai' 
ficiency of jxitatoes the slaves were aJlowe(; 
but the season that I was there they did ii 
more than were wantc d for seed. All th' 
was ground in one hand-mill, every night 
much as was necessary for the family, then < ■. h 
one his daily portion, which took considera!>ls 
time in the night. I often awoke and heard the 
sound of the mill. Grinding Ujc com in fli« 
night, and in the dark, after tlicir day's lab«ir. and 
the want of other food, were great hard!-hii«s. 

'• Tlic traveling in those parts, among tin is. 
lands, was altogether with boats, rowed by from 
four to ten slaves, which often stopped at our plan- 
tation, and staid through the night, when Um 
slaves, after rowing through the day, were lett t« 
shift for themselves ; and when they went to Sa- 
vannah with a load of cotton they were oblii:' il to 
sleep in the open boat.s, as the law did not all >w 
a colored person to be out after eight oVlrx-k ia< 
the evening, without a pa*s from his master." 



TESTIMOXT OP RICHARD MACT. 

"The above account is from my brother. I 
\yas at work on Hil'mi Head altout twenty inilea 
north of my brother, during tho same winter. 
The same allowance of one peck of com Ic «i 
week, the same kind of houses to lire in, bmi iIm 
same method of grinding their com. and always 
in the night, and in the dark, was practiced ili. tc, 

" A number of instances of s«'Vere \\liipj.:n» 
eame under my notice. The first was this : — two 
men wert> sent out to saw some blocks cnit of 
large live oak limber on wliich to rais<' my bmld. 
ing. Their saw was in poor order, and tlioj 
sawed them badly, for which their master strip, 
ped them naked and floffgrd Ibeni. 

"The next instance was a boy about sixle«a 
Tears of age. He had cnpt into tlie coach to slecpj 
afler two or three nights he was caught by tiw 
coach diiTcr, a MrlArm man^ and stripped m/trs* 



Personal Narratives — Mr. Eleazar Powell. 



^ 



ly naked, and whipped without iiuTcy, hiH maHtcr 
looiiiii}; on. 

" Another instance. Tlio overseer, a young 
whito man, liad ordered several negroeH, a IwafH 
crew, to lie oil the spot at a given lime. One man 
did not appear until the boat had gone. The i>v<t- 
Becr waK very angry and told iiiiii to wtrip and he 
flogged ; h(! being slow, was told if lie did not in- 
ataiitly Htrip oil hiH jacket, he, tlie overseer, would 
whij) it oli; wliich he did in shreds, whipping him 
cruelly. 

'• The man ran into the barrens and it was about 
a month before thoy caught him. Jle was nearly 
starved, and at last stole a turkey ; then another, 
and was caught. 

" Having occasion to pass a plantation very early 
one foggy morning, in a boat, we heard the 
sound of the whip, before wo could sec, but as 
we drew up in front of the plantation, we could 
flee the negroes at work in the field. The over- 



wer was going from one to the other cauNin||r 
them to lay d(»wii thr;ir lioe, Htrip ofl" their gar- 
ment, hold up tlieir handH and receive tiieir num- 
ber of lashcH. 'i'huB ho went on from one tf» the 
other until we were out of sight. In the course 
of the winter a family came where I was, on a 
visit from a neighboring inland ; of course, in a 
boat with negroes to row them — one of these a 
barb(T, told m( that he ran away about two yeart 
before, and joined a company of negroes who had 
fl(;d to tlie swamps. He said lh<;y suffered a great 
deal — were at last discovered by a party of hun- 
ters, who fired among them, and cauwjd them to 
scatter. Himself and one more fled to the coast, 
took a boat and jiut ofi' to sea, a storm came on 
and swamped or u])set them, and his jiartner was 
drowned, he was taken up by a passing vessel 
and returned to his masttr; 

• Richard Macy. 
Hudson, 12 mo. 29<A, 1838. 



TESTIMONY OF MR. ELEAZAR POWELL. 



Extract ofa letter from Mr. William Scott, 
a highly respectable citizen of Beaver co. Pennsyl- 
vania, dated Jan. 7, 1839. 

Chippewa Township, Beaver co. Pa. \ 
Jan. 7, 1839. \ 

" I send you the statement of Mr. Eleazar Pow- 
ell, who was bo.rn, and has mostlj^ resided in this 
township from his birth. His character for so- 
briety and truth stands above impeachment. 
With sentiments of esteem, 

I am your friend, 

William Scott. 

"In the month of December, 1836, I went to 
':lic State of Mississippi to work at my trade, 
nii;isonry and bricklaying,) and continued to 
work in the counties of Adams and Jefferson, be- 
tween four and five months. In following my 
business I had an opportunity of seeing the treat- 
ment of slaves in several places. 

" In Adams county I built a chimney for a man 
named Joseph Gwatney ; he had forty-five field 
hands of both sexes. The field in which they 
ivorked at that time, lay about two miles from 
the house ; the hands had to cook and eat their 
'>roalifast, prepare tlieir dinner, and be in the field 
'it daylight, and continue there till dark. In the 
?vciiing the cotton they had picked was weighed, 
md if they fell short of their task they were 
\vhipped. One night I attended the weighing — 
two women fell short of their task, and the mas- 
ter ordered the black driver to take them to the 
quarters and flog them ; one of them was to re- 
ceive twenty-five lashes and pick a peck of cot- 
ton seed. I have been with the overseer several 
times through the negro quarters. The huts are 
generally built of split timber, some larger than 
rails, twelve and a half feet wide and fourteen 
feet long — some with and some without chimneys, 
and generally without floors ; they were generally 
without daubing, and mostly had split clapboards 
nailed on the cracks on the outside, though some 
were without even that : in some there was a kind 
of rough bedstead, made from rails, polished with 
tlie axe, and put together in a very rough_ man- 



ner, the bottom covered with clapboards, and 
over that a bundle of worn out clothes. In some 
huts there was no bedstead at all. The above 
description applies to the places generally with 
which I was acquainted, and they were mostly 
old settlements. 

" In the east pan of Jefferson county I built a 

chimney for a man named M'Coy ; he had 

forty-seven laboring hands. Near v.hcre I was at 
work, M'Coy had ordered one of his slaves to set 
a post for a gate. When he came to look at it, ho 
said the slave had not set it in the right place ; 
and ordered him to strip, and lie down on his 
face ; telling him that if he struggled, or attempt- 
ed to get up, two men, who had been called to 
the spot, should seize and hold him fast. The 
slave agreed to be quiet, and M'Coy commenced 
flogging him on the bare back, with the wagon 
whip. After some time the sufferer attempted 
to get up ; one of the slaves standing by, seized 
him by the feet and held him fast ; upon which 
he yielded, and M'Coy continued to flog him ten 
or fifteen minutes. When he was up, and had 
put on his trowsers, the blood came through them. 

" About half a mile from M'Co3''s was a planta- 
tion owned by his step-daughter. The o\ erseer's 
name was James Farr, of whom it appears Mrs. 
M'Coy's waiting woman was enamoured. One 
night, while I lived there, M'Coy came from 
Natchez, about 10 o'clock at night. He said that 
Dinah was gone, and wished his overseer to go 
with him to Farr's lodgings. They went accord- 
ingly, one to each door, and caught Dinah as she 
ran out, she was partly dressed in her mistress's 
clothes ; M'Coy whipped her unmereiflilly, and 
she afterwards made her escape. On the next 
day, (Sabbath), M'Coy came to the overseer's, 
where I lodged, and requested him and me to look 
for her, as he was afraid that she had hanged her. 
self. He then gave me the particulars of tlie 
flogging. He stated that near Farr's he had 
made her strip and lie down, and had flogged her 
until he was tired ; tliat before he reached home 
he had a second time made her strip, and again 
flogged her until he was tired ; that when be 



100 



Personal Narratives — Rev. William Scales. 



reached home he had ticfl lic-r tuapcach-trcf, and 
tflcT (;<;tliii|; a drink liail flu|r(rc<l licr until he waH 
tliinily a^aiii ; and wliilr liu wi-iit tu (;i't a drink 
tlio woman niadi- licr rhcape. lU: Hlalcd that he 
knew, fniMi thi: wlii|i|»ini,' he liad uiv<n hir, llicre 
inuxl he in lier liaek entH an iiieli dee|>. He 
bIiowc<1 the place wlicre hIic had hern tied to the 
tree ; then^ a|>[ieared tu he as iniieli hloud an if a 
hoj{ had hern stuck tliere. 'I'lie woman was 
found on Sahhatii eveninfr, near tlie K])ring, and 
had to he carried into tin- houie. 

" Wliih^ I hved there I liiard M'Coy say, if the 
slaves did not raise liini three hundred bales of 
cotton tile ensuing season, he would kill every ne- 
gro he had. 

*' Anollier rase of floptrinp came under my no- 
tice : — I'iiilip (). I lujjhcH, sherifl' of JefTurson coun- 
ty, had hired a slave to a man, whose name I do 
not recollect. On a S;^l)alh day the slave had 
drank somewhat freely ; he was ordered by the 
tavern keeper, (where his present master had lef\ 
his horse and the nefjro,) to stay in the kitchen ; 
the negro wished to be out. In persisting to go 
out he was knocked down three times ; and after- 
wards flogged imtil another young man and my- 
seU'ran about half a mile, having been drawn by 
the cries of the negro and the sound of the whip. 
"When we came up, a number of mi n that had 
been about the tavern, were whipping him, and 
at intervals would ask him if he would take otF 
his clothes. At seeing them drive down the 
stakes for a regular flogging he yielded, and took 
them off. They then flogged him until satisfied. 
On the next morning I saw him, and his panta- 
loons were all in a gore of blood. 

" During my stay in Jefferson county, Philip O. 
Hughes was out one day with his gun — he saw a 
negro at some distance, with a club in one hand 
and an ear of corn in the other — Hughes stepped 
behind a tree, and waited his approach ; he sup- 
posed the negro to bo a runaway, who had es- 
caped ahout nine months before from his master, 
living not very far distant. The negro discovered 
Hughs before he came up, and started to run ; he 
refusing to stop, Hughes fired, and shot liim 



through the arm. Through loss of blood the ne- 
gro was soon taken and {>ut in jail. I saw hii 
wound twice dressed, and heard Hughes make the 
above statement. 

" When in JefTcmon county I boarded six 
W(M.ks in Fayette, the county town, with a l:c • rt 
keeper named James Truly. He had a 
named Lucy, w ho occupied the station of eh:i 
maid and table waiter. One day, just after c 
.Mrs. Truly took Lucy and Uiund her arm^ 
a pine sapling behind the house, and comni' J 
flogging her with a riding-whip; and when i r< d 
would take lierehairand reitl. She contirmerl tiiiic, 
alternately flogging and resting, for at least an ii-ur 
and a half. I afterwards learned from the har-k' <p. 
er, and others, that the woman's ofTcncc was that 
she had bought two candles to set on the tab!< the 
evening before, not knowing there were yet - m- 
in the box. I did not see the act of fl' _ ''-z 
above related; but it was commenced Ujii.r.j ] 
left the hou.se after dinner; and my work not be- 
ing more than twenty rods from the house, 1 dis- 
tinctly heard the cries of the woman all the tinn 
and the manner of t}-ing I had from those wli. 
did see it. 

" While I boarded at Truly's, an overseer shot 
a negro about two miles northwest of Fayr'* . '"^ 
longing to a man named Hinds Stuart. I ; :c 
Stuart himself state the particulars. It 8(1; • -ir^.L 
that the negro's wife fell under the overseer's dis. 
pleasure, and he went to whip her. The negro said 
she should not be whipped. The overwer then 
let her go, and ordered him to l>c seized. Tlic negro, 
having been a driver, rolled the lash of his uhip 
round his liand, and said he would not be wIupi.. d 
at that time. The overseer repeated his onii rs. 
The negro took up a hoe, and none dared to take 
hold of him. The ovcrsecrthen went to his coat, 
that he had laid olTto whip the negro's wife, and 
took out his )>islol and shot him dead. His mas- 
ter ordered him to be buried in a hole without a 
cofBn. Stuart stated that he would not have 
taken two thousand dollars for him. No punish- 
ment was inflicted on the overseer. 

Eleazar Powell, Jr." 



TESTIMONY ON THE AUTHORITY OF REV. WM. SCALES, LYNDON, VT. 



The following is an extract of a letter from two 1 
professional gentlemen and their wives, who have j 
hved for some years in a small village in one of ' 
the slave slates. They are all persons of the high- \ 
est respectability, and are well known in at least 1 
one of the Ni-w Kngland states. Their names I 
arc with the Executive Committee of the .Vmeri- ' 
can .\nli-Slavery Society ; but as the individuals 
would doubtless he murdered by the slaveholdoni, 1 
if they were pnblishe<i, the Committee feel .sacredly 
bouiul to withhold them. The letter was ad- 
drcsw'd to a respected clergyman in New ICngland. 
The writers say : I 

*' A man near us owned a valuable slave — his 
best — niotit fditbfiil servant. In a gust of passion, 
he struck limi dead with a lovi-r, or stick «if wood. 

•' During the years '^6 and •.^7, the following 
transpired. A slave in our neighborlK>od ran 



away and went to a place about thirtv mile? (i-«. 
tant. Then' he was found by his pursuers on h r^ - 
back, and compelled by the whip to run the (is. 
tancc of thirty miles. It was an exceedingly hot 
day— and within a few hours after he arrived at 
the end of his journey the slave was dead. 

" Anotlier slave ran awav, but conchidrd to re- 
turn. He had ]>rocee<ied some distance on his m. 
turn, when he was met bv a company of tv .> ..r 
three drivers, who raced, whipped and ab'-.s d 
him until he t'ell down and expired. This look- 
place on the Sabbath." The writer a Her speaking 
ot" another murder of a slave in the neighborhood, 
without givinu the circiimstanc> «. sav — *• Ther« 

IS a powerful New England influrnee at " the 

village wlierr thev rvside — '* We niay ihrr- !nrrr 
suppose that then- would be as little of barbnri.Tn 
cruelty prnct iced there as any where; — at hast 
wc might suppose that the average amount of 
inielty in that ^ncinity would be suffiri-nlly 
favorable to Uic side of slavcrv. — Describe a cir- 



Personal Narratives — Joseph Ide, Esq. — Rev. Phineas Smith. 



101 



'elc.the centre of which shall bo ,tlic rcsidcnoc 

of the writers, and tlie radius fifteen miles, and in 
about one year three;, and I think four slaves 
have been murdered, within that circle, under 
circumstances of horrid cruelty. — What must have 



been the amount of murder in the whole slave 
territory ? The whole soutli is rife with the 
crime of separating husbands and wives, parents 
and children." 



TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH IDE, ESQ. 



J Mr. Ide is a respected member of the Baptist 
I Church in Sheffield, Caledonia county, Vt. ; and 
j recently the Postmaster in that town. He spent a 
I few months at the south in the years 1837 and 8. 
ji In a letter to the Rev. Wm. Scales of Lyndon, Vt. 
3 written a few weeks since, Mr. Ide writes as fol- 
I lows. 

[ 

'' " In answering the proposed inquiries, I will 
say first, that although there are various other 
ii modes resorted to, whipping with the eowskin is 
the usual mode of inflicting punishment on the 
poor slave. I have never actually witnessed a 
'wliipping scene, for they are usually taken into 
some back place for that purpose ; but I have 
often heard their groans and screams while writh- 
ing under the lash ; and have seen the blood flow 
■from their torn and lacerated skins after the ven- 
jgeancc of the inhuman master or mistress had 
i'been glutted. You ask if the woman where I 
boarded whipped a slave to death. I can give 
you the particulars of the transaction as they 
were related to me. My informant was a gen- 
tleman — a member of the Presbyterian churcli in 
iMassachusetts — who the winter before boarded 

i where I did. He said that Mrs. T had a 

female slave whom she used to whip unmerciful- 
ily, and on one occasion, she whipped her as long 
las she had strength, and after the poor creature 
'was suffered to go, she crawled off into a cellar. 
As she did not immediately return, search was 
made, and she was found dead in the cellar, and 
''the horrid deed was kept a secret in the family, 
and it was reported that she died of sickness. 
This wretch at the same time was a member of a 
JPresbyterian church. Towards her slaves she 
iwas certainly the most cruel wretch of any wo- 
man with whom I was ever acquainted — yet she 
'was nothing more than a slaveholder. She would 
^ deplore slavery as much as I did, and often told 
rae she was much of an abolitionist as I was. She 
^ was constant in the declaration that her kind 
s itreatment to her slaves was proverbial. Thought 
'■■ il, then the Lord have mercy on the rest. She 
has often told me of the cruel treatment of the 
tj slaves on a plantation adjoining her father's in the 
(liow country of South Carolina. She says she 
0' -has often seen them driven to the necessity of 
; eating frogs and lizards to sustain life. As to the 
'' ifiode of living generally, my information is rather 



limited, being with few exceptions confined to 
the different families where I have boarded. My 
stopping places at the soutli have mostly been in 
cities. In them the slaves are better fed and 
clothed than on plantations. The house servants 
are fed on what the families leave. But they are 
kept short, and I think are oftener whipped for 
stealing something to eat than any other crime. 
On plantations their food is principally hoinmo- 
ny, as the southerners call it. It is simply crack- 
ed corn boiled. This probably constitutes seven- 
eights of their living. The house-servants in 
cities are generally decently clothed, and some 
favorite ones are richly dressed, but those on the 
plantations, especially in their dress, if it can be 
called dress, exhibit the most haggard and squalid 
appearance. I have frequently seen those of 
both sexes more than two-thirds naked. I have 
seen from forty to sixty, male and female, at 
work in a field, many of both sexes with their 
bodies entirely naked — who did not exhibit signs 
of shame more than cattle. As I did not go 
among them much on the plantations, I have had 
but few opportunities for examining the backs of 
slaves — but have frequently passed where they 
were at work, and been occasionally present with 
them, and in almost every case there were marks 
of violence on some parts of them — every age, 
sex and condition being liable to the whip. A 
son of the gentleman with whom I boarded, a 
young man about twenty-one years of age, had 
a plantation and eight or ten slaves. He used to 
boast almost every night of whipping some of 
them. One day he related to me a case of whip- 
ping an old negro — I should judge sixty years of 
age. He said he called him up to flog him for 
some real or supposed offence, and the poor old 
man, being pious, asked the privilege of praying 
before he received his punishment. He said he 
granted him the favor, and to use his own ex- 
pression, ' The old nigger knelt down and pray- 
ed for me, and then got up and took his whip- 
ping.' In relation to negro huts, I will say that 
planters usually own large tracts of land. They 
have extensive clearings and a beautiful mansion 
house — and generally some forty or fifty rods 
from the dwelling are situated the negro cabins, 
or huts, built of logs in the rudest manner. 
Some consist of poles rolled up together and 
covered with mud or clay — many of them not as 
comfortable as northern pig-sties." 



TESTIMONY OF REV. PHINEAS SMITH. 



Mr. Smith is now pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church in Centreville, Allegany county, N. Y. 
He has recently returned from a residence in the 
rJave states, and the American slave holding set- 



lements in Texas. The following is an extract 
of a letter lately received from him. 

" You inquire respecting instances of cruelty 
that have come within my knowledge. I reply. 



102 



Personal Narratives— Mr. Philemon Bliss. 



Avarice and rruolty <*on»litutn tho very piHt of 
the wlioK: »lavr svMUmi. Many of llic cnormiti'-H 
committed upon lh<; plantations will not Ix; de- 
acribcd till ('od l)rin(rN to li^rlit tln^ hidden tliin(;K 
of darkiieHH, llieii thu tears and i^Toann and tilood 
of innoci 111 men, won>cn and cliildrin will lje re- 
vcaled, and llic- op|)rfb»or'H spirit «iu:»t confront 
that of tim victim. 

" I will relate a caRf; of torliirr which orctirrcd 
on the lirasNOH whilu I resided a few milex diutant 
upon the Ciiocolalo bayou. The ca«c should b<; 
remembered aH a true illustration of the nature 
of Hlavery, an it cxIhIb at the wjulh. The facts 
arc UicKc. An overseer hy the name of Alexan- 
der, notorious for his cruelty, waw foMn<l drad in 
the timbered lands of tlie Hrassos. It was sup. 
posed that lie was niurdere<l, but who perpetrated 
the act was unknown. Two black men were 
however seized, taken into the Prairie and put to 
the torture. A ]»hysician hy tho name of Parrolt 
from Tennessee, and anollur from New England 
by the name of Anson Jones, were ])rescnt on this 
occasion. The latter gentleman is now tli(! 
Texan minister plcnijjotentiary to the United 
States, and resides at Washington. The unfor. 
tunate slaves being strij)pcd, and all things ar- 
ranged, the torture commenced by whipping upon 
their bare hacks. Si.x athletic men were em- 
ployed in this scene of inhumanity, the names of 
some of whom I well remember. There was one 
of the name of Brown, and one or two of tlie 
name of Patton. Those six executioners were 
successively employed in cutting up the bodies of 
these defenceless slaves, who persisted to the last 
in the avowal of their innocence. The bloody 
whip was however kept in motion till savage bar- 
barity itself was glutted. \V'hcn this was ac- 
complished, the bleeding victims were re-convey- 
cd to the inclosurc of the mansion liouse where 
they were deposited for a few moments. ' T/ie 
dying frroans hoircvpr iiir.ommoding the ladies, 
they were taken tn a bark shed where one of I hem 
goon expired * ' The life of the other slave was 
for a time despaired of, but after hanging over 
the grave for months, he at length so far recover- 
ed as to walk about and labor at light work. 
These facts cannot he controrrrted. They were 
disclosed under the solemnity of an oath, at Co- 
lumbia, in a court of justice. I was present, and 
shall never forget them. The testimony of Drs. 
Parrolt and Jones was most appalling. I seem 
to hear the death-groans of that murdered man. 
Hia erica for mercy and protestations of inno- 

• Thn words t)f Dr. rarrott, a witness on the trial hereaf- 
ter rcfcrnil lo. 



cencc fell upon adamantine hcartB. Tlic (mc 
alxive atatcd, and othern in relation to thm hc^i- 
of cruelty came to light in the following mannrr 
The master of the murdered man comuH nr-*d 1 
legal proccaa againat the acton in thi« tra;f" ilvfof I 
the rrrotery of the value of the chattel, 
would institute a suit for a horac or an ■ 
had been unlawfully killed. It wiua sui. 
recoverj' of damages nii-rely. No indiclw 
even dreamed of. Among the witnesaes i 
U[>on the stand in the progrcaa of tliia can- 
the physicians, Parrott and Jones above i 
The part which they were called to act 
affair was, it is said, to examine the puis'- 
victims during tlie proceaa of tor/ure. It 
were mistaken aa to the quantum of ' 
which a human being can undergo and i 
under it. Can it be believed that one of the- 
phyaiciana waa born and educated in the land ' 
the pilgrims ? Yes, in my own native New E^^, 
gland. It is even so! The stone-like apathv ma^ 
nifested at the trial of the above cause, a:: '' < 
screams and tin- death-groans of an innoccr 
as developed by the testimony of tlie wi! . 
can never be obliterated from my memorv. 
form an era in my life, a point to which 
back with horror. 

" Another caae of cruelty occmred on t 
Bernard near Chance Prairie, where I re;- 
some time. The facts were these. A slave i 
from his master, (Mr. Sweeny) and heme 
pursued by the overseer and a son of thi 
he stepped a few yards in the Bernard an<^ 
himself upon a root, from which thcr 
no possibility of his escajje, for he cc 
swim. In this situation he was fired up' 
a blunderbuss loaded heavily with ball an 
shot. The overseer who sliot tJie gun v 
distance of a few feet only. Tlie charge 
the body of the negro near the groin. II i 
conveyed to the plantation, lingered in inejnms- 
siblc agony a few days and expired. A physekfi 
was called, but medical and surgical skill wv* 
unavailing. No notice whatever waa taken of 
this murder by the public authorities, and the 
murderer waa not discharged from the 8cr*-ice of 
his employer. 

" Wlien slaves flee, as they not nnfrrqurir :.\ 
to the timbered lands of Texas, they arc li ' d 
with guns and dogs. 

"The sufterings of the slave not unfrrqui ntj] 
drive him to despair and suicide. Ataplanlatii 
on the San Bernard, where there were hut fi 
slaves, two during the same year committed sd i 
cide by drowning." 



TESTIMONY OF PIIILE.MON BLISS, ESQ. 



Mr. Blisa is a highly respectable member ofl 
tlic bar, in Elyria, I/tirain Co. Ohio, and member' 
of the Presbyterian church, in that place. II- | 
rcaided ui Florida, during Uie years 1831 and .'>. I 

The following extracts are from letter*, writ- ' 
ten by Mr. II. in IBn.'i, while reciding on a plan. ' 
tation near Tallahaasce, and publi!<hed soon aft<r 
in the Ohio Atlas ; also from lettcra written ut 



lWr», and published in the New Yurl^ ■.....: 
list. 

•' In speaking of slaTcryaa it is, I hardlv hn( 
where to Ixpin. The phyairal con<iition ofihe <<laM 
is far fnmi U-ing aecuimtcly known at the nordp> 
(•entlemcn trtrrling in the south can kno#i 
nothing of it. They must make the aouth tha0< 
roaidenco ; tJiey must live on plantations,- 1" i.ni 
they can have any opportunity of judgin|; o:' tbi 



Personal Narratives — Pliilomon Bliiw. 



I0'.i 



slave. I rcHidcd in AufjUHlinc five montliH, and 
had I not iiiadu particular iufjuirit-H, wliicli inoBt 
ni)rlli(!rn .vinitorM very Hclduia or never do, I 
sliould li:iv(! left fliere witli the iin|ireHtiioii tliat 
llie slaves were fr(;ii(;r:illy very widl treated, and 
w<;re a haj)i>y jutople. JSueli is the report of 
many northern travelers who have no more op- 
l)orluiiity ol" knowinjj tlieir real condition than if 
they liad remained at lionie. What confidence 
eould we place in the re])ort8 of the traveler, 
relative to the condition of" the Irish jxiasantry, 
who formed his ojiinion from the appearance of the 
waiters at a Dublin hotel, or tiie housi:hold Hcr- 
vants of a eoantry frentleman ? And it is not 
often on plantations ev(!n, that stranrrfrs can wit- 
ness the pimishmentof tile slave. I was conversing 
the otli(;r day with a neifrhhorinfr planter, upon the 
brutal treatment of the slaves which I had wit. 
nessed : he remarked, that had I been with him 
I should not have seen tins. " Wlicn I whip 
nifrgers, I take them out of sight and hearing." 
Such being tlic diHicultics in the way of a stran- 
ger's ascertaining the treatment of the slaves, it 
is not to be wondered at that gentlemen, of un- 
doubted veracity, should give directly false state, 
iiients relative to it. But facts cannot lie, and in 
giving these I confine myself to what has come 
under my ovn personal observation. 

" The negroes commence labor by daylight in the 
morning", and, excepting the plowboys, who must 
feed and rest their horses, do not leave the field 
till dark in the evening. There is a good deal of 
contenliori among planters, who shall make the 
most cotton to the hand, or, who shall drive their 
negroes the liardest ; and I have heard bets made 
and staked upon the issue of the crops. Col. W. 
was boasting of his large crops, and swore that 
' he made for his force, the largest crops in the 
country,' Ho was disputed of course. On ri- 
ding home in company with Mr. C the conver- 
sation turned upon Col. W. My companion re. 
marked, that though Col. W. had the reputation 
of making a largo crop, yet he could beat him 
himself, and did do it tiie last year. I remarked 
that I considered it no honor to Col. W. to drive 
his slaves to death to make a large crop. I have 
heard no more about large crops from him since. 
Drivers or overseers usually drive the slaves 
worse than masters. — Their reputation for good 
overseers depends in a great measure upon the 
crops they make, and the death of a slave is no 
loss to them. 

" Of the extent and cruelty of the punishment of 
the slave, the northern public know nothing. 
From the nature of the ease they can know little, 
as I have before mentioned, 

♦' I have seen a woman, a mother, compelled, in 
the piescnco of her master and mistress, to hold 
up her clothes, and endure the whip of the driver 
on the naked body for more than twenty minutes, 
and while her erics would have rent the heart of 
anyone, who had not hardened himself to human 
Buffering. Her master and mistress were con- 
versing with apparent indiftercncc. ^\'hat was 
her crime ? She had a task given her of sewing 
which she must finish that day. Late at night 
she finished it ; but the stitches were too long, 
and she must be whipped. The same was repeat, 
ed three or four nights for the same offence. 
/ haw, seen a man tied to a tree, hands and feet, 



and receive 305 blows with the paddle* on tho 
flcHliy partH of tlio body. Two othern received 
the Maine kind of punishment at the time, thoujrti 
I did not count the blows. One received 230 
laHheH. Their crime wan Hlealinp mutton. 1 
haviifrri/iirnlly heard the shrieks of the i^Iavci., 
mail; and female, accompanit^d by tlie strokes of 
the paddle or whip, wh<n I liavc not gone near 
the scene of horror. I knew not tlicir crimes, 
excepting of one woman, which was stealing 
four potatoes ixi cat \v\\U her bread! 'ITie more 
common immber of lashes inHiclcd was fifty or 
eighty ; and this I saw not once or twice, but so 
fre(|uently that I can not tell the number of times 
I have seen it. So frequently, that my own heart 
was becoming so hardened that I could witness 
with com])arativo indifference, the female writhe 
under the lash, and her shrieks and cries for 
mercy ceased to pierce my heart with that keen- 
ness, or give me that anguish which they first 
caused. It was not always that I could Icam 
their crimes ; but of tliosc I did learn, the most 
common was non-performance of tasks. I have 
seen men strip and receive from one to three 
hundred strokes of the whip and paddle. My 
studies and meditations were almost nightly in- 
terrupted by the cries of the victims of cruelty 
and avarice. Tom, a slave of Col. N. obtained 
permission of his overseer on Sunday, to visit his 
son, on a neighboring plantation, belonging in part 
to his master, but neglected to take a " pass." 
Upon its being demanded by the other overseer, 
he replied that he had permission to come, and 
that his having a mule was sufficient evidence of 
it, and if he did not consider it as such, he could 
take him up. The overseer replied he would 
take him up ; giving him at the same time a 
blow on the arm with a stick he held in his hand, 
sufficient to lame it for some time. The negro 
collared him, and threw him ; and on the over- 
seer's commanding him to submit to be tied and 
wiiippcd, he said he would not be whipped by 
hiyn but would leave it to massa J. They came 
to raassa J.'s. I was there. After the overseer 
had related the case as above, he was blamed 
for not shooting or stabbing him at once. — After 
dinner the negro was tied, and the whip given to 
the overseer, and he used it with a severity' that 
was shocking. I know not how many lashes 
were given, but from his shoulders to his heels 
there was not a spot unridged ! and at almost 
every stroke the blood flowed. He could not 
have received less than 300, icell laid on. But 
his offence was great, almost the greatest known, 
laying hands on a tchite man ! Had he struck 
the overseer, imdcr any provocation, he would 
have been in some way disfigured, perhaps by 
the loss of his cars, in addition to a whipping ; 
or he might have been hung. The most com 
mon cause of pmiishmcnts is, not finishing tasks. 

" But it would be tedious mentioning further 
particulars. The negro has no other inducement 
to work but the lash ; and as man never acts 
without motive, the lash must be used so long 
as all other motives are withheld. Hence cor- 
poreal punishment is a necessary part of slavery. 

" Punishments for rimaways are usually severe. 

* A piece of oak timber two and a half feet long, flat .nnd 
wide at one end. 



104 



Personal Narratives — Philemon Bliss. 



Once whipping; \9 not BiifTjcient. I have known i 
niiiatvaya to l>c whippi'd for six or neven iii(rhtH 
in Hiic(u:KtiioM i'or one olVmri;. I )iavc kriuwn 
otlitTH wild, with |iininnc<l liaiicln, and a chain 
t'Xlondini; Inun an iron collar on tlicir mi-k, 
to lh<; naddli- of Uu'ir HiaslcrV liorbc, have h<-i-n 
<irivfn at a Hniart Irot, onu or two hundred niilcH, i 
iK'injj conipcllcd to ford water cuurwB, thuir i 
drivcr.M, ai-curihufj to their own coiifetwion, not | 
abatiiij,' a whit in tlie ra|}i<hty of tlii-ir journey for | 
the ease of (lie hlavc. One tietl a kclth; of sand to 
his ftlavc to render liis journey more arduous. • 

'' Various are. tlie instruments of torture devised 
to keeji the slave in suhjection. The stocks are j 
sonietimeH used. Sometimes blocks arc filled 
with |)e|rH and nails, and the slave compelled to 
»tand upon them. 

'' While stopi)in[j on the plantation of a Mr, C. 
I saw a whi|) with a knotted lash lyinp on the 
table, and inquired of my companion, who was 
also an acquaintance of Mr. C.V, if he used that 
to whip his neijroes ? " Oh," says he, " Mr. C. 
is not severe with his hands. He never whips 
very hard. The knots in the lash are so large 
that he does not usually draw blood in whip- 
ping tliem." 

•' It was principally from hcarinjj the conversa- 
tion of soutliorn men on the subject, that I judge 
of the cruelty that is jrenirally practiced toward 
slaves. They will deny that slaves arc generally 
ill treated : but ask them if they arc not whipped 
for certain oftenccs, which either a freeman 
would have no temptation to commit, or which 
would not be an ofienec in any but a slave, and 
for non. performance of tasks, llicy will answer 
j)romptly in the affirmative. And frequently 
liave I heard them excuse their cruelty by citing 
I\Ir. A. or Mr. B. who is a Christian, or Mr. C 
a preacher, or Mr. D. from the north, who 
" drives his hands tighter, and whips them Iiard- 
cr, than wc ever do." Driving negroes to the ' 
utmost extent of their ability, with occasionally a | 
hundred lashes or more, and a few switchings in j 
the field if they haiisf back in the driving seasons, 
viz : in the hoing and picking months, is perfect- i 
ly consistent with good treatment ! 

*' Wliilc traveling across the Peninsula in a 
stage, in company with a northern gentleman, | 
and southern lady, of great worth and piety, a 
ilispnfe arose respecting the g<'neral treatment 
of slav<'8, the gentU-nian contending tliat their ^ 
treatment was generally good — ' O, no I' inter- 
nipteii the lady, ' you can know nothing of Uic 
treatm<-nt they receive on the plantations. Peo- 
ple here do wiiip the poor negroes most cruelly, 
and manv lialf starve them. Vou have neither 
of you had npportnnilv to know scarcely any ' 
thing of llie cruelties that are praclicetl in this > 
country,' and more totlie same effect. I met with 
several others, besides this lady, who appeared to ; 
f<'el for the sins of the land, hut they are few and i 
scaltere<l, and not usually of sufficiently stern ! 
mould to withstand the popular wave. ' 

" Masters arc not for-.vnr<l to publish their 
" <loineslir reuulations," and as luighlxirs arc , 
iisualiv sever.il miles apart, one's observation j 
must iM! limited, ilenco the few instances of | 
cruelty which break out can be but a fraction of 
what ia practiwd. A planter, a professor of re. I 
ligion, iu conversation tipon Uic universality of j 



whipping, remarked that a planter in G , who 

had whipped a great dval, at Ivngtli got tirod 
()( it, and invented tiie follownig, excellent 
method of punishment, which I saw jjractibcd 
while I wa« paymg him a visit. Tlie ni ;fro wa« 
placed in a sillmg position, with his ha us macio 
fast alxive his head, and feet in tlic stocks, ^o 
that he could not move any part of tho body. 

*' The master retired, intending to leave him till 
morning, but we were awakened in the night by 
the groans of the negro, which were m doleful 
that wc feared he was dying. Wc went to him, 
and found him covered with a cold sweat, and 
almost gone, ifc could not have liv> dan hour 

longer. Mr. found the 'stocks' such an 

effective punishment, that it almost euiM-TBeci' d 
the whip." 

" How much do you give j'our niggers for a 
task while hoeing cotton," inquired Mr. C 
of his neighbor Mr. H . 

II. " I give my men an acre and a quarter, and 
my women an acre."* 

C. " Well, that is a fair task. Niggers do a 
heap better if they are drove pretty light." 

H. " O yes, I have driven mine into complete 
subordination. When I first l>ought them they 
were discontented and wished me to sell ihein, 
but I soon whipped that out of them ; and they 
now work very contentedly I" 

C. " Docs Mary keep up with the rest 7" 

H. " No, she does'nt often finish the task alone, 
she has to get Sam to help her out alter he has 
done his, to save her a ichippir.g. There's no 
other way but to be severe willi tlicm." 

C. " No other, sir, if you favor a nigger you 
spoil him." 

'' The whip is considered as necessary on a plan- 
tation as the plough ; and its use is almost as 
common. The negro whip is llie common Icaiii- 
ster's whip with a black leallier stock, and a short, 
fine, knotted lash. The paddle is also freiiuentlv 
used, sometimes with holes bored in tl. t!attencd 
end. The ladies (!) in chastising their domestic 
servants, generally use the cowhide. 1 have 
known some use shovel and tongs. It i<s how- 
ever, more common to commit them to iLj driver 
to be whipped. The manner of whipping is as 
follows : The negro is tied by his liainiH, and 
sometimes feet, to a post or tree, and strijiivd to 
the skin. The female slave is not ah ays tied. 
The nurnVhT of lashes depends upon the charaeii r 
for si-verity of the master i>t overseer. 

'• Another instrument of torture is somctiin <= 
used, how extensively I know not, The nijrr.i, 
or, in the case which came to my knowledge, 
tile negress was compelled to stand barefoot 
upon a block filled witli siiarp pegs ani'. nails for 
two or three hours. In ease of sieknevs, jf the 
master or oversi-er thinks them seriously ill, they 
arc taken care of, but tlieir complaint.'< are usual- 
ly not much licedcd. A jihysician told me that 
he was employed bv a planter last w ii-.ti-r to !7'> 
to a plantation of his in the countrv. as many f 
tlie negroes Were sick. Says he — " I found tlicm 
in a most miserable condition. The weather 
was cold, and the negroes were barefo<it, witli 
hardly enough of cotton clothing to cover tb' :r 
nakedness. Those who had huts to shelter th< m 

> (%<iti>n i< planted In drill* about ihnx fcvt apart, aii.J 7 
hillcJ like com. 



Personal Narratives — Rev. Wm. A. Chapin. 



105 



' were obliged to build them nighls and Sundays. 
Many were sick and some had died. I liad tlie 
sick taken to an older plantation of their 
masters, where they could be made comfortable, 
;and they recovered. I directed that they should 
,not go to work till after sunrise, and should not 
i work in the rain till their health became establish. 
led. But the overseer refusing to permit it, 1 de- 
clined attending on them farther. I was call- 
jcd,' continued he, ' by the overseer of another 
I plantation to see one of the men. I found him 
j lying by the side of a log in great pain. I asked 
jihim how he did, ' O,' says he, ' I'm most dead, 
lean live but little longer.' How long have you 
been sick ? ' I've felt for more than six weeks 



as though I could hardly stir.' Why didn't you 
tell your master, you was sick ? ' I couldn't see 
rny master, and the overseer always whips ua 
when we complain, I could not stand a whip- 
ping.' I did all I could for the poor fellow, but 
his lungs were rotten. He died in three days 
from the time he left off work.' The cruelty of 
that overseer is such that the negroes almost 
tremble at his name. Yet he gets a high salary, 
for he makes the largest crop of any other man 
in the neighborhood, though none but the hard- 
iest negroes can stand it under him. " That 
man," says the Doctor, " would be hung in my 
country." He was a German. 



TESTIMONY OF REV. WILLIAM A. CHAPIN. 



! Rev. William Scales, of Lyndon, Vermont, 
as furnished the following testimony, under date 
f Dec. 15, 1838. 



" I send you an extract from a letter that I 
[have just received, which you may use ad libitum. 
The letter is from Rev. Wm. A. Chapin, Greens- 
borough, Vermont. To one who is acquainted 
with Mr. C. his opinion and statements must 
carry conviction even to the most obstinate and 
incredulous. He observes, ' I resided, as a teach- 
3r, nearly two years in the family of Carroll Webb, 
Esq., of Hampstead, New Kent co. about twenty 
Qiik's from Richmond, Virginia. Mr. Webb had 
:hrce or four plantations, and was considered one 
>f the two wealthiest men in the county : it was 
supposed he owned about two hundred slaves. He 
ivas a member of the Presbyterian Church, and 
ivas elected an elder while I was with him. He 
,vas a native of Virginia, but a graduate' of a New- 
England college. 

" ' The slaves were called in the morning before 
layhght, I believe at all seasons of the year, that 
Lhey might prepare their food, and be ready to go 
work as soon as it was light enough to see. I 
mow that at the season of husking corn, October 
md November, they were usually compelled to 
;Vork late — till 12 or 1 o'clock at night. I know 
his fact because they accompanied their work 
.villi a loud singing of their own sort. I usually 
etired to rest between 11 and 12 o'clock, and 
reuerally heard them at- their work as long as I 
.vas awake. The slaves lived in wretched log 
cabins, of one room each, without floors or win- 
dows. I believe the slaves sometimes suffer for 
ivant of food. One evening, as I was sitting in 



the parlor with Mr. W. one of the most resolute 
of the slaves came to the door, and said, " Mas- 
ter, I am willing to work for you, but I want 
something to eat." The only reply was, " Clear 
yourself." I learned that the slaves had been 
without food all day, because the man who was 
sent to mill could not obtain his grinding. He 
went again the next day, and obtained his grist, 
and the slaves had no food till he returned. He 
had to go about five miles.* 

" I know the slaves were sometimes severely 
whipped. I saw the backs of several v/hich had 
numerous scars, evidently caused by long and 
deep lacerations of the whip ; and I have good 
reason to believe that the slaves were generally 
in that condition ; for I never saw the back of 
one exposed that was not thus marked, — and from 
their tattered and scanty clothing their backs 
were often exposed." 

* To this. Rev. Mr. Scales adds, " In familiar language, 
and in more detail, as I have learned it in conversation with 
Mr. Chapin, the fact is as follows : — 

" Mr. W. kept, what he called a ' boy,' i. e. a man, to go 
to mill. It was his custom not to give his slaves an3'thing to 
eat while he was gone to mill— let him have been gone long ■ 
er or shorter — for this reason, if he was lazy, and delayed, 
the slaves would become hungry ; hence indignant, and 
abuse him — this was his punisliment. On that occasion he 
went to mill in the morning. The slaves came up at noon, 
and returned to work without food. At night, after having 
worked hard all day, without food, went to bed without 
supper. About 10 o'clock the next day, they came up in a 
company, to their master's door, (that master an elder in 
the chuich), and deputed one more resolute than the rest to 
address him. This he did in the most respectful tones and 
terms. " We are willing to work for you, master, but we 
can't work without food ; we want something to eat." 
"Clear yourself," was the answer. The slaves retired; 
and in the morning were driven away to work witliout food. 
At noon, I think, or somewhat after, they were fed." 



TESTIMONY OF MESSRS. T. D. M. AND F. C. MACY. 



This testimony is communicated in a letter 
from Mr. Cyrus Pierce, a respectable and well 
J known citizen of Nantucket, Mass. Of the wit- 
nesses, Messrs. T. D. M. and F. C. Maey, 
Mr. Pierce says, " They are both inhabitants of 
this island, and have resided at the south ; they 
ire both worthy men, for whose integrity and 



intelligence I can vouch unqualifiedly ; the for- 
mer has furnished me with the following state- 
ment. 

" During the winter of 1832 — 3, I resided on 
the island of St. Simon, Glynn county, Georgia. 
There are several extensive cotton plantations on 
the island. The overseer of the plantation on 



106 



Personal Narratives — T. D. M. and F. C. Macy. 



^hal part of tlio inland wliero I n-Kldcci waH a 
Gcorifian — a man c»f HttTii character, and at 
tiinc8crw*'//y a//u/rirr to liJH BlavcH. 1 have ofli-ri 
bci-n witiics.H of till' altugf of his power. In South 
Carolina and (iror^ia, on tiic Iriw lands, tlic cul. 
tivation in < Inclly of rice. 'I'Uc land where it is 
reined is often inundated, and the l.ibor of prc- 
parin^r it, and raising; a cro|i, is very arduoun. 
Men and women arc in the tield from earliest 
dawn to dark— <»ften williuut Uaia, and up to 
their arm-pitt) in mud and water. At >St. Si- 
mon's, cotton wps the staple article. (Jcra, the 
driver, usually waited on the overseer to receive 
orders for the succeeding day. If any slave was 
insolent, or nefrligent, the driver was aiitliorizcd 
to punish him with the whip, with as many blows 
as the magnitude of the crime justified. He was 
frequently cautioned, upon the peril of his skin, to 
see that all tlie negroes were off to the field in 
the inorninjj. 'Ocra,' said the overseer, one 
evening, to the driver, 'if any pretend to be 
sick, 8c-nd me word — allow no lazy wench or fel- 
low to skulk in the negro house.' Next morning, 
a few minutes after the departure of the hands to 
the field, Ocra was seen hastening to the house 
of the overseer. lie was soon in his presence. 

• Well, Ocra, what now V Nothing, sir, only 
Rachel says she sick — can't go to de field to-day.' 

• Ah, sick, is she ? I'll see to her ; you may be 
ofT. She shall sec if I am longer to be fooled 
with in this way. Here, Christmas, mix these 
salts — bring them to mc at the negro house.' 
And seizing his whip, he made off to tlic negro 
settlement. Having a strong desire to see what 
would be the result, I followed him. As I ap- 
proached the negro house, I heard high words, 
liachel was stating her complaint — children were 
crying from fright — and the overseer tlireatcning. 
Rachel. — ' I can't work to-day — I'm sick.' Over, 
seer. — ' Hut you shall work, if you die for it. 
Here, take these salts. Now move ofi' — quick — 
let mo sec your face again before night, and, b}- 
G — d, you shall smart for if. Be otV — no beg- 
ging — not a word ;' — and he dragged her from 
the house, and followed her 20 or liO rods, threat- 
ening. The woman did not rcarh the field. 
Overcome by the exertion of walking, and by 
agitation, she sunk down exhausted by the road 
side — was taktn up, and carried back to the 
houst\ where an abortion occurred, and her life 
was greatly jeoparded. 

" It was no uncommon sight to sec a whole 
family, father, mother, anil from two to five 
children, collected together around their piggin 
of hommony, or pail of potatoes, watched by the 
ovcrfieer. One meal was always eatin in the 
field. No time was allowed for relaxation. 

" It was not untis.ial for a child of five or six 
years to perform llii- ofl'ice of nurse — brrnuse the 
mother worki-d in a rnnote part of the field, and 
was not allowed to leave her employment to take 
care of her infant. Want of proper nutriment 
induces sickness of the wornt type. 

" No matter what the natun- of tlie sorx'ice. a 
pock of roni, dealt out on Sunday, must supply 
the denuncU of nattire for a wrrk. 

"The .<.ibl»ath, on a sotithcrn plantation, is a 
mere nominal holiday. The slaves are liable to 
Imj railed upon at all limco, by tliusc who have 
authoritj over ihvm. 



I •' When it rained, the slaves were allowed tc 
j collect under a tree until the shower had pasaed 
j Seldom, on a week day, were they perroitttd U 
I go to their huts during rain ; and even had thii 
i privilege been granted, many of those misi rabk 
I habitations were in mt ddapidated a condition 
that they would afford little or no ](rot<<i:on 
Negro hutM arc built of logs, covered willi h urdi 
or thatch, having no Jloorhifr, and but one u:iari 
raent, serving all the purpos4K of slctpinu'. ' "'k 
ing, &.C. Some are fumishid With a Icnii -ir> 
loft. I have wen a whole family herded !■■_ m i 
in a loft ten fi el by twelve. In cold weath<-r m j 
gather around the fire, spread their blank' i- ■ ■ ihi 
frround, and keep as comfortable as th- . • .in 
Their supply of clothing is scanty — each slavi 
being allowed a Holland coat and pantalfKin>5, of 
the coarsest manufacture, and one pair of ■ mw 
hide shoes. The women, enough of tli> in< 
kind of cloth for one frock. They have a' : ■ 
|iair of shoes. Shoes are given to the si :: 
the winter only. In Bumn)cr, their cloti. ,- i 
eompo.sed of osnaburgs. Slaves on different plan 
tations arc not allowed without a writti n per 
mission, to visit their fellow bondsmen, unde 
penalty of severe chastisement. I witncsp< d th< 
chastisement of a young male slave, who wa; 
found lurking al>out the plantation, and eouli 
give no other account of Inmself, than that hi 
wanted to visit some of his acquaintance. Fifl; 
lashes was the penalty for this offence. I eouh 
not endure the dreadful shrieks of the torlurei 
slave, and rushed away from the sccnc.'^ 

The remainder of this testimony is funi hot 
by Mr. F. C. Macv. 

" I went to Savannah in 18*20. Sailing r ih< 
river, I had my first view of slavery. -^ :'.rg> 
number of men and women, with a pircr o) 
hoard on their hradg, carrying mud, for the pui 
pose of dyking, near the river. After tarn. ■ ■,' '• 
while in Savannah, I went down to il. -'■; 
islands of De Fuskee and Hilton Head, w !'.• - 
sp'-nt six months. Negro houses arc sma!!. 'id 
of rough materials, onf/ no y/oor. Their c'"* m^ 
(one stiit,) coarse; which they received on ( .r,>t 
mas day. Their food was three pecks of ; 'a 
toes per week, in the potatoc season, and om : ■ <•! 
of corn the remainder of the year. The > ivr 
carried with tlu m into the field their me.il. am 
a gourd of water. They cooked tlieirhonim.'; n 
the field, and ate it with a wooden p.^iiJlc 
Their treatment was little better than tJiat oi 
brutes. Whipping was nearly an every-da* 

practice, tin Mr. M 's plantation, at thi 

island Do Fuskee, I saw an old man whipp<-d 
he was al«>iit t>(). He had no clothing on. i :.• p 
a shirt. The man that inflicted the blows- •. .i 

Flim, a tall and stout man. The «'■ a 

vrry trrrrr. I inquin^d into the r \ 
vegetables had been stolon fmin his i .r 

den, of which he could give no r.rroiini. I ^a%l 
several women whip|>ed, some of whom wrr.- ii 
veryf/r/iVrt^rcirrnmstanees. Tin ea<^-. I ■ :I 

relate. Sin- had Iv-en purchased in Ch' 
srparated from her husband. < >■■ ' u 

.*>avannal.. «)r rather to the i^ 
livrrrd of a child ; and in al> >ii' ■ 
this, she ap(vaTrd to be drnin^eii. Siie ^^ ■ il< 
leave her work, go into the woods, and .ing 



Personal Narratives — A Clcr;,'ym.in, 



107 



Jler master sent for her, and ordered llio driver 
to wlii|) licr. I was near enough to hear the 

»lroki:s. 

" 1 have known negro boys, j)artly hy perBua- 
Bion, and partly by force, made lo Htrip ofl' their 
clothiii}^ and fight for the amusement of their 
masters. They would figlit until both got to 
crying. 

" One of the planters told me that his boat had 
been used without permission. A number of his 
negroes were called up, and put in a building 
that was lathed and shingled. The covering 
could bo easily removed from the ifiside. He 
called one out for examination. While examin- 
ing this one, he discovered anotlier negro, com- 



ing out of the roof He ordered liim bark : lie 
obeyed. In a few niom«;ntH he alteinptid it 
again, 'i'he rnaHt<!r took deliberate aim at hi« 
h(;ad, l)Ut liis gun missed fire. He told me liu 
sbould probably have killed liini, liad his gun 
gone ofi". The negro jumped and run. The 
master took aim again, and fired ; but he was »> 
far distant, that he nccived only a few shots in 
the calf of his hg. Aficr several days he return- 
ed, and received a severe whipping. 

"Mr. B , planter at Hilton Head, freely 

confessed, that he kept one of his slaves as a mis- 
tress. She slept in the same room with him. 
This, I think, is a very common practice." 



TESTIMONY OF A CLERGYMAN. 



The following letter was written to Mr. Ar- 
THUR Tapi'an, of New York, in the summer of 
1833. As the name of the writer cannot be pub- 
lished with safety to himself, it is withheld. 

The following testimonials, from Mr. Tappan, 
Professor WiuGUT, and Thomas Ritter, M. D. 
of New York, establish the trust-worthiness and 
high respectability of the writer. 

" I received the following letters from the south 
during the year 1833. They were written by a 
gentleman who had then resided some years in 
the slave states. Not being at liberty to give tlie 
writer's name, I cheerfully certify that he is a 
gentleman of established character, a graduate of 
Yale College, and a respected minister of the 
gospel. " Arthur Tappan." 

" My acquaintance with the writer of the fol- 
lowing letter commenced, I believe, in 1823, from 
whicli time we were fellow students in Yale Col- 
lege till 1826. I have occasionally seen him since. 
His character, so far as it has come within my 
knowledge, has been that of an upright and re- 
markably candid man. I place great confidence 
both in his habits of careful and unprejudiced ob- 
servation and his veracity. 

" E. Wright, jun. 

" New York, April 13, 1839." 

" I have been acquainted with the writer of 
the following letter about twelve years, and know 
him to be a gentleman of high respectability, in- 
tegrity, and piety. We were fellow students in 
Yale College, and my opportunities for judging 
of his character, both at that time and since our 
graduation, have been such, that I feel myself 
fully warranted in making the above unequivocal 
declaration. " Thomas Ritter. 

'' 104, Cherr3'^-strect, New York." 

"Natchez, 1833. 
" It has been almost four years since I came to 
the south-west ; and although I have been told, 
from month to month, that I should soon wear off 
my northern prejudices, and probably have slaves 
of my own, yet my judgment in regard to oppres- 
sion, or my prejudices, if they arc pleased so to 
call them, remain with me still. I judge still from 
those principles which were fi.xed in my mind at 
the north ; and a residence at the south has not 



enabled me so to pervert truth, as to make m)us- 
ticc appear justice. 

" I have studied the state of things here, now for 
years, coolly and deliberately, with the eye of an 
uninterested looker on ; and hence I may not be 
altogether unprepared to state to you some facts, 
and to draw conclusions from them. 

" Permit me then to relate what I have seen ; 
and do not imagine that these are all exceptions 
to the general treatment, but rather believe that 
thousands of cruelties are practised in this Chris- 
tian land, every j'car, whicli no eye that ever shed 
a tear of pity could look upon. 

" Soon after my arrival I made an excursion into 
the country, to the distance of some twenty miles. 
And as 1 was passing by a cotton field, where 
about fifty negroes were at work, I was inclined 
to stop by the road side to view a scene which 
was then new to me. While I was, in my mind, 
comparing this mode of labor with that of my 
own native place, I heard the driver, with a rough 
oath, order one that was near him, who seemed 
to be laboring to the extent of his power, to " lie 
down." In a moment he was obeyed ; and he 
commenced whipping the offender upon his na- 
ked back, and continued, to the amount of about 
twenty lashes, with a heavy raw-hide whip, the 
crack of which might have been heard more than 
half a mile. Nor did the females escape ; for al- 
though I stopped scarcely fifteen minutes, no less 
than three were whipped in the same manner, and 
that so severely, I was strongly inclined to interfere. 
" You may be assured, sir, that I remained not 
unmoved : I could no longer look on such cruel- 
ty, but turned away and rode on, while the echoes 
of the lash were reverberating in the woods around 
me. Such scenes have long since become fami- 
liar to me. But then the full effect was not lost; 
and I shall never forget, to my latest day, tlie 
mingled feelings of pity, horror, and indignation 
that took possession of my mind. I involuntarily 
exclaimed, O God of my fathers, how dost thou 
permit such things to defile our land I Be mer- 
ciful to us ! and visit us not in justice, for all our 
iniquities and tlie iniquities of our fathers ! 

" As I passed on I soon found that I had escaped 
from one horrible scene only to witness another. 
A planter with whom I was well acquanted, had 
caught a negro without a pass. And at the mo. 
ment I was passing by, he was in the act of fas. 



