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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




UBRARY OF THE 

GRADUATE SCHOOL 
OF EDUCATION 



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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



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UBRARY OF THE 

GRADUATE SCHOOL 
OF EDUCATION 



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I O ^ . '^ Ci HARVARD UNIVERSIW 

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EOUCATI^ 
^ * ^ LIBRARY 



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THE 



Ameeiom Teacher 



DBVOTBD TO THB 



Methods and Principles of Teaching, 



A B. WIN8HIP, W. E SHELDON, 

EdUori. 



VOLUME VIII. 

[From September, 1890, to June, 1891, inclusive.] 



BOSTON: 

Nkw England Pubushino Compant. 

1891. 
c 
6c.Z. 






v/ 




(jlf CF/THE 
\rii SCh. A uF ECUCATfOff 

/. 



OV/7 1923 



/ \. 



INDEX TO VOLUME VIIL 



AUTHORS. 

Alten, 13 
Armitage, Laura F 

I4» 27, 97, 184, 294, 344 

Arnold, Sarah L, 45, 88, 127, 

171, 206, 248, 287, 

328, 367 

Aussburgr, D R, lo, 53, 213 

Author of Preston Papers, 

205 
B, K L, 54, 129, i86» 211 
B, S A 369 
Badlam, Anna B, 133 
Bennett, Sarah L 1 5 
Bergen, Fanny D 17, 53 
Berkey, J M 86 
Bolton, Sarah K 85 
Bradway, Ella J 64 
Brown, Kate L 26, $2, 87,94 
113, 134,182,253, 
296, 370 
Burnett, C S 327 
CM £,56^59.99, 28, 35, 155, 
225,266,303,343 
Carter, Charles M 11 
Clapp, Henry L 167 
Clark, Minnie G 292, 314, 

353« 392 
Colbom, George W 90, 216 
Cole, Flora E 73, 195, 236 
Converse, Esther 5 
Cotting, M E 15 
Davis, Alice 62 
Dewey, Julia M 209 
Dorothy, 304 
Nuffield, Rosa M 311 
Errett, Chas F 97 
Estes, I N 386 
F, E 137 

Fanning, £ A 177 
Finley, £leanor 142, 143, 176 
Fisk, A B 104 
Foster, Evelyn S 226 
Gardiner, Ida M 6, 285 
Gates, I N, 381 
Giffin, Wm M 251, 334 
Gilman, Ciarabel 17, 50, 92, 
132, 175. 212, 254, 293,, 

342, 373 
Goodwin, Lavinia S 205 
Gonnley, Jane £ 26 
Graves, Jane Laodon 145 
Groll, Anna A 297 
H, M A 106 
H, E M 330 

Hadley, Lizzie M 187, 344 
Harrington, Sarah £ 336 
Hailmann, W N 33 
Harriman, £ M 14 
Hinckley, Abby S 365 



Hodskins, Georgia A 

16, 55, 382 
96, 137, 222, 255, 261 
Howes, A W, 386 
Hoxie, Walter 184, 217 
J, E B, 385 

Jaquith, W L47,85, 168, 208, 
246, 289, 372 
Jennings, Albert E 370 ' 
Kellogg, Eva D 290 
King, Annie Bronson 46 
King, Charles F, 375 
King, Henry S 96, 183 
Kiemm, L R 1 2 
Libby, Annie M 22, 106, 373 
Luddington, Harriet A 9, 49, 
93, 131, 174, 222 
M. WA23 
Maltby, Albert £ 103, 249, 

293 
Marsh, Alice 245 
McCartney, L M 143 
Mehitabal,5i 
Metcalf, Robert C 169 
Monroe, Will S 251 
Moor> Mary 114, 156 
Morrell, D M 129 
Morrison, Mary L 224 
N, M J 212, 213 
Oliver, Franc £ 295 
Pattee, F L 

Pearson, Belle St J 305 
Periy, Walter S 51 
Phillips, Fannie Fern 34^ 
Pollock, Mary Regina 264 
Pollock, Susan P 32 
Prince, J T 66 
Putnam, Jessie Y 148 
Ray, Lilian 67, 227, 306 
Reinstein, Gussie 97, 134, 

345 
Richardson, Mary £ M 285 
Robinson, Mary C 189 
Russell, Henry R 354, 394 
Rust, Annie C, 372 
Satterlee, O 291 
Sawyer, Mary L 90, 130, 173 
210, 252, 302, 335 
Schlesinger, Annie 27, 67 
Sheldon, W £ 74, 262 
Shepard, Erwin 1 16 
Sherwood, Ada Simpson, 

68, 107, 188, 263, 304 
Spear, Mary A 91, 133, 381 
Stacy, Hattie C 142 

Stafford, Juniatta 226 
Strayer, Mary J 185 
Tebault, Mary C 177, 183 
Thatcher, Georgia 331 
Thomas, Belle 297 
Tilden, W S 25, 64, 102, 146 
Tilley, ^ucy E 45 



Valentine, S Louise 142 
W, £ I330 
White, Abbie M, 371 
Wallace, £ Idella 25, 27 245 
Williams, Frank B 130 
Willis, Annie Isabel 245 
Winship, Albert £ 18,4857, 
105, 141 
Winthrop, Warren 211 



POETRY. 

Banner, Our 385 
Bells Across the Snow, 127 
Brook, The 245 
Brook's Lesson, 327 
Child and Book, 85 
Child of Seven 365 
Children in Bermuda, 188 
Christmas, (Ex) 147 
Climbing of the HiU, 

(Song) 107 
Columbia's School and Flag 
386 
Cotton Plant, The 45 
Daily Bread, Our (Song) 188 
Fife and Drum Band, 

(Music) 65 
Fisher, The 27 
Flowers, An Afternoon 

with 345 
Futures, Our (Ex) 25 
Give and Take, 85 
Grandpa's Tick Tock, 67 
Historic Rhymes, 227 v 
Housekeeping Song, 345 
I Can't and I Can, (Song) 

263 
Leader, Our. (Ex) 227 
Little Things, 26 
Marching Exercise Song, 68 
October, 45 
On the Way to School. 

(Song) 304 
Persevere, (Ex) 2 
Pieman, The 106 
Pumpkin Pie (Exercise) 67 
Red, White, and Blue 386 
September, 5 
Spring's Processional, 285 
Table of Time, (Ex) 187 
Trees, Choice ot (Ex) 107 
' Twas You, 344 
Viney's Lettah, 245 
Washington, A King, 226 
What Pussy Willow Says, 

(Ex) 304 
Wild Rose, 365 



Winged Thoughts, 205 
Winter Exercise, 148 
Wonderful Land, 27 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Africa, The Partition of 262 
Aided at Home, Shall Pupils 

be, 6 
Aldrich, T B (Portrait) 52 
Amusements, 62 
Anderson, Supt J W, 

(Portrait) 207 
Andrews' (Miss) Solution of 

the Problem, 185 
Arnold, Sarah L (Portrait) 7 
Baby's First Day at School, 
205 
Bad Word Societies 366 
Boyden Albert G (Port.) 367 
Boys' Games, 286 
Busy Work 376 
(Hiaracters, Guessing, 22 
Children and the Poets, 52^ 
94, 134, 182, 211, 253, 296. 370 
Classification — Recitation, 

169 
Coal Mines, 96, 183 
Color Teaching, 57 
Cooper, Sarah B (Port) 366 
December Sentences, 96 
Discipline School, 129 
Draper, Supt A S 

(Portait) 129 
Fated to be Free, 46 
Febuary Sentences, 222 
Garrett, W R (Portrait) 329 
Geography, In 373 
C^ography, Recreation in 64 
Grading Country Schools, 86 
Grass, The (Ex) 265 
Gulls and Terns, 184 
Henry, Patrick, (Ex) 226 
Howells, Wm Dean 253 
Huling, Ray Greene 247 
January Sentences, 137 
July Sentences 382 
Key to Recitation in Geog 

raphy, 94 
Lambert, W H (Portrait) 168 
Language Hints, 21 1 
Lighthouses, 375 

Longfellow (Ex) 296 
March Arrival, A 261 
March Sentences, 255 

105, 141, 380 
Moral Lesson, 208 
Music (classical) in Public 

Schools, 146 
Music Course, The 25 



INDEX TO VOLUME VIII. 



Music Lesson, Over Ezhaus 

live Treatment of 64 
Music Teaching, Suggestions 

for 142 
Ned's Bluebirds, 306 
November Sentences, 55 
Observe the Chidren, 48, 
October Sentences, 16 
Pestalozzi (Portrait) 46 
PI I y at Recess, 330 
Play of the Seasons, (Ex) 264 
Piayii^ for Keeps, 327 [88 
PowelC Supt W B 1 Portrait) 
Psycholo^, A Study of 290 
Reformation Needed, 90 
School Songs, 56 
Scientific Experiments, 57 
Scrap Pictures, 185 
Seen in a Private School, 245 
Sermons in Stones, Esther 

Converse, 5 

Silk Worm Tallc, A 292 

Sound Instruction, Basis of 

102 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence 

(Exercise) 211 
Swallows, 217 

Talks with Young Teachers, 
47, 85, 168, 205, 246, 
289. 332. 365 
Taylor, Bayard (Ex) 182 
Thanksgiving, The First 106 
Thaxter, Celia (Ex) 134 
Things not Taught in School 
369 
Traveler's Game, The 305 
Ungraded School Work, Sy 
Variety Work, 184, 294 
What is the Elemental to the 

Child? 167 
Whitney, Adeline D T 

(Exercise) 94 
Wild Flowers, Mission of 

330 
Zachary's First Year in 
School, 45, BS, 127, 171, 
206, 248, 287, 328^ 367 



EDITORIAL. 

Arbor Day, 260 
Before-School Age, The 21 
Better Teaching 380 
Book-a-Month Course, 8, 49, 
61, 105, 141, 181, 221, 261, 
300, 341 
Criticism, 221 
Happy New Year, A 180 
Married Women Teachers 



60 



Observation Lessons 381 
Observe the Children 380 
Prize, A February 280 
Prize, The February 260 
Prizes, Flower 60 
Prizes for Devices, 61 
Summer Schools, 341 
Swedish Gymnastics, loi 
Talking Shop, 221 
Teacher, the Country 140 
Tie that Binds, The 221 



KINDERGARTEN. 

Apron, A White 194 

Blind Children in the Kin- 
dergarten, 155 

Dick and Don, 311 

Free Kindergarten and In- 
dustrial Training, 73 

Kindergarten Department, 
N. E. A. 37 

Establishments of Free Kin- 
dergartens, Reasons for 
the 276 

Frog, The 392 

Kindergarten and Primary 
School, 116 

Kindergarten as Part of the 
Public School System, 76 

Kindergarten Gifts, 232 

Kindergarten, Our 34 



Kindergarten Training 

School, 33 
Love of the Beautiful in 

Child Life, 114, 156 
Morning Talk, The 314, 352 
Mother in Kindergarten 

Work. The 195, 236 
Occupations 273 
Plant Life, 74 
Schoolishness, 33 
Spirit of the Kindergarten, 

352| 394 
Third Gift, The 32 
Winter Sleep, The 112 



METHODS. 

Angles, Surfaces, Solids, 136 
Arithmetic, 58 
Arithmetic in Germany, 66 
Astronomy, Practical, 214 
Bird Enemies, 54, 223 
Botany 372 

Bugs and Things, 95, 135, 
174* 256^ 294 
Busy Work, 143, 336 
Busy Work in Reading, 395 
Rhyming Lesson in Clay, 344 
Cardboard Sewing 374 
Color Lesson, 333 
Composition Books 

in French Schools, 12 
Composition Work, 14 
Compositions, Illustrated, 

332 
Crystal Hunting, 335 
Devices, 216 
Drawing, 213 
Drift from the Lynn 

Training School, 337 
Europe, lesson on 51 
Flowers, at School 

With the 15 
Fractions, Division of 297 



Geography, Devices in 177 
Geography Games, 176 
Geography Lesson, A, 142 
Helps by the Way, 297 
History, 143 
House We Live In, The 

90. "3o» 173. 210, 252, 302 
Language, 91, 133 
Language Development, 

9.49.93. «3i. 174,222 
Language, Devices in 177 
Language Lesson, A, 143 
Latitude and Longitude, 142 
Letter Writing, 19 
Map Sketching, 10 
Mat Plaiting, 336 
Matching, 23 
Modeling in Paper Mache 

249. 293 
North America, How to 

Sketch, 53 
Number Hints, 18 
Number Writing, 331 
Numeration and Notation, 

212 
Oswego Primary, The 257 
Paper Folding, 103, 145 
Paper-Polding and Cutting 
Percentage, 251, 334 [371 
Plan for Teaching Beginners 

to Write, 291 
Plans, 224 

Reading, Primary 251 
Reproduction Exercises, 28, 
59. 99. 139. >86, 225, 266, 343 
Seat Work, 97 
Seeds, Distribution of 17, 55 
Songs and Song Games, 

IS. 303 

Spelling Games, 137 
Tools and their Value, 1 1 
Objects in Drawing, 51 
Virtues, Hints for Teaching, 
Variety Work, 14. 97 [13 
Word Building 370 
Zoology, 1 7, 50. 92, 132, 1 75. 
212, 254, 293, 342, 376 







EACHER- 



^^^^3" 



OLD 



Toil. XIT., NO. l^mnr 



TOL. Tm., NO. 1. 



ttitamd «t tlM Pott OflM tttBoitoa. MMi^ m 



w.K^^S.I**^ Boston, September, 1890. 



I 



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B/i/EF List of Co/kmon School Text Books 

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THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Sept. 



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THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 





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SILVER, BURDETT, & OOMPA.NY, 

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bnuaohaa of Tooal in vale, Readtafr* Wrillmir, Spelltnir, HlaC^rjr. €lirll CN»ireniHient« Ac, tooonaidar tha 
following bafora making aalaoUona of booka in tkaaa branohaa. 

THE NORMM. MUSIC COURSE, 

Bf JOBK W. TuriB AHD B. S HOLT. 

THE NORMAL COURSE IN REAMNQ, 

Bt Bum a J. Todd and W. B. Powa£.i;i, ILA 



MRC COUN 8 HISTORICAL CHIRTS OF THE U. 8. 

Bt Towvbbkd MaoOouk, AM. ' 

MAC COUN'S HISTORICAL 8E08RAPHY OF THE U. &, 

Bt Towvbskd MAcOouzr, A.IC. 

STUDIES IN CIVIL BOVERNMENT, 

Bt Wiiiliam a. Mowut, Ph.D. 

ELEMENTS OF CIVIL BOVERNMENT, 

Bt Wiujam a. Mow&t, Fh.D. ' 



THE NORMAL REVIEW SYSTEM OF WRITINB, 

B7 D. H. Paklbt and W. B. GuNimoir, A. IL 

THE NORMAL COURSE IN SPELLIN8, 

Bt DtL Larejx Dumtov, amd 0. Goodwin Olabk, A.1I. 

▲lao Choioa taxtbooka and halpa in naarly avary othar branoh of aohool and ooUaga work. 
Zllnatratad Catalogna mailad fraa to any addraaa. Conaapondanoa ia invltad. 

SILVEB, BUBDETTt As CM)., Fubn., { but^ 

122 A 124 Wabaah Avo.. CHICAOO. I 



!,*ۥ.,} 8 Eanoook Ave., Boston. 

740 A 742 Broadway. NEW YORK. 



TxtJE ^jrn EjrTERESTijrc. 



A SCHOOL HISTORY OF ROME 



FuiiLT Illustbatxd. 

" Wbat strikes me m espeeially notewortbT about tb^ book Is tbe 
life tbat bas been tbrowD Into a sobjeot which ft Is so easy to make doll 
and onlnteresting "— Pbbs. 0. K. Adams, OomsU UnivmrtUy. 

" It desenres to be stroDsly recommeoded to all teaebers ol anetent 
history as an almost Indispensable part of tbelr apparatus; for no- 
where else In tbe English lancnage ean be found much ol the matter 
contained hi this Tolunie."-2%«l^aefon. 



aia w^^E^f 19a 



I latsnMtlTely b^aiadL 



Bt B. F. LEiaHTON, Ph.D. (lips.) 

** I think the book excellently adapted to accompany the readlnc of 
the Ladn poetry and prose commonly taken Id our sehools and col- 
leges."— Albxbt 0. Pbbkins. Ph.D., Prin, Adtlphi Acad., BrookiyH, 

" I know not what marrels may He in the future, but I do not find It 
easy to imagine a better manual for the initial studyof Roman history 
than you hare furnished "— Andrkw P. PaABODYri>.D , LL.D.. Frcf. 
Ba/rvard UrUvtrtUy, CanUtridge, ATcms. 

Iiatr«dlaecie« priecf $1.44. 



EEFHreHAM HATNABD ft CO., Pabrs., 771 BnKwir, Ml 67 & 69 Nlitl St, Niff YmL 

H. I. •MITH. 5 •amoraot St.. Beaton. I J.' D. WILLIAMS. 151 Wabaih Ava., Ohioaoo. 



For The Toilet 

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** I hare used Ayer's Hair Vigor and hare 
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C. B. Woostsr, WestoTcr, Md. 

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Ayer's Hair Vigor 

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DaaaitpUfa paaqpUat fraa. 






BEWARE of SUBSTITUTES and 
IMTTATIONa 







Vol. XIV. DEVOTED TO THE METHODS AND PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING. 



No. 1. 



f' 



SEPTEMBER. 

BT MBS. HBLXN [HUlTr] JACKSOV. 

HE goldearod k yellow ; 

The com is tnmiiigf browD ; 
The tieei in apple orchards 

With Imik are bending down. 



The gentian*! bloest fringes 
Are enrling in the son ; 

In dusty pods the milkweed 
Its hidden silk has span. 

The sedges flaunt their harrest, 

In OTory meadow nook ; 
And asters by the brookside 
in the brook. 



From dewey lanes at morning 

The grapes' sweet odors risSi 
At noon the roads all flutter 

With yellow butterflies. 

By all these lovely tokens 

September days are here, 
With summer's best of weather. 

And autumn's best of cheer. 

But none of all this beauty 

Which floods the earth and air, 
Is unto me the secret 

Which makes September fahr. 

'Tie a thing which I remember; 

To name it thrills me yet : 
One day of one September 

I nerer can forget. 

— Century Magazine, 



FACTS AND nCTION. 

WHATcomesoftenest out of order? Disorder. 

Wx recommend those persons who idm after etriking effects to 
wind up the dock. 

Thb success f ul suitor for a lady's hand may truly be said to 
tarry awag the palm, 

Thb seoret-eooiety-man's wife echoes with Cowper the cry, **0 
for a lodge in some fast wilderness." 

Tommy, when questioned as to hb political tenets answered: 
^' I suppose I am a rtepnblican bg Urth," 

Look out for the man who is always suspicious of ererybody 
else's motiTce. The chances are that he has some motiTcs himself. 

It b a curious and interesting fact that the people who are most 
afraid of burglars are, as a rule, the people who hayen't anything 
in the house that a self-respecting burglar would steal. 

A FELLOW ncTcr has experienced all the joys of camping out un- 
less he has had one of those teleecopic drinkiag-cupe shut up on him 
just as he b handing to a young lajy a cup of sralding hot coffee. 



SERMONS IN STONES. 

BY BSTHEB OONYBBSE. 

IT was a welcome Boond after our long tramp over the 
C hills, — the sharp, clear ring of the stone-cutter's 
chiseL It chimed with the shrill treble of the locust, and 
seemed a part of the insect life that filled the cool, Sep- 
tember air. Following the sound we poshed on, confi- 
dent of finding the cap of water we craved. 

In a clearing shaded by a few trees stood a little 
shanty. It was a kindly face that bent over the granite 
block, — a face ragged and strong, and clear, honest eyes 
looked into oar own as we were welcomed with a cordial 
" Good day." 

'^ Certainly, certainly ; come in and rest a bit My 
little spring yonder will give you as cool and pure a 
draught of water as you'll find." 

« Moses smote the rocks in the wilderness and water 
came forth," he said, as he* returned with his pitcher. 
^^I know what hand smote the stones that guard my 
spring, but I often wonder what cleaver was used. 
They're as dean cut, sir, as this stone, just a foot apart, 
and the water bubbles up from between." 

^' He is the master workman, you know," I replied. 
^^ Marvellous are ELis works." 

*^ Tou are a minister, sir ? I thought so. Curious, 
isn't it, how the marks of our trade are stamped upon us. 
Now this right arm of mine teUs my story ; but you, sir, 
whether you carry a Bible, a fishing rod, or a rifle, the 
mark is there all the same." 

'* And I ? " asked my companion. 

'' Tou," replied the workman, after a searching glance, 
« you may be either a teacher or a storekeeper. If you 
are the former I claim kinship with your profession. 
Tour business like mine is to make polished stones, 
^ polished after the similitude of a palace,' and it's nice 
work for both of us, sir. A stroke a little too heavy does 
injury not easily repaired. It's a stroke here and a stroke 
there, gently and inteUigently given, that makes these 
beautiful corner stones. I've seen many a shaft spoiled, 
when pretty well along, by a careless stroke ; and again 
I've seen an ungainly block grow to a thing of beauty in 
the hands of a skilled workman. And, sir, I think we 
share the same pride in the work of our hands. When 
you see a man who has been under your tuition standin 



6 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Skpt. 



in the court room or pulpit, you say proudly, ^ I had a 
hand in making him ; he was a rough, ignorant hoy when 
I took him.' Just so I feel when I see one of my shafts 
in the cemetery, or the polished pillars of the town hall 
yonder. But I remember the mistakes, the false strokes 
I gave ; is that the case with you, sir ? " 

'^ The comparison fails in one point," said the teacher. 
** You make what you will ; we cannot. The man we 
would prepare for a statesman becomes, perhaps, a ranch- 
man on the plains ; the rough, ungainly boy, with little 
apparent help from us, becomes the renowned preacher 
or lawyer." 

" That's true, sir,— that's true : but some influence may 
have given the bent in each case. I should shrink from 
your responsibility ; such tender, living material requires 
a delicate touch." 

The teacher made no reply ; the workman thoughtfully 
tapped the rough shaft with the tool he had been using, 
before replying to the remark that should turn him from 
his subject. 

"A nice place to camp out? Indeed it is, — good 
water, dry soil, pure air, and small game plenty in the 
woods yonder. I tried it a few nights once, and found it 
comfortable enough except for the lonesome feeling. 
Ever camp out, sir? Then you understand me. It*8 
solemn ; it seems to bring you nearer the Creator* You 
get pretty <near to nature's heart,' as somebody says. 
How the sudden rush of an animal through the thicket, 
or the hoot of an owl, startles yon ! I think a nervous 
man, or a man with a troubled conscience, wouldn't care 
to try it more than once. No, I shouldn't camp out just 
for pleasure." 

^'Well, yes, there was reason for it It may in- 
terest yon to hear about it, sir, though it happened 
years ago. Perhaps it first led me to compare your work 
with mine, for it's about one of the precious stones we 
were speaking of. A runaway boy, a truant from school, 
hung around this shanty nearly a week. The whole town 
was searching for him, and from missing my dinner one 
day I located him here. He'd fallen into the hands of 
an unskillful workman, and hated his teacher and hated 
schooL The two go together, don't they? He was 
beaten one day in school, and it made him desperate, for 
he was a proud-spirited lad, as sensitive as you or I. 
Can't you imagine how every stroke of the lash cut the 
tender, living spirit of the lad ? I needn't make a long 
story of it I camped here until I found him, and a 
more humble, broken-hearted lad you never saw. The 
solitude had impressed him as it had done me. But he 
couldn't forgive his teacher. 

^' ^ He treats me as you treat that stone,' the boy said. 
* He thinks I have no feeling. He hammers me all the 
time, and his sharp words cut as your chisel cuts.' Then 
he showed me the marks the lash had made. ' They'll 
always stay there ; when I am a man I shall feel the 
stinging and see the scars;' and, sir, I think he was 



right He is man now, but I think the scars are there. 
The shaft wasn't spoiled : the master-workman took care 
of that, but I doubt if any amount of polish can efface 
such work. You would think it waste time to work up 
the grain of your living shafts as carefully as I have 
worked up this pillar. How many strokes do you sup- 
pose I put into it ? See the polish ? You must excuse 
my talking so much ; it isn't every day I find some one 
to talk to. Good day, gentlemen ; happy to see you 
again." 

The old workman bent again over his task, yet how 
gently and patiently were the strokes given. We stopped 
and looked back before entering the path that led to the 
next clearing. 

^'His is the easier task," remarked the teacher. " He 
fills his orders ; we, like the * blind spinner in the sun,' 
make we know not what, and often see no result from 
faithful labor." 

The cool September morning changed to hot midday 
as we continued our tramp. We passed other quarries 
and other workmen, but we felt no interest in any save 
the solitary man working his ^' sermon in stone " on the 
lonely hillside. 



SHALL PUPILS BE AIDED AT HOME ? 

BT IDA M. OABDimBB, FBOYIDBNGB. 

SHALL pupils have help at home in preparing lessons 
for the next day ? On general principles, and in 
most cases, emphatically No ! Why not ? 

I. The teacher cannot gain a clear idea of how much 
of her work has been grasped by the pupil, and has noth- 
ing on which to base her next day's work, unless she 
knows how much the child is able to do unaided. 

II. The child aided at home may have perfect lessons 
day after day, yet fail on the final examinations, discour- 
aging teacher, parent, and pupil. Of course an experi- 
enced teacher has ways of testing a pupil in the class, but 
time is often wanting to get the real measure of the 
child's actual, personal knowledge. Thus he often ap- 
pears to be ready for the examination when in reality he 
is capable of little original thinking. 

III. Few children who are not able to get their les- 
SODS without help are capable of carrying home a suffi- 
ciently clear idea of the teacher's method for the parent 
to comprehend it and use it in helping the child. The 
parent, therefore, uses his own method; but the child, 
conscious that it is a different method, is troubled and 
confused. ^' Teacher doesn't do it so," he exclaims de- 
spairingly, and loses the force of the parent's explanation 
through the fear that it does not mean the same as the 
explanation given to the class. 

It is true that originality and variety should be encour- 
aged, by allowing the pupil to solve the problem in as 
many ways as he can, — provided always that he can ^ve 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



a clear explanation of the steps taken, and the reasons 
for taking them ; bat this can come only after the papil 
has clearly grasped some one method. UntU this one is 
understood, the introdaction oE another serves only to 
conf ose the child, instead of helping him. 

IV. Few parents discriminate between jadicioas and 
injadicioas assistance. It is far easier to take the slate 
and do the work, than to lead the young mind step by 
step to do the work. If parents could assist the child 
by showing him how to study^ by explaining certain prin- 
ciples which will lighten his work, then indeed might 




Sabah L. Abvold, Biinneapolis. 



teachers be glad to have their work supplemented at 
home. Thus, in arithmetic, a few simple rules of pro- 
cedure will help the child in numberless cases. Thus : 

1. Make sure that you understand what is asked for. 

2. Note carefully what is given in the statement of the 
problem to help you to this. 

3. Do the conditions make it necessary to find some- 
thing else first, as a basis for finding the required result ? 

4. Imagine that you yourself are doing just what is 
stated in the problem. 

5. Use your common sense in judging about the cor- 
rectness of your answer. 

These last two points cannot be too strongly empha- 
sized. Children will often work intelligently, accurately, 
and quickly, as soon as the thbg becomes a reality to them 
through this use of the imagination, whereas, as a mere 



mathematical question, they could do nothing with it 

Few pupils will do a ^' work " example the first time 
and discover for themselves that they have an answer 
which, intelligently stated, means that it would take a 
boy and a man, working together, longer to do a piece of 
work than if either did it alone. And there is nothing 
absurd to pupils, even in higher grades than the primary, 
in saying, *' If one man can do a piece of work in six 
days, it will take nine men nine times six days." 

Parents who are able to give their children principles 
of study, are usually strong advocates of helping children 
at home ; and their children '' prove the rule," of course. 
Why should they not ? 

y. Few mothers have time to assist their children at 
all. I once heard the mother of five children say to their 
teacher, with a bluntness bom of long trial, ^^ I pay you 
to teach my children, and do it myself. You hear the 
perfect recitations, and I do the hard work." 

YL The child who has been helped at home comes to 
the class ynth all the work done ; another, who has had 
no help, gets but half of the lesson prepared. The 
teacher has no way of measuring exactly the actual work 
of the pupils, except by the work presented. One child 
is marked perfect; the other has fifty per cent less. 
This apparent premium on dishonesty is a temptation to 
others to get help. 

YIL The teacher loses the best opportunity of study- 
ing her pupils' minds, their mental habits, their needs ; 
and thus is shut out from that adaptation of her teaching 
to the wants of her pupils, which comes so swiftly to the 
teacher who really knows how the minds of her pupils 
work. In a class of five girls who have been taught to 
work independently, no two will solve a given problem in 
the same way, if there is a possibility for different combi- 
nations. One has a most ingenious and difficult solution, 
which she has wrought out entirely alone. It is good, 
but too elaborate for so simple a problem. She needs to 
cultivate <' short cuts," etc Another makes rapid mental 
combinations, and reaches correct results, but puts noth- 
ing upon her paper to show that she has reached the re- 
sult by accurate reasoning rather than by '^ guess-work." 
She must be taught to indicate connecting liiJuu 

YIII. The teacher loses the great happiness and sat- 
isfaction of seeing the child grow strong day by day, 
which is a teacher's best reward. 

IX. Parents cannot be expected to detect as quickly 
as a professionally trained teacher versed in the princi- 
ples of mental activity, those mental peculiarities wh\ch 
a little well-directed effort would remove. Parents have 
often said, in substance : '< Tou will never be able to teach 
my child arithmetic I have given up all hope. She 
cannot understand it" Generally, in such cases, the 
trouble is that the parent forgot that he was explaining to 
a ehtldj to whom every step of the process is new. He 
did not take sufficiently short steps to accommodate him- 
self to the child's ability. 



8 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Sept. 



X. Children who are aided at home soon become im- 
bued with the idea that they cannot work alone. If com- 
pelled to work without aasistance other than that of the 
teacher, progress may seem at first somewhat slow ; but 
there will be a steady increase in mental strength and 
the power of independent thinking, that will tell in the 
end. As soon as the child wakes up to the fact that he 
really is able to work alone, his pleasure in the conscious- 
ness leads him to redouble his efforts, and rapid progress 
is assured. 

Experience has taught the writer the wisdom of for- 
bidding all assistance at home ; if the pupils have worked 
f aithf idly during the time allotted for preparing the les- 
son, and cannot then succeed, the teacher gives sufficient 
help to start them in a correct line of thought, and again 
throws them upon their own resources. The results of 
this method have been most gratifying, and the children 
are so proud of working independently that when one is 
obliged to state that she has not succeeded with all the 
problems, she often adds : ^' But I think I can gpt it if I 
can have a little more time. I would rather not be helped." 



^ ••• ^ 



BOOK -A -MONTH COURSE. 

"B^E propose to outline for the readers of the Joxtbnal 
Vy of Education and Ambbioan Teacher a course of 
reading for the school year of 1890-91 which shall give 
them the best professional reading in a helpful way. 
We do not advise every teacher to read, as we intend to 
have books read, a book a month. Many teadiers can- 
not afford to read one in two months. It will pay 
teachers to ^^ve an entire year to the first book. 

A series of questions will accompany the recommenda- 
tion of each book. 

Amwers may be sent to us. They uriU be examined, 
and at the end of the ten months a statement will be 
made of the books read^ and our estimate of the answers 
on eaeh book. A neat diploma-like statement will be 
sent All this without expense to our readers. We 
shall, of course, only read and pass upon the work of 
those whose names appear upon the subscription list of 
(me or other of our publications, Joubnal of Education 
or American Teacher. 

While this statement is not a diploma, we think it will 
carry as much professional weight as many of the read- 
ing circle diplomas. We are fully aware of the labor 
this will involve, but if we can in this way improve the 
quality of professional reading, it is worth all the time 
and effort required, and the larger the number who avail 
themselves of this offer the greater will be the satisfaction. 

We shall probably secure for these diploma statements 
the signature of the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
in the state where the reader resides. 

September Book. — FractieaZ Hints for Tea/ihers, 
By George Howland, Superintendent of tiie Chicago 



Schools. Published by D. Appleton & Co., New York* 
Price, by mail, $1.00. 

It is a book of two hundred pages. Four pages a day 
will easily make one the master of one of the best profes- 
sional books. We endorse the assistant superintendent 
of schools of San Francisco, who said in a personal note 
recentiy, *' It is pure gold from preface to the dosing^ 
sentence.'' It is thoroughly philosophical, attractive in 
literary style, practical in every paragraph, up to the 
times in every suggestion, conservatively radical, and 
without a technical term or hackneyed phrase. 

Questions to be Answered.* — ^When the book is 
finished use half sheets of paper not more than eight 
inches long by six inches wide. When muled fold^ 
never rolL Write at the top the name of the book and 
your own name and address. Number the answers, do 
not write the questions. 

1. Which chapter have you enjoyed most ? 

2. Which chapter has helped you most ? 

3. What impressed you most in the Editor*s Preface ? 

4. Are you most impressed with the advantages or 
disadvantages of moral teaching in city schools as com- 
pared with the country ? 

5. Name one way in whieh your reading of the book 
will help your pupils morally. 

6. What two grand impulses have been given ta 
education in this country, according to Mr. Howland? 
(Chap. II.) 

7. What is the ^' real unsolved problem of our schools ? ** 
(Chap. II.) 

8. What does Mr. Howland mean by the first para- 
gragh on page 40 ? 

9. Of what practical value to yon will be the last pan^ 
graph on page 41 ? 

10. How much does the paragraph on page 46, begin- 
ning, '^ When the pupil," etc., mean to yon ? 

11. Name some of the elements of growth in school life. 

12. What is the scholarship aimed at in the school? 

13. Name the five most important points made in the 
chapter upon " The Teacher in the Schoolroom." 

14. Have you any criticisms upon ^^How the School 
Develops Character ? " 

16. Write out the chapter upon << The Class Becitation," 
suggesting the point of each paragraph in a single brief 
sentence. 

16. What is the relation of the principal to the other 
teachers ; to the pupils of other teachers ; to the '' office ; " 
to the superintendent ; to disaffected parents ? Write a> 
short paragraph upon each of these relations. 

17. What need is there of a superintendent of schools ? 

18. What gain is there when there is none ? 

19. What is the greatest loss when there is none ? 

20. What is the ^^ unit" of the school building as viewed 
by the superintendent ? 

• It is not expected that any teacher will answer every qneiti<nu 
They will be suggestive, howcTcr. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 




FIRST STEPS IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.* 



BY HAHRIET A. LUDDINOTON, 

Principal cf Training School. PawtuckAt, B. I ; Author of " Picture 
Frouieout." 



Language Development in Primary Srhools IncideiUal 
to Work in Other Subjects. 

^^f^HE development of the language," says a promi- 
P nent edacator, ^* depends entirely apon the de- 
Telopment of the thought*' The so-called *Manguage 
lessons " of the modern primary school are the outgrowth 
of an e£fort to apply this truth to the work of the school- 
room. As the special purpose of these lessons is to 
arouse thought upon some interesting and familiar sub 
ject, thereby stimulating the pupil to a free expression of 
his ideas, it is evident that such exercises are a step in 
the right direction. A broader application of this prin- 
ple would, however, lead to some modifications in lan- 
guage work. 

Aa a general thing the *' language lessons," and, too 
often, the earlf reading lessons, also, are totally unre- 
lated to the other work of the school, and are regarded 
as separate subjects. Thus, language and reading are 
oonsidered ends in themselves, instead of being regarded, 
as they should be, as a means of thought development. 
It is only recently that teachers have begun to realize 
that special language lessons accomplish nothing which 
may not be attained more economically ia connection 
with the other lessons of the school, — that is, those les- 
sons which do not have as their chief motive creating an 
opportunity for training in languac^e. 

In the recent report of the New England Superin- 
tendents* Association the following significant paragraph 
occurs : ^^ The language studies, which deal only with 
aynibols of thought, — like reading, writing, spelling, talk- 
ing, and written composition,— should be taught, not as 
BO many separate branches, as they have been in the past, 
but in connection wiih the thought studies and as a means 
of teaching these. In this way these (language) studies 
would be taught in the moet effective manner, and time 
now needlessly spent on separate lessons in spelling, read- 
ing, writing, and language could be devoted to the more 
thorough teaching of the thought studies." 

It is evident that the time is not far distant when both 
language and reading lessons, as separate exercises^ will 
no longer have a pla«e in the edementary sohooL Already, 

•Cop7rlffht,lS8». 



in many primary schoolrooms, the main emphasis is placed 
on nature lessons, on science, elementary botany, zoology, 
physicF, etc., while language and reading are used as aids 
only, — ^yet very important aids, — ^to the development of 
these subjects. It is, moreover, undeniably true that 
where the work is skillfully conducted, the end of the 
first year of school life finds the children able to read 
more fluently, and to use language with greater discrimi- 
nation, than is the case in schools where reading and lan- 
guage are taught as isolated subjects. 

In " How to Study Geography " the author thus proph- 
esies the advent of a day when certain studies now con- 
sidered all-important will become merely incidental: 
*^The day is slowly coming when all the elementary 
science, with history and literature, will be essential fact- 
ors in teaching from the beginning to the end of the 
common school course. Wise and thoughtful teachers will, 
after due deliberation, drop some of the isolated spelling, 
technical grammar, and figure reckoning, to make room 
for the direct study of life and the preparation for life. 
It will be gradually discovered that reading, spelling, gram- 
mar, numbers, and drawing, can be best taught as imme- 
diate aids to the study oi the thoughts of God in nature.'' 

All the lessons of the lowest grade should be incidental 
to nature work. The natural sciences, with elementary 
history, geography, and literature, — considered as parts of 
the one great study of life, — should be the subject of in- 
struction. Number and form, reading and language, 
painting, drawing, modeling and making should be aida 
to the development of these subjects. Language training 
will be an inevitable result of the studies because clear 
thinking is naturally followed by adequate expression. 

The best sentences spoken by the little people in their 
eager talk shoald be written upon the board and read, 
thus making a language and a reading lesson of their own 
observations. The choice of the best sentences prompts 
them to more carefid observation, better thinking and 
expression. The most available observation lessons are 
those connected with plant life, with the germination of 
seed, the budding, leafing and blooming of trees and 
plants and the ripening of fruits. 

Number and form are connected with nature work in 
various ways, often by giving little problems during an 
observation lesson, problems suggested by questions or 
conversations of the children. It will frequently help the 
pupils to give the solution without the answer. 

Lessons in elementary history and literature may be 
frequently woven into the observation lesson, through 
entertaining fact or classic myth. Lessons in physics^ 
touching upon light, heat, etc., are easily introduced by 
means of fascinating, simple experiments, also by daily 
observation of clouds, temperature, winds, apparent move- 
ments of the sun and moon. 

Lessons in geology may be easily given through a study 
of the squirrel, beaver, muskrat, common rat, or any of 
the domestic or local wild animala. There should be 



10 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Skpt. 



eomparison of parts, as the namber of toes on hind feet 
with the number on fore feet ; the length of body with 
length of head and taiL Form perception may be quick- 
ened by noticing the shape of the animal, of its home, 
nest, food, etc , as well as by the molding in clay of home, 
food, etc. In the botany lessons there is an almost limit- 
less opportunity of molding. One of the most important 
elements of success is the adaptation of nature lessons to 
the season of the year. 

Children who have been carefully taught to observe, 
handle, model, group, and describe natural objects for the 
first year of school life can, with perfect ease, upon enter- 
ing the second grade, answer almost any question in 
abstract number as far as 12, and many questions as far 
as 20. They originate problems readily and solve with 
ease those usually given to third grade pupils. Though 
the reading has been largely incidental, and much of it 
in script, the pupils will read fluently at sight, matter of 
the Second and even Third Reader grade. They will 
write easily short, original, well-constructed sentences, 
showing an unusually large vocabulary for second grade 
pupils. So far as we know, every teacher who has given 
ibis method a fair trial is convinced that there is a tre- 
mendous power in concentration, in relating subjects 
rather than treatbg each as an isolated study. 

It is evident that a course of training like that described 
above must be conducted by a thoughtful and skillful 
teacher, one who appreciates the unity of the different 
subjects presented, and who knows how to make the most 
of every ehildish thought The great difficulty in obser- 
vation lessons, is to avoid drifting into desultoxy and um- 
lesf talking concerning the objects presented* Under 
such circumstances no definite language training can be 
expected, because no definite thinking is secured. The 
ideal is to hold every child to the best thinking which he 
can do, and to secure from each the most truthful and 
accurate expression of thought of which he is capable. 

It should again be noted that these little lessons in 
science, history, and literature are not given for the sake 
of training in language, but language development does 
result, because good thinking (which a skillful teacher 
always takes pains to secure) demands adequate expression 
in speech. ' To quote again from ^^ How to Study Geog- 
raphy": ^^The evolution of the thought demands the 
evolution of that language which conforms to the thought, 
and is adequate to its expression. Simple facts require 
simple sentences; generalizations, compound and com- 
plex sentences ; in fact, there is no modification to be 
found in the closest and most minute grammatical or 
logical analysis in which pupils would not be fully exer- 
cised both in writing and speaking if the teaching is scien- 
tific, or in other words, properly and fully adapted to 
fiowth* ' 



^ ••• ^ 



Recommend the Ambbigav_Txaohxb to your asso- 



MAP SKETCHING*— (I.) 

BT D. B. AUOSBUBO, NBW TOBK. 

fHE primary object of map dravnng is to gain a. 
knowledge of the general form and the relative 
position of the parts of the earth*s surfacel 

The primary object of map sketching is to illustrate 
some particular truth about the parts of the earth's sur» 
face, — ^as, for example, the route of Stanley in his recent 
trip across Africa, or the position of the gold mines in 
Australia. 

The common mistake in map sketching is trying to 
represent too much. It requires more knowledge to 
know what to leave out of the sketch than to draw tho 
map itself; it also requires much knowledge to know 
what part to draw accurately and carefully, and what 
part to generalize or abbreviate. For example, if tho 
vicmity of Melbourne, in Australia, is to be pictured on 
the blackboard, only that part of Australia need be drawn 
with care, and the remainder of the country sketched ia 
the most general manner. 

The frame work or diagrams used in systems of map- 
drawing are usually too complicated for mapHdcetcking^ 
and it is best not to use them unless they are vexy simple 
and closely associated with the outline of the map. 

The map diagram is of doubtful utility, for the follow* 
ing reasons : (1) It is often as complicated as the map 

itselL (2) The unity 
or individuality of the 
map is often lost sight 
of in fitting it to the 
diagram. (8) The 
details of thecBagram, 
not always being asso- 
ciated with the map^ 
are easily forgotten. 



^0;YOflK 




^•urwvm 



(4) The relative distance and proportion of the parts of 
a map should be compared and associated with each 
other, not with points in a diagram. (6) The mmd ia 
often divided between the map and the diagram. (6) 
Such diagrams are not natural. 

The utility of the map-diagram is apparent (1) When 
it is simple and intimately associated with the outline of 
the map. (2) When it aids in retaining the general 
shape of the map. (3) 
When it assists the memory 
by associating the map and 
diagram points together. 
(4) When the relative dis- 
tance and proportion of the 
points in the diagram and 
map are the same. (5) 
When the mind is not divided by the use of the dia- 
gram, (6) When the diagram is naturaL 

A map that requires more than one minute to sketch ia 




1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



]1 




of doabtfal advantage in the class-room. Each moment 
18 precious to the teacher, and any means that will shorten 
processes is clear gain. Bapid sketching grows oat of 
careful and accurate drawing. Sketching mast have thb 
preparation of careful drawing, or it is of little use. 

Exactness in map-sketching is not looked for. Its 
object is to illustrate in an effective manner the question 
before the class. 

The process of map-sketching is as follows : (1) Make 
a careful and accurate drawing of the map, — [Fig 1, map 

of Australia], — and while 
drawing it make such ob- 
servations as the follow- 
ing: Australia is about 
twice as long as wide. 
J. X / Leaving out North Aus- 

tralia and York peninsula, 
its general shape is that of a bean (Fig. 3.) Cape York is 
the farthest point north; Sandy Cape, east; Mel- 
boanie» sooth ; and Northwest Cape, west Cape York 
ii a very little farther north than North Australia. Mel- 
boame is farther south than Cape Leeuwin. The Gulf 
of Carpentaria is a little to the right of the center, etc. 

Observe that the moontains extend from Cape York 
following the coast aroond to Spencer Gulf ; that the in- 
terior is a vast plab, with low moontains on the westr 
em eoast, extending from North Aostralia to Cape 
Leeowin. 

(2) Keeping these observations in mind, draw the map 
from memory on the blackboard. If it cannot be re- 
prodoced from memory, 
copy it onee more, going 
over the same points as be- 
fore. XJsoally onee draw- 
bg it is soiBcient The 
highlands should be drawn 
with the flat of the crayon, 
making the mountain 
range and most elevated 
parts whitest, the same as 
represented by the dark shading in Fig. 1. (3) Draw 
the map paying no attention to the minor indentations of 
the coast, but with long, sweeping lines, as in Fig. 2. 

Now we are ready for the sketch. With a long, sweep- 
ing stroke of the crayon draw a bean-shaped figure about 
twice as long as wide. (Fig. 3.) To the northeast 
coast add York peninsula, and to the northern coast 
North Australia, and the result is a respectable outline 
map of Australia (Fig. 4.) To this may be added as 
many details as the occasion calls for. This map ought 
to be drawn in less than thirty seconds. 




Thx average of the best school buildings in America is 
the best in the world. Even Grermany does not compare 
with oor average. 



TOOLS AND THEIR VALUE. 

BT PROF. OHABLBS M. OARTBB, 
llassaoliufletts State Normal Art School, Boston. 

fHE manual training school generally requires that 
every object to be made shall be expressed first 
by a drawingy au exercise demanding definite pre- 
liminary thought regarding every detail of the com- 
pleted work. It determines length, breadth, thick- 
ness, shape; it considers the possibilities of materials 
and the process of manufacture, so that when the 
student comes to realize the form represented by con- 
struction, he has simply to express by other means thooght 
already onee worked out by his mind on paper. This 
secondary expression by constroction is the most promi- 
nent feature of the manaal training sehooL It gives and 
requures skill in the use of tools and necessitates a review 
of the mental proeesses involved in the expression by 
drawing ; so by the time the object ia completed the 
stodent has twice, — ^first by drawing, seoond by eonstroo- 
tion, — expressed thooghts primarily developed by obser- 
vation. 

Industrial drawing has been so developed as to oee*- 
sion precisely the same exereise of the hand, eye, and 
mind as in the manual training school ; the only differ- 
enee being in extent of appliances, special workshops, in- 
stroctors, etc. 

The Tools or Dbawing. — ^Expression by drawing 
and eonstroctioB both necessitate the employmenl of 
tods. The principal ones employed in drawing are pea- 
eils, brashes, rolers, T squares, set squares, eompasses, 
and dividers. The simplest of these tools, the pencil, 
may be used either freehand or mechanically. Its f ree- 




Tbe Tools of Drawing. 

hand use in shaping a square, for instance, neeeesitafeee 
regulated thought in regard to size and shape, after which 
the hand and eye obey the mind in expressing its thooghts. 
In representing the same square mechanically, the T 
square, the set square, dividers, and compasses are among 
the means used to secure aocorate expression, hot theii 
ose does not involve as great mental activity as reqoired' 
in producing the figure freehand. The tools used in 
mechanical drawing invariably lead the ndnd, hand, and 



12 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Sept. 



eye to depend less on their own independent power and 
more on the automatic action of the tool. That this is 
true is shown by the dependence placed on tools by those 
workmen who have never had freehand training of the 
hand and eye. A carpenter thas educated will not rely 
on his eye alone when dividing a distance, placing the 
two ends of an edge at the same height, or placing an 
edge in a vertical position, or at right angles to another. 
Each of these operations, from lack of training, obliges 
him to use tools which will prodace the resalt mechani- 
cally. 

In this connection it should be noted that a commis- 
sion appointed in France to investigate technical schools 
declared that freehand drawing was a most important 
element in technical training, and that it should precede 
the stndy of mechanical drawing, ioasmnch as pupils in 
the latter branch invariably work with greater facility 
and accuracy if they have received preliminary freehand 
training. 





v^?M 


[1 i,l. 


1 , Iv jl\ 


!• il'lllllllfllltllllllllllll 




Ihe Tools of Oonstrueciau. 

Thb Tools of Comstbugtion. — The elementary tools 
required in construction are ^^ the seven hand tools, — the 
axe, the saw, the plane, the hammer, the square, the 
chisel, and the file. These are the universal tools of the 
ajpts, and the modern machine shop is an aggregation of 
them rendered automatic and driven by steam." 

Knives, scissors, etc., have been employed somewhat in 
eimple exercises connected with drawing as now taught in 
our public schools. These inquiries present themselves : 
" Are all of these tools necessary in developing power of 
hand, eye, and mind ? " ^' Are some more important 
i!han others ? '' and '^ Are there any which give exactly 
the same training as others ? " 

All exercises requiring the unaided use of the hand 
demand the greatest activity of hand, eye, and mind. All 
work requiring the use of tools substitutes more or less 
for the exertion of these powers mechanical or automatic 
action. The plane, for instance, is so constituted as to 
aid us in producing the straight edge and smooth surface. 
Some skill and thought is needed in its use. but not as 
much as is demanded in producing the same results by the 
more primitive use of a jacknif e blade, which in the plane 



is placed in such a manner as to more rapidly, accurately, 
and automatically produce results, and in the planing ma- 
chine it is placed so as to work altogether automatically. 
The illustration afforded by the plane could be dupli- 
cated by reference to the other universal tools, also to thm 
tools employed in mechanical drawing ; the compassee, 
for example, being so constructed as to enable the pencil 
to describe circles accurately at the first attempt To 
produce the same circle freehand would require much 
greater exertion of the hand, eye, and mind, and so it 
is that one is led to believe that freehand exercises are of 
the first importance^ obliging us, as they do, to give the 
greatest attention to the forms studied. 



^ >• • ^ 



COMPOSITION BOOKS IN FRENCH SCHOOLS. 

BY DB. L. K. KLEMM, WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

IT is well known that the French people have a trained 
feye for beauty. All the patterns of their machines 
and other contrivances, even the boxes in which they pack 
their goods, are ornamented elaborately and artistically. 
This highly developed sense of form and beauty is due to 
the care French teachers bestow upon drawing and 
sketching in school, and in no small degree to the manj 
art schools maintained by the state and by communities. 
I was struck with wonder the other day when I went 
through a Licenm at Rheims (a high school). I was r^ 
quested to look over the composition books of the pupils- 
Each composition was headed by a pencil sketch drawn 
either in rude outlines or beautifully shaded. Some of 
these illustrations were real masterpieces of drawing^, 
representing landscape scenery ; others were clumsy d^ 
Itneations, but all compositions contained at least some 
attempt at illustration. 

I selected a few composition books and asked for their 
loan with a view to copying some of the detiigns. After 
school a delegation of students called at the hotel and 
brought the book, asking whether they might assist me in 
copying. I could not well accept their services, though 
politely offered, and traced some sketches myself. Here 
is the result. 

The subject of one of the compositions was *'The 
Zones," and this was the sketch accompanying it : 




Another 



profusely illustrated with sketches of 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEAOHER. 



13 



flowers. I copied the simplest t > show the accuracy of 
representation. One glance shaws what flower it is. 




A third was illustrated with sketches of hones and 
muscles. This is one of them : 




A fourth treated of the human teeth, and these sketches 
may suffice to prove the artistic skill of the hoy : 




The subjects of all the compositions were taken from 
the studies the pupils then pursued. A class studying 
astronomy would write compositions on astronomical sub- 
jects ; a class in history would write on historical sub- 
jects, and sketch battlefields and maps, chiefly exhibiting 
changes in boundaries and movements of armies, etc. 

Composition thus treated is the legitimate offspring of 
the day*8 studies. These pupils cannot complain of hav- 
ing to write of something foreign to their comprehension 
or experience. The compositions they furnish are sum- 
maries of what they learn in a certain study, and 
■uch composition work greatly assists the retention of 
matter in the memory. The practice of composing in 
pictures as well as in words seems eminently suggestive 
and worthy of imitation. 




GEOGRAPHY EXERCISE. 

n TEACHER in Syracuse bad her class aroused to 
bB^ great interest over an exercise in geography. We 
captured by shorthand one series of questions that show 
the character of the exercise. 

Teacher — *< I am thinking of a place." 

" Is it in North America ? " " Yes." 

« Is it in the United States ? " « Yes." 

« Is it a country " •« No." 

"Is it a cape?" "No" 

"Is it a state?" "No." 

" Is it in New York State ? " " Yes." 

" Is it in the eastern part of the state ? '' " Hardly." 

" Is it in the southern part of the stote ? " " No." 

" Is it in the central part of the state ? " " Yes." 

"Is it a lake?" "No." 

"Is it a river?" "No." 

"Is it a city?" "No." 

"Is it a town?" "No." 

"Is it a county?" "Yes." 

" Has it three lakes amid it ? " " Yes." 

" Is it Onandaga county." " Yes." 

Then one pupil would take the stand and put himself 
under fire, then another. The enthusiasm ot the pupils, 
the way in which they handled themselves, their famili- 
arity with geographical places, showed the exercise to 
have real merit. 



^ ••• ^ 



HINTS FOR TEACHING THE yiRTUES.-(I.) 

BT ALTBN. 

TRUTHFULNESS. 
Expect it 

Let the pupils feel that you are uniformly and oon 
scientiously truthful in school and out 

Treat it as a manly virtue. 

Show that it merely conforms to the facts. 

It is keeping one's word. 

Truthfulness begins in the thought 

It is heroic sometimes. 

It always shows itself in the life and character as 
much as does intemperance in the body. 

Beware of a lie that hasa little truth. It is the basest 
kind of a lie. 

Show that every one respects the truth in others. 

Magnify the truth element in lesson learning and 
reciting. 

Correct a tendency to falsehood by placing right 
motives before the child. 



14 



THE AMERICAN TEACHKR. 



[Sept. 



Be very oarefal that your roles do not tend to false- 
hood. 

Create and emphasize a pahlio sentiment for trathf al- 
nees. 

GEMS. 

Bay the trath and sell it not 

A thoQsand probahilities do not make one troth. 

Above all thing) always speak the trath. 

Better suffer for the trnlh than prosper by falsehood. 

Great is truth and mighty above all things. 

He mast keep a sharp lookout who would speak the 
tmth. 

He that does not speak the truth to me, does not ^he- 
lieve me when I speak the truth. 

He that does not fully speak the truth is a traitor to it. 

In truth is right 

Truth will get uppermost at last 

Sooner or later the truth comes to light 

The truth is mighty and will prevail. 

The truth will out 

Truth coDquers all things. 

Truth crushed to earth shall rise again : 

The eternal years of God are hers. 



VARIETY WORK (PRIMARY.) 

BY LAUBA F. ABfiilTAQB. 

1. Write three words that end in y. 

2. Write names of two yellow flowers. 

3. Write names of two red flowers. 

4. Write names of two animals having far. 

5. Write names of two animals having hair. 

6. Pat letters before old, and make other words of 
it, — (g-old, t-old, s-old, etc.) 

7. Name three kinds of trees that grow near your 
home. 

8. Write what stands for Doctor, Mister, Street. 

9. Write names of four birds you have seen. 

10. What color is your house ? 

11. What animals dig holes in the ground to live in? 

12. Write five girls' names. 

13. Write five boys' names. 

14. Write three names for dogs, 

15. Of what color are lemons ? 

16. Of what color are ripe grapes ? 

17. Write three words of four letters each. 

18. Name five things that can jump. 

19. Name something that likes to live in the water. 

20. Name three things you like to do. 

21. Tell what cows are good for. 

22. Name some animals that have hoofs. 

23. Write the first name of a light-haired girl in your 
schoolroom. 

24. Of a dark-haired boy. 



COMPOSITION WORK. 

BY E. M. HABBIMAN, DOBCHESTBB, MASS. 

1 STOOD before my class in composition, thoroughly 
Jt enthused with my subject It was the glorious Taj 
Mahal. I descanted learnedly ; I read from Haven*8 elo- 
quent description; I explained; I illustrated. Among 
other things I remember this : *' Scholars," I said, ^^ we 
read that when this wonderful rotunda is lighted with 
innumerable torches, and many instruments discourse 
sweetest music, which the echoes repeat again and again, 
the effect is magical.*" I can imagine a very little what it 
must have been like, from my trip to Saratoga this sam- 
mer, where I attended one of the famous garden concerts. 
The brilliant lights, playing over the ferns, shrubs, and 
flowers, the weird shadows on the edges of the grounds, 
and the bewitching music, made a scene which I shall 
never forget I think the effect of light and music on 
the Taj must be something like tbi^, only more beautiful 
from the marvelous patterns of flowers and fruits traced in 
precious stones, the pure white of the ivory carving," etc. 

Of course I made my sentences more simple for them. 
Conceive, if you can, my astonishment on reading from 
one of the compositions in which they were to reproduce 
what I had told them, the following : " The Taj Mahal 
is lighted by electric lights, and they have garden concerts 
there. It is in Saratoga." 

This from a boy of fifteen. Then the structare of the 
sentences was something alarming. A few examples will 
suffice: ^' As you would be going inside, and look inside, 
you would see the tombs of the emperor and empress, 
build of the different kind of marble, and with beautiful 
boquets of flowers. The echoe from the music sounded 
as plain as if you were aside of it." 

After correcting and re-writing for hours with red ink, 
until each paper had a decidedly sanguinary look, I pre- 
sented them to the class for revision. I also requested 
some of the owners to place upon the board the original 
manuscripts, and asked the pupils to suggest improvements 
in spelling, capitals, punctuations, grammatical structure, 
and arrangements of sentences, making suggestions and 
directing their work. While examining I had copied on 
a slip of paper a list of misspelled words, with the name 
of the speller. In another list I wrote out all wrong con- 
structions, each with the author's name. These I pre- 
sented in class work. Then I seated myself for medita- 
tion. Clearly, composition work was not a strong point 
with the class ; and, clearly, if I didn*t desire to do it 
after the documents were handed to me for revision, I 
must do a large amount of sentence-making with my class, 
showing them first how to think, and then how to express 
their thoaghts with accuracy and variety. Accordingly 
I selected for our subject, " Boston," and chose a girl to 
do my writing on the board, that I might be free to act on 
the minds before me. Then, having divided my subject 
into topics, and requested that every one shoul inform 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



16 



himself from varioos sources on these topics, I called upon 
the scholar nearest me to give a sentence. This caused 
enrprise. The more hrilliant were ready to volunteer hy 
the lifted hand, but that each should be asked while I 
quietly waited, was another thing. After much effort a 
«hort, childish statement was given. Then I asked for 
something more from the same pupil, and suggested that 
the two be combined by using a participle or a clause. 
When this had been done, I inquired if any one thought 
of a better word or form of expression. 

And so the work went on, with hints and helps from 
me. Some found it very difficult to keep the thought 
4ind to express it, but I insisted upon one sentence from 
•each, and soon the eyes began to brighten, the cheeks 
began to glow with the enthusiasm of interest. Hands 
•came up in all directions for correction and improvement. 
They had caught the modus operandi of composition- 
making, and were delighted to see how easy it was. 
Many of the hints in regard to choice of words, phrasing, 
and arrangement of sentences, were very bright I soon 
had my board covered, and the next written exercises 
«howed fifty per cent improvement 



HOW WE WENT TO SCHOOL WITH THE 
FLOWERS. 

BY SARAH L. BEKNSTT. 

fLORENCE is learning her multiplication tables, — 
twoe and threes. Ida can count ten. This morn 
ing, after their number lesson, we looked at some money 
plant that came to school with Florence. Florence found 
five yellow leaves in each blossom. Then Ida discoverpd 
five stamens, and Florence at the same time ghowed the 
five sepals. Florence remembered that the pansy has five 
colored leaves, too. They were inclined to rest satisfied 
with five, but at the suggestion that the money plant has 
more numbers, Ida found two green leaves at each 
joint, and Fiorence found one pistil in each blossom. 
They couldn't find four, so I took that for my number, 
and showed them the four sides of the queer twisted 
■stem. Then Florence found a whole extension table of 
twos ; her spray had twenty-eight leaves. 

Next Day, — Florence brooght roses to-day ; a sweet- 
brier with its five petals, five sepals, and '* lots of stamens, 
more than I can count " ; a table of fives. We found 
the fieven leaflets in a sweet-brier leaf, and threes, fives, 
nines, and elevens in the garden roses. 

Later, — ^The children grow more and more eager for 
the flower numbers. Every day Fiorence telL) me of 
aome new discovery, and in hunting for the numbers 
they find such wonderful things that they had never sus- 
pected in the very commonest ones. 

They have already made some acquaintance with the 
clover, the pea blossoms, potato, etc 




HinGS 




E/rcHi 



SONG -GAMES. 



BY MISS M. B. COlTINa. 



fHERE is no better means by which the hum-drum of 
school life may be relieved than that of introducing, 
as the pupils show weariness or restlessness, bright song- 
games. 

One*8 experience necessarily varies, as class after class 
presses upward and onward, but with the majority of 
children in any class songs relating to the seasons, family 
relationship, animals or their traits, and all occnpations 



EXERCISE SONG. 




Let us look at little Tonimy,who shows us the game; 




i 



im 



Let us look at lit-tle Tommy : now we'll do the same. 

of man will meet with favor even though the music lacks 
marked characteristics. The more marked the rhythm 
of music and text, the greater the delight and stronger 
the development of the young singers. 

When eyes have had work sufficient for the time, a 
song is started, and the child whose name is mentioned, 
immediately '^ shows us the game," or in other words, 
makes the movement he wishes the rest of his playmates 
to imitate with hands, head, or feet. Directly the song 
is finished the music is repeated to the syllable la, the 
movement continuing meanwhile. If children are par- 
ticularly restless, or if they return from recess, or filing 
to the basement, in a rolicksome mood there is no better 
way of *' reducing them to silence " than by playing this 
little game. It recommends itself not only for the 
reasons mentioned, but because it develops the physical 
part of the child, makes it necessary for him to be in- 
ventive, — no child should reproduce a movement, — and 
thoroughly alive to what is occurring about him, leads to 
an appreciation of graceful movements instead of those 
which are rough and rude ; and, best of all, he learns a 
lesson in unselfishness, for all share alike in being allowed 
only one choice of a movement. 

Another song, doing double service as song and game, 
affords a class the greatest pleasure. This song, '^ The 
Cooper," may in the beginning form the basu of a very 
instructive object talk, which later ean be summed up in 
written language exercises. To be sung at the seats the 
movements are as follows : 



16 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Sept. 



Aiaptti. 



THE COOPER 






1. Oh, I am a coop-er 1 no care do I know. 



m^rntj^g^^^ 



m. 



=P=C 



\J V I) \^ u \ ^ 



:*=*= 



§^ 



S 



While round mj nice bar-reis so quick-lj I go ; 



BE 



-*— «- 



:3=f=?= 



^ 







Tic-a -tic tac, tic-a -tic tac, tic -a- tic* tac, I go. 



s 



^/ g ; [^^^ p 



'* My work is quite DMfnl, my work is quite ri^ht. 
And so I keep ponndiofc from moroing till Dight; 
Tio-a-tie tao, tiea-tie tao, tio-a-tio tao till nighL 

" Gome \<An ia my labors, oome j un ia my eosff, 
Aod we will be happy thro' all the da> long ; 
Tie a-tio tao, tio-a-tio tao, do-a-tie all day loog." 

For the first two lines the arms, extending before the 
body, — finger»tips touching, — eneloee a eircalar space, or 
imaginary barrel ; the next two lines are illustrated by 
hammering one clenched hand upon the other, moving 
both about an imaginary barrel-top before the child ; the 
noise made by the rapping against the barrel accompany- 
ing each verse as the chorus, is simalated by striking the 
finger tips of both hands against the desk top. Upon 
taking up the first two lines of the second verse the c^ild 
tarns first to the right, then to the left, explaining that 
his work is nsefol and right, before resuming the ham- 
mering round and round an imaginary barrel ; the chorus 
of this Terse repeats the finger tapping of the first. The 
first line of the last Terse shows the child stretching out 
one hand in invitation to the playmate at the right, the 
second line calls for a similar movement with the other 
hand, while the rest of the verse calls for brisk clapping, — 
the child-expression of happiness ; the ending chorus re- 
peats movements of those preceding. 

As a game, " The Cooper '' may be utilized both in the 
schoolroom and on the playground. In the former, after 
marching about the room, the children stand in a circle 
just outside the desk limit ; each child represents a stave, 
and as the song opens the arms are raised and the hands 
placed upon the neighbor's shoulders. This movement 
eonnecting the parts of the ring symbolizes the hoop. 
The music of the chorus may be accompanied by foot- 
tapping or clapping. For the second and last verses the 
movements used in the song m»y be repeated with one 
exception, and that occurs when singing, ** And so I keep 
pounding," etc ; now all turn to right and left alternately 
to pretend to pound the hoop into place by lightly touch- 
ing the neighbors' shoulders. 



When used on the playground a large ring is formed, 
the teacher lighdy runs (without parting with one particle 
of her dignity) about within the ring touching several 
children, or coopers, who each go about to choose fiv» 
children. The coopers each arrange their five staves, or 
the children, in groups, or barrels, about which they walk 
simulating the hammering of veritable coopers. Th» 
arms of the children, or staves, as the song opens are in- 
tertwined forming the hoop, which is not broken Ull the 
song ceases, when the coopers slip the hoops loose and re- 
turn the staves to their places in the ring. The children, 
— not coopers nor those forming parts of the barrels, — 
carry out the same movements as are given when the 
game occurs in the schoolroom. 



^ >•■ ^ 



OCTOBER SENTENCES. 

[For Blackboard Work.] 
BT OBOBOIA ▲. H0DSKIN8, SPBINGFISLD, MASS. 

fHTS morning the grass was white. 
The air was sharp and keen. 
Jack Frost had been abroad. 
It was he that had painted the grass. 
He pinched the little summer plants with his cold 

fingers. 
They turned brown wherever he touched them. 
Then the bright sun rose. 
The frost melted away. 

At noon it was almost as warm as in summer. 
We gathered a fall bouquet 
There were purple asters, brown headed grasses, and 

the last fringed gentians. 
May found three bright cardinal flowers. 
They were down in a warm spot that Jack Frost had 

not found. 
You can no longer find the bright butterflies. 
If you look along the fences by the brooks, you will 

see where they have hung their winter cradles. 
The woodchucks and squirrels know that winter ia 

coming. 
The woodehuek will bury himself in the ground to wait 

for warm weather. 
He will eat nothing throagh all the long winter. 
Mr. Squirrel will stay with us a little longer. 
He is busy now filling his pantry with acorns, chest- 
nuts, and walnuts, to last him through the winter. 
The boys and the squirrels like Jack Frost 
He opens the chestnut burrs, and the north wind 

shakes down the shining nuts. 
The little chipmunks will hide their stores in a hole 

in the ground. 
The red and gray squirrels will take theirs to their 

nests in the hollow trees. 
Farmer Brown sent as a basket of pears and grapes^ 
The crickets do not sing in the fields now. 



1800.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



17 



This month the winter potatoet mnst he dog. 

Last night DIok*s father had a hcukiog partj in the 

hig red ham. 
Fanny saw a floek of parple finehes. 
They stopped on their way from the North to their 

winter home in the Soath. 
Many of them will stay in oar cedar swamps all winter. 
The witchhazel hashes were still in blossom. 
The scarlet woodbines were ranning over the wall. 
Between the leares we could see the dusters of bright 

parple benies. 
Down in a sheltered node Sue found the last harebell. 



DISTBIBUTION OF SEEDS.— (IV.) 

BY VAMNY D. BBBGBV, GAMBBIDaB. 

VvERHAPS there is no more obvious topic in which to 
Jf interf>8t autumn classes in botany than that of the 
distribution of seeds. Very many seeds, with various 
adaptations for natural diMtiibution, are at this season at 
their prime, and the collection and examiration of those 
now ripe may easily suggest talks about other species that, 
matured in early summer, and examples of seedi and 
fruits from m'^t of our hardy common herbs, shrubs, and 
trees will not be difficult to find even at this time. The 
wondei f ul contrivances by which nature scatters her seeds 
may equally interest kindergarten children, who on th(-ir 
way to and from school blow the exquisite seed-globes of 
the dandelion *' to see if their mother wants them,*' and 
high school pupils who are doing careful work io system 
atic botany. Theooe thing to do with pupiU is, of course, 
to set them to seeing for themselves every s<>ed within 
their reach and to finding out how and why it leaves the 
plant that bore it and travels from its birthplace to dis- 
cover some new home fur itself. 

One very interesiiog group of fruits and seeds will in- 





FlO t. WWOEn FFX7TT8 AKB RfKPB —I. WiDRf d doQble fmtt Of the 
UlADie. 2 Winfffd seed of Gstalpa. 8. Scale of tbe Lareb-oone 
wtUi two winged seeds. 

dude all those that fly or travel through the air, whether 
by membranous wings or by means of light plumes or 
tufts of down. Typical examples of the winged kind 
are the fruits of the ash, the elm, and the maple, or the 
seeds of the catalpa, the trumpet-creeper, or of many 
trees of the pine family. Of the latter clsss, those 
adapted by all manner of hair-like, feathery, or other 
appendagtti to be easily borne by the wiod, common illus- 
tM&ms a^e ^b& ttmHn of ths lM^)ee« the Uustte; nn * the 



dandelion ; or such seed< as those of the willow, the wil- 
low-herb or fire-weed (Bpilobium)^ the milk-weed (A^^ 
olepias)^ and the cotton plant 
The character and quantity of such work as is here 





FlO S. HATWT ATfn WbATHVBV FRUTTS ATmSSVnil — l l»*H-.4»r**w«#d 

fniltof DiindeUon. 2 PeBther-cniWDed fniitnf •• tps' tf b e o«s ei** 
(Trai^opf ffon). 8 StMMl of Kpllubluiii, wltb cluster of h«ini. * 

suggested muf^t depend upon the time at the teacher's dis- 
posal, the age of her pupils, and the immediate surround- 
ings. But whatever the lo«*ality, city or country, it will 
bA possible to find material at hand sufficient so to illus- 
trate the lessons that every child may obtain enough hold 
on the subject to have it make a difference in every walk 
he takes. When he knows that the preservation of the 
species in great part depends upon the fact that seeds and 
fruits have, in the struggle for existence, gradually ac- 
quired these ingenious appendages for floating in the air 
and being carried about in showers by every irust of wind, 
what before was simply an every -day fact or occurrence 
will become, for him, one interesting method by which 
nature cares for her own, or rather helps them to care 
for themselves. The delicately winged seeds of the pine 
family afford such pretty examples of adaptation to serial 
navigation that in localities where conifers are not native 
it will be well to get cones from cultivated trres or to 
have a few sent by mail for class uoe. Stand the cones 
in some dry, warm place until the thick scales open, ex- 
posing at their bases the seeds with their thin, papery 
wings. Much can be seen and a good deal of rough 
classification done without the help of a msgnifjing glare, 
but if pupils can have the latter, they can see so much 
more that they will better enjoy the work. 



LESSONS IN ZOOLOGY.* 

BT CLABABEL OILMAN, JAMAICA PLAIN, MA88. 

Note to TBACiTERS.^Tbeae leiMvs an all to he taoght fram 
Mpeeimtn$, Uiiially each ehild should have io hia hand tba aoimal 
to be atndied, bat when tbif ia large, two or more ehlldren ean ez- 
amioe the aame fpeoimeo together. U will take time for popila to 
aee for themeeUea eaeh point aa it is eooiidered, hot it will be tioM 
well Bpent The ehief objeet of tbtte leMooa ia to teaoh ehildraa 
to obaerve and to reaaoo, and in eompariaon with thia the mere ao- 
qoiailion of faota is of alight importaooe. 

The Sponge.— (L) 

fOE the teacher, a bath eponge with one of two large 
openings on the top ; for each child, a straight wire 
hairpin and a slate spoo^i are 'iie tbin^ nca^iful bx this 
""nXpyrlgbti MJ». 



18 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Sept. 



Eaeh sponge may be cut vertically, almost to the 
base, through one of the large tabes, or vertical sections 
may be used with the whole sponges. The day before 
the lesson each child should wash out his sponge and 
notice how it is changed by tiie water. Sponges should 
always be moist when studied. The hairpins are straight- 
ened out for use as probes. 

The children have already learned tiie following things : 
The hard, dry sponges took in water tiirough all the 
litUe holes, and became soft and elastic. They are made 
of threads called fibres, whose ends project in littie brush- 
like bundles on every side but one, and this side is darker 
and smoother than the others. There are many small 
holes in the sponge, and only a few large ones, or some- 
times only one. One or two bright pupils notice that 
there are holes all through the sponge, and a large tube 
running straight down from the large opening. 

Children will giTe some of these points spontaneously; others 
most be brought ont by skillf al qnesdoning. 

Now, being careful not to tear the fibres, we put the 
probes into the large openings, and trace the tubes (Fig. 
1, a) into which they lead, almost to the base of the 
sponge. We put the probes into the small holes, and 
find small tubes (Fig. 1, b) leading from some of them 
to the large tubes ; from others, cross -tubes (Fig. 1, c) 




live in the Caribbean Sea and off the Florida coast. If we 
should visit Nassau, a boatman would take us out to the 
sponge fisheries. The water is very clear, and with a water- 
glass — a tube, or box, with a pane of glass at one end — 
which we press against the surface, we can see the bottom. 
Here and there on the coral rock, and contrasting with the 
brightiy colored fishes and the brilliant hues of the searf ana, 
are some dark masses fixed to the reef and sending out 
littie jets of water from openings in the top. These are the 
sponges. We have in the boat a very long-handled fork, 
with three prongs, curved so that they will take a firm 
hold of the sponge, and with this our boatman pulls one 
off from the rock. Sometimes they are taken in a dredge, 
but the best sponges are brought up by divers. Our living 
sponge has a dark brownish or purplish flesh that covers 
all the fibres. After the sponges are killed by being ex- 
posed to the air for a day, they are thrown into pens 
made of stakes driven in shallow water, and left till the 
flesh decays. Then they are washed and trimmed, and 
sorted according to size, and afterward packed in bales 
and sent to New York or London to market 

This is true of Ameriean sponges. Mediterranean sponges, 
which are mnch finer and more expensive, reoeiTO more oerefnl 
treatment. 



FIr. 1. Vertieal section of glove sponge from Nassau, shown with 
the flesh. 

connecting one small tube with another. Some of these 
connecting tubes in process of formation show plainly as 
channels on the surface, only partly covered in as yet by 
littie bridges of fibres. Besides these tubes, there are 
others s > » mall that we cannot trace them out (Fig. 1, d) 
passing in every direction through the mass of fibres. 

Let us find Key West and Nassau on the map. These 
are tiie two principal markets for American spoHges, which 



NUMBER HINTS. 



BT A. E. WINSHIP 



IN number teaching there are a few things to be kept 
£ ever in mind. Numbers should be first learned with- 
out being taught. The first twelve numbers should come 
into a child's experience and language unwittingly from a 
need of them. He cannot use marbles, jackstones, or any 
other objects genuinely in his plays without wanting to 
speak of them by number, and as soon as he wants to use 
numbers he will know them whether he is taught or not. 
Among the first things in school life should be some 
honest play on the part of the children with objects, not 
more than twelve in number, so that he shall want to 
know how many he has at different times. Do not teach 
anything about the numbers in parts, but merely familiar- 
ize him with the numbers as such ; i. e., get the first twelve 
numbers into hb experience and vocabulary, naturally, 
before you speak of them as a school study. Do not be 
too formal in your presentation of numbers ; let him bring 
the divisions of a number into his experience naturally, if 
possible, entirely apart from the proper order. If a child 
has occasion to know half a dozen before he knows half 
of six. let him know it. Before you systematize his knowl- 
edge let him be far in advance of that which you system- 
atize ; let him live in its atmosphere awhile before you 
make him breathe it by rule. 

When the systematizing begins do not ^' hash " it too 
fine. I want to confess to having been a slave to the per- 
fection of systJem too loflg« The first thing that you need 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



19 



to toaeh a eluld with care after he has had the experience 
of which I have spoken is that 2 and 2 are 4. He knows 
that2-|-l = 3,that3— 2 = 1, that3-|-l = 4,and 
4 — 1=3. He may not know the following combina- 
tions, and should be taoght them by objects until they are 
as rhythmically known by him as that 2 -|- 1 = 3. 
These combinations are, — 



2 + 2 = 4 
2X2=4 
4 — 2 = 2 
i of 4 = 2 

4 + 2 = 6 

3 + 3 = 6 
2x3 = 6 
3 X2 = 6 
6-4 = 2 
6-3 = 3 
6-2 = 4 
i of 6 = 3 
i of 6 = 2 

6 + 2 = 8 
6 + 3 = 8 
3 + 5 = 8 
4+4 = 8 
2X4 = 8 
4X2 = 8 



7 + 2 = 9 
6 + 3 = 9 
5 + 4 = 9 
4 + 5 = 9 
3 + 6 = 9 
2 + 7 = 9 
3X3 = 9 



3 + 2 = 5 
6-2 = 3 
5-3 = 2 



5 + 2 = 7 
4 + 3 = 7 
3 + 4 = 7 
2 + 5 = 7 
7-5 = 2 
7 -4 = 3 
7 -3 = 4 

7 -2 = 5 

8-6 = 2 
8-5 = 3 

8 -4 = 4 
8-3 = 5 
8-2 = 6 
i of 8 = 4 
i of 8 = 2 

9-7 = 2 
9-6 = 3 
9-6 = 4 
9-4 = 6 
9-3 = 6 
9-2 = 7 
i of 9 = 3 



Let all this be first learned by object work, — problems 
illostratod by Uie real objects which he handles. Let 
him make his own problems. Do not go above the eom- 
binadons in 4 until he is as familiar with it as with 1 + 1 
= 2. Let him make figures from the first when he needs 
them. Let the signs be made at once, also ; then hare 
everything that he does with objects written by him that 
he may tell what he has done. 



^ ••• ^ 



A LETTEB. 

BT A SP&INQFIKLD TBACHSK. 

/81HILDBEN, I want yoa to write a letter for me 
^ to-daj. 

<< To whom shall we write ? '^ 

Yoa may each choose lor yourself. 

What is it, Ned? 

<* I eaii*t write a letter." 

Why not? 

<< Haven't anything to write." 

Let OS have a little talk first Yoa have a eonsin in 
New York? 



'^ Yes'm. He is jast as old as I am." 

If he had been here yesterday would yoa have taken 
him with you on our walk ? 

Do you think he would have enjoyed it ? 

Suppose, instead of writing him that we went to walk 
yesterday, you tell it to him as you would if he were here. 
Begin your letter properly, then look at these questions. 
Perhaps they will help you : 

1. Who went to walk ? 

2. When did we go ? 

3. At whose house did we stop ? 

4. What did the boys have for pets ? 

6. Where had they found the young woodchucks ? 

6. How old were they ? 

7. What did they eat ? 

8. How did they sit while eating ? 

9. What cat-like nobe did they make ? 

10. Did they drink like a dog ? 

11. Where did we go next ? 

12. What did we find near the brook ? 

13. What did you bring home from your walk ? 

14. Do you wish Dick could have gone with you ? 



Publishers' Ahnoupme[(ts. 

DiaCONTINUANCEa.— Axs rabwrlber wishing to itop hit p«p«r mul 
notify tho ^tiOXahwh^arndprnifup atl arre&n; otherwiM ha Is rosponrihio fm 
pftyment m long m tho popor Is sont. 

HOW TO REMIT. - To soeiizo lafoty It Is Importuit thAt remlttHioM 
•hoald bo nuulo by ehoeks, dr»fts, pott-oflloe orden, ozpnss moaoy ordoiSi or 
"Oglstttrod lotton, nuulo poyablo to tho Pnbllshois. 

AJIC^//*ri9.— Bomlttonoesoro ooknowlodgod by ohongo of dftto foUowlng 
dM saboortbor's oamo on tho popor. Should snoh s change foU to sppoo* 
within two wooks of tho dnto of romlttanoo, sabsorlbon shoald noClfj as •( 



MiaaiNG NUJiBERa^Shoald m nnmbor of tho THAOHm £sU to fooeh 
a snbseilbor, ho will oonCor s favor apon tho PabUshors by notifying as of 
ho foot, ap<m rooolpt of which notloo tho ""'t^'^it number will bo sent. 

CHANOE OF AbDRBaa.-y<ihwk o change of address Is desired, both the 
lid and the now address of the sabscrlber shoald be glTon. 

All letten pertaining to tho Editorial department, and all oommanloa> 
ions for the pages of the Tbaohbb shoald bo addressed to the ICdltors. 
411 letters pertaining to the baslness management of the Tmaoabb shoaUl 
bo addressed to the FmbU$han. 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
FtMioatUm OffiM: 3 ttvaseroet St., j 



O. W. BABDKKM. SynMnao* M. ¥•• 

ttBMBmAI. A«SVT VOB NVW TOBK BTATB. 



To anyone who will cut this out and send it to us, 
with address and 25 cents in stamps, we will mail the 
Journal of Education, a sixteen page weekly, for 
TWO MONTHS, postpaid. 



Name,, 



Address,. 



NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
3 SoMEKSBT Street, Boston, Mass. 



20 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Seft. 



The American TEAcnm 

A. B. WIN8HIP. I MM^j,^ 
W. E. 8HKLDON.I *««»«• 

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Page 
Bfpt<>inb<>r (pAfm), • . S • • • • ^ 

FantB MDrt Pictlou. . • A 

8ermon«( In ^t<io<^8, •.••••«• 5 

Shall Pui'lKlie Aid^datHome? « 

Bo<4»-«-M until G urne • . . . . . . 8 

METHODS: Kligt Htpps In lAnfEnage DfTeloDiD^Dt-^Map Sketch 
lnR~T(iolB and their Vaiue>CuDiptwltiuu Bouk« \a Freuita 
RrhfOlM 0«*oKrii(>hv KxrrciM .... Sms 

DEVIGHS— Hints for TfhchiuK i he Virtues- Var<6«^T Work (Prl- 
inmy— CompoBlMua Work— How We wvut tu bctaool with tbt* 
Floweni. ........ 18-16 

TB I N t^S TO T P ACB : 8 nig Games— October Sentences— Dtst* i- 
butlou of Set-ds— Lb»iM>u:» lu Z«K>lovy— Number Uluts— A Let- 
ter 19-19 

EPIIOBIAL: Notes-Tbe Before 8cbool 4Re. . 20-21 

Gae»*luK Characteis— Ohort Meibous— &now or Don't Know— 

MalchiUK. 22-23 

TALKo v^liH TEAOBEKd. 23-24 

MUdiC UkPAUl ME N 1 : fbtogs to be Considered In tbe Mnslo 

Counte. . . . . 26 

FBI DAY AFTEK>OONR: Our Futures- Penievere - Little 
liilnas-A WoidMful Luna- The Fii»her— Ibe Faitbful Little 
ll(»Uitr-*' A U«y O del Meauit » D^y Better/' . . 26-87 

BBPKuUUOTlO^ tXI:.K01fi)l].tt, v» 

huiiui A^D guiiKiu.a 29-81 

KNO'lfi) AMD lAMiLEd, 81-82 

IBE Kl^DliK(>AKTa^: The Third Gift- RchooUshne«s In the 
KlbUeigartt-ii-'liie Kit Ueritaiten Imiulug hcbool— Our Em 
dergartea— Kluderg»iieu Dei»*rtuieut. M B. A. . 82-37 

Be firm bat kind. 

DoN*T get rattled. 

A PLEASANT year to 70a. 

Begin as you can hold oat, physically. 

Read oar '^ Book-a-Month Coarse." See page 8. 

There are 300,000 teachers in the United SUtes. 

Brooklyn women teachers are to have better pay, if 
there is any virtne in justice and public opinion. 

Boston is ready to welcome the National Edacational 
Association next July, if the directors will accept the hos- 
pitality of oar city. 

California is the banner American state in the aver- 
age salaries paid the teachers, and in the quality of teach- 
ing in tbe rural schools. 

Don't use up your newly arqaired strength or thought 
or illoetrations or ezpeiience during the first week ot 
school. Spread it over the whole year. 

More of the commercial school idea should be incor- 
porated into every high school in cities that have no sep- 
arate English or commercial school. 

We coogratulate our readers upon a delightful vaca- 
tion, if we may judge all by the experiences of those who 
have reported upon their ** ouiiog." 

The summer schools have had by far their grandest 
season. Glens Fall^, Chautauqua, Martha's Vmejard, 
and others have been successful as never before. 

The teachers' bureaus have just about doubled the busi- 
ness of previous years. The man who wishes a tcachei 
and does not go to a bureau for candidates is a curiosit} • 



In due time the selection of lubordinate teachers will 
be left entirely to priacipak and superintendents. 

The ** Book-a-Monfh Course^** provided for by ths 
artu'le on page 8, is the best opportunity ever offered 
teachers who wish to do the best professional reading 
under the btst conditions with the best aisisttnce. 

Miss Arnold will write another series of articles 
for the American Teacher lor the coming year. She 
has chosen for her suhji'ct, ^'Zachary'd First Year in 
School." The first install nent was delayed, so that it fails 
to appear in this number, but they will appear regularly 
hereafter. 

The Journal of Education for the eight numbers 
beginning September 5 will oontfUn speeial school Hxer 
'•'ises for Authors' Birthdays, etCy ete. It will also con- 
f^iin, in the two months^ as much first gIom reading on 
methods, devices and principles as any two d*fUar books, 
rhese eight numbers will be sent postpaid to any sub' 
seriber to the American Teacher who will remit twenty^ 
Jive cents. See blink on previous page. 

The Weakest Strength.— Some one has recently said 
that in the olden time if a man could jump high he would 
try to jump the higheit, but the test to-day is the strength of 
the weakest part rather than of the strongest. This is 
peculiarly applicable to teaching. We have lived nearly 
through the period in which a school was estimated by 
the brilliancy of the brightest ; we have entered a period 
in which the test is the improvement of the average child 
in those branches in which he is not brilliant 

Sarah L Arnold, whose portrait graces our columns 
this week, is nuquestionably one of the most saccesfcfol 
women in educational work in the country. The Journal 
OF Education said of her recently : She combines the ele- 
ments of the genius, the enthusiast, the scholar, the leader, 
and the adviser to a remarkable degree. It would be 
easy to find her equal in any one of these regards, but 
Dot in their combination. She teaches skillfully, super- 
vises wisely, wiites entertainingly and instructively, and 
lectures with fervency and good sense. She is still a 
young woman, with the best of success in her native state, 
— Massachusetts, — in the Saratoga Training School, and 
m her present position as supervisor of primary schools 
in Minneapolis. 

Gen. John Bidwell, of Chico, Cal., sends his three 
seated car -iage and pair of fine horses ^ith a driver round 
to the normal schoolhouse once or twice every week and 
ukes all tbe teachers directly from their work for a drive 
uf an hour or more,— and there are no finer drives any 
where. This is a luxury that would be appreciated by 
many teachers, and there are many men abundantly able 
CO do it, if only their attention was called to it, or if 
they cculd realize how much it would mean of health and 
cheer to hard-worked teachers. — Jaumil of Education. 

It is pleasant to see how genuine is the estimate a 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



21 



little child places upon himself. A teacher was telling qp 
recently of his experience with a boy. A »hower came 
ap suddenly one day, and a little five year-old asked hit> 
mother if he couldn't take an umbrella over to the school 
master. Permission was granted, and the umbrella wan 
delivered in good time, and the teacher expressed hi^ 
gratitude most heartily. In a few weeks another sadden 
shower arose and the nmbrella appeared a second time. 
A few days afterward the little fellow accosted the teacher 
with the remark, '* What woald yoa do, Mr. O'Conner, if 
you were not acquainted with me.'- 

Two young teachers in a village were teased about their 
inability to do farmers* work. They protested, and claimed 
not only eqaal skill but greater knowledge. A wealthy 
farmer, nettled by the positive statements of these *' hide- 
thrashers," as he was wont to term them, offered them 300 
bushels of wheat (or an equivalent in money), if the) 
would thrash out that many bushels in bis barn. No time 
was specified, but t' e two teachers went to work and 
thrashed daily after school hours, and did more and bettei 
work tban average farm handf. The villagers were daily 
witnesses, and enjoyed the discomfort of the wealth} 
farmer who had to pay the forfeit 

Aim Rathbb telam Method — In this day of ''methodB 
methodd, methods," it should be kept in mind that it is 
worth infinitely more to know clearly just what b to be 
' done than to know perfectly any of the details ; in other 
words, the aim is of prime importance. In this active 
life we are quite sure to '* get there " if we know the goal. 
The criticism to be made upon the work of the past ban 
to do more with the aim than with the methods. We 
shall do well if we accomplish thi^t which we attempt as 
thoroughly as it has been accomplished by the teachers in 
the past Their methods equaled the emergency. What 
we want is a different aim, and then we can safely trust 
the methods. 



THE BEFORE -SCHOOL AGE. 

rjRHERE are facts in psychology that every one should 
1^ know ; there are other factf, phrases, and fancier 
that are worse than useless to any one who is not posing 
as a' specialist There is no end to the array of people 
who can talk and write about ''faculties," '^ concepts,*' 
*' percepts," ^'introspection," and ''environment,'' but 
there is a sad lack of people who can talk and write of 
children from careful observation. 

There are three great dividing lines in a child's life, 
physically and mentally, marking off four periods. If 
one chooses he can nmke finer distinctions and run more 
lines, or, by being less disc/iminating, he may efface one 
of the lines and make but three periods. 

At seven years of age there is the first dividing line. 
The indications are so clear, the boundaries so perfect, 
that there is no excuse for mistaking it The firbt 



period, — ^the first seven years,-«-is plastic. A child in- 
herits much more than we think in some directions and 
much less in others. He inherits impulses rather than 
habits ; tendencies rather than prejudices ; tastes rather 
than temptations. We are accustomed to say, thought- 
lessly, that a man was bom a Democrat or Republican, a 
Southerner or Northerner, a Baptist, Unitarian, or 
Romanist, — all of which is far from the fact. His in- 
heritance has little or nothing to do with any of these 
things. If twenty children at two years of age, bom in 
twenty varieties of home, politically, socially, and religi- 
ously, were so interchanged that each would spend the 
years up to twenty in a home the farthest removed from 
the circumstances of his birth, he would be twenty times 
«s liable to be what he was " brought up " as what he 
was " bom." 

On the other hand, impulses, — physical, intellectual, 
uid moral birthmarks,— are inherited. The chief respon- 
•ibility of the home, school, and church is the suppressing, 
modifying, developing, or toning up, as the need may be, 
of the inherited characteristics of the child. 

The home is entirely responsible for the child's growth 
and development in the first seven years. I have called 
the period *' plastic," because at that time he is absolutely 
*' fit for moulding," which is the root idea of the word. 
He does not retain impressions, but you can make any 
impression upon him that you choose, and if yon will 
continue it until after he is seven he may be made to re- 
tain it 

Nothing could be more unlike physical perfection than 
a dub-foot, and yet, taken in the plastic years, it can be 
turned, straightened, lengthened, limbered and made in 
form and elasticity like a perfect foot But it must be 
kept there by constant attention until the plastic yean 
have passed. The same with other physical deformities. 
In much the same way may mental and moral deformi- 
ties be righted. Impatience, quick temper, surliness, 
timidity, coarseness are capable of being every way rec- 
tified by expert, persistent attention in those early yean. 
The inherited tendency will always be there, but it can 
be placed under such control that the inheritance may not 
only not be suspected, bat in that direction he may be the 
fiafest freest of men, stronger indeed because of it and 
of his knowledge of its existence. 

If the children came into the schools having had seven 
years of expert home watchfulness in the matter of disposi- 
tion, temper, and impulse, what a difference it would make 
in the peace, pleasure, and profit of the schoolroom I Un* 
fortunately, few homes do much to help these children, 
and many do much to intensify the wrong inheritance. 
The most that can be hoped for b that the average home 
can be induced to commit the care of the child to the 
kindergarten, which is a homelike school or a school- 
like home. Because of what the home is not, there 
should be a uniform, active effort put forth to secure for 
every child a kindergarten initiation into school life. 



22 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER^ 



[Sept. 



GUESSINQ CHARACTERS. 

BY AITNIE M. LIBBY, MAINS. 

VERY pretty school exercise is carried on under 
the above title in this way : Twelve children are 
stationed in an ante-room. Ofie passes in, and taking 
position on the platform, says : 

I was one of the foremost officers in the war for the 
Union, though a small man. My men loved me and my 
horse, and should I name but one thing which I did in 
the coarse of my brilliant career, every one in this room 
would at once know my name. 

(Here the child reciting makes a pause, and then strik- 
ing an attitude, declaims : 

'* Bat there is a road from Winoheeter town, 
A good broad highway leading down." 

The school will, of course, give the name Shbbidan, 
and the child goes off as another comes from the ante- 
room and recites) : 

I was a soldier, too, but I marched on foot while the 
general rode his famous black steed. I will tell you 
what I once did, however, for my fellow-soldiers. There 
was no money to pay the poor fellows who were enduring 
so many hardships. So I went to the quartermaster's 
tent and offered to furnish the money to pay my company, 
and the offer was gratefully accepted. But the people of 
America know me as an inventor of one of the most won- 
derful machines of the world, rather than as a soldier. I 
think that nearly everybody here has such a machine at 
home. 

(The answer is Elias Howb, of sewing machine fame, 
but as the children will probably say the machines in their 
homes are Singer's, etc., the teacher should explain that 
the Howe was the first, or among the first, invented, and 
that many improvements have since been made, enabling 
men to take out patents in their own names.) 

Third Child. — ^If a man who suffered in the cause of 
right is a soldier, I was one in the highest sense ; for I 
knew no voice but that of duty. I felt blame as keenly 
a» any man, but neither praise nor blame made difference 
in my work. When my body was laid at rest in Mt 
Auburn, a loved poet said this of me : 

" God said : ' Break thon their yokea ; nndo 
Their heavy bordeni ; I ordain 
A work to last thy whole life throoi^h, 
A ministry of atrtfe and pain.' 

'' One langoa^ held hie heart and lip, 
Straight onward to his goal he trod. 
And proved the highest stateimanahip 
Obedience to the voice of God." 

Yes, under the cane of assassin in the Senate Chamber 
of the United States, when Massachusetts passed a reso- 
lution of censure upon me, or when men sang my praises, 
I obeyed the voice of conscience. And I succeeded in 
my work, and white and black bless the name of — 



(Child pauses until the school gives the name, Charlbs 
SuMNBB, when he bows and gives way to the next) 

A teacher will be able from this outline to take up any 
character wished, and the exercises maybe varied greatly, 
being made comprehensible to children of ten or twelve 
years, or interesting to high school pupils. Authors, in- 
ventors, statesmen, famous women, actors, kings, queens, 
etc., may be taken up at different times, while the exer- 
cise is an admirable one for a French or Grerman class, 
if French or German characters are taken and the de- 
scriptions given in one of these languages. 

In arranging the exercise for a school exhibition or 
public visiting day, it would be well to have the school 
know the name of the person represented and, after 
waiting a little to allow the audience time to guess, have 
the name given by the schooL When presented before 
the school only, if any name cannot be guessed, the 
teacher should encourage the pupils to look up the char- 
acter for themselves. 



SHOBT METHODS. 



P multiply any number of two figures by 11, simply 
place the sum of tens and units between the two. 
When this sum is more than 10, of course the tens of the 
sum are added to the tens of the number multiplied as 
the hundreds of the answer, as 11 X 26 = 275 ; 11 X 
19 = 209; 11 X 29 = 319. 

In multiplying any number larger than 100 by 11, 
write the right-hand figure, add the two right-hand fig- 
ures, then the second and third, third and fourth, etc., to 
the left, writing the last figure by itself. 2,345,321 X 
11 = 25,789,531. When any one of these sums is more 
than 10, the tens, of course, are included in the next ad- 
dition. 9,743,987 X H = 107,183,857. 

To multiply numbers of two figures each when the 
right-hand figures equal ten and the left-hand figures are 
the same,— as 87 X 83, 55 X 55, 52 X 58, 75 X 75,— 
multiply the right-hand figures and write the result ; call 
one of the left-hand figures one more, multiply by the 
other, and write the result. 



KNOW OR DON'T KNOW. 

BT S. L. B. 

Some know and know what they know. 
Some know and dont know what they know. 
Some know and think that they know. 
Some know and think that they don*t know. 
Some don't know and think that they know. 
Some don't know and think that they don't know. 
Some don't know and know that they don't know. 
Some don't know and cfcm'^ know that they don't know. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



28 



HATCHING. 

BT W. A. M. 

TOT ERE is a capital exercise. Make a good selection 
1^ from some paper printed in good type. Be sare 
9hat the article is interesting, upon a subject on which the 
thought runs smoothly and consecutively. It should be 
written in a style somewhat simpler than that of the books 
they are using. Cut it from the paper, and then cut it 
into paragraphs of from four to ten Imes each. Great 
care must be used that the paragraphs have a close and 
easily appreciated connection. Give these out promiscu- 
ously. 

Each will read his paragraph to himself. Then the 
one who thinks he has the first will read it aloud. All 
wiU give close attention. As soon as he is through, the 
one who thinks his follows will read. If two think so, 
then the class must decide. When the second is finished, 
the one who follows will follow, etc. 

We print such a story that may be cat up as indicated. 
There is much more pleasure and discipline in this than 
seems possible at first : 

A LiTTLB Trub Stobt. 

Bat EdnA didn't pay the iMMt bit of attantioii. She went on 
eryiDg even loader yet, if laoh n thing were poetible. Mnmnia 
hardly knew what to think, beeanie, yoo tee, Edna is niaally a 
Tery good little girl. 

Then mamma began to connt alowly, '* Oae, two, three, four "— 

Mamma looked at her little daoghter sadly. '* Yoa«iaat go io 
the oloeet, and itay there until yon oan be a good girl,*' taid the. 

Then £doa began to ery at loud at ihe ooald ery ; but the took 
her little orioket and went into the oloeet, jntt the same. It was a 
dark oloaet when the door was that, bnt mamm« didn't qaite ihnt 
the door. Edoa kept on crying, however. 

Edna was naughty one day, very naughty, indeed, for inoh a 
little girl as the b. I do not like to tell about it. In the first 
plaoe she did not mind, and then she itruok her momma. Only 
think of it! 

But before she got to ten, something funny happened. The old 
gray kitty, who hod all thia time been lying quietly before the fire, 
suddenly jumped up and walked straight into the oloeet She 
eaught Edna's wrist between her forepaws, and bit and serotohed 
it, — not very hard, of oourse, but quite hard enough to surprise and 
frighten the little girl into keeping as still as a mouse for as mueh 
as a minute. Then the old kitty walked baok to the mat before 
the firp, and onrled herself down for another nap, and not nntU 
then did Edna find her Toice aintin. 

'* Mt ohild,*' said momma, pretty soon, " I wont you to be more 
quiet*' Naughty Edna eried all the louder. 

'* Didn't you hear me f " oeked mamma. ** I wont yon to stop 
erring this minute." 

*' O mamma ! " sobbed she. ** O mamma, I will be good." 
" V«ry well," said mamma, trying hard not to smile ; *' you may 
oome out" 
So out of the eloMt the little girl eomey and rushed straight into 



/'I,-IwiU be g<md," she sobbed again; 'but,— but I don't 
wont that old eat bossing me 'round all the time, mammal " 
Mamma looghed then ; she eould'nt help it 
'« Then you mustn't be naughty, dear," she flOd. 




:'liJ>'lliiiil.'l!h|l^ 



FA L H S' 



[^~W r T H 



PTe:acmef\5- 



▲LLAir D^LU will taSTe oherge of this Department, but the questions will 
toe oniiwered by e Teriety of teecbert of ▼arlous grades. We haTe been In 
-be beblt of answering mob qaestlons by personal letters, or sending them 
to teaebers to answer, bat hereafter they will be answered throngh the 
iMmiOAjr ToAORas. 



I have been in the habit of lAting one oj the children hear the diart 
cUut, and eometimee the primer. 7%cy are very anxioue to do it, and 
I ute thi$ method a$ an incentive for them to etudy. They muet 
cdwayt have good leeeonn, and their behavior mutt be sufih <u will be 
commendable or they will not have the honor and pleaewre of hearing 
said clai$e$. There it a continual etri/e among the younger pupile to 
act $0 as to bt worthy of hearing the dassts, I have had sowu boys and 
girls in the school who would not t^y to learn. Tkfy would neither 
htudy at school nor at home. Their parents took no interest in thtir 
studies, I tried aU kinds of ways to gtt them interested, but failed 
until I *egan letting littU children who scarcely come up to their waists 
in height hear them read. They were able to do it because they had 
been through the book and knew every word in it. How indignant 
were those lazy children and their parents ! Things were blue in this 
district for me, their teacher, as the children of one of the trustees were 
among the indifferent ones. However, I continued as I thought best 
in spile of the riamon I told them as s'ton as I saw they tried to learn 
I would hear the doss myself. They were all in one dass, having been 
sifted from the second reader. I soon saw a mark* d change ; the chil' 
dren worked hard^ and their parents threatened to skin them if they 
did not (to use their own words), I w%s careful not to carry it to 
extremes, and always hpt a watchful eye and a listening ear on the 
recitations, WHl you be kind enough to let me see in the next 
Ahbbican Tbacheb whether I did right or wrong, 

D. E. S., New Jersey, 

You did right to eonduet your own sohool in your way, provided 
you did not oonfl ot with the regulations of the trusteee By your 
firmness you huTe won the day, and by it you have eetablished your 
authority. But has it been worth what it oost t There are many 
ways by whioh one may seeure bis poiat and a dogged perslstenoe 
is one of them, but it does not follow that this is the best way. 
Taet will be a Taluable ally in your work. It is not necessary for 
yon to antagonixs your sohool to gain your objdot. I may say here 
that I do not bsliere in pupil teaebers. The teaeher is hired to 
instmot the pupils in the sohool, and she should not, she has no 
right unless authorized by the eommittee, to delegate her power 
and duties. Often a teaeher may have a bright scholar help a dull 
one OTer a diffionlt lesson ; but I do not think it is erer a good 
praetioe for a teacher to let her pupils hear certain classes. Do 
your work in your own way, and if yon huTe too mueh to do, appeal 
to the committee for assistance. Howerer, since you undertook to 
carry out a certain scheme, I a.n glad yon succeeded. 