108 



Personal Narratives — A Clergyman, 



linintj hJH feel ami lian<lB to the Irrcii, having 
jircviouMly made hint take oil' all lii» cluthini; t-x- 
ci!|)l liJH truwwrH. Wlii-ii liu had Niilticii-ntly hc. 
(•iircd thm poor rnaliirc, hc; Inat liiiii for Bcveral 
iiiinutcH with a |rri'cii Hwitcli more than mIx feet 
lonp ; whilr he wan writhing with anguish, in- 
d«:avoriiig in vain to hrcak the rordH with which 
lie wax hound, and inceHHantly crying out, " I>jrd, 
niaMtcr ! do pardon nie tluH lime I do, maitter, 
have mercy I" ThcHc exprcs.sionn have recurred 
to me a thousand limes Hince ; and although they 
eanie froiii one that in not iionxidcred among the 
BOHH of men, yet I think tiny are well worthy of 
rememhrance, as they might lead a wise man to 
consider whether such shall receive mercy from 
iJie righteous Judge, as never showed mercy to 
their fellow men. 

"At length I arrived at the dwelling of a planter 
of my acquaintance, with whom I passed the 
night. At ahout eight o'clock in the evening I 
heard the harking of several dogs, mingled with 
the most agonizing cries that I ever heard from 
any luiinnii hcing. Soon after the gentleman 
came in, and began to apologize, by saying that 
two of his runaway slaves had just been brought 
home ; and as hc had previously tried every spe- 
cies of punishment upon them without effect, he 
knew not what else to add, except to set his blood 
hounds upon lliem. 'And,' continued he, 'one 
of them has been so badly bitten that hc has been 
trying to die. I am only sorry that he did not ; 
for Uien I should not have been further troubled 
with him. If lie lives I intend to send him to 
Natchez or to New Orleans, to work with the ball 
and chain.' 

" From this last remark I understood that private 
individuals have the right of thus subjecting their 
unmanageable slaves. I have since seen num- 
bers of these- ' ball and chain' men, both in Nat- 
chez and New Orleans, but I do not know whe- 
thcr Uiere were any among them except the state 
convicts. 

" As the summer was drawing towards a close, 
and the yellow fever beginning to ])revail in town, 
I went to reside some months in the country. 
This was the cotton picking season, during whieli, 
the i)lanters say, there is a greater necessity for 
logging than at any other time. And I can as- 
sure you, that as I have sal in my window night 
after night, while the cotton was being weighed, 
I have beard the crack of the whip, witliout much 
intermission, for a whole hour, from no less than 
tliree plantations, some of which were a t'ull mile 
distant. 

*' I found that the slaves were kept in the field 
from daylight until dark ; and then, if they had 
not gathered what the master or overseer thought 
eulfieient, they were subjected to the lash. 

" Manv l»y such treatment arc induced to run 
awav and take up their lodging in the woods. I 
do not say 'hat all who run awav an* thus closely 
pressed, but I do know that many are; and I have 
known no less than a dor.en desert at a time fn>m 
the K»me plantation, in cons<qii.nce of the over- 
nocr** forcing them to work to the extent of their 
power, and then whipping them for not havinff 
done nion-. 

" lUil suppose that thev nm away — what is to 
bf come of thnn in the loresl 7 If thi-y ennnot 
•teal tlicy must iKriali of hunger — if tiic lughtA 



are cold, their feet will be frozen ; for if they maka 
a fire Ihej may be dincovcred, and be shot at. 
If they attempt to leave the country, their chance 
of HUcci^HM is about nothing. Tliey must return, 
be whip]icd — if old offenders, wear the collar, per. 
hajis be branded, and fare worse than '• 

" Do you believe it, sir, not six mon I 

saw a numlK-r of my Chrmlian neighb . ,-.. .. 
up provisions, as I vupposcd for a deer hunt : :• i". 
aa I was about offering myself to the part\. 1 
learned that thrir powder and balls were dr'slimd 
to a very different purpose : it was, in short, the 
design of the party to bring home a number of 
runaway slavey, or to shoot them if tiny sh'inld 
not be able to get possession of them in any otln r 
way. 

"You will ask, Is not this murder? Call it, sir, 
by what name you please, such aic the fact- : — 
many arc shot every year, and that Um while the 
masters say they treat their slaves well. 

"But let me turn your attention to another --j^m. 
cies of cruelty. About a year since I knew a n r- 
lain slave who had deserted his master, to i)e 
caught, and for the first lime fastened to ilie 
stocks. In those same stocks, from which at mid> 
night I have heard cries of distress, while the 
master slept, and was dreaming, perhaps, of dr i; k. 
ing wine and of discussing tlic price of cof. ... 
On the next morjiing he was chained in an mi- 
movable posture, and branded in both cheeks \mJi 
red hot stamps of iron. Such arc the tender mir- 
cies of men who love wealth, and arc determined 
to obtain it at any price. 

" Sutfer me to add another to the list of enormi- 
ties, and I will not offend you with more. 

" There was, some time since, brought to trial in 
this town a planter residing about fifteen miles 
distant, for whipping his slave to death. Y^u 
will stipiKise, of course, that he was punish' li. 
No, sir, he was acquitted, altliough there c<ni!.l 
be no doubt of the fact. I heard the tale of niur. 
der from a man who was acquainted with all the 
circumstances. '1 was,' said hc, ' passing along 
the road near the burving-ground of the planta* 
tion, about nine o'clock at night, when I saw sc- 
veral lights gleaming ihrough the woods; and a.<* 
I a|)proached, in order to sec what was doing, I 
beheld the coroner of Natchez, with a number of 
men, standing around the body of a young female, 
which by the torches seemed almost p-rfectly 
white. On inquiry I learned that the master had 
so immereifiilly Ivaten this girl that she died im- 
dcrthe operation : and that also he had so severe- 
ly punished anoUicr of his slaves tiiat he was but 
just aUvc.' " 

Wc here rest the case for the prr»cnt, so far as 
respects the presentation of facts showing the con- 
dition of the slaves, and proceed to cnnsider the 
main objections which arc usually en>i)loyctI to 
Weaken such testimony, or wholly to s<'t it aside. 
Rut U-fore wc enter ui>on the examination of spe- 
cific objections, and introductory to them, wo re- 
mark, — 

I 1. That the srstem of slavery must l»o a sya. 
tein of horrible cruelty, follows of nccrsj»ity, from 
the fact that two niillions seven hundred thousand 

, human beings are held by force, and uced aa arti- 



Personal Narratives — Remarks 



109 



clcs of property. Nothing but a heavy yoke, and 

I an iron one, could possibly keep so many necks in 
the dust. That must be a constant and mighty 

II pressure which holds so still such a vast army ; 
j nothing could do it but the daily experience of sc- 

verities, and the ceaseless dread and certainty of 
i the most terrible inflictions if they should dare to 
Itoss in their chains. 

I 2. Were there nothing else to prove it a system 
j of monstrous cruelty, the fact that fear is the 
only motive with which the slave is plied during 
1 his whole existence, would be sufficient to brand 
it with execration as the grand tormentor of man. 
The slave's susceptibility of pain is the sole ful- 
I crum on which slavery works the lever that moves 
him. In this it plants all its stings ; here it sinks 
its hot irons ; cuts its deep gashes ; flings its burn- 
ing embers, and dashes its boiling brine and liquid 
'fire : into this it strikes its cold flesh hooks, grap- 
igling irons, and instruments of nameless torture ; 
;and by it drags him shrieking to the end of his 
pilgrimage. The fact that the master inflicts 
pain upon the slave not merely as an end to grati- 
fy passion, but constantly as a means of extorting 
I Elabor, is enough of itself to show that the system 
of slavery is unmixed cruelty. 

3. That the slaves must suffer frequent and 
terrible inflictions, follows inevitably from the 
, character of those who direct their labor. What- 
ever maybe the character of the slaveholders them- 
■ selves, all agree that the overseers are, as a class, 
' most abandoned, brutal, and desperate men. This 
is so well known and believed that any testimony 
1 to prove it seems needless. The testimony of 
. Mr. Wirt, late Attorney General of the United 
;i States, a Virginian and a slaveholder, is as fol- 
!; lows. In his life of Patrick Henry, p. 36, speak- 
1 ing of the different classes of society in Virginia, 
j! |he says, — " Last and lowest a feculum, of beings 
I ['called 'overseers' — the most abject, degraded, un- 
i* 'principled race, always cap in hand to the dons 
' who employ them, and furnishing materials for 
; the exercise of their pride, insolence, and spirit of 
domination." 

Rev. Phineas Smith, of Centreville, New- York, 
il| ' who has resided some years at the south, says of 
' overseers — 

" It need hardly be added that overseers are in 
general ignorant, unprincipled and cruel, and in 
such low repute that they are not permitted to 



come to the tables of their employers; yet they 
have the constant control of aU the human cattle 
that belong to the master. 

" Tliese men are continually advancing from 
their low station to the higher one of masters. 
These changes bring into the possession of power 
a class of men of whose mental and moral quali 
tics I have already spoken." 

Rev. Horace Moulto\, of Marlboro', Massa- 
chusetts, who lived in Georgia several years, says 
of them, — 

" The overseers arc generally loose in their mo- 
rals; it is the object of masters to employ those 
whom they think will get the most work out of 
their hands, — hence those who whip and tor. 
ment the slaves the most are in many instances 
called the best overseers. The masters think 
those whom the slaves fear the most are the best. 
Quite a portion of the masters employ their own 
slaves as overseers, or rather they are called 
drivers ; these are more subject to the will of 
the masters than the white overseers are ; some 
of them are as lordly as an Austrian prince, and 
sometimes more cruel even than the whites." 

That the overseers are, as a body, sensual, bru. 
tal, and violent men is proverbial. The tender 
mercies of such men must be cruel. 

4. The ownership of human beings necessarily 
presupposes an utter disregard of their happiness. 
He who assumes it monopolizes their whole capi. 
tal, leaves them no stock on which to trade, and 
out of which to make happiness. Whatever is the 
master's gain is the slave's loss, a loss wrested 
from him by the master, for the express purpose 
of making it his own gain ; this is the master's 
constant employment — forcing the slave to toil — 
violentl}r wringing from him all he has and all he 
gets, and using it as his own ; — like the vile bird 
that never builds its nest from materials of its own 
gathering, but either drives other birds from theira 
and takes possession of them, or tears them in 
pieces to get the means of constructing their own. 
This daily practice of forcibly robbing others, and 
habitually living on the plunder, cannot but be- 
get in the mind the habit of regarding the interests 
and happiness of those whom it robs, as of no sort 
of consequence in comparison with its own ; con- 
sequently whenever those interests and this hap- 
piness are in the way of its own gratification, they 
will be sacrificed without scruple. He who can- 
not see this would be unable to feel it, if it were 
seen. 



OBJECTIONS CONSIDERED 

OwBCTioN I^SUCII CRUELTIES ARE INCREDIBLE. 



TnK cnormiticH inflicted by Blavclioldcrs upon 
their wlavcB will never be discredited except l>y 
thoM3 who overlook the Himple fact, that he who 
holdrt human beiny;8 an h\» bona fide property, re- 
garilii them an property, and not as prr'nns ; thiH 
18 hi.s prrinancnt slate of mind toward them. lie 
doeH not contemplate tdaveH aH human beings, con. 
sequcnlly docs not treat them as such ; and witli 
entire indiflercncc sees them suffer privations and 
writhe under blows, which, if inflicted upon 
whites, would fill him with horror and indigna- 
tion. He rofi^ard.s that as good treatment of 
slaves, which would seem to him insufferable 
abuse if practiced ujwn others; and would dc. 
nouncc that as a monstrous outrage and horrible 
cruelty, if perprctated upon white men and wo- 
men, which he sees every day meted out to black 
Blaves, without perhaps ever thinking it cruel. 
Accustomed all his life to regard them rather as 
domestic animals, to hear them stormed at, and to 
see them cuffed and caned ; and being liimsclf in 
the constant habit of treating them thus, such 
practices have become to liim a mere matter of 
course, and make no impression on his mind. 
True, it is incredible that men should treat as 
chattels those whom they truly regard as human 
beings ; but that they should treat as chattels and 
working animals those whom they regard as such 
is no marvel. The common treatment of dogs, 
when they arc in the way, is to kick them out of 
it; we sec them every day kicked off the side- 
walks, and out of shops, and on Sabbaths out of 
churches, — yet, as they arc but dngs, these do not 
strike us as outrages ; yet, if we were to sec men, 
women, and children — our neighbors and friends, 
kicked out of stores by merchants, or out of 
churches by the deacons and se.xton, we should 
call the perjictrators inhuman wretches. 

We have said that slaveholders regard their 
slaves not as human beings, but as mere working 
animals, or merchandise. The whole vocabularv 
of slaveholders, their laws, tlieir usages, and their 
entire treatment of their slaves fully establish this. 
The same terms ar>> applied to slaves that arc 
given to cattle. They are called "stock." So 
when the children of slaves arc spoken of pro- 
spectively, they are called their "increase;" the 
same term that is applied to tloeks and herds. So 
the female slaves tliat are nuilhers, are called 
"breeders" till past child In-aring ; and often lite 
same terms are applied to the (litfiTent sexes Uut 
are applii'd t« the males and females among cat- 
tle. Those who compel the lalwr of slaves and 
cattle have the same appellation, " drivers :" tlic 



names which they call them are the same and s mu 
ilar U) those given to their horses and oxen. 'Die 
laws of slave states make them properly, e^'ially 
with goats and swine ; they arc levied upon for ii' til 
in the same way; tliey are included in the ^iunc 
advertisements of public sales with cattle, f\. rje, 
and asses; when moved from one j>art o! im 
country to another, they aro herded in drrjV( .^^ , ke 
cattle, and like them urged on by drivers ; tinir 
labor is compelled in the same way. They are 
bought and s'jld, and separated like cattle : whca 
exposed for sale, their good qualities are descril>c4 
as jockiesshow off the good pointsof their horsts; 
their strength, activity, skill, power of cndur.ince, 
&.C. arc lauded, — and tiiosc who bid upon them 
examine their persons, just as purchasers inspect 
horses and oxen ; they open their mouths to fee 
if their teeth arc sound ; strip their backs to s< < if 
they arc badly scarred, and handle their liinba 
and muscles to sec if they arc firmly knit. Like 
horses, they are warranted to be " sound," or to be 
returned to the owner if " unsound." A father 
gives his son a horse and a slave ; by his will ho 
distributes among them his race-horses, hounds, 
game-cocks, and slaves. \Vc leave tlie reader to 
carry out the parallel which we have only began. 
Its details would cover many pages. 

That slaveholders do not practically regard 
slaves as human brings is abundantlv shown by 
their own voluntary testimony. In a recent work 
entitled, " The South vindicated from the Treason 
and Fanaticism of Norlhcm .\bolilionists,'" which 
was written, we are informed, by Colonel Dayton, 
late member of Congress from South Carolina ; 
the writer, speaking of the awe willi which the 
slaves regard the whites, says, — 

"The northerner looks upon a band of negroes 
as upon so many mrn, but the planter orsouthcm. 
cr riewa them in a trry different light." 

Extract from the speech of ]\Ir. Simmers, of 
Virginia, in the legislature of that state, Jan. 26, 
l!?32. See tlie Richmond ^^'hig. 

"When, in the sublime lessons of Christianitv, 
he (the slaveholder) is taught to 'do unto oti:i rs 
as he would have others do unto him,' he m \rn. 

nRKAMS Til VT TIIK DEGRADED NEGRO IS wmihN TH« 
PAI.E or THAT HOLY CANON." 

PnEsinFNT Jekkerson, in his letter to (^over-nor 
Coi.Ks, of Illinois, dated Aug. 2.">, 1814. asserts, 
that slaveholders regard tlieir slaves as brutes, in 
the following n-inarkable language. 

" Nursed bikI educated in the daily habit of s«'e- 
ing the degraded condition, both bodily and men. 
tal. of these untortunafe lyings ;the slaves'!, i eW 

MINDS lUVK VET DOVBTKD BIT TH.\T TIIKT WERE A» 



Objections Considered — Cruelties Incredible. 



Ill 



LEGITIMATE SUBJECTS OF PROPERTY AS THEIR HORSES 
OR CATTLE." 

Having shown that slaveholders regard their 
slaves as incrc working animals and cattle, we 
now proceed to show that their acttial treatment 
t»f them, is xoorse than it would be if they were 
brutes. We repeat it, Slaveholders treat their 

SLAVES WORSE THAN THEY DO THEIR BRUTES. Who- 

jcver heard of cows or sheep being deliberately 
(tied up and beaten and lacerated till they died ? 
ior horses coolly tortured by the hour, till covered 
with mangled flesh, or of swine having their legs 
tied and being suspended from a tree and lacerat- 
ed with thongs for hours, or of hounds stretched 
and made fast at full length, flayed with M'hips, 
red pepper rubbed into their bleeding gashes, and 
hot brine dashed on to aggravate the torture ? 
Yet just such forms and degrees of torture are 
daily perpetrated upon the slaves. Now no man 
that knows human nature will marvel at this. 
Tliough great cruelties have always been inflicted 
by men upon brutes, yet incomparably the most 
horrid ever perpetrated, have been those of men 
upon tlieir own species. Any leaf of history turn- 
ed over at random has proof enough of this. 
Every reflecting mind perceives that when men 
hold human beings as property, they must, from 
the nature of the case, treat them worse than 
tliey treat their horses and oxen. It is impossible 
for cattle to excite in men such tempests of fury 
CB men excite in each other. Men are often pro- 
voked if their horses or hounds refuse to do, or 
their pigs refuse to go where they wish to drive 
them, but the feeling is rarely intense and never 
permanent. It is vexation and impatience, rather 
than settled rage, malignity, or revenge. If horses 
and dogs were intelligent beings, and still held as 
property, their opposition to the wishes of their 
ov/ners, would exasperate them immeasurably 
more than it would be possible for them to do, 
with the miads of brutes. None but little chil. 
dren and idiots get angry at sticks and stones that 
lie in their way or hurt them ; but put into sticks 
and stones intelligence, and will, and power of 
feeling and motion, while they remain as now, ar- 
ticles of property, and what a towering rage would 
men be in, if bushes whipped them in the face when 
they walked among them, or stones rolled over 
•their t«es when they climbed hills ! and what 
exemplary vengeance would be inflicted upon 
door-steps and hearth-stones, if they were to 
move out of their places, instead of lying still 
I where they were put for their owners to tread 
upon. The greatest provocation to human nature 
is opposition to its will. If a man's will be re- 
sisted by one far helow him, the provocation is 
vastly greater, than when it is resisted by an 
acknowledged superior. In the former case, it in- 
flames strong passions, which in the latter lie 



dormant. TIic rage of proud ITaman knew no 
bounds against the poor Jew who would not do 
as he wished, and so lie built a gallows for hirn. 
If the person opposing the will of another, be so 
far below him as to be on a level with chattels, 
and be actually held and used as an article of 
property ; pride, scorn, lusst of power, rage and 
revenge explode together upon the hapless vie 
tim. The idea of property having a will, and 
that too in opposition to the will of its owner, 
and counteracting it, is a stimulant of terrible 
power to the most relentless human passions i 
and from the nature of slavery, and the constitu- 
tion of the human mind, this fierce stimulant 
must, with various degrees of strength, act upon 
slaveholders almost without ceasing. The slave, 
however abject and crushed, is an intelligent be- 
ing : he has a will, and that will cannot be anni- 
hilated, it ivill shoiD itself; if for a moment it is 
smothered, like pent up fires when vent is found, 
it flames the fiercer. Make intelligence property, 
and its manager will have his match ; he is met 
at every turn by an opposing will, not in the form 
of down-right rebellion and defiance, but yet, visi- 
bly, an ever-opposing will. He sees it in the dissat- 
isfied look, and reluctant air and tmwilling move- 
ment ; the constrained strokes of labor, the 
drawling tones, the slow hearmg, the feigned 
stupidity, the sham pains and sickness, the short 
memory ; and he feels it every hour, in innumer- 
able forms, frustrating his designs by a ceaseless 
though perhaps invisible countermining. This 
unceasing opposition to the will of its ' owner,' 
on the part of his rational ' property,' is to the 
slaveholder as the hot iron to the nen^e. He 
raves under it, and storms, and gnashes, and 
smites ; but the more he smites, the hotter it 
gets, and the more it burns him. Further, this 
opposition of the slave's will to his owner's, not 
only excites him to severity, that he may gratify 
bis rage, but makes it necessary for him to use 
violence in breaking down this resistance — thus 
subjecting the slave to additional tortures. There 
is another inducement to cruel inflictions upon 
the slave, and a necessity for it, which does not 
exist in the case of brutes. Offenders must be 
made an example to others, to strike them with 
terror. If a slave runs away and is caught, his 
master flogs him with terrible severity, not mere- 
ly to gratify his resentment, and to keep him from 
running away again, but as a warning to others. 
So in every case of disobedience, neglect, stub- 
bornness, unfaithfulness, indolence, insolence, 
theft, feigned sickness, when liis directions are 
forgotten, or slighted, or supposed to be, or his 
wishes crossed, or his property injured, or left ex- 
posed, or his work ill-executed, the master is 
tempted to inflict cruelties, not merely to wreak 
his own vengeance upon him, and to make the 



112 



Objections Considered — Cruelties Incredible. 



Blavc more circumHpcnt in future, but to muitaii! 
hiH autliority over the other nlavcH, to rextrain 
Uicm from hko jiracticcH, and to preutTvc his 
own projuriy. 

A multitude of faclH, illuHtratin^r the [Mtiition 
that Hlavcholdeni treat their nlavcM worse than 
they do tlicir cattle, will occur to all who are 
familiar with Hiavcry. When cattle break tbrough 
tlieir ownern' inrlosurcB and escape, if found, they 
are driven back and faHtened in again ; and even 
slaveholders would execrate aH a wretch, the 
man who Hhould tic them up, and bruise and la- 
cerate them for nlrayinp away ; but when slavrs 
that have escaped are caught, they are flopped 
with the most terrible Bcverit)'. When herd** of 
cattle are driven to market, they are Buffered to 
po in the easiest way, each by himHelf; but when 
slaves arc driven to market, they are fastened 
together with handcuffs, galled bj' iron collars 
and chains, and thus forced to travel on foot 
hundreds of miles, sleeping at night in their 
chains. Sheep, and sometimes homed cattle are 
marked with their owners' initials — but this is 
generally done with paint, and of course pro- 
duces no pain. Slaves, too, arc often marked 
with their owners' initials, but the letters arc 
stamped into their flesh with a hot iron. Cattle 
arc suffered to graze their jiaslurcs without stint; 
but the slaves are restrained in their food to a 
fixed allowance. The slaveholders' horses are 
notoriously far better fed, more moderately work- 
ed, have fewer hours of labor, and longer inter- 
vals of rest than their slaves ; and their valuable 
horses are far more comfortably housed and 
lodged, and their stables more eflectually defend, 
ed from the weather, than the slaves' huLs. We 
have here merely hepiina. comparison, which the 
reader can easily carry out at length, from the 
materials furnished in this work. 

Wc will, however, subjoin a few testimonies of 
elavcholdcrs, and others who have resided in 
slave statcfi, expressly asserting that slaves arc 
treated worse than brutes. 

The late Dr. Gf.orgf. Riciianan. of Baltimore, 
Maryland, a member of the .\meriean l'hiloso|)h. 
ical Society, i!i an oration delivered in Baltimore, 
July 4, 1701, page 10, says : 

"The .Africans whom you despise, whom you 
more inhumnnly treat than hrutea, arc equally 
capable of improvement with yourselves," 

The Rev. (iEOROE WniTKKiF.i.D, in his cele- 
brated letter to the slaveholders of Maryland, 
Virginia, North and South Carolina, !>.nd (Jeorgia. 
written one hundred years ago, (See Benezct's 
Caution to Gnat Britain and her Colonics, page 
13), says: 

" Sure T am. it is sinful to iise them as bad. 
nay worse tli.in if lluy were brutes; and what- 
ever particular exceplioux thrrr may be, (a* I 



would chariablty hope there arc tome) I fear th« 
Kenrralitij of you thai own ncgroca, are liabU to 
such a charge." 

Mr. Rjce, of Kentucky in his speech in the 
Convention that formed tiie Constitution of that 
Htatc, in 1790, KayM: 

" He [the slave] ii> a rational creature, n (i: -r.l 
by the pfjwer of legislation to the state of n - , 
and thereby deprived of every privilege ■ 
manity. , , . The brute may sttal or r • < 
supply his hunger; but the slave, though : ,- 
most starving condition, dare not do either, on 
pertalty of death, or some setere punishment." 

Rev. HoRArf. MoiLTox, a mini.stcr of t! 
Ihodist Episcopal Church, in Marlbo; 
Ma.ss. who lived some years in Georgia, eu 

"The southern horses and dogs have < 
to cat, and good care is taken of them ; but 
em negroes — who can describe their mieer 
their wrctchcdnese, their nakedness and 
cruel ecourgings ! None but God. Shf.i 
whip our horses as they whip tlieir slavt . 
for small offences, we should expose ourst I 
tlic penalty of the law." 

Rev. PiUNEAS Sumi, CentroviUc, AIlcL-any 
county. New York, who has resided four \iar» 
in the midst of southern slavery — 

" Avarice and cruelty arc twin sisters ; and 1 1 
do not hesitate to declare before the world, a.*; myi 
deliberate opinion, that there is less compn -in 
for working slaves at the south, than for wr. ng 
oxen at the north." 

Stephen Sewali, Esq. Winthrop, Maim-, t^ 
member of the Congregational Church, and Kite 
agent of the W^inthrop Manfacturing Comi'iuy, 
who resided five years in Alabama, says — 

"I do not think that brutes, not even hiT'^rs, 
arc treated with so much cruelty as American 
slaves." 

If the preceding considerations arc insuffi' nt 
to remove incredulity respecting the cm '• s 
suflertd by slaves, and if northern olijectors ^I:il 
say, ' Wc might believe such thing* of sava,- s, 
b»jt that civilized men, and republicans, in 'Lis 
Christian country, can openly and by system ] • r- 
petratc such enormities, is impossible :' — to -.■.r]\ 
wc reply, that this incredulity of the pco]>!' f 
the free states, is not only discreditable to tl.' ir 
intelligence, but to their consistency. 

Who is so ignorant as not to know, or so n- 
cr«>dulous as to disbelieve, that the early Rap*, -its 
of New England were fined, inipris>ini d, u'l^-.-rz- 
ed, and tinally banished by our puritan fore- 
fathers ? — and that the Quaker* were confined in 
dungeons, publicly wliip})cd at the cart-tail, had 
their ears cut off. cb fl sticks put upon tli. ir 
tongues, and that five of them, four men and o:ic 
woman, were hung on Boston Common, for ]>ra. 
pagating th<" senlimejitsof the Society of Fricn.!-, ? 
Who dL<«cnMiil'5 the fact, that t!u- civil auth>ir • • « 
in Maasachusctts, less tlian a hundred and {\'^J 



Objections Considered — Cruellies Incredible. 



113 



■earfl ago, confined in the public jail a little girl 
f four years old, and publicly hung the Rev. Mr. 
{urroughs, and eighteen other persons, mostly 
/omen, and killed another, (Giles Corey,) by ex- 
ending him upon his back, and piling weights 
pon liis breast till he was crushed to death* — and 
}iis for no other reason than that these men and 
fomen, and this little child, were accused by 
jthers of bewitching Xhcm. 

i Even the children in Connecticut, know that 
le following was once a law of that state : 

" No food or lodging shall be allowed to a 
Quaker. If any person turns Quaker, he shall 
e banished, and not be sufTered to return on pain 

if death." 
These objectors can readily believe the fact, 
lat in the city of New York, less than a hundred 
?ars since, thirteen persons were publicly burn- 
1 to death, over a slow fire : and that the legis- 
ture of the same State took under its paternal 
ire the African slave-trade, and declared that 
all encouragement should be given to the direct 
iportation of slaves ; that all smuggling of 
aves should be condemned, as an eminent dis- 
'juragement to the fair trader." 
They do not call in question the fact that the 
frican slave-trade was carried on from the ports 
the free states till within thirt};^ years ; that 
en members of the Society of Friends were 
lively engaged in it, shortly before the revolu- 
inary war ;t that as late as 1807, no less than 
tj-nine of the vessels engaged in that trade, 
ere sent out from the little state of Rhode 
land, which had then only about seventy thou- 
nd inhabitants ; that among those most largely 
igaged in these foul crimes, are the men whom 
e people of Rhode Island delight to honor : that 
e man who dipped most deeply in that trade of 
ood (James De Wolf,) and amassed a most 
incely fortune by it, was not long since their 
nator in Congress ; and another, who was cap- 
in of one of his vessels, was recently Lieutenant 
OA'crnor of the state, 

: They can believe, too, all the horrors of the 
iddle passage, the chains, suffocation, maim- 

: gs, stranglings, starvation, drownings, and cold 

' ooded murders, atrocities pei-petrated on board 
ese slave-ship? by their own citizens, perhaps 
' their own townsmen and neighbors — possibly 

■ ,' their own fathers : but oh ! they ' can't believe 

; at the slaveholders can be so hard-hearted to- 
ards their slaves as to treat them with great 
■uelty.' They can believe that His Holiness the 

: ope, with his cardinals, bishops and priests, have 

* Judge Sewall, of Mass. in his diary, describing this 
inible scene, says that when the ton^^ne of the poor suf- 
fer had, in the extremity of his dying a^ony, protruded 
3m his mouth, a person in attendance toolt Iiis cane and 
rust it back into liis mouth. 

t See Life and Travels of John Woolnian, page 92. 
8 



tortured, broken on the wheel, and burned to 
death thousands of Protestants — that eighty thou- 
sand of the Anabaptists were slaughtered in Ger- 
many— that hundreds of thousands of the blame. 
less Waldenscs, Huguenots and Lollards, were 
torn in pieces by the most titled dignitaries of 
church and state, and that almost every professed, 
ly Christian sect, has, at some period of its history, 
persecuted unto blood those who dissented from 
their creed. They can believe, also, that in Bos. 
ton, New York, Utica, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, 
Alton, and in scores of other cities and villages 
of the free states, ' gentlemen of property and 
standing,' led on by civil officers, by members 
of state legislatures, and of Congress, by judges 
and attorneys-general, by editors of newspa- 
pers, and by professed ministers of the gospel, 
have organized mobs, broken up lawful meetings 
of peaceable citizens, committed assault and bat- 
tery upon their persons, knocked them down with 
stones, led them about with ropes, dragged them 
from their beds at midnight, gagged and forced 
them into vehicles, and driven them into unfre- 
quented places, and there tormented and dis- 
figured them — that they have rifled their houses, 
made bonfires of their furniture in the streets, 
burned to the ground, or torn in pieces the halls 
or churches in which they were assembled — at- 
tacked them with deadly weapons, stabbed some, 
shot others, and killed ONE. They can believe all 
this — and further, that a majority of the citizens 
in the places where these outrages have been 
committed, connived at them ; and by refusing 
to indict the perpetrators, or, if they were in- 
dicted, by combining to secure their acquittal, 
and rejoicing in it, have publicly adoj)ted these 
felonies as their own. All these things they can 
believe without hesitation, and that they have 
even been done by their own acquaintances, 
neighbors, relatives ; perhaps those with whom 
they interchange courtesies, those for whom they 
vote, or to whose salaries they contribute — but 
yet, oh ! they can never believe that slaveholders 
inflict cruelties upon their slaves ! 

They can give full credence to the kidnapping, 
imprisonment, and deliberate murder of William 
Morgan, and that by men of high standing in 
society ; they can believe that this deed was 
aided and abetted, and the murderers screened 
from justice, by a large number of influential per- 
sons, who were virtually accomplices, either be- 
fore or after the fact ; and that this combination 
was so effectual, as successfidly to defy and tri- 
umph over the combined powers of the govern- 
ment ; — yet that those who constantly rob men 
of their time, liberty, and wages, and all their 
rights, should rob them of bits of flesh, and oc- 
casionally of a tooth, make their backs bleed, and 
put fetters on their legs, is too monstrous to be 



114 



Ohjections Considered — Cruelties Incredible. 



credited I FurlliorlhcHC Bamc persons, who 'can't 
believe* timt Klavtholders arc so iron-hcartcd aH 
to ill-treat tlicir HJaves, believe that the very 
elite of tlu'Hc Hlaveholdcrs, those mont luKlily ch- 
tcemecl and honored among them, are continu- 
ally daring each other to mortal conflict, and in 
the i)rescnco of mutual friends, taking deadly 
aim at each other's hearts, with settled purpose 
to kill, if possible. That among the most dis- 
tinguished governors of slave states, among their 
most celebrated judges, senators, and rejiresenta- 
tives in Congress, there is hardly one, who has 
not either killed, or tried to kill, or aided and 
abetted his friends in trying to kill, one or more 
individuals. That pistols, dirks, bowic knives, or 
other instruments of death, are generally carried 
tliroughout the slave states — and that deadly 
affrays with them, in the streets of their cities 
and villages, arc matters of daily occurrence ; 
tliat the sons of slaveholders in southern colleges, 
bully, threaten, and fire upon their teachers, and 
their teachers upon them ; that during the last 
summer, in the most celebrated seat of science 
and literature in the south, the University of Vir- 
ginia, the professors were attacked by more than 
seventy armed students, and, in the words of a 
Virginia paper, were obliged ' to conceal them- 
selves from tlieir fury ;' also that almost all the 
riots and violence that occur in northern col- 
leges, arc produced by the turbulence and lawless 
passions of southern students. That such are 
the furious passions of slaveholders, no conside- 
rations of personal respect, none for the proprie- 
ties of life, none for the honor of our national 
legislature, none for the character of our country 
abroad, can restrain the slaveholding members of 
Congress from the most disgraceful personal en- 
counters on the floor of our nation's legislature — 
smiting their fists in each other's faces, throttling, 
and even kicking and trying to gouge each other 
— that even during the session of the Congress 
just closed, no less than six slaveholders, taking 
fire at words spoken in debate, have cither rushed 
at each other's throats, or kicked, or struck, or 
attempted to knock each other down ; and that 
in all these instances, they would doubtless have 
killed each other, if their friends had not separat- 
ed them. Further, they know full well, these 
were not insignificant, vulgar blackguards, elect- 
cd because they were the head bullies and bottle- 
holders in a boxing ring, or because their consti- 
tuents went drunk to the ballot bo.x ; but Uiey 
were some of the most conB])icuous members of 
the House — one of them a former speaker. 

Our newspapers arc full of tliese and similar 
daily occurrences among slaveholders, copied 
Torbalim from their own accounts of them in 
their own papers, and all this wo fully cri-dit ; 
no man is simpleton enough to cry out, ' Oh, I 



I 



can't believe that slaveholders do such thtnga/ 
— and yet when we turn to the treatment wliich 
these men mete out to their slates, and show that 
they arc in the habitual practice of striking, k < k. 
ing, knocking down and shooting them as well a« 
each other — the look of blank incredulity that 
comes over northern dough-faces, is a study for 
a painter : and then the sentimental outcry, with 
eyes and hands uplifted, 'Oh, indeed, I can't be> 
lieve the slaveholders arc so cruel to their slavet.' 
Most amiable and touching charity ! Truly, of 
all Yankee notions and free slate products, there 
is nothing like a ' doughface ' — the great north-i 
cm staple for the southern market — 'made to 
order,' in any quantitv, and always on hand. 
'Dough faces!' Thanks to a slaveholder's con 
tempt for the name, with its immortality of trui 
infamy and scorn.* 

Though the people of the free states affect 
disbelieve the cruelties perpetrated upon tho 
slaves, yet slaveholders believe each other guiitj 
of them, and speak of them with the utmost free.' 
dom. If slaveholders disbelieve any etatemeni 
of cruelty inflicted upon a slave, it is not on ac* 
count of its enormity. The traveler at the south 
will hear in Delaware, and in all parts of Maryj 
land and Virginia, from the lips of slavcholdcfB^ 
statements of the most horrible cruelties suffered by 
the slaves/ar/Afr south, in theCarolinasand Geor- 
gia ; when he finds himself in those states he will 
hear similar accounts about the treatment of the 
slaves in Florida and Louisiana; and in Missoik 
ri, Kentucky, and Tennessee he will hear of the 
tragedies enacted on the plantations in Arkansas 
Alabama and Mississippi. Since Anti-Slavery ^^ 
Societies have been m operation, and slavebolden t:i\l 
have found themselves on trial before tlic world) ^^^ 
and put upon their good behavior, northerv 13,1 
slaveholders have grown cautious, and now often jj.jj 
substitute denials and set defences, for the volun 
tary testimony about cruelty in the far sou 
which, before that period, was given with entira 



ei[ 



• " Doe fnco," n-hich own Its pnlcmily to John 
(Inlph, nfte liM mo!k»w«d Inio " dtufk face" — a oaf 
nonx-n quite ns cxprearivc and np|>roprute, if not as claM 
ical 



freedom. Still, however, occasionally the ' truth 
will out,' as the reader will see by the follox^-ing 
testimony of an East TVnnessee newspaper, is |y. 
which, speaking of the droves of slaves takea jj^ 
from the uj^per country to .A.labama, Mississippi ^J 
Louisiana, «Scc., the editor says, Oiev arc 'travel' 
ing to a region where their condition through tinH ,jK 

WMX BE SKCOXD ONLY TO THAT OF THE WRKTCHM jr 

CREATiRKi' IN HEM..' See " Marvvillc IntcUij l^ 
geneer," of Oct. 1, 1835. Dislnnt cruelties anC 
cnu'lties long past, have been till recently, favi 
ite topics with slaveholders. They hare not onlji 
been ready to acknowledge that their fathem 



Objections Considered — Cruelties Incredible. 



115 



have exercised groat cruelty toward their slaves, 
but have voluntarily, in their official acts, made 
proclamation of it and entered it on their public 
records. The Legislature of North Carolina, in 
1798, branded the successive legislatures of that 
state for more than thirty years previous, with the 
infamy of treatment towards their slaves, which 
they pronounce to be ' disgraceful to humanity, 
and degrading in the highest degree to the laws 
and principles of a free. Christian, and enlightened 
country.' This treatment was the enactment and 
perpetuation of a most barbarous and cruel law. 
But enough. As the objector can and does 
believe all the preceding facts, if he still 
' canH believe ' as to the cruelties of slavehold- 
ers, it would be barbarous to tantalize his inca- 
pacity either with evidence or argument. Let 
him have the benefit of the act in such case made 
' and provided. 

Having shown that the mcredulity of the ob- 
jector respecting the cruelty inflicted upon the 
slaves, is discreditable to his consistency, we 
now proceed to show that it is equally so to his 
intelligence. 

Whoever disbelieves the foregoing statements 
of cruelties, on the ground of their enormity, pro- 
claims his own ignorance of the nature and histo- 
ry of man. What ! incredulous about the atro- 
cities perpetrated by those who hold human be- 
in o-s as property, to be used for their pleasure, 
;vhen history herself has done little else m record- 
ng human deeds, than to dip her blank chart in 
he blood shed by arbitrary power, and unfold to 
luman gaze the great red scroll ? That cruelty is 
r he natural effect of arbitrary power, has been the 
esult of all experience, aad the voice of univer- 
;al testimony since the world began. Shall liu- 
nan nature's axioms, six thousand years old, go 
or nothing ? Are the combined product of hu- 
nan experience, and the concurrent records of 
mman character, to be set down as ' old wives' 
t: ables ?' To disbelieve that arbitrary power na- 
: urally and habitually perpetrates cruelties, where 
; t can do it with impunity, is not only ignorance 
if man, but of things. It is to be blind to innii- 
; nerable proofs which are before every man's eyes ; 
i; iroofs that are stereotyped in the very words and 
>hrases that are on every one's lips. Take for 
xample the words despot and despotic. Despot, 
; ignifies etymologically, merely one who possesses 
irbitrary power, and at first, it was used to desig- 
: late those alone who possessed unlimited power 
iver human beings, entirely irrespective of the 
vay in which they exercised it, whether merciful- 
y or cruelly. But the fact, that those who pos- 
cssed such power, made their subjects their vie- 
jjms, has wrought a total change in the popular 
neaning of the word. It now signifies, in com- 
lon parlance, not one who possesses unhmited 



power over others, but one who exercises the power 
that he has,whcther little or much, cruelly. So des- 
potic, instead of meaning what it once did, some- 
thing pertaining to the possession of unlimited pow- 
er, signifies something pertaining to the capricious, 
unmerciful and relentless exercise of such power. 
The word tyrant, is another example — former- 
ly it implied merely a possession of arbitrary 
power, but from the invariable abuse of such 
power by its possessors, the proper and entire 
meaning of the word is lost, and it now signifies 
merely one who exercises power to the injury of 
others. The words tyrannical and tyranny fol- 
low the same analogy. So the word arbitrary ; 
which formerly implied that which pertains to 
the will of one, independently of others ; but from 
the fact that those who had no restraint upon 
their wills, were invariably capricious, unreason- 
able and oppressive, these words convey accu- 
rately the present sense of arbitrary, when ap. 
plied to a person. 

How can the objector persist in disbelieving 
that cruelty is the natural eflFect of arbitrary pow- 
er, when the very words of every day, rise up on 
his lips in testimony against him — words which 
once signified the mere possession of arbitrary 
power, but have lost their meaning, and now sig- 
nify merely its cruel exercise ; because such a use 
of it has been proved by the experience of the 
world, to be inseparable from its possession — 
words now frigid with horror, and never used 
even by the objector without feeling a cold chill 
run over him. 

Arbitrary power is to the mind what alcohol is 
to the body ; it intoxicates. Man loves power. 
It is perhaps the strongest human passion ; and 
the more absolute the power, the stronger the de- 
sire for it ; and the more it is desired, the more its 
exercise is enjoyed : this enjoyment is to human na- 
ture a fearful temptation, — generally an overmatch 
for it. Hence it is true, with hardly an exception, 
that arbitrary power is abused in proportion as it 
is desired. The fact that a person intensely de- 
sires power over others, without restraint, shows 
the absolute necessity of restraint. Wliat Woman 
would marry a man who made it a condition that 
he should have the power to divorce her whenever 
he pleased ? Oh ! he might never wish to exer- 
cise it, but the poioer he would have ! No wo- 
man, not stark mad, would trust her happiness in 
such hands. 

Would a father apprentice his son to a master, 
who insisted that his power over the lad should be 
absolute ? The master might perhaps, never 
wish to commit a battery upon the boy, but if he 
should, he insists upon having full swing ! He 
who would leave his son in the clutches of such a 
wretch, would be bled and blistered for a lunatic as 
soon as his friends could get their hands upon him. 



116 



Ohjcctions Considered — Cruelties Incredible. 



The |K>Wir)iHion of jKJWcr, even when greatly re. 
Htrained, in Miirli a fwry Hliinulaiit, that itii lod(;e- 
mcnt in liiiinaii hantlH in always periicms. Give 
men the haiidlinjjof immense BuniHof mon< y, and 
all the eycH of Ar^^us and the handu of Briareiiit 
can hardly |)revent embezzlement. 

The mutual and eea-scloHH accusations of th<! 
two great political partic s in this country, show 
the universal hciicf that this tendency of human 
nature to ahuse power, is so slronjj, that even the 
most powerful legal restraints are insufficient for 
its safe custody. From congress and state legisla- 
tures down to grog-shop caucuses and street, 
wranglings, each party keeps up an incessant din 
about abuses of power. Hardly an ofBcer, citiier 
of the general or state governments, from the 
President down to the ten thousand postmasters, 
and from governors to the fifty thousand consta- 
blcs, escapes the charge of ' abuse ofpotccr.'' ' Op- 
prcssion,' ' Extortion,' ' Venality,' ' Bribery,' 
♦rorruption,' ' Perjury,' 'Misrule,' 'Spoils,' ' Dc. 
falcation,' stand on every newspaper. Now with, 
out any estimate of the lies told in these mu- 
tual cliarges, there is truti) enough to make each 
party ready to believe of the other, and of their 
best, mev too, any abuse of power, however mon- 
strous. As is the State, so is the Church. From 
General Conferences to circuit preachers ; and 
from General Assemblies to church sessions, 
abuses of power spring up as weeds from the 
dunghill. 

All legal restraints arc framed upon the pre- 
sumption, that men will abuse their power if not 
hemmed in by them. This lies at the bottom of 
all those checks and balances contrived for keep- 
ing governments upon their centres. If there is 
among hinnan convictions one tiiat is invariable 
and universal, it is, that when men possess unre- 
.strained power over others, over their time, choice, 
conscience, persons, votes, or means of subsist- 
encc, they are under great temptations to abuse 
k ; and that the intensity with which such power 
is desired, generally measures the certainty and 
the degree of its abuse. 

That American slaveholders possess a power 
over their slaves which is virtually absolute, none 
will deny.* Tliat they desire this absolute pow- 
er, is shown from the fact of their holding and 
exercising it, and making laws to confirm and en- 
large it. That the desire to possess this power, 
every tittle of it, is intense, is proved by iho fact, 
that slaveholders cling to it with such obstinate 
• Till" fi>ll«wins exUncla from tho lnw» of ulavr-slntm aro 
pnmrM !>iiniri<'nt. 

"Tlir^lnvr \» FNTIHRLY subj.-n in ilio WtLL of hie 
mMtrr."— I.'MiUliti.i rivll ro.lc. Art. '.»73. 

"Slnvm •hnll f .-U], inlcn. rrpnlinl, nnil n.1 

judfiril til Inw (i> I <antil. in Ihc linn<lii«r tip ir 

ownrw rikI I*)-!-' i ir rxniilnpi. nilmliii.«trnii':> 

ami nMlgiifi, to mi intis i i, roinTRt'iTioMfi, aho riR 
r<in:«, wiiATnorvm."— I.aw.i of ^uUi Carvltim, 3 Urcv. 
Ul|. 2£); Prtncv't Digest, '1 40, ttc 



tenacity, as well as by all their doings and 
sayings, tlicir threats, cursings and gnaahings 
against all who denounce the exercise of such 
power as usurpation and outrage, and counsel its 
immediate abrogation. 

From the nature of the case — from the laws of 
mind, such power, so intensely desired, griped 
with such a dcath.clutch, and with such fi< rrc 
spumingsof all curtailment or restraint, cannot but 
be abused. Privations and inflictions must l>e its 
natural, habitual products, with ever and anon, 
terror, torture, and despair let loose to do their 
worst upon the helpless victims. 

Though power over others is in every case lia- 
ble to be used to their injury, yet, in almost all 
cases, the subject individual is shielded from great 
outrages by strong safeguards. If he have talents, 
or learning, or wealth, or office, or personal re- 
spectability, or influential friends, these, with 
protection of law and the rights of citizenshr 
stand round him as a body guard : and even if h 
lacked all these, yet, had he the same color, fca 
turcs, form, dialect, habits, and associations with 
the privileged caste of society, he would find 
them a shield from many injuries, which would 
invited, if in these respects he difT'-red widcl] 
from the rest of the community, and was on th 
account regarded with disgust and aversion. Th 
is the condition of the slave ; not only is he d 
privcd of the artificial safeguards of the law, bi 
has none of those natural safeguards entime- 
rated above, which are a protection to others. But 
not only is the slave destitute of those peculiari- 
ties, habits, tastes, and acquisitions, which by as 
similating the possessor to the rest of the commu- 
nity, excite llicir interest in him, and thus, in a 
measure, secure for him their protection ; but he 
possesses those peculiarities of bodily organization 
which arc looked upon with deep disgust, con- 
tempt, prejudice, and aversion. Besides this, con- 
stant contact with the ignorance and stupidity of 
the slaves, their filth, rags, and nakedness ; theii 
cowering air, ser\Mle employments, repulsive food, 
and squalid hovels, their purchase and sale, 
use as brutes — all tliese associations, constan' 
mingling and circulating in the minds of sla 
holders, and inveteratod by tJie houriy irritations 
which nnist assail all who use human hrinjTi af 
tilings, prothiro in them a permanent stale of feel 
ing toward the slave, made up of repulsion an< 
settled ill-will. When we add to this the corro 
sions produced hy the petty thefts of slaves, tin 
necessity of constant watching, their reluct an' 
service, and inditrerencc to their master's interrsU 
their ill-concealed aversion to him, and spuminf 
of his authority ; and finally, that fact, as old ai 
human natiire, that men always hate Uiose wlioa 
i they oppress, and oppn'ss those whom they hat« 
thus oppression and hatred mutually bcgcttir g an< 



>oa, 

aD4A 

ntrtH 



Objections Considered — Cruelties Incredible. 



117 



perpetuating caoli other — and we have a raging 
C^vrnpound oi' fiery elements and diKlurbiiig forces, 
giQ stimulating and inflaming the mind of the 
slaveholder against the slave, that it cannot but 
break fur th upon him with desolating fury. 

To deny that cruelty is the spontaneous and 
uniform pi'oduct of arbitrary power, and that the 
natural and controlling tendency of such power is 
to make its possessor cruel, oppressive, and rc- 
vengcfid towards those who arc subjected to his 
control, is, wc repeat, to set at nought the com- 
bined experience of the human race, to invalidate 
its testimony, and to reverse its decisions from 
time immemorial. 

A volume might be filled with the testimony 
of American slaveholders alone, to the truth of 
the preceding position. Wc subjoin a few illus- 
trations, and first, the memorable declaration of 
President JciFerson, who lived and died a slave- 
holder. It has been published a thousand times, 
and will live forever. In his "Notes on Virginia," 
sixth Philadelphia edition, p. 251, he says, — 

" The WHOLE COMMERCE between master 
and slave, is a PERPETUAL EXERCISE of 
the most boisterous passions, the most unremit- 
ting DESPOTISM on the one part, and degrad- 
ing submission on the other The parent 

slorins, the child looks on, catches the lineaments 
of wrath, puts on the same airs in the circle of 
smaller slaves, GIVES LOOSE TO THE 
WORST OF PASSIONS ; and thus nursed, ed. 
ziciiied, and daily exercised in tyranny, cannot 
but be stamped by it with odious peculiarities." 

Hon. Lewis Summers, Judge of the General 
Court of Virginia, and a slaveholder, said in a 
speech before the Virginia legislature in 1832 ; 
(see Richmond Whig of Jan. 26, 1832,) 

" A slave population exercises the most perni- 
cious influence upon the manners, habits an cha- 
ij, I racter, of those among whom it exists. Lisping 
1. 1 infancy learns the vocabulary of abusive epithets, 
.1 and struts the embryo tyrant oi its little domain. 
: The consciousness of superior destiny takes pos- 
f" session of his mind at its earliest dawning, and 
jdi love of power and rule, ' grows with his growth, 
iif- and strengthens with his strength.' Unless en- 
ll, abled to rise above the operation of those powerful 
; ' causes, he enters the world with miserable notions 
of self-importance, and under the government of 
-', an unbridled temper." 
is| 

:tl| The late Judge Tucker of Virginia, a slave- 
rf holder, and Professor of Law in the University of 
!((■ '■ William and Mary, in his " Letter to a Member 

cf the Virginia Legislature," 1801, says, — 
! " I say nothing of the baneful effects of slavery 
,;l; on our moral character, because I know you have 
;.. ' been long sensible of this point." 

' The Presbyterian Synod of South Carolina and 
)■ Georgia, consisting of all the clergy of that de- 
•S' nomination in those states, with a lay representa- 

a:- , tion from the churches, most, if not all of whom 

I 

t- 
! 



arc slave-holders, published a report on slavery in 
1834, from which the following is an extract. 

" Those only who have the management of Bcr- 
vants, know what the hardening effect of it Ih 
upon their own feelings tovxirds them. Tlicrc Ih 
no necessity to dwell on this point, as all ovrners 
and managers fully understand it. He who com 
mences to manage them with tenderness and witli 
a willingness to i'avor them in every wa}', must be 
watchful, otherwise he will settle down in indiffer 
ence, if not severity." 

General William H. Harrison, now of Ohio, 
son of the late Governor Harrison of Virginia, a 
slaveholder, while minister from the United States 
to the Republic of Colombia, wrote a letter to 
General Simon Bolivar, then President of that 
Republic, just as he was about assuming despotic 
power. The letter is dated Bogota, Sept. 22, 
1826. The following is an extract. 

" From a knowledge of your own disposition 
and present feelings, your excellency will not be 
willing to believe that you could ever be brought 
to an act of tyranny, or even to execute justice 
with unnecessary rigor. But trust me, sir, there 
is nothing more corrupting, nothing more destruc- 
tive of the noblest and finest feelings of our na- 
ture than the exercise of unlimited power. The 
man, who in the beginning of such a career, might 
shudder at the idea of taking away the life of a 
fellow-being, might soon have his conscience so 
seared by the repetition of crime, that the agonies 
of his murdered victims might become music to his 
soul, and the drippings of the scaffold afford blood 
to swim in. History is full of such excesses." 

William H. Fitzhugh, Esq. of Virginia, a slave- 
holder, says, — " Slavery, in its mildest form, is 
cruel and unnatural ; its injurious effects on our 
morals and hahits are mutually felt." 

Hon. Samuel S. Nicholas, late Judge of the 
Court of Appeals of Kentucky, and a slaveholder, 
in a speech before the legislatm-e of that state, 
Jan. 1837, says, — 

" The deliberate convictions of the most ma- 
tured consideration I can give the subject, are, 
that the institution of slavery is a most serious in- 
jury to the habits, manners and morals of our 
white population — that it leads to sloth, indolence, 
dissipation, and vice." 

Dr. Thomas CoorsR, late President of the Col- 
lege of South Carolina, in a note to his edition of 
the " Institutes of Justinian," page 413, says, — 

" All absolute power has a direct tendency, not 
only to detract from the happiness of the persons 
who are subject to it, but to deprave the good 

qualities of those who possess it the whole 

history of human nature, in the present and ever}' 
former age, will justify me in saying that such is 
the tendency of power on the one hand and slavery 
on the other." 

A South Carolina slaveholder, whose name is 
with the executive committee of the Am. A. S. 
Society, says, in a letter, dated April 4, 1838 : — 

" I thmk it (slavery) ruinous to the temjper and 



H8 



Objections Considered — Cruelties Incredible. 



to our Bpiriliial lifr ; it Ih a ihorn in the AcbIi, for 
ever ojiit for cvi-r (foadiiiK uh on to say and to do 
what the Klernal (iod cannot but be diHpleaHiil 
with. I ppeak from nxperience, and oli ! my dc- 
■ire is to be dt;hvered from it." 

Mon.sicur C. C. RoniN, who was a resident of 
Louisiana from 1802 to 180G, publiHlied a work 
on that country ; in which, Bpeakin;; of ihe efTt ct 
of slaveholding on masters and their children, he 
Bays : — 

"The young crcolcB make the negroes who 
purround them tlie play-things of tlieir wliims : 
they flog, for pastime, those of their own ape, just 
as their fathers flog tiie others at their will. 'I'luse 
young Creoles, arrived at the ago in which the 
passions arc imi)etuous, do not know how to t/ear 
contrndiction ; they will have every thing done 
which they command, jmn.<tiljle or not ; and in de- 
fault of this, Ihi-y avenge their oficndcd pride by 
jnulliplied punishments." 

Dr. Geouge Buchanan, of Baltimore, Maryland, 
member of the American Philosophical Society, 
in an oration at Baltimore, July 4, 1791, said : — 

" For such arc the cfTccts of subjecting man to 
slavery, that it destroi/s rrenj liinmiur principle, 
vitiates the mind, instils ideas of unlawful cruel- 
tics, and eventually subverts the springs of govern- 
ment." — liuchanan^s Oration, p. 12. 

President Edwards the younger, in a sermon 
before the ConxiccticiLt Abolition Society, in 1791, 
page 8, says : — 

" Slavery has a most direct tendency to haugh- 
tincss, and a domincerinir spirit and conduct in 
the proprietors of the slaves, in their children, and 
in all who have the control ol" them. A man who 
has been bred up in domineering over negroes, 
can scarcely avoid contracting such a habit of 
haughtiness and domination as will e.\prcss itself 
in his general Ireatnient of mankind, whether in 
his private ea])acity, or in any office, civil or mili- 
tary, with which he may be invested." 

The celebrated Montesquieu, in his " Spirit 
of the Laws," thus describes the cfTcct of slave- 
holding upon the master : — 

"The master contracts all sorts of bad habits ; 
and becomes li<ni<rhti/, passionate, obdurate, viu- 
dictivc, voluptuous, and cruel." 

WiLBERFORCE, in his specch at the anniversary 
of the London Anti-Slavery Society, in March, 
1828, said :— 

" It is utlrrhj impossible that they who live in 
the administration of liu' pelt}- despotism of a slave 
romninnity, whosi- minds have been wnrprd and 
pnllutrd by that ei.ntaniinalion, should not lose 
that respect for their fellow creatures over whom 
they tyrtinni/e, which is essential in the nature 
and moral being of man, to rescue them from tlie 
abuse of power over their prostrate fellow crea- 
tures." 