Please give, through your ** Talks with Ttaehersy" some modes of 
punishment for misbehavior in schooL 

J, M., Baton Rouge, La, 

If you really intend to punish your pupils because of their mia- 
behaTior, and yon ore unrestricted as to the method of administering 
punishment, let me snggeet that you give them a sound thrashing 
any time an offvnee is committed. Don't spare the rod and so spoil 
tbe child. Thrash ; you will huTe to do it often and seTorely, bmt 
you are doing as you elect to do. and your reward will be the ap- 
proral of your own Ojonseieace. But — — if yon wont to be a teal 
Ctaflbv nl diiMiw, if yim desire tb train ybnr diildren Sb that th^ 



24 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Sira 



will grow to bo mAoly meo, womaDly women, doD*k fmnbli. Yon 
enn roach n bo?*i henrt in lomo oihor mod bottor wny. When an 
offeneo is mado, ao«rk lor the reaaon of it, and eodeoTc v to renaoTe 
the eaose. Be gentle, bnt firm. Teaoh your ehildren the beauty 
and Talno of aell-oontrol. Teaoh them how to reetratn their otiI 
propensities. Insist on obedienoe to anthority and ettablish a habit 
of snbmisiion and respeet for good order that will proTont seriont 
infraotioDS of it in the fntnre. Treat yonr popils as if they were 
reasonable beings, and ednoate them along the line of charaeter. 



What i$thebe$t method of teaching fractione t B. L. S. J. 

There are many ways; bnt it all depends on the grade of yonr 
class. Fractions ihonld be tanght Tory early in the oonne ; in fact 
the t^rms ihonld be nted when nnmbers are fint studied. Children 
taught that one aod one make two, ihonld be tanght that one-half 
of two is one, and so on with the larger oombinaiions. The best 
plan is, of oonne, to nse objects in illnstrating the relation of parts 
to wholes and the nse of the symbols or fignres will easily and natn 
rally follow. Use simple p r occises, and lamiliarizs the learners 
with principles; omit pnziles and problems rvqniriog intricate 
analysir. Don't linger too long with yonr objects, or chart*, or 
fraction board. The best work will be done on paper or mentally. 



Jfjr pupiU have weak memoriee. How can I remedy thie t 

E. P. v., Clinton, 

How did yon train yonr own menuyry f How would yon ssek to 
improve it If yon ditoorered it was w#ak ? Apply a little oommon 
sense to the questions yon put to me. Mumory, you know, depends on 
attention, and attention is only a prolonged state of mind. In any 
subject, arouse interest, fix attention, and memory will wait on yon 
afterward. Memory is like any faculty, strengthened by use, 
weakened by disuse. Concentrate yonr work, secure a '* pin-head 
attention,*' and yon will not haye oocarion to complain of defectiTe 
memories on the part of your pupils. 

Should children in the lower grades be inttrueted in manual training 
workf ROBEBT S. P. 

Profsssor Woodward, at St. Paul, in his report recommended 
that manual training shou*d not be taken up below the second 
grammar grnde. This wss Tigoronsly opposed by many speakeri, 
some of whom testified to the practical Talue of manual training t«« 
pupils of the lower grades. There wss no conoloaion reached, aod 
the subJMt is left for the sohoolrocHn to decide. What is your 
opinion on this qasstion ? 

I am to teach an ungraded school the coming ytar, Uave hereto- 
fore taught a graded echool. Would it be possible for me to grade 
mg NSW school f Countkt. 

I cannot tell you. You can best answsr your queition when yoo 
haTO examined yonr school and know the matetiuls of which it is 
composed. I suggest that yon combine your classes into ai few 
clasMS as possible, and make promotions when fitness is aasnred. 



Has the new Course of 8tud^ for the Primary Schools of Boston 
appeared get? I am anxious to secure it. How can I obtain a 
copg f Pbimabt, Ntwtown. 

1 saw a rough proof copy in June, and I presume it is by this 
time in print and resdy for distribution. Write to Phineas Bates, 
Secretary of Sohool Committee, Mason street, Boston. 

When should promotiont be madef That is, when should pupds be 
he aduainioed to a higher gradet ^ ^ ^^ of^ ^^ ^ during the term 
timef Kxw Tbaohsb. 

PnpOs sbonld be promoted when they ffim avidence of being able 
toiminiAfthttboniw'nY^b^inlhMdaarisAM^tittiBL TXvtwtoiigi 



it is oftimss cruel, to retain a boy in a class during an entire term 
when it is known that he is fitted to perform the work of an ad- 
vanced olssi. The obj»cKon that out-of-time promotions break up 
a dssi, ought not to ibflaence a teacher ; the righti of the pupil are 
paramount and should outwMgh any other consideration. 



What thall I do with the bad bog who comes to me at the beginning 
pf the term with a reputation fur creating disorder f Shall I immedi* 
ately show him I am aware of his evil propensities and caution Aim, 
cr shall I give no evidence of mg knowledge concerning him, and simplg 
awatt devtlopmenU f TJtAGHBB. 

In law any man is held to be innocent nntH proren guilty. It is 
not only unfair, bnt it it the beginning of much trouble to say to a 
new boy, '* I am aware of your misdeeds, and I know you to be a 
rogue ; if I fiod yon doing anything wrong I ihall quickly show >oa 
how I deal with bad boys!" How know you that this boy may not 
ha^e decided to begin anew in your doss, to put aside old ways 
and haTS respect for order? Yon kill at once this df^sire, and 
antagonise the worst elements of bis nature. Treat the boy fairly ; 
don't jadge him by his former misbehaTior, and glTe him a fair 
■how to reform. 



A teacher can advance to higher positions by doing the best he eon 
in each position, whatfver the grade or salary ; but how much sacrifice 
is one warranted to make in prtviding for a couple of y tars of school* 
ing in a manual training ichoU t The one asking advice is a man 
nearly thirty years old, who earned the money that put him to school. 
Be heu taught two ytars. He commented with a salary of seventy 

dollars a sioiitA, and now gets eiyhty 

Subscbibbb, ScoU Biver, CaL 

I think it is better for you to continue in the line you are now 
Bucceedini^ in. You hsTC shown commendable perseTcrance, and 
yon haTC secured results that are not only flattering bnt are an 
eameet of a promising future. Plainly you are fitted for work in 
the schoolroom, aod while the idea of manual training is an attract- 
ive one, it must not in yonr case intrude on yonr cbocfn line of work. 
Tbere is yet no nrfl^ent call for mnnoal traioing teachers ; the supply 
•'qnals the demand, aod thoae who are best fitted for it are natu- 
rally graTitating toward it if you deeire, procore the published 
handbooks on manual training and study thoroughly the principles 
nnderlyiog it, meanwhile cootinoinsr in your preeeot work. 

In eoDSlderIng tbe wonders accomplhbed witb printer's Ink, due 
credit should he given to tbe Bsterbrook Steel Pen witb wbleb the 
printer's copy was written. 

Too mucb cannot be said against tbe cruelty of forcing chlUren's 
feet Into short and narrow toed boots Many children, before thry are 
ten years old have luolplent corns cansea byf<K)U<4b pride or car«^ less- 
oesB on the part of tbe bother. And a^ for puttmic on the ordinary 
corset on a growing miss, it Is an outrage agains nature, aud wltboot 
excuse, as Corset WnisU can b<4 found at every leading retail store. 
Tbe Ferris " Good Snse " waist Is uudoubtedly the most sailstaotory 



KINDERG ARTEN TRAINING. 

The Kindergarten Training Class established by Mrs. QunrcT A. 
8H4W In coDn«?ctlon with tbe school, 6 Marlborough Bt. Boston* will 
be reopened on Thursday, October 9, 1890. 

TffRMB DIFFERENT COURSES WILL BE OIVBK. 

1. A fnll course in Froebel*s Philosophy and In the Kindergarten 
Gifts, OocupaUoDs, Bongs, and Games fitting students to tako obai^e 
of a Kindergarten. 

2. A course of lectures on the same subjects to oxitbcfS and womeii 
iQtei^ted in tbe training oCyUongislilkiraL 

i. W(Mk|]^taUuii»nursaB. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



25 



THINGS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE MUSIC 
COURSE. 

BY W. 8. TILDES^ FBAMINGHAM NORMAL SCHOOL. 

/6S0NSIDER, fint, where the pupil is now ; second, to 
\^ what point you propose to bring him ; and third, 
by what steps he is to get there. 

Consider the circamstances and conditions of the school, 
and in so far as you are unable to change them, adapt the 
topics, modes of instruction, and aim of the lessons to 
those conditions so as to accomplish the best that is pos- 
sible under the circumstances. 

Consider what things are really vital to the child*s 
progress, and concentrate effort upon them, leaving, all 
extraneous things, as far as possible, however pretty the 
show that can be made with them, or however interesting 
they may be to maturer minds. 

Consider that what is in itself simple and easy, may be 
made difficult to the learner by overmuch theorizing and 
explanation. The teacher may shed darkness rather than 
light around a subject by too many words. The common 
sense of the pupil must be relied on to perceive what is 
axiomatic ; it cannot be made clearer by explanation. 

Consider that in all teaching some things must come 
before some other things, and that we must proceed 
according to the educational law, << the things the namej 
the eize^** and always in this order. 

Consider that very much work must be done to asso- 
ciate firmly the name with the thing in music ; in order 
to talk about anything it must have a name, and one that 
is entirely familiar to both speaker and listener, so that 
the name unmistakably calls up before the mind the 
image of the thing spoken of ; then careful training of 
the eye is necessary in order that the written ngn may 
call up the thing itself, and not merely the %oord used as 
its name. 

Consider that while the thing, name, and sign are so 
familiar to the musician that the one suggests the other 
like an electric flash, it is not so with the pupil, and 
therefore the teacher must b3 always on his guard lest he 
outrun the ability of the pupil to follow properly, always 
grounding the shadowy written sign in the substance of a 
musical reality. 

Consider that the terms employed should be few as 
possible, and used with unerring accuracy, — the same 
term for the same idea constantly. A loose use of terms 
makes "confusion worse confounded*' to the learner, 
especially in childhood, when he will not sift words for 
himself and clearly discern their import 

Consider that the course in music includes a knowledge 
of singing by note, just as the course in language includes 
reading ; yet as the knowledge of the alphabet and its 



combinations does not constitute an adequate course in 
language by itself, so neither does the ability to decipher 
notes merely prove the possession of a desirable intelli- 
gence in music; nor does it alone constitute a proper 
course of musical instruction for schools. The teacher 
who stops with this stops short of his duty. 

Consider that music, in its essential characteristics, is 
emotional rather than intellectual ; the study of song in 
the schoolroom is not simply a pursuit or employment, 
but is designed to make the child happier and better by 
addressing that emotional nature which is so largely neg- 
lected in general school-work. 



FRIDAY 

AFT^n9°riS- 



^IF 



f 



OUR FUTURES. 

[For four little boys.] 

BT S. IDELLA WALLACE, LTHN, MASS. 

IBST BOY.— Perhipf miim of yoo people think, 

B«oaiiae wo are lo imaU, 
We don't amooat to anything ; 

But wait until we're tall, 
And big and strong m lonie of yoo, 

And then I gxum yon' 11 tee 
That boys that leem of no aoooant 

Of great acooont will be. 
For I ehall be a merehant, 

And tail o'er all the aeas, 
And bay np all the pretty thiagi^ 

The little folks to please. 
When I grow vp as large as yoo, 
This is the wondroos thing 1*11 do. 



Second B<^.— And I shall be a i 

ril set the oonntry right; 
rU fin npaU the polities, 

And for the tmth 1*11 fight 
And jostioe then shall not be blindf 

Bnt see on eyery side, 
Ofor eaeh oonntry fair shall role, 

And o'er the oeean wide. 
King Money then shall not be all 

That man will hoard and saTS, 
Bat Wisdom,— whils their gold shall be 

A Tory osef ol sUto. 

J%{rd Boy.— A merehant is a naefol man. 

Bat a farmer I shall be. 
With my lands so broad, and bams all fnll^ 

Oh, who from earn so free 1 
And with my ripened fmit and grains 

I'll feed the needy poor. 
A blessing they shall gi^e to me 

When taming from my door. 
We may lim without the prseioas gold, 

And without worldly fame ; 



26 



tHE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



[Sbpt. 



But for our dmily wanto and food 
W« blan the fanner*! name. 

Fourth Boy.— Yoa boya will all be noble men ; 

YonWe eaoh a brilliant plan. 
Now 1*11 tell yon I am Roing to be 

A ichool committee man. 
With Fqneakiof? boots and collar high 

1*11 come in at the door ; 
Bnt I shall aek no qneetions, eneh 

As boya ne*er heard before. 
Bat, ** Cb liren. floweis are in bloom, 

The lamba are oat at play. 
And all the birds are siogiDg, 

Woald yoa like a holiday ?*' 
When I grow np as large as yoa, 
This is the wondrons thing I'll do. 



PERSEVERE. 

LEzerclse for five children.] 

BT JANE E. OOBMLEY. 

fIRST CniLD.-This life was given as for work. 
We cannot idle be, — 
The high san only brightly shinas 

For honest industry. 
Aod dark and dreary is the road 
Where idleness doth stray, 
' No ray of snnshine ever comes 
To light its dreary way. 

€econd CAJ/rf.— And life, I've read, 's a battlefield,— 

And soldiers all are we, — 
Eaoh striving wifh both heart and hand 

To gain the viatory. 
What if defeat comes rusbiDg on 

To sweep as like a tide, 
Will we salate the oonqneror 

And throw oar arms aside ? 

First CAi/(/.— Ns, thoo^b life be a batUefield, 
A contest most severe, 
Ob, yoa will gain the victory 
If yoa will persevere. 

Third Child.'-AnA life, I've heard, a rBce>eoarse is 

Where each one wants to see 
If he can only lead the race. 

And then a winner be. 
But what if stnmbling. blocks arise, 

And down we fall in paio, 
Ob, woald yoa lightly give it ap, 

OiT woald yoa try again ? 

Mr ft Child. — Althongh a race caarra life may be,— 
With dangers ever near, 
Ob, yoa the wioning-poat will reach 
If yoa will persevere. 

Fourth ChUd.—And life is like an ocean wide, — 

We sail from shore to shore ; 
Some drift where gentle bretzes blow, 

And some where billows roar ; 
Bat what if breakers wash the deck 

And threaten mast and sail. 
Will we sUnd steady at the helm, 

Or give ap to the gale ? 



FirMt CAt/(f.— Althoagh life be aa ooeaa wide, 
With tempests dark and drear, 
Ob, yoa a harbor safe will reach 
If yoa will persevere. 

Fifth CAiVc/.— And life is like a moantein steep, 

And weary travelers we, — 
All trying with the earnest hope 

Its summit fair to see ; 
Bnt when both faint and weary grown, 

Oh, will we tarn aside, 
Content to loiter down the slope 

And at the foot abide ? 

First Child, — Although life be a mountain-path, — 
So ragged, dark, and drear, — 
The summit you will safely reach 
If yoa will persevere. 



AIL- 



So if life be a battle field, 
Or ocean vast and drear,-— 

Oh, we will master all its storms 
If we will persevere I 

And if it be a moantain ateep, 
Or race with dangers near, — 

Oh, we'll remove all stnmbUng-blooks 
If we will persevere! 

So then away with idleness, 
Of work we'll have no fear, 

For it alooe will teach us ail 
The way to persevert; ! 



LITTLE THINGS. 

LA. recitation for three pupils.] 

BY KATE L. BROWN. 

J^tHE SPARROW.-Only a litUe sparrow, 
^ The tiniest bird of all ; 

Yet the Heavenly Father loves me, 

And hears my faintest call. 
If I fly through the endless ether. 

My trsck He sure can tell ; 
If 1 ri^st 'neath springing grasses, 

He knows my place fall well. 
So I chirp in joy and gladness, 

No danger can I see. 
For the Lord of earth and heaven, 

He loves and cares for me. 

The Lily, — Only a little lily 

That springs 'neath careless feet; 
Deep down in the meadow grasses. 

My breath so soft and sweet 
Steals like the saored incense 

Upon the summer air. 
Or the ca^m of a holy silence 

That follows after prayer. 
I know I am weak and tiny. 

Yet safety do I see ; 
For the Lord of earth and heaven. 

He loves and cares for me. 

Th$ Seed, — Only a little seedling, 

That fell in the waiting earth. 
Till the dews of a kindly heaven 
Gave the new plant its birth. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



27 



De^p down in the mould it waited, 

TUl it heard the word, *' Arise 1'' 
Then it climbed in etrao^ new beauty 

Toward the sanny akiee. 
It was not afratd or lonely, 

For Tery well it knew 
That the God of the bird and lily 

Woold g^nard and love i^, too. 

Togtther.^ Only the little things of earth ! 

Yet heaven, it seems to me, 
Is made of countless tiny acts 

Of loYC and parity. 
Kind words from precions, childish Hps, 

Kind deeds no tongne can tell. 
Rest safe and happy, little hearts, 

OSB loTes and goards yon well. 



J 



A WONDERFUL LAND. 

BY LAUBA F. ABHITAOB. 

VISITED a loTcly land. 

Whose skies were bine and fair ; 
The grass was green, the lambkins played, 
And flowers bloomed every where. 

And everything was bright and gay, 

And chile ren played abont. 
With happy faces all the time; 

I saw no tear or pont. 

No thorns upon the roses grew, 

No oloads were in the sky ; 
The birds sang joyoosly all day, 

While brooks went rippling by. 

No lessons hard were there to learn ; 

No work of any kind ; 
No nanghty girls could there be seen, 

No bad boys could I find. 

No quarreling was seen or heard« 

For all loved one another ; 
The boys did not their sisters tease ; 

Each girl smiled at her brother. 

'* Where is this land ? " you ask, no doobt ; 

W«l], that is hard to say, 
Although I truly saw it when 
I fell asleep one day. 



And though now I let yon swim far out to the sea, 

One year hence yon must return to this plaoe for me.*' 

Light of heart the little fish gayly swam away 

In the coolness of the waveii, full of glee and play. 

When a year had passed and gone,— his one year of grace,— 

Remembering his promisf he came unto the place. 

There the fisherman did wait, wi:h his line and hook, 

Id the daocing brooklet castiag many an anxious look, — 

'* What I*' said he, " yon*ve kept your word,— given your life to mel 

Lo, I give it back again, little fish,— go free. 

Since so faithful yon have been', thus to keep your vow, 

Mercy I will show to you, little one ; so now 

Swim and frolic in the waves long as you may live ; 

He who keeps his word deserves all that I can give." 



THE FAITHFUL LITTLE MOTHER. 



J 



THE FISHER. 

[From the German.] 

B7 E. IDELLA WALLACE. 

)NCE a fisher in a brook fished the whole long day, 
N'ot a single bite had he for all his work to pay. 
Till at sunset one small fish came with longing look. 
Nibbled, tasted, and, alas I soon hung on the hook. 
** Oh," plead he, '* dear fisherman, please to let me go; 
I am such a Utile thing, give me time to grow ; 
But three moutkf als would I make, served up in a dish ; 
Let me back into the waves ; grant this little wish I " 

So the fisher thought awhile, then to him did call, — 
risk much to let yon go, but yon^re young and small, 



BT ANNIE SCliLESrnOEB. 

CAN'T play *» Lady come to see," 
Wlien Dolly's sick ia bed; 
And I can't take her oat vitb me. 
With such a bound-op btad* 

I know she'd cry ber poor eyee oat 

If I should go a<¥»f ; 
And %o you see I cuu't ^o uuL 

Excuse me, please, to 4iiy* 

I*m sorry that I cannot go. 

I hope you*II think uf me; 
But Dolly's first, aa ynu tnuit know, 

Then — going otit to tea, 

I ve had the elector Iviop, to-day. 

•» Poor Dolly's ill,'' he h Hid. 
'* Uobi^fiid her ha^r^ and right away 

I'll bandage up ber head." 

I almoet cried out loud to 8e« 

My dear child suffer eo ; 
So there's no una iu b^^^ng me 

To leave her now and go, 

'* 1*11 be a good mamma/' I laid, 
** If Dolly*s given to me, " 

I promis<>d not to ieav^ her bed 
If ahe should fivif al be, 

I'll keep my word do w she is aiok ; 

I will not go awn j« 
I think 'twould be aa u{;ly triek 

To leave my child to-day. 



"A DAY OLDER MEANS A DAY BETTER." 



BY E. IDELLA WALLACE. 

>| AN you guess the reason why, every day, 
^ Wheu I make a figiife ot letter, 
Or do any work with HUte or with book^ 
£very day it's a little mite b«uer ? 

Mamma couldn't guess, and I see you eau'L 
Well, this is the reason^ I told her. 




* It has to be better thari yestflrday 
Because I am jost a day oldcF 



tfi 



28 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Sbpt. 




[The teaeher will flod it pleasant, as a Tariety, to snently read the 
■tories, or selections, then repeat in her own language before the class, 
which in turn reproduces, orally or in writing.] 

REPRODUCTION EXERCISES. 

BY H. B. C. 

Something About ▲ Boat. 

I Adapt 'd.^ 
CFor lowest grammar grades.] 
[Readtotheclas^; talk it over with blackboard lllnstratlons Intro- 
duced to pmnhasize information points Pupils reproduce in lert**r 
furro; allow them to add f/^eir summer experience The aim of this 
selection is to connect the closing eierclse^ of school with the opening 
by drawing from the children their experience between those periods. 
A most interesting information talk may be had as an oral language 
exercise before the day for writing comes, as each child will have his 
word upon the subject] 

Boys nsaally like to sail a boat, and nearly every boy who bat 
helped some older person, thinks he knows all about it ; bat puc 
him abo «xd a sailboat alone, and the ehanoes are he will oome back 
a sadder and wiser bey f Of oonrse a boy eao learn to sail a boat 
without insiraotion, bat it is pretty daogerods and better net be 
tried. The bey who wishes to be a yaehtsman shoold also desire 
to be an able one ; therefore let us board oor boat, and, as the 
■aUors say, ''see what she'll do.*' 

Our boat is a oatboat, for that is used more than any other kind 
of yaoht in Ameriea, and of oonrse yon want to learn all about it. 
The eatboat has one sail. This is set on a mast and stretehed oot 
npon a boom and a gaff. There are three ropes in the rig of snoh 
aboat; two to hoist the sail, and one to '' trim it," that is, to fasten 
it where yon want it to be. The hoisting ropes are ealled " hal- 
yards " ; the one which lifts that part of the sail nest the mast 
being the throat-halyard ; the other, which lifts the end of the gaff, 
being named the peak-halyard. The third rope is the mainsheet, 
and by means of this yon *' work " your boat. The boat should 
also have a topping lift, whioh is a rope fastened to the boom, mn 
through a pulley in the masthead, and thenoe to the deck. It Is to 
lift the boom when the sail is lowered or when an emergency 
requires. The rig, as yon sse, is simple, yet the eatboat is one of 
the liTeliest oontriTanoes you oyer tried to ride. A bioycle, or a 
skittish horse, would be tame in oomparison. 

A boat in sailing neyer goes in but one direction,— forward. Sail- 
ing Tessels are not meant to move backward. Remember this. An 
old waterman onee said to me, '* My lad, when you're sailin' a beat 
alway do one o' two things,— keep 'er a-goin*, or down with your 
saU." There is good sense in that,for nearly all the upsets ooour 
from not '* keepin' V a-goin'," or by leaving the sail standing 
when it should be down. Too see, a boat under way is manageable, 
while if at rest npon the water it not If your sailboat does 
not go, you oannot steer her ; and if you cannot steer a boat 
she will eapsixe if etmek by a squalL Therefore make it a point 
always to keep yonr sail full, in order that yonr boat may be under 
yooroontroL 

A Game of Tag. 

iAdapted."} 

[Bead orally ; reproduce in writing ] 

¥n>ile loitering about the woods one day we were very much 
amused by three ohipmnnks who seemed to be engaged in some 
kind of game. It looked very mueh as if they were playing tag. 
Bound and round they would go, fir»t one taking the lead, then an- 



other, all good-natured and gleeful as sohool boys. There is oo* 
thing about a chipmunk that is peculiar ; he is nsTcr more thaa 
one jump from home. Make a dive at him anywhere, and in ha 
goes. He knows where the hole is, STon when it is eorered witht 
leaves, wise little fellow that he is I 

Ctcuno. 

iAdapted.-] 

[Two loweat grammar grades.] 

[Allow a member of the class to read orally. Fully discuss and In- 
troduce illustrations. Then a>k class not only to reproduce but add* 
their experience or that of any member of their family during the^ 
Eummer. This sort of exercise leads pupils to investigation and to- 
closer observation of ever>'th1ng around th*-m, 8n<t brinss the teacher 
Into closer relationship with pupils' Interests Ttie seleciion abounds 
in suggestions to the tactful, progressive teacher.] 

There is no way in whioh yon can sse a oountry in all ito beauty 
so thoroughly and pleasantly as from a ojole. Wherever yon may^ 
be you can always oount upon finding roads bad enough, it is true, 
but there is always at least one road over which a wheel ean ba^ 
driven, and on yonr cycle you can jump in the late afternoons, after 
school hours, and off you can go, slowly and carefully at first, where 
street cars and wagons block the way ; but before very long yoia 
will have ridden past the rows of houses, shops, and faotoriee ; 
paved streete will have become oountry roads, and yon will see,, 
instead of bricks and mortar, the fresh green of trees and pastures ; 
yen will earry yourself along at a speed that will be a pleasure i» 
itself. For in oyding, if you are a good rider, there is as much ez- 
oitement and exhilaration as in eoasting, tobogganing, skating, and 
sleighing. Besides the delight of the ezereise, if yon keep yoar^ 
eyes open yon ean learn so much by the way. Yon ean wateh, day 
by day, the buds of spring opening into the blossoms of snnmier ;. 
the rich green of June meadows ripening into the yellowing wheat^ 
of August ; the golden and scarlet glory of autumn fading into tha 
dull grays and browns of winter. Yon may make yourself familiar 
with the beauty of the tree foliage, or get to know all the sweet 
wild flowers that bloom by the wayside, until in their seasons yon. 
look for their eoming as for that of so many old friends. Yon will 
learn to know and value the grandeur of g re at olond masses, the* 
ssrenity of a olear sky, and the beauty of distaaoe. In a word, yooi 
will soon begin to love nature as do all those older people who hav#> 
spent many boors in the open air. Yoa will also find that yonr- 
jonmeys, long or short, will teaoh yon much of the history and 
romance of other days, foif yon cannot go far without psasing over 
ground or eoming to plaoss rich in memoriee of the past. AjkI 
when the oonntry is beautiful and towns picturesque yon eannot 
help wanting to know what theee memoriee are ; what men thought 
and did who lived there long before you were bom. The world i*^ 
one great book of beauty and romanee, and on yonr oyele yon oaa* 
gradually master it, chapter by chapter, volume by volume. 

The Hunter and the Fabtbidoe. 

Mother Fartridge oame from the field to the roadside and mat. 
the hnnter. '* My dear hnnter," said the partridge, *< please don't 
harm my ohUdren. They are so beautiful. I eannot tell yoii> 
where they are; but yon ean judge for yourself. They are the 
prettiest birds hi the field." 

The hunter answered : *' Well, if I should ohanee to eome matom- 
yonr youngsters I will spare them." 

Gratefully the old partridge flew up and away. When sha 
returned at night, she met the hnnter again, and he oarried tha> 
young partridges on a string, all dead. 

** Oh, yon false and cruel man," eried the grief-stricken old blsd« 
** why did yon shoot my ohildreu ? Did you not promise yon would 
spare them? Oh, my poor children I My poor dead ehildreni" 

** But," said the hnnter, " did yon not tell me yonr yonng onea 
ware the most beantif nl birds in the field ? I only killed theee ugly 
gray birds." 

Then said the old mother partridge : '*Ah, wall, to every mother 
her children are the prettiest." 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



29 



Th» Tbachkr to toke part In the discuMmns ofUils department 
fiend In ouesttons, and turnl&h answers to questions given.— Kds. 

ANSWERS TO QUERIES. 

65S. Is the expression . } proper, and If so how can it be read? 

We consider .} an improper expri^ioD, as it oan be readily re- 
4oeed to a oommon or a decimal fractioo. It is read (f tenths) 
three foortha tenths oftentimw, thongh it would be a oommon frac- 
tion expressed decimally, and there is no name for that kind of a 
fraction nor any sense in usioK it If the f xpreauon be written .}, of 
«onrae it is eorrect, and would read 3 -r- /jj as a oompUx fraction 
with a decimal denoounator. In the firat the ▼alue is ,^, while in 
ihe second it is 7^. 0, W. C, Park River, xV. Dak. 

Davies* Maihematieal Dictionary says it is improper. 

H. I. B., Beaver Oroning, Neb, 

655. Bought stock at 10 per cent below par, which rose to 5 
aer cent premium and sold for cash. Paid a debt of $33, and in- 
Tested the balance in stock at 2 per cent premium, which, at pw, 
left me $1 1 lose than at first . How much money had I at first ? 
Let 100 % = par value of stock. 

100 % — 10 % = 90 %, cost of stock. 
100 % + 6 % — 105 % cash selling price of stock. 
(105 % — 133} = amount left after paying the debt or am*t. 

of second iovestmeup. 
100 % ■■ par value of second inveiitment. 
100 % + 2 % — 102 %, coat of second stock. 
102% =(105% -$33). 

l%«(].02i?%-$32yV). 
100 % « 102H % — $32 ^), selling price of aecond stock. 

.-. m\i % - ^2^ = 90% - $11. 

121»%-$21^; 1% = $1.«5. 

90 % = $148.50, amount of mooev he bad at first. 

J. F. West, Compton, Caf. 
Credit to L. G. T., Archie Me. ; J. E. M., Burnside, Iowa; C. E. 
B., Haverhil», O. ; J. L. Springfield, Mo. 

Sol^ion bg a/^€6ra..— Let x — original amount; y « fint cash 

Tcaliaed. 00 : 106 :: * : y; /. y = j- 

102:100:: (~ - Ss) : (*- U). 

.-. * — $148.50.— -An*. P. J. Dm Cheboygan. 

650. " I disbeUeve it to be him." Dispose of words in i*aHca. 

C E. B 

J< is a personal pronoun, third person, singular number, neuter 
vendor, objective esse. Rule Vf . Am is a personal pronoun, third 
person, BingnUr number, masculine gender, objective css^, object of 
the infioiiive " to bf ." H. I. B., Hearer Cronir^g, Ntb. 

Credit to C. J. E. and J. E. M., Burnside, Iowa. 

QhS Diagram and analyze : •* Poetry is only the eloqujnce and 
■ I of leligion." C. W. J. 



C^^g^|>^\ 







J££isx 



'UTMy 



** Poetry " is the subject unmodified ; " is " is the predicate un- 
modified; ** eloquence'' and ** enthusiasm " are attribute comple* 
ments ; they are modified by the adjective " only " and the prepo- 
«ltioiial phnse "of religion"; *< of" is the leader of the phrase, 



and '* religion " is the objact ; " and *' is a conjunction joining '' elo- 
quence " and " enthusiasm." J. B. M., Bumtide, Iowa. ^ 
Credit to H. I. B., Beaver Crooing, Neb. ; C. E. B., Haverhill, O. ; 
Mrs. L C. L., Leesburg, H. F. C, Dolard, S. D. 

574. How can the third side of a triangle be found, when two 
sides and included angle are given, without the use of logsrithms f 

The answer given to this query in the April TsACUBB is de- 
fective in two respects ; (o) it answers only a particular case, 
whilst the qaery calls for a general solution ; (b) apart from this, it 
sUrts out with a blunder tliat vitiatee it entirely. 

The figure herewith given is the one contained in the April iasoe, 
uncorrected. 




ABC = given triangle ; AC = 42 rd., .dfi — 28 rd., and BAG 
= 30^. The other linee explain themselves. 

The fact that BAC^2Xf, 45^ or 68% allows of finding, by 
simple geometrical construction, the values of 11 D, AD, and other 
linee figured out by the solver; but tha case would be different 
were BAC * Sl^', for inst. 

The solver is in error when he says 14 : sfde opp. 30^ : : 60 : 80 
s 7 rd. ; for the sides of a triangle are by no means to each other 
as their opposite angles. 

In a triangle like AHD, having its angles respectively OO*', 60^ 

aBd80o,2lD«2£rD-^. Hence ITZ) - i^ = ^^ - 

8.0829 + rd., and AD * 16.1658 + rd. 

The solver makes UD only 7 rd., and AD 16.65 rd., a mistake 
that vitiatee all his subsequent operations, which otherwise are 
correct in their process. 

The following are the corrected values : UD » 8.0829+ ; AD 
= 16.1658+; D-ff-4.83+; DO -9.67-; ^0 — 8.37+; HO — 
16.46 — -do « 25.81+ ; EF •== 7.12+ ; OF = 13.14 — ; FC — 
13.88 — ; GO = 8.85 — ; BC = 17.79+. An$, 

As already observed, it is only in a few special cases like the 
above assumed one that auch a process answers ; in all other oases 
a table of sines and cosines is required. It is not n e c e ssary to use 
the Irgarithms of these trigonometiidsl quantittee ; the natural sines 
and coeines are suffioient. Moreover, any one can dispense even 
with a table of sines and oasinee, prorided he figures them out for 
the given angle himself. Any one deeiriog to follow the latter 
course, should, however, be careful to take breakfast before sitting 
down to work. P. J. D., Cheboygan. 

Credit to C. S., HamUtoD, Ala. 

663 What waa the meaning of the eampidgn cry : <* Fifty-four 
forty or fight" ? L M. B. 

Daring the campaign of 1844 the Democratic cry iraa " Fifty-four 
forty or fight" At that time there were diiBcuUiea with England 
in regard to the northwest boundary. The Democratic convention 
of that year demanded the *' re-occupation " of the whole of Oregon, 
up to 54^ 40^, with or without war with England. 

R. S. M.. Bethd, Pa. 

Credit to C. L. F., East Peoria, 111. ; C. R. A., Eodicott, Neb. 

666. What was the ** Society of the Cincinnati " f 
An association founded by officers of the American army in 1788, 
with patriotic and benevolent objeds. It is still ia existence, and 



30 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Si 



tlie membenhip is reitrieted to deteendanti or collateral reUtlTet 
«f ReTolntiooary anoMion. R. S. M., Bethel^ Pa, 

GrMlit to C. L. F., Boat Peoria, III. ; G. R. A., Endioott, Neb. 

667. Why was not Waehington inaosarated until April 80 ? 

Owingf to Bon-arriTab of members of the first Coog^ress no qaomm 
was had until the let of April. After d«selariDg the remit of the 
oleotoral vote, mesMogers were sent to notify b^th Washington and 
Adams of their election. Adams reached New York on April 20, 
and took his seat on the folio irtng day. Washington reached New 
York, April 23. Arrangements for his inangnration not being 
complete, the ceremony did not occur until the 30ch. It was not 
until April 6 that a sufficient number of members of Congress 
arrired in New York to form a quorum and count the electoral 
Totes. Washington was elected. His journey from Mount Vernon 
took a number of days. R. S. M , Bethel, Pa. 

Credit to A. J. R , Eist Holland, Mich.; C. L. F., East Peoria, 
HL ; B. O. W. ; North Dorset, Vt. 

668. Why did President Hayes Uke the oath of office prirataly, 
the day before his public inauguration f 

March 4, 1877, being Sonday, the public inauguration not occur- 
ring until the next day, it was thought best, to avoid pcarible oom- 
pUoationa, for Hayes to take the oath privately on the 4th. He 
took it again in public on March 6. C. L. F., Xaet Peoria, III 

Credit to Bfa D.. N. Lisbon, Mich. 

669. Wha* is meant by the *< Wooly Hoa4fl," tha '< Stal- 
warts"? 

<« WcoUy Heads" was a name appUed to thoae Whigi led by 
Wm. H. Seward who were opposed to the policy adTocated by sobm 
of tiia party Isadafs of letAing tlie slavery question alcna. The 
Stalwarts were a faction of the Republican party led by Bcoeoa 
Conkling and oUiers who favoted the nomination of General Grant 
lor a third term. Tiieir opponents, under the leadership of James 
Q. Blaine, were called Half Breeds. C. R. A., Endicett, Neb. 

670. A pole is 16 feel high; how far from the ground must it 
be out so that the piece resting with one end on the pole will strike 
the ground just eight feet from the base of the pole f 

LetABbethepolel6ft.high; BC 
the distance 8 ft. ; and D C the part of the 
pole cut off, resting one end on the pole 
and tiie other end on the ground. D B C 
la a right ai«led triangle, the base of which, 
8 ft., is given, and the susi of the other /$ 
two sides. The principle may be stated 
thus : The length of the base and the suw 
of tiie other two sidee being given, to find 
the length of the other sides. Divide the 

square of the baic by the sum of the other two sides nod it will give 
the difference of thoee ridee ; one half the difference added to half 
the sum will give the hypothenuse, and half the diffarence subcraeted 
from half the sum will give the length of the perpendicular: 
8««61; 64H-10»4; } of 4*2. } of the sum, 16 ft ,— 8 ft. 
8 + 2 «> 10, length of hypothennse. 8 — 2 — 6, the height of per- 
pendicular ; or height where pole must be out off. 

J. D. C , X«7/y, m. 

Credit to B. G. W., North D^rMt, Vt ; A. W. K., Girard, O. ; 
H. A. L., Oxdentbarg, N J. ; J. L., Spriagfidld, Mo.; L. B. G., 
ParkersvUle, N. Y. ,- G. L. F., Btft Peoria, III. 

672. Who was President from 1787 (the adoption of the Consti- 
tution) to 1780 ? 

There was no regular president till Washington's administra- 
tion (1780-1707). 

Anether iint.— The preeideots of Congress from 1787 to 1780 were 
Arthur St. Clair of Pennsylvania, and Cjrus Griffen of Tirgiahk 

C. L. F., Eatt Peoria, 111 

Credit to A. J. R., Bast Holland, Mich. 



/^r 



ixL. 



673. What Preeident in hie mangural called attention to the facfc 
that he was the first one bom after the Revolution f 
Martin Tan Bureui born Dec. 6, 1782. F. 

677. What fraction of a round log of uniform thickness is tii» 
largest iqnared stick which can be cut from it ? 

The diagonal of the laigect iq. 
that can be deecribed within a cirda 
is the diameter of the mrcle. Area 
of circle ABCD, diameter bebg 2 
ft. (2)» X .7854 = 8 1416. Are^ 
of iquara ABCD [V}(2)*? — 2. 
2 2 , 14 7 

or .6S0+. 

Since drclee and squares aia 
always rimilar to each other, th» 
C. L. F., Eaet Peoria, IIL 




Credit to J. L., Springfield, Mo. 



682. Name four places in which a poasssri^ 
written witliont the apostrophe. 

County jaU, city police, state officer, town 
sanctioned the omisrion of the apostroplie. 



ve noun should ba> 

Usage ha» 
N. M., Ckko. 



QUBBISa. 

686. What is tiie origin of Uiephmse,** An 

687. Who was tiie only woman in the United Statas 
memory a monument has been erected by the public f 

688. What are tiie states that have incrsMsd tiie least 
lation during tlie last ten years f 

680. What was tiia price paid for the tot daves 
America f 
600. He struck SIS a hard Wow. Parse ''ma" and'' 



In popa- 



ADOPTED 

By the Board of Education of 

cm of BROOKLYN. N. Y.. 

At Us June meeting, 1890, 

Venable's New Arithmetics, 

Holmes' New Readers, 

aarendon Dictioiiary. 
Maury's Geographies, 

Maury's Wall Maps, 

Oildersleeve's LatiiL 



Also adopted by Boards of Edacation of New Tork 

City, Jersey City, etc , eto , and widely aaed in pab- 

lio and private achoola, Normal Sohoola and 

Aoademiea, in every State of the Union. 



Correepondenee invited, Addrese 

UNIYERSin PUBLISHING CO., 

NEW YORK. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



31 



601. Tbore haYe beea two equal aoDoal paymeBti on a 6 % note 
for $175, gvna two yean ago to-day. Balance doe, $154.40. What 
waieacb payment? 

692. Omi a pereon inoreaae tbe weight of the hrein by ttady ? 

693. Why do not the anthora of phyeiologiee agree ae to the 
nnmber of bonee in the human body ? Some aatboritifs give the 
number •» 206 ; otherfe give 208, 211, and 216. Which is oorreot ? 

694. Explain what is known as the " Aostralian system of 
▼otiog." 

695. If 12 oxen eat 3| aores of grass in 4 weeks, and 21 oxen eat 
10 aeres in 9 weeks, how many oxen ean eat 24 aeres in 18 we«kv, 
the flrrasi ftrowing uniformly ? W. R. 8. 

696. Write a sentence with a verb in the imperatiTe mod^, third 
person siocnlar, and parse Ir. G. E. K. 

097. Three men. A, B, and G agree to resp a field of wheat for 
$9.84; A and B o»lcalate that they oan do i, A and G that they 
ean do ), and B and G that they ean do } of tke labor. How much 
should each reoeiTe, aocordiog to these estimates f 

698. What is the office of the underlined phrase in the following 
sentenoA f 

** Then ETanseHne lighted th^ bmzen lamp on tbe table, 
Filled, till It orerfl iwed, the pewter tankard with home-brewed 
Hut-brown ale, that was famed for its strength in the Tillage of 

Grand Pre; 
While fmm his pocket the notary drew his papers and Inkhom, 
Wrote with a steady hand th(« date and a^e of tbe parties, 
*Jfamin0 iKe douw of the brid6 inflocka of$heep and4n cattle * " 

M . J2MI mvff, Cal. 

609. Does history record the falling stars, which occurred abont 
1880-5? If so who is the author? 

700. Name first negro child bora hi the U. S. 

701. Who tanght flnt school in this country ? 

702. Which is the best plan for transacting a commcrrfal busi- 
Bsss, a corporatioB, or firm f M. M. M. 

708. Who was it called the Bmlish laBguagc " the grammar- 
less toqgoe"f 

704. What is the diffcrsBCC bctwcsa a tcaehai^ faMlitaU timd a 
laacbcn' association ? 

705. When and where was the first public normal school hi the 
United States sctablished f J. L. 

706. When was the Declaration of Indcpsadcace signed by tiic 
members of the ContiiieBtal Gongress t 

707. Why arc criminals hung on Friday ? 



Original puzzles, answers, and all other oonrespondenee relaOng t<^ 
this aepartment, should be Indorsed " For Knots and Tangtos^nuMl 
addressed to Puzzle Editor, Box 836, Sharon, Pa. 

85. Tbaitspositions. 

A woman with Tsry red fsee, 

Walked past my house one day ; 
A little dog dung fsst to her gown, 

Nor could she get away. 

At last she declared, « I will not go 

Another flrtt this day, 
Till aomtbodjf comes, — I don't care wlio, 

And takes this next away ! " 

86. Dbop-Letteb PuzzLK. IPoete."] 

1. J_h-G.— a — c 

2. W — 1 — i — m — u — 1 — n — r — a — t 
8. — o — n — w — i — t — •— . 

4. — o — g — a — I — w, 

87« DWJAPITATIOirB. 

A larga third tree stood In the road. 

Not far from my humble cot ; 
A traTcllar passing 'mid a stona, 

A siieltcr eecomdly aooght. 
Tbe lightning played along the sky. 

With a^Snf it struck the tree, 
But ctrascc to say the maa < 

A liardwara dmnmsr was hi 

88. HiDDSV STATB0 (BtscmscO* 
1. John O. Sasa Ulls soma funny tUags. 



THE PRACTICAL QUESTION BOOK. 

Bt LAMONT STILWBLL. 

QNSttois aid Aiswers oi Flfteei BniebM tf SM|. 

THS LATKST AND BBST QUESTION BOOK PUBLISHED. 
It Is as different fr<>m the ordinary Question Book as the beautiful 
School Readers of today are olflnrent from tbe book« your grand- 
father used to read In wh<^n he went to school seTcnty fl?e years ago. 
Notice the plan of the book and the number of D> psrtments In it. 

Bach department of 

auestlons is followed by a 
epartment of answsrs on 
tbe same subject, each 
queetlon bduR numbered, 
and the answer ha?mg a 
eorrenpoodlng number, 
wit h iu authority append 
History [ed. 

Pulltloitl Oeoffraphj, 
ArltMn«*tlr, 
<lrtho|praph7« 
Rend 111 IT. 

Malhetiiatloal €i9^K<t 
NHtnral Flillosuphy, 
Uraiiim t. 




IU "I-. 

r«*inpi»»ition ft Rhet., 

y<»iolo|rrt 

FhjrHlcal Uonrmphy, 



Phy* 

Phm , 

Civil OoTfrnment, 



Kook Kef ping. 
School lilBcipllne, 
Practical Pttdavonr* 
Ju8t the book for teach- 
ers who wish to prepare 
for an ezamloatlon. It 
will carry them safely 
• hrongh A work of great 
•ooTeuience to Superln- 
'eudencB. Commtssiouers, 
KrlDclpals, and Teachers, 
«ho prepare ezumlnstlon 
quesnouB. A mine of 
wealth to ihs prnQreeHve 
teacher who trinhee to to- 
ealite all the light attain- 
aide on theee eptcial nUh 
jeeU 
It wu.ua • Issppolnt yon, for ft will carry vuu safely through a try- 
"cloth. ' 



Ing ez» till nation Hanasomely boimdIneU 



Larue i2mo, 400 pages. 



M4*e il.ftA. DONipald. 
W. Ik JLKBB, Pabr., 62 ik H Liif «jette Placet KIW YORK. 



SOUDDBR'S 

History of the United States 

Preceded by a Namtiye of the Duooyery and Settlement 
of North Ameiiea and of the eyents which led to the- 
Independenee of the Thirteen English Colonies. 
For the use of Schools and Academies. By Hoa^OB: 
ScuDDBB. With Maps and Illustrations. 

The leading chaiaotoristics of this beautiful work arc : WsU- 
considsred and well-written Texts ; Logical DiyisioB Into Periods^ 
a SoggsstiTC Method ; the insertion of Topical Analysb for Rcnaw» 
as well es a full set of Questions on Text and Maps; Aocuiat» 
Glesr, and Distinct Maps; Beautiful lUustratioBS ; Superior Ma- 
chanical Execution ; a Low Price. 

A prominent teacher says ; '* It is the best equipped seiiool book 
crer used in the United States." 

PRICE, $l.eo. BI MAIL, $1.15. Send for Circular. 



For $ampU$ and introdnetorf terwu, addrtu 



TAIMTOR BROTHERS & CO., Pablishen, 

18 ft 20 Astor Place, NEW TOBK. 

864 Washiufltoii St^ BofttOD. 

ISS * 1«4 Wabosli Ave^ Chicago. 



^2 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Shpt- 



2. O, I hop* be will soon bo better. 

3. Of all men 1 em in the bardeet pleoe. 

4. Mery oen aid eietlj in doinf? your work. 

5. The raw ale did not answer the pnrpoae. 

6. Jobn bat a tnake preset Ted in aloohol. 

7. Ob, a dime isn't mnoh to spend I 

8. Aw I O I I beg jour pardon,— I did not see yoa. 

89. Charade. 

Oor landlord made bis rounds to-day ; 

Mike likes him none too well. 
He thinks bb §eeondi are too high ; 

So when be rang the bell, 

Mike whispered, "Sio eml" to h\u first; 

And he rnthed at the man. 
And the tphoU report i«, they'll take it to court, 

And settle it,— if they ean. 



ANSWERS TO JUNE PUZZLES. 

80. Cream, pitcher, ream, pit, her, be. pitch —cream-pitcher. 

81. (1) Manners often make fortunes. (2) Idleness is the parent 
of many Ticee. 

82. Henry, Charles, Lincoln. Florence, Seine, Oreen, Society, 
Boine (boys), Re«<, Ulaok, Ann, Colnmbns, Austin, Farewell. 

83. Flotida, New Uri«ran9, lodisnspolis, Altoooa. Bay State, Sad- 
bnry, Bad : An island is a portion ot land snrronndrd by water. 
€4. L IL IlL 

BEST BIKD BAST 

STTA IDEA AREA 

STAB BEAR SEAL 

TART DABT TALE 



Answers have been sent in by Mrs. J. Wells Cat 
Ooodine, Mary A Lyon, J. W. C, and C. D. Garrett 



B. E 



A QOVERNMEMT BILL has been introduced into the 
Hargarian Diet making it obligatory on each of the 
12 000 communities in Hungary to have a kindergarten, 
and on parents to send to it all children between three 
and six years old, if not otherwise properly taken care of. 
The measure being compulsory is a new departure in 
legislation in regard to kindergartens. The number of 
kindergartens now existing in Hungaiy does not exceed 
six hundred. 



THE THIRD GIFT. 

BY MISS SUSAN P. POLLOCK, WASHINGTON, D. 0. 

]AN the kindergarten the child should not be confronted 
C with the cubes of the Third Gift until he has seen it aa 
a whole in the Second Gift, nor with the hard ball nntil 
he has had the soft ball. The knowledge gained with the 
Second Gift assists him in analyzing those introduced 
later, and so on through the series of FroebeFs twenty 
gifts and occapationp. If the child's education is began 
and continued according to FroebeFs system, his indiyida- 
ality will assert itself and compel him to fill his place as 
a part of a whole. Much depends on the teacher's treat- 
ment of the child, the same as the development of the 



Mrs. Wlster's New Translation: "0 THOU, MY AUSTRIA!" ''Tssi'si^^l'' 

Mbs a. L. WISTKE'8 TRANSLATIONS from lh« German are amonR the most popular ooTels of the day. Her literary Judimient li of the 



Now 

Ready, 



highest order, and bhe p<isae»8eft an uataillog laot in 

complete Itnt ' ff her tranalati'mti: 

** O THOU, MT AU8TK1A I '* Rv Ossip Behubin, 

KRLAGH « OUR r By CNftIp Rehubto, 

THK OWI*8 NKST. By Mar 11 rr, - 

PICKED UP IV THE 8TRKBTS. By Sehohert, 

SAINT MICHAEL. By Werner. - 

VIOLBTTA. By Mar.feuflel, 

L\riY WITH THE RUB1E8 By MarlUt, 

VAIN FORKBOIUNiiS. Bv O^Wnld. - 

A PENNIL«'H8 GIKL By Helmburg, - 

OUICKSAND'*. Bv Htreckfiis^. 

BANNED AND HLB»8EI> By Werner, 

A NORLB N%.\1E. Ryiilumfr. 

FROH HAND TO HAND. By Ralmund, 

8KVBRA ByHartri#T - - - - 

THE RICRHO|f8. Rv Relehenbach, 

A NEW RACE By Rairaurid. 

CASTLE UOHENWALD. By Btfckfusft. 



elecciug SQoh stories as are well adapted to please the American taste. Folio viring is a 



$1 25 

1 25 
1 85 
1 26 
1 26 
1 26 
t 25 
1 26 
1 25 
1 50 
I 60 
1 60 
1 60 
1 61 
1 60 
1 26 
1 fO 



MAROARETHB. By.TuDOker, 

TOO RICH Bv nrecklusn. 

APAMILYFEUD. By Harder, - . . • - 

THE GRKEN GATE Bv Wlchert, .... 

ONLYAOIHL ByFlllern, 

WHY DID HE NOT DIE? By Volckhausen, 

HULDA. Byl^ewaM. 

TME BATLIFK'8 MAID '»y Marlltt. 
IS THE RCHILI.TNUSCOUBT. By Marlitt, - 
AT THE 0'»UN8KLLOK'8. By Marlllt, 
THE 8KC<»ND WIKE. By Mar: It t. - - . - 

OLD M\M'SfrLLE'8 SECRET. ByMarUtt (Paper coyer, 
26 cents ) 

GOTD h.L8IK By Marlltt. 

COUNTKS8 GISKLLA. Bv Marlltt, - - - . 
LITTLE MOORL\>D PRINCESS. ByMarUtt, - 
ALPINE FAY. By Werner, 



$1» 
1 AO 
1 26 
1 60 
1 50 
1 50 
1 60 
1 25 
150 
1 60 
1 50 



150 
1 50 
1 50 
1 2S 



fiii:!iir&KKK«i'"."t»'"IJ. B. LIPPINCOn CO., 715 & 717 Maittt St., PHILADELPHIA 



I OFFER TUE FOLLOWING TO HELP TOU : 



Primarv Niimhiir Parrlc ^^^ ''^^^ printed on b^h sides, with 

rilmdlj HUIIlUttl UdlUdi uuneralsandMuoN each % inch square; 
in four rolor^.—red, yellow, bin**, and green ; 600 characters In all. Ex- 
cellent fur bn^y work. Price, 15 cents. 

Third Series now ready. Made np of fifty 
_ desiicnA that pupils will delinht In repro 

during; nuoh as anln^alii, frultt*. fl<>wer:«. birds, ^ou«ei«, etc. A manual 
for t»achfrs acc^nipanien ea<h s»*t Thousands have been sold, and 
have Klven patlsfaeiion Prlre. SO cents. One set each, l^t, 2d, and 
8d Seller. Will be sent f»r 7U cents. 



Drawing Made Easy. 



Rtaplrhnaril ^tsnpik I' you have neTer u«ed these great lahor- 
DldbRUUdlQ OlClllllat savlnic dt-^lces. seed 10 cents for three 
samples and cesciiptlve list. You will want dozens of them after try- 
ing them. 

A. FLANAGAN, • • - 



Miss Kenyon*s Santence Cards 



For Sehool, Home, and Kln- 
dersarten. Thene Cards are 
the only ouei> which ean be readily arranged to form sentences ; are so 
8*mple that begliiiiers haudiethem easily, yet they are capable of such 
a variety of chanfen that pui4 s In their (>ecoua year may use them 
with pn fit A sec eonsists of 2IH catds. print on one side and script on 
r he oi iier. Puoctuatlon marks and direction for use are sent with eaclu 
Price. 90 cents. 

A llttiA mannal, entitled Oae Haadrei Pevleei tor 
Busy Work, will furnish you pt inters for months. 



Busy Work. 

Price, 10 cents. 



YOU NEED MY CATALOGUE. Nothlnc Ili[e It 72pageo 
devote.i to desoribiuir H'-lp^ and Aids lor Teachers. Speakers, Bepotl 
and Keward Cards, Stencils, and other Tr«nble l&illcnu 

185 Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



33 



plant depends on the gardener. It is posaible to destroy 
the vitality of the plant by the in judieioas ose of heat and 
moietore, and it is also possible to destroy the power of 
the child's mind by the injudieioos applications of the 
requisites for its deyelopment Education cannot create 
these powers and impolsesy bat it should brbg them out 
and progressively develop them. 



SCHOOUSHNESS IN THE, KINDERGARTEN. 

[An AbBtaract] 
BY SITFT. W. N. HAILMANN, LA POBTE, IND. 

JT was the purpose of the address to direct attention to 
certain short-comings in the kindergartens of America 
based upon excessive intellectualism that takes pride 
in wordy phrases and formulas and neglects the sensi- 
bilities and the will, that emphasizes mere knowledge and 
disregards life efficiency. This tendency or condition b 
schooliehness. In order to justify this term, the work of 
the traditional school that lays exclusive stress on the 
giving of information was analyzed and contrasted with 
Uie rational school based on the application of Froebel's 
principles ; and Dr. Harris' paper, read last year at Nash- 
ville, in which it was claimed that the primary school 
required a radically different method from that of the 
kindergarten, was reviewed. The address took the oppo- 
site ground, and labored to show that both should be con- 



ducted on the same principles. The address then pro- 
ceeded to show in what particulars the current kinder- 
garten is a victim of schoolishness, u «., ^< lays undue 
stress on the mere giving of information, makes a great 
show of authority over the child, or isolates the child in 
his work." It showed how games were learned like 
lessons, how gifts were made subjects of instruction and 
the like. The paper concluded with the demand that the 
mission of the kindergarten was to emancipate the school 
itself from the various sins of schoolishness, to secure ^' a 
regeneration of the school on the basis of the new edu- 
cation which would add to culture efficiency ; to knowl- 
edge, character ; to representative skill, creative fervor ; 
to sight, insight and foresight ; to industry, purpose ; to 
talent, genius ; to freedom, power ; to individual thorough- 
ness, social intensity ; to justice, benevolence ; to the love 
of self, the love of man and of God." 



^ ••> ^ 



THE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL. 

N the supposition that the student enters the school 
with a fair familiarity with arithmetic, language^ 
geography, history, and, if possible, geometry, physical 
and chemical science : 

I. It should give thorough additional instruction in 
language, with special reference to juvenile literature ; 
biography, with special reference to childhood and youth ; 



THE BADGER PREHART TABLE. 




This table Is ■ designed to fScUi. | tate the teach 
ins to primary II BctaoUrs of word H and sentence 
making and the || rudlmenta of arlth- II metio. It in 
about elKht feet U long and two feet H :£7 wide, made (f 
wood supported m ' bylronlegB.liaTlng m '■' In eaeb section 
a series of twenty P^ ^cups or recepta- il .' ch s^and twelve 
movable wire h^' standards for hold- IV^ Ing objects. 
Between the cups and the wire standards are grooves for holding 
arithmetical words and signs. 

It has a removable top ruled In Inch squares, which serves as a con 
venlent substitute for the ordinary ruled table, made for the use of 
blocks, splint*, letters, and words, in word and sentence building. 

Under the c >ver are five square spaces, employing five children at 
once. Bach space contains five square and twenQr cup like rcoer- 
taeles for the articles found in the drawer, besides an oblong curved 
hollow for wire rods. Between the cups across the table from right to 
left are grooves for recelvlog printed cards bearing arithmetical words 
and signs, and between the grooves ruunlng from front to back ar«» 
holes In which wires for holdlug objects may stand. The draw*>r of 
the stand Is divided into coapartmeuts, well filled with marbles, but- 
tons, sniall spools, printed cards, small slates, aod other apparatus tor 
work. The drawer also conulns a box of printed words aod letters 
for the construction of sentences and words, as well as a handsome 
clock dial, by means of which time may be easily taught The clock 
dial has a wooden pin in the frame by which it stands upright in the 
table. 

It is surprising how soon the smallest child. If you put three articles 
In a cup. will place Just that number in the next cup if so required. Or 
if you thread aglveu number of spools on a wire, he will readily place 
a similar number on another. Then if you put three in one cup and 
two In another, and diri-ct him to put in a third cup as many as there 
are in the other two, you advance to Addition The success of such 
simp e methods is only realla^ by those who have made experiments 
with this apparatus, and the variety of work that may be performed 
Is astonishing. Price: Onb Section, $8 00; Thbkb SectUnu, $15 00; 
FiYS Sections, $22.00. 

C. W. BARDEEN, Publisher, Syracuse^N. Y. 



LESSONS IN RIGHT DOING. 

iNTBODUcnoir BT 

N. A. GALKINS. 
Prlee» 49 eeats, postpaid. 

Much Is said about send- 
ing the "whole boy*' t» 
school, but while attention 
Is given to the training of 
the brain and body, the 
most Important part of all. 
the moral nature, has been 
neglected. 

The author of this book 
has sought to present the 
principles which underlie 
4ll rignt actions in such a 
plain and simple form as to 
be easily understood by 
young childrt n. 

There is nothing doll or 
stilted about the book. 
PupUs will read it eagerly. 
It Is a 8UPPLBMBNTABT 
BE A DEB, but not a compil- 
ation of pointless anecdotes. 
The Introduction by N. A. 
Calkins Is very suggestive, 
strongly bound in boards. 
171 quarto pages. 

Address TEA0HEB3' PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

No. 6 Olinton Placb, New York, N. 1. 

A Jonrnal •€ flleUiAday. 
Aidn, wtmd Devices* 

Monthly. 60 cents per year. Send for Sample Copy. 

Address TEACHEB8' PUBLISHING CO., 

No 6 Clinton Placb, Hew York, N, T. 

;iEND for our new TBACBKBS' €AT%i«OOVB of Book* 
) OM TcacbiMg, Scboolrooai Aids and Devices. 

Address TEACHEBS' PUBLISHING CO.. 

No. 6 Clibtom Placb, New tork, N, 1, 




THE TEACHERS' WORLD. 



34 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Skft. 



physiology and anatomy, with special reference to the 
child in health and disease ; psychology, logic, and ethics, 
history, and science of education, with special stress on 
the period from Lather to our day, and to Froebers edu- 
cational principles and practice ; music, with special ref- 
erence to laws of rhythm and harmony, 

II. It shoold impart skill in composition of stories, 
rhymes, and songs for children ; singing and intelligent 
use of one mnsieal instrament ; drawing, free-hand and 
mechanical, with special reference to blackboard sketch- 
ing ; clay modeling ; coloring, with special reference to 
nature sketching ; sloyd and the manufacture and hand- 
ling of simple physical apparatus ; the '' FroebeFs schools 
of work " ; calisthenics and light gymnastics, with special 
attention to marching. 

III. It should gwe opportunity for the observation of 
methodically arranged model work in kindergartens and 
primary schools controlled by the training school and 
taught by an experienced and approyed kindergartner 
and teacher. 

IV. After a period of such obserration, not shorter 
than one year, it should afford opportunity for suitable 
work of assistance and directions according to the pupil- 
teacher's ability, in some kindergarten or primary school 
under the superrision of the institution. This practice- 
work should be arranged in such a way and extend oyer 
« 8u£Gleiently long time, with the same children, as to 



enable the pupil-teacher to feel her responsibility to the 
children so that she may learn to direct her work to the 
children's development, and not to the subject of instntc- 
tion, 

v. No pupil should be admitted before the age of 
eighteen, and the course should not be less than two 
years. 



OUR KINDERGARTEN. 



BT M. E. C. 



€€ 



H ! we don't mind the expression ; we only get at 
the words the first year, — the expression comes 
later," said a first-year primary teacher as apology for 
what seemed to us poor reading. 

We had from training and experience been led ti b)- 
lieTC differently, and knowing that we were to be leaders 
in the kindergarten about to be established in the neigh- 
borhood of this teacher, we determined to inyestigate, so 
asked, <^Why can't the children give good expression 
from the first ? " and were told that half the children 
didn't know anything about the objects the words stood 
for. 

" Very well," we said as we walked back to the room 
we were making ready for the kindergarten, " that teacher 
shall not offer that excuse with her next dass, for we'll 



FOR TEACHERS ^re received every day during August and September by the 

TEACHERS' CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION, 



70-72 Dearborn Street, CHICAGO, 



Sand foe dmilan. 



Recreation Qneries in United States History 

By Prof. C. L QRUBE, State Nornal Sehooli Kutztown, Pa. 

Cloth ; Price, « • • 75 cents. 

Thb oollMtion of "Qaeriet" hai beeD mAde for the imrpom of 
promoiiBg grtAter iBtoroet in the itady of oar hUtory. It will re- 
UoTO the dull monotony of diifioolt leiaona end dry f aotp, end thne 
werd off the tendency to roadne work with its oonieqoent indif- 
ieienoe. 



Common-Seiise Exercises in Geography. 

By SEYMOUR EATON. 

Paper ; Pri«», • • • 25 Cents. 

Eyery teaeher of GeoflTAphy will be delighted with thie Mennal. 
It is a book of sxicBClSES, — not ordinary qoeetiont, — laoh es will 
require original thinkingf on the part of both teaoher and pnpiL It 
ia adapted to all Kradea, and to the beak Ameriean text-books. Snoh 
a book haa long been needed in onr aohoola. 

Hundredt of eopiu 1uiv€ hetn ordered in advance of publicaiion. 



NEW ENGLAND PUBUSHING COMPANY, 

3 Somerset Street, Boston. 106 Wabash AYenue, Chicago. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



35 



make it oar especial aim to eultiTate the right sort of 
knowledge/' 

We had meant from the oataet to make the kinder- 
gartens training a leading up to and almost a heginning 
of onr children's primary school life, since we'd hecome 
weary of hearing teachers say children from kinder- 
garten were worse than those coming directly from home. 
We knew it shouldn't he so, and laid oar plans accordingly. 

First, we decided that a thorongh knowledge of the 
neighborhood, — its general make-up, and occupations as 
well as local peculiarities,— was quite as essential as an 
nnderstanding of child-nature, if we meant to succeed. 
Second, we determined that good, practical common 
sense should be a dominant characteristic of our kinder- 
garten work. Therefore, we began to haunt the streets, 
study the shop-windows, and question the children about 
their play, and what was being done in buildings into 
which we had not the courage to force an entrance just 
at first Oar next move was to study the outline of study 
for not only the first, but middle and upper primary 
olasses. Finding ourselves familiar with that, we ob- 
tained a first chart and reader of the kind used in the 
primary classes of the eity* The words to be developed 
in the first reading exercises were man^ eat^ dog^ etc. 
Now from the very earliest time of kindergarten life the 
children were to be developed toward an end, and that 
end was the power to be good beginners in the primary 



school in a moral, mental, and physical sense. How to 
get it was the thought 

Remembering always that we were kindergartners, we 
said " we'll study primary teachers, their needs, ways, 
limitations, and the results they arrive at They won't 
come to us, so we'll go to them." We asked them, there- 
fore, for a list of words as they '^ took them up " ; then 
selected ccU as the first avenue to development in our 
kindergarten. Some toy cats, pictures of cats on cards, 
and drawings (very rough) of the same animal were dis- 
tributed about the room, — never grouped, but always 
standing as the representation of one. Then we provided 
ourselves with several rubber balls of various sizes, as 
well as with a great many worsted balls, stringless. 
There was chalk, plenty of blackboard space, and a great 
quantity of rough, Manila paper and pretty colored crayons. 

When the first day came the principal sat at one end 
of the room, which had been made homelike with a little 
decorating, and the nurse stood by one entrance door to 
greet and direct the new comers to the principal, who 
took the name, age, and residence of each applicant, and 
gave it a cheery welcome. A child, borrowed from the 
master's room, next showed the way to the dressing- 
room, where the first lesson in the orderly disposal of 
outside apparel was given before the child was seated and 
the mother shown out, — (it isn't desirable to have the 
room filled with members of the family). The assistant 



LEADING FACTS OF AMERICAN HISTORY. 

By D. H. MONTGOMERY, 

Author of the Zioadlng Faots of History Borloa. 

359 pagres. With fall Maps, both black and colored, Illustrations, Appendices, Index, Etc. 
Introductory Price, $1.00; Allowance for an old book In exchange, 80 cents. 



In general plan and styJs this work will he f onnd sim- 
ilar to the histories of England and France hy the same 
anthor, which are recognized as standing first in their de- 
partments. The main difference is that the American 
History is adapted for piyils of less matority. 

As its name indicates,the history is dcTOted to the leading 
events in the development of wlt eountry. The greatest 
merit of the work is in the judgment with which these lead- 
ing facts have been selected and the vividness with which 
they are placed before the reader's mind. The main 
things are '' brought out " and made salient, so that their 
true shape and proportions stand before the eye like the 



peaks of a mountain chain on the horizon, and cannot be 
mbnnderstood. 

Again, the book has been made, not with the scissors, 
but with the pen. It has been written, and not merely 
compUed. The consequence is that, unlike a lifeless col- 
lection of facts, the history has an interest and charm like 
that of a story told by an eye-witness of the events. The 
style is full of that intellectual life which keeps the learn- 
er's mind awake and active. 

These are only a few of the merits of this American 
History. Send for the descriptive circular and learn of 
others. 



A.lmo0t Heady s 

TABBELL'S LESSONS IN LANGUAGE, Part L By H. S.Tabbsll, Supt. ofSehooUy Providence, B. L 



GtTNN & COMPA^lSrY, Publishers. 

BOSTON, NEW YOBK, and CHICAGO. 



36 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[S. 



now initiated the ehildren in the delights of a game of 
<<roUthe baU^'and << catch the ball" with the nibber 
toy. In less than an hoar, owing to the STStematic man- 
ner of conducting affairs, the principal took her seat and 
told a story of a cat that enjoyed playing ball in Tery 
mach the same way the children did. 

Varions children tried rolling the ball in a nice way to 
each other, while both principal and assistant sang the 
appropriate songs. The pictures were talked about, and 
somebody asked if she would like to make the picture 
of a cat Of course this opened up an opportunity for 
endless trying, and teacher and children began to get ac- 
quainted. 

Very many yolunteered information about the cat at 
home, and just here the principal began her work toward 
the development of intelligent reading by carefully draw- 
ing out the cat's characteristics. By natural steps the 
idea of the cat playing with a mouse, as well as with a 
ball, led to the beginning of learning the game of ** Kitty 
White," — ^the old, old game, but ever a delight to children 
not surfeited with physical culture. 

The morning wore quickly away, and when going- 
home time arrived he children (all but those who had re- 
tired to the nurse's arms to weep out their loneliness) had 
most of them been children and cats playing with balls 
and a mousie. They had received the first lesson, — though 
no one but the teachers would have suspected it, in the 



mental and physical training through the cat talk aiul 
game, and a continual recurrence to one ball, one cat, ons 
mouse ; their power at manual skill through the attempt, 
to draw on blackboard and bits of paper, (at tables and 
from imitation); and moral, through the introduction of 
the ideas of being gende in play and sharing the fun with 
some one. 

Having a knowledge of the neighborhood and the 
needs of the primary school, the kindergarten leaders 
were able to adapt all their kindergarten work to the 
time and place ; each talk, game, and exercise became a> 
drawing of the child's experience into form that he might 
grasp ideas naturally, (deal with the known before the 
unknown), and gain an '' all the way round " develop- 
ment 

From what he knew through his experience gained in 
his own littie world, he was led into another world of 
new ideas. 

At the end of the first month there might have been 
found in the kindergarten note-book these items, mack 
like those to be seen in a primary teacher's book: 
<' Gained results in language (reading), object lessons, 
number, manual skill, (gain toward easy handling of pena 
and pencils), physical culture, music Observation, 
memory, expression, attention, moral grace have all been 
developed, and still there has been no sacrifice of the 
true kindergarten spirit in our work." 



TEACHERS 



who are alive to the needs of pupils are exam- 
ining with interest and using with profit : 

Hyde^s Practical Lessons in the Use of English; Book I., for Pri- 
mary and Intermediate Grades, 35 cents ; Book II., for Grammar Grades, 60 cents. 

The first book eontaini ptetaro leMoni, repiodaotion and diotatUm ozwoiMi, m well m prasHoe io letter wridnflr and memorisiii|t. 
The leoond book giTee eaeh teehnioal grmnmar es is eaaendal to correot use of English. These books have alieedy been introdaesd iate 
moie than 300 oitiea and towns in New England alone, and qnite as widely in other parts of the oountry. The Scate of Waahingtoa has 
jast adopted Book I. for use daring the next fire years. In all oases the books are giTing oomplete satisfaetion. 



Wo send free an outline of work for the 3d, 4th, Sth, 6tli. 7tli, and Sth years of aohool, together with sample 

Sigea of theae books, and other valaable material for teaohera of laoguage. If you are looking for booka in 
eading, Blemeotary Soienoe, Number, Supplementary Reading, Geography, eto., we will aend you oomplete 
lists and oiroulara on application. 

I>. C HEA.TH. & CO.* I»iil>lisliers, 
5 Somerset 8C., BOSTON. IS Aster Place* NEW YORK. 1S5 Wabash Ave., €H1GA€H>. 



Prang Educational Company, 

FubiUhers omA tHaUru iit nrauAng and •ttriisis^ MaieriaU. 

PRANffS AMERICAN TEXT-BOOKS OF ART EDUCATION. 



A syitmii of Drawing used in the leadings GitiM of the ooontry. 
Thie ■ystem has a wider adoption than idl other 178101118 onited. 

PRANffS NATURAL HISTORY SERIES FOR SCHOOLS. 

Intended to he need m Aide for Objeet-teaohinfl:. 

PRANffS NATURAL HISTORY SERIES FOR CHILDREN. 

Intended to he need for Supplementary Beading. 



PRANffS TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS. 

Splutdidly OlastratMl f« ObJMt-tMMliiiic. 

PRANffS COLOR CHART. 

For Teeohing Color in Primary Sohoola. (Adopted hy Boefeoe 
School Board.) 

' PBANCP8 DBAWING MODELS, 
MAKUFAcruBKBS OF { PBANCP8 SCHOOL PENCILS, 

PBANCPS SCHOOL COMPASSES. 



For etUaioff ond fxtrNoutorv, 
addres* 



THE PRANG EDUCATIONAL COMPANY, {:<;S-^'.:£Sf*Af.i::.rc"«cA««. 



IMO.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHEB. 



37 




FBBCKLB AND MOTH DB8TBOTBB. 

This pr»i»arailon Is f^r tbe purpose ot re- 
moTtng freekles, moth ptttehes, and aU dlscol- 
oratioDS of tbe skin ; also, pimples, blark 
beads, or any form of Acne, and aboTe all 
tbtni^ It Is fer tbe nnrpose of rendering tbe 
use of eoemetles posltlTely nnoeeessary. 

It Is based on purely sctootlllo prinelples, 
and by taiTlsoranng tbe skin and plaelng It In 
-astrongand bealtbfiil condltion,OTereomeB tbe 
tendeney to any of tb«»se blemlsbes. Tbe re* 
4narkabl4*enreB wbleb bare been perfdrmed by 
tbis preparation bave tboronsbly establlsbed 
tbe net tbat tbe u»e of blood pnrlflers will not 
^estabilsb a bealtby eomplexlon. or cure a dis- 
eased skin ; external application Is posltlTely 
necessary, and tbe only way to reacb these 



This preparation combines a powerful 
^leaeber, disinfectant, and stimulant, and 
clears and purifies the skin with tbe most re- 
markable rapidity and success of any prepa- 
ration oTcr eomponnded. It col tains no Ar- 
senic nor Lead, as its object Is to cure, and not 
to beautify for a time only It to equally Tal- 
nable to oily, rough, swarthy, or sallow com- 
plezlons. as In placing these In a perfectly 
nealtbfnl and Tlgorous condition, it Imparts 
tbat color and bniliancy which to always been 
4n a perfectly bealtby skin. 

It u told under po»ltlTe Roanuitee. Tbe only 
mepMmtloii prwerlb«d by rsgvtor phTtli*l*n«. 
OonetpondMiee Mitelted frotn ladle* and gentle- 
men, whu are trembled wltb faelal blemtohea.and 
also from all tboee nsliig Ibe Bleaeb* that OTOn 
the moat •tobbom eaaee. and tboee which htye 
defied all oth«*r remedies, be alike sneeestfnlly 
treated. Feferenees in erery city and Tillage in 
the United Stares and ranada. 

Prloe* One Treatment 'anfllolent for one 
Caee), •» oo. Mus. marion walkbb. 

Ste 4tb ATe., LomsTlLLB. KT, 



Educational Bureaus. 



n CHEBMEi 



^tlisstanibestknewnlaU.B. Bstab-lfiSS. 
S Bast 14th St.. N.Y. 



NO FEE FOR REGISTRATION. 

Best faeiUtles. tflelent Serrlce. Largs 
Baslnsss not In eollectiog adTance fCes, but 
In proTldIng competent l%achers with Posi- 
tions. Fdrm for stamp. Bmployers are serred 
witbout charge. Our supply of Teachers to 
the LABGVST and vmn* 

P. V. HUVSHOON (tote R. B. AVBBT), 
AllBBIOAV SCHOOL BUBBAU. 

a West 14th f^t.. NEW YORK. 



JW lmrgmrmUan€$ er €kamg$ s/ (eeofiefi, 
70 DlNviam A., Qkieago; OnHU 



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!•• BIMa 

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TKACHKNS WANTKD 

al 0D06 lor some of tbe bast salaHed posltloBf 
IneltyaDdcomitrysettooto. Make applioation 
without detoy. incloimg stamp. 

^HABOLI> COOK. MiWAon. 



A CARD. 

The nndsfiignsd bairlng pwehased tbe wen 
knewa VwioiinAOBBas^ aooiot ef flew York 
Olty,bas teaasf Sfied It to Noe. M and A4 L*- 
Ja j ri aH e PlaeOb intact to ik» AiUtr Lihraryu and 
wHi be pleased to serve its former patrons and 
an oib#rt «bo dssire to seeare tbe advantages of 
tbto weU.ealabttsbed aod reliabto Aseney. 

B. B.— Tbto Ageney has no eooaeetioii whaterer 

Xale S^pC efkdigepon (OMOIty Hebooto. 



KINDERGARTEN DEPT., N.E.A. 

The Kindeigatten Departmeat of the 
NatioMl XdoeatioMd Assoeialkm held a 
Tcry sneosssf nl meetiag, of two sssrioni, at 
St Paul, July 18-16. Mrs. Bodora HaU- 
maan prssided, and eoagratolated the mem- 
bers npon the marked adTanee nuide in 
Undergartea work during the past year. 

Mn. Helen BL Stanett of Chiosgo read a 
paper on *'Ab Outside Ytew of the Einder- 



Mtos Lucy E. Wheeloek of Boston gaTC a 
''talk" on the topic, ''Eyes HaTC They 
and See." No mere outline can convey any 
adequate idea of Uito inspiring and instmct- 
iTO paper, the sabstaaoe of whieh we hope 
to pnUish in the Teaohbb later on. 



Irwin Shepaid, ptiaelpal of thaWlaoM 
(Minn.) Normal Sehod, spoke ca "The 
Effect of Kfatdaqrartsn Tiafaihifr npoa M- 
mary Work." Bead aa ahatnet of hia 
praetieal and wise opiaioas ia aaathsr eol- 
nma of Uito aumber* 

The^seoad ssasioB was daroted to papan 
hy Mtos Anna B. Bryaa of Lootorille. Ky., 
on "The Letter EiUetb." Itwasatlmaly 
diseuasioB of the FroelMl systenL 

" Sohooltohnsss in the Work of the Kin- 
dergarten " was the thenm of aa aide, phil- 
osophio paper hy W. N. HaUmaan, saper- 
inteadent of schools of La Porte, lad. See 
abstract in another ednmn of Uito Issoe of 
the Tbaohbb. 

The closing addrsss was made hy W. E. 
Sheldon, ex-president of the deportment 
Topic: "The InstitutioB and Methods of 
Training Teaeheis for Work in the Etodsr- 
sgrten and Primary SohooL" 



RIVERSIDE INSTRUCTION FRAME. 



Equipped vntb 



TEN 

OUTUNE 

LANGUAGE 

PICTURES. 

(/5 by i8 inches.) 



SCRIPT AND 

PRINTED 

WORDS AND 

SENTENCES. 



TEN 

PICTURES. 

(P ^ 9i inches.) 



TWENTY-FIVE 

PICTURES 

OF OBJECTS. 

{4\ b'4i ittebes.) 




Si J* : Tin* fut fy two fut. 



RIVERSIDE MANUAL FOR TEACHERS- 

By L freeman HALL. 

The Manual (prtaent price 1$ cents, postpaid) describes folly the ▼arioos oaea to 
which the lostrudoo frame may be put, and points out clearly, principally 1^ the aid of 
illostratiTe lessons, what steps the pupil should take before begmning to read from a book. 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & CO., 

4 Park Street, Boston, ii East itth St., New York 

28 Lakeside Building, Chicago. 



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or mftfled m f:K an re- 
I Mipt of pnc*. by . 

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Marshall Field & Co., 




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nlflhcd iM-iLnhli- iii^ri'nibs K-Jlhc't' *^Jtj who will pirhUtlPe to 
■bow IE. Jtor4tii Mu*k' Uitr Co., lk>& 212(1, K, y. C\tj. 

BICYCLE or IJrRirER 

Smd to A. W. OUHP * CO., DATTOM, OfllO. for 
prioes. Mew Btoreles at rednoed prIoM and 400 mo* 
oDd*hMid one*. DimctTLT RBrAOOiis. BIOTCLBS, 
GUNS aPd TTPl WBTTEBS taken in EXdUKOB. 

$75.22 tt $250.22 1«rr;S5 

working for us. Persoos preferred who can 
fomiBh a horse and Rive their whole time to 
tiie business. Spare moments may be profit- 
ably employed also. A few vacancies in 
towns and cities. B. F. JOHNSON * 00., 
1000 Main St-. Richmond. Va. 

FREE TO TEACHERS! 

Catalogoe and few sample Reward Gardt 
free. Our Embossed Panels, 6^x7^, 8 cts. 
each, are extra fine (or la9t day of school. Oil 
Obromos. same size, 2 cts. each. Embossed 
Cards. AJAx 6, i%p. each. $1.20 worth for fi.oo. 
JOHN WILCOX MiLFORD, N. T. 

^ ' 

MIDICAL COLLEGI AHO HOSPITAL 

OV CHICAGO, lULINOIS. 

The poUey of thi« Institntlon tt to make no 
piomiM for Hospital or College taiUon. cllnlot, 
•nb-elinlce, or any meani for study and obeer- 
▼atlon. that tt not literally and rlghteoatly kept. 
Thb Thibtt Pibst ahvual OouRsaov LnoT. 
UB18 will begin In September, 1890, and oonttnne 
for tiz montbt. For full particiilart. eatalogne 
and Olinlqne. addrett B. zT BaiLET. Ma>.. 
Besistrar, 8084 UlcblKaa Ato., CMoairo. 



pREE fpi/CATION 

FOR GIRLS 










Offered without Money and without Cost by ^ 



TipIADIES'HonE 
' *\JOimNAl- 

WHAT EVERY GIRL CAN GET : 

Fzrs^. — ^A Full College Education, 

(A COMPIiBTB FOUR-YEARS' COURSE.) 



^ Second. — ^A Year at Vassar, or any 



other College; or, 



Third. — ^A Cash* Return in case she ^ 

A girl, therefore, loses nothing by trying for these ^ 

special offers of Free Education. She is bound to ^ 

make money, even if she fails to win an education. ^ 

jJ®*Write to us, and we will gladly tell you all about the ^ 

plan. Address ^ 



fails in winning a prize. 



Address 

THE LADIES' HOME JOURNAL, 



^j 433-435 Arch Street, Philadelphia. /, 



SOmBTDIiVCI TO BB III4DB 
IN TDB COjniNO JHOIf TBS. 



ALL THIS for $1.50. 




I.80 SON us tor a 8 cent stamp, bom a voon. <um% a This adYertisement appears bnt once. 



Awk Ice-CrraBB Frecser (the best in the world 
—economizes in ice, cream, and in labor, and pro- 
duces a cream ai smooth as YeWet. 

A Keyat«ae Beater (one of tSiose celebrated 
culinary articles almost indispensable io the kitchen- 
for making cake, bread, etc , beating eggs, etc , whip* 

8ingcream, fruit, vegetables, etc . and making every- 
Ding)— Reduces the labor of cooking ta a mere bag- 
atelle and produces results impossible by hand or 
any other method. 

Aad a ffOc. Caak Baak (telling how to make 
new duhes for the table--all tried and unsurpassed.). 
Saooarappa, Me., Nov. 8d. 1888. 
We are using one of yoar Keystone Beaters. No. 1. and 
my wife Is so maeh pleased with It she wants a No. •; so 
I thought I woald write joa and make some Inqoirlss 
about priee and how you send them. We bought o«r No. 
1 maonine in Boston a vtar ago. and liked it so well tbst 
a few weeks ago I was in Boston and bought Ato more to 
give my sont and daughters, who are married, and they 
are all much pleased with them. D. W. BABB. 

Amherst. Mass.. May 26 1800. 
PAIKS, DIBHL. ft Co —Dear Sin ; Enclosed find Ex- 
press Money Order for 828.40. Bend me two dosen Key- 
stone Whips and Freezers I think I eould sell at least 
six dosen of them here in this town. I sold twenty-one in 
two day$ ; that is all the time I oonld derote to toem, as 
my time was taken up with other business last week. 
If TOu see fit to send me six dosen of them I will foL 
the money in very short time for the other four- 
snip them as soon as possible and oblige. 
Very Truly. GEO A. THATERI 



f TOU see fit to send me six dosen of them I will for- 

^rd the money in v« 

- Please ship th( _ 

Very Truly. GlSO A. THATER. 

PAINE, DIEHL, A CO., Philadelphia, Pa. 



dosen. Please 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



39 



OUR Specialties.^ j^ 



New Automatic School Seats, 

Old Bangor Slate Blackboards. 
Tarr Noiseless Pointers. 
Gifford Air-Tight Ink-Wells, 

School Pen and Pencil Cases, 
Standard Dustless Crayons. 
Cheney D. P. Erasers, 

Cheney Terrestrial Globes, 
Johnston Wall Maps. 
Norris Cyclopedic Maps, 

Monroe Reading Charts, 

Sivartha Physiology Charts, 
Standard Slat Window Shades. 



W. K GHOATE & CO., Geniral School Furoishers, 



M8 Broadway 
ALBANY. N. Y. 



81 last ikOk St, 
N. Y CITY. 



5 Somenet St» 

BOSTON. 



SGHERMERHORN & GO. 



Respectfully announce to their patrons, old, new, and prospective, 
that they are still to be found at No. 3 But 14th Street, New 
7ork City, where they continue to display a foil Hue of Educa* 
tional goods. They will also strive harder than ever to make a visit 
to their store pleasant and profitable to those interested in Kinder- 
garten and other Sohool Suppliea. The coming season will 
be an eventful one in the Kindergarten field, as live educators 
everywhere heartily endorse the system, and School Boards at 
large, always anxious to avail themselves of every advantage for 
improved instruction of our little ones, have adopted the coarse, 
or portions of it, in the primary gradee of the Public Schools. 
This demand for goods, in addition to the long eetablished trade of 
Private Kindergartens and Select Schools will make the hooee on* 
usually busy, but they trust adequate pieperadone have been made 
for prompt service. However, an early placing of orders in recom- 
mended. Their firlends must not infer from the foregoing that 
they deal in the Kindergarten Material only. While they feel % 
modest pride in their long experience and success in that line, they 
also enthusiastically cater to the wants of schools of all grades. 
Their stock is so oomprehenstve that it has been found necee> 
sary to classify and enumerate it in two catalogues,^— one of *' ATm- 
dergarUn Material** and one of " ScJUel Aids** All are welcome 
to these for the mere asking, and if you cannot make a personal 
call, please send the firm your name and address, and the books 
will be mailed to you at once. Respectfolly yours. 



THE 




COPTTBIOXI'X'IilD 1889. 



Made to eonmnorati tin Inaucnration of GEORGE 

WASHINGTON, oni CENTURY ago, as thi FIRST 

PRESIDENT of tha UNITED STATES. 



CiOYers haye on them a correct likeness of 
6E0BGE and MIBTHA WASHINGTON. 



lnM» of WMTB ham a printed list of aU Presid&nU. 

when InaugurtUed, Time Served^ Birth, Deaths 

wnd other inieresting matter eoneeming them. 



RETAIL FIVK AND TKN CKNTS. 



59 Doam Stmti 



Niw Yert 



MflOlHa'ii CflMOlB 



Wriliiir Snifler. 



« « 



For written exercises in spelling. Space for 
1440 words and corrections. . 36 pages, of 
white paper, double ruled. Handsomely 
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SPELLING. 



combined with an exercise in penmanship. 
Most complete book of the kind published. 
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^ Send for catalogue. Correspondence solicited. 

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40 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[8, 



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WHAT WORDS SAT, or Word Anal- 
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The plan of the book Is simple. Each lessoa eonslsta hi the i 
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^ 



42 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Oct. 



Dixon's ^^ American Graphite" Pencils are used in more 
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Why? Well, because they have tougher, smoother leads, 
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1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



43 



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It cost $1.00 by mail. Ton will want it Yoa will also want oar New Line of 
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OF MAPS. 

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THEWn. 







44 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Oct. 



SILVER, BURDETT, & OOMP-A^lSrY, 

ZnTite Snperliiteiidaiita, Teachers, Ctobool Offloera, and aU otiiara intareatad in tha baat aohool booka in tha 
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THE NORMAL MUSIC COURSE, 

By JoHK W. Tufts avd H. B. Hour. 

THE NORMAL COURSE IN REAOINQ, 

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THE NORMAL REVIEW SYSTEM OF WRITINB, 

By D. H. FABXiXT Ain> W. B. GUKVISOK, A^M. 

THE NORMAL COURSE IN SPELLINO, 

Bt I>b. Labkin Duntok. aud 0. Goodwin Oiabk, A.M. 



MAC COUN^ HISTORICAL CHARTS OF THE U. S., 

By TOWK8XND BfAOGOUK, A. 11. 

MAC COUN'S HISTORICAL 8E0QRAPHY OF THE U. S., 

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STUOIES IN CIVIL GOVERNMENT, 

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ELEMENTS OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT, 

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Alao Choioa taxt-booka and kalpa in nearly aTary other branch of aohool and college work. 
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Cure is Cure 

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a 'proprietary medicine,' until other remedies 
prove unavailing. 

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" For years a confirmed sceptic as to the 
merits of proprietary medicines, I was at last 
converted by the use of Ayer's Cherry Pec- 
toral. For months a bottle of this medicine, 
of which I had come into possession throui^ 
the kindness of a friend, remained unopened 
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Alonic 

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Dr. J. H. Stedmav, Weat Brattleboro, Yt, tays: — " Boat 
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Deaeriptiye pamphlet free. 

Bumford {Jhemieal Works, 

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BEWARE of SUBSTrrUTES and 
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CAIJTiaN.-Ma •»« t 



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AI 1ERICA' 




-r^^^^^^s^.^m 



Vol. XIV- 



DEVOTED TO THE METHODS AND PRINCIPLES OP TEACHING. 



No 2. 



THE COTTON PLANT.* 

II^BLL may lantlM oottoa plaat, 
^y BfmWy may it growt 
' B«ttiBgiBitotMddlpod 
Cotton wbite M now. 



Spin tha cotton into UuMid, 

WonToitintliolooai; 
Wear it now, tiMm liappy child, 

In thy liappy iMMna. 

Thoa haot worn it'wcU and long; 

AieitiiiMepactf 
No; thic wcU-wom cotton thing 

ItabookatlMt 

Sort and grind and palp the lagt, 

Woavo the papor lair ; 
Now it only waito for wotdi 

To be printed thcra. 



Thoughto from God to man m 
MaythoMpagiiihow; 

Well may leie the eotton plant, 
BiaTely may it grow. 

May ten thoonnd eotton plants 
Spring np fredh and ieir, 

Thooghts of pnrity and lore 
0*er the world to bear. 



• ReprlDted by request 



^ ■•> ^ 



^ 



OCTOBER. 

BT LUOT ■• TILUBT. 

ITH wide, hort eyee Ootobor harried down 

Ere yet the son had warmed the half-waked OMsn, 

Amid the withered pastnies and the com. 

And thnmgh the meadow stabhle ssss^ hrown. 

No bird gaTe weleooM to her weary loet. 

No flower looked np and l a agh ed as she went by. 

Then did ihe tnm her backward whk a sigh, 

•« ShaU my fair bofdcfs sheltsr aai^ht that^s sweet f ' 

She whispssed, «* Ne?er flower or song or Usd f ** 

Bvt Cfen as ihe spoke, whk tsadsr ^rOl 

The pitytag astorsP hsarts bsgan to fill ; 

The flattsr «f the petals swift she heard, 

Aad as th^ leaned their pnrpb 'gainst her gray, 

Oetoher sssiled fall glad aad went her way. 



ZACHART'S FIRST TEAR IN SCHOOL.-(L). 

BT SABAH L. ABNOLD. 

TttJIS mother watehed him aoxioasly a« he tradged man- 
fil fully up the street, this September mormng. Zach- 
ary wu fire in Angatt, qaite old enongh to go to schoolf 
the wise people in liaftRachasetts said. There were no 
kindergartens in lattletowD ; the Tory name would have 
soonded strange to the poopU of the quiet village. Mrs, 
Deane had hardly allowed little Zachary to leare her 
sight, in her zealous care for him at home. She had 
walked, talked, and played with him,^ — shielded him from 
every evil, she thought,— ptovided for all hia child pleas- 
uree and shared all his child sorrows. It wb^ hard to 
think of him as anything more than a baby, eveo now. 
But Mr. Deane had declared that it was titne for him to 
be a boy, and Zaehary himseU had begged hard to be 
allowed to go to school with Rob Smith. So the mother 
had reluctantly consented, and this Hrst Monday in Sep- 
tember ehe stood watching him on his way to school. 
Somebody else was to help take care of her boy now. 
Would she understand his high spirit and sensitive nature ? 
Would she appreciate all his qnaint sayings and wiosome 
ways ? Would she know how di^ereot he was from all 
other children ? Would the oew experience be hard for 
the little lad ? Would he become rough and rude throogh 
contact with children who had never known wise care ? 
Would he learn something of evil with the good ? Mrs. 
Deane had asked herself these qQestions many times be- 
fore. Little Zaehary tiirned the corner in the street as 
she revolved them again and again in her mind} — tnrned 
and did not look back to wave a good by to his mother* 
She went back to her work with a heavy heart, thongb sha 
condemned herself lor her misgivings. 

Zaehary is talking earnestly with Bob, who exj 
to him the mysteries of school life. ** You can't ta^lt 
loud, and you can't whisper, even s and U yoit 
around, she gives you a cheek. And you have to 
your slate full of i*s every day. You will 
be in the baby class.'' 

** I'm not a baby," Zaehary replies, St 
calls yon aU babies when yon first come 1 
remembering his own experience, 
any way. This teacher is a new 
said. I wonder if she will give many 



Sbsha ' 

^aini I 

mak/ 



mei 



46 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER* 



[Oo». 



Zaehury*8 steps are slower than at first If he were 
not ashamed, he would ran home. What are checks, he 
wonders, — straps like those he has seen on horses' 
necks ? And most he tell the teacher that he was not a 
baby? 

They reached the schoolroom door. It stands wide 
open, that the little feet may enter. Groups of children 
are playing about Across the road is a field of golden- 
rod, and beyond are pines. It is pleasant there, Zachary 
thinks. And what are those children playing ? There 
are others busy within doors, and some are singing. 
That pleasant lady with them, — ^is she their sister ? 

Bob is leading him into the room. The lady is saying 
something to them both. '' Good morning, boys ! I am 
glad to see yon. I was just wishing for two little men to 
get me some goldenrod for this vase." The '^ little 
men '* responded with a will. They come back with the 
golden blossoms, as the children are passing to their 
seats. There is time for a gentle ^^ Thank you," and for 
finding seats where the new friends may be near each 
other. Proud little Zachary is glad in his consciousness 
of the service he has already rendered his teacher, and 
he sits up with dignify in his seat 

The gentle voice leads the children so quietly that they 
are not conscious of the following. There is a child's 
hymn for the young voices to repeat, line by line. And 
then comes a morning song, in which Zachary essays to 
join. He listens eagerly for every word that falls from 
Miss Soule's lips. Now she is telling something that she 
saw on the way to school. Bob had seen something, 
too, — a crow that was black and that flew near a corn- 
field. And then the boy they called George tells something, 
and Kate follows. Before he knows it, Zachary is talk- 
ing, too^ about the goldenrod he had brought ; where he 
found it ; how stiff the stem was, and how easily he broke 
it; how beautiful it was, and how bright, and why they 
must be sure to keep water in the vase. They are all 
eager to tell where it could be found. They forget to be 
shy. 

Now a quiet moment again ; then the pretty red cur- 
tain is slipped from its place behind the desk, disclosing 
work for the little ones to copy. Miss Soule shows them 
just what she wants, so it seems very easy for them to do it 
And they all play they are soldiers, who can do just as 
they are told. The slates are moved so quietly that Miss 
Soule can hardly hear them. Zachary likes that game. 

He is not afraid when Miss Soule calls all the children 
who have never attended school before to come around 
her table. He wants to go, to see what can be hidden in 
the little covered boxes she has placed there. Miss Soule 
sits by the table, and the children gather about her. Ah, 
there is a little doll in that box, a green frog in this. The 
frog is not alive, Zachary discovers. There are so many 
questions to be asked, and Miss Soule answers them so 
patiently that the time seems very short. Miss Soule 
sends the little ones to their seats, promising a recess. 



That means, Zachary tells his mother afterward, that *^ you 
walk out very quietly and get your hat, and have a good 
time out of doors for five minutes.'' 

There is singing for them all afterwards, and march- 
ing when they are soldiers again. Then Miss Soule 
speaks so kindly of the work on the slates that Zaduuy 
wishes he could try, too. Miss Soule promises a slate for 
to-morrow, and gives him some bright circles of red, yel- 
low, and blue, to place in pretty shapes. He makes a 
beautiful mat, he thinks, before time for him to march 
again. This time he is going home. His teacher is say- 
ing good by to the children at the door. She asks Zach- 
ary to be sure to come tomorrow. He will be sure, he 
promises. 

Mrs. Deane has a warm welcome for the eager little 
lad who rushes into the room to find her. ^* Did yon en- 
joy your school, dear ? Tell me what yon did," she says* 
^' Oh, I helped Miss Soule, and we talked about the flow- 
ers, and the toys in the boxes, and she wishes me to bring 
my ^kitten some day. May I ? And I promised to go to- 
morrow ! And, mamma, she didn't call me a baby, and 
I didn't see any checks I " 

<< What have you done today ?" I asked Miss Soule at 
night "Just a little, to make a beginning. I have 
been finding out what my little people know, so I 
may know what I need to teach them. And we have been 
learning how to move together, and to be quietly busy. 
I shall make my divisions into classes to-morrow. Some 
of the children are much more mature than others, and 
can work faster. And now I must plan to-morrow's 
work, so that they may be rightly busy all day." 

I saw her plan afterwards, — a neatly arranged dia- 
gram that showed the work for all the classes, at their 
desks and in their redtation. There were two notes at 
the bottom of the page ; '* Remember to teach the children 
how to come and go^ and to use their pencils." *'Mem, : 
Find extra work for little Zachary, and learn about his 
home." 



^ ••• ^ 



'' FATED TO BE FREE.' 



BT ANHIK BR0N80N KIKG. 



fHE tower in which the princess dwelt looked as if it 
were made of pink and white foam, but the material 
was very sub8tantial,and would have resisted an attack right 
bravely. The tower had no window through which the 
young lady might look out, and this seemed strange, smce 
it was her own tender, loving mother who built it ; per- 
haps the mother thought her young daughter might be 
better employed than in gazing out and wishing she could 
go where she liked. Certain it is that the princess was 
bom in the tower, shaded by a grand old oak, and that 
she could never have grown up among other surroundings. 
I once had the honor of visiting her younger sister, who 
was indeed a baby at the time ; she lay in a pink cradle, 



1890.], 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



47 



a little soft, white thing under the downiest of blankets. 
The princess had, I suspect, passed through just such a 
sleepy stage herself ; but when I first met her she wm a 
slender, handsome creature, clad all in brown, with beau- 
tiful dark eyes that seemed to see a thousand ways at 
once. There was a great deal of gauze about her dress, 
which sparkled here and there as with a diamond, and 
fitted her beautifully. It was plaited in exquisite folds 
about her dainty waist The name of the family to which 
she belonged was Cynips, and it was the law of the race 




that when its young ladies grew up they must come out of 
their towers. 

And how do you suppose this came about? Did some 
beautiful prince, mounted on a fleet steed, demand the 
freedom of his lady love, or some freebooter thunder at 
the palace-gate for her release ? No, no ; the singular race 
to which the princess belonged did not do things after 
such a satisfactory fashion ; there was but one way in 
which the young lady might come out of her prison, and 
I dread to mention it in connection with such a lovely 
young creature, lest she forfeit your interest. It was the 
unalterable law of the Qynips family that each princess 
must wt her way out ! 

Perhaps you will not think this such a hard fate if her 
tower tasted as nice as it looked ; for its resemblance to 
pink-and-white ice cream was very marked, but the tower 
walls did not taste at all like ice-cream ; instead they were 



as bitter, let us say, as gall. It was on a November morn- 
ing that I saw the princess stand at the little round win- 
dow she had made by her nibbling. I fancy, however, 
she w^ very wide awake indeed, and that her wiser sis- 
ters kept themselves housed a while longer. The next 
lime I saw her she had set up housekeeping, and one day 
was seen watching a tiny cradle of her own ; it was very 
small and pink and white, and I cannot help believing 
that when her daughter is grown up she will find herself 
immured in a tiny tower attached to an oak leaf, for such 
has been the custom of all the young ladies belonging to 
the Gall-fly family from time immemorial. 



TALl[S WITH TOUNG TEACHERS. 

I.— DISCOURAGEMENTS. 
BY W. C. JAQX7ITH. 

'^EBHAPS this seems like a strange word with which 
f» to greet young teachers as they cross the threshold 
of their profession. However it may seem, be sure that 
itb because you must pass through the valley of humilia- 
tion, probably very early in your career, that this subject 
has been chosen for our first talk. The hardest thing 
about it is that we are all too proud to say much about 
such trials till after they are over. If you can clearly un- 
derstand that discouraging things during one's first years 
of teaching have been the experience of every one of us, 
it will perhaps be the beginning of comfort For out of 
that fact grows another : the hard things do not neces- 
sarily last, do not mean defeat or failure; they mean 
nothing more or less than inexperience. Take courage 
from the thought that time and a stout heart are pretty 
sure to cure them. 