In the gr< at debate, in the British Parliament, 
on the African slave-trade, Mr. WniTiiuKAD said : 

" Arbitrary power would spoil Uic hearts of the 
best." 



But wc need not multiply proofs to eetablls 
our position: it is sustained by the cone::-! 
testimony of sages, philosophers, poets, slat < - 
and moralists, in every period of the world ; aii 
who can mancl that tho»<; in all ages who hav 
wisely pondered men and things, should be i 
mous in such testimony, when the history ni i : 
trary power has come down to us from the begii 
ning of lime, struggling through heaps of siaii 
and traihng her parchments in blood. 

Time would fail to begin with the first despc 
and track down the carnage step by step. A 
nations, all ages, ail climes crowd forward as wr 
nesses, vrith their scars, and wounds, and djrin 
agonies. 

But to survey a multitude bewilders ; let us loo 
at a single nation. We instance Rome ; both U 
cause its history is more generally known, an 
because it furnishes a larger proportion of ir 
stances, in which arbitrary power was exercise 
with comparative mildness, than any other natio 
ancient or modem. And 3et, her whole cxis 
encc was a tragedy, every actor was an c.xcci 
tioncr, the curtain rose amidst shrieks and fell U[ 
on corpses, and the only shifting of the scene 
was from blood to blood. The whole world stoo 
aghast, as under sentence of death, awaiting cxc 
cution, and all nations and tongues were driver 
with her own citizens, as sheep to the slaughtc 
Of her seven kings, her hundreds of consuls, tri 
bnncs, decemvirs, and dictators, and her fifty cm 
pcrors, there is hardly one whose name has com 
down to us unstained by horrible abuses of power 
and that too, notwithstanding we have mcr 
shreds of the history of many of them, owing t 
their antiquity, or to the perturbed times in whic 
they lived; and these shreds gathered from tli 
records of their own partial countrymen, wh 
wrote and simg their praises. What docs th 



prove 



? Not that the Romans were worse thai 



other men, nor that their rulers were worse tha- 
other Romans, for history does not furnish nohli 
models of natural eharaeter than many of tho'- 
same rulers, when first invested with arbitrnf 
power. Neither was it mainly becau.'c the mar 
tial enterprise of the earlier Romans and the groa 
sensuality of the later, hardened their hearts ti 
human sufTirinp. In botli periods of Roman his 
tory, and in l)oth these classes, we find men, the 
keen sympathies, generosity, and btnevolencc of 
whose general character embalmed their name? 
in the grateful memories of multitudes. Thr^ 
irrre human ht in^s, and po9Sf»srd power tcithout 
restraint — this unravels the mystery. 

\Vho has not heard of the Eniperor Trajan, of 
bis moderation, his clemency, his gushing .«:ym. 
pathies, his forgiveness of injuries and forgetful, 
ness of self, his tearing in pieces his own rolx*. to 
funiish bandages for the wounded — called by I he 
whole world in his day, " the best emperor of 



Objections Considered — Cruelties Incredible. 



119 



Rome ;" and so affectionately regarded by his sub- 
jeets, that, ever afterwards, in blessing his sue- 
ccssors upon their accession to power, they al- 
ways said, " May you have the virtue and good- 

ss of Trajan !" yet the deadly conflict of gladia- 
^ who are trained to kill each other, to make 
sport for the spectators, furnished his chief pas- 
time. At one time he kept up those spectacles 
for 123 days in succession. In the tortures which 
he inflicted on Cliristians, fire and poison, dag- 
gers and dungeons, wild beasts and serpents, and 
the rack, did tlieir worst. lie threw into the sea, 
Clemens, the venerable bishop of Rome, with an 
anchor about his neck ; and tossed to the famish- 
ing lions in the amphitiieatre the aged Ignatius. 

Pliny the younger, who was proconsul under 
Trajan, may well be mentioned in connection 
with the emperor, as a striking illustration of the 
truth, that goodness and amiablcness towards one 
class of men is often turned into cruelty towards 
another. History can hardly show a more gentle 
and lovely character than Pliny. While pleading 
at the bar, he always sought out the grievances 
of the poorest and most despised persons, entered 
into their wrongs with his whole soul, and never 
took a fee. Who can read his admirable letters 
without being touched by their tenderness and 
warmed by their benignity and philanthropy : and 
yet, this tender-hearted Pliny coolly plied with ex- 
cruciating torture two spotless females, who had 
served as deaconesses in the Christian church, 
hoping to extort from them matter of accusation 
against the Christians. He commanded Christians 
to abjure their faith, invoke the gods, pour out liba- 
tions to the statues of the emperor, burn incense to 
idols, and curse Christ. If they refused, he or- 
dered them to execution. 

Who has not heard of the Emperor Titus — so 
beloved for his mild virtues and compassionate 
regard for the suffering, that he was named " The 
Delight of Mankind ;" so tender of the lives of his 
subjects that he took the office of high priest, that 
his hands might never be defiled with blood ; and 
was heard to declare, with tears, that he had ra- 
ther die than put another to death. So intent 
upon making others happy, that when once about 
to retire to sleep, and not being able to recall any 
particular act of beneficence performed durinf 
the day, he cried out in anguish, " Alas ! I have 
lost a day!" And, finally, whom the learned 
Kennet, in his Roman Antiquities, characterizes 
as " the only prince in the world that has the cha- 
racter of never doing an ill action." Yet, wit- 
nessing the mortal combats of the captives taken 
in war, killing each other in the amphitheatre, 
amidst the acclamations of the populace, was a 
favorite amusement with Titus. At one time he 
exhibited shows of gladiators, which lasted one 



hundred days, during which the amphitheatre 
was flooded with human blood. At another of 
his public exhibitions he caused five thousand wild 
beasts to be baited in the amphitheatre. Durinj; 
the siege of Jerusalem, he set ambushes to seize 
the famishing Jews, who stole out of the city by 
night to glean food in the valleys : these he would 
first dreadfully scourge, then torment them with all 
conceivable tortures, and, at last, crucify them be- 
fore the wall of the city. According to Josephus, not 
less than five hundred a day were thus tormented. 
And when many of the Jews, frantic with famine, 
deserted to the Romans, Titus cut off th(;ir hands 
and drove them back. After the destruction of 
Jerusalem, he dragged to Rome one hundred 
thousand captives, sold them as slaves, and scat- 
tered them through every province of the empire. 

The kindness, condescension, and forbearance 
of Adrian were proverbial ; he was one of the 
most eloquent orators of his age ; and whea 
pleading the cause of injured innocence, would 
melt and overwhelm the auditors by the pathos 
of his appeals. It was his constant maxim, that 
he was an Emperor, not for his own good, but 
for the benefit of his fellow creatures. He stoop- 
ed to relieve the wants of the meanest of his sub- 
jects, and would peril his life by visiting them 
when sick of infectious diseases ; he prohibited, 
by law, masters from killing their slaves, gave to 
slaves legal trial, and exempted them from tor- 
ture ; yet towards certain individuals and classes, 
he showed himself a monster of cruelty. He 
prided himself on his knowledge of architecture, 
and ordered to execution the most celebrated 
architect of Rome, because he had criticised one 
of the Emperor's designs. He banished all the 
Jews from their native land, and drove them 
to the ends of the earth ; and unloosed the blood- 
hounds of persecution to rend in pieces his 
Christian subjects. 

The gentleness and benignity of the Emperor 
Aurelius, have been celebrated in story and song. 
History says of him, 'Nothing could quench his 
desire of being a blessing to mankind ;' and Pope's 
eulogy of him is in the mouth of every school- 
boy — ' Like good Aurelius, let him reign ;' and yet, 
'good Aurelius,' lifted the flood gates of the 
fourth, and one of the most terrible persecutions 
against Christians that ever raged. He sent or- 
ders into different parts of his empire, to have the 
Christians murdered who would not deny Christ. 
The blameless Polycarp, trembling under the 
weight of a hundred years, was dragged to the 
stake and burned to ashes. Pothinus, Bishop of 
Lyons, at the age of ninety, was dragged through 
the streets, beaten, stoned, trampled upon by the 
soldiers, and left to perish. Tender virgins were 
put into nets, and thrown to infuriated wild bulls ; 



130 



ObjecUoiis CoTuidered — Cruelties Incredible. 



othora wore faatoncd in red liot iron chairti; and 
▼cncnbic inalrun* wuro Ihruwn to be devoured by 
doga. 

Coniitantini' the Great ha* tx-cn the admiration 
of Chri.Mti-iiiioin fur liitt virlucH. The early Chrit). 
tion writiTH adorn his justice, bcncvulenco and 
piety with the inuHt exalted culu^y. He waiiba]!- 
ti/id, and admitted to the Chrinttan c)iur<;h. lie 
abro(;ated ra;ranii4ni, and made Chhiitianity the 
roli|;iou of hm empire ; he attended the councilii 
of the early fathers of the church, conHulted witli 
the biiiliopH, and devoted himself With the moftt 
untiring zeal to the propagatiun of Chriutianity, 
and to the promotion of |ieace and love anion^ 
it8 profcsdors ; he convened the Council of Nice, 
to Hettlo disputcH which had long dintractcd the 
church, appeared in the assembly with admirable 
modcflty and temper, moderated the heats of the 
conttrndinu parties, implored tlicm to exercise 
mutual forbearance, and exhorted thern to love 
unfeijjned, to forj^ivc one another, as they hoped 
to be Ibrfjiyen by Christ. Who would not think 
it uncharitable to accuse such a man of barbarity 
in the exercise of power ? — and yet he drove 
Arius and his associates into banishment, for 
opinion's sake, denounced death against all with 
whom his books should afterwards be found, and 
prohibitrd, on pain of death, the exercise, how- 
ever peaceably, of the functions of any otlicr re- 
ligion than Christianity. In a fit of jealousy and 
rage, he ordered his innocent son, Crispus, to 
execution, wilijout granting him a hearing ; and 
upon finding him innocent, killed his own wife, 
who had falsely accused him. 

To the prcccdin'^niay be added Theodosius the 
Great, the last Koman emperor before the division 
of the empire. Ho was a member of the Christian 
church, and in his zeal against paganism, and 
what l)c deemed heresy, surpassed all who were 
before him. The Christian writers of his time 
epcak of him as a most illustrious model of justice, 
generosity, magnanimity, benevolence, and every 
virtue. And yet Theodosius denounced capital 
punishments against those who held ' hi-n tical' 
opinions, and commanded intcr-marriagc between 
oousins to be punished by burning tin; parties 
tlivc. On hearing that the people of Anlinch 
had demolished the ^ltatucs set up in that city, 
in honor of himself, and had threatened the gov- 
ernor, he flew into a transport of fury, ordered 
the city to Ik: laid in allies, and all the inhabitants 
to \w Blaughtercd ; and n|>iin hi>aring of a resist- 
&ncc to his authority in Tlu-Ksnlonica, in which 
one of his licutenanU was killed, he instantly or- 
dered a f^rnrrnl masnarrr of Uw in))abitant«; and 
in obodii nre to his command, seven thousand 
men, wonn n and children were butchered io the 
■pace of three hnuro. 

The foregoing arc a few of many imtanccs in 



the history of Rome, and of a countlcM mullitv^l 

in the history of the world, illustrating the tnttkf i 

that the lodgement of arbitrary power, in the bfli^ 

human hands, m always a fearfully pcrdoua «9 

|>crinient ; that Uie mddest tempcrn, the mosth^, 

mane and benevolent dm|>ositions, the nM|f 

blamelesH and conscientious previous life, wi^i 

the most rigorous liabils of juhiice, are no sccoii. 

ty, that, in a moment of temptation, the poMcti. 

ors of such power will not make tiieir subjccti 

tlieir victims; illustrating also the truth, 

while men may exhibit nothing but honor, 

C8ty, mildness, justice, and generosity, in 

intercourse with those of their own grade, or 

guage, or nation, or hue, they may praci 

towards others, for whom they have contcmpli 

and aversion, the most revolting meanness, 

pctrate robbery unceasingly, and inflict Uic 

vercst privations, and the most barbarous ci 

ties. But this is not all : history iq full of exam. 

pies, showing not only the effects of arbitrary] c 

power on its victims, but its terrible reaction oai t 

I those who exercise it ; blunting their sympathies 

! and hardening to adamant their hearts toward' 

them, at lea.st, if not toward the human race gear 

I erally. This is shown in the fact, that almoiti 

j every tyrant in the history of the world, has en. 

; tcrcd upon the exercise of absolute power wilfci 

I comparative moderation; multitudes of t 

with marked forbearance and mildness, am. 

' a few with the most signal condescension, > 

\ nanimity, gentleness and compassion. Ai: 

: these last arc included those who aflerwarti- 

i came tlic bloodiest monsters Uiat ever curs< r. 

j earth. Of the Roman Emperors, almost • 

I one of whom perpetrated the most barh.i 

I atrocities, Vitellius seems to have been the 

! one who cruelly exercised his power frinn 

I outset. Most of the other cmprrors, ppnii- 

I into fiends in Uic hol-bed of arbitrary power. 

they had not been plied with its fierj- stimui 

but had lived under the legal restraint^ 

other men, instead of going to the grave i: 

the ciu^rs of their generation, multitudes : 

have called them blrs.«rd. 

The moderation which has goncrally (i 
guished absolute monarchs atthr commenri 
of their reigns, was doubtless in tome cas' ~ 
sumcd from policy; in the greater number, 
ever, as is manifest from tluir history, it ha^ 
the natural workings of minds held in che< 
previous associations and not yet hardonni 
habits of cruelty, by being accustomed to tli 
ercise of power without restraint. But as ' 
SssoeialiorK* have weakened, and the wieldv 
uncontrolled sway has become a habit, like . 
evil doers, th.y have, in the expn^wive Ian- 
of Scripture, * wjutcd worse and wor»c.' 
For eighteen hundred year* an invohit.' 



Objections Cmisidered — Slavoliolders' Denial. 



121 



unuddcr lias run over Uio liuman raco, at the 
mention of tlic name of Nero ; yet, at iho com- 
moncenient of his reign, he burst into tears when 
called upon to sign the death-warrant of a crim- 
mal, and exelainied, ' Oil, tliat I had never learn- 
ed to write I' Ills mildness and magnanimity 
won tiio afleetions of his subjects ; and it was not 
till the pofson of absolute power had worked with- 
ui his nature for years, that it swelled hiin into a 
monster. 

Tiberius, Claudius, and Caligula, began the 
exercise of their power with singular forbearance, 
and each grew into a prodigy of cruelty. So 
averse was Caligula to bloodshed, that he refused 
I to looK at a list of conspirators against his own 
I life, which was handed to him ; yet afterwards, a 
I more cruel wretch never wielded a sceptre. In 
j his thirst for slaughter, he wished all the necks in 
( Rome one, that he might cut it off at a blow. 
I Domitian, at the commencement of his reign, 
carried his abhorrence of cruelty to such lengths, 
that he foibad the sacrificing of oxen, and would 
sit whole days on the judgment-scat, reversing 
the unjust decisionsof corrupt judges; yet after- 
wards, he surjiassed even Nero in cruelty. The 
latter was content to torture and kill by proxy, 
and without being a spectator; but Domitian 
could not be denied the luxury of seeing his vic- 
tims writhe, and hearing them shriek ; and often 
with his own hand directed the instrument of 
torture, especially when some illustrious senator 
or patrician was to be killed by picce-meal. 
Commodus began with gentleness and conde- 
scension, but soon became a terror and a scourge, 
outstripping in his atrocities most of his prede- 
cessors. Maximin too, was just and generous when 
first invested with power, but afterwards rioted 
in slaughter with the relish of a fiend. History 
has well said of this monarch, ' the change in his 



disposition may readily serve to show how dan- 
gerous a thing is power, that could tranBform a 
person of such rigid virtues into sucli a monster.' 

Instances almost innumerable might be fur- 
nished in the history of every age, illustrating 
the blunting of symiiathies, and the total trans- 
formations of character wrought in individuals by 
the exercise of arbitrary power. Not to detain 
the reader with long details, let a single instance 
suffice. 

Perhaps no man has lived in modem times, 
whose name excites such horror as that of Robes- 
pierre. Yet it is notorious that he was naturally 
of a benevolent disposition, and tender sympa- 
thies. 

" Before the revolution, when as a judge in bis 
native city of Arras he had to pronounce judg- 
ment on an assassin, he took no food for two 
days afterwards, but was heard frequently ex- 
claiming, ' I am sure he was guilty ; he is a vil- 
lain ; but yet, to put a human being to death ! 1' 
He could not support the idea ; and that the 
same necessity might not recur, he relinquished 
his judicial office. — (See Laponncray's Life of 
Robespierre, p. 8.) Afterwards, in the Conven. 
tion of 1791, he urged strongly the abolition of 
the punishment of death ; and yet, for sixteen 
months, in 1793 and 1794, till he perished him- 
self by the same guillotine which he had so mer 
cilessly used on others, no one at Paris consigned 
and caused so many fellow-creatures to be put to 
death by it, with more ruthless insensibility." — 
Turner's Sacred History of the World, vol. 2. 
p. 119. 

But it is time we had done with the objection, 
" such cruelties are incredible." If the objec- 
tor still reiterates it, he shall have the last word 
without farther molestation. 

An objection kindred to the preceding now 
claims notice. It is the profound induction that 
slaves ?nust be well treated because slaveholdera 
say they are I 



Objection. II.— SLAVEHOLDERS PROTEST THAT THEY TREAT THEIR 

SLAVES WELL. 



Self-justification is human nature ; self-con- 
demnation is a sublime triumph over it, and as 
rare as sublime. What culprits would be convict. 
ed, if their own testimony were taken by juries as 
good evidence ? Slaveholders are on trial, charg- 
ed with cruel treatment to their slaves, and 
though in their own courts they can clear them- 
selves by their own oaths,* they need not think 
to do it at the bar of the world. The denial of 

* The law of which the following is an extract, exists In 
South Oarolina. "If any skive shall suffer in life, limb or 
member, when no white person shall be present, or being 
present, shall refuse to give evidence, the owner or otiier 
person, who shall liave the care of such slave, and in whose 
power such slave shall be, shall be deemed guilty of such of- 
fence, unless such owner or other person sliall make the 
contrary appear by good and sufficient evidence, or shall 



crimes, by men accused of them, goes for noth- 
ing as evidence in all civilized courts ; while the 
voluntary confession of them, is the best evidence 
possible, as it is testimony against themselves, and 
in the face of the strongest motives to conceal 
the truth. On the preceding pages, are hundreds 
of just such testimonies ; the voluntary and ex- 
plicit testimony of slaveholders against them- 
selves, their families and ancestors, their constit- 
uents and their rulers ; against their characters 
and their memories ; against their justice, their 

BY HIS OWN OATH CLEAR AND EXCULPATE HIMSELF. "Which 

oath every court where such offence shall be tried, is here- 
by empowered to administer, and to acquit the offender, if 
clear proof of the offence be not made by tico witnesses at 
least."— 2 Brevard's Digest, 342. The stale of Louisiana 
has a similar law. 



122 



Objections Considered — Slaveholders' Denial. 



honcRty, thfir lionor and their benevolence. 
Now let caniior decide between thoHC two claHws 
of slavclioldiTH, whicti i» nioflt entitled to credit ; 
lliat wliich tcHtificB in itH own favor, just as hi If- 
love Wdiild dictate, or that which tcHtifiea aijainKt 
all Hrlfixh inotivcH and in 8|>ite of theni ; and 
though it has nothing to gain, but every thing to 
loHe by Huch testimony, Htill utters it. 

Dut if there were no counter tcntimony, if all 
Blaveholdera were unanimous in the declaration 
that the treatment of the slaves is f(ood, such a 
declaration would not be entitled to a feather's 
weight as testimony ; it is not ieslimojnjhuiopin- 
ioii. Testimony respects matters of fact, not 
matters of opinion : it is the declaration of a 
witness as to /<ac/«, not the giving of an opinion 
as to the nature or qualities of actions, or the 
character of a course of conduct. Slaveholders 
organize themselves into a tribunal to adjudicate 
upon their own conduct, and give us in their 
decisions, their estimate of their own character ; 
informing us with characteristic modesty, that 
they have a high opinion of themselves ; that in 
their own judgment they arc very mild, kind, and 
merciful gentlemen ! In these conceptions of their 
own merits, and of the eminent proprietj' of their 
bearing towards their slaves, slaveholders remind 
us of the Spaniard, who always took off his hat 
whenever he spoke of himself, and of the Govern- 
or of Schiraz, who, from a sense of justice to his 
own character added to his other titles, those of, 
' Flower of Courtesy,' ' Nutmeg of Consola- 
tion,' and ' Rose of Delight.' 

The sincerity of those worthies, no one calls 
!U question ; their real notions of their own merits 
doubtless ascended into the sublime : but for 
aught that appears, they had not the arrogance 
to demand that tlieir own notions of their personal 
excellence, should be taken as the proof of it. 
Not so with our slaveholders. Not content with 
offering incense at the shrine of their own virtues, 
tljey have the effrontery to demand, that the 
rest of the world shall offer it, because they do ; 
and sliall implicitly believe the presiding divini- 
ty to be a good Spirit rather than a Devil, because 
they rail him so ! In other words, since slave- 
holders j)rof(inn(lly appreciate their own gentle 
dispositions toward their slaves, and their kind 
treatment of them, and everywhere protest that 
they do trtdy show forth these rare cxcclIencicB, 
they demand that the rest of the world shall not 
only believe that they think so, but that they 
Uiink ri>Af/i/; that these notions of themselves 
are true, that their taking off their hats to them- 
•elves proves them wortliy of homage, and that 
their a.Hiiumption of the titles of. ' Flower of 
Kindness,' and ' Nutmeg of runsolation." is 
conclusive evidence that they deserve such ap- 
{tcJlattooa ! 



Was there ever a more ridiculous doctrine, 
than that a man's opinion of his own actions is 
the true standard for measuring them, and the 
certificate of their real qualities ! — that his own 
estimate of his treatment of others is to be tak' n 
as the true one, and such treatment be set (i" 
as ([ood treatment upon the strength of his j 
ment. He who argues the good treatment <■' 
slave, from the slaveholder's ((ood opinion of' i 
treatment, not only argues against human n:i' 
and all histor}', his own common sense, and < n 
the testimony of his senses, but refutes his ■ n 
arguments by his daily practice. P^vcry 1 
acts on the presumption ihat men's feelings i 
vary with their practices ; that the light in v, i 
they view individuals and classes, and their fc< ' - 
towards them, will modify their opinions of 
treatment which they receive. In anj- ca 
treatment that affects himself, his church, or u\» 
political party, no man so stultifies himself a? to 
argue that such treatment must be good, because' ', 
the author of it thinks so. 

Who would argue that the American Colonies 
were well treated by the mother coimtrv, because 
parliament thought so ? Or that Poland was \v. U 
treated by Russia, because Nicholas thought so ''. ()r 
that the treatment of the Cherokees by Georgia 
is proved good by Georgia notions of it ? Or that 
of the Greeks by the Turks, by Turkish opinion^* 
of it ? Or that of the Jews by almost all nation^ 
by the judgment of their persecutors ? Or that of 
the victims of the Inquisition, by the opinion^; of 
the Inquisitor general, or of the Pope and I.s 
cardinals? Or that of the Quakers and Baptist- at 
the hands of the Puritans, — to be judged of ly 
the opinions of the legislatures Uiat authon.: ci, 
and the courts that carried it into effect. All 
those classes of persons did not, in tlicir own ojun. 
ion, abuse their victims. If charcod with per- 
petrating outrageous cruelty upon them, all thoaa 
ojipressors would have rcpcUcd the charge w;th 
indignation. 

Our slaveholders chime lustily the same song',_ 
and no man with human nature within him, andf 
human history l>eforc him, and with sense rnougki> ^ 
to keep him out of the fire, will be gulled by stich 
professions, unless his itch to be humbugged iias 
put on the type of a downright chronic incuraiiie. 
Wc repeal it — when men speak of the treatni' iil 
of others as being cither good or bad, their decia- 
rations arc not generally to be taken as testimony 
to matters of /"'"', so much as expressions of 
their own feelings towards those persons or cins!«- 
es who are the subjects of mich treatment. If 
tho.se persons are llieir fellow cili/ens; if they arc 
in the same class of society with lhcmj«elvc> ' 
the same language, creed, and color ; simil 
their habitf, pursuits, and sympathies ; they wii. 



Objections Considered — Slaveholder's Denial. 



123 



keenly feel any wrong done to them, and denounce 
, it as base, outrageous treatment ; but lot the 
\ same wrongs be done to persons of a condition in 
I all respects the reverse, persons whom they habit- 
I; ually despise, and regard only in the light of mere 
i conveniences, to bo used for their pleasure, and 
i the idea that such treatment is barbarous will be 
laughed at as ridiculous. When we hear slave- 
I, holders say that their slaves are well treated, we 
have only to remember that they are not speaking 
ij of peisons, but of property ; not of men and wo- 
;! men, but of chattels and things ; not of friends 
'and associates, but of vassals and victims; not 
of those whom they respect and honor, but of those 
whom they scorn and trample on ; not of those with 
whom they sympathize, and co-operate, and 
interchange courtesies, but of those whom they 
j regard with contempt and aversion, and dis- 
'dainfully set with the dogs of their flock. 
Reader, keep this fact in your mind, and you will 
have a clue to the slaveholder's definition of "good 
treat7}ient." Remember also, that a part of this 
"good treatment" of which slaveholders boast, 
is plundering the slaves of all their inalienable 
rights, of the ownership of their own bodies, of 
the use of their own limbs and muscles, of all their 
time, liberty, and earnings, of the free exercise of 
choice, of the rights of marriage and parental 
authority, of legal protection, of the right to be, 
to do, to go, to stay, to think, to feel, to work, to 
rest, to eat, to sleep, to learn, to teach, to earn 
money, and to expend it, to visit, and to be visit- 
ed, to speak, to be silent, to worship according to 
conscience, in fine, their right to be protected by 
just and equal laws, and to be amenable to such 
only. Of all these rights the slaves are plundered ; 
and this is a part of that " good treatment" of 
which their plunderers boast ! What then is the 
•■est of it ? The above is enough for a sample, at 
least a specimen-brick from the kiln. Reader, 
wc ask you no questions, but merely tell you what 
'/ou know, when we say that men and women who 
:an habitually do such things to human beings, 
•an do ANY THING to them. 

The declarations of slaveholders, that they treat 
their slaves well, will put no man in a quandary, 
who keeps in mind this simple principle, that the 
5tate of mind towards others, which leads one to 
inflict cruelties on them, blinds the injlicter to 
the real nature of his own acts. To him, they do 
aot seem to be cruelties ; consequently, when speak- 
ing of such treatment toward such persons, he will 
protest that it is not cruelty ; though, if inflicted 
upon himself or his friends, he would indignantly 
stigmatize it as atrocious barbarity. The objector 
equally overlooks another every-day fact of hu- 
man nature, which is this, that cruelties invariably 
cease to seem cruelties when the habit is formed, 
tliough previously the mind regarded them as 
such, and shrunk from them with horror. 



The following fact, related by the late lament- 
ed Thomas Piiinole, wliosc Life and Poems have 
recently been publisiied in England, is an appro- 
priate illustration. Mr. Pringle states it on the au- 
tliority of Captain W. F. Owen, of the Royal 
Navy. 

"When his Majesty's ships, the Leven and the 
Barracouta, employed in surveying the coast of 
Africa, were at Mozambique, in 1823, the officers 
were introduced to the family of Senor Manuel 
Pedro d'Almeydra, a native of Portugal, who 
was a considerable merchant settled on that 
coast ; and it was an opinion agreed in by all, 
that Donna Sophia d'Almeydra was the most su- 
perior woman they had seen since they left Eng- 
land. Captain Owen, the leader of the expedi- 
tion, expressing to Senor d'Almeydra his detest- 
ation of slavery, the Senor replied, 'You will not 
be long here before you change your sentiments. 
Look at my Sophia there. Before she would 
marry me, she made me promise that I should 
give up the slave trade. When we first settled 
at Mozambique, she was continually interceding 
for the slaves, and she constantly wept when I 
punished thon; and now she is among the slaves 
from morning to night ; she regulates the whole 
of my slave establishment ; she inquires into eve- 
ry offence committed by them, pronounces sen- 
tence upon the offender, and stands by and sees 
them punished.^ 

" To this, Mr. Pringle, who was himself for 
six years a resident of the English settlement at 
the Cape of Good Hope, adds, ' The writer of this 
article has seen, in the course of five or six years, 
as great a change upon English ladies and gen- 
tlemen of respectability, as that described to have 
taken place in Donna Sophia d'Almeydra ; and 
one of the individuals whom he has in his eye, 
while he writes this passage, lately confessed to 
him this melancholy change, remarking at the 
same time, ' how altered I am in my feelings 
with regard to slavery. I do not appear to my- 
self the same person I was on my arrival in this 
colony, and if I would give the world for the feel- 
ings I then had, I could not recall them.' " 

Slaveholders know fiill well that familiarity 
with slavery produces indifference to its cruelties 
and reconciles the mind to them. The late Judge 
Tucker, a Virginia slaveholder and professor of 
law in the University of William and Mary, in 
the appendix to his edition of Blaekstone's Com. 
mentaries, part 2, pp. 56, 57, commenting on 
the law of Virginia previous to 1792, wliich out- 
lawed fugitive slaves, says : 

" Such are the cruelties to which slavery gives 
rise, such the horrors to which the mind becomes 
reconciled by its adoption." 

The following facts from the pen of Charles 
Stuart, happily illustrate the same principle : 

"A young lady, the daughter of a Jamaica 
planter, was sent at an early age to school m 
England, and after completing her education, re- 
turned to her native country. 

" She is now settled with her husband and fami> 



124 



OlyccUons Considered — Slaveholder's Denial. 



ly in Enfjlarid. I vihil( d lu r mar Batlj, early I Icavinfr a bridle ont of its proper place; hf be- 
la«t Mpriii(r, (ibU-l.) C'oiivtrHincuii llic abovCBiib. I in^ lar^rcr and Ktrongcr than myself took hold of 
ifct, tlic paralyzing cnccts of BJavtlioidiiig on the my arms and ln.ld ine, in order to prevent my 



Btriking him ; this I connidt red the height of in- 
Holenci-, and cried for lulp, when my father and 
mother both carne running to my rescue. .My 
father stripjKd and ti< d him, and took him into 
thi; orchard, where switcheB were plenty, an i di- 
rected mc to whip him ; when one switeh vore 
out he supplied mc with others. After I had 
whipped him a while, he fell on his knees t<. ;m. 
plore forgivenrsH, and I kicked him in the I;;',-; 
my father said, ' don't kick him but whip i. iii,' 
this I did until his back was literally covered v. .ifa 
wells." 



Leart, she said: 

•'• Wliii"- at school in England, I often thought 

with peculiar tendrrncss of the kindness of a 

■lave who iiad nursed and carried me atioiit. 

Upon returning to my father's, one of my first 

in(|tiin<'s was about him. I was deeply atilinted 

to find tiiat he was on the j)oint of unrlergoing a 

" law flogging for having run away." 1 threw 

myself at my falln r's fiet and implored with tears, 

his pardon ; but my t'alher steadily rc[)lied, that 

it would ruin the discipline of the plantation, and 

that t)ie punishment must take jjlace. I wept in 

vain, and retired so grieved and di.-igiiHled, that 

for some da^-a after, I could searc(;ly bear with 

patience, the sight of my own father. Hut many 

months had not ela|)S(d crc / was as readij as any 

body to seize the domestic whip, and flog my 

slaves without hesitation.' 

" This lady is one of the most Christian and 

noble minds of my acquaintance. She and her 

husband distinguished themselves several years 

ago, in Jamaica, by immediately emancipating 

their slaves." 

•' A lady, now in the West Indies, was sent in 

her infancy, to her friends, near Belfast, in Ire. 

land, for education. She remained under their 
charge from five to fifteen years of age, and grew 
up ever}' thing which her friends could wish. 
At fifteen, she returned to the West Indies — was 
married — and after sonic years paid her friends 
near Belfast, a second visit. Towards white 
people, she was the same elegant, and interesting 
woman as before ; apparently full of every vir- 
tuous and tender feeling ; but towards the colored 
people she was like a tigress. If Wilbcrforcc's 
name was mentioned, she would say, ' (Jh, I 
wish we had the wretch in the West Indies, I 
would be one of the first to help to tear his heart 
out I' — and then she would tell of the manner in 
which the West Indian ladies used to treat their 
slaves. ' I have often,' she said, ' when my wo- 
men have displeased mc, snatched their baby 
from their bosom, and running with it to a well, 
have tied my shawl rotmd its shoulders and pre- 
tended to b(! drowning it : oh, it was so f'uini}- to 
hear tlie mother's screams I 1' — and then she 
laughed almost convulsively at the recollection." 

Mr. John M. Nelson, a native of Virginia, 
whose testimony is on a preceding page, furnishes 
a striking illustration of the principle in his own 
case. He says: 

" When I was quite a child, I recollect it jrriev. 
ed me very much to see one tied up to be whip- 

!)ed, aiul I used to intereeih; tcith tears in their 
irhiilf, and miH^'/f my airs with theirs, and feel 
almost willing lo lake part of the punishment. 
Yet Hueh is tin- hardeninir nature of sneh sccni-s. 
that frnni this kind of commiwration for tlic suf- 
fering slave, I became so Mnnled that I could 

not only witness their stripes with rumposurc, but pimislmunt was actually kc]>t hanginjr in 
myself inlb. t them, and that wilh»nl remorse, i ntry, to the no small disgust of her New Fn| 
^Vhcn I was piThaps fourteen or fiflei-n years of , lami visitors. For my part," rontinued my frier 
age, I imdertdoU ti« eorreet a youni: fellow nanted • I did not try lo bo p«ilito to hor : for I was not it- 
Mod, for Bouic MupixMicd otTcncc, I think it was ; hypocrite enough to conceal my indignation." 



W.C. GiLDERSLKEVE, Esq., anativcof G' . i, 
now elder of tlie Presbyterian church, ^\ 
barre, Pcnn. after describing the floggin;; a 
slave, in which his hands were tied together. i 
the slave hoisted by a rope, so that his feel < i 
not touch the ground ; in which conditioM 
hundred lashes were inflicted, says : 

"I stood by and witnessed the whole v 
feeling the least comparaion ; »o hardening 
influence of slavery that it tery much dextrr,yim. 
feeling for the slave." '' 

Mrs. Child, in her admirable "Appeal," has tQft< j^ 
following remarks : _ 

"The ladies who remove from the free State* l. 
into the slaveholding ones almost invariably v. ri(4 ^ 
that the sight of slavery was at first exceedi'..rl« 
])ainful ; but that they soon become habituati d to ''^ 
it; and after a while, they are very apt to vindfe ii 
catc the system, upon the ground that it is e^ ba 
tremely convenient to have such submissive sei^ ^ 
vants. This reason was actually given hy a ladf .i 
of my acquaintance, who is considered an luiusti'. ... 
ally fervent Christian. Yet Christianity cxp:- ^s. '" 
ly teaches us to love our neighbor as ours< !\ ■ s. 
This shows how dangerous it is, for even the k 
best of us, to become accustomed to what isi »> 
wrong. 

"A judicious and benevolent friend lately tola 
me the story of one of her relatives, who married 
a slave owner, and removed to his plantation. 
The lady in question was considered yer>- amia. 
ble, and had a serene, affectionate expression of 
eountenanee. After several years residenc4^ 
among her slaves, she visited New England 
'ficr history was written in her face,' .<»aid ml 
friend; ' its e.xpn-ssion had chansred into that i 
a fiend. She brought but few slaves with Iut| 
and tliose few were of course compelled to pcrr (r 
form additiiuial labor. One faithful nejrro woi ^: 
man nursid the twins of her mistress, and did all l ' 
the washing, ironing, and scourins:. If, after • 
sleepless night with the restless babes, (drm n 
from the bosom of their mother,^ she performed 
her toilsjune avocations with diminished aetivit' 
her mistress, with her own lady-like hands, applii 
the eowskin, and the ncighlxirhood resound 
witii the eries of her victim. The instrument 



Oljections Considered — Slaveholding Hospitality. 



125 



The fact that the greatest eruelties may be cx- 
ijrcised quite unconsciously when cruelty has bc- 
;ome a habit, and that at the same time, the 
nind may ffeel great sympathy and commiseration 
owards other persons and even towards irration- 
il animals, is illustrated in the case of Tamer- 
jane the Great. In his Life, written by himself, 
jie speaks with the greatest sincerity and tender- 
aess of his grief at having accidentally crushed 
^n ant ; and yet he ordered melted lead to be 
;)ourcd down the throats of certain persons who 
jhank wine contrary to his commands. He was 
:nanifestly sincere in thinking himself humane, 
.nd when speaking of the most atrocious cruelties 
icrpetrated by himself, it does not seem to ruffle 
n the least the self-complacency with which 
■jie regards his own humanity and piety. In one 

• ilace he says, " I never undertook anything but I 
= iommenced it placing my faith on God " — and he 

jdds soon after, " the people of Shiraz took part 

• Jvith Shah Mansur, and put my governor to 
' leath ; I therefore ordered a general massacre of 

U the inhabitants." 
It is one of the most common caprices of hu- 
lan nature, for the heart to become by habit, not 
nly totally insensible to certain forms of cruelty, 
/Iiich at first gave it inexpressible pain, but even 
3 find its chief amusement in such cruelties, till 
tterly intoxicated by their stimulation ; while 
t the same time the mind seems to be pained as 
eenly as ever, at forms of cruelty to which it has 
ot become accustomed, thus retaining apparent. 
/ the same general susceptibilities. Illustrations 
f this are to be found every where ; one happens 
3 lie before us. Bourgoing, in his history of 
lodern Spain, speaking of the bull fights, the bar- 
arous national amusement of the Spaniards, says : 



" Young ladies, old men, people of all ages and 
of all characters, are present, and yet the habit 
of attending these bloody festivals does not cor- 
rect their weakness or their timidity, nor injure 
the sweetness of their manners. I have more- 
over known foreigners, distinguished by the gen. 
tleness of their manners, who experienced at first 
seeing a bull-fight such very violent emotions as 
made them turn pale, and they became ill ; but, 
notwithstanding, this entertainment became after- 
wards an irresistible attraction, without operat- 
ing any revolution in their characters." 

Modern State of Spain, by J. P. Bourgoini, Minister 
Plenipotentiary from France to the Court of Madrid, Vol 
ii., page 342. 

It is the novelty of cruelty, rather than the rfe- 
gree, which repels most minds. Cruelty in a new 
form, however slight, will often pain a mind that 
is totally unmoved by the most horrible cruelties 
in a form to which it is accustomed. When 
Pompey was at the zenith of his popularity in 
Rome, he ordered some elephants to be tortured 
in the amphitheatre for the amusement of the 
populace ; this was the first time they had wit- 
nessed the torture of those animals, and though 
for years accustomed to witness in the same 
place, the torture of lions, tigers, leopards, and 
almost all sorts of wild beasts, as well as that of 
men of all nations, and to shout acclamations 
over their agonies, yet, this novel form of cruelty 
so shocked the beholders, that the most popular 
man in Rome was execrated as a cruel monster, 
and came near falling a victim to the fury of 
those who just before were ready to adore 
him. 

We will now briefly notice another objection, 
somevhat akin to the preceding, and based 
mainly upon the same and similar fallacies 



Objection III.— SLAVEHOLDERS ARE PROVERBIAL FOR THEIR KINDNESS, 
HOSPITALITY, BENEVOLENCE, AND GENEROSITY. 



Multitudes scout as fictions the cruelties in. 
icted upon slaves, because slaveholders are famed 
)r their courtesy and hospitality. They tell us 
lat their generous and kind attentions to their 
uests, and their well-known sympathy for the 
afFering, sufficiently prove the charges of cruelty 
rought against them tio be calumnies, of which 
leir uniform character is a triumphant refutation. 
Now that slaveholders are proverbially hospitable 
D their guests, and spare neither pains nor expense 
ministering to their accommodation and plea- 
e, is freely admitted and easily accounted for. 
""hat those who make their inferiors work for 
lem, without pay, should be courteous and hos. 
itable to those of their equals and superiors whose 
ood opinions they desire, is human nature in its 
very-day dress. The objection consists of a fact 
nd an inference : the fact, that slaveholders have 



a special care to the accommodation of their 
guests; the inference, that therefore they must 
seek the comfort of their slaves — that as they are 
bland and obliging to their equals, they must be 
mild and condescending to their inferiors — that 
as the wrongs of their own grade excite their in- 
dignation, and their woes move their sympathies, 
they must be touched by those of their chattels — 
that as they are full of pains-taking toward those 
v/hose good opinions and good offices they seek, 
they will, of course, show special attention to 
those to whose good opinions they are indifferent, 
and whose good offices they can compel — that as 
they honor the literary and scientific, they must 
treat with high consideration those to whom they 
deny the alphabet — that as they are courteous to 
certain persons, they must be so to " property"' — 
eager to anticipate the wishes of visitors, they 



129 



Ohjcclions Considered — Slaveholding Hospitality. 



cannot but pratifj' those of their vaHsals — ^jealous 
for the righlH of the Tcxans, ()uick to feci at the 
disfranchisement of Canadians and of IrlHhinen, 
alivo to the opprcHdionn of tlic Greeks and the 
Poles, they must feel keenly for tlieir nef^roe/i ! 
Such conclusions from nunh premiBCH do not call 
for serious refutation. Kvcn a half-fjrown l)oy, 
wlio should argue, tiiat because men have certain 
feelings toward certain persons in certain circum- 
Btences, llicy must iiave the sanie feelings toward 
ad j)er8«ns in all circumstances, or toward per- 
sons in opposite circumstances, of totally different 
grades, habits, and personal peculiarities, might 
fairly be set down as a hopeless simpleton : and 
yet, men of sense and reflection on other subjects, 
seem bent upon stultifying themselves b}' just such 
shallow inferences from the fact, that slaveholders 
arc hospitable and generous to certain persons in 
certain grades of society belonging to their own 
caste. On tlie ground of this reasoning, all the 
crimes ever committed may be disproved, by show- 
ing, that their perpetrators were hospitable and 
generous to those who B3'mpathizcd and co-oper- 
ated with them. To prove that a man docs not 
liate one of his neighbors, it is only ncccBsary to 
show- that he loves another; to make it appear 
that he docs not treat contemptuously the igno- 
rant, he has only to show that he bows respect- 
fully to the learned ; to demonstrate that lie docs 
not disdain his inferiors, lord it over his depend- 
ents, and grind the faces of the poor, he need only 
show that he is polite to the rich, pays deference 
to titles and office, and fawns for favor uj)on those 
above him I Tlie fact tlsat a man always smiles 
on his customers, proves that he never scowls at 
those who dun him! and since he has always a 
melodious "good morning!" for ''gentlemen of 
property and standing," it is certain that he never 
pnarls at beggars. He who is quick to make room 
for a doctor of divinity, will, of course, see to it 
that he never runs against a porter; and he who 
clears the way for a lady, will be sure never to run 
against a market-woman, or jostle an ap]»le-seller's 
Iward. If accused of beating down his laundress 
to the lowest fraction, of making his boot-black 
call a dozen times for his pay, of higgling and 
screwing a fish, boy till he takes off two cents, or 
of threaten:ng to discharge his seamstress unless 
she will work for a shilling a dav ! how easy to 
brand it all as slander, by showing that he pays 
his minister in advance, is generous in Christmas 
presents, gives a splendid new-year's party, ex- 
p<Mi(ls liiindreds on elections, and puts his name 
with a round sum on tJic subscription paper of tlie 
missionary (ioeiety. 

Who ran forget the hoppitnlity of King Herod, 
that model of generosity "beyond all ancient 
fame," who offered half his kingdcni tii a guest, | 
as a com] cnsation fur au hour's ainusomcnt. — j 



Could such a noble spirit have murdered John 
the Baptist? Incredible! Joab too ! how his soft 
heart was pierced at the exile of Alxalom ! and 
how his bowels yearned to restore frim to hia 
home ! Of course, it is all fiction about his assas. 
sinaling his nephew, Amasa, and -\bner the cap- 
tain of the host 1 Since David twice spared the 
life of Saul when he came to murder him, wept 
on the neck of Jonathan, threw himself upon the 
ground in angui.vh when his child sickened, and< 
bewailed, with a broken heart, the loss of Abs 
lom — it proves that he did not coolly plot and de>i 
libcrately consummate the murder of Uriali 1 As 
the Government of the United States gencrousljii 
gave a township of land to General La Fayette, 
it proves that they have never defrauded tin In. 
dians of theirs I So the fact, that the slaveholde 
of the present Congress are, to a man, favorabte( 
to recognizing the independence of Texas, withi 
her fifty or sixty thousand inhabitants, hefore nha* 
has achieved it, and before it is recognized by 
any other government, proves that these same 
slaveholders do not oppose the recognition of Up v- 
ti, with her million of inhabitants, whose indejx uti. 
cnce was achieved nearly half a century ago, ^nd 
which is recognized by the most powerful goT> rn- 
mcnts on earth ! 

But, seriously, no man is so slightly versed in 
human nature as not to know that men habitQall|> 
exercise the most opposite feelings, and indujggn 
in the most opposite practices toward different 
persons or different cla.sscs of persons arounA 
them. No man has ever lived who was moni 
celebrated for his scrupulous observance of th5< 
most exact justice, and for the illustration furnish- 
ed in his life of the noblest natural virtues, than 
the Roman Cato. His strict adherence to the 
nicest rules of equity — his integrity, honor, and in- 
corruptible faith — his jealous watchfulness evi r 
the rights of his fellow citizens, and his generous 
devotion to their interest, procured for him the 
sublime appellation of " The Just." Towards frre- 
men his hfe was a model of every thing just and i 
noble : but to his slaves he was a monster. At 
his meals, when the dishes were not done to his I 
liking, or when his slaves were careless or inat. ' 
tentivc in serving, he would seize a thong and 
violently beat them, in presence of his guests — 
When they grew old or diseased, and were no < 
longer serviceable, however long and faithfully \ 
they mirjht have sensed him, he either turned ^ 
them adrift and left them to perish, or starved f 
them to death in his own family. No facts in hie ^ 
history arc better authenticated than these. | 

No jKople were ever mom hospitable and mo. ! 
nificent than the Romans, and none more touched [ 
with the sufferings of olliers. Their public tiiefc | 
tres often rung with loud weeping, thousands soo ' 
bing convulsively at once over fictitious woes and 



Objections Considered — Slavcholding Hospitality. 



127 



imafrinary sufP rcrs : and yet these Hanio inulti- 

; tutleH would bIioiU amidst the groans of a tliou- 

; Band dyiii-r gladiators, forced by their coiujuerors 

to kill each other in the ampliithcatro for the 

amusemcnl of the public.* 

Alexander, the tyrant of Pheraes, sobbed like a 
child over the misfortunes of the Trojan queens, 
when the tragedy of Andromache and Hecuba 
was played before him ; yet he used to murder 
his subjects every day for no crime, and without 
even setting up the pretence of any, but merely 
to make himself sport. 

The fact that slaveholders may be full of bene- 
volence and kindness toward their equals and to- 
ward whites generally, oven so much so as to at- 
tract the esteem and admiration of all, while they 
treat with tiie most inhuman neglect their own 
slaves, is well illustrated by a circumstance men- 
tioned by the Rev. Dr. Channing, of Boston, (who 
once lived in Virginia,) in his work on slavery, 
1G2, 1st edition : — 

•' I cannot," says the doctor, " forget my feel, 
ings on visiting a hospital belonging to the plant- 
ation of a gentleman highly esteemed for his vir- 
tues^ and whose manners and conversation ex- 
pressed much benevolence and conscienAiousness. 
When I entered with him the hospital, the first 
object on which my eye foil was a young woman 
verj' ill, probably approaching death. She was 
stretched on the floor. Her head rested on sorae- 
tliing like a pillow, but her body and limbs were 
extended on the hard boards. The owner, I doubt 
not, had, at least, as much kindness as myself; 
but he was so used to see the slaves living with- 
out common comforts, that the idea of unkind- 
ness in the present instance did not enter his 
mind." 

Mr. George A. Avery, an elder of a Presbyte- 
rian church in Rochester, N. Y. who resided some 
years in Virginia, says : — 

" On one occasion I was crossing the planta- 

'" tion and approaching the house of a friend, when 
I met him, rifle in hand, in pursuit of one of his 

til negroes, declaring he would shoot him in a mo- 
ment if he got his eye upon him. It appeared 
that the slave had refused to be flogged, and ran 
off to avoid the consequences ; and yet the gencr. 
ous hospitality of this man to myself, and white 
friends generally, scarcely knew any hounds, 

* Dr. Leland, in his " Necessity of a Divine Revelation," 
thus describes the prevalence of these shows among the 
Romans :— " They were exhibited at the funerals of great 
and rich men, and on many other occasions, by the Roman 
consuls, priEtors, a?dilps, senators, knights, priests, and al- 
f II most all that bore great offices in the state, as well as by the 
™ emperors; and in general, by all that had a mind to make 
an interest with the people, who were extravagantly fond 
of those kinds of shows. Not only the men, but the women, 
ran eagerly after them ; \\'lio were, by the prevalence of 
custom, so far divested of that compassion and softness 
Which is natural to the sex, that they took a pleasure in 
seeing them kill one another, and only desired that they 
should fall genteelly, and in an agreeable attitude. Such 
Avas the frequency of those shows, and so great the number 
of men that were killed on those occasions, that Lipsius says, 
V no war caused such slaughter of mankind, as did these 
jsports of pleasure, throughout the several jirovinces of the 
vast Roman empire." — Leland's JVeces. of Div. Bev. vol. 
ii. p. 31 



" Thoro worn amongnt my slavcliolding frif-nda 
and ac()uairitariCf;H, persons who were aH humane 
and coiinrienlioiiH an rn(;n can be, and perHist in 
the imj)iouH claim of jnopcrty in a fellow being. 
.Still I can recollect but one instance of corporal 
punishment, whether tlie subject were male or 
female, in which the infliction was not on tho 
hare hack with tlie raw hide, or a similar instru. 
merit, the subject being lied during the operation 
to a post or tree. The exception was under the 
following circiunstanccH. I iiad taken a walk with 
a friend on his plantation, and approaching his 
gang of slaves, 1 sat down whilst he proceeded to 
the spot where they were at work ; and aildrcss- 
ing himself somewhat earnestly to a female who 
was wielding the hoc, in a moment caught up 
what I supposed a tobacco stick, (a stick some 
three feet in length, on which the tobacco, when 
cut, is suspended to dry,) about the sizeof a77ian*» 
wrist, and laid on a number of blows furiously 
over her head. The woman crouched, and seem- 
ed stunned with the blows, but presently recom- 
menced the motion of her hoe." 

Dr. David Nelson, a native of Tennessee, and 
late president of Marion College, Missouri, in a 
lecture at Northampton, Mass. in January, 1839, 
made the following statement : — 

" I remember a young lady who played well on 
the piano, and was very ready to weep over any 
fictitious tale of suffering. I was present when 
one of her slaves lay on the floor in a high fever, 
and we feared she might not recover. I saw that 
young lady stamp upon her with her feet ; and 
tiie only remark her mother made was, ' I am 
afraid Evelina is too much prejudiced against poor 
Mary.' " 

General William Eaton, for some years U. S. 
Consul at Tunis, and commander of the expedi- 
tion against Tripoli, in 1805, thus gives vent to 
his feelings at the sight of many hundreds of Sar- 
dinians who had been enslaved by the Tunisians : 

" Many have died of grief, and the others lin- 
ger out a life less tolerable tlian death. Alas! 
remorse seizes my whole soul when I reflect, that 
this is indeed but a copy of the very barbarity 
which my eyes have seen in my o\\ti native coun- 
try. How frequently, in tlie southern states of 
my own country, have I seen loeeping motheis 
leading the guiltless infant to the sales with as 
deep anguish as if they led them to the slaughter ; 
and yet felt my bosom tranquil in the view of these 
aggressions on defenceless humanity. But when 
I see the same enormities practised upon beings 
whose complexions and blood claim kindred with 
my own, / curse the perpetrators, and weep over 
the wretched victims of their rapacity. Indeed, 
truth and justice demand from me the confession, 
that the Christian slaves among the barbarians of 
Africa are treated with more humanity than the 
African slaves among professing Christians of 
civilized America ; and yet here [in Tunis] sensibil- 
ity bleeds at every pore for the wretches whom 
fate has doomed to slavery." 

Rev. H. Lyman, late pastor of the free Presby- 
terian Church, Buffalo, N. Y. who spent the win 
ter of 1832-3 at the south, says : — 



128 



OhjectioTU Considered — Slavcbolding Hospitabty. 



" In tlic interior of MiHaitwippi I was invited to 
the liouiic! of a |)laiit<'r, when- I waH reccivcil with 
^i-at cordiality, and intertaiiicd with marked 
liospitalily. 

" Tiirri! I xaw a maiitcr in tho midst of liiH 
)ion!4(!hold Nlavi'8. The i; veiling; panwd most pica- 
tantly, ax indc'c<l it iniiHt, wiiiTt- axmiJuoiw hunpi- 
tahtirn are i;xt.rci»rd towards thu micHt. 

" Late in the monijn);, when I had (gained tho 
tardy conwnl of my hoHt to (jo on my way, as a 
final act of kindncsH, he railed a nlave to hIiow 
me urroBs tJie fields by a nearer route to the main 
road. ' David,* Haid he, '^foand bIiow tJii.M gen. 
tlenian as far as the post-olfice. Do you know 
the l)itj bay tree 7' ' Ych, fir.' ' Do you know 
where the cotton mill is?' 'Yes, sir.' 'Where 
Squire Malcolm's old field is 7' * Y-c-8, sir,' said 
David, (bepinninjj to bo bewildered). " Do you 
know wlicrc Squire Malcolm's cotton field is 7' 
' No, sir.' * No, sir,' said the enraged master, 
levelling his pun at him. ' What do you stand 
here, saying, Yes, yes, yes, for, when you don't 
know ?' All this was accompanied with threats 
and imprrrnlions, and a manner that contrasted 
strangely with the religious conversation and gen- 
tle manners of the previous evening." 

The Rev. Jamks H. Dickkv, formerly a slave, 
holder in South Carolina, now pastor of the Prcs. 
byterian Church in Hennepin, 111. in his " Review 
of Nevins' Biblical Antiquities," after asserting 
that slaveholding tends lo beget " a spirit of cru- 
elty and tyranny, and to destroy every generous 
and noble feeling," (page 33,) he adds the follow- 
ing as a note : — 

" It may be that this will be considered ccnso. 
rious, and the proverbial generosity and hospital. 
ity of the south will be appealed to as a full con- 
futation of it. The writer thinks he can appre. 
ciate southern kindness and hospitality. Having 
been born in Virginia, rai.scd and educated in 
South Carolina and Kentnckv, he is altogether 
southern in his feelings, and habits, and modes of 
familiar conversation. He can say of the south 



as CowDGf said of England, * With all thy fault* 
I love tlii.-c still, my country.' And nothing but 
the abominations of slavery could have induced 
him willingly Ui forsake a land endearct to him 
by all the associations f)f childhood and youth. 

'* Yet it is candid lo admit that it is not all gold' 
that glitters. There is a fictitious kindncas and 
hospilalily. 'Ilie famous Uobin Hood was kind' 
and generous — no man more hospitable — he rob> 
l>cd the rich to supply the necessities of the poor. 
Others rob the poor to bestow gifts and lavish 
kindness and hosjiitality on their rich friends and' 
neighbors. It is an easy matter for a man to ap.' 
j)ear kind and generous, when he IksIows that 
which others have earned. 

" I said, there is a fictitious kindnesK and ho«. 
pitality. I once knew a man who left his wife 
and children three days, without fire. wood, with- 
out bread-stuff, and without shoes, while th» 
ground was covered with snow — tl.at he might in. 
diilge in his cups. And when I attempted to' 
expostulate with him, he look the subjcrt out of 
my hands, and expatiating on the evils of intem. 
perance more eloquently than I cotdd, concluded 
by warning mc, with tears, lo avoid the snares ol- 
the latter. He had tender feelings, yet a hard 
heart. I once knew a young lady of polihhed 
manners and accomplished education, who wf).ild 
weep with sympathy over the fictitious woes ex- 
hibited in a novel. And waking from her n^verio 
of grief, while her eye was vet wet with tenrs, 
would call her little waiter, and if she did nnt 
appear at the first call, would rap her head v. r.h 
her thimble till my head ached. 

" I knew a man who was famed for kindly 
s^nnpathies. He once took off his shirt and gave 
it to a poor white man. The ."same man hind a 
black man, and gave him for his tiaily tn.tk, 
through the winter, to feed the beasts, keep fires, 
and make one hundred rails : and in cafx- of fail, 
urc the lash was applied so frcciv, that, in the 
spring, his back was one continued sore, from his 
shoulders to his iraist. Yet Uiis man was a pm. 
fcfssor of religion, and famous for his tender syin- 
pathics to white men I" 



Objectio.v IV.— 'NORTHERN VISITORS AT THE SOUTH TESTIFY THAT THE 
SLAVES ARE NOT CRUELLY TREATED.' 



Answer : — Their knowledge on this point 
must have been derived, either from the slave- 
holders and overseers themselves, or from the 
slaves, or from their own observation. If from 
the slaveholders, their testimony has already 
been weighed and found wanting ; if they derived 
jt from the slaves, they can hardly be so simple 
as to sup])osi< that the gnrst, associate and friend 
of the master, would be likely to draw from his 



Hendkrso.v, a North Carolina slaveholder, in his 
decision (in lt'3fl.)in the case of the State ter.':ts 
Charity, "2 Dcvereaux's North Carolina Reports, 
513, illustrate tho folly of arguing the good 
treatment of slaves from their own derlaralions 
tchile in the poxrer of their masters. In the ca>;e 
alwvc cited, the Chief Justice, in refusing to per- 
mit a master to pivc in eNndencc, declarations 
made to him by his slave, says cf masters and 



slaves any other testimony respecting his treat- . slaves generally — 

ment of them, than such as would please Aim. " The master \\%i> an almo«t ahsrtlnte control 
The great 8ljrcwdne4»8 and taei exhibited by j "^" *'"' '""'.^' ""'^ ""'"'"'"'"» '''•'»^''- The mas. 
slaves in ilrr.„„;r//,rm.»<-/iv.«oi/r«^/i^;;rH//y. when ' '''^''' ""'" '" "^^' '■'•^ve-s .ri7/. A!) his act-, oil ^„s 
, ... , . . sttiftngs, arc made with a new to pmpitiate his 

close questioned by «trangcrs as lo their treat- ,„;,,,^.^ „j^ confessions an- made, not from a 
ment, cannot l.iil to strike every arniratc ob- i,-,v,. of truth, not from a 9.'nsc of duly, not lo 
server. The following remarks of Ciiikf Jistice speak a falsehood, but to please his master — and 



Objections Considered — Northern Visitors. 



120 



't is in vain that his master tells him to speak the 
ruth, and conceals from him how he wishes the 
uestion answered. The slave loill ascertain, or, 
.'hich is the same thing, think that he has ascer- 
linod the ivishes of his master, and mould ms 
NSWER AcconDiNGLY. We therefore more often 
let the wishes of the master, or the slave's belief 
If his wishes, than the truth." 

The following extract of a letter from the Hon. 
■ETU M. Gates, member elect of the next Con- 
jress, fm-nishes a clue by which to interpret the 
iioks, actions, and protestations of slaves, when 
\ the presence of their masters' guests, and the 
ains sometimes taken by slaveholders, in teach- 
ig their slaves the art of pretending that they 
:e treated well, love their masters, are happy, 
:.c. The letter is dated Leroy, Jan. 4, 1839. 

" I have sent your letter to Rev. Joseph M. 
add, Castile, Genesee county, vyho resided five 
iears in a slave state, and left, disgusted with 
Savery, I trust he will give you some facts. I 
imember one fact, which his wife witnessed. A 
ilative, where she boarded, returning to his 
iantation after a temporary absence, was not 
et by his servants with such demonstrations of 
)y as was their wont. He ordered his horse 
it out, took down his whip, ordered his servants 
'! the barn, and gave them a most cruel beating, 
icause they did not run out to meet him, and 
etend great attachment to him. Mrs. Sadd 
id overheard the servants agreeing not to go 
it, before his return, as they said they did not 
,ve him — and this led her to watch his conduct 
' them. This man was a professor of religion !" 

If these northern visitors derived their informa- 
on that the slaves arc not cruelly treated from 
■eir own observation, it amounts to this, they did 
)t see cruelties inflicted on the slaves. To 
hich we reply, that the preceding pages con- 
in testimony from hundreds of witnesses, who 
stifv that they did see the cruelties whereof 
i.ey affirm. Besides this, they contain the sol- 
nn declarations of scores of slaveholders them- 
Ives, in all parts of the slave states, that the 
aves are cruelly treated. These declarations 
c moreover fully corroborated, by the laws of 
ave states, by a multitude of advertisements in 
icir newspapers, describing runaway slaves, by 
leir scars, brands, gashes, maimings, cropped 
irs, iron collars, chains, &c. &c. 
Truly, after the foregoing array of facts and 
stimony, and after the objectors' forces have 
le after another filed off before them, now to 
larch up a phalanx of northern visitors, is to 
sat a retreat. ' Visitors !' What insight do 
asual visitors get into the tempers and daily 
iractices of those whom they visit, or of the 
•eatment that their slaves receive at their hands, 
specially if these visitors are strangers, and from 
region where there are no slaves, and which 
laims to be opposed to slavery ? What oppor- 
unity has a stranger, and a temporary guest, to 
9 



learn the cvery-day habits and caprices of his 
host ? Oh, these northern visitors tell us they 
have visited scores of families at the south, and 
never saw a master or mistress whip their slaves. 
Indeed ! They have, doubtless, visited hundreds 
of families at the north — did they ever see, on 
such occasions, the father or mother whip their 
children ? If so, they must associate with very 
ill-bred persons. Because well-bred parents do 
not whip their children in the presence, or within 
the hearing of their guests, are we to infer that 
they never do it out of their sight and hearing ? 
But perhaps the fact that these visitors do not 
remember seeing slaveholders strike their slaves, 
merely proves, that they had so little feeling for 
them, that though they might be struck every 
day in their presence, yet as they were only slaves 
and ' niggers,' it produced no effect upon them ; 
consequently they have no impressions to recall. 
These visitors have also doubtless rode with 
scores of slaveholder?. Are they quite certain 
they ever saw them whip their horses ? and can 
they recall the persons, times, places, and circum- 
stances ? But even if these visitors regarded the 
slaves with some kind feelings, when they first 
went to the south, yetbein^ constantly with their 
oppressors, seeing them used as articles of proper- 
ty, accustomed to hear them charged with aU 
kinds of misdemeanors, their ears filled with com-- 
plaints of their laziness, carelessness, insolence, i 
obstinacy, stupidity, thefts, elopements, &c. and 
at the same time, receiving themselves the most 
gratifying attentions and caresses from the same 
persons, who, while they make to them these 
representations of their slaves, are giving them 
airings in their coaches, making parties for them, 
taking them on excursions of pleasure, lavishing ^ 
upon them their choicest hospitalities, and urging 
them to protract indefinitely their stay — what 
more natural than for the flattered guest to ad- 
mire such hospitable people, catch their spirit, 
and fully sympathize with their feelings toward 
their slaves, regarding with increased disgust 
and aversion those who can habitually tease and 
worry such loveliness and generosity.* After 

* Well saith the Scripture, " A gift blindeth the eyes." 
The slaves understand this, though the guest may not ; they 
know very well that they have no sympathy to expect from 
their master's guests; that the good cheer of the "big 
house," and the attentions shown them, will generally 
commit tliem in their master's favor, and against them- 
selves. Messrs. Thome and Kimball, in their late work^ 
state the following fact, in illustration of this feeling among 
the negro apprentices in Jamaica. 

" The governor of one of the islands, shortly after hia ar- 
rival, din'ed witli one of the wealthiest proprietors. Tho 
next day one of the negroes of the estate said to another, 
"Denew gubner been pojsore';/." "What dat you say ■?" 
inquired the other in astonishment, "Degubner been poi- 
son' d! Dah, now 1^ — How him poisoned'?'' ^' Him eat 
massa's turtle soup last night" said the shrewd negro. The 
other took his incanini: at once ; and liis sympatliy for (he 
fiovernor was turned into concern for himself, when he 
perceived that the poison was one from which h» was likely 



130 



OlfjecUons Considered — Northern "Visitors. 



the visitor had liccn in contact with the alavc- 
holding; npirit lunfr enough to have imbilicd it, 
(no very teilioiiH procesa,) a ciifT, or even a kick 
adminiHt< nil to a HJave, would not l>e likely to 
U^ivo hill) Hiieh a Hhock that hi* memory would 
lonp r< Iniu the traci!ii of it. Uul lest wi; do theoc 
TiMrtortt iujiihticc, wc will HUp|>oiie that they car- 
ried with them to t)ie nouth humane fecliriKH for 
the dlave, and that thoHc feeliri;jH remained im- 
blunted ; Hlill, what opportunity could they have 
to witncHM the aetual eondition of the nlaveM 7 
They como in contact with the housc-wrvantH 
only, and as a pencral thinp, with none hut the 
select ones of these, the par/or-ncrvantH ; who 
generally differ as widely in their appearance 
and treatment from the cooks and scullions in 
the kitchen, as parlor furniture docs from the 
kitchen utensils. Certain servants arc assif^ncd to 
tlie parlor, jti.sl as certain articles of furniture arc 
selected for it, to he seen — and it is no less ridic- 
ulous to infer that the kitchen scullions are 
clothed andtrcat(;d like those servants who wait 
at the tabic, and arc in the presence of pucsts, 
than to infer that tlie kitchen is set out with so- 
fas, ottomans, jjiano-fortcs, and full-lcnjrth mir- 
rors, because tlu; parlor is. But the house. slaves 
are only a fraction of the whole number. The 
field-hands constitute the great mass of the 
slaves, and these the visitors rarely ijct a {iflimpse 
at. They arc away at their work by day-break, 
and do not return to their huts till dark. Their 
huts arc commonly at some distance from the mas. 
tor's mansion, and the fields in which they labor, 
generally much farther, and out of sifjht. If the 
visitor traverses the plantation, care is taken that 
he docs not jjo alone ; if he expresses a wish to 
sec it, the horses are saddled, and the master or 
his son gallops the rounds witli him ; if ho ex- 
presses a desire to see the slaves at work, his 
conductor will know where to take him, and 
■when, and which of them to show ; the overseer, 
too, knowsyquite too well the part he has to act on 
such occasions, to shock the uninitiated cars of 
the visitors with the shrieks of his victims. It is 
manifest that visitors can see only the hast re- 
pulsive parts of slavery, inasnuieh as it is wholly 
at the option of the ma.ster, what parts to show 
them ; as a matter of necessity, he can sec only 
the OM/ffif/r— and that, like the outside of door- 
knobs and andirons, is furbished up to be looked 
at. So long as it is hinnan nature to wear the 
bett aide nut, so long lh«! northern guests of 
•oulhem slaveholders will see next to nothing of 
the reality of slavery. Those visitors may stdl 
keep up their autumnal migrations to the slave 
•tates, and, after a hasty survey of the tuisel 
httng before the curtain of slavery, without a sin- 

tamiirrrmorpdmn liU cxccllcncr."— Cmiiiiri>a(i>ii in ihr 
WmI India, p. 2:^ 



glo glance behind it, and at the paint and Tamalt 
that eorer up dead men's l>one«, and while thoai 
who have hoaxed them with their smooth Ktoriea 
and white. washed opecimcns of slavery, arc til 
tcringat their gullibility, they return in thcspr{li|i 
on the same fixjl's-errand with their predeccsaonp 
retailing their lesHon, and mouthing the praJMW 
of the maMters, and the comforts of the t<lara»^ 
They now become village umpires in all diHjiute* 
almiit the condition of the slaves, and each thcnea 
forward ends all controversies with his oracali 
" I've Keen, and sure I ought to know." 

But all northern visitors at the south are nol 
thus easily gullid. Many of them, a« tin pro< 
ceding pages show, have too much s< iis<: to hi 
caught with ehafi*. 

We may add here, that those classes of visltOBi ' 
whose representations of the treatment of !-laTC| 
' arc most influential in moulding the opinion« ol' 
' the free states, arc ministers of the gospel, agcnfe' 
of benevolent societies, and teachers who liaW' 
j traveled and temporarily resided in the ilaVI 
I states — classes of persons less likely than fli^ 
: others to witness cruelties, because slaveholdoB 
! generally take more pains to keep such visitoB 
' in ignorance Uian others, because their vocations 
I would furnish them fewer opportunities for wit 
I ncssing them, and becanse they come in cont 

with a class of society in which fewer atrociti 
I are. committed than in any other, and that 
i under circumstances which make it almost 
I possible for them to witness those which 
I actually committed. 

I Of the numerous classes of persons from 
north who temporaril)" reside in the slave stal 
the mechanics who find employment on the pk 
I iatio7i8, arc the only persons who arc in circi 
I stances to look " behind the scenes." Merch 
pedlars, venders of patents, drovers, speculatfl 
and almost all descriptions of persons who 
from the free states to the south to make mon 
see little of slavery, except upon the road, at p< 
lie inns, and in villages and cities. 

Let not the n^ader infer from what has 
said, Uiat the /wr/or-slaves, chamber-maids, 
in the slave states are not treated with crucl^ 
far fmm it. They often experience terrible 
flictions ; not generally so terrible or so frcqj 
as thefield-hands, and very rarely in the p 
of guests.* House-slaves arc for the moat 
treated far better than plantation-slavcs, 

• Rrv. Jn-icrit M. P»pp, a Prc«b)i>Tiiin rJt-rf}-iiiaa, 
Cb-'IIIo, Ci'tviief rouiily, N. V. trcrniK from Mk 
wJicrc he lias prcarlirtl Avf jrrarm In llic mklsl of 
holdiTS, MjT", In a Ipuer Just rrcHrrd, vpfoklnf of i 
pnlns tnkrn by nI.ivrholHrr* to ronr.-aj from the fymM 
KlriiiiirT' or.il vIMtnin, Uic cnieltic* wlilrh tbiT' Inflict ■(fea 
ibrlr dlnvrst— • 

" It In dlfflriiU to tw an cTt»-w ■ »•• things ; fc 

miuMor and mlKlr<>9 almnX ii' -.i thrir rials' %< 

only In Uic nrrwnrc of olhrr -...>.^. ..t ',w i,.rr oibor tM^ ^ 
tMf rt of tlicU own famil}', and oflru u Uic dead of Hi(liC* 



Ohjections Considered — Northern Visitors. 



131 



those under the immediate direction of the mas- 
ter and mistress, than those under overseers and 
drivers. It is quite wortliy of remarit, tliat of 
the tiiousands of northern men who have visited 
the south, and arc always lauding the kindness 
of slaveholders and tlie comfort of the slaves, 
protesting that they have never seen cruelties 
inflicted on them, (Sec. each perhaps, without 
exception, has some story to tell which reveals, 
better perhaps than the most barbarous butchery 
could do, a public sentiment toward slaves, 
showing that the most cruel inflictions must of 
necessity be the constant portion of the slaves. 

Though facts of this kind lie thick in every 
corner, the reader will, we are sure, tolerate even 
a needless illustration, if told tliat it is from the 
pen of N. P. Rogers, Esq. of Concord, N. H. 
who, whatever he writes, though it be, as in this 
case, a mere hasty letter, always finds readers to 
the end. 

" At a court session at Guilford, Stafford county, 
N. H. in August, 1837, the Hon. Daniel M. Du- 
rell, of Dover, formerly Chief Justice of the Com. 
mon Pleas for that state, and a member of Con. 
gress, was charging the abolitionists, in presence 
of several gentlemen of the bai-, at their boarding 
; house, with exaggerations and misrepresentations 
of slave treatment at the south. ' One instance 
in particular,' he witnessed, he said, where he 
' knew they misrepresented. It was in the Con. 
gregational meeting house at Dover. He was 
passing by, and saw a crowd entering and about 
the door; and on inquiry, found that abolition was 
going on in there. He stood in the entry for a 
moment, and found the Englishman, Thompson, 
iwas holding forth. The fellow was speaking of 
the treatment of slaves; and he said it was no 
uncommon thing for masters, when exasperated 
with the slave, to hang him up by the two thumbs, 
and flog him. I knew the fellow ligd there,' said 
the judge, ' for I had traveled through the south, 
from Georgia north, and I never saw a single 
instance of the kind. The fellow said it was a 
common thing.' ' Did you see. 2.ny exasperated 
masters. Judge,' said I, 'in your journey ?' 'No 
sir,' said he, ' not an individual instance.' ' You 
hardly are able to convict Mr. Thompson of 
falsehood, then. Judge,' said I, ' if I understood 
you right. He spoke, as I understood you, of 
exasperated masters — and you say you did not 
see any. Mr. Thompson did not say it was com- 
mon for masters in good humor to hang up their 
slaves.' The Judge did not perceive the materi. 
ality of the distinction. ' Oh, they misrepresent 
and lie about this treatment of the niggers,' he 
continued. ' In going through all the states I 
visited, I do not now remember a single instance 
of cruel treatment. Indeed, I remember of see. 
jng but one nigger struck, during my whole jour- 
hey. There was one instance. We were riding 
in the stage, pretty early one morning, and M'e 
met a black fellow, driving a span of horses, and 
a. luad (I think he said) of hay. The fellow 
turned out before we got to him, clean down 
into the ditch, as far as he could get. He knew, 
you see, what to depend on, if he did not give the 



road. Our driver, as we passed tlie fellow, 
felclicd jiini a smart crack with his wiiip across 
the cliops. He did not make any noise, though 
I guess it hurt him some — lie grinned. — Oh, no ! 
these fellows exaggerate. The niggers, as a gen- 
eral tiling, are kiiully In-ated. There may be ex- 
ceptions, but I saw nothing of it.' (By tlic way, 
tlic Judge did not know tlicre were any abolition- 
ists present.) ' What did you do to the driver. 
Judge,' said I, ' for striking that man ?' ' Do 1' 
said he, ' I did nothing to him, to be sure.' 'What 
did you say to him, sir '." said I. ' Nothing,' he 
replied : ' I said nothing to him.' ' What did the 
other passengers do ?' said I. ' Nothing, sir,' 
said the Judge. ' The fellow turned out the 
white of his eye, but he did not make any noise.' 
' Did Ihe driver say any thing, Judge, when he 
struck the man?' 'Nothing,' said the Judge, 
' only he damned him, and told him he'd learn 
him to keep out oi the reach of his whip ' ' Sir,' 
said I, ' if George Thompson had told this story, 
in the warmth of an anti.slavery speech, I should 
scarcely have credited it. I have attended many 
anti-slavery meetings, and I never heard an in- 
stance of such cold-blooded, wanton^ insolent, 
DIABOLICAL Cruelty as this ; and, sir, if I live to 
attend another meeting, I shall relate this, and 
give Judge Durell's name as the witness of it.' 
An infliction of the most insolent character, en. 
tirely unprovoked, on a perfect stranger, who had 
showed the utmost civility, in giving all the road, 
and only could not get beyond the long reach of 
the driver's whip — and he a stage driver, a class 
generous next to the sailor, in the sober hour of 
morning — and borne in silence — and told to show 
that the colored ?nan of the south was kindly treat 
ed — all evincing, to an unutterable extent, that 
the temper of the south toward the slave is mer- 
ciless, even to diabolism — and that the north 
regards him with, if possible, a more fiendish in- 
difference still !" 

It seems but an act of simple justice to say, in 
conclusion, that many of the slaveholders from 
whom our northern visitors derive their informa- 
tion of the " good treatment" of the slave, may 
not design to deceive them. Such visitors are 
often, perhaps, generally brought in contact with 
the better class of slaveholders, whose slaves are 
really better fed, clothed, lodged, and housed ; 
more moderately worked ; more seldom whipped, 
and with less severity, than the slaves generally. 
Those masters in speaking of the good condition 
of their slaves, and asserting that they are treated 
well, use terms that are not absolute but compara- 
tive : and it may be, and doubtless often is true 
that their slaves are treated well as slaves, in com- 
parison with the treatment received by slaves 
generally. So the overseers of such slaves, and the 
slaves themselves, may, without lying or designing 
to mislead, honestly give the same testimony. As 
the great body of slaves within their knowledge 
fare worse, it is not strange that, when speaking 
of the treatment on their own plantation, thev 
should call it good. 



132 



Offjections Considered — Interest of Musters. 



Objection V.— • IT IS I ( M( rili; INTEREST nV Till: MA.STLKS TO TUEAT THEIR 

SLAVES WELL.' 



So it in for tlir! intercut of the (Iniiikard to quit I 
hia cuj)H ; f<ir tliu (glutton to curl) IiIh a|)|i<-titc ; for 
tho dcl>aiin)Ho to bridle liin luHt; for llio Hlu(r(ra.rd 
to Imj up lirtiincB ; for the Hpondthrift to be «;co. 
nominal, and for all xiimcrHtu xtop ninninj;. Evrn 
if it Were for the inten-nt of niasterti to treat ihtnr 
■lavcH well, he nuifit be a novice who think.s that 
a proof that the ttlaven arc well treatrd. Tile 
wliolc history of man \» a record of real intercHtH 
xacrificed to present gratification. If all men's 
mictions were conHistent with tln-ir best intercstn, 
folly and sin would be words without meaning. 

If the objector means that it is for the pccu. 
niary intcruats of masters to treat their slaves 
well, and thence infers their good treatment, wc 
reply, that though the love of money is strong, yet 
appetite and lust, pride, anger and revenge, the 
love of power and honor, arc each an overmatch 
for it ; and when either of them is roused by a 
sudden stimulant, the love of money is worsted in 
the gra|>pic with it. Look at the hourly lavish 
outlays of money to procure a momentary gralifi. 
cation for those passions and ajjpetites. As the dc. 
sire for money is, in the main, merely a desire for 
the means of gratifying other desires, or rather 
for one of the means, it must be the servant not 
the sovereign of those desires, to whose gratifica- 
tion its only use is to minister. But even if the | 
love of money were the strongest human passion, 
who is simple enough to believe that it is all the 
time 80 powerfully excited, that no other passion 
or appetite can get the mastery over it ? Who 
does not know that gusLs of rage, revenge, jca. 
lousy and lust drive it before Uicm as a tempest 
tosses a feather ? 

The objector has forgotten his first lessons ; they 
taught him that it is human nature to gratify the 
uppermost passion : and is prudence the upper- 
most passion with slaveholders, and self-restraint 
tiicir great characteristic ' The strongest feeling 
of any moment is the sovereign of that moment, 
and rules. Is a propensity to practice eronomy 
tho predominant feeling with slaveholders ? Ri- 
■licuious I Every northerner knows that slave- 
lioldrm arc proverbial for lavish expenditures, 
never higgling abo\!t the price of a gratification. 
Unman passions have not, like the tides, regular 
•ibbs and flows, with their stationary, high and 
low water marki. They are a dominion convulsed 
with revolutions ; coronations and dethronements 
in ceas<leHs succcfwinn — each rider a usurjier and 
a dcujmt. \/^\•v of money geU a snatch at llie 
dccptreas well as the rest, not by hendilary right. 
bnt because, in the flurtualiotis i>f human feel, 
ings, a chance wave waj»ltrs him up to tJic throne, 
and tlio next perhaps waslica him ofl", without 



time to nominate bin Buccesjior. Since, then, aii a 
matter of fact, a hont of app< titen and pa«hi<>ti • <]■, 
hourly g<-t tl»e better of lov<- of money, wha- 
tcction does tlic slave find in his niaittcr'it i/<' 
against the sweep of his paKsions and appctitcn ' 
Ik-sides, a master can inflict u|N)n bin »lavc hor- 
rible crueltieB without perceptibly injuring hi» 
health, or taking time from h'w laU>r, or lciw<-nin» 
his value an property. DIowb with a small stick 
give more acute pain, than with a lar^e one. A 
club bruises, and benumbs the nerve*, while a 
noitch, neither breaking nor bnming the flesh, in. 
stead of blunting the sense of feeling, wakes up 
and stings to torture all the Busceptibilitics of pain 
By this kind of infliction, more actual cruelty car; 
be perpetrated in the giving of pain at the instan?, 
than by the most horrible bruisingsand laccration^^ : 
and that, too, with little comparative hazard to 
the slave's health, or to his value as prop<Tty, and 
without loss of time from labor. Even giving to 
the objection all tlie force claimed for it, what 
protection is it to the slave 7 It profeatta to 
shield the slave from such treatment alone, as 
would either lay him aside from labor, or injure 
his health, and thus lessen his value as a working 
animal, making him a damaged article in tho 
market. Now, is nothing had treatment of a hu. 
man being except that which produces these cf. 
fects ? Docs the fact that a man's constitution ia 
not actually shattered, and his life shortcm-d by 
his treatment, prove that he is treated well ? Is 
no treatment cruel except what sprains mns< ;. «, 
or cuts sinews, or bursts blood vessels, or l>ri aks 
bones, and Uius lessens a man's value as a work> 
ing animal 7 

A slave mav get blows and kicks every hour in 
the day, without having his constitution broken, 
or without sufTering sensibly in his health, or i' -li, 
or appetite, or power to labor. Tlicrcforc, !>• ..•, n 
and kicked as he is, he must be treated ittll, ac- 
cording to the objector, since tlic master's inter, 
est docs not suffer thereby. 

Finally, the objector virtually maintains that all 
possible privations and inflictions suffcrrd hy 
slaves, that do not actually cripple their jx)w« r to 
labor, and make them * damaged merchandize.' 
arc to \n- set down as * good treatment,' and that 
nntliing is bad treatment except what produces 
these effrets. 

Thus we see that even if the slave were rfr< et. 
ually shielded fmm all lliosc inflictions, whieli. by 
lessening his value as property, would injure th« 
inter»>»ts of his master, he would still have no 
protection against numliorlrss and terrible rr'irl. 
tics. But we go further, and maintain that in re- 
opcct to large clasMS of slaves, it is for the !«• 



Ohjectlons Considered — Interest of Masters. 



138 



tercst of their masters to treat them witli barbarous ' 
inhumanity. 

1. Old slaves. It would bo for the interest of 
; the masters to shorten their days. 
I 2. Worn out slaves. Multitudcsof slaves by bc- 
I ing overworked, have their constitutions broken in 
i middle life. It would be economical for masters 
j to starve or flog such to death, 
j 3. The incurably diseased and maimed. In all 
such cases it would be cheaper for masters to buy 
poison than medicine. 
I 4. The blind, lunatics, and idiots. As all such 
! would bo a tax on him, it would be for his interest 
! to shorten their days. 

I 5. The deaf and dumb, and persons greatly de- 

j formed. Such might or might not be serviceable 

to him ; many of them at least would be a burden, 

and few men carry burdens when they can throw 

them off. 

6. Feeble infants. As such would require much 
nursing, the time, trouble and expense necessary 
to raise them, would generally be more than they 
would be worth as loorking animals. How many 
Buch infants would be likely to be ' raised,' from 
disinterested benevolence ? To this it may be 
added that in the far south and south west, it is 
notoriously for the interest of the master not to 
♦ raise' slaves at all. To buy slaves when nearly 
grown, from the northern slave states, would be 
cheaper than to raise them. This is shown in the 
fact, that mothers with infants sell for less in those 
states tlian those without them. And when slave- 
traders purchase such in the upper country, it is 
notorious thaj. they not unfrequently either sell 
their infants, or give them away. Therefore it 
would be for the interest of the masters, through- 
out that region, to have all the new-born chil- 
dren left to perish. It would also be for his 
mterest to make such arrangements as effectually 
to separate the sexes, or if that were not done, so 
to overwork the females as to prevent childbearing. 
7. Incorrigible slaves. On most of the large 
plantations, there are, more or less, incorrigible 
slaves, — that is, slaves who loill not be profitable 
to their masters — and from whom torture can ex- 
toii little but defiance.* These are frequently 
slaves of uncommon minds, who feel so keenly 
Hie wrongs of slavery that their proud spirits 
spurn their chains and defy their tormentors. 

They have commonly great sway over the 
other slaves, their example is contagious, and their 
influence subversive of 'plantation discipline.' 
Consequently they must be made a warning to 

* Advertisements like the following are not unfrequent in 
the southern papers. 

Prom the Elizabeth (JV. C.) Phenix, Jan. 5, 1839. 
"The subscriber otfers for sale his blacksmith Nat, 28 
years of age, and remarkably large and likely. The only 
cause of my selling him is I cannot control him. 
Hertford, Dee. 5, 1838. J. Gordon." 



others. It is for the interest of the masters (at 
least they believe it to be) to put upon such slaves 
iron collars and chains, to brand and crop them ; 
to disfigure, lacerate, starve and torture them — in 
a word, to inflict upon them such vengeance as 
shall strike terror into the other slaves. To this 
class may be added the incorrigibly thievish and 
indolent; it would be for the interest of the mas- 
ters to treat them witli such severity as would de- 
ter others from following their example. 

7. Runaways. When a slave has once runaway 
from his master and is caught, he is thencefor- 
ward treated with severity. It is for the interest 
of the master to make an example of him, by the 
greatest privations and inflictions. 

8. Hired slaves. It is for the interest of those 
who hire slaves to get as much out of them as 
they can ; the temptation to overwork them is 
powerful. If it be said that the master could, in 
that case, recover damages, the answer is, that 
damages would not be recoverable in law unless 
actual injury — enough to impair the power of 
the slave to labor bo proved. And this ordi- 
narily would be impossible, unless the slave has 
been worked so greatly beyond his strength as 
to produce some fatal derangement of the vital 
functions. Indeed, as all who are familiar with 
such cases in southern courts well know, the proof 
of actual injury to the slave, so as to lessen his 
value, is exceedingly difficult to make out, and 
every hirer of slaves can overwork them, give 
them insufficient food, clothing, and shelter, and 
inflict upon them nameless cruelties with entire 
impunity. We repeat then that it is for the inter, 
est of the hirer to push his slaves to their utmost 
strength, provided he does not drive them to such 
an extreme, that their constitutions actually give 
way under it, while in his hands. The supreme 
court of Maryland has decided that, ' There must 
be at least a diminution of the faculty of the slave 
for bodily labor to warrant an action by the mas- 
ter.' — 1 Harris and Johnson's Reports, 4. 

9. Slaves under overseers whose wages are pro- 
portioned to the crop which they raise. This is an 
arrangement common in the slave states, and in its 
practical operation is equivalent to a bounty on 
hard driving — a virtual premium offered to over- 
seers to keep the slaves whipped up to the top of 
their strength. Even where the overseer has a 
fixed salary, irrespective of the value of the crop 
which he takes off, he is strongly tempted to over- 
work the slaves, as those overseers get the highest 
wages who can draw the largest income from a 
plantation with a given number of slaves ; bo that 
we may include in this last class of slaves, the 
majority of all those who are under overseers, 
whatever the terms on which those overseers are 
employed. 

Another class of slaves may be mentioned ; we 



134 



Ol/jections Considered — Interest of Ma-st* r? 



rtfcr to tho alavcii of mantcrR who bet upon their 
cropH. In ihi! collon and sujjar region there ia a 
fearful amuuiit uf thin d<'<<pi.'rutc gambling;, in 
which, though nii>ricy in the oHtcnniblu Mlakc and 
forfiil, human life in the real one. The leriglii 
to wliich DiIh rivalry \» carried at the Houth and 
Houtli went, the niuililudc of planteni who en- 
gage in it, and the reckleiuineiis of hiunan life 
cxhihitcd in driving tho murderous game to its 
iiwue, lannot well ho imagined by one who hast 
not lived in the midst of it. Desire of gain Jk 
only one of the motives that stimulates them ; — 
the rclat of having made the largest erop with a 
given number of hands, is also a jjowerful .stimu- 
lant ; the southern newspapers, at the crop sea- 
son, chronicle carefully the " cotton brag," and 
the "crack cotton picking," and " unparalleled 
driving," &,c. Even the editor of professedly 
religious ])aper8, cheer on the melcc and sing 
the triumphs of the victor. Among these we 
recollect the celebrated Rev. J. N. MafTit, recent, 
ly editor of a religous paper at Natchez, Miss, in 
which he took care to assign a prominent place, 
and capitals to '' tue cotton brag." The tcstimo- 
ny of Mr. Bliss, page 38, details some of the 
])articulars of this betting upon crops. All the 
preceding classes of slaves are in circumslanccs 
which make it '' for the in/eic*/ of their masters," 
or those who have the mauaijcmcnt of them, to 
treat them cruelly. 

Besides the operation of tho causes already 
specified, which make it for the interest of mas- 
ters and overseers to treat cruelly certain classes of 
their slaves, a variety of others c.\ist, which 
make it for their interest to treat cruelly the 
great body of their slaves. These causes are, 
the nature of certain kinds of products, the kind 
of labor required in cultivating and preparing 
them for market, the best times for such labor, 
the state of the market, fluctuations in prices, 
facilities for transportation, tlio weather, seasons, 
&,c. tec. Some of the causes which operate to 
produce this are — 

1. The enrlij market. If the planter can get 
hia crop into market early, he may save thousands 
which might be lost if it arrived later. 

2. Changes in the market. A sudden rise in 
tlie market with the probability that it will Ik; 
short, or a gradual fall with a probability that it 
will be long, is a strong temptation to the mas- 
ter to push his slaves to tin- utmost, that he ntay 
in till' one ease make all he ran, bv taking the 
\h\v at the tlood, and in the otbi r lose as little as 
may be, by taking it a« earlv as possible in the 
ebb. 

3. High prices. Whenever the slave grown 
staples bring a high price, as is now the 
ease with cotton, every slaveliolder is tempted to 
overwork lua slaven. By tbrctng Uicm to do 



double work for u . ks or months, whilo 

the price is up, ho can affurd to lose a number ot 
them and to lessen the value of all by over* 
driving. A cotton planter with a hundred vigor. 
ouM slaves, would have made a profitable specu. 
lation, if, during the years '3-t, 5, and G, whca 
the average price of cotton was 17 cents a pound, 
he had so overworked his slaves that half of 
them died upon his hands in '37, when cotton had 
fallen to six and eight cents. No wonder that 
the poor slaves pray that cotton and sugar may 
be cheap. The writer has frequently heard it 
declared by planters in the lower country, thati 
it is more profitable U> drive the slaves to such 
over exertion as to use them up, in seven or eight 
years, than to give them only ordinary tasks and 
protract their lives to tlie ordinary period.* 

4. Untimely seasons. When tlie winter en 
croaches on the spring, and makes late seed time, 
the first favorable weather is a temptation to 
overwork the slaves, too strong to be resisted by 
those who hold men as mere working animal.-. 
So when frosts set in early, and a great amount <<\ 
work is to be done in a httle time, or great \'><a 
suiTered. So also after a long storm cither m 
seed or crop time, when the weather becom' s 
favorable, the same temptation presses, and n 
all these cases the master would saM money ':•■_: 
overdriving his slaves. 

5. Piriodical pressure of certain kinds of lah' r. 
Tlic manufacture of sugar is an illustration. 

In a work entitled " Travels in Lrjuisiana in 
1802," translated from the French, by Jf.lm 
Davis, is tlic following testimony under this 
head : — 

".\t the rolling of sugars, an interval of frmn 
two to tliree months, they (the slaves in Lou si. 
ana,) work both night and day. Abridged of 
their sleep, they scarcely retire to rest during tiio 
whole period." See page HI. 

Ill an article on the agriculture of Ijouisian.i, 
published in the second number of the " Wcsit r;i 
Heview," is the following : — " Tlie work is a.i- 
milted to be severe for the hands, (slaves) n>i)'.i:r- 
ing, when the jirocess of making sugar is com 
mcnced, to be raKssBD .moiit axd dat." 

It would l>e for the interest of the sugar plan'.r 
greatly to overwork his slaves, during Uic anixi..! 
process of sinjar. making. 

The severity of this periodical pressure. 
pre]>aring for market other staples of the s!n • 
state.* b<-si<ies sugar, may bo inferred from ■ 
following, Mr. Hammond, of SouUi Carolm, 
in his speech in Congreas, Feb. 1. 1S36, (.<,>c 
National Intelligencer) said, " In tlic heat of tim 
en>p, the loss of one or two davn. would inev;t 
ably ruin it." 

t>. Times of scarcity. nmught, long rn >-,. 
frost, &e. are liable to cut off the com crop, np' n 

• The fsdcT In rrfriTPd W « varifly nfflirla and tCMli) o 
ny on Uila |»uit on tho 30th (>a;;r of Uils work. 



Objections Co?iddered — Interest of Masters. 



135 



which the slaves arc fed. If this happens when 
ihe staple wliicli they raise is at a low price, it is 
for the interest of tlie master to put the slave on 
short rations, thus forcing him to suffer from 
hunger. 

7. The raising of crops for exportation. In all 
Iiiisc states where cotton and sugar arc raised 
cr exportation, it is, for the most part, more 
jrofitablc to buy provisions for the slaves than to 
•aise them. Where this is the case the slave- 
lolders believe it to be for their interest to give 
lioir slaves less food, than their hunger craves, 
ind they do generally give them insuflScient sus- 
Icnance.* 

Now let us make some estimate of the propor- 
ion which the slaves, included in the foregoing 
line classes, sustain to the whole number, and 
hen of the proportion affected by the operation 
}f the se«e7i causes just enumerated. 

It would be nearly impossible to form an esti- 
natc of the proportion of the slaves included in a 
lumber of these classes, such as the old, the worn 
)ut, the incurably diseased, maimed and deform- 
d, idiots, feeble infants, incorrigible slaves, «Sl,c. 
VIore or less of this description are to be found 
)n all the considerable plantations, and often, 
nany on the same plantation ; though we have 
no accurate data for an estimate, the proportion 
iannot be less than one in twenty-five of the 

* Hear the testimony of a slaveholder, on this subject, a 
lU'inber of Congress from Vkginia, from 1817 to 1830, 
iJiiii. Alexander Smyth. 

Ill the debate on the Missouri question in the U. S. 
IVjiiiiress, 1819-20, tile ndniission of Missouri to the Union, as 
I slave statG, was urged, among other grounds, as a measure 
jf humanity to the slaves of the south. Mr. Smyth, of Vir- 
jinia said, •' The plan of our opponents seems to be to confine 
Ihe slave population to the southern slates, to the countries 
ivhere Sit^nr, cotton, and tobacco are cultivated. But, sir, 
ny confining the slaves to a part of the country where 
jrops are raised for exportation, and the bread and meat are 
lourchased, you doom them to scarcity and hunger. Is it 
not obvious that the way to render their situation more 
comfortable, is to allow them to be taken where there is 
not the same motive to force the slave to incessant toil, 
Ithat there is in the country where cotton, sugar, and tobac- 
co, are raised for exportation. It is proposed to hem in the 
.blacks where they are hard worked and ill fed, that 
they may be rendered unproductive and the race be pre- 
vented from increasing. . . . The proposed measure 
would be EXTREME CRUELTY to the blacks. . . . You 
would . . . doom them to scarcity and hard 
LABOR."— [Speech of Mr. Smyth, Jan. 28, 1S20.]— See 
National Intelligencer. 

Those states where the crops are raised for exportation, 
and a large part of the provisions purchased, are, Louisiana, 
Mis;issippi, Alabama, Arkansas, Western Tennessee, 
Georgia, Florida, and, to a considerable extent, South Caro- 
lina. That this is the case in Louisiana, is shown by the 
following. " Corn, flour, and bread stuffs, generally are ob- 
itained from Kentucky, Ohio," &c. See " Emigrant's Guide 
through the Valley of the Mississippi," Page 275. That it is 
the case with Alabama, appears from the testimony of W. 
Jefl'erson Jones, Esq. a lawyer of high standing in Mobile. 
In a series of articles published by him in the Mobile Morn- 
ing Chronicle, he saj's ; (See that paper for Aug. 26, 1837.) 

" The people of Alabama export wtiat they raise, and 
tmp«?'t nearly all they consume." But it seems quite un- 
necessary to prove, what all persons of much inteUigence 
well know, that the states menlioned export the larger part of 
what they raise, and import the larger part of what they 
consume. Now more tlian one million of slaves are licid 
in those states, and parts of states, where provisions are 
mainly imported, and consequently tliey are " doomed to 
tcarcity and hunger." 



whole number of slaves, which would give a total 
of more than one hundred thousand. Of some of 
the remaining classes we have data for a pretty 
accurate estimate. 

1st. Lunatics. — Various estimates have been 
made, founded upon the data procured by actual 
investigation, prosecuted under the direction of 
the Legislatures of different States ; but the re- 
turns have been so imperfect and erroneous, that 
little reliance can be placed upon them. The Le- 
gislature of New Hampshire recently ordered in- 
vestigations to be made in every town in the state, 
and the number of insane persons to be reported. 
A committee of the legislature, who had the sub- 
ject in charge say, in their report — " From many 
towns no returns have been received, from others 
the accounts are erroneous, there being cases 
known to the committee which escaped the notice 
of the 'selectmen.' The actual number of in- 
sane persons is therefore much larger than appears 
by the documents submitted to the committee." 
The Medical Society of Connecticut appointed a 
committee of their number, composed of some of 
the most eminent physicians in the state, to as- 
certain and report the whole number of insane 
persons in that state. The committee say, in 
their report, " The number of towns from which 
returns have been received is seventy, and the 
cases of insanity which have been noticed in them 
are five hundred and ten." The committee add, 
" fifty more towns remain to be heard from, and 
if insanity should be found equally prevalent in 
them, the entire number will scarcely fall short 
of one thousand in the state." This investigation 
was made in 1821, when the population of the 
state was less than two hundred and eighty thou 
sand. If the estimate of the Medical Society be 
correct, the proportion of the insane to the whole 
population would be about one in two hundred 
and eighty. This strikes us as a large estimate, 
and yet a committee of the legislature of that 
state in 1837, reported seven hundred and seven 
insane persons in the state, who were either whol- 
ly or in part supported as town paupers, or by 
charity. It can hardly be supposed that more 
than two-thirds of the insane in Connecticut be- 
long to families unable to support them. On this 
supposition, the whole number would be greater 
than the estimate of the Medical Society sixteen 
years previous, when the population was perhaps 
thirty thousand less. But to avoid the possibility 
of an over estimate, let us suppose the present 
number of insane persons in Connecticut to be 
only seven hundred. 

The population of the state is now probably 
about three hundred and twenty thousand ; ac- 
cording to this estimate, the proportion of the in- 
sane to the whole population, would be one to 
about four hundred and sixty. Making this the 



136 



Olfjcclimu Considered — Interest of Masters. 



baRiHofoiirralriilalion, and mtimatini^tiiCKlavci* in 
the Cnilrd Statt'H at two niillionN, m-vcn liundn-d 
thounanil, (heir prcM-nt probahlc number, and wt- 
coinu tu tliJM rL'Hiilt, tliut tliiTi- arc about hIx thou. 
■and insane |)er.<ionitainiin}r the xluveiiorthe Cnitcd 
StatoH. We have no adequate data by which to 
jud^o whether t}ie pro|)()rtion of hinatics amon^; 
bIbvch is i^reater or Icmn tlian ainon<r the whiten ; 
eoine coiiNiderationH favor tliu HU|>|H)Hilion tliat it 
in. But tlie drc^adful physical violence to which 
Uie slaves are Buhjccted, and the constant sunder- 
inijs of their tendercst lies, nii|;ht lead us to sup. 
post) that it would be more. Th'.' only data in our 
possession is the ofiicial census of C'hatliam comi- 
ty, (Jc^orpia, for lH3rS, containing the number of 
lunatics amonjj the whites and the filaves. — (Sec 
the Savannah (Jeorfxian, July '21, 1H38.) Accord- 
ing to this census, the numlier of lunatics among 
eight thousand three hundred and seventy three 
whites in the country, is only tiro, whereas, the 
number among ten thousand eight hundred and 
ninety -one slaves, is fourteen. 

2d. Tlir Deaf and Dumb. — The proportion of 
deaf and dumb persons to the other classes of the 
community, is obout one in two thousand. This 
is the testimony of the directors of the ' Ameri- 
can Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb,' located at 
Hartford, Connecticut. Making this the basis 
of our estimate, there would be one thousand si.x 
hundred deaf and dumb persons among the slaves 
of the United States. 

3d. The Blind. — Wc have before us the last 
United States census, from which it appears, that 
in 1830, the number of blind persons in New 
Hampshire was one hundred and seventeen, out 
of a population of two hundred and sixty-nine 
Uiousand five hundred and thirty-three, .\dopt- 
ingthis as our basis, the number of blind slaves in 
the United States would be nearly one thousand 
three hundred. 

'Ith. Runnirnyx. — f)f the proportion of the 
slaves that run away, to those that do not, and 
of the proportion of the runaways that are taken 
to those that escape entirely, it would W tlitVicult 
to make a jirobable estimate. Something, how. 
ever, can be done towards such an estimate. We 
have before us, in the (trand (Julf (.Aliss.) Ad- 
vertiser, for August 'J, 183H, a li.st of runaways 
that were then in the jails of tiie two counties of 
Adams and Warren, in that State ; the namuH, 
ages, (See. of each one given; and their owner* 
are called upon to take them away. The num- 
ber of nmawnys thus taken up and committed in 
these two counties, is n)RTV-8ix. The whole 
number of rounlim in Mississippi ia jifty-ttir. 
Many of them, however, an* thinly populated. 
Now, without making tiiis the b:ir>is of ouresti- 
mate for the whole nlave population in all llic 
■talo— which would doublUse make tlic Dum- 



' bcr much loo large — we arc sure no one who bai 
any knowledge of facts as they arc in iIk 
Kouth, will charge u|>on u» an ovcr-*lat4ni<nt 
when wc hav, that of the prewrnt genemlion oi 
slaves, probably onr in thirty is of that claKS — i. e., 
has at some time, perhaps often, runaway and 
been retaken ; on that supposition Uic v. iioU 
number would be not far from .mxktv tiioi>\nd, 

5th. Hired Slarea. — It in impossible to < Hli. 
mate with accuracy the proportion which tlie hired 
hlavcsbear to the whole number. That il is very 
large all who have resided at the south, or tra- 
velled there, with their eyes open well know. 
Some of the largest slaveholdrni in the country, 
instead of purchasing plantations and working 
their slaves themselves, hire them out to othcre 
This practice is very common. 

Rev. Horace Moullon, a minister of the .Mc- 
thodist Episcopal church in Marlborough, Maiv-, 
who lived some jears in Georgia, says : " A 
large proportion of the slaves arc owned by ma* 
tcrs who keep them on purpce to hire out." 

Large numbers of slaves, especially in M.--;s 
sippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Alabama, and Flurida, 
arc owned by non-residentn ; Uiousands of them by 
northern capitalists, who hire them out. These 
capitalists in many cases own large plantations, 
which arc often leased for a term of years w iih a 
' stock ' of slaves sufBcicnt to work them. 

Multitudes of slaves 'belonging ' to heirf. in 
hired out by their guardians till such heirs become 
of age, or by the executors or trustees of persons 
deceased. 

That the reader may form some idea of tlte 
large number of slaves that arc hired out, wi in- 
sert below a few advcrtiscmenU, as a specimen 
of hundreds in the newspapers of the slave statcab 

From the " Pensacola Gazette," May 27. 

'' Notice TO Slavfiioldkrs. Wanted upon my 

contract, on the Alabama. Florida and (I'lortri* 

Rail Road, FDl'R IirNDRED RLACK l.A 

BUIIERS, /or irAir/; a lilnral prire will be paid. 

R. LORING, Contractor." 

The Kimo paper h.is the following, signed bf 
an officer of the United States. 

" Wanted attiik Navy YARn. Pr.xsAroLA. sixrT 
i.AnoRERS. The owners to subsist and qnr.rter 
them Ixyond the limits of the yard. !*< rvuna 
havin;: L.ilMin>rs to hire, will applv to the (' .in- 
manding Orticer. W. K. L.\TniER." 

Fnun the " Richmond (Va.) Enquirer," April 
10, 18:i8. 

" Laborrrs WAXTEn. — The James River, .ind 
Kenawha Company, ani in immediate want of 
sEvi RAi. ntM>Ri'.t> good lahonrs.. Gentli men 
wishing to s<"nd negroes fmm the rounlry. aro 
.is)(ured that the very b«"»t mre nhall be tak' n ol 
them. " RirilARD REINS. 

Agentof the James Ricer, and Kcnaitha Co.'' 



Objections Considered — Interest of Masters. 



137 



From the " Vicksburg (Mis.) Register," Dec. 
27, 1838. 

• 60 Negroes, males and females, for hire for 
lAc year 1831). Apply to H. HENDREN." 

From the " Georgia Messenger," Dec. 27, 
183S. 

•• Negroes to hire. On the first Tuesday next, 
In. ludintr CARPENTERt*. BLACKSMITHS, 
SHOEMAKERS, SEAMSTRESSES, COOKS, 
vV:c. &c. For information ; Apply to 

OSSIAN GREGORY." 

From the " Alexandria (D. C.) Gazette," Dec. 

30, 1837. 
■ THE subscrihcr wishes to employ by the month 

or year, one hundred able bodied men, and 
THIRTY boys. Persons having servants, will do 
well to give him a call. PHILIP ROACH, 
near Alexandria." 

From the " Columbia (S. C.) Telescope," May 
19, 1838. 

" Wanted TO hire, twelve or fifteen NEGRO 
GIRLS, from ten to fourteen years of age. They 
are wanted for tlie term of two or three years. 
E. H. &, J. FISHER." 

"Negroes wanted. The Subscriber is desirous 
of hiring 50 or 60 first rate Nesri'o Men. 

WILSON NESBITT." 

From tlie " Norfolk (Va.) Beacon," IMarch 
21, 1838. 

" Laborers wanted. One himdrcd able bodied 
men are wanted. The hands will be required to 
be delivered in Halifax bv the owners. Apply to 
SHIELD & WALKE." 

From the " Lynchburg Virginian," Dec. 13, 
1838. 

" 40 negro men. The subscribers wish to hue 
for the next year 40 NEGRO MEN. 

LANGilORNE, SCRUGGS & COOK." 

" Hiring of negroes. On Saturday, the 29th 
day of December, 183S, at Mrs. Tayloe's tavern, 
in Amherst county, there will be hired thirty or 
forty valuable Negroes. 

In addition to the above, I haA-e for hire, 20 
men, women, boys, and girls — several of them 
excellent house servants. 

MAURICE H. GARLAND." 

From the " Savannah Georgian," Feb. 5, 1838. 
" Wanted to hire, one hundred prime negroes, 
by the year. J. V. REDDEN." 

From the " North Carolina Standard," Feb. 

31, 1838. 

" Negroes wanted.— W. & A. STITH, will 
give twelve dollars per month for FIFTY strong 
Negro fellows, to eomincnee work immediately ; 
and for FIFTY more on the first day of Febiia- 
ry, and for FIFTY on the first day of March." 

From tlie " Lexington (Ky.) Reporter," Dec. 
26, 1838. 

"Will be hired, for one year, on the first 
day of January, 1839, on the farm of the late Mrs. 
Meredith, a number of valuable NEGROES. 
R. S. TODD, ShcritTof Fayette Co. 
And Curator for .Tames and 
Elizabeth Breekcnridire." 



" Negroes to hire. On Wednesday, the 26th 
inst. I will hire to the higliest bidder, the 
NEGROES belonging to Charles and Robert 
Innes. GEO. W. WILLIAMS. 

Guardian." 

The following nine advertisements were pub. 
lished in one column of the " Winchester Virgi- 
nian," Dec. 20, 1838. 

" NEGRO HIRINGS.' 
" Will be offered for hire, at Captain Long's 
Hotel, a number of SLAVES — men, women, 
boys and girls — belonging to the orphans of 
George Ash, deceased. 

RICHARD W. BARTON." 
Guardian. 

" Will be offered for hire, at my Hotel, a num- 
ber of SLAVES, consisting of men, women, 
boys and girls. JOSEPH LONG. 

Exr. of Edmund Shackleford, dec'd." 

" Will be offered for hire, for the ensuing year, 
at Capt. Long's Hotel, a number of SLAVES. 
MOSES R. RICHARDS." 

''Will be offered for hire, the slaves belonging 
to the estate of James Bowen. deceased, consist- 
ing of men, and women, bovs and sfirls. 

GILES COOK. 
One of the Exrs. of Ja)nes Bowen dec'd." 

" The hiring at Millwood will take place on 
Frida}-, the 28th day of December, 1838. 

BURWELL." 

" N. B. We are desired to say that other valua- 
ble NEGROES will also be hired at Millwood 
on the same day, besides those offered by Mr. B." 

" The SLAVES of the late John JoUiffe, about 
twenty in number, and of all ages and both 
sexes, will be offered for hire at Cain's Depot. 
DAVID W. BARTON. 
Adininistra tor." 

" I Will hire at public hiring before the tavern 
door of Dr. Lacy, about 30 NEGROES, consist, 
ing of men, and women. 

JAMES R. RICHARDS." 

" Will be hired, at Carter's Tavern, on 31st of 
December, a mmiber of NEGROES. 

JOHN J. H. GUNNELL." 

" Negroes for hire, (privatelt.) About twelve 
servants, consisting of men, women, boys, and 
girls, for hire privately. Apply to the subscriber 
at Col. Smith's in Battletown. 

JOHN W. OWEN." 

A volume might easily be filled with advertise- 
ments like the preceding, showing conclusively 
that hired slaves must be a large proportion of 
the whole number. The actual proportion has 
been variously estimated, at J, J, J, i, &c. if we 
adopt the last as oiur basis, it will make the 
number of hired slaves, in the United States, 
five hundred and forty thousand ! 

6th, Slai'es under overseers whose icagcs are a 
part of the crop. — That this is a common usage 
appears from tlie following testimony. The late 



138 



Objections Considered — Interest of Masters. 



Hon. John Taylor, of Caroline Co. Virfrinia, one 
of llic lar^ttst lilavi'lioldrrH in the Htalc, Prt-Mitli-nt 
of the Stall! Aj^ricultural Society, and three 
times elccUd to the Senate of the United Slatcn, 
BayK, in hJH " Ag^rieultural EuHays," No. lii. P. 
57, 

" This necessary class of men, (overseers,) arc 
bribed by apriculturalists, not to improve, but to 
ini|><)Viri.sh their land, Ity a aharr of the crop for 
our yar. . , . The prratrst annual crop, 
and not the most judicious culture, advances his 
interest, and establishes his character ; and the 
fees of these land-doctors, are much higiier for 
kiilinjT than for curinp. . . . TJ»e most 
which the land can yield, and seldom or never 
improvement with a view to future profit, is a 
point of common consent, and mutual need be- 
tween tiic ajrriculturist and his overseer. . . 
Must the practice of liirinp a man for one year, 
by a share of the crop, to lay out all his skill and 
industry in killin^r land, and as little as possible 
in improving it, be kept up to commemorate the 
pious leaning of man to his primitive state of ip- 
norancoand barbarity? Unless this is abolished, 
the attempt to fertilize our lands, is needless." 

Philemon Bliss, Esq. of Elyria, Ohio, who 
lived in Florida, in 1834-5, says, 

" It is common for owners of plantations and 
slaves, to hire overseers to take charge of them, 
while they themselves reside at a distance. 
Their wages depend principally upon the amount 
of labor which they can exact from the slave. 
The term " fjood overseer," sijj-nifics one who 
can make the greatest amount of the staple, cot- 
ton for instance, from a given number of hands, 
besides raising sufficient provisions for their con- 
sumption, lie has no interest in the life of the 
slave. Hence the fact, so notorious at the south, 
that negroes arc driven harder and fare worse 
under overseers than under their owners. 

William Ladd, Esq. of Minot, Maine, formerly 
a slaveholder in Florida, speaking, in a recent 
letter of the system of labor adopted there, says ; 
" The compensation of the overseers was a cer- 
tain portion of the crop." 

Rev. Phineas Smith, of Centrcville, Allegany 
Co. N. Y. who has recently returned from a four 
years' residence, in the Southern slave states and 
Texas, says, 

" The mode in which many plantations arc 
managed, is ealeulaled and designed, as an in- 
ducement to the slave driver, to lay upon the 
slave the greatest pns.iihlc burden, the overseer 
being entitled by contract, to a certain share of 
the crop.^' 

We leave the reader to form his own opinion, 

ati to the proportion of slaves under ovcrwcrs, 

whose wagfs are in proportion to the rrop, raised 

by thcni. Wc have littlo doubt tiial wc sliall 

/ 



escape the charge of wishing to make out a \ 
" strong case" when we put the proportion at one. 
eighth of the whole number of slaves, which 
would be three hundred and fifty thousand. 