The order wretched to-day? Yes, very naturally. 
Remember that the living, breathing, human being is the 
most delicate piece of mechanism in the world, and do 
not hope to acquire instantaneous control of it Do you 
knew that your neighbor next door, whose self-poise you 
so envy, has been teaching nine years ? She has learned 
all the ins and outs of her work. She is sure of herself, 
and her scholars know it Try to-morrow to show some- 
thing of her calm cheerfulness, even if you do not feel it 
Hake it your aim never to seem disturbed, whatever 
happens. No matter if a dignitary does happen to visit 
your room at the most inopportune moment that could be 
devised ; if you can welcome him with smiling face, the 
battle is half won. Qraduaily the children will gain con- 
fidence in you, and will obey you as a matter of course* 
It is a strange thing that so many teachers begin with too 
much severity, too little love. Perhaps some of the littla 
things that annoy you so much are not real disorder. Be-> 
member the day has passed when it is a sin for a child to 
turn round or smile in school ; don't go out of your way 
to find offense. 



48 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[OOT- 



Ton are doing miserably narrow work in your sub- 
jects ? Be devoQtlj thankful that you can keep your head 
aboTe w^ter in them, at the beginning. It is no disgrace 
to say yon don't know, or to correct an error yon have 
made, or to postpone an answer to a question suddenly 
sprung upon you. If yon do not act as if it were a defeat, 
it is not one. Older and wiser people are not ashamed 
to confess ignorance. A young teacher of botany once 
referred to Dr. Gray a question which she had felt an- 
noyed at not being able to answer. He answered simply, 
*^ I don't know ; I wish I did." Now and then you will 
find a scholar who has a mania for correcting the teacher, 
and trying to puzzle her. If nothing else will work a 
cure, he must have a public lesson, but try a private talk 
first A public reproval may hurt like the lash, and 
stir up lasting strife, while a kind word in private may 
turn a rude boy into a gentleman. Make it your unvary- 
ing rule to be considerate of the pupils' f eelings. 

Did the superintendent show lack of courtesy in his re- 
marks upon your work ? Worst of all, did he criticize you 
before your pupils ? That b very hard. It is one of the 
unexplained mysteries, this open criticism of a teacher be- 
fore her school, that men, gentlemen in other respects, are 
sometimes guilty of. There have been cases where the re- 
monstrance of the teacher has checked the evil, but as long as 
the world stands there will be inconsiderate people, and their 
victims must suffer. Try early to gain that spirit which 
takes just, kind criticism with true thankfulness, and rises 
with dasticity even from that which is harsh. The sen- 
sitive plant is out of place at the teacher's desk. You 
will find plenty of things to crush you all along the way, 
if you choose to be crushed : try rather to gain inspira- 
tion, even from your failures. 

Tour surroundings are not pleasant ? That is an evil, 
surely. If you are in a thoroughly bad boarding-place,— 
one that for any reason seriously interferes with your 
happiness, — leave it at the earliest possible moment It b 
better to offend one family than to sacrifice your peace of 
mind on the altar of compliance. Your home concerns 
you more nearly than it can any one else, and you have a 
perfect right to choose the best one you can find. 

Keep well. You never can less afford to ignore the 
claims of the body than while your work is new. The 
cheerfulness which you need as one of your chief weapons, 
has a dose relation to bodily health. Be content to have 
little social life at the outset, and thussecure time for the 
preparation of lessons without infringing upon sleep or 
exercise. From the beginning, form the habit of not 
wonying over school matters. You will not serve the 
cause by fighting the day's battles a second time upon 
your pillow ; you will distinctiy injure it instead. One 
secret of the power of great men is their ability to con- 
centrate the full strength of the mind upon the task of the 
moment, and to drop a subject when they please. The 
mental power wasted in regret and worry would supply 
the world with Edisons for generations to come. 



Now, a closing word to those bright spirits who titink 
they do not need encouragement, who find the skies on- 
donded, and are full of plans for improvement The 
enemy may be lying in wait for you, though yon know it not. 
The world does not always take the reforms of novxees 
with thankfulness, and your too great confidence m»jr 
bring your downfall. You remember the man in Pil- 
grim's Progress^ called Talkative ; if memory serves ate, 
he did not reach the golden gate. Take warning by his 
example. Do quietly and skillfully what you see yoiir 
way dear to do, but be content to go slowly, and abo^e 
all, do not herald your projects too loudly. Let yoor 
deeds, whether past, present, or future, speak for them 
selves. 



^ ■•• ^ 



OBSERVE THE CHILDREN.— (L) 

BT ALBBBT B. WINSHIP. 

fOB your own sake, for the good of the child, as a 
contribution to the profession, observe carefully the 
children under your charge and make record of your 
judgments. The profession needs nothing to-day more 
than reliable information concerning pujnls; teachers 
need nothing more than they need skill in the study of 
children ; pupils need to be known more than they need 
book-facts and processes. The teacher works not through 
books, but through the child's phjrsical, mental, and moral 
nature. The lawyer has at his command a digest of 
every decision ever rendeied ; the physicians are aiming 
to secure complete returns of all peculiar cases that they 
may have as complete a list of precedents, but the teacher 
is absolutely powerless. There is nothing to which he 
can refer. He can purchase a cart-load of ^* methods " or 
of vague and visionary speculations about ideal imaginary 
minds. He can find a few books recording observations 
of children under three years of age, but almost nothing 
about the mental activity of school children. 

We propose tiirough the readers of the JoxTRirAL and 
Amkbicas Tbaohbb to start this work, hoping that it 
may spread, widely. Will you aid in this matter ? True, 
it will take some time and some effort, but will you not 
do it, not for our sake, nor wholly for your own, but for 
the sake of the profession that should be dear to our 
hearto? 

Tkst Pbboeftiov. — Place ten times as many peas as 
you have pufob, on damp cotton or moss in a dark, or 
partially dark, warm place, and do the same with beans. 
The second day give one of each to each pupil, and let 
him examine it as fully as he pleases, taking it apart if 
he wishes. He is to have no assistance, but is to nuke 
notes of all that he discovers in each, — these notes to be 
collected and the remnants thrown away. The third day 
each is to be given another pea and bean, and is to ex- 
amine and make notes as before. This will eontinue for 
ten days. In that time you can readily discover hew 



iB9a] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



49 



folly, earefally, diseriminatingly, the pupils have perceived 
the germinating, developing seed. 

Yon will know more of the mental weakness and 
strength of the children at the end of the ten days than 
yon wonld know in ten weeks of routine work. Will yon 
try it, and send as the average age o! the pupils, the 
entire nomher, the percentage of very keen, fairly keen, 
slow, and very slow of perception ; also samples of the 
best and of the poorest work ? . 

Other tests will be given from time to time. 



BOOK-A- MONTH COURSE. 

[E recommend fc^r October reading Boussbau's 
Emilb, Eleanor Worthington's translation, pab- 
lished by D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, (price 60 cents), 
for several reasons. It is delightful reading, is in the 
highest sense inspiring, stimulates thought, and makes 
one proud to be a teacher. It contains but 157 pages or 
three a day. The expense is so light, the time required 
for readmg so little that it would seem as though every 
teacher could do this much. It is highly profitable. ** It 
reflects the features of edtuxUional humanity" <<At 
each step we are met with sound reason.*' 

Questions and Suqgbstions. — 1. Write a brief para- 
graph on the first paragraph on page 6, after reading the 
mitire book. 

2. What three ** educations " are there ? (pp. 11-15.) 

3. What are Rousseau's << Maxims " ? (30-35.) 

4. Select the ten most important sentences on pages 
40 and 41. 

5. Write a paragraph upon lines 14 and 15, page 45. 

6. Do you accept the philosophy of the third sentence 
from the close of page 52 — ** I would," etc ? 

7. Which*is the strongest sentence on pages 54-6 ? 

8. Put in a single sentence of not more than twelve 
words the great thought, pages 57-62. 

9. Write from 200 to 500 words upon Falsehood. 

10. What is the relation of judgment to memory ? 

11. What do you leam regarding the study of words ? 

12. Does the paragraph <<A tutor usuaUy," etc, page 
119, apply to teachers whom you know ? to yourself ? 



The Journal of Education of October 3 wiU con- 
tain a earefuUy prepared list of fifty books, with notes 
and comments by Mr. Winship. These are not in the 
strict sense teachers* books, but are upon a variety of topics 
with which teachers should be familiar. They are pre- 
pared by Mr. Winship in response to many requests for 
something of the kind. The number will be sent to any 
one sending us a two-cent stamp to cover the trouble and 
eapense of mailing. Address New England Publishing 
Ce., 3 Somerset St, Boston. 




FIRST STEPS IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.* 

BT HAKBIBT A. LUDDINGTON, 

Princiiial of Training School. Pawtaekot, B. I. : Author of ** Pteture 
Problems." 

IL--- What the Teacher has to do in Developing 
Thought and Expression. 

T¥^ VERY child who has not been subjeeted to un whole- 
aH Bome restraint, is dominated by an intense desire to 
communicate his thoughts to others. This desire forces 
him to find some means o! expression. Naturally, he 
adopts the means used by those about him, namely, speech 
or oral Ungnage. By a process of which he is entirely 
unconscious, he learns just the expressions he needs to en- 
able him to give his thoughts to others. Ayouog child's 
language is, then, simply the outgrowth of fais own neces- 
sities in the way of thought-expression. His limitations 
in speech are those arising from his narrow experience, 
and consequently limited range of thought Qive him a 
wider experience, thereby broadening his range of thought, 
and he immediately feels the need of language to express 
his new ideas. Since he learned to talk by imitating the 
speech of others, a child's mistakes in language are due 
to his surroundings. Place him where he he«rs correct 
language only, and insensibly his mistakes disappear. 
Two important lines of work, therefore, present them- 
selFes to the teacher. The first and most vital is that of 
creating a necessity for thought-expression, — ^presenting 
such conditions of thought that the child's mind will de- 
mand the necessary language. This language will, of 
course, be supplied by the teacher whenever the child 
shows that he feels the need of new expressions. A sec- 
ond, and hardly less difficult task, is that of providing such 
influences, and supplying such motives for effort, that the 
errors of speech so unconsciously acquired, will gradually 
be corrected. 

The point should be again emphasized that these lines 
of work are no^ to 6a taJeen up in a special language les- 
sons^ but are the sum and substance of the work of the pri- 
mary teacher in every lesson which she gives ; first, train- 
irg to think, and to think in such a way that adequate 
expression must result; second, making the correetioiia 
rendered necessary by the existence of previously f( 
habits of incorrect speech. 

Before the teacher can begin upon the work 
she must know something of the children with whooi 
has to deaL She must discover what power of 
they aLready have, how they think, and what their 
•Copyright, 1889. 




50 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Ocrr- 



of expression are. The only possible way to do this is by 
eonyersation. 

In << Qainey Methods," Miss Patridge, referring to this 
earliest work o! the teacher, says : '< That she may know 
the valae of ideas, previously gained, she is eontinaally 
giving them test lessons, ranging from three to ten min- 
utes in length, apon any and every important subject with 
which they -are already acquainted. That she may fur- 
nish material for thought, — ^that is, lead them to see facts 
in new relations, — and also in order to train the senses 
(that they may discover facts for themselves), she has 
a great number of lessons upon objects of all sorts ; also 
upon limitations, such as color, form, number, dimension, 
direction, etc" 

Very often little science lessons, like those referred to 
in the preceding article, or conversations upon observa- 
tions of natural phenomena, — such as the aspect of the 
clouds, the appearance of the sun or moon, the state of 
the weather, — ^form the best possible exercise with which 
to begin this testing of the mental state of the children. 

It is hardly necessary to say that the littie beginners 
should be entirely unconscious of the fact that any test- 
ing is in progress, or indeed that they are the subjects of 
particular attention in any way. The conversation should 
be simple, natural, enjoyable experiences, as delightful as 
the every-day life outside of the schoolroom. 



^ •m* ^ 



LESSONS IN ZOOLOGY. 

BY OLABABBL OILMAN, JAMAICA PLAINy MASS. 

The Spongre.— (II.) 

For thii l««oo every kind of spooge that the teeoher omi Moare 
will be QMfiiL 

Btview of XMfon I, : The spoDKe is a man of elaetio fibres. The 
edgea of the fibres atand oat on every eide bat one, which is smooth 
and dark. The sponge is fall of tubes that open on the oatside. 
There are f oar sets of tabes : laqce tabes, small tabes that lead 
from the sarfaoe to the large ones, oross tabes that eonneet theee 
small tabes with one another^ and miorosoopio tabes too small to be 
traeed oat Oar sponges oome from the Caribbean Sea or the 
Florida eoast, and were taken from the rocks with a cnrred fork or 
a dredge. Mediterranean sponges are bronght ap by direre. When 
alire they were coTored with a dark-colored flesh, bat the flesh has 
been remoTed, and only the flbres are left 

Outline of New Work: 

What was the use of the fibres ? Not only to support 
the flesh, but also to protect the animal. They are made 
of a horny substance, and so tough that fishes very seldom 
try to eat a sponge. The hard parts of a body, support- 
ing and protecting softer ones, are the skeleton. We have 
only the skeleton of our sponges. Which side was fixed 
to the rock ? We are sure it was the smooth, dark side, 
because it appears to have been cut, and also because some 
of the sponges have bits of rock caught in the fibres on 
this side. 



Where does the sponge get its food ? From the water 
it takes in through the tubes. It takes in water through 
the small tubes that we see, and the tiny ones thst we 




Fig. 2. 
cannot trace carry it all over the sponge. When the 
sponge has taken from the water the very smallest plants 
and a nim al s , which are its food, and has given carbonic 
acid in exchange for oxygen, then the water passes oat 
through the large tubes. But as only the most minute 
plants and animals can pass through the microscopic tubes 
without danger of choking them up, a thin, porous ekin 
like a delicate sieve covers the whole sponge except the 
two or three large openings. But why does no water 
enter at these ? Because there is always a current flowing 
out from them. 

In little sacs (Fig. 4*) all ofer the sponge are ceUs(a)bea>fa««Mli 
a mieroocopic whip (c), always lashbg the water and prodneing the 
enrrents that carry the fool water oat through the larire tabes as fresb 
streams come in throogh the small ones. In these oeUs, too, the food 
is digested. Though the outward current keeps the Urge tnbee 
open, yet if aliTing sponge is disturbed, it will contract so fonibly 
as to dose eren these openii^(s. 




FlQ. 8. 



FlO. 4. 



FlQ. S. 



Baby sponges can swim about in the water, but they 
soon form a sucker at one end, by which they fix them- 
selves (Fig. 5) to rocks, shells, or even the sea fans and 
other branching corals, and after that they never leave 
their home unless something tears them off. 

Many sponges grow on our New England coast, but 

from Si n&f" I *lief ^**^^ in*«nWed, while Fig. 6 is maeh ledneed 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



51 



are too brittle to be of any nse. A little white sponge 
that grows among shells in the mad jost below low-water 
mark, consists of small branching tabes abont an inch long. 
It has no fibres in its skeleton, bat everywhere in its flesh 
are little three armed bits of lime called spicoles (Fig. 6). 

The common finger-sponge (Fig. 7) grows in large masses 
on rocks and piles. The dark red and soft yellow masses 
foand in salt water, and the white flattened cakes often 
cast up on the shore and dried hard in the son, are all 
sponges, the last named called by the sailors '' seamen's 
biscoit." 

In a qaantity of oyster shells there will osnaUy be one 
or two, at least, that have been attacked by the boring 
sponge, which tanneb them throagh and through, and 
finaUy destroys them by dissolving out aU their lime. 



k SHORT LESSON ON EUROPE. 

BT MBHTFABAL. 

^^qTHES we are ready to take ap the geography of 
Y4 Borope, I earefolly locate it apon the globe, show- 
ing its relative position to the other grand divisions, and 
also its climate. I draw an oatline apon the board, show- 
ing its nataral features, — peninsalas, capes, seas, bays, 
islands, rivers, lakes, moantains, etc I try to have them 
realize that this is a pictare of something very maoh 
larger than here represented, and to have them under- 
stand that by nataral physical features, we mean the 
country as made by God, its mountains, rivers, plains, etc. 

I take a smooth board, upon which I have outlined 
Europe, marking all water with blue chalk, showing 
mountains by baring dropped fine sand upon mucilage, 
building the Alps higher than any other range, and Mount 
Blanc higher than any other part of the Alps. In this 
way I easily and plainly show the Alpine System and the 
four rivers rising directly in the Alps mountains. We 
carefully locate this highest peak, finding it in the highest 
range, but say very little about names. In noticing the 
rivers, flowing from different sides of these mountains, 
we speak of the melting snow, and say a few words about 
the glaciers of the Alps. 

We now speak of the tundras in Northern Russia, 
with their scanty vegetation of moss and lichens, and of 
the heavy forest to the south of them, which supplies 
Western Europe with much of its timber. It is very 
easy from this map to show the five great peninsulas and 
the islands near the coast, the comparative height of 
mountains, the source and direction of rivers, and the 
chief water shed. It is easy for them to see that western 
Europe is much more elevated than eastern, that the 
coast is irregular, and must, therefore, afford many good 
harbors. I ask them a little about harbors, about the 
natural resources and uses of rivers and mountains,-^ 
just enough to set them to thinking. When I feel that 



they realize that this map is a picture only of a great 
country, I mark the boundaries, showing its political 
divisions, their relative size and position to each othcTi 
speaking of difference in government, degrees of civiliza- 
tion, denrity of population, occupations of the people, 
exports, imports, commerce, etc I make plain to them 
that the boundary lines shown upon the map are only 
boundaries between the possessions of different countries, 
just as a line fence separates one man's farm from 
another; that these lines change ponition just as the 
land owned by a nation increases or diminishes in quan- 
tity. We cannot be too careful to have them understand 
these thiogs, so they can work intelligently. I thought 
once, " Of course they know all about such things. It is 
of no use to waste time upon such trifles." However, 
upon the suggestion of a friend, I said to my school, very 
seriously, ** If a man stood just below or south of the 
northern boundary of Connecticut, where would his head 
be ? " To my intense mortification several of my bright> 
est boys and girls readily replied, *< In Massachusetts." 
Pve stopped taking things for granted. 1 want to know 
that they are working as intelligent Ix^s and girls, and 
not as machines. And here, let me add, it is a mystery 
to me how any one can teach geography and not in spite 
of himself teach history with it It is surprising what 
our children can understand and can do for themselves, 
if we open their eyes to see, if we open our own eyes to 
the beauty there is in true teaching. 



THE USE OF OBJECTS IN THE STUDY OF 
DRAWING. 

BT WA£TEB 8. PEBBY, PRATT IKSTITUTB, BBOOKLTK. 

[The following article, published in the Journal of 
Eduoatiok, is printed by request in the Amsrioak 
Tbaobxr. It is one of the dearest, cleanest presenta- 
tions of the << why and wherefore " of object drawing 
that has ever been given in so brief space.] 

^^ *^^£S, but the children are to draw simply a circle, 
I and as all know the shape of a ball, why use the 
sphere for an exercise on circles and half-circles ?" A 
ball is round ; but if we ask children to make a drawing 
of it, — to draw its front riew, top riew, etc, — will they 
realize fully its outline ? They see its roundness toward 
them, and when asked what they are to draw, they point 
to the spot directly in front of them and feel that they 
must draw something for that, or draw a series of concen- 
tric circles from this spot to the greatest outline. On the 
other hand they must handle the object and be led to 
trace the outline, or part farthest out, with the finger, 
when looking from the front, from the side, from the top, 
and from below ; and it is not the simplest matter to teach 
them to see correctly and to understand so common an 
object as a sphere ; but when understood, the drawing 



62 



THE AMERICAN TEACHEIL 



[Oct. 







JflO. 



FlQ.% 



\ somethiDg to the children. And eertain it is that 
they can the more readily be led to uDderstand it by 
mooldiog one in elay, — and it will be foand that even this 
is no play-worky — trying to keep all the imaginary diame- 
ters of the same length. 

A semi-eirde, too, is often drawn as a half-circle simply, 
and means nothing more to the pnpils, bnt let ns hold a 
hemisphere before the dass. From one point of view it 
is a circle, from another it is a semi-circle (Fig. 1), and it 
may be tamed so that the yiews will be the same as in 
Fig. 2, or arranged in several other positions, the views 

chaDgtog each time, so 
that the drawing of the 
drcle or half-circle be- 
comes a real thing to 
the pnpils. And in de- 
ciding what to draw 
for the di£Eierent geo- 
metric views in the 
varioos positions, the pnpils are leambg far more than 
can possibly be learned in making their first drawing from 
a copy. In the latter case there is edocation only of the 
eye Mid hand ; in the former there is the edocation of 
the brain throngh the ye, and the knowledge is made 
known throagh the hand. 

A circle, which of many forms has been taken as an 
illustrative form in this paper, and which may be almost 
meaningless in itself to the child, may, in connection with 
other views of objects besides the sphere, represent very 
moch. Lst the pnpils stody a cylinder, its varioos snr- 
taees, ontlines, edges, etc, from different points of view, 
but always at first a geometric view. A circle at one end 
ol an oUong,slightly separated 
from it, represents the facts of 
ootline of a cylinder, and in 
connection with a triangle, 
the facts of a cone. These 
drawings, and others given 
below as illostrations, prop- 
erly figored and representiDg 
the facts of the objects, are 
sometimes called working 
drawbgs, becanse they can 
be easily nnderstood and worked from in the constmction 
of the object itself. 

Of late moch has been made of working drawings, and 
this has led to some criticism in regard to their study. 
A mistake may have been made in laying so mneh stress 
apon the words ^ working drawings; '' bat when we con- 
nder jost what facnlties have been awakened and de- 
veloped in the child by this objective and snbjective teaeh- 
bg, we shall find that far more has been gamed than the 
mere knowledge of how to make and to read workbg- 
drawbgs. By this stady of concrete form there has been 
developed b tiie pnpil that which is of the highest edaca- 
tional valoe,— the power to think. Neither can the mem- 




ory nor the imagination well act till the mind is 

offsets. 

Constant appeal mast be made to in- 
dividoal reason, thought, and stody. The 
facts and appearances of solids should 
not be accepted by the papil on anthority 
of the teacher alone; bat all papik 
should be at liberty, and should be re- 
quired, to test them and to think out their 
own conclusions. They shodd not bo 
asked to admit a thing unless they see it 

to be true. 

Correcting a drawing does not correct the error b tiie 

child's mbd, and this fact should not be lost sight of. 

He must be sent back to the object To correct the draw- 

bg is to begin at the wrong end. The child must be edu 

eated to see with his own eyes, 

and not through those of some- 
body else. In the child's mind 

must exist the image. If the 

image is wrong, the drawing 

will be wrong. True, at timeM 

the image may be right and 

the eye wrong, btU we tee to 

the extent of that which is 

within us. First get tlu» 

ftict bto the mind throngh the eye, and then get it oat 

through the hand. Hence the great .necessity of the stody 

of objects b connection with drawbg, — first their &cti, 

and tiien their appearance, and lastly the principles of 

their ornamentation. 




THE CHILDREN AND THE POETS. 

[Arranged by Kate L. Brown.] 
MARJOBIB*S ALMANAC* 

THOMAS BAILBT ALDBICB. 

Robins in tho tne-topt, 

BloiMMMiBthognMi, 
GrooB things a growing 

Kforywbors we pMi ; 
SnddcB liide breczM, 

Showon of rilvor dow, 
Bent twig end blnek boogh 

Bndding ont nnow ; 
Pine tree nnd willow tree, 

Fringed elm nod Inroh ; 
Don't joo think that MnTtime'e 

Plenouiter than Mnrdb f 

Apples, in the ovohardi 

liellowing one by one ; 
Strawberries nptnming 

Bedefaeekatotheenn; 
Boaea, faint with aweetneai, 

Liliea fair of f aoe ; 
Pleaaant aonnda and odora 

Haunting OTery plaoe ; 
Lengtlia of golden annaliiBe» 



•Amungemeatt hmy b«en mtde with Mmun, Hoashton« 
for th« OM of tbta poem and porindL 



mSbn* Oe. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



63 



Moonlight bright ai day. 
Don't 700 think thnt Sammer*t 
FleMMitm thmn Mny f 

Bof(«r, 10 the oorn pntoh. 

Whistling nef^ longf ; 
Pony Iqr the flndde 

Romping with tho tongi ; 
Gh«ttnnti in the nthee 

Banting throngh the rind, 
Bed lenf and gold leaf 

Bustling down the wind ; 
Ifother doing penohee 

All the afternoon ; 
Don't yon think th t Antamn'e 

Pleaianter than Jane ? 

Little fairy anow-flftkee 

Danoing in the flae ; 
Old Father Santa Claa% 

What ia keeping yon? 
Moonlight and Brelight, 

Shadows eome and go ; 
Merry sooad of sleigh-bells 

Stealing o'er the snow; 
Mother's knitting stookings, 

(Pasiy's got the ball;) 
Don't yon think that Winter's 

Pleasaater than all f 




oJl . 01^ ct 



For the Children: 

Mr. Aldrich was bom in Portsinoath, N. H., and will 
celebrate his fifty-third birthday the 11th of this coming 
November. He is one of the first of America's poets, and 
perhaps her best living song writer. He has also written 
several novels and collections of short stories, and nntil 
qnite recently was the editor of the AtlarUio Monthly, 

Children will remember Mr. Aldrich best by his ever 
delightfol '' Story of a Bad Boy/' and to the end of the 



chapter they will insist that '' Tom Bailey " and the au- 
thor were one. ^^ The Little Musician,*' *^ My Neighbors," 
and <^A Toung Desperado," are short prose sketches that 
all children will enjoy. 

Mr. Aldrich lives in Boston, winters, bat his summer 
home is at Ponkapog, a rural neighborhood of Canton, 
Mass. It is an old-fashioned brown house with a large 
yard in front, comfortable and homelike, but not showy. 

Mr. Aldrich is short, rather stout, with pleasant bine 
eyes and brown hair, now turning gray. He is very 
courteous and agreeable to every one. 

For the Teacher : 

This Htde poem was published in Our Toung FoUce 
originally, but has never, we believe, been included in 
any of Mr. Aldrich's collections of his works. It is a 
perfect little idyl of the seasons, and child-life amid the 
various changes of the year has never been better sung. 
It is a song in itself, and has been most happily set to bar* 
mony by Mme. Sainton Dolby. 

Read the poem first to the children with all the 
skill of which you are master. Call their attention to 
the various signs, as ^' the robins," ^* blossoms in the grass," 
and let each be the subject of some little conversation. 
Lead them to see the sunshine pervading the whole poem, 
and how joy may be gained from very small things. 
Make them feel the movement of the poem, — ^its short 
staccato passages so descriptive of the sudden, thousand 
and one little '< buddings and burstings and flutterings " 
of the new life of spring. 

Let them learn it by repeating it with you, and let them 
siog it to Mme. Dolby's music. Let them copy it for a 
writing lesson. This poem is a good one for illustration. 
The copies may be mounted on rough cartridge paper of 
pale blue, green, or primrose, and illustrated by the draw- 
ings, paintings, outline sewings of the different objects 
mentioned, made by the children. Let the cover be de- 
signed by the two or three cleverest artists among them. 



HOW TO SKETCH NORTH AMERICA IN ONE 
MINUTE. 

BY D. B. AUaSBURQ, NKW TOBK. 

^RAW the right angle ABC, making AB equal to B 
1^ C. From A draw a vertical line curving around te 
C. D is one half of AC. From £, one third of AB, draw 
a line to K, slanting slightiy to the right K is in a 
straight line with BD. F is one half of AB. H is one 
third of BC. 6 is one half of HC. The curved line H 
L6 is like the capital •letter G. From I, one fourth of 
A D, draw IJ about one third longer than lA. CM is one 
Oiird of OC. 6M, MN, and NO, are equal 

This will give a well-proportioned map of North 
America, and should be drawn in less than one minute. 

Map II. is a little more complete. Cape Hatteras is 



54 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



LOOT. 



about one half of AB. Cape Cod. and Nova Scotia are 
ea^h one third of BC. The Ghilf of California is a little 
higher than the Golf of Menco. Cape San Lneas is a 
Utde lower than Cape Sable.* 




Map IIL is as oomplete as a sketch need be. This map 
is the same as maps I. and IL, only carried fortfier, show« 
ing the principal lakes and rivers, as well as the elevated 




CSAWii 



portions of the land. On the blackboard the elevated 
portions may be represented with the flftt of the crayon, 
making the highest elevations whitest. 

In modeling North America in day, patty, or sand, 
exactly the same plan may be followed. 

No more pleasant and instmctive lessons can be given 
to a class after they are able to sketch North America 
easily, than to give them examples like the following : 

•Paget Sound Is m fartnorth as Noya Seotia. 



(1) Sketch North America^ and place the principal 
rivers and lakes. 

(2) Place the principal moontain ranges and 

(3) Place the principal gal&, bays, and sounds. 

(4) Place the principal capes and peninsulars. 

(5) Place the principal cities. 

(6) Place the political divisions. 




(7) Place the agricoltnral prodacts. 

(8) Place the great mining indostries. 



BIRD ENEMIES. 

IFor Supplementary Work.] 
BY K. L. B. 

I.— The Jay. 

[Adapted from John Barrongh*8 ** Birds and Bees."] 
O yon know what " an enemy" in? It is some one who 
wants to hnrt yoo. Bat who woold hart the dear 
little birds, I hear yoa say. 

We think of the birds as bXwjb happy, bat this is not 
so. They have as mnch to try them as we do, and their 
lives are often fall of care and pain. And the birds 
always know their enemies. See how they will scold and 
chase the cat, bat let the dog alone ! 

The jay is a great foe of the other birds. He comes 
sneaking aroand among the trees in May and Jane, to 
steal eggs. Bat the birds soon ftnd him oat. Then how 
they scold and chase him away ! 

" Thief ! thief ! " they cry at Up of their voices. And 
the jay calls back to them. 

Perhaps he says, " I*m as good as you, any day. Thief 
yourself! " 

I snppoee the birds feel when they see the jay coming, 
as we wonld if robbers were aboat Bat little the jay 
cares for the scorn of the other birds. He is a jolly, care- 
free fellow, and does not mind his bad repatation. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



56 




DISTRIBUTION OF SEEDS.— (HO 

BT FANNT D. BBBGSN. 

ANOTHER large group of seeds and f raits will include 
all such as are armed with prickles,' needles, or 
hooks, hy means of which they become entangled in the 
fleeoe or hair of animals, and thos travel far or near, as it 
may happen. Tonng children will eagerly listen to stories 
abont silent bat persevering little travelers, who, in this 
way, often steal a passage even across the sea ; and when 
they see that the bars or ^' stick-tights " of any kind that 
so stabbomly hold on to their stockings or other clothing, 
in almost every aataom ramble in woods or pastures, will 
be scattered where their chance of life is far greater than 
if they had aU dropped upon one crowded spot of earth, 
abeat the plant that bore them, they will have gained 
something worth thinking about as they dislodge the cling- 
ing seeds or fruits. Older pupils may be led to make 
individual studies of the provisions for attaching them- 
selves which the different burs possess, from the micro- 
scopic hooks on the hairs of the tick-trefoil (Desmodium) 
to the barbed prickles of the beggar-ticks {Cynoglossum)^ 
the tiny lance-heads of the bur-marigold (Bidmu), the 
clinging hooks of the burdock, and the s^uter ones of 
the cockle-bur, to the savage spines of the sand-bur, or 
bur-grass (Cenehrtu)^ ending the series with the groat 
homy hooks of the MartyniOy which serve to scatter its 
seed-vessels far and wide, as they fasten to the tuls of 
the half-wild cattle of the South American pampas. 




FlO. L 

Fio. 1.— 1. Frolt of tick trefoU. Dewmodium. 2. Flowers and fruits 
of enobanter's niiehtstiade, Circaea, 8. Frait of Jfortyiiia. 

Another lees frequently occuring but very ingenious 
device for sending ripened seeds at least a small distance 
from the parent plant, is that of the mechanisms for shoot- 
ing forth the seeds by the violent bursting of the pod or 



the splitting away of the pistils from a central eolumn. 
The wild balsam (Impaitims) illastrates the former plan, 
and the cranes-bill and the herb-robert illostrate the latti r. 





Fig. 2. 

Fio. 2.— Oerofiii/m- pistil, muftnifled. 2. OwaMum frait, magBlfled. 
8. impoMdiw, ripe pistiL 4. /mpottena, fruit, after opening. 

Whether the attention of the class may profitably be 
directed to the consideration of that very large elass of 
cases in which seeds are distributed by being swaUowed 
by birds or quadrupeds, and afterward voided, undigested, 
must depend on the age and temper of the class and the 
tact of the instructor. There is certainly no more im- 
portant mode of distribution than this, and indeed it is to 
adaptation for this means of transportation that we owe, 
for example, every one of our edible fruits, from the 
strawberry to the peach. 

It may not be easy to give to pupils in general any ade- 
quate idea of the extent to which seeds are carried by 
water. Those, however, who live near large rivers, lakes, 
or ponds, must have noticed the windrows of drift-material 
heaped at times along the shores, and a littie examination 
of the contents of these will usually disclose the presence 
of seeds, or of germinating plantiets. Even the most un- 
imaginative child can foUow a cocoanut, enclosed in its 
thick, buoyant husk, over hundreds or thousands of miles 
of ocean-voyaging, until it lands at last, perhaps, on some 
hitherto treeless coral island, there to grow into a graceful 
cocoa-palm. If the teacher is not already somewhat 
familiar with the writings of Darwin, of Wallace, and of 
Grant Allen, she will find much in them that would aid in 
the kind of lessons here suggested.* 

• See Wallace's lOani Lif9 and his Darwinitmt Darwin's Origin or 
8peoie$t and Allen's EvoiutUmist at Largt, 



NOVEMBER SENTENCES. 

[For Blackboard Work.] 
BT OBOBGIA ▲. H0D6KIN8, 8PBINGFISLD, MASS. 

The days are growing shorter. 

We ate our supper by lamplight 

Fanny saw a flock of littie birds in the pear tree. 

They were singing chiok-a-dee-dee. 

The water in the brook is deeper than in the summer. 

See how fast it runs over the stones. 

Dora saw a flock of crows. ' 

She brought me a bunch of inmiortelles. 

They will be pretty all winter. 



56 



THE AMERICAN TEACHEIL 



[Ooi. 



Loa f oand fi^e yiolets in a sanny spot by the brook. 

I wonder if they thought it wm spring. 

We gathered some bleached ferns to press. 

The hazel trees are still in blossom. 

All the other flowers are gone. 

The scarlet oaks are beaatifal now. 

See how bright they look in the sunshine. 

People call these warm, bright dajrs Indian summer. 

There was a hard frost last night. 

This morning everything looks brown and bare. 

We have many cold, rainy days now. 

The leaves are falling from the trees. 

Elms and maples are quite bare. 

The oak leaves will hang longest on the trees. 

The farmers are getting in their turnips and pumpkins. 

John's papa is threshing rye. 

The ground is frozen. 

Mr. Bobin can End no more worms to eat 

He most fly to the swamp and look for cedar berries. 

The snow* birds are here again. 

There was ice on the edge of the pond this morning. 

Grandpa saw a woodpecker in his orchard. 

It was in the trunk of au apple-tree. 

It made little round holes in the bark. 

Grandpa lik6S the woodpeckers because they eat worms. 

John has been hel(Ming his father cut wood. 

Hear the blue-jays screaming. 

They are sorry the nuti are gone. 

I saw a partridge eating the bads on an apple-tree. 

This morning the air was full of snowflakee. 

Some were very pretty, bat we could not find two alike. 

Dick says his turkey is so fat he can hardly say ^'gobble." 

He is getting ready for Thanksgiving. 

Mamma and grandma are getting ready, too. 

They are making pies and cakes. 



SCHOOL SONGS. 



BT M. B. C. 



nRBACHEBS are always glad of fresh songs for the 
p schoolroom, and the following deserve appreciative 
recognition : 

MORNING HYMN. 



Adapted. 




^^^^m 



m 



God made the sky that looks so blue.He made the grtai so green, 
He made the flowers that smell so sweet,In preitj colors seen; 




k^^^^^m 



He made the sun that shines so bright, And gladdens all I see. 




^|^^5E^iSS 



It comes to give us heat and light ; How thankful we should be I 



" God mads the pretty bird to fly; 

How sweKly has the rang ! 
And though ehe flies io very high, 

She won't forgot her yonng. 
God made the oow to giTO as milky 

The hone f or na to oao ; 
Wo*U troat them kindly for Eh aike* 

Nor dare hia gifts abnaa. 

** God made the water for ovr drink, 

He made tho fiah to awim, 
He made the treea to bear niee fniit, 

Oh ! how we should love him I 
What ean we do for thia kind Friend, 

Who givea na all thaoa joya f 
We*ll try all naughty waya to mand. 

Be batter gvla and boya." 

Tbe above bymn, anlike so many taagbt to ehildreiii 
appeals in the simplest phrasing to the child's knowledge 
of certain phases of life, and stirs the heart throagh this 
knowledge to the love of Him who goards even the famil- 
iar and commonplace of every-day life. So many child- 
hymns deal so entirely with what is indefinite and intan- 
gible to the child that he gains no perception of Ood*s care 
for all and everything ; and of what use is the child-hymn 
unless it arouse a sense of reverAnee : 

TINY LITTLE SNOWFLAKES. 



^^ 



--^ 



— -*- 



Tin>y lit- tie gnowfUkes, In the air so high. 



i 



& 



p^^ 



i 



■^- 



Are you lit - tie an - gels, Floating in the sky? 



1^ 



= m=^=i=¥^ 



Robed so white and spot - less, Fly - ing like a dore. 



fe; 



^^^ 



^1^ 



S 



Tin - y lit . tie snow flakes. In the air a - bove. 

" Whirling on the sidewalk, Loading all tbe honae-topa 

Danoing in the atreet, Fowd'riog all the treea, 

Melting in the faeea Canning little ano»fl*kea, 

Of ev'ry one 700 meet. Floating on the breana.*' 

The above snow-song seeming to appeal to the poetie 
side of the child*8 nature, brings in the singing a sense of 
'- nature's mystery " in accomplishing with indescribable 
silence the wonderfol snow magic of winter, and invari- 
ably the little eyes will wander windowward ; and if per- 
chance a storm be whitening the fields, the mosic is very 
apt to sink into a soft-hash melody, creating a delightfal 
feeling of rest and peace among the little people. 



We have had, I think, and still have, too much writtaa 
work aoder the head of recitation and examination. A 
written exercise is in no true sense a recitation ; all ^ 
grand elements and results of a well conducted reeitatiea 
are wanting. — George Howland. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



67 



SIMPLE SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS. 

D earioas experiment, illastratisg a law of hydrostatic 
IQ, pressure, can be performed by catting an edge upon 
the ends of two corks, placing them in the necks of bottles, 
and balancing two koives npon them in snch a way that 
they will jnst support a glass of water. After a few trials 
this can easily be accomplished. Then attach a coin, or 
or any smaU heavy object, to a string, and holding it in 
the hand, carefolly Idwer it into the Hqnid. Although 
there is apparently no weight added to the glass of water, 
yet it will immediately sink down, the supporting knives 
turning upon the corks like the beam of a scale. Lift the 
coin from the water, and the glass will rise again, re- 
turning to its former position, and by the proper manipu- 
lation of the coin, the glass can be made to dance up and 
down at wilL 

The explana^on of this simple experiment is not as 
easy as it might seem. It is really an illastration of the 
upward pressure of liquids. When the coin is dipped 
into the water it displaces an amount equal to its own 
bulk, and is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of 
that bulk of water. This upward pressure reacting against 
the bottom of the glass, forces it downward, the same as 



I Take a bottle and place a cork over the mouth. The 
cork must be sufficiently large to rest lightly upon it, with- 
out falling into the neck. Snap the neck of the bottle 
sharply with the thumb and finger, and the cork will fall 
from the bottle towards the hand giving the blow, and 





^^Ivi 


1 


1 


SB^^^^5S- 






H|r ^m 


tff'w^l 


HS 




^T^fHj 


Wl^* -^j^S 


^^1 


1!^-^ 




- ,jf^^^ 


^ZJi^''-—-^- ■ 


f 


Bl:-^^^jd' 


p 












. t 


yi»2^^^^ ~- 


Wr 






-■ 


"^"=^*^"~ 



if an additional amount of water, equal in bulk to the 
coin, had been poured into the glass, thus increasing its 
weight We can readily understand that if a piece of 
wood, or any substance that floats on water, were placed 
in the glass, the weight of the whole would be increased, 
and a precisely similar effect is produced when an object 
that would otherwise sink in the water, is suspended in it 
although it does not touch the glass containing it. 

Any sufficiently delicate balance, or pair of scales may 
be substituted for the arrangement of l^iives und bottles, 
figured above, if desired. 




not away from it as might be expected. This effect is due 
to the principle of inertia^ the quick blow, forcing, as it 
were, the bottle away from the cork, before the motion 
can be transmitted to the cork itself. 

Few persons will be able to perform this experiment 
satisfactorily the first time, as the instinctive fear of break- 
ing the bottle or injuring the fingers, prevents one from 
giving a sufficiently powerful blow, in spite of all efforts to 
the contrary. — Popular Science News. 



COLOR TEACHING IN SCHOOL. 

BY A. S. WIKSHIP. 

^t^E have had the privilege within a few days of study- 
yy iog tb® P®^ color-teaching plan of Milton Bradley of 
Springfield. Instead of standing by the old-time theory 
of three primary colors, he takes as his primaries the six 
colors of the spectrum. He analyzes a ray of light, and, 
singling out each color,- experiments with paints until he 
secures the nearest available spectrum, red, orange, yellow, 
green, blue, and violet He has secured papers with per- 
manent colors, very like unto the spectrum ideal With 
these he turns to the Maxwell discs, hitherto practically un- 
applied in this country, and by means of the wheel produces 
every hue, tint, shade, and tone that is of any practical 
or artistic value. By a simple device a very rapid and 
uniform motion is given to a wheel. Upon this is a white 
card circle, half an inch larger than the color cards, and 
graded into one hundred equal parts, so that the per 
cent of a color may be known at a glance. There are 
six color cards,— spectrum colors, — ten inches in diam- 
eter, with a center circle cut out that it may be placed 
upon the shaf t» and a slit from the center to the circum- 




THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Oet. 












^: 



t. 



itrence to admit of two cardB being slid into each other 
and over each other. (See Fig. 1.) Now, in Fig. 2 may 
be seen a blae and red card^ both upon the shaft, and so 
did into each other that there is apon the wheel seventy- 
five per eent bine and twenty-fiVe per eent red. In Fig. 
3 there are three cards npon the shaft and so slid into 




SO 

Fig. 1. Fig 2 . 

each other that there is thirty-three and one third per 
cent of each, — red, blae, yellow. 

In thb way there may be placed upon the wheel any 
colors, in any desired proportions, and by placing the 
wheel in motion yon will get the exact hue, shade, tint, or 
tone desired. It should be said that there is a black card 
to be need to produce shades, and a white card for tints. 
This reduces the making of hues, tints, shades, and tines 
to an exact science. Take any of the commercial tones 

so fashionable in ribbons, and 
a school girl can experiment 
until she can tell what per 
cent of each color there is. 

From these experiments 
Mr. Bradley has produced a 
series of color cards after this 
fashion. He abandons the 
old-time nomenclature of 
secondaries and tertiaries,and 
^^ ^ uses instead a nomenclature 

that explains itsdf. There are two hues of each blending 
of two colors, and they are named so as to indicate which 
color predominates. If there is more red than orange it 
is an orange*red, but if there is more of the orange, it is 
a red-orange. 
The colors are : 

Bed, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet 
The hues are: 
Orange*red and red-orange. 
Tellow-orange and orange-yellow. 
Green-yellow and yellow-green. 
Blue-green and green-blue. 
Violet-blue and blue-yiolet 
Ked-yiolet and violet-red. 

These lines will all have .appropriate shades and tints ; 
as for instance : orange will have as tints, salmon and 
flesh color, and as shades, rich brown and burnt orange. 



be grouped in three proportions, producing lemon or 
citron ; violet and green will be grouped in three pro- 
portions in olives ; violet and orange into russets. 

The greatest success, in some respects, is in the pro- 
duction of a purp, neutral gray, by combining black and 
white, and modifying these by the introduction of a color. 
The results are as follows : 

Black, white, red, =: warm gray. 

Black, white, yellow, = deUeate gray. 

Black, white, orange, = buff-gray. 

Black, white, green, = greenish-gray. 

Black, white, blue, = slate-gray. 

Black, white, violet, = lavender-gray. 

After giving so much of the detail our readers will 
readily see what a wealth of resources these cards, scien- 
tifically colored, will provide. The wheel enables any 
one, man or boy, to solve these color problems hj him- 
self, and the arrangenient is so simple that it is an 
easy matter to remember all that one learns from his 
experiments. 




ARITHMETIC. 

Yf^ ANGUAGE work in numbers can only be used wisely 
Im in cases where numbers are well-known and prac- 
tice alone is sought There is no better way to teach 
rapid accurate addition of numbers without figures than 
in playing dominoes. 

Give .tiie brightest pupils extra work, advance work 
that they may not be taught to be lazy by pretending to 
btudy that which they already know. Ton can be unjust 
to bright pupils as well as to dull ones. 

Have no pride in the use of objects. Use them when 
needed, never otherwise. 

Have sufficient viuriety in the use of objects so that 
children will understand that the objects need not neces- 
sarily be always pegs, beans, marbles, or cubes, either 
white, black, red, or yellow. Use different colors and 
different forms frequentiy in presenting a given number. 
No primary school is equipped that does not have a box 
of toy money for frequent use. 

Use cardboard circles, squares, right triangles, isosce- 
les triangles, rectangles, ete., in early number work, giv 
ing the names of the figures without telling why they are 
so named. There is no more reason why you should de- 
fine tiiem at first than a ball or a marble. 

Cardboard figures and cubes should be one inch or two 
inches on a side when practicable. They should be early 
spoken of as inch squares, inch cubes, 2-inch rectengles, ete. 

In teaching one half, teach it in relation to a thing at 
first, and then to a number. Divide an apple into two 
parts, and name each part half the apple ; divide the 
number four into two equal parts and name each part one 
half of four. Let the thing divided vary, — a square, 



The colors.will also].be grouped in other ways, from the a rectangle, a circle ete. The same general principle 
natural order that produces hues. Orange and green will 1 should follow in the third, the fourth, ete. 



1890-] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



59 




[The teaeher wUl find It pleMant, m a Tarlety, to silently read the 
stories, or seleetions. then repeat In her own language before the class, 
which In torn reprodooee, onUly or In writing.] 

REPRODUCTION EXERCISES. 

BT M. B. C. 

Shabp Etbs. 

lAdapUd,! 

[To be nsed with two lowest grammar grades. May be read to 
pupils, or told in teacher's own language and reproduced as subject 
matter of a letter by pupils ] 

" Look intently enough at anything, and yon wUl see somethiog 
that wonld otherwise eeoape yon." I thought of the remark as 1 
sat on a stnmp in an opening of the woods one day. I saw a small 
hawk approaching; he flew to a tall tnlip-tiee and alighted on a 
large limb near the top. He eyed me, and I eyed him. Then the 
hifd diaelosed a trah that was new to me ; he bopped along the 
limb to a small eavity near the tmnk, when he thrust in his head 
and pulled out some small objeet and fell to eating it After be 
had eaten for some minutes he put the rest back in his larder and 
flew away. I had seen s«nnething like feathers eddying slowly 
down as the hawk ate, and on approaching the spot found the 
leathers of a sparrow here and there clinging to the bashes beneath 
the tree. The hawk— commonly ealled the chicken hawk— is then 
as prorident as a mouse or squirrel, and lays by a store against a 
time of need, but I should not haTC discorered the fact had I not 
used sharp eyes. 

TWITTSB AHD TWBBT. 
:Adapted,l 
[The two following stories may be written upon the blackboard and 
read aloud by second and third primary grades before oral or written 
reproduction.] 

Twittsv and Tweet liTsd in a little brown house in Cheriy-tree 
town. When they were large enough to fly, their mother gare them 
some good lessons. One was, "Be careful what you eat. Until 
yon are wiser it will be best for you to eat only worms; they are 
safe and wholesome. There are some bugs that are Tery good food ; 
but there are othere that are harmfnl, and I cannot trust yon to 
choose.*' One day the little birds wste hopping along on the grass 
when they found a fat little bug. It looked so nice, and both birds 
were so hungry they said, " Let*s eat bun ; Tm sure this is a good 
kind," said one litde bUd. ** We'd better be hungry cTory day 
than disobey our mother just once," said the other little bird, 
"That's so," said Twitter, and away they both flew. 

Bbbs. 

ZAdapted.2 

Bees will aeeommodatethemselTes to almost any quarters; yet no 
hire seems to please them so well as a section of the hollow tree,— 
"gums," as they are ealled in the South and West, where the 
sweet gum grows. In some Buropean countries the hive b always 
made from the trunk of a tree, a proper caTity being formed by 
boring. The old-fashioned straw hire is a great faTorite with the 



Thb Sauct Chipmuck. 

lAdapted.l 
A saney chipmunk presumed upon my harmless charaeter to an 
unwonted dsgree. I had p a u sed to bathe my hands and laoe in a 



little trout brook, and had set a tb cup, which I had partly filled 
with strawberriee as I crossed the field, on a stone at my feet, when 
along came the chipmunk as confidently as if he knew just where 
he was going, and quite oUiTious of my presence, cocked himself 
up on the rim of my cup and began to eat my choicest berties. I 
kept still and watched him. He had eiiten but two when the 
thought seemed to occur to bim that he might be doing better, and 
he began to fill his pockets. Two, four, six, eight of my berries 
quickly disappeared, and the cheeks of the little Tagabond swelled. 
But all the time he kept eating, that not a moment might be loot. 
Then he hopped off the cup, and went skipping from stone to stone 
till the brook -was passed, when he disappeared in the woods. In 
two or three minutes he was back again, and went to staffing hlm- 
iielf as before ; then he disappeared a eecond time, and, I imagined, 
told a friend of his, for in a moment or two along came a bobtailed 
chipmunk, as if in search ot something, and poeed up and down 
and around, but did not quite hit the spot Shortly, the first ro- 
tumed a third time, and bad now grown a little fastidious, f^ he 
began to sort oTcr my berries and to bits into them, as if to taste 
I heir quality. He was not long in loading up, however, and i^ 
making off again. But I had now got tired of the joke, and as my 
berriee were diminishing I moTod away. 



Publishers' ApupMEnrs. 

DiaCOMTiNUAJfCBa," Anj tnbMiiber wlahlng to stop his paper most 
oottty (he Pabilthers,iNid jMy up aUarremn; olherwlse he is lesponslbie tm 
payment •• long •• the paper is Mat. 

MOW TO REMIT. — To •ecare safety It U Important that xemittaaees 
«hoald be made by eheeks, drafts, postH)aioe ofden, express money orders, or 
-eglatered letters, made payable to the Pabllshers. 

EECJSJPTJS.—BwaiUKDommn acknowledged by ohsage of date following 
the •abteriber't name on the paper. Shoold soeh a ohsage fail to appear 
vlthln two weeks of the date of remittanoe, •nbsocibeis shoold notifi as at 

MiaSINQ NUMBSRa.—ShoniA a number of the TmAxmwM fsU to leaeh 
• tnbteriber, he will oonfer a fsTor apon the PabUshers by notifying as of 
he fact, npon receipt of which notice the misting number will be sent. 

CEAHQE OF ADD&RSa^Whvi a ohsage of address U desixed, both the 
jldand the new address of the tabteriber shoold be glyen. 

All lettere pertaining to the Bditorlal department, and all eommualoa- 
dons for the peges of the TnAOHU shoold be addressed to the Bditoca. 
an letters pertaining to the bnslness management of the TBaoxan should 
00 addressed to the Fublithtn. 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
P^OfUoaHan Otflcs ; 3 Svasereot HUf liaet^B, 



a W. BASDKSN, Byraouee, If. T., 

exvnnaj. Aonvr von Nxw Tobk btatx. 

Subscribe at Oice for tba " Jonnal ot Education." 

Pap 4k^ Oil ^^ ^^ ^^^* postpaid, a year's subscription to the Joub- 
lUl <9u UU KAI.OF Edv CATION (Weekly, $2.60 a year), and a copy of 
PracUeal Hista f Toaclieny by George Howland, Supt. Schools, 
Chicago. Price, $1.00. 

This is the book that has been adopted for September In the Book- 
(I'Month Course (see Joubnai. for Aug. 14). If you have not a copy of 
the paper for that date at hand, write us for a copy, which will be sent 
you free. All orders must be sent direct to this om ce. Adtirt^^fi 

NEW BNQLAND PUB. CO., 8 Somf^rflt^f »t., BoaT^lr. 

To anyone who will cut this out and send it ta us^ 
with address and 25 cents in stamps, we wiil mail the 
Journal of Education, a sixteen fa^e weekly^ for 
TWO MONTHS, postpaid. 

Name 

AddfH 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING COMPANYp 
3 SoMSKSBT Street, Boston, Mass. 



60 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Oofc 



The American Teacheel 



^A¥A5!S?»i.}*«- 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

The Cotton Plant (poem) 46 

October. .,...••.. 46 

Zscbary'sFlnt Year In School, > 46 

•» Fated to be Free," 46 

TalkM with Young Teachers, 47 

Observe I he <-bndreD, ....... 48 

BiH)k a- Muufh Course, .•••.•• 49 

MBrHOD8: First Steps in Languase Develnpment— Lessons In 
Zoology -A Sbort Lesson on Europe— The Use of Objects In 
tne Htudy vt UrAWing-Tbe CbllUren and the foets— How to 
Sketcb North America Id One .VI iuur4)- Bird Bnemtes. . 49-64 
THINGS TO TEACU: Distribution of Reeds - l^loTember Sen- 
tence»— School Hongs- Simple Scientific Kxperlmenis— Color 
Teaching lu School - Arltlinietlc, .... 66-68 

RBPRODUCTION HXERCiSES. .... 60 

KDilORlAL: Notes— Married Women Teachers— Flower Frizes 

« ^Tweu'yflve Dollars m Frizes— Book a Mouth Course, 60-61 

School Amuiemcnts. ....... 62 

Literary Couuudr urns, 62 

J ALKS WilU TEACHERS, 62-63 

KNOTS AND TANGLES, 63 

Rerreaiioiis in Q<Higrapuy, |. ..... 64 

MUdiC DUFAKTmE^T : Oyer Bzhaustlye Treatment of the Les- 
son— The Fite and Drum Baud, .... 61-6& 

Arithmetic in <4ermauT, ...... 66 

FRIDAY AFTERNOONS: Grandpa's Tlck-Tock— Pumpkin Pie— 
Marching Exfrcise tk>ug— Froggy and Mr Snalce -Do Your 
Best -A Ff How s Mocber-Soldiers - The Goldl n Keys, 67-69 

NO! £S AND QUERIES, . .... 69-72 

THE KINDBKGARrEN: The Free Kindergarten and Industrial 
Training- Lessons for tho Kindergarten and Primary School 
—The Kindergarten as a Pare o( the Pubiic School System. 72-76 

Enjoy fruit, especially its teaching. 

The Book-a-Month Course is an assured success. 

Ske how many autumn fruits and berries yon know. 

This is the best month in the year for school work. 

A LITTLE money put into a good educational paper and 
good books is the best investment. 

There will be twice as muQh professional readbg 
done this year as in any previous year. 

Pupils of some of the German schools are provided 
with a half pint of milk and a roll each day for luncheon. 

Five cents a day means more than fifteen dollars a 
year. This means one hundred books in less than tenyears 
and a first-claes educational paper all the time. 

Skill in observation is one of the tests of the good 
teacher. There should be some exercise frequently of 
such a character that the teacher may know how each 
pupil is gaining this power. 

Thb best subjects for mental training, other things 
being equal, are those that are connected with real life ; 
and there should be the blending of the things in which 
they are now interested and those iu which they are liable 
to be interested after school days are ended. 

Geoeoe W. Colborn, Park River, No. Dak., objects 
to a device recently published in the Ambbioan Teacher 
which brings maps into the heated part of the room when 
not . in use and thus destroys the varnish, making new 
maps look old in a short time. He says that maps should 
be accessible, and regrets that they are frequently placed 



in undesirable parts of the room. He claims that a 
district that can afford to buy maps can also afford to boj 
cases with spring rollers, thus keeping the maps in cases, 
free from dust and away from light that fades th^m when 
left hanging. 



^ ••• ^ 



MARRIED WOMEN TEACHERS. 

Within the last few weeks, Cincinnati attempted to mle 
out not only future applicants and those who married 
while teaching, but those already in the service. InstaoUy 
the whole country took up the question, and scarcely a 
paper from Bangor to San Francisco squarely defended 
the principle of exclusion. It appears, however, that in 
many cities there is a rule which requires a woman 
teacher, upon marriage, to tender her resignation. If 
she does not, the fact of her marriage is considered eqaiT- 
alent to resignation. Some newspapers have feebly de- 
fended the course, hot as a rule the press says that the 
question to be eonstdered is the qaalification of the 
woman as a teacher onder the circumstances and not the 
mere fact. 



FLOWER PRIZES. 



In response to our prize offer for the longest list of wild 
flowers known by pupils of subscribers to the Teachkb, 
a farge number of lists have been received. The longest 
list, containing 356 names, comes from Blanche E. Jeffery, 
Beaver River Corner, Digby County, Nova Scotia. A 
beautifully executed list of 118 wild flowers, the botanical 
names as well as the popular being given, was from Annie ' 
Lyon, Pelham, N. H. ; age, 16 years. Twenty-three lists 
contained more than one hundred varieties each. Many 
of the teachers wrote pleasantly. An Illinois teaeher, 
whose pupils did exceUent work, says : ^'I was very much 
surprised to find how many wild flowers grow in the woods 
near the schoolhonse, and we all enjoyed it very much.'' 

The best two descriptive lists are from Misses Delia 
French and TiUie Botterfield, pupils of W. L. Brown, 
Tuatin, Orange County, California. These lists are accom 
panied by specimens of the native flowering plants de- 
scribed,— five each, — drawn and colored from life. In 
sending these lists their teacher says : *^ These are pupils 
in the sixth year, in a country district ungraded school. 
They have only received oral instruction in plants, and 
that incidentally as a language lesson, as it is not in the 
course of study. I think, considering their age and oppor- 
tunity, the girls have done extremely well. They have 
had no instruction in drawing." 

We are greatly pleased with the evidences of pleasure 
and profit derived from this experiment by the pupik. 
Think of a child naming 355 wild plants, and making 
out her record in such a way as to show upon its face that 
she knows the plants of which she speaks. 

We have tried to think that we sonid give spaoe to 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



61 



print entire this list) bat it is lo long that we should not 
be justified in so doing. 



TWENTT-FIVE DOLLARS IN PRIZES. 

Devices in Arithmetic, Lang^uagre, Physiol- 
ofiry, Etc. 

Wanted, devices for teaching the whole or part of any 
subject in arithmetic, language, physiology, or any of the 
natural sciences. 

First Prize, — To the person sending us the greatest 
number of acceptahle devices we will give eight dollars' 
worth of books or periodicab, the winner to make the 
selection. 

Seoond Prize. — ^To the person sending us the ten best 
devices we will give five dollars' worth of books and peri- 
odicals, the winner to make the selection. 

Series of Frizes, — To the person sending the best 
devices in arithmetic we will give three dollars' worth of 
books ; in language, three dollars' worth ; and in physi- 
ology, three dollars' worth. 

No one person will receive more than one prize, that is, 
whoever wins the first prize will not be considered in 
further competition ; the same with the winner of each. 

If the devices have appeared in print over the com- 
petitor's name, the fact must be stated, and whether they 
are allowed will depend upon circumstances. Nothing 
should be sent that has appeared over a name other than 
the competitor's. State whether the device is original, or 
whether it was seen in school and adapted by the com- 
petitor. 

Brief devices and simple suggestions will be acceptable. 
When possible make a rough sketch, illastrating the device. 
We will have them prepared for use. 

Send devices as fast as possible. They will be credited, 
and the total number will be the basis of judgment 

The devices must reach us before December 1. We 
shall claim the right to publish them in either Joubnal 
OF Education or Ambbican Teaohbb. 



BOOK-A-MONTH COURSE. 

We are greatly pleased with^ the reception given 
our proposition for a Book-a-Month Course. We are 
already assured a reading that makes its usefulness cer- 
tain. The questions asked by our readers we will answer 
through our columns, and invite other questions from time 
to time. I 

1. Must we order the books through you ? Is that one 
of the requirements f Another asks. Why not require 
us to order the books through you ? 

There is no such requirement, request, or suggestion. 
We are not launching this scheme as a financial venture. 
We oan fill all orders for the books promptly, but we take 
speeial pains to name .the publisher and priooi thai you 



may order from him directly, of through your local 
dealer. We are ready, however, to fill all orders, but 
are more pleased to have you order the books where it 
will be easiest for you. 

2. Must we send the a/nswers cos soon as ready ^ or hold 
them and send all together ? 

We much prefer having them sent as soon as ready, 
for then we can examine them in our '' spare mioutes." 

3. WiU the " Fifty Books " announced for Oct. 3, tn- 
terfere with the Book a^ Month Course? 

It is to be hoped not Several teachers wished a larger 
number. They say they are '* dead in earnest " to read 
this year ; that they did not know how easy it was 
until they had read as we suggested the first book, and 
that they can easily read more. In response to several 
such communications we have prepared a list of ^' Fifty 
Books," with notes and comments on each. 

4. Will the questions be printed in any other form 
than in the Journal of Education and Ambbican 
Tbacher ? 

We had not thought to print them, but our subscrip- 
tion list has grown beyond our expectation, even beyond 
precedent, and it is impossible to furnish to our sub- 
scribers the prospectus, so that we shall be obliged to re- 
print the proposition for the course, and shall then strike 
off the questions upon jlips for those who wish them in 
that form. 

4. Must we copy the questions ? 

No, we are so familiar with the questions that if you 
merely write the name of the book and number the an- 
swers, there will be no trouble. 

5. Can we have the list faster than once a month ? 
We recognize that this is the best season of the year 

for reading, and will try to print the entire list before 
Jan. 1, but with no desire to have them read faster than 
one a month. 

6. How can we connect the ^^ Fifty Books'* with the 
BookorTnonth Course f 

We shall ask each reader testate which of the << Fifty" 
he has carefully read and shall include in the certificate 
of reading a list of these added books. 

7. Why not select a few of the " Fifty " and ask some 
questions for those of us to answer who choose ? 

That is a capital idea, but we have promised all we 
dare at present As soon as we have done our part of 
the work on the Book-a-Month list we will try the other. 

8. / notice that the first book in the course is one of a 
series ishued by Appleton & Co. Are we to have mwe 
books in the same series, which I judge are uniform in 
binding ? If to^ I think I shall purchase the series 
complete^ as I am sure it wiU be a profitable investment. 

Tes, there will be other books of this series, but all the 
books will not be in the series. At least three others will 
be in the course. It is certainly a profitable investment, 
but there is great variety and great diff erenoe in the reli^ 
tive values of the books. 



62 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



[Oct. 



SCHOOL AMUSEMENTS. 

BT ALICB DAVIS, DBS MOINES, lA. 

T% 0N6 continued mental exertion is detrimental to the 
im best interests of the child. School aathoriUes 
recognizing this fact set apart certain portions of each 
day, during which the child may devote himself exclu- 
sively to recreation. In regard to the kinds of amuse- 
ment it is perhaps best to allow the children to consult 
their own inclinations and wishes, provided they choose 
nothing that has a demoralizing tendency. But the 
teacher can and should exert as much influence over the 
pupil on the playground as he does in the schoolroom. 

A child is ne^er so thoroughly himself as when at play 
with his companions, and the teacher can gain much 
more knowledge of his real nature by observing him at 
play than he can by his connection with him in school 
hours. This knowledge can be used in such a manner 
as to advance the interests of the child, lessen the labor 
of the teacher, and cause the relations between the two 
to be much more pleasant and interesting. A person 
never works at such a disadvantage as when he does not 
know what he is doing, and no teacher can really benefit 
his pupil without knowing something of that pupil's 
individuality. Then, too, on the^ playground, the bad 
propensities of his nature are apt^ become active, and 
his evil genius is likely to gain the ascendancy. Some- 
times the wilfulness and selfishness of one pupil will 
spoil the recess for the entire school. In very many such 
instances the teacher's influence would be sufficient to 
avert the difficulty, reconcile the contending factions, and 
establish pleasant relations among those at variance. 

Often the language used by pupils at play would shock 
a respectable savage. The influence of the teacher should 
be sufficient to correct those evil habits and tendencies, 
not from fear of punishment, but from a higher motive. 



LITERARY CONUNDRUMS. 

[Answers to l>e given next montli.] 

fHE answer to each statement or query is the name of 
an author. 

1. What a rough man said to his son when he wished 
him to eat properly. 

2. A lion's house dug in the side of a hill. 

3. Pilgrims and flatterers have laid low to kiss him. 

4. Makes and mends for first-class customers. 

5. Bepresents the dwellings of civilized men. 

6. A kind of linen. 7. Worn on the head. 

8. A name that means such fiery things, can't describe 
their pains and stings. 9. Belongs to a monastery. 

10. Not one of the four points of the compass, but in- 
elining toward one of them. 

11. What an oyster heap is likely to be. 

12. A chain of hills containing a dark treasure. 




MMniMiw 



jilLiUiajii^ljlwtJMiaPElP^ 



FA L I^ S 



^~W I T M 



lEACMEFlS-a 

fr l ^ ■ ■■' I ! ■ IITTT., ^ti.i,.,J,^-„, . , JIFtrMWrnFffyfCg^ I 



ALLAjr Dalb will h*T« obarge of thif Department, but the aaefttone trill 
be answered by e yeiiety of teeeben of Tartoiu gimdei. We naTe been 
the heblt of anaweiing inch qnestlona br penoael letters, 
to teaohen to answer, but hereafter thej wUl be answi 
AxmeiCam TMAOBMrn, 



We 

or 

answered through 



I want a /lag for my ichoolhause. How ihaU I tet about to eUain 
one? H. MABmr. 

Yon ooght to bo able to find an answer to that question. It will 
not be a difficnlt nndertakbg for yon to miie money enongh in yoinr 
sohool diatriet for the imrehaee of n flair. Intereet yonr Mholan, 
make each a member of a oonmiittee to raise funds, make known 
yonr wishes to the leading men in yonr distriot, get np an entertain 
ment or two, and yon will ehortly possess not only a flag, but a flag- 
staff from whioh it oan float. Set abont tlus at ones. Let me know 
how yon sneceed. 

My pupilt read MfeU^ but they eatCt talk properly, I thmgld rood- 
ing wai for th$ purpose of making children talk, E. F. B., Pentu 

Did yon really think so ? We talk beoanse we have somalliiBg 
to say, and we read to aeqnire this " something." A good reader 
doee not neoessarily make a good talker. Yon do not teaeh yonr 
obildren to talk (I nse the word in the same sense in whioh ymi 
hare need it). Yon doubtless hear yonr olass read their lesson as 
it oomee in the reading- book, and pay attention to pontion, enunot- 
ation, emphasis, punetnation marks, etc., but you are eaieful ne?ar 
to question them on the subject matter of what thor eyee hare seen 
and their lipe haTO uttered» With the children it is " words, words, 
words.*' If yon will require that each thought be mastered and 
then reproduced either by the pupil reading it or by a listener, yon 
will approach the ideal of the yalue of the reading lesson. 

I have ju9t begun teaching U, 8, History ^ and I wiih you would 
give aie toaie hints regarding methods, I want to make the study 
interesting as well as instructive, BidLY S. 

If yon will glance through baok numbers of the Tbacheb yon 
will discorer many articles relating to history. In brief let me say, 
map out at first a complete topical outline of the work yon are to 
do in history, and hare all lessons assigned by topics.^ Omit all 
consideration of non-essentials. Don't insist on the details of a battle 
and fail for lack of time to constdsr the caness that led up to it and 
the results of the Tictory. Decide what datee you are to hare 
memorised, and make theee stations aronnd which other erents 
duster. ProTide books on history, and hare the pupils read tiiess 
for additional facts. HaTC some abetract erery day; after die 
lesson has been talked about, gire psper for the pupils to write on 
certain topics, and discuss the results at the next lesson. 

What is the Ling system of gymnastics t Is it a Boston system t 
Some of ue teachers in the West watu some informcUion on the system, 
which toe often see mentioned in the eastern pedagogical jounude. 

Miss J., Indiana, 

The Ling system is not a Boston system, though it has found its 
strongest ezpreesion here. It has Iteen introduced into the pubUe 
sohoole of Boston. It is a Swedish system, and has been in nse in 
Stockholm nearly eighty years. Nils Posse has written a book 
illustrating the system, which Lee & Shepard publish. C. J. Ens- 
buske, Boston, has rccenUy issued a pamphlet on the Ling system, 
whioh yon may obtain by addressing him. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



63 



I kav% optntd «y imw ieho^l OMgpidimtiyt Imi then it one Jltf in 
tht ointnunt, I have four or five large hoy» who I /ear are going to 
give me trouble. They teem interetied in me nowt bnt lam afraid 
the novekg will wear off, and I thall have much to contend with them 
later on. What thall Idol Claba. 

Yon afe too distnutfiil, and mre ooniiMllmf with your loan. 
Ton 1hit8 doabUeH xeaA or hoard stories told of the torrifio 
■ferugglss toaohois hsre had with large, nnmly boys, and yon are 
ooajnriag np all sorto of diref nl thoughts, and are perplexing yoar- 
•elf needlessly. Pnrsoe your work fearlessly, brayely, fatthfnlly. 
By yoor deportment and doTOtion and firmness maintain yoar right 
to respeet and power. Make yonrself and your work so interesting 
that the novelty will not wear oil. Keep yonr boys interested not 
only in yon bnt la the sehool work, and yon will develop a manli- 
ness that will save yon from all tronUe and apprehension. Trust 
yonr large boys ; treat them like men, and they will respect the 
oonfidenoe repoeed la them. Don't be suspicions of them, bnt when 
■omething ooenrs that calls for yonr consideration, make the talk 
mbont it in private. Don't wound their self-respect, and don't let 
them lose oonfidenoe in yon and yonr sense of impartial jnstioe. 

There it no kindergarten in my town, and tevtral ladiet have aUeed 
KM to ttart one, I would wiUingly do thit, /or I love ckUdren, and 
would like to teaeh them, but I have had no inttruetion in kindergarten 
work, and only know what I luive read concerning it. Would you 
advite wu to ttart a kindergarten, and trutt to kind /ortune for retuht, 
or not to undertake the work f MiNNIB P. 

Yon might start a school for children, bnt yon would not conduct 
a kindergarten without some preyions training. It is an easy 
matter for yon to put yoniself in communication with some pro- 
fessional kindeigarten, and stating your case, learn just what yon 
can do. It will surely pay you to take a conrse in kindergarten 
training, bnt don't open a kindergarten nnUl yon know what yon 
are expected to teach. 

Original puzzles, answers, and all other correspondence relating tc 
this department, should be indorsed *' For Knots and Tangles" and 
addressed to Puzzle Editor, Box 8W, Sharon, Pa. 

00. Ghabadb. 

A covering for the head my firtt ; 
My next an edible grain ; 
My whole is a fancy, or freak, or whim ; 
Now surely this will be plidn. 



91. Hidden Cities and Towns, Wettem U. 8. 

Laba, Mibsbn Co., Wt., Sept. 1, 1890. 

Dear Pupilt : — Vacation is over, and I wish to tell yon how my- 
self, my sister Helen, and Ida Hoosan Francis, consio of ours, spent 
the summer. 

Ida lives in Virginia, — city girl though she is, she always enjoys 
country life. .Though her father owns much railroad stock, to no 
expense will he go with his boys— Asa, Lem, and P^eecott. He is 
as stem as a tombstone with all bnt Ida. 

We staid in Cheyenne during July, where I learned that at last, 
Joseph, my brother had entered his port— landed and was even 
now in San Francisco. I had not seen him since we had played to- 
gether noder the old oak. Landseer's paintings are tame compared 
with that scene. 

How quickly we hastened to Mrs. Sandie — go we must to 
see him. 

The kuid lady was sad bnt accepted our silver. City after city 
was passed rapidly. Ida was tbed and cross. She has had a sore 
finger— thcM is a bad sear— bone eama out la i^aeeSi 



She tried to amuse herself by looking at the boulders and other 
objecto of interest O jce she saw a black hawk on a large oak. 

We passed many a pleasant grove and park,— city had been suc- 
ceeded by country. Ida exclaimed, " Why don't they keep the cars 
on the track ? " ( 

I pacified her by giving her a baker's city tart, and when day to 
night had been changed, she slept many honn. 

On arriving at Frisco, we found my i>rother and his friend Mr. 
San Bafa-el-bowed our way tothem,>nd received a very wacm 
greeting. Will tell yon the rest again. 

Yours, eto., Edith L. W. 



92. NuMEBioAii Enigma. 

My whole is composed of 26 letters, and was spoken by one of 
America's greatest orators. 

My 1, 11, 24, «, 19, is to carve or to cut. 

My 22, 14, 18, 4, is a bird. 

My 12, 26, 2, 15, 25, 13, is a number. 

My 7, 17, 5, 9, 21, 11, is fiexible or pliant 

My 16, 23 20, is a precious stone. 

Mf 18, 8, 7, 6, is despicable. 

My 20, 10, ii a personal pronoun. 

98. Tbanspobitions. 

If I only firtt, I'd propose to-night. 
But I do soNea:fa**No!" 

So I think I'll jost keep courting on. 
And let the proposal go. 

94. AnaobAHS [U. S. PcesidentB]. 

1. John A. Dorwene. 4. AHhur B. Strache. 

2. Fred. J. Lagasaime. 5. Dan. J Sboam. 

3. Chas. J. Mannbane. 6. Sam. Joe Damsin. 



ANSWEEtS TO SEPTEMBER PUZZLES. 

85. Step-pest ^^ . 

86. John G. Saxe, William Cullen Bryant, John 0. Whittier, 
Longfnllow. 

87. Craah— rash— ash. 

88. Ttxss, Ohio, Midne, Indiana, Delaware, Kansas, Idaho, 
Iowa. 

89. Current 



BBinOVAL IfOTICB. 

The Manufacturers of Clark 'a Improved School Stencils have re- 
moved to No. 22 Stearns street, WalCbam, Mass. Send your orders lor 
ail Blackboard StencUs. or for Catalogue of complete line of the same, 
to s. C. Clark & Co., Waltham, Mass. 



Good Mercbaots know that it Is tbe best policy to give their custo- 
mers reliable staodard giodn, rather tban substitute some inferior 
make. Just to get a larger profit. When a salesman tells you tbat some 
other waist Is ''about as good as the Ferris * Good Sense ' Waist" be 
sure to examine the Good Sense before you buy the imitation. 



Of course every student and professional workers needs a cyclope- 
dia as A constant companion ; the only question is which one will be 
most useful Do not fail before deciding this question to investigate 
carefully tbe «tlalms of Johnson^ UDiver8<il Cyclopedia published by 
Messrs. A J. Johnson & Co, 11 Great Jones Street New York. 



B. P Johnson & Co , whose advertisement appears in another col- 
umn, have recently moved Into new and larger quarters, with better 
facilities for condu(^tlng business chao ever before. Parties wishing 
employment, oi to more folly tovestlgate the opportunities and advan- 
tages they offer, would do well to commuulcate with them promptly. 



Okv of the manufactured articles that has not gone into a ** trust " Is 
steel pens. Von may. however, always trust an Esterbrook Steel Pen 
for its good reliable qualities. 



\AAaNT ^icENT ^^^^^^y community for the 

UBRART OF AMERICAN LITERATURE. 

Five fnll-pafce poitraits free to any reader of the AmbBicak 
Tbachsb 
CHARLES L. WEBSTIR A CO., 8 1. Utb St, lew York. 




THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Oct. 



%^' 



RECREATIONS IN GEOGRAPHY. 

BY BLLA J. BBADWAY. 

A SCHOOL PICNIC. 
N£ (lake north of Minnesota)' day in (cape* of N. 
J.) our Bchool had a picnic. The children were wild 
with delight, heing not in the least disturbed by the (river3 
of N. T.) (island ^ west of Scotland) and (cape 5 of Ore- 
gon) generally. Why ? Because they met in a (town ^ 
of western Yt) instead of a (town 7 of northern Mass.) 
or a (lake^ of British America), as picnics are wont to 
do ; consequently they had no fear of getting any (lake 9 
of Sweden) than if they were (river ^° of Bavaria) school. 

Games began at once, when (cape '' of Eeewatin) 
(river " flowing into Hudson) proposed (capital '3 of Den- 
mark). This warmed the hands well, aud made them so 
(river '4 of Louisiana) that they attracted the eye of a 
(part '5 of Austria) (bay,*^ branch of Hudson Bay). He 
stole a kiss or two from the most rosy pair, which caused 
them to (capital'^ of Switzerland) more than before. This 
happened to (city «* of Italy) (capital '9 of Wisconsin), 
the teacher's (town '<» of South of France). Her brother 
(river >■ of Virginia) seeing his (river'' of Australia) sis- 
ter's annoyance by the unwelcome guest, pretended to 
make much of it. He bound some (river '3 of Ey.) on 
the swollen hands, and did all he could to (branch '^ of 
Danube). At last he killed the (coast'5 of Central Amer- 
ica). The boys held an inquest over the remains, and re- 
ported that the (small bay '^ in Hudson Bay) met bis 
death through the (cape '7 of N. Scotland) of Dr. (capital'^ 
of Wisconsin), (river '9 of Arizona) of (coast 3** of Central 
America) bites. (City 3' of Italy) called them '^ (islands ^ 
southwest of England) young ones," and they imme- 
diately started off on a foot (cape 33 of New Foundland). 

[One 34 of the Hebrides] [capital 35 of Miss.] who [man- 
ufacturing city 36 of Eng.] in everything in our school, won, 
but fell sprawling on his [town 37 of northwest France] 
just as he reached the goal. When they returned they 
professed to be [province 38 of Austria] as a [Lake 39 of 
British America]. [Capital ^ of U. S. ] [capital*' of Tex.] 
[peninsula ^ of northwest Greenland] the small [branch ^3 
of the Amazon] boy who seemed to have little [poiat 44 of 
California coast] of the proprieties, took a little [capital 45 
of China] to the capacious depths of the lunch basket, and 
was just on the point of slying out a [group ^ of Pacific 
islands], when, meeting the i^cape 47 of Ireland] [moun- 
tain848 of Oregon] eyes of [river49 of Denmark] [capital 5° 
of Nebraska], his teacher, he said, *^ I was just fixing the 
cover. Miss [capital 5' of Nebraska] ; it's [city 5* of 
south France]. The feast was soon spread. [Cape 53 of 
Labrador] exclaimed, '* [ Bay 54 in Gulf St. L iwrence] ! 
this is [lake 55 of Maine]." The [towns^ of north Scot- 
land], the sandwiches, the cold [river 5^ of Tenn.] and 
even the [city 57 of Italy] disappeared like a [island 58 be- 
tween Sumatra and Borneo] [mountain859 of south Africa] 
in summer, and the dainty cakes, the [river ^ of Mon- 



tana], and the [cape ^' of north Alaska] lemonade fol- 
lowed. [Cape ^ of south N. J] ; [mountain peak ^^ of 
British America] asked [town ^ of south Tenn.] [branch 
of Wabash ^5 ] to [town on Isle ^ of Mann] her [county 
^ of Vermont] for her, and also to join her in eating a 
[island ^ east of China sea]. The [cape ^ of northwest 
Washington] quite overcame him, and he simply remarked 
the [lake 70 of north Mass.] [rivers* of Germany] of 
[town 7a of Prussia], on her handkerchief. But he 
quickly regained self-ponsession, and joined heartily in all 
the games that followed. Altogether, the [isle 73 in Bos- 
ton harbor] children had a delightful time, and went 
[bay 74 in Daris strait] happy as the day was [island 75 
soutti of Connecticut]. 



We must not mistake a brilliant teacher for an excel- 
lent method. What may prove very successful with an 
exceptionally magnetic teacher, may not, after all, be the 
best method tor the schools at large. That is the beat 
method which works best with the general run of teachers 
and pupik as we find them in our schools. 



OVER. EXHAUSTIVE TREATMENT OF THE 
LESSON.. 

BY W. 8. TILDBN. 

f^HE teacher who has competent knowledge of the 
^ specialty which he is to teach is very likely to feel 
that the litter of facts and principles which the pupil is 
ready to assimilate is very inadequate aod partial ; and 
he longs for greater breadth and thoroughness at every 
otep. It seems to him that if the child could become 
possessed of all those details which really belong to the 
subject in hand, and could see their relation to it and to 
each other, he would then be prepared to go on intelli- 
gently and rapidly ; and tuere would be a satisfactory 
soundness in the work which it now lacks. 

We do well to remember that those little things which 
appear to the teacher so to merge in the whole as to seem 
like atoms and almost lose their separate identity, must 
be learned one at a time by the pupil with much pains- 
takiugand reiteration. The most ordinary and incidental 
operations of the skilled mechanic are each to be studied 
and perfected singly by the apprentice, in patient and 
continued practice, before they seem simple to him at 
all ; every one of them is difficult at the outset. His first 
constructive efforts most embrace but very few of the 
elements of his trade ; but thus used, he comes to see 
them, one by one, in their proper relation to each other 
and to the completed work, while he is also acquiring 
dexterity in the management of details. Something in 
this way the elements of any branch of education should 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



66 



be presented ; only so many at the present time as are 
needed in the work at band. 

It is always a qaestion in education for the mass of 
the people. What things and how mach of them is it best 
to attempt ? The professor or specialist in any branch 
requires that it be considered from his point of view. 
Bat all are not to be specialists, and the mass of the peo- 
ple are probably not to be the highly edacated. There 
are the common nses for common life to be made of each 
sabject ; the ordinary mind can make only the ordinary 
Qse of it, whatever the specially gifted may do. And 
even if erery man is a specialist in some one thing, in 
all other branches of study he is very mach like men 
around him, and needs a general education for every-day 



In school music we are particularly to remember that 
aU are not to be musicians, — that is, to pursue music as a 
profession ; but it is very desirable that as many as pos- 
sible should have that kind and amount of training dur- 
ing their elementary course which shall bestow upon 
them musical culture su£Bcient for the ordinary require- 
ments of intelligent communities. To effect this for the 
mass of the children it is necessary to leave many of the 
fine spun distinctions in musical lore to be taken up sub- 
sequently by those whose talent and circumstances war- 
rant it. 

While we all agree to the principle above stated, we 
AOt infrequently find ourselves transgressing it practically 
in daily lessons. For instance, when we try to teach 
note-readbg we become convinced that it is useless for 
the pupil to attempt to strike a pitch unless he has an 
adequate knowledge of key-related sounds, and we say 
to ourselves, '* Now we must study sounds." The little 
people have a lesson to read, we will suppose, in which 
the di£Bculty is the series 3, 6, 4, 2, 1. What they need 
in order to overeome it is a knowledge of the sounds 
from 1 to 6 simply. We set to work on an elaborate 
plan for mastering all the possible combinations in the 
scale, together with its extensions above and below ; never 
stopping till we have sung 4 and 7 in succession, as well 
as a multitude of other similar unmelodious things, with 
an imposing array of ladders, hand signs, finger staff, 
written scales, etc., altogether disproportionate to the ob- 
stacle which was to be 8urmounte<L Most of this would 
not be called for or needed at all for a long while yet in 
legitimate work* 

Or, we wish to carry through our little exercise in 2-4 
time properly, which consists simply of keeping a regular 
accent through a succession of proportionate lengths. 
We thereupon show all the notes in common use, the use 
of dots, and triplets, with corresponding rests ; name the 
different kinds and varieties of measure from 2-2 to 
12-8, and teach many other strange and curious things 
about time in music We wish to be '* thorough." But 
why such a park of artillery to kill a mosquito ? Better 
wait till some bigger game appears. 



Or, again, we see a couple of sharps at the beginning 
of the exercise, and instead of using them for the pur- 
pose for which they were placed there, we enter upon a 
discussion of scale intervals and pitch intervals, and how 
and why the pitches found in this key are as they are. 
From this we go on to learn all the pitches in all the 
keys with the reasons therefor. On the same principle 
the beginner in Latin should simply commit the whole 
dictionary to memory, so that when he commences read- 
ing he will not have to refer to it again. 

In avoiding the error of overexhaustiveness, decide as 
to the present purpose. In a properly graded course in 
music, this has constant reference to the ultimate purpose. 
Make the study just exhaustive enough to meet ade- 
quately the requirements of the present purpose ; and leave 
something to be attended to when the exigencies of a 
more advanced stage of study demand it. 



^ 



THE FIFE AND DRUM BAND. 

A SONG FOR THE BOYS. 

Lively. 



^^ 



1. We're the mer-ry lit -tie fellows of the 

2. We're the stead-y lit -tie fellows of the 



^B^£^ 



fife and drum band, O mer-ry lit - tie men are 
flfe and drum band, O steady lit - tie men are 




we : From the north to the south, from the east to the 
we : And the tramping of our feet, in the middle of the 



i^^^^^s 



west, There Is not a Det -ter band than we. 
street, Is a thing all want to hear and see. 



^-^^ 



Strum, strum, says the great big drum, Rumple 
Strum, strum, goes the great big drum, Rumple 



fa=J_JJ J I , ^8^ 



tum, rum-pie tum say 
tum, rum-pie tum go 



we; 
we; 



Not 
And 



g^ r?^-=3 ^-^?T?"n^ 



cur -lew 01 a 8nipe,has a shriller note or 
ev - 'ry one we meet when we're marching down the 

IV- 



ms. 



=i 



=1: 



It 



i 



pipe.than the mus-ic of the band can be. 
street. Savs that not a bet - ter band can be. 



66 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Oct. 



ARITHMETIC IN GERMANY. 

BT JOHK T. PBOrOB, PH.D., 
Agent Massaehiuetts Board of Bdneadon. 

fHB work done in arithmetic I f oond to be quite van- 
008 both in extent and methods porsaed. In the Peo- 
ple's sehoolsy in Soath Grermany, the Grabe system or some 
modification of it is generally tanght. In these schools 
the first two years are given to combinations to thirty, 
fifty, or one hondred. In the preparatory departments 
of high schools the amount attempted is much greater 
in the same time. In some schools I foond pnpils 
<< going over" all of the tables during the first year. 
That this work was too difficult was evident from the 
amount of driving which the teachers found to be neces- 
sary, and that it was not thoroughly done, was shown in 
the poor work of subsequent grades of papils who had 
done the same kind of work in the first year. 

Various devices for teaclung numbers in the lowest 
grades were observed as will be shown in the following 
illustrative exercises : 

In a school of the first grade in Berlin I found pupils 
working upon combinations 
to twenty, and combinations 
by tens to one hundred. 
Blocks and a numeral frame 
were before the pnpils. The 
numeral frame was four 
feet square and had ten 
wires. Upon e\ther side 
was a board a foot wide, 
concealing the balls thus : Fiq. i. 

Teacher — (pushing in sight 12 balls upon the wires) 
'< What does 12 consist of " ? (Calling upon one pupiL) 

Pupil — <* 12 consists of 1 ten and 2 units." 

CloM in Concert — '* 12 consbts of 1 ten and 2 units." 

The practice of having one pupil give an answer, and 
when correct, to have all the pupils repeat the answer was 
continued throughout the exercise. The teacher in quick 
succession moving the balls, asked the following questions : 
2 + 2? 12 + 2? 2 + 4? 12 + 4? 2 + 3? 12 + 3? 
2 + 6? 12 + 6? 2 + 7? 12 + 7? 2+8? 12 + 8? 
the pupUs answering in entire sentences thus : 2 and 2 
are 4, etc. The same questions were given without the 
balls and answered as before. 

The teacher continued as follows : 

T.— ''How can we get the 
half of 12?" 

P. — "Divide the 10 balls 

and two balls in two equal 

parts." 

T.— « Do this with the balls." 

P.— With the short pointer 

the balls thus (Fig. 2.), saying " the half 







0^ 





















FlO. 2. 



he divides 
of 12 is 6." 

T. — "2 times 6 are how many ? " 



P._«*2x6isl2." 
T. — "12 IB how many times 6 ? " 
Pupils do not seem to know. Numeral frame iiaed and 
all reviewed. All pupils interested and indicate their 

readiness to anaw^ all 
by show of 



a 

a 



questions 
finger. 



There is 
oceasionany 
a de- 



FlQ. 8. 



D 



vice which some teachers 
like better than the nu- 
meral frame for teaching 
number. It consists of a 
frame having slides of counters on one side, and a black- 
board on the other, thus : (Fig. 3.) 

a»ilides daMd; 6 = slide whoUy opea; e=alide partially 
open; <f := blaok-board raiaed so as to allow slide to move nader ft 

Quite often the relation be- 
tween the numbers to ten is indi- 
cated by rows of blocks upon the 
teacher's desk, thus : (Fig. 4.) 

Large blocks are also used 
upon Uie teacher's desk to teach 
all the combinations to twenty. 
Sometimes the blocks are divided 
into halves and fourths. In one 
school of the first grade I saw ^^* ^- 

such work as the following done : 

6-f-2. 8-5-4 7-h2. 9-^4. 

To teach 7 -f- 2 the teacher placed 

7 blocks, thus: (Fig. 6) then to 

make the divisions equal placed 3 

m { Fig. 6. UwikB on one side and 3 blocks on 

the other side, dividing the remaining blocks in two parts, 

and placing the pile as follows : 

The teacher said he taught only 

halves and fourths in this grade. 

Combinations by tens to 100 
are generaUy practiced in the first 
grade. The following notes of a visit 
in Eisenach indicate the kind of work done in this grade. 
Blocks and numeral frames used. The following ques- 
tions asked and answered vrith and without objects : 
How many more than 10 is 20? 
u u u (• 20 *' 40? 
u u 6t it 20 ^' 40? 
u a « ii 40 « 60? 
60 + 10? 50 + 30? 60 + 30? 
100 is how many more than 50 ? 

u u it u «( (( 70? 

1 mark (10 pfennigs) less 30 pfennigs ? 
1 mark less 60 pfennigs ? 
How much must be added to 20 pfennigs to make 1 
mark? 





1—1 PI 





FlQ. 6. 



18900 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



67 



How many times 20 is 40 ? 
How many times 30 is 60? 

Table of ones, two, ete., repeated forward and back- 
ward thos : 1 times 10 = 10. 
2 times 10 =20. 

1 times 20 = 20, 

2 times 20 = 40, etc 

Many problems like the following are given based upon 
the tables as just given : 

Cost of 3 books at 30 pfennigs apiece ? etc 

How many books can I boy for 60 pfennigs, at 30 
pfennigs apiece ? How many for 80 ? etc 

In answer to the qaesUons in division, pupils are 
aUowed to say <'8-f-2 = 4, becaase 2X4 is 8," and 
<< i of 10 is 2, becaase 2x6 islO." 

In aU operations the pupils are taught quite generaUy 



to work through and by tens. For example, in the prob. 
lem 8-1-7, the pupil is made to think of 8-{-2 = 10-f 
5 = 16, and in 17 - 9 = 17 - 7 = 10 - 2 = 8, etc 

The following notes of recitation of a third year class 
give a good example of rapid reckoning, and of the 
means of attaining quickness and accuracy: 

Teacher gives rapidly 4 -4- 3 -{- 9 -4-- 6, etc, until the 
sum is over 200. 

Several similar problems given, followed by problems 
in subtraction, beginning with a large number, and call- 
ing for successive subtractions as, from 208 take 6 take 
8, etc This is not given very rapidly, at the rate of 
about 18 numbers to subtract in a minute. Adding and 
subtractbg by 2*s, 3*s, etc, followed by mental problems 
in multiplication and division. 

Teacher gives problem 48 -f- 40. 



FRIDAY 
AfTEl 



.n99hS' 



i 



GRANDPA'S TICK-TOCK. 

BT ANNIB 8CHLES1NGEB. 

BAB gnndpa winds the gtmi high oloek, 
And innis the Mg mmd key ; 

Hli pet, the brown-eyed little May, 
The '' tiisk-took " wnnU to tee. 



He tnrne and turns the iron key, 

And makee the ooekoo nng. 
While happy May, ihe laughs right oat, 

Her brown eyee wondering. 

" Do, grandpapa, pleaie hold me up/' 

And grandpa mnst obey, 
" I want to hear it in my ear. 

To see what it wiU say.*' 

'* Please, grandpapa, ahow me its tongoe.'* 

Again he mnat obey. 
'*Now tell the took to ahow its eyes,'* 

Commanded little May. 

The old man woond and doaed the oloek, 

Took ont the iron kej; 
He aaid, " I never knew, my pet, 

That grandpa's elook ooold tee.** 

" It sees,^t seee,'*— perristed May ; 

*' It sees, lalmoet know; 
Whenever I go oat to walk, 

lU tiokbg says, < Go,— Oo.* *' 

Then grandpapa, so tore perplexed, 
Sayt, ** Tiek-tocks have no eyes." 

Bat May, with frown and poating lipt, 
Takes grandpa by sorpriae. 

" Yon Ubded oat the poor toek's ayes 
With that old ogly key. 



Yoa made iU eyes blaek holes, — yoa did ; 
And, eoone, the took ean't see." 

Dear grandpapa, he took her ap ; 

'* Tm sorry, dear," laid he ; 
" Bat grandpa woaldn*t want a elook 

To talk, and dng, and sea." 



PaHPKIN PIE. 

BT LHJAir BAT. 

She Qoddf 88 of Pumpkin Pie stands at baek of stage. Enter tbe 
■ee lime maids from sohooL" They approach her, making bows.] 

Mdids. — Three little maids from sohool are we, 
Joyoas and happy, and fall of glee ; 
Home for vaeation, and glad to see 
The Goddess of Pampkin Fia. 

G^JtM.— Who ean eat a pampkin pie f 
Maid$ (ta him).— I, I, L 
OM/iiesf .— Who ean bake a pampkin pie f 
Maidt (in tarn) eaeh give a iigh« 
Oodd€$9,^'Now here*s the reeipe, good and trae« 

Whieh I will gkdly giTe to yoa. [HatuU ii to them.] 

When all is ready tap that bell, 

And forth will eome, as in a spell, 

All things yoa need ; so do yoa welL 
{OirU take twrtu in tapping tJUbeUfcrtJU arficist to enter,) 

{EfiUr two hoy 9 witk large yellow tiee.) 
Boye.^- We have oome to repreeent 

At yoor eall oor pampkin raee. 
(They bow, and ttand at one eide,) 

(Enter two girle with white aprone. ) 
Oirle, — Bggs yoa*re wanting. 
Oar white shells 
Of good health 
Bight plainly taUs. 
Mr. Smith no batter sells. 

[The nawu of any grocer may he usee/.] 

(Enter two hoye witk light and dark hrown tiee,) 
Firet Boy.—I'm the ginger. 
Second Boy.— I am doves. 
Together, — Don*t get as too near yoor nose. 
(Enter two girle in white cape and rihhone, ) 
Oirle,^ We*re the flonr so white and olean. 
Better yoa have never seen. 



68 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[On. 



(Snter t«» hoyi with largt cr^am'CoUred Ct«f.) 
Boyf — MOk is Ttty good to drink, 

Wliioh we osn testify. 
For pumpkin pie, you'll need, I think, 

Our brown jnge' best supply. 

(Enter two girh in white dreuee^) 
OirU.^ We will be yonr soger sweet ; 
Teste of ns, we're good to eat. 

^{Little maide mno MareA among the wuteriale ae though mixing, 
and all ting to the tune of ** Yankee Doodle*^ :) 

We will heTO n pumpkin pie, pumpkin pie, pumpkin pie. 

We will hsTO n pumpkin pie 

For ThnnksgitiDg dinner. [Repeating until thorougMg mixed.'] 

[LHtle maide etand at tide. Otrlt repretenting artidee join handt 
Iff dose circle, Bogt form a large circle around them. All kneel 
dawn, while maide advance and tkoroughfy look them over and nod 
to each other with tati$faction.) 

FbrttUaid.-- Now if s reedy for the bekii«. 

Second Maid.^Oh, whet fun there is in making 

Three Maide.-- A good pumpkin pie. 

( Tkrte little maidt kneel before the Ooddett. ) 
Goddete. — Bleesings on yon little maids, 

Theee materials, and all aids. 

Blsssmgs on your pumpkin pie. 
(Exit goddete f three maide, and othert in pairt.) 



MARCHING EXERCISE SONG. 

Tune: ••NeUy Bly.- 
BT ADA. 8IMP80V 8HXBWOOD. 



Kl! 



T^BBB we go, to and fro, 
^n llarohing in a row, 

^ Up and down the sohoolroom bright, 
Keeping time jost eo. 
Chorus. — One two, three, four, ^keeping time joet so. 

Up and down the sohoolroom bright^ see the ehildren go. 

[BepeaL] 
Faees bright, stand upright. 

Sing a merry song ; 
Isn't this a heppy sight, 
As we maroh along f 
fSbomf.— One, two, three, four, ete. 

Wdd birde fly. through the sky, 

Happy, glad, and free; 
Yet wilhin our sohoolroom bright, 

Happier f er are we. 
G&omf.— One, two, three, four, ete. 

Stil we go, to and fro, 
(3aily maroh along, 
While our merry Toiees ring 
In a manhiog song. 
C%onis.-*One, two, three, four, ete. 

Now we stand with eaeh hand 

Baieed eboTO our heed. 
While we give our ezerdse. 
As our teeoher said. 
CAomi,— One, two, three, four,— keeping time jost so. 
While we giTO our ezereise, standing in a row. 

Up and down, right and left, 
ThiswiUi 



Now we all will swing our i 
Standbg in a row. 
CAont«.*^One, two, three, four, eto. 

Now we'll rest, that is beet. 

When our song is done, 
Studying with newer xest 
For the strength we^TO won. 
CAoTMj.— One, two, three, four,— all to study go. 

For wo'ts had our merry song, marahing in i 

NoTB.— After the marcbing and arm moYemrat as Indleatod I 
Terses, the pupils should be seated (or the last Terse. 






FROGGY AND MR. SNAKE. 

BT I.. F. A. 

AID the frog to a snake pessing by. 

Why so flat on the ground do yon lie ? 
Why not giTO a great jump, as do I f " 

" These ie not muoh to see on the ground. 
Why don't you jump up and look 'round f 
There are great eights to see, I haTS found.*' 

« Oh, Jompbg's so ruae I " said the snake. 
" But mueh pleasure in running I take ; 
Will you run with me down to the lake ?" 

*' Oh, oertaiely," Froggy repUed, 
And to run Froggy tried and he tried, 
But he only oould jump ; and he eighed. 

But as the Snake graoefuUy sped 
Out of sight. Froggy stood on his head : 
*' I prefer to be rude, then," he said. 



DO TOUR BEST. 

BT B. IDBLLA WALLACB. 

J' YE somethbg to tell you, 
A plan you oan try,— 
How to be Tory good, 
As the hours go by. 
A plan Tsry simple. 

For ohild or for man ; 
And thia is the way,— 
«< Do the beet that youeaa." 

But that means a great deal, 

And so it is plain. 
If we faU the first time. 

We must try yet again. 
In all this wide land, 

In the Best or the Weet, 
If we want to sueeeed. 

We must jost do on 



"M 



A FELLOW'S MOTHER. 

FELLOW'S mother," said Fred thewise« 
With his rosy oheeks and merry eyes, 
'* Kbows what to do if a fellow gets hurt 
By a thump, or a bruise, or a fall in the dirt. 

'* A fellow*s mother has bags and strings. 
Rags and buttons and lots of thiogs ; 
No matter how busy she is, she'll stop 
To see how well you oan spin yonr top. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



69 



} 



^ 81m docs BotMTO— not mseh, I idmhi, 
If • Mlow's fue is not slwsyB oImui; 
Asd if your liooint an toia at the kaca 
8ha ean paio» a patob thai yoa'd n«far tee. 

"A fallow's mothsv is asvar mad, 

Bat only sorry if yoo aia bad ; 

Aad I tall yoa tbk, if yoii'ia oaly true, 

Slie'U alwa38 forgive yon whata'er yon dOb 

«« Tm sate of this/' said Fred the wise, 
With a nmaly look ia his ianghiag ayes, 
'* m miad my mother, qoiok, OTsry day ; 
A feUow's a hahy that doB*t obey." 



SOLDIERS. 

BT ULUBA F. ABMITAQB. 

HEAR the aoise of honi and dram, 

The tramp of little feet, 
And from my wiadow look to see 

What's eomiag down the strsst. 

It is ahaadof ■oidisr-boys; 

The eaptain braTO is Pred; 
He waYoe his shiaiag sword of tin. 

And walha with hcaTy tiead. 

Than Walter eomes, with flaf held hi|^ 

And then oomes little Jim, 
He bsata the dmm with all his might, 

Aad all hasp step with him. 

Aad last of all eomes little Joe; 

He's only three years old ; 
He blows apon a horn so shrill, 
. Haada to my ears I hold. 

Oh army braTS of little mea, 

With hearta so stoat and true, 
When yon haTO older grown, yon'U find 

Theca'a work for yon to do. 

There are hard battles to be gained 

In fightiag for the Bight, 
'Gaiast wrong and a«gry words, yoa all 

Mnst strive with all yoor might. 
Temptatioa mnst be beaten bsek. 

And SelflshnsM aad Oread ; 
And evil thooghti mast be pot dawn, 
If yon woald win, indeed. 

And may yon brarely battle with 

Theae foea that will appear. 
And keep your hearti both pate and strong. 

To meet them without fear. 



THE GOLDEN KEYS. 

A bnneh of golden kof s is mine. 
To make eaeh day with glada 

** Good morning I " that'a the golden key, 
That anloeks eVry day for ma. 

When eveniag oomes, ** Oood night I " I say, 

And elose die door of taoh glad day. 
Whea at the Ubie '* If yon please I " 

1 take from off my bnaeb of keys. 

When friends give aaythiag to me, 

I'll ase the U^Ue «* Thank yon" key. 
I'll oftea ase eaeh goldeo key. 

And so a happy ehUd FU be. - SeleeUd. 



Qaesttons and answers for the Notes and Qneries sbooldrBaeh ns by 
tte lint of each mointh. We respeetfully request aO the readett A 



Tbm Tkaokbb to take part In the dlsenssldns of this „ 
Sand In Questions, aad famish answers to qoesttons glTon.— J 



AN8WEB8 TO qUERIEB. 

<)50. " His being a fortigner waa no azeaae." Dispose of words 
in italics. 

The phrase, " being a foreigner," is nssd substantirely. '* Being" 
is a participle; '* foreigner" is nssd as objeet of the partieipla. 

H. I. B , Btaetr Cromng^ Neb. 
Credit to C. J. E. ; also to J. E. 11 

I eannot accept the dispoiitioa of the words " beiag " aad '* for- 
eigner" as giYsn in the Jane Tbacbbb,— Aas. No. 650; m, 
'" The phrase * beiag a foreigner' is nsed sabateBUYaly. 'Beiag' 
is a participle; * foreigner' is nssd aa the object of the partidpla." 

Flesse review with ma a few defiaitioas, and .than let ns rsaaon 
together a little. 

Def. 1 : A verb is a word whose office in a seateaee is to express 
action, being, or state. Now we readily see that Terbs natnrally fall 
into two geaeral sl e w s as to the manner of ezpreadag the action, 
bebg, or state. The first class inclndes all thoia verbs whose 
office is to assert actioa, being, or state; as. The dog cavight the 
rat; The man tf old ; The dock AaN^f on the walL 

The sscond daai indndea all these verbs, whoos office ie to ae- 
snme action, beiag, or state; as. To teaek is pleaaant; Hie bnng a 
foreigner is no ezcnss ; The man died, /wsroMf throggh the heart 

De/. 2 : A traasitive verb is one whose BManing seqnires Im ol>- 
ject (expressed or andcntood) of the aetioo ezprecMd by the vwb. 

Def. 8: Aa intmnsitlTe verb is oaa whose meaning dosa notia- 
qaira an object By esamiaing dafiaitions 2 and 8,.we see that off 
the traasitiTe verbs are action-words and that part of the action- 
words are iatraasitive verbs. 

Now let ns compare cor beiair-words and state-woeda with thaas 
daflaitjona, 2 aad 8, and we rrndily see that abac i 
worda nor stata-worda eipiem any action, th^ caanot 
aad mnst be intnunltive. As *'bsiag," hi the given ssatsnae, is a 
beiag-word aad ezpresMs ao acdoa, there ean be no object ol its 
It is intmnsitlva, and aaaaot have an objeat 

Behiw I give what I think to be the corraat aaalyab ol thaasn- 
andpasslBgof tha italleissd woeda : 

beimg 
\ I \/&rtigner 



Hie 



A I 



\ae 



is an abridged 



las the 



" His behig a foreigner' 
snbject of the sentence. 

"Befaig" is a verb, the predicate of the abridged alawa, a par- 
ticiple with tha coastraotiMi of a nonn, tha priacipal word of tha 
abridged ahmsa, and the logical snbject of " waa " ; Hi$ being wa$ 
noexcuee. Bat the bsbg has an attribnta, that of foreigner. It is 
modified by the poamssive pronoon '* His." (Beed and KeUogg's 
Higher Leeeone in Engiiek^ Ltsson 88.) 

" Foreigner " is a aona, eommon, third pstaon, ringnlar nnmbar, 
mascnlina gender, nomiaatlve eese, the attribute complement of the 
abridged elaasa. (Holbrook*s Coaiparatios Engluk Qrammar^ 
P., 160, §1078. " The attribeto of the abridged claase is in the 
nominative when iti subject ie in the nominative or poonsrive ; as, 
John beiag a 6oy waa aaabla to labor continnowly ; Hie being a 
ktadent was no rsason for hie bsing a toaops.") 

O. B. ZmtA^ 



70 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Oct. 



667. A ^ piteh roof ia pnt on a notangQlar house, 86x42 ft., 
with flat deck at top, 8 ft abo?e th« baie. What it th« size of the 
deck ? What is the length of the tide and comer rafters f M. Y . 

The rafter to a ( pitch roof forms the hypotennse of a right-angled 
triangle whose altitude equals f its hase ; then the side rafter will 
have a 12 ft. hase with an 8 ft. rise; then V(8^ + 12>) « 1442 ft., 
length of side rafter. The comer rafter will have a nm (hsse of 
triangular, of which it is the hypothennse) equal to the diagonal of 
a 12 ft. square; then V[(12>+ 12*) + 8^1 -18.76 ft, length of 
comer rafter. Iba L. C, Colb^j Wit, 

662. James Gibboni, age 44 years, takes out an endowment 
policy for $8000, payable in 16 years ; reckoning interest at 6 per 
cent, on his payments, will he gain or lose if he Utcs to reoeiye the 
endowment f 

According to the ordinary life table the premium on $1000 at 44 
years is $35.94 ; $35.94 X 8 »= $287.52, yearly payment on $8000 ; 
$287.52 X 16 » $4600.82, paid in premiums on $8000; first pay- 
ment, $887.52, draws, or would draw interest for 15 ysars ; second 
payment, $287.52, dmws, or would dmw intereit for 14 yean ; and 
so on down, makmg 120 yean, altogether. $287.52 X .06 X 120 ^ 
$2070.14, amount paid in iatenst; $4600.32 + $2070.14 ^ $6670.- 
46, amount of premium and interest ; $8000 ~ $6670.46 »■ 1829.64, 
gain. H. L B., Btaver Craning, Neb. 

670. A pole is 16 feet high ; how far from the ground must it 
be out so that the piece resting with one end on the pole will strike 
the ground just sight fset from the base of the pole f 

As 8 is the base of a right-angled triangla, the sum of whose per- 
pendicular and hypothennse is 16, the right of the pole ; and again, 
as 8 is the base of a right-angled triangle whose perpendicular is 
6« and whose hypothennse is 10, 6 must be that part of the pola 
remaining in the ground, and is therefore 6 feet This is a logical 
solution, bssed upon Carpenter's Theorem for drawing a square on 
a right angle. The question can be easily sdTed by algebra. 

Z. RiCHABDS. 



—w 



/eo^os. 



A 



SO\RPS 



^ 



msiL. 



SO\ROt, 



^ 



M- 



671. A fsrmer has 160 acres of land, in shape a square. H« 
reserves a square in one comer, containfaig 40 acres, for bis ova 
use, and wants to divide the remaining 120 acres among his four 
sons, so that each son may have the same amount and that tli« four 
pieces may be ezaetly the same shape. Give diagram of tha dfTviom. 

Description of the manner of 
diririon of the farms. Divide 
the whole iquare of 160 acres 
into four equal squares. Re- 
serve one of these equal squares 
for the farmer. Then divide 
each of the three remaining 
iquares into four equal squares. 
Take the three small central 
squares, which are contiguous to 
the inner corner of the farmer's 
large square, for one farm, for 
one son; and the three remain- 
ing iquares, which are contigu- 
ous to each of the three other oomen, for the other farms. (See 
the diagmm.) Z. RiCHABDS, WaAingtxm^ D. C. 

Credit to O. B. B., JohnvUle, N. B. ; E. G. W., N. Dotset, Vt ; 
L. B. G., Parkersville, N.Y. ; J. L., Springfield, Mo. ; C. L. F., 
East Peoria, 111. 

674. A man was given $100, with which to buy 100 head of 
stock ; he was to buy cattle, sheep, and geese, paying $10 per head 
for the cattle, and $1 per head for the sheep, 12} centi apiece for 
the geese. How many of each did he buy ? K A. H. 

7 cattle, .... $70 

21 sheep 21 

72 geese, .... 9 






100 $100 

A. J. R., JBbft BiXioMd, Miek. 
Credit to B. B. G., Johnville, N. B. ; E. G. W., N. Docset,yt 



MAURY'S 

Physical Geography 

REVISED EDITION 



Is a favorite tez^book, widely used ia every State of the 
Union. 

Its statements of scientific principles and facts are accurate 
and trustworthy. It recognizes progress in physical science. 

It has unrivalled attractions and charm of style. It kindles 
the enthusiasm of pupils and lightens the labor of teachers. 

Its numerous illustrations, colored maps and charts furnish 
invaluable supplementary aids to the text. 

lu form and size (ii^xS inches) are peculiarly convenient 
for schoolroom use or a place in the library. It is attractively 
bound in cloth. 

Introdaotion price, $1.20; in azohange for other 
book, 75 cents. 

Correspondence invited oonoemiag this work, and 
Maury's popular two -book series, the Elementary 
and the Manual, Address 

UNIVERSin PUBLISHING CO.. 



as 'B.aiyrl'ov St. 

BOSTON. 



(le A es Duane St.> 

NEW YORK. 



What is Said of tlie Badger Primary Table. 

I have ezsmined tbe working of the Bsds- 
er Prlnutfy Table. I find U norel and e»> 
ceedlngiT well ad«pted for the work of pzl- 
marj •cfioolt and klDdernrtens. I reeom- 
mend any princifiali who haTO taperrlilon 
of tnoh schools to examine for tbemeelToe. 
— S. U. ALB BO, Institute Instruetor. 

Ton wish to know If a lengthened experi- 
ence in the use of the Badger Primary T9a- 
ble confirms my former favorable omnion. 
In answer, I am pleased testate that farther 
use of the table emphasises the expression 
heretofore made. £% yon are aware, slaee 

Krchaslng the first one, two years ago» we 
ye added four others, and intend to put la 
two more in a shoit time. All of oar pri- 
mary teachers want them, and in one of 
oar »choqls last year a teacher borrowed the 
oover of a table in use in an adjoining room 
and had legs pat on it — O. V.U. Mbsriu,, 
Snot. Schools Eloiira. N. T. 

We have ated year Badger Primary Ta- 
bles for some time, and I most say they are 
i ast the thlodr needed In primary work We 
t>ilnk now that we conld not possibly get 
along withoat them. Bvery palmary school 
shoaid have one— P. Cobubh, Prln Qram- 
mar School No. 8, klmlra, N. T. 

[Similar testimonial* have come from E. 
J. Beardsley, now Sapt. of bohools. bat for> 
merly Principal of School No. 2; Principal 
B. S. Todd and foar assistants of No. 17; 
Principal Mary A. Potter, of the Madison 
Avenue Primary, and many other Etanira 
teachers.] 

Enclosed please find draft on New York 
to your order in full for your table. It gives 
^satisfaction in the school, and even after 
ti^ the short time we hare had H we would not 
be without It. Our primary teachers like It 
It should be in all schools which have a 
separate primary room or department.— B. 
O. Williams, Pros. Board of Education, 
Newark, N. T. 

Last November onr Board of Education placed in my primary department 
one of your Badger Primary Tables After t-en years' experlenoe in prlmsry 
work. I am glad to pronoun<*e it rme of the finest things for nember work la 
this gradn. and would hlRhlr recommend it to all teachers of such depart- 
ments.— FAimiB E. KiBK, Newark . N. T. 

I have used one of the Badger Primary Tables for several months, and 
have found it of great use In awakening an Interest In tbe number lesson. 
The table Is also a source of great pride to all our little folks, and I cannot 
tell you how many oldf-r brothers and sisters have oome to my door begging 
to see ** That Wonderful Table " the little ones Ulk about so much.— Alios 
M. OabSDBH, Watkliis. N. Y. 
Prices. 1 Section. 88.00 ; S Secttons, 815.00: 3 Sections, 8M.00. 

C. W. BARDEENp Publisher* Syracuse. N. Y. 




1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



71 



675. Wh«k poedihaTe been poet lauefttas of Enfflmnd? 



Bdmiind Spenoer, — ^. 

SAnmel Daniol, — — — • 
Ben. JoDMB, IGSO-ieST. 
WmUun DATMiMit, 1687-1668. 
John Dryden, 1670-1688. 
ThamM ShsdweU, 1689-1692. 
Nahmn Tate, 1698-1714. 
KicholM Rowe, 1714-1718. 



Lawrenoe BadMn, 1719-1780. 
Colley Cibber, 1780-1757. 
William Whitehead, 1758-1785. 
Thomai WartoD, 1785-1790. 
Henry Jamee ?je, 1790-1818. 
Robert Soathey, 1818-1848. 
William Wordtworth, 1848-1850. 

Alfred Tennyion, 1850 

E. G. W., North Dortet, Vu 



Czedit to C. L. F., East Peoria, HL 

676. What are the eoMntial prorisioiui of the Samoan treaty 
between the United States, England, and Germany, lately ratiaed 
by the U. S. Senate. 

The treaty s^oaraateee neatrality of the ialande, allows Samoans 
to choose their own king, provides for a ehief jnstiee to be named 
by the three signatory powers, bnt in ease they are not aUe to agree, 
ho ia to be named by the king of Norway and Sweden, this ehief 
JQttaee to be removed upon oomplaint of any one of three powers ; 
proyidea for a settlement of land titles and for the levying of import 
and export dnties on eertain artioles. C. L. F., Illinoit. 

670. Two men, A and B, start from opposite directions, and 
travel toward eaehoUier. After meeting on the road« it takes A 25 
hoom to travel the distaaee B had oome, and B 86 lioars to travel 
the road A had eome. How long is eaeh traveling the whole dis- 



If A travels the distaaee B had eome in 25 boors, and B the dis- 
tance A had eome in 86 boors, then the ratio of one to the other 
wUlbe V(}i)f<»i If B travel { as Isst as A, then 25 boors most 
be i of time traveled by A before meeting B, or 80 boors. 80+25 
aB55hoors, A'stime. If 80 is {. then 80 + 86 « B's time. 

JOHK L., Springfiddj Mo, 



680. A eirenlar lot, 15 rods in diameter, is to have three eirooUw 
grass beds jost tooohii^ eaeh other and the large boondary. What 
most be the'distanoe between their oenters, and how mooh groond 
is left in the triaognlar abont the main center ? 

Inscribe within the oironlar lot a hexagon. Eaeh side of the tri- 
angles composing this hexsgon is eqoal to the radios of the cirde, 
being equilateral. Let fall a perpendioalar from the center of 
circle to opposite side of eqoilateral triangle, dividing it into two 
right-angled triangles. This biseeU the base. (2^0 Draw three 
hexagons around the common center. Now if the diameter of the 
lot is 15 rods, the radios is 7.5 rods, and the base of the right-angled 
triangle is } of 7.5, or 8.75 rods. 

Inscribe within the small hexagon a circle whieh shall tooch eaeh 
of the smaller circles and the larger one. At the point of contact 
with the smaller circle, let fall a perpendieolar from center to this ' 
point. This will bisect one of the eqoilateral triangles composing 
the small hexsgon forming a second right-angled triangle. Since 
the base of the eqoilateral is 8.75 rods, and this is bisseted, we have 
the base eqoal 1.875 rods. The sqoare of hypoUienose, 8.75 — 
sqoare of base 1.875 gives 14.0625 — 8.515625, and the sqoare root 
is 8.2491 rods, the radios of small circle, and the distance from 
oenters is twice this, or 6.4982 rods. 

Form a triangle with the centers of small dreles as its angles. 
This also is eqoilateral, eaeh side being twice the radios of small 
circles, or 6.4982, and iU area is the prodoot of 6.4982 X 8.2491, or 
21.1188 + rods. 

This triangle is eqoal to } or } area of small cirde + the small 
triangle at center. Area of small drde » 88.15477 + rods, and 
one half this area is 16.577887 ; 21.1188 + rods — 16.577887 » 
4.5S59 sq. rods, area of small triaai^ at center. Distance from 
eenters 6.4962 rods; area of small triangle at center, 4.5869 sq. 
rods.— ilfu. John L,, Sprinofidd, Mo. 

Credit to G. E. B., Powellsville, Ohio. 



mSS POTTER'S 

Primary Readins Cards. 

Price,'' 30 Oeixts per So3c» postpaid. 

Miss Potter's Beading Cards combine amusement with Instruction In 
Beading, Number, Language, and Form. They contaio several full 
sets of Oapital Letters, Small Letters, Figures and Punctuatloo Marku, 
and a Voeabulary of One Hundred and Tbirty-flve Different Words 
found in the first twenty five obapters of one of the latest and best First 
Beaders These are the only cards that present such a complete and 
carefully graded List of words with their proper duplicates by which 
bundreds of sentencee may be formed. They will interest and instruct 
the youngest pupU, yet they are capable of such a variety of changes 
and comolnadons that the older pupils mav use them with profit. 
Printed on durable cardboara having last colors. 

A BOX CONTAINS 
•!• Card* IV4 x % laches. 198 Capital I^ettevs. 
868 Word*. 104 Small I^etcers. 

13(1 Oiffereat Warda. 99 Paactaatlaa fllarks. 

40 Figaree. 



Songs and Games for Our Little Ones. 



Bt janb mullby. 



Prioo, 25 oants, postpaid. 



For Primary SehooU and Kindergartem. Chatie and Befined, 
Very Popular* Each 8ong and €hune accompanied 
with Choice Mueic. 

For young ehlldren this collection Is without an equal. These songs 
and games are bright fresh and taking. They are not be found In 
other collections, as all have been written expressly for this book, or 
adapted by the author from the Qerman. 

** Thla little Maneal of Songs end Oamet eontelnt thlrtv-flre of the best 
srnuiirod exereUes. of their kind, for little ones in the KtndorRarten, Prt- 
msry School, and Home, that we neve ever examined."— .Yew EngUmd Jour- 
not nf Education. 

9r Bbmd fob thbbs Fiun CATAi.oouxa of Hslps, Dbyiobs. 
Aim. Bohool NoYBLTncs. Thby will iktkiubst tou. 

W. D. KERR, Publisher, 
62 A 64 Lafayette Place, NEW YORK CITY. 

IMeniion Amebicajx Tbaohsb ] 



LESSONS IN RIGHT DOING. 



^s^^ 


^^tefSj^S* 


K#^^ 


^^^"^^•^ 




wF^m 



iKTBODUCnoK BY 

N. A. 0ALKIN8. 
Priee, 4S seats, postpaid. 

Mueh Is said abont seod- 
•ne the "whole boy*' to 
school, but while attention 
9 glYen to the training of 
(be brain and body, the 
most Important part of all. 
be moral nature, has been 
neglected. 

The author of this book 
nas sought to present the 
DiiDCiples which underlie 
til right actions In such a 
plain and simple form as to 
<\^ easily understood by 
yniing children. 

There Is nothing dull or 
Htllted about the book. 
t^upUs will read it eageriy. 
U Is aSUPPLBMBNTABT 
R BA DBR, but not a oompll- 
itlon of pointless anecdotes. 
The introduction by N. A. 
Oaiklns is very suggestlYe. 
•(troDgly bound In Doards. 
171 quarto psg es. 



Address TBAUHEB8* PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

No. 6 OLorroB Plaob, Netw York, N, 1. 



THE TEACHERS* WORLD. 



Aid», and Derlcee. 

Monthly. 60 cents per year. Bend for Sample Oopy. 

Address TBACHBB8' PUBLISHING CO., 

No 6 Clibtok Plagb, How York, N. 7. 



SBND for our new TBACBBRS' OAT a LOO VB af B«*ks 
Mi TemchiB^y 8ch«*lre«Bi Aids aad I>CTicee« 

Address TBACHBB8' PUBLISHING CO., 

No. 6 Clibtob Plaob, New York, If, 1. 



72 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Ooi. 



711. 
712. 
718. 

714. 



qUEBIES. 



708. A £wm«r took 20 bo. of whaiU to mill. Tho miilor would 
griud it for oiio foorih, or for 25o. a bo. Tbe farmor Mooptod the 
uUter offor. Did he gain or lose, aad how muoh f 

709. Whet wae pat on board the eehoooer Miohigaa when It was 
•eat over the lalla of Niafiara in 1820. 

710. What is meant by the ^'almighty dollar*' f 

J. D. c , Xt%, m. 

What if moant by " He hae gone up 8idi RiTer" f 
Ho# did the name Brother .loaathan originate f 
Who la laid to haTO nted the Union three timee f 

J. D. C, LUIy. m. 
Where and when did Alioe Dobbins, the anthor of the 
poem, "Jim/* li?e ? Did she ever write anything else f 
715. What President onoe held an interest in a distillery f ' 
710. The bsse of a right-angled triangle is 13 ft. The perpen- 
dieolar and hypothennte ace whole nnmbers. What are they f 

A. W. K 

717. An old gentleman, havlog 120 inrkeys, decided to keep one 
half to dispose of himself, and dmde the remainder (60) equally 
between his two sons. He (the old gentleman) sold his floek at the 
fate of 5 tnikeys lor $2.00 ; one sun his floek at 2 tnrkeys for $1.00, 
and the other son 3 tnrhe^s for $1.00. On eonnting the proee ed s. 
the old gentleman fonod that he leeked $1.00 of harbg aa moeh as 
his sons. How doee this happen f N. M., Ckico, Cat. 

718. The distanoe between the earth and son is 91.600,000 miles, 
and at that distanoe the semi-diameter of the son snbtsnds aa angle 
of 10^. What is the diameter of the son f 

719. Whioh is eorreet, ** To be him is a di^graoe," or " To bs 
Asisadisxraee"? 

720. How many asteroids are now known f 

721. How many satellitse are now known in the solar system? 

722. Can any reader giye me a rale for measnring mbber belt- 
ing without nnroUiQg f J. M. L. 

728. A man borrowed $585 at a bank intessst of 10%, payable in 
adTaaee. At the end of the first year he eooMS to the baoher with 
$a00, WKfiagi Dedoetthe iatereer lor the foliowiag year, and etedit 
me with the balaaee. What was the indorssoBeat o» the note f 

Wm. H.W. 




The Grolden Gate Kiodergarten Aasoeiation of San Fran- 
disco, Cal, was established eloYeii years ago bj Mrs. 
Sarah B Cooper, and a few of her earnest friends, who 
realized the great necessity of kindergartens on the Paeifie 
coast The association now indades twenty-two kinder- 
gartens, with over 1700 papils and 42 teachers. In the 
eleven years the organization has expended $118,000, 
and the expenses last year were $25,000. There areoTsr 
200 regular members who donate $3 00 a year or more, 
with which to carry on the work. Some idea of the pro- 
gress of the work can be gained when it is oonsidefed 
that 12 years ago there was not one free kindergarten in 
California, and today three are 62 in San Francisco alooe. 
A delightful reception was given by the children beloog- 
ing to the Hearst Kindergartens to Mrs. George Hearst, 
who has established three kiodergartens which she akms 
supports. At the conclusion of the children's greeting to 
their generous benefactres*, Mrs. Cooper, the president 
of the GU>lden Gate Association, made the important an- 
nouncement that Mrs. Hearst had authorized the estab- 
lishment of a Bianual Training School, where children 
over six years of age after graduating from the free kin- 
dergartens oould learn the arts and industries. Mrs. 
Hearst will liberally endow the institution, aad make it 



EQUIPOISE WAISTS. 

For Ladies, Misses, Children^ and Infants. 

The Equipoise Waist is a per. 
feet sabstitute for the corset and 
may be worn either with or with- 
out bones, which, owiog to the 
} constmction of the bone pockets, 
may be remoTed and re-inserted 
without ripping. 

It is a combination of a corset, 
a waist, and a corset cover, and 
ladies need not fear that the grace 
•f form imparted by the corset 
will be in the least sacrificed by 
wearing the Equipoise. 

They are made in high neck 
and low necic, long waist and medium waist, with bones and with 
out bones, White, Tan, and Black. 

Prices, 60o., 75o., *1.75, *2.00, *2 25, $2 50, and $3.00. 

Illustrated catalogue mailed free to any address by the manufacturers^ 

QEORQE FROST & CO., 31 Bedford St. , Bostoi, Mass. 





OVBR TIN MILLION PAIRS SOLD. 

THE WARREN FASTENER has a 
BOUNDED BIB around the_part which holds 
the ttooking, and WILL MOTTEAB the finest 




WABREN HOSE SnpPORTEBS ARE FOR 
SALE BVEBY WHERE. Ask for them at the 
stores and BE SURE YOU GET THE WAR- 
REN, which may be identifled bv the FAST- 
ENER which has a RoUNDED RIB on the 
holding edges, and is stamped with the word 
WARREN. DO NOT BE DECEIVED bv 
Fasteners whioh appear to have rounded hold- 
ing edges, aa the proceaa by which they are 
made leaves almost a knife edge on the inner 
or holding surface, and they will out the 
stocking. 

The Warren is made in a great variety of 
styles for Ladies. M isses and Children, in SILK 
and COTTON WEBS. 

Illustrated Catalogue of HOSE SUPPORT- 
ERS and CORSET SUBSTITUTES roailedfree 
to any address by the manufacturers, 

GEO. FROST & CO.,31 Bedford StiBoiton, \ 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



73 



one of the most uBefol sehools on the coast. The leading 
ladies of San Franeiseo are actire workers in this cause. 
Mrs. Leland Stanford is the Honorary President, and at 
the head of the Board of Directors. To Mrs. Sarah B. 
Cooper, the noble, Christian philanthrophist, belongs the 
highest credit for the great practical snccess of the Kin- 
dergartens of the Pacific Coast. 



m >•> ^ 



THE FREE KINDERGARTEN AND INDUSTRIAL 
TRAINING. 

BT FLOKA E. OOLB. 

fROM aU parts of the country come acconnts of the 
beneficent results of free kindergartens. Ten years 
ago, in New York, under great discouragements, a free 
kindergarten was opened by the Society for Ethical Cult- 
ure, it began ¥rith eight children, — six boys and two 
girls. They spent the first morning in amazement, listen- 
ing to the songs which were sung but in which they were 
too astonished to join. All but one endeayored to draw 
or weaye when these occupations were giyen to them. 
When noon came they were dismissed to go horn a to their 
luncheons. They hurried back with eager faces, full of 
curiosity to know what would be done in the afternoon, 
and moreoyer they brought two more children. Before 
many weeks a little girl was heard exclaiming that '^ there 
were so many nice days in the week, now." In one 



year*s time twenty-fiye children had passed through the 
kindergarten. Then the question arose what to do with 
them. Should they be allowed to drift away into dark- 
ness again, or should an effort be made to continue their 
education ? It was decided to establish a school, which 
was finally called the Workingman's SchooL The methods 
of the kindergartens were continued to meet adyanced 
needs. The material and tools selected conform to the 
child's phjrncal strength. Plates of clay of irregular out- 
line, ten to fifteen inches in length and breadth, and about 
one and a half inches thick, are giyen to the pupils. The 
first lesson consists in the construction of a square. They 
proceed from this to other geometrical forms and to model- 
ing objects, useful or natural When old enough to work 
in wood, that industry is conmieneed. Scroll saws are 
introduced. The pupils are encouraged to design. There 
are instructions about tools belonging to the yarious handi- 
crafts. The hand begms to follow the direction of the 
mind, and mechanical drudgery ceases. Besides this 
technical instruction in industries, study is also added in 
these grades. Manual work for girls, also, claims a much 
needed place. The cutting and fitting of garments is 
properly taught ; also original ornamental designing. 
There are now seyeral hundred children reaping the ben- 
efits of this wise instruction. The annual expenses are 
about twenty-fiye dollars per pupil, aU of which is fur- 
nished by priyate contributions, the school receiying no 







IS VOLUMES NOW READY. 

For full particulars, address 
D. APPLETON a Co., Publlthere, 
t, 3, li 5 Bond St, NEW YORK. 



Boston Normal School 
of Gymastics. 

PAINE MEMORIAL BUILDIN8, AIVLETON ST., BOSTON. 

Proyides the best instruction to be found this side of 
Sweden in the Ling or Swedish System of OymnaeHes. 
The system is authorized and approyed by the Boston 
School Committe. 

Address for circulars and terms, the School, at 
PAIHE MIMORIAL BVlLDEVe, Appleton St„ Boston. 



KINDERG ARTEN TRAINING. 

TtM Kindergarten Training Glass establlalied by Mrs. Qunror A. 
Shaw In oonneotlon with tlM sehool, s Marlborough Bt, Boston, wiU 
be reopened on Thursday, Ootober 9, isso. 

THREE DIFFEREirr COURSES WILL BE GIVEK. 

1. A luU ooune In Ftoebel's PhOosophy and In the Kindergarten 
Gifts, Oeeupatlotti, Songs, and Oame«, fitting students to talie ohaige 
ofaKlndeiiarten. 

s. A ooune of leetuies on the same subjeets to mothers and womeii 
Interested tn the trataiing of young ehttdrin. 

S, Weekly talks to nureei. 



A. S. BARNES & CO., 751 B'way, Hei York, 

Inyite the attention of teachers to their list of distinetiyely Teacher^ Books, numbering some Thirty Tolumes. 
each and aU inyaluable to the teacher who desires to make the most of his (or her) pursuit Send for list with prices. 



74 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Oct- 



aid from the state. The managers and teachers are 
permitted to refer to the names of distingruished clergy- 
men, physicians^ bankers, lawyers, and merchants, who 
heartily indorse the principles and objects of the instita 
tion. These results have been accomplished in aboat ten 
years, and the benefits have been reaped by the children 
of the poor. The name of Workiogman's School was 
selected to do ai^ay ¥rith the unfortiinate associations con- 
nected with the word industrial or charity school. The 
papils are first taught the true dignity oi work and there- 
fore they learn that it is not a synonym for unrefreshing 
and constant toil. 

This experiment demonstrates the possibilities of Froe- 
bel*s principles if carried out to solve some of the great 
problems of our day. 



^ f ■> 



LESSONS FOR THE KINDERGARTEN AND PRI- 
MART SCHOOL. 

BY WILLIAM B. 8HBLDON, BOSTON. 

The Study of Plant Life. 

fO young children the plants make the earth very 
beautiful, and it is the mission of the skilled kinder- 
gartner and primary teacher to awaken the dormant fac- 
ulties, quicken and develop the senses of children, by pre- 
senting lessons on the vegetation with which the earth is 



clothed, in such a way that they will not only enjoy plant 
life, but be led to study it in its various details. 

A series of *< talks " or nature, stories, carefully pre- 
pared and told with naturalness and skill, will often open 
the minds and hearts of young children to the wonders 
and beauties of nature to an extent that will surprise 
those who have never made the experiment 

Let the subject be opened by a simple presentation of 
the general facts regarding plant life. Teach the papils 
that the plants not only cover the earth, but that they 
invade the sea ; that they are found among the burning 
sands of the heated portions of the globe, and among the 
snows on the tops of high mountains ; that each country 
and sea has its particular species of plants ; some revel in 
the scorching sunshine, others, like the red snow-plant, 
flourish only on the frozen snow ; that they serve useful 
purposes, — food for the animal world>^fruits, oils, nuts, 
etc., for man. Tell them the story of how plants f olfl] 
another great purpose by removing from the air they 
breathe the poisonous gases which, if left to accumblate, 
would destroy the health of animals and men. Having 
aroused an interest in the minds of the children by such gen- 
eral conversations about plants and their pA>ducts, the kin 
dergartner has prepared the way for more specific work that 
will lead to individual investigation on the part of the class. 

THE LBSSON. 

Seated around the table the children are shown a typ- 



BRAIN WORKERS NEED BRAIN FOOD 

HEALTHFUL BRAIN WORK may be maintained for years without injury, but overwork, excitement, anxiety, worry, use up the 
vital phosphite of the brain, chaoges it into inert phosphates, and causes nervous breakdown. Hundreds of eminent Phy- 
sicians and brain workers, testify to the relief given by Vitalised Phosphites in all forms of nervousness debility, brain weariness, 
and dyspepsia. This vitol nutriment feeds the blood and restores brain power, in the aged and the young. It contains neither stim- 
ulant or narcotic, but is a Vital Phosphite, not an inert acid Fhosphale. It is not a secret remedy , the formula is on every bottle. 
Descriptive pamphlet free, F. CROSBY CO., 66 West 26th St., New York. DruggUts or by mail, |i.oo. 



Teachers Co-Operative Association 

Established In 1884. ''Positions filled, 2300. Seek 



70-72 DEARBORN ST. 

CHICAGO. 

- Seeks Teachers who 

are ambitious for advancement rather than those without positions. 






MoBleal, far^onndlna, and hlolily 
satiafaetory bSii% 8eliS3£ 

Itolled 1826. ^SNBaortptioii 
pneea on appUeatton. 



and 



THE INTERNATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA. The Best for Read) Rriemce. 

15 royal oclavo Tolnme*. 

18.800 lanca pagtt. 
50,000 subjects treated. 

25,000 oroM-referenoea. 
150 double-pave tUustratlons. 

100 doaUe-pagtt inapt. 
7 editions tn live years. 

5 bindinga and 4 prioes. 
Each volume 10x7>^xS)^ In. 

Length of shelf, 2 ft. 10 ia. 

BOLD FOR CASH OR ON EA8Y 
PAYMENTS. SALESMEN WANTED, 




Write for deaoriptive oironlan, if yoa are 
intereeted. 

DODD, MEAD & COMPANY, 

Subscription Departments 
753 and 755 Broadway, N. T. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



75 



ical plant, which should he the haeia of many familiar 
^ ^,^ talks, explaining its 

parts, etc. Point 
out to them first 
the root, which 
is the part of the 
plant which descends 
into the ground, 
sending its rootlets 
in all directions 
through the soil for 
nourishment Show 
them the roots of 
a great variety of 
the common plants 
of the garden and 
field. Show them 
that roots never bear 
leaves, and that the 
stem is the ascend- 
ing portion which 
bears the leaves and flowers. With very young children 
the technioal names of the several parts of a plant should 
not be given. Show them that the leaves usually consist 
of a flat expanded portion, which is called the blade and 
the leaf stalky and that they vary in shape as shown by 
the specimen or as illustrated by the pictures. 




Interest the children in the study of the leaves by teach- 
ing them that they take in a large portion of the plant's 





food from the air, and assimilate or digest both this and 
that which is absorbed by the roots. 

In subsequent lessons explain the organs of reproduc- 
tion, — the flower which consists of two cups. Show the 




outside one, which is usually green and called the ecUyx ; 
the inner one, usually colored, called the ooroUoy and 
that within these cups are the essential organs of the 
flower, as they form the seed, and are called stamens and 
pistils. Show that the stamens consist of a number of 
thread-like stalks, each bearing a little sac called the an- 
^ ther. Show that the anthers are filled with a powdery- 
I looking matter, caUed pollen. Show the centre of the 



WoRTHijlGTOils IntebhatioHal UBBI{BY. 



A series of oontemponuieoiis works of fletion by great writers of Amerlea. France, Oermany, and Great Britain, forming a standard eol 

lection of pure, wholesome, entertaining reading, tlluttrated wltli ezgaislte photogravures. faulU* '^ ' ~ ^--^--^ . . 

•ttAer oIoCA at $1.26, ar in iUumlnaUa pap&r coven at 75 cenU eac/L 



JuBT Out : 19. VLIBT. 
latod by Hngh Gniff. 



iessly printed on beautiful paper, bound in 
%cn, 

A Novel by Paul Hbbvieu. Illustrated with pliotogfavuzeB by Madsleinb Lbmaibb. Tv 



A delightful book, dealing with Parisian life of 1880, showing its eleganoe, its pleasures, its refinements, and its loves, presenting exact 
^rpes of the highest eireles of society. The story is pure in deeds, the language chaste and limpid, the conversations sparkling with wit 
Added to these admirable descriptions are the inunltable designs from the brush of a Parisienne, illustrating the most feminine and worldly 



[ the hii^est circles of society. The stoi 

tothese adir' 

I of the story. 
1. Gertrude's Marriage* Bv W. Hbimbubo. 
<• Two Daaght«r'fi of One Race. By W. Hbimbubg. 

4. Lora, The Major's Daagrht^r. By W. HBiifBuse. 

5. Wlve» of Men of lientuH, ByALPHOssB Daudbt. 

6. Heartette ; or, a Cancan MtnUr. By Fbahoois Coppbx. 

7. ]Ia§:(!alcD's Fortutie^^ By W, Hbimbubg. 

8. Tbe PaHtoKH Dausr liter. By W. Hbimbubg. 

9. Tiie fefi <»f r^nv. Hf AxncRbbyb Aldbich. 

WORTHINCTON COMPANYp 



10. Bella's Blse Book. The story of an Ugly Woman. By 
Mabib Calm. 

11. Lucie's Mistake. By W. Hbimbbbg. 

18. Children of tbe World. By Paul Hbtse. 

14. A Sister's Loto. By W. Hbimbubg. 

15. Adyentures on the Mosqnlto Shore (Central America) 
By B. J. Squibb. 

- 747 Broadway, New York. 



^sr^K^"^ laiiSTOi?,-^-. 



HQW JO RJIjAKMBER 

, Sommary 



,.-_. ,-c— *- HISTORVs A Method of Memoriz 

ing Dates, with a Sommary of the Most Important Eyents of the 
Sixteentti. Seyenteenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries. 
For the Use oC Schools and Prtyate Students. By Yiboixia Con- 
sbbShaffbb. Square Syo. Cloth, $1.00. 



** This unique TOlome alms to teaeh to pnpUs in school and to private stn- 
dents a mothod of memorising dates. Tbero are tliree distinct features of 
the book: [l] A ehronology of eyents of eaeh oentnry stotes the svents of 
that oentory ; [S] eaob event Is treated f oUv and somewhat philosophleaUy, 
though with comparative brevity, and [8] the great and dlstlnotlye feature 
of the worlc Is its charts. Bach chart consists of one hundred squares, in 
which, by a device which consists of colored polygons of diiferent shapes.— 
each nation having a color, each class of events a peculiar polygon^the 
events are represented to the eye; and when studied in connection with tbe 
text, the events are Indelibly fixed In the mind. The system Is highly rec- 
ommended by the experience of Normal school teachers."— 066r/in Etviev. 



AN^JWUfflEITA^^Y HISTORY OF TKF„i^NITEO 

STATES. By Chablss mobbis, author of '^Balf-Hours with 

American dlstory," "The Aryan Bace," etc Illustrated. l2mo. 

Cloth, $1.00. 

In this work we haye, in addition to the historical details, a series of 

chapters desorfptiye of city and country life at different periods of our 

colonial and national history, each a picture of the people of America 

as they appeared at the yarioos periods indicated. The progress of 

inyenuon, striking developments of mechanical ability, and religious 

conditions, have been described with the design of making at once a 

hiitory of the American nation and of the American people, adapted in 

style and language to the use of the young, it is offered to the school 

f»ubiic of the united States, interspersed with many new and attractive 
ilustrations. with the hope that it may proye a welcome addition to 
our text-boolts. 



r^?^ ^^t^ ^'^ *V^Joduetion, De$cHptive circulan Bent on applieation, Corre$pondence relating to Books for XxaminatUm and 
Introduction invHed. Address 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY. Publishers, 715*717 Market St., PHILA. 
F. M.AMBB08V, H. S. Agt., 84 Harrison Atc. EztensiOMy BOSTON. 



76 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



1 



flower, which is called the pistil^ which consiste of three 
parts, — ^the seed vessel at the bottom (the awiry)^ con- 
taining yoong seeds, the stalk or styl&y and a roonded or 
flattened head, called the atif/ma. 
The iroit is simply the ripened 
ovary, and the ripened ovnles are 
called seeds. Not all plants have 
all of these organs. To show the 
children that plants do not all have 
flowers, exhibit the fern, which has 
spares on the under surface of the 
leaves, which answer the porpose of 
seeds in reprodnction. 

The mosses, lichens, fangi, and 
neaweeds are all flowerless plants, 
and are reprodnced by spores instead 
of seeds. 

Lessons or talks of the above char- 
acter will tend to stimulate the chil- 
dren to habits of observation, and 
ultimately lead them to a minute 
study of the structure, uses, and eco- 
nomic products of plants. Such ex- 
ercises are in harmony with the spirit of FroebeFs system 
of calling out the activities of children and giving them 
wise direction and guidance outside of the regular gifts, 
as laid down is his plans of juvenile instruction. 




THE KINDERGARTEN AS A PART OF THE 
PUBUC SCHOOL SYSTEM. 

f HE kindergarten has so far forced a recognitiom as 
a preparatory system of education, as to beeome 
engrafted upon the sdiooi sytem of several of tha laige 
cities of the country. Philadelphia has thirty-two kinder- 
gartens attached to its public system, St Louis has now 
sixty, and the city of Boston is sparing no pains or outlay 
in bringing the kindergartens into^ close relation to its 
public schools. Mrs. Shaw has, at her own expense, given 
them a ten years' test in that city. The testimony of the 
value of kindergarten training is very conclusive. The 
school board of Boston investigated the subject very care- 
fully, and the report is full of interest The committee 
of the board submitted questions to the leading teafohen 
of the city, and the replies embody their views of the 
efficiency, value, and practical usefulness of the kinder- 
garten system. We submit the essential points of these 
replies as condensed and arranged by Supt E. P. Seaver : 

1. On the iiitttU«otiua tide, the effaete of kmdogartMi tninuff 
en ■howB in highly qoiakeoed powm of obtenrmtioii ; hi tfa« po^- 
wing of doer idees, derived chiefly from iyetemetieelly guided 
ohiermtioa ; in the power to e^preei these ideee well in oonvene- 
tion; in the greet reedineee with which the art of reading ielenuMd; 
in the very comidemble knowledge of nnmbere end their relntfcae 
objectively acquired ; in some knowledge of forms and colore ; in a 
consideraUe development and discipline of the active powera aa dis- 
played in the comparative eaoe with which the mannal arte of draw- 



The Praog Gonrse of InstniGtioii in Form and Drawing. 



This conne Is the outsrowth of nearly twenty years* experteooe de- 
voted to the development of this tingle subject In public education, 
under the most varied conditions. 

It diflen widely from all the Bo-ealled " Systems of Drawing " before 
the public 

The aiai •r •bject •! Uke iaetr«cii«a !• dlffereat. 

Tke nieta«de •! TeacUag aa«l the fr«rk ^f JPwpile are 
difffereMt. 

The OLmd^lMf Tezt-1l«*ke« aad materia la are 
lirely differeat edacatleaal plaa. 



ea aa ea- 



Tke reealtn ia Sckeela are widely aad radically differcaC 
■t is Uke ealy Cearee Wuicd ea the aee ef Aiedele aad 
Objects ia Uke kaads ef papUs« aad fer wkieii llledlels 



of the 



have beea prepared. 

The Course preparee directly for Manual Tratnlng 

exerclsee are In themselves elementary exercises In Manual Training. 

THE FBA.no GOURSB bas a much wider adoption In the best 

schools of the country tbau all tbe "Systems of Drawmg" put togettier. 

More than two millions of children In public schools are Delngcaaght 

FoBM AKD DBAwnro by Tbs Pbako Coubsb. 

.. have been established for giving the very best kind of InstrucOon 

. AU teachers can, through these classes, prepare themselves to teach Drawing In 

their Schools. 

MTSmtd for (Hreuiam in regard to THE PRAVfQ COURSE OF INSTEUCTION IN FORM STUDY AND DRAWING, and also in 
Offwrd to PRANG *S NORMAL DRAWING CLASSES, Address 

THE PBANO EDUCATIONAL COMPANY, 

7 Paric 8trset, B08T0M. 151 Wabash Ave., CHICAGO. 16 Astor Place, NEW YORK. 



. J^^NG'8 NORMAL pRAWING CLif^88E8.T.Tbese 
In Dimv?lng throagh home study and by oorrespondence. 



THE NEW ENGLAND BUREAU OF EDUCATION. 

THEY CONFIDE IN US. 



Dr, OrcMtt>^l hereby authorise yon to select 
and send a teacher for the school Indicated, to 
begin Sept 8th, 1890. I ask nothing more than 
the same degree of satisfinction derived from the 
work of Misses M and G-^, whom vou se- 
lected and sent me last spring. Both will return 
this fall. Gborob N. Shbpabd, 

IVest Ep^ng, N. H, CA. School Board. 



Mr, OrcuU ;— I desire to have yon select a good 
teacher for our school described to you, to com- 
mence Sept 8th. C. W. Nbwbll, 
Rcwst Mass, Committee, 
The demand for teachers at this office ia unparalleled even at this season of the year, 
the time to regbter for many vacancies not yet filled. 

Apply to HIRAM ORCUTT, Manageb, 3 Somerset Street, Boston. 



Mr, Orcutt : — Send lady teachers for Primarr 
school, ready for Tuesday morning, Sept 2a. 
Good manager. Use your judgment I know 
this is short notice, but I can't help it 

John S.Gould, 

Webster, Mass, Ch. School Board. 



My Dear Sir :-— I trust to vou to select a teacher 
for our public school, to oegio Sept 8. You 
will know what we want I shall oepend upon 
yon. Do not disappoint me. 

C. A. Pbb&y, Committee. 
Monroe Bridge^ Mass, 

Now is 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



77 



iac, wMagt ud date-work m aoqidNd. AH tUt it aot only m 
pMpttntioB In tiM iatalUetiial tniAafc nnially ngwaad m the 
P^*«n>* foBotioiw ol the Mhools, but a Tery mbetaBtial adnuioe- 
BMBt la that ttainlBg. 

21. Oo the moral dde, the effoeli ol good kindergarten tiafaiing 
AM tneeahU in the flnt maaifastationa ol a aeaae ol jartiee, one 
abild learning to reeognise the righti ol other ehildren ai limita- 
tiona on hk own xighti; in habitnal aeti ol kindne«and generoeity, 
•vineinga difporilion to yield to othcfe what may gratily them hat 
aanaot be demanded ol them ai a matter ol right; in polite man- 
neia ; in trathlnlnem, iti oppodto nerer being Ibetered by hardi 
diaeipline: in an eager deaiie to pleaee the teaeher ; and finally, to 
raler to a eharaeteriatio whioh may oertainly be naked as a Tiitne, 
in pareonal eleaalinem and neatneti. 01 eoone it ie not eaid or 
;«ipliwi, that moral tcainbg ia abeent Irom the primary eoliools, but 
it appean to be tme that the kindergarten training ie peonliarly 
deaigBed to aeotaipUih the ends ol moral inetmetion. 

8. The kindergarten wonld eertainly gi^e to the fl?e-year-old 
ehildz«n now in onr lehools,— and to many OTon yoonger,— a kind 
of training mneh better raited to their wants than is the irmning 
ncvw graerally giftn in the beginnere' elass. Better elassifieation, 
and theratee better instnietion, woold reralt from placing the 
yooDgaat ehildren by themselYoe in a kiadecgarten. 

4. AstodiseipUne,— theehielp<^tonwhieho^lnioBsdiffer,-Hhe 
eridenee proresthat the spirit ol thediseipline'in some primary 
aehoola is not in harmony with that of the diaeipline inaome kinder- 
gartenap There are sometimee kindergartsra in whieh nngnided 
aetiTity,— mere play,— eoBoes too near bring the role; ontheother 
hand, tiiera an primary sohools in whidi npnsssd aotirity,— na- 
oeeopied qnietnde,— woold seem to be the prineipal aim. Bat then 
is no donbt that the best kindergartra diseipline and the best pri- 
mary diaeipline an alike ia spirit and effeet, and that, with fan- 



proremrat on both sides, the diffienltiM arising from isf arior die- 
eipline will pass away. Sneh improtameot woold be strongly pn- 
moted by the men intiosato assowiation ol primary sehool and kin- 



5. The Undergartm affords a mneh-needsd pratsetion Irom the 
injorioos inflaenoes ol the street daring that period ellife in wUeh 
the oliild is old enough so stay oat ol the hoon, bat not old anoagh 
to take hold ol the primary sehool work m now set belon him. 

6. For thoM aniortmiato ehfldrra,— and tliey an many,^^ho 
suffer Iram parental esrelessness, iadifferenee, ignorance, or por- 
erty, tlie kindergarten mearanbly rapplies what the lunne dose 
not,— kindly nniton in the rirtnee and graess ol a men refined and 
elerated domestie life. 

The report ol the committee referred to, and which 
was miaiiimoiiBly adopted, oontaina one paragraph which 
we reproduce, as it conveys, in brief, important informa- 
tion that shonld serve to remore a prejndice and miscon- 
ception that have existed, in some minds, in r^;ard to the 
work and mission of the kindergarten : 

A kmdergartm is sometimes regarded ra mneh the same thing 
M a day nursery to whieh Toiy youae ehildren, eepeeially ol the 
poor, may be sent for sal e-keeping wnOa theb parents an busy 
wiUi other rares. Bat as a day nuraary is not, and a Uadasgarden 
is a plaoe ol training, they an eridently not the same. Neither is 
a kindergarten a primary sehool, lor its instruments aad methods 
an Tsry differrat ; it dose not make nn ol books, or ol oommon 
~ it ehum or deain that diseipline 



reprasrion whieh our primary pupils an generally mbjeeted. The 
khidergarten is pnperly a sehool to tmfai little ehildren m il they 
really wen little diildnn ; to train them eertably, but not to 
rabdue them ; to gin them moral and physieal training quite as 
mueh M iatelleetaal, aad so gin it m to make them glad to reeeiYe 
it, aad able to araU themselns ol it 




The faee is a wonderful struetore. If tli«) true 
skin were remoTed. an ugly aear would be toe re 
suit. Freekles and Moth Patches are simply a 
ptamentary layer, or coloring matter in the outi- 
ele. This feature of thefa^e riree character to 
complexion, and when entirely free from blem- 
ishes, such as freckles, moth patehes, pimples, 
black-heads etc, should show a complexion as 
clear aad lOTCly as that of a 6 month's old baby. 
This peculiar layer, eontaiuing these facial blem- 
ishes, can be easily restored to its orlciaal lojely 
color by the use of Mre. Marlon Walker's Face 
Bleach, Freckle, Pimple, and Moth Destroyer. 

Who can resist the temptation of haying a beau 
tlful complexion. This preparation beaunfles the 
skin, removes aU oillne^s and swarthineaa and 
rou0bnes8. making it extremely soft, and glTlng 
theomnplexion uiat delicate pink and white, 
which is the same In the morning, on the street, 
and In the OYcning: always alike. This wonder- 
ful preparation has been a great comfort to many 
ladles. Mrs. Walker has friends In every dty and 
Tillage In the United Stetes, who are the envy of 
^^ ' ' ' ^s, who do not understand how they 



their friends, f. , 

hare gained the lovely, clean, fresh faces. 



This 



prepwatlon is not a cosmetic, but a skin tonic 
Itisnotasmear for the face, but can boused on 
the skin of the smaUest child without iear. ^ 

Have you freckles, pimples, ugly blotehes, 
swarthlne^s, or any other face disflgurement ? 
WriteCte Mrs. Marlon Walker. Rer preparation 
is wonderful; these blemishes must disappear. 
It win cleanse the face, and give it that delicate 
pink aad white so much ooveted, and so difficult to 
obteln. _^ 

It is Mid under poslttTe nenuitee. Tha enly prep- 
antioB pretoribed by regaier phytlelaDs. Oorreipon. 
dMwe Mllelted from iSHw or genUemen, who are 
troabled with tmeUL blemlshea, end also, from eU 
thoM tulnff the Bloach: thet even the mott ttabbom, 
AMt. wd thoM whioh hATO dolled eU other remedioa, 
be ftUke tooooMf olljr treated. Beforenooa In overj 
eltf end tUIsco hi the United Stotee end Oanede. 
PBICB, One Treatment (rattdant far ana face) $S. 
Xaa. llAnion Walxbu. 816 4th Atc, LoaiiTlUo, Ky. 



Educational Bureaus. 






MBHflBll'STeiiclierfApiC! 



OldaataadbaatkaewalaU.g. Istah-iSM. 
8 East i4th St.. N.Y. 



NO FEE FOR REGISTRATION. 

Beat PaelUtlaa. Ittdeat Service. Large 
Bulaeaa. not in eollecttng advance fees, but 
m providing competent Teachers with Posl 
tlons. Form for stamp. Employers are served 
without charge. Our supply of Teachers is 
the liABOvBT and bxst. 

F. y. HUT8SOON (late B. B. AVBBY), 
Amsbioav School Buksau, 
8 West 14th ht.. JTMW YORK. 



A CARD. 



The ondorslgned bevlng 
known UnxoirTaAcanRe^ 



parobMOd the woU 

AGmroT of Now York 

Olty. hM tnuuf erred It to Noa. fkH and 54 Ij»- 

■" ^- •*• {next to the Astor lAbraryu and 

\ terre Its former patrone end 



Ing Urn to my fil4 
ODtmatedtonls 1 
oerefnl attention. 



Fajette Place, inext to the Astor lAbratyi, end 
wUI be pleased to serre Its former patrona and 
all othoi« who daalre to aeenre the adTaatagea of 
thU weU.eaUbUahed and reliable Aaenoy. 

N. B.—Thia Agency has no oonneonon whaterer 
with any other edaeattonal Afceney or Boreaa. 
H. M. HABBINOTON, 
Late Bnpt. of Bridgeport (Ot.) City (SchooU. 
HaTing personally known Mr. Harrington for 
many years. I take great pleasnre in oommend- 

. — ^._ ^ '-^enos and natrons. Any hosiness 

will TOoeiTe prompt and 
W. D. KERB. 
Late Man. Union Teachers' Agency. 
62 and 68 Lafayette PL, New York. 

National Teachers' finreaa. 



address 



fe BiMe HMee, 
4a Ave. * Sth St., ITBW YORK. 

TEACHERS 

deatrlng to secure ilrst-elasa situations should 

HABOLD a COOK, Mavagbb. 



Tl 



Amarlcaa Taachera' 

Sanaa, St. Leals, 

14a year. 



For larger mUariet nr ekange of tooation 
addreu Toaektn^ Co-Optrative AnodaHmf 
70 Daortora iSt, Chicago; OrvilU Bromtt 
Mamagtr. 

Tte N. I. BureaB of EliicatiOD, 

Whose field Is the Nation, is doing 
business at 

8 Somerset St., Boston. Mass. 

It pledgee promptness and fldellty to all its 
patrons, both School Officers and Teachers. 

Now IS THS TiMK TO BXOISTXB. 
HIBAMOBCUTT. : : Makaobb. 



$7^22 to $250.22J 

working for us. Persons prefc 
tumlsh a hone and gtre t^^ - 
thehuslness. Spare mon 

ahly employed alsa A ___. 

toinis and cities. B. F. JOHNSON * 00., 
S800 Bain St.. Bichmond, Ya. 



noifTj 

-_ji be 

preferred who oan 
'whole time to 



DUij be profit- 
nMaaeies In 



FREE TO TEACHERS! 

Oatalogue and few sample Beward Oarda 
free. Our Embossed Panels, 5%x7%, 8 eta. 
each, are extra fine for last day of schooL Oil 
Cbromoe, same size, a cts. each. Xmboesed 



Oards.^x«.i34e.each. $1.20 worth for $1.90. 
JOHN WILOOX; UxLtOVD, N. Y. 



Card for Busy Work. 

Addition aad Subtraction to 10 for lowest 
primary grades. 

18 Butlaad Street, Boeton. 



78 



THE AMKRICAN TEACHER. 



[Oot. 



FERRIS' Patent 



DON'T 
WEAR 

STIFF 

Corsets 




FERRIS eno»,,»i": ^ 

S4i Broadwajp Naw Vortc, ^ 
.MARSHALL FIELD & CO.. 



" Have done excellent work." 
"Accomplished all you promised." 
"All offensive smell prevented." 
"Weariness entirely gone." 
"Air at all times pure." 
"Will do muc h to dimi nish disease." 

These words come from 
leading educators who use the 
Sherman **King" Vaporizer to 
secure 

PURE AIR 

in the schoolroom. They 
speak from experience. A 
Vaporizer for an ordinary 
schoolroom costs only $8.00. 
A room with sixty scholars is 
kept fresh and pure with two. 
Testimonials on application. 

SHERMAN "KING" VAPORIZER 
CO.. 45 Kilby St., Boston. Mass. 

BICYCLE or VneafR 

8cod to JL w. exncp * CO., datton, omo, 9k 

prlow. K«vBlOTalMa«r«do08dprioMM4 4Wiw 
ODd-haiid ODM. btwnowwMmAMmnm. BI0T0LK8, 
QUK S BPd TTPB WBITIBS takm la IXOHAXOI. 




A New Book from Cover to Cover. 



JT-ust Issxioca. f 2*0: 



tlxe 



FULLY ABREAST WITH THE TIMES. 



WEBSTER'S 

INTERNATIONAL 

DICTIONARY 



A GRAND INVESTMENT 

For the Familyi the School, the Professional or Private Library 



^QltThe Authentic "Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, ccmprising the 
iesnes cf 1864 , '70. and '84, ccpyrighted property cf the undersigned, la 
new Thoroughly Revised and Bnlarged under the supenrlalon of Noah 
Porter, D.D., LL.D, of Tale UnlTersity, and as a distinguishing title, bears 
the name cf Webster's International Oictionsry. 

Bditorlal work upon this reTlsicn has been in actlTC progress for OT«r 
Ten Tears 

Not leas than one hundred paid editorial laborers have been engaged 
upon it. 

Over 9300,000 expended in its preparation before the first copy was 
printed. 

Critical oomparlscn with any other Dictionary is invited. 
0X21* TTTT: SX2817* 



The T«ri««s BUi«liaae are Bepecimlly Hich aad 8«bstMiCl«l. 

ninstnted Pamphlet eontalniDg Speolmen Pages, etc, will be sent prepaid upon sppUeatlon 

PsUished hfO^AC MERRIAJfl Sc CO., Springfield, Mtss^ U. S, A. 

FOB 8 ALB BT ALL B00KSBLLBB8, 



CHROMO REWARD CARDS. 

^Otw woo new prattT dwians of LMd«oap«*. Flowwr^ 
BMoeU. VaM*. Eh% Shields., OMWwnte, Juvenile*. 
Bells. Soenes. timTFralta, Balloons, Shipa^Anlmala. 



eta. f^oM'tor^l^Hfixe 2Wz4^in< 



Vtlnsed Ohromo Cards- with aUk frinse and teaMla, 
price each. 2^x4^ inches, ^^-«««i.^ «0Jr*Hx««. 8ef- 
m^HH, Mc, no tiro alike. Excellent for Bewarda. etc. 

Hew School Aids-lEaoh set oontaina 186 Unce pretty 
Ghromo Bxoelsior, Merit, and Otedit cards. Price, OOo. 

Alphabet Card»-60O largeplain capitals. small lettora 
and nomerals printed on 800 cards xinoh sanare. ato. 



Beading Oarda— 16 cards 6x9inches.82 
new Btories for First and Second Beads 

I>rawinff Oarda— 18 different 
on M cards, sLm S^x(M inches, 



swoIarB. 12e. 

eab7 drawins patterns 

aOcr-« pattens. 6O0. 

perforated paMemsof 

)irds, flowers, etc., on cards i^x^i biohes. 8C 



ig I»tt( 

aOcr-« patterns. 6O0. 
iwUiff St«none^30 different perforated paUem. 
uJeTDirds, flowers, etc., on cards i^x^i biohes. 8O0. 
flohool Beporta-Arransed ftyr 1, 2. 8. 4. B,* 6 monUis 
for any school, card board, 12 fbr Ido; paper. 12 for 6c. 
Sons Book-Merry Melodies, contains 48 large purae 
best schools songs for all grades, manllla covers, ffia 
School Speaker-lfiO pages best Pieces. Bedtations, 
Motion Songs, fdr children 6 to 12, or Uto 16 years. 100. 
School Dialoffaea-120 pages iMst Dialosnos for all 
kinds Entertainments, for ages 8 to 12, or 12 to 16. 26c 
School Bntertainments-116 ^fgM beet Bedtations, 
Dialogues, Tableaoz, Cbaradee, Concert Pieces, etc. 26c 
Teachers' Bzaxniner-New edition, Mntains 400 pages 
•nd over 6,000 important Qnestipns with Answers onaU 
the different branches of school stndlM. It is the best 
book for teachers who wish to prepare fCr examin^lon 
It will carry yon throogh. Cloth bound. Price. SLoO. 
— -- — ~ • -«__*_ Qj^ Cards, 

iies, and few 
postpaid by 
postage stamps taken, riease addrsH, 
A. J. FOUCH & CO.. WARREN. PA. 



What are Tour Winter Plans? 

Public school teachezB are likely to fall into 
intellectual ruts. They peisonally need some 
general systematic reading. Then again they 
ought not to confine their work to the school 
room. They ought to be a leaven in the com- 
munity. Thousands of teachers are accomplish- 
ing great good for tbemselTes and for others in 
Chautauqua circles. Will you not join in the 
work? Or will you not read alone? Address 
John H. Vincent, Drawer 194, BuflTalo, N. Y. A 
member of a circle writes: "All of us hsring 
been out of school for a number of yean, sre 
glad of this systematized opportunity of refresh- 
ing our memories, and pursuing our stadiei 
farther." 



SEND 



for FBBB Oatalogae of Book* 
of AmnsementB, Bpseksn, 
Dialogues, Beeltattoos, Gvm- 

nasties, 0sli8tbenles,D6tiiei. 

Letter Writers, Btlqiiette, ete. 

DIOK ft FirZOWBALD, 
18 Ann Bt, New Ton. 

AfiCIITC wanted. Liberal SaUry Fsld. 
AQbH I O At home or to traTel. Tttm 
furnished free, P. O. Vioxbbt. Augusta, He. 



M 



1890.J 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



79 




Gifford's Air-Tight Ink-Weil. 

The only Air-Tight School 
Ink-Well made. 

Can be easily attached to 
any school desk. 

Sample^ postpaid^ 25 cts. 

Tar's Noiseless Pointer. 

The ODly noiseless 

School Pointer made. 
Has ftabber tip and 
Buspendlng Blng. 

School Fen & Pencil Case. 

Just out and tbe only 

case of the kind made. 

Can be easily attached 

to any school desk. 

Sample ^ postpaid^ 2y. 

All these specialties are fully protected by letters patent. At- 
tempts to imitate will be appreaated, but not tolerated. Descriptive 
circulars and special prices upon application. DustUss Crayons^ 
Erasers, Globes^ Maps, Charts, Slate and Composition Blackboards, 
Standard School Shades, etc., etc. 

W. A. CHOATE & C0.| Gsnsral School FumisbsrSi 





508 Broadway, 

ALBANY, N. Y. 



6t East ISth St, 
N. Y CITY. 



5 Somerset St, 

BOSTON. 




rms 




9 eopirRioirx*3ai> isso. 



Mail ti coimmrati thi Inaiviratioi of GEORGE 

WASHINGTON, ini CENTURY ago, as tbi FIRST 

PRESIDENT of tbo UNITED STATES. 



GoTerg hare on them a correct likeness of 
OEOBGE and MARTHA WASHINeTON. 



tntide of eown ham* a printed litt of all Pretidonta, 

wk&n Inauffurated, Time Served, Birth, Death, 

and other intereitinff matter eonotiming ihtm. 



RKTAIL PIVK AND TKN CINTS. 



69 Dnii stmt. 



NiwYirL 



loiroB' 



Prliiiry 



Time saved Is 
labor saved. 



A Treasure ^__^_ 
for Primary 
Teachers. Teaching read 



iiBiiig fflmnii. 



log and leaninff to read an made 
~ iHii«a«e 

lila parehmeiit paper, 
oompaedy boond, and inost oooTeniaBtiy numnted for piaotioal use. 



eeay 1>7 iHii« ^cee Oharls. Tlie 08 
aie printed oo manile parehment 



eharts, 25 z 84 in., 
, attraethrely Ulnefareted, 



The regular prloe is $10.00 per set 



CHARTS. 



Putin 



By Francis W. Pabkeb, Prin. of Cook 
Comity (Dlinoia) Normal Sdiool. 66 
25zS0iiieliM. Lataal 
methods of taeeJiJBg Primary 
Arithmetio. Four illiiatratioiis 
of linear, aurfaee, and enUe 



AfiiMtic 



Labor saved Is 
lengthened life. 



CM. 



The regular 
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BPgCIAL INDUCgaagNT, We offer a liberal dlMount to 
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dreolars and catalogoe of our standard pabUeatlons. 

COWPERTHWAIT & CO., 

968 and 680 Chestnut St., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



80 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



COCT. 



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82 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[N<Mr. 



Dixon's '^American Graphite" Pencils are used in more 
schools, colleges, and business offices than any other pencils. 
Why? Well, because they have tougher, smoother leads, 
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1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



8S 




THE CENTURY 



begins a new volume 
with the number for 
November, 1890, This 
is the magazine that published the famous War Papers, Kennan*s Sibeiian Articles, 
and the Life of Lincoln^ by his private secretaries. Leading features of the coming 
^^ year include ** The Gold Hunters of California," a series of papers by " forty- 
^ niners,*' describirtg the discovery of gold, life in the mines, the vigilance commit- 
tees, etc. ; extracts from the famous Talleyrand Memoirs, which for more than half 
a century have been secretly preserved in France j "An American in Tibet," 
describing a remarkable journey through an almost unknown land ; reminiscences 
and anecdotes of Lincoln, by his private secretaries; *' Adventures of War Pris- 
oners, '^ by ex-Union and ex-Confederate captives; '^Indian Fights and Fighters," 
by officers who served with Custer, Mackenzie, Crook and Miles; "American 
Newspapers," by the manager of the Associated Press and other well-known jour- 
nalists; "Municipal Governments in Europe and America*^; "The Present-Day 
Papers," by Bishop Potter, Seth Low, Charles Dudley Warner, and others; more 
of Kennan's articles on the exiles of Siberia; serial stories by Frank R* Stockton, 
Edward Eggleston, and other well-known writers, and hundreds of illustrations by 
the best artists and engravers. Subscription price, $4.00 a year, A special rate allowed to teachers. 



CEOBSUI6 THE FLilHS. 



St. NICHOLAS 



" the ideal magazine for boys and girls " — also 
begins a new volume with the November num- 
ber During the year it will contain hundreds 
of charming stories and helpful articles, intended to amuse and instruct children of from eight to sixteen, 
or even older. There will be four serial stories, including one by J- T. Trowbridge, author of " Cudjo*s 
Cave," Andrew Lang, Julian Ralph, Noah Brooks, Brander Matthews, Joaquin Miller, Sophie Swett, 
Mary E. Wilkins, and many other prominent writers will contribute a profusion of shorter stories, verses 
suitable for recitation, etc, St. Nicholas has been adopted as a supplementary reader in many schools, 
and an educational journal once said that " lE has done as much towards civilizing the ^ small boy' as any 
agency in the country," The regular subscription price is $3,00— to teachers not so much. 



New Books. 



The Autobiography of Joseph JeffersoD. ^J."^ ;^,^^^, 

published, coDtaining over 500 pages, with 78 fall-page illustrations. Beautifully bound Id vetlum. Price, $400. 

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k 4JBQ1TP or IIBOWIIIIS. 

THE CENTURY CO., 33 East 17th St.. New York. 



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84 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



[Not. 



SILVER, BURDETT, & OOMP-A.lSrY, 

Invite Saperintendents, Teaohara, Bohool Offloers, and all others interested In the beet eohool books in ths 
branches of Tocal Maslc, Readlnmr, Wiiltni:, SpelllniTf Hl8toiT« Civil OoTernmeiit^ &c to consider tfas 
following before making selections of books In these branches. 

THE NORMAL MUSIC COURSE, 

By JoBK W. Tufts and H. B. Holt. 

THE NORMAL COURSE IN READINO, 

Bt Emma J. Todd and W. B. Powsll, M.A 

THE NORMAL REVIEW SYSTEM OF WRITINB, 

By D. H. FABLBT AlTD W. B. OUNKISOK, A. M. 

THE NORMAL COURSE IN SPELLING, 

Bt l>a. Larkin Dumtok, akd 0. Goodwin Clasx, A.1L 

Also Choice textbooks and helps in nearly every other branch of school and college work 
ninstrated Catalogne mailed free to any address. Correspondence is invited. 



MAC COUN S HISTORICAL CHARTS OF THE U. S^ 

Bt ToWNSXiTD MAcCouir, AM. 

MAC COUN'S HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE U. 8., 

Bt TowvsBifD MacOoun, A.M. 

STUDIES IN CIVIL GOVERNMENT, 

Bt William A. Mowut, Ph.D. 

ELEMENTS OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT, 

Bt William A. Mowat, Ph.D. 



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Thomsons Commercial arithmetic. 

I^««iCB«d far AcadicmiMiy Blffh HchaalA^ Canatias Haaaia, aadi BaalaeM 0«llec««. 

Bt jambs B. THOliSON, LL.D., 

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ANDOVBB, MA89. LAVBBNOB. MASS. LOWBLL. MASS. NBWBUBYPOBT, MASS- 

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EFFHrGHAM MATNABD & CO., Pabrs., 771 Broadway, aid 67 & 69 Ninth St, Niw Yirk. 



H, I. SMITH, 5 •omerset 8t„ Boston. 



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BEWARE of SUBSTITUTES and 
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CAUTIOlf,— Be ewre tke wot4 «< ■•« ! •rdPe » is p ri a sed 

If erw eOd ta kvlk. 




EACHER 



:^trc-^ 



Vol. XIV. DEVOTED TO THE METHODS AND PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING. 



No 8 



THE CHILD AND THE BOOK. 

:Jdapted.i 
f f m 8SE your hmdioma ooT«r," 
i A child iaid to a book, 
'* Bat are yoa, all through, goodoMi, 
Bzaotly aa yon look." 

*' Whon booka are gUt at odgaa, 

And bonnd in rod and bloa, 
That onght," tho hook cried prondly, 

** To bo caoogh for yoa." 

*< No. no» dear one," the child Mdd, 
'* To play a good book'a iiart. 

Yon moat— aa well aa ootside^ 
Be golden at the heart" 

** HaTO you a heart of gold, then f " 

The angry book replied, 
** Gome, CQt yoor pagea, chow me 

How good yoa are inaidel " 

The child recelTed the lemon. 
And ctroTO with akronger mind, 

That all her leaTca of life chonld 
Be beantifal to bind. 



GIVE AND TAKE. 

BT 8ABAH K. BOLTON. 

A>lne'eyed ohild, ainging along the atreet, 
Waa Mattering flowera, aa golden aa her hair. 
She had not dreamed of corrow ; earth waa fair 
Ai Paradiae may be ; to lire waa sweet 
The years went by ; a maiden, grown complete 
lo lorelineas, her face nntooched by care. 
All pink and white aa apple-blossoma are. 
Was scattering flowers; the tender worda that greet 
Theltiied and lonely ; gentle deeds of lore 
That make a woman seem a thing dlTine. 
The yeara went by, and children on her breast 
Laid fragrant flowers, and birds her graTO abore 
Sang s weete s t mnsip ; thns oar Utcs entwine ; 
Who blesus others, shall himself be bleased. 



— ''In ererything giro thanks I 
For the sweet deep that comea with night, 
For the retomlng morning's light. 
For the bright son that shines on high, 
For the stars glittering In the sky,<— 
For theas, and ererything we see, 
O LordI oar hearta we lift to Thee; 
In ererything giro thanksl " 



TALKS WITH TOUNG TEACHEBSi 

BT W. L. JAQUTTH. 
DI8CIPLINB. 

JW ANY* of as remember the temper with whieh we 
Jvi. regarded this subject in stadent days as we looked 
forward to the work of teaching. It was the *' ^nqnoF- 
or-die " spirit, and not until we had substituted a more hu- 
mane motto, or such a different wording of tlus that it 
looked like another thing, did success crown our efforts. 
For a school held in control through fear, is not controlled 
in any true sense ; is not in a condition to achieve the ends 
for which it exists. Only when teacher and taught move 
together in loving leadership and glad allegiance, is true 
discipline attained. 

Recognize this as the ideal condition indispensable to 
true teaching, and as you prepare each day's lessou^ 
make it your habit to give a little thought to this subject 
Study your experience as you would a problem. Why 
did that boy make a disagreeable answer ? Did your too 
harsh treatment invite it, or is he permanently disaffected ? 
Watch to-morrow, and find out Are there any seats 
that might be changed with advantage to the public weal ? 
What is the cause of that girl's apparent inattention and 
carelessness ? Is she shy, or has she been absent so much 
that she is beyond her depth, or is it simply a bad habit to 
be corrected ? Bring all your penetration and ingenuity 
to bear upon tiie special features that each day brings. 
In Uiis way, incipient rebellion may be checked, and evils 
may be noiselessly cured by removing the cause. 

Remember, however, that good discipline is a great 
connected whole, and cannot be secured merely by giving 
attention to details. Back of the teacher's aims and meth- 
ods must lie a wise, strong personality, always acting by 
its own inherent virtues on the young souls about it See 
first of all that you are a manly man or a womanly 
woman, with nothing in your life that you should blush 
to'have young eyes rest upon, and with a reverent appreci- 
ation of the possibilities of your high calling. Feel that 
you are working most of all for those you teach, not for 
that pleasant monthly or quarterly instalment, nor for 
your superintendent even, but chiefly for the children. 
And remember that they demand from you alirays and 
everywhere, nothing less than your best Alike in the 
little unpainted schoolhouse at the cross-roads, and in the 



86 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



{JBtc 



towering stmetore of brick and granite, the children are 
waiting for the Tory beet thing you have to giTO them. 

We know that the best thbg in the world is love, and 
this yon most bring to yo.ir papils, before yon can give 
them the highest help. Yon are surroonded by a mnltir 
tade of yoang hearts, some from happy homes, some with 
a pitiful ignorance of kind words and ways, bnt whoever 
they are, all ready to love yon and serre yoa loyally, if 
yon wiU show them how. Meet them half way. Not 
long ago I heard a boy's moumfol story of a loveless 
schoolroom, in which all the boys were leagued against 
the cross teacher. I eaid, ^* Suppose you take her some 
flowers. Yon don't know how bad boys annoy their teach- 
ers; no wonder they get tired and dl«coaraged. Carry her 
the flowers, and be bright and smiling." He shook his 
head incredoloasly. '^ It wouldn't be any use. T began 
that way, but it didn't do any good ; she just flies right out 
at you." Naturally I felt some curiosity to see this lady, 
and when one day I chanced to get a glimpse of her, I 
ceased to wonder at what I had heard. She had a face 
without a ray of genuine kindliness, on which the unlovely 
characters of selfishness were plainly written. What 
right has such a person in a schoolroom ? 

Remember that the teacher's smile is the child's sun- 
shine, and try to make the atmosphere habitually cheerful. 
So many of us fail in not being sympathetic I We forget 
diat the child has his point of view, as true for him as 
ours for us ; we should gain much by crossing to it ikoBr 
sionaUy, and taking a look from that side. The greatest 
difficulty in discipline may arise from the harsh, unyielding 
attitude that makes the child hate the teacher, and delight 
to annoy him. Study to find the pleasantest ways of doing 
things Because a disagreeable thing must be said, don't 
make it uimeeessarily harsh by a severe manner. I once 
learned a lesson on this point from a charming mother of 
four boys, who worshiped her with almost romantic de- 
votion. She denied a request, or sent a refractory child 
to bed as sweetly as she would have received a caller. 
There was adamant behind, as the boys well knew, but 
it kept them within bounds all the more surely for being 
covered with velvet 

I am not much in favor of corporal punishment. Un- 
doubtedly it is sometimes necessary, but there must be 
something wrong when it is a common thing. Begard it 
as a last resort, not to be used till other means have 
failed. Any case that is at all within your scope, try to 
settle yourself, instead of sending it to the master. As 
you visit other schools, watch the teacher's manner, and 
see what an effective weapon quietness is. It is not the 
multitude of words that counts ; they are very likely to 
do mischief, especially when edged with sarcasm. Be- 
ware of that, it is a dangerous and cruel weapon. While 
some offenders may possibly be in nowise injured by a touch 
of it, others will be deeply hurt, though they make no 
sign. 

To som up, be beforehand with your pupils. Govern by 



winning their love, so that you can easily lead thflSB, in- 
stead of trying to drive. 

To evade difficult duties from weak good-nature is no 
kindness. Certain grave evils which are met in all aeboola 
must be dealt with seriously. . Prominent among these ia 
deception, which appears in so many fonns. Beatora 
all unnecessary temptation, but when, despite your care, 
it shows itself, let your pupils see that to you falsahood 
is a hatef ol thing, and try to make it so to them. TI107 
are to avoid it not merely through fear of punishnwinty 
but because it is mean and cowardly. Let every teacher 
in the land contribute his share towards training » gesi- 
eration of men that will not soil their hands by dishonor, 
to grasp any prize, however tempting. 



GRADING COUNTRY SCHOOLS. 

BT oouimr suFT. J. m. bbskby, pbnhsyltahia. 

AN country and village schools be graded, and the 
work in them regulated by a course of stndj? 
Those who have carefully observed the work in the dis- 
trict schoob from year to year have no doubt been im- 
pressed with the lack of system and the damaging results 
of the frequent change of teachers. Each teacher ia a 
<* law unto himself,*' and very generally his work is not al 
all in harmony with that of his predecessor. If he be 
scholarly, experienced, and zealous, his work will be felt 
and appreciated ; but it may require months to get his 
school properly graded and classified, because of the differ^ 
ent plan or unwise policy of a former teacher. He leaves 
no record to his successor, who, not knowing or under- 
standing the plans and purposes that prevailed the previ- 
ous term, likewise fails to make the proper connection ; 
and thas each term*s work becomes a separate, disoop- 
nected element in the child's education. Instead of this, 
the school should constitute a continuous and progressive 
line of work, from the lowest to the highest grades. 
There ought to be a common basis of classification^ and a 
general outline of work and study adapted to each grade. 
And when a teacher takes charge of a school, he should 
have a sufficient record of each pupil's standing, so that 
he may know at once just what has been accomplished, 
and where his work should begin. 

Very frequently we find pupils advanced far beyond 
their ability in reading and spellbg, while they have not 
the first principles of language training or number work. 
We find many at the age of ten or twelve trying hard to 
"go through" the large geography or the advanced 
arithmetic every term, while they oaght to be limited to 
the elements of those branches. Need we wonder, there- 
fore, that so many papils become di9Couraged with saeh a 
course, lose interest in their studies, and leave school at a 
time when they ooght to do their best work. 

This may be remedied by fdlowing a genwal oatUoe, 
of work that will make each successive stepaaeirone 



-^ 



IMOl] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



87 



and 0T6TJ tenn more interesiiDg m the pupil grows in 
laental power. ClMses will advanoe only as they are 
•Ue to eomprehend and review only to fix in the mind 
what has eoce been thoroughly mastered. 

The graded system does not, as some mi^y suppose, 
interfere with the originality of the teaeher, nor does it 
tend to make school work mechanical or routine. The 
tendencies are entirely in the opposite direction. We 
need to teach less tezthook, and develop more thought- 
power, and thu can be done only by limiting the amount 
of textbook study, by confining each grade of pupils to 
•ertain subjects and lines of work within their grasp, and 
allowing the teacher the widest possible latitude and the 
longest possible time to expand, illustrate, and apply the 
principles involved. In this way the teacher is not only 
pejfinitted, but required to supplement textbook work with 
hie own knowledge, skill, and teaching power. A general 
•ourse of study may be arranged for all ungraded schools, 
and this course, with the necessary regulations and sag- 
gestions, in the hands of an earnest, pi^gressive teacher, 
may be successfully applied in any school. 



UHCffiADED SCHOOL WOBK.-A FEW BESULTS. 

BT KATX L. BBOWV. 

^T may not be out of place to inquire what are the re- 
f suits of good work in a well ordered country school ? 
To the child, first of all, comes a certain sturdiness and 
self-reliance too often absent in a well-graded school 
Do we realize that it is only that wluch the pupil can do 
unaided, that is of the highest benefit to him ? A fault 
with the ordinary teacher is that she helps pupils too 
much. Let them be tested by another, and a disagreeable 
surprise follows. The children are discouraged, and the 
teacher says to herself, '^ Why, I was sure they knew that" 

Much of this failure comes from the almost constant 
supervision a graded school entails. The children realize 
thai the teacher is there to assist them at any moment, 
and when the difficulty comes, they are more ready 
to appeal to her, than to gain the knowledge for them- 
selves. 

In the ungraded school, the child is thrown upon his 
own resources. The teacher has almost no leisure, and 
cannot be appealed to at any moment, and this necessitates 
beller attention from the pupils in class time. Then from 
being obliged to work alone during study perids the 
habits of application and self-help are inculcated. 

But a nobler quality even than self-reliance may be 
^ developed. In the relations between the older aod 
yoQager pupils there may exist that chivalrous spirit, that 
exquisite consideration that marks the true family. 

The teacher should never feel satisfied until she has 
awakened the true spirit in her pupils. It may perhaps 
W beet done by being tender and motherly toward these 
ittfe enee. Their small rights and privileges must be 



insisted upon as rigidly as if they were the older rather 
than the younger members of the little community. Their 
work must be as carefully planned as the Geography and 
History, and never sacrificed for the older classes. We 
have seen schools where the importance of the younger 
members was reduced perilously near zero. The little 
fingers were allowed to try to manage bits of broken 
pencils, while the older children received long ones, well 
sharpened. They were allowed to sit idle for long peri- 
ods of time ; in the entries they^must take unpleasant 
comers ; and on the school grounds they were driven 
from the most advantageous playing places. Is it any 
wonder that there was continual conflict, and that the lit- 
tle ones were tormented on the road daily ? 

Across the gulf of the hurrying years comes the 
memory of one little brown school-house. It was two and 
one-half miles from the village, with few houses in sight 
It overlooked a fertile plan dotted with pleasant farms. 
Its horizon was bounded by craggy ledges, where the 
maples blushed in the autumn, or tossed their gold reck- 
lessly down on the heads of the loitering children. 

It formed an arena of problems,— this ungraded sehooL 
There were too many classes, and too wide a range of 
work was attempted. All the stimulating influence many 
of the children received came from the school, and the 
teacher felt sadly the gap between her ideals and what 
was actually accomplished. But one sweet and ant poiled 
memory remains — the tenderness of the older children for 
the younger. Whenever a little one entered it was given 
at once to some older papil as her << child," and she be- 
came responsible for the comfort of the little one. 

This attendance was not required on the road, but often 
given. More than one grateful mother had reason to 
bless the kindness of the older boy or girl, that won 
home without accident little feet so apt to loiter on .the 
long country roads. A great sympathy existed between 
the older and younger children in matters of work. 
And the older pupils watched thtir ^< children," keenly 
interested as to who should win the << Perfect" 

Then, too, the relations of teachers and pupils may be- 
come exceptionally close and helpful. Surely, here is your 
great opportunity, teachers of ungraded schools. If you 
are strong and noble, and day by day exert your high- 
est influence, every boy and girl going from you may 
bear the stamp of your ideal. And the intellectual re- 
sults need not be insignificant Your pupils may read 
well and love good reading ; they may write and spell 
fairly, and express themselves in good English ; they may 
understand the principles of the simpler mathematics 
and compute readily and accurately ; and to this knowl- 
edge may be added much from life that geography and 
history will bring. 

The woods, streams, and pastures give the material for 
an endless study in natural science. If the teacher will 
only realize and take advantage, will encourage her pupils 
to study and observe, to make collections of minerals aud 



^frww^'m^^ 



88 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 

I 



fNo^. 



wild flowers, a great source of delight will be brought into 
their lives. 

Is the situation discouraging, dear teacher of the un- 
graded school ? Remember that noblest old legend of 
Jacob wrestling until the dawn with the unseen Power. 
*^ I will not let thee go, except thou bless me," was the 
challenge of the sturdy son of the soil. 

Se too, let us grasp our problem, and with hearts full 
of undying hopefulness vow, — 

" / toill not let thee go except thou bless me,'* 



ZACHABT'S FIRST TEAR IN SCHOOL.-(IL). 

BT SABAH L. ARNOLD. 

in HOSE September days were filled with marvelous 
p things, Zachary thought He had much to tell his 
mother every day when he came from school. She was 
a wise little mother, truly, who knew how to rejoice with 
him in all his child experiences and new discoveries. 
She forgot to think them little or unimportant. The new 
friends he found in his play, or met in his going or 
coming, were her friends, too. She knew them all, and 
made her broad piazza and shady lawn a playground, 
where they were always welcome. '^ How can you bother 
to have the noise of so many children about ? " the neigh- 
bors asked. ^* The noise does not bother, while the chil- 
dren are happy," was the reply ; ^' and I like to know 
what they are doing." She was wise enough to know 
that the little Zachary needed her in his play, and that to 
have him quiet was not the only consideration. She 
always found time to have a quiet little talk with him at 
twilight, before bedtime came. Then the little lad crept 
into her lap, and told her, unafraid, about the day's hap- 
penings, — what Johnny Barnes had said to him as they 
played ; how Miss Soule taught them delightful games at 
recess, and stayed with them all the time ; how Jimmy 
Grallagher <<weat barefoot," and sud it was better fun 
thao to wear shoes. Gould he go barefoot sometime, too ? 
And Miss Soule wished him to pass the pencils every 
morning, so he must surely get to school in time. ^^ She 
says she needs me to help her," he explained. '^ I often 
do things like that And then Miss Soule sends me into 
the field for flowers when she needs them, too. And, 
mamma, I often read with the A class when I have writ- 
ten my slate fall of words." 

From all these evening talks the mother gathers con- 
fidence, and comes to believe that her little boy is wisely 
eared for, after all. She smiles at the recital of Miss 
Soule's many wants, knowing how the nervous little hands 
must need the added occupation, and the restless little body 
the change and quiet found in the fields. The teacher does 
understand Zachary, spite of her misgivings, jshe thinks. 
Her feeling is stTenjthened by the courteous notes which 
she receives in reply to her own concerning Zachary's 
sehool life. The teacher evidently remembers the parent's 



rights and interests, and accepts her judgment in i 
where the home life touches the school life. The i 
ness which was unavoidable was promptly and eheerf uD^ 
excused. The note which explained that Zachary wms luit 
well, and needed to be kept from draughts for a i9W dmjn^ 
although he felt able to remain in school, brought a pvompt 
assurance that the child should receive special care while 
his need remained. 

Before long the mother found herself regarding her 
child's teacher as a friend, who showed her interest ia the 
lad, and in whose care she might leave him with eoofir 
dence. All that Zachary said of his teacher showed her to 
be gentle, thoughtful, and firm. When the children pleyed 




8npt W. B. PowsLL, WaahiDgtoD, D. 0. 

school, and one after another impersonated the teacher, 
there were no harsh words spoken, no threats made^ 
no sharp directions given. '^ Will you please to pass 
the pencils for me, while I am so busy?" Zachary 
asks, gently, when he "plays teacher." "John, your 
slate b very neat," he remarks to one of his make-beliefe 
pupils. "Will you help George to clean the mMers, 
please ? " "I am sorry we are not more quiet this morn- 
ing. Let us fold our hands acd think a minute aboot 
it quietly. Can we teach our pencils to be still ? " 

These mimic schools are a revelation to the mother. 
She hears no " musts " or " mustn'ts." Has the teacher 
learned to do without them ? And where are the letters? 
She hears no word of them ; nor does Zachary seem to 
spell. But he tells her of reading stories about the eat, 
or the golden-rod, and often alludes to a "chart" in 
which she is much interested. Then Zachary has maoh 
to say of the beautiful stories which Miss Soule tells to 
them before dismissal, — stories of the wonderful winged 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



89 



hone ; of the king with the golden toaeh ; of the ehild 
who sayed the oonntry from the tide. He can tell the 
sioriea to his mother. She listens, and is glad. Really, 
the school mnst be a good place. She will go to see for 
herself, and to meet the new teacher. 

Zaehary walks prondljr beside his mother, this after- 
noon, when she visits the schooL He wonders if the boys 
and girls all know that she is his mother. How they all 
most want her for their own, she is so good! He is 
eager to lead her to Miss Soale, and he introdnees her 
with dignity. 

The teacher is coorteons and cordiaL Her Tisitor feels 
the tmth in her simple greeting, and is interested in the 
shitee whieh Hiss Sonle leaves for her delectation, saybg, 
as she ezcoses herself, *' The children need me now." 

The mother is left alone in the pleasant schoolroom 
and marvels to find it so pleasant Bright pictures hang 
on the walls, colored borders are drawn upon all the 
boards. Large vases of flowers and of antnmn leaves 
stand in the comers or on the tables. There are mottoes 
written upon the board, for the teacBer's sake, the visitor 
^ncies, for snrely the children of Zachary's age cannot 
read soeh diflknlt words, nor do they need the coonsel or 

the eomlort 

"A hMTt at l«iMiie feon itMll 
To sooilM and lymiMthiM." 
<' Bwy day is a frMh bsfcfandag." 
" Ohaact lo Bunio every jairins: soond." ^ 

Theee the mother reads, as she glances aboat the room. 
Upon the teacher's desk, by a vase of flowers, stands a 
eard with the '^Inasmnch '' verse upon it There can be 
Uttfe deabt that the children are in good hands with soch 
a motive in the teacher's work, the visitor thinks, feeling 
more and more at her ease regarding little Zaehary. 

Now the duldren are coming in, their bright faces fill- 
ing the room with sunshine. Zaehary is walking erect, 
with the dignity of aeaptain. The long line passes aboat 
the room, walking qnietly. Then the children ran on 
tiptoe, then skip, then walk agun. << Jast to make an 
easy change from the pUy to the sehoohoom work," Miss 
Scale explabs. When the children are seated the yoang 
voices are lifted in song, — a morning hynm, first, sweet 
and reverent ; then 

" SwMt aad low, fWMt and low, 
Wladoftho^ 



ehime the baby voices. Then another lallaby, antil the 
very atmosphere aboat the little ones echoes gentleness 
and love. Thefe is a qoiet signal from the teacher, and 
the slates are taken, the little fingers grasp the pencils, 
and every child is at work. 

The mother speaks her surprise that so many can work 
together so qaiedy. ** We have been trying to learn 
that," Miss Soole replies. •< We know that we cannot be 
noisy withoat distorbing others, and so we try very hard 
to beqaiet The ebildrenknew, too, jast what they were 
to do^at this period, and they are tr^g to do it withoat 
qnsstioos, as if they were little men and women. I want 



them to learn self-help, and so we tried to begin at the 
beginning." 

Miss Soole dropped her pencil, as she was talking. A 
little lad harried to hand it to her, pleased by her smile 
and '* Thank yoo," and speaking a polite ^'Excnse me," 
as he passed tfieir gaest The teacher gave her directions 
to the children as if they, too, were guests. She. looked 
at the slates which held the little sentenees they had writ- 
ten, and gave gentle caations or qatet words of approval 
as she laid them down. Then, standing before them, she 
gave a few rapid directions which sent the little hands 
flying in graceful movements up and down, and from side 
to side, and which left the little people quiet and rested 
again, ready for new work. 

''They know where the work can be found," Miss 
Soole says to her visitor. One dass copies words on 
slates, a second works with splints, and the third, Zach- 
ary's dass, is on the floor, ready for a lesson. Even here 
the mother listens in vain for the schoolroom tone. Zaeh- 
ary talks as easily and freely as whenat home. Her heart 
beats with pride as he reads from the board, where the 
teacher writes rapidly. The little people are very eager. 
Work goes as happily as play, it seems. And now the 
mystery is solved. The children do not need to learn the 
alphabet in these days, the teacher tells her. And she 
carefully and simply explains to the mother what her 
« method " has been. 

There are other ezerdses with other classes, a song, 
and a mcment's gymnastics, then the little peoplesit with 
folded hands, ready to talk aboat the flowers whieh the 
teacher plaoes upon theb desks. The mother can hardty 
believe her eyes. <*Botany in the baby dassl" she 
thinks. Bat little Zaehary shows her how it is done. 
He stands by his desk, holding a bebted dover in his 
hand, and his clear young voice is saying. 

^ This clover grew beside the road, where we found it 
on our way to schooL It has roots, stems, leaves, budsy 
and blossoms. The roots grow in the earth, where thsy 
find food for the pUnt They look like little brown 
threads. The stems are round and green, and I can easily 
bend them. The leaves have long petioles [Zachaiy rolls 
the word as if it were a sweet morsd, he is so proad to tell 
his mother aboot it], and the bkdes are in three parts. 
Sometimes we find four-leaved dovers, for luck. The 
little flowers grow together in a roand head. Bees like 
them, they are so sweet" 

The mother rejoices at the sweet earnestness and evi- 
dent enjoyment with whieh her boy speaks. One ehild 
after another fdlows, each telling aboat his flower. The 
golden-rod, aster, gentian, and "ear<lrop," with a late 
dandelion, have all become the children's friends. They 
recite together, '< Flower in the crannied wall" and 
« Kind hearts are the gardens." Then there is a flower 
song, and before the mother has guessed how the time is 
pMdng, the good night is being spoken, and the children 
are ready toga 



00 



THE AMERICAN TEACHEIL 



[JXifr. 



Slie watches MiM Soule m she stands in the hall, 
speaking a gentle word here, replying to a final good- 
night there, finding stray hats, and untying obstinate 
knots in hat strings, 

'^ Blecs her kind heart and sweet ways,'' she says to 
herself. *' 1 need not worry aboat Zaehary any longer. 
I eoald not care for him half so well myself." 

Miss Soale has time to stay and talk with her visitor, 
while a few children remain to help. The mother finds 
that the teaeher has studied her children, and is learning 
their needs ; that she is working to prevent bad habits 
and to establish good ones ; that her ideals are high and 
her purpose strong and good. As she tarns to go she 
says, '^ We mothers owe mach to yon, Miss Sonle. You 
are doing a beaatifal work for oar children." The face 
of the yoong teacher flashes, and the qaick tears come. 
How gratefal she is for the sincere words. They will 
help in many a hard place. She goes home with a glad 
heart, watching little Zachary and his mother till they 
are hidden from sight by the bend in the road. 



REFOBHATIOH NEEDED. 

BT 6B0BOB W. COLBOBV, DAKOTA. 

fH£ art of questioning should be carefully studied. 
Teachers who follow the textbook of to-day will do the 
talking, when the object should be to let the pupils do the 
greater part Tlus is lamentably the case in geography 
and l^story. Often the teacher's question of six, eight, 
or ten words is answered by one word from the pupiL 
This begets a pumping process which the teacher must 
resort to on all long answers. I have steered clear of 
this process by requiring them to prepare and deliver in 
detail before their class an assigned topic 

A Harvard graduate in one of our Western schools, 
who was not successful in teaching history, one day 
questioned his class, — *'Why do we not accomplish 
more ? Is the fault mine, or is it yours ? " A clever 
young.man, said, ^ I think you do too much talking." 

I think if we ask ourselves the same question about 
any recitation which does not come up to our ideal, we 
shall find a similar answer applicable. We must throw 
the pumping machine aside, and become listeners and 
critics ; we must insist upon our pupils doing the reciting 
if we wish for success. Once our classes find that they 
are expected to stand alone and give a recitation in every 
detail, they will prepare themselves for the task, and be- 
come better men and women for having been made de- 
pendent upon their own resources. 



The emlU fin* eight papers beginning Oct, 3 have ex- 
hausted cur supply. We must ask our friends to be 
patient unth us. We will send the eight papers begin- 
ning Oet, 24, and will also send a Uaflet with the *' Fifty 
Qood Seeks** reprinted. 




THE HOnSI WE LIVE IN. 

BT M ABT L. SAVnTBB, B0X90BD, BUSS. 

n LL children know the names of the different pttrts 
iO^ of the houses where they live ; you would think it 
very funny not to know a glass window from a wooden 
door. You know, too, the different papers on the walls, 
the carpets on the floors, and you would at once reoognise 
these papers and carpets if you should see them in ilOiar 
houses, or even in distant towns. 

How many know what the great house we all live in, 
and which we call the earth, is made of ? 

This great stone hdnse is papered and carpeted with 
beautiful grass, and flowers, and grain, and trees. Ton 
know the names of many of the trees and flowers. Now 
just as you can take away the carpets and the pi^per bk 
your houses and come to th^ floors and walls, so if yon 
take away the trees and the plants, and the soil in whidi 
they grow,— that is, the earth carpet, — ^you would find the 
solid rock, — that is, the earth floors and walls. Bbt, yon 
say, you cannot take away these earth carpets. No, bat 
some of the earth floors are not carpeted, and almeat 
everywhere you can find stones, which are broken 
pieces of the earth's floor. 

We say these rocky pieces are made 
of different rnvneraU^ and every min- 
eral has its own name. Let ns learn 
one to-day. Here is a little roondish 
white stone, as white as milk and as 
smooth as silk. It is a little quarts pebUe. 
Here is a rough bit of rock that soems to be a broken . 
piece of a large ene. Banning through it is a iHiite 
stripe, looking very much like 
the white pebble. It is the 
very same mineral,— -quartz. 
Here is a very different look- 
ing stone. You might easily 
take it for a piece of ice. Held 
it before your eyes ; you can see through it just as yoa 
can through glass. Qaartz again ! 

Prettiest of all is this cluster of shining 
stones, transparent like the last pieee, but all 
of regular shape. E^ach little pillar has six 
sides, and the little pyramids on top of the 
pillars have each six sides. These six-sided 
pillars are called qaartz crystals. Sometimei 
they are milky white, sometimes parple, 
sometimes smoky brown. Often they are so snudl sad 






18061] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



91 



''jim«&R!3msi 




7 \ 

flfvipied fo doedy that yoa eui 
hmMj Ma their sbape, bat i! you 
look «IoseIy» — yoo ehildren have 
nioh sharp eyesy — yon ean still ooant the six sides. 

If yoo go down to the seashore and walk along the 
aaody beaeh yoa will be walking on one of the anearpeted 
floors of onr honse, and there yoa will fiod qoarlz every- 
where \ for the sand in whieh yoa like to pUy is almost 
wholly made of little grains o! qaarts. Many of the 
pebUes that lie there so thickly are all quartz, too. Be- 
sides the shining white ones, there are black and gray and 
brown, for qoarts has many oolors. How, then, are yoa 
to know it ? 

First, beeanse it is so hard, the very hardest of oar 
eommon minerals. Try and scratch a piece of qnartz 
with a knife or file. Yoa cannot make the least little 
mark npon it, bat if yoa try hard enough the qnarts 
will eat into year knife. It will scratch glass, too. Now 
strike this large qaartz rock with a hammer. It does not 
break, bat see how the sparks of fire fly oat If yon sao- 
eeed in chipping off a little, it does not 
break in any particnlar form, bat in 
irregnlar pieces, and it is as easy to 
break it in one direction as in an« 
other. Some stones split in regular 
pieces, bat qaartz never does. 

Sometimes yon will find veins of qaartz ranning 
throngh a ledge of rock, and perhaps in this qaartz there 
will be litde pockets with crystals hanging in them like 
tiny ideles. Connt the sides and scratch them with a 
knife, to see what Jdnd of crystals they are. 

Before our next talk I want yoo to find as many kinds 
ol qoarti as possible. There is a beantafal pink kind 
eaUed rose qaartz. The brilliant agates and carnelians 
and bloodstones, the onyx, and some of the amethysts 
that people wear for rbgs or seal?, are all qaartz stones. 

And if any of yoa should find a roond, 
reagh-lodking stone that, broken open, 
woold be hollow, thickly lined with shin- 
ing crystals, yoa would be one of the luck- 
iest seekers, for yoa would have a real 

quiisgeode. 

^ ••• ^ 

LANGUAGB.-a) 

BT MABT A. 8PXAR, PUnrSYLYAVIA. 

The Fhit Year. 

fHB purpose of the early language lessras is to train 
the ehildren to think and to express their thoughts 
in eomplete sentences. There are many composition 
phrases or idioms used in the First Readers of which the 
pu|nk ihoald have a knowledge, so as to speak them 
promptly and fluently, thus gaining a help toward rapid 
progress in reading. These idioms may be introdaeed in 
the §nt language exercises. 




Fint : The teacher begins the lesson by saying to the 
little people gathered around her, *' I see a box. I see 
a chair. What do you see ? " addressing some one whom 
she knows is not timorous or afraid to speak, and from whom 
she expects a reply. Probably the child will respond, 
''I see a ," mentioning some object near him, 



and each papil, as the question is asked, will preface the 
name of some object by the words, '^ I see." This plan 
leads the pupils in the earliest language lessons to make 
complete sentences. At the next lesson the teacher begins 
by nsing another form of expression. Holding a pencil 
in her hand, she says, ** This is a penmL You may take 
something and tell me what it is." At the next lesson 
this mode of speech is varied with the first nsed, and 
perhaps another form is introduced. The different idioms 
given are repeated antil the pupils speak them readily 
and easily. 

Second : The teacher soon begins to give variety to the 
exercises by askbg, << Where is the pencil ?" The papil 
replies, using some of the forms he has learned. ^ Here 
is the pencil." '' This is the leaf." '' There is a flower." 
'' I have a feather." Likewise a papil may become a 
qaestioner. He reqaires an answer from one of his class 
mates or from the teacher. When the teaeher answers, 
she finds opportonities for introdncbg new words or new 
forms of speech. These are quickly noticed by the papils, 
and imitated. 

Third / The next step is to have the papils disoover 
the same quality in different objects. Take for example 
the attribute of color ; the language lesson can then be 
made a lesson on color, thus unifying the work. Having 
shown the color red, and keeping it in sight of the pupil, 
so that comparisons may be made, ask him to look aboat 
and find something of tiiat color. He sees a pieoe of red 
paper. When making known his discovery he shoold not 
be allowed to merely touch or point to the object ; neither 
shoald he be allowed to ase but one or two words, as, 
^* paper," or " this paper," bat in every instance he shoald 
be required to make a complete sentence, as, *< This paper 
is red." '<Here is a red block." <a have a piece of 
red ribbon." 