Without drawing out upon the page a sum in 
addition for the reader to " run up," it is easily 
seen that the slaves in the preceding clah.-' !t, 
amount to more than elevkn hundred thoisam), 
exclusive of the deaf and dumb, and the blind, 
many of whom, especially the form<.r, might be 
profitable to their '' owners." 

Now it is plainly for the interest of the " own' rs" 
of thes(; slaves, or of those who have the char'^c 
of them, to treat them cruelly, to o^'crwcirk, 
under-feed, half-clothe, half.shelter, pcjison, or 
kill outright, the aged, the broken down, ti;o 
incurably diseaticd, idiots, feeble infants, most of 
the blind, some deaf and dumb, &lc. It is be- 
sides a part of the slave-holder's creed, that it is 
for his interest to treat with terrible severity, all 
runaways and the incorrigibly stubborn, thievish, 
lazy, &.C.; also for those who hire slaves, to orrr- 
work them ; also for overseers to overwork the 
slaves under them, when their own wages are 
increased by it. 

We have thus shown that it would be " for the 
jn<ere.s/," of masters and overseers to treat h 
habitual cruelty more than one million of i .c 
slaves in the United States. But this is not ail ; 
as we have said already, it is for the interest of 
overseers generally, whether their wages are 
proportioned to the crop or not, to overwork the 
slaves ; we need not repeal the reasons. 

Neither is it necessary to restate the ar:r'i 
ments, going to show that it is for the inti r >t 
of slaveholders, who cultivate the great son'i- 
em staples, especially cotton, and the sugar caio, 
to overwork periodically all their slaves, and 
habitually the majority of them, when the li - 
mand for those staples creates high prices, as has 
been the case with cotton for many years, with 
little exception. Instead of entering into a 
labored estimate to get at the proportion • f 
the slaves, afl'octed by tlie operation of these and 
the other causes enumerated, we may say, that 
they operate directly on tlic " field hands," 
employed in raising the southern staples, and in- 
directly upon all classes of tlic slaves. 

Finally, we conclude this head by turning the 
objector's negative proposition into an aflirma. 
live one, and state formally what has been already 
proved. 

It is for the interest of slaveholders, upon their 
mm principles, and by their oirn shotring, to 
TREAT CRUKLLY the great body of their slaves 



Objections Considered — Rapid Increase of Slaves. 



139 



Objection VI.—' THE FACT THAT THE SLAVES MULTIPLY SO RAPIDLY PROVES 
' THAT THEY ARE NOT INHUMANLY TREATED, RUT ARE IN A 

COMFORTABLE CONDITION.' 



, To this wc reply in brief, 1st. It has been al- 
•eady shown under a previous head, that, in con- 
siderable sections of the slave states, especially 
,11 the South West, the births among slaves arc 
(ewer than the deaths, which would exhibit a 
ifearful decrease of the slave population in those 
lections, if the deficiency were not made up by 
;he slave trade from the upper country. 

2d. The fact that all children born of slave 
mthers, whether their fathers are whites or free 
olored persons, are included in the census with 
he slaves, and further that all children born of 
vhite mothers, whose fathers are mulattos or 
lacks, are also included in the census with color- 
d persons and almost invariably with slaves, 
hows that it is impossible to ascertain with any 
ccuracy, what is the actual increase of the sldves 
lone. 
3d. The fact that thousands of slaves, gener- 
lly in the prime of life, are annually smuggled 
)to the United States from Africa, Cuba, and 
Iscwherc, makes it manifest that all inferences 
rawn from the increase of the slave population, 
hich do not make large deductions, for con- 
ant importations, must be fallacious. Mr. 
[iddleton of South Carolina, in a speech in Con- 
fess in 1819, declared that "thirteen thou- 

ND AFRICANS ARE ANNUALLY SMUGGLED INTO 

IE SOUTHERN STATES." Mr. Mercer of Virgi- 
ia, in a speech in Congress about the same 

e declared that " Cargoes,^' of African slaves 
[ere smuggled into the South to a deplorable 
stent. 

Mr. Wright, of Maryland, in a speech in Con- 
;ress, estimated the number annually at fifteen 
pousAND. Miss Martineau, in her recent work, 
Society in America,) informs us that a large 
[aveholder in Louisiana, assured her in 1835, 
liat the annual importation of native Africans 
}as from thirteen to fifteen thousand. 
j The President of the United States, in his mes- 
^geto Congress, December, 1837, says, 
J " The large force under Commodore Dallas, [on 
jlie West India station,] has been most actively 
iind efficiently employed in protecting our com- 
|ierce, in preventing the importation of slwes," 

c. &c. 



The Nevsr Orleans Courier of 15th February, 
jB39, has these remarks : 

" It is believed that African negroes have been 
epeatedly introduced into the United States. 
?he number and the proximity of the Florida 
orts to the island of Cuba, make it no difficult 
natter ; nor is our extended frontier on the Sa- 
pine and Red rivers, at all unfavorable to the 
imuggler. Human laws have, in all countries 



and ages, been violated whenever the inducements 
to do so afforded hopes of great profit. 

" The United States' law against the importa- 
tion of Africans, could it be strictly enforced, 
might in a few years give tlic sugar and cotton 
planters of Texas advantage over those of this 
state ; as it would, we apprehend, enable the 
former, under a stable government, to furnish cot- 
ton and sugar at a lower price than we can do. 
When giving publicity to such reflections as the 
subject seems to suggest, we protest against being 
considered advocates for any violation of the laws 
of our country. Every good citizen must respect 
tjiose laws, notwithstanding we may deem them 
likely to be evaded by men less scrupulous." 

That both the south and north swarm with 
men ' less scrupulous,' every one knows. 

The Norfolk (Va.) Beacon, of June 8, 1837, 
has the following : 

" Slave-Trade. — Eight African negroes have 
been taken into custody, at Apalachicola, by the 
U. S. Deputy Marshal, alleged to have been im- 
ported from Cuba, on board the schooner Empe. 
ror. Captain Cox. Indictments for piracy, under 
the acts for the suppression of the slave trade, 
have been found against Captain Cox, and other 
parties implicated. The negroes were bought in 
Cuba by a Frenchman named Malherbe, former- 
ly a resident of Tallahassee, who was drowned 
soon after the arrival of the schooner." 

The following testimony of Rev. Horace 
MouLTON, now a minister of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, in Marlborough, Mass. who re 
sided some years in Georgia, reveals some of the 
secrets of the slave-smugglers, and the connivance 
of the Georgia authorities at their doings. It is 
contained in a letter dated February 24, 1839. 

" The foreign slave-trade was carried on to 
some considerable extent when I was at the 
south, notwithstanding a law had been made 
some ten years previous to this, making this traffic 
piracy on the high seas. I was somewhat ac- 
quainted with the secrets of this traflSc, and, I 
suppose, I might have engaged in it, had I so de. 
sired. Were you to visit all the plantations in 
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Missis- 
sippi, I think you would be convinced that the 
horrors of the traffic in human flesh have not yet 
ceased. I was surprised to find so many that 
could not speak English among the slaves, until 
the mystery was explained. This was done, 
when I learned that slave-cargoes were landed 
on the coast of Florida, not a thousand miles from 
St. Augustine. They could, and can still, in my 
opinion, be landed as safely on this coast as in 
any port of this continent. You can imagine for 
yourself how easy it was to carry on the traffic 
between this place and the West Indies. When 
landed on the coast of Florida, it is an easy mat- 
ter to distribute them throughout the more south 
ern states. The law which makes it piracy to 
traffic in the foreign slave trade is a dead letter; 



140 



OhjecUona Considered — Ru{>id IiicrcaHc of Slaves. 



and I doubt not it Iuh been ho in the more »out)i- i roloni, and then go prowling about tii> 
ern Ht;iteii ev< r xinee it wan enacted. I'or you cuuat fur tlie vietium ot their liufta. Ii 
can pereeivf at ouee, that intereitted nii-n, who facln with relation to the African isla-. 
iK-lieve the eoloreil man iH HO much better ofl'here : now Kocfelly carriid on at the Houth, < 
tiian he (HiMxihly can Ih: in Africa, will not lu-hi- ' dmcloHcd, the people of the free itlateii \^ ' 
tato to ki<lna|) l]u: blackn whenever an op|>ortu. filled with amazement." 
nity preherilM itnelf. I will notice one fact that 

came under my own ob* rvalion, which will con- It i« plain, from t}>o nature of thm trade, a: 
vince you Uiat thi! horrors of the forei^jn nlave. the circunmtanccit under which it in carried i.i 
trade have not y.t ceaned ainoiiK our nouthirn i|,at the number of nlavc* imported would i 
Rentry. It in as followH. A HJave HJiip. which I , y,^^. ,^ ,,^ estimated far below the truth. Th. 
Iiave reaNon to bi-lievc wan emploved by soutliern ' . .■ . , , , ■ , ,, 

men, came n.ar the port of Savannah with about "" ^ ''"'" '^'"'^^ ^^^^ ^'••-- »"l""»^ "^ >' 



Wrifrht, of Maryland, (fincen ihounand anii 
ally,) is M)mc tliousandu too rmall. But ev' 



rivp. )iiiN[>RKii Di.AVKH, from Ciiiima and ('on(;o. 
It waHHaid that the hhip wan driven thcri? by con- 
trary winds ; and the crew, preleiidiiiij to he according to his estimate, the African hlave.trai 
«hort of provisionH. run th.' hliij. into a by place, | add„ oxe hu-norku and nrrv tiioihand hi.aveb 

near the alioriJ, between Tyixc I<icht and iJaricn, , ii.....,„. %i^ ^„ ' ,..,^. ,. ^ ti 

. . .1 . 11-11 n I II KACii UxiTr.n Statbs cKXHts. 1 hcsc arc m u 

to recruit tin ir Blores. \\ ell, as Providence would i , ... , l , ■■ i> ,, . 

have it, the revenue cutter, at that time taking a : P""'"'*^ ''^ ^'^*< =»"'* 'f"^^"" children would i^well ti 
trip along the coast, fell in with this slave ship, , slave population many thousands annually— th 
took her as a pri/c, and brought her up into the ; making a great addition to each eenaiis. 
port of Savannah. 'I'hc cargo of human clialtels 



4. It is a notorious fact, that large numi 
free colored persons are kidnapped every year 
the free states, taken to the south, and sold 
slaves. 

Hon. GeoRGF. M. Stroi-d, Judge of the Crim 
inal Court of Philadelphia, in his sketch of the 



was iiiiioaded, and the caiitives witc placed 
an old barracks, in the fori of Savannah, under 
the protection of the city authorities, they pre- 
tending that they should return them all to their 
native country again, as s^^ion as a convenient 
opportunity presented itself. The ship's crew of 
course were arrested, and confined in jail. Now 

for the sequel of this history. About one third I g,^,.^. ,^„.^ ^K-aking of the kidnapping of free 
part of the nccTocs died in a few weeksaflcr tlicv I , , ... , . 

' 1 1 J ■ III • 1 • ' colored persons in the northern states, savi 

Were landed, in seasoning, so called, or in be- ' r> j 

coming acclimated— or, as I should think, a dis- | , " R« '"otc as is the city of Philadelphia from 
temper broke out among them, and thev died "i°«' slaveholding states in which the mtroduc 
like the Israelites, when smitten with the plague. ' ''"" «<" "^^^'^^ <"'■«"> I''?<=<^f «"'»•"" "'^ temt..rv of 
Those who did not die in seasoning, „uist be | ^'ic United States is fn-ely perm ilted. and v. hrre 
hired out a little while, to he sure, as the city au- 
thorities could not afford to keep them on expense 
doing notiiing. As it happened, the man in 
whose employ I was when the cargo of human 
beings arrive<l, hired some twenty or thirty of 
tiicm, and put them under my care. They con- 
tinued with ine until the sickly sca.^on drove me 
off to the north. I soon relumed, but could not 
hear a word about the crew of pirates. They had 
Bomethiiig like a mock trial, as I should think, 
for no one, as I ever learneil, wa; 



also the market is tempting, it hashrrn atrrrtain. 
ed, that morf. than tiiirtv fref rot.ORF.n trr. 

SONS, .MOSTLY nill.nRKX, HAVE BEEN KIIiNArrKD 
HERE, AMI CARRIKn AWAV, WITIII.V THE LAST TWO 

YEARS. Five of these, through the kind int> rpo- 
sition of scviral humane grntlemen, have 
restored to their frieiiHs, th"U;.'!i not without :;rrrTf 
fxpensf and dijfiriilli/ ; the others arr ttillri tiiin- 
ed in Imvdaijc, and if rcwued at all, it must l>i bf 
s<nding v.hito wilne."i3»e9 a journt y of more tliana 
thousand miles. The costs attendant upon law. 



condemned, , , i • 

fined, or censured. But wliero were the poor '"•'^' ""*'''" «"V' circumstances, will probably 
relumed to AlVi- ' *"*" **"' '"*"'' """"^ ^' '"'' estimated Talue, ■• 



captives, who were going to be 
ca by the city authorities, as soon as they could 
make it convenient? Oh, forsooth, those of 
whom I spoke, being under my care, were tug. 
ging away for the same man ; the remainder 
wore scattered about among different |>Ianters. 
When I r< turned to the north again, the next 
year, the city authorities had not, down to tliat 
lime, mailo it convenii-nt to return these poor 
victims. The fact is, they belonged there ; and, 
in my opinion, they were designed to be landed 
near by the place where tlie revenue cutler wized 
them. Probably those verv pianli-rs for whom 
thev were originally designed received them ; and 
dtili there was a jiretcnco k> |>t up that they wouhl 
bo returned to Africa. This innst have beiii 
done, liiat the conHcicnccs of those might be 
quieted, wlio Were l(H>king for juslieo to lie nd. 
ministered to tln-jie poor captives. It is ea.«v lor 
a company of slaveholder.'*, who desire to traffie 



silaves, of the individuals kidnapped." 

7^10 following is an extract from Mrs. CmLo^ 
ArPKAi., pp. (>1-G 

" I know the names of four colored citizens of 
Ma.isachusetts, who went to Georgia on board a 
vessel, were seized under the laws of Uiat si.itc, 
and sold as slaves. They have sent the most 
earnest exhortations to their families and frieiuls, 
to do something for their n'licf ; btit the attendant 
expenm^s require more money than the friends of 
tn-groes are apt to have, and the poor fellows, a* 
yet, remain unassisted. 

" .\ New York paper, of November, 1829, coo 
tains the following caution. 

" Bnrnrr of Kidnapper*! — It is well undi 
stood, that there is al present in this cilv. 
of kidnappers, busilv engaged in th' 
if stealing eoiored children for the s 



tn hiUDan flcali, to fit out a vcascl, imdcr Spanisli i ket. It is believed Uiat three or foiK 



Objections Considered — Kidnapping. 



141 



stolen within as many days. There arc suspi- 
cions of a foul nature connected with some who 
serve the police in subordinate capacities. It is 
hinted that there may be those in some authority, 
not altogether ignorant of these diabolical j)rae- 
tiecs. Let the public be on their guard ! It is 
still fresh in the memories of all, that a cargo, or 
Tather drove of negroes, was made up from this 
city and Philadelphia, about the time that the 
emancipation of all the negroes in this state took 
place, under our present constitution, and were 
taken through Virginia, the Carolinas, and Ten- 
nessee, and disposed of in the state of Mississippi. 
Some of those who were taken from Philadelphia 
were persons of intelligence ; and after they had 
been driven through the country in chains, and 
disposed of by sale on the Mississippi, wrote back 
to their friends, and were rescued from bondage. 
The persons who were guilty of this abominable 
transaction arc known, and now reside in North 
Carolina. They may very probably be engaged 
in similar enterprizcs at the present time — at 
least there is reason to believe, that the system of 
kidnapping free persons of color from the northern 
icities, has been carried on more extensively than 
the public are generally aware of." 

George Bradburn, Esq. of Nantucket, Mass. 
a member of the Legislature of that state, at its 
last session, made a report to that body, March 
6, 1839, ' On the deliverance of citizens liable to 
be sold as slaves.' That report contains the fol- 
lowing facts and testimony. 

' " The following facts are a few out of a vast 
MULTITUDE, to wliich the attention of the under- 
signed has been directed. 

" Qn the 27th of February last, the undersigned 
had an interview with the Rev. Samuel Snowden, 
a respectable and intelligent clergyman of the 
city of Boston. This gentleman stated, and he 
is now ready to make oath, that during the last 
six years, he has himself, by the aid of various 
benevolent individuals, procured the deliverance 
from jail of six citizens of Massachusetts, who 
h£^d been arrested and imprisoned as runaway 
slaves, and who, but for his timely interposition, 
would have been sold into perpetual bondage. 
The names and the places of imprisonment of 
those persons, as stated by Mr. S. were as follows : 

" James Hight, imprisoned at Mobile ; William 
Adams, at Norfolk ; William Holmes, also at 
Norfolk ; James Oxford, at Wilmington ; James 
Smith, at Baton Rouge ; John Tidd, at New 
Orleans. 

" In 1836, Mary Smith, a native of this state, 
returning from New Orleans, whither she had 
been in the capacity of a servant, was cast upon 
the shores of North Carolina. She was there 
seized and sold as a slave. Information of the 
fact reached her friends at Boston. Those friends 
made an effort to obtain her liberation. They 
invoked the assistance of the Governor of this 
Commonwealth. A correspondence ensued be- 
tween His Excellency and the Governor of North 
Carolina : copies of which were offered for the 
inspection of your committee. Soon afterwards, 
by permission of the authorities of North Caroli- 
na, ' Mary Smith' returned to Boston. But it 
turned out, that this was not the Mary Smith, 



whom our worthy Governor, and other excellent 
individuals of Boston, had taken so unwearied 
pains to redeem from slavery. It was another 
woman, of the same name, who was also a native 
of Mas.sachusctts, and had been seized in North 
Carolina as a runaway slave. The Mary Smith 
has not yet been heard of. If alive, she is now, 
in all probability, wearing the chains of slavery. 
" About a year and a half since, several citizens 
of different free states were rescued from slavery, 
at New Orleans, by the direct personal efforts of 
an acquaintance of the undersigned. The be- 
nevolcnt individual alluded to is Jacob Barker, 
Esq. a name not unknown to the commercial 
world. Mr. Barker is a resident of New Or- 
leans. A statement of the cases in reference is 
contained in a letter addressed by him to the Hon. 
Samuel H. Jenks, of Nantucket." 

The letter of Mr. Barker, referred to in this 
report to the Legislature of Massachusetts, beare 
date August 19, 1837. The following are extracts 
from it. 

"A free man, belonging to Baltimore, by the 
name of Ephraim Larkin, wlio came here cook 
of the William Tell, was arrested and thrown into 
prison a few weeks since, and sent in chains to 
work on the road. I heard of it, and with difB- 
cuity found him ; and after the most diligent and 
active exertions, got him released — in effecting 
which, I traveled in the heat of the day, ther- 
mometer ranging in the shade from 94 to 100, 
more than twenty times to and from prison, the 
place of his labor, and the different courts, a dis. 
tance of near three miles from my residence ; and 
after I had established his freedom, had to pay 
for his arrest, maintenance, and the advertising 
him as a runaway slave, $29 89, as per copy of 
bill herewith — the allowance for work not-equal- 
ling the expenses, the amount augments with 
every day of confinement. 

" In pursuing the cook of the William Tell, I 
found three other free men, confined in the same 
prison ; one belonged also to Baltimore, by the 
name of Leaven Dogerty : he was also released, 
on my paying $28 expenses ; one was a descend- 
ant of the Indians who once inhabited Nantucket 
— his name is Eral Lonnon. Lonnon had been six 
weeks in prison ; he was released without diffi- 
culty, on my paying $20 38 expenses — and no 
one seemed to know why he had been confined 
or arrested, as the law does not presume persons 
of mixed blood to be slaves. But for the others, 
I had great difficulty in procuring what was con- 
sidered competent witnesses to prove them free. 
No complaint of improper conduct had been 
made against either of them. At one time, the 
Recorder said the witness must be white ; at an- 
other, that one respectable witness was insuffi- 
cient ; at another, that a person who had been 
(improperly) confined and released, was not a 
competent witness, &c. &c. Lonnon has been 
employed in the South Sea fishery from Nan- 
tucket and New Bedford, nearly all his life ; has 
sailed on those voyages in the ships Eagle, Mary- 
land, Gideon, Triton, and Samuel. Pie was 
bom at Marshpee, Plymouth [Barnstable] coun- 
ty, Mass. and prefers to encounter the leviathan 
of the deep, rather than the turnkeys of Nev/ 
Orleans. 



U2 



OfjjccUons Considered — Kidnapping. 



" I'll*- other waH Iwm in Rl. Johni, Nov» Sco- 
tia, and tM-am ll»r name of William Smilli, a 
seaman l>v prodwion. 

•• Imin.'«liat. Iv afl. r tlirw men were rclrawd. 
two olh.pt w. r." arr.st.<l. 'rii.y atlcmi.tid lo 
CBcaiM'. mill I'Lini: piirxurd. ran for thr rivir. in 
thr vain li"I"' "^ '"'"B "'''" *" ***"" "<='''»*' ""^ 
MiHstiH"!!'!". a 'lixlancc of a mil<-. wilh a ciirn nt 
of fi>iir knofM. Onn noon pave- out. and inadi; for 
a hoal wliich liad hc-n d. •^.pat<•h.•d for th< ir re. 
cov.ry, iind wan Haved ; ihr olh.r iMinj: a hrtlor 
•wiminor. continued on inilil much cxhaUHtt-d, 
tliin alHo made for the hoal— il \va« too late ; he 
(tank h.lorc the J>oal couUI r< ach hiiii, and waH 
drowned. They claimed lo he freemen. 

"On Srindaylant I wa« called to the prison of 
the Miiniripality in whirh I remdc, lo nerve on 
an imiiHHt on Ihe hody of a drowned man. 1 here 
1 paw one other free man conf.n.d. hv Uk- name 
of Henry Tier, a yellow man, honi in iNew \ ork, 
and foniurly in m'y employ. He had hcun con- 
fined an a Vnppos.d runiiway, near six months, 
without a particle ol testimony ; allhoiijrh from his 
color, the laws of Louisiana i)resumc him to he 
free I applied immediately for his release, which 
was promptly pranted. At first, expenses siini- 
lar to those exacted in the third .Municipality 
were required ; hut on my demonsiralin{r to the 
rrcordcr that the law imposed no such hiirthen 
on free men, he was released without any charjjc 
whatever, llow free men can obtain satisfac- 
tion for havinp been thus wronfrfully imprisoned, 
and made to work in chains on the highway, i.-* 
not for me to decide. I apprehend no satisfac- 
tion can be had without mrfrc active friends 
willinjj to espouse their cau.^e, than can be found 
m this niiarti r. Therefore I repeal, that no per- 
son of color should come here without a certifi- 
cate of freedom from the governor of the state to 
which he belongs. 

" Very respectfully, your assured friend, 

''Jacob Baukf.b." 



.. I«J. B.— Since writing the preceding. I have 
procured the release of another free man from 
the prison of the third Municipality, on the pay- 
ment of 8'-^9 f''>. as per bill, copy herewith. Ilis 
name is William I,ockman— he was bom in New 
Jersey, of free parents, and resides at I'hiladel- 
phia." A grealir sum was required which was re. 
duccd by the allowance of his maintenance (writ- 
ten liihu'r,) while at work on the road, which the 
law requires the Municipality to pay ; but it had 
not bcfon- been so expounded in the third Miini- 
cipalilv. I hope to get it back in the case of the 
other ihrec. 'riie allowance for labor, in addition 
to their inaint< nance, is twenty-five cents per 
day ; but they remiir.- those illilerate men lo ad- 
vance the whole befon- they can leave the prison, 
and then lo take a certificate for their laU.r, and 
go for il to another deparlment— to collect which, 
is ten limes more Ironble than the money wh-n 
nceivcd is worth. While iliese free men, with- | 
out having committed any fault, were compelled i 
to work in chains, on the nm.ls. in the burning { 
mm. for 'J.', cents per day. and i«;iy in advance 
18 S-i cents j«r dav for maint. n.inee. doctor's, 
and other bills, and' not able to w..rk half their 
lime, I j'aid others, working on »hip-lxiard. in 
bight, two dollar* per day. J- "•" I 



The preccdinjf letter of Mr. Barker, fomirfK 
grounds for the Ix-lief, ihat hundreds, if not (Am 
nandt of free colored perw^ns, from the differeB 
stales of this Union, bolh slave and free fromtfa 
West Indies, South America, Mexico, and 'fti 
British p<i«<ics«ion» in North America, and fim 
other parts of the world, are reduced to sbfir 
errry yrar in our slave staNs. If a single 
vidual, in the course of a f<w days, acciden. 
discovered fix Colored free men. working in t 
and soon to he sold as slaves, in a single mi 
citv, is it not fair to infer, that in all the 
states, there must be tnulliludea of such pc 
now in slavery, and that this number is n 
increasing, by ceaseless aeccKsions 7 

The letter of Mr. Barker is valuable, also, 
graphic delineation of ihe ' public opinion' of 
south. The great difficully with which the 
f lease of these free men was procured, notwtt 
standing the personal effbrls of Mr. Jaco 
j Barker, who is a gentleman of influence, an 
has, we believe, been an alderman of New Oi 
leans, reveals a 'public opinion,' insensible • 
adamant lo the liberty of colored men. 
j It would be eas}' to fill scores of pages with dc 
tails similar lo the preceding. We have furnish 
; cd enough, however, to show, that, in all probt 
. bility, each TJnited States* census of tlie «'<t» 
! population, is increased by the addition U> it o 
thousands of free colored persons, kidnapp' d an 
; sold as slaves. 

5lh. To argue that the rapid multiplication « 
! any cla.es in the community, is proof that stid 
j a class is well-clolhcd, well-houacd. abun<!.inU; 
I fed, and very comfortable, is as absurd as to argo 
that those who have few children, mvM. o 
course, be ill-clothed, ill-housed, badly l (l:rcd 
overworked, ill-fed, &C. &c. True, priv.i;;on 
and inflictions may be carried to such an rxlen 
as lo occasion a fearful diininishmenl of p-p'ila 
lion. That was the case generally wiiii Un 
slave population in tlie West tndics, and. as tia: 
been shown, is true of certain portions of thi 
southern stales. But the fact tlial such an . iTce 
is not produced, docs not prove that the slav.-sA 
not experience great privations and seven- ;; flic 
lions. They may sufii'r much hardship, am 
gn^at cruelties, williout experiencing so c"' ^'- ' 
derangement of the vital functions as to yr< vco 
child-ltcaring. The Israehtes multiplied will 
astonishini: rapidity, under the task-masters am 
burdens of Kgypt. Dws this falsify the declaim 
lions of Scripture, that ' iher sighed by nas-.n ol 
their bondage,* and that the F-gj-p*!*"" ' '"»••• 
them serve trith rigvr,' and made * their lirw 
bitter wilh hnrd hondaflt.^ ' I have seen,' *«« 
iJod, ' their affltcitons. I liave heard Dicir c">*« 
ings: vVe. The history of ihe human race hiiow« 
that great prirmtwn* atti much tufftring may kl 



Objeciiotis Considered — Public Opinion. 



143 



experienced, without materially checking the 
rapid increase of population. 

Besides, if wc Bhould g^ivc to the objection all 
it claims, it would merely prove, that the female 
elavcs, or rather a portion of them, are in a com- 
fortable condition ; and that, so far as the abso- 
lute necessities of life are concerned, the fcYnales 
of child-hehring age, in Delaware, Maryland, 
northern, western, and middle Virginia, the upper 



parts of Kentucky and Missouri, and among the 
mountains of cast Tennessee and western North 
Carolina, arc in general tolerably well supplied. 
The same remark, with some qualifications, may 
be made of the slaves generally, in those parts of 
the country where tiic people are slaveholders, 
mainly, that they may enjoy the privilege and 
profit of being slave-hreedera. 



Objection VIII.— ' PUBLIC OPINION IS A PROTECTION TO THE SLAVE.' 



Answer. It was public opinion that made man j 
a slave. In a republican government the people | 
make the laws, and those laws arc merely public j 
opinion in legal forms. We repeat it, — public j 
opinion made them slaves, and keeps them slaves ; 
in other words, it sunk them from men to chattels, 
and now, forsooth, this same public opinion will 
see to it, that these chattels are treated like men .' 

By looking a little into this matter, and finding 
out how this ' public opinion' (law) protects the 
slaves in some particulars, we can judge of the 
amount of its protection in others. 1. It protects 
the slaves from robbery, by declaring that those 
who robbed their mothers may rob them and their 
children. " All negroes, mulatoes, or mestizoes 
who now are, or shall hereafter be in this province, 
and all their offspring, are hereby declared to be, 
and shall remain, forever, hereafter, absolute 
slaves, and shall follow the condition of the mo- 
ther." — Law of South Carolina, 2 Brevard's Di- 
gest, 229. Others of the slave states have similar 
laws. 

2. It protects theAT persons, by giving their master 
a right to flog, wound, and beat them when he 
pleases. See Devereaux's North Carolina Re- 
ports, 263.— Case of the State vs. Mann, 1829 ; in 
which the Supreme Court decided, that a master 
who shot at a female slave and wounded her, be- 
cause she got loose from him when he was flog- 
ging her, and started to run from him, had violated 
no law, AND COULD NOT BE INDICTED. It lias been 
decided by the highest courts of the slave states 
generally, that assault and battery upon a slave is 
not indictable as a criminal offence. 

The following decision on this point was made 
by the Supreme Court of South Carolina in the 
case of the State vs. Cheetwood, 2 Hill's Re- 
l ports, 459. 

Protection of slaves. — " The criminal offence of 
assault and battery cannot, at comjuon law, be 
committed on the person of a slave. For, notwith- 
Btanding for some purposes a slave is regarded in 
law as a person, yet generally he is a mere chattel 
I personal, and his right of personal protection be- 
longs to his master, who can maintain an action 
of trespass for the battery of his slave. 

•' There can be therefore no offence against the 



state for a mere beating of a slave, unaccompa- 
nied by any circumstances of cruelty, or an at- 
tempt to kill and murder. The peace of the 
state is not thereby broken ; for a slave is not 
generally regarded as legally capable of being 
within the peace of the state. He is not a 
citizen, and is not in that character entitled to 
her protection.''^ 

This 'public opinion' protects the persons of 
the slaves by depriving them of Jury trial ;* their 
consciences, by forbidding them to assemble for 
worship, unless their oppressors are present ;t 
their characters, by branding them as liars, in de- 
nying them their oath in law ;t their modesty, by 
leaving their master to clothe, or let them go na. 
ked, as he pleases ;§ and their health, by leaving 
him to feed or starve them, to work them, wet or 
dry, with or without sleep, to lodge them, with 
or without covering, as the whim takes him;|| 
and their liberty, marriage relations, parental au- 
thority, and filial obligations, by annihilating the 
whole. IT This is the protection which ' fublic 
OPINION,' in the form of law, affords to the slaves ; 
this is the chivalrous knight, always in stirrups, 
with lance in rest, to champion the cause of the 
slaves. 

Public opinion, protection to the slave ! Brazen 
effrontery, hypocrisy, and falsehood ! We have, 
in the laws cited and referred to above, the for 
mal testimony of the Legislatures of the slave 
states, that, ' public opinion' does pertinaciously 
refuse to protect the slaves ; not only so, but that 
it does itself persecute and plunder them all : that 
it originally planned, and now presides over, sane- 
tions, executes and perpetuates the whole system 
of robbery, torture, and outrage under which they 
groan. 

In all the slave states, this ' public opinion' has 

* Law of South Carolina. James' Digest, 392-3. Law 
of Louisiana. Martin's Digest, 642. Law of Virginia. Kev, 
Code, 429. 

t Miss. Rev. Code, 390. Similar laws exist in the slave 
states generally. 

t " A slave cannot be a witness against a white person, 
either in a civil or criminal cause." Stroud's Sketch of 
the Laws of Slavery, 65. 

5 Stroud's Sketcli of the Slave Laws, 132. 

II Stroud's Skettli, 2C— 32. 

ir Stroud's Sketch. 22—24, 



144 



OhjecUons Considered — Public Opinion. 



laki-n away from tlic Hiavc IiIh lihrrty ; it has 
toIiIh:)! liiiii of liiM ri^lit to hiii own body, of \\\» 
ri^lit to improve lim mind, of liin ri|;lil to r<:ad the 
Kiblr, of hi.M ri|;)it to wornliip God according to 
liiH conscirnrc, of Iuh riijbl to n-ceive and enjoy 
what he eaniH, of hiM rii;lit tr) live with Iuh wife 
and cinldrcn, of \m ri^lit to Itcttcr liin condition, 
of iiin rinhl to cat wlien lie w hungry, to rcHt 
when lie i8 tired, to Hh-rp when he needn it, and 
to cover hiH nakedncM* with clolhinp: thiH 'pub- 
lic o|)inion' makes the plave a prisoner for life on 
the plantation, except when his jailor pIcaHcH to 
let him out with a * pasx,' or nellH him, and trann- 
ferB him in irons to another jail-yard : this 'pub- 
lic opinion' traverses the country, buvintj up men, 
women, chihlren — chaining; them in cofflcs, and 
driving them forever from their nearest friends; 
It sets them on the auction table, to be handled, 
scrutinized, knocked otl' to the highest bidder; it 
proclaims that they Bhall not have their liberty ; 
and, if their masters give it them, ' public opinion' 
Bci/.cs and throws them back into slavery. This 
same ' public opinion' has formally attached the 
following legal penalties to the following acts of 
slaves. 

If more than seven slaves arc found together 
in any road, without a white person, ticcnty lashes 
a piece ; for visiting a plantation without a writ- 
ten pass, ten lashes ; for letting loose a boat from 
where it is made fast, thirty-nine lashes for the 
first offence; and for the second, 'shall hare cut 
off from his head one ear ,' for keeping or carry- 
ing a r/w/^ thirty-nine lashes; for having any ar- 
ticle for sale, without a ticket from his master, 
ten lashes ; for traveling in any other than 'the 
most usual and accustomed road,' when going 
alone to any place, forty lashes; for traveling in 
the night, without a pass, /wr/// lashes; for being 
found in another person's negro-quarters, forty 
lashes; for hunting with dogs in the woods, 
thirty lashes; for bring on horseback without tlie 
written permission of his master, tirenty.fire lash- 
es ; for riding or going abroad in the night, or 
riding horses in the day lime, without leave, a 
slave may be whipped, cropped, or branded in the 
cheek with the letter R, or otherwise ptmished, 
not extending to life, or so as to render him 
unfit for labor. The laws referred to may be 
found by consulting 2 Brevard's Digest, 22!*, 213, 
2l(j ; Haywood's Manual, 7M, chap. 13, pp. 518, 
621) ; 1 Virginia Revised Code, 722-3 ; Prince's 
Digest, -ISl; '2 Missouri Laws, 711 ; Mississippi 
Revised Code, 371. Laws similar to these exist 
tliroughout the southern plave code. Extracts 
enough to fdl a volume might be made fmm these 
laws, showing that the protertion which ' public 
opinion* gmuts tn the slaves, is hunger, naked- 
ness, terror, ix-n-avements, rubbery, imprison- 
ment, Uic stocks, iron collars, hunting and wor- 



rymg them with dogs and guns, mutilating their 
bodies, and murdering them. 

A few Npccimens of the laws and the judi> 
cial decisions on them, will show what is the 
state of 'public opinion' among slaveholders to< 
wards their slaves. Let the following sufncc— 
' Any pers<jn may lawfully kill a slave, who haa 
been outlawed for running away and lurking in 
swamps, &,c.' — I>aw of North Carolina ; J'J»i;:« 
Stroud's Sketch of the Slave Laws, 1()3; Hay. 
wood's Manual, 52'L • A slave endearorins; to 
<;nticc another slave to runaway, if provi»*i'.ns, 
&C. be prepared for the purpose of aiding in y':r\\ 
running away, shall be punished with bmiii. 
.\nd a slave who shall aid the slave so cndeav"r 'jg 
to cnticcanotherslave to run away, shall also sulTr 
DEATH.' — Law of South Carolina ; Stroud's Sk- 1( h 
of Slave Laws, 103-4 ; 2 Brevard's Digest, '2:)3, 
214. Another law of South Carolina prov,d<« 
that if a slave shall, when absent from the plan, 
tation, refuse to be examined by 'any white pr r- 
son,' (no matter how crazy or drunk,) 'such white 
person may seize and chastise him ; and if tt;o 
slave shall strike such white person, such slave 
may be lawfully killed.'— 2 Brevard's Digest, 2!'! . 

The following is a law of Georgia. 'If any 
slave shall presume to strike any white person, s': h 
slave shall, upon trial and conviction before the 
justice or justices, suffer such punishment for the 
first offence as they sh2ll think fit, not cxtcndn.g 
to life or limb ; and for the second cfl'mr i, 
DEATH.' — Prince's Digest, 450. The same l.iw 
exists in South Carolina, with this difference, that 
death is made the punibhment for the tinrd 
offence. In both slates, the law contains this 
remarkable proviso: ' Provided alwajs, that ^'xh 
strikings be not done by the command and in tic 
defence of the person or property of the ow i,. r, 
or other person having the government of .'^iirh 
slave, in which case the slave shall be wholly ■ x- 
cuscd.' According to this law, if a slave, by I'.c 
direction of his overseer, strike a white man \\ iiv> 
is beating said overseer's dop, ' tlic slave ^^.■!l 
be wholly excused;' but if the white man ' ^» 
rushed upon the slave himself, instead of the < ^-, 
and is furiously Wating him, if tlic slave stnko 
back but a single blow, the legal penalty is ' »ny 
punishment not extending to life or limb;* aiii: i*" 
the tortured slave has a second onset made r . n 
him, and, after suffering all but death, ae.i ii 
strike back in s«'lf.defence, the law kti.us him ror 
it. So, if a female slave, in ol>cdirnce to : r 
mistress, and in defence of • her property,' str:r.o 
a while man who is kicking her mistress' pet 
kitten, she 'shall he wholly excused,' saith the 
considerate law; but if the unprotected c I. 
when beaUn and kicked hrrstU', raise lurhand 
against her brutal assailant, the law condemns 
her to ' any punishment, not extending to life of 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



145 



limb ;' and if a wretch absail her again, and at- 
tempt to violate her cliastity, and tiic trembling 
girl, in her anguish and terror, instinctively raise 
her hand against him in self-defence, she shall, 
sailh the law, ' suffer death.' 

Reader, this diabolical law is the ' public opin- 
ion' of Georgia and South Carolina toward the 
slavcB. This is the vaunted 'protection' afforded 
them by their ' high-souled chivalry.' To show 
that the ' public opinion' of the slave states far 
more effectually protects the property of the mas- 
ter than the person of the slave, the reader is re- 
ferred to two laws of Louisiana, passed in 1819. 
The one attaches a penalty ' not exceedbg one 
thousand dollars,' and ' imprisonment not exceed- 
ing two years,' to the crime of ' cutting or break- 
;ing any iron chain or collar,' which any master 
jpf slaves has used to prevent their running away ; 
jtlie other, a penalty ' not exceeding five hundred 
Hollars,' to ' wilfully cutting out the tongue, put- 
ting out the eye, crvelly burning, or depriving 
|lny slave of any limb.^ Look at it — the most 
'horrible dismemberment conceivable cannot be 
)unished by a fine of more than five hundred 
tollars. The law expressly fixes that, as the 
itmost limit, and it may not be half that sum ; 
lot a single moment's imprisonment stays the 
vrctch in his career, and the next hour he may 
:ut out another slave's tongue, or burn his hand 
ff. But let the same man break a chain put 
pon a slave, to keep him from running away, 
nd, besides paying double the penalty that could 
e exacted from him for cutting off a slave's leg, 
lie law imprisons him not exceeding two years 1 

This law reveals the heart of slaveholders to- 
wards their slaves, their diabolical indifference to 
le most excruciating and protracted torments 
iflicted oh them by ' any person ;' it reveals, too, 
le relative protection afforded by ' public opin- 
m' to the person of the slave, in appalling con- 
•ast with the vastly surer protection which it 
ffords to the master's property in the slave. The 
Teteh who cuts out the tongue, tears out the 
yes, shoots off the arms, or burns off the feet of 
slave, over a slow fire, cannot legally be fined 
lore than five hundred dollars; but if he should 
[ 1 pity loose a chain from his galled neck, placed 
lere by the master to keep him from escaping, 
rid thus put his property in some jeopardy, he 
lay be fined one thousand dollars, and thrust into 
■; dungeon for two years ! and this, be it remem- 
, 3red, not for stealing the slave from the master, 
or for enticing, or even advising him to run 
way, or giving him any information how he can 
Sect his escape; but merely, because, touched 
ith sympathy for the bleeding victim, as he 
;es the rough iron chafe the torn flesh at every 
irn, he removes it ; — and, as escape without this 
leumbrance would be easier than with it, the 
10 



master's property in the slave is put at somo 
risk. For having caused this slight risk, the law 
provides a punishment — fine not exceeding one 
thousand dollars, and imprLsonment not exceed- 
ing two years. We say ' slight risk,' because the 
slave may not be disposed to encounter the dan- 
gers, and hunger, and olher sufferings of the 
woods, and the certainty of terrible inflictions if 
caught ; and if he should attempt it, the risk of 
losing him is small. An advertisement of five 
lines will set the whole community howling on 
his track ; and the trembling and famished fugi- 
tive is soon scented out in his retreat, and drag- 
ged back and delivered over to his tormentors. 

The preceding law is another illustration of 
the ' protection' afforded to the limbs and mem- 
bers of slaves, by ' public opinion' among slave- 
holders. 

Here follow two other illustrations of the bru- 
tal indifference of ' public opinion' to the torments 
of the slave, while it is full of zeal to compensate 
the master, if any one disables his slave so as to 
lessen his market value. The first is a law of 
South Carolina. It provides, that if a slave, en- 
gaged in his owner's service, be attacked by a 
person ' not having sufficient cause for so doing,' 
and if the slave shall be ' maiined or disabled" by 
him, so that the owner suffers a loss from his in- 
ability to labor, the person maiming him shall 
pay for his ' lost time,' and ' also the charges for 
the cure of the slave I' This Vandal law does 
not deign to take the least notice of the anguish 
of the ' maimed'' slave, made, perhaps, a groaning 
cripple for life ; the horrible wrong and injury 
done to him, is passed over in utter silence. It 
is thus declared to be not a criminal act. But the 
pecuniary interests of the master are not to be 
thus neglected by ' public opinion.' Oh no ! its 
tender bowels run over with sympathy at the 
master's injury in the ' lost time' of his slave, and 
it carefully provides that he shall have pay for 
the whole of it. — See 2 Brevard's Digest, 231, 2. 
A law similar to the above has been passed in 
Louisiana, which contains an additional provision 
for the benefit of the master — ordaining, that ' if 
the slave' (thus maimed and disabled,) ' be forever 
rendered unable to work,' the person maiming, 
shall pay the master the appraised value of the 
slave before the injury, and shall, in addition, 
take the slave, and maintain him during life,' 
Thus ' public opinion' transfers the helpless crip- 
ple from the hand of his master, who, as he has 
always had the benefit of his services, might pos- 
sibly feel some tenderness for him, and puts him 
in the sole power of the wretch who has disabled 
him for life — protecting the victim from the fury 
of his tormentor, by putting him into his hands ! 
What but butchery by piecemeal can, under such 
circumstances, be expected from a man brutal 



14G 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



enou[;h at firiit to 'maun' and ' (limbic ' him, 
and now «xai<j»<ral<d by iM-iiip «b!im-d lo pay iiiu 
full vbIiic to tin; inaxtrr, and to liavf, in addition, 
tho daily ran- and i-xjicnuc; of his maintmann-. 
Since wrilin(j tlu; above, wc have ncin tin; fob 
lowinjj i'ldirial dcriwion, in the canv ofJoiirdan, 
Tn. ration — f) Martin'n Ix)uiHiana I{e[)ortH, blf). 
A Blav<- of tin- plaintifl' bad iK-cn do|)riv«-d f)f Iiih 
only fijf, and tbuM r<'tidiTo«l unfli-Ka, on which ar. 
Count the court adjudtred that tin; d<'fcndant 
ghould pay the plaintifl' IiIh full value. The ra«c 
went up, by app<-al, lo the Supreme eourt. Judge 
Mathews, in his deciHion naid, that ' when the 
defendant had paid the HUm decreed, the slave 
ought to be placed in his posscsHion,' — adding, 
that ' the judgment making full compensation to 
tho owner operaten a rhauffr. of proprrly.^ He 
adds, ' The principle of humanity which would 
lead us to Btippose, that the mistress whom he 
had long « ned, would treat her miserable blind 
■lave with more kindness than the defendant to 
■whom the judgment ought to transfer him, can- 
not DE TAKKN INTO CONSIDKRATIOX I' Thc full 

compensation of the mistress for the loss of thc 
■crviccs of the slave, is worth}- of all ' considera- 
tion,' even to thc uttermost farthing; 'public 
opinion ' is omnipotent for her protection ; but 
when thc food, clothing, shelter, fire and lodging, 
medicine and nursery, comfort and entire condi- 
tion and treatment of her poor blind slave, 
throughout his dreary pilgrimage, is the question 
— ah I that, says the nioulh-piccc of thc law, and 
thc representative of ' public opinion,' ' cannot 
BE TAKEN iHTo CONSIDERATION.' Protection of 
slaves by ' public opinion ' among slaveholders 1 1 

Thc foregoing illustrations of southern ' public 
opinion,' from tlu; laws made by it and embody, 
ing it, are sufficient to show, that, so far from 
boing an eflicient protection to the slaves, it is 
tlioir deadliest foe, persecutor and tormentor. 

Cut here wc shall probably be met by the legal 
lore of some ♦ Justice ."^hallow,' instructing us that 
the li/e of thc slave is fully protected by law, 
however unprotected he may be in other respects. 
This assertion we meet with a point blank denial. 
Tho law does not, in reality, protrct thc life of 
tlio slave. Rut even if the letter of the law- 
would fully protect the life of the slave, ' public 
opinion' in the slave states would make it a drad 
letter. Thc letter of the law would have In-cn 
all-BufTieient for the pmleclion of the lives of the 
miserable gamblers in Viiksburg. and other j)laeeB 
in Mississippi, from the ragi- of tlmse whoso mo- 
ney thiy bad won ; but 'g.-utlemen of property 
and standing' laughed thc law to scorn, ru^lu-d 
to tho gamblers' house, put ro|»rB round tlii'ir 
necks, dragg-d them througli the streets, hanged 
Uicm in the public square, and thus saved the 
■tim they had not yet paid. Thousands wilnc.«ii. 



ed this wholenalc murder, yet of the Mona of 
legal ofTiccm prcwnt not a soul raised a finger ' 
|ir<.-vent it, tho whole city eon«enled to it, «i,' 
thus aided and abetted it. How many hundn <: 
of them hL'l|M;d to commit tlie murders, with Ihri 
(jtrn hand*, docs not app<-ar, but not one of then 
has U-en indicted for it, and no one made tl. 
least cfrr)rt to bring them to trial. Thuii, up t 
the pres«;nt hour, the blood of those murder 
men n-sts on that whole city, and it will continu 
to be a ciTT or mi/rdkrers, so long as its citizc-ii^ 
agree together to shield those felons from pun 
ment ; and they do tiius agree together so long 
they encourage each other in refusing to bri 
them to justice. Now, the laws of Mississi 
were not in fault that those men were murdered 
nor are they now in fault, that their murderers 
not punished ; the laws demand it. but the pcopk 
of Mississippi, the legal officers, the grand ju 
and legislature of thc state, with one consent agreei 
that the law shall he a dead Irltrr, and thus tin 
whole state assumes the guilt of those murdonr 
and in bravado, flourishes her reeking hands it 
the face of thc world.* 

Thc letter of thc law on thc statute book is om 
thing, thc practice of thc community under tha 
law often a totally diffi?rent thing. Earh of tb 
slave states has laws providing that thc life of n 
white man shall be taken without his having flrt 
been indicted by a grand jurv, allowed an impai 
tial trial by a petit jun,-, with the right of counsei 
crossj-cxamination of witnesses, &.c. ; but wb« 
does not know that if Arthi r TArPAX wer 
pointed out in the streets of Xew Orleans, Mc 
bile. Savannah, Charleston, Natchez, or St I>oub 
j he would be torn in pieces by thc citizens wit 
one accord, and that if any one should attempt! 
bring his murderers to punishment, he would b 
torn in pieces also. Thc editors of souther 
new.'qiapers openly vaunt, that every abolitionb 
who sets foot in their soil, shall, if he Ih' disoc 
vered, be hung at once, without judge or jurj 
What mockery to quote thc letter of the law i 
those slates, to show tliat abolitionists woal 
have secured to them the legal protection of a 
impartial trial ! 

Before the objector can make out his casi^. thi 
the life of the slave is protected by the law, I 
must not only show that the vords of thr 



• We Imvp Ju!«t learned fmm Mlwlsrippl paprrm that 
rlUwiiKi'f VlckshufR nrrer^tinca p«f>lir nioniiinml in 
nor of Pr. II. S. IkHlliy. who was iIk rirvp li-aHrr of 
T.ynrhrrm In their .nu.vk upon ili. ir miivrnt<lr vli 
To el^T. to crime tho coM mcoiirRcimiil of Im 
nionr, or mirh dinht tokriui of favor .i< a ItotiK- and • 
mar)-, 1» benrnlli the rhiralry an"! h'wpilalllT of M 
pinnii ; mi lliry Irndrr It Inft^*"-. vi -'■ - - ' - ->, wn 
plor>'. I.<"t tlx- marMi- ri*"- till it !>•■ ■ 
cnn marklnt llir r^\ whiri- Ian llr» I Iu-umI 

fclorv ; onii nmnlerrr*, with rhaplrtK 441 l)i< ,1 !i> .iii.<. dM 
and atHml upon llsgiavc, whUc ' all thr poppU i>: 




Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



147 



grant liim Biich protection, but tliat such a state 
of public sentiment exists as will carry out the 
provisions of the law in their true spirit. Any 
thing' short of this will be set down as mere prat- 
ing by every man of common sense. It has been 
already abundantly siiown in thcprecedinfr pages, 
, that the public sentiment of the slaveholding 
states toward the slaves is diabolical. Now, if 
there were laws in those slates, the words of 
I which granted to the life of the slave the same 
' protection granted to that of the master, what 
would they avail ? Acts constitute protection ; 
and is that public sentiment which makes the 
slave ' property,' and perpetrates hourly robbery 
and batteries upon him, so penetrated with a 
sense of the sacredness of his right to life, that it 
will protect it at all hazards, and drag to the gal- 
lows his OWNER, if he take the life of his own 
'property ? If it be asked, why the penalty for 
killing a slave is not a mere fine then, if his life is 
mot really regarded as sacred by public sentiment 
— we answer, that formerly in most, if not in all 
the slave states, the murder of a slave was pun- 
ished by a mere fine. This was the case in South 
Carolina till a few years since. Yes, as late as 
1621, in the state of South Carolina, which boasts 
Df its chivalry and honor, at least as loudly as any 
state in the Union, a slaveholder might butcher 
lis slave in the most deliberate manner — with the 
nost barbarous and protracted torments, and yet 
lot be subjected to a single hour's imprisonment — 
)ay his fine, stride out of the court and kill another 
—pay his fine again and butcher another, and so 
ong as he paid to the state, cash down, its own 
assessment of damages, without puttmg it to the 
rouble of prosecuting for it, he might strut ' a 
gentleman.' — See 2 Brevard's Digest, 241. 

The reason assigned by the legislature for en- 
ding a law which punished the wilful murder 
f a human being by a. fine, was that ' cruelty is 
(iGHLY UNBECOMING,' and ' ODIOUS.' It was doubt- 
3SS the same reason that induced the legislature 
n 1S21, to make a show of giving ?nore protec- 
ion to the life of the slave. Their fathers, when 
hey gave sofne protection, did it because the time 
' ad come when, not to do it would make them 
ODIOUS.' So the legislature of 1821 made a 
how of giving still greater protection, because, 
ot to do it would make them ' odious.' Fitly 
id they wear the mantles of their ascending' 
ithers ! In giving to the life of a slave the mis- 
rable protection of a fine, their fathers did not 
ven pretend to do it out of any regard to the sa- 
Iredness of his life as a human being, but merely 
ecause cruelty is 'unbecoming' and 'odious.' 
""he legislature of 1821 nominally increased this 
' rotection ; not that they cared more for the 
' lave's rights, or for the inviolabity of his life as a 
uman being, but the civilized world had ad- 



vanced since the date of the first law. The 
slave-trade which was then honorable merchan- 
dise, and j)lied by lords, governors, judges, and 
doctors of divinity, raising them to immense 
wealth, had grown ' unbecoming,' and only raised 
its votaries by a rope to the yard arm; bcfiides 
this, the barbarity of the slave codes throughout 
the world was fatt becoming ' odious ' to civihzed 
nations, and slaveholders found that the only con- 
ditions on which they could prevent themselves 
from being thrust out of the pale of civilization, 
was to meliorate the iron rigor of their slave code, 
and thus seem to secure to their slaves some pro- 
tection. Further, the northern states Iiad passed 
laws for the abolition of slavery — all the South 
American states were acting in the matter ; and 
Colombia and Chili passed acts of abolition that 
very year. In addition to all this the Missouri 
question had been for two years previous under 
discussion in Congress, in State legislatures, and 
in every village and stage coach ; and this law of 
South Carolina had been held up to execration by 
northern members of Congress, and in newspa- 
pers throughout the free states — in a word, the 
legislature of South Carolina found that they 
were becoming ' odious ;' and while in their sense 
of justice and humanity they did not surpass their 
fathers, they winced with equal sensitiveness 
under the sting of the world's scorn, and with 
equal promptitude sued for a truce by modifying 
the law. 

The legislature of South Carolina modified an- 
other law at the same session. Previously, the 
killing of a slave ' on a sudden heat or passion, or 
by undue correction,' was punished by a fine of 
three hundred and fifty pounds. In 1821 an act 
■was passed diminishing the fine to five hundred 
dollars, but authorizing an imprisonment ' not ex- 
ceeding sis months.' Just before the American 
Revolution, tlie Legislature of North Carolina 
passed a law making imprisomnent the penalty 
for the wilful and malicious murder of a slave. 
About twenty years after the revolution, the state 
found itself becoming 'odious,' as the spirit of 
abolition was pervading the nations. The legisla. 
ture, perceiving that Christendom would before 
long rank them with barbarians if they so cheap- 
ened human life, repealed the law, candidly as. 
signing in the preamble of the new one the rea- 
son for repealing the old — that it was ' disgrace- 
ful ' and ' DEGRADING.' As this preamble ex- 
pressly recognizes the slave as ' a human crea- 
ture,' and as it is couched in a phraseology which 
indicates some sense of justice, we would gladly 
give the legislature credit for sincerity, and be- 
lieve them really touched with humane movings 
towards the slave, were it not for a proviso in the 
law clearly revealing that the show of humanity 
and regard for their rights, indicated by the 



148 



ObjeciioM Considered — Public Opinion. 



worclii, ia noUiinfr more than a hollow pretence — 
a hy|M>critical tlouriHli to proilucc an imprcnoion 
favorable tti their jiiHtice anil niagnanimity. Af- 
ter clrchirin;; that ho who in 'guilty of wilfully 
and iiiulicu)ui<ly killini; a Rlavc, shall BiillVr tin.- 
■amu piJiiiHiiincnt aH if he had killed a fret-man ;' 
the act concludcM than: ' Provided, alwayn, tliiH 
act phall not extend to the pernon killin;; a nlave 
outlawed by virtue of any aet of AHutinibly of 
tliiB Btatc ; or to any nlave in the act of nisiHtance 
to his lawful ovcmeer, or niaMler, or to any Hlavc 
dyini; under their moderate correction.' Reader, 
look at this proviso. 1. It gives free license to all 
persons to kill outlawed stares. Well, what is 
an outlawed slave ? A slave who runs away, 
lurka in swamps, &c., and kills a hoff or any 
other domestic animal to keep himself from starv- 
ing, is subject to a proclamation of oiitlaxcry ; 
(Haywood's Manual, 521,) and then whoever 
finds him may shoot him, t<-ar him in pieces with 
dogs, bum him to death over a slow fire, or kill 
him by any other tortures. 2. The proviso grants 
full license to a master to kill his slave, if tlie 
■lave resist him. The North Carolina Bench has 
decided that this law contemplates not only ac- 
tual resistance to punishment, &c., hut also offer, 
ing to resist. (Stroud's Sketch, 37.) If, for ex- 
ample, a slave undergoing the process of brandin;r 
aliould resist by pushing aside the burning stamp; 
or if wrought up to frenzy by the torture of tlie 
lash, he should catch and hold it fast ; or if he 
break loose from his master and run, refusing to 
Btop at his command ; or if he refuse to be flog, 
ged; or struggle to keep his clothes on while his 
master is trymg to strip him ; if, in all these, or 
any one of the hundred otlicr ways he restst, or 
ofler, or threaten to resist the infliction; or, if the 
master attempt llie violation of the slave's wife, 
and the husband rc.-;ist his attempts without tlie 
least eftort to injure him, but merely to shield his 
wife from his assaults, this law does not merely 
permit, but it authorize.'} the master to murder the 
•lave on the spot. 