In a schoolroom one may fiod red paper ; red lines on 
white paper ; red edges on the leaves of a book ; a red 
pencil ; red flowers ; a red dress ; a red riblxm ; a red 
crayon ; red in colored pictures ; red in decorations, and 
in many other things which might be overlooked in a 
hasty glance. At first children will observe only a few 
things which have this color attribnte. They mast not be 
satisfied with these few easily discovered objects, but led 
to make more diligent search, so as to form a habit of 
careful and painstaking investigation. This habit will be 
an advantage to them in future work. 

To encourage this exhaustive study of objects the 
teacher may, when the pupils think they have named 
everything, say, *' There is one thing which no one has 
yet seen. Who will be first to find it ? " or, '< Is there 



n 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[NO¥, 



not one thiog yoa have not mentioned?" Often the 
papUs will discover more than the teacher. After a Bimi- 
lar plan the pupils will learn otber attribates. Their 
attention mast be directed to the size, form, material of 
the object, and to those qaalities that are ascertained 
through the sense of tonch, as smooth, rough, hard, soft. 

Fourth ,\ The iuterrogative form of the sentence is next 
used, introducing the qualifying word. The questions are 
first asked by the teacher and answered by the pupils, 
then asked by a pupil and answered by the teacher or a 
classmate. ^' Where is the red box ? " " Who has a long 
pencil ? " '< Which is the rough board ? " 

Fifth : Lead the pupils to make statements about more 
than one object, so that they will be obliged to use the 
plural form of the verb. Give special attention to the 
uses of the verbs, to be, to havsy and others which are fre- 
quently misused. <<How many eyes have you, Alice ? ** 
^<How many has Edith?" <<How many have both?" 
'<Tell me the color of this balL" <'0f this paper." 
'< Tell the color of both." The ball is blue. The paper 
i$ blue. The ball and the paper are blue. 

Exereuee like these should not be lifeless or mechanical, 
but the pupil must be aroused so that there is mental 
activity, then he will receive stronger impressions con- 
cerning the right form of speech than he would if the 
correct forms were given to be learned as a memory 
exerdse. This is especially true of those pupils whose 
minds are sluggish or dull. 

Sixth: Plaoe objects in different positions with refer- 
ence to one another, in order that some words of place 
and relation may be taught '^ Tell m^ some things which 
are on the table." ^^ What child is standing near me ? " 
^^Tell some things whieh are above you." ''What is 
v/nder your feet ? " '* How many chairs between the table 
and the window ?" '' How many nuts are in the box ? " 



LESSONS IN ZOOLOGY.* 

BT OLABABBL GILM AK, JAMAIOA PLAIN, MASS. 

Corals. 

A rfsgle larfs speeimsB of Gslazea (Fi|f. 1) or some other oonl 
with large tabee, will f amUh every ehild in a elaai with a tabe for 
■tady, while the teeeher ehonld have a piece eoniiieting of three or 





Fio. 1. 

ioor tnbeit and if poMible, one or two 
oaft. Though Qelana is beet, etill no 

• Ooiiyrigiit, isea 



FlQ. 2. 



joet budding 
need omit the lesion, 



if ibe oan obtain pieoes of the oommon madrepore ev fiacer- 
eoral (Fig. 2). ^at if this is used, each obild ehonld haia the end 
of a branch ihowing tlie large polyp at the tip, and a groap of Gt- . 
tie ones aronnd it. A liYing sea-anemone in the schoolroom will be 
a great help. Blackboard drawings of bndding hydrae ahoold alee 
bekeptforthul 



The children have become familiar with the idea of the 
skeleton in the sponge, so they at once see that coral is 
only the skeleton of the coral animal, and that each tube 
is made by one animaL They quickly make the f oUov- 
ing observations: 

It is white. It is shaped like a tube. It has Unee on 
the oatside. It has litUe walls on the inside. It is hard 
like stone. 

The teacher tells them that this is a stony coral, with a 
skeleton made of lime. Then they look carefully at the 
top and the sides of the skeleton, to see if it will remind 
them of any animal they have studied, and find it is like 
the sea-anemone. 

Some pieoes of Galaacea will show plidnly that these are twalfa 
stony partidons that nearly meet in the center of the tabe, and 
twelve more that are shorter, bnt the specimens are often eo btokea 
that it is dii&cnlt to tell how many of the partitions are long and 
how many are short. It is not best to have the oliildren eonnt them 
nnlcM the teacher knows from personal examination of the tabes, 
that her pupils can readily see how many little walls of each eott 
there are. 

After the question. How are these tubes held together ? 
an examination of the teacher's large specimen shows that 
a stony, white, spongy substance connects them. 

fig. 8 has been put oo the blackboard, drawn wholly in red, be- 
cause it shows only the flashy parts of the coral. This is not the 




..^; 




FlQ. 8. 



FlO. 4. 



Galaacea, but it has the same kind of a stony skeleton, and the same 
arrangement of the flashy parts. The children now dseoribe this 
flgnre. 

This new coral has a fleshy tube. It has a disk at the 
top of the tube, with the mouth in the center. It has ten- 
tacles around the mouth. There are little animals bud 
ding from some of the tubes. There is flesh covering the 
stony skeleton between the tubes. 

It is easy now to understand that the spongy filling be- 
tween the tubes of Galazea is formed by the layer of fleeh 
that covers it, and connects the animals. A colony of 
Gralazea is formed by the budding of young animals from 
this connecting layer, around the base of the old ones. 

Fig. 4 is a erom section of the body of a li?iag eoral, bat doss not 
how the etosaaob. It repreeents what we should see if wu weie to 



tno.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



03 



«■! off tlM «ppOT half of tho tobe and then look down vpon what 
was loft For tho blaokboard tho oaahadod parta ■honld bo drawn 
1b rod« to rop t aiant fltah, and the abadod parti in white, for the 
atony akeletOB. The ohildreB now tell what they aee in thia figare : 

There's a tabe of flesh oatside of the tube of stone. 
There are fleshy partitions and stony ones« The fleshy 
partitions are in pairs, and the stony ones are not There 
are six pairs of long fleshy partitions, and six pairs of 
short ones. There are six long stony partitions and six 
short ones. There is a tube of flesh inside the stony 
tabe, and the fleshy partitions grow ont from that 

TkB Jfoay parliUonB art net formed hy the JU thy ontt, but eaoh by 
tiia thin layer of flesh coToring it, repreeeated by the light line in 
^a 4Kve* 



FnST STEPS IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.* 

BY HABBIBT ▲. LUDDINOTON, 

PrlaeSpel of Training School. Pawtaoket, B. I. ; Author ol " Pietiire 
FroDlems." 

///. — The First Canvenatians : Story Telling. 

The difficnlty of starting the first eonversations with 
the little beginners in school life, is appreciated folly by 
efexy primary teacher, unless she is so fortunate as to 
toaeh children who have been in a good kindergarten. 
The child's inability to talk in tiie first few days of his 
eehooMife, results generally fronx timidity. Oatside of 
the schooLroom he most Yigoronsly exhibits his power of 
eonyersation. The only way to secure a like freedom in 
the schoolroom, is to restore, as far as possible, the eonr 
dUicne whieh exist outside. Four most important condi- 
tions are : occupation, freedom of bodily movement, ezer- 
eiees which irresistibly attract the attention, and a sunny 
and home-like atmosphere. Something to do at once, will 
soon make the Utile one forget that he is a stranger. 
This ^ something '' must be simple enough for the child's 
dander abilities. It may be laying colored sticks, build- 
ing with Uoeks, assortmg colored worsteds or papers, past- 
ing rings, making objects in day, or drawing strdght 
''solders,'' (lines), on ruled paper,— having the soldiers' 
heads and feet touch the lines. A littie of this work may 
be followed by a kindergarten game, a run around the 
schoolroom sofdy on the balls of the feet, or a vigorous 
mimie now-balling game. These little physicd exercises 
prepaie the way for that delight of childish hearts, — a 
story. This, to attract the eye, thereby fixing the atten- 
tion, diodd be illustrated. For this purpose the goni- 
grapht or jointed slat, building blocks, pictures or 
sketches, may all be used. 

The most enjoyable stories for young children are 
fdry tdes or myths, out of which many fury tdes grew, 
stories from the loorld's childhood having a wonderf d 
fascination for the child living in the world's later ages* 

"cSipyright, isss.) 

. tThe gonisrapb is oompoeed of s namber of tbln. fl%t pieces of wood, 
fssteoed end to eod in hmse ]<>lDts, In raoh a way tliat all ftf the pleeee 
ean fold one upon another, it \a invaluable far ** Form Lessons." as 
wsUasittstorrwork. KinderKSiten children eall tt ** Tbe Ffttry." It 
ssB bs oUalBed of soy dealer in Kindergarten supplies. 



We may, for instance, tell that curious Esquimau myth 
about the sun and moon, which is related in Olodd's 
" Childhood of die World." 

This myth relates that when a girl was at a party, 
some one told his love for her by shaking her shoulders 
after the manner of the country. She could not see who 
it was in the dark hut, so she smeared her hand with 
soot ; and when he came back she blackened his cheek 
with her hand. When a light was brought, she saw that 
it was her brother, and fled. He ran after her, and fol- 
lowed her as she came to the end of the earth and 
sprang out into the sky. There she became the sun, and 
he, the moon ; and this is why the moon is sometimes 
dark as he turns his blackened cheek towards the earth. 
Perhaps the little ones wodd be quite as much interested 
in the tde of Jack and Jill, — ^from the Icelandic mythol- 
ogy, — ^which is given as follows in Fiske's '* Myths and 
Mytii-Makers." 

^' Jack and Jill were two children whom the moon once 
kidnapped and carried up to heaven. They had been 
drawing water in a bucket which they carried by means 
of a pole across thdr shodders, and in this attitude they 
have stood to the present day, in the moon. They f dl 
away one after the other, as the moon wanes, and their 
water-pail symbolizes the supposed connection of the 
moon with rdnstorms." 

Either of these stories, or any other good moon-myth or 
sun-myth, will lead at once to the children's observations 
of those heavenly bodies, and at the same time will 
arouse the desire to make further observations. 

The illustrations of the Esquimau myth might be sketches 
or pictures of the Tgloo or Esqmmau house ; the boy and 
girl in their peculiar dress ; the curious lamp or stove 
from which soot codd be procured ; the sun ; the moon 
with the dark shadows upon it, as so often observed by 
the children, etc. 

The myth of Jack and Jill gave great delight to a com- 
pany of littie folks, when the teacher sketched rapidly on 
the blackboard the figures of a boy and girl carrying a 
pail of water, and then the outline of the moon, showing 
upon its surface a representation of a boy and girl hold- 
ing a pail between them. 

A good exercise to follow such stories as those men- 
tioned above wodd be reciting with the teacher a part of 
** Seven Times One,"-^'<0, Moon ! ii^e night IVe seen 
you sailing/'— -or, singing the kindergarten song, *^ Lady 
Moon ! Lady Moon ! sailmg so high." The latter would, 
of course, cause the children to remark upon the fact that 
the Esquimau myth calls the moon a boy, while the song 
speaks of it as a lady. The poem would call forth further 
comparisons between the beliefs of the Esqdmaux and 
our own ideas. In both cases there would be an op- 
portunity for a littie literature and history lesson, while 
considerable curiosity would be aroused concerning the 
strange people and their queer beliefs. Thus from a sim- 
ple story may grow lessons in dementary geography, 



's^ 



94 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



lH*r. 



history, and literature. At the same time, as the resalt 
of the intense interest aroused, the children are led to ex- 
press their thoughts with the greatest freedom, thas aid- 
ing the teacher in her discovery of their mental powers. 
The manner of telling the story is of almost as great 
importance as the tale itself. It should he told in a bright, 
dramatic, animated manner, with the addition of the little 
air of mystery which so fascinates children. A teacher 
who stands and tells a story in a solemn or prosaic style, 
need not hope to see any interest on the part of the little 
ones. If some of the characters in the story are children, 
their dress and appearance should be described, compar- 
ing these constantly with the dress and appearance of the 
pupils. In this way the tale is made real to the children, 
they feel that they almost belong in the story themselves ; 
they, for the time being, live the incidents described. A 
pleasing story, told, not read, in an interesting and viva- 
cious manner, is the ''Open Sesame" to many a little 
one's heart, and,' very often opens the portals of speech, 
too, — the child so entering into the spirit of the tale as to 
forget his surroundings and consequent timidity, uncon- 
sciously expressing with the utmost freedom the thoughts 
awakened by the narrative. 



KEY TO RECREATION IN 6E06RAPHT. 

[See Issue of October.l 



Rainy.' 

May.' 

BUck.3 

Skye.4 

Foul weather. 5 

Whitehall.^ 

Greenfield.^ 

The Woods* 

Wetter.9 

Inn.«« 

Henrietta Maria ' 

Nelson." 

Copenhagen. '3 

Red.«4 

Hungary. '5 

Mosquito. '^ 

Berne. ^7 

Florence.** 
Madison. '9 

Nioe.'^' 
James.'* 
Darling." 
Salt '3 
I«er.»4 
Mosquito 'i 



Mosquito."* 
Wralh.*7 
Madison."* 
Gila.'9 
Mosquito. 30 
FioreDce.3' 
Scilly.3' 
Race 33 
Lewis 34 
Jackson 35 
'Leeds.36 
Broit 37 
Hungary.)* 
Great Bear.39 
Washington ^ 
Austin.4' 
Hayes.4' 
Negra43 

Conception.'*^ 

Pekin45 

Sandwich.'*^ 

C!lear.47 

Blue 4* 

£ider.49 

Lincoln. 9^ 



Lincoln. 5< 

Toulouse. 5" 

Charles.53 

Ha, ha! 54 

Grand Tongue.55 

Duck 56 

BologDa.57 

Banoa3* 

Snow 59 

Milk.6o 

Icy.6* 

May.6« 

Brown.<^3 

Harrison.^ 

White.65 

Peel.66 

Orange.*7 

Philippine.^ 

FJaUery.69 

Pleasant^' 

O^er.7' 

Cologne 73 

Deer.73 

Home.74 

Long 75 



ANSWERS TO LITERARY CONUNDRUMS. 

[See Issae ot October.] 



1. Chancer. 5. Holmes. 

2. Dryden. 6. Holland. 
S. Pope. 7. Hood. 
4 Taylor. 

Helra M. Collier and Graoo E. Waltoo, BoUmL ICe., and othon. 



8. Bums. 11. Shelley. 

9. Abhott 12. Cooleridge. 
10. Soathey. 13. Young. 










THE CHILDREN AND THE POETS. 

ABBAiraED BT KATK L. BBOWK. 

ADELINE D. T. WHITNEY.' 




/^ai^^^y:^^ 




La/rvae. 

\Y little maiden of four yean old,— 

rth, bat a senniiie ohild is ahoi 
r bronse-brown eyeo and her onrlt of goU,— 
CaBM qoite in di^gnat, one day to me. 



ifiA Y little maid 

U^ No myth,] 

With her bw 



Bnbbbg her ahonlder with roay palm 
(Aa the loathaome toooh aeemed yet to thriU hm^) 

She oried, — "Oh, mother, I fonad on my ana 
A horrible, orawling oaterpillar." 

And with miaokierona amile ahe ooold aoareely 
Yet a look in ita daring;, half-awed and ahy, 

She added " While they were about it, mother, 
I wiah they'd joat finiahed the bntterfly.*' 

They were worda tu the thonghta of the aonl, thai li 
From the ooaraer form of a partial i^wth, 

Beproaehiafp the lafiotte Patience that yearna 
With an ankoown glory to orown them botib. 

Ah, look thoQ largely with lenient eyei. 
On whatao betide thee may ereep and elin^, 

•Arrangements hare been made with Iffessra. Hoi^rhto^ : 
Company for the use of this poem and portrait. 



•] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



96 



Foff Um poMlbk bawity Uiftt midMliet 
The pafliiHC pbaM of the neaiieit thiof . 

Whei if God*e gnet Avgda, whoee welting lore 

B»boldeth oor pitiful life below. 
From the holy height of their heeTeD ebore, 

Gonlda't beef with the worm till the wiage ihoiild grow. 

J^ th* children. 

Ib the lovely old hill-town of Milton, Hms., ib a pleas- 
ant brown honse known as ** Elm Comer," the home of 
Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney, the anther of << Faith Gartney," 
«« We Girls," <'A Sammer in Leslie Goldthwaite*s Life/' 
Sknd BOTeral other books beloyed of girls. 

Mrs. Whitney, though past middle life, is very like her 
pietnre, and her own character and her surroundings are 
▼ery like her books. Li these respects she is the least dis- 
appointing of authors. She has the sweetest of faces, 
dear, grave eyes that look kindly at one, while they still 
seem to read one through and through, and a gracious 
eordiality that puts the shyest person entirely at ease. 

Mrs. Whitney in 1861 published '' Boys at Chequasset," 
an earnest little story, in which the author's aim is to show 
how a litUe manliness on the part of one boy influenced 
ior good his whole circle. 

'' Bird-Talk " is another hook for children, whQe the 
old magazine << Our Tonng Folks," '< Wide Awake," and 
other children's magazines have had the benefit of her 
stories. Mrs. Whitney has been a semi-invalid for the 
past few years, and lives quietly in her lovely home, inter- 
ested in her friends, her letters, and the flock of bright 
grandchildren growing about her. 
For ih4 teacher* 

Children have many thoughts, and begin to ponder very 
early on the problems of existence. They need gmdance 
here, for new experiences multiply so rapidly that the lit- 
tle heart is confused — almost appalted by the flood of 
novel life. And in no sense may we help children more, 
than by introducing them to that which develops and 
ennobles. By giving a child that which will help him 
control the new life, we show not only sympathy, but re- 
spect, — ^two elements wherein lie the secret of all influ- 
ence. The poem ** Larvae "is a happy illustration of 
the natural flowering out into the spiritaal, and it teaches 
a lesson of toleration that cannot be too early impressed. 
First call the attention of the children to the partial 
forms of growth, as in the cases of the butterfly and dra- 
gon-fly. The poem read teaches its own lesson. We, 
compared with the angels, are as the caterpillar compared 
with the butterfly. If the Lord can be patient with ns> 
should we slight or scorn anything "creeping or crawling " ? 

lUnstrate the meanings of such passages as,— 

"Ah, look tho« Ittfely," eto. 
** The peerfflg phaee," etc. 

Saeh a poem eonnot fail to inflnenee children. They 
will feel ito largeness, even if they cannot analyze the im- 
pression. And the best of teaching is apt to be the indi- 
leet and the nneonscions. 



*'BUaS AND THINGS;'' 

OR, 

Fred and Ethel at the Brookslde.* 

L-WATEB 8K1TEB3. 



€( 




0MB, Ethel," said Fred^ <<come to the brook with 
me. I have a new dredger, and you may take 
my old one. We will look for water-ekaters and tigers." 

''Oh, that will be nice I '» 
cried Ethel, and away she 
ran for her hat and a tin pail 
to put the <* findings " in. 

Do yon know what a 
'< dredger'' is? Fred*s 
was made of an old salt 
bag, and iron hoop sewed 
about the edge. It had a 
long handle fastened on to 
the hoop. Any one can 
make a dredger. 
When they reached the brook, Ethel saw some eorioos 
little creatores, like spiders, skating rapidly over the sor- 
face of the water. It was funny to watch them. They 
had four very long, thin legs, two antennsa, and a pair of 
short feelers near the antenoss. 

Ethel was tired with the walk under the hot son. The 
little dtj girl was not as strong as her eoontrj cousin, 
Fred. 

^Ton sit on this stone and rest, while I go vp the 
brook to get some cress for mamma," he said. 

So Ethel sat down to wait for her cousin. Did she 
feel sleepy from her long walk, or how could such strange 
things happen ? One of the skaters stopped in his mad 
chase, and looked gravely at her. 

" You're a pretty looking object," he said, politely. 
'' Are yoQ dead, that you sit there like that stoBe?"and 
the skater dashed across the brook and back again, to re- 
lieve his feelings. 

Ethel, too much surprised, did not rejdy, but the 
speaker went on: 

'*Now, I am altogether lovely. See my fovr long, 
slender legs, and my ringed body. See the grace of my 
movemento ! " and the skater almost stood on his head 
for Ethel's benefit 

'< Tou look, for all the world, like a grasshopper in a 
fit," said a little yeUow ladybug, who was clinging to the 
stem of a water-plant 

'* Ah! you there, madam? " cried the skate^ ** I am 
delighted,— charmed to see yon." 

Bush I snap I and alas for poor Mrs. Ladybug I She 
was gone forever. 

•The writer !■ greatlv Indebted t^Upattd Dtmm l*s 
Uthed by Uoutbton, Mlfflia a Oo. 



HABir in thinking is one of the great ends le be at- 
tained through teaching. 



«6 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Mot. 



DECEMBER SENTENCES. 

BT OBORGIA A. HODAKmS, SPBINOFnELD, MA88. 

[For blackboard work with little people. It is the 
work of a good teacher to select sentences that signify 
something. These teach many things that should be 
known.] 

It grew very cold last night 

The wind blew hard and the river looked roagh. 

This morniDg the river is frozen. 

The ice is not smooth. 

All the trees are bare except the evergreen^. 

The birds and squirrels eat the pine seed now. 

Ned and May said they heard strange noises last eve. 

Grandma told them the frozen ground was cracking. 

They saw cracks in the ice on the river this morning. 

Hear the bells down the road. 

A sleighing party is crossing. 

The horses have on their winter coats. 

Now is the time of the harvest 

Johnny says December ice keeps better than the later ice. 

We made a snow fort this morning. 

Mr. Woodpecker has dag himself a winter home in the 
trunk of the dead apple-tree. 

It is pear-shaped and has a round door. 

He will not let Mrs. Woodpecker into this nice house. 

The old one will do for her; 

The window-panes are covered with frost 

Tom and Dick have made a double-runner. 

This morning we saw the tracks of the mice in the snow. 

They travel by night 

See the little ridges where they ran under the snow. 

The boys went skating last night 

Hear the hounds baying. 

They have tracked a fox in the woods. 

The children have made a slide in front of the house. 

Grandpa heard tree-sparrows twittering in the swamp. 

To day is the shortest day in the year. 

See those bits of frozen apple on the snow. 

The red squirrel has been hunting for apple-eeeds. 

The rabbits like the deep snow. 

Now they can reach the tenderest shoots at the tope of 
the young maples. 

See that flock of gold-finehes. 

They always fly in flocks. 

The birds are often hungry now. 

They come round the house for com or crumbs. 

The chickadees break the com with their bills. 

Hang a bone on a branch and watch the birds pick at it 

The snow buntings came with the last snow storm. 

Fred caught some pickerel through the ice. 

See our green holly, with its bright, red berries. 

We will trim our houses with evergreen to-night 

To-morrow is Christmas Day. 

Then we shall see what if in those big bundles. 



COAL MINES. 



BY HENRY 8. KINO. 



'VK/'HILB there are few countries where coal is aol 
^l found to some extent, the United States is pttrtiev- 
larly favored with both a large area of deposits and m sape- 
rior quality of coal. The coal fields of the land cover an 
area about twenty-two times the size of Massaehoaeifea, bat 
all of the hard coal is found in Eastern PennsylTania 
within an area not ezceedbg 470 square miles. The rest 
of the deposits are soft coal, and Uiough this ia inferior 
to hard coal in general utility, the supply is pmetieally 
inexhaustible. 

If we wish to know how our coal beds were formed we 
have only to go to them, for they tell their own story. 
Before the time of man, at the time of mammalia, the earth 
was covered with a dense rich vegetation wluch grew lux- 
uriantly under the fostering influences of heat, dampnees, 
and an atmosphere full of carbon. It was from this rank 
growth that our coal was formed. If a piece of wood is 
burned, and at the same time subjected to pressure, we 




Ftg. 1. 

have a substance very like coal. If we watch a peat bed 
we can see the process of coal formation gobg on all the 
time. From such observations we find that coal u only 
the result of pressure and heat on the vegetable growth 
of the remote carboniferous age. 

Coal is found in strata which are separated from one 
another by intervening layers of rock and fire-clay which 
were formerly the soil where grew the trees whose remains 
now form the coal. It is probable that each succesnye 
layer of coal was formed in some such way as this : The 
eiffth settiing allowed the water to cover the vegetable 
growth until, by a gradual accumulation from the waves, 
land again appeared above the surface of the sea. This 
process was repeated as often as we find a stratum of eoil, 
and continued through ages. 

The pressure exerted on the coal strata caused them to 
assume irregular wave-like positions which approach the 
surface at points and dip away again. It is this slope which 
determines the way in which the coal shall be approsehed' 
There are four ways of entering a mine to take oat the 
coal : the drift, the tunnel, the slope, and the shaft In 
some places the seams are exposed to the surface, geoe^ 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



97 



Ally on some hillside or cliff, and it is for snch locations 
tliat the drift (Fig. 1) is employed. An opening is marked 
OB the exposed edge of the seam, and then a cat is made 
into the hill following the stratum in its npward coarse, that 
tlie water may ran oat and the loaded ears come easily to 



r^ 


"^ 


■L"? - 


-■'-:-^.-i-'- 


^^^TT^ 


^f^ 


-Lj^ 


r3f 


3 




.- ■ ^T. 




^,/ - 1 '^, 


^^^ 


;v.j1.-^ 


^_n^ 


=t 


Wl 






1 


1 


" *-,.-. ,^-.>^^JL 




M 


1 


1 




P 1 


L^ 


J 





Fig. 2. 

the opening. It is generally necessary to support the 
roof of the drift with timbers. 

Next to the drift the tunnel is the easiest way to reach 
the coal. A tunnel is run into a hill at right angles to 
the seam. After the face of the coal is reached a passage 
is driven in either direction along the seam. The slope 
(Fig. 2) is very similar to the drift. It is a passage 
beginning at an outcrop of the seam and follows the course 
of the coal down the dip, the coal being drawn to the 
Barf ace in carriages. 



VARIETY WORK (PRIMARY). 

BT LAUBA F. ARMITAaB. 

TAME three things boys and girls should not do. 

[Name something made of glass. 
Write the names of three kinds of pie. 
Name some things boys like to carry in their poekets. 
Name something that has a long neck. 
Name something that has a short tail. 
Name some fruits you have seen growing. 
What do you like to do Saturdays ? 
Tell three things that water is good for. 
How old will you be your next birthday ? 
What do you learn to do at school ? 
Name some things that grow on yines. 
Name some things that grow on trees. 
Name some things that grow on bushes. 
What is a very high hill called ? 
What are bams used for ? 
What grows on sheep ? 
With what do you mark on the blackboard ? 
Of what are boys' hats made ? 
For what are feathers used ? 
What do squirrels eat ? 

Name three things that can be seen from your school- 
room window. 
Name two yegetables that grow in pods. 
Of what is bread made ? 
Name two insects. 




SEAT WORK. 

BY OHABIiBS F. BSBBTT. 

IM UGH time may be sayed in ungraded schools by 
jSi giving such examples as these : 

I. In addUwftj have pupils add numbers,— three, four, 
or fiye at a time, — ^from a column written on the board. 

II. In tubtractionj require scholars to subtract a given 
number from another as many times as possible; or, 
having a column of figures on the board, let them subtract 
all the others from the first, it being the largest 

III. In mulHplieatian unddimsian such an example as 
this saves much time : 

69843 ) ^ -^3^ (63 

;S[-«l^P«edby|'J5 
This is ft short way of writing nine exftmples. 



WORDS NEVER TOO WELL KNOWN. 



BT GUSSIB BULNHTEUN. 



exereise 


exOToise. 


sailor 


sailer. 


currant 


current 


levee 


levy 


formerly 


formally 


lesson 


lessen 


pendent 


pendant 


indict 


indite 


fisher 


fissure 


counsel 


ooaneil 


pistol 


pistil 


compliment complement 


patients 


patience 


cellar 


seUer 


virtue 


virtu 


cereal 


serial 


surplus 


surplice 


canvas 


canvass 


profit 


prophet 


ascent 


assent 


gamble 


gambol 


altar 


alter 


cymbal 


symbol 


wreek 


reck 


carrot 


caret 


kernel 


colonel 


bridle 


bridal 


cruel 


crewel 


mustard 


mastered 


ceiling 


sealing 


muscle 


mussel 


cession 


session J 


mettle 


metal 


barrow 


borough 


martial 


marshal 


augur 


auger 


weather 


wether. 


troop 


troupe 


sucker 


succor. 


thrown 


throne 



Pi9>i2— What if thk a pieton of f 

Tiocher^-Ymk ilioiild oot and a ien t m a a with a ptsporitloii ; yov 
■honldiay, '< Of what ia this a piotore?" 

Pttjn/— Thank yon. I'll try to ranembmr. 

Tho Bozt day the imptt oonua to the teaoher with mrmnl qnas- 
tiona hi the eomot f omi. 

Pupt/— About what if this atory f 

Like wliom doaa Uncle John look f 

Under whieh tree were yoo etandjng f 

Tliere, didn't I lemember? I ehoiild haTO nid, *' What ie Ais 
■toryaboat?" ''Whom doee Uncle John look like? " '<Whieh 
tree were yon etanding nnder f " if yoo hadn't correeted me. 

Teaehir — " I'm sorry yon remembered." 



98 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



ISar^ 




Ajllam Dalb win hare ohwge of this DeparimeBt, but ttie ooMtlons wUl 
be MMwered by • Tarlety of te*ohen of Tarloiu gndet. We ii*Te been la 
Uie hftUt of MMwerlDg mieh questlona bj penomu letten, or lendliig thena 
to toeehen to uiiwer, baft heieaftor they wlU be eatwered thfongh the 
AMXSIOAll Tbaohul 



What do you tMnk of the plan to aboUth fwsctfM, and 6y mtanM of 
a record of rediaiumi give reeeeeet of certain kngthe to thote having 
their Ueeone properly learned and to the teacher^ t tatief action, these 
lengthe to be counterbalanced by a record of nuebehavior, charging, for 
inetance, three minutee of thie receee for each offence, 

0. Z., Miehicot, Wie. 

There b a wide differeaee of o^oo upon the qaeetion of '^ No 
Beoeae." The beet edoeetore and moet preotioal teeohen axe about 
equally divided upon it Phyeidaiii Tory generally favor a reoeee, 
ae do moet parents, and all ohildren where the " no reeeee" plan 
haa not been tried. Prindpale quite generally favor it So far as 
I know, it has been a snoeeeB, and satis6ed all parties wherever 
furly tried. Yoor soheme is new to me, bat promises the beet of 
results. 

Among my pupils in a country tchool ie a boy fifteen years old who 
has already gained a disreputable notoriety for untruthfulness, erueUy, 
and lack of tnrtue. How can I ben^ such a pupU t IClss L. 

This is a hard ease. He is so old that there is little probability 
that he will be reformed by the sohodl. Two years earlier he would 
be easily reached, but even then the home must eobperato with the 
sohooL If there were but one of theee traits it would be bad 
enough, but the three make it exceedingly diffieult The elements 
of oharaeter are radically different that cause untruthfuhiess, 
cruelty, and lack of virtue. Only heroic means will avail. He 
haa passed the age of innocent untruthfulness, harmless cruelty, and 
they are probably chronic, while lack of virtue is premature, show- 
ing a rare depravity* He should certainly be removed from school 
and treated by an expert It is probably unwise for you to speak 
to the parents, but possibly you may speak to the committee. You 
may save him if you talk to him plainly and show him how certain 
it is that unless he conquers himself he will early become a criminal 
and suffer the consequences. Show htm that you can help him if he 
wiU help himself. 

Should a pupU be held responsible for his actions whUe in a Jit of 
anger, Bdith. 

No, but he should be held responsible for being in a Jit of anger. 
He must be dealt with judiciously. It may be a mere trick. 

The question eame up the other day, whether it is correct or not to 
teach duldren to pronounce the letter a with the broad sound, or as in 
the word fSr (&), Isitd man, or d man f 

A. B. S., New Hampshire. 



This is one phase of the "newness" about which there is a deal 
of nonsense. It is of little consequence which sound the a haa in 
thk connection. The important thing is that it be spoken with the 
noun. The evil to be remedied was the old-fsshioned habit of the 
child to connect it with the preceding word because it was well 
known, and then study out the next word after having spoken the a, 

** I see a mouse." In that way it was always called J. There 

will be no trouble if it is not spoken until the noun is. It should 
have the sound most natural to it, with the following word. There 



is no gain if a child says, " I see d mouse," or " I see a 

" If it stands alone, it is beet as J. Any attCBikm to thi 
is mischievous, and it is as faulty to insist that it be df or d, as & 

Please give, through your *< Talks with Teachers," soma light upam 
the following questions, which have perplexed me : 

1. What can be done with a beginning-nuwdter does, who do fse^ 
work during recitation hour, but when work is set them on the board 
to occupy their study hour, refuse to work unless coaxed and hdpei 
with each example when the teacher should be occupied with oAsr 
f/flfftff t 

2. Can pupils under seven and dght years of age understand, re- 
member, and apply the terwu used in the early study of drawimg and 
form work, as usually begun with children f 

8. Please give an estimate of the amount of work whidt a natmm&y 
bright doss may be expected to cover in fifteen weeks, using an €vd&- 
metic which begins with notation and numeration, followed by addiiiem, 
subtraction, wudtiplicatton, division, and fractions, 

4. Is it not better that beginners use an arithmetic which in^mdes 
greatest common divisor and least comston muhiple before takmg up 
the subject of fractionsf Is it best to use such a primary caritkmmtk 
as the one I have w^entioned, and when they begin with an advamoed 
book to go over the same subjects in thdr entirety again, as so memy 
classes are doing t When a suhject is mastered, I see no further need 
for the study of it, G. B. T., Carthage^ if. T. 

1. Sodi cases are difficult to reach by one who does not know the 
class. On no condition coax the pupils. In some way awaken aa 
enthusissm with a few of the dass, paying a premium praotio«Ily 
upon those who will work alone. I should put them into simplsr 
work that I knew they could do, and see who gets through first. 

2. It depends upon what is understood by ''usually begun." 
There are no terms more eanly learned or more fully appmniated 
by children than those employed in drawing, as developed from the 
study of forma. ^ 

8. It depends entirely upon how they are taught Notatioa umA 
numeration are rarely teught in these days. It depends also upon 
how g rea t thoroughness one triee to attain in addition. A class with 
habits of correct, rapid work with the addition and multiplieatioB 
tebles ought to be able to read and write numbers to a millioii aad 
perform addition of not more than ten numbeie, all below 1,000, 
and do everything in subtraction, multiplication, and division by 
numbers less than 100 within the fifteen week% There ahoold be 
no attempt at that time to add examples of more than ten numbees 
or multiply or divide by a number greater than 100. Yery little 
time should be given to explanation in dther of these subjects. 
Some teachers will be able to do simple work in fractions. 

4. Only simple work should be done with G. C. D. and L. C. M. 
All arithmetical work should be projected with easy examples fsr 
ahead of the work done thoroughly, and it should be frequently 
reviewed with more difiUsult work than before. There is a senss in 
which a subject in school work with ohildren is never mastered. 

Is the Swedish system of calisthenics adapted to country sdtod work? 

C. L T., Vermonu 

Yes, speoially adapted. It is a system with a principle, applied 
by philosophical methods, and is usable anywhere, by any teacher 
who will take a little time to learn how to teach it. 

Would you advise me to introduce physiology, algebra, and book- 
keeping into my ungraded schod f M. B., New Jersey, 

Physiology, certainly : algebra, no, unless there was an eieep- 
tionally bright dass that wished it; bookkeepbg, if there was time 
and a bright dass. 

What is the Socratic method of teaching f Not A S0OBATB8. 

It is the conversational method on a sdentific basis. It is the 
ghest art of questioning for devdoping thought and fbrmiag 



J 



18d0.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



99 




CTlie teaeher will find It pleasant, as a Tariety, to saently read the 
stories, or selecttons, then repeat in her own language before the elass, 
wbloh in tnm reprodnees, orally or in writing.] 



REPRODUCTION EXERCISES. 



BY M. E. ۥ 

An Outdoor Piotubb. 

[.Adapted,^ 

[For grammar grades.] 
rWrlte npon the blackboard; allow the pupils snffldent thne for 
reading earf^fnlly, either orally or silently. Erase and reproduce orally 
In pupirs own langnaga] 

Not the least of the charm of eamping ont is your eamp-fire at 
night. What pictures are boldly thrown or faintly oatlined upon 
iha canTSs of the night! Btott object, every attitude of your eom- 
IMUDum is striking and OMmorable. How the shadows leap, and 
•knlk, and horer about! Light and dark are in perpetual tilt and 
warfare, with first the one unhorsed, then the other. The friendly 
obearing fire, what aoquaintanee we make with it We had almost 
forgotten there was such an element, we had so long known only its 
dark offspring, heat Now we see the wild beauty uncaged, and 
acta its manner and temper. It carres itself a ohfanney out of the 
fluid and houseless air. A friend, a ministering angel in subjection ; 
a fiend, a fury, a monster, ready to devour the world, if uogoTcmed. 
By day it burrows in ashes and sleeps ; at night it comes forth and 
■its npon its throne of rude logs, and miss the camp, a sorereign 
queen. 

AiTOTHBB Piotubb— Thb BuBHore Tbbb. 

lAdapUd,! 
[To be used as an exercise, as abOTc is used.] 

Near the camp stood a tall, ragged, yellow birch, its partially cast- 
off bark hanging in crisp sheets or dense rolls. 

*'That tree needs the barber," we said, "and shall hare acall 
from him to-night" 

So after dark I touched a match to it, and we saw the fiames 
creep up and wax in fury until the whole tree and its main branches 
stood wrapped in a sheet of roaring fiames. It was a wild and 
striking spectacle, and must hare adrertised our camp to eyery noc- 
turnal creature in the forest 



Raih Thouohts. 

ZAdapted,^ 

[To be used in same manner as last two.] 

The great fact about the rain is that it is the most beneficent of 
all the operations of nature; more immediately than sunlight, eren, 
it means life and growth. Sunshine abounds erery where ; but only 
where rahi or dew follows, is there lifo. What a spur and impulse 
the summer shower isl How its coming quickens and hurries up 
the slow, jogging, country life ! The traveler along the dusty road 
sroosss from his rererie at the warning rumble behind the hills ; 
the children hasten from the field or from the school ; the farmer 
■tsps liTsly and thinks fast In the hay-field, at the first signal- 
gsn of the elements, what a commotion I How the h o rse r ake 
ratdss, how the pitchforks fly, how the white sleeres play and 
twinkle b the sun or against the dark background of the coming 
itona! One man does the work of two or three. It is a race with 
the sUmsnts, and the haymakers do not like to be beaten. The 



hay must be got under shelter, or put into 
storm overtakes tiienL 



snugeoeka before the 



Mat Bue and Goij> Bbbtlb, 
" Go away, you beggar, in your brown ooat! " said a gold beetle 

to a May bug, who had sat down on an elderberry bush. " Go ; I 

do not like your company." 

" Do you think that you are any better than I, because yon wear 

a shining coat ? " replied the May bug. " You ought to know that 

the ooat does not make the man. I am worth a good deal more 

than you." 
And now the two beetles began to quarrel, till at last they tried 

to push each other off the bush. Of course it came to blows. 

They seised each other by the feet, the wings, and the palpe, and— 

fell from the twig to the ground, where a cock was waiting. He 

snapped them up,— one,— two! and both were killed and eaten. 

Now the fight had an end, and the rooster did not care a straw 

which of the two was worth more than the other. 



I oonrider the AiCBBiOAlf Tbaohbb, all things considered, the 
best teachers' paper for the masses. I would not be without it, as 
I haTO found it pays a larger interest on the inTCStmeat than any 
other paper I read. 

Gbo. W. Ck>LB0BN, Park Biver, No. Dak. 



POBUSflEIlS' AfODKCEMEHTS. 

DiaoONTINUANOBa, — Aof •nbeerlber wishing to stop his paper most 
notify the Pabllsheit,MNljKirtv on ameert; otiierwlse he Is responsible for 
payment as long as the paper Is tent 

HOW ro REMIT, — To Menre safety tt Is tanportsat that remlttsneei 
■hoQld be mede bj oheoks, drafts, post-oflee orders, express UMmey orders, or 
registered letters, mede payable to the PubUahers. 

itgGff/Priff.— Bemlttanoesare acknowledged bj change of date following 
the iubserlber^ name on the paper, ghoold inch achaage fsU to appear 
wltliln two weeks of the date of remlttanee, snbserlbers should notify ns at 



MiaaiNe NUMBBSa^Sbatki a number of the TBAoaaa fsJ 
« subscriber, he will confer a fSTor npon the PabUahers by notifying ns of 
the feet, upon reoeipt of which notlee the missing nnmber will be sent 

CEANQB OF ADDREaa^Whvk a change of address Is desired, both the 
(dd and the new address of the snbserfber should be glren. 

All lettere pertaining to the Bdltorlal department and all eommwniea- 
dons for the peges of the Ta^OHna should be addressed to the Bditors. 
An letters pertsinlng to the business management of the TaaoHaa should 
be addressed to the i>a6Ut*«rt. 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING GOMPANYi 

FubUeaHan OffiM : S •aasaroat mu, BaatMSf 



o. w. 



BABDnN, Byraense, H. T., 

eavaaAL A»mn worn Naw Toaa^An. 



lb anyone who wili cut this out and send ii to u*^ 
with address and 25 cents in etamps^ we will mail the 
Journal of Education, a sixteen page weekly^ for 
TWO MONTHS, postpaid. 



NauM,, 



Addrett», 



NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
3 S011B118B1 Strbxt, BonoN, Mass. 



100 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 




The J\mebtcan Teacher. 

W. S. BHELDOll.) **«>«• 

I 

OONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Pag€ 

Tbe Cblld ADdthe BoDk (poemjp , . . . , 85 

Olve and Take (pcx'm), ...... 85 

Ta]k» witb YounK Teachers, «.,.*• 85 
Gra^lD^ Country Bcboolft, ,.,*.. 86 

UBgraded 8chi>ot Work —A Few R«salU, . . , . 87 

ZACDArr'a First Year Id S^^boot, t ■ > ■ - 88 

Beromiatloti N't^ed^d^ . * . . ^ , . 90 

HETHOBB: Tbe IlkHise Vf& LiY« !□— Langiiage— Lfasojii tn 'Aq^V 

087— FlTflt Steps \i\ LaciKUA^e Devii^kipnR^DC— Key to HecreatlOD 

InQeoBraplif— ADswffr* la Uierary Cnnimcirums^ , WJ-93 

TBINGB TO TEACH: TbeChtldrea and th^ Poets— " Btiga and 
TblDjKS "— Decembe? Sen teiices— Coal Mines— Variety Work iPrt- 

maryi , ♦ . , 91-96 

ODDB AND ENDS'. Bftftt Work— Words NoTer Too Well Known, 97 

TAULB WITH TEACHFIH^ 98 

BEPBODUCTIO?^ KXERCISEI^ 99 

E D I r OB t A L : Note s— 8 wed i »h G jm aostlcs, . . 100- 102 

MUSIC DEI'ATMENT: Tbe B*sUof 8on&d iDStructlOD, . 102 

Paper Folding, ...,,«,, t08 

KNOTS AND TANOLKS, 102 

Baak arMonth Dourae, **»,>*, 105 

Obterro tbe nhlidreo. . 105 

FRIDAY AFTEKN00N3: The First ThauksglTlng-Th© FieniftD 

- How to Learn— Choline of Trees— CM mblofc up tue HIU, 10i]-107 

KOTES AND QUKR1H8 106-111 

TBE KINDERGAKTEN; The Winter Sleep-I^ve of Child Ufe. 
Tbe KiDdergATten and tbe Prtmar; Bebool ^ Klndergarrea 

Notes 112-118 



Thk school is making citizens. 

Clat MODBLDra has come to staj. 

These are the days for the best work. 

An educational '* crank " is a noisanee. 

The eye is a great power in discipline. 

Does your school make papils more trnthfol ? 

The Book-a^Month Coarse is a great success. 

There is need of expert institute lecturers. 

A SCHOOL without inspiring singing has a weak spot. 

All the new states are on the right track educationally. 

Selv-oontrol is important to the teacher as to the 
pupil. 

Utilize your school paper by a letter to parents and 
pufrils. 

QoOD teaching makes the best of temperance men and 
women. 

^<The Little Schoolhouse" is the war-cry in Wis- 
consin. 

Remember that teaching is 'a privilege as well as a 
responsibility. 

To know, to think, to do, to be, are the things every 
school is to teach. 

The teacher must always stroke the community the 
right way of the <' fur." 

WmsPERizra is out of place in the schoolroom ; it is 
equally so in an institote. 

Vermont has risen a hundred per cent, in the educa- 
tional scale within a year. 



Massaohusetts institutes have improved bejrond pre- 
cedent in enthusiasm and efficiency. 

The autumn institotes are, as a rule, th% beet ever held 
in attendance, attention, and instruction. 

The teacher who does not appreciate good books will 
never teach their appreciation to children. 

A bird's FEATHERS in a teacher's bonnet make it im- 
possible for her to talk to boys about abuse of birds. 

The teacher's pay is not wholly dollars and cents, but 
that is no reason why she does not deserve more salary. 

Pennsylvania is having a great educational ^^ boom." 
State Superintendent Waller is doing yeoman service in 
the institotes. 

Teachers do not write enough for the best develop- 
ment of the art of writing. Critics cannot teach Boglish 
as well as creators. 

We have hoped that the school might be kept out of 
politics, but if it is to go in it must go into both parties, 
and both must be loyal to the common school idea. 

The crusade against compulsory school laws in Wis- 
consin and Illinois may defeat two of the best friends the 
cause of educaltion ever had, but it will so arouse the 
people of this land as to place the schools upon a higher 
plane than ever before. 

California is to have a new state superintendent. 
All teachers regret the retirement of Ira 6. Hoitt, one of 
their best friends, but they will welcome Mr. Anderson, 
the present superintendent of San Francisco, one of the 
grand men educationally. 

The children's world is full of pain and pleasure, and 
they have a right to expect that they shall be so trained 
as to reduce the unpleasant experiences of life to the min- 
imum, and shown how they may become participants in the 
purest and best pleasures their world affords in a maxi- 
mum measure. 

A PRIME REQUISITE for succcss in school administra- 
tk>n and dbcipline is an intelligent persistency. There 
is a kind of fimmess that is synonymous with stobbom- 
ness; this is not the kind of will-force we mean. 
Grood discipline must be inspired and directed on the part 
of a teacher by sound judgment and a wise discrimina- 
tion in regard to the circumstances calling for its exercise. 

A teachers' fair will be held in New York City from 
December 10 to 20. It is thought that fifty thouBand 
dollars will be raised for the Teachers' Mutual Benefit 
Association of that city. Send along a ** tidy," pair of 
slippers, or something else salable, and be sure you pay 
the postage on it Every teacher in America should have 
some part in this grand movement to provide for the 
retired teachers of that city. Then we will branch oat 
until we have a national society for mutual helpfdneas. 



1880.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



101 



Childbbk have a right tp expect that their indiyida- 
ality shall be recognized and respected by their teacher, 
and that their natural and hereditary traits shall be doly 
taken into account by her in their intellectaal and moral 
training. 

Qiys the child something to do that will agreeably en- 
gage his activities of hand and brain. The aim should 
always be to guide the spontaneous actiyities of young 
children which are wild, crude, and ever-changing, if left 
to themselves, and crystallize them into an earnest purpose 
of action that shall ultimately enable them to gamer for 
themselves the priceless treasures of wisdom and 
knowledge* 

QooD MANNSBS and uniform politeness should be 
practiced by a teacher and required of pupils in all their 
intercourse in school Ufe. True politeness depends, in 
the best sense, upon the rights of others, and has its 
foundation in feelings of kindness, reverence, and respect, 
which should be illustrated by the use of such forms of 
expression and manner as will indicate that they are in 
active exercise, and become a matter of habit, based 
upon a sense of duty. 



m ••> m 



QoBsnoNB are the avenues to the child's mind, and 
should be regarded of importance, and replies made should 
be such as will stimulate an honest spirit of investigation. 
Convince the learner that it is a pleasure to the teacher to 
answer questions prompted by an earnest desire to learn. 
If the spirit of inquisitiveness becomes unprofitable in 
frequency or in character, exercise tact in restraining it, 
so that the child shall seem to enjoy the right of personal 
liberty in gratifying his curiosity, and yet be influenced 
in the form and nature of his questions in a direction that 
will be a means of real profit to him. 



^ •mt ^ 



Lkssoks of example and precept should daily be given 
young children in the schoolroom that will tend to stimu- 
late them to generous action in all the relations of their 
school life. They should be made to comprehend that 
*^ there is always room at the top," where they will have 
a more extended vision and where they mav reflect upon 
and commune with the sweetest and best that their life 
affords. Wisdom and Knowledge have their tents pitched 
on the summits. It is true that all children cannot be 
made by the best efforts of the wisest teacher to become 
young Washingtons or Franklins or lincolns, for no 
teacher, however wise and efficient, can gather *' grapes 
of thorns nor figs of thisties," nor make natural dullards 
exhibit the fire of genius. The real genius soars aloft on 
wings the stupid mind can never adjust to his aspirations. 
The real genius breathes another atmosphere and lives 
another life, but the earnest and sagacious teacher can 
train the dullest mind so that it will enjoy the conmion 



things of life, and thus fill to the full its measure of use- 
fulness. 



SWEDISH GYMNASTICS. 

We have many inquiries about the Ling gymnastics re- 
centiy introduced into the Bo<)ton schools. In a brief ed- 
itorial we can merely refer to it Sweden has given the 
world the first thoroughly scientific system of physical ex- 
ercises. Heretofore we have had German gymnastics with 
variations, but upon no great principle, with no philosophic 
method, and without scientific application. We have used 
it to music, which we now know to be a mistake ; we have 
aimed at tremendous vigor of movement, which is also a mis- 
take ; we have had in view the way it looked rather than 
what it accomplished ; we have aimed to make the strong 
and the strongest parts stronger ; we tested our work by the 
highest attainments of the best This is a good deal of a 
sentence, and that it may be appreciated we advise a second 
reading. We think it a correct statement of the case 
as it is. 

The Ling System, brought to this country through the 
philanthrophy of Mrs. Mary Hemenway of Boston, first 
appreciated the mischievous tendency of music in all phys- 
ical exercises that are to be progressive. It aims at 
rhythm rather than musical precision. Bhythm is not 
the metre of verse or the melody of song, but is that inde- 
finable element that makes some prose classic. It is the 
grace of perfection without the framework of metre, the 
fascination of rhyme or melody. 

l^e Ling exercises, directed by the voice of the leader, 
require attention and thought, and make him 'ever the 
inspiration deciding the time and energy best adapted to 
each movement It is a physical rhythm, and not a mil- 
itary, musical, mechanical action. It is a happy medium 
between the limpness of the Delsarte and the rigidity of 
the German. It bases its activity upon the great fact 
that naturally we are developing all our muscles on the 
inward or forward motions ; that by nature we work for- 
ward and downward to the form and condition of other 
animals, and that the only requirement is for energy up- 
ward and outward. In the other systems there was the 
same energy in moving the arm forward and downward 
as upward and outward. Now there is almost no energy 
expended in any return movement ; it is concentrated on 
the outward and upward. 

While the appearance is of littie importance, it of neces- 
sity being natural, makes by far the most attractive exer- 
cises when the results are obtained. The beauty is in the 
final movements, not in the drill exercises. Its test is the 
strengthening of every weak place. It detects every weak 
spot in the human system and invigorates it It is a sys- 
tem in that it has a few great principles, a few simple 
methods, and a few primal exercises. Its sixty exercises 
are to all physical necessities what our few sounds in 
speech are to the wealth of language with its hundred 
thousand words. 



102 



TtiE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Not. 



(nitt0tc ©epartment 



THE BASIS OF SOUND INSTRUCTION. 

BY W. S. TILDEN. 

fHEBE are many singers and players, and some 
teachers, who are mach enamored of those variations 
of movement, time, or accent, which go under the name of 
'^ expression " in common speech. It often seems that 
they feel impatient of anything like uniform accuracy, 
and long for the strange, unexpected, exceptional things. 

However much certain variations, graces, or emhel- 
lishments may sometimes add to the performance of a 
piece of music, they should never he attempted except 
under competent direction ; for though pleasmg to a low 
taste they are often an abomination to those who have 
real musical culture. And whether they are ever to be 
admitted or not, it is plain that they must never be toler- 
ated in the class of beginners. All efforts to introduce 
portamento, ritardando, accelerando, and misplaced accent 
should be rigidly banished until the proper basis for good 
instructions is established, and that we hold to be 
Mechanical Accuracy. 

We often have occasion to call to the front some person 
to play for the class. The tune is a perfectly simple one, 
and said player feels abundantly able to do that and ever 
BO much more. We hear the tune through, and we feel 
like saying, '^ My dear young friend, you struck all the 
notes ; you could see the lines and spaces on which they 
stand, but the different shapes of notes which indicate 
proportion of duration mean nothing whatever to you." 

Then again we often find our performer ignoring a rest 
at some vital point in the tune, and spoiling the whole 
effect of the next grand attack by anticipating the time. 
This is disappointing for two reasons ; first, it shows in- 
accurate reading, and second that the performer has no 
sense of musical form, and so cannot perceive that the 
time of the rest is absolutely needed to properly finish 
the section or phrase. A failure like this is just as dis- 
agreeable to the correctly educated ear as would be the 
rankest discord. 

As the proper foundation work for sound progress we 
should demand, then, precision in at least three ways, 

Firsty that the right pitch be struck. 

Second, that proportionate durations be observed. 

Third, that accent, the mainspring of movement, be 
made apparent 

Now as to the first. Learning to sing at sight presents a 
difficulty with which the piano student has comparatively 
little to do, as each pitch upon his instrument is fixed for 
him beforehand by the tuner. The singer, on the other 
hand, if he is to strike the pitch of his notes without de- 
pending on outside help, must so train his mental faculties 
that the sight shall suggest the <iound. 



Certainty as to the thing to be done is mental ; the ready 
and effective doing is the acceptable ^' outward sign of 
the inward act." Vigor without harshness, sweetness 
without effeminacy, are the qualities to be sought for in 
vocal delivery. And this in class work excludes all 
sliding, gliding, and namby-pambyism of style. And as 
to the various singing sounds as objects of thought, it is 
safe to say that one who can only recall a sound from its 
name or sign when hearing it struck for him, or when 
pronouncing a given word or syllable, has not yet an ade- 
quate working knowledge of sounds. 

Considerable practice is necessary in going from sound 
to sound arbitrarily ; but this alone does not yield the 
fullest results. There must be an acquaintance with the 
subject in the concrete as well as the abstract, — tunes, as 
well as exercises. The same is true of the second point 
of accuracy above, in regard to relative duration. Though 
by various appliances the mind may be brought to meas- 
ure sound-lengths one by one, this is only working in 
abstractions. The full benefit and significance of the dis- 
tinctions in length are seen only when combined in some 
well written tune, accompanied with a pleasing rise and 
fall in pitch. Even here, however, it is necessary to sep- 
arate the elements occasionally, and practice the time 
without the melody, so that when recombined it may 
appear more distinct and clear. 

In speaking of the third point, of accent, while the 
accentuation within the measure, namely : the strong part 
at the beginning, and the subordinate accents that arise 
in the longer measures and in divided beats, must not be 
lost sight of, yet it is mainly to the connected sense of 
this accentuation that we would call attention. From a 
consistent accentuation comes the m/asical form Not 
less than two measures make any rhythmic sense, for the 
reason that no one can perceive how frequently the accent 
is to recur, unless he hears more than one measure. Two 
measures (or motives) constitute a section ; two sections 
form a phrase ; and, again, two phrases form a period, 
which is a full and satisfactory portion in music as far as 
its form or rhythm is concerned. 

Now while the beat is the time unit in estimating dnra- 
tion of tones, the measure (or motive) is the time unit in 
the construction of rhythms ; it is the germ of musical 
thought in regard to all movement This should be taught 
practically to children from the first ; not theoreticidly, of 
course, but in such a way that whenever they sing, they 
shall feel the .answering or corresponding parts of the 
movement What a pity that so many who have sharp, 
keen ears for pitch and for measurement of lengths, are 
yet so obtuse in regard to that which is, in the true and 
larger sense, tirrve in music 1 It b possible to so condaet 
elementary instruction as directly to foster just this obtose- 
ness. All we have to do is to write exercises in bad 
form, have them sung in a slow and drawling way, spend 
most of the time harping on the abstract view of the 
subject, and never let the pupils please their natural 
musical sense by singing any little tune which has a 
sprightly and well balanced rhythm. The most robast 
time-perception will soon succumb to this treatment 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



103 



PAPER FOLDING. 

[Primary Work lued In Ck>imecttoD with Lessons in Beading, Number, 
and Color.] 

BT ALBEBT E. MALTBT, PBNNSTLYANIA. 

fHE ehild mast be interested in his work if the best 
edacational results are to be obtained. The teacher 
who is able to hold the attention of her pupils will also 
succeed, in general, in developing and training their minds. 
It is not intended that these exercises shall be used simply 
to amuse the children, but rather as a means for ths 
toaking up of mind. It will be seen, also, that some 
manual training enters into the processes. 

The paper used in these exercises and lessons should be 
of good grade, of fine texture, and preferably, tinted 
azure, pink, yellow, etc. Such paper may readily be ob- 
tained from booksellers or paper-dealers, and should be 
cut into strips four inches wide. This may be done with 
knife or scissors, but advantage should be taken of the 
facilities afforded by any book-bindery or printing-office, 
and greater accuracy in the cutting thus be secured. 

It is essential in securing the beet results that the work 
of cutting the strips into squares be accurately done. 
With the very lowest grades the strips should be cut into 
four-inch squares, but with children in more advanced 
grades, the chance to secure manual training should not 
be neglected. The writer's classes in the second school 
year cot out the squares for themselves. 

Lesson I. 



N 



FlO. 1. FlQ. 2. FlO. 8. 

The teacher gives to each child in the class one of these 
squares of tinted paper (Fig. 1), and then proceeds with 
the object lesson somewhat as follows : — 

Teacker.—What have I given you, Kate ? 

Kate. — A piece of paper. 

IV.— Who will tell me its shape ? George may tell us. 

Chorge. — ^It is square. 

Tr. — ^How many edges has it, Boscoe ? 

JBostfoa.-— There are four edges. 

2V.— Class may tell me how many sides. 

Clasa.— Two. 

Tr. — Who will tell me something else about it ? Charlie. 

Charlie. — It is smooth. 

cTbAn.— It has four comers. 

jSfua.— My piece is very glossy. 

Harry.^^'ilLy square is pink (blue, yellow, green, red, 
azure, etc). 

c/bAn.— The paper is quite thin. 

Tr. — Of what is this paper made ? Fanny. 

Fanny.-^li is made from rags (John raises his hand). 



Tr.— Well, John r 

John. — ^Father works in a paper-mill, and he says that 
wood is used in making paper. I have seen some 
machines grinding the wood to pulp. 

Tr. — ^That is true. Anna, what use is made of paper ? 

Anna — Books are made from it 

Eva^ — Newspapers are printed upon it 

Qeorge. — Paper is used on the walls of rooms. 

Lida^ — We can write upon paper. 

Tr. — Who will tell me something more ? John. 

cTbAn.— Some paper is much thicker than this, and 
some is much softer, like blotting-paper. 

Tr, — ^Name something that has the same shape as these ^ 
pieces of paper. 

Children. — Handkerchief, shawl, box, window, table, 
etc., etc. 

The teacher should caution the children about soiling 
the paper while folding. Absolute neatness is necessary 
in the work, and the {esthetic sense should be cultivated 
throughout the lessons. The boys soon find that they 
muet have clean hands if they would do neat work, and 
this condition brings about an adaptation to the require- 
ments. The children should be consulted as to their 
choice in color, and the cultivation of what may be called 
ta^te in color should not be neglected. It is to be feared 
that too litUe attention has been given to this subject in 
our common schools. 

If too much time has not been taken up by this lesson, 
the children should be allowed to exercise that general 
longing of the child, and do someUiing with the squares 
which were placed in their hands. The lesson may be 
continued thus : — 

Tr.— Fold one edge over to its opposite edge. Crease 
carefully between the thumb and finger. Who knows 
what we may call this form (Fig. 2.), lida ? 

Lida.-^A, hook. 

Tr. — How many leaves has this book, class? 

CUue.— Two. 

Tr. — How many pages, Harry ? 

Harry. — It has four pages. 

Tr. — Charlie may fold his paper from the bottom of 
the book to the top. What have you now, when you un- 
fold it? 

Charlie.^^A littie window (Fig. 3.). 

Tr. — Each one in the dass may fold the paper to form 
the window. Put the littie window away in your desk 
until next lesson. 

Lesson U. 

The following lessons in outline should each be given 
as in the preceding lesson : 

1. Fold the window. 

2. Turn one of the corners of the square toward you, 
and fold it over to meet the opposite comer. Crease, 
and form the shawl. (Fig. 4.) Unfold. 

3. Fold the ot^ier two comers together, thus forming 
the shawl again. 



104 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Not. 



4. Unfold the sqaare and find the stwr, (Fig. 5.) 
' Children should he led to give names to each form as 
it is folded. Do not deprive them of this chance to ez- 




FIO. 4. 



FlO, fi. 



ercise the imagination by saying, for example, '' Find the 
star," but rather ask, ''What do yon see where the 
creases meet ? " 

5. Bring one of the comers of the square toward you, 

and fold it to the cen- 
ter of the star. Crease. 
6. Turn the right- 
hand comer toward 
you, and again fold 
to the center. What 
have you now? A 
house. (Fig. 6.) 

An open en- 




FlO. 6. 

7. Repeat (6) 
velape. (Fig. 7.) 

8. Repeat (6) 



FlO. 7. 

What is the new form ? 



A closed 







What is the new form? 
envelope. (Fig. 8.) 

Shall we not send this letter to some friend? We 
will write his address 
upon the enyelope. This 
is Willie's address. 
(Fig. 9.) 

Teachers of reading 
and language will write ^<»« *• *■!<»• •• 

upon the bhuskboard the names of the objects folded,— 
bookf shawl, home, star, square, etc., and have the chil- 
dren read them. Also, as an exercise in language, have 
the children make statements about the forms. Thus : 

Tr. — Charlie may tell me about his square. 

Charlie. — My square is pink. 

Tr. — Roscoe may tell me. 

Roseoe. — ^There are two leaves in my red book. 

Ziia.— The shawl is blue. 

If children are taught to speak well before they learn 
to read, they unll never afterward require special teach- 
ing in order to read with expression. 

Work in primary number may also be done, as : 

Tr. — ^How many creases has your square, George ? 

Qeorge. — My square has four creases. 

John. — ^There are eight equal parts in my square. 

Gfracie. — Each of the leaves in my book b one half 
the book. 

Katie, — ^This little window has four panes. 

Sue, — Four creases make the star. 

Qeorge. — If I sell three books for four cents each, I 
shall have twelve cents. 

Success in number lies in requiring the child to show 
what he is talking about 



Original puzzles, answers, and aU other eorrespondenoe reiatliiB to 
Gbls deparonent, should be Indorsed "For Knots and Tantfea" and 
addressed to Puzzle Editor, Box S86, Sharon, Pa. 



05. Addition of FSAcnozrs. 

One nzth of a twrhty, jnst browned to a T ; 
One fifth of some honey, the work of the bee ; 
Two ninths of the aranherry sanoe then, I with ; 
Two sevenths of pickUM^ so frveen in the dish ; 
Two sevenths of pudding,^! don't oare what kind ; 
One fifth of the gravy, — if a plenty, I find ; 
One fifth of a minee pie ; that liie will jnst suit; 
One sixth of the frapes,--a most ezoellent fmit. 
In order add the fractions gtv^n, 

'TwiU bring to light a day, 
When we must watch, or we are apt, 
To overeat, they say. 

96. KUMXBIOAL Enioma. 

I am oomposed of 49 lettors. 
My 41, 48, 4, 44, 24, 80 motes gently. 
ICy 8, aO, 89, 14, 28, 11 is gratity. 
My 82, 19, 42, 88, 40 ia a eonveyanee. 
My 86, 49, 10, 27, 25, 19 is haety departure. 
My 18, 2, 47, 81, 28 ia trustfulnen. 
My 1, 88, 8, 29. 18, 7 ia manifest. 
My 16, 8, 84, 48, 26, 45, 28 is highly fashionable. 
My 46, 48, 85, 87, 5, 21 ia made of wood. 
My 49, 12, 17, 6 is a powerful anunal. 
My 15, 22 is a pronoun. 

My whole is a saying of Collier's, and can be made tery helpful 
to all of ua. 

97. Chabade. 

I know, you know, I think all know. 

Second frit a tree can climb ; 
And third to dizzy lieighta thereon,— 

Fto seen it many a time. 

When hunters paasing through the woods, 

See toAofe crouched in a tree. 
They either siioot or run away. 

It's dangeffous,— don't you see ? 

98. WoBD Half-Squabe. 

1. Looking earnestly; 2. ATSgetable; 8. Improper; 4. Head- 
less; 5. A powsarive pronoun; 6. A negaliTe; 7. A consonant. 



99. Letteb Bebub. 

N and S and B and T, 

Then two O's and a city you'll see. 

An H, and D, 0, S, and U 

These, with K, faring a riyer in view. 



ANSWEBS TO OCTOBEB PUZZLES. 

90. Oaprioe. 

91. Laramie, Helena, San Frandsoo, Yizgfaiia City, Stockton, 
Salem, St. Josoph, Pordand. OaUand,Saa Diego, Sil?er City, Oar- 
bon, Boulder, BUwk Hawk, Park City, Carson, Baker City, Day- 
ton, San BafaeL 

92. GraTO, dove, thirty, limber, gem, vile, me : " Give me liberty 
or giTO me death.*' 

98. Dared— dread. 

94. (1) Andrew Johnson; (2) James A. Garfield; (8) James 
Buchanan; (4) Chester A. Arthur; (5) John Adama; (6) James 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



105 



BOOK A MONTH COURSE. 

fHE first book of the year was G^rge Howlabd's 
PraeHcal Hints far Teaehin^^ pablished by D. 
Appleton & Ca, New York; pp. 200. Price, $1.00. 
The eeeond was Ronssean's Bmile^ the D. C. Heath & Co. 
(Boston) edition ; pp. 167. Price, 80 cents (special for 
this coarse). The third book is Compayr^*s Elements of 
Fayehology^ W. H. Payne's translation ; pablished by 
Lee & Shepard, Boston; pp, 316. Price, if ordered 
from OS, $1.00^ by mail ; pablisher's price, $1.10. This 
is the psychology preeminent for the average reader. It 
ia scholarly withoat many technicalities; it is modem 
withoat the conceit of <^ newness " ; it is comprehensiye 
withoat being yagae ; it contains only the essentials with- 
oat eliminating the essential of yivacity ; it gives the re- 
snltB of research withoat the tedioas details of scientific 
investigation ; it has the inspiration that disseminates psy- 
chological trath ; it is readily intelligible, and does not re- 
qmre any «' extraordinary scientific aenmen " ; it is rever- 
ent in its attitade to the troth ; it is not an encydopasdia 
of peydudogieal science, and yet it is a treasury of the 
moet important resalts of the best thbking ; it is not de- 
signed for the specialist, and yet it commands the respect 
of specialists ; it is interesting, and will be read with en- 
thusiasm by those who are anfamiliar with the science. 

Before yoa begin the reading of this book, read all the 
somnsaries, pages 39. 54, 71, 86, 100, 116, 132, 147, 161, 
177, 191, 208, 222, 238, 267, 271, 286, and 301. Do 
not try to onderstand all that is suggested in these sam- 
mariesy bat read them all, that yoa may get some idea in 
advanee of the scope of the work. 

Do not read the introduction as a whole until after you 
have read the book about half through. Sections 17 and 
18 of the introduction could be profitably read first 
Form the habit of looking up every star (*) in the Special 
Index of Proper Names and Technical Terms, at the end 
of the volume. 

Bead Chapter I. First ran through the titles of the 
seotions of the chapter, then reread the summary, and 
then read the chapter carefully. In this general way 
treat the other chapters. 

QUX8TI0N8 TO BB AVSWBBBD. 

L Distinguish between empirical and rational psy- 
ihology. 

Distinguish between psychological and physiological 
facts. 

3. Distinguish between instinctive, conscious, and vol- 
untaiy movements. 

4. IMstmguish between sensitive and intellectual facts. 
6. IHstinguish between physical activity and physical 

sensibiUfy. 

6. State what you learn that is helpful to yoa as a 
teaeher, regarding the memory. 

7. The same (as 6) about the imagination. 

8. Name two Greek philosophers who lived before 



Christ; a living Scotch philosopher; a French philos- 
opher who died 1810 ; who died in 1867 ; in 1780 ; a 
Scotch philosopher who died in 1866 ; a German philos- 
opher who died 1804 ; in 1716 ; an English philosopher 
who died in 1704 ; a living English philosopher. For 
answers to these questions, consult the Special Index at 
the end of the book. 

9. Name the three most important seotions in each 
chapter. 

10. Which chapter in the book has been most valuable 
to you? 

11. Which has been most interesting ? 

12. Which the most difficult to understand ? 



OBSERVE THE CHILDBEN.— (11.) 

BT ALBBBT B. WIN8HIP. 

^BST ATTENTION. There are various shades or 
^ phases of attention, of which four only, will be pro- 
vided for. The first is attention to what is seen ; seoond, 
to what is seen and heard ; third, to what is heard ; and, 
fourth, to what is read. 

Attention to what is seen. Show the dass a dry 
sponge, place a corner of it in water. Hold it there until it 
has absorbed as much water as it will, then squeese it into 
an empty dish ; show them how much came out ; then put 
it wholly into water, and, having emptied the water from 
the other dish, squeeze it all into the same dish. Take 
a piece of good blottiog-paper and put a corner of it in 
the ink ; let it suck up all it will, and try to press it 
out Take a piece of perfectly dry sponge and pull ofjt 
a piece ; then fill it with water and squeese it out, and 
then tear off apiece. Take a pieee of dry blotting-paper 
and pull it steadily, so as to get the greatest strain with- 
out tearing; then let it soak up water, and then show 
how easily it tears. Let the pupils write what you have 
done. This will test their attention through sight. 

Attention through sight and hearing. Show the 
class five leaves, one at a time, the simplest shape first ; 
call attention to its shape ; compare it with something of 
similar shape ; give its name. Lay it aside, and do the 
same with the next simplest, and so on with the five. 
Then let them draw as best they can the five, giving the 
name and shape of each. This a severe but good test 

Attention through hearing. Describe something that 
you have seen ; make it simple, dear, intereBting, brief, 
and see how much of it has impressed tlie pupils as judged 
by their description. 

Attention through reading. Let them read something 
silently, — a good, dear, simple, interesting, brief descrip- 
tion of something they have never seen, and see what 
they can reproduce of its thought without giving any of 
the words. 

Please forward the average age ; the number in the 
dass ; the percentage that did finely, fairly, poorly, very 
poorly, under each of the four cases. This may be unin- 
teresting to you at first, but it will be highly profitable 
before you are through. If, however, any one of theee 
four tests does not commend itself to you as worthy your 
effort, it is better to omit it than to do it in a half-hearted 
way. 



106 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



I 




FRIDAY 

AFT?Hn?°ri5- 



THE FIRST THANKSCIVIN6. 

BT U. A. H, 

[Chabacters— i^e</ Alden and Hanj Brooks ; ageirespoct' 
iveliff twelve and ten years.] 

[SCKSn-^Sckooiroom, Harrg oeatod at a desk, working out a 
problem.] 

[SniorNed.] 

Ned. — Good moning, Harry. Yon are early this momug ; so 
am X. U will be a half hour before the teaoher gets here. 

Harry.— Qood momiDfc, Ned. Yea; I oime to wotk out thia 
problem before aohooL I bate problemt. I lay, aren*t you gUd 
thia ie tbe laat week of aehool f Hurabt Next week's Thanks- 
giTiog, toe. Good times for all. I tail yon there la fun in Thanke- 
giving, 

Ned,^Qn9U yon would thiok so if yon were at our booae at 
TbaakigiTing. It ia just packed full of the jollieit set of people 
yon e^er saw. There are Unele Ralph and Aaot Ltnie, and all 
their ehildren,— Prank, Anaie, Balph, Jsok, and little Berf. Then 
Unde Charles and Uoole Biohard and their whole families are 
sore to be there. Oh, we haTO a merry par^, I ean assure yea. I 
ean hardly wait for next week to oome. 

flarry.* We don't stay at home ; we all go to Grandma Prioe's,— 
my father and mother, my foor nnolea, and about a doien.ooasins, 
two of them, — Tom and Fred Prioe,— jost home from oollege for 
ThaakegiTing. They know how to have a good time. I oan toll 
yon. And yon ought just to see the torkeye and ohieken pies, and 
eranberry sanee, and minee pies, and "blind man's bnff," and 
eharades, and the nnta and oake, and iee eream, and bonbons, 
and 

Ned (intorrupting Ai«).— I my, Hal, do yoo haTS " blind man'a 
baff '* and eharades OB the toble f 

Harrg. *0h, yon qnit 1 If yon had snoh a dinner as my Grandma 
Priee has, goses yoa'd want to stop and play " Blind man'a boil," 
or almost anything elae before yon oonld eat it all. 

ITec/.— Well, our ThankigiTings aren't mnoh like that first 
ThankegiTitog, are they f We have all the good things, and they 
gave all the thanks; at least, I don't belioTe many people in 
these days stop to think uAat Thank^Ting is, and arAy we haTO it. 

Harrfi'^Tkankigiffing ; giving tkanki. Why, I nerer thooght of 
it hi that way before. Bat who dM have the first ThankegiThig, 
anyway? 

JTec/.— The Pilgrim fathers. One of our a neee tor s, John Alden, 
yon know, eame o?er in the " Mayfiower," and sister Mary was 
reading to me about it last night, — how they eame to Plymonth in 
Deeember. 

Harrg. — Of eeurse I know about that. 

^eif.— Well, the winter was a hard one for them all, and aboat 
half their number died, so there were not many who had not lost 
friends. Then their proriiions gsTS out, and — — 

JJarry.— Yee, I remember that ; but what did they have for their 
fimt Thanksgiving dinner f 

Ned.-^Bni yoo must wait till I tell you how it eame about. 
When they were nearly out ol food, a ship eame to them from Eeg- 
land, laden with more food, and seed for them to bfgin their fifst 
farming in Msssaehnsstts. Then, in the faM, they had saeh a full 
harvest that thsy were reaUg tkardcfid^ yoia sse. 



JJorry (thmgkffuUg),^'Ho they thought they'd gim 
that made Thanksgiving. And the dinner waa only a i 
after all. Was that so f 

Ned.^Ym ; they probably had aome wild turkeys, i 
stowed pumpkins, and Indian oom eooked in sosm way. 
they ioTited ICassaaoit and about ninety of his neen. They 1 
fire deer, so history eaya, and their Thaak^fbg fsast laatod tihass 
days. 

Harrg.^l wish Grandma Prioe'a Thaak^giring wwld Utk Ckee 
days. I wonder if they stuffed theb turkeys, and oeeked the desv 
whole. 

Ned.^1 wonder if the obildren had found the walnuts and bol- 
temnts and haalenuts that grew in the woods, and if they plftjed 
Copenhagen and *' blind man'a buff." 

iTorry.— OhI I oTorheard Aunt Jane and riator Sue tnik^, a 
few days ago, and aunt said ahe thought if Blder Brewater had oeeu 
the lambe of his floek pla^wg Copengagen, he would have hurled 
the deoalogue at them. I esked her what kind of a le|C that wa% 
and she oalled me a Hide keatktn^ 1*11 ask her to-n'ght if ehe wm 
talking about the Pilgrim! children's Thank^Kivi*g* But eense, 
let*8 go eut and have a game of ball before the bell rtspk 



THE PIEMAN. 



9T ASBIE U. LIBBT. 



I 



M a pieman, I'm a pieman, 

Hear me ring my bell! 
Pies of apple, piee ol minee, 
Piee of plum, and pies of quinoe, 

Here I huTe to selL 

Fm a pieman, I'm a pieman. 

Hear me ring my bellt 
Piee of pumpkin, made with spiee, 
Piee of squash, and piss of ries^ 

Here I huTe to ssll. 

I'm a pieman, Pm a piemaB, 

Hear me ring my bell ! 
Tell me what's your fuTorito pie; 
Come, and in my basket spy, — 

I huTe it to eelL 

I'm a pieman, I'm a pleBum, 

And I'll ssrre yon well ; 
But when all my pies are eold, 
I'm no more a pieman bold. 
Silent is my beU. 

Yet| if you won't eome and boy. 
Sharper, shriller gtows my ory, 
Louder nngs my belL 



HOW TO LEARN. 



f 



AKBany word 
You oTsr heard, 
Or any sound 
You ever found. 
And you will spell 
It Tory well. 
If you will fit 
It bit by bit. 
And take g rea t eare 
To put all there. 



'Tb good to kMsw 

How letters gO| 
And good to leaai 
How letters turn. 
And if you mind 
The words you iMd» 
Yon soon indeed 
AUboekswiUi 



MM.] 



THE AMBRICAK TEACHER. 



lOT 



f' 



CHOICE OF TREES. 

rFor thlrtMn Utile boyt.) 
BT ABA SIMPflOir SnKBWOOD. 

IB9T BOT.— Gome boys, let*a ehooM oor f ATorito traM, 

And feall the rMMOu we like them beet. 
Of ell the tfeee I know, I ehooee 

Hie hiokory tree ebore the reet ; 
For ob, I loTO the nnttiiig time, 

In entnmn, when the woodf axe bright, 
And theo whet fan to eraek end eat 

The ante on a dreary winter night 

Smond Bof* — O fie on yoor ehoioe of the hiekory-treel 
The bntternut tree ie bettor, I lay ; 
And they go to the hiokory tree for whipe. 
I wouldn't ehooie that tree, anyway. 

nird £ey.^Keitlier would I ohooee the bnttemnt tiee, 
When a walnnt tree ie mubh the beet ; 
And when it ie made into Inmbcr, yoo know, 
/ II goee ahead of all the reet 

F^owtk B«f .— If yon'ge epeeking about your faTorite nute, 

I ehooie beeehnnta, ae a general tale. 
Beeeh treee are oommon everywhere. 

And the wooda on my papa'i farm are fall. 
And I want to tell what I found one day, 

All hidden away in a hollow tree, 
Ae muoh ae a pint of the white, eweet meata 

Some little equirrel had ehelled for me. 

It/kh Bof .~rm eorpvleed that eo many haTO ipdken of mili, 
And left the beavtif nl efaeetnute out 

•f ell the finite that a tree ean yield 
They are the beet, without a doubt 
I widi I had U?ed in theee good old timei 
When they gathered aiound the fireeide wide 

And roaeted theee nuta in the aihea hot, 
While the applee ipnttered eida by aide. 

Bisth Bey (vtry maff).— I'd like a peanut tree the beet, 
If I only knew wheve one eould be found. 

Fifth lley (fnrntN^ Umard tixtk 6^).— 

Why, yen little fellow ! Don't yon know 
Tliat peanut! alwaye grow under ground f 

AraenlA Bof .^We were aeked to tell, not our faforite nut, 

But whioh of all wee our farorite tree. 
The grand old ook ehall be my ehdee, 

King of the foreet, I my, ie he. 
Fee a thonaaad yean he will boldly etaud 

In proud deflaaee oi wiad and etorm. 
jjLnd what eould we do for our ehipe' huge beaaa 

But foe theatreagth of hie mighty arm ? 

m^ Bey.— My ehoiee ihaU be the beautiful elm, 

Grand and etately, and greoof nl and tall. 
Your oak any be eturdy and etroag, but the elm 

In beanty ehall reign the queen of all. 
I ehould like to Uto in " The Gi^ of Blma,'' 

New Haven, you know, where the etreete are wide, 
And filled with the thick, ecol, pleaeant ahade 

Of the etately elme on either ride. 

NMk Bey.-I like the poplar the beet of all, 

Growing right op lo eiraight and high. 
I riiould like to know what he ean eee 
With hie head reaehing almoet to the eky. 



I mean to elimb to the top aoene day. 

How email you boye will look on the 
And I wouldn't wonder if I oould eee 

Ttie whole great world lo big aad round. 

Tenth Boy.— Of all the treee that grow iu the woode 

I like the meple tree the beet. 
No tree if ao grand in the autumn time. 

When in gorgeone gold and erimeon dreemd. 
And then it knowe in the happy epring 

How gladly our waiting hearts to eheer ; 
For I'm ture that the maple ingar time 

Ie the iwett€tt time of ell the year. 

KUventh Boy.— If I oould haTO jut the tree I like 

And had aome gianta to work for me, 
Fd eend them away in a mammoth ship, 

To Af rioa, after a baobab tree. 
I*d eet it out in my father*e yard. 

And then, I ^link, as a general rule, 
I'd climb the tree and nee the limbe 

Ae a pleasant and easy way to eohooL 

Twelfth Boy.— If I were to take as mubh peine ae thai 

To eend away for a mammoth tree, 
I thiok Celifomia'a great red woods 

A far more exeellent choice would be. 
And when you wented to cut the tree 

A fortune to gain at a riogle jamp, 
You'd haTO lumber enough to build a town, 

And eould make youreelf a houee in the 

TfdrUtnth Boy.— I tike the eTergreen treee the beet 

Cedar and hemlock, and pine and epmee. 
Of eU the treee in the world, I think, 

That theee will prote of the greateet uae. 
Tope and whipe, and riede and ekatse. 

Pop oom, candy, and nuta so free. 
Are sonae of the many fruits they yield 

When they make them into the Chrutwuu i 



W 



CLIMBING UP THE HILL. 

. Ttme: ** Bringlog in the Shearee.* 
BT ADA SnCPSOH BHBBWOOD. 

P the hOl of knowledge we are daily climbing. 
Though the path ie steep, and rugged ie the way; 

Yet 'tie pereereranee oonquere CTCry triel, 
Ae we're ptssring onward, upward day by day. 

CAoruf.— Climbing up the bill, climbing up the U 
Up the hiU of knowledge with a right geed i 
Climbing up the hill, eUmbing up the kill. 
We are daily etriring, dimbiog up the kO. 

Thoqgh temptations call us to the paths of pleaswe, 
Though they try to rob us of our strength and eklB, 

Courage never riaekeae. and with atrong endcavos^ 
We are daily elimbiog higher up the hill. 

(^oraf.— Climbing up the hill, ete. 



We haTe faithful gnldee who chser and help ue onwasd. 
We muet etUl keep strit log with a right geed will, 

With our eyee firm fixed upon the glorioue eumnrity 
Ae we'ie daily elimMng higher up the hilL 

Ciomt.— Olimbbg up the hill, ele. 



108 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Wot. 



Qn^itloTiA And ftTjAwers for the Notes and Queries should reach qs by 
ttie first ot ^ncb month. We resp^ottnlly request all the readers m 
Thb Teacii£b to take pi^ \n the dtacusstons of this department 
Bead In auestlonsi and tunilAh am were to questloDS KlTen.— r 



AN 8 WEBS TO QUSBIEB. 

508, What tttatM Iiatq {jompalsory edaoational laws ? 

lf«ixip. New Q»mpBhirr^ Yermoul, MaMaohnietts, Rhode Island, 
Oonnetttienti New York, Kew Jersey ^ Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wis- 
•oflivn, MiniiBvotBT No. Dakota, So, Diikota, Nebraska, Kansas, 
WjoroiQg, Kersds, GtliEof nia^WMhlagtoii, Idaho, Montana, Alaska, 
Distnot of Golambia. 

jGOi. How does the iilaQd at the moath of the Amason compare 
with the state of Massaohasetts ? 

liarajo U 180 miles Iod^ and 135 Aites wide» with a population 
of SO, 000. Il is thevef^Kre lf>D^r ud much wider than Massn- 
sbnaettv. 

000. What art the reqnintes of a territory before becoming a 
state? 

It is anlki/rixed by CoDfres*, and c fleers are appointed by the 

President t« manage its affiiite. It is entitled to a delegate in 

Oongrsss, who is not allowed to Totr^ A. W. 

030. Are there any Islands la the West Indies beloagfaig to the 
Upltsd Statsa f If so, what ones ? 
None. 

681. Where is the Vermillian Bern, f 

We only know of a VermilUon Bay in Lonisianna, and a Yer- 

B^lOQ Lak4 in MiDIM|K>tm> 



653. Is the expression .^ proper, and if so, how can it be iiad f 
It is not a good form. There is no encase for osiair it. Iftis 
liable to misinterpretation. C. W, & 

636. NoU.-l beg leaTC to disagree with H. I. B., in 650u " I 
disbeliere it to be him." The verb to is is an attribntiTW Tcrb, boI 
a transitiTC ooe. It cannot go?em the objectiTe case^ but alvmya 
unites the words in the same case. Hence Atai i« objeedve «Me 
afttr Tcrb to U, not object of. If " it '' were (o 6s in 
or posBissJye case, him also would be nominatiTe or 

H. A. 



682. Will*«N. M.,' 



' p. 30, Na 682, giyeillastratiTewDtamoai 

H. A. F. 

683. Give an example of a noun used to limit 
meaning the same person or thing. 

Mr. Keys, the lawyer, is here. Lawjftr is a noun, used in 
sition with Mr. Keys. N. M., Ckieo, CfaL 



684. GiTC an example ol an adverb of place modifyim^ n \ 
understood ; also one of time performing the same office. 

'' Here, my boy, don*t you understand ?" Here is an ndTcrb ef 
place, modifying " come," understood. Ytm is the subject under- 
stood. " Now, or nerer," was his reply. Now m an adverb of tiaaa, 
modifying " can go," understood. Tom is the subject nndersfeood. 

N. M., OUoo. 

686. What is the origin of the phrase, "All for buncombe '»f 
When a member of Congress, from the county of Bunecoabe^ 
N. C, some years sinccy was making a speech in Ccngrsss, maay 
of the members left the hall. He yery naiTcly told those thatlie- 
miibied that *' they might go too,— he was / only talkug for Bim- 
comba." B. S. M., BoM, Pa. 

Credit to C. L. F. East Peoria 111., to M. S. & Greenabur^, Pk. 



LEADING TEXT-BOOKS 



MWRY'S 
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Ma^rr'i ElerarnUrr (i«ef nphf. 
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ICAL GEOCKAPHY. 



V EHABLE'S 
NEW ARIT HMETICS. 

lew lleMentmrT Irlthmetle. 

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rmHAM [.£' 4 A LG t^ B R A S and 
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G ILDERSLEEVE'S 
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FBBBIN'S O^^AR*S OIVH. 
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mUrLflUn Spanish Simplified. 5j^T'ilI?«^i!*™"*' 



Fbr MTofVM&Clen «<»n«rnin(r thci^ and other valucMe text books* 

UNIVERSITY PUBLISHIHG CO.. 

as naTTiey St.. «a a es I>uane St.. 

BOSTON. NEW YORK. 




FOR TRAINING CLASSES. 

The followiog books are recommended for aae 
in Teachers' Classes In the State of New York 
by Charles B. Hawkins. Inspector, lu circular 
dated May 27, 1890. Single copies will be sent 
post paid on receipt of prices here glTSO, and 
special rates will be giyen for class nscb 



DeOrafTs Schoolroom Ontde, . . ^ . ft 
'* Derelopment Lessons . . i 

Famham*s Sentence Method, 

Banford's Word Method in Number. . ', 

Grlffln's Topical Study of Geography, 

Bnrrttt's How to Teach Penmanship* . . ', 

Bardeen's Common School Law. . . 

** [Buokham's] Handbook for Young Teachers, 

Hughes's Art of Securins Attention. . 

Kennedy's Philosophy of School Discipline, 

Tate's Philosophy of Education. . i 

Payne's Lectures on the Self nee and Art d Edacatloo, i 



Fltoh'i Lectures on Teaching, 
Uompayre's History of Pedagogy, 
Quick's Educational Beformers, 
Landoo's B<*hool Management, 
Spencer's Education, . . • . 

Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching . 
The Pranv Course in Drawing. Bend for Gireulars 
Swetrs Methods of Teaching, 
Calkin's Object Lessons In Teaching, . 
Johonnot's Principles and Practice of Teaching, 
Sheldon's Manual of EU meotary Instruction, 
Wickersham's Methods of Instruction, 

'* School Economy. . • • 

Barnard's Object T«»achloff and M«»thods, 
Kennedy's Practical Analysis of Words, ', 
Baldwin's Art of School Management, 
Painter's History of Education, 
Froebel's Education of Man .... 
Currle*s Common School Education, . 
C)Rden*s f*cience of Edu'*aMon. 
Kru«l'8 Life and Works of Pestaloizi, 
Porter's Elements of Mental Science, 
Hatlroann's Kludentarteo Culture, 
Baln*s Education as a Seienoe. 

" The Senses and the Intellect, 
Hopkins's Outline Study of Man, . 



For all books on teaching, by whomsocTcr published and whattMr la 
print or out of print, address 

C. W. BARDEEN, Publisher. Syracirse, N. Y. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



109 



eSI. Who was the only woman in the United SUkna to whose 
memory a monnment has been ereotsd by the poblio ? 

Mother of George Washington. W. T. M. 

68S. What are the states that hare inereased the least in popa- 
laUon daring the past yearn. 

All have inereased ezoept Neyads, which has decreased in popa- 
latlon daring the past ten years. G. L. F. 

000. He sfmck me a hard blow. Parse ** me " and " blow.'' 

Me is a personal pronono, maeonline or feminine gender, first per- 
son, singular number, objeoiive oaee, the object of the prepoeition 
OH nnderstood. The phrase on me modifies itrttek. 

Blow is a oommon noon, neater gender, third person, nngnlar 
number, objeetiTO ease, the objeot of the verb ttntck. 

Another Opinion,^Me is a pronoun, personal, oommon gender, 
fint penon, singular number, objeotiTO eaee, object of transitiTO 
-w^xh Urike, 

Blow, noon, oommon, neuter gender, third person, s in gu l a r num- 
ber, objeetiTS ease, object of preposition with understood. 

SHU Another View.^Me, personal pronoun, fint, singular, eom- 
m<m, obJeetiTe, indireot objeot of the Tsrb etruek. Blow, noun, oom- 
mmi, third, singular, objeotiTe, direct objeet of the verb etruek. 

H. A. P. 

This is a case of double object, both sis and blow being obj. case, 
objMt of Twh etruek. C. L. P. East Peoria, HI. 

Credit to B. C, New Lexington, 0. 

Another Canton.— In parsing him, ** H. I. B." says it is the o6- 
yeetofthebfinitife to 6e. WiU he dte his muthority f or the Joft 
part of the statement ? C. P. W., Cosipfon, California. 

091. There hsTe been two equal annual payments on a 6%note 
for $176, gi^en two years ago to^Uy. Balance due, $154.40. What 
was each payment? 

Let 100% «> each einal annual payment The amount of $175 lor 



1 year at 6% is $185 50. $185.50 * 100 % » amount doe after first 
payment, or leoond principal. The amount of ($180 50 — 100%) 
— ($106.63 - 106 %). ($196 68 - 106 %) — 100 % (second pay- 
ment) » ($196 63 — 206 %), amount still due after both equal 
annual payments are made, $154.40 «■ amount left after both 
eqoal annoal payments are made. . *. $196 63 — 206 % » $154.40. 
206 % ^ $42.23; 1 % - $.205; 100 % «- $20 50 each payment. 

J. P. W., Compton, Cal. 
Credit to T. B., Gold Hill, Nst. ; L. N. D., Potteisbuig, O. ; C. 
K , Frankenmuth, Mich. 

692. Can a person increase the weight of the brain by study f 
We cannot increase the weight of the brain by study, but the 

surface is increased. W« T. IL 

693. Why do not the authors of physlologtss agree as to the 
number of bones in the human body ? Some authorities gi?e the 
number as 206 ; others give 208, 211, and 216. Which Is correct ? 

Phyeidogists cannot agree, beoause at different stages of life the 
number of bones Tary, and neither 206, 208, 211, nor 216 is comet. 
^ W. T. M. 

694. Bzplain what is known as the "Australian system of 
▼oUng." 

A full explanation of the system would be too lengthy. The 
principal pdnts are these : Candidates must be nominated, either 
by conYontlon or by a petition signed by a specified number of 
▼oters. Ballots furnished at public expense, the names of all can- 
didates being printed on the same ballot, blank spaces being left on 
the ballot for the insertion of names other than those nominatsd. 
Ballots must be procured from an officer at the polls, and all balloti 
printed must be accounted for. Voter, upon reoelTing ballot, pasMS 
to a booth or sseret compartment, where he places a cross opposlts 
the names of those for whom he wishes to Tote, or writes other 
names within the blank spaoes. He then learss the booth aad 



E¥ERr-DAr Etiqu£tte. 

A Manual of Good Manners. 

Bt LOUISE FISKE BRTSON. 

A NEW WORK ON THIS IMPORTANT SUBJECT. 

PLAIN, SENSIBLE, RELIABLE, COMPLETE. 

Brery tttportant question that can possibly arise la regard to the 
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rules that sbould be obsenred by CTery lady and gentleman, and con- 
tatnlng none that are mere matters of hollow form and ostentation. 

SYNOPSIS OF CONTBNTS. 

QeasnX Hints— How to Hold the Body for Grace, Beauty, and Health 
—How to Dress and What to Wear-C*lls and Cards— luTltatlons and 
yislOng— Habtcs at Tat>le -Mourning and Funeral Customs-Letters, 
Notes, and Messages-Chaperons and Bsonrte-The Art of CouTcrsa 
tlon— Oonmion Errors In Speech-New and Old Words that are Usu- 
ally Mispronounced-Tlie BUquette of TraTeUlng— Weddings and An- 
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A baadtoaaie keak, prlaiedi •■ flaely ealeni4ere4 paper, 
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Beale's Calisthenics and Liglit Gymnastics. 

120 lUfutnUumB fr<m Life by Photographic Process. 

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W. D. KERB, FnbUsher, 

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K JTcnlleii AiomoAK Tbaohbb ] 



LESSONS IN RIGHT DOING. 



Address 



IVTBODUOTZOH BY 

N. A. CALKINS. 
PrieSt 4) cents, postpaid* 

Much is said about send- 
lug the "whole boy" la 
school, but while attenttaa 
Is given to the training ol 
the brain and body, the 
most important part of all. 
Che moral nature, has been 
neglected. 

The author of this book 
has sought to present the 
principles which underlie 
all right actions tn such a 
plain and simple ftonn as to 
be easily understood by 
young children. 

There is nothing dull or 
stuted about the book. 
Pupils will read It eagerly. 
It is a SUPPLBMBNTABT 
RBAOBB, but not a compil- 
ation of pointless aneedotes. 
The introduction by N. A. 
Gaiktns is very suggestlTe. 
Strongly bound In hoards. 
171 quarto pages. 

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110 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



tlf4>V. 



I Iba Wlkl td as •leodoa eUrk who d«poaits the imaM in the 
httllot box. Tho Tottr than loaTOt the room. In omo n Tottr k 
hlfaid, or oennot rend or write, he k allowed to take a friend or 
■Untiea elerk into tlie booth with liim to aaHit him in markini^ hit 



MB. If ]2ozfneat8iaoreaof Kranin4we€ke,and21oxfneat 
10 aerea in weekf, how many ozen ean eat 24 aerea in 18 weekf , 
the gnn growiog nniformly ? W. B. 8. 

If 12 oxen eat 3| aoree of gram in 4 weeks, it will take 4 timee 12 
even, or 48 oxen, to eat 8} aorea of gnm in 1 week ; and to eat 1 
aere in 1 week it will take j]^ of 48 oxen, or 14^ oxen, the grata 
being of 4 weeka growth ; and if 21 oxen eat 10 aoree in weekv, it 
will take timee 21 oxen, or 180 oxen, to eat 10 aoree in 1 week, 
and to eat 1 aere in 1 week it will Uke ^ of 189 oxen, or 18^^ oxen, 
the graii being of weeks' growth. 

A differenoe of 5 weeks' growth of graai gives m differenoe of 4} 
onen per aere ; therefore it takes 4\ oxen to eat 5 weeks' growth of 
gmsa per aere, to eat 1 week of growth per acre it will take i 
of 4} oxen, m ^ oi wbl ox. To eat 4 weeks* growth it will take 4 
times A oxen, or S^fj oxen. 14} oxen — 8^^ oxen •• 10|^ oxen to 
eat 1 aere of grass in 1 week, not taking into oonsideration the 
growth of the grass; and to eat 24 aoree in 1 week it will take 24 
timea 10^ «Mn, or 250^ oxen ; and to eat 24 aoree in 18 weeks it 
will take ^g of 259^ oxen » 14^^ oxen; and addbg the nnmber 
el oxen whieh it takes to eat the growth of 24 aerea for 18 weeks» 
er 84 tSmeo iV of an ox equal 21^, equals 86 oxen.— ilnt. 

Fbsd Binboh. 

iineOer Mutton.— Let ns assume that an ox wiU eat 100 Ibo. in 
OM week, Ihen 12 oxen wUl eat 4800 lbs. in 4 weeks; 4800 lbn.-h 
^ — 1440 Ibe. that 1 aere wiU produee in 4 weeks; 21 oxen will 
eat 2100 lbs. in 1 week; 2100 lbs. XO » 18000 lbs. that 10 aerea 
wlU pradnee in weeks; 18000 -f-lO — 1800 Ibo. that 1 aore wUl 
peoduee in 9 weeks; 1800 — 1440»450 lbs., the amount that will 



grow on 1 aere in 5 weeks; 1440 X 24 — 84560 Ibn. thai 24 
wUl produee in 4 weeks; 450 X 24 — 10800 Ibn. that wiU 
24 aoree in 5 weeks ; 18 — 4 » 14 weeks, time of growth cm dv 
24 aerea after the first 4 weeks; 10600 X V « 30240 Iba. that wiD 
grow on 24 aerea in 14 weeks; 84560 + 60240^61800 lbs. Am*t 
produeed by 26 aoree in 18 weeks. 1 ox in 18 weeka will mk 1800 
Ibe. 64800 -^ 1800 »> 86 oxeo.— iln« 0. T. 

Credit also to J. F. W. and C. E. F. 

607. Three men. A, B. and G agree to rean afield of ahsal lor 
$0.84 ; A and B calonlate that they ean do |. A and that they 
ean do f . and B and G that they ean do { of the labor. How mmtk 
ehould eaoh reeeive, aeodrding to these estimatee t 

A + B-i A-«-«-H-». 

A-fC-t H + « + A = »^ 

B — G <- A The work isdirided into SI puts. 
Bjfjn^A $0.84-f-81 = .3l|f 

2G — 1^ .31HX7 — $2.22 — ra ehmiew 

C'^-h 31 }f X 11 « $3.50— B'a i 

2 B = fi ^1 H X 13-$4.12+ A'ai 
B » H G. L. F. Bati Pmria, UL 

608. What is the office of the underlined phnMO in the foUowisv 
sentenoe ? 

" Then BTangeltne lighted the brazen lamp on the table. 
Filled, till It overflowed, the pewter tankard with home bremed. 
Nut-brown ale, that was famed for iu strength tn the Tttlage of 

Grand Pre; 
While from his poeket the notary drew his papers and inkhon* 
Wrote with a steady hand the date and age of the partlea, 
* Naming th$ dower of the bride infloeka of sheep and in cesUioJ " 

M.,SedJa%^,OaL 
The underlined phrase modifies notary, 

R. & IL, BeOef, Pa. 
The ofBoe ia that el a partioipial modifier el isroCa. 0. L. F. 

600. Does history reoord the fallii« stars, whieh ooenrted 
1830-5? If so who is the anther? 



ImC-HCKSl 






y THn 



THD^ [5 







IS VOLUMES NOW READY. 

For full particulars, address 
D. APPLETON & Co., Publishers, 
1, 3, St 5 Bond St., NEW YORK. 



The New England Bureau ef Edncatien. 

Daring the admistratioD of the present Manager, the salaries 
receiTed by the members of the New England Bareaa of Ednc^ 
tion, through its agenqri amount to more than $900,000; and 
there never have been so many calls for teachers as during the 
current season. 

Now is the time to register for Thanksgiving and New Tear's 
yacancies, calls for which are constantly coipfng in. Fenms ami 
circulars free. HIRAM ORCUTT, Manager, 

3 Somerset Street, Boston, Mass. 

Boston Normal School 
of Gymastics. 

PAINE MEMORIAL BUILDING, A"PLETON SI, BOSTON. 

Provides the best instruction to be foand thk nde of 
Sweden in the Ling or Swedish Syttem of OynoMMm, 
The system is authorized and approved bj the Boston 
School Committe. 

Address for circulars and termSy the School, at 
PAIKE MBMORIAL BUILDIKe, Appleton St^ BOBioa. 



A. S. BARNES & CO., T51 B'l ay, New York, 

bnrite the attention of teachers to their list of distinetivelj Teacher^ £ooks, numbering some Thirty Kolumii, 
and all inyaluable to the teacher who desires to make the most of his (or her) pursuit Send for Ibt with priess, 



1890L] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



111 



FM. Dtmhoa CMmited of New Hatmi has dMoribed the xreftt 
rofl888. a L. F. 



YOI. WU tmaght the firafc adiool in this oooBtry f 
Tha na»a «l the fiitt temeher I ean fiod is F« Higginioo, who was 
m1]c4 to leaah tka aahool at Salem, Maaa., in 162B, whexe Skelton 
waa tka minialcr. 

The first sehool waa hnUfe in Charlea Gity, Va., and called *' East 
India SehoeL It was fcnnded by Mr. Copeland, in 1621. For the 
maintanaoee of the taaehsTS the ** Virgioia Company " gare 1000 
aarea of land, and 5 negro siayes to work it*. Bat I eaanot fiod the 
name of the toaeher. C. K., Franktnmuth, Mick, 

708. Whieh is the best plan for trantaotiag a oommeroial bnsi- 
nass, a aorpoaation, or firm ? 

It depends npon the obaraoter of the bostneas and of the men; 
In tL firm eaeh partoer may become liable for personkl liabilities of 
the other partners, while in a corporation he is not. ▲ oorporation 
la the safer, while a ^ firm " ia a simpler method of doing a small 

W. 



704. What la the difference between a teaohera' institate and a 
taaehers* association? 

An fawtitate ia eondneted by anthorities, oonnty or atate, while 
•n aasoeiation ia ereatad by the teachers themselTCS. M. F« 

TOfi. When waa the Declaration of Independence signed by the 
membara el the Continental Congress ? 

The pvasSdent, John Hancock, signed it on the 4th of Joly, 1776. 
Fifty-six of the BBembera signed it Angnst 2. 

S.C. E., Tipton, loMU. 

a K., Frankanmiith, Mich., aaya that all who Totad for it signed 
it Joly 4, and again a^asd after it waa written on parehmeat 

706. Whan and where waa the first pnblic normal aebool in ilie 
United Statea estoblished f 



The first normal school in America, that now eatabliahed at 
Framingham, waa opened at Lexington, Jnly 8, 1830. It waa doe 
to the action of Edmund Dwight, who in 1838 offered the anm of 
$10,000 for that porpoae, on condition that the!«tate of Mawaohasetta 
appropriate a like snm. C. L. F., BaU P^mia^ Hi, 



QUBBIE8. 



This 



724. ** Can an image prodace an image f " 
the pnbjeet of light io philoaophy. 

725. Jaraee* money equals | of Charles* money ; and f of James' 
money 4* 833 eqaals Charlea* money. Hov maoh has e«ch f 

720. What are the capitals of North and South B^koto ? 

727. Who was the author of the noTcl entitled TAs LampiighUr t 

Who was '* Charlea the Bold *' ? 

Whence arose the superstition that there ia luck in a hoise- 



728. 

729. 
shoo? 

730. 

731. 

732. 
where? 

733. 

734, 

735. 



When waa the Great Wall of China built ? 
What is the oxiRin of the word ** newa " ? 
Is there a country or provioce named Bokhara? If i 



When, in our history, did a fog aa?a our army ? 
When did a stone liouse decide a battle ? 
A dealer in atook can buy 100 animals for $400 at the fol- 
lowing ratee: Calves, $0; hogs, $2; lambs, $1. How BUtay may 
he take of each kind f Find nine diff'vrent aaawera and explaia 
how the reaults are obtabed. F. A. Q., NatkmiU^ O. 

736. Diagram and anal fse : 

Vice is a monster of so frightful mien, 
That to be hated needs but to be SMcn ; 
But seen too oft, familiar with her f loe. 
We first endure, then pity, then embrace. 

F. A. Q.. Kaih,aU, O. 
787. Diagram and analgia : 

WbocTcr thinks a faultless piece to see, 
Thinks what ne'er was, nor Is, nor e'er shall be. 

F. A. G., NadMU. O. 

I am one that am nouriahad by my Tietuala and would 



788. 
fain hA?a msat.'^ 



Parse one, (Aol, and the aeeond am. 

A. H. B^ Long l$lamd, ir.T. 



BRAIN WORKERS NEED BRAIN FOOD 

HEALTHFUL BRAIN WORK may be maintained for years without injury, but overwork, excitement, anxiety, worry, use up the 
▼ital phoaphite of the brain, changes it into inert phospb^ii^j, and causes nervous breakdown. Hundreds of eminent Phy- 
aidana and brain workers, testify to the relief given by Vitalised Phoaphitas inall foima of nervousness, debility, brain weariness, 
and dyspepsia. This vital nutriment feeds the blood and restores brain power, in the aged and the young. It cootains neither stim- 
nlant or narcotic, but is a Vital Phosphite, not an inert add Phospho/^. It is not a secret remedy , the formula is on every bottle. 
DiMrifihe pamphUi fret, Pw CROSBY CO., 56 Weet 25th St.. New York. Druggists or by mail, lixxx 



Teachers Co-Operative Association 



70-72 DEARBORN ST. 

CHICAGO. 

Bstablished in 1&84>. . 'Positions filled, 2300. Seeks Teaohers who 
are ambitious for advanoement rather than those without positions. 



THE INTERNATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA. Hie Mst (or Rndy Rtfirnts. 

15 royal octairo irdvaiet. 

18 800 lerse psffte. 
AOyOOO rabjecu treated. 

26,000 oroei-refereBeee. 
150 dovble-pave tlliutratlons. 

KK) doable-paf(e mApe. 
7 editions In live jcam, 

5 bindiDgt mod 4 prioee. 
Each TOlnme 10 x 7>( x %yi In. 

Length of elielf, 2 ft. 10 in. 

&OLD FOB CASH OB ON MAST 
PAYMENTS. BALB8MEN WANTED, 




Write for deeoriptiTe eiroolan, if yoa mre 
intereeted. 

DODD. MEAD & COMPANY. 

SabseripUon Departmenty 
753 and 755 Broadway, N. T. 



112 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



CNoi 



LINCOLN'S MELANCHOLY. 

HUM Bympmthetio Nataro and His Early Mlsfortonea. 

Thon IV bo ra IT much of Abfttham Linooln daring^ the later yean 
af hii life w#re g»ai^; trnpreued with ezprcaiion of profound mel- 
tucboly bit face nlvafH wore in repoee. 

Mr. LidooId vm of & ppcolmrly ■ympathetic and kindly nature. 
These bUodi; oharftctflrtAtici tuflaeneed, Tery happily, aa proTed, 
hia entire poJiticBl {Mr««r. Tb«j would not teem, at first glance, to 
bi (fBuivnt aid I to polkioAl vaaoMi; bat in the peoaliar emerKenoy 
iibioh LidooIdj io tha providi-no« of Gk>d, waeoalled to meet, no Tee- 
eel oE oommdD olaj otald pD«ai bl;^ have become the choeen of the Lord. 

Tboifi Acqauinted tvtth bim from boyhood knew that early griefs 
tinged hi» «bo]e life with padoesp. His partner in the grocery 
bniineeH at Siilem was '' Uaole'^ fiilly Green, of Tallalla, liJ., who 
need at ni^hf » when tbe eastomers were few, to hold the grammar 
wbile Linooln recited bis lestons. 

it wu to his sympatbelic ear Lincoln told the story of his love 
fcr Bvtet Anu RniUdge ; and b(i, in retnm, offered what oomforthe 
ocmid vben poor A nn died, and Lincoln's great heart nearly broke. 

'' After Alia died/' sa; a 'Uncle" Billy, ** on stormy nights, when 
the wiod bl^^w the rain against ihe roof, Abe wonld set thar in the 
j^ocery , bis elbows on hi« kneer^ his face in his hands, aod the tears 
TonEiin' tbtoagh bis fiiigara. I bated to see him feel bad, an' I'd 
■ay, 'Abe, do&U ory^ ; an' he'd look np an' say ' I can't help it, 
BdU the rain's a failin' on bar/ " 

Thete are many who can sympathise with this orerpowering 
Sii^tt as tbejtbink of a lost loved one, when *' the rain's a fallin' on 
bsr. * ' ' What s ddi poiic nancy to the grief sometimee is the thought 
that the lost one might bare been saTed. 

Fortunate, indeed, ia William Johnson, of Corona, L. L, abnOder, 
who writes Jnne 28, 1890 : " Last Febraary, on retnming from 
obiueb one night, my danKbtar complained of having a pain in'her 
auble. The p«in Rradoally extaaded until her entire limb was 
swollen and very painful to the touch. We called a physieian, who 
after caref al emminaiion, pronounced it disease of the kidneys of 
long standing. All we ooatd do did act seem to beaefit her, until 
we tried Warner's Safe Cue ; from the first she commenced to 
improTc. When ihe commenoed taking it she coqld not turn orer ia 
bed , and could j net moTe ber ban ds a lil»e, but to-day she is as well as 
■be ttTsr Wis, IbettSTe loieethe recorcry of my daughter to itf use.' ' 



THE WINTER SLEEP, 

BT KATB L. BBOWK. 

^^HE ehildrea had been bailding with the foaiib giflr 
P and the pretty brown boxes were pat away in the e&b- 
inet ^'Please, Miss Lawrence, may we talk about the new 
song?'* asked Frank. The little eyes brightened, and 
Miss Lawrence was only too glad. 

<< Look ont of the window," she said, " and tell me if It 
looks as it did last Jane when we crowned oar Boee 
Qaeen." 

<<0h, no!" cried Harold, ''the gtMa is getting all 
brown and the leayes are falling fasL Winter ia ahnost 
here." 

'* It was loTcly last Jone," said Katharine. <« The 
leaves were green and there were so many, many roeea, 
and strawberries, too." 

" Where are the flowers now, ehildren ? ** 

The little people were silent for a moment, then Otio, 
who was soTen and wise, said, ** It tells as in Oie leog 
that ' Flower-time is past' " 

'' Let OS sing the first verse, children/' So the ehil- 
dren sang. 



I 



EQUIPOISE WAISTS. 

For Ladies* Misfles^ Children^ and Infants. 

The Equipoise Waist is a per. 
feet substitute for the corset and 
may be worn either with or with- 
out bones, which, owing to the 
construction of the bone pockets, 
nay be remored and re-inserted 
without ripping. 

It is a combination of a corset, 
a waist, and a corset cover, and 
ladies need not fear that the grace 
of form imparted by the corset 
will be in the least sacrificed by 
wearing the Equipoise. 
They are made in high neck 
and low nedtt lang waist and medium waist, with bones and with 
out boneslWbitet Tan, and Black. 

Prloea, 60c., 75o., «1.75, (2.00, $2.25, $2 50, and $3.00. 

lUn^traitd (aialcgtu w^Uid frtt U any address by the wMHufacturers^ 

GEORSE FROST & CO.p 31 Mhrf St. , Bistoii Mast 





OVBII TIN MILLION PAIR* SOLD, 

THE WARREN FASTENEH has a 
ROUNDED RIB around the part whLeh bolda 
the stodLing, and WiliL NOT TIIAB the Dn wt 




WARREN HOSE 8UPP0RTT:RS ARE FOR 
SALE EVERYWHERE. Ask lor ttiein ax, the 
stores and BE SURE YOU GET THK WAR* 
REN, which may be identified by tbe FAST- 
ENER which has a ROUNDS I> Rl B on the 
holding edges, and is stamped with tbe word 
WARREN. DO NOT BE DJ^c.^lVED bj 
Fasteners which appear to hare roDDdcd hold- 
ing edges, as the process by v^icb they arfi 
made leares almost a knife edge ou tb« fuuer 
or holding surface, and they will cut tbe 
stocking. 

The Warren is made in agrf^nt Tmziety of 
styles for Ladles. Miases and Children, in BILK 
and (X)TTON WEBS. 

Illustrated Catalogue of HOS K SUPPORT- 
ERS and CORSET SuBSTITUTKS raAUedfree 
to any address by the mannfaoturc^rB, 

6£0.FR08Tft 00.,81 Bedford 8t.,Batt<mi : 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



113 



Good-bye, little Flowers. 



Word* and Miulc by Kxn L. BaoTV. 



t^- 



£* 



f^ 



3^;^ 



1. Hark! through the pine boughs Cold 
T Cold are No-vember skies. Sun - 
a. "Good-byc,nuie flow - ers," The i - 



4=* 



itrrt: 



wails the blast, 
less and drear, 
cy winds sing; 




i 



Birds south are fly 

OoMen rod, pj^e - lids 

8D0w,blankettheni o • 



SE^ 



Ing, Sum - mer is 
close. As - ter, tuck up 
ver, Sleep well lit - tie 

7-—:h k 



dy - ing, 
your toes, 
clo - ver. 



Flower time is past. Flower time is 

Win - ter is here. Win - ter is 

Sleep till the spring. Sleep till the 

Copjrigbt, 1889, by 8. K. WiKcnELL & Co. 



past, 
here, 
spring. 



yi 



« Do joa know what it means hj ' Cold wails the blasf ?" 
*' The pines smell sweet in summer/' said little Carol 

** Yes I " echoed her friend Maidie. *' and I love to hear 

the wind sbg throngh the pines. Anntie and I Ioto 

to hear it when we sit down on the hilL" 

^ Bat that is the soft, gentle, summer breeze, Maidie. 

Wonld the wind that roars around the chimneys, sing 

as sweetlj through the pine boughs ? " 



Maidie thought not, and Otto remarked, 
guess the rough, wild wind is 'the 
isntit?" 

** Yes, my boy. But listen to what it sajs 
about the birds. Why do they go south? ** 

'*It is too cold in winter for them to stay 
here, so they go where it is warm,'* said 
Harold. 

<* Sing the next Terse, children." 
'' The bright colored leaves have fallen lo 
the ground and are becoming brown and dead. 
Do you know what the trees do in winter 7 " 
**«They just stand stiU and shake when the 
vdnd blows,'' said Helen. '< The tree is res^ 
ing after its long summer's work. It has pot 
oot much strength in blossoms and about flie 
leaves and fruit" 

<< Do the flowers rest, too ? " inquired CaroL 

'' They dry up and die. I have seen them 

all dead," remarked Alex, triumphantly. 

'* Does all the plant die ? " A great light came over 

Otto's face. '* The roots of some plants are in the groand 

and do not die, and the seeds of others/' he cried. 

<<Then the flowers really sleep, too," and Frank looks 
pleased with this discovery. << It tells us in the last 
verse." 

** I wish summer would stay all the time," sighed CaroL 



A GREAT SUCCESS. 



rms 



Economy Glass -Book. 

By 0. S. WESCOTT, A.M. 



YlBDKir, HI. 

QmMfTiMtxs :-I have ntod yoor " BCONOICY CLASS-BOOK 

for ooarly three jmn io both High School and lastitiite work. I 

r«Rard it to be the timpleet and most praetieal doTioo extant for 

Botiair the remit of papila* work, reqairii« almoit none of the 

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PRICES. 
EooHowif ClcuS'Cardsj 
Beonmy Class-Book, Pocket Size, 
JSeonomy Claes-Book^ Desk Size, 



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25 Cents Baeh^ 
60 CenU Baeh. 



SAMPLE SHBBTS FREB. 



Adams, Blackmer & Lyon PuMishing Co., 

180 dt 182 Monroe St,, Chicago. 



Subscribers Attention! 



Send us one new subscription to the JOURNAL OF 
EDUCATION with 92.50 to pay for the same ; or 
two new subscriptions to the AMERICAN TEACHER, 
with 9S.OO^ and we will send you postpaid, either of 
the following books : 



" Practical Hints for Teachers," - - • $1.[ 

Bt GEO. P. HOWLIND. 



.80 



Rousseau's Emiie/' 

Compayro's "EieniBnts of PsychoioQr/' - 1. 

Br W. H. PAYNE. 



These are the books that have been recommended 
for the Book-a-Month Course. (See page 105.) 



Send in your orders at once. Address 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO. 
% §oiiieraet §t.« Boston, M.i 



114 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



1 



[Nor- 



** I think we enjoy it all the more when it oomeB, be- 
I of the winter/' said Miss Lawrenoe. ** Ton know 
how happy the first Tielets make as. If we had violets 
all the year round, we should not eare half as much for 



Every day the eluldren notice the signs of approaching 
winter. They see that the sky is not as soft and sunnily 
bine as before, and the winds are colder and from the 
north. They watch the flocks of wild geese and other 
migrating birdit and peep at the chattering sqairrels 
storbg their houses with the brown nuts. 

They bring in the yellowing ferns from the woods, and 
blow the golden-rod fozz and thistle-down. The little 
hands are bosy, too. They sew the leaves in oat'ine and 
paint them, — ^the green leaf of summer, the golden and 
red of October, and the brown leaf of November. 

Some of the pidntings are for Christmas, and in\l 
emament blotters, postal-card eases, and calendar cov- 
ers for mamma, papa, or annUe* The teacher tells 
them, also, of the litde sleeping seed, and how the warm 
jaieea of the soil will finally break the oater envelope, 
and eanse its decay, so the germ may awaken to life in 
the spring and give as the new flowers. They talk, too, 
of the seeds of love and kindness in the heart-gardens, 
and the sunshine of kind words and loving deeds that will 
make spring np the loveliest of flowers. And they often 
ask for this song : 



THE LITTLB QARDENBR. 
In my littl« ffwdra. In my ova hwfi-gardMi« 

WhM the flpriof winds Uow. Ood will plant thenwJp; 
* Neath the eaf t May ■nnahme, I mnit wateh and \ 
TinyseedBlsow. Pnil the tnngled ^ 

In my little garden 
Thtongh the enmmer honn, 
I mnafe weed and water. 
If I want the flawen. 



Kindly thoughts and i 
From the l e e d e may gr»w» 
la my own heart-gaidam 
Sweetist flowun blov* 



m >•■ m 



LOVE OF THE BEAUTIFUL IN CHILD UFB. 

BT MISS MAJtY MOOR, WALTHAlC, MA8B. 

r^HE love of the beautifal is intuitive in the child'a aooL 
p It is an instinct of childhood, jast as the belief in 
Dirinity is inborn in every heart, and may be developed 
into conscious devotion to God and a joy in his serrioe. 
For instincts and impulses precede conscious thought. 

The chid's delight in beautiful color and form, ia 
rhythm, in music, and graceful motion, comes with his e*r^ 
liest impressions. Bven the baby smiles and crows over a 
bit of bright ribbon, the swaying of a suspended ioy» his 
rockings and lullabies, and more than all, over the beaati- 
f ul softness of his own pink fingers and toes. 

By and by he will delight in picture books, in drawing 
and coloring, in singing, in flowers, poetry, beautiful faeee 
and landscapes. These enjoyments are called swthetin» 



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Wentworth^s Arithmetics. 

Their motto Is mastebt ; the priooiple of their method ie 
LBABN TO DO BT DOING : the leralt U found to be PBAC- 
noAL ARITHMETICIANS. Jost adopted for ezolusiTe nee in 
the tiute of Waahingtoa. 

The National Music Course. 

Stvdied hy more pnpils then all other refcniar oonraee eom- 
hined. In me in the prindpal eiiiea Jutt adopted by Minne- 
apolif, New Orleans, Boohester, N. T., Paeblo, GoL, and other 
little cities. 

Stickney^s Headers. 

Best in id«« and plan. Best in matter and make. Best in In- 
ftereet and resnlts. The vital oharaoter o( both matter and 
method nouikss these readers the favorites of teaehers and 
ehildren. 

Classics for Children. 

Chdm Utmstara. JudialMS Dotat. Lwk. tvp.. Good papur. 
Film bindug. Low priecf. 84 toIuiim. romdy. 



Stickney's Word by Word* 

An improved oonrse in spellinf, in two parts, with a tsaeheis^ 
edition of th« seeond. Full of ingenious and original deviess 
and at the same time sensible and thoronghly naable. Part L 
is ready. Part 11 will appear in Dacemlm. 

WHITNEY A KNOX'S 

Eletnentary Lessons in English. 

The teaoher^s editions show how to make the right we of tlie 
right books. 

TarhelVs Lessons in Language. 

A two-book ooorse for oommon sehools by H. 8. Tarsell, 
Sopt. of Sehools. Providenoe, B. L Part L is ready. Pact 
II. will be issaed daring the winter. 

Montgomery's Amer, History. 

A vivid panorama of the leading events in the history of Amer- 
lean activity in all departments, with their eanses aad dttk 
results. 



Send for Catalogno^ DascripUve Clroalan and Introdaotory Terms. 

OINX & COMPANY, .... Boston, New York, Chicago. 



18Mk] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



115 



and thif word b derived from a Greek word meaniDg to 
feel i thoa the love of the beaatifnl is implanted in the 
heeit or the feelings, and belongs to the inner nature, to 
the spiritoal world. It is trae that we feel before we 
know ; so that the power and habit of feeling the inflaence 
of the sool most and does precede the comprehension of 
thia foroe, which through cnltore and development may 
lead to eonscioos creative ability. 

It is beoaase the child's soul is closely allied to nature 
that it is so touched and influenced by her varied charms. 
Watch a little child in the first days of spring as he runs 
about out of doors. The warm rays of the sunlight, the 
freah dear air, the gently straying leaves, are aU full of 
Bweet impressions for the young unconscious soul. So 
happy is he in this beautiful out^loor world that he runs 
and skips about in pure delight He does not think or 
Toason about the wonderful influence of the newborn sea- 
son, he simply feels \t a joy to be alive, and expresses this 
joy in the natural glad activity of childhood. 

In the spring that has just passed I saw a little child stand- 
iniif in the midst of a green lawn with both hands full of 
the young grass-blades, and gazing steadily first at the 
soft carpet beneath his feet, and then at the contents of his 
small hands. What were the thoughts that fiUed that 
little mind I wonder? If, as Froebel has said, ''the 
first grasping of the childish hands is a sign of menta^ 
awakening," perhaps a revelation of beauty had come to 



this little one, in the first esequisite green of springs 
through this outward grasping of tiny hands. 

Something at least of the child's enjoyment of animal 
life comes through this innate sense of beauty. 0)Merve 
a child in the midst of a brood of chickens, feeding them, 
and talking in gentle baby language to inspire their confi- 
dence and affection. Does he not delight in this pretty 
picture of the tender care of the mother hen for her little 
ones ? It is a miniature reproduction of his own beautiful 
home life, and these small animals are perhaps the only 
things younger than himself that he has ever seen, and if one 
of them was not so provokingly beyond his reach he might 
find it the softest thing his own soft hands had grasped. 

It is not hard to believe that much of the child's enjoy* 
ment in the chicken family comes throagh his delight in 
their downy loveliness. 

Not alone on the earth, but on the beautiful blue of the 
sky, the child grasps to satisfy his longing for the beautiful, 
and when the darkness comes and the dear littie star- 
lamps are lighted, he is happy in watching them twiidde, 
and if the '' two littie horns of the moon should appear,** 
his delight is unbounded. Said a littie girl who was taken 
to the window one still starry night, *' papa dear, how 
pretty the wrong side of heaven is." 

We know that harmony is the underlying principle of 
the beautiful in form, color, and sound. Beauty of form de- 
pends upon the fine proportion of parts, the perfect balanee 



LIPPINCOTT'S New Science Series. 



FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND ACADKMIIES. 
TIm UtMt and best t«zt-book« on Astronomy, Chemistry, Physlolofy and Natural Phtlosophj, 

mtnJed and indoned hjf promtMnt Bdmcators, The Mriet oonsitU of : 

Sharpless A Phiips's Astronomyy' .... $1.00 

8harp!ess and Fhlllps's Natural Philosophy, . l.oo 

Key to Sbarpless and Plillips*s latojral Phllosophf, .fio 

fireene's ChenUtrj, 1.00 

Be8laDer*s Anatomj, Phystology, and Hygieae, .30 

iDtcrmediate Anatony, Ptaysloioiry, and Hygiene, . .60 

CenprehenslTe Anatoniy» Pnysloiosyy and Hygiene, 1.00 

ThMO books mro mil hnadaomely illnttmted, and boond in nitnoti?« and nibstantial minner. Copies of any of the nbove sent to 
tonehsn for exsmination, npon receipt of prioe. 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY. Publlahera, 715 A 71 7 Market St.. PHILA. 
WL B. AHBKOST, K. K. Ast** <« Harrison Ate. Ixtsnslon, BOSTON. 



B&com' 



Ketclmm^s Botaay, 1.00 

Ben's first Steps In Scientific Knowlede:e (Complete), .60 
Bert's first Steps In Scientific Knowledge (In two books). 

Book 1. ADimnls,, Plants, Stones, and Soils, . M 

Book 2. Physios, Chemistry, and Physioloay, • J$d 

Bert's Primer of Scientific Knowledge, . . . .M 



IT ZL^^-y B 

THAT TOU AUK ONE OF A FEW WBOl DO NOT HAVE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING. 

BUT bEND AT ONCE. 



DO NOT DEL AT, 



Prtiary Nunbir Cards. 



390 cards printed on b<««h sides with 
numerals a' d sIko* each % Inrti bqiurf ; 

In four colors,— red. yellow, blue, and green; 600 charaeters in all. 

Ixoellent for busy work. Frloe, 16 cents. 

DniWiilOr M;I|Ia FaSV TblrdSen^s now ready. Madeupofflfty 
UiaWIll^ moUO LadJ«. deslirM tbat pupils will dellKbt In repro 
dnclDii ; sucb a% animals, fruits. Il»wers, bu da. bouses, etc. A manual 
for teachers acdfrnnantes <»arb si>t Tnou^aDds have been sold, and 
bare glrc'n sattsfactton. Price, SO cents. One st t each, ist, 2d and Sd 
series, will be sent for 70 cents. 

RhfikhASril StAllfiiU l' f*^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ °>^ ^^^^ S^est labor- 
DMIfRMUaia OiOllbilO. rtviDg devices, send 10 cents for tbree 
sanples and descriptive list You wiU want duzena of them after try- 
ing Ucm. 



Miss Kenyan's Sentence Cards. S?St2^raViSS.« 

the only olcs wblcb ean be rea<illy arrsnged to form sentences ; are so 
simple tbat b<^nners handle th<>m easily, yet tbey are eapab'e of sueh 
a variety f*f changes tbat pnplls In tbelr second y^ar may use them 
with pnflc A set coaslsts uf 216 cards, print on ime side and smpt 
on the (»iber. Punciuatlon maiks and direction for use are sent wUti 
each. Price, 80 cents. 

Rliev Wnrk ^ ll^^^ manu%1. et^titted Oae Hwadirrd HotIm* 
UU9| nuiili f«r Rw.y Work, wUl furnish you polnten fur 
rounttis. PricA, 10 cents. 

^ YOU NEED MY CATALOGUE. Nothing like It. TSpages 
devtftt-fi to dfsr.iibiiig Heips and Alus for Teacher*. Rneakers. Beport 
and fiewatd Cards, HteLCils, and other Troable Millere. 



A. FLANAGAN, 



185 Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO. 



316 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



[If Of. 



of the opposite height and breadth. Beauty in the world 
of eolor depends upon the harmonious blending of shades 
and tones. In sound the same law is apparent through the 
harmony of the musical chord. It is necessary therefore 
that children should comprehend something of this great 
law, BO that in later life intuitive feeling may be replaced 
by intelligent appreciation of what is truly harmonious or 
beautiful ; and not only that they may be able to itppre- 
•iate the work of others, but also that through this awak- 
ened power a desire may be stimulated to create work 
which shall possess in some degree true artistic merits. 
[Oontbmed next moDtli.] 



THE KINDERGABTEN AND THE PRIMARY 
SCHOOL. 

BT IBWIN SHBPARD, 
President State Normal School, Winona, Minn. 

IRThe primary school is the national university of America, 
and is the great field of educational discussion, activity, 
and progress ; through the primary school the educational 
philosophy of Comenius, Pestalo2zi; and Froebel has 
entered our school system. The kindergarten . is the 
source of the movement for manual and industrial train- 



ing in our schools. The kindergarten must reeognxBO the 
primary school as the comer-stone of our edaeationil 
system. The kindergarten enthusiast who would revolu- 
tionize the primary school is as unsafe a leader aa ia the 
veteran primary teacher who wants nothing a£ kindsr- 
garten philosophy. 

There are three phases of kindergarten work : (1) The 
field for the '* Mutter und Kose L^er " ; the naraery. 

(2) The kindergarten proper, which should at everj 
step be conducted with reference its subordinate relaftioB 
to the primary school. The kindergarten will not survife 
as an independent educational institution. It f amiahes 
the happiest transition from the play of home life to the 
necessary restraints and work of the school. Its ezerciseB 
afford appropriate studies in the true relations of facta as 
a basis for the association of ideas. The great danger ii 
our present fullness of mental and material life is the too 
early possession of masses of facts without power properly 
to classify and discover their true relations. The greatest 
lesson of the kindergarten is obedience. The foandation 
of Froebers philosophy is law, which is as beaatifiil and 
true and tender as it is inexorable. 

(3) The third phase of kindergarten work is that wliidb 
may be carried forward into the primary schools. Most 
of the gifts and occupations are susceptible of this exten- 
sion. Froebel himself anticipated and advised such modi- 
fication of his plan. Every primary teacher shonld be 



Tbe Prang Course of Instniction in Form and Drawing. 



This oonrse U the outgrowth of nearly twenty years* experience de- 
voted to the develonment of this single subject in public education, 
wider the most varied conditions. 

It differs widely from all tbe so-eslled " Systems of Drawing " before 
tbe public 

The atM vr •bject •£ the iaetntclf •» la difff ereat. 

The methods mt TeRChina wlwA the W«rk •£ Papila are 
different. 

The niedeley Text-1l««ke« and IHaferlale are •■ aa ea- 
tlrcly differeat edaeatiaaal plaa. 



T^e rcealM la Sehael* are widely aad radically dif fareat. 

It la fhe ealy Cearae haaed ea the aae ef IBedele aad 
Ohjecto ia the haada ef paplla* aad fer which Saadeic 
hare heea prepared. 

Tbe Oourte prepares directly for Manual Training. Many of the 
exercises are in themselves elementary exercises in Manual TralnUiai 

THB I'BANQ COURSE has a much vrlder adoption In the best 
schools of the country tban all tbe ''Systems of Drawing" put toceShev. 

More tban two miuumi of children In public schools are Delaguuiglit 
POAH AKD Dbawqio by Thb Pbano Goubsb. 



PRANG'S NORMAL DRAWING CLASSES.-These classes have been established for glTing the very best kind of Instmetton 
in Drawing through home study and by correspondence. All teachers can, through these classes, prepare themseiyes to teach Dcawiag in 
their Schools. 

tar'Stnd for Cinfulmn in reoard to TBE PRAITQ COURSE OF INSTRUCTION IN FORM STUDY AND DRAWING, and sdse in 
regard to PRANG* S NORMALDRAWINO CLASSES. AddresB 

THE PBANG EDUCATIONAL COMPANY, 

7 Park StrMt, BOSTON. 151 Wabaah Ave., CHICAGO. 16 Aator Place. NEW YORK. 



1BEBEST4GAMES 

ECKMJi 

r ■ 




NIND READING 



VE TAKE A VACATION 

1 n November and December. That is, we do not 
advertise educational material in the educational 
pnpers during those months. But we do ask the 
School Teachers of America to buy our Games 
and Toys. We have made them for thirty years, 
and think we know how. We sell "Eckha," 
*^Chuba," and "Kerion" for $1.00 apiece, and 
'^ Mind Beadmg " for 75 cents. No postage. Send 
lor our Pamphlet of Educational Amusements. 
MILTON BRADLEY COMPANY, 
Springfield, Mass. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



117 



tnuned in the kindergrrten, that she may carry on inteUi- 
gently the same processes of intellectaal growth began in 
the kindergarten. 





uu^ 



I teTe remoTed freckles from my own fae<», and It was as l>ad a 
faee as I bave ever se^n. I can state wltb perfect coDfldcDce that all 
freckles can be removed by my preparatton. Freckles, rootb patebt s 
and pimples cannot stay under tbls treatment, they mnst dlsAopear. 
My Face Bleacb beaotlfles the skin, removes all olttnetis, swartblnpss 
and lougbness. making It extremely soft and glvlDg tbe compl<»xloD 
ti»M delicate pink and wbite, wblcb is so muck coYcted and so ciifBcult 
to obtain. 



Wbo can resist tbe temptation of securing a pure, bealtby, brilllaDt 
complexion ; elean and f re»b la tbe morning, at noon, and at nlgbt. 
Tbis preparation will glvn you a perfect face. It is a skin tonic and 
not a cosmetic wltb wblcb to smear tbe face and cover defects for tbe 
tbne being. Wltb Its use all blemlsbes must disappear. 

Ciiro>*NATl. C, April S. 18S9. 
Mbs. W/LKXR:~KDOwliig the flompoaltloB of your ** Kaee Bl^acb/'aad 
having wltuetsed its effects in ••▼era! very bad eaiet of Freekles. I bave no 
hMltMioQ in reonmmeBdlDg it at safe and eflrctaal, nhon used la aeoord- 
ance with ynar dlrectlnnn. Some of tbe logredionu are recognlied and tee • 
ommended by onx most eminent Dermatologists 

RespeotfnUy, J. P. Walkbb, M.D. 9th and Baee,ClneiDiiatl, O. 

LouiSYlLLX, Ky., June 16, 1889. 
Dxia Mbs W/lkbb:— Ifeel that I owe yon many thA&ks for all your 



My complexion, onee dark and swarthv. is now 
" — - . - ---- ^ dltcoTeir 



Rleaeh hits done for oie. ^ 

the envy of all mv friends. Tonr preparation Is Indeed a great i 
tot the afBlcted of oar s^x. Tours gratefnllv. 

Mrs. C. M. DBiYXB, 70S W. Market St.. LonisvUle. Ky. 

It is sold under positive guarantee. The only preparation preserlbed by 
regular pbysiolans. Correspoudonee solicited from ladles or gentlemen, 
who are troubled with facial blemishes, and also, from all those nstna the 
Bleach ; that even the most stnbbom eases, and those which have defied all 
other remedies, be alike snccessfuUy treated. Referenees in every eiCy 
and village In the United State*^ and Canada. 

FBICB, One Treatnient (safflrlent for one face) it. 

MBS. Mabiov Walkbb. 216 4th Ave ,Loulsvi]le, Ky. 





FOR ENTERTAINMENTS AND EXHIBITIONS 



BUST SBLVOnONS FOR READINGS 
JLTn> RRCITATIONS. Formerly " The Elo- 
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aaade to secure a more appropriate title. This is 
beyond doubt the best series of speakers pub- 
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Cloth binding, each number, .50 Paper, .90 



THINOS FROM BBST AU- 
THORS. Six volumes. Each volume contains 
three numbers of Best Selections, in the order ef 
tlicirittue, 

aoth,each, #1.50 

Full set, six voltuies, in a box, 6.00 

OHIUyB OWN SPEAKBR. For chil- 
dren of five years. 

Board binding, .95 Paper, 15 

UrrrUB PROPIiS'S speaker. For 

children of tenvears. 

I binding, .95 Paper, 15 



TOUNOFOI.KS' RECITATIONS. Two 

numbers. For children of fifteen years. 

Board binding, each, .as Paper 15 

UTTUB PEOPIJra DIAI«OOUES. For 

children often years. New and original. Every- 
thing bright and fresh. 
Boardt 



i binding, .40 



Paper, . 



.«5 



TOUHO FOLKS' DIAI«OOUES. For 

children of fifteen years. Everything written 
spedaUy for this boolc. 

Board binding, .40 Paper, 95 

TOITNO FOI^KS' ENTKRTAIN. 
MENTS. By E. C. and L. J. Rook. Contains 
Motion Songs, Concert Pieces, Charades, Panto- 
mimes. Tambourine and Fan Drills, Tableaux, 
etc. AH written for the book. 

Board binding, .40 Paper, 95 

I>RIU« AND ICARCHES. By £. C. 

and L. J. Rook. Every thhig specially written 
for the book. Contains such features as Broom 
Drill, Hoop Drill and March, Waiter Drill, 
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Board bhiding, .40 Paper, 95 

GHOIOE HUMOR. For reading and recl> 
tatioa. The best humorous reciutlon book ever 



Board binding, .so 



Paper, . 



CHOICE DIAI«BCT. For reading and 
recitation. Conulns Irish, Scotch, French, 
German, Negro and all other dialects. 

Board binding, .90 Paper, 30 

CHOICE DIAI^OUES. Everything spe- 
cially written for this book by a corps of able 
writers. Suited to all occasions. 

Board binding, .50 Paper, 90 



RBADma AS A FINB ART. By 

Earnest Degouve. Translated from the nintn 
edition by Abby Langdon Alger. Invaluable to 
every teacher, rublic Reader, and Speaker. 

Cloth, SO 

EXTEMPORE SPEECH. Every public 
speaker would like to speak extemporaneously if 
he could learn how to do so. This book tells how 
to do it. 

Cloth, 1.95 

To be had of the leading Booksellers, or sent prepaid, upon receipt of price. 
FoB ctategues of Books and Plays sent with every order, or upon application. 

THE PENN PUBLISHING COMPANY 

1124 ARCH STREET, PHILADELPHIA 



HUMOROUS DIAIiOOUES AND 
DRAMAH. Replete in ihe most amusing char- 
acters and laughable situations. 

Board binding, .50 Paper, 30 

CI.AS8IG DIAIiOOUES AND DRA- 
MAS. Selected from the works of the best 
dramatists. 

Board binding, .50 Paper 30 

HOLIDAY ENTERTAINNENTS. 

Adapted not only to the Christmas Holidays, but 
also to Easter occasions. Decoration Day, Fourth 
of July, Thanksgiving, etc. New and original. 

Board binding, .50 P^pcr, 30 

SUND AY-SCHOOL AND CHURCH 
BNTERTAINMENTS. Contains Responsive 
Exercises, Dramatized Bible Stories, Disilogues, 
Recitations, etc.. all based upon or illustrating 
some Biblical truths. Specially written. 

Board binding, .50 Ps^pcr, 30 

TABLEAUX, CHARADES, AND PAN- 
TOMIMES. Much of the material was specially 
written for the book, and provision b made for all 
classes and occasions. 

Board binding, .50 Paper, 30 



TEXT AND BEFEBENCB 
BOOKS 

PRACTICAL ELOCUTION. By J. W. 

Shoemaker, A. M. Designed for use in Schools 
and Colleges and for all Interested in Elocution. 
The best and most popular text-book on the sub- 
ject. 

Goth, z.as 

HAND-BOOK OT PRONUNCIATION 
AND PHONETIC ANALYSIS. By John 
H. BechteL Contains 5.000 difficult words in 
common use, clearly pronounced. Accuracy, 
simplicity, and conciseness are the distingilishing 
features of this book. 

Qoth. so 

THE BTORT 0# THE ILIAD. By Dr. 

Edward Brooks, A. M. This is a narrative in 
simple prose of die greatest literaiy work of the 
world— the Iliad of Homer. It is of all-absorbing 
interest to young as well as old. Dr. Brooks, its 
author, is one of the 'moat prominent educators 
and authors of the country. Illustrated. 

Clodi, i.as 



Educational Bureaus. 



n CHEBME 



kOldMtudbMtkHOWBUU.S. IMak.lBM. 
East 14th St.. N.Y. 



Tke H. E. Bureau of Edncatioii. 



'" ' wnose field is the'NaUonTto' dolour"'* 
buBlncBS at 

8 Somerset St., Bosten. Mass- 
it pledges promptneM and fldelitr to all Ita 
pafrooB, both School Offlcera and Teaetaen. 

Now IB TBX TiMX TO BXOI8TX&. 
HIRAM OBCUTT, : : Manaqu. 



For largm- iolaritt or ^ang* of loeaHom 
midreu TMcksri^ Co-Opormtim AtaodaHom^ 
70 DMr^om &., Chicago; OrvUU Brwrn, 
Mama^er. 



A CARD. 

The undersigned having parchased the well 
known UmoiiTaAOHaBB^aenoT of New York 
City, has transferred It to Noe. AS and Ad lift- 
9mj9tf Plam, {next to the AHor Libranfh and 
will be pleased to serre Its former natrons and 
all otheis « ho desire to seenre the adyantages of 
this welTeetablUhed and reliable Ajteney. 

M. B.— This Ageney has no oonneetton whatever 
with any other educational Aaeney or Bnreaa. 
H« M. HABRINOTON. 
Late Snpt. of Bridgeport (Ot) Uty Mehoola. 
BaTing personally known Mr. Harrington for 
many years. I take great pleasure in oommend- 
Ing him to my friends and patrons. Any bnstness 
entrusted to nis hands will reeelTe proinnt and 
earefvl attention. W. D.KEBB, . 

Late Man. Union Teaebers' Ageney, ' 
59 and 5S Lafayette PL, New Tork. 

NO FEE FOR REGISTRATION. 

BMt FacUIUce. Efldent Berrlce. Large 
BaBlnciB. not in eollecdng adTanoe feee, hut 
In providing eompetent TeaeherB with rosl- 
tiouB. Form for Btamp. EmployerB are Beryed 
without charge. Our Buppljof TeaoberB la 

the LABQK8T SUd BB8T. 

. p. y. HUT8800N (late B. B. AYBBT). 
AMBRioAV School Bubbau, 
9 WOBt 14th bt, NXWr YORK, 

National Teachers' Bareaa. 

tee BiMe HaaMf 
dtk Ave. m Sth St., NXW TOBK. 

TEACHKNS 

dealring to aeeure SrBt claae BltaathNia Bhoold 
addreiB 

HABOLD C. COOK, Manaoss. 



^ Mann 

^^^ BadBfi 

^^^^^LChnrc 

^^■^00.,;] 

^^^ UBhed 

^n^^ prtoeB 



Manual, ftur Boundlnic and hlithly 
BadBfaetory BelU JES!r_ Sehooto, 
.ChurcheB, etc. HBLBNBT ft 
'00.. : Wett Trov, N. T. BBtah- 
llBhed 1826. Deeerip 
prtoeB on sppUeatton. 



■!F'5 



118 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



PKlv. 



FERRIS' Patent 



BixMt BdcItJiO Bt mp for 
Ilosa SappOTtAra. T ~ 
fiMitmwl Batt-unn— ' 



DON'T 
WEAR 

STIFF 

Corsets 

thftt mm 
jcnir beijEtk 
and CDiDlcirt. 

TRY 

'GOOD 

SENSE" 

if dot Bbtis 




UarUd I 

341 Broadway New York. 

.MARSHALL FIELD A CO 




DIPLOMAS OF HONOR 

for JulTanced scboiar^. Are au Uivaluai>le 

AID TO TEACHERS. 

Bend H ceau for two sdijiplea, pissEpa^il 

, CHROMQi SCHOOL CARDS 

slcure Perfect ReeltaflnDs. G*vo(t Deporimenl 
FunctuaUiy, and GoimI will of pQptlSi 

S.iiTiple th:ixc<)uUlniDg 100 assurit^d c&rd^/wlUi 
GlrculArs, mailed Ei<i»tpaid. cm receipt of iMO 

PJeattf^ tiy one box tbia tfurm We> gu^anCe^ 
»atlft|«ctlon nt- money n^futidBd, 

Reff^ri^GCfl br permHsLiJiD to PubUslier of Ameb- 
ic a n T K Acii HR Wne Q ord en d g, pleaae me ut lou 
ihl!i paper. 

GEORGE A, BEALE, 

620 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Wass. 




CHROMO REWARD CARDS. 

BcKimstH. VEtw«i, KfueiJi, StimlJa, CreBcwntH, JUTvntlieH, 
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BirH.). etc. Pricei for U-aiEe ^^jil'^ iiicliefi, iCt-fl^^^W, 
Ific^-l'i'tS'^, 25o-^^i7^', 85a. All protty eiirdu no 2 alike. 
I^rlQ^d CbroTiiD C&rds— ^wlth a I Ik frinffO nnd t^utfAla, 

" ^ I'io.p no Lira hUIeo. Enwlltnt for IltwardB, edo. 

i^och ^t 40111 ait ■ 1"^ Inree pretty 

Mi^rit. Mil Or^Jtt pnrdii, Pric*, Wks, 



£<: 



ra tk(r««iivc til em, oa« In OTEry fciliniir or n>win_ 
nlduid relinlila [nvrtiiiw C«itlu>r •!«) irbo wHl pn>nil«« tff 
ttow IL B«r4«a Mmile Bde O*., Box tia^. kTy. dt/' 



_i7'^t I'io.p no LflTO 
Ke»w SctLool Aldi 
Gh.ro ma R?<^l«tJ 

Aadl niiiii'f.iiH i.ri'iFi;^.] o-. ■ 'I cJin!:-! l^iri.. _...=. "■. 

Beadlnv Cards— 16 cards 6x9 lnohes,82 paffMpleMant 
B«w ■tories tor Fink and Second Header echolara. 12o. 
Drawing Cards— IB different ea»y drawing pattenu 
on M oardB, eice 8^x6)^ inohas, 80o:-W pattema, fiOo. 
a>rawlnff Bteneila— 2j different perforated pattenupf 
animals, birds, flowers, etc., on cards 4^z6K Inches, aOo. 
Bshool Bsporta— Arranged tor 1, 2. 8, 4, 6, * 6 months 
tor any school, card board, 12 tor IDo; paper. 12 for So. 
Sonff Book— Merry Melodies, contains « large pans 
best schools sonsES tor all grades, manilla covers, Ific 
Bchool Speakei^lOO pagss best Pieces, ^Recitations. 
Motion Songs, for chUdren 6 to 12, or 12 to 16 years. 10c 
Bohool Dialoflrue8-120 pages best Dialognes tor all 
kinds Entertainments, for ages 8to 12,orl2tolfl, 2Bo. 
Bchool Bntertaiament»-U6 pages best Recitations, 
Dialogues, Tableaux. Charades, Concert Pieces, etc 2Bc 
Teachers' Bzainlnei^New edition, contains 400 psges 
and over 6,(X» important Questions with Answers on all 
the different branches of school stndifis. It is the best 
book tor teachers who wish to prepare for examination 
It will carry you through. Cloth bound. Price. $Lfia 
New Price Idat Chxomo Beward^Oanis,^ Gift <>rds, 
Gift Books, Teachers' Books, School Supplies, and few 
samples Chromo Reward Cards free. All postpaid by 
mail. n. S. postsge stamps 
A. J. FOUCH St CO. 



taken. Please addxeM^ 
WARREN. PA. 



CH/f/ST/H/AS CA/fDS. 

lOO designs, all embossed, prettiest cards 
iQ the market for scbool use. 4H x6 in., l^ 
ets. each ; b^xi%^ s cts. each, $1.20 wortb for 
$1 00. Bend stamps for samples. Catalogue 

JOHN WIIXJOX, Mllford, N. Y. 

1? A'V"I?T^T^P^ isthemostbeautirnlTiUsge 
J^'A.XMSdl.l.Mld of Northwestern Ohio; has 
DO saloons aud offers the pare>^t snd best '^f asso- 
olatlnu to stadeuu. TIVELTB COURSES 

OP 8TUDT, NORM A I^ 5?'*^ ^ " V*«- 
are sustained. ^ VFil.iia.Aaj in^y. Aca«iem- 
ic. Commercial, Musical and Literary adTantaRes 
are unezcelied. Boarding, room rent, andtnltlon 
#27 for ten weeks. The work is practical, progres- 

:iTS.'s5.Ssrs?flisuNivERsiTr 

Address the president. 

J. £ DODD8. Fayette, Ohio. 

HIDICiL OOLLBCfl AKD HOSPITAL 

OF OHIOAOO, II.IJNOI8. 



The poUey of this Instttatlon la to ^ 
promise for Hospital or College toltion. ^ 

sab-ellnlcs, or amy means for stady and ol 

▼ation. that Is not literally and righteoosly kept* 

TMB TBIBTT PIRST AJmUAL COURBBOV LBOT- 

UBBS will begin in September. 1990, and oonttnoe 
for six months. For full partlenlars. eatalogno 
and CUnlqne. address B. zT BAILXT. ii.l>., 
Ileirlatrar. 8034 Mlehl«»n At«m Ohlouro. 

Liberal Salary PaM. 

or tu travel 2'eam 

P. O. ViOBBBT, Augusta, Me. 



APCIITC wanted. 
AUCll 1 At bome or 
furnUhed tree. 



IHB KINDER6ART£ir. AmoatUyfor 
home and aohool, toieooe leBBons. sto- 
games, occupations, etc. Invalnable for 
primary teachers and mothers. 91 50 a year. 
Sample copies. 6 cents. Alles B. Stockhafli 
A Co , 199 U Salle St., Chicago. 

$75.22 to $250.22 ^«o"r'- 



working for us. Persous preferred who can 
furnish a horse and give their whole time to 
the business. Spare moments may be profit- 
ably employed also. A few Taoancies in 
towns and cities. B. F. JOHNSON * CO., 
2600 Main St.. Richmond. Va. 

Card for Busy Work. 

Addition and Subtraction to 10 for lowest 
primary grades. 
Bend 9 cents for samples to 

N. H. CROWBLL, 
18 Rutland Street, Beaton. 



KINDEBGABTEN NOTBS« 
Mu9 S. R. Eelley of Texas v 
states tbe faet that *' the pUee of 1 
kindergarten U at the fomidalioo 
thH edaeational straetnre ml the m 
liest dawning of the child's 
and prevents the danger of ofTi 
sure or forced development of 
miiid*8 faccdties >at the expeme «« 
nei^lect of his moral and ^jtmeal 
well-being." 

W. N. Hailmann of LaPorte, Ind^ 
Bays: <<The kindergarten never rec- 
ognizes caprice ; to its earlieet pl^ijB 
it adds germ9 of work, of delibermfte 
self-subordination to di9tinet pnrpoeM 
Insensibly from almoet purpateism 
play, it leads the ehild to AimesC, 
purposeful work without lo98 of spoift- 
taneity and with that steady inero— 
of that divine joy which attends 
whatever creativenesg lifes in tlie 
work." 



Mb. Geobok A. Bkalb of 620 AtlastiB 
Avenue, Boston, publisher of Cards and 
Diplomas, whose adTertisemeat (with iwfar> 
eooe to the publishers) appears in IUb 
issue of the Am bbican Tbachieb, is urn- 
donbtedly ** Headquarters " for Koode ia 
hisline. Teachers can rely on his B>ate BtuBJai 

<*What a remarkably neat haad yam 
write." Yes, I always use an Bsterbfwok 
Pen. 



The ** Good Sense " corset wMst ham 1 
growing in favor for the past ten yenn. It 
is the Beet SubtHtute for a stiff eomo4 be- 
cause it oombinss oomfort and health to tlss 
wearer, perfection of fit, fine finiah, aad 
durability. These waists sell frMly, wtA 
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What are Your Winter Plans! 

Public school teachers are likely to fall IbW 
intellectual ruts. They personally need soai 
general systematic reading. Then again thty 
ought not to confine their work to the achoti 
room. They ought to be a leayea In the oow- 
munity. Thousands of teachers are aooompliih- 
ing great good for themselves and for others H 
Chautauqua circles. Will you not join In ths 
work? Or will you not read alone? AddR« 
John H. Vincent, Drawer 194, BuflUo, N. Y. A 
member of a circle writes: "All of us hariflg 
been out of school for a number of years, aw 
glad of this systematized opportunity of refrs^ 
ing our memories, and pursuing oor i 
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AmT /w amoan. E. J. KNOWLTON. Ana After, MIdk f 

BICYCLE or URIffl 

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prloss. NewBloToiesstreiMSlpriswsad MSsto 
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ODHa M*d TYTB WRITBBS toksa IB BBCnUMi 




1890.3 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



119 




Gifford's Air-Tight Ink-Weil. | 

The only Air-Tight School 
Ink-Well made. 

Can be easily attached to 
any school desk. 

Sample, postpaid, 25 cts. 

Tar's Noiseless Pointer, 

Tbe oDiy noiseless 
8cbo<)l Pointer made. 
Has RiibDfr tip aud 
HuspendloK RlnR 
Sample,po9tpaid, 25c 

School Fen & Pencil Case. 

Just out and the only 
case of the kind made. 
Can be easily attached 
to any school desk. 
Sample^ postpaid^ z<f, 

AH tliese specialties are fully protected by letters patent, At- 
tempts to imitate will be appreciated, but not tolerated. Descriptive 
circulars and special prices upon application. Dustless Crayons^ 
£rms€rs, Glomes, Maps, Charts^ Slate and Composition Bkukboards^ 
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Mate te cenneinorate the Inaozoration ef GEORGE 

WASHINGTON, one CENTURY ago, as the FIRST 

PRESIDENT of the UNITED STATES. 



CoTers hare on them a correct likeness of 
QEOBGE and MARTHA WASHINGTON. 

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with the NEW EDUCATION. 



HOW TO SEE, (looills.) sects. 
HOW TO TALK, (200 ills.) 42 cts. 
HOW TO WRITE, (150 ills.) 60 cts. 



The value of self activity is everywhere rec- 
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do by doing The learner is guided in the 
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Sample copies sent, postpaid, on receipt of price. Sample 
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COWPERTHWAIT A CO.. 
628-630 Chestnut 8t., 
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To fomi ffood kahttii In bit- 
ter thsB to eorrf et bad ones. 



120 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



[No». 



1= E3 IsT IL^ -A. 3Sr S H: 1 1= . 

THE authors of the series of Copy-Books published by the American Book Company have been 
the leaders in penmanship instruction and methods in this country for half a century. Each 
series has been recently revised, and great attention has been paid to grading and the distribution of 
letters and their peculiar combinations throughout the various numbers. 



Appletons^ Standard Copy'Books, 

By Lyman D. Smith. 

N«w Tracing Conrs«, four numbers, i. 2, 3, and 4. 

Per dozen, 72 oents 

Short Coarse, seven numbers, i, 2, 3, 4. 5, 6, and 7. 

Pet dozen« 72 cents 

Ghrammar Conrse, ten numbers, i, 2, 3, 4. 4}, 5, and 6, and 
Exercise Books A, B, and C. Per dozen, 96 cents 

Bnslness Forms, three numbers, i, 2, and 3. Per doz., 
Nob. I and^, $L2d; No. 3, ... 96 cents 

These books are designed to produce free, practical writing. 
Letters are taught as wholes. The Tracing, Short, and 
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is complete in itself. But progressive grading is maintained 
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the tracing, and the Grammar Course upon the Short Course. 

Barnes's Natl System of Penmanship, 



National Series, six numbers i, 3, 3. 4> 5« & 6- Per dz. $1 00 
Brief Course, six numbers, i, 3, 3, 4, 5, ft 6. " 75 ots 
Tracing Coarse, two numbers, i and 2. '* 75 cts 

The series for ungraded schools is complete in six books, but 
for large graded schools the more elementary courses are 
supplied to complete the gradation. The business forms in- 
clude checks, notes, drafts, receipts, etc., printed on patent 
safety-tint paper. 



Eclectic Copy"Books, 



Primary Copy-Book, ... Per doz., 72 cts 
Elementary Coarse, three numbers, i, a, 3. ** 72 cts 
New Eolectlc Copy Books, ten numbers, 1, 3f li 4« 5t 

6, 6^, 7, 8, and 9 Per doz., 96 cts 

In these copy-books, simple, legible, and business-like style of 
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revised. 

Harper's New Graded Copy Books, 

By H. W. Shaylor. 

Tracing Coarse, two numbers, i and 2. Per doz., 72 cts 

Primary Course, seven numbers, i, a, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. 

Per doz., 80 cts 

Grammar Course, eight numbers, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. 

Per doz., 9108 

Throughout the series only plain, practical styles of letters 
are given for imitation. AH flourished forms are avoided. 
It has been the design of the author to secure a neat, plain, 
legible style of penmanship. The arrangement of the pri- 
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coarse. The difference between the two is chiefly in the size 
of the books. 



PaysoDs Dnnton, and Serlbner^s Na^ 
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School Series, new edition, six numbers, i, 3, j* 4* s* >^d& 

Per doz*, 96 e#iiti 
Business Series, three numbers, 7, 1 1, and i z. 

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Per doz., 96 omtttM 
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Per do2 ♦ 72 oeoti 
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Per doz., 72 oants 
Pencil Series, scTcn numbers, A, B, B^, C, D, E, and F. 

Per doc, 49 cents 

This series provides a complete and carefully-graded course 
for public or private scnoo)s. The analysis and classi- 
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the lessons are uniformly progressive and systeoiatic. 

A new edi'ion of these books is now in course of preparation, 
and the School Series (six numbers) is completed. TJiis 
series has been carefully revised and re-engraved. The 
order of difficulty has been increased to more thorooghly 
meet the wants of graded schools, and advanced work is 
taken up earlier than in the old series. A special feature 
of importance is the text-matter of the cover page, giviag & 
complete and clear analysis of both small letters and cap- 
itals, with one page devoted to movement exercises. The 
remaining books of the new edition will be issued as rapidly 
as possible. 

Spencerlan Penmanship^ Revised EdUum. 

I. The Primary Course. Twelve Cards, designed to fix 
correct habits in the very first year of school. ' 

Per set, 10 oents 

Spencers' Primary Writing Tablet. To accompany 

the above cards 10 cents 

II. The Tracing Course. Nos. i, 2, 3, and 4. 

Per doz., 72 oents 

III. The Shorter Course. Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. 

Per doz., 72 oents 

IV. The Common School Course. Nus. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6» 
7, and 8. Per doz., 72 oants 

The Spencerian Copy-Books in their various editions have 
continually kept pace with the general improvements in 
methods of teachmg. In this revised edition the funda- 
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Spencerian. Each book possesses original and valuable 
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Correspondenu in reference to the introduction of the above books is cordially invited, 
pesipcUd^ on receipt of price. Full price-list will be mailed on application. 



Copies will be seni^ post- 



A.MEIIIOj^N book OOMPA.NY, 

ITEW TOBK. CUrCINNATI, CHICAGO* 



'^^^^: 



^|F:«*®^ 








OLD SnUM, VOL. XIY.. NO. 4.— NBW BBBIM. VOL. Til]., NO. 4. 



SntarMi at the FMt OfflM at Boston, Maaa., aa ■aeond-claaa mattat. 



A. B. WINSHIP, 
W. B. SHEL 



^^j«i^- Boston, December, 1890. |"'7S^T,"^> 



I AAA The American Book Company extends the compliments 1QQ1 
£2£22Z of the Holiday Season to all teachers and school officers. 

* The publications of the American Book Company embrace a large 
proportion of the best and most popular School Text - books used in 
this country. 

* They represent the best established usage in all ^ departments - of 
instruction, and the most progressive of modern methods. 

* They have been prepared under the most careful supervision, and 
represent the best skill available for the preparation of text-books. 

* The talent, experience, and ripe scholarship of the various authors 
is an assurance of the reliable character of the books. 

* They present a varied list from which a most judicious selection 
can be made for every grade of public or private schools, adapted to 
all methods of instructions. 

* The list includes many attractive works suitable for Holiday Gifts. 

* A complete price-list wi.ll be sent to any address on application. 

* Correspondence in reference to introduction and exchange is cor- 
dially invited. 




122 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



[Dk. 



D. LOTHROP COMPANY 



PUBLISH 



THE POBTS TIAB. Edited by Oscar Pay 
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18900 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



128 



YOU and THOUSANDS 
of other TEACHERS, 
will look this page over, seek- 
ing what may be of interest 
and value to you in your pro- 
fession 

Undoubtedly, like all other 
true teachers, you wish to 
encourage the best instincts 
of your pupils and ward off 
what may be debasing. 

Our magazines have their miMion 
right here ; not only in the doTelop- 
ment of a taste for the best in litera- 
•tare and art, but also in the marked 
inflnenee in general studies, — espe- 
mXLjf of course, as Sapplementioy 
Reading. 

The notable adyanee of the young 
people in general intelligence and 
aetiye interest in stadies where these 
magaunes are used, is gratifying 
alike to teacher and papil, and to 
parents. It naturally redounds to 
the credit of the teacher. 

We haye said these few words for 
the purpose of calling your special 
attention to our magazines. If you 
will give them a trial, we are sure 
you will be more than satisfied ; and 
that you will then use your influence 
everywhere in recommending them, 
on suitable occasions, to the attention 
of other teachers, committees, etc. 

We shall be pleased to send you 
(and other teachers interested in the 
abore), a specimen copy of " Wide 
Awake,*' free, that you may learn 
folly the real yalne of the magazine 
ss an aid to your profession and to 
the young minds you are guidiog. 

If you can furtiier assist us by reo- 
oBunending some one who Will make 
a reliable and energetic canvasser 
(who will really take up the woi^ 
sod send us orders), we shall be glad 
toeontinue sending the magazine to 
yon fat one year. 



D. IDTHRSP GOMPMY. PiMltlwi, 

BOSTON, niASS. 



OTHER TEACHERS 



USE THEM 
LIKE THEM 

For Supplementary Beatling. 

Give them a trial, and you will become one of the *^ other teachers,'' 



we are sure. 



At the Head 
of Young People's Magazines. 



^//ideAwake 



tV1|Mv1T1N6 ftftSES ' 
vEVERT MONTH, 
SBEAUTIFULLY/ 
foVLLUSTRWH); 



\N^ 



By 
Best 
Authors. 



Nttailt 
Strialx: 



£11 



Five Little Peppers Grown Up. 

By Maraaret Sidney. 
Cab and Caboose : the Rise of a 
Railroad Boy. By Kirk Monroe. . 

SUB8CBIBE NOW! Cvt ovt and tend with 
1.40 to D. Lothrop fo., and rerelre CHBI8T- 
S NUMBBB of WIDE AWAKE FBEE. 



THE LOTHROP MAGAZINES. 

Babyland* 

Helpful The one magazine for babies. 

Dainty stories, poems, jingles in 

to the each number. Full of pictures. 

,, For children one to six years old. 
motner, ^^^ ^ ^^^^ y^ ^ ^^ 

Oar liittle HIcb «Dd IV^men. 

Eor A magazine for little folks be- 

. ginning to • read. 75 full-page 
youngest pictures (besides no end of small- 
Readers ®' °"*®) during the year. 

• $1.00 a year. 10 cents a No. 

Sunday ^^"^ 'P^.r^y. 

" Edited by ''PANSY'' 

and (Mrs. G. R. Alden). 

Tir^gk- ^^ illustrated monthly for 

young folks eight to fourteen. 

day Serials by Pansy and Margaret 

z>-.- v/«« Sidney, Special terms to Sunday- 

J<^dtng^^^^^ $1 a year. loc. a No. 



lyear. 

D. LOTHROP COMPANY, BOSTON. 
Specimen of any tnu^ 5 cts. ; of the four 1 5 cts» 



W%LL Wide J{wake, 1891, 

BB OP 

Unusual Interest, Unasaal Valuet and more Popular 
than Ever with Teachers and Pupils? 

BMC A USE In addition to the many Talaable points which haTO made 
WiDB AwAKB a modal of Sapplementary Beading it will contain articles 
of great and special interest to teachers and papils alike. 

Han. JOHN D. LONO (£z-Oot. of Mass.) will fnmish a series of papers for 
preparing bojs (and girls) for intelligent citizenship. The yalne of this 
series, onder the titie 

OUR GOVERNMENT, cannot be oTorestimated. The articles will be 
brief and to the pcnnt. 

PRIZE PROBLEMS, witii cash awards, will be auoUier interesting feat- 
ore. The first Competition of the yettr, ^' Some Problems in Horology/' 
will interest ffigh School students. The problems have been prepared 
by Mr. E. H. Hawley of the Smithsonian Institution. 

FIGURE DRAWING for Children, prepared by ICss Caroline Simmer, 
daughter of Dr. Bimmer, the eminent art anatomist. Tliis will be a 
series of progressiTO studies of the child-figure, most noTcl and interesting. 

Tery libenl rates wlU be made to teachers and schools. 



Spedmma of the four {to teachers wily) 8 oenis in stamps ; 15 cents te 
other than teachers. Of any one, 2-cent stamp ; 5 cents to other than 
teachers. 

D. LOTHROP COMPANY, PuMsiwrs. Boston. 



124 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER- 



IDk. 



CHROMO REWARD CARDS, 

Orer IgOm now pntty df^fans of I^ndfreBtwiLflowflo, 

BriU, SoftiMarViewa. Frui t^, Bui loona, gb i {s^.A r> t ni »U, 
Bird*, ete, FHcm tt^tr l2^i*a 2Wi#i Inch*, lOc-aHxS^-i. 
Iflc— iW*«^. g^:^^'^I,7H^ 3^3. All pretty oardB no 2 allk«s. 
T'rin^^ Ctairmio CJardi— with wilk trinafl und taiptw, 

4ii7L^% Lto.. no Ewo alika. JliMllent for llewards, *>tv. 

Wew School Aida-Ench (»t fTr>nTfl.[ra IM larps ruritjr 
tlkramo ErcfllAtor^ Mi^cit^ nn^ Credit pardw- Pric«, BOi.', 

A,1phabet Oarda— (^JO loTiie pl4»ln cnpUnlp. iBirintl l^tl^^rn 
and QDiasnvli prLntM on HO cardH ^iiich Nimirur. a.M, 

Rttadlne Oordo—lfl eard^ gj? incherH.^J jtngeit ri'l^ngAriil 
iww BtoHen for Fli^t nn*^ B«oiid itewlor acholJiru. I'lc. 

Urrtwlnsr Oarda— Ifl different efthy drnititijr ixittetp*" 
AD SS* cards, ulse a^^iU'i Inch*^ SOi^;— 66 t^flttem*.. \XhT. 

iJrtVwlniT atoncns-'iJ different tierfnrntfld pntt^rnftof 
mnliaiiln, hinin, Aowbps et«,rOD CEinl'i tJ>*XO^i Inches !Wc, 

S=hooL Riport*— Arranffftd fOT 1, 2:, 3^ *- 6. * * Bl""^]'* 
fox imr Bchoft]. 04^1 board, 12 fo* Ifle; p***!-, 12 Jor fie, 
rur Boolt—M*jrr^ Melodies, oontiiins 4B lafpe (nuff^ 
_^i lohoola (wntpi far all irrad^K manill^ ccivt;r»> i.^o, 

Bobool apaaker— IDO pft«(&H bwt Piwx-fl, Jlerliotioii^. 
" * I Sonit^ f»f ohilclron 6 iol2, or J^tp 16 j^t^rn. 15c. 



Bohfiol DiiLopTUBB-lX pnpM bwd DiftlswuM for all 
■-•-^n Bnt^rt^imnonta, for aciea S to 12. ©r 12 to IG. 25c- 



Scliool Entertalamenta-n^ i»fttf« b«*t Recltatlonik 
DfalavoMi TtaWeftai. Ctiarftdeei, Oopoflrt PiBC*ap eic. lEo, 

nAoAittr^ l^unlnor— Naw i^ftlonn coDtalnv^OQ tta^ 
ud OT« M(D tiafiortAiit QoMtiontt with Aiiiwnre On all 
tlu dUhnat brswjh^ti of iwbocl nmdiw. It i* the b«wt 
book tor tanchflri who wish to prep&rt* for eininiu^uon 
It will OUT? yon thranBli' Ooth boand^ i^rico. tlH&a 

New Price Uat Ohromo Bew*M CardB. OS ft ^flf1l^ 
Gift Bpokut TeiM:hMrrt" Boofeii. ifchool BupiKliw, (^"d faw 
iajtmlfti OhroniO Kaward Oarfl* tti*. All piatpaLd bj 
mail O. H. i>cHtaB« HtampH taken. Plea*i addreei^ 
A* J. FOUCH & CO.. WARBEN, PA. 




CH/ffST/i^AS CAffDS. 

loo deal ens, alt embossed^ prattLest caid» 
Id the ui&rket for acbtiol use. 4Mi ^^ ^tL^^ 1% 
cto* e*ch; 6%i7^A,acta. each, |K20 wortJt for 
ti 00. Send st&mpB for ftaniplea. CatAio^e 
free. 

JOHN WHiCOX, Mllford, N. Y. 



Payette Normal University, 

EXCEL tl SCO IS METHaDS AHD RESULTS. 

Ful I com [i]«Tue at of wo Li trai r « 1 toaohA n l« 
cut ion teauf^ui ; Ano^\Qtiof}» pur* : (Jrarcth phf- 
nomtniiJ Adpantaffea uttauiynuird. StudeL.ts aaft 
teacliart ilionlo InTtiitl^nCR our except lioiial ad 
Vftui8K(^i and low eiptihififl b^fi^ra cbooiiUK * 
sehocjl borne. f96 pays ttiitlon. board, and foona- 
rent for one vear of foffj- ^^ek*- Vail term b^i^lti* 
Aug 20, ISOrj. ejfjdd for beautifnl ILttItt " glfl 
boak " and dat&lDKUe> Addrena the pruiidftaCi 
J. £ DODDS. Fajette. Obto, 



ttlDICiL COIiliEGfi 1X0 nOSFlTAli 

OF CHICAQO, II.LIN01H, 

Tha poUcr of tbli Umtltntloa li to mAktt d^ 
[troiiilte« for Hotplttl oi Ccllefiti tuition, olttdcA^ 
anb^LLuiCk, or aiij meauna for atndy and obaet- 
vatlon, thJit bi UQt. )1it«rftllr and rl^htcwajlT kapt. 
rna TuiBfT - Siuonm anhual codb^i of 
LBOT17KB8 witlb«giii Sapt. IG^l^dl, and ooDtiuua 
for ilx, lUDDtbi* For full paitlciilArA, catalwue 
and Cllolqae^ kddreai £. Z, BAII.ET» M«Il.p 
R«KlatT»r» 3084 MlolLtniQ Are^, GhJctMCO. 



jT* IntrodHH ih(di. one 111 tTccy Coiiilly or t*>wn fur- 
lutaed reliably p«i-«oiu (cither aei> who wu] pvotnlms W 
iMiov iu Ua rden M Halo Ilvx C^ * Box titt, Ki Y. Clty^ 




&wyw ^i'»}am E. J. KNOWLTOfi. Ann Artor. Htclt. 



FREEl 




We will wprid DTiQ sample of thh mn^ltlccnt 
ETold Front Pm to niiy peraeii \n the United 
^mtcji whowUi cut tbja adverLiaemooL out i^f 
I hiii pnptir, mn] a^Nid It to tiHi in a l^tter^ with 
thpjr full numo and pont-olUce addn^nH. Thlu 

Eln i<i a bvautllul ccimblnniion of fnii, bar^aTicl 
jiilcbjiin^ ItlAivlaveirpin.liLteHt |ji«li&<in, 
CJenElrnien sbnujii send for ti (^a It cu^Lr^ 
iiunrini,:)^ und iriv^e tt (m a i.'oatly pr^^atmt lo 
momi^ ^u<l/ friend, liemtimber, WG will eend 
the plh free to eacb tiiid every pereofi IttItj 
a ends tbm tiiJvprttsienwjnt, Atldre^H, l^yni* 
dk €o*9 4H Eapd Hiroet, Kew York, 




NEW AMERICAN 

Stejm Wmd Sl Stem Set« 
ONI>Y $1.00. ' 

Tbe Naw Anifiinm In Handsome Nli oil 
I Pnttcrn TliiuUnif Case, a eoTTH't lilns- 
1 tratlon of wblicliv^eabowintbihAdv<rlli<«^ 
1 meul. lfiiu»w reAdy and by placing n vt^iy 
' lai'tjfe ord*'i-«n hftvr Btcnrrd thv fXc[\i*.\vQ 
MLt« fur till] L'niu-il fltciUw aud <.^iriji4>u. 
I It 1<» a HC t>m iPt IjiUi- r Kud «f em »»' I tpi' 

I '•vUh 1knt4-ia ftdjUidUlJi nC a.iiU lufltttd V, Itb 
||hiit'^> paU'Jit Pt4.^in wLudiFi|f arrftJi^i'tiK-nt, 
ffiiiii''! u[] no OT^ivr. It in hvitillUK com-, 
' liFiiutirul I J eulrraTf'd cf thr uf >« h[;^ \r 
. KiifM pniu-i'ntaaiiiovii'ii tncut, plMlr^l i^ltb 
I ^urfl F«ld on anlid jellow metal (M^me- 
I Umes c«,ll<'d aluuiininiiO^ Jind in cii'^ai'' 
' nncei!>i)i.MiiLhi] [H>n i^old which. Tin- tn v& 
tal l!> di'tiljlr lliki'k ]H.<UiiLcd frniL'ti kI> "-'^p 
I aJidLali LLi.' i' k! V 1l4-(.'1:<, ttii^LOUhnud liNH- 
I Ltilth arc I'^-rfi'^'tlj' likitdo b> llir luih^t 
I (tr>]iiovcd PTkd e^jH^ii^lve mBrLJiti'jv.j'Ln^l 
f 4*jn-h p4ut in CftreftiJlj fltifd bj riliilli'd 
, wc r k nioii . tuc b onif iJi cartf H I Lj' in Ji«<'i t^l . 
\ rernlihlird and Ci'Steil IxTiirc lenvmi^- thu 
! ffirtcrj , and fully wnrrauted by 1i^ Cor 
^^ Hvc yL'crsir UFU-d wLtbreajsonabli^ can-. 

I Tft Inrierand St<*m Si-H,t. w Uh n beiiiii l-i 
fn t t (I I d pin I i^d ff-liai n ii iid r-liii i rtt, 

' oil [lu^'krd Iji af? cb^Kniit aitlui Um-J^l H MiM'K, 

' c^Ei rv<xi\tt o1 aitl3 ttl.flO bill, ihh ntiy 
ord»'r, twjittt^v fi[«]ii]in f>r(jo*t*J nof^-, x<rO' 

^ Tided n»e pvrx: ' a FL-c*' L V [itfr i t n Hi ra.ilbr Eil ly 

tmnpil~e toB«iJil Um" 1* Ti;'fcriv nTdera Tf^<m 
\,^\r locality AJ< i^'i<;^lbh^. Our (Ven 4 il l^ 
f jilitetK^ of WrUIi*-?., *>nn-h« Jiucg- wpn- o." 
till' TiiiiTt'<-t llntK to tifl found in *!!>■ O*- 
t *Joirui^ w m l» rent *ritb eatb oidtr, *( 
I TUflnr iHie pood acci'iti in eTery tcri to 
f tot p 1 1 1 D sgwticy f or I he »le o f our i>'i M bia 
wat^'hrn. whWh Vka 11 inalraK* Iti Oh r IJiiT - 
lll«Hieatpri*T(ifrrtmai!.0OutK*ar<l. ^^'n^ 
■fud th<^-in tJiaLl irtHfiof ihh^l? I kited M frit cf 
by mail und *'Ttprr*«. flKM> 01 .€M* AT 
OVCEnnfl « -■ w l] 1 f 1 1 ^w^^d thf NcwAhhti 
cnn t'v jTiBil, p'KbUpaid. Ytiur nrt^t'r 
will W iHlf'd I hf^ d Ry w 1^ r^'c*' I v 
K. WcwIM r*^ftiBrt thB inDii«3rof Api' (tlkaittlplled cvtsfomei-. ^^^mi ^iwjby r^-n^itMj^l icitw;. !;j-l 
-men moneTorteT.«^rwi.roon.y^riar BatCOCt £ CO., 35 & 37 Prailklbrt St., W. Y. 



The nftdm of tb* Amkric ah Tkacub 



an iiiTitod to b«tow a _ 
tlM pioton of the taUy-lM ooft«h vbkk ir 
pean in oar mArtfrtinng oolnmns. Tfctlj 
on the hortea' benda be»r tha luunM rfttj 
fovr leading Kunes which are bol»ic p»i 
by Milton Bfadley GompMiy, Spriagidi 
Maaa., daring the pr«MBt bolidfty bmml 
All tbeae gamea h»Ye • dtreei edmHinl 
Talae, and thoae teaehers and parenta wto 
believe in aeniible amoaeiiMata for tiM di- 
dren will find it adTantaffeoM to InvmtiptB 
them. If none of the four exMtly bit yni 
aaae, there moat be aomothiBir >* ^ ™| 
eatalogne ol gmmea and toy* wbiab w 
proTe joat the ihuig. Too will aoaf ey • a- 
Tor on them and probably on jvmr Mw 
by aending for thia eatalogfiM imnaa diatig , 
provided yoar dealer does •«» emrrj m 
gooda. H yon writo to SpriiagaaM, ii i !§■ 
the laet that yoa reed the Tkachkb. 

:$!•• t« be 1 
For the long ereninga at 

for the famay aeeom to hold and ■- 
its popnlarity like '* Politiaa, or Ik 
Baee for the Pieaidenoy/' A bmw efito 
of thii hooiehold fiTorito to mw gmifit 
all the toy Btatea, and ito pnhltohOTS oAr H 

OTery peraon who baya n eopy of it f «hf«" 
to win $100iB neonpetitiTe eneitenl towM 
any bright gnunmar aahool boy or ginjg 
BtMid n good ehnnee of winniiv. ^Thi 
prise oonteat ia pnrely edoootioMl in Hi 
^laneter. Three priaea of $50, $90. «< 
$20 are to be awarded for tho three bot 
aolntiona ol a pnale in anthmotie haaid ai 
the toble of the eUetoral Totee of m 
Stotea, whieh ia the eentral fentoro of thi 
game. 



Silver, Burdsttb & Co , 
haTO reedy the aeoond edition (roTiaMi aarf 
improTod) of ••Onr Owi Country," BoA 
III. of The World and ita Paopla^^ W 
book ia Vol. 7 of TA« T<nmg Tolkt' U- 
6rary, a popular aeriea edited by Urw 
Danton, LL.D., Head Maater of Boit« 
Normal Soh oot. 

Cub yoang f rienda who deaire to attaad • 
good aebool ahonld aend for m *' Calendar'' 
of the Fayetto Normal UniTonity, Fayetla, 
Ohio. See odTertiaement in another w 



ROOFING 



6UM-BLA8TIC B00FIN6 FBLT oofO 

only 99.«« per lOt sqanre feet HakM i 

good roof for years, and say one ean put ItoD. 

Send stamp for sample and full pertleiilsn. 

GUM ISL4STI0 BOOFING CO., 

S8 ft 41 WSST BBOADWAT, N«W TOBX* 

lioenl Agoatii^Waatod. 



itr hoiok drafti pa/able to our order. 




thebtj^gj^pgje 1 






1800.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



126 



HOLIDAY HAPPINESS. 

Children's hearts can be gladdened at small cost, and n« 
pleasant reminder from a teacher will be more appreciated 
than the gift of a good lead pencil. We think there is 
none better than " Dixon's American Graphite." If you 
are not familiar with them, send 16 cents in stamps and 

^ffi^y/AUAj/JLua^^ynr^j^^r ^^^®^^® samples worth double the money. 

JOS. DIXON CBUCIBLi: €Om - - - Jersey City, N. J. 








The Gem Pencil Sharpener 

It a taelleil MacHM tar StarMilit BotI Uad nd Slat! hi^ 



» BIMFLB AND OOMPAOT IN ITS 00N8TBUCTI0N, 
VBBT BAST TO OPBRATX, 

AND SELDOM GETS OUT OF OBDBB. 



Prioet 



•3.60. 



ICanufaetored by 

GOULD & COOK, : : Lbohinsteb, Mass. 



Bmi for deteriptwe eir&ulan wUk tesUnumiaU. We will 
send maehiinM an trial to responnbU partie$. 




4^y^^^ 



IF NOT 



Samples of the leading namben and priees for sehool use will be sent to Teachers on 
application. 

WHY NOTP THE SPENCERMN PEN ca, 810 Broainy, Nw YiiL 



gSTERBROOO L 



steel Pens. /l28 
SCHOOL SERIES. 




Standard Quality. 

For Sale by all Stationers, 
Every Teacher SMd Use Then. 




Mergarten 



Material (Steiger's); the 

Largest Assortment in America; 
the true Frodbel System only. 



Kraus' Kitulergarten Cruide, the 

&6j4^&oolfoiiKindergarteiiing. Steiger's 
Kindergarten Gatalogae mailed free. 
E. Steiger S Co.^ 

25 Park Place, Kew York. 



KIIDERfiARTEN 



AND I J. w. SOnnnBHOBV 

SCHOOL I t lart Uth Sftrctt, 
SUPPLIKS. I MEW TOBK. 



*oo,|^^ 



Mmtloa thtt p*piir. 



126 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Dk. 



SII.VEB, BURDETT & CO., Pnblisliers, 

ll^..^-.l !!'n.?i.«^?«"if;».«» ^"""B •'«*•' Library. 

Nnrnirll mvi-IS iv«?5t?'«f«,».,.-^ Maccoun-s Hlstorlc^U Publications. 

IIUI lllul UJLY'A"' •Xfli'2, ?.^ J*"*'^'"®- Welsh's Crammars. 

COURSE OF SPECLINC. Stowsll's Physiology. 

•M?2£" SJ!^^?deSJ?5?rdu3iy ta'v'iSl'"' "*"" '"^ '"»°«'' *»' '•''~' ""» OoU.ge Work. lUustrted cWogua mlM tr- t.»T 
«W TOBK: 740 A W Bro»dir»j. 6 HaOCOCk AW., BOSTON. CHICAGO: m A 191 Wabask Ave. 



Af(?^f 77/4)1^ ifKf/VT-r PEIf CENT /Jt JK/SS/SS/PP/. 

Official returns just received from Mississippi show that counties representing more than seventy per cent of the state have 
^ adopted REED & KELLOCC'8 GRAMMARS for uniform and exduiive u*e. The books have dnrins 
the past few months been introduced into the Public Schools of dtics representing a population of over 7ft0,000. The 
list includes 

No competing text-booksgive so much language work, or give any in so compact a form as Reed & Kellogg's LessOns ill SDffiisfc. 
ffi^ Correspondence looking to the introduction of the Grammars vnll be highly appreciated ,JBk 



BPiraGHAM MATNAED & CO., Pubrs.. 771 Bnadway, and 67 & 69 Ninth St., Niw Yni 

M. I. SMITH, 6 Somerset St.. Boston. i j. o. WILLIAMS. 161 Wabash Ave., Chlea«e. 



A. S. BARNES & CO., 761 B'way, New York, 

Invite the attention of teachers to their list of distinctively Teachers^ Books, numbering some Thirty Volumes^ 
each and aU invaluable to the teacher who desires to make the most of his (or her) pursuit Send for list with prices. 



Weak Lungs 

May be made to do good service through a 
long life by a Judicious use of Ayer's Cherry 
Pectoral. The signs of weakness are ''short- 
ness of breath," pains In the chest and back, 
a persistent cough, feverishness, and raising 
of blood. All or either of these symptoms 
may indicate weak lungs, and should tiave 
Immediate attention. 

"I have been a life-long sufferer from 
weak lungs and, till I used Ayer's Cherry 
Pectoral, vths scarcely ever free from a 
cough. This medicine always relieves my 
cough and strengthens my lungs, as no other 
medicine ever did. I have induced many of 
my acquaintances to use the Pectoral in 
throat and lung troubles. It has always 
proved beneficial, particularly so in the case 
of my son-in-law, Mr. Z. A. Snow, of this 
place, who was cured by it of a severe 
cough."— Mrs. L. I. Cloud, Benton, Ark. 

**I have had lung trouble for about one year 
and have tried many different remedies, but 
nothing does me so much good as Ayer's 
Cherry Pectoral. I heartily recommend this 
medicine."— Cynthia Horr, Hannony, Me. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral, 

PRBPARKD BT 

Dr. J. C. AYER & CO., Lowell, Mass. 

fiold by all DvugglstB. Price %\ ; six bottles, $6. 



JJgspm 

HORSFORO'S ACID PHOSPHATE. 

In dyspepsia the stomach fails to assimilate the food* 
The Acid Phosphate assists the weakened stomach, mak- 
ing the process of digestion natoral and easy. 

Dr.R S. McCoMB, PhUaMphia, nyi: "Used it is aemiii 
dyspepsia, with SDoeeai." 

Dr. W. 8. Leonabd, Hinsdale, N. H. sajt : ** The best remsdy 
for dyspepsia that has ever oome ander my notioe." 

Dr. T. H. Andbbws, Jefferson Medioal College, Philadelphia, 
says : ** A wonderful remedy wliieh gave me most gratifying re- 
sults in the worst forms of dyspepsia." 



Descriptive pamphlet free. 

BwmfoTd Chemteai Works, 

JProvMence, B. I. 



BEWARE of SUBSTITUTES and 
IMITATIONS. 



CAIJTl«lfe-0e 

•■ the lAbele AU 



Che vrerd ** Hers! erd's " la priaietf 
m are epaiiews. Never ••Id !■ balk. 



J 



A riERICM 







Vol. XIV. 



DEVOTED TO THE METHODS AND PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING. 



No 4. 




CHRISTMAS, merry ChriBtmai! 

It it really oome agtio ? 
With its memoriei and grreiiof^. 

With ita joy and with its p«io. 

O Christmas, merry Christmas ! 

This DSTer more can he ; 
We oanDot hring again the dajs 

Of oar nnshadowed glee. 

O Christmas, merry Christmas ! 
- Tis not so Tery long 
Sinoe other Toioes hlended 
With the earol and the song ! 



BELLS ACROSS THE SNOW. 

7^HBRE*S a minor in the oaro), 
^^ And a shadow in the light, 
^ And a spray of cypress twining 
With the holly wreath to-night. 
And Ih^ hnsh is nerer broken 

By the laoghter light and low, 
As we listen in the starlight 
To the *' bells aeroas the snow *' I 

Bot Christmas, happy Christmas, 

Sweet herala of good will, 
With holy songs of glory 

Brings holy gladness still. 
For hope and peace may brighten. 

And patient love may glow, 
As we listen in the starlight 

To the ** bells aeross the snow " I 



r 



If we ooold bat hear them singing. 

As they are singiDg now, 
If we ooold bat see the radianoe 

Of the erown on each d«ar brow ; 
There wonld be no sigh to smother, 

No hidden tear to flow. 
As we listen in the starlight 

To the '* bells across the snow " ! 

—F. R, Havergal. 



ZACHART'S FIRST TEAR IN SCHOOL. 

(III.) 

BT SARAH L. ABNOLD. 

T is Friday afternoon, and the last Friday in the 
month, too. Miss Sotde has promised the chil- 
dren that it should be a very happy afternoon, 
filled with exercises in which they take especiarde- 
light, for it was "star day." They have tried a 
whole month to be good, especially to be qniet in 
their work and gentle in their play. And all those 
who "had tried their very best," Zachary con 
fided to his mamma, were to have a gilt star as a 
token. "Not like the blue stars^we have every 
week, mamma," he explained ; " those mean that we have 
done our best for a week. But the gold star means our 
very best for a whole long month. I do hope I'll get one. 
Miss Soule said everybody had a chance. I don't believe 
Mike Driscoll will have one. He knocked Tommy Jones 
down the other day, and I think he did it on purpose." 

" Poor Mike," Mrs. Deane says gently, " I'm sure he 
was sorry that he hurt Tommy. And my boy doesn't 
know that he did it on purpose, so we will not say unkind 
things about him. He will feel badly if he has no star. 
I hope ydu have earned one, Zachary." 

The little five-pointed piece of paper is no insignificant 
thing to Mrs. Deane. She appreciates all that it moans to 
little Zachary. He has spoken often of it during the 
month, and has had her full sympathy in his earnest try- 
ing " to be good." She knows that he has tried to take 
care of the restless hands and^feet, that they might not 
disturb the work of his neighbors. And his imperious 
demands upon his playmates, who seem to accord him 
the position of leader, might easily become ungentle, if 
he were not won to love gentleness and accustomed to 
gentle words and deeds« She had talked with Miss Soule 
about her plan, and she knew her purpose in it. " I do 
not want the children to consider the stars a reward of 
right doing," she had said. " They are siffns only, which 
show their parents that they have tried, — ^thougb they 
will not always betoken complete success. They are not 
like prizes, which only a few may win. They may help 
the children a little until they become used to trying, and 
recognize the truth that * the reward is in the doing.' " 
" *Tis a truth we older people are slow to appreciate," 



128 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



Oi>K. 



replied Mn. Deane. She smiled encoaragingly upon the 
young teacher as she tamed away. She knew she could 
trust her. And Miss Soale went with renewed earnestness 
to her work becaose she felt Mrs. Deane's sympathy and 
approval. What power lies in an encoaraging word|! 
What joy in the conscionsness that we are not alone inoar 
work ! . 

Zachary is in his place very early this Friday after- 
noon, this " star day." The other children are as eager 
as he. Some of them have beguiled their mothers into 
arraying them in their best dresses, or newly starched 
aprons. There is an atmosphere of eicpectation every- 
where, which even the dullest observer might detect 
What b there in the young teacher that enables her to 
invest common things with this beautiful halo, and to 
transform a bit of paper into a coveted treasure ? Is it 
that ? Or is she arousing in the little people a conscious- 
ness of the power within them, through which they can 
march from ** better up to best'' ? Truly, the little gilt 
star is a sign of much that is worth the winning. 

The children march in their usual fashion, but for a 
longer time, because that is one of the promised pleasures. 
They sing all the songs they have learned this term. 
They love to sing. Miss Soule sings with them, as happy 
as they. Then they recite their memory gems, — some of 
them with the sing-song to which they have been accus- 
tomed at home, and which has not yet disappeared under 
Miss Soule's training. 

'^ Now we will talk about the story we like so well," 
the teacher says. *' Who would like to tell me the name 
of the story ? " 

Bob Smith can teU. <' It is ' The Village Blacksmith.' " 

" Who told us the story ? " 

The children all knew that it was Mr. Longfellow. 
Daisy is sent to the table to find his picture among the 
photographs there. The children watch to see if she finds 
the right one. Yes, riie has found it She shows it to 
them, and they nod approvingly. 

Johnny can find the picture of Mr. Longfellow*s house, 
he thinks ; and Mary begs to be allowed to show the 
picture of the chair which the chUdren gave to Mr. Long- 
fellow. In answer to Miss Soule's questions, Zachary 
tells what he knows of the poet He is so eager that he 
forgets to be abashed by the presence of the superintend- 
ent, who has just entered. 

"His name is Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The 
town where he lived was called Cambridge. He loved 
little ehildren, and wrote poems for them. Miss Soule, 
my mamma read me one about a little girl who went to 
sea with her father. He was a skipper, and that means a 
captain of a ship. And a big storm came that drowned 
them alL The next morning a fisherman found the little 
girl on the shore." 

Miss Soule is pleased by the boy's earnestness, — more 
pleased to know that he is being fed at home. She, too, 
must read to the children, for many of them will miss all 



such helps in their home training. But while she is tfaiak- 
ing, the school are reciting at her bidding tlie ^'stoiy" 
which is their delight 

Und«r A Bpraadinfc ehestnat tree 

The TilliiKe smithy itaiidi. 
The smith, » mighty man is he. 

With lerge end sinewy hands, 
And the mnseles of his brawny arms 

Are strong as iron bands. 

His hair is orisp and black and long, 

His f aoe is like the tan. 
His brow is wet with honest sweat, 

He earns whate'er he can, 
And looks the whole world in the laee, 

For he owes not any man. 

Week in, week ont, from mom till night, 

Yon oan hear his bellows blow, 
Yon oan hear him swing his heavy sledge 

With measared beat and slow. 
Like a sexton ringing (he Tillage bell 

When the efening snn is low. 

And ehildren coming home from school 

Look in at the open door. 
They love to see the flaming forge 

And hear the bellows roar, 
And catch the burning sparks that fly 

Like chaff from the threshing floor. 

The clear youog yoices continue, until the last line of 
the poem is reaited. The superintendent, meaniHiil^ 
questions Miss Seule. 

*^ A little hard for these babies, is it not ? " 

^' No, I think not," she replies. ^' They enjoy it, and 
understand much of it. The rest they will appreciate as 
they have experience, and then will have the adrantage 
of having the poem fixed in their memory." 

The little people help her to maintain her position. As 
she talks with them, their ready answers convince the list- 
ener that they have felt the spirit of the poem, besides 
learning the words. John teUs of a field he knows where 
a ^' spreading chestnut tree " is growing. Michael brings 
a chestnut burr, Mary some choituuts, and Kate a branch 
with withered leaves to show to Mr. WouldwelL And 
Zachary wants to volunteer information gained in a lesson 
upon the leaves and the burr, but is checked by Misi 
Soule because there is not time. Instead, he is allowed 
to describe a visit which the children made to a neighbor- 
ing ^< smithy." Michael DriscoU is at home there. He 
can tell about the flaming forge, the flying sparks* the 
heavy sledge, the noisy bellows. He has a brother who 
is a bhMsksmith. The children have ^* played blaoksmitJi " 
in their physical exercises, and they are ready now to 
<' swing the sledge " for Mr. Wouldwell. 

They know how the bhMsksmith looked. They can 
describe him. Yes, they would like to be like him. 
They would like strong arms, like his ; they can make 
their arms strong by working, as he did. They would 
like a kind heart like his ; the children loved him. And 
they would like to ^* look the whole world in the f aoe." 
'^ If you don*t do anything that*s mean, you can look any- 
body in the face," Mike DriscoU volunteers; '^and if 
you're bad, you want to hang your head down." 



1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



169 



taste. Whateyer yoa may know concerning the defects 
of other teachers, keep the knowledge sweetly and securely 
to yourself. Instead of hlaming the poorly prepared 
child or complaining of his teacher, fill in the missing 
links without loss of time, remembering that children for- 
get, and that similar work must probably be done on your 
aceount, sometime, by those aboTe yon. 

A recitation rises in memory, in which it was too clearly 
evident that all was not so thoroughly learned as it should 
be. The teacher, in a disagreeable, brow-beating manner, 
told a deficient pupil that the point in question should 
have been learned in a lower grade. This w^s undoubt- 
edly true; but that the girl was there without having 
learned it, seemed a thing for which she was not entirely 
to blame. What the crisis needed was the instant readi- 
ness of the teacher to present the point so clearly and 
concisely that it should be grasped with ease. 

Marked distaste and disability for certain branches 
often goes with great enthusiasm for others. This species 
of half-dullness suggests the wish that we might specialize 
in the lower grades more than we do. If a boy is wild 
over minerals and insects, and finds mathematics a grief 
without remedy, a humane teacher will naturally seek to 
encourage the special aptitude, making such sympathy a 
lever with which to accomplish results in the less congenial 
branch. He may perhaps be justified in yielding some- 
what to this marked individuality, being content with a 
respectable minimum oC mathematics, and not making 
life a burden to the young scientist because he does not 
conquer as much arithmetic as his classmate, who enjoys 
a hard problem next to his dinner. Teaching as a fine 
art, as distinguished from machine teaching, would recog- 
nize differences in the units composing the mass, and 
while admitting that the weak reasoning power of the un- 
mathematical student needs strengthening, would respect 
the natural bent, and give it room to develop. 

That thought about the units leads us to look at the 
child a little as his mother does, remembering that though 
in our weary moods we may think of him only as the 
perverse, hopeless occupant of the third seat in the sixth 
row, he is nevertheless a sacred human personality, into 
the tissue of whose life we are weaving daily threads, 
dark or bright We may call him a blockhead, and de- 
ride bis unhappy mistakes, if we are cowardly and cruel, 
or we may invoke patience^ and by a wise helpfulness so 
smooth the path, that he can walk it with little stumbling. 

If we run over the list of dull schoolboys that history 
records, we shall see that they have their place in the 
world after alL They sometimes come out an immeasur- 
able distance ahead of their masters. 

Our dull pupils may never astonish the world, but our 
fidelity will have its reward, notwithstanding. The 
schoolroom has no sweeter music than the grateful thanks 
of the dullard who has been led over the hard places, pro- 
moted instead of dropped, by the special help of an ear- 
nest teacher. And when, by and by, our work is scanned 



by a clearer light than the passing day throws upon it,, 
perhaps no other part will seem so worthy of the words 
*' well done " as these efforts for the dull pupils. 



^ ••» ^ 



CLASSIFICATION - RECITATION.* 

BY BOBBRT 0. MBTOALF. 
Supervisor Boston Schools, 

IN graded schools, so far as may be consistent with tho 
C demands made upon the teacher's time and strength, 
the pupils occupying one room and taught by one teacher 
should be divided into suitable groups for purposes of 
recitation and study. Pupils able U> push forward at a 
more rapid pace should be allowed to do so unhindered 
by classmates less able or less ambitious. Pupils of the 
former class need more time for individual work and less 
for recitation than those of the latter. 

Recitation, for some pupils, should be only a marking 
out of work to be performed, while for others the per- 
sonal attention of the teacher is needed to test, to ax- 
plain, and to stimulate. The claim so often made that 
the old country school, with its multiplicity of classes, 
turned out better scholars than our modem, graded, and 
more expensive schools in the city, has some foundation 
in fact Force of circumstances compelled the teacher 
of the ungraded school to throw his brighter pupils upon 
their own resources, and many of them hardly knew 
what a recitation was like. 

The teaching in those days was not always even good 
of its kind. Many of the teachers were untrained, 
unskilled, and of doubtful scholarship. But many 
of their pupils did learn what very many of ours 
do not, -— self-reliance, without which success is never 
possible in any occupation. 

Such exercises as music, dra^ng, writing, and the 
like may be taught in large groups ; but from necessity 
of grouping ariihmetie, geography, history, and gram- 
mar can be pursued more advantageously with pupils ar- 
ranged in smaller groups. 

Let the teacher study the needs of his pupils, and so- 
arrange their work as to require the least possible of 
what may be termed '^marking time,*' and the greatest 
amount of indiridual exertion. At the same time le^ 
the teacher dismiss from his mind all anxiety in regard 
to what partieular class or grade his pupils may be fitted- 
for when they leave his room. Let him follow the pre 
scribed course of study with each of his groups to the 
extent of the pupils' ability, and to the limit of the time 
which they spend under his instruction. 

It is elaimed that it is impossible for one group of 
children to prepare a lesson while another group is en- 
gaged in recitation. But this is a matter of luUntf and 
good habits are the result of good training. The habit 
of concentration is one of the most important for an <mo 
• From Beport of Bapervlsors of Boston, Mass. 



13t) 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



Dso. 



and say so more. Whatever reproofs yoa give, let them 
be in private. Do not make punishments too heavy, but 
make them sure. To give one thousand words to write, 
or an hour to make up is absurd. Fifty words for an 
offence are enough, and they should be done as well as 
a child can write. Never take poorly done work. Re- 
member that a successful hunter accommodates his ammu- 
nition to the game he hunts. Fit your punishment to 
offence on the same plan. If you give the heaviest pen- 
alty for whispering, how shall you distinguish disobedi- 
ence, unkindness to schoolmates, obscenity, and profanity ? 
Never let an instance, however trifling, of disobedience 
pass without some private reproof. It is the surest ciu^e 
of a bad school. Do not call that obedience which needs 
the teacher's presence to insure it Exact as full compli- 
ance to your orders when yon are away as when you are 
in the room. If you require it, you will have it. 

Be polite to your pupils though they be ever so small 
They will obey you with a willing heart if they feel that 
yoa respect their tiny personalities. You will receive 
respect in greater measure. The nearer the teacher gets 
to the children in seeing school matters, the easier will 
government come. In fact, the discipline will take the 
line of directing on the teacher's part, and the children 
will govern themselves. 

These six rules hold the secret of all good discipline : 

Govern yourself first. 

Say little, and mean every word. 

Be firm and gentle. 

Put yourself in your pupil's place. 

Be polite, and require politeness to you and to your 
pupils. 

Strive to be right If you have been wrong, be willing 
to admit it If you are ashamed to say that you were not 
right, how can you expect your pupils to be wiser ? They 
know if yoa are wrong, and will respect you the more for 
admitting yoar error, unless you do it often. Strive for 
perfection. You will never find it, but in the effort you 
will gain, and yon will have helped your little folk to be 
better men and women, which is the highest part of the 
teacher's work. Keep before yon and yours this motto 
from Canon Farrar : ** There is only one real f ailare in 
life possible, and that is, not to be trae to the best one 
knows." 



GEOGRAPHY TOPICS. 

FRANK B. WILLIAMS, MABQUBTTB SCHOOL, CHICAGO. 



1. Location. 

2. Direction from us. 

3. How reached. 

4. Surface and Climate. 
6. Soil and Products. 



7. Water, Bodies of. 

8. Education. 

9. Government. 

10. Religion. 

11. Cities. 



6. People and Occupations. 12. Facts. 




THE HOUSE WE LIVE IM, 

BY MARY L. SAWYER, BOXFOBD, MASS. 

Oranite, Mica, and Feldspar, 

OW many children know what granite is ? If yoa 
live in the city you have all your lives seen the 
granite curbstones. If you are country children, this gnj 
rock is probably common near yonr house, or perhape yoa 
have visited some quarry where the great blocks of stone 
are blasted out 

Here is a piece of rough granite. What is its oolor ? 
Gray, or white-gray, you will say at once. But some of 
you will look a little closer, and will see three colors in 
this rock, and some very bright-eyed child will find that 
the different colored parts differ in other ways, too, and 
that one is very hard, while another is quite soft. 

Granite, then, is made of three minerals. Let as find 
out their names. First, comes this hard, glassy substance 
that we already know as quartz. Its color in granite is 
usually a smoky tint, but we know it by its hardness 
whatever the color. 

Next try these little, soft, black specks. Put a pen- 
knive blade or a pin carefully into one. Off comes a 
little thin shaving from the black mineral. 

Try again. There comes another sheet, and you could 
tear away sheet after sheet, precisely as you tear sheets 
of paper from a writing block. 

This is mica. It is found in largre pieces, sometimes 
almost as transparent as glass, and it can always be 
divided into thin layers, 
like this (Fig. 1). It is so 
elastic that it may be bent 
nearly doable without break- 
ing. By these two tests 
yon may always tell mica, 
though in your piece of 
granite it may be light colored instead of black. How 
many have noticed the little spangles that glisten in the 
sand of the road so brightly when the snn shines ? These 
are bits of mica. Because it is so tough and elastic and 
can be split into transparent sheets as thin as paper, it has 
been used for window glass. The little doors in stoves, 
through which you watch the flames dance, are made of 
mica. 

Now look again at our piece of granite. What is this 
lightrcolored mineral, so abundant that at first sight you 
hardly noticed the quartz and mica ? Almost half the 
granite is made of it. We test it first for hardness. Yoa 
cannot scratch it with your knife, but if you had a piece 




Fia. 1. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



181 





Fia. 2. 



FlO. 3. 



of quartz yoa could scratch it a little wiih the qaartz. 
So WB say it is not as hard as qaartz, bat comes next to 
it^in the scale of ha^rdness. 

Next, hold the granite so that the light will strike npon 
it. Now yon will see 
the great difference 
between this crystal 
and quartz. See the 
bright reflection from 
these smooth, polished 
faces. This is feld- 
spar. 