The brutality of these two provisos brands its 
autiiors as barbarians. But the third cause of e.x- 
cmptiou could not be outdone by the legislation 
of tiends. ' Dvino under MonERATE rorrer/;on ." 
Moderate /"oMvr/jon and uF.ATH^-caus<'andeflectI 
'Provided always,' says the law, 'this act shall 
not extend to n/iy slave dying under modrratr 
correction." II<'ri' is a iDrmal proclamation of 
impunity to murder — .m expnss pledge of <iri/iiif. 
tal to all slaveholders who wish to murder their 
slaves, a legal absolution — an in«hilgenee granfeil 
before the commission of tlie crime ! L<wk at 
the phraHculogy. Nothing is said of maimincjs, 
dismemiMrnients. skull fracture*, of severe hruis. 
ing», or lacomtions, or even of flogging*; but a 
word ia used, the common-parlance import of 



which ia, alight chaattMement ; it in not even whij 
ping, but 'correction.' And a« if hypocrijty ai' 
malignity were on the rack to outwit each othe; 
even that weak word mu»t \tc stilt farther diluted 
f>o ' moderate ' ia added: and, to crown the cl 
max. conifKjundcd of ab«urdily, hvpoerisy, an 
CO Id-blooded murder, the tribal definition of ' roc 
derate correction' i» covertly given ; which i* 
any puninhmmt that kii.m the victim. .\!1 ir 
flictiona arc either moderate or immoderate ; an 
the design of this law was manifestly to shiel 
the murderer from conviction, by cnrryins on ii 
face the rule for its own interpretation ; thus ac 
vertising, beforehand, eourt«i and juries, that th 
fact of any infliction producing death, was no ev 
dcncc that it was immoderate, and that beating 
man to death came within the legal meaning o 
'moderate correction I' The <f«r»ign of the lcgi» 
lature of North Carolina in framing thia law 
manifest ; it was to produce the impreaaion upo 
the world, that they had so high a sense of justic 
as voluntarily to grant adequate protection to th 
lives of their slaves. This ia oatcntatiously a> 
forth in the preamble, and in the body of the la» 
That this was the most dcirpicable hN-pochsv, an 
that they had predetermined to grant no such pn 
tcction, notwitlisianding the pains taken to get tJ 
credit of it, is fully revealed by the proritm, whie 
was framed in such a way as to nullify the la\ 
lor the express accommodation of slaveholdin 
gentlemen murdering tlieir slaves. All such fin 
in tliis proviso a convenient accomplice before \i 
fact, and a packed jury, with a ready-made ve 
diet of ' not guilty,' both gratuitously furnish* 
by the govcmmtnt I The preceding law and pr 
viso arc to be found in Haywood's Manual, 53* 
also in Laws of Tonne«9iee, Act of October 2 
1791 ; and in Stroud's Sketch, 37. 

Enough has In-en said already to show, th: 
though the lawsoflheslav- states profess to grai 
adequate protection to the life of the slave, -iut 
profe.ssions ar»' mere tmpty pretence, no such pr 
tection being in reality atVorded by them. B' 
tlicre is still another tact, showing that a!l Ia» 
which profess to protect the slaves from invrv I 
the whites an^ a mockery. It is this — tii.i! iJ 
testimony, neither of a slave nor of a free colon 
jK-reon, is lesal testimony against a white. 1 
this rule there is no exception in any of t!i- <;!»< 
states: ami lliis, were tliere no other cvi.eiic 
would be sufficient to stamp, as hypocritiiMJ, i 
the provi.isions of the codea which profess i ■ pr 
tect the slaves. Pnift^ng to crant pri.i ii« 
while, at the same time, it strips tliem of lii. rm 
means by which they can make that pr.% c\m 
available! Injuriea must bi- legally />rr)rri/ iv-fo 
tliev can l>e legally rtdressed : to deprive men 
the power of proving their injuries, ia iLix If ti 
greatest of all injurica ; for it not only cxpoam < 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



140 



f' ftll, but invites them, by a virtual guarantee of 
'' impunity, and is thus tlic author oi all injuries. 
•1 It matters not what other laws exist, protessing 
li to throw safeguards round the slave — this makes 
iithem blank paj)er. How can a slave prove out. 
iK((iragcs perpetrated upon him by his master or over- 
"HvlBeer, when his own testimony and that of all his 
1 6||fellow-slavcs, his kindred, associates, and ac- 
i'jjquaintances, are ruled out of court ? and when he 
i? entirely in the poiver of those who injure him, 
no when the only care necessary, on tlieir part, 
iid, to see that no white witness is looking on. Or- 
lilinarily, but one white man, the overseer, is with 
he slaves while they are at labor; indeed, on 
ittMOst plantations, to commit an outrage in the 
nj aresence of a white witness would bi more diffi. 
S;o tult than in their absence. He who wished to 
eiiifommit an illegal act upon a slave, instead of be- 
Av: ag obliged to take pains and watch for an oppor- 
apj Unity to do it unobserved by a white, would find 
lilit \ difficult to do it in the presence of a white if he 
ollpshed to do so. The supremo court of Louisi- 
ya Ina, in their decision, in the case of Crawford vs. 
Ill fherry., 15, (Martin's La. Rep. 142 ; also " Laio 
',ai f Slavery," 249,) where the defendant was sued 
ipn »r the value of a slave whom he had shot and 
stll filed, say, " The act charged here, is one rarely 
,'liic jmmitted in the presence of witnesses," (whites). 
In |o in the case of the State vs. Mann, (Devereiix, 
)\b [. C. Rep. 263 ; and " Law of Slavery," 247 ;) in 
'di ihich the defendant was charged with shooting 
iieti islavc girl ' belonging' to the plaintiff; the Su- 
levt reme Court of North Carolina, in their decision, 
lisk peaking of the provocations of the master by the 
ijpj [ave, and ' the consequent wrath of the master 
, 3J fompting him to bloody vengeance, add, ' a ven- 
)eri ?ance generally practised with impunity, by rea- 
n of its privacy.^ 

■ 4 j Laws excluding the testimony of slaves and 
);fi Be colored persons, where a white is concerned, 
, SIS \> not exist in all the slave states. One or two 
;lip! I them have no legal enactment on the subject; 

I It, in those, ^ public opinion^ acts with the force 
II It law, and the courts invariably reject it. This 
jjiyi lings us back to the potency of that oft-quoted 
jjii public opinion,' so ready, according to our ob- 
co!o! btor, to do battle for the protection of the slave ! 
e, ] Another proof that 'public opinion,' in the 
lesl ave states, plunders, tortures, and murders the 
Uen kves, instead oi protecting them, is found in the 
xil, ct, that the laws of slave states inflict capital 
to I knishment on slaves for a variety of crimes, for 
,ffdi liich, if their masters commit them, the legal 
tie! nalty is merely imprisonment. Judge Stroud, 
oted his Sketch of the Laws of Slavery, says, that, 
dlifi 'the laws of Virginia, there are 'seventy-one 

■ uS imcs for which slaves are capitally punished, 
t!fl' ough in none of these are whites pun'shed in a 
;.# anner more severe than by imprisonment in the 



penitentiary.' (P. 107, where the reader will find 
all the crimes enumerated.) It should be added, 
however, that though the penalty for each of these 
seventy-onc crimes is ' death,' yet a majority of 
them are, in the words of the law, ' death with- 
in clergy ;' and in Virginia, clergyable offences, 
though technically capital, are not so in fact. In 
Mississippi, slaves are punished ca|)itally for more 
than thirty crimes, for which whites are punished 
only by fine or imprisonment, or both. Eight of 
these are not recognized as crimes, either by com- 
mon law or by statute, when committed by 
whites. In South Carolina slaves arc punished 
capitally for nine more crimes than the whites — 
in Georgia, for six — and in Kentucky, for seven 
more than whites, &c. We surely need not de. 
tain the reader by comments on this monstrous 
inequality with which the penal codes of slave 
states treat slaves and their masters. When we 
consider that guilt is in proportion to intelligence, 
and that these masters have by law doomed their 
slaves to ignorance, and then, as they darkle and 
grope along their blind way, inflict penalties upon 
them for a variety of acts regarded as praise- 
worthy in whites ; killing them for crimes, 
when whites are only fined or imprisoned — to call 
such a ' public opinion' inhuman, savage, mur- 
derous, diabolical, would be to use tame words, if 
theEnglish vocabulary could supply others of more 
horrible import. 

But slaveholding brutality does not stop here. 
While punishing the slaves for crimes with vastly 
greater severity than it does their masters for the 
same crimes, and making a variety of acts crimes 
in law, which are right, and often duties, it per. 
sists in refusing to make known to the slaves that 
complicated and barbarous penal code which 
loads them with such fearful liabilities. The slave 
is left to get a knowledge of these laws as he can, 
and cases must be of constant occurrence at the 
south, in which slaves get their first knowledge 
of the existence of a law by suffering its penalty. 
Indeed, this is probably the way in which they 
commonly learn what the laws are ; for how else 
can the slave get a knowledge of the laws ? He 
cannot read — he cannot learn to read ; if he try 
to master the alphabet, so that he may spell out 
the words of the law, and thus avoid its penalties, 
the law shakes its terrors at him ; while, at the 
same time, those who made the laws refuse to 
make them known to those for whom they are de. 
signed. The memory of Caligula will blacken 
with execration while time lasts, because he hung 
up his laws so high that people could not read 
them, and then punished them because they did 
not keep them. Our slaveholders aspire to blacker 
infamy. Caligula was content with hanging up 
his laws where his subjects could see them; and 
if they could not read them, they knew where 



150 



Ol/jections Considered — Public Opinion. 



thry worn, and nii;»ht fret at tlirm, if, in thrir/f-al 
to Iram \m will, tlu-y iiad ii.mccI the Kanin mcanx 
to get U|> ti) llicni that thottr. did who lnin;r them 
there. Kviri Caiiifula, wrelrh as ho wa-i, would 
have HhnrldiTcd at cutlin^j thi-ir lopn off", to pre- 
vent thiir climliinjj to them ; or, if they had pot 
there, at boring their eyes out, to prevent their 
reading lliem. Our fllaveholderH virtually do 
both ; for they prohibit their Hlaves acfpiirinp that 
knowledgi; of IctterH whieh woiiltl enable lliem to 
rea<l the lawH ; and if, by xtcalth, they get it in 
spile of tlietn, lliey prohibit them books and pa- 
pcrs, and flog them if they are eanght at them. 
Further — Caligula merely himg his law.s so high 
that they could not be read — our ulavehoielcrs 
have hung theirs so high above the slave that 
they cannot be srcn — they are utterly out of sight, 
and he finds out that they arc there only by the 
falling of the penalties on his head.* Thus the 
*' public opinion" of slave states protects the de- 
fenceless slave by arming a host of legal penal- 
ties and setting them in ambush at every thicket 
along his path, to spring upon him unawares. 

Stroud, in his Sketch of the Laws of Slavery, 
page 100, thus comments on this monstrous bar- 
barity. 

"The hardened convict moves llicir sjTnpalhy, 
and is to be taught tlie laws before he is expected 
to obey them •,t yet the guiltless slave is subjected 
to an extensive system of cruel enactments, of no 
part of which, probably, has he ever heard." 

Having already drawn so largely on the read- 
er's patience, in illustrating southern ' public opi- 
nion' by the slave laws, instead of additional illus- 
trations of the same point from another class of 
those laws, as was our design, we will group toge- 
ther a few particulars, which the reader can take 
in at a glance, showing that the " public opinion" 
of slaveholders towards their slaves, which exists at 

. • The fiillnwitij; extr.act from the Alnx.nmlria 'J). T.) Gn- 
zelto is ail illiiHlrnlion. "Chiminai.s ("oNnKMNrn. — On 
Mondny liint the Court of the borouell of Norfolk, Vii. s.il 
«iii llif trial of four muro boVH !irrnlsnr(l for biirclarj'. Tlic 
flmt iiiriirlniont rharcrri them willi lireakiiii; into tin- hard- 
wnri! more of Mr. 10. I'. Talib, iipim wliirli two of tlirm wrrc 
found ciiilly liy tlie Toiirt, nml rondt'Minril to siifTfr the 
ppiinlty of ilip law, wliirli. In the cajie of n slave, is death. 
The wTond Friday in April in ap|Miinti<l f,ir ill'- <xi'riilion 
of Ihrir awful srntenre. Thrir nnr:' ilo not rrrrrit siitm. 
The flrni, a line active boy, iH-loiies to a widow lady in Al- 
exandria: the- laiirr, a liotisi- servant, i.s owned by n prntlo- 
mnn In the horonch. The value nf one was lixcd nl SIOOO, 
and the other nl $.-<IX) ; which huiiis are to b<! r<>-iinbiin«e«l 
lo tliclr rt-spictive owm i Mint of the sl.iti' irrasiiry." In nil 
probability thife pn<ir U>y», who are to W hitnft for Btenlinjt, 
never drenmed Ihni death wim the leual |N-iinl!y of the crime. 

Mere i« nnothiT, from ll New Orlrntis H<'i'" of M. 

1H37.— "The ilaVB who ntkii k Home citlcemt In Cnn.il- 
•treei, Nome wii:k« Kinn-, ha.-! Ix •ii tried .ind found gullly, 
find i-i M'litenc-d to be iieMi mi llic 24lli. 

f " it Khali Im- the duty of the keeiwr (of the penltenliaryl 
on the irrript of c ach pri^oii'T, ti> rrail to him or her mhIi 
pnrt^iof 111"- p<'nal law< of thli ntnte an linpow pi'nnl!l<-« inr 
«ara|>e, niid to ninki- nil lilo priminin) in Ih"- (wnlteniMty 
nri|imint- d with tin' vsxmr. It nhall ;il«<i In- hl-i iluty, on tlic 
dlsrhaii;'' ormich prlnoner, InrfBill" him or her mir.h pnrtK 
of till' Mild law H nil im|)<>«<' addilloii.-d piininhiiientji for the 
n-p<'lllliin 111 "'llViir, «."-~//i./.- V2tM.for tlkf i»trrnnl ncrrrn- 
nunl of iMf Prnilmliarw of (Irorfia. Sn -JO »/ U« i>fin 
UKiitay Act o/ IblO.— />!«£('< Otgrtt, 'JSd. 



the Bouth, in the form of law, tramplcii on all tb' 
fundamental principles of riglit, juittice, and eqii 
which arc recognized as Macrcd by all civilixcd i. 
tioiiH, and receive the homage even of barbariar 
1. One of these principles iji, that the Lmefi 
of law to the subject shoi<ld overbalance its bi 
dens — its protection more than compensate for : 
restraints and exactions — and its blessings alt 
gcther outweigh its inconveniences and evil* 
the former Ixiing numerous, positive, and perm 
nent, the latter few, negative, and incidental. 'II 
tally the reverse of all tliis is true in the ease 
the slave. Law is to him all exaction and no pi 
tcction : instead of lightening his natural biirdei 
it crushes him under a multitudeof artificial one 
instead of a friend to succor him, it is his deadlii 
foe, transfixing him at every step from the crat 
to the grave. Law has been beautifully defin 
to be " benevolence acting by rule ;" to the .\n 
rican slave it is malevolence torturing by systc 
It is an old truth, that renpongihility inereai 
with capacity ; but those same laws which ma 
the slave a " chattel" require of him moTe th 
of men. The same law which makes him a Mi 
incapable of obligation, loads him with oblii^atif 
superhuman — while sinking him below the level 
a brute in dispensing its benefits, he lavs upon h 
burdens which would break down an angel. 

2. Innocence is entitled lo the protection of la 
Slaveholders make innocence free plunder ; t 
is their daily employment ; their laws assail 
make it their victim, inflict upon it all, and. 
some respects, more than all the penalties of 1 
greatest guilt. To other innocent persons, L 
is a blessing, to the slave it is a ctirae, only 
curse and that continually. 

3. Deprirntion of liberty is one of the hiirh 
piinishmrnts of crime ; and in proportion to 
justice when inflicted on the guilty, is it.s inji 
ticc when inflicted on the innocent; this tern 
penalty is inflicted on two million seven i, 
thousand, innocent persons in the Southern ;jt 

4. Setf.prescrration and self-defence, are o 
vencillv regarded as tlie most sacred of IturD 
rights, yet the laws of slave states punish i 
slave with death for exercising these rights 
that way, which in others is pronounced wort 
of the highest praise. 

r». The safe-H'iiards of law are most nree 
trhere natural safr-fruards are trrakest. Kvi 
principle of justice and equity rrquirrs, that, the 
who are totally unprotected by birth, s!.iti< 
w-ealth, friends, influence, and poptilar fir 
atiil especially those who are the innocent niijc 
of public contempt and prejudice, should 
more vigil.mtly protected by law, than th'^x 
are so forlilied bv defence, that thev have l.irli 
need ni Icjal protection : yet the poor slave ir 
is fortified by none of these personal bulwarks, 



Ohjections Considered — Public Opinion. 



151 



denied the protection of law, while the master, ', 
Burroundod by tlicin all, is panoplied in the mail 
of legal protection, even to the hair of his head ; 
yea, his very shoe-tie and coat-button are legal 
protegees. 

G. The grand object of law is to protect men's 
natural rights, but instead of protecting the 
natural rights of the slaves, it gives slaveholders 
license to wrest thcra from the weak by violence, 
protects them in holding their plunder, and kills 
the rightful owner if ho attempt to recover it. 

Tliis is the protection tlirown around the rights 
of American slaves by the ' public opinion,' of 
slaveholders ; these the restraints that hold back 
their masters, overseers, and drivers, from in- 
flicting injuries upon them I 

In a Republican government, laio is the pulse 
of its heart — as the heart beats the pulse beats, ex- 
cept that it often beats weaker than the heart, 
never stronger — or to drop the figure, laws are 
never worse than those who make them, very 
often better. If human history proves any- 
thing, cruelty of practice will alwa3rs go beyond 
1 cruelty of law. 

1 Law-making is a formal, deliberate act, per- 
formed by persons of mature age, embodying the 

j intelligence, wisdom, justice and humanity, of 
the community ; performed, too, at leisure, after 

I full opportunity had for a comprehensive survey 
of all the relations to be affected, after careful 

i investigation and protracted discussion. Conse- 

j quently laws must, in the main, be a true index 

j of the permanent feelings, the settled /rame of 
mind, cherished by the community upon tliose 

1 subjects, and towards those persons and classes 
whose condition the laws are designed to estab- 

ilish. If the laws are in a high degree cruel and 
inhuman, towards any class of persons, it proves 
that the feelings habitually exercised towards 
that class of persons, by those who make and 
perpetuate those laws, are at least equally cruel 
and inhuman. We say at least equally so ; for 
if the habitual state of feeling towards that class 
be unmerciful, it must be unspeakably cruel, re- 
lentless and malignant when provoked ; if its 
ordinary action is inhuman, its contortions and 
spasms must be tragedies ; if the waves run high 
when there has been no wind, where will they 
not break when the tempest heaves them ! 

Further, when cruelty is the spirit of the law 
towards a proscribed class, when it legalizes great 
outrages upon them, it connives at, and abets 
greater outrages, and is virtually an accomplice 
of a«Il who perpetrate them. Hence, in such 
cases, though the degree of the outrage is illegal, 
the perpetrator will rarely be convicted, and, even 
if convicted, will be almost sure to escape pun. 
ishment. This is not theory but history. Every 
judge and lawyer in the slave states knows, that 



the legal conviction and punishment of masters 
and mistresses, for illegal outrages upon their slaves, 
is an event which has rarely, if ever, occurred 
in the slave sttttes ; th('y know, also, that although 
hundreds of slaves have been murdered by their 
masters and mistresses in the slave states, withia 
the last twenty-five years, and though the fact of 
their having committed those murders has been 
established beyond a doubt in the minds of the 
surrounding community, yet that the murderers 
have not, in a single instance, suffered the penalty 
of the law. 
Finally, since slaveholders have deliberately legal- 
ized the perpetration of the most cold-blooded atro- 
cities upon their slaves, and do pertinaciously re- 
fuse to make these atrocities illegal, and to punish 
those w ho perpetrate them, they stand convicted 
before the world, upon their own testimony, of 
the most barbarous, brutal, and habitual inhu- 
manity. If this be slander and falsehood, their 
own lips have uttered it, their own fingers have 
written it, their own acts have proclaimed it ; 
and however it may be with their jnorality, they 
have too much human nature to perjure them- 
selves for the sake of publishing their own in- 
famy. 

Having dwelt at such length on the legal code 
of the slave states, that unerring index of the 
public opinion of slaveholders towards their slaves ; 
and having shown that it does not protect the 
slaves from cruelty, and that even in the few in- 
stances in which the letter of the law, if executed, 
would afford some protection, it is virtually nulli- 
fied by the connivance of courts and juries, or by 
popular clamor ; we might safely rest the case 
here, assured that every honest reader would 
spurn the absurd falsehood, that the ' public 
opinion' of the slave states protects the slaves 
and restrains the master. But, as the assertion 
is made so often by slaveholders, and with so 
much confidence, notwithstanding its absurdity 
is fully revealed by their own legal code, we pro- 
pose to show its falsehood by applying other 
tests. 

We lay it down as a truth that can be made 
no plainer by reasoning, that the same ' public 
opinion,' which restrains men from committing 
outrages, will restrain them from publishing such 
outrages, if they do commit them ; — in other 
words, if a man is restrained from certain acts 
through fear of losing his character, should they 
become known, he will not voluntarily destroy 
his character by making them known, should he 
be guilty of them. Let us look at this. It is 
assumed by slaveholders, that ' public opinion' 
at the south so frowns on cruelty to the slaves, 
that /ear of disgrace would restrain from the in- 
fliction of it, were there no other consideration. 

Now, that this is sheer fiction is shown by the 



163 



Objection Conslderel — Public Ojiinion. 



fnct, that the newapapei* in the iilavcholdin{r 
•tatca, teem witli advrrliiieincntu for runaway 
•laves, in wliicli tliu rnaiiteni and mi*tre$*t$ <]<.'• 
•cribo thrir nii-n and women, ac haTinf; bicn 

• brandi-d with a liot iron,* on their • chirk*,' 
•jawii,' ' bnasitii,' • armn,' ' li(j«,' and 'thighs;' 
•lao an 'Fcarrcd,' ' very much Hcarrcd,' 'cut up,' 

• mark) (!,' &c. ' with the whip,' also with ' iron 
Collars on,' • chainii,' ' bam of iron,' * fcttcm,' 

• bflifi,' * hums,' ' xhacklcn,' &,c. Thry, alw, dc. 
ncrihc them as haviri^r been wounded by ' buck- 
uliKl,' • rific-haiifi,' «!t.c. find at th<in by their 

• owners,' and otlv.ni when in purvuit ; also, as 
havinfj ' notches,* cut in thrir ears, tlio tops or 
bottoms of their cars ' cut off,' or * ftlit,* or ' one 
ear cut off,' or * both cars cut off,' &.c. dc-c. 
The masters and mistresses who tlius advertise 
their runaway nlavis, coolly sign their names to 
their advrrtiscmcntfl, giving the street and num- ' 
bcr of their residences, if in cities, their post of- 
ficc address, &.c. if in the countrj' ; thus ma- 
king puhhc proclamation as widely as possible 
that thry ' brand,' ' scar,' ' gash," ' cut up,' &c. 
the flesh of their slaves ; load them with irons, cut 
off their ears, &.c. ; they speak of llicsc tilings with 
the utmost sang froid, not seeming to think it 
possible, tliat any one will esteem them at all the 
less because of these outrages upon their slaves ; 
further, these advertisementg swarm in many of 
the largest and most widoly circulated political 
and commercial papers that are publislied in the 
slave states. The editors of those papers con- 
stitute the main body of the literati of the slave 
states ; they move in the highest circle of socic. 
ty, arc among the ' popular' mrn in the commu. 
nity, and as a class, arc more influential than any 
other ; yet these editors publish these adverlisc- 
ments with iron indifference. So far from pro- 
claiming to such felons, homicides, and murder- 
ers, that they will not be their blood-hounds, to 
hunt down the innocent and mutilated victims 
who have escaped from their torture, they freely 
furnish them with every facility, become their 
accomplices and share their spoils ; and instead 
of outraging ' public opinion,' by doing it, they 
are the men after its own heart, its organs, its 
representatives, its srlf. 

To show that the "public opinion' of the slave 
states, towards the slaves, is absolutelv diaboUcnl, 
we will insert a few, out of a multitude, of simi- 
lar advertisements from a variety of souUicrn 
papers now before us. 

The North Carolina Standard, of July 18, 
1838, contains the followinc : — 

•• TWKNTV noI,l,.\US RF.WARn. Ran- 
Sway from tlic sulwcriber, a n.-tr'"" w(»man mid 
two rhiltiri'ii : the woman is tall and blurk. and 
a (rw dtiyx brforr fhr trrnt off, I birnt mf.r with 
A HOT IRON ON Tin: i.r.rr sior or urn katk ; I 

TRIED TO MAKE TUE LETTER M, Olid «A« kr/ii o 



rioth nvtr her hend and fare, and a fly bonnet on 
firr head mt at to rorrr the burn ; bcr children 
arc both b<jy*. the oldest \» in his seventh year ; 
he is a mulatto and han blue lyi-s ; the youn^'>-t 
is black and is in his fifth year. The woiiiuiin 
name is Betty, commonly called B< t. 

MiCAJAII RjCKS. 

Nask Cauniy, July 7, lb3S. 

Hear the wretch tell his story, with as much 
indifference as if he were describing the cutting 
of his initials in the bark of a treo. 

" / burnt her with a hot iron on the left tide of 
her face," — " / tried to make the letter M," and 
this he says in a newspaper, and puts his nam'; 
to it, and the editor of the paper who is, alw), its 
proprietor, publishes it for him and pockets his 
fee. Perhaps tlie reader will say, 'Oh, it must 
have been published in an insignificant b'lv ■ t 
printed in some obscure corner of the state ; j^ r. 
haps by a gang of ' sciuatters,' in the Disnial 
.Swamp, universallj- regarded as a pest, and cd.t. 
ed by some scape-gallows, who is detested by the 
whole community. To this I reply that the 
" North Carolina .Standard," the paper whirh 
contains it, is a large six columned weekly paprr, 
handsomely printed and ably edited ; it is the 
leading Democratic paper in that state, and is 
published at Raleigh, the Capital of the state, 
Thomas lyjring, Esq. Editor and Proprietor.! 
The motto in capitals under the head of the pa-i 
per is, '' The constititiox a.vd the i'Mon ori^ 

THE states — TUF.V MUST BE PRESEBVED." Tho 

same Editor and Proprietor, who exhibits such ' '•f 
brutality of fcclmg towards the slaves, by gi' :: :» 
the preceding advertisement a conspicuous pla'o 
in his columns, and taking his pay for it, has ap. 
parently a keen sense of the proprieties of life, 
where whiles arc concerned, and a high reijard 
for the rights, character and feelings of th sa 
whose skin is colored like liis own. As proof 
this, we copy from the number of the paper coi 
taining the fon^going advertisemrnt, the folio 
Editorial on the pending political canvass. 

" Wc cannot n frain from expressing the ho| 
that the C>ubernatoriaI canvass will be condu 
cd with a due rrsard to the character, and feel 
inffgodhc distinguished individuals who arc 
didates for that offire ; and that the press 
North Carolina will set an example in this rc.<pC( 
worthy of imitation and of praise." 

What is this but chivalrous and honorable fl 
ing ? The good name of North Carolina is dear 
liim — on the comfort, 'character and feelinj 
of her irAi7r citizens he sots a high value ; he f« 
loo. most deeply for the character nf the Prttt 
North Carolina, sees that it is a city set on 
hill, and implores his brrlhrrn i>f the edilt 
rorps to ' set an example' of courtesy a 
magnanimity worthy of imitation and pi»i 
Now. n-ader, put all these things together a 
con Ihetu over, and th<:n read again tiie preceding 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



153 



ndverliscmcnt contained in the same number of 
tlic paper, and you have the true "North Carolina 
Standard," liy which to measure the protection 
extended to slaves by the ' public opinion' of 
:tl>at slate. 

; J. P. Ashford advertises as follows in the 
t" Natclicz Courier," August 24, 18:^8. 
I " Ranaway, a negro girl called Mary, has a 
Jsmall sear over her eye, a good many teeth mis- 
sing, the letter A. is branded on her cheek and 
forehead." 

A. B. Metealf thus advertises a woman in the 
same paper, June 15, 1S38. 

" Ranaway, Mary, a black woman, has a scar 
Dn her back and right arm near the shoulder, 
caused by a rijile ball." 

John Henderson, in the " Grand Gulf Adver- 
iser," August 29, 1838, advertises Betsey. 

" Ranaway, a black woman Betsey, has an 
ran bar on her right leg." 

Robert Nicoll, whose residence is in Mobile, in 
dauphin street, between Emmanuel and Concep- 
ion streets, thus advertises a woman in the 

Mobile Commercial Advertiser." 

» TEN DOLLARS REWARD will be given 
or my negro woman Liby. The said Liby is 
,bout"30 years old. and VERY MUCH SCAR. 
lED ABOUT THE NECK AND EARS, occa- 
ioned by whipping, had on a handkerchief tied 
ound her ears, as she commonly wears it to hide 

HE SCARS." 

To show that slaveholding brutality now is the 
ame that it was the eighth of a century ago, we 
ublish the following advertisement from the 

Charleston (S. C.) Courier," of 1825. 

» TWENTY DOLLARS REWARD.— Ran- 
way from the subscriber, on the 14th instant, 

negro girl named Molly. 

" The said girl was sold by Messrs. Wm. Payne 
; Sons, as the property of an estate of a 
Ir. Gearrall, and purchased by a Mr. Moses, 
nd sold by him to a Thomas Prisley, of Edge- 
eld District, of whom I bought her on the 17th 
f April, 1819. She is 16 or 17 years of age, 
lim made, lately branded on the left cheek, 

HUS, R, AND A PIECE TAKEN OFF OF HER EAR 
THE SAME SIDE *, THE SAME LETTER ON THE 
(JSIDE OF BOTH HER LEGS. 

" Abner Ross, Fairfield District." 

But instead of filling pages with similar ad- 
ertisements, illustrating the horrible brutality of 
aveholders towards their slaves, the reader is 
jferred to the preceding pages of this work, to 
tie scores of advertisements written by slave- 
olders, printed by slaveholders, published by 
laveholders, in newspapers edited by slaveholders, 
nd patronized by slaveholders ; advertisements 
.escribing not only men and boys, but women, 
ged and middle-aged, matrons and girls of 
snder years, their necks chafed with iron collars 

ith prongs, their limbs galled with iron rings, 
nd chains, and bars of iron, iron hobbles and 



shackles, all parts of their persons scarred with 
the lash, and branded with hot irons, and torn 
with rifle bullets, pistol bails and buck shot, and 
gashed with knives, their eyes out, their ears cut 
off, their teeth drawn out, and their bones broken. 
He is referred also to the cool and shocking indif- 
ference with which these slaveiioldcrs, ' gentle- 
men' and ' ladies,' Reverends, and Honorable^, 
and Excellencies, write and print, and publish 
and pay, and take money for, and read and cir- 
culate, and sanction, such infernal barbarity. 
Let the reader ponder all this, and then lay it to 
heart, that this is that ' public opinion' of the 
slaveholder, which protects their slaves from all in- 
jury, and is an effectual guarantee of personal 
security. 

However far gone a community may be in bru- 
tality, something of protection may yet be hoped 
for from its ' pubhc opinion,' if respect for woman 
survives the general wreck ; that gone, protection 
perishes ; public opinion becomes universal rapine ; 
outrages, once occasional, become habitual ; the 
torture, which was before inflicted only by pas- 
sion, becomes the constant product of a system^ 
and, instead of being the index of sudden and 
fierce impulses, is coolly plied as the permanent 
means to an end. When women are branded 
with hot irons on their faces ; when iron collars, 
with prongs, are riveted about their necks ; when 
iron rings are fastened upon their limbs, and they 
are forced to drag after them chains and fetters ; 
when their flesh is torn with whips, and mangled 
with bullets and shot, and lacerated with knives ; 
and when those who do such things, are regarded 
in the community, and associated with as ' gen- 
tlemen' and ' ladies ;' to say that the ' public opin- 
ion' of such a community is a protection to its 
victims, is to blaspheme God, whose creatures 
they are, cast in his own sacred image, and dear 
to him as the apple of his eye. 

But we are not yet quite ready to dismiss this 
protector, ' Public Opinion.' To illustrate the 
hardened brutality with which slaveholders re- 
gard their slaves, the shameless and apparently 
unconscious indecency with which they speak of 
their female slaves, examine their persons, and 
describe them, under their own signatures, in 
newspapers, hand-bills, &c. just as they would 
describe the marks of cattle and swine, on all 
parts of their bodies ; we will make a few extracts 
from southern papers. Reader, as we proceed 
to these extracts, remember our motto — ' True 
humanity consists not in a squeamish ear.' 

Mr. P. Abdie, of New Orleans, advertises in 
the New Orleans Bee, of January 29, 1838, for 
one of his female slaves, as follows; 

" Ranaway, the negro wench named Betsey, 
aged about 22 years, handsome-faced, and good 
countenance ; having the marks of the whip be- 
hind her neck, and several others on her rump. 



151 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



The above reward, (IBI^,) will bo ^vcn to who- 
over will bring thai winch to 1*. Abuik." 

The Nrw Orlrantt lliir, in which iho adv«!rti«c- 
mcnt of thiit Vandal appcara, ih th« 'OtfiiMal Ga- 
zotto of the Slatir — of the (jimral Council — and 
of tho firxl ami third Miinici|)alitifii of New Or- 
Icanii.' It iH the larjjfHt, and the moul influential 
paper in the noiith-wesleni HtalcM, and pcrhajw the 
moHt ably edited — and ha.H undoubtedly a larger 
cirnilalion than any other. It w a daily paper, 
of $1:3 a year, and itn circulation Ix-in^r mainly 
amon^ the larjjer nierchantu, plantem, and pro. 
fcfwinnal men, it in a fair index of the ' public 
opinion' of Louiniana, ho far bh represented by 
tiioso clafiscs of pernons. Advi-rtiBomcnta equally 
groBH, indecent, and abominable, or nearly bo, 
can be found in almost every number of that pa- 
per. 

Mr. William Rodinson, Georgetown, District 
of Columbia, advertised for his slave in the Na- 
tional Inlclligencer, of Washiiifjton City, Oct. 2, 
1837, as follows: 

" Eloped from my residcnec a yotin(j ncpress, 
22 years old, of a cheKinil, or brown color. She 
has a very tiinjfular mark — tins mark, to the best 
of my REcoLLKf'TiON, covcrs a part oihi^x hrcaMs, 
body, a.nA limits ; and when Iht neck and arms 
are uncovered, is very perceptible ; she has been 
frcjiucntly seen east and south of the Capitol 
Square, and i.s harbored by ill-disposed persons, of 
every complexion, for her services." 

Mr. JoiLV C. Bkaslky, near HunUvillc, Ala- 
bama, thus advertises a younp girl of eighteen, 
in the Iliintsville Democrat, of August 1st, 1S37. 
" Ranaway Maria, about 18 years old, very far 
advanced tcith child." lie then offers a reward 
to any one who will commit this young girl, in 
this condition, in jail. 

Mr. James T. Dk Jarnett, Vernon, Antauga 
CO. Alabama, thus advertises a woman in the 
Pensacola Gazette, July It, 18.18. " Cclia is a 
bright cojiper-colored nvgrvfi», fine figure and rrnj 
smart. On examining her back, you will find 
marks caused by the wliij)." He closes the advert- 
isement, by ofTering a reward of fire hundred dol. 
lam to any perstin who will lodge Ikt in jail, so 
that he can get her. 

A p<-nM)n who lives at 124 Chartres street. 
New Orleans, advertises in tlie ' Bee,' of May 
31, for '* the negrew Patience, about 28 years 
old, has large hipK, and is botclegged." A Mr. 
T.CiiijoY, in the same pa|>er, thus describes " the 
negres* Caroline." " She ha» atrkirnrd feet, 
elumni) ankles, turnt out her tors greatly in walk- 
ing, and hax a nore on her left »hin." 

In another, of June ^2, Mr. P. Bahi advcrtiws 
"Maiia, with a rkar white complexion, and double ' 
nipple on her right t/reaat." 

Mr. CiiARiKH (^RAioE, of Federal Point, New j 
llanovrr co. Norllj Carolina, in llio Wilmington I 



I Advcrti«cr, August 11, 1837, offew a reward fc 

I hiN Hiavc Jane, and vaya "the is far advanced i 

I pregnancy." 

I Tho New Orlcan* Kulletin, AuguM 18. 183f 
adverliscH '* the negrtwt .Mary, aged nineteen, ha 
a near on her face, walks parrot-tocd, and i 
pregnant." 

Mr. J. G. Mi-ia, of Grand Gtilf, Miwixxipp 
thuB advertincH a woman in the Vickbburg 11* gii 
ter, December 5, 163W. " Uanaway a negr 
girl — has a number of olack lumps on her breaati 
and is in a stale of pregnancy." 

Mr. Jacob Oesbon, Donaldaonville, lyiuisiana 
advertitiCB in the New Orleans Bee, .\ugu«t 'i 
1838, " the negro woman Victorino — she is aa 
vanced in pregnancy." 

Mr. J. II. Levericu 4. Co. No. 10, Old I>eve( 
New Orleans, advertises in the * Bulletin,' Janua 
ry 22, 1839, as follows. 

" §50 Reward. — Ranaway a negro girl nam 
Caroline about 18 years of age, is far advancti 
in child-bearing. The above reward will be paii 
for her delivery at cither of the j'a»7* of the city 

Mr. John Duggan, Uius advertises a woman ii 
the New Orleans Bee, of Sept. 7. 

'' Ranaway from the sulwcriber a mulatto wo 
man, named Esther, about tliirty rears of age 
lage stomach, vrTLUtu her upper front tcctb. aiu 
walks pigcon-tocd — supposed to be about tlx 
lower fauxbourg. 

Mr. Fra.vcis Foster, of Troup co. Georgia 
advertises in the Columbus (Ga.) Enquirer of 
June 22, 1837 — " My negro woman PaL«oy, liai 
a stoop in her walking, occasioned by a serert 
burn on her abdomen." 

The above arc a few specimens of tho grofw de 
tails, in describing the persons of females, of al 
ages, and the marks upon all parts of iheir bodies 
proving inconteslably, tiiat slaveholders arc in the 
habit not only of stripping their female slaves of 
their clotliing. and inflicting punishment rnn 
their 'shrinking flesli.' but of subjectint: I'lii 
naked persons to the most minute and rev ' ng 
inspection, and Uien of publishing to the v. <rld 
the results of tlieir examination, as well as lh< 
sears left by their own inflictions upon iliem, 
their length, si/.e.and exact position on the ! . It; 
and all this witJiout impairing in tJie Iea.<-t. 1)14 
standing in the community of the sham '.•.•m 
wretches who thus proclaim Uieir own alvi. :«. 
tions. That such things should not at all t 

the standing of such persons in society, > r- 
Ininly no man-el : how could lh>v afl*ect it. w iicn 
the same comniunilies enact laws requiring ihcjt 
own legal oflieers to inspect minutely the per. 
sons and Itoddy marks of all sLivea taken ";> af 
runaways, and to publish in the newspap' rs t 
particular disrriplion of all such mark'; ai .1 [Xw 
culiaritics of their pctvonSt their size, o 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



155 



position on the body, &,c. Yea, verily, when the 
• public opinion' of the community, in the solemn 
form of law, commands jailors, sheriffs, captains 
of police, «fcc. to "flivest of their clothing aged ma- 
trons and young girls, minutely examine their 
naked persons, and publish the results of their 
examination — who can marvel, that the same 
' public opinion' should tolerate the slaveholders 
tlicmselves, in doing the same things to their 
own property, which they have appointed legal 
officers to do as their proxies.* 

The zeal with which slavcholding 'public 
opinion^ protects the lives of the slaves, may be 
illustrated by the following advertisements, taken 
from a multitude of similar ones in southern pa- 
pers. To sliow that slavcholding ' public opinion' 
is the same now, that it was half a century ago, 
we will insert, in the first place, an advertisement 
published in a North Carolina newspaper, Oct. 
29, 1785, by W. Skinner, the Clerk of the 
County of Pcrquimous, North Carolina. 

" Ten silver dollars reward will be paid for ap 
prehcnding and delivering to me my man Moses, 
who ran away this morning ; or I will give five 
times the sum to any person who will make due 
proof of his being killed, and never ask a question 
to know by whom it was done." 

W. Skinner. 

Perquitnons County, N. C. Oct. 29, 1785. 

The late John Parrish, of Philadelphia, an 
eminent minister of the religious society of 
Friends, who traveled through the slave states 
about thirty-Jive years since, on a religious mis- 
sion, published on his return a pamphlet of forty 
pages, entitled ' Remarks on the Slavery of the 
Black People.' From this work we extract the 
following illustrations of ' public opinion' in 
North and South Carolina and Virginia at that 
period. 

" When I was traveling through North Caro- 
lina, a black man, who was outlawed, being shot 
by one of his pursuers, and left wounded in the 
woods, they came to an ordinary where I had 
stopped, to feed my horse, in order to procure a 
cart to bring the poor wretched object in. An- 
other, I was credibly informed, was shot, his 
head cut off, and carried in a bag by the perpe- 
trators of the murder, who received the reward, 

* As a sample of Ihese laws, we give the following ex- 
tract from one of the laws of Maryland, where slave- 
holding ' public opinion' exists in its mildest form. 

" It shall be tlie duty of the slieriffs of the several coun- 
ties of this state, upon any runaway servant or slave being 
commilted to his custody, to cause the same to be adver- 
tised, &c. and to make particular and minute descriptions of 
the person and bodily marks of such runaway." — Laics of 
Maryland of 1802, Chap. 96, Sec. 1 and 2. 

That the sheriffs, jailors, &c. do not neglect this part of 
their official ' duty,' is plain from the minute description 
which they give in the advertisements of marks upon all 
partsof the persons of females, as well as males; and also 
from the occasional declaration, ' no scars discoverable on 
any part,' or 'no marks discoverable about her;" which 
last is taken from an advertisement in the Milledgeville 
tGfio.) Jotirnal, June 26j 1838, signed 'T, S.Densler, Jailor.' 



which was said to be $200, continental curren- 
cy, and that his head was stuck on a coal house 
at an iron works in Virgmia — and this lor going 
to visit his wife at a distance. Crawford gives 
an account of a man being gibbetted alive in 
South Carolina, and the buzzards came and 
picked out his eyes. Another was burnt to 
death at a stake in Charleston, surrounded by a 
multitude of spectators, some of whom were 

people of the first rank ; the poor object 

was heard to cry, as long as he could breathe, 
' not guilty — not guilty.' " 

The following is an illustration of the ' public 
opinion' of South Carolina about fifty years ago. 
It is taken from Judge Stroud's Sketch of the 
Slave Laws, page 39. 

" I find in the case of ' the State vs. M'Gee,' 1 
Bay's Reports, 164, it is said incidentally by 
Messrs. Pinckney and Ford, counsel for the state 
(of S. C), ' that ihc frequency of the offence (wil- 
ful murder of a slave) was owing to the nature 
of the punishment,^ &c. . • . This remark was 
made in 1791, when the above trial took place. It 
was made in a public place — a court-house — and 
by men of great personal respectability. There 
can be, therefore, no question as to its truth, ajid 
as little of its notoriety." 

In 1791 the Grand Jury for the district of Che- 
raw, S. C. made a presentment, from which the 
following is an extract. 

" We, the Grand Jurors of and for the district 
of Cheraw, do present the inefficacy of the pre- 
sent punishment for killing negroes, as a great de 
feet in the legal system of this state : and we do 
earnestly recommend to the attention of the le- 
gislature, that clause of the negro act, which con- 
fines the penalty for killing slaves to fine and im- 
prisonment only: in full confidence, that they 
will provide some other more effectual measures 
to prevent the frequency of crimes of this na- 
ture." — Matthew Carey^s American Museum, for 
Feb. 1791.— Appendix, p. 10. 

The following is a specimen of the 'public opin- 
ion' of Georgia twelve years since. We give it in 
the strong words of Colonel Stone, Editor of 
the New- York Commercial Advertiser. We take 
it from that paper of June 8, 1827. 

" Hunting meiV with dogs. — A negro who had 
absconded from his master, and for whom a re- 
ward of !$100 was offered, has been apprehended 
and committed to prison in Savannah. The edi- 
tor, who states the fact, adds, with as much cool- 
ness as though there were no barbarity in the mat- 
ter, that he did not surrender till he teas consider 
ably MAIMED BY the dogs that had been set on 
him — desperately fighting them — one of which he 
badly cut with a sword." 

Twelve days after the publication of the pre- 
ceding fact, the following horrible transaction took 
place in Perry county, Alabama. We extract it 
from the African Observer, a monthly periodi- 
cal, published in Philadelphia, by the society of 
Friends. See No. for August, 1827. 

"Tuscaloosa, Ala. June 20, 1827. 

" Some time during the last week a Mr. M'Neil- 



166 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



\y having lort some clothing, or other properly of 
no grt^at vahie, tlir hIuvi: of a nci|;lil>uring plaiilc-r 
wa« chargtd witii tin; thift. M'Nciliy, iii Lompa- 
ny with hiH lirothcr, foiuui th<- ntgro driving hin 
niactrr'H wa(;i>n ; they m-i/cd liirii, and t-ilhrr did, 
or wrri: al>oiU to chuHti.Hi; him, vvlit-n lh<- n<'i;ro 
iitablM:d M'Ni'iily, ko tliat he died in an lioiir aftir- 
wanl*. 'I'hi' nugro waH taken before a juHlice of 
lhe'*^>'ari:, who travrd hiK aul/inrili/, perhaj>H 
tliruii^li fear, aH a rrnwd of perwiiiH )iad nollectcd 
to th<: nnnibtr of seventy or i iglity, near Mr. 
l'r<)|>ie's (the jiisliee) hollHe. Ilr arlcd an jircsi. 
ilrnt vf the tnufj, and |)iit llie vole, whrri it wad de- 
cided he should be ini mediately executed by brinp 
burnt to death. The bable culprit was led to a 
tree, and lied to it, and a large »iuaiilily of pine 
knots collected and placed around him, and the 
fatal torch ap|)lit'd to the pile, even airainHt the re- 
nu)nstranri-H of feveral gentlemen who were pre. 
sent ; and the miserable being waa in a short lime 
burned to aHhes. 

" This in the SECOND negro who has been 
THUS pul lo dcalb, wilhoul judge or jury, in Uiie 
counly." 

The following advertisements, lestimony, &c. 
will show that Ihc slaveholders of to.day arc the 
children of those who shot, and hunted with 
bloodhounds, and burned over slow fires, the 
slaves of half a century ago ; the worthy inherit- 
ors of their civilization, chivalry, and tender 
mercies. 

The "Wilmington (North Carolina) Adver- 
tiser" of July 13, 1838, contains the following ad- 
vertisement. 

" §100 will be paid to any person who may ap- 
prehend and safely confipe in any jail in this stale, 
a certain negro man, named Ai-Fueo. And the 
same reward will be paid, if satislaclory evidence 
is given of his having been killer. He has one 
or more scars on one of his hands, caused by his 
having been shot. 

"the citizens of ONSLOW. 

» Richlands, Onslow co. May 16th, 1838." 

In the same column with the above and direct- 
ly under it is the following : — 

"Ranawav my negro man Richard. Are- 
ward of .*i2."> will be paid for his apprehension 
DEAD or AI.IVE. Satisfactory proof will only 
be rerpiired of his being KIliLED. IJe has with 
hin>, in all |)rnbability, his wife Eliza, who ran 
away from Col. 'riioinpson, now a resident of Al. 
abama, about the time he commenced his journey 
to that state. di-rant h. rhooks." 

In the " Macon (Georgia) Telegraph," May 28, 
is the following : — 

" About the Isl of Mareh last the negro man 
Ransom left mi* without the least provocation 
whatever; I will give a reward of twenty doUam 
for »aiil negro, if taken i>kai> or alive, — and if 
killed in any attempt, an advance of five doUais 

will Im- paid. BRYANT JOIUHSO.N. 

" Cratrjord rn. Georgia." 
Sco the " Kewl»cm (N. C.) Spectator," Jan. 5, 
1338, for the following : — 

'' RANAWAY, from the subscriber, a negro 



man named SAMPSON. Fifty dollars reward 
will be given for the d< livery of him lo mc, or 
his contiiieinenl in any jail m> thcl I get hini, 
and shnidd he rehiitl in ix-int; taken, ivj that vio. 
lenee in ncceiwary to arrenl him, I will not hold 
any person liable for damages should the slave 
be KILLED. Enoch Fov. 

*' Jones County, N, C," 

From the " Macon (Ga.) Messenger," June 
11, 1^38. 

" To THE OWNERS OF ai KAWAV NEOHOES. A larfC 

mulatto Negro man, between thirty-five and 
forty years old, alwut hix feet in height, having 
a high forehead, and hair slightly grey, was 
Kii.LKO, mar my plantation, on the Ulh intit. He 
xrould vol surrender, but a.<ii>aulted Mr. Bowin, 
who killed him in self-defence. If the owner 
desires further information relative to the dcatii 
of his negro, he can obtain it by letter, or by 
calling on the subscribr ten miles fftuth of I'l rr , 
Houston county. Edu'd. Jab. McGehei . 

From tlie 'Charleston (S. C.) Courier,' Id 
20, 1836. 

" .S300 REWARD. Ranaway from the sub- 
scriber, in November last, his two negro men, 
named Billy and Pompey. 

" Hilly is 25 years old, and is known as the 
palroon of my lx)at for many years; in all pro. 
bability he may resist ; in that event 50 dollars 
will be paid for his HEAD." 

From the ' Newbem (N. C.) Spectator,' Dec. 
2. 1836. 

" .S 200 REWARD. Ranaway from the sub- 
scriber, about tlircc years ago, a certain negro 
man named Ben, commonly known by the name 
of Ben Fox. He had but one eye. Also, one 
other negro, by the name of Rigdon, who ran. 
away on the 8lh of this month. 

"I will jjive the reward of one hundred dollars 
for each of the above negroes, to be delivered to 
me or confined in the jail of Lonoir or Jones 
county, or for the killing of them, so that I 
CAN see them. W. D. Cobb." 

"In the same number of the Spectator two 
Justices of the Peace advertise the same run- 
aways, and give notice tliat if they do not iminc-. 
diately rettim to W. I). Cobb, ilieir master, tin v 
will be considered as outlaws, and any body mav 
kill them. The following is an extract from the 
proclamation of the jfsricKs. 

" And we do hereby, by virtue of an act of i!.o 
assembly of tins state, concerning S4<rvants and 
slaves, intimate and declare, if Uic said slavev do 
not surrender themsrlvcs and return home to 
tlieir master immediately after the publication f^f 
these pn's<Mits, that am/ person may ^'iH and dr. 
ftrny mil:! .^laren bij fvch means an he or t'.iy 
think jit, irilhnnt accusation or tmyrachmen! <■{ 
any crime or offence for n doinc, or without ;•:. 
curring any penalty or forfeiltire thereby. 

" (iiven under our hands and M-ald, this I'Jih 
November, 1836. 

" B. CoLKMAN. J. P. [Seal.' 
"Jas.Jonfs. J. P. [.»ical.] • 

On tiie J^iii, of April 1836. m tlic ciiy of St. 
Louis, Missouri, a black man, named Mcintosh, 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



157 



who had stabbed an officer, that had arrested him, 
was seized by the multitude, fastened to a tree 
ire the midst of the city, wood piled around him, 
and in open day and in the presence of an im- 
mense throng of citizens, he was burned to death. 
The Alton (111.) Telegraph, in its account of the 
scene says ; 

'' All was silent as death while the execution- 
ers were piling wood around their victim. He 
said not a word, until feeling that the flames had 
ssized upon him. He then uttered an awful 
howl, attempting to sing and pray, then hung 
his head, and suffered in silence, except in 
the following instance : — Aitev the flames had 
surrounded their prey, his eyes burnt out of his 
head, and his mouth seemingly parched to a 
cinder, some one in the crowd, more compassion. 
ate than the rest, proposed to put an end to his 
juisery by shooting him, when it was replied, 'that 
would be of no use, since he was already out of 
pain.' ' No, no,' said the wretch, ' I am not, I 
am suffering as much as ever ; shoot me, shoot 
me.' ' No, no,' said one of the fiends who was 
standing about the sacrifice they were roasting, 
' he shall not be shot. / would sooner slacken 
the fire, if that would increase his misery ;' and 
the man who said this was, as we understand, 

an OFiFICER OF JUSTICE !" 

The St. Louis correspondent of a New York 
paper adds, 

The shrieks and groans of the victim were 
lloud and piercing, and to observe one limb after 
■another drop into the fire was awful indeed. He 
iwas about fifteen minutes in dying. I visited 
jthe place this morning, and saw his body, or the 
[siremains of it, at the place of execution. He was 
1. burnt to a crump. His legs and arms were gone, 
and only a part of his head and body were left." 

Lest this demonstration of ' public opinion' 
should be regarded as a sudden impulse merely, 
not an index of the settled tone of feeling in that 
community, it is important^o add, that the Hon. 
Luke E. Lawless, Judge of the Circuit Court of 
Missouri, at a session of that Court in the city of 
St. Louis, some months after the burning of this 
man, decided officially that since the burning of 
Mcintosh was the act, either directly or by 
countenance of a majority of the citizens, it is ' a 
case which transcends the jurisdiction,' of the 
Grand Jury ! Thus the state of Missouri has 
proclaimed to the world, that the wretches who 
perpetrated that unspeakably diabolical murder, 
and the thousands that stood by consenting to it, 
were her representatives, and the Bench sancti- 
fies it with the solemnity of a judicial decision. 

The ' New Orleans Post,' of June 7, 1836, pub- 
lishes the following ; 

" We understand, that a negro man was 
lately condemned, by the mob, to be burned 
OVER A SLOW FIRE, which was put into execu- 
tion at Grand Gulf, Mississippi, for murdering a 
black woman, and her master." 



furnished us with an extract of a letter written by 
a gentleman in Mississippi to his brother in that 
village, detailing the particulars of the preceding 
transaction. The letter is dated Grand Gulf, 
Miss. August 15, 183G. The extract is as fol . 
lows : 

'' I left Vicksburg and came to Grand Gulf. 
This is a fine place immediately on the banks of the 
Mississippi, of something like fifteen hundred in- 
habitants in the winter, and at this time, I sup- 
pose, there are not over two hundred white inhabi- 
tants, but in the town and its vicinity there are 
negroes by thousands. The day I arrived at this 

place there was a man by the name of G 

murdered by a negro man that belonged to him. 

G was born and brought up in A , state 

of New York. His father and mother now live 

south of A . He has left a property here, it 

is supposed, of forty thousand dollars, and no fa- 
mily. 

" They took the negro, mounted him on a horse, 
led the horse under a tree, put a rope around his 
neck, raised him up by throwing the rope over a 
limb ; they then got into a quarrel among them- 
selves ; some swore that he should be burnt alive ; 
the rope was cut and the negro dropped to the 
ground. He immediately jumped to his feet ; 
they then made him walk a short distance to a 
tree ; he was then tied fast and a fire kindled, 
when another quarrel took place ; the fire was 
pulled away from him when about half dead, and 
a committee of twelve appointed to say in what 
manner he should be disposed of. They brought in 
that he should then be cut down, his head cut off, his 
body burned, and his head stuck on a pole at the 
corner of the road in the edge of the town. That 
was done and all parties satisfied ! 