You remember how 
the crystal of quartz 
looks (Fig. 2). A 
crystal of feldspar would look like this (Fig. 3> Where- 
ever yoa find feldspar you will notice this polished, shin- 
ing face, because feldspar always breaks in this way. 

We call this regular break- 
ing into smooth J faces, 
cleavage, and we say 
quartz has no cleavage, 
because it breaks unevenly, 
as you see in the granite. 
Feldspar breaks easily in 
two directions, and you 
will often find its large, 
thick]] prisms (Fig. 4). 
Fig. 4. Some oi these feldspar 

faces look a little scaly, as if they might be separated like 
nuca. Try the knife-blade upon them and you find this 
impossible. 

Feldspar is not quite as heavy as quartz. It is very 
abundant, its common colors being 
flesh-red or whitish. There is a very 
clear, pore-white kind, and a beauti- 
ful green is found on Cape Ann. 
The moonstone is a variety of feld- 
spar. Porphyry rocks owe their 
beaaty to crysuls of feldspar scat- 
tered through them (Fig. 5). When 
you climb over the great felsite 
rocks by the ocean you can test their 
hardness, for they are almost pure 
feldspar. 

And, lastly, clay beds are made Fio. 5. 

chiefly of decomposed feldspar, so when you walk over 
brick sidewalks you are walking on a feldspar road, for 
bricks are made of baked clay. How many other things 
can you think of that are made of clay ? 







The point is not to reach a certain place in the text- 
book at a specified time, but to train the pupil to do well 
^ intelligently certain essential things. 



FIRST STEPS IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.* 

BY HABBIBT A. LUDDINaTON,t 

Principal of TralnlDg Sehool, Fawtucket, B. I. ; author of ** Picture 
Proble~ 



IV. — Nature Lessons : Animals, Plants, Natural 
PJienom^na. 

I^EXT to stories, in point of interest to the child, we 
l^^, niay place observation lessons upon animals and 
plants Side by side with these should 'be ranked talks 
on observations of natural phenomena and elementary 
lessons in physics. 

Even the most silent child will awake to interest and 
talkativeness over the cunning squirrel or other pet, 
which should be one of the treasures of the primary 
schoolroom. Great enthusiasm, too, may be aroused by 
watching the awakening of life in the little seeds planted 
by the child himself, or by observing the unfolding of 
buds or the growth of twigs, either in the schoolroom oi^ 
out of doors. Little talks, on << the way the moon looked 
last night," or " how those dear little rale-drops came to 
be overhead and why they fell," or '* in what direction 
Johnnie*8 shadow pointed when he went home at noon 
and when he came back ; on which side of him he saw 
it, each time," etc, lead to immediate interest in nature 
observations. A little physics lesson, in which experi- 
ments with the candle give information concerniog some 
effects of heat, will delight even the youngest beginner. 
In these earliest lessons the main object is to discover 
what power of observatioa the children already have. 
The first point to be attained is to lead the pupils to tell 
just what they see in the object placed before them ; the 
next to get them to tell what thay know from previous 
observation. 

Sometimes, a nivel way of suggesting the point to be 
talked aboat, incites the children to show more knowl- 
edge than one would suppDse they possessed. Sappdse, 
for instance, that the teacher says, '^ I think our little 
plant must be hungry. Let us feed it with some of our 
squirrel's nuts." 

Immediately every child will be earnestly and anx- 
iously assuring her that plants cannot eat nuts as squirrels 
do, and will, very likely, pompously inform her what 
plants do need. In the animated conversation which is 
sure to follow, the teacher may leave with the pupils the 
question, whether or not nuts could in any way be made 
to nounsh plants. In a day or two some child will be 
sure to think of the decaying nuts under the trees in the 
woods, — of the character of the soil where decayed nuts 
and leayes are found, and of the effect of such scil on the 
growth of plants. From this starting point numberless 
beautiful lessons will naturally grow. Similar talks con- 
cerning animals may easily be developed. The teacher 
whose eyes have been opened to the wonderful possibili- 

(•Copyright 18S9.) 

t Formerly Training Teacher at State Normal School, New Britain, 
Gt., and at Cook Co. (111.) Normal School. 



172 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Jak. 



deficiency in herself. Her manner was far from winning. 
She was conscientious, bat lacked judgment. She was so 
sure that she was right, and so zealous in attaining her 
ends by her own method, that there was danger of serious 
mistakes wherever she erred. Naturally, her ways and 
means differed widely from Miss Soule's. The bewil- 
dered children became more and more puzzled as the day 
went on. They were told to study their lessons and be 
quiet ; but they had no lessons to study, nor would they 
have known how to study had lessens been assigned. 
Accustomed to varied work, they could not relapse at 
once into quiet idleness. Suppressed giggles came from 
an unobserved corner. Sammy Smith had drawn a funny 
picture on his slate, having nothing else to do. Miss 
Straight was tired, with the haphazard, uneven, unfruit- 
ful work of the morning. She meant, too, to *^ begin as 
she could hold out," and '^ have the children mind from 
the beginning." She approached the unconscious group 
in the corner. Little Zachary was leaning across the 
aisle, intent on the picture which wa9 in progress on 
Sammy's slate. He was all unaware of Miss Straight's 
approach, all innocent of any willful transgression. He 
was roused from his unconsciousness, however, by a blow 
upon the ear. As he turned his face to see whence the 
blow cirne, he received another upon his cheek. 

He did not know the reason for the assault He did 
not stop to think. He felt like a young tiger as he sprang 
to his feet with crimson cheeks and flaming eyes, crying : 
** You bad, bad woman ! You wicked teacher ! You had 
no right to strike me ! You — ! " 

But his voice was stopped by the teacher's hand. She 
could not endure such impudence. She had never seen 
a naughtier child. Zachary struggled to free himself, re- 
senting in every nerve and fiber the indignity to which 
he felt himself subjected, and the name he felt he had 
not earned. The contest between the excited child and 
the determined teacher became more and more serious. 
Feet and hands and voice struggled for independence ; 
but Miss Straight had vigorous muscle and undaunted 
will, supported by a clear conscience. As Zachary weak- 
ened, she slapped him vigorously, in token of assured and 
victorious authority. Unable to fight any longer, Zachary 
sank into his seat, and hid his face as he sobbed silently. 
He tried to check the sobs, but his little frame shook with 
resentment Miss Straight thought him conquered, — ^he 
was simply silenced. She had brought into recognized 
manifestajdon the spirit that had slumbered through all 
his former school life. The child quivered in the power 
of a fierce temper, which her error had grievously 
strengthened. 

With the dullness of comprehension that had character- 
ized her morning's work, Miss Straight appended her 
Maee fabula docet. " Zachary was a very naughty boy," 
she asserted, with solemn emphasis. <^ You see that he 
had to be punished. I shall punish every naughty boy 
that I see." The children, who had watched the proceed- 



ing, startled into silence by so strange an evenl, now 
glanced furtively about the room to discover who was 
likely to be seized next. Miss Stnught had spoken ma if 
she knew several naughty children* This, too, was for- 
eign to the atmosphere of that schoolroom. Hf iss Soola 
had looked for good boys, and had found them. 

The tardy noon found Zachary with his face still hid des. 
He slid into his place in the line, and walked qoietlj oat 
with bowed head. Not until the child had left the room 
did Miss Straight discover that he held his book &nd slate 
under his arm. She called to him to come back, bnt he 
fled like a deer, never once looking back till he reached 
the door of his home. He burst into tiie room "vrhere his 
mother sat reading, and flung his precious slate and book 
upon the floor. "It wasn't true, what she said; and 
she isn*t good ; and I neyer, never, never will go ag^ain ! "* 

Poor little Zachary and poor Miss Straight I Both 
with lessons hard to be learned set before them ; both in 
need of wise help. Well for the little lad that he ooold 
sob out his grief in his mother's arms, and tell his trooble 
to one who could understand. 



THE ACORN. 

fHE oak produces comparatively few seeds ; where it 
produces a hundred seeds, the ash and maple will 
yield a thousand, the elm ten thousand, and many others 
a hundred thousand. The acorn has no provision made 
by nature, like other seeds. Many hinds have wings to 
float them on the water and carry them in the air, tho 
wings placed in such a manner as to be carried by a 
rotary motion, reaching a wonderful distance, even in a 
very light wind. 

Nearly every tree-seed, except the acorn, has a ease to 
protect it while growing, either opening and easting the 
seeds off to a distance when ripe, or falling with them to 
protect them till they begin to germinate. Even the 
equaUy large seeds of other kinds are protected in some 
way. 

The hickory nut has a hard shell, which shell itself is 
protected by a hard covering until ripe. The black wal- 
nut has both a hard shell and a fleshy covering. The 
acorn is the only seed which is left by nature to take care 
of itself. It matures without protection, falls heavily and 
helplessly to the ground, to be eaten and trodden on by 
animals, yet the few which escape and those which aie 
trodden under are well able to compete in the race for life. 

While the elm and maple seeds are drying npon the 
surface, the hickories and walnuts waiting to be cracked, 
the acorn is at work with its coat off. It drives its tap- 
root into the earth in spite of grass, and brush and litter. 
No matter if it is shaded by the forest trees so that the 
sun cannot penetrate, it will manage to make a short 
stem and a few leaves the first season, enough to keep 
life in the root, which will continue to drill in deeper and 
deeper. ^ 



1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



178 




THE HOUSE WE LIVE IN. 

BX MASY L. SAWTBB, BOXFOBD, 1CA8S. 

CryitcU Formatums. 
^ANITART is a bad month for mineral study yon 
Ql think. The groond is covered with enow and all 
rooks are hidden. Sappose we experiment a little and 
see what we oan find oat about erystallization. Winter 
18 our best time. 

Look out of the 'window this frosty morning. Oh ! 
you can't look through ! The pane is eovered with deli- 
cate tracery that Jack Frost has drawn. These lovely, 
feathery lines^are made^of tiny crystals, placed one after 
another all over the glass. Open the window or go out 
of doors and * catch some of the snowflakes as they come 






Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 8. 

sailing ^down. See, they are perfect little six-pointed 
stars, — Figs. 1, 2, 3. People sit up all night to watch 
for " star showers," but here is a shower of most ex- 
quisite stars that Tery'.few take the trouble to study at all. 
Water is a mineral just u much as quartz is, and 
these snowflakes are the water crystals. Another and 
a most delightful way to study water crystals is to visit 
some little brook or pond, break the mass of crystals we 
call ice and look at the treasures underneath. Ask your 
teacher to read very carefully Lowell's poem, *<Sir 
Launfal," and then to show you how 

*' Bftry iinagv that mimred^lsy, 
In depths ■traoe throogh the ■nmmer day, 
Has been mimioked in fairy masonry 
By the elfin bnilders of .the frost" 

As you break off the curious shapes, or look down the 
bank under the ice cover, try to find the " silvery mosses,'^ 
the '^ice fern leaf," the "frost leaved forest-crypt," and 
all the other " summer delights *' the brook has hidden 
safely away. 

There are crystals every where,^you see. Water cannot 
become solid without, crystallizing any more than iron or 
gold can. We will see if this is true of other substances. 
Take a tumbler half full of hot water, and dissolve in it 
as much salt as the water will absorb. Try the same 
thing with alum, and again with sugar, and study the 
forms it finally crystallizes into. 



Look at a broken piece of cast iron, of marble, and ol 
granite. They are all made of cr3rstal grains. The 
iron was melted in the furnace, and crystallized as it 
cooled or hardened. The granite crystallized in much 
the same way, but it was heated in the great earth fur- 
nace before man came into the world. 

We have here three ways in which crystals are 
formed. The iron had been melted in fire, — ^that is, it 
was in a state of JhiHan ; the snowflakes were formed 
from vapoTf and the salt crystallized from a solution. 
None of these are single crystals but a collection of 
many. 

But every single perfect crystal has its own form, which 
distinguishes it from every other just as distinctly as this 

oak leaf (Fig. 4) is 
distinguished from 
the maple leaf (Fig. 
5). This does not 
mean that a mineral 
always crystallizes 
into the same shape. 
You can hardly find 
two maple leaves 
^«-*- ^•*- exacUy alike, but 

you will net mistake any of them for an oak leaf. 
Here are two crystals of iron pyrites (Figs. 6 and 7). 
They would represent crystals of salt equally well, or 
crystals of lead ore, for all .these are in the same system ; 
that is, their crystals take the same forms. These 
two figures look very unlike, but let us experiment 
again. Take a piece of raw potato, or any other sub- 
stance that will cut easily, and make a cube like Fig. 6. 
From the top to the bottom, or from any face to the op- 
posite one, the distance b the same. Pierce the cube in 
these three directions with strong needles of equal length, 




^^\' 


^^ 


_ 1 






V 






-'"' 




y^ 




Fig. 6. Fig, 7. Fig. 8. 

and measure for yourself. Now, very carefully, jout 
equal, even slices from the eight angles of your cube. It 
will then look like this (Fig. 8). Cut larger slices from 
the same places, and you will have Fig. 9. One more 
slicing will give you Fig. 7, and though its shape seems 
so unlike the cube, its three measurements are exactly the 
same, as you can tell by the needles which now connect 
the six points or angles of your new figure. You have 
changed the shape ; you have not chaoged the crystal 
from one system to another any more than you would 
change the maple leaf to an oak leaf by drawing another 
maple leaf very unlike the first one. 

But if you cut off a side of your cube so that it looks 
like Fig. 10, a crystal of tin ore, or like Fig. 11, a kind 
of copper, you have changed your system, because you 



134 



THE AMERICAN TEACHF,R. 



[Dbc 



She enters the room properly, hids the children '' Gk>od 
morning/' and takes a seat 

She rises, takes a book from the table, and passes it to 
a pupil in the right manner. 

Children are imitators, and many acts of politeness and 
courtesy may thus be taught incidentally. If the pupils 
do these and other successive acts which are described 
by some member of the class, they are learning grace of 
movement while learning correct forms of language. 
Besides seeing and describing the actions of members of 
the class, the pupils should watch and describe the move- 
ments of animals ; practice in this leads children to be- 
come interested in observing the habits of different 
animals. 

Example : Yesterday my little kitten was crying and 
followiog me about the house. I gave it some piilk, 
which it lapped, and then lay down on the rug and went 
to sleep. 

These *< action lessons " make it necessary to use many 
different verbs and different forms of verbs, thus giving 
the teacher opportunities for the correction of common 
errors. 

Giving attention to actions for the purpose of descrip- 
tion differs from the attention given to objects. With 
the latter there was time for investigation whenever the 
ideas were not sufficient to give a clear thought, but ac- 
tions must be noted instantly, and if the mind does not 
recognize them quickly and accurately, it is indicated in 
the vague expression or the incomplete sentence. 



WORDS NEVER KNOWN TOO WELL. 

BY OU8SIB BBIN8TBIN, SAN FBANCISOO. 



rood 


rude 


feign fain 


fane 


throw 


throe 


plum 


plumb 


jam 


jamb 


draft 


draught 


knit 


nit 


hew 


hue 


fir 


fur 


whirl 


whorl 


bow 


beau 


break 


brake 


frays 


phrase 


wear 


ware 


tear 


tare 


slay 


sleigh 


quarts 


quarts 


weighed 


wade 


waist 


waste 


damn 


dam 


skull 


scull 


sleight 


slight 


stayed 


staid 


aisle isle 


ru 


brooch 


broach 


caste 


cast 



t 



»11 pole 

'ort forte 

quay key 

meat meet mete 

wrest rest 



rye 

choose 

birth 

dough 

flew 

groan 

wholly 

links 

yolk 

right rite 

wretch 

rowed 

route 



wry 
chews 
berth 
doe 
flue 
grown 
holy 
lynx 
yoke 
write Wright 
retch 



road 



rode 
root 



cannon 



canon 



moan 
pique 
rice 


mown 
peak 

rise 


corps 
cruise 
hoard 


core 

crews 

horde 


muse 

cite site 
fate 


mews 
sight 
fete 



f7^ 



HinGSjEil 







THE CHILDREN AND THE POETS. 

AHBANaBD BT KA.TB L. BBOWH. 

CEH4 THAXrER* 




k 



The Sandpiper. 

CROSS the lonely beaeh we flit, 

One little seod piper and I ; 
And lut I ftatber, bit by bit, 

The foattered drift wood, Ueaehed end dry. 
Tbe wild watcs reach their haods for it, 

The wild wind ra?ef, the tides nu high, 
Ae op and down the beach we flit, 

One little sandpiper and I. 

Above onr heads the sollen elonds 

Send, black and swift across the sky ; 
Like silent ghosts in misty shrondsi 

Stand ont the white lighthoness high. 
Almost as far as eye can reach 

I see the close-reefed Tcssels fly, 
As fast we flit along the b^aeh. 

One little sandpiper and I. 

I watch him as he skims along. 

Uttering his sweet and monmfnl cry ; 
He starts not at my fitfnl song. 

Nor flash of flattering drapery. 
He has no thonght of any wrong ; 

He scans me with a fearless eye : 
Stanch friends are we, well-tried and strong, 

The little sandpiper and L 

• Arraogements have been made with Messrs. Houghton, 
Company lor the use of this poem and portrait 



Mtffllii,A 



1890] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



136 



Gomrad*, where wilt thoa be to-night 

When the looted etonn bieeke foxionsly ? 
My drift-wood fire will baxn to bright! 

To what warm ahelter caoit then flee ? 
I do not fear for thee, thoogh wroth 

The tempeet mshee through the sky ; 
For are we not God's children both, 

Thoa little sandpiper and I ? 

.^br the children. 

I know that yon will be glad to learn Celia Thaxter*8 
<' Siuiclpiper." When I was a little girl I found this sweet 
poem in my favorite Young FclkSj now your SU Nieholas. 
I remember feeling very sad over the lonely little bird, 
who had no warm drift-wood fire, in the cold storm. And 
I can never read it, even now, without jast the same feel- 
ing the child had. There are many pictures in this poem. 
See if you can describe each to your teacher. 

Celia Thaxter was born in Foit^mouth, N. H , June 29, 
1835. Her father, when she was quite a little girl, 
accepted the position as keeper to the lighthouse on Star 
Island, one of the Isles of Shoals, just off the New Hamp- 
shire coast There the little Leightons (for that was their 
name) lived a free, out door, happy life. The Isles of 
Shoals are wonderful islands. People who love them, 
think that nowhere are the sunsets more gorgeous, the 
flowers deeper tinted or more profuse. 

Little Celia was as hardy and active as a boy, but there 
was one quiet employment thit she loved, — ^she was never 
weary of writing poetry. Ever since those early days, 
her pen has been busy, and the children owe many of 
their favorite poems to her. When quite young she 
married Mr. Thaxter, but much of her life has been spent 
on her loved islands. You remember '^ Little Oustava,'' 
** Piecola," too, the story of the sweet little French girl 
who put oat her shoe on Christmas £ve« and found a shiv- 
ering little bird in it the next morning ? That is from 
Celia Thaxter. '<A Triumph " and '' Rescued *' are also 
hers. Look them up, if you do not know them already. 

A few years ago a portrait of Mrs. Thaxter was exhib- 
ited at the Boston Art Club. It represents her as tall, 
large, and stately, with a fine, strong face crowned with 
abundant, gray, rippling hair. She is the mother of two 
■ons, and must be tender to the children, as we remember 
one verse in the '* Slumber Song " : 

** Dear little faoe, that lies in oahn oontent 
Within the graoions hollow that God made 
In every hunan ahoolder, where he meant 
Some tired head for oomfort should be Uid I " 

For the teacher. 

This poem may be made very living to the children> if 
presented to them with loving sympathy. It presents a 
aeries of exquisite little word-pictures that children from 
eight to ten and older may readily appreciate. The hu- 
manitarian feeling in it is strong, likening the bird to a 
brother and comrade, since, — 

** are w« not God's children both, 

Thou little sandpiper and I ? 



The fearlessness and trust of the wee bird are well shown. 
Impress upon the children that wild birds who know not 
what ill-treatment means, are nearly always friendly and 
trustful. Tell them about drift-wood, its beautiful colors 
when burning, and why. Why do the " wild winds reach 
their hands for it " ? Describe the coming in of the tides. 
What do you mean by '' flit " ? by " sullen clouds " ? Why 
are they ^^ sullen " ? Describe the lighthouses. What do 
you mean by " close-reefed " vessels ? What does " stanch " 
mean? What kind of friends are "stanch friends*'? 
^'fitful"? Why are the sandpiper and Mrs* Thaxter 
'' comrades " ? Describe the *' loosed storm." Why does 
not the writer fear for the little sandpiper? Ask the 
children to tell the story in prose. 



'• BUGS AND THINGS ; " 

OB, 

Fred and Ethel at the Brookside.* 

I.— WATER TIGERS. 

T¥^ THEL gave a jump, also. She opened her eyes and 
■®f found herself sitting on the stone by the brook, and 
the skaters were rushing as madly as ever. 

" Poor Uttle hdybog," she sighed, " I 

* can't help being sorry for her, though 
she was saucy. Oh, here comes Fred ! " 
and away she ran to meet her cousin. 
Fred laughed at the funny dream- 
'< They do eat ladybugs," he said ; '' the 
little things have a hard time of it 
Now come across the brook on this log. 
There's a famous place for tigers just 
above. You'll like them as well as the skaters." 

In a few minutes Fred brought up his dredger full of 
queer things. "Hold the pail quickly I" he cried; "I 
have three or four, sore. Now look at them ; they are 
perfect wretches." 

'' Why, they look like beeUes ! " cried EtheL 
^* Yes," said Fred, " they have the same thick body. I 
suspect they are called tigers because they are so blood- 
thirsty. Uncle and I had some in a glass jar last season. 
We fed them with worms. Three or four of them would 
get hold of the same worm, and tug and pull until it was 
all in bits, and they would fight for a bit half an inch long. 
The larvsB or baby tigers have three claws on each side, 
and a pair of jaws like scissors. They just make it lively 
for the baby polliwogs. They snip off their tails and 
suck the juice out of them in less than no time. We can't 
keep several tigers in one bottle long. They fight and 
fight, until only the strongest is left Ton s«e, Ethel, the 
larvsB are like worms at first, wonns without wings. 
After a time they bury themselves in the mud, stay th^re 
a little while, and come out real tigers, with wings that 
they fold up as beetles do. I have watched them float on 

* The writer Is greativ Indebted to Up atid Tknim th4 Brooka, pub- 
lished by Houghtou, Mifflin * Go. 



136 



THE AMERICAN TEACHEK 



[Dm. 




the surface of the water, and they have a way of folding 
their hind legs np over their backs. They will stand on 
their heads at the bottom of the jar, and there will be a 
shiny round bubble of air at the other end." 

" I think water-tigers are intereeting," said Ethel, peep- 
ing into the pail. 

IT.— WATER SCORPIONS. 
<' Ugh ! " said Ethel, bending over Fred*s bottle with 
interest ; <^ of all the frightful creatures youVe shown me, 
this is the worst What do you call 
him?" 

^^That is my water-scorpion," said 
Fred, reproachfully ; *' one of the most 
loTely and interesting of the inhabitants 
of our brook. Hal Stanley and I cap- 
tured him while you and Miss Daisy 
were dressing your dolls." 

^*We were arranging our pressed 
flowers," replied Ethel, with dignity. 
« I cannot say that your water-scorpion is beautiful, but 
he certainly is interesting." 

" O ! Ethel," said Fred, gravely, " how can you look 
upon him and call him hideous ? See that peanut-shaped 
body, with its four three-jointed legs. Look upon that 
needle-like tail ! Behold those nippers, like unto a crab's ! 
Ton should have seen how the old villain clung to the 
dredger when we hauled him up. 
We had some scorpions last year 
that would have amused you. 
The female bears her eggs on her 
back, and the egg mass is often 
as big as she. Uncle counted one 
hundred and twenty-six on one scorpion's back alone. 
Some of the scorpions had a cluster on the shoulders. The 
babies when first out of the egg were like little squash- 
bugs. They used to keep near the surface of the water, 
standing on their heads. The old ones like to get hold of 
a chip and float around on it like a raft." 

'* What a fierce-looking creature this is ! " and Ethel 
stirred him up with the end of a pencil. 

*< He looks awful for his size," laughed Fred. *^ But I 
rather think those threatening actions come from fright 
more than anything else. Come away now, Ethel, and 
help me arrange the orchids Hal and I found." 




Subjects for Compositiom. 

[We would gUdly credit the followiiiffp ^t we find it in ma ez- 
ohaiiffeoreditod"Ex."] 

How to Take Care of a Canary ; How to Set the 
Wickets for Croquet ; How to Shoe a Horse ; How to 
Set a Table ; Hiiw to Make a Bed ; Name the Players 
in a Base-ball Game; What are the Requisites for a 
Grood Cateher ? a Gbod Pitcher ? Name the Good Points 
of a Horse ; Tell How to Harness a Horse ; Tell How 
to Make a Kite ; How do you Fly a.Eate ? Tell How to 
Build a Fire. 




ANGLES, SURFACES, AND SOLIDS. 

^^^E here present the various angles, surfaces,. and 
\^ solids with which school children should be made 
familiar early in their course. These should not be 
taught in a series of consecutive lessons, but the teacher 
should know which they know and how well they are 
known. Definitions are of the least account They most 
know them at sight, and must be able to tell what each is 
by name and by its distinguishing characteristics. 

Form study is now so prominent a feature of aehool 
work that the methods will be very generally understood 
The class should handle the bits of thin pieces of board 
(4 to 20) and the solids [21 to 44] from the first year of 
school life. They can be purchased for a ridiculooaly 
enaall sum. The solids are accurately and neatly made 
from well seasoned hard wood, and the sui*faces from very 
hard light colored board, cut with steel dies. They can 
be ordered of J. L. Hammett & Ca, or Prang Educa- 
tional Company, Boston ; or Milton Bradley, Springfield, 
for $2.00, postage, 40 cents extra. 

1. A Riffht AiikI*, 
formed by a bent wirt^ 
repreB»DtiD(c k line. 

2. Obtaee anfirle. 
3 Aente Angle. 



The first thing taught is the sphere. He knows this 
from the marble, the ball, the orange, etc. The idea is 
that it will roll in all directions. The cylinder is to be 
taught next, it will roll in one direction but not in the 
other. The end is a circle. The cube is next in order 
and with it comes the square, straight lines, comers, angles, 
right angle. Thus the work develops. 





8 



to 




II 12 13 l¥ IS 16 




1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



177 



FreA, — And there ifl no more governinent land 00 far 
eaaty so 70a conldn*t take a timber claim if there were 
forests. Bat yon can find large forests by going north 
into Minnesota or Michigan'. 

^' I travel west and reach the Pacific coast What can 
I mTCSt in?** 

May* — ^Timber in the north. 

Lena. — ^Yoa can raise sheep, or potatoes, or' apples, 
and many other things in the north besides timber. Yon 
ean have a farm. 

WUl. — ^Yoo*d better invest in California, and go into 
fmit I*m going to have a prone orchard when I invest 



DEVICES IN GEOGRAPHY. 

GLSAKED BY E. A. FANNIKO. 

J Device for Teaching the Comparative Size of Cities j 
. by Miss Stella Hall, Somerville, Mass. 
Indicate by circles of vari-colored crayon. These are 
preferable to straight lines, which may show proportion, 
bot do not sf em to indaHe territory as circles do. As 

Providence (oteea) 

100^000 

N Orleans (rci) 

200,000 
Boston (yelfow) 

ChICAQO (blue) 
700,000 

' New York (white) 
uzoo;ooo 




^--•.-LonQ 



.PaRI$ (trown) 

ON (violet) 
000, 000 



will be noticed, the population is doable, or nearly so, in 
each case. 

II. Device Jor Showing Beligious Bodies on the Olobe. 
Color each division. 

III. Device for Showing 
Comparative Size of Coun- 
tries^ etc. 

1. Draw Maine, New 
Hampshire, and Vermont 
Bzplain that they are the 
size of England. 

2. Draw Massachusetts. 
In size it eqnals Belgium. 

3. Draw New England. 
Explain that the population of London and its suburbs 
equals that of all New England. 

4. Make old maps useful by pasting cheese cloth or 
cardboard upon the backs. Trace Texas, Australia, 
Massachusetts, New Jersey, California, France, and other 
statee and countries upon colored paper, cut out, and 
keep to place upon different portions of maps, to compare 




size, etc. Nothing fixes important facts so inefFaeeaUy 
as does comparison. 

lY. Tofut Equinoxes, Solstices, etc. ^ 




1. Vernal and autumnal equinoxes, March and Sep- 
tember. When the sun is vertical at the equator, cover- 
ing one half of the earth, the days and nights are equaL 
(Represent vernal equinox by triangle of green ; autum- 
nal by brown.) 

2. Suknmer solstice, June. The sun at the Tropic of 
Cancer, 23K° north. (Represent by triangle of red.) 

3. The sun at Tropic of Capricorn, 23^'' south. 
(Triangle of blue.) 

Use to illustrate seasons, length of day and night, etc. 



DEVICES IN LANGUAGE. 

BT MABY 0. TEBAUIAT. 

1. Give frequent instruction im short sentences on black- 
board, and have all pupils copy the same. 

2. Write words on blackboard, and let pupils write sen 
tences, bringing them in, thus showing their use. 

3. Have dictation sentences written on slates, — the 
teacher examining each slate carefully. 

4. Have constant drills in the four classes of sentences, 
and the closing mark of each. 

5. Write sentences on blackboard, leaving blanks for 
the^verbs is, was, are, and were. Have the blanks filled 
by pupils on their slates, and try to explain clearly why 
each is used. Make pupils say whether the nouns used 
with them mean one or more than one, and endeavor to 
impress upon them the necessity of reading silently every 
sentence that they write. 

Use is, was, are, or were in the following blanks : 

The dog barking. • 

The dogs barking. 

the child sick ? 

The children sick. 

6. Teach the verbs most frequently used, but dwelling 
longest on the verbs sit and sai. Mi^e the pupils under- 
stand that sit means to rest or recline, and set to put or 
place. Give many examples of their use. 

Your dress sits welL 

Set the lamp on the mantel. 

The inkstand sits on the desk. 

Set the table. *' 



138 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



fDac. 




WMM Llli':.'l!UllMli]|JiiIlflii^^ 



rALKS 



^— W t T H 






ALLAX DAM wtn h>T» eluttge of thto D»p>rtmirt. bat ttw qi mt lo n i wtP 
be Miawered by a Tulatj of tOMshon of tatIoiu grMM. We nsTe been In 
the hftUt of eaewerlng mieb qneetlont by iienoiua letten, or leBAag them 
to teeehen to anewer, bat hereefter they wUl be entwered thzongh the 
AMMaaoAM Tbaohsb. 

JVhy do you look in ths west Jor fair weaiher ? 

Inbxpbribnoe, MU Vernon^ Me. 

Simply because in New England, and the East gener- 
ally, the weather, good or bad, moves eastward. Note 
the weather prophecies in the papers ; they record the 
storms or fair weather from Manitoba to the coast On 
the Pacific Coast they do not look in the West for fair 
weather.. Each great section of the coontry looks for 
fair weather in the direction from which the storms come. 

/« it better to have recitation-room eepanUefrom study- 
room ? Why ? Would it be well to hoAie our sohool- 
houses buHt with reeilation-room separate from main 
room? G. W. C. 

It is usually impracticable to have recitation-rooms, but 
where there are assistant teachers it is a necessity. It is 
hardly a question of what is best. We must fall into 
line with the necessities of the case based upon the con- 
ditions. 



In asking the question^ " What do you consider proper 
books for pupils from twelve to sixteen years old to read ? 
Name five^** twenty j>er cent of the answers included 
the Bible, What do you say in regard to the Bible ? 

Park Eivery No. Dak. 

Of course this answer was not expected. The Bible 
is a library in itself. The specific books should have 
been mentioned. There is very little of the Bible that 
can be profitably '< read " by children of the age you 
mention. The reading of a chapter a day, or a few 
verses, can in no proper sense be called reading the 
Bible. It is using it for worship. There are many chap- 
ters that can be used with profit by children. 



the work. No week should pass in which papila do net 
memorize and repeat before the school some ehoioe bit of 
literature. With little children these are *< gems''; 
later, they are <^ selections '' ; with older papila* thmy are 
^< pieces." No day should pass in which 'tiiBj do not 
write in their own way something for its lan^raage effect 
These, with the older pupils, become '' compositioiis." 
It will be difficult, at first, to do satisfactory work in 
such a school as you describe. 

How often should a teacher be reexamined ^ 

A. K., Ohto. 

The law of a state usually pi^vides for this. Wlieo 
one has a life .certificate, he is never re-examined. Some 
states provide for one, two, and three year certificfttos. 
The certificate given always tells when another examinsr 
tion must take place. 

Will you please t^U me how to teach penmanship in 
an ungraded school, both to primary pupils amid to ad- 
vanced. They have copy books. And do tell fi%e what 
work I should give from the board, and how much of the 
theory I should teach. C. H., Elk County j I^a^ 

It is very difficult to tell you how to do this, — ^ia prac- 
tically impossible. The latest method of securing ^ooJ 
writing is to learn to write by writing. From the first 
week in school the little children write sentences. Cop/ 
books are rarely used in the lower grades, and when used 
are for the movements, freedom in the use of the hand. 
The blackboard work should be simply for direction as 
to the use of the hand and arm, for muscular control^ for 
graceful use of the forearm, wrist, and fingers, rather 
than for the dimensions and slant of the letters. We 
will pablish an article or two on penmanship in an early 
issue of the Tbaohbb. 



& it best to oblige schcla/rs in the small village schools 
to speak pieces and write compositions when it has not 
been dome for ye^vrs, and all are opposed to it? 

V. B. S., Maine. 

I dislike the word << oblige " and do not enjoy the terms 
'^speik pieces'* and << write compositions." But that 
for wbMi these stand ought all the more to be done, be- 
cause they have not been done for years and because all 
are opposed to them. There is much more need for such 
work in a small village school than in the city. Ton 
must be discreet and work up the more infonsal phasee of 



How can I get clay for form work? 

An Axatbub 

Any kind, of day will do. Sift it to get the stones and 
hardened parts out ; sift or wash it through a seive three 
or four times so that it is perfectiy free and dean, then it 
will work almost like putty. It is not the kind of clay, 
but the care with which you prepare it that is important 
Moisten just right when you come to use it. 

In reading numbers, as 5,063,295, do you say fios 
million or five millions ? Why ? Karclyn, CU 

Say five million, just as you say sixty-three thoueoM, 
two hundred and ninety-five. There is no more reason 
for pluralizing million than thousand or hundred. The 
pluralizing is with the noun numbered* Ton would wy 
five million men, not five millions man. 



Is it judicious to absolutely prohibit whispering 1 

A. P. 6., Iowa. 
Never make a mlelyou cannot Jenloree. 



189a] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



139 




CThe teacher wiU Itod It pleasant, as a Tarlety, to sttently read the 
stortea, or seleetioiis, then repeat In her own language before t^e class, 
wbleh In torn reprodoees, orally or tn wrttlng.] 



REPRODUCTION EXERCISES. 



BT K. L. B. 

Bsssib's Lbssoh. 

CFIntgnde.-Ona.] 

Bessie slipped down from papa's knee and ran away to the nor- 
eery. Pretty soon she eame baek, her arms fnU of playthings. 

** Now papa and mamma and Annt Roth, too« won't yon be my 
•ebolars, and do jnst as I say ? " 

*' Yes. indeed," replied both mamma and Annt Rnth ; bnt papa 
looked nangbty and said, "I want to do jnst as I Uke." 

''Ot plsase be good and be my seholar," begged Bessie. 

** Well, m try, but it oorass hard to some people to do right," 
wan pnpa's reply. 

Beaab pot hsr toys on tks table. " All the ohildren may gotake 
a toy," she said, soberly. 

Mnmma and Annt Both looked as if they wanted the toys, but 
didn't quite dare take them. Papa, howerer, ran to the table and 
gaUiered up the best toys in his arms. Bessie looked grlered, and 
wid, "I think it would be nieer f or the Uttle boys to let the litde 
girle ehoose first." 

** Oh!" said papa, dropping the toys and baeUng away from 
the table, looking very red and ashamed. 

The Uttle girls selected their toys, then the boy his, and Bessie 
began : " What haTO you Knth ? Hold up your toy very high and 
tell me." 

** I hare a rooster," said Aunt Ruth. 

''What have you, Anna ?" 

" I have • pigt" replied mamma. 

'* Herbert may teU me what he has." 

*' I have a lame donkey, with one ear gone, and a poor looking 
tan," said papa, talking yery fset 

AUOB AND L* 
[Third grade.— Oial and written.] 

1 am a little girl, and my name is Winifred. My age is ten, 
and I life in a pretty Talley among the mountains. For a long time 
dien was not a single child in the whole Talley but myself, so yon 
sse I had no playmates. But mother ie as good ap any boy or girl, 
and win play with me whatcfor game I like. She ie such a pretty 
mother, with her bright brown eyes and curly yellow hair. I, Wini- 
fredy am like father. I baye black eyse, and my brown hair is as 
straight as pine-needlse. Father ie a writer. He makse many 
books, and psople out in the world read them and laugh and cry 
ofsr them, so mother says. He gets his money that way. 

We came to the TalUy when I was very smaU. Father had been 
so ip that cTcry one was afraid he would die. The doctors said that 
thsairof the TalUy would make him well. So we came here. He 
is much better now, and we are aU yery happy. Our hense is on a 
UUside, lookingdown the whole yalUy. It is made of redwood, 
sad the rooms are large and plsaeaat. There are many books and 
ph t ut s s , and skin rugs on the floor. When psople odne to see us 
theysiT, ''Isn't this delightful?" 

a desertptlMi of cihild-life and pleMoree 
\t the Centiderate. loving telanons that 



* -UUtoe andl " to Intended to be I 



I haye my lessons eyery day with father and mother, only tkey 
say I must go to school hi the Bast, by and by. Alice wHl go, tso; 
but you don't know who Alice is. 

A1.ICB AVD I. — (II.) 
f Third grade.— Oral and written.} 

One day in October we had a dreadful storm. I haye eeen many 
storms in my life, but neyer one as ssrsre as this. The wind 
howled down the eafion, shaking the house; the rain feU in tor-* 
rents ; the thunder roared, and eyery now and then there wae • 
sharp flash of lightning. I dung to mamma and hid my face, but 
dear mother only said, " Winifred, my duld, we are ri^ in the 
hoUow of God's hand." At last I forgot my fsara, and whsn bed- 
time came, was quite wUling to go. By this time the storm was 
not so frightful, and I toon feU asleep. I had a stmnge dream. I 
thought I wae standing at the end of the terrace, when a white dove 
flew down and lighted on my hand. I stroked and patted it, and 
then I thought it said, " I haye come to stay always with yon." 
How happy it made me. I awoke laughing to see my mother's 
smiling face bent oyer me. And by my side, in the bed, was a little 
girl about my own age. She lay there looking at me irith her blue 
eyes, and her bright curls were eoattered oyer the piUow. 

*'This is oouain Alice, your UneU Ralph's UtUe girl," said , 
mamma. " She came last night in aU the wind and rain, to be 
your sister. She has no home now but this, for| her parents are 



I looked at Alice and held out my arms. It wae my dream come 
true. She crept into them, and we kisssd one another, and to this 
day Alice has been more than a sister to me. 



PUBLISHEIIS' ApUI(CEMEI|TS. 

DiacONTINUANCEa." Asf avbtetlber wtohJng to stop hto 1 
ooUfy the Pnbltohert,<NMl pay up aU arrean ; oiherwtoe heto reeponetble ftc 
payment as long ae the paper to seat. 

MOW TO REMIT, — TO eeeore tafety It to Important that remittances 
•hooldbe made by eheeks, drafts, poetH>flBee oirden,eipreM money ovders, or 
regtoteied letters, made payable to the Pnbltohen. 

Jtff Cff/Pr^S^Bemlttanoes are aeknowledged by ohange of date fODowtng 
the ■nbeerlber'i name on the paper. Shonld eneh a ohange fail to appear 
within two weeks of the date of remlttanoe, fubtetlben ihonld notKr as at 

MiaaiN0 NUMBSRa^ShoQiA a number of the TnAorai fail to reach 
* eabscriber, he will oonfera fayor upon the PnbUshen by notifying na of 
the fact, upon reoelpt of whieh notlee the mtoalng number will be seat. 

CHAN9S OF ADDRXaa^Whm a ohange of addreee to deoiied, both the 
old and the new addreee of the fubseiibeir ehoald be glyen. 

Allletters pertaining to the Editorial department, and all imwrnT^'m- 
ciona for the peges of the TBAonnn ahoold be addreseed to the Xditess. 
an letters pertaining to the boainees management of the TnAonan should 
be addressed to thfrFmb9i§hmrt, 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

PuibHoatian Otflcs.- S B«nseroet St., JBoetMiy flbwe. 



AOBNCIlESi 

H. W. FAIBBANK * CO., 118 Adnnu St.. Ohtoago, 

QmtntRAL AonNTS ron illutois, Wisoovsnr, and Miomioas. 

O. W. BAKDBXH. SynMoee. M. T.* 

ennnnai. Annrr von Nnw Tonx •!!▲«■. 

■ I ■ II H .| l I ■ P) i * I II I p ■ ^ , 

2o anyone who will cut this out and send it to us^ 
with address and 35 cents in atampSy we will mail the 
Journal of Education, a sixteen page weekly^ for 

TWO MONTHS, postpaid. 



Norn*,, 



Addrtu., 



NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

3 SOMXJUCT STRBkT, BOSTOK^ Ma88. 



140 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



lJ>ac 



The American Teacheb. 



A. B. WIN8HIP. ) 
W. B.8HBLD0N,) 



MdUon* 



OONTBNTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Poffe 

Belb Across th* 9dow tpoetnV . . . . . .127 

£ftctiary> Flr-^i Y«arLtiBeliool, . . . • . 127 

Sistitxjl DUctpliiie. . 129 

Geography Topics* ........ 180 

METHODS; TI16 BousK>?^ ^^^^^ la^First Steps ioILaoffuage De* 

v^iopmeiit- Le»oiiB ta Zoology — Laxiguage — Words lieTer 

Konwu Too Wtilt. 180-184 

THINGS TO TKACH: The Chlidr^D and the Poets-" Bugs and 

ThlDts ''—Subjects for Co in |;io»itton. .... 184-136 
DEVICES: AD»;lpa» SuJttces^ atjd BoUds— January Sentences— 

HpelltDg Gain*'B, ..... '186-187 

TALKS WITH TBACHKRa i8» 

KEFRODUCTlOr* EXERCISBS ]89 

EDI TOKI A L : Note s — T r> tj Cou otry Teacher— Observation of Obil- 

fir^n—Booka-MoDth Coiirie. .... 140-141 

ODDS Ap3D£N]>H: I^Uiuoe »nd Lonirttude: CtTll GoTernment— 

tiug£«^at1on*^ tor Teactivrs nf Music— A Language Lesson — 

RiBiory— ^Impltf D«3i|;a for t^usy Work— Folding and Cutting 

aPatteri} (or liCuh^, ..... 142-145 

M U S 1 C 1> E I' A RT M E N T ^ ClA^s j c^ 1 Musf c in Public Schools. . 146 
FRJBa\ AKTEKNCXJNSt Chnstmas, 1890— Kris Kringle— A 

Wlnt**r Eiprctfi*f-TtieSni3W Birds— Snowflakes, . 147-161 

NOTER AND QUERIES. . . ... 162-164 

'TBR KlNDEKGAKtEN: Rciw Uttte Blind Children Work in. 

KlnaerKarLea-Lovaol tti« BoaattulinCblld-Lffe. . 166-(M 



Tbachkss most not be fanatical. 

It is easier to keep good order than to have poor order. 

Ambbioan manual training schools are highly compil- 
mented in foreign publications. 

Tf tempted to spend money foolishly, think how much 
it will purchase of reading matter that will advance you 
in the profession. 

When a teacher in Geneva completes her thirtieth 
year of serrice in the schoolroom, a great f ^te is made 
for her. In America she is liable to be '' dropped'' as 
superanoated long before she has served a generation. 

** What is the teacher's relation to his papils ?" a su- 
perintendent asked one of his teachers the other day. 
'' He is their friend, counsellor, and assistant, bound to 
MTve them to the extent of his ability in every possible 
way," was the reply. 

Ths Self-Pensioniog Teachers' Association of New 
York City proposes annuities for female teachers who, 
after thirty-five years' service, desire to retire ; to male 
teachers who, after forty years' service, desire to retire ; 
to any members who, through continuous ill health or 
other disability, are ineapweitated from discharging their 
school duties properly. 

A MxBBT Chbistmas Greibtinq to all our readers. 
The best Christmas gift is the making of our friends 
htL^ppY by the tone and temper of our life, the love of 
cheer we bring. May every reader have a Merry Christ- 
mas through tiie influence of every friend and force of 
life, but above all may they make a Merry Christmas for 
all those with whom they labor. 

Wht ws Tbach« — We do not teach arithmetic simply 
because the child needs to know how to add, subtract. 



multiply, and divide, — we could teach arilbxnetic for 
those purposes in a short time, — much less do i^e do H for 
the purposes of acquiriiig mental agility. W*e do no 
teach geography merely that the child maj know diat 
one inaccessible peak in the Himalayas is higher than an 
uninhabitable peak in the Andes, much less to mequire 
facility in rattling off the names of the capes, lMt3rs9 s:alf s, 

A. B. C.—- At one of the large normal schools of Penn- 
sylvania, upon the examination of a large dumber of can- 
didates, it was noticeable that there was a grettt £^lf be- 
tween the good spellers and the poor. '< How do you 
account for it?" asked the principal of a prominent 
county superintendent who was present. 

'^ Let me see," said the superintendent, ^' I suspect that 
the good spellers were all taught their a, 5, c*s, and the 
poor spellers by the word method." 

** Nonsense," said the principal, *^ it will be tiie reverse." 

*' We will see," said the superintendent. To the as- 
tonishment of the principal the result was as prophesied. 

Now this is probably a general truth, but it need not 
be. The fact is, however, that it will take great dis- 
cretion and care for a teacher to get good speUiog* with 
the word method. 



THE COUNTRT TEACHER. 

The Swiss are generally acknowledged to be a remark- 
ably intelligent people, and a certain feature of their 
school policy might well be copied in this country. They 
pay a teacher more to go into the country than she will 
receive in town Perhaps this rule does not hold in all 
parts of the little republic, but it is the case where the 
school authorities are wise. In many country districts 
it is exceedingly difficult for a teacher to obtain board 
at any less price than she would pay in the city. The 
city privileges and the society of others of her business 
are dear to the teacher, and she stays in her country 
school only until she can gain a place in town. On the 
other hand, the country school needs the best teaching 
obtainable. Many of the boys and girls are in school but 
one term a year, there is little grading in the school, and, 
without a master, but one mind to plan and execute. 
Americans will be wise when, like Geneva schoolmen, 
they offer special inducements to teachers to go into the 
country and to stay there. 



OBSERVATION OF CHILDREN.— (III.) 

BY ALBERT B. WINSHIP. 

^FTEB the detailed and eUborate tests aheady indi- 
Jn. sated, teachers who take an interest in these inves- 
tigations can easily form estimates from simple tests of 
their own designing, or from tiieir general knowledge of 
the popils, so that they can rank them upon their ability 
in the following lines. Do nVyt give yon^ ttAmgfal to more 



1890. j 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



Ul 



than one in any given week. Think, obeerre, noiake ap 
year mind for a week before you make the reoord. Then 
g^Te a week to the next 

Power of Imitation. — Keen, fair, poor. 

Quick to Answer, — ^Prompt, moderate, fdow, hesitating 
very slow. 

Quiek to Catch a Question^ — Quick, slow, stupid. 

Credulous.^^QpX^ to detect a joke or trick, slow to 
see it. 

Docile. — ^Perfect)y, if carefully handled, rarely. 

/mto^Zd.— Very, under provocation, rarely. 

Pastionixte, — Quick, slow hut intense. 

Obedient, — ^Prompt, slow, disol^dient. 

Truthful. — Fanatically truthful, sensibly truthful, 
politic in the truth, exaggerates, no regard for truth when a 
lie seems serviceable. 

Industrious, — Earnestly so, reasonably so, indifferently 
eo, lazy. 

If in all these matters we could have a fair consensus 
of opinion through the faithfulness of our readers, it 
would be of great value as a foundation for future de- 
ductions. We are not at all certain that there is suf- 
ficient interest in the subject to warrant an expectation 
of very general attention to these tests, but we will hope 
that in view of its importance a reasonable number of 
responses will be forthcoming. If the first two were so 
elaborate as to be formidable, then take those in this 
artide. 



BOOK-A-HONTH COURSE. — (IV.) 

The fourth book In the coarse is Education in the 
United States^ by Richard G. Boone, published by D. 
Appleton & Co. of New York City. Price, S1.50. 
[It will be sent from this office, postage pre-paid, upon 
the receipt of price, or it can be ordered of the publishers, 
or of any bookseller.] 

This is the only complete, reliable, winnowed, well- 
written history of education in this country that has yet 
appeared. It is more than a record of educational events 
and institutions, — it is a story and a philosophy. It is 
one of the few educational books that a teacher who 
wishes to be a power among his associates must read. It 
presents relations as well as facts, forces as well as ten- 
dencies, and will prove much more valuable than it 
promises at first 

8UOGZ8TIONS. 

Read the '' Editor's Preface " at least three times ; 
read it aloud ; read it with some one. Omit the '* Au- 
thor's Ptefaee." Ail but well-disciplined readers should 
omit the ^^Introduction" until after tiie reading of the 
bocik. Read chapter one of the '< Colonial Period." 
Omit chapter two for the present. Read chapter three 
somewhat rapdly, not trying to remember any special 
things. Read chapter four with great care, IGUin it 
orer onoe or twice after it has been cafefoUy studied. 



Breathe its atmosphere. Read casually chapter five. 
Read with great care chapters six, seven, dlght, and nine 
(pp. 80-157). Fix in mind the pivotal facts. Look 
through the four chapters, noting carefully the sub-heads 
before you begin to read and after you have read. 
These seventy-seven jmges are the cream of the book 
for the average teacher. 

Be guided by your own taste and needs as to how 
much attention you will give to chapters ten, eleven, 
twelve, thirteen, and fourteen. Unless specially inter- 
ested I should omit them until after the rest of the book 
has been read. Chapters fifteen, sixteen, and seventeen 
should be read thoughtfully. Chapters eighteen and 
nineteen are of great importance. The ^'Conclusion" 
should be studied with thoroughness. 

The order of reading that I would commend, there- 
fore, is £ditor*s Preface, chapters I., III., IV., V., VI., 
VIL, VITL, IX., XV., XVIII., XIX, Introduction, 
XXL, XVII., XTII., XIV., IL, X., XL, XVI., 
XTL, XX. 

Readers may wonder why, in the case of this book, we 
deviate so widely from the author's plan. It is unlike 
the odiers. It is not helpful like Howland's Fracticat 
Hints, nor interesting like BmilCf neither is it an intel- 
lectual tonic like Campayr^'s Elements of Psychology, 
It is to be read chiefly for the good its facts will do. For 
these reasons there is a great difference in the relative 
value of different chapters. 

QUESTIONS. 

1. Explain the force and significance of the third sen- 
tence in the second paragraph of the ^' Editor's Preface," 
'< For in the history," etc. 

2. Relate in your own language the last sentence in the 
last paragraph, page vi., '^ Editor'^s Preface." 

3. State the reasons why you accept the second sen- 
tence, paragraph 3, page 7. 

4. Give examples of the truth of the sentence : *^ For- 
merly each subject," etc., page 7. 

5. Enlarge upon the sentence : ** The entire educational 
idea," etc., page 7. 

6. Explain in brief the relations of New York, Vir- 
ginia, and New England to the early American schools, 
chapt. 1. 

7. Of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Penn- 
sylvania, and New Jersey, chap. 3. * 

8. What do you think of the characteristics of the 
anti- revolution teachers ? See last paragraph page 65. 

9. What surprises you in chapter 6? 

10. Have you any suoh opinion from reading this book 
as that of the first paragraph in the ^ Conclusion " ? 

11. Is tiie fact stated in ''2," page 888, seributfP 

12. Have you given special thought to the problem sug^ 
gestedin''6,"page888? 

13> What is the most eacooragiag ee&tMBoe in the 
"Condurion"? ' 



142 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



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LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE.— CIVIL GOVERN- 
MENT. 

BT BLBANOB FIKLSY, OALIFOBNIA. 

^^ALLACE.— '' I Uke a balloon trip from lat 37|'' 

W N. and 122^'' W. I descend at lat 42"* N. and 
long. 88^ W. From what city did I start and where did 
I stop?" 

Maps are searched, and Lonis tells him he started 
from San Francisco, and is now near Chicago. 

Louis, — '^ I take the balloon and come down at 19^ N. 
and 98i^ W." 

Eddie, — " Yoa're in danger, as Popocatepetl is there." 

Louis.—'' I next visit the Equator at 50"" W." 

Jimmie. — *' At the month of the Amazon, I take the 
balloon and go to 77"" W. and about 39"" N., where I find 
some woi^, as I'm a member of the legislative depart- 
ment of the United States." 

Wallace. — *' Were yon elected by the people or ap- 
pointed by the legislatore ? " 

JimnUe. — ** The legislatare appointed me." 

Lena. — " He's a senator, and he's at Washington Oity. 
I take the baUoon and go to 117'' W. and 32"" 45' N., for 
I'm elected to the exeeative department of the connty." 

Katy. — ^ Yon are in San Diego." 

Laura. — ''Yon are sheriff of San Diego County. I 
go to a city that has the same latitude as Bome, and take 
the porition of executive of the city." 

Lula. — '' Mayor of Boston or of Chicago." 

Laura,—** Boston." 

* * * * • 

Lula. — ** I'm elected a member of the legislative de- 
partment of the connty. What am I called ? " 

School. — '' Supervisor Kincaid." 

Lula.—'' Who elected me ? " 

Frank. — **The men who are citizens and are over 
twenty-one years old. I'm a member of the legislative 
department of the United States. I belong to the smaller 
division." 

Lena. — " You are Senator Tripp, and the California 
legislature appointed you. I'm the head of the executive 
department of the United States." 

Laura. — " President Ellis. I want the government to 
donate $5»000,000 for water development. To what de- 
partment must I apply? " 

Garrie.-^" To die House of Bepresentativee." 



SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS OF MUSIC. 

BT HATTIB C. STACY, PASADENA, GAL. 

HRHE teacher who seouiei the best results in the man- 
P agement of children's voioes, will at each leeeoa in- 
sist upon the observance of the following rules : An erect, 
but easy position of the body ; a clear and distinet pro- 
nunciation of syllables and words, with careful attention 
to making tiie consonants and sinking the vowels ; the 
vocalization of all exercises sung; no amount of tone 
should be used in singing either syllables or words, or in 
vocalizing, beyond that which the pupils can produce with 
perfect ease. 

If the voices are too rough and loud, use the syllables 
"eao" or 'Mow"; if too weak and feeble, use «<Uy" 
and " la." Cultivate a pleasant, soft, and smooth tone. 
If the children do not seem to hear or imitate well, do 
not use your voice more loudly, but more softly. In giv* 
ing out a new rote song, it is best for the teacher to sing 
it all through first ; then give it phrase by phrase for the 
children to imitate, taking just enough at once to be song 
in one breath. 

No breathing exercise should be given in conneetion 
with music in the lower grades. Cultivate the power of 
recognition. This is of the highest value in training the 
musical perceptions. Singing in conneetion with march- 
ing or other violent movements of tiie body will not ibul 
to result in serious injury to the voices and it is strictly 
prohibited. To preserve tiie buoyancy of tiie music, 
pupils should be kept cheerful. Do not sing with joos 
pupils but for them. 



EvsaeT schori must make good penmen. The public 
demand it. 



A GEOGRAPBT LESSON. 

BT S. LOUI8B VALENTINE. 

"B^BEPABE, on maniUa paper, a stencil map of the state 
fir you are to teach, — e. ^., New Jersey ; also, draw 
the outline in the molding board and on .the blackboard. 
Have each child find on his own map, in his geography, 
the highlands of New Jersey. Have one pupil draw it 
in the sand« then on the board, and lastly all draw on the 
stenciL Find and draw, in the following order, rivers, 
cities, etc.. 

The cities are marked in the sand by a toothpick, to 
which is pasted the name written on paper. Peterson 
was marked by a toothpick, to which was tied a picture 
of a locomotive, — a bit of silk and cotton goods repre- 
senting her manufactures. 

We placed minerals in the sand where found. W. 
placed productions in the part of the state where pro- 
duced, having an onion to represent vegetables, a straw- 
berry to represent that fruit, a peach-pit to represent 
peaches, and a cranberry to represent cranberries. 

We reviewed often, -^e. ^., after drawing the first 
river we reviewed the highlands, by finding them en oat^ 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



14S 



line, geography, mad steneil nuips, mad redting what we 
had learned about them. 

After the phytieal feataree were learned we taught the 
history of New Jersey. The whole was reviewed topi- 
oally, both orally and in writing. The work was dooe 
so thoroughly hy the pt^piU^ and they were so interested, 
that the lesson was long remembered. 



A LANGUAGE LESSON. 

BT L. M. MOCABTKET. 

Actual Work in Second &rade, 
a PICTURE of a boy blowing babbles was pUeed 
jHl before the class, and each pnpil was told to write a 
sentence on his slate aboat the pietnre. These sentences 
were then read from the slates. One pnpil read, '^ That 
boy has a white pipe " ; another, '^ The boy is blowing 
babbles and is happy." The teacher then asked how he 
spelled buhble^ and how he began and ended his sentence. 
A third pnpil read, '<The little boy has a crock''; a 
foarth, <'The boy has golden hair." The teacher re- 
qaired this last papil to spell golden. Another said, 
'* That boy's name is Harry." The teacher asked how 
hofy*8 was spelled, and after several failures it was at last 
correctly spelled. The teacher now adked, '' If I have a 
bottle and drop it, what will it do ? " The reply was im- 
mediately giyen, <at wiU break." ''What have I 
done ? " " Ton have broken it." " What did I do ? " 
'' You broke it." " What are then the three forms of 
the word breaJc f " '' Break, broke, have broken." 

Again the teacher asked, '* When yoa are tired and 
yoar mother wants yon to get on the coach, what does 
she say withoot nsing get ? " A bright papil replied, 
<' She says, ' Qo lie down.' " " What did the hen do ? " 
'< She hud an egg." << What wiU she do ? " << She will 
lay an egg." '' If yoa go down town to-day, what will 
yoa do ? " ''I will bay some goods." '' What did yoa 
yesterday down town ? " ''I bonght goods." 

Papils were then sent to the board to write sentences, 
nsing the three forms of the yerb bitey bit^ and bitt&n. 
After these sentences were corrected the teacher said, 

<' If I want a book over there I will say, Ada, 

me that book. Snpply the word." After several wrong 
answers a papil replied bring, "li I asked yoa and 
yoa had already given the book to me, what woold yoa 
say ? " One papil said, '< I have given yon the book." 
« Use some other word besides giveUf" said the teacher. 
'' I have broaght yoa the book." '' If yoa coald not do it 
at once bat woald after a while, what woald yoa say ? " 
'<I will bring yoa the book." 

TeotfAar.— How shoald a sentenee always iMgin and 
how shoald it end ? 

CUuB. — It shoald always begin with a capital and end 
with a period. 

The elaes was then eseosed. 



HISTORT. 

BT ELKANOR FINLBT, CALIFORNIA.. 

m[vT papils enjoy writing essays on the history les- 
J/WL Bons, and some have made qaite pleasing jingles 
of the leading events. The most interesting snbjeets 
have been : <' When I was a little moand-bnilder," '' My 
visit to New York in 1640," '' Three days with Qeneral 
Grant," '* How I helped to foond New Jersey," etc 

Since dates are so hard to learn, I help Ihe children 
by having each nation represented by a color, and- when 
a date is mentioned in explorations, wars, etc., it is writ- 
ten on a side blackboard in the color of the nation it re- 
fers to. The civil war dates are written in bine and 
gray. In recitations, papils read, and nsoally dose books 
and repeat. 

History Qafnes. 

Lula. — << I am a general and I took part in the civil 
war. I was commander in a great battle, which lasted 
three days, and had it not been for my snceess the war 
woald have been carried into another section of the coon- 
try. My opponent was one of the greatest generals of 
the war." 

Laura, — " Are yon Greneral Meade, and was yoar op- 
ponent General Lee ? " 

Z44^a.— "Yes, at Gettysbarg." 

Laura — "I'm a sympathizer with the anfortanate. 
I hear of the craelties practised toward some poor people 
who are not so fair as we are, and I resolve to help—" 

Carrie. — " Yon're Garrison." 

Lula.—'' John Brovm." 

Laura. — " Carrie knows me." 

Carrie.-^^^ Long ago I came to this conntry, to better 
the condition of men. I got some land in pay for a debt, 
and allowed people to have the nse of it for almost noth- 
ing. There were people who had owned the land before 
[ got it, so I had to bay from them, too." 

Laura. — " William Penn. I am an inventor. Years 
ago I felt that there mast be more ase made of the power- 
f al steam, and that it coald be ased in helping travelers 
along; So I stndied and worked, and almost rained my 
poor family." ZmZo.— " Fnlton." 



SIMPLE DESIGN FOR BUST WORK. 

BT AZ^A B. BADLAK, 
PrIneliMa of TialnlDg Behool. Lewtston, Me. 

BLL bosy work shoald have a two-fold object, — 
jjSi, namely, to instract as well as to interest the child, 
and the preparation of the material nsaally reqaires no 
little stndy, time, and ingenoity on the part of the 
teacher. 

The designs made by the teacher shoold consist of 
jdeasing arrangements of geometric figares, cat from 
colored paper, and moanted apon siz-ineh sqoares of 
manilla p^Mr. The designs shoald be simple, a^ in 



144 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Dsc. 



two or more contrasting eolors, thag teaching harmony of 
color as well as design. 

These designs should serve* first, as eopies for the chil- 
dren to work from ; later, each design may he osed as 
the center of any original design which the fancy of the 
child will lead him to arrange in weli-halanced gronpings 
ahont it. This second stage of the work mast he divided 
into two steps : (1) Where the upper, lower, left, and 
right qoarters of the design are similar and hence 
halance ; (2) where the child is taught to see the har- 
mony of balancing the upper and lowe» quarters of the 
design, and the left and right quarters, or, in other words, 
is led to grasp the thought that nmilar oppoHte gronp- 
ings are restful to the eye, while similar adjacent group- 
ings are distasteful and unpleasing. 

MATBBIAL ARKANOBD BT TJLt TEACHER. 

1. As models for the children to copy. 

2. As centers for building original designs. 

J. Simple designs with four squares of two contrast- 
ing colors. 

1a. Arrange in a solid square on its diameters. 

1b. Separate these fo{ir small squares, leaving a space 
the width of a square between them. 

2a. Arrange in a solid square on its diagonals. 

2b. Separate these four small squares, leaving a 
space the width of a square between them. 

II. Simple arrangement with four circles of two con- 
trasting colors. 

1a. Arrange in a figure suggestive of a square, the 
circumferences touching. 

1b. Separate these circles one half the width of the 
circle apart. 

III. Simple arrangements with five squares of three 
contrasting c<^or8, (new color for the center). 

1a. Arrange like I. 1b., and place the odd square 
on its diamt&ten in the center. 

1b. Arrange like I. 1b., and place the odd square 
on its diaganaU in the center. 

2a. Arrange like I. 2b., and arrange the odd square 
on its diagimdU in the centre. 

2b. Arrange like I. 2b., and place the odd square 
on its diameters in the center. 

IV. Simple arrangements with five circles of three 
contrasting colors, (new color for the context). 

1a. Arrange like II. 1b., and place the odd circle 
in the center. 

V. Simple arrangements with four squares and a 
circle, or four circles and a square, three contrasting 
colors, (new color for the center). 

1a. Arrange like I. 1b., and place tiie circle in the 
center. 

1b. Arrange like I. 2b., and place circle in center. 

2a. Place the square on its diarmeteTs in the center, 
and arrange the circle at each of its oorners, at each 
of. the sides. 



2b. Place the square on its diagonals in the center, 
and arrange the circles around its sides, so thai tiis 
circumference of each cirde touches a side of As 
square, at each of the comers. 

VI. Simple arrangements with four half squaisi 
(iright-angled triangles) and a square or cirele in tiis 
center; three colors, (the new color for the center). 

1a. Place the square on its diameters, and arrange 
the triangles so that the right angle of each toaehes tiis 
side of the square. 

1b. Place the square en its diagonals in the oentsr. 
and arrange the triangles so that the right angle of each 
touches the comer of the square. 

2a. Place the circle in the center, and arrange ths 
triangles so that the right angle of each toaehee ths 
circumference. 

2b. Same position, but let the triangles lap over the 
circumference. 

Vn. Simple arrangements of four half circles and 
a circle or square. 

1a. Place the circle in the center, and arrange the 
half circles so that the arc of each touches the circum- 
ference of the circle. 

2a. Place the square on its diameters in the center, 
and arrange the half circles so that the arc of each 
touches the sides of the square. 

2b. Place the square on its diagonals in the center, 
and arrange the half circles so that the arc of each 
touches t^e comer of the square. 

2o. Place the square on its diagonals in the center, 
and arrange the half circles so that the chord of each 
touches the comer of the square. 
VIII. Simple borders of two contrasting colors. 

1a. Squares arranged so that the comers of eai^ 
square touch the corners of the next square. 

1b. Squares arranged so that the comer of each 
square overlaps one half the next square. 

• Ic. Squares arranged so that they are placed alter- 
nately on diameters and diagonals. 

2a. Circles arranged so that the circumference of 
each circle touches that of the next 

2b. Circles arranged s5 that the circumference of 
each overlaps one half the next circle. 

3a. Half squares (right-angled triangles) arranged 
so that the right angle of each touches the base of the 
next triangle. 

3b. Same as above ; let the triangles overlap. 

4a. Half circles arranged so that the arc of each 
touches the chord of the next half circle. 

4b. Same as above ; let the half circles overlap. 

5a. Square on its diameters and circle alternating. 

5b. Square on its diagonab and circle alternating. 

GENERAL DIREOTIONS. 

Select any one of the mounted designs, and place it 
where it can be seen byjthe class ii^ ^'^Busy Work«" 



L890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



145 



Distribaie the colored geometric forms (ongummed), 
and direct each child to reprodace the arrangement as 
many times as he can upon his desk ; as a reward for 
g^ood work, near the close of the lesson pass down the aisles 
and give to the saccessfal workers the corresponding paste- 
board forms (one of each). Have these osed to outline 
apon the slate an arrangement similar to that which they 
have been studying. 

^. ^.— No better work than this latter step can be 
f OQcd for strengthening the hand and insuring nicety of 
lines. 

lAter in the term provide each child with one of the 
simple mounted designs. Instruct him to copy this with 
the paper forms, and to originate a design about it as a 
center. 

Toward the close of the year the gummed forms may 
be sahstitnted for the ungummed, and the children en- 
ooaraged to arrange and mount their designs upon paper. 
Care must be taken to cultivate the taste in the selection 
of eolors. 

Later these designs may be outlined upon psper, if 
pasteboard forms be provided as the units tif tbe ex 
preesion of the design. 



FOLDWO AND CUTTING A PATTERN FOR 
A CUBE. 

BT JAUB LAKDON GBAYBS, 
MiUenvUU StaU Normal School, Penn. 

JW ANY teachers who have never worked out for them- 
JfSi. selves a plan for folding and cntting freely the pat- 
te^Cns for simple solids may find the following directions 
useful. 

Take an oblong of paper, any size, (9x6 will give a 
two inch cube), trisect the left margin by bendbg part 
toward you and part away from you, as in Fig. 1. 

Keep moving the parts until, by pressing the folds all 
together, three exactly equal parts are indicated on the 

one margin. Rest the pa- 
per on the desk with the 
long edges from left to 
right, and lay the near 
third of the left margin, 
entirely on and exactly 
even with the middle third 
Fig. 2. Mid crease the fold length- 
If yon do not let it slip the fold will 
In the same way crease from the 



cQ 




Fia. 1. 
wise of the paper, 
be perfectly straight. 



Fig. 8 



Ptg. 4 



other point, keeping folds and edges exactly even. That 
will produce Fig. 2. 

Now open the paper. Lay it with the long edges from 
left to right, and lay the near third of the left margin on 
and even with the first long crease (Fig. 3). 

Cut along the fold as far as the edge extends, being 
careful not to cut beyond, and fold the square thus made 
forward upon the sheet, keeping edges even (Fig. 4). 

Now open and cat ont a flap as in Fig. 5. 



Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 

Even with line 1-2, Fig. 5., fold the projecting two 
thirds over, creasing the fold as in Fig. 6. 

— PU" 



> 








> 
> 





Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

Cut the center fold between the two squares thus 
formed, and from tbe further one cut a flap as in Fig. 7. 

Now fold the remaining square forward upon ftie sheet, 
back from its right edge, keeping edges and folds even, 
fold the sheets as in Fig. 8. 



Jl 



y s 

> t 

7 ^ 

J t 



Fig. 10. 



Fig. 9, 

Now open and you have Fig. 9. 

Cut flaps as in Fig. 10, and fold down again as in Fig. 
8. This time fold back from the line 3-4, and crease, 
making Fig. 11. 



1 



f — T — r~" 
i — 1 - 

p — ^ — 
>i J 



Fig 11. 

Now fold back 
have Fig. 12. 

Cut on the dark lines, and cut 
flaps all around square 4 as in 
Fig. 13. 

Now you have the pattern cut 
and folded. Paste aU the flaps 
on the inside and you should 
have a perfect cube. 



Fig. 12. 

from lines 5-6, and unfolding you 



> 


i 


4 






m 






> 




). 


. 



Fig. IS. 



146 



TH£ AHERIGAJ!^ TEACHEli. 



|^I>K. 



(ttlu0tc Oepatiment 



CLASSICAL MUSIC IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

BY W. S. TILDBN. 

Bat the qaestion arises in regard to any method, or 
eoarse of stadj in singing, '' Is it adapted to give cultare 
to the pnpils, so that they will he able to take ap mosieal 
works of some magnitude as they advanoe? " We have 
all heard of the children of the pablie schools in Dundee, 
(and other cities in the British Isles) giving the chorus 
parts of the principal oratorios entire, and with seeming 
intelligence and appreciation. But on this side of the 
water we have listened to these accounts with some de- 
gree of skepticism, both as to the wisdom and the feasi- 
bility of such attempts. 

But a Boston music teacher has recently shown us, for 
the first time, we believe, in this country, that such a 
thing is practicable with our staff-notation, by giving, 
with the pupils of a suburban high school, the entire 
chorus work of the ^^ Creation '* in a perfectly successful 
manner. It becomes a matter of interest to us to dis- 
cover by what processes this result has been reached ; for 
even if it were to be said that the music was only com- 
mitted to memory and not read (which, by the way, is 
not true in this case), there must yet be a grasp of related 
musical sounds on the part of the young singers that is 
in itself worthy of especial remark. 

In carefal observation of the method pursued in the 
different grades of schools from which those pupils were 
drawn, we find it in several respects unique. 

1. The first thing that attracts our attention is the 
simplifying of the work. Many things which have been 
heretofore introduced are discarded, on the ground that 
they tend to complication and hence confuse more than 
they help. The instruction is narrowed down to the 
vital things in every grade from the lowest upward ; and 
so it becomes more definite and clear to both teacher and 
pUpiL And this concentration of effort on essentials 
gives that mastery of them which constitutes a firm basis 
for later progress. 

2. The nomenclature of sounds in the sight-singing 
course consists only of the numerals from 1 to 7 ; the 
key-note, in whichever octave, being uniformly called 1, 
the position of the note deciding which 1 is meant. 
These numeral names are, however, used only in speak- 
ing of sounds ; never while singing them Letters are em- 
ployed to define the key ; ihe do re mi syllables not at 
alL The scale is learned with a single syllable, and 
every sound is in that manner given in response to the 
numeral called by the teacher ; but calling sounds, apart 
from notes, is used only at the outset, and there is no 
<< singing from figures." The process of learning to 
individualize sounds without pronouncing their given 



numeral or syllable when singing, seems slow at first; bat 
it is believed that the progress is surer, and that to be 
only able to hit the right sound while pronooneiiii^ a 
given word is but little better than having it atraek on 
the piano for the pupil. 

3. lo sight-singiDg the theory is that pupils le»m t» 
read by reading ; hence, as soon as a few sounds are 
mastered, simple exercises containing them are presented, 
written out on the staff in usual form, holding the tune 
element somewhat in abeyance for a while by using only 
uniform lengths of notes and rests. Tbe exercise is first 
read by the pupil, in numerals, with speaking voioe; 
then it is thoughtfully sung, taking care t.o prodaee the 
sounds which were designated in the reading, with bat a 
single syllable. Tiie training of the eye and the ear 
thus proceed together, with no waiting for so-called pre- 
paratory exercises, such as singing from ladders, hand- 
signs, finger staff, pointing on a written scale, or employ- 
ing any unusual forms of notation to be afterwards on- 
learned. 

4. Ii^ the study of time no ** timanames " are em- 
ployed ; but the pupil is led to an appreciation of relative 
duration without this mnemonia process. The pupils are 
not taught to beat time, either in the accepted form or 
any of its substitutes. The teacher indicates the time to 
the class, not by pouadiog the de»k or a book, but so that 
they are guided visibly, much as they will be later under 
a formal director. The teacher's beating is carried on 
for their guidance not only in singing, but also in the pre- 
liminary reading. As greater facility in striking the 
right pitch of notes is attained, the time is enriched by 
prolongation of sounds ; this is observed first in reading 
by prolonging the spoken numeral. An unobtrusive^ 
quiet monotone being adopted by the class, long sounds 
can be as easily represented in this mode of reading as 
in the German time exercises with la. Later come the 
various divisions of the beat, etc. 

5. In the treatment of chromatic sounds the papil is 
taught to sing any sound ''sharp," — that is, semitone 
higher, or '' flat,'' — semitone lower. Thus, in reading the 
exercise through by numeral, sharp-four is ealled simply 
four ; then attention is called to those notes that ue 
to be *' sung sharp." In all this work of Btriking pitch 
the pupils are required to make effort to think it oat ; 
errors are corrected, not by the teacher showing ** hov 
it goes," but by calling attention to the sound required, 
the exercises being, of cenrse, within a reasonable de- 
gree of difficulty for the grade. 

6. Singing in different keys preswits no obstacle, u 
the children are taught from the first to eount lines 
and spaces readily, either upward, 12 3 4, etc., or down- 
ward, 17 6 5, etc., from the 1 placed anywhere ; teacher 
gives the pitch for the key in hand (which is sooo 
named, and its signature observed), and the class pro- 
ceeds at once to read and sing the exercise. Parts 
are easily taken as soon as there is a clear perception 
of sounds in connection with their names, and nitb the 
position of the notes therefor. 



1890.J 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



147 



FRIDAY 

AFT^n?°riS- 



iP 



CHRISTMAS, 1890. 

[An exercise f^r fourt^fn child • en 1 




7^ IiM</<r.— Give Christmaa welcome! Bid him draw nearl 
Enwreathed with pine and with hoU j ; 
H« brioge you preaentt, he brin|{t s^ood cheer, 
'Til in fun, if he iljlj oipe your ear. 

In CoNcerr.^'* Peace on earth, Good will to men ; *' 
Now once more the eweet refrain, 
Heard on Bethlehem'e etar-lit plain, 
Sehoee o'er hill and glee. 
Ghildren'e To&bei, rich and itroncT) 
Swell the grand triampbal eong. 



SONG. 



Allegro, 



Xj /• 9 • m w 9 9 : 



Glo-ry to God in tlie high-est. Glo- ry to God in the 




■^^. 









high -est, and on earth peiice, good will to men, and 






on earth peace, good will to 



HAPPY CHBISTMAS. 

LAn acrostic] 

BT HB8. L. H. MOBBHBAD.* 

Ut Pupil.^ Happy Chriatmae erer call it, 

Fitting name for that bleat mom 
When within a lowly manger 
ChriBt the Lord a child wae bom. 

2d Pupii — At the happy children gather 

Round the ChriBtmae tree again. 
Let them not forget that Jesne 
Once a little child became. 

&/ Pupil-- Pore and sinlen was Hu childhood, 
Patient and obedient itill ; 
Thna He grew to perfect manhood, 
Workbg out Hu Father's will. 

4M Pupil,^ Patient still He is, and loTiog, 
Even to the weak and wild. 
Watching over as in mercy. 
Blessing erery little child. 

tkh Pupil.^ ITears hsTC passed since that bright morning. 
Yet onr hearts with raptors swell, 
While we sing onr Christmas anthems. 
And the Christmas tidings tell. 

Qth PupiC— Can there be a sweeter story. 

Told by minstrel's tongue or pen. 
How the Lord of light and glory 
Came to dwell with sinful men. 

1th PupiL^ Btymns of joy proclaimed His coming ; 
Hjmns by happy angels sung. 
Ne'er was heard such heaTcnly music 
Since creation's work begun. 

8/A Pupil. — Radiant throngs of angels watching, 

Hailed with joy the star's bright my, 
Shbing with sash wondrous bsaaty 
O'er the spot wherein He lay. 

OtA Pupil,— In all hearts that song should evar 
Find an echo sweet and clear. 
Still responsive while the ages 
Cycle round from year to year. 

lOcA Piqnl.— Sin and sorrow flee before it, 

As it swells from shore to shors, 
Till mankind shall grow more loving. 
Hating, warring, norermore. 

llth Pupil." Trust and faith in one another 

Strengthen ever, year by year; 
While sweeter, kinder thoughts awaken 
As the Christmas time dmws near. 

I2th Pupil." M e ss e n g e r s of love and merey 

Pass unseen from heart to heart ; 
Prompting men to deeds of kindness, 
Causing gratsf ul tears to start 

ISth Pupil." Angel Toicee swell the chorus 

When our Cliristmas song we sing ; 
Though unseen they borer o'er us. 
While sweet, loving thoughts they bring. 

• Note. -Have a tasteful design arranged with a pin proJeetlBg, 
upon which to bang each Initial letter, made of evergreen. Place 
them In tbe order In which the fourteen children of the class recite the 
stanzas. 



148 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Dn. 



14tl Ftps.— Shall we ever fgthta tfaoM gnardUm, 
WatebiBf lu from d>; to day ; 
S«Dt M by ow HeavcDlj Fathar 
Latt wa fall or go aatraj. 

SONO. 






1. All hail tbepow'rof Je-sus*uame! Let angels prostrate 

2. Let ev - 'ry kiii-dred, ev-'ry tribe, On this ter- res-trial 



^Pppiii^ii^^ 



I 

fall ; Brhtg forth the roy - al di - a - dem, And 

ball. To Hhn, all maj - es - ty as - cribe, And 




i I i 

crown Hhn Ix)rd of all. And crown Him Ix>rd of all. 
crown Him Lord of all. And crown Him Lord of all. 



f 



KRIS KBINOLBa 

BT O. COOK. 

INKLE, tinkle, jingle, jingle. 
Hear the bells of good KrU Kringle. 
deatly now, now loodly ringtug, 



Softly to himielf Old Kris ii nDging, 

"Ho, hoi ho, ho! %way I go. 

Over the ice And oTer the iuow. 

Nerer into a house do I creep 

Bat where the children are feet aeleep. 

I have trumpeta and drnmt, little, fat pigs, 

And dolliae with bonnets and curly wiga ; 

And candies! How they will laogh when they a 

Wbigi a bagfnl of candy I'll bring with me I 

I'm almost ready ; so children dear. 

Listen, for toon ny bells yon will hear, 

Oot in the air ringing so dear, 

Merry Christmas to aU, and to all good ehoer." 



ESSIE.- 



A WINTBB BXBBCISE. 

[For lire little girls.] 
BT JSS8IS Y. PUTNAM. 

-Let*s welcome old Winter, 

He*s with OS at last; 
"^ For see from the window 

The snow falling fast 
It comsa down so gently 

It maksa not a soand ; 
Bnt there's a white coTcr 

AU orer the groond. 
Let's ran oat and catch some, — 

I loTe the white snow ; 
And 'tis not very cold,—' 

The wind does not blow. 



LEADING TEXT-BOOKS 



M AURY'S 
B EOfiRAPHIES. 

Maery't Elemeatery Geography. 
Haary't Haaaal of Geography. 

MAURY'S BBVISBD PHT8- 
lOAI. OBOORAPHY. 



V ENABLE'S 
MEW ARITHMETICS. 

Vew Klemeatarf Arlthaietie. 

Mew Practical Arithmetic, 

VmSAMLU'H AtXlBBRAS and 
OBOMBTRY 



H OLMES' 
EW R EADERS. 

MBW FIRST RBADBR. 
HBW SBCONO RBADBR. 
NBIV THIRD RBADBR. 
NBW FOURTH RBADBR. 
NBW FIFTH RBADBR. 



G ILDERSLEEVE'S 
L ATIN BiOKS, 

NBW I.ATIN PRINBR. 

I.ATIM GRAMMAR. 

I«ATIN BXBROISB BOOK,Btc 

PBBRIN'S OiEHAR*S OITII. 

WAR. 



CLARENDOR DICTIONARY. 



The •Heady Clareadoa " 

Largely used In New York 
and Brooklyii schools, etc. 



KROFLACH'S 



Qerman Simplified. Pbbpabatoby fob 
Spanish Simplified. JJ^^S?."^'"** 



,F&r infarmaUon a m oen U ng theM and other v<UwM€ text books, 

UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING CO., 

as Ila-frley St.. ttO A OS Duane St., 

BOSTON. NEW YORK. 




Music in the Schoolroom. 



1. The Sowf Budget, 



A coUectton of 8oiin 
and Music for BdQcs^lon%l Oatherlags By B. 
V. DbGk^fp. Hniall4to paper, pp 7«. 15 ou. 
This book owes Its lytpuUrlty to two causes: 
(1) It gives a gi eat deal for the money; (2| Tbe 
soagH are not only uumenmH (107). but they art 
thn standard favorites of the last fifty years. 

This Is wby the book contains more muHlo that will be used thao any 
other book published For In all other books that we know or, two- 
thirds of the tunes are written by the compil(»r8, who are of course 
partial to their own productions. Sup't DeGrdff wrote no souks of his 
own but gathered tho«e which his long experleuoe as a oonductor of 
teachers* mstltutes had shown him to be the most generally familtar 
and pleasing. 

In fact, the success of this book has been due to the fa'*t that only 
thosesooKS wi^re admitted that have proved to be universal favorites. 
This involved a large orlgtnal outlay, as much as fifty dollars having 
bften paid for the right to use a single song. But the best were takm, 
wherev«>r they could be found and at whatever cost, and the result Is 
a school sloKlngbook of poputalty unexampled For InstaQce, a 
single Mm In Cleveland, Ohio, J R. Boloomb & Co.. had purchased 
of us up to F4*b 15, 18x8. no less than 9730 copies, 4600 within the last 
six mont*)n, besides 2li»0of the Schoolroom Chortis* 

9. The Schoolroom Chortu, h colleotlon of Two Hundred Songs for PubUe 
and •'rlTate tfebooU, oompUed by £. V. DeGrsff. Small 4to, buards, pp, 14S. 
86 cents. 

This is an eolarffed edftion of the Song Budget, with twfce the number ef 
songs. The plates of the last edition are •<> arransed that it i« idemloal wkh 
the Song Budget as far as page 68, -o that bjth books ean he used lOtratliar. 
Tbe Budget and Chorus are parti<*alarly adapted fo^ Teachers' Asftootatloes 
and Instuutee. At these prices ert- ry raeeting of teaebers can be snppHed 
with one or the other, whUb the fact that the tunes are standard favorites 
mskeii it ea«y for any andienee to )olu in the •incinff at sight. 

8. Th€ Song Century A colleetlon ot Standard Songs for School sad 
Home. OompUed by U. W. Bardeen. 16mo. pp. 87. Paper, 16 cts.; boanli, 
86 cents* 

The nnlTersal popnlarlty of the Song Budget, the sales of which hare 
probably exceeded that of any other schol mntlnbook pablished, made it 
no easy task to prepan* a similar ooliectioa to follow it in schools where Its 
songs had become familiar The songs here given are a final choice trem 
more than a thou«and which had been selected from eyery available 
scarce, but especially from actnal and pleading use in the seho«ilroom. At 
the lint narrowed down to neven, five, three, two hundred, it beeame mors 
and more diflloalt to reject, and th^last twenty were dropoe<l with extreme 
reluctance. Bnt it was thought be«t to adhere t<i the Umits of tbe ^oaf 
Budget, and though thi« book contains more pHg«s the price is the same. 



A 'large portion of the iiong« have been rearranged «*zpresslf for this 
.dok. Effort has been made to keep within the compass • f chlMreaH 
voices, avAtding the mistaki* of pitching them tno low as well a» that ef, 



making them too high; and also to preserve the harmony without m^irlDi 
the accompaniment too diflloult. The proponion of higher cl<»as music Q 
somewhat greater than in the Song BudgH, bat the advance is f o mere 
than corresponds with the more cultivated taste that already appears flr<MS 
increasing Instruction In the art or sluKliig 

C. W. BARDCEN, Publisher, 8yracu>M« N. Y. 



18900 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



149 



JBditk.^Jjmi im the tof c uiowfl«ke8 

I oavKht M they feU. 
They are rery daiDty, 

And f uiuiy, m well. 
They were here on my ooat 

A mement ngo ; 
And where they have gone to 

I really don*t know. 
They went off aa qnickly 

Ae though they had wingi . 
One eoaroely can pick np 

Sach slippery thingi . 

Xiicy.— Here, right on my jaoket^s 

The daintieet star; 
And I cannot tell all 

The shapea that there are. 
. I wonder if snow ia 

01 any real good ? 
Jnst ahont it I've never 

Right well nnderetood ; 
But I always am glad 

To see the snow fall; 
And I do not enjoy 

A rainstorm at all. 

Aliee.^Whjy snow is jnst vapor, 
That, when h is cold, 

Is frozen so qniokly, — 
Or, so I've been told,— 

That it eannot make drops, 
Bot forma lovely flakes. 

And then a soft mantle 



For eold earth it mafkee. 
There are seeds in the earth. 

Hidden snagly away 
Where no one ean see them 

Till springtime to stay ; 
And some plants are alive,— 

Or their roots under ground, 
Where yon really would think 

They eoold not be found. 
But Jack Frost goes hunting 

To give them a bite; 
For he likes jost as well 

The dark as the light. 
Then the snow oomes to keep 

Tbeee things tnng and warm. 
And Jack Froet may grumble, 

And threaten, and stotm ; 
fikit while the white oover 

Stays over their heads, 
They are perfectly safe 

1b theb snug, coiy beda. 

£^^11.— But how can the snowflakes 

Keep things safe away f 
They are real cold themselves 

When we go out to plaj ; 
For, jnst make a snowball,— 

Your fingers most freeie, 
Even when yon have mittens,— 

My grandma made thmt. 
And if you go sledding, — 

I have a new sled. — 
'Tis just like my mittena, 



MONTBLY, 10 NUMBERS, 



SOUDDBR'S 

History of the United States 

Preceded by a Narrative of the Discovery and Settlement 
of North America and of the evenis which led to the 
Independence of the Thirteen English Colonies. 
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SouDDVB. With Maps and Illustrations. 

The leading eharaeteristios of this beautiful work are: Well- 
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ikSoggemive Method ; the insertion of Topical Analysiifor Review, 
10 well aa a full set of Qaestions on Text and Maps; Accurate 
Olear, and Distinct Blape; Beautiful UlustratioM ; Superior Me- 
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A prominent teacher says : " It is the best equipped school book 
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To be helpful to teachers Is the chief aim of the Journal. It Is tilled 
to the brim with suggestive material, and contains a large amount of 
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The leading Training Rchools of the country constantly represented 
in its eolums. 

COlVTBIBVTORIi.-AMBtt Bttdilaai, Training School. Lewis- 
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*'Oontataia jut what every live 
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WxLLaas. Keith Sehool. Ghieairo 

** I Uke It very maoh."— bUPT, 
ass, Oakaloofta. Iowa. 

For real practical work In the 



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150 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



Dbc. 



A pr»Uy, briKhir«d; 


OiHt »eHi-o«ly w. aid tbinli 


Unlets yoB keep nuDiDfr) 


Tbey eoold com« wi far. 


Your feet get so oold I 




I hsTe to cry Bometimes 


^V'/yn. > When I watjW Hitle 


If I mm six years old. 


That story I hrard, 




Bat I do not belieTC if, 




The very fiist word. 


And snowing ewsy, 


For I never knew feathers 




Would m«lt like the snow ; 


All throngh this whole dey, 


So it cannot be trae. 


And then in the morning 


As yoa very well know. 


The son will shine out. 




We shall find it just lovely 


Alice.'^M.j mamma has told me 


To sesmper sbont, 


This mantle to white 


And we'll pUy in the drifto, 


That hides with its beaaty 


And hare splendid fan. 


Some things from oar tight 


Fm so glad that winter 


That are old and ansightly, 


Onoe more has began. 


Kind nature, she's sore. 


Berne.— I Ioto in the white drifta 


Sends to teach ns how lovely 


To tamUe aroand, 


Ace things that are pare. 


For the snow is so soft, 




Not hard, like the groond, 






THE SNOW-BIRDS. 






Lcicy.— Say, have yon been told 
That ap in the sky 
A woman keepe picking, 
Whenever it snows, 


WOU'RB welcome, little saow-birds,— 
T Gome, here's some emmbs to eat ; 
Why, in the snow yoo're standing 
With little naked feet 


From oQ her geeee, feathers ? 


I know yoa mast be baogry,— 


Baeh one downward blows. 


Ck»me, here's a treat for yoa ; 


Now look np and see them ; 


These envnbe do look so tempting. 


How pretty they are I 


I know yoa' 11 have a few. 



HOLIDAY EDITION 

EVERY-D AY "ETIftUETTE, 

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By LOCJISB FISKE BR7S0.V. 
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Every important question that can possibly arise In regard to the 
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practical and reliable, containing mueti In little space, giving all the 
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taining none that are mere matters of hollow form and ostentatioc 

SYNOPSIS OF COVTENTS. 
Ctonertl Hints— Ho^ to Htid tue Body for arace. Boantv, and Health- 
How tn Dre«t and What to V^ear— CalU and Gardi— lavltatlont and YUting 
- Hatvitt at Table— MoamluK and Kaneral Gaitomt— Lectert, Notes, and 
Mettaicet Chaperont and B«cortt— The Art of (JoaTersatloii — Oommon 
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most prominent writers. It should flud a place In every home and 
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with the eustoms of our easT socibty. 

N, B. — The prioe of '* Every- Dar Beiqnette" In the advertisement in 



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Address W. D. KERR» Publisher, 

59 ik 54 Ejttfttyette Pittce, New W«rk. 

* AOMNTS WANTBD [Mention Ambbicax Tbachbb.1 



A NEW BOOK. 

The Popular Geography of If. State. 

By JACQUES W. REDWAY. 

Atithor of a Series of Ooographisa and eeveral other OeograpMoal 
Works 



" It roada like a romaaoe.*' '< Interesting aa a Fairy 
Tale." 



Oeaigned for olaaa nae either aa a Bnpplementarj 
Reader or Geography. 

Part I. is Physioal Geogtaphy. It disonsMS Monatalas, Valleys, 
Ltkes, Rivets, Giaoien, and Waters of the Atmotpliere, eto., eCe. 

P^rt IL is the Applioation ef these prineiples to the Geography of 
New York St«t^. Sorfaoe, F«atnree, Giimate, Prodaetione, Indu- 
triei, Transportation, Givemment, and History are taken ia order. 
With eaeh topio there are valoabie suggestions for both taaehers 
and pnpils. 

Betides many other interesting facts, it tells how the rivets were 
tArraoed by streams of ohangiog flood, the mountain sides smooCbsd 
by rains or farrowed by tarbolent streams ; how elmaaels wsia 
choked to make lakes ; in short, it deseribes all the forces that have 
operated to seolptnre the earth into its present shape, aad then 
shows how they have affected New York State. It ahows how and 
why the eommeroial proeperity is controlled by Physioel Laws, etc 
It is fall of historical sketches about the people, the events and 
the causes which have made New York the Empire State, ate., ete. 

Every teacher and papii in New York shoald potsess thisehum- 
ing l)ook. 

12mo. Bonnd in oloth. Prioe, 60 oenta, piat-paid 

Special pbicb fob class usb. 

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52 A 54 Lafayette Place, NEW YORK CITY. 

itientlon A.MBaic\N Tbachsb ] 



IS90.J THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 


Aud now joa little town 


And then ihn liul^ euow-birdtf 


I have a word to ny :— 


All slyly glanced at me, 


Oh, tammer oame to lee as 


And flew to Join their playmates 


While yon were gooe away. 


Upon the neighboring tree. 


She hioiight to all ne children 






And if yoQ had not left m, 


SNOWFLAKES. 


Why, yoa*d have had a ehare. 






M ITTLB rilT'ry snowflakse 
^f Whirling throogh the air ; 
Daooing, pnshbg, crowding. 


A little snow-bird anewered :— 


" I*m glad yon were io gay, 


With flowere, frait, and innshine, 


Tumbling eVrywhere. 


While we were all away. 






0*er the earth yon're shsdding 




. Soft and silVry light; 


Beeidee, we are io imall, 


O'er the ground you're spreading 


We were afraid that Summer 




Wooldn't oare for ns at alL 






Yon are wearing many 




Jewels rich and rare ; 


And o'er oor ooati of gray 


And I haven't any,— 


He sprinklee little jewels, 


Let me have a thare. 


Whieh Snmmer steab away. 


So m run and catch yon, 


" And so with onr friend Winter, 


latUe jewels gay ; 


Away we joomeyed forth, 


If I stand and watch yon, 


And saw his iey palace 


Yon will fly away. 


Far in the froien North. 




** Among its jeweled towers 


^The sweet old story of the year 


The livelong day we'd fly ; 


Is spinning onward to its dose. 


We qnite forgot yoor Snmmer, 


Yet sonnds as welcome on the ear 


My merry mates and L" 


As in the time of op'ning roee. 



151 



BRAIN WORKERS NEED BRAIN FOOD 

HEALTHFUL BRAIN WORK may be maintained for years without injury, but OTcrwork, excitement, anxiety, worry, use up the 
▼ital phosphite of the brain, cbaoges it into inert phosphates, and causes nervous breakdown. Hundreds of eminent Phy^ 
tidans and brain workers, testify to the relief given by Vitalised Pboaphites in all forms of nervousness, debility, brain weariness, 
and dyspepaia. This vital nutriment feeds the blood and restores brain power, in the aged and the young. It contains neither stim- 
olant or narcotic* but is a Vital Phosphite, not an inert acid Phosph^/^. It is not a secret remedy , the formula is on every bottle. 
Descriptive pamphlet free, F. CR08BY CO.« 56 West 25th St., New York. Druggists or by maU^ |i.oo. 



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Write for descriptive circulars to 

DODD, MEAD & COMPANY. 

Sabftcrlptton Departmentt 
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152 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



LDk. 



Qaestloiifl and answers for the Notes and Qnerles should reaeh db by 
the first of each month. We respectfully request all the readers of 
Tbs Txaoius to take part In the discussions of this department 
Bend In oneetlons, and furnish answers to questions glyen.— Bds. 



ANSWERS TO QUERIES. 

645. What salary do the nni^ersity regento of New York State 
reeeif e ? W. 

The regents of the aniTerrityof New York State reoeiTO ao salary. 
They are appointed by the legislature for> life. The secretary 
reoelTes 15,000 salary, the assistant sceratary $8J500» 

Chas. R. S. 

681. Who is called the *' sick man " of Europe, and why ? 
The Saltan of Tarkey is that called because of the weakaesa of 
his nation compared with the " Great Powers " of Borope. 

W. E. 8. 

706. A farmer took 20 ba. of wheat to milL The miller would 
ffriad it for one fourth, or for 25o. a bu. The farmer aocepted the 
utter offer. Did he gain or lose, and how much ? 

He paid .25 X 20=» $5.00. By paying toll it would haTe oust 
him 4 bu., — t. e., the farmer would take home 16 ground bu. and 
leaTe 4 ba. as toll. The question of loss or gain depends upon the 
Talae of the wheat, which is not sUted. With wheat at $1.00 a 
bu. he lost $1.00. With wheat at $2.00 he gained $3.00, ete. 

C. L. F., Eoit Peoria, lU. 

Credit to W. O. B., Uxhridge, N. D^k. 

709. What was put on board the schooner Michigan when it was 
sent awet the falls of Niagara in 1829. 



A buffalo from the Rocky Mountains, three be*M froa Qnm 
Bay, two foxes, a raccoon, a dog, a cat, aod four ga o a o . 

£. H. C, Ringhampton, N, T. 
Credit to C. L. F., Best Peoria, UL 



* almighty dollar" f 

J. D. C. 



710. What b meant by the ' 

This is a phrase first used by Irying in his " Creole Villa<e«," and 
which has become quite common. The importaooa of the dollar ii 
meant ; implying that money can accomplish almost aa jibiwg. 

E. A. C, RoyalMton^ Mob*, 

Credit to C. L. F., East Peoria, 111. 

711. What is meant by ** He has gone up Salt River " f 

It is a popular way of saying that a candidate for olBoa hae besa 
defeated. The phrase has its origin in the fact thai Salt Rifcr, 
Kentucky, is a Tory difficult stream to navigati*, owioflr to ita rapid 
descent aod tortuous course, aod the real phrase ap;»liea to the 
person who undertakes to row np the stream ; but we now apply it 
as aboTe. K H. C, Bingkampton^ N, F. 

Credit to B. A. C, Royalston, Mass., and C. L. F., S. Peoria, IIL 

712. How did the name Brother Jonathan originate ? 

When Oeneral Washington took command of the army ia the 
Rerolutionary War he found it very difllcoU to secure anamnaitioB, 
supplies, etc On one occasion, at a consultation of officers, in which 
this Tczed question came up for discussion, and there esemed as 
solution to the problem, Washington ezolaimsd ; " Wo moat oon- 
sult Brother Jonathan on the subject" The Brocher Jooathaa 
was none other than Jonathan Trumbull, governor of Coaaeetieat 
Mr. Trumbull was conndted and furnished the needed sapplisa 
When diffionlties of this nature arose it was customary to repeat 



EaUIPOISE WAISTS. 

For Ladies, Hisses, Children^ and Infants. 

The Equipoise Waist is a per. 
feet substitute for the corset an 
may be worn either with or with- 
out bones, which, owing to the 
construction of the bone pockets, 
may be remoyed and re-inserted 
without ripping. 

It is a combination of a corset, 
a waist, and a corset cover, and 
ladies need not fear that the grace 
of form imparted by the corset 
will be in the least sacrificed by 
wearing the Equipoise. 
They are made in high neck 
and low necic, long waist and medium waist, with bones and with 
out bones,! White, Tan, vid Black. 

JUustraUd catalogue mailed free to any address by the manufacturers^ 

6E0R6E FROST ft CB., 31 Mferi St. , Bottoi, Mus. 





OVER TEN MILLION PAIRS SOLD. 

THE WARREN FASTENER has a 
ROUNDED RIB around the part which holda 
the stocking, and WjLLL NOT TEAR the finest 
hose. 




WARREN HOSE SUPPORTERS ARE FX)R 
SALE EVERY WHERE. Ask for them at the 
stores and BE SURE YOU GET THE WAR- 
REN, which may be WeuHfled by the FAST- 
ENER which hiia a ROUNDED RIB on the 
holding edges, and is stamoed with the word 
WARREN. DO NOT BE DECEIVED bv 
Fasteners which appear to have roanded hold- 
ing edges, as the process by which they are 
made leaves almost a knife edge on the inner 
or holding surface, and they will cut the 
stocking. 

The Warren Is made In a great Tariety of 
stylet for Ladies. M isses and Children, in SILK 
and COTTON W£»S. 

Illustrated Catalogue of HOSE SUPPORT- 
ERS and (DORSET SUBSTITUTES mailedfree 
to any address by the manufacturers, 

GEO. FROST & GO.,81 Bedford 8t.,Bosto&, \ 



1880.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



163 



WMhiagton's w«rda, aad finally the origin of the expM«lon was 
forgotten* and BroCAcr Jonathan beoame onr national eobriqneK 

E. H. C, Bin^mptpn, if. F. 
Credit to C. L. F., and B. A. C, Maeeaohnsetti. 

713. Who b laid to have aaTed the Union three timee f 

J. D. C, LOly, m, 
Henry Clay^ by hia Miiaonri Compiomiie, Tarilf Bill, and Omni- 
boe BQL G. L. F., JBoMt Peoria, III. 

Credit to E H. C, Bioghsmpton, K. Y. 

716. What Prerident once held an interest in a distillery f 
William Henry Harrison. S S., Satt Peoria, Hi, 

Credit toE. H. C, Bioghampton, N. T., and C. L. F., East 
Peoria, lU. 

716. The base of a right-angled triangle is 13 ft. The perpen- 
dimilar and hypotennse ace wbole nombers. What are they ? 

A. W. K. 

There are several methods of obtaining whole numbers which 

ahall repreeent the rides of a right-angled triangle. The abore 

problem is solTsd most easily by the EuU of Ptftkagortu, Take fi 

a'— 1 n^ + 1 

smy odd number, then — ^ — =»■ the seeond namber, and — ^ — 

SB the third nnmber. Snbetitnting 13 for n in the formula, we ob- 
tein 84 and 85 for the other two sides. 

E. Bbthkl, Denver, Col, 

^n/e.— The rale for saeh oaass is to square the b*^ and diride 

the sqvaie into two numbers as nearly equal as possible,— (13)^ ^ 

169. Henoe the hypotenuse is 85 feet, and the perpendicular 84 

feet. G. L. F.. Peoria, lU. . 