" G owned the negro''s wife, and was in the 

habit of sleeping with her .' The negro said he 
had killed him, and he beheved he should be re- 
warded in heaven for it. 

"This is but one instance among many of a 
similar nature. S. S." 

We have received a more detailed account of 
this transaction from Mr. William Armstrong, of 
Putnam, Ohio, through Maj. Horace Nye, of that 
place. Mr. A. who has been for some years em- 
ployed as captain and supercargo of boats de- 
scending the river, was at Grand Gulf at the 
time of the tragedy, and w itnessed it. It v/as on the 
Sabbath. From Mr. Armstrong's statement, it ap- 
pears that the slave was a man of uncommon in- 
telligence ; had the over-sight of a large business 
— superintended the purchase of supplies for his 
master, &c. — that exasperated by the intercourse 
of his master with his wife, he was upbraiding 
her one evening, when his master overhearing 
him, went out to quell him, was attacked by the 
infuriated man and killed on the spot. The name 
of the master was Green ; he was a native of Au- 
burn, New York, and had been at the south but 
a few years. 

Mr. EzEKiEL BiRDSEYE, of Comwall, Conn., a 



Mr. Henry Bradley, of Pennyan, N. Y., has ' gentleman well known and highly respected in 



158 



ObjecUons Considered — Public Opinion. 



Litchfi'-ld county, wlioroaidi'd a nurabcr of year* 
in South Caruhiia, givca the following Ivaliiiio- 
ny:— 

"A mail by llic name of Walcru waa killed by 
bwalavc'H, ut NcwbcTry Dmtrirt. Three ol lh<-in 
were trii d brToro the eonrl, and ordered to Ik; 
burnt. I waH but a few niileHdlKlant at the time, 
and convemcd with thow who naw the execution. 
The HJaveH were tied to a Htake, and pitch pine 
wood pileil arounfl them, to which I hi- fire wax 
ConHiiiinieatt'd. ThoiiHamlH were coljeeled to 
witneHH thin harbarotiH traiiKaclion. Otlur rzecu. 
tiouK of till* kind took plare in various parls of 
the ttatr, durinfj my rrsidrnce in it, from 1H18 to 
1824. About three or four years ai;o, a yoiinp 
negro was burnt in Abbeville Di.slrict, for an al- 
tc'm|>l at rape." 

In the fall of 1^37. there was a rumnr of a pro- 
jected iMsurrrclion on the Red River, in Louiwia- 
na. Thu citizens forthwith seized and hanged 

NINE HLAVKS, AND TliRKK FIIKE COLOREO .ME.N, WITH- 
OUT TRIAL. A few inoiilliB previous to that trans, 
action, a olavc waa seized in a similar manner 
and publicly burned to death, in Arkan.^as. In 
July. 1835, the citizens of Madison county, Mi»- 
sini;<pl, were alarmed by rumors of an insurrcc. 
tion ' arrested five elaves and publicly executed 
tiiem without trial. 

The Mis.souri Republican, April 3f), 1838, gives 
the particulars of tlie deliberate murder of a negro 
man named Tom, a cook on board the steamboat 
Pawnee, on her passage up from New Orleans to 
St. Louis. Some of the facts stated by the Re- 
publican arc the following : 

" On Friday night, about 10 o'clock, a deaf 
and dumb tierman girl was found in the store- 
room with Tom. The door was locked, and at 
first Tom denied she was there. The girl's 
father camo. Tom unlocked the door, and 
the girl was found secreted in the rdom behind a 
barrel. Tlic ne.xt morning some four or live of 
the deck pastk'iigers spoke to the captain ai>out it. 
This was about breakfast time. Immediately 
after he left the deck, a nimiber of the deck jias- 
Rcngers rushed upon the negro, bound his arms 
behind his back and carried him forward to the 
bow of the boat. A voice cried out ' throw him 
overbiianl,' and was responded to from every 
quarter of the deck — and in an instant he was 
plung'd into the river. The whole scene of 
tying luin and throwing him overboard scarcely 
occupied Irn minntm, and was so precipitate that 
the ofheers were unabli- to interfere in time to 
save him. 

" There were b<Hween two hundred and fifty 
and three hundn-d passengers on board." 

The whole process <>f seizing Tom, dragging 
him upon cicck, binding his amisWhind his back, 
forcing him to tlie bow of the boat, and throwing 
biro overlKiard, occupied, the editor informs us, 
about Tv.s MiNrTKi', and of the two hnndrrd and 
fifty or three hundred deek pawongern, with perhaps 
an many cabin paiwen;^ers. it does not appear thai 
a tingle tnditiduat raised a finger to pretent Mm 



deliberate murder ; and the cry •• throw him over- 
board," wan it Hcema, "rcuponded to from every 
quarter of ihc deck I" 

Rev. Jamem a. Tiiomf., of Augusta, Ky., ton of 
Artliur Thome, K»q , till recently a slaveholder, 
publinhed five years since the following d< «('ri|>- 
tion of a scene witncsttcd by him in tivvf Or. 
leans : 

" In December of 1833, I landed at New ^V 

l<an», in the steamer W . It was after i -fit, 

dark and rainy. The passongers were call' •: ■ iit 
of the cabin, from the enjoyment of a fire, v i 'h 
the cold, damp atmosphr re rendered very con. rt- 
able, by a sudden shout of, 'catch him — < \i' h 
him — cateh the negro.' The cry was an^N' ■ •■ d 
by a huniired voices — ' Cateh him — kill him.' and 
a rush from every direction toward our Ixiat, in- 
dicated that the object of pursuit was near. The 
next moment we heard a man plunge into tho 
river, a few paces above us. A crowd galherr^l 
upon the shore, with lampn and stones, and clubs, 
still crying, ' catch him — kill him— catch him — 
shoot him.' 

" I soon discovered the poor man. He had 
taken refuge under the prow of another boat, and 
was standing in the water up to his waist. The 
anijry vociferation of his pursuers, did not intim- 
idate him. He defied them all. ' Don't yo': 
dare to come near me, or I wdl sink you in ll 
river.' lie was armed with despair. For :; 
moment the mob was palsied by the energ 
of his threatenings. They were afraid i.j 
go to him with a skiff, but a number of them 
went on to the boat and tried to seize him. They 
threw a noose rope down r«^|>ratedlv, that thetf 
might pull him up by the neck ! but he planted 
his hand firmly against the l>oat and daslied Uir 
rope away with his arms. One of them took :> 
long bar of wood, and leaning over the prow, cr- 
deavored to strike him on the head. The blo\\ 
must have shattered the skull, but it did not rcarii 
low enough. The monster raised up the heavy 
club again and said, *Come out now, you old rat^. 
eal, or die.' ' Strike,' said the negro; 'str 
shiver my brains noif ; I want to die ;' 
down went the club again, without st: . .4. 
This was repeated several times. The mob. ^' c- 
ing their effort.s fnntle.ss, became more en-.ij d 
and threatened to stone him, if he did not .<• 
der himself into their hands. He again ' 
them, and declared that he would drown h; 
in the river, before they should have him. 
then resorted to persuasion, and promiseri 
would not hurt him. ' I'll die first ;' was li - 
rrplv. Even the furious mob was awed, a; r 
a while stood dumb. 

" .\fler standing in the cold water for an 
the miserable being Ingan to fail. We oh- 1 

him gradually sinking — his voice grew M-e.i i 

tremulous — yet hi' eontinued to curse! 1 
midst of his oatlis he uttered broken scntr; 
• I liid'nt steal the meat — I did'nt steal — niv 
ter lives — master — master lives up the river — iiia 
voice iMgan to gurgle in his lhn>.it, and he was so 
chilled that his teeth ehaltcnd audibly) — I li •• nt 
— steal — I did'nt steal — inv — my master — ni\ - 
I want to SI e my master — I duin't — no — my ma» 
— you want — you want to kill me — I didn't steal 



« 



Ohjcctions Cmmdered — Public Opinion. 



159 



the' — IliH laHt wordH could juHt be heard an he 
BUiik luidrf tlif! wafer. 

" Dm intj tliis iiiduHcribablc Bccn(!, not our of the 

hundred I lint stood around made anij rjf'ort to nave 

< thr man until, he was apparrnllij drownrd. He 

\', .1 1 (lien (lra(fjfcd out and HlnHchcd on llic bow 

iji tlir bout, and Hoon Hudicii.-iit nicanH were iiHcd 

I 1] Ins ncDViry. The bnilal caiilaiii ordered liiiii 

In I) ■ liikrn oiriiiH boat — deelarinjj, with an oalli, 

I 111 be Would throw hitn into the riv<:r aj^ain, if 

• :is not iinniediattdy removed. 1 withdrew, 

and horrified with this ai»[)alliMjf e.vliibitiori 

ni w ifki'dnesH. 

" I F])f)n in(|iiiry, Ilcarned that tlic colored man 
Ir, I (I sr)nie fllty miles up the MisHHiasippi ; that he 
1 1,1 > I l)een ciiarfri-d with atealinii some artiele I'roni 
111 ■ wliarf; was fired upon with a pistol, and pur- 
^11 il l)y the mob, 

" In riflectinfr upon this unminfjled crucify — 
" lliis insensibility to Bufl'ering and disregard of life 
— 1 e.\claiined, 

' Ih there no flush in man's obdurate heart V 

One poor man, chased like a wolf by a hundred 
blood hounds, yelling, howling, and gnashing 
their teeth upon him — plunges into the cold river 
,0 seek protection \ A crowd of spectators wit- 
less the scene, with all the composure with 
,vhich a Roman populace would look upon a gla- 
liatorial show. Not a voice hoard in the sufferer's 
»ehalf. At length the powers of nature give way ; 
he blood flows back to the heart — tiie teeth 
ihatter — the voice trembles and dies, while tlic 
fictim drops down into his grave. 

" What an atrocious system is that which leaves 
wo millions of souls, friendless and powerless — 
lunted and chased — afflicted and tortured and 

til Iriven to death, without the means of redress. — 

i|[ Ifet such is the system of slavery." 

'™ The ' public opinion ' of slaveholders is illus- 
rated by scores of announcements in southern 

jj, )apers, like the following, from the Raleigh, (N. 

In Z.) Register, August 20, 1838. Joseph Gales 

b- ,nd Son, editors and proprietors — the father and 

'" )rothcr of t he editor of the National Intelligencer, 

^'°l IVashington city, D. C. 

J " On Saturday night, Mr. George Holmes, of 

g his county, and some of his friends, were in pur- 

jjjj uit of a runaway slave (the property of Mr. 

j(| ilolmes) and fell in with him in attempting to 

mij nake his escape. Mr. H. di.scliargcd a gun at 

(L lis legs, for the purpose of disabling him ; but un- 

j brtunately, the slave stumbled, and the shot 

'ij truck him near the small of the back, of which 

vound he died in a short time. The slave con- 

I . inued to run some distance after he was shot, 

, mtil overtaken by one of the party. We are sa- 

, jj isfied, from all that we can learn, that Mr. H. 

, iIj iad no intention of inflicting a mortal wound." 

icts- 



Oh ! the gentleman, it seems, only shot at his 

fs, merely to ' disable ' — and it must be expect. 

L id that every gentleman will amuse himself in 

hooting at his own property whenever the notion 

akes him, and if he should happen to liit a little 

t"' jigher and go througli tlie small of the back in. 

itead of the legs, why every body says it is ' un- 



fortunate,' and the wliolc of Uie editorial corpa, 
inHtcad of branding him aw a barl^arouH wntch for 
Bhuoting at liiit Hiave, whatever part he aimed at, 
join with the oldent editor in North Carolina, in 
complacently exonerating Mr. Holm(3fl by Hay- 
ing, " We arc Batihfied that Mr. H. had no inten- 
tion of inflicting a mortal wound." And ho ' pub- 
lie opinion' wrapH it up I 

Tile Franklin (La.) Republican, Au^Bt 19, 
1837, has the following: 

"Niir.ROKs Takkn. — Four gentlemen of thia 
vicinity, went out yestc rday for the purpose of 
finding the camp of some noted runawayn, Bup- 
posi.'d to be near this place ; the camp was disco- 
vered about 11 o'clock, the negroes four in num- 
ber, three men and one woman, finding they 
were discovered, tried to make their escape 
through the cane ; two of them were fired on, one 
of wliieh made his escape ; the other one fell after 
running a short distance, his wounds arc not sup- 
posed to be dangerous ; the other man was taken 
without any hurt ; the woman also made her es- 
cape." 

Thus terminated the morning's amusement of 
the * four gentlemen,^ whose exploits are so com • 
placently chronicled by the editor of the Franklin 
Republican. The three men and one woman 
were all fired upon, it seems, though only one of 
them was shot down. The half famished runa- 
ways made not the least resistance, they merely 
rushed in panic among the canes, at the sight of 
their pursuers, and the bullets whistled afterthem 
and brought to the ground one poor fellow, who 
was carried back by his captors as a trophy of 
the ' public opinion' among slaveholders. 

In the Macon (Ga.) Telegraph, Nov. 27, 1838, 
we find the following account of a runaway's den, 
and of the good luck of a ' Mr. Adams,' in run- 
ning down one of them 'with his excellent dogs :' 

" A runaway's den was discovered on Sunday 
near the Washington Spring, in a little patch of 
woods, where it had been for several months, so 
artfully concealed under ground, that it was de- 
tected only by accident, though in sight of two 
or three houses, and near the road and fields 
where there has been constant daily passing. 
The entrance was concealed by a pile of pine 
straw, representing a hog bed — which being re- 
moved, discovered a trap door and steps that led 
to a room about six feet square, comfortably ceiled 
with plank, containing a small fire-place the flue 
of which was ingeniously conducted above ground 
and concealed by the straw. The inmates took 
the alarm and made their escape ; but 3Ir. -Vdams 
and his excellent dogs being put upon the trail, 
soon run down and secured one of them, which 
proved to be a negro fellow who had been out 
about a year. He stated that the other occupant 
was a woman, who had been a runaway a still lon- 
ger time. In the den was found a quantity of 
meal, bacon, com, potatoes, &.C., and various 
cooking utensils and wearing apparel." 

Yes, I\Ir. Adams' ' excei.lf.nt dogs ' did the 
work! They were well trained, swift, fresh, 



160 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



kcpn-nrrntcd, 'rxccllrnt' mcii-liuntcrB, and 
tliou<rh the poor fugitive in liin frenzied rush for 
liberty, Btraincd every inuKcle, yet they pained 
upon him, a?ul after daahini; tliroufjh fenw, hrier. 
beds, and the taiijjled undergrowth till faint and 
torn, lie sinka, and the blood-hounds are upon 
him. What blood-vcnselH the poor Htruggler burst 
in his desperate push for life — how much he was 
bruised and lacerated in his plunpc through the 
forest, or how much the dogs tore him, the Macon 
editor has not chronicled — they are matters of no 
moment — but his heart is touched with the merits 
of Mr. Adams' ' exceli.t.nt uogs,' that ' soon run 
down and secured ' a guiltless and trembling hu. 
man creature ! 

The Georgia Constitutionalist, of Jan. 1837, 
contains the following letter from the coroner of 
Barnwell District, South Carolina, dated Aiken, 
S. C. Dec. 20, 1836. 
" To the Editor of the Constitutionalist : 

" I have just returned from an inquest I held 
over the body of a negro man, a runaway, that 
was shot near the South Edisto, in this District, 
(Barnwell,) on Saturday last. He came to his 
deatli by his own recklessness. He refused to be 
taken alive — and said that other attempts to take 
him had been made, and he was determined that 
he would not be taken. He was at first, (when 
those in pursuit of him found it absolutely neces- 
sary,) shot at with small shot, with the intention 
of merely crippling him. He was shot at several 
times, and at last he was so disabled as to be 
compelled to surrender. He kept in the run of a 
creek in a very dense swamp all the time that 
the neighbors were in pursuit of him. As soon 
as the negro was taken, the best medical aid was 
procured, but he died on the same evening. One 
of the witnesses at the Inquisition, stated that the 
negro boy said he was from Mississippi, and bc- 
long(ul to so many persons, that he did not know 
who his master was, but again he said his mas- 
ter's name was Brown. He said his name was 
Sam, and when asked by another witness, who 
his master was, he muttered something like Au- 
gusta or Augustine. The boy was apparently 
above thirty-five or forty years of age, about six 
feet high, slightly yellow in the face, very long 
beard or whiskers, and very stout built, and a 
stern countenance; and appeared to have been a 
runaway for a long time. 

" William 11. PiiiTciiAnn, 
" Coroner (Ex-officio,) Barnwell Dist. S. C. 

The Norfolk (Va.) Herald, of Feb. 1837, has 
the following : 

"Three negroes in a ship's yawl, came on 
Bhoro yesterday evening, near New Point Com- 
fort, and were soon after apprehctuli'd and lodged 
in jail. Their story is, that tlu-y belonged to a 
brig from New York bound to Havana, whirh 
was cast awav to the southward of Cape Henry, 
pome dav last week ; that the brig was railed the 
Maria, Captain Whittemorc. I have no doubt 
they are desert! rs from some vessrl in the bay, as* 
their stat. inents are verv confused and inconsist- 
ent. One of these fellows is a mulatto, and calls 



^ 



himself Isaac Turner; the other two are quite 
black, the one paNsiiig by the name of Jamea 
Jones and the other John Murray. They have 
all their clothing with fix m, and arc dresstd in 
sea-faring apparel. They attemptf-d to make 
their escape, and it ircm not till a musket teas fired 
at t/irrn, and one of them uli^htli/ wounded, that 
they surrendered. They will be kept in jail till 
something further is discovered rcBpecting thern." 

The ' St. Francisvillc (La.) Chronicle,' of 
Feb. 1, 1839. Gives the following account of a 
' negro hunt,' in that Parish. 

'* Two or three days since a gentleman of thii 
^2.i\B\\,'m huntini; runaway negroes, eame upon 
a camp of them in the swamp on Cat Island. 
He succeeded in arresting two of them, but the 
third made fight ; and upon bdng shot in the 
shoulder, fled to a sluice, where the dogn ftur- 
cceded in drowning him before assistance could 
arrive." 

" The dogs succeeded in drowning him" ! Poor 
fellow ! He tried hard for his life, plunged into 
the sluice, and, with a bullet in his shoulder, and 
the blood hounds unfleshing his bones, he bore up 
for a moment with feeble stroke as best lie might, 
but ' public opinion,' ' succeeded in drowning 
him,' and the same ' public opinion,' calls the 
man who fired and crippled him, and cheered on 
the dogs, ' a gentleman,' and the editor who cele 
brates the exploit is a ' gentleman' also !" 

A large number of extracts similar to the 
above, might here be inserted from Southern 
newspapers in oiu possession, but the foregoing 
are more than sufficient for our purpose, and we 
bring to a close the testimony on this point, with 
the following. Extract of a letter, from the Rev 
Samuel J. May, of South Scituate, I\Iass. dated 
Dec. 20, 1838. 

" You doubtless recollect the narrative given 
in the Oasis, of a slave in Georgia, who having 
ranaway from his master, (accoimtcd a very 
hospitable and even humane gentleman,) was 
hunted by his master and his retainers with 
horses, dogs, and rifles, and having been driven 
into a tree by the hounds, was shot down by his 
more cruel pursuers. All the tacts there given, 
and some others equally shocking, connected 
with the same case, were first communicated to 
me in 1833, by Mr. W. Russell, a higlily rcBpect- 
able teacher of youth in Bcjston. He is doubt- 
less ready to vouch for them. The same gentle- 
man informed me that he was kee]>ing school on 
or near the plantation of the monsti r who per- 
petrated the above outrage upon humanity, that 
he was even invited by him to join in the hunt, 
and when he expressed al>horrence at the thought,: 
the plnnter holding up the rifle which he had in 
his hand said with an oath, ' damn tliat rascal, 
this is the third time he has runaway, and h» 
shall never run again. I'd rather put a ball into 
his side, than into tlu- best buck in tlie land.'" 

^Ir. Russell, in the account given by him of 
this tragedy in the ' Oasis,' page 2()7, thus de- 
scribes the slaveholder who made the above ex- 
pression, and was tlic leader of the * hunt,' mi 



Ohjcctions Considered — Public Opinion. 



161 



m whose family he resided at tlic time as an in- 
structor ; lie Bays of liim — He was "an opulent 
pkntcr, in whoso family the evils of slaveholding 
were palliated by every expedient that a humane 
and generous disposition could suggest. lie 
was a man of noble and elevated character, and 
distinguished for his generosity, and kindness of 
heart." 

In a letter to Mr. May, dated Feb. 3, 1839, 
Mr. Ilussell, speaking of the hunting of run- 
aways with dogs and guns, says : "Occurrences 
of a nature similar to tlie one related in the 
* Oasis,' were not unfrequent in the interior of 
Georgia and South Carolina twenty years ago. 
Several such fell under my notice within the 
space of fifteen months. In two such ' hunts,' 
I was solicited to join." 

The following was written by a sister-in-law of 
jGerrit Smith, Esq., Peterboro. She is married to 
the son of a North Carolinian. 

" In North Carolina, some years ago, several 

"I ^aves were arrested for committing serious 

ill Brimes and depredations, in the neighborhood of 

Wilmington, among other things, burning houses, 

I,, md, in one or more instances, murder. 

'• It happened that, the wife of one of these slaves 

' 'esided in one of the most respectable families in 

iV. in the capacity of nurse. Mr. J. the first 

awyer in the place, came into the room, where 

hi he lady of the house was sitting, with the nurse, 

H vho held a child in her arms, and, addressing 

;he nurse, said, Hannah ! would you know your 

usband if you should see him ? — Oh, yes, sir, 

'" he replied — when he drew from beneath his 

" ILOAK the head OF THE SLAVE, at the sight of 

Ivhich the poor woman immediately fainted. The 

lei leads of the others were placed upon poles, in 

ome part of the town, afterwards known as 

Negro Head Point.' " 

We have just received the above testimony, en- 

jlosed in a letter from Mr Smith, in which he 

ays, " that- the fact stated by my sister-in-law, 

tually occurred, there can be no doubt." 

The following extract from the Diary of the 

.ev. Elias Corneuus, we insert here, having 

l(j|ieglected to do it under a preceding head, to 

»?hich it more appropriately belongs. 

fd I " New Orleans, Sabbath, February 15, 1818. 

kt Sarly this morning accompanied A. H. Esq. to 

he hospital, with the view of making arrange- 

f hents to preach to such of the sick as could un- 

.erstand English. The first room we entered 

iresented a scene of human misery, such as I 

tad never before witnessed. A poor negro man 

'.'as lying upon a eoueh, apparently in great dis- 

ress ; a more miserable object can hardly be 

onceived. His face was much disfigured, an 

RON COLLAR, TWO INCHES WIDE AND HALF AN 
VCH THICK, WAS CLASPED ABOUT HIS NECK, while 

ne of his feet and part of the leg were iu a state 
f putrefaction. We inquired the cause of his 
eing in this distressing condition, and he an- 
wered us in a faltering voice, that he was will- 
ag to tell us all the truth. 

" He belonged to Mr. a Frenchman, ran- i 

11 



away, was caught, and punished with one liun- 
drcd lashes I This happened about Christmas ; 
and during the cold weather at that time, luj 
was confined in the Cane-house, with a Hcanty 
portion of clothiufr, and without fire. In this 
situation his foot had frozen, and mortified, and 
having been removed from place to place, ho 
was yesterday brought jiere by order of his new 
master, who was an American. I had no time 
to protract my conversation witli him then, but 
resolved to return in a few hours and pray with 
him. * * 

" Having returned home, I again visited the 
hospital at half jjast eleven o'clock, and concluded 
first of all [he was to preach at 12,] to pray with 
the poor lacerated negro. I entered the apart- 
ment in which he lay, and observed an old man 
sitting upon a couch ; but, without saying any. 
thing went up to the bed-side of the negro, who 
appeared to be asleep. I spoke to him, but he 
gave no answer. I spoke again, and moved his 
head, still he said nothing. My apprehensions 
were immediately excited, and I felt for his pulse, 
but it was gone. Said I to the old man, ' surely 
this negro is dead.' ' No,' he answered, ' he has 
fallen asleep, for he had a very restless sea- 
son last night.' I again examined and called 
the old gentleman to the bed, and alas, it was 
found true, that he was dead. Not an eye had 
witnessed his last struggle, and I was the first, 
as it should happen, to discover the fact. I call- 
ed several men into the room, and without cere- 
mony they wrapped him in a sheet, and carried 
him to the dead-house as it is called." — Edwards^ 
Life of Rev. Elias Cornelius, pp. 101, 2, 3. 

THE PROTECTION EXTENDED BY ' PUBLIC OPINION,' 
TO THE HEALTH* OF THE SLAVES. 

This may be judged of from the fact that it is per- 
fectly notorious among slaveholders, both North 
and South, that of the tens of thousands of slaves 
sold annually in the northern slave states to be 
transported to the south, large numbers of them 
die under the severe process of acclimation, all 
suffer more or less, and multitudes much, in their 
health and strength, during their first years in 
the far south and south west. That such is the 
case is sufficiently proved by the care taken by all 
who advertise for sale or hire in Louisiana, 
Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, &c. &c. to 
inform the reader, that their slaves are ' Creoles,' 
' southern born,' country born,' &c. or if they are 
from the north, that they are ' acclimated,' and the 
importance attached to their acclimation, is shown 
in the fact, that it is generally distinguished from 
the rest of the advertisements either by italics or 
CAPITALS. Almost every newspaper published in 
the states far soutli contains advertisments like the 
following. 

From the " Vicksburg (Mi.) Register," Dec. 
27, 1838. 

" I OFFER my plantation for sale. Also seven- 
ty.five acclimated Negroes. O. B. Cobb." 

From the " Sonlherner,".Tune 7, 1837. 

" I WILL sell iny Old-River plantation near Co- 
* See pp. 37-39. 



162 



OlQCcUons Considered — Public Opinion. 



Iumb>a in ArkanMJi :— ftlRo ONH lUNDrtKI) i 
AND TIIIHTV A( (^LI.MATKI) SLAVIIS. 

UtNJ. lllOIIKJt." 

Port (Ubion, Jan. M, 1837. 

From ihn " Plantcni' (La.) Intclligcncrr," 
Marrli '.'•-'. 

*■ I'rubalo Mtlc — Will be ofllrrd for iitir al 
Publx' Aurlioii. to iho hl|;liriit bidder, O.NK 
IIUNDUED ANDTIIIIITV nrr/im„/r,/ i.liive«." 

(i. \V. KtTTOM. 

Jiidf^r of till.- I'armh of CinK-ordta." 
From the " Arkanaaa Adrocatc," May 22, 
1837. 

" Dv virtue of a Deed of Truiit, executed to me, 

I will Hfll at public auction at Ki^licr'ii Prairie, 
ArkaiisaH, dixtv UKilLY ?> lUiliOIlS, conhist- 
ine of Men, Women, lioyii and Uirla, l)ic moKt of 
whom aro well aci limatkd. 

Gha.nuiho.n D. Rovhtok, 
Truttft." 

Troin the " New Orleans Dec," Feb. 9, 1838. 

" VAI.l'ABLK ACCLIMATKD Nr.«ROt:i<." 

" Will {hi Hold on 'Saturday, lOth inbt. at 12 
o'clock, at thu city excliange, .St. Louis street." 

Then follows a description of the slaves, closing 
wilh the same awH-rtion, which forms the cap. 
lion of the advertiMiiicnt " all acclimated." 

General Felix Houston, of Natchez, advertises 
in the " NalcliL-/ Courier," April 6, 1^3^, " Thir- 
ty five very fine acclimated Negroes." 

Without inserting more advertisements, suf- 
fice it to say, that when slaves arc advertised for 
•ale or hire, in the lower southern country, if they 
aro tic/ iff s, or have lived in thai region long 
enough to become acclimated, it is invariably 
■latcd. 

But wc arc not left to cmxjci^turc the amount 
of sulfiring exiiericnced by slaves from the north 
in undergoing the severe process of ' seasoning* 
to the climate, or ' acclimation.' A writer in the 
Now Orleans Argus, .*^cptcmber, \b30, in an arti. 
ric on the culture of the sugarcane, says : ' The 
loas by deatK m bringing slaves from a northern 
climate, which our plantern an- under the necea- 
■ity of doing, is not less thau twk.xtv-fivk pkr 

OBMT.' 

Nothwithstanding the immense amount of 
suffering endured in the proc4'ss of acclimation, 
and the fearful waste of life, and the nolori- 
tly of this fact, still the ' public opinion' of 
Virginia, Marylund, Delaware, Kentucky, Mis- 
aouri, <Jcc. annually i>rivi-m tn tin* far south, thoif 
•ands of their slaves to undergo ttiofc suiTehnga, 
and (he * public opinion,* of the far south buys 
them, and forcca tlio hclpln«i victims to endure 
them. 

TtiE * moracTioK," ToircinurcD ■r 'rfauc on\- 

ION,' TO MIRRTT. 

This is shown by hundreds of adrertiacmcnt^ 
m southrni papers, like the following ; 



From the •' Mobih- Krguitrr." July 21. 1837- 
•• WIU. BK .SOLD ( IIKAP K)U CASH, m 
front of the Court IIoiik'- of .Mobile County, on 
the tt'iA dav of July next, one mulatto man 
named HHS'KV IIALI^ who strs itr t« rare ; 
bis owner or owiicra. tf any,\>^ lu <!< . 

mand him, bo u to be sold '• Uic 

statute m such cases made aixi i<ri,\\tii- }, to pay 
Jail ftti. Wm. Maoek. Sb'ff M. C." 

From the •• Grand Gulf (Mim.) AdTcrtiacr," 
Dec. 7. I83H. 

'• COMMITTED to ti f 

Edmund. Martha. John :■ 

the woman 3.'», John 3 y<... . i- .1 

monliis. They say tiicy are racK and «'r' <: ■ 
coyed to this state." 

llio " .Soothcm Argua," of July 25, 1837, con 
tains the ffillowiny. 

" U.\N.\W.\Y from my plantation, a negro 
boy named William. iSaid boy was taken up by 
Thoma» Walton, and says kt 'sas frre, an<. ui»t 
his parents live near JSliawneelown, Illinois, j-.d 
that \m: wax taken from that place in July I '< : 
says his father's nam>- is William, and hi« »>■ :. ■'* 
."^ally Brown, and tlut il: I • 

rick>l)iirg, Virginia. F w ! . !t> 

anv p<'r»on who will dcii.-i -ai.. i.j, u, i r 

Col. Byrn, Columbua. SAMUEL H. BYRN 

The first of the following advcrtiM nn nls wa* ■■> 
standing one, in llie " Vickshurg Register," frotj 
Dec. 1B3j till Aug. 1836. The second adrcrtis< 
the same frek man for sale. 

".sHF-RirFS.«ALE.- 

•' C0MMITTF:1). to ih.- jail of Wanm cotm. 

ty, as a Runaway. <»n lh> -3,1 • • ^ V ^' 

who calls himsilf John J. Rol ' 

i5//«, says tJiat he kept aba > • 

lumbus, Miss, and that he pcdtiii d litruu^^h lii- 
Chickasaw nation to Pontotoc, and came ti 
.Memphis, where he sold his hors<', took -.'..i'.r. 
and came to this place. The own< r of f.i 
is request! d to come forward, prove pmptriy. j- «v 
eliarires. and take him away, or he will be dca!; 
with as the law dirtct*. 

W>'. rvFRnr, Jailer. 

Dec. 24, 183..." 

•' NOTICE IB herrby given, that the abovr 
described l>oy, who calls himself John J. Robin- 
son, having been cnnllncd in the Jail of Warr< i. 
county as a Runaway, for six months — and ha v. 
ing Intn n gularly advertised durmgthis p'T'd, 
I sliall prtM'eed to sell said Negro boy at ; . . c 
auction, to the highest bidiier for cash, a" 'lie 
door of the Court House in Vicksburg, on Mon. 
day, Isl day of August, 1836, in por»uanee of 
tlioslatnlein such cases made and pmvided. 

E. W. Morris, .»<heriff. 

Vitki^urg, Julf 2. 1836.- 

8rc •' Newbum (N. C.) Fpeclator," of Jan. 5, 
1H3h, f,>r the following ad%Trlu«f mrnt. 

" RAN.\W.\Y, from the se,!><-chl>rr a negrt) 
in«n known as Frank Pilot, lie is Am Oct 
eiliht inches high, dark com pie t ion. and . '• 'iil 

•SO- ' '. 'US SKRX mcr ■<;> ■ t~-vi . ^ 

III . as beir at law r. 

6'. .' ;, H, dec. I will ^ :.j- 



OhJRClions Considered — Public Ojjitiion. 



163 



ward if he Ih taken and cofifirifd in uny j:iil ho 
tliat I can gel him. Sami;i;i, HalhtoN. 

I'actoinH, I'itt (bounty." 
From the Tuscaloosa (Ala.) '' Fia;,' of the 
Union," Juno 7. 

"COMMITTKD to tho Jail of TuHcaloosa 
county, a ncfrro man, who nays his name is 
Robert Winlicid, and uiys ha is free. 

li. \V. DAiiuiia, Jailer." 

That " public opinion," in the slave slates af- 
fords no protection to tiio liberty of colored per- 
sons, even after those persons become legally free, 
by tho operation of their own laws, is declared 
by Governor Comejrys, of Delaware, in his re- 
cent address to the f.jogislaluro of that stale, Jan. 
1839. The Governor, conimontini;; upon llie 
law of the state which provides that persons con- 
victed of certain crimes shall be sold as servants 
for a limited time, says, 

'' The case isioidely different with the negro (.') 
Although ordered to be disposed of as a servant 
for a term of years, perpelital slavery in the south 
is his inevitable doom ; unless, pcradventure, age 
or disease may have rendered him worthless, or 
some resident of tho State, from motives of hcnevo. 
leticc, will pay for him three or four times his 
intrinsic iialue. It matters not for how short a 
time he is ordered to be sold, so that he can be 
carried from the State. Once beyond its limits, 
all chance of restored freedom is gone — for he is 
removed far from the reach of any testimony to 
aid him in an effort to be released from bondage, 
when his legal term of servitude has expired. 
Of the many colored convicts sold out of the State, 
it is believed none ever return. Of course they 
are purchased tcith the express view to their trans- 
portation for life, and bring such enormous 
prices as to prevent all competition on the part of 
those of our citizens who require their services, 
and would keep them in the State." 

From the " Memphis (Ten.) Enquirer," Dec. 
28, 1838. 

'* $50 Reward. Ranaway, from the subscri- 
ber, on Thursday last, a negro man named Isaac, 
22 years old, about 5 feet 10 or 11 inches high, 
dark complexion, well made, full face, speaks 
quick, and very correctly for a negro. He was 
originally from New-York, and no doubt will at- 
tempt to pass himself as free, I will give the 
above reward for his apprehension and delivery, 
or confinement, so that I obtain him, if taken 
out of the state, or $ 30 if taken within the state. 
Jno. Simpson. 
Memphis, Dec. 28." 

Mark, with what shameless hardihood this Jno. 
Simpson, tells the public that he knew Isaac 
"Wright was a free man ! ' He was originally 
from New York,' he tells us. And yet he adds 
with brazen effrontery, ' he will attempt to pass 
himself as free.'' This Isaac Wright, was ship- 
ped by a man named Lewis, of New Bedford, 
Massachusetts, and sold as a slave in New Or- 
leans. After passing through several hands, and 
being flogged nearly to death, he made his escape, 



and five days ago, (March 5,) returned to bia 
friends in I'hiladeljiliia. 

From th<; " Haltiinorn Sun,** Dec. 23, \fi3H. 

" Frkk Nkokoks. — M':rry Ewall, a krkk .NK<;no, 
from Virginia, waw coinmilt<.d to jail, at Snow 
Hill, Md. last wi;ck, for remaining in the Statu 
longer than is allowed by the law of lH3\. The 
fine in his case amounts toS225. Capril I'urneil, 
a negro from Delaware, is now in jail in the 
same place, for a violation of the game act. 
His fine amounts to four tiioi;sa\d ooi.lars, and 

he WILL UE SOLD IN A SHORT TIME." 

The following is the decision of the Supreme 
Court, of Louisiana, in the case of Gomez vs. 
Bonneval, Martin's La. Reports, fiSG, and Wheel- 
er's '' Law of Slavery," p. 380-1. 

Marginal remark of tha Compiler. — " A slave 
docs not become free on his being illegally im- 
ported into the stalt." 

" Per Cur. Dcrbigny, J. The petitioner is a 
negro in actual state of slavery ; he claims his 
freedom, and is bound to prove it. In his at- 
tempt, however, to show that he was free before 
he was introduced into this country, he has failed, 
so that his claim rests entirely on the laws prohibit- 
ing the introduction of slaves in the United 
Slates. That the plaintiff was imported since 
that prohibition does exist is a fact sufficiently 
established by the evidence. What right he has 
acquired under the laws forbidding such importa- 
tion is the only question which we have to ex- 
amine. Formery, while t'.ie act dividing Louisiana 
into two territories was in force in this country, 
slaves introduced here in contravention to it, 
were freed by operation of law ; but that act was 
merged in the legislative provisions which were 
subsequently enacted on the subject of importa- 
tion of slaves into the United States generally. 
LTnder the now existing laws, the individuals thus 
imported acquire no personal right, they are 
mere passive beings, who are disposed of accord- 
ing to the will of the different state legisla- 
tures. In this country they arc to remain slaves, 
and TO BE SOLD for the benefit of the state. 
Tho plaintiff, therefore, has nothing to claim as a 
freeman ; and as to a mere change of master, 
should such be his wish, he cannot be listened to 
in a court of justice." 

Extract from a speech of Mr. Thomson of Penn. 
in Congress, March 1, 1826, on the prisons in 
the District of Columbia. 

" I visited the prisons twice that I might my- 
self ascertain the truth. * * In one of these 
cells (but eight feet square.) were confined at 
tliat time, seven persons, three women and four 
children. The children were confined nndci a 
strancp system of law in this District, by which 
a colored person who alleges he is free, and 
appeals to the tribunals of the country, to have 
the matter tried, Iscojimitted to prison, till tho 
decision takes place. Tliey were almost naked • 
one of them was sick, lying on the damp brick, 
floor, without bed, pillow, or covering. In this 
abominable cell, seven human beings were con- 
fined day by day, and night after night, without 
a bed, chair, or stool, or any other of the most 



164 



OhjccUona Considered — Public Opinion. 



common nccoM&rim of life." — OaUif Congrta- 
tional DrhateB, v. 'J, |i. 14t^. 

The followiiijj fttcU iM-n-c to iiliow, that the pre. 
M-nl Krnermtion ol' Hlavuholili-rn do but folluw in 
Uic fu<itNtt'pii iif tlictr fatliLTn, in thuir ztal fur 
LIUKKI V. 

Cxtrai-t Iroiii a dicumcnt mibmittcd by the 
Commitfco of tho yrarly meeting of Fricndii in 
Pbilail"l|ihia, to tlic ('ommittec of Congr* »». to 
whom W.1.S rcfurrrd the mcaiurial of tho people 
called l^uakiTH, in 17<J7. 

" III llic latl<r part of the year ITTO, Hcvcral of 
the poopli' callfd IjnakcTH, rcHidinjj in the roun- 
ticit of I'crquiiii;in8 and I'a)*(|iiotank, in the ntatc 
of North Carolina, libtraterj their negroes, as it 
wa« then rirar there wan no e.xid'inir law lo pre- 
vent tliiir ko doin^; for tin- law of 1711 <iiiild not 
at that tinii- Ik; carried into effect; and tlii-y were 
Buffered to remain free, until a law passed, in the 
ppring «>f 1777, under wliieh they were taken up 
and sold, contrary to the Hill of Rigliti, recog. 
nized in the cnnNtitution of that ntatc, as a part 
thereof, and to which it was annexed. 

*' In the spring of 1777, when the General As- 
srmbly met for the first time, a law was enacted 
to prevent slaves from beii-.tj cmancipati-d, except 
for meritorious ser^icen, <Slc. to be judired of by ! 
the county courts or the general assembly I and [ 
ordering, that if any should be manumitted in I 
any other way, they be taken up, and the countv 
Cf)urts within whose jurisdictions they are appri'- 
lunded should order them to be sold. Under this | 
law the county courts of IVrquinians and Pasquo- I 
tank, in the year 1777, ordered a large NusinKR 

OF PERSONS TO BE SOLI), WHO WERE FREE AT THE 

TIME THE LAW WAS MADE. In thc year 1778 seve- 
ral of those cases were, by certiorari, brought be- | 
fore the superior court for the district of Eden- 
torn, where the decisions of thc county courts 
were reversed, the superior e(>urt declaring, that 
Kaid county courts, in such tin ir proceedings, 
have exceeded their jurisdiction, violated thc 
rights of the subject, and acted in direct opposi- 
tion to thc Bill of Rights of this state, considered 
justly as part of the constitution thereof; by giv. 
ing to a law, not intended to affect this case, a 
retrospective operation, thereby to deprive free, 
men of this state of their libcriy, contrary to the 
laws of the land. In consequence of this decree 
wvtTal iif the negroes were again s«-t at liberty ; 
hut th(^ next (ieneral Assembly, earlv in 1779, 
passed a law. wherein they mention, tliat doubts 
have ariM-n, wlielher the purchasers of such slaves 
have a good and legal title thereto, and confiru 
Uie same ; under which they were again taken 
up bv the pureliasers and reduced to slavery." 

[I'he number of persons thus re-enslaved was 
IW.] 

Thc frdlowing arc llie decrees of thc Coiirta, 
ordering the sale of those freemen : — 
" Perquimans CtMmty, July term, at Hartford, 

A. 1). 1777. 

" These niav certifv, that it was then and there 
ordered, that llie sheritVof tho cotmty, lo.mnrrow 
morning, at ten o'elnek, ex|H>»c to sale, to the 
highest bidder, for ready iiioney,at the court-bouK 



door, the several negroes tjJien up m free, aod in 
his custody, agreeable to law. 

"'lest. Wm. Skinnek, Clerk. 

" A true copy, 25ll» Augunt, 1791. 

"TcsU J. IIarvet, Clerk." 

" Pasquotank County, September Court, ice. &c 
1777. 

" Prew nt, the Worsliipful Thomas Bovd, Tim- 
othy Ilickiton, John Faclin, Kdmund Chancer, 
J>')M{ih U<a<i.i^^', and Thomas Uces, Eiqra. Jus> 
tices. 

" It was then and there ordered, that Thomu 
Reading, Est), take the >: ^ taken up 

under an act to prevent i: >irr> ctions 

and other puqKJses, and t i,. . ^iij< lo t/i» 

hrnt hijflrr, at public vendue, for ready mon< v, 
and be aeeountabli- for the same, agreeable to tho 
aforesaid act ; and make return to thisorthc next 
succeeding court of his proceedings. 

" A copy. E.Nocii Keesr, C. C." 

THE PROTECTIO.V OF " Pl'BIJC OFIXIOJt" TO 
noMESTICS TIES. 

The barbarous indifference with which sUve- 
holdcrs regard thc forcible sundering of hu.sbands 
and wives, parents and children, brothers and 
sisters, and the unfeeling brutality indicated by 
thc language in which thev dcj>cribc the cfTort.i 
made by thc slaves, in their yearnings after those 
from whom they have been torn away, reveals a 
'public opinion' towards thcra as dead to thei< 
agony as if they were cattle. It is well nigh im 
possible to open a southern paper without finding 
evidence of this. Though the Initjj of this a.'wci 
tion can hardly be called in question, wc subjoin a 
few illustrations, and could easily give hundrci^s. 

From the " Savannah Georgian," Jan. 17. 18J9. 

" 8100 reward will be given for my two fellows. 
Abnun and Frank. Abram has a tci/r at Colonel 
yt(\v;vri's, in Liberty cuiinty, and a ttijitrr ia Sa. 
vann;>.l., at Capt. Grovenstine's. Frank has a icij'c 
at Mr. Lc Cont's, Libertv county ; a mtther ai 
Thunderbolt, and a sifter in Savaniiali. 

Wm. Rosarts. 

" Wallhourvillc, 5th Jan. Ib39 " 

From the ** Lexington (Ky.) IntoUigcocer.' 
July 7, 183P. 

" SlW Reward. — Ranaway from thesubacrib- 
ers, living in this city, on Saturday IGth inst. a 
negro man, named l)ick, about ;17 years of ajrc. 
It IS highly pn)b3ble s.iul b<iy wvll make for New 
Orleans, as hr has a teijr living in that cilv. and 
ho has been heard to say fnquently tJiat he iras 
dtterviinrd lo go lo Neir Orlean*. 

" 1)r»kb &. TiioMrsoN. 

" Ix-xington, June 17, I83f>." 

From the " Southern Argus," Oct. 31, 1837. 

" Runaway — mv negro man. Frederick, about 
20 yearn of age. lie is no doubt near the planta. 
tion of (J. W. Corpn-w, Esq of Xoxnbix e eountv, 
Mississippi, as hi* trifr brlongtlo that grntlrman, 
anil hr folloTeil hrrfrom myrrndrnrr. The above 
rew.\rd will l>o paid lo any one who will rnn6ne 
liim in jail and inform rac of it at .Athens, .Ma. 

" Athens, Alabama. Kciulman Lkwis." 



Ohjeciions Considered — Public Opinion. 



165 



From the '' Savannah Georfrian," July 8, 1837. 

*' Ran away from tho KuhHcrilx-r, his man Joe. 
He visitH tlir, city occasionally, where ho has been 
liarbond liy his iiwiUrr and sinlrr. I will fiivc 
one liuiidnid dollars lor proof sufficient to coiivicl 
his harborers. K. P, T. Monuin." 

The " Macon (Gcorfria) Mes'ongcr," Nov. 23, 
1837, has the followin}^ : — 

" J{i)25 Reward. — Ran away, a no^ro man, 
named Cain. lie was brou<r|it irom Florida, and 
has a wife near Marittiid, and probably will at. 
tempt to make his way there. 

H. L. Cook." 

From the " Richmond (Va.) Whig," July 25, 
1837. 

" Absconded from the subscriber, a negro man, 
by the name of Wilson. He was born in the 
county of New Kent, and raised by a gentleman 
named Ratlitfe, and by him sold to a gentleman 
named Taylor, on whose farm he had a wife and 
several children. Mr. Taylor sold him to a Mr. 
Slater, who, in consequence of removing to Ala- 
bama, Wilson left; and when retaken was sold, 
and afterwards purchased, by his present owner, 
from T. Mo Cargo and Co. of Richmond." 

P'rom the "Savannah (Ga.) Republican," Sept. 
3, 1838. 

'« $20 Reward for my negro man Jim. — Jim is 
about 50 or 55 years of age. It is probable he 
will ahii for Savannah, as he said he had children 
in that vicinity. J. G. Owens. 

" Barnwell District, S. C." 

From the " Staunton (Va.) pectator," Jan. 
3, 1839. 

" Ranaway, Jesse. — He has a wife, who be- 
longs to Mr. John Ruff, of Lexmgton, Rockbridge 
county, and he may probably be lurking in that 
neighborhood. Moses Mc Cue." 

From the " Augusta (Georgia) Chronicle," July 
10, 1837. 

" $120 Reward for my negro Charlotte. She 
is about 20 years old. She was purchased some 
months past from Mr. Thomas J. Walton, of Au. 
gusta, by Thomas W. Oliver ; and, as her mother 
and acquaintances live in that city, it is very 
likely ishe is harbored by some of them. 

Martha Oliver." 

From the "Raleigh (N.C.) Register," July 18, 
1837. 

" Ranaway from the subscriber, a negro man 
named Jim, the property of Mrs. Elizabeth Whit- 
field. He has a wife at the late Hardy Jones', 
and may probably be lurking in that neighbor- 
hood. John O'Rorke." 

From the " Richmond (Va.) Compiler," Sept. 
8, 1837. 

" Ranaway from the subscriber, Ben. He ran 
off without any known cause, and / suppose he is 
aiming to go to his tcife, who was carried from 
the neighborhood last winter. John Hunt." 

From the " Charleston (S. C.) Mercury," Aug. 
1, 1S37. 



" AbH<-..nd.d from Mr. E. D. Dailey, on Wad- 
malaw, his negro inaii, named Saby. Said fellow 
waw piirehaHrd in January, from FranciH lJii;kin- 
Hon, of St. I'aul'H parisli, ami is jjrobabiy now in 
that neighborhood, where he has a wife. 

TllOMA.S N. Gaij-suen." 

From the " Portsmouth (Va.) Times," August 
3, 1838. 

" $50 dollars Reward will be given for the ap- 
prehension of my negro man Isaac. He has a 
irife at James M. Riddick's, of Gates county, N. 
C. where he may probably be lurking, 

C. Miller." 

From the " Savannah (Georgia) Rcpublicaji," 
May 24, 1838. 

" $40 Reward. — Ran away from the subscriber 
in Savannah, his negro girl Patsey. She was 
])urchascd among the gang of negroes, known as 
the HargreavcN estate. She is no doubt lurking 
about Liberty county, at which place she has rela- 
tives. Edward Houstoun, of Florida." 

From the " Charleston (S. C.) Courier," June 
29, 1837. 

" $20 Reward will be paid for the apprehension 
and delivery, at the work-house in Charleston, of 
a mulatto woman, named Ida. It is probable she 
may have made her way into Georgia, where she 
has connections. 

Matthew Muggridge." 

From the " Norfolk (Va.) Beacon," March 
31, 1838. 

" The subscriber will give $20 for the appre- 
hension of his negro woman, Maria, who ran 
away about twelve months since. She is known 
to be lurking in or about Chuekatuch, in the 
county of Nanscmond, where she has a husband, 
a.nd formerli/ belonged. 

Peter Oneill." 

From the " Macon (Georgia) Messenger," Jan, 
16, 1839. 

" Ranaway from the subscriber, two negroes, 
Davis, a man about 45 years old ; also Peggy, 
his wife, near the same age. Said negroes will 
probably make their way to Columbia county, as 
they have children living in that county. I will 
liberally reward any person who may deliver them 
to me, Nehemiah King." 

From the " Petersburg (Va.) Constellation," 
June 27, 1837- 

" Ranawa}', a negro man, named Peter. He 
has a loife at the plantation of Mr. C. Plaws, near 
Suffolk, where it is supposed he is still lurking. 
John L. Dunn." 

From the "Richmond (Va.) Whig," Dec. 7, 
1739. 

" Ranaway from the subscriber, a negro man, 
named John Lewis, It is supposed that he is 
lurking about in New Kent comity, where he pro- 
fesses to have a wife. Hill Jones, 

"Agent for R. F. & P. Raiboad Co.-' 

From the " Red River (La.) 'WTiig," June 2d, 
1838. 

" Ran away from the subscriber, a mulatto wo- 



160 



Objectims Considered — Public Opinion. 



man, namrd Maria. It is probable who may be 
fniiiid in (ho nciKii'MjrIitiod of Mr. Ji-mk BynuinV 
plantation, wlii-ro *he hat rrlutioim, &.c. 

Thouam J. Wr.LiJi." 

From thi' " I^rxinpton (Ky.) Olmrvvr and Re- 
porter," S. pi. tiH, IH3H. 

•• l8tr>0 Urward. — Kan away from Ihr nnb*cribcr, 
a negro (;irl, naiiird .Maria. Siic in of a copper 
color, b<!twuin l3 and M years of ago— hare head, 
ed and hare /iiuled. Slic in itniall of ht-r ai;c — 
very upriglitiy and vtry likriy. Slu; »taled nhc 
was poing to ace her mother al Maynvillf. 

Sa.nkoiui Tiiomhon." 

From the " Jackfion (Tcnn.) Ttlcgraph," Sept. 

11. 1H3H. 

"Commillrd to the Jail of Madison coimty, a 
nejjro woman, who rallH lirr name Fanny, and 
savH nhr- belonjjM to William ,"\Idl<T, of .Slohilc. 
She formi-riy btlonjjrd to John liivin.t, of thi.s 
county, who now ownH neccral of her children. 
David Siirop^hirk, Jailor." 

From tlic " Norfolk (Va.) Beacon," July 3d, 
1838. 

" Runaway from my plantation bilow Elcn. 
ton, niv nix^ro man, \elson. He has a viuthrr 
liviiifT at .Mr. J;imos (Joodwin's, in Bailaiiack, 
Perquimans county ; and two hruthcrs, one be- 
lonjinfT to Job Parker, and ihc other to Josiah 
Cofficld. VV.M. D. Rascoe." 

From the " Charleston (S. C.) Courier," Jan. 

12, 1838. 

".SlOO Reward. — Run away from the sub. 
Bcriber, his negro fellow, John. He is well known 
about the city as one of my bread carriers : has a 
wife living at ISlr.-!. Weston's, on Hempstead. 
John foruKTlv belonged to Airs. Moor, near St. 
Paul's church, where his mother stdl lives, and 
has been harbored by her before. 

John T. Marshall. 
(in, Tradd.streel." 

From the " Newbern (N. C.) Sentinel," March 
17, 1837. 

" Ranaway, Mo.scs, a blark f. How, about 40 
years of age — has a iri/e in Wasliington. 

Thomas Bragg, Sen. 
Warrenton, N. C." 

?>om the " Richmond ^Va.) Whig," June 30, 
1837. 

" Ranaway, my nan Peter. — He has a sister 
and mother in Now Kent, and a trifr al>out fifteen 
or eighteen miles above Richmond, at or about 
Taylorsvillc. 'I'heo. A. I.Arr." 

From the " New Orleans Bulletin," Feb. 7, 
1838. 

*' Ranaway, niy negro Philip, aged al>out AO 
ycara. — He may have gone to St. Louis, as he has 
m wife there. 

W, G. Clark. 70 New licvec." 

Fmm the " Grorgian," Jan. •}!». 18.18. 

" A Rewanl of §.'> will bo paid for the tppre. 

hrnsion of hi"* negro woman. Hiana Diana is 

from i.'> to .'VO .igc. .She formerly belongrd to 

Mr. Nalh. Law, of Liberty county, vhert her huji. 



band atiU litei. She will endeavor to go thrro 
pcrhaiM. I). O'Btrwe." 

From tJic " ILchniond (Va.) Enquirer," Feb. 
20, 1838. 

" §10 Reward for a n'-^ro woman, named Sal. 
ly, 40 yoarH old. We have juht reaiion to !>• Iievc 
the raid negro to be now lurking on tlic Jninc* 
River Canal, or in tlie Green Spring ntighbor. 
hood, where, wc arc mfonned, hrr husband re. 
gidcB. The above reward will be glTcn to any 
person securing her. 

Poj.LT C. SinrLDt. 
Mount Elba, Feb. 19, 1838." 

" §50 Reward. — Ran away from tli 
his negro man Pauladore, rommonlv ' 

I imderstand (ti:.\. R. Y. IIav.ne An. , .. 
his wife and children (rum H. L. Pinck.nf.v. I . 
and has them now on his plantation at <> < - 
creek, where, no doubt, the fellow is frequently 
lurking. T. Davis." 

" §25 Reward. — Ran away from the subi'criber. 
a negro woman, named Matilda. It is thought 
she may be Bonjcwlurc up James River, as she 
was claimed as a wife by some boatman in Gooch- 
land. J. Alvis." 

" Stop the Runaway I ! I — §25 Reward. Ran. 
away from the Eagle Tavern, a negro f< M.w, 
named Nat. He is no doubt attempting to '- .'!'^'- 
/ii> irife, who was lateltj sold to a speculator nam' d 
Redmond. The above reward will be paid bv 
Mrs. Lucy M. Downman, of Sussex coimty, Va." 

Multitudes of advertisements like the above ap- 
pear annually in the southern papers. Reader, 
look at the preceding list — mark the unfeeling 
barbarity with which their masters and mistresses 
describe the struggles and perils of sundered hu«. 
bands and wives, parents and children, in their 
weary midnight travels through forests and rivers, 
with torn limbs and breaking hearLs, seeking the 
embraces of each otJicr's love. In one instance, 
a mollier torn from all her children and taken to 
a remote part of anotJier state, presses her war 
back through the wilderness, hundreds of miles, 
lo clasp once more her children to her heart : bur, 
when she has arrived within a few miles of them, 
in the same county, is discovered, seized, dragged 
to jail, and her purchaser told, through an adver. 
tisement, tliat she awaits his order. Butwc nerd 
not trace out tjic harrowing details already bcfor 
the rr-ader. 

Rev. C. S. Renshaw, of Quincy, Illinois, wi 
resided some time in Kentucky, says; — 

" I was told Uic following fact by a young lad 
daughter of a slaveholder in Boone eounly. Ke 
tuck y, who lived within half a mile of Mr. Hughi 
farm. Hughes and Neil traded in slaves do' 
the river : they had Itought np a part of tb« 
stork in the upper counties of Kentiii-kv, anii 
bn)ngbt thrm down to Louisville, whtre tb>- r, . 
main<ler of lluir drove waa in jail, waitin<: 
arrival. Just before the stramooat put off i : 
lower country, two negro women were ofTorni for 
sale, each of Uum having a jroung child at the 



lor- 

J 



Ohjections Considered — Public Opinion. 



167 



■breast. The traders bought them, took their babes 
from their arms, and ottered them to the higliest 
bidder; and they were sold for one dollar a])icee, 
whilst the stricken parents were driven on board 
the boat, and in an hour were on their way to the 
New Orleans market. You arc aware that a 
young babe decreases the value of a field hand in 
the lower country, whilst it increases her value 
in the ' breeding states.' " 

The following is an extract from an address, 
published by the Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky, 
to the churches under their care, in 1835 : — 

" Brothers and sisters, parents and children, 
husbands and wives, arc torn asunder, and per- 
mitted to see each other no more. Tiiese 
acts are daily occurring in the midst of us. 
The shrieks and the agony, often witnessed on 
such occasions, proclaim, with a trumpet tongue, 
the iniquity of our system. There if not a neigh, 
borhood where these heart-rending scenes are not 
displayed. There is not a milage or road that 
does not behold the sad procession of manacled 
outcasts, whose mournful countenances tell that 
they are exiled by force from ma, that their 
HEARTS HOLD DEAR." — Addrcss, p. 12. 

Professor Andrews, late of the University of 
North Carolina, in his recent work on Slavery 
and the Slave Trade, page 147, in relating a con- 
versation v/ith a slave-trader, v>7hora he met near 
Washington City, says, he inquired, 

" ' Do you often buy the wife without the hus- 
band ?' 'Yes, VERY often; and FREQUENT- 
LY, loo, they sell me the mother while they keep 
her children. I have often known them take away 
the infant from its mother''s breast, and keep it, 
while they sold her.'' " 

The following sale is advertised in the " Geor- 
gia Journal," Jan. 2, 1838. 

" Will be sold, the following property, to wit : 

One Child, by the name of James, about 

eight months old, levied on as the property of 
Gabriel Gunn." 

The following is a standing advertisement in 
the Charleston (S. C.) papers : — 

" 120 Negroes for Sale. — The subscriber has 
just arrived from Petersburg, Virginia, with one 
hundred and twenty likely young negroes of both 
sexes and every description, which he offers for 
sale on the most reasonable terms. 

" The lot now on hand consists of plough boys, 
several likely and well-qualified house servants of 
both sexes, several women with children, small 
girls suitable for nurses, and several small boys 
WITHOUT THEIR MOTHERS. Planters and traders are 
earnestly requested te give the subscriber a call 
previously to making purchases elsewhere, as he 
is enabled and will sell as cheap, or cheaper, than 
can be sold by any other person in the trade. 
Benjamin Davis. 

Hamburg, S. C. Sept. 28, 1838." 

Extract of a letter to a member of Congress. 
from a friend in Mississippi, published in the 
"Washington Globe," June, 1837. 

" The times are truly alarming here. Many 
plantations are entirely stripped of negroes (pro- 
tection !) and horses, by the marshal or sheriff, — 



Suits are multiplying — two thousand five hundred 
in the United States Circuit Court, and three 
thousand in Hinds County Court " 

Testimony of Mr. Silas Stone, of Hudson, 
New York. Mr. Stone is a member of the Epis- 
copal Church, has several times been elected an 
Assessor of the city of Hudson, and for three 
years has filled the office of Treasurer of the 
County. In the fall of 1807, Mr. Stone witness- 
ed a sale of slaves, in Charleston, South Caroli- 
na, which he thus describes in a communicatioa 
recently received from him. 

" I saw droves of the poor fellows driven to 
the slave markets kept in different parts of the 
city, one of which I visited. The arrangemeuta 
of this place appeared something like our north- 
ern horse-markets, having sheds, or barns, in the 
rear of a public house, where alcohol was a 
handy ingredient to stimulate the spirit of jockey- 
ing. As the traders appeared, lots of negroes 
were brought from the stables into the bar room, 
and by a flourish of the whip were made to as- 
sume an active appearance. ' What will you 
give for these fellows V ' How old are they ? 
'Are they healthy?' 'Are they quick?' &c. 
at the same time the owner would give them a 
cut with a cowhide, and tell tliem to dance and 
jump, cursing and swearing at them if they did 
not move quick. In fact all the transactions in 
buying and selling slaves, partakes of jockey- 
ship, as much as buying and selling horses. There 
was as little regard paid to the feelings of the 
former as vi^e witness in the latter. 

" From these scenes I turn to another, which 
took place in front of the~noble ' Exchange 
Buildings,' in the heart of the city. On tlie left 
side of the steps, as you leave the main hall, im- 
mediately under the windows of that proud build- 
ing, was a stage built, on which a mother with 
eight children were placed, and sold at auction. 
I watched their emotions closely, and saw their 
feelings were in accordance to human nature; 
The sale began with the eldest child, who, being 
struck off to the highest bidder, was taken from 
the stage or platform by the purchaser, and led 
to his wagon and stowed away, to be carried 
into the country ; the second, and third were also 
sold, and so until seven of the children were torn 
from their mother, while her discernment told 
her they were to be separated probably forever, 
causing in that mother the most agonizing sobs 
and erics, in which the children seemed to share. 
The scene beggars description ; sufiice it to say, it 
was suflicient to cause tears from one at least 
' whose skin was not colored like their own,' and 
I was not ashamed to give vent to them." 

THE " protection" AFFORDED BY ' PUBLIC OPINION' 
TO CHILDHOOD AND OLD AGE. 

In the " New Orleans Bee," May 31, 1837, Mr. 
P. Bahi, gives notice th.a.t he hs.s eom7nitted to 
JAIL as a runaway ' a Utile negro aged about 

SEVEN YEARS.' 

In the " Mobile Advertiser," Sept. l3, 1838, 
William Magee, Sheriff, gives notice that George 
Walton, Esq. Mayor of the city has committed to 
jail as a runaway slave, Jordan, about twelve 



168 



Objections Conridcred — Public Opinion. 



TRAM OLD, »nd Uio Sli'Ti(T procndu lo give no. 
ticc that If no one claims liiin thu boy will U- 
H'ld M a tlarr tu pay jail fcc«. 

In thi! " M. mplii» (Ttnn.) Gazette," May 2, 
1837. W. li. Mu.NTcioMKRY advcrtiiu!* that he 
will M-ii at aiu-tioii a nov auku M, A>uTiir.a auci> 
12, AKi> A (iiHL lU, to |>ay thu ck-bta of their (le- 
cuBM-d niaiitcr. 

" li. F. (JiurMAN, Sht-rifT, Natchitochca (La.) 
advrrtikca in the ' Herald,' uf May 17, 1837, 
that lie ha* ''comrniZ/rJ/o jail, a* a runaway a 
nc{jro lx>y hetwkkn 1 1 and 1« vearh ok aok." 

In tlio *• Au(riiMta ((»a.) Clironiclr," Feb. 13, 
Ib'dS. R. n. Jo.NKS, jailor, mvh, '* Ilroughl lo jail 
a nef^ro voman Sarali, idie i» about GO or G5 yearn 
oldr 

In the •' Winchpfltcr Virpinian," Au^at 8, 
1837, Mr. R. 11. Mk.mkkk, off. rs tin dollars re. 
ward to any one who will catch and lodpe in jail, 
Abrani and Nelly, about GO years old, so that he 
can g<'t them again. 

J. Snow DEN, Jailor, Columbia, S. C. pivcs 
notice in the " Telepeo|)e," Nov, 18, 1837, that lie 
has committed to jail as a runaway slave, '^Caro- 
line fifty years of age," 

Y. S. PicKARD, Jailor, Savannah, Georgia, 
gives notice in the " Georg^ian," June 22, \>*21, 
that he has taken up for a runaway and lodged 
in jail Charles, CO years of age. 

In the Savannah " Georgian," April 12, 1837t 
Mr. J. CuvLER, says he will give five dollars, to 
anyone who will catch and bring back to him 
Samaii, an old negro man, and grey, and lias only 
One eye." 

In the " Macon (Ga.) Telegraph." Jan. 1.5, 
1839, Mkssr.". 'I'. AND L. N.\riER, advertise for 
sale Nancy, a woman G5 years of age, and I'eggj', 
a woman 6.') years of age. 

The following is from the " Columbian (Ga.) 
Enquirer," March 8, 1h3H. 

"^5 Ukwarp. — Ranawav, a Negro Woman 
named ]\I.VTILl) A, aged alHMit 30 or 3.'> yearn. 
Also, on the same night, a Negro Fellow of. -imall 
size, VERV AiiED, sloop.shnuUlered, who walks vkrv 
DECREriDi.v, is supposed to have gone off. His 
name is DAVF,, and he has claimed Matilda for 
wife. It may be tliey have gone off together. 

'' I will give twenty. five dollara for tin- woman, 
delivered to nie in MiiscHgee county, or confined 
in any jail so that I can get her. 

MoSES BlTT." 

J. B. RoDALU Jailor, Cobb (Co.) Georgia, ad- 
Terliws an old negn> man, in the " Mille<igeville 
Recorder." Nov. 6. 1838. 

"A NF,(;R0 man. has b. < n lodged in the 
common jail of this etinntr. who says Ins name is 
JuriTRR. \\i' ha* lost all his fmut trrlh ahm* 
and belotr — speaks very indistinctly, is rrry lome. 
So that he can hardly tcalk." 

Rev. Charles Stkwart Rknshaw, of Quincy, 



Illinois, who »pcnt some time in ^ 
Mjicaking of his residence in KcntueL., ..... - 
" One Sabbath morning, whilst ridmg lo meet 
ing near Durbngtun, ikxinc Co. KentucLv i-, 
company with Mr. Willis, a teacher of 
music and a nieniber of the I'resbyienan ( 
I was startled at mingled siiouts and s< ; 
proctediiig from an old log bouse, some d. 
from the road side. As v. ' ' 

or six'boys from 12 to lo 

some of tliem cracking v. .. , ■ . , i.. o 

colored boys crying. I askeii .Mr. VV. what tJie 
scene meant. • Oh,* he replied, • tho»<* boys have 
licen whipping the niggers ; that is tlic way we 
bring slaves into subjection in Kt mucky — we 
l<-t the children l>eat them.' The boy* retn-rjid 
again into the lioiis<*, and again their slio ,' ;ig 
and stamping was heard, but ever and aM/ii a 
scream ofagony that would not be drr^ivniil, ro'-e 
above the uproar ; thus they continued till llie 
sounds were lost in the distance." 

Well did Jefferson say, that the children of 
slaveholders arc 'ncrsed, educated, A.to dailt 

EXERCISED IN TTRA.N.NT.' 

The * protection' thrown around a mother's 
yearnings, and the helplessnchs of childhood by 
the ' public opinion' of slaveholders, is shown by 
thousands of advertisements of which the follow, 
ing arc samples. 

From the " New Orleans Bulletin," June 2. 

" NEGROES FOR SALE.— A negro woman 
2^4 years of age, and lias two children, on' 
and the other three years. Said negroes w 
sold SKTARATELv or together as desired, i . 
woman is a goml seamstress. She will be so^i 
low for cash, or exchanged for grockrics. P'. : 
terms apply to Mavuew Bliss, fit Co. 

1 Front Ixjvco." 

P'rom the '' Georgia Journal," Nov. 7. 
"TO BE SOLD— One negro girl about H 
months old, belonging to the estate of ^^ . 'i 
Chambers, dec'd. Sold for the purpose of <.•-:- 
button'.' Jethro Dean. ) 

Samiel B».M.i, ^fcltors. 

From the " Natchez Courier," April 2, 1838. 

" NOTICE — Is hereby given that the under 
signed pursuanl to a certain Deed of Trust w 
on Tluirs*lay the 12!h day of April next, expo> 
to sale at the Court HouhC. to the highest bidd< r 
for cash, the followine Negro slavi-s, to wit ; 
Fanny, aged about i^* years: Mary, nped about 7 
years; AmaiHla, a{:ed aliout 3 months; Wilson, 
aged aUiiit \> months. 

•' Said (.laves, to be sold for the satisfaction of 
the debt secured in said Deed of Trust, 

W. J. .MiNoa.- 

From the " Milledgeville Journal," Dec. 26, 
1837. 

• EXECUTOR'S SALE. 

•' Agreeable to an order of the court of Wil 
kinson county, will be sold on the first Turi*r.\ 
in .\pril next. l»efore tiie Connl'onw lioor 
town of Irwington. ONE NKtJRt) GIRI 
(ter> years old, named Rachel, belonging iu w. 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



169 



estate of William Chambers dcc'd. Sold for Ike 
ben'ifU of the heirs and creditors of said estate. 
Samuel Bkll, \ j;< , » 
Jesse Peacock, 5 J^x'ors. 

From the " Alexandria (D. C.) Gazette" Dec. 
19. 

" I will give the highest cash price for likely ne- 
groes, fro7ii lO lo 2b years of nge. 

Geo. Kepiiart." 

From the " Southern Whig," March 2, 1838.— 
" AVILL be sold in La Grange, Troup county, one 
negro girl, by the name of Charity, aged about 
10 or 12 years ; as the property of Littleton L. 
Burk, to satisfy a mortgage fi. fa. from Troup In- 
ferior Court, in favor of Daniei S. Robertson 
VH. said Burk.'' 

From the " Petersburgh (Va.) Constellation," 
March 18, 1837. 

" 50 Negroes wanted immediately. — The sub- 
scriber will give a good market price for fifty like- 
ly negroes, frotn 10 to 30 years of age. 

Henry Davis." 

The following is an extract of a letter from a 
gjentlcman, a native and still a resident of one of 
Lhe slave states, and still a slaveholder. He is 
m elder in the Presbyterian Church, his letter is 
low before us, and his name is with the Exeeu- 
ive Committee of the Am. Anti-slavery Society. 

" Permit me to say, that around this very 
)lace where I reside, slaves are brought almost 
•onstantly, and sold to Miss, and Orleans; that 
t is usual to part families forever by such sales 
—the parents from the children and the children 
ioin the parents, of every size and age. A 
n other was taken not long since, in this town, 
rom a sucking child, and sold to the lower 
;ountry. Three young men I saw some time ago 
aken from this place in chains — while the mother 
f one of them, old and decrepid, followed with 
ears and prayeis her son, 18 or 20 miles, and 
id him a final farewell J O, thou Great Eter- 
lal, is this justice ! is this equity I ! — Equal 
lights ! !" 

We subjoin a few miscellaneous facts illus- 
rating the iNmiMANiTY of slaveholding 'public 
ipinion.' 

The shocking indifference manifested at the 
cath of slaves as human beings, contrasted with 
le grief at their loss as property , is a true index 
3 the public opinion of slaveholders. 

Colonel Oliver of Louisville, lost a valuable 
ice-horse by the explosion of the steamer Oro- 
oko, a few months since in the Mississippi river. 
]ight human beings whom he held as slaves 
^ere also killed by the explosion. They were 
lie-riders and grooms of his race-horses. A 
iouisville paper thus speaks of the occurrence : 

" Colonel Oliver suffered severely by the ex- 
losion of the Oronoko. He lost eight of his rub- 
ers and riders, and his horse, Joe Kearney, 
/liich he had sold the night before for 5^3,000." 

Mr. King, of the New York American, makes 



the following just comment on the barbarity of 
the above paragraj)!) : 

" Would any one, in reading this paragraph from 
an evening paper, conjecture that these ' eight 
rubbers and riders,' that together with a horse, 
are merely mentioned as a ' loss' to their owner, 
were human beings — immortal as the writer who 
thus brutalizes them, and perhaps cherishing life 
as much? In this view, pehaps, the 'eight' 
lost as much as Colonel Ohvcr." 

The following is from the "Charleston (S. C.) 
Patriot," Oct. 18. 

" Loss of Property .' — Since I have been here, 
(Rice Hope, N. Santcc,) I have seen much mi- 
sery, and much of human suffering. The loss of 
PROPERTY has been immense, not only on South 
Santee, but also on this river. Mr. Shoolbred 
has lost, (according to the statement of the phy. 
sician,) forty-six negroes — the majority lost being 
the primest hands he had — bricklayers, carpen- 
ters, blacksmiths and Coopers. Mr. Wm. Ma- 
zyck has lost 35 negroes. Col. Thomas Pinkney, 
in the neighborhood of 40, and many other plant, 
ers, 10 to 20 on each plantation. Mrs. Elias Harry, 
adjoining the plantation of Mr. Lucas, has lost 
up to date, 32 negroes — the best part of her prim- 
est negroes on her plantation." 

From the " Natchez(Miss.) Daily Free Trader," 
Feb. 12, 1838. 

" Found. — A negro's head was picked up on 
the rail-road yesterday, which the owner 
can have by calling at this office and paying 
for the advertisement." 

The way in which slaveholding ' public opi- 
nion' protects a poor female lunatic is illustrated 
in the following advertisement in the "Fayette, 
ville (N. C.) Observer," June 27, 1838 : 

"Taken and committed to jail, a negro girl 
named Nancy, who is supposed to belong to 
Spencer P. Wright, of the State of Georgia. 
She is about 30 years of age, and is a luna- 
TIC. The owner is requested to come forward, 
prove property, pay charges, and take her away, 

or SHE WILL BE SOLD TO PAY HER JAIL FEES. 

FRED'K HOME, Jailor." 
A late Prospectus of the South Carohna Me- 
dical College, located in Charleston, contains the 
following passage : — 

" Some advantages of a peculiar character are 
connected with this Institution, which it may be 
proper to point out. No place in the United 
States offers as great opportunities for the acqui- 
sition of anatomical knowledge, subjects being 

OBTAINED from AMONG THE COLORED POPULATION IN 
SUFFICIENT NUMBER FOR EVERY PURPOSE, AND PRO. 
PER DISSECTIONS CARRIED ON WITHOUT OFFENDING . 
ANY INDIVIDUALS IN THE COMMUNITY ! !" 

Without offending any individuals in the com 
munity ! More than half the population of 
Charleston, we beheve, is ' colored ;' their graves 
maybe ravaged, their dead may be dug up, drag- 
ged into the dissecting room, exposed to the gaze, 
heartless gibes, and experimenting knives, of a 
crowd of inexnerienced operators, who are given to 



170 



Objfctions Coruidfred — Public Opinion. 



mdoraUnd in the prMipccttM. that, if they do not i cal cajtcn/ aJwap on hand, would proTc a powe 
acfpiire manual .loxUrity in di«j«;ction, it will h« ful attraction to BtudcnU, and greatly incraai 
wholly thrir ow n fault, in n.Klccting to iinjirovc ] Iho populanty of iho institution. In briif, ihr 
Uic unriva!ir«l advarilaijim alFordotl liy the inntitu. j the motive* of iU foundcns the prr.fctnora, wc» 
lion— wnce lach can have an many huniati hodnn ; thcue, the accoramoflalion of their ttudenU—li 
aa Ik- pLiaHCn to experiment U|jon— and a* to tlie } arcommodation of tJie public (which m'an». // 
falh.rs. moiherK, hu»bandH. wivca, brothero, j if/„7M)_ and the accommodation of alaviholdc 
and mHlerH. of thtmc whom they cut to pieces | who have on llicir hand* eiiwhlcd i.Uve«. tJu 
from day to day. why. they are not • individuaU would make • interenting ca*.*,' fur surtjical op 

in the cummunity ' but ' property," and however I ,-,•;„„ ;„ ii,_ „„.^„„„ ^r ,k -i . .x. 

•" , , ,, ration in inr pn-ncncc of the puir.m — to tbo 

their rechiigH may be tortured, the ' public opi- 
nion' of Nlavelioldem in entirely too ' chivalrouH* 
to de(jrade itself by caring for Uiem I 



Tin- following which ban been for Bomc time a 



Tca.mnn we may add the accommodation of tl 
Medical InHtilution and the accomniodalion 
themtelrca .' Not a dy liable about tJic accommod 
lion of the hopelcM BufTcrcrB, writliing with tl 



Blanding advertiMcment of the South Carolina «„„_„ ,.f ,u,^. „.,„ i , it. ■■ 

, ,, • I --,1 , I "If"ny oi mojH! gun nhot wound*, fractur' <J h'-uII 



IVIcdical College, in tin- CharlcHton pa))cn<, is ano- 
ther index of tlio same ' public opinion' toward 
BlavcR. Wc give an extract : — 

" Surgery of the Medical C^ollege of South Car. 
olina^ Quern kI. — The Faculty inform their pro. 
feHsiniial brethren, and the public, that they have 
established a Sur'^ery, at the Old College, Queen 



broken limlM and ulcerated backs which < . flitu 
the 'intercBting cxsm' for the profctwumto 'rIkj 
ofT lx:fnrc llicir pupils, and, an practice mak> 
perfect, for the FtudenUi thcmsclrca to try the 
hands at by way of experiment. 

Why, We ask, waa this surgery entablishcd ' P 



Blreet, KOR TiiK TRKATMEXT OK NKOROKS, which ' the treatment of n^^^orV alone 7 Whywerwlhcj 
will continue in operation, during the session of j ' intercrting ca«c«* s< tected from that claM excli 
ther,.llege say from lirsl November, to U.c fif- | lively? No man who knows the feeling of riav 
tecntli oi .March cnsiiinir. i i • . . , .... . . 



" The object of the Faculty, in opening this Sur- 
gory, is to collect as mnuij interrxtinir case/i, as 



holders towards slaves will bo at a low for ti 
reason. 'Public opinion' would tolerate surgical e 



possible, for the henejit and instrurtion of their i pcrimcnts, operations, procesnes. perform' d op 
pupils— at the same time, they indulge the hope, ' them, which it would execrate if performed upc 



that it may not only prove an arroininnilation, but 
also a matter of economy to the |)ublic. They 
would respectfully call the attention of planters, 
living in the vicinity of the city, to this subject ; 
particularly such as may have servants laltoring 
under Surgical diseases. Such prmont of color 
as may not be able to pay for .Medical advice, will 
be attended to gratis, at slated hours, as often as 
may be necessary. 
" The Faculty take this opportunity of soliciting 



their master or other whites. As the great object » 
collecting the disabled negroes is to have • into 
csting cases' for the students, the profe«r..rs wh 
perform tlic operations will of course cnd« ivot I 
make them as * interesting' as possible. 'I' 
Ktrurtion of the atudent is the immediat' 
and if the professors can accomph.xli it \> 
protracting the opcrrftion, pausing to c\;. i 



the co-operation of such of tli.ir professional I •^i*'''"*^"* P'^occsscs, &.c. the subject is only n 



brethren, as are favorable to their objects. " 

" The first thing tlial strikes the reader of the 
advertisement is, that this Surgery is established 
exclusively ' for the treatment of negroes,'' and if 
he knows little of the hearts of slaveholders to- 
wards their slaves, he charitably supposes, that 
they ' feel the dint of pity,' for the jjoor suflercrij 
and have foimded this institution as a special 
charity for their relief. But the delusion va- 
nishes as he reads on ; the professors take special 
care that no such derogatory infen-nce shall hv 
drawn from their advertisement. They give us 
the three reasons which have induced them to 
open this ' Surgery for the treatment of negro<».' 
The first and main one is, ■ to collect as many 
iulermliiig caaen as possible for the benefit and 
inslrnctiiin of their pupil*' — another is, * the hopi- 
that it may prove an nrrornmni/u/iort,* — and tin 



.and whdt is his protracted agony, tiiat :i 
restrain tlie professor from making the . ^ ■ § 
' interesting' as possible to the students bv ^^ -.•-in 
his knife as will give them the IksI know! . •■ « 
the parts, and the proct'tis, however it may pn 
tract or augment the pain of tlie subject. Th 
end to be accomplished is Ihe intlruction of Ui 
student, operations upon tJie negroes arc (he mta* 
to the end ; I/mI tells the whole "lory — and he wb 
knows the hearts of slaveholders and has coo 
mon si-nse, however jihort the allowance, c-n fin 
Uic way to his concliisions without a lant< ;:i. 

By an advertisement of the same Mee 
stitution, dated November 12, l!"^'^. and [• ' lisl 
■■■1 in the CharU-slon pap^-rs, it apj-x-ars iha'. .tm ' if 
linnary has U'cn op.ned in e<inn<-clion \v.:)ith 
college.* The profrs3^>n> nianitVst . -ir 

that the mastcrsof servants should s< i iu 

abled slaves, and as an inducement : 4 



Fr 



third, that it may \k 'a matter of eeonnmy t 
the ptiblir.' .Another reason, doubtless, and a eon. { ir.g of such interenling eatex say. al 
trolling one. though the professors are silent alniut i surgical aid will bo otTerrd tcilhaut 
tt, IS that a large collection of ' inten-sling surgi- 1 liable to any proftttional chargtt. 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



171 



bounty, pity, sympathy, philanthropy ! However 
difficult or numerous the surgical cases of slaves 
thus put into their hands by the masters, they 
charge not a cent for their professional services. 
Their yearnings over human distress are so in- 
tense, that they beg the privilege of performing all 
operations, and furnishing all the medical atten- 
tion needed, gratis, feeling that the relief of 
misery is its own reward ! ! I But we have put 
down our exclamation points too soon — upon read- 
ing the whole of the advertisement we find the 
professors conclude it with the following para- 

' graph : — 

" The SOLE OBJECT of the faculty in the estab- 

! lishmcnt of such an institution being to promote 
the interest of Medical Education within their 

I native State and City." 

i In the '• Charleston (South Carolina) Mercury" 
f of October 12, 1838, we find an advertisement of 
; half a column, by a Dr. T. Stillman, setting forth 
'> the merits of another ' Medical Infirmary,' under 
i* his own special supervision, at No. 110 Church 
* street. Charleston. The doctor, after inveighing 
I loudly against ' men totally ignorant of medical 
1 science,' who flood the country with quack nos- 
ttrums backed up by 'fabricated proofs of mira- 
Jculous cures,' proceeds to enumerate the diseases 
|to which his 'Infirmary' is open, and to which 
his practice will be mainly confined. Appreciat. 
ing the importance of ' interesting cases,' as a 
stock in trade, on which to commence his experi- 
ments, he copies the example of the medical pro- 
fessors, and advertises for them. But, either 
from a keener sense of justice, or more generosi- 
ty, or greater confidence in his skill, or for some 
other reason, he proposes to buT/ up an assort- 
ment of damaged negroes, given over, as incura- 
ble, by others, and to make such his ' interesting 
cases,' instead of experimenting on those who are 
Ithe ' property' of others. 

Dr. Stillman closes his advertisement with the 
'following notice : — 

I " To Planters and others. — ^Wanted fifty ne. 
'groes. Any person having sick negroes, consid- 
ered incurable by their respective physicians, and 
wishing to dispose of them, Dr. S. will pay cash 
for negroes affected with scrofula or king's evil, 
confirmed hypocondriasm, apoplexy, diseases of 
the liver, kidneys, spleen,- stomach and intestines, 
bladder and its appendages, diarrhea, dysentery, 
&c. The highest cash price will be paid on appli. 
cation as above." 

The absolute barbarism of a ' public opinion' 
which not only tolerates, but produces such 
advertisements as this, was outdone by nothing 
in the dark ages. If the reader has a heart 
of flesh, he can feel it without help, and if he 
lias not, comment will not create it. The total 
indifference of slaveholders to such a cold blood- 
ed proposition, their utter unconsciousness of the 



paralysis of heart, and death of sympathy, and 
every feeling of common humanity for the slave, 
which it reveals, is enough, of itself to show that 
the tendency of the spirit of slaveholding is, to 
kill in the soul whatever it touches. It has no 
eyes to sec, nor ears to hear, nor mind to under- 
stand, nor heart to feel for its victims as human, 
beings. To show that tlie above indication of 
the savage state is not an index of individual 
feeling, but of ' public opinion,' it is sufficient to 
say, that it appears to be a standing advertise- 
ment in the Ciiarleston Mercury, the leading po 
litical paper of South Carolina, the organ of the 
Honorables John C. Calhoun, Robert Barnwell 
Rhett, Hugh S. Legare, and others regarded as 
the elite of her statesmen and literati. Besides, 
candidates for popular favor, like the doctor who 
advertises for the fifty 'incurables,' take special 
care to conciliate, rather than outrage, ' public 
opinion.' Is the doctor so ignorant of ' pubhc 
opinion' in his own city, tjiat he has unwittingly 
committed violence upon it in his advertisement ? 
We trow not. The same ' public opinion' which 
gave birth to the advertisement of doctor Still, 
man, and to those of the professors in both the 
medical institutions, founded the Charleston 
' Work House' — a soft name for a Moloch temple 
dedicated to torture, and reeking with blood, in 
the midst of the city; to which masters and 
mistresses send their slaves of both sexes to be 
stripped, tied up, and cut with the lash till the 
blood and mangled flesh flow to their feet, or to 
be beaten and bruised with the terrible paddle, or 
forced to chmb the tread-mill till nature sinks, or 
to experience other nameless torments. 

The "Vieksburg (Miss.) Register," Dec. 27, 
1838, contains the following item of information : 

" Ardor in Betting. — Two gentlemen, at a 
tavern, having summoned the waiter, the poor 
fellow had scarcely entered, when he fell down 
in a fit of apoplexy. ' He's dead !' exclaimed 
one. ' He'll come to !' replied the other. ' Dead, 
for five hundred !' ' Done !' retorted the second. 
The noise of the fall, and the confusion which 
followed, brought up the landlord, who called out 
to fetch a doctor. ' No ! no ! we must have no 
interference — there's a bet depending!' 'But, 
sir, I shall lose a valuable servant !' ' Never 
mind ! you can put him down in the bill !' " 

About the time the Vieksburg paper containing 
the above came to hand, we received a letter 
from N. P. Rogers, Esq. of Concord, N. H. the 
editor of the ' Herald of Freedom,' from which 
the following is an extract : 

'' Some thirty years ago, I think it was. Col. 
Thatcher, of Maine, a lawyer, was in Virginia, 
on business, and was there invited to dine at a 
public house, with a company of the gentry of 
the south. The place I forget — the fact was told 
me by George Kimball, Esq. now of Alton, Illi- 
nois, who had the story from Col. Thatcher him- 



172 



Objectioiu d 



Bclf. Amol.;j tip . --. — ^- , .. 

ncgrti ntari, wlp" 

aMiduciuD t'-m|><r, .1 , „ 

•crting. iiiadr him > lavonte witli tlm company. 
The ilmnrr laNtcd into ihu cveiiinif, •?»<] Uir wiii«- 
p«Mr<l fn-ily about tlio taklo. .\t Ivnirth our of 
tJio i;'"*'"'"'". *l>o '*'*•' |"»^''y hinlilv rxciltd 
Willi wiiic, iKTaiiic unforliinaUly inc. ri« «l, riUur 
Bt miiiii- trip of the yourij; ulavr. in wailing, or at 
now ollnr cntiw- liamxnmt; whrn tin olavc waM 
wilhin Inn rearh. Ilo i"iz«tl the lonp.mrkcd 
wiiK! bolllf, and ulrtirk ilir yonnf man »iiddcnly 
in till- trmpli-, and tMUd him d<ad upon ihr floor. 
Tlio fall arrt-iitcd. for a moment. Uu- ft-Klivilicii of 
Iho tatilf. • Devihith unlurky,' « \rlaim<d one. 
' Thr ptnlli man in very iinforliinatc.' crud an- 
olhir. ' Really a Iohx,' haid a third. &r. Sec. 
The body was'drairiffd from the dining hall, and 
the feast wi-nt on ; and at the clow, one of the 
fjentli men, and the very one, I believe, whojic 
liand had done the homicide, shouted, in 
baechanalian bravery, and nouthrrn gfiirroriltj, 
amid the broken glasHeii and fragments of chairB, 

* Lav|I.OKI>I fit the NKiGKR INTO THE BILL I' 

Tins wan that murdered young man's rrquietn 
and junrral nercice." 

Mr. George A. Avery, a mnrehant in Rnchon. 
Icr, New York, and an elder in the Fourth Prti*. 
bytcrian Church in that city, who resided four 
years in Virginia, gives the following testimony : 

•' I knew a young man who had been out hunt- 
ing, and returning with Bomc of his friends, see- 
ing a negro man in the road, at a little distance, 
deliberately drew up his rifle, and shot hiin dead. 
This was done without the slightest ])rovocation, 
or a word pa».«ing. This young man pas«e(l 
through the form of a trial, and, although it was 
not even prrlnulrd by his counsel th;»t he was 
not guilty of the act, deliberately and wantonly 
perpetrated, he was ocquitlfd. It was urged by 
liis counsel, that lie was a younfr man, (about 20 
years of age,") had no maliriotu intention, bis 
moth< r was a widow, Ace. &.c." 

Mr. Benjamin Clenpenon, of Colerain, Lan- 
caster eoiinlv, Pennsylvania, a meml>er of the 
Society of Friend.s, gives the following testimony : 

'* Three yearn ago the coming montii. I took 
a journey of about s<venty.five miles from home, 
through the «aslern shore of Maryland, and a 
small part of Delawan'. Calling one day. near 
noon, at ( Georgetown Cross-Uoads. I found my- 
Mlf surrnimded in the tavern by slaveholders. 
Among other mbjectB of conversation, their hu- 
man cattle came in for a share. One of the com- 
pany, a niiddle.Bged man. thin living with a 
second wife, acknowledged, that after the death 
of his first wife, he lived in a state of concubinage 
with a female slave; but when the lime drew 
near fur the taking of a s« cond wife, he found it 
rxprdient to remove the ^lave from the premises. 
The same per»on gave an account of a female 
•lave be formerly held, who hnd a prn|>ensity for 
rome one pnrsmt. I think the nit.ndance of rr. 
ligiou-i m-eiings. On a certain occasion, she 
pns. nled her i»clition to htm. askinij for this in- 
<liile. nee; b" refused — she importuned— •nd be, 
with soverei^jn mdignation. •eixed a cbair. ami 
witii a blow U|>oii ibo head, knocked bcr sense - 



f.Vf i 

.. II 

t 



<i — Public Opinion. 

''■•^ upon the floor. 'Die same prr«'-i ''■■r " « 

I of disobedience, on the part, I ' it 

line slave, when employed in sta^ .% 

felled her to the earth with the handle oi - j itr 
fork. All lhe«B Iransaetions were rel»le<i wit 
the ulmoat eomponrr, in a bar-room wilhin liiiri 
miles of ihc Pcniuylvania line." 

The two following advcrlmcmcnt- 'r. 

tions of Uie regard {raid to the mar. i 

by slaveholding judges, govemora, Knatotv I 
C'ongrc«s, and mayors of ciljc«. 

From the " Montgomerj, (Ala.) AdrcrtiMf 
Sept. au, 1837. 

" g20 Reward. — Ranaway from the stil" ■ '-• 
a negro man named Moncs. He is of > 
size, alx>ui 2^* years old. He forn. -" 
to Judge nensoii, of Montgomery, 
has a wife in that county. Joj 

The John Gaylc who signs this advcrUscmeo 
is an Ex-Govemor of Alabama. 

From the *• Charleston Courier," Nov 

" Ranaway from Uie subscriber, al>out 
months since, his negro man PauKai'.r 
complexion is dark — about 50 year- . .: 
derstand Gen. R. Y. Ilaync has 
wif<> and children from H. L. I' ■ 
and has them now on his plantation, . ■ 
Creek, where, no doubt, the fellow is fr^ 
lurking. Thomas I>»\ is. ' 

It is hardly necessary to say, thai the Ge-neb 
R. Y. IIavne, and 11. L. Pinckjiet, Eft\. nanu 
in Uic advertisement, arc Ex-Govcmor IIa\-n 
formerly U. .''. .*>enalor from South Carolina, ai 
Hon. Henry L. Pinckncy, late member of Co 
gross from Charleston District, and now Intcndai 
(Mayor) ol that city. 

It is no difficult matter to get at the 'pub! 
opinion' of a community, when ladiea ' i>i j roP 
crly and standing* publisli. under tli' 
names, such adverliscnients as the f 

Mrs. Elizabeth L. Carter, of Grovei.m, I'nm 
! William county, Virginia, thus adverUsos h' r n 
I gro man Mo»e« : 

•' Ranaway from the mibAcribcr, a nrc ' 
named Moses, aged about 40 year*, abon 
high, well made, and powc»«ing a good .• .: 
and HAS lost a tart or one of his bars." 
Mrs. B. Newman, of the same place;, and i 
I the same paper, advertises— 

" Pennv, the wife of Mostea, agrd about ' 

years, brown complexion, tall and likely, no /»; 

j ii«-M/«rr mnrkt of pernn rrroUeettd .'" 

j IVith of the abo\-e advertisements appear in it 

, National Intelligencer. (Washington city.; Jon 

10. 1H37. 

In the Mobile Mercantile Adrrrtiscr. of Pel 
13, l.'*3?', is an advertisement ingncl Sara 
Wai.sh. of which the following is an extract: 

••Twenty-five dollars reward will be pai.i '- »n 

one who niav spprehend and deliver to m.. c 

confine in any jail. i«> that I can get hui. in 

, man Isaac, who runaway sometime in Septtmba 



Ohjections Considered — Public Opinion. 



173 



bt. He is 26 years of age, 5 feet 1 inclics 
,rh, has a scar on his forehead, caused by a blow, 
,d one on his back, made by a shot from a I'ls- 

jIn the " New Orleans Bee," Dec. 21, 1838, Mrs. 
Irvant, wlioso residence is at the corner of 

Iartres and Toulouse streets, advertises a wo- 
n as follows : 
' Rail away, a negro woman named Rachel — 
lost all her toes except the large one." 

rom the " Huntsville (Ala.) Democrat," June 
1838: 

Ten Dollars Reward. — Ranaway from the 
scriber, a negro woman named Sally, about 
years of age, taking along her two children — 

three years, and the other seven months old. 
fese negroes were purchased by me at the sale 
Greorge Mason's negroes, on the first Monday 
May, and left a few days thereafter. Any 
feon delivering them to the jailor in Hunts- 
e, or to me, at my plantation, five jniles above 
ana, on the Tennessee river, shall receive the 
ve reward. Charity Cooper." 

From the " Mississippian," May 13, 1838 : 

Ten Dollars Reward. — Ranaway from the 
Bcriber, a man named Aaron, yellow com- 
cion, blue eyes, &c. I have no doubt he is 
;ing about Jackson and its vicinity, probably 
jored by some of the negroes sold as the property 
ly late husband, Harry Long, deceased. Some 
;hem are about Richland, in Madison co. I 

give the above reward when brought to me, 
ut six miles north-west of Jackson, or put in 
so that I can get him. Lucy Long." 

f the reader, after perusing the preceding 
fs, testimony, and arguments, still insists that 
' public opinion' of the slave states protects 
slave from outrages, and alleges, as proof of 
hat c7-uel masters are frowned upon and shun- 
by the community generally, and regarded 
aonsters, we reply by presenting the following 
s and testimony. 

Col. Means, of Manchester, Ohio, says, that 
)n he resided in South Carolina, his neighbor, 
jiysician, became enraged with his slave, and 
tenced him to receive two hundred lashes. 
er having received one hundred and forty, he 
ted. After inflicting the full number of 
las, the cords with which he was bound were 
ied. When he revived, he staggered to the 
se, and sat down in the sun. Being faint 
j thirsty, he begged for some water to drink. 
e master went to the well, and procured some 
cer — but instead of giving him to drink, he 
sw the whole bucket-fuU in his face. Nature 
|ld not stand the shock — he sunk to rise no 
Sre. For this crime, the physician was bound 
r to Court, and tried, and acquitted — and 
E NEXT YEAR HE WAS ELECTED 
THE LEGISLATURE!" 

iTestimony of Hon. John Randolph, of Vir- 

ia: 

f In one of his Congressional speeches, Mr. R, 

\a: Avarice alone can drive, as it does drive, 

b infernal traffic, and the wretched victims of 



it, like so many post-horses, whipped to death in 
a mail coach. Ambition has its cover-sluts in 
the pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious 
war ; but where are the trophies of avarice ? 
The hand-cuff, the manacle, the blood-stained 
cowhide ! What man is worse received in so- 
ciety FOR being a hard MASTER ? WlIO DENIES 
TIIF HAND OF A SISTER OR DAUGHTER TO SUCH 
MONSTERS ?" 

Mr. George A. Avrry, of Rochester, New 
York, who resided four years in Virginia, testi- 
fies as follows : 

" I know a local Methodist minister, a man of 
talents, and popular as a preacher, who took his 
negro girl into his barn, in order to whip her — 
and she was brought out a corpse ! His friends 
seemed to think this of so little importance to his 
ministerial standing, that although I lived near 
him about three years, I do not recollect to have 
heard them apologize for the deed, though I le- 
collcet having heard one of his neighbors allege 
this fact as a reason why he did not wish to hear 
him preach." 

Notwithstanding the mass of testimony which 
has been presented establishing the fact that tn 
the ' public opinion' of the South the slaves 
find no protection, some may still claim that the 
' public opinion' exhibited by the preceding facts 
is not that of the highest class of society at 
the South, and in proof of this assertion, refer to 
the fact, that ' Negro Brokers,' Negro Specu- 
lators, Negro Auctioneers, and Negro Breeders, 
&LC., are by that class universally despised and 
avoided, as are all who treat their slaves with 
cruelty. 

To thiri we reply, that, if all claimed by the 
objector were true, it could avail him nothing 
for ^public opinion' is neither made nor unmade 
by 'the first class of society.' That class pro. 
duces in it, at most, but slight modifications ; 
those who belong to it have generally a ' public 
opinion,' within their own circle which has rare- 
ly more, either of morality or mercy than the 
public opinion of the mass, and is, at least, equal, 
ly heartless and more intolerant. As to the esti. 
mation in which ' speculators, ' ' soul drivers,' 
&c. are held, we remark, that, they are not de. 
spised because they trade in slaves but because 
they are working men, all such are despised by 
slaveholders. White drovers who go with droves of 
swine and cattle from the free states to the slave 
states, and Yankee pedlars, who traverse the south, 
and white day-laborers are, in the main, equally 
despised, or, if negro- traders excite more contempt 
than drovers, pedlars, and day-laborers, it is be- 
cause, they are, as a class more ignorant and 
vulgar, men from low families and and boors in 
their manners. Ridiculous I to suppose, that a 
people, who have, by law, made men articles of 
trade equally with swine, should despise men- 
drovers and traders, more than hog-drovers and 



171 



Oljectiona Considered — Public Opinion. 



trmdi-ra. That tin v an; not denptacd bccaUM it i« 
ttirir buaini'Mi to trade in human betugt and bnnt; 
Uicni to market, in plain from the fact that wIk'h 
■ome * i;cnil'-man of |>ro|>crly and •tandin{r' and 
of a ' good family' rmbark* in a nc(fro ii|Mriilati(in, 
•ud i'tn|>l<>yH a di>zca * houI drivi r»' to travirite itic 
up|Hr country, and drive to the xjulli cofilcM of 
nlavi H, ixpcndin|r hundred* of thouaanda in hia 
u'hoKnale purclianc!!, In; docH not \»rf caHtf. it m 
known in Alabama, that Mr. Krwin, non.in.law of 
the Hon. IIkmiv Clat. and brother of J. 1*. Erwin, 
formerly postma.Hler. and late mayor of the city of 
NaHhvilli', laid the foundation of a princely fortune 
in tlic Hlavc-lradc, carried on fron> the Northern 
Slave Slates to the I'lantinjj South ; that the Hon. 
H. Hilchcoek, brother-in-law of Mr. E., and Hincc 
one of the judnis of the Supreme Court of Alaba- 
ma, wa.s interested with him In the traffic ; and that 
a late member of the Kentucky Senate (Col. Wall) 
not only carried on the same buBir.ctw, a few years 
apo, but acrompanicd \\\» drovcH in person down 
the Mis.si«.-ippi. Not a.sthc drirrr, for (hat would 
be vulpar drudgery, beneath a (rcntlcman, but as 
a nabob in state, ordering his understrappers. 

it is also well known that President Jackson 
was a 'soul driver,' and that even so late as the 
year before thccominenctinent of the last war, he 
bought up a cofflc of slaves and drove them down 
to Louisiana for sale. 

TnoMAS N. G.vDsi)E.v, Esq. the principal slave 
auctioneer in Charleston, S. C. is of one of the 
first families in the state, and moves in the very 
highest class of society there. He is a descendant 
of the distinguished General Gadsden of revolution- 
ary memory, the most prominent soutliern mem- 
bcr in tlie Continental Congress of 1765, and after- 
wards elected lieutenant governor and then govern- 
or of the state. The Rev. Dr. Gadsden, rector of 
St. riiilip'a Church, Charleston, and the Rev. 
Phillip Gadsden, both prominent Episcopal cler- 
gymen in South Carolina, and Colonel James 
CJadsden of the United States army, aflcr whom a 
county in Florida was recently named, an* 
all brothers of this Thomas N. tJadsdcn, Esq. the 
largest slave auctioneer in the slate, under whose 
hammer, men, women and children go ofl'by thou- 
Kanils ; its stroke probably sunders ilaily, husbanils 
and wives, parents and chddnn, brothers and sis- 
tem, perhaps to mc each other's faces no more. 
Now who impply the auction table of this Thomaii 
N. (iadsden, Esq. with its loads of Imman mer- 
chandize 7 These name dete»ted ' soul driver*' 
foptooth I They prowl llirou|rh the country, buy. 
cjileh, ond fetter them, and drive their chained 
cofflru up to bin utand, whi-re ThomaH N. Gads- 
den. Ks«i. kniK-ks them off to the lii;;lu-t>t bidder, to 
ExGovenior Butler perhaps, or to Ex. Governor 
Haync, or to Hon. Robert Uaniwell Khett, or to 
hia own reverend brollicr, Dr. GadvdcD. Now 



tliia hiffh bom, wholesale mmlaeUer dtrabUew < 
Kjiiitca tlic n.-lAii ' Mjul-tinvcra* who giro him ih' 
ciwtom , and no doc« the wholcnalc grocer, the dr 
zling tapctcr who nneakN up to hia counter for 
kc|; of whiskey to dole out under a alianty in tv 
cent glaaac* ; and both for the name reajnn. 

The pica that Uio * public opinion' amonf; I 
highest claiuies of nocicly at the aoutli is mild ai 
conaiderat« towards the slavm, that /A^y do n 
overwork, underfeed, neglect when old and sic 
scantily clothe, badly lodge, and half shelter lh> 
slaves ; that Ihey do not barbarounly flog, load \vi 
irons, irn|iriMjn in the stocks, brand and mai 
them ; hunt them when runaways with dogn a: 
guns, and sunder by force and forever the nean 
kindred — is siiown, by almost every page of U 
work, to lie an a.'yiumption, not only ultirrly c'^un 
less, but directly opposed to masses of irrc !ra:.'ab 
evidence. If the reader will be at the rn im 
review the testimony recorded on the I'r' _'oii 
pages he will find that a very large pri.i>..rtii 
of the atrocities detailed were committed, not 1 
the most ignorant and lowest clashes of societ 
but by persons 'of property and standing,' 
masters and mistresses belonging to the * upp 
classes,' by prsons in the learned profcroions, 1 
civil, judicial, and miUtary officers, by the litera 
by the fashionable elite and persona of more thi 
ordinary 'respectability' and external mr.rril'ry 
large numbers of whom are profcswors of r- ii. 

It will be recollected that the testimony oi .*^ 
rah M. Grimk^, and Angelina G. Weld, was co 
fined exclufitely to the details of slarery as e 
hibited in the highest claxge$ of tnciety, mainly 
Charleston, S. C. Sec tlicir testimony pp. 22 — 1 
and 52 — 57. The former has furnished us wi 
the following testimony in addition to that alreat 
given. 

"Nathaniel Ileywardof Combahec. S. C, onc« 
the wealthiest planters in the state. !<tated, in co 
versation with S4ime other planters v '■■■ <■ ■ -■ -ir 
plainine of the idle and Li/y babit> e 

and the difficulty of aseertaming ■ i* 

sickness was real or pretended, and liie i - ih« 
suffered from their fn^uent absence on ; ~ a 
count from their work, said, "I .vevkr i -r 
pat's wouk : it is an r.*tahU»hed rule on nr -iai 
tations that the tasks of all the sick ■" -' Sa 

be done hy lho*e trho are veil in c '.r 

oicfi. By this means a vigilant snp' sri 

up bv the slaves over each other, and lluy tal 
care that nothing but real sickness V'^r^ anv oi 
out of the field.' I sjient several tl 

neijjlil»orl)ood of Nathaniel Hey war n 

and w(ll rememlHr his character a-. . - .. . ia» 
master. I \ea$ pre*<nt when the abose slulemtt 
teas made." 

The cool barbarity of such a n gtilation « ban 
Iv surpassed bv the worst edicts of llie KunM 
Caligula — especially when we consider tint Q 
plantations of this roan were in the neigbK rhoo 
of the Corobaiicc riTor, one of the moat unhcailfc 



OhjccUons Considered — Public Opinion. 



175 



di«lrictK in the low country of Soulli Carolina ; 
furl!it;r, tliat larfje numbers of his sliives worked in 
thu rice marnhes, or ' KwampH' as ihc.y arc called 
in that Htate — and that during six niontiis of the 
year, Ko fatal to health is the malaria of the 
Bwanips in tjiat region that tlic piantctK and their 
families invariably abandon tii(;ir plantations, re- 
Warding it as downright presumption to spend a 
single day upon them ' between the frosts' of 
Ihc early sj)ring and the last of November. 

The reader may infer the high standing of Mr. 
Hoyward in South Carolina, from the fact that 
no was selected with four oilier freeholders to 
Constitute a Court for the trial of the conspirators 
In the insurrection plot at Charleston, in 1822. 
Another of the individuals chosen to constitute 
hat court was Colonel Henry Deas, now prcsi- 
Icnt of the Board of Trustees of Charleston Col- 
3gc, and a few years since a member of the Sc- 
ate of South Carolina. From a late corresp n- 
encc in the " Grecnvilc (S. C.) Mountaineer," 
etwcen Rev. William M. Wightman, a professor 
1 Randolph, Macon, College, and a number of the 
itizens of Lodi, South Carolina, it appears that 
ic cruelty of this Colonel Deas to his slaves, is 
roverbial in South Carolina, so much that Pre- 
ssor Wightman, in the sermon which occasion- 
d the correspondence, spoke of the Colonel's in- 
umauity to his slaves as a matter of perfect no- 
iriety. 

Another South Carolina slaveholder, Hon. 
/'hitmavsh B. Seabrook, recently, we believe, 
lieut. Governor of the state, gives the following 
stimony to his own inhumanity, and his certifi- 

te of the ' public opinion ' among South Caro- 

a slaveholders ' of high degree.' 

In an essay on the management of slaves, read 
bfore the Agricultural Societ)' of St. Johns, S. C. 
id published by the Society, Charleston, 1834, 
[Ir. S. remarks : 

*' I consider imprisonment in the stocks at night, 
ith or without hard labor in the day, as a pow- 
•ful auxiliary in the cause of good government. 
'o the correctness of this opinion many can bear 
jstimony. ExrERiENCE has convinced me that 
lere is no punishment to which the slave looks 
■ith more horror." 

The advertisements of the Professors in the 
[edical Colleges of South Carolina, published 
ith comments — on pp. 169, 170, are additional il- 
istrations of the 'public opinion' of the literati. 

That the 'public opinion ' of Me highest class 
f society in South Carolina, regards slaves as 
lere cattle, is shown by the following advertise- 
lent, which we copy from the " Charleston (S.C.) 
lercury" of May 16 : 

" Negroes for. Sale. — A Girl about twenty 
ears of age, (raised in Virginia,) and her two fe- 
lalc children, one four and the other two years 
Id — is remarkably strong and healthy — never 



having iiad a day'H BickncHO, with the exception 
of the small pox, in lier life. The eiiildrca aro 
fnie and healthy. She in vkrv piiolihc; i.n ukr 
OENEiiATiNH uiMi.iTiKS, (iiid affords a rare opimrtu. 
nily to airy prrson who wishrs to raise a jamily 
oj strong and healthy servants for their own use. 
" Any person wishing to purchase, will please 
leave their address at the Mercury ofKcc." 

The Charleston Mercury, in which this adver- 
tisement appears, is the leading political paper in 
South Carolina, and is well known to be the po- 
litical organ of Messrs. Calhoun, Rhctt, Pickens, 
and others of the most prominent politicians in 
the state. Its editor, John Stewart, Esq., is a law- 
yer of Charleston, and of a highly respectable fa- 
mily. He is a brother-in-law of Hon. Robert 
Barnwell Rhett, the late Attomcy-Genei-al, now 
a Member of Congress, and Hon. James Rhett, o 
leading member of the Senate of South Carolina ; 
his wife is a niece of the late Governor Smith, of 
North Carolina, and of the late Hon. Peter 
Smith, Intcndant (Mayor) of the city of Charles- 
ton ; and a cousin of the late Hon. Thomas S. 
Grimke. 

The circulation of the ' Mercury' among the 
wealthy, the literary, and ths fashionable, is pro- 
bably much larger than that of any other paper 
in the state. 

These facts in connection with the preceding 
advertisement, are a sufficient exposition of the 
' public opinion' towards slaves, prevalent in these 
classes of society. 

The following scrap of ' public opinion' in Flo- 
rida, is instructive. We take it from the Frorida 
Herald, June 23, 1838 : 

Ranaway from my plantation, on Monday 
night, the 13tli instant, a negro fellow named 
Ben ; eighteen years of age, polite when spoken 
to, and speaks very good English for a negro. 
As I have traced him out in several places in 
town, I am certain he is harbored. This notice 
is given that I am determined, that whenever he 
is taken, to punish him till he informs me who has 
given him food and protection, and / shall apply 
the law of Judge Lynch to my own satisfaction, on 
those concerned in his concealment. 

A. Watson. 

June 16, 1838." 

Now, who is this A. Watson, who proclaims 
through a newspaper, his determination to put to 
the torture this youth of eighteen, and to Lynch 
to his ' satisfaction ' whoever has given a cup ef 
cold water to the panting fugitive. Is he some 
low miscreant beneath public contempt ? Nay, 
verily, he is a ' gentleman of property and stand- 
ing,' one of the wealthiest planters and largest 
slaveholders in Florida. He resides in the vicini- 
ty of St. Augustine, and married the daughter of 
the late Thomas C. Morton, Esq. one of the first 
merchants in New York. 

We mav mention in this connection the well 



I7ff 



Objections Considered — Public Opinion. 



known fart, that many wealthy planlrm make it 
a mil- nrrrr In rfiiploi/ a phynirian ainon)( thrir 
tlavrt. Mom. Williiiin Sinilh, Senator in ('on- 
grcM, from Sotilli ('amliiia, fruin 1H16 to 1h23, 
and aftcTwarilN frutn IKJG to lH3l, iit one of thiH 
niuiilM.T. ill' ownH a number of larfrn plantatioiiH 
in the Houth wcHtorn ntatcn. One of these, hor- 
dcrx upon the villai^c of Iluntitvillc, Alabama. 
Thr ()i .|>Ie of that villaj^e ean testify that it in a 
part of Judge Siaillx'B syntrm never to employ a 
phyHirian fren in the most extreme cases. If the 
medrcal Hkill of the ovcrHccr, or of the nlaves 
thcmsclvcii, can contend succcssrully with the 
discaBc , they live, if not, they die. At all events, 
a piiyHir.iaii in not to be called. Judge Smith was 
appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of the 
United Slates three years since. 

The reader will recall a similar fact in the testi- 
mony of Rev. W. T. Allan, son of Rev. Dr. Al- 
laa, of Iluntsvillc, ((-ee p. 47,) who says that Co- 
lonel Robert H. Watkins, a wealthy planter, in 
Alabama, and a rRRsrucvTiAL elf.cior in 1836, 
who works on his plantations three hundred 
slaves, ' After employing a physician for some 
time among his negroes, he ceased to do so, al- 
Icdging as the reason, that it was cheaper to lose 
a few negroes every year than to pay a physician.' 

It is a fact perfectly notorious, that the late Ge- 
neral Wade Hampton, of Soutli Carolina, who was 
the largest slaveholder in the United States, and 
probabl}' the wealthiest man s