717. An old gentleman, having 120 turkeys, deeid* d to keep one 
half to dispose of himself, and diride the remainder (60) equally 
between his two sons. He (the old gentleman) sold his fiock at the 



rate of 5 turkeys for $2.00 ; one son his flock at 2 turkeys for $1.00 
and the other son 3 turkeys for $1.00. On counting the pro oeo d s , 
the old gentleman found that he lacked $1.00 of having as moeh as 
his sons. How doee this happen ? N. M., Ckico, Col, 

The old gentleman reorived for his turkeys 40 cents each. The 
flrst son received 50 cents each, and the second son 33^ cents each* 
Hence, while the father received $24, the sons received $15 + $10 
=3 $25. For the sons to have sold their turkeys at the same rate 
as the old gentleman, the first should havs been given 24 turkeys 
and ths second 86. 

710. Which is correct, '* To be Am is a disgrace,*' or ** To be 
he IB a disgrace" ? 

" To be Mm isadisgrace" iscorreofc, because *'tobe" baverb 
in its infinitive, and its ** subject'* would be the objective form, 
henoe the predicate noun mnst be. S. W. G. Boxbury, 

Credit to K A. G., Royalston, Mass.. and G. L. F., East 
Peoria, 111. 

720. How many asteroids are now known ? 

On January 1st, 1890, there were 287 asteroids known, number 
287, Xephthys, having been discovered by Peters on August 25, 
1880. C. L. F., East Peoria, III. 

721. How many satellitee are now known in the solar system? 
There are twenty in all, called moons, — the Earth hae one, Mars 

two, Jupiter four, Saturn eight, Uranus 4, and Keptnne one. 
Mercury aed Yenns are the two planets that have no moons. 

W. E. 8. 
Credit to G. L. F., East Peoria, lU. 

722. Can any reader give me a rule for' measuring robber bat- 
ing without unrolling ? J. M. L. 

To measure robber belting without unrolling : Put a =s diameter 
of inner coil; 6-= twice the thickness of belting; n«>- number of 



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The •in •r •bjeet ml the lastrKcttoB la different* 

TIM HetlieAi •! TeachiKg nmd. the W«rk •! fPapile are 
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. £9iiNO'8 NORMAL DRAWING CLA88E8.t.'"><»« 
In Drawing through home study and by correspondence. 



Tlie reeallfl la Sclieela are widleiy aad radically difffereat. 
It is the aaiy Oaarce 1mmc4 aa the aae af JHadi 

Objects ia the haa^ af papile, aa4 far whieh 

have beea prepared* 

The Oourse prepares directly for Manual Training. Many oC tba 

exercises are in themselves elementtfy exercises in Hanual Tralnfng. 

THB FRANQ OOURSB has a much wider adoption in the best 

sdiools of the country than all the "Systems of Drawing'* put together. 

More than two mwione of children in public schools are oelng aught 

FoBM AND Dbawoto by Thx Psang Goxmss. 

have been established for giving the veiy best kind of Jnstrootloh 
■ - ^" nsefve 



„ teachers can, Uirough these classes, prepare themselves to teach Drawing in 

their Schools. 

I^^eiul for Cirouiars in regard to THE PRASO C0UR3B OF mSTRUCTION IN FORM STUDY AND DRAWING, and atso in 
regard to PRANQ*S NORMAL DRAWING CLASSES. Addreee 

THE PRANG EDUCATIONAL OOMPAXT, 

7 Park Street, B08T0N. 151 Wabash Ave., CHICAGO. 16 Aster Place, NKW YORK. 



151 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



{DB& 



coili ; than ira >■ length of inner ooil ; ^(a-{- b)^^ length of 2nd 
ooil ; ir(a + 2b) ^length of 3rd coil ; ir (a + (n — 1) 6 = length of 
nth eoil. The eeTernl mnltipliere of ir form a wries, the snm of 
■ <2a+Jn--l)6)n^ ^^ ^^^ j^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 



whieh ii^ 



ing woold then henX 



(2a+(n-l)6)n. 
2 



Sx, —Let a -B 10 inohes ,&•» 2 m. n » 10 in. , then the f ormnU be- 
comee 8.1416 +i?^+.l§).211? =596.904 in. length of beliiog. 

W. L. B., Tiutin, Col. 

723. A man borrowed S585 at a bank interest of 10%, payable in 
adTanoe. At the and of the first year he comes to the banker with 
(200, saying : Deduct the interest for the following year, and credit 
me with the balance. What was the indorsement on the note ? . 

Wm. H. W. 

iSo/iKton.— $585.-^1. to »$ 406 6363, the face of the note the 
man ga^e to the bank; (408.6363-hl.l0» $371.4893; $408. 6368 — 
371 4893 s= $37. 147 interest for second year; $200 — $37.147 — 
$162,863, the indorsement on the note. Aos. 

W. O BUTLBB, Uxbridge, N, Dak. 

By Al^ibrcL — $ x = amount indorsed on note ; $200 — $ or >■ 
interest on balance ; $535 — $x <« balance. As the note of inter- 
est is 10%, the interest is ^ of priocipU; $535 — $ x = 10(200 
— $»)-$2,000-$10a:; $9 x= $1,465. $ x= $162}, amount 
indorsed on notes; $37), interest on balance. Proof: $535 — 
$162} = $372^ ; interest on $372} at 10% = $37}. 

W. Ji. B., Tiutin, Col. 



739. A company dining at a hoose of entertainment had to pay 
$3.50, but before the bill was presented, two of them left, in oon- 
sequence of which those who remuned bad to pay each 20 cents 



more than if ail Lad beeo present. How many 

H. G. M , SojE^vtZKc WtM. 

740. The plate of a mirror 18 inohes 1^12 19 to beaeliBt 
frame of uniform width, and the area of the frame ia to be e^nal to 
that of the glass ; required width of the frame. 

^^ ^ H. O. 11, Sajt€viiU, WU 

741. Can an Indian become a citizen of U. S. ? 

H. G. M., 8€UcetnlU^ Wit, 

142. YHiat was the origin of the word tariff? 

M. S. S., OrtemsburgiL Pa. 

743. Who is the president of the Mormon Ghoroli ? 

744. What is meant by Pelion and what wae Oms, maBiiaaei> 
in Lowell's PrometActif. BL A. C 

745. If 4 bushels, 3 peeks, 4 quarts, 1.6 pints of ^miimmt mak a 
barrel of flour, and the toll is 4 quarts. If pints per boabel, bow 
many bushels of wheat must I take to mill in order to get fife 
barrels of flour ? H. S. W. 

746. In turning a one horse chaise within a riair of a eertaia 
diameter, it was obserred that the outer wheel made two turns, 
while the inner wheel made but one ; the wheels were eeeh four 
feet high, and aupposing them fixed at the distance of 5 feet eauder 
on the azletree, what waa the cireumlerenoe of the treek drnttrihtd 
by the outer wheel ? E. L. J., Bidffe, JT. J. 

747. Name four words in the English language eiidiBS in dom. 
. '^^' ,^^«n »n^ ''*»«« ^~ the first National Pditioel Conrea- 

tion held ? Give the name of the party and the cirenmeteiioee eoa- 
nected with it. 

749. Why are our common potatoes called Irish ? 

750. When was Poor BiehardU Almanac first pnblishad aqd 
when discontinued ? 

'^^}'^.^^*' ^^^^ ®' *^o syllables in Webster's new InUnu- 
ttonal Ihctumary haa ita plural a monosyllable ? 

752. Does any word in the English language, ending in tUb 
retain the mute e of its primitive ? 

753. Who first introduced the mode of writug from left to right ? 
754 Who wrote the ballad, "Old Grimes," and who was the 

subject of it ? 

755. ^ Name three words in the Engl-sh language that haye dues 
lettATB in alphabetical order in them. One with four. 

756. Were there two Missouri Compromisea ? If so, give i 



« WEBSTER'S INTERNATIONAL DIGTIONART. 

J'-u.iat X*-u.'bll0ilxe<a.. SIxxtlzrelT- M'e-vvT-. 

SUCCESSOR OF THE UNABRIDGED. 



WEBSTER'S 

INTERNATIONAL 

DICTIONARY 



BEST HOLIDAY GIFT. 

The Aathenttc Webster's Vna- 
brtdi^ed Dictionary, compristns 
the Issues of 1864. '79, & '84, copir- 
rii:hted properly of the understffned, 
is now Thorouvhiy Revised and 
Enlarired under the supervision of 
Moah Forter, D.D., I.L D., of Yale 
University* and as a dlslin«:ulshlnff 
title, bears the name of Webster's 
Internntlonal Dictionary. 

Editorial work upon this revision 
has been In active proirress for over 
Ten Years. 

Not less than One Hundred paid 
editorial laborers have l»een en« 
gaired upon It 

Over $300,000 expended In Its 
preparation before the first copy 
was printed. 

Critical comparison with any 
other Dictionary is invited. 

GET THE BEST. 



The Tsrlons Bindings are especially rich and substantial. 

Illattrated Pamphlet ooDtainins: Speoimen Paf^et, Ac, will b9 eant prepaid apon applioatioD. 

Pablished by G. & C. MERRIAM & CO., Springfield, Mass., U. 8. A. 

FOR SALE BY ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



1890.3 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER, 



155 



Z^ Mm^ttq^axt^. 



Tbb friends of the kindergarten have good reasons for 
feeling eneoaraged and stimnlated to persistently posh 
forward the good work. For many years the progress 
was slowy bat the good seed planted has at length taken 
deep root, and the cause has gained recognition and 
is being regarded now as an essential in the American 
public school systems* Free kindergartens are multiplying 
in all sections of the country, and in many places have 
become an integral part of the common school system of 
education. In these evidences of genuine progress and 
reform we heartily rejoice. These schools for young 
children should not be regarded as an " esthetic " plan 
deyifled to amose the neglected poor and keep them from 
mischief, but as a development of true philanthropy in 
the highest sense. 

The kindergarten is as essenHal to one class of children 
as to another, viewed from the standpoint of rational cult- 
ure. There is no one sided development in tlie Froebelian 
philosophy. It is designed to precede other elementary 
training, and to prepare the child, — boy or girl, rich or 
poor, — for the regular instruction of the public school 
by exercising all his powers so as to render them self- 
active. 



HOW UTTLE BLIND CHILDREN WORK IN 
KINDERGARTEN. 

BY M. B. 0. 

fHEBE was such a merry din in the long corridor it 
was difficult to realize that the gay players were all 
blind, and as they came into the kindergarten later, and 
found their places without collision with furniture or each 
other, we said. How do they do it ? 

The furniture of the kindergarten differed from that of 
any other in only one way. The tables were fitted with a 
cushion, something like a very thin mattress, with its 
upper surface *^ squared off " by raised cord like threads, 
which gave the squared surface necessary for kindergarten 
work. 

At the back of the cushion opposite each child were 
some triangular tablets pinned down. When the kinder- 
gartner had given the direction to find a certain square 
on the cushion such and such a distance from the front of 
the table, the children drew out a pin and f>laced a tablet 
so its right angle would fit into the lower right 
corner of the square found. When the triangle had been 
perfectly fitted into this square, a pin was placed through 
the hole in the tablet to prevent its being misplaced, for 
every direction necessitates endless feeling since fingers 
must do not only their own work, but that of the eyes, too. 

Little by little the small fingers placed and fastened the 



CHRISTMAS CARDS BY MAII.. 

We will send the first fl^e paclcagds for $3 25, post-paid, and of the complete net* for $5.40, postpaid. 
N*. l.~F*r 50 Oeato aad 4 Cento f*r P*«tace, 17 Pntrng Sc €••'■ aad othdr fine Christmas, 

Oards, tOKe* her with a handiom? Masic foldiag Card, and a Calendar- for 1891. 
N*. 9.~F*r 50 Cento, aad 4 Ceat<f fer PestR^e, lO large and finer Cards from the ahk>ye pub- 
Ushers, together with a shaped monotint booklet. 
Ne. 3.— Fer^l.OO. and 6 Ceato fer Peviai^e. ▲ choice selection of 9S Beautiful Cards, ef I^. 

PraaiK & Ce.'s, also a h>iDdsoiii- souTt-nir booklet. 
Na. 4.— Far 91. OO aad 8 Ceato far Pa«taKe. A selection of lO of onr largest and finest Cards, 
together with a Santa Clans Letter, illnstrated by Mary C. Hopkins, Assistant Editor of St Nicholas. 
If a. 5. — Far 95 Ceato» aad 9 Ceau far Paiitace» lO Praaf^'sy Tack's, Ward's, and other 

beautiful cards. 
Vi; 6.- Far ftO Ceato, aad 4 Ceato far Paatage, 5 Christmas Booklets, Including one shaped 

booklet 
fVa. 7.— Fer 91.00, aad 8 Ceato far Paataffc, 7 haadsaaie Saareair Baakleto, ineludiog one 

new shaped monotint booklet: retail price, 2-1 cts. and 50 crs each. 
Na. 8— BIRTHDAY PACKBT. Far ffO Ceato, 17 Fiae Cards af Praag's ar Taek's. 
fVa. 9.-49CNDAY 8CHOOE. PACHLBT* Far ffO Ceato, 9A Cards af illarcas Ward's, 

Praac's C<ards, assorted- 
STAimPS AfVD P08TAT. NOTBS BBCMIVBD. fVarelties, at 15, 95, 50, 75 Ceato, aad 
91 .OO each, for Birtkday or Aaalrersary, which Will be selected with care for different tastes 
and ages as specified. 
CAD TCHnUCDQ ^® Jflercas Ward's, Praas's, and other beautiful Cards, no two alike, for 
rUII I CAunCndi Sl.OO, aud 8 cents for Postage Better assortment, 99.00, and lO cenU for 
Postage. A yer7 choice selection. $3.00, and 90 cents for Postage. And for 50 cents and 4 cents 
for Postage, 85 Gaids no two alike. 

BBACOIV HIE.I. I^IIf BIV. Far Faskiaaakle Vses is tke kest Paper made. 
CO?linONWBAl.TH I.IIVBIV. A Alediaai-prieed kat Fiae Orade. 
V. 8. TBBA8I7RY ROND. Taa«kest Paper aiade. Is rery faskiaaakle. 
CARTBB'A TVPB-WRITINO PAPBM8." •« Best aad ckeapcst ia 
tke market." 

DADCD DV TUC DAI I II 11 We guarantee our prices iawest in America. Sample sheets ot paper and envelopei from tO ceato a 
I Ar Cn Di I nk I UUIlUi pound and npward. with prices and number of sheets to a pound, sent on receipt of 15 ceato. These 

papers are the correct sizes and finish for fashionable oorrespondeoce. 




** Yon know that I love you, 

and love }ou right hard. 

Or why should I trouble 

to send you this card ?" 



PAPER. 



Oa arders af $10 aad arrr we will prepay f reigkt ckarf^es la aearest railread statiaa. 
arders witk frleads aad take adraatage af tkis. . -^ . 



SPECIAL OFFER. 

ENGRAVED VISITING CARDS. ?fi.»c1LSr,'ioX'8'o 

All the work is done un our premises. We employ only the best worjunen and use the finest cardd. 



Clakyaar 
AKeats'aad Dealers skaald earrespaad witk as. 

Estimates fnmished for Wed- 

Samples free on application. 

" - ctior 



plate, finely engraved, with 50 cards. 
US, Street Dies, Crests, and stampmi 



e guarantee satisfaction. 

Haadsaaie kaxcs af flae statiaaery, plaia ar illamiaaled, far :i5 ceato, 50 ceato, 75 ceato, $1.00 ta 99.00 eack, sare 
glre satisfactiaa. 

. If. H. CARTER & CO., 3 Beacon St., Boiton. 



166 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[DW3. 



trlanglesy antil a hollow sqnare was formed by the meet- 
iog of the^ acate angles of four triangles. A perfect 
geometric talk was carried on, showing that the small 
people knew the sort of angles and direction of the edges 
of the triangles. The delight was great when the *' empty '* 
sqaare was found, and was still heightened when by direc- 
tion two triangles teaching so as to form a large right- 
angled triangle were placed above, — at the middle, — be- 
low, at right and left of the form already '^ laid." Sach 
gay, liappy little faces as all had when giving the form 
a name. We who were blessed with seeing eyes pon- 
dered apon and wondered at the tactful patience and 
perseverance that must have been expended to develop all 
those little fingers to the point of accurately serving the 
mind so that every direction was quickly executed. 

At the end of a table,separate from the only blind children, 
sat Edith Thomas, — the then deaf, mute, and blind child 
whose cleverness bids fair to place her in accomplishment 
even beyond Laura Bridgman. Close at her side was her 
special teache^, who transmitted the kindergartner's direc- 
tions by means of the deaf and dump alphabet Little 
Edith followed with great readiness, and eagerly raised 
her bright, expressive face in token that she was ready to 
make the next move in the same manner as the only blind 
children did. 

About the room were evidences that every means for 
making the children independent workers was employed. 



The cabinets contained specimens of work beaotifoMy 
done, the modeling being exceptionally well execatad. 
When one realizes that all these specimens of mind and 
hand activity and craft were made entirelj from direc- 
tion, one questions whether or not the seeing- children are 
allowed to work too much from imitation. 



LOVE OF THE BEAUTIFUL IN CHILD LIFE. 

BT MISS MABT MOOR, WALTHAM, MASS. 
[GoDoluded from last month.l 

Although we believe that all children possess this innate 
longing for the beautiful, and some degree of power to 
create it, doubtless their susceptibility to beauty of form 
and colors differs greatly. A little girl of three years of 
whom I have heard, could not be induced by her narse to 
wear at the same time inharmonious shades or tones. 
Another child living amid untastef ul surrounding^, whose 
parents possessed no sense for color, was made miser- 
able by the inartistic grouping of her baby patchwork. 
So deeply was the child hurt by this lack of ta^te that she 
repeatedly unbasted her work to rearrange it aceordmg to 
her own wee sense of beauty. 

William Hunt, when a small child, made patchwork so 
artistic in distribution of color, that it was exhibited in 
Boston after his death, among his famous pictures. These 
instances are no doubt exceptional, but the first case cited 



THE 



Bradley 



In-Hand ^ 




Educational 

Amusements 

a 
Specialty. 



Every School Teacher wants to know about these four games, "Eckha," "Kerion," " Chuka," 
and " Mind Reading." She also wants a Catalogue of Bradley's Home Amusements. i6o sen- 
sible diversions. This pamphlet is mailed free. Our games have a pronounced educational value. 
We have been learning how to make them for Thirty Years. If your dealer does not keep them, we 
can suit you on something. Save at least One Dollar to spend with us for Christmas gifts. Already 
you know us educationally, try us in the line of Home Amusements. Eckha, $i.oo; Kerion, ^i.oo; 
Chuba, ^i.oo; Mind Reading, 75 cents, all sent prepaid. 



MILTON BRADLEY CO., Springfield, MAsg. 



1890.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



16T 



shows tbat the sense for color was natiYe and not the re- 
sult of training* although the conditions of tastef nl snr- 
roondings were the child's fortunate possession. In the 
second instance the same sensitiveness to heaaty existed 
in spite of the unfavorable conditions. The case of the 
artist proves the presence of the artistic soul even in child- 
hood, and the preservation of that work together with the 
work of mature life argues strongly for the importance of 
first efforts. 

These highly endowed children, together with those of 
lesser talents, must be educated to do the work of the 
future; and it was because Friedricb Froebel felt so 



deeply the need of ^ese differently endowed natures that 
he gave the best of his life and thought to a system of 
education which should reach the needs of all child life. 
It is only the harmonious training of the special charac- 
teristics of individual children that shall lead to their full- 
est development We must so educate the senses that 
children may be made capable through their own action 
of living out their inner natures in accordance with their 
individual endowments. It is true that nature and the 
outward world are continually revealing their beauties of 
form, color, and sound, for the delight and development of 
the children of all conditions. But how shall they appro- 
priate to their needs these scattered impressions, these 





FOB ENTEBTAINMEXTS AND EXHIBITIONS 



BBBT SBUSOnONS FOB BBADIN08 
JUro RECITATIONS. Formerly " The EIo- 
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ouule to leaire a more appropriate title. This is 
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Qoth bindmg, eaoh number, .50 Paper, •so 



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Qoth, so 

THE STOBT OF THE ILIAD. By Dr. 

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simple prose of the greatest literasy work of the 
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and authors of the country. Illustrated. 

Qoth i.ss 

BBAMNO At A FINB ABT. By 

Earnest Legouve. Translated from the ninu 
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BXTEBCPOBB SPKECH, Every public 
speaker would like to speak extemporaneously if 
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Full catalosues of Books and Plays sent with every order, or upon application. 

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OMMlaaikMltkBtwalBV.B. ■rtsH.lMft^ 
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Tke N. E. Bireaii of Uvcatin. 



Whose field Is the Nallon, Is doing 
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3 •emerset St., Boston , Mass. 

It pledges prompCness and tld^t^ to att Its 
patrons, both Bebool Offioers and Teaehers. 
Mow IS TBX Tims to Bsoibtss. 
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Ho. 5) Lsfayette Place, Kew York. 

TEAGHSB8 WIXTED FOB flOOD POSITIOHS. 

Almost dally ealls for good teachers, vow 
fs tbe time to register for vaeanoies for the 
winter term. Send stamp for appUeatlon- 
blank to H. M. HABRINOTON, Prop^ 
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HftYlng peiMosUy known Mr. Harrington for 
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log him to my frlenoa and jpatront. Any bnalneea 
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Late Man. Union Teachers' Ageney. 
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198 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 






KINDERGARTEN NOTES. 

— U. S. Senator of Calkfornia straek 
tkt keynote when the nid *' that he belieYed 
the Bamt foondation on whioh any ednoa- 
tional strnohire oonld rest, was the rook of 
thoroofth Kindergarten training, hegon at 
the earlieet poenble age. At the age when 
moral and indnetrial haUti are most easily 
formtd, the taste ioaproTsd, and finer feel- 
ings which give fibre to the will are oold* 
Tated." 

— Sir J. Lnbbook, of England, says that 
" wt shottld giye yonng ohildren information 
with lefsrenoe to the beantifnl world in 
whioh we liye, the commoner animab and 
plants in oar woods and fields : some expla- 
nation as to the ordinary phenomena of 
natare, the oaosee of snmmtr aad winter, of 



the phases of the moon, the natare of the 
sna and stars, the proprieties of sir and 
water, some elementary knowledge of light 
and heat. This knowledge wonld make 
them think,and would be a Talnable addition 
to book learning." To that we shall all say 
Amen. 

In the Tkachbb of December, on page 
150, the Popular Geography of New York 
State ie advertiMd by W. D. Kerr. The 
price should hare been 76 cents instead of 

60 



Thx '* mitten " is useful for many par- 
poses ; to keep tbe hands warm in winter, 
to ward off nnooogenial companionihip,aDd 
to erase chalk from black boards. See an- 

191. 



A CHANCE TO MAKE MOHBT. 



I bongbt one of Oriffiih's 
plating with ffold, silver, or ■ieksl, and ii 
works to perfection. No eooaor did pee- 
pit hear of it than I had mosw flpans^ 
knives, forks, aad jewelry tbaa I aeiid 
piste in a month. The fimt week I i 
$31.80, the first month $167 85, aad 1 1 
by July first I will Uyo $1,000 sMk, a^ 
give my farm coostderabla atteaftioii, tea 
My daughter made $27.40 in tour dafa 
Any person can gtt one of thaaa tnaefcinM 
by sending $3 to W. H. GrUBck & Ck, 
Zanssrille, Ohio, or can obtain uiiiialais hy 
addressu>g them. You can learm to oan the 
machine in one hour. As tkia is any int 
lucky strrak, I give my experloBfla, bopii^ 
others may be benefited as much aa I havs 
Tonrs truly, H.O. HORBHEAD. 





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It pledges promptness and fldelttir to an S 
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NO FEE FOR REGISTRATiOIC 

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without obanee. Onr snpply of Teachen S 
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1891,] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



199 



Gifford's Air-Tight Ink-Well. 

k^ The only Air-Tight School 
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Sample, postpaid, 25 ets. 

Tarr's Noiseless Pointer. 





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tempts to imitate will be appreciated, bat not tolerated. Descripti^ 
circulars and special prices by the dozen, gross, etc., upon appli- 
cation. DustUfs Crayons^ Erasers^ Globfs, Maps^ Charts^ Slate and 
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240 THE AMERICAN TEACHER. [ 

STANDARD BOTANICAL TEXT-BOOKS 

For all Grades, — Graded Schools, Academies, High Schools, 
Colleges, and the General Reader. 

6rai'$ How Pl&lrtS GrOWi * Price, so cents.; ValuaM* and highly intepertbg booh for the ho™* 

Gray's How Plants Behavo. Pnce, 54 cents J orthesehod. 

Gray's Ussons In Botany. - Price, 94 cents. i g^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^,^ 

Grays Manual of Botany. - - ^nce, $i.62.^ coUegM and schoob. 

Gray's Lessons and Manual. Iq one vol. 12.I6. J 

Gray's School and Fioid Botany. Pnce, $1 so. ^ Teit-book tor High sehoob and A^adeiaifl.. 

A u • n 1 < iL Ik • ■■ < I T> • jii on ^ fl**'* adapted to the monntain aeetioa of tiia 

Coultor s Botany of tbo Rocky Mountains. Pnce, $1.62. ^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^, ^o^th meridian. 
Gray and Coultir's Toit-Book of Wtotom Botany. 12.16. b^kJ^'^^'^o^^m^^'^ 

Gray's StmCtOral Botany. - - P^ce, ;j52.00. ) Bebg Vols. L and IL of Oray's Botanieal TbeI- 

GOOdajl'S PbySldOEiCal Botany. - - Price, 12.00. i books, the highest American anthonty. 

....,-.. » . ■ .. Tk . * /. V . ^ book for yoang raaden, giring mnoh infnH— 

Horrick s Chapters on Plant Ufa. Pnce, 6 ) cents, ^ion in simple bngoage. 

Hooker's Botany. (Science Primer Series.) 35 cents. ^ """^J^jf "* *" *• *~"^ i«^er or the 

Hooker's Child's Book of Hatire. P^^^t I. plants. An exoeUent elass book, and a great favorite for 

Price, 44 cents. «"% rw^ling. 

SMi-t FMM Watt h Mm. Pric, »ioo. '-^J^tif/H^Sr.Jl.Sr*'' * 

Wood's How to study PlaatS. - P™** |100. The same as the abore work, with added ehaptess 

on Physiological and Systematie Botaiqr< 

Wood's Lissons In Botany. Price, 90 cents.) ^^^"^'rr^rr^^f^-^'^J^ 

Wood's Aiorican Botanist aid norlst Price, $ i .75. \ j^'^'X'^^*^ *" "^ "***" 

Wood's DoseriirtiYO Botany. - - Price, *i.25.b^|^^««~ •»»y-'*>» ^~*««B'*«'-*«* 
Wood's Hiw Class Book of Botany. - Price, ^2.50. ^ '*^^"^ of great merit tor th. st«ie.fs 

YomUl'S RrSt Book Id BotSny. Price, 64 cents. ) LaylDg the loandAtioii for a knowledge of boteiij 

YOOBail'S DOOCrlptlYO Botany. - - Pnce, $1.20.i by » regain ttudy of the pUntsthemtelTeB. 

I M. • ■ ■ I fi « Th • ▲n nA Adapted to Americaa Sehoob m a eeqoel to 

r'$ Physiological BOtaOy. " - Pnce, $1.20. Teum^'BDescriptiTe Botany. 



Copies of the above hooka eent^ poetpaid^ on receipt of price. Correspondence in reference to iniroiueiorf 
supplies is cordiaUy invited. 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 

NBWTOBK: CINCINNATI: CHICAGO: 

80«>808 Brosidway. 18V UFalaat Street. sa8-S«0 WalMUh Ave. 




au> snuBB. yoi . ziY^ mo. i^vww bbbibs. tol. tiii^ ho. t. 



B. WIN8HIP, 
, K SHELDO: 



Jjjwi^T.. Boston, March, 1891. j 



MoathlTS •!.•• • Tmvw 
RW IV^LilB PUBLI8HII€I 01 

i Bammtmrni St., Bonoir. 



Seasonable » Science • Studies. 

THM CATALOGUE OF THB 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 



PXUBHTS UAJXr ATTRACrmni AMD POPULAB fICIXNOB TEXT- BOOKS APPBOPB^AZB 90 nOi 



IH THB 8TI7DT OF 



>N^«^M^^^I^V^>^^X^^^^KA^« 



BOTANY 



^^y^'^^^k^^^^^^^t^^^^^^i^ii^^* 



POLLOWXVft: 



OBAT^S HOW PI«A1VTS OBOW, 
CIB4T'il HOW PltAlfTN BBHArB* 



Weents 

M06DU 



A valuable and hlgbly iDtoreating book for the home or 
the sehooL 

CIB4T>II I^BBSOlfB IIV BOTANVy 9leeilU 

OB AY'S UlAIflJAI. OP BOTAlfV, $182 

OBAY'il EiBSSOIVM AlfD nAlfVAI*. InoneTOl. 216 

A stuDdard and popular worli. Adapted to use In Gollegee 

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OBAV^S HGOOOr. AIVD PIBIiD BOTAIVT, 

A text book for High Scbools and Aoademiee. 
COVI<TBB>J4 BOTAN V •t Ike B«cky ni«aatnffM«« 

A 11 )ra adapted to the mountain seetloni of the United 

States, to the 100th meridian. 
CIB4T * t;OIJI.TBB»9 TBXT-BOOK OV WBST- 

BBIV B«»T4NT, 

Belns Orav'ii l^engons and GouUer's Manual bound In 1 toI. 
CIBAY'4 nTBVOTIJBAL BOT41f V, 
«OOD4i:.B*i>l FHTfirOI.OQIC4r< BOTAIVV, 

Reins Tois I atH H <>(Uray*s Botanical Text* Book, the 

highest Am(>rlcan authority. 
HBBBrrK'f* CHAFTBB9 OIV FI<ANT I^IPB, OOeoiU 

A bock for young readers, glTlng much informmtlon in 

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Part I , PLAim,. 411 

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STBBI«B'II 14 WBBKB IB BOVANT, 

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by means of llrtng specimens. 
WOOD'S HOW TO lOTrOV PI.A1VTS. 

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Physiological and Systematic Botany. 
W^OOD»8 I.BBSOIVSB1V BOTANr. 
WOOD'4 AHIBB. BOTAAIST •■d FI.OBIPT, 

Bo'h works recently rcTlsed by Professor O. B Willis. Re- 
. mark ably well adapted to class instruetton aud prlTate study. 
WOOD'A DBBCBIPTITB BOTANY, - IJS 

Belog tbe Flora only of the American Botanist and Florist 
WOODM fVBW GTASS-BOOK OF BOTAlf Y* 8.00 

A Standard work of great merit f vmt the student's library. 
YOVnANS'S FIBMT BOOK IIV BOTAIVY, 84 cents 

YOIJItl4fVA»B BBHOBIFTIYB BOTAlfY, $1.20 

Laymg the foundation for a knowiedge of botany by a 

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BBNTrBl'B FHYBiOItOGIOAI. BOTAlfY, 110 

Adapted to Americas Schools as a sequel to YoumiDO's 

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In ASTRONOMY 

Ao ooniribntoro an Bevea, QiUMf 4r Bol/$f KiddU, Loekytr, yprtan, P§ek, Bag, BMmm, amd StttU. Tha dopartmoat of 

CHEMISTRY 

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A-MERIO^N BOOK OOMPj^NY, 
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the AMBBiOAjr Tbackbb. 



1 



242 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



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1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACflER. 



243 



EQUIPOISE WAISTS. 

For Ladies, Misses, Ghildren, and iDfants. 



Tht Equipoise Waist is a per. 
leot substitate for the corset and 
may be worn either with or with- 
out bones, which, owing to the 
construction of the bone pockets, 
maybe removed and re-inserted 
without ripping. 

It is a combination of a corset, 
a waist, and a corset cover, and 
ladies need not fear that the grace 
of form imparted - by the corset 
will be in the least sacrificed by 
wearing the Equipoise. 

They are made in high neck 
and low neck, long waist and medium waist, with bones and with 
oat bones. White, Tan, and Black. 

lllustraUd ctital<^ue mailed free to any address oy the wtanu/actttrers 

GEORGE FROST & CO., 31 IMforf St. , Bostoi, Miss. 





OVIR TIN MILLION PAIRS SOLD. 

THE WARREN FASTENER has a 
ROUNDED RIB around tbepart which holds 
the stooking, and WILL NOT TEAR tb'^ finest 
hose. 




WARREN HOSE SUPPORTERS ARE FOR 
SALE EVERYWHERE. Ask for them at the 
stores and BE SURE YOU GET THE WAR- 
REN, which may be identified by the FAST- 
ENER which has a ROUNDED RIB on the 
holding edges, and is stamped with the word 
WARREN. DO NOT BE DECEIVED br 
Fasteners which appear to have ronnded hold- 
ing edges, as the process by which thev are 
made leaves almost a knife edge on the inner 
or holding surface, and they will oat the 
stocking. 

The warren is made in a great vapiety of 
styles for I/adies, Misses and Children, in SILK 
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Illustrated Catalogue of HOSE SUPPORT- 
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to any address by the manofaoturers, ^ 

GEO. FB08T k 00., 31 Bedford 8t.|BoBt(m, Mass. 



LIBHT HEARTS AND PLENTY MONEY. 

Mb. Editob:— ♦ 

I hftve joBt oompletod my fint week's 
work with my Plating Mftohine mad hare 
$42 profit M a reward. 1 am obarmed with 
the boeinen; the work ii easy and profits 
large. I bought my Plater from W. H. 
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and I feel eonfident if people only knew 
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hearts and plenty money. 

MRS. J. 0. NOBLE. 



LuciFKB MATCHES when first inrented 
b 1827 were sold fifty for twenty-fiye oents. 
Now whole forests are made into matohes, 
and the prioe of a gross, like that of Ester- 
brook's Steel Pens, is next to nominal. 



CONMViHPTItfN CUBED. 

▲d old pbyslelan, retired from practice, had 
Disced In his hands by an Bast India mission- 
ary the formula of a simple vegetable remedy 
for the speedy and permament cure of Con- 
sumption, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Astbma, and 
all Throat and Lung Affections, also a posl- 
tife and radical cnre for Nervous DebUity and 
all Nervous Complaints. Having tested its 
wonderful eurative powers In thousands of 
cases, and desiring to relieve human sufler- 
iDg, I will send free of charge to all who wish 
it, this recipe In German French, or English, 
with full directions for preparing and using. 
Bent by mail, by addressmg, with stamp, nam- 
iBg thb paper. W. A. NOVK8, 

820 Powen* Block, BoehuUr, If. Y. 



MIDICAL GOLLBQl AND HOSPITiL 
OF OHioAoo, nxmois. 

The poUey of this mstttatloa Is to meke Uf 
pxomlses for Hospital or College tnitloa. chnles 
tnb-cUnies, or eny means for study and obser- 
vation, that is not literally and righteously kept. 
Thb Thibtt • SnoovD AJKWSlL Coubsb ov 
LnoruuM will begin Sept. 16, 1891. and oontinne 

for six months. For fall partlo~* — "^* 

and Ollnlqne. address K. z. B. 

Beslstrar. 8084 MIehlsan Ats.. 



kw^ Ohloaco. 



$75.ss to $250.22 \ 

working for us. Persons prefei 



HOlfTH 

_ D be made 

working for us. "Persons preferred who can 
furnish a horse and give thehr whole tUne to 
the business. Spare moments may be proflt> 
ably employed also. A few ▼acaneles in 
towns and oitles, B. F. JOHNSON * 00., 
2600 Main St, Blchmond, Va. 



FREE TO TEACHERS. 

Catalogue and few sample Beward Cards 
free. Our Embossed Panels, 6H x 7%, 8 oents 
each, are extra floe tor last day of school. Oil 
ChromoA, same size, 2 cts. each. Bmbossed 
Cards, 4%x6, i^c each. $1.20 worth for $1.00. 
JOHN WILCOX. Mflford. N. Y. 



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BY L. W. RUSSELL. 
Pricey 30 ete. 

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j>rawliiff Btenolla— ft) different perforated patterns of 
animals, birds, flowers, etc., on cards i^^x^ inches, 80o. 

Bohool Beporte--Arran«ed forl,2|S, 4,6,A6 months 
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Bona Book— Merry Melodies, contains 48 large paoes 
beet schools sons* for all grades, manilla coTers, IBa 

Bohool Bpoakor-lOO nages best Pieces, .Reeitatiqns, 
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SOhool DUloffueo— 120 pages best Dialoones for all 
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Bohool Bntertalnmento— 116 pages bert Bacitations. 
Dialogoes, Tableaox, Charades, Concert Pieces, etc 2Bo. 

Teachers' Xxaminex^New edition,, contains 400 pagea 
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the difl^rait branohes of school stndiM. it ia the best 
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address, 

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00.. Wut Tnm, N. T. Estab- 
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prices on appUcation. 



LADY TEACHERS WANTED! 



THB SCHOOL AND 
COLLBGB BUBBAU of 
ELMHUB8T (Chicago), 
lu*., secnreo posltiODS for lady teachers In 39 States the past season. The salaries of these 
range from $80 per month to |l8B0 per year. This Boreau makes a special effort to assist 
lady teachers to good positions. Send for mannal and hlanks. 

Address C. J. ALBEBT, Manager, Slmhubbt, liL 



244 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[ICascb, 



SILVER, BURDETT Sc COMPAN'X', 

O Hancock ^A.^eirae^ BoRton* 
InvUe the attefMon of Teachers and Seliaol Officers to their popular School amd 
CoUeffe Teoct'BookSf and other helps for classroom work. To a rapidly grouHmg tUt^ 
numJbering already nearly 200 titles, valuable additions will be made frow^ tifne u 
time. Send for their new niustrated Catalogrne, which gives full information, 

l{N AMERICAN METHOD OF T^f^OHING fRENCH. 

FOB BBOINNBBS IM COLLBOB8, AC^OBMIBS, AHD ■MH 8CHOOU. 



Ksitel's ElNisntanr Franeh Grainar. 



Kratat's Analytical Franeh 



KsvTBi«*8 Fbxvoh Coujtss hM, mmoDg Imndreds of otber plaoes, been wholly or partly tntrodooed In tho following 
Bdncattonal Inttltatlont: 



Tale Cwlleve» 
Priac«t«M €«llec«« 
B*wd«iw €*I1«||0* 
Dartuiwalli CellOffOy 
Williani* Celloie^ 
Okerlla C«llocet 



VptTorslty cf Pcawaylrawlay 
VairerMlty •! WiscwwsiM, 
WasUavfea VMlreniitiry 
lawa Utate VMlrersiiy, 
ffcbraaka State UaiTenlfy-v 
maaeiieta Stat« IJalremltyy 
■•cheater Uwlrenity. 

'THMHIGH SCHOOLS OF 

ifewy 

Charleatewy 
JHartfMrdy 
FerteBiewtfcy 



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Pelfteeliaie lastltate, Breeklym, 
Anaaaella Naral Aeadeaiyy 
Phinip* AcadoMT, Bxetwr, 
Felytechalc laetttatey Trmy 



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Atlaata, ^ AllMiay. Beafea, . ^erjey 4)lty. 

Breeklya, Balthsave^ Ckarleatea. Werceater. 

Baffale, Baaiias CUy« JHartfMrd, PittaHeld, 

Philadelphia^ Pverideaee, Pertenieatht Vtica, 

The pnbUahert wonUL bo plotied to glTO any farther Information regarding these books. 

EFFmeHAM MATNABD * CO., Pabrs., 771 Braadway, and 67 & 69 WBth SL, New Ynfc 

N, I, •MITM, 5 Somer— f t„ Boston, i J, P> WitLIAIMf, 151 Wabooh Avo,, Chicago. 

A. S. BARNES & CO., 751 B'l ay, Sew York, 

InTite the altentioii of te^ehen to their list of dintanetively Teacher^ Books, numbering tome Thirty Vciumm^ 
eoeh and ell inyalnable to the teacher who desires te make the most of his (or her) parsoit Send for list with prices. 



CURE SCROFULA 

. With Ayer's Sarsaparilla. This disease 
may well be termed ** the curse of civ- 
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feebles the constitution, causes con- 
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ulcers, sores, and troubles innumerable. 
Fortunately, there is a remedy for this 
evil. By the persistent use of Ayer's 
Sarsaparilla, all traces of scrofula may 
be eradicated. Henry Brandt, Avoca, 



Nebr., certi- 
years I suf- 
scrofnla, till 
use of Ayer's 



With 



fies: "For 
fered from 
I began the 
Sarsaparilla, 



since which the disease has entirely 
disappeared. A child of mine was also 
cured by the same remedy." 

"I was a sufferer, for years, from scrof- 
ula and blood diseases. The doctors' pre- 
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last advised to try Ayer's Sarsaparilla. 
I did so, and now feel like a new man, 
being fully restored to health." — C. N. 
Frink, Decorah, Iowa. 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

Prepared by Dr. J. C. Ayer fcCo., Lowell, Mas*. 
Sold by all Dniggiau; Price $1; six boulee, $6. 

Has cured others, wrill ours yos 



Ofspm 

HORSFORD'S ACID PHOSPHATL 

In dyspepsia the stomach fails to assimilato the food. 
Hie Acid Phosphate assists the weakened stomach, mik- 
ing the process of digestion naloral and easy* 



Dr.R. S. MoCoMB, PUhdslphSa, says: * 
dyspepsia, Willi sooesa." 

Dr. W. a LnovABD, HiMdals, N. H-says 
for dyspepsia that has srar ooms viidsv my 



'Used it ia 



'Thabtst tsBMdy 



Dr. T. H. AimsEWS, Jsllstaoa Msdleal OoUsgs, PUadelphb. 

as: *'A woBderfal xeniady wUflk !»?• SM ! 
ts ia tks wotsfe focms ol dyspepsia.^ 



Dsscripthre pamphlet free. 

Bumford Chemieal WoHbSf 

JPro^Meneef R.I. 



BEWARE of SUBSTITUTES and 
IMITATIONS. 

CAVTIOlf— Be rave the wevd « menffevd»a *» la 

I ^w MiaHa— ■ If ever aaM 



^"'^^ 




EACHER 



Vol. XIY. 



DEVOTED TO THE METHODS AND PRINCIPLES OP TEACHING. 



No- 7. 



VINET'S LETTAH. 

BT ALIGB MAB8B. 

BAH TSACHAH, I's • biteli 

Ea MM yea's mthah tmaiwwh yll 
Fs mighty waak yoo 



Bat now Fi write dit od« om; 
Xf yont does SMwah beok, 
Fi f MtiB dmt die Uttle ehik 
'Ltiiikitieeiealie'sUeek. 

Fe itey ter home fo a lew deye, 
8M'f FedemeMleecot; 
Geie tiak oh eooee Fa been eappoet, 
Oh Jee ex like n not 

Say, doaa yoa kaow, Ifim Mollie, del 
Dem boyi aenmt dat aisle 
Dey an time oali me little aig, 
Xa tease am all do while. 

Bat I JM laffi, ea tells em haek 

FsBodejeetioashad 

To eallah, el I kaew da moat, 

Dsn dey was mighty mad. 

Ea doaa yon tiak Mim ICoUie Bfowa 

'Twill be an awfal joke,— 

Ef whea we's all doaa git ap dah 

Ea hsah do deah Lord spoke 

Day den begias de soetin ob 

Do sheepsss en de goats 

En dem boys all tarns oat eoal Uaek 

En Fa bode white fslka. 



THB BROOK. 



BT X. IDKLLA WALLAOX. 



"® 



BBOOSIiET, with year sQt 
Why do yon OTse haste away f 
I woader as I wateh year flow, 
Whenoe do yoa oome, and whither go? " 

'* From lap of derksome rooks I pass 
Throngh flowery fields and moss and grass, 
Aad in my mirror floateth by 
Fab pietorss of the soil blae sky. 

* ' And so, like ehildren witfaoot i 
I danee along aad know not i 
Who Called me from the loek-bad^ rfde 



SEEN IN A PRIVATB SCHOOL. 

BT ASaiM UABBL WILLIS. 

1 SPENT the momiog, not long sinee, in a pri?ato 
C sohooli tome of whose workings I had reason lobeliere 
would be helpful and soggestiTe to teaehers. Abool 
thirty ehildren attended, most of whose ages ranged from 
four to eight years. It is held in a large ^seetional 
bailding/' pat up for tho pnrposoy and, with its many 
windows and light-painted walls, book-eases, eortained 
closets, and opright piano^ the plaee is a pleasant one. 
Desks are used by the oldest pajnls, bat the two lower 
grades of children sit aroand tables on chairs low enoogh 
to enable their feet to tooch the floor. Bach of these 
grades has its own teacher, as does the highest, and as 
the latter only is eortained off, all the little ones are in 
one large room. The bosy ham of work and stady does 
not seem to annoy anybody, for each grade is intent apon 
its own work. 

After the osoal opening exereise, the dividing eartains 
were drawn, and then the yoanger children recited the 
12l8t Psalm, answering qaestions aboat its meaning. 
After that they repeated in concert part of Mrs. Brown- 
ing^s poem, ««A Child's Thoaghtof God.*' Their teacher 
led, and the little ones had evidently caoght her emphap 
sis, for theirs was very good. 

They My that God livee Tory high ; 
Bai, il yoa look above .the piaee, 
YonoannotseeoarGod; aad.why? 

And il yoa dig down in the:minie, 
Yoanever see Um m the gold ; 
Thoogh from Um.all .that's glory ihiBes. 

God b so good he wean a fold 

Of heaven aad earth aetom Ui fMe, 
Like leereti kept lor loie vntold. 



Bat rtill I feel that Ui embraee 

SlUeedewB by thtille thioagh all i 
Thioogh right and eoand ol every.'plaee. 

Then they answered questions like these : Why do 
we think of God when wo see beantifal things? What 
are pine trees? mines? What is a secret? Who was 
Elisabeth Barrelt Browning ? Of wbftt nationality^waa 
she? What was her hnsband? 

The pupils are taoght the stan^tf wholly by repeating 
them with their teaeber* Ther listen to het rendirripg 



246 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER* 



[Mascb, 



onee or twiee, m a new Tene is to be leunedy then 
•ay it, following with eyes and ears the motions of her 
lips. In eaeh rendering, the pieee is reeited from the be- 
^nning, thus being associated with the whole. 

This exercise finished, the kindergarten teacher took 
charge of the youngest, while the rest of the little ones 
were given instruction in Germait. Every little pupil in 
this branch bids the teacher good-morning and good-by 
each day, in both English and German. An object les- 
son was quickly followed by a motion lesson in which the 
parts of the body were named in Carman, then bjb one or 
two Grerman motion songs or plays. Afterwards two 
went out to return as visitors to two more, who received 
them and talked with them about the weather, etc., in 
German. 

Meantime the kindergarten dass had a reading 
lesson, ended by a recitation of Macdonald's poem, 
<< Little White Lily," and the repeating in concert, with 
motions, <' Where did you come from, baby dear?" 
This was followed by a lesson on color and paper folding. 

In the other class of little ones there was a lesson in 
drawing, lasting perhaps ten minutes. None of the reci- 
tations in the school are long ones, and there is scarcely 
any perceptible break between them. One did not realize 
the time had gone when, in an instant, the teacher holds 
a large book in front of her, clasping both arms around it. 

" Who can tcU what bookl have here?" she asked. 

<< A book of poetry," said severaL The enthusiasm is 
well roused by this time. 

" But whose poetry ? " 

** Shakespeare's," remarked some one who had seen the 
book before. 

That reply was right, and the teacher proceeded to ask 
who Shakespeare was, about when he lived, and other 
questions. 

« Do you wish to see a picture of ^ the lark' at heaven's 
gate singing ? " The book is open now, and the teacher 
sits down with her littie pupils to hear them repeat *<A 
Morning Song, by William Shakespeare," as the childish 
voices announce. In this school no titie is given without 
the author's name. The song, taken from '< Cymbeline," is 
repeated in concert, and questions about larks and their 
main characteristics, the meaning of '^ heaven's gate," 
and where it might be, Phoobus and his steeds, meaning 
of 'gim and bin, etc, bring out the beauties of the song. 
Each child was then requested to say it aloud. Two can 
not, and as they have been inattentive, they are not 
allowed to see the picture, which the rest of the children 
examined eagerly. The remainder of the brief time 
allotted to what is called on the program <<With the 
Poets," was devoted te Lowell's '' The Fountain," The 
children are on the lookout for any pictures or printed 
allusions to the poems or poets they leam about, and have 
enough material now to begin a scrapbook, which is soon 
to be done. 

Geography comes next, and maps of continents cut out 



of old geographies and pasted on press board, whieh is 
trimmed away to follow the coast lines, were used ; also 
pictures of various formations of land and water, taakn 
from textbooks, and made durable in the same manner. 
Of course this is supplemented by the use of the sand taUe 

A lesson on qualities was the last thing done hj the 
middle class, most of whose workings are here described 
because they seemed more unique than either of the veB- 
known kindergarten games engaged in by the yonngeet, 
or the more advanced lessons recited by the oldeet papils 
intheschooL 

The teacher held out both hands, closed tightly, aaying, 
'^ I have in this hand something that is flexible and pli- 
able, and in this hand something neither flexible nor 
pliable. What b the difference ? " 

After the reply the substances were shown, and the 
children defined various adjectives as describing qualities. 
The new quality to be learned was ahsarbent and its op- 
posite. A small tray, with water in it, was placed before 
the pupils. A sponge, a stone, a bell, cotton, blotting 
paper, and a lump of salt were produced from various 
boxes and receptacles, to heighten interest These were 
placed. in the tray, and the difference between absorbent 
and non-absorbent things was elicited by skillful question- 
ing. This seemed to be the favorite lesson, — ^indeed one 
child declared that she liked it best of alL In a short 
time the dock pointed to twelve, and there was a general 
rustic of departure. The morning was broken by a few 
nainutes of calisthenics to music, with windows open, all 
following the motions of one pupil, who was chosen as a 
leader. The week's program differs on different days, no 
session being long enough to crowd all studies into it 



TALKS WITH TOUNG TEACHERS. 

BY W. Ii. JAQUXTU. 

LITERATURE IN THE SCHOOLS. 
H FTEB the first strangeness and difficulty have in a 
jfj^ measure worn off, comes a time when the earnest 
teacher looks about and says, " What can I do beyond 
the reqmrements of committee or superintendent for these 
under my care, these citizens that are to be ? " It is by 
this attitude of intelligent self-direction that the true 
teacher is recognized ? She brings whatever force or 
talent nature has given her to bear upon the posribilities 
of her situation, that she may waste none of thenu 

There is an imperative demand for special literary 
training in the schools. Every day sees a flood of new 
books issuing from the publishers* hands, and the amount 
of really good literature is small in proportion to the 
mass. CoDunonplace, worthless books are read by thou- 
sands of people, whose lives are shaped accordingly. It 
is the teacher's privilege to supplement home influence, to 
counteract it if need be; awakening in the child the 
power to understand and enjoy good literature. 



1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



247 



Sefore mentioniiig special ways in which this may be 
done, I wish to dwell a little longer on the importance of 
^he work. We all generalize largely from personal ex- 
perience. So, dear fellow-teaohers, take the matter home 
'to yonrselves for a moment Look back over the hoars 
of delight that yonr books have given yon. Think of 
ycmr joy in seeing yonr library grow, from small begin- 
nings, by rare, caref ally considered additions ; of the 
days when yon first made aoqaaintanoe with year favorite 
authors, the inspiration they brought, the earnest parpose 




Ray Gbbbne Huling, Hew Bedford, 
President Amerlean Inititute of Instruction. 



they awakened, as, read and re-read, their teachings sank 
deep into yoar heart Think what a refage in loneliness, 
a consolation in sorrow, a light in darkness, these silent 
eaehers have been. Remembering all these things, yoa 
will strive to awaken in others a taste that has been of 
saeh blessing to yoa. 

For the yoongest children there are ^< memory gems " 
to be learned, and the reading aload by the teacher. 
Much depends on the proper selection. There mast be 
some experimenting, bat yoa cannot go far wrong if yoa 
keep the standard well np to the limit of the child's ap- 
preeiition. And a part of yoar work is to teach him to 
appreciate, to make him find the story in the poem, to 
see its pictares. Do not read down too far ; it is possible 
to underrate the child's power. As for the memory 
gems, it does no (harm if some are beyond his fall com< j 



prehension. They are learned ^'not for school, bat for 
life," and one day the opening mind will read the fall 
beaaty of the thoaght, and bless yoa for the gift 

In a few years entire poems may take the place of the 
extracts committed to memory. Do we not owe a debt of 
gratitnde to the teacher who made as learn Oray*8 Elegy? 
Sach prodactions seem an indispensable part of oar men- 
tal famishing, being so ingrained in oar thoaght and 
literatare that we meet them everywhere. 

The school-work in reading and memorizing shoald in- 
flaence the home reading. When the papils are old 
enoagh, excellent resnlts may be obtained by assigning a 
certain book for general reading, and devoting some time 
to its discassion. Nothing is more helpfal than this fric« 
tion of mind npon mind; each has something to con- 
tribate, and all are benefitted by the interchange of im- 
pressions. 

In towns with good pablic libraries, it is now a com- 
mon thing for teachers to aid papils in the selection of 
books. In villages withont pablic libraries, the teacher 
may in a measure sapply the deficiency by a school 
library. This can be easily accomplished by some of the 
many methods which energetic teachers know for supply- 
ing school needs. Books thas obtained may be given to 
scholars in leisare hoars as a reward for good behavior, 
and may be taken home. 

Encoarage older papib to copy fine passages in extract 
books. This is an invalaable practice for the yoang 
stadent It begets the habit of carefal reading, and pre« 
serves treasares of thoaght for the mind to dwell npon 
and incorporate into its snbstance. 

The daily reading lesson offers a magnificent oppor- 
tanify, which in many cases seems almost wasted. What 
the average pupil needs to gain from his reading lesson is 
not the power to render an oft-repeated passage with the 
graces of the elocutionist, but to interpret cut sight the 
author's thought, and give it intelligibly to a listener. If 
this end were kept in view, instead of the wearisome 
repetition of the uninteresting scraps that fill many read- 
ing books, we should have consecutive reading of entire 
productions, an undivided union between the study of 
<^ reaiding " and *' English " in all grades, and an incalcu- 
lable gain to the pupil in his extended knowledge of liter- 
ature. The teacher who is free to carry out her own 
plans may do much in this direction by a broad range of 
supplementary reading, and by substituting consecutive 
reading from standard authors, for the compiled reading 
book, with advanced pupils. 

Every means of realizing the author's personality 
should be improved. A glimpse of his home, the recog* 
nition of his birthday, biographical incidents, the picture 
of the num, all increase in no small degree the interest 
in his writings. 

Perhaps the most effective work of all, is that which 
the teacher may do outside of school hours with older 
pupils, or the young people of the neighborhood. Yari- 



248 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



out kindi of readbg elabs maj be thai orgftniied, with 
untold benefit tb the memben. Ifuiy a yoang penon in 
whom litenury taste leema at a hopeieasly low ebb will 
rise, under tympathetic direetion, to a loving apprecia- 
tion of the masters. It is far better, howerer, that the 
training should begin in ehildhood, that there may be no 
f abe tastes to uproot Few things are more sad than to 
hear a young person eonfess his inability to enjoy good 
reading, and say that none of his teachers ever gave him 
the slightest aid in that direction. Resolve that your pu- 
pils shall not have the opportunity to lay that sin to your 
charge. 

I cannot dose without mentioning a few helps which 
may possibly be of service to some who may read these 
words : The full line of standard authors for school use 
published by Hoaghton ds Mifflin, and Miss Bart's admir- 
able Literary LandmaftkM^ which gives invaluable hints 
from the auUior's wide experience, and a helpful list of 
books for teachers' and pupils* reading. 



ZACHASrS FIBST TBAR IN 8CH00L-(VL) 

BT SABAH L. ABHOUX 

BEFORE many days had p a ssed, Zachary was him- 
self agab. He went back to his schoi^ welcomed 
Miss Soule's return, and, spite of his anxious mo&er's 
fears, regained all his interest and earnestness in his 
school work. In fact, the habits and manners that he 
had obtained during the unfortunate interregnum seemed 
entirely forgotten and laid aside. There was magic in 
the young teacher's influence. Oood throve in her pres- 
ence as would flowers in genial sunshine and refreshing 
rain. She seemed never to look for evil, and it seldom 
intruded itself into her presence. All that was best in 
the children came out in their relations with their teacher. 
They forgot to be anything but good. 

Miss Soule made no mention of the change in her 
school She hardly acknowledged it to herself. If she 
saw that Mike Driscoll was even more lawless and rpagh 
than in the early days when he had not learned to know 
her influence; that Zachary had become idle and mis- 
chievous, and had forgotten many of his bright sunny 
ways; that the children read words and recited spelling, 
*' measured" numbers "according to Grube," and sang 
rote songs with equal indifference, the wise little 
teacher made no sign. She was too gentle to condemn, 
even when she reeognixed the harm that had been done. 
She took up her work as if she had never been away from 
it, and the children fell readily into the old ways again. 
She expected them to be obedient ; they did not disap- 
point her. She asked their best work; they gave it 
willingly. The old spirit of helpfulness returned. The 
lessons became alive with int^resty -i t he days were short, 
the ehildr«9 bappft 



Mrs. Deane rejoiced, as she watched Zaofaary^s 
ress. The lad had found himself again, and hie best ael^ 
at that She had no misgivings while he was under Miss 
Soale*s care. She knew he was growing. 

It was late in February, almost March. Tha open 
winter had not hbdered school gobg. The ehildran ran 
about as freely as in the summer days. But Zmeliaiy 
woke one morning to And the world outside made nev by 
a heavy snowfall, that was still at work, *'he»ptDg field 
and highway with a silence deep and white.'* The bey 
laughed aloud in his delight, and hurried to share the 
new pleasure with his mother. He was keenly sdiTe to 
the beautiful in tlie worid abeul him, and hb motfaer 
found him an appteeialive observer of the heavy laden 
pines, the fantastic fences, and tlie smoolli drifted fieldsL 
The thought of the fun, even, was secondary, thoogh 
Zachary liked boy's fun. 

His first dond arose with the suggestion that Ae roads 
would not be open, and that he must stay at home from 
schooL He pleaded earnestly, with quivering lip, and 
waited, half in dread for the decision of his father, to 
whom the case had been appealed. What joy to learn 
that Us father must drive past the school house, — that he 
would take Zachary, and bring him home in the af lar^ 
noon. A lunch was to be provided,— «nd he would have 
the untried pleasure of «<staying tt schooL" Whu fun 
in being wrapped into a condition that defied snow and 
cold, and in sitting by his father's side, tueked under the 
baffslo robe, while the dd-fashioned string of beUs 
jingled with old DoUy's every step^ as she plunged 
through the new snow. It was a new experience to 
Zachary, — a delightful one. 

And Miss Soule was at the school house door, ready 
to meet Zachary, to rep^^ to Mi. Daane*s courteous 
words, and to promise to keep the boy until his father's 
return. She laaghed at the ball of '< comforters " and 
coats, from which Zachary emerged, and swept away the 
last snowflake from the little feet The rosy face and 
eager eyes spoke his excitement and pleasure. 

But where is the school? Mike Driscoll is here,-— 
what snow could keep him away ? His rough boots are 
wet to hb knees. Susie Lane has come. She lives 
across the street And Oeorgie Hayes came with Miss 
Soule. Nobody else. ''What a little school! What 
fun!" Zachary thinks. Two or three others arrive 
before nine. The bell rings, and the little company find 
their pUces, locking at Miss Soule with wondering eyes. 

''Is it worth while to have school just for us?" Mike 
asks. "Miss Soule smiles her reply, and the morning 
exercises begin. The hymn is sung reverently, and the 
children's dear voices repeat the morning psalm with 
sweet thoughtfulness. Then Miss Soule draws the little 
group about her, and gmng to the window, she raises 
the sash, holds a slate outside, and shows to the wonder 
ing children the large snowflakes that have been drifted 
noon fcHa darii aorlaoe. *^ lioek. and tall me their ahane." 



1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TfiACfiilk 



^4d 



tthe Mjs. Michael is first to see. "Oh, Miss Soule, 
bere*8 one that looks like a star I " he cries eagerly, << and 
liere'fl another, and another ! " Zachary sees them, too, 
luid the girls f olloir in their seeing. Miss Soale brings a 
large lens from her desk, and hands it to Michael, who 
Already stands more erect in the pride of his discovery. 
fie looks through it, and forgets everything bat the beaa- 
tif al figures before him. *^ Oh, see, see ! They are all 
stam, and all different I " ^< Are they like the stars on 
our flag ? " Zachary finds the difference. ^' These stars 
have six points,'* he avers. "And these stars are all 
trimmed up on the points of 'em, different shapes," 
Miehael adds with interest The children watch, ques- 
tion, and exclaim until the flakes are melted. Then they 
go to the board to draw all the different shapes. "I 
eould cut snowflakes out of paper," Zachary vdunteers. 
" Yes, we will do that by and by," his teacher replies. 

The drawing done, Uie children gather again about 
their leader, and talking eagerly, in answer to her gentle 
questions, tell the story of the morning. It b easy to 
keep their thoughts on the new beautiful snow, and to 
lead them to tell why they rejoice in it They find ready 
sympathy and appreciation as they describe the fun to be 
found in snowballing, building snow forts, making snow- 
men, and sliding on the crust Perhaps that accounts 
for the like interest shown by the children when Miss Soule 
speaks of her pleasure in the beauty of the morning. 
The children go again to the window to look with newly 
opened eyes upon the white fields and the snow laden 
trees. " I like it," said Zachary, drawing a long breath. 
"And I wonder if Ood makes every snowflake in that 
fleld as beautiful as those we saw. There must be millions 
of them in all." 

"Tes, Zachary, He makes them beautiful every one." 
"He must love beautiful things." "Tou wouldn't 
think," pursued Zachary, "that He would make it so 
lovely when nobody notices. But He sees them all, 
doesn't He?" "Tes, and He likes to have us learn to be 
glad in the beauty He has prepared for us," Miss Soule 
replies, not afraid that the children will fail to under- 
stand. Nor do they. 

"I know somethug in a verse about snow," offers 
Susie. " I don't know tljie first of it, but it has * whiter 
than snow' in it" 

<*Can anything be whiter than snow? Miss Soule?" 
Zichary asks, and then the children speak reverently of 
the clean hands and pure heart, of the spotless lives and 
white thoughts, which they* would have for their own. 
Miss Soule does not preach. She is sincere and true. 
She asks questions which , are gentle, thoughtful and 
earnest, and the children do the preaching. 

'Tis time for gynmastics now and the children play 
that they are snowflakes, which the wind in the guise of 
Hiehael, is driving. ^Jbqut They read from the board 
the story of the snow. They make forms like snow 
eryitals with the pegs, and cut others from paper. At 



Zachary 's request. Miss Soule reads them the story of 
the " little siftter -^ — " who lives in the land of snow, and 
Mike resolves to be an E:ikimo when he grows up. 

Then there is hard work in numbers and spelling, and 
a quiet period for writing before the noon. 

Such a happy noon! Such a generous lunch I— 
enough for Michael as well as Zachary. The latter is 
firmly persuaded that no warm dinner can be half so 
good as cold gingerbread, and determines to carry his 
lunch and stay every noon in future. 

Miss Soule plays games at noon. She is chosen 
first, whosoever has the choice in all the games. The 
noon hour is short, Zachary thinks. 

There is more reading^^still from the board,-^for 
there the thoughts seem alive. Then Miss Soule reads 
to the children, — ^not a fairy story nor a nursery rhyme,-*- 
but " Snow Bound." They listen, knowing no weariness, 
as the dear voice leads their thought to the beautiful 
picture. They laugh as they imagine the bridlepost 
transformed and dressed, or enjoy with the boys the 
snow tunneL And then they listen to "The First Snow- 
fall," and repeat over and over the stanzas they like best 
until they become their own. 

" I like a snowday," declares Zachary. " I wish they 
came every day." 

"What shall we remember that we have learned 
today ? " Miss Soule asks. 

Each has some lesson from the snow. Mike remem- 
bers its purity, and the verse they learned about the pure 
in heart And Zachary loves to think of the beautiful 
crystals— "so many of them." Bat the child does not 
know that every snowfall will bring back to him a 
precious thought, woven into his life by the sweet influ- 
ence of his earnest teacher. Nor does she guess the 
worth of the long day spent so happily with the handful 
of scholars and the snow. But it was " worth while." . 



MODELING IN PAPIEB-HACHB.-(I.). 

BT ALBBBT X. MALTBT, PH.D., 
Normal Scliool, Bllppery Bock, Pa. 

n MONG the many substances which may be of ser* 
JQl vice to the teachers of geograpfiy in the construction 
of relief maps, paper pulp occupies no insignificant place* 
This material is so clean, so pliable, and so easily manipu- 
lated, that teachers and pupils possessing but moderate 
abilities in the art of modeling can readily produce very 
serviceable relief maps ; while the skillful operator may 
show results which will surprise all who are unacquainted 
with the various applications of the medium. 

Few teachers are aware how easily good paper pulp 
may be prepared. The common waste sheets of paper 
from the pencil tablets should all be preserved, and when 
a quantity has been collected, the pulp can be made ao- 
cording to the following directions : 



250 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



fMAWi. 



Tear the paper into small pieces not more than an inch 
sqaaroi and. fill a common wate^pail with the bits of 
paper. Over this pour three qaarts of boiling water, and 
let the paper soak for about six hoars. Poor off any ex- 
cess of water, and macerate the mass, stirring it with a 
roogh stick until the paper becomes pasty. By pressing 
the end of the stick down into the mass many times, the 
pulp may be made very smooth and fine, and will take 
impressions from the lines of the hand. Any of the boys 
in the class can readily learn how to prepare the pulp, 
and will soon take pride in preparing a fine grade of 
papier-mach^ for class use. The material may be kept 
in an earthen jar for any length of time, and additions 
made from time to time,* as occasion may require* 

It is not necessary to have white paper in order to pre- 
pare a good, serviceable pulp ; common newspapers may 
be used in making a uniform pulp scarcely tinged with gray. 

Belief maps should be molded upon boards specially 
prepared for the purpose. For use in the dassroom, a 
very convenient form may be made by fastening thin 
boards together by strips or cleats at the back. Upon 
this molding board the outline of the continent should 
be drawn, using some convenient scale, say 200 miles to 
the inch. According to such a scale, South America 




would be represented 23 inches long and 15f inches wide. 
If a set of relief maps of the continents be constructed, it 
will be well to adopt some uniform scale, since better 
ideas of the relative sizes can thus be obtained. (Fig 1.) 
Having prepared the pulp and drawn the outline, the 
pupils are ready to mold the map. Three or more pupils 
may work at the map at one time, and the teacher should 
give each member of the class an opportunity to do some of 
the work, especially if but one large map is made at first 
The pulp is spread out in a uniform flat layer about one- 
quarter inch thick, the pupils carefully modeling it up to 
Uie shore lines. The production of the ma|^of the con- 



tinent outlined in the flat will furnish enough woik Ik 
one lesson period, but the children should be qaertieaii 
in regard to the triangular form of the eontioent (SssA 
America), and the coast line unbroken by gr e a t golfi sr 
large enclosed seas. The regular matter of the geaeal 
lesson upon the continent should be disenseed by tfis 
teacher and other pupils while these are engaged in and- 
eling the map. 

The next day the pupils can locate the parte of tlie esa- 
tinent where the plateau sections are to be re pr eee nt s d 
by somewhat increased thickness ^ the pulp (See Yig. 2). 









Fig. S. 



These sections are: 1. The Plateau of the Andes. 2. 
The Plateau of Brazil; 3. The Plateau of Oaians. 

Of these plateaus, that of the Andes is by far the most 
prominent It should be represented on the map by as 
irregular band of increased elevation, yarying from one 
half inch to two inches in width (scale 200), and stroteb- 
ing along the enture western coast This shoidd blend 
into the flat portion which represents the Great Cenxia/ 
Plain, extending along the whole eastern base of tbs 
Andes, and interrupted only by the low plateaaa of Bnui? 
and Ouiana. The great plain is usually considered under 
three divisions : 1. The Llanos of the Orinoco ; 2. The 
Selvas of the Amazon ; 3. The Pampas of La Plata. Ths 
watersheds dividing these sections are insignificant ia 
elevation. 

The pupils may now proceed to mold &e moantaini 
of the continent Place quantities of the pulp in parallel 
ridges or lines along the western coast upon the Andesa 
plateau. These will form the border wall of the plateau, 
and shonld be molded into peaks and elevations by 
means of a spatula or a common steel button-hook. The 
elevations shonld not exceed one^quarter inch in height 
The Andean system should be formed of two lines of ele- 
vations in the central portion, of three lines at the north- 
ern extremity, and of one at the southern extremity. 
The general chain of the Andes is nowhere broken 
through, and thus the great mountain system forms i 
complete separation between the waters which fall into 
the Pacific and those which flow into the Atlantic 

The chief peaks of the Andes, such as Aconcaguii 
Illampu, and Nevada de Sorata, should be located, as 
should also the various groups of lofty voleanoea. Ths 
broad table-land of Brazil should be crossed by seversi 
irregular ranges of low mountaios, the highest ranges sit- 
uated along the southeastern coast The mountains of 
Qniana, consisting of the Acarai and Pacarayma rangeiy 
may be represented by elevations somewhat higher tbsn 
those of Brazil. 

Let the modeled map be now set aside to dry. In s 
few days there will be found upon the boajrd, — in plsoe 
of the seemingly rough work of the children,«-a pare 
white map, upon whid^ fairy fingers would seem to hsfe 
been working to reduce and beautify the whole. 



1891.1 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



251 




PBIHART BEADING. 

BT WILL 8. MOVBOB, 
SuperinieiuUiU of SekooU^ PoMifciia, OaL 

nCHERE are three steps to be obserred in teaching read- 
^ ing : First, teaching symbols for ideas already in the 
mind. This u done by asspeiating objects with words a 
saffident number of times to make the reappearance of one 
suggest the other. If the mental stimolos be strong, few 
repetitions will be reqoired ; if weak, the acts of association 
most be repeated a great number of times. If an effort is 
nuule to teach words, the ideas of which are not clearly 
in the mind, the process must, indeed, be a tedioas one. 
The child's stock of ideas when he enters school is large, 
and the purpose of the primary teacher of readbg should 
be to so train in the association of symbols (words) and 
ideas that the reappearance of the one will at once bring 
into consciousness the other. Objects, pictures, drawings, 
and stories aid in bringing about acts of association, and 
abould be largely used in the first stages of primary 
reading. 

The second step is sight-reading, — ^using words in sen- 
tences, recalling them at sight as wholes. Children must 
be trained to grasp whole sentences or their reading be- 
comes a slow, measured, word-naming process. To make 
ready thought-getters, there must be much training in 
sight-reading. 

The third step in teaching primary reading is training 
to get thought from the printed page. If the first and 
second steps have been carefully compassed, this is not a 
difficult part of the work. Thought- getting, and not 
thought-expression, is the end to be sought in this step. 
If the thought in all its bearings is clearly in thjB child's 
mind, the expression will take care of itself. Thought- 
gettiog, then, and not thought-expression, is the chief pur- 
pose of reading in the schools. 

The teacher should ascertain by means of questions 
whether the thought is clearly in the mind of the child 
before she asks him to read it orally. If the pictures, the 
ideas that slumber behind the words and sentences are 
seen and appreciated, the child will get the thought and 
give it in a natural manner. The child that sees twenty 
little frogs around a log, and the old mother frog perched 
upon the log, will read the selection *^ Twenty Froggies," 
without any glaring defects in emphasis, pauses, or inflec- 
tion. The trouble is that children do not get the thought, 
do not see thef>ictures, and they stand to read* and merely 
name the words. 



All Readers are open to one grave criticism, they 
are scrappy in subject matter, and the words intro- 
duced are not repeated sufficiently often to fasten the 
word-forms on the mind* One lesson will be about a cat, 
another about a boy, and another about a flower. One 
lesson does not prepare the way for the lesson that -is to 
follow I it should repeat most of the words in sentences 
of different forms. Julia NcNair Wright's Nature Read- 
ers are the only ones, familiar to the writer, adapted to 
the primary grades, that can lay any claims to continuity. 
In these, there is a logical order of development along 
related lines of thought 



PEBCEMTAGE. 

BT WM. M. OIFFUr, COOK GO. KOBMAL SCHOOL. 



€€ 



I 



HAV£ in my hand an apple. What do we call 
this outside part ? " '' The peeling.'' '< If I take 
one half of the apple, what part of its peeling will I 
take ? " '< One half of it" '' If I take one third, thus, 
what part of its peeling do I take f " (Continue with differ- 
ent parts.) *^ How many thirds has an apple ? — ^fourths, 
tenths, hundredths ? Yes, {%%, or we may say one hun- 
dred per cent If then I take one half of an apple, or any 
object, what part of its one hundred per cent do I take ? 
What is one half of one hundred per cent ? *' <' Fifty per 
cent" *' One half of anything, then, is what per cent of 
it?" <' Fifty per cent" *'l have five apples, and they 
are fifty per cent of what I had yesterday. How many 
had I yesterday?" ''If five equals fifty per cent of 
them, then five must be one half, and all of them must be 
two fives or ten." Give other like questions, using thirds, 
fourths, fifths, sixths, etc. After the subject has been 
thus developed the following good oral drills may be 
given: 




[Tbe drelet are to be dnwD ad the blackboard. Tliey sboald be 
about four Inches in diameter, that all may see them ] 

A is equal to what per cent oi Bf 
A is equal to what per cent of B and C f 
A is what per cent of A^ B, and C T 
1 is what per cent oi B^ Of 1 ? 

1 equab what per cent oi A^ 

% is equal to what per cent of 1 ? 

2 is equal to what per cent oi AJ 

2 is equal to what per cent of A and B^ 

3 is equal to what per cent of 2 ? Of 1 ? Of ^ I 
2 is equal to what per cent of A and 1 ? 6 is equal to 
what per cent of A and 2 ? 5 is equal to what per cent 



262 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



of Ay 2?, and C? 6 is eqaal to what per cent of Aj Cy 
and 1 ? 8 is equal to what per cent of Ay Cy and 1 ? 
2 is equal to what per cent of Ay 4, and 6 ? etc., etc 

I haTO S3 and earn 60 cents more ; what per cent do 
I increase mj $3 ? 

I have $3 and spend $1 ; what per cent do I. spend ? 

I have $10 and pay $6 of it for a hat ; what per cent 
of my money do I pay for my hat ? 

If to $3 I add 26 cents, what per cent do I increase 
my $3? 

I have $49 in the bank, and draw out $7 ; what per 
cent is that ? 

If to $40 I add $1, what per cent do I increase the 
$40? 

I have SI ; to this I add $1 ; what per cent do I in- 
crease the $1 ? I next add $1 to the $2 ; what per cent 
do I increase the $2 ? Again I add $1 to the $3 ; what 
per cent do I increase the $3 ? Next I spend a dollar ; 
what per cent do I diminish my money ? (Twenty-five 
per cent) 

G^rge has 26 cents and spends 1 cent; what per 
cent of his money has he left? Why? 

Henry had thir^ apples and ate one ; what per cent 
did he eat ? 

If four apples is Qhy per cent of all the apples I have, 
howmany have I? Thirty-three and one third per cent ? 
Twenty-five per cent? Twelver and a half per cent ? 
Twenty per cent ? 

John has two piles of apples. In the first pile there 
are eight apples ; in the second pile there are three apples. 
If he takes one from the first pile and adds it to the 
second pile, what per cent deep he diminish the first pile 
and what per cent does he increase the second pile? 
Afterwards he takes the apple from the second pile and 
retoms it to the first pile ; what per cent does he diminish 
the second pile and what per cent does he increase the 
first? 

A very interesting lesson can be given if the teacher 
will take some apples, or any other objects of equal size, 
and take from one pile and add to another, letting the 
pupils tell each time what per cent one pile is diminished 
and what per cent the other is increased. 

I have $21 and spend $19; what per cent of my 
money do I spend ? I spend ^f- of my money, hence I 
spend ^ of its 100 per cent ; ^ of 100 per cent is ^j>, 
and i\ is nineteen times ^^y or ^)}^, which equals 
90 ^ per cent 

$11 is what per cent of $13? ^%^ per cent or 
84 ^ per cent 

$4 is what per cent of $16 ? W P^ ^^^ ^ ^^ P®' 
cent 

Draw lines on the blackboard as given here, and ques- 
tion as with the circles. Use letters unlike in sound so 
that the drill may be given rapidly. 

A is equal to what per cent of ^ f Of Ft Of fft 
Oi Of Ot If Of Sf 



Fh equal to what per cent oi Of O is equal te 
what per cent of Ff 

Five or ten minutes a day of such drill inll do ' 
for a class* 



THE HOUSE WE LIVE IN. 



BT 1£ABY Xc SAWTSB, BOZFORD, 

ID you ever wonder over the different colon of the 
earth carpets ? Here is a bed of yellow clay« theiw 
a ledge of dark rock ; sometimes you find black soil, and 
again you may ride for miles over a country where tlie 
ground almost makes your eyes ache, it is so red. Ordi- 
narily these various colors are caused by iron, and our 
talk to-day shall be about this great earth painter. Iran 
makes the brick sidewalks red, and prepares the ydlow 
ochre for the painters, but this is only its rough work, 
for the pale green of the beryls, the dunty brown pen- 
cillings of die moss agates, and the rich red of the Uood 
stones are all due to this wonderful artist 

Iron is classed among the ores. An ore is a mineral 
valued for the metal it contains. Iron, lead, and copper 
are metals, and the rocks from which we obtain them are 
called iron ores, lead ores, or copper ores. 

Sometimes a metal is found pure or native, (gdd b 
almost always so found), but generally it is mixed with 
some other substance that has to be taken away before the 
metal can be made usef uL To do this the ore is washed 
and crushed, and roasted and melted, and must go 
through many processes which we have no time to talk of 
here. In looking for iron, then, we shall not expect to 
find anything resemblmg the familiar substance we use in 
so many ways, but roagh rocks which we will try to test 
Weight is one test A rock containing iron will be 
heavier than any of the minerals we have yet studied. 
But, though you think of it as very hard, iron ore is 
really softer than feldspar, very much softer than quartz. 

Try your file on this heavy, dark colored rock. Notice, 
as you work, not only the hardness but the color of the 
surface exposed by the file and of the powder cut away. 
This freshly cut line is called the streak, the powder is 
streak powder, and the color is a most important test in 
determining iron. This rock is almost blaA, but the 
powder and the scratched surface are cherry red, and your 
rock is the kind of iron ore called hematite. 

Another specimen may be a glistening gray, shining 
with a bright, metallic lustre ; and a third a dull, reddish 
brown, earthy lump, but all will yield, undbr the file, the 
same red streak, and are thus classed together as hems* 



1801.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



263 







"tite. On the other hand, two spemmeiiB nrnj look exaetly 
mlike outride, yet one will show the red streak of hema- 
tatm^ and the other a yellow streak, which proves it to be 
limoDite, another and a very yaloable ore of iron. 

Pei^ps your file will diselose a streak neither red nor 
yellow, but blaek, like the outride of the sperimen* In 
this ease put a little magnet into yonr .filings (Fig. 1), 
mnd as the tiny particles cling to it yon find yon have 

still another ore, mag^ 
netite, or magnetic iron 
ore. Magnetite will 
be heavier dien hem* 
^^^' atite or limonite. 

These three are the prinripal ores from which 
America's iron comes, but the iron which we who search 
the road side instead of the mine are most likely to find 
will be in the form of pyrite. 

How many have noticed in common rocks little yellow 
particle that look like gold? These are bits of iron 
pyrites, and often decrive people who do not know that 
yovi can eat gold with a knife, while pyrites, onlike most 
other iron ores, is harder than feldspar, and will strike 
fire with steel. Often we find it massive, that is the 
whole rock body is pyrite, and again it is crystalized in 
one of these shapes (Figs. 2 and 3), and the crystals, 




Fig* 2. Fig. s. 

big and little, are packed into their rock bed like peas in 

a pod. It is fonnd all over the world and in all kinds of 

rock, and if yon cannot search for it out of doors a virit 

to the coal-bin will very likely show yon specimens on 

the eoaL Pyrite contains too much snlphnr to be used as 

a sonrce of iron sapply, bat it yields so mach salphor, 

solphoric arid, and copperas that it ranks as a nsefol ore. 

Bog iron, a variety of limonite, we may hope to find in 

oar walks, a brownish black, earthy, somewhat porons 

rock often f oand in low groands. If we find no ore, 

properly speaking, that is, no rocks containing iron enoagh 

to be profitably worked, we shall snrriy find many '^ iron 

ore rocks." The reddish rocks everywhere present con- 

trin iron in greater or less amoant, and hard, compact 

pebbles, red or yellow clay, iron stones are not nncommon. 

Quarts crystals and qaartz rocks are often colored by 

iron, ^ msty crystals " yon woald call them ; red chalk 

is iron ; the black color of year slate is dae to the same 

caue ; in short, whenever yon see a black or green or 

rei or ydlow stone, yon may be pretty sare there is some 

iron sboat Toa wUl find it hard to procore specimens 

m no way connected with iron. 



HinGS 




THE CHILDREN AND THE POETS. 

ASBAHOSD BT KATB L. BBOWIT. 
WILLIAM DBA.N HOWBLLS.* 




4y^y^^C.r^ 



JS 



III AugutU 

LL the long Aogiut aftornooa 

The little drowsy ttnam 
Wbiepm a oMUiieholf tone, 
Ai if it drMmed of Jano, 

And whifpend in its diMOU 

The Ihiitlot show beyond the biook 
Doat on their down and bloom. 

And out of many a weed-grown nook 

The ester flowen look 
With eyes of tender gloom. 

The dlent orehaid aislee ere eweet 
With smell of ripening f rait ; 

Through the sere grass in shy r et wat 

Flatter at ooming feet 
The robins strange and mnta. 

There is no wind to stir the leases, 
The harsh leaves orerhead ; 

Only the qneralons erieket grierss, 

And shrilling loenst weaves 
A song of summer dead. 



Far the ehildren. 

One day while calling open Miss Elisabeth Peabody, 

the great champion of the kindergarten, I saw a pretty 

photograph of two little sisters. One was seated, a book 

•ArraDgements have been made with Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, H 
Oompany for the use of this poem and portrait. 



264 



THE AMERICAN TEACHFIR. 



V 



in hand* She was a quiet, thoaghtfol maiden. Bat the 
ebter, who stood leaning over her shoolder, had a very 
arch, merry little f aee, and appeared to me as if ready to 
borst into laughter at a moment's notice. 

They were the daughters of W. D. Howells, one of 
America's greatest novelists. Mr. Howells was bom in 
Martinsville, Ohio, March 1, 1837. He is a very qniet, 
modest man^ who says litde abont himself, and likes 
as little to be talked about He has lived in both Boston 
and New Tork, and has also spent some time abroad. 

When yon are older yon will enjoy reading his books. 
They are aboat real, every-<[ay people, whose sayings and 
doings will seem very natural. Some people dress up 
their characters, and make them appear wonderful in 
every way. Not so with Mr. Howells, — he paints people 
as they are, making them just as lovely or unlovely, just 
as large or as mean as they aro. On this account some 
people do not like him. 

As I may not tell yon much of this author as an au- 
thor, you may be glad to know what kind of a papa he 
is. While the family were abroad his little Winifred 
took great delight in visiting the art galleries, and making 
drawings of the famous pictures. Her papa bad these 
drawings publiihed under the title, " A Little 6url Among 
the Old Masters." In the book he speaks of the draw- 
ings as a little girl's impressions of the old masters, — 
how they appeared to very young eyes. 

What a loving and appreciative father he must be to 
have taken such an interest in the work of those child- 
hands. This same little girl, now a young lady, has gone 
on making pictures. If you will look over your files of 
St. NioholcLS you will find a charming drawing of some 
little mermaid^ at play on the bottom of the sea, by 
Winifred Howells. 

Mr. Howells is always busy learning from people, often 
studying them when they little realize it His characters 
are real people that he meets, ~- on the horse cars, in the 
street, at restaurants. He does not have the appearance 
of watching people, —* indeed he seems to be indifferent 
to what is going on about him. It is said that one of his 
little girls remarked on seebg a new portrait of him, 
'^ Papa, you look just as you do in the horse car when 
you want to listen and don't want folks to know it" 

Mr. Howells lives at present in Boston, where he is 
writing new stories for I[arper*$. 

Far the teaeher. 

This poem is one of the few flights into song that 
Howells has given us. It is perfect in its artistic con- 
ception as well as in its rendering. 

Talk to the children of the peculiar feeling in the air 
during the latter days of August They will have no- 
ticed that the crickets begin to peep in a half sad way. 
Develop the idea that the stream is half dried from the 
summer heat ; that it cannot sing and chatter as it did in 
April and May, or even in Jona, If possible lead the 



children toseeirfiat a pvetfyidea is embodied in Iks 
latter part of the first versa. 

The poor litde brook remembers what a baaatif nl tisss 
June was, and how it danced and sang. Now it r^aJiw 
that Juno is gone, that its own life is weakened. Boft it 
must dream of past joy, and it must whisper even in ib 
dreams of vanished delights. 

What is meant by 

«'XjMof tndtrgloott^t 
Do the children know that <' aster'* means ^^ster"*? 
Speak of the aisles of a church, ~- how the idea of tlis 
Gothic arch came from the tree trunks and booglia nsesl- 
ing overhead. What is meant by ^< sere grasa,'* ''sbj 
retreat " ? Why are the robins *' mute " ? Compere the 
toughened, dust-stained leaves of early fall with the ten- 
der leafage of early spring. What is meant by the 
<' harsh leaves"? What does ^qnemlona" nsean? 
What does " shrilling locust " mean ? 

If these pictures are carefully developed, thia poesi 
will interest many of the children, and be a good mea» 
of increasing their expression. One must remember ia 
all this kind of work that the children follow whsre the 
teacher leads. 



LESSONS IN ZOOLOGT.* 

BT OLA&ABKL eiLMAH, JAMAIOA PLADT, MAfla. 

The Oyster.— (II.) 

Thii lesion, whisk is mably a nirfaw, may be aiwi wiCli the nd 
of the ihells, acoordiog to the foUowina outline : 

Tell me some things about the oyster shelL 

It has two valves. One valve is large and convex, the 
other is smaller and flat The large valve was fastened 
to a rock. The shell is broad at one end and pointed at 
the other. The pointed end is called the beak. Tbe 
outside of the shell is very rough, and the Ibes of growth 
show very plainly. There is a hinge not far from the 
beak, and a brown ligament 

What can you tell about the inside of the shell ? 

The inside of the shell is nearly smooth. It is whits 

or yellowish. Near the middle is a large dark pbee 

made by the muscle. There is a pallial line near the 

edge. 

The ihape of the Rille and the pelpi may alee ■iwietl— es be mi 
on tbe iniide oi the thelL 

In what ways are the oyster shell and the dam Ml 
alike? 

Each has two valves. They have each a hinge snd a 
ligament Each has a beak. They have a pallial lioe. 
Each has a brown skin and lines of growth on the oal- 
side. They are made of layers of lime and flesh. 

In what ways are they unlike ? 

The clam shell is smoother than the oyster shalL The 
oyster ahell has the beak at one end, tbe dam shell hsi il 

"^^HSJN* 



1891. 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



256 



on top. The dun thdl has both Talyes of the same size, 
Ivat the oyster has one largo ynlTe and one small one. 

If tfa# ehndnn uf old aoovgh, thsy may now bs led to see thst 
while the left side of the mutle of the ojster eaa wovk stesdily at 
■hell-bttUdl9ff, the right eide is oonetently intempted in its work by 
thm openiag end oloeing of the TalTee, end tbat thie aooomitB for 
the smell dse of the rigbt Tslce 

Tell me in what ways the soft parts of the oyster are 
like those of the elam. 

They haye each a mantle and two pairs of g^ls. They 
haye a month and two pairs of palpi. They have a heart. 
Tell me some things that are unlike in the soft parts. 
The oyster*s mantle is open, and the olam^s is closed. 
The oyster has one mnsde, and the clam has two. The 
oyster's heart is close to the mnsde, and the clam*s is 
under the beak. I don*t see why the oyster hasn't any 
foot nor any siphon. 

Where does the dam live ? 

He bnries himself in the mud. He digs down into the 
mad with his foot 

What nse has he for his siphon ? 
He reaches ap to the water with it 
Where does the oyster live ? 

He fastens himself to a rock. I see ; he doesn't need 
a foot because he doesn't dig in the mud, and he doesn't 
need a siphon because his whole shell is in the water. 

Oysters naturally live on rocks or hard substances (Fig. 2), 
and after the young ones swim about for a while, they die if 
they cannot find something bard to grow on, bat tbey fatten 
better for the market on muddy bottoms, where there are 
great quantities of tiny plants for their food. So when 




Fie. 1. Fio. a. 

they are half grown, the oystermen take them up and 
<< plant" tbem on the mud in some warm bay or at the 
mouth of a river, where they are left for a year or two. 
Bat they never dig in the mud, and so need neither foot 
nor siphon. 

I should think the currents of water would get mixed 
if there isn't any siphon. 

Is there any place where the edges of the mantle are 
joined together ? 

Yes, at the bar. 

Then what is the nse of the bar? 

To separate the two currents of water. 

One evrreat flows ia under the eonvez border of the Buwile, 
peniBg over end tbroegh the gUle, end eerrying food to the moath, 
the other flows ont on the oppoeite side of the bar, ea iadlested by 
the irrowe in Fig. 1. 

At in the enee of the dam and oyeter, so with other molloiks the 

KM or abeenoe of the loot end siphon Is a nue guide to the 
of Asaaimal ' 



MARCH SENTENCES. 

BY aBORGIA H0DSKXH8, SFRIHaPZKLD, MA8B. 

EAR the March winds blowing! 
The ground is bare in many places. 

We found some cup licheDS in blossom on the old stone 
wall. Maple and poplar buds are swelling. 

The alders are scattering yellow pollen from their 
tassels. Hear that humming noise! 

The bees have found the first spring flower. 

They are gathering pollen from the spathes of the 
skunk cabbage. Ned heard a wood frog croak yesterday. 

This morniDg the little frogs (hylodes) were peepmg 
in the meadow. The river is high. 

Now we can see how the river changes its course. 

See how the bank has caved in, on this side where the 
current is swiftest. 

There, on the opposite side, is a long sand-bar. 

Now the birds are coming back from their winter reat 
in the south. 

The bluebird and robin were the first to return. 

Tom saw a little flock of fox-colored sparrows. They 
will visit us a few weeks, and then go further north. 

They will not sing for us ; bat in their northern homes 
they sing sweetly. 

See my spring bouquet, brave litUe crocuses and snow- 
drops. I have a bunch of bads of the shad bush. 

We saw some minnows darting about in the brook. 

Mr. Woodchuek has waked up from his long winter nap. 

The sap is flowing in the maple trees. 

The men started, this morning, for the sugar camp. 

Flora saw a fitriped squirrel, on her way to school. 

It sat on a limb of the old apple tree, and barked at her. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kingfisher have retarned. 

They are digging a winding hole, foar or five feet long, 
in the sand- bank. At the end they will make a soft nest. 

The purple finch is a sweet singer ; but he eats the 
bads from the fruit trees. 

May saw the first fly this morning. 

A golden winged woodpecker caught it for his breakfast. 

Harry saw a flock of red- winged blackbirds near the 
edge of the swamp. 

Last night we heard the wild geese honking. 

The pewee is back again. 

I found a long spray of mountain cranberry with its 
beautiful crimson leaves. 

There is a chipping sparrow ! 

We gathered the tiny blossoms of the hazel ; but they 
wilted before we could get them in water. 

The men were ploughing the meadow, yesterday. 

They found a meadow mouse and her nest 

There are some wild ducks on the pond. 

Watch them dive. 

Alice saw three or four little red butterflies. 

We heard the sonj; sparrow smj^ing this morning. 



256 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Maxcb, 



XIaL^ 




looked like a small spider. 



'' BUGS AND THINGS ; " 

OB, 

Fred and Ethel at the Brookslde.* 

Water Mites. 
) EFOBE Fred left the snmmer eamp he sent a letter 
to Ethel that she enjoyed yerj maeh. In it he told 
about a new friend. " Reynolds of Cal.," he called him, 
'< and he likes bags as well as we do, and knows lots more 

about them/' hesaid. '<We 
go about every day, and 
this afternoon he told me 
about a water -mite he 
found near his own home. 
It was fiery red, and 
looked like a drop of blood 
darting through the water. 
It had eight legs, and 
Reynolds read somewhere 
that these mites hang on mussel shells, and others hang 
on the water skaters and live off them until they ^e. 
The grown-up tigers sometimes eat the mites, so they get 
paid up for their wickedness." 

Ethel, of course, took her letter to Uncle Walter, and 
be was able to tell her more about them. 

^'They are so small," he said, ^*i% almost makes me 
squint to watch them. Do you see these wrinkles here, 
Pet ? That is how I happened to get them. 

^^ Some of the mites have hard shells. I have taken 
them out of water and put them in a drop of water under 
a glass slide. They will at once fold up their feet and 
anteuDie under their shells. Evidently they don't like 
to be on exhibition. I have road that in certain places 
in England the rocks are made up of these wee shells." 

^' Isn't it strange," murmured EtheL ** Somehow the 
world seems a more wonderful place since I came to Hol- 
lywood. I never knew how curious little things were 
before." 

" You are growing ; you are learning to use your eyes," 
said Uncle Walter, patting the round cheeks. 
Water .Lizards, 
** See what Tommy Dodd. gave me I " cried Ethel, one 
day, running toward her undo, with a little bottle in her 
hands. 

<< Why, these are real water 
lizards," said Uncle Walter, 
with enthusiasm ; **^ just what 
I've been looking for. Where did yon find them, my 
boy?" 

Tommy Dodd colored all over his bashfol freckled 
face. *^ It was down under the stone . bridge, sir, where 
the water is still and clear, and , you can , see bottom. I 
turned over a big stone, and there they were." 

'^ Let me give you twenty-five cents for bringing us such 
a treasure," said Uncle Walter. 

• The writer Is greatlT Indebted to Up and Down th§ Brooka, pub- 
lished by Houghton, Mifflin, H Go. 




^' I don't want the money. I gave them to bar 1 
she likes bugs and I like 'em, too. She never laughs mt 
me like the others, and calls me <old freekla faee,' " 
blurted the boy. 

'< We are much obliged," said Uncle Walter. << N«v 
the next time we go bugging, you must go^ too, — temas- 
her I" 

Tommy Dodd departed, fiUed with raptore, far ha 
admired Uncle Walter, and bugs were the delight of hk 
souL 

The two lizards were put into a botUe-home aal 
watched with interest They were pretty iiiealiims, 
nearly three inches long, yellowish, with a Uaek lue 
running down the middle of each side*. The tail was 
flattened and spotted with black. Each had two pain ol 
legs, with four toes on the front and five on the hack. The 
eyes were dark, and there were three pairs id reddish- 
yellow gills. The gills stood up about the head very 
much like a lady's ruff. 

Ethel fed her h'zards on earth worms and little scor- 
pion bugs. But they never seemed used to dieir new 
home. Whenever anyone came to look at them, they 
would race about the jar in perfect terror. After they 
had kept them about ten days, both were found dead one 
morning. 



HOW TO TEACH THE MULTIPLICATION TABLE. 

BT MAST J. N., WOBOBSTEB, MASS. 

IN teaching the multiplication table I obtain the best re- 
C 8ult8 from a pasteboard dock. The dock I made from 

a box which is 
used to keep web 
velvet in. 

Cut the disc as 
large as possible 
then bind the edge 
with some pretty 
colored paper, to 
give It a neat fin- 
ish. From an old 
calendar cut out 
thefiguresasfarsi 
12and paste on the 
pasteboard disc 
Now plaee a pointer in the center of the dock-fses. 
This pointer may be made by pivoting a piece of lath on 
a screw, which passing through the center of the disc 
supports it on the walL A pin is run through the pointer 
and a second set of figures as far as twelve prepared. 
These figures are to be hung on the pin, one at a time^ 
and a rude device is at hand which will give any example 
in the multiplication tables. 

As for example, if I wish to teach the table of 4's, I 
place the figure 4 on the pointer like this in the illnstrt- 




1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



267 



XSatJL The pointer says, 2 X 4 are hoir many. The an- 
iBwer from the papil will be given withoat a word from 
tiie (eaeher some thing like thb : Two iimee four are 
«ght 

This method I use for reiiew work a great deal. Of 
eonrse, to prove to a pupil what an answer most be, I use 
eoroy beansy or pasteboard Uoeks. 



THE OSWEGO PBIHART.* 

BDITOBIAL OBSEBVATIONS. 

l^^E never made a better edaeational investment than 
\V ^^ visiting the Oiwego Normal SehodL In the 
lower primary rooms, there were many departments worthy 
of note. 

The windows in Febmary are filled with bottle^ jars, 
or dbhes of water, in which are plaeed branehes of horse- 
chestnut, willow, maple trees, for leaf, bnd, and blossom, 
and apple, pear, and cherry trees and enrrant boshes, for 
bods, blossoms, and fruit. 

OBSBBVB, DKSOBIBB, DRAW 

is the motto of the school, and the little folks stody care* 
folly these branches and their onfolding, and also the 
trees as they leaf, bud, and bloom in oatore. They bring 
in the earliest branches that show signs of life. The 
children observe with great care. The 
teacher (7raw4 Ihebraneh 
open the board and 




SliB,Fteb.2l. Elm, Feb. M. Klm,Marcli2. 



Foplar, Feb.s. 



writes the date when first observed, lliis drawing and 
record are left ihroogh the season, so that the drawings 
and dates make a valoable record of the leafing, bod- 
dmg, and blooming of the neighboring trees and shrobs. 

The teacher also draws these in a book kept for the 
porpose, and taken together with the dates, year after 
year, they make a valoable book of reference. 

The kindergarten popils do not attempt to draw these, 
hot the teacher pricks them, enlarged, on cardboard, and 
the child, with the specimen before bins, selects his own 
silks and works the branch, nodes, bods, leaves, eatkiae, 
etc. This is the beginning of indostrial art. ^Tha child 
"TBepfliited by request 



observes earefoUy, selects colors diseriminately, threads 
and OSes the needle skillfolly, learns habits of order, neatp 
ness, cleanliness, etc. No description can give any idea 
of the edocational valoe and serviceaUeness of this handi- 
work. 

We present herewith /a<v«tmi2M of the drawings 
in the teacher's record book. They are simply re* 
doeed in sixe in order to economize oor space. These 
are also otilized for reading lessons by means of charts. 




Horse GbestDttt. 
Usreli 1. March n. 



llsrohss. 



One very interesting chart I saw was on the damdelum. 
Another was a eherry^hlotiom chart, while others stiU 
were devoted to the jpoRpy, ihe frof/, and the Jly. 




rioilsr»]lsi^i& ) 70ptaff,Jisjs. 



268 



THE AMERICAN TEACHES. 



[Ma»— , 




vai^MjWiittiUi; ;iifmmMilg 



4',,'H 'Pr.l't 



With " 






For th« prevent Mr. Wlnthlp will oon4net fhit Depertment. He will be 
pleaiPd to reretT«> qnettlnnt upon lehool dhoiplloe. admlnUtretloD. methods 
of teaehlDjr. and will answer the same personally or s^eore answers from 
•XD^rts. Teachers will please write their numes and addresses, not for pnb- 
UiMbtion bnt that answers may bo given by letter. If not of Moeral Interest. 
Will teachers ask qoestioDi with the pen as freely a* with the Toice T 

68. / have had hard luck in teaching << one/* hut I 
got along well enough with two, three, and four* What 
was my miitake ? 0. B. 

The troable wm in teaehing <^ one ** at first Yoa call 
'<one" apple, "^ an" apple, and '<an'' or '<a'' means 
one to him. Teach the first numbers without saying so ; 
simply see if they know what yoa mean when yoa tell 
George that he may take '< an apple." 8arah may take 
^<two apples," and Mary three apples* Never try to 
teaeh a yonog ehild the idea of oneness. 



69. / have much trouble wUh the earehee uee of email 
words, such as ''btU'' for ''and;* ^' for'* for ''from^'* 
etc. What is the remedy ? Nor an Exfkbt. 

Have papilf pronoonee the sentence backwards. 



47, and there is no imagination aboat it. The i 
can know the abstra4)t facts of addition, sabtraetioo, 
tiplication and division, the better for me. If I nuist vse 
oHjects to start me on the right track, I will do it, boi I 
diToroe my thoaght and imagination from them i 
I can. 



70. The pupils halt between the words. Why, and 
what can I do to remedy it ? 

It is less important to know the '^ why " than the rem- 
edy. The reading of each sentence by itself, each pnpil 
reading but one sentence, will help greatly. With a little 
care, tbi« will be a remedy. If it is not, establish a rule 
that when a pnpil halts, the next shall r^ad on. Tlus will 
usually wake up the greatest halter. 



7 1 . I note that you say in the February number that you 
'^ certainly would not** allow a child to count on his 
finyers. Why not? How much worse is that than 
counting by spoolsj or beans, or strokes on the blackboard ? 

Sksptio. 

It is no worse, provided a child carried a string of 
spools or beans around with htm for general uie. There 
is danger in the uie of any objects in the teaching of ob- 
jects. The fingers are as good as any other ten objects, 
except that they are too handy afterwards. The child must 
be early divorced from using, handling, or imagining ob- 
jects when he thinks of objects. I once heard Supt. J. M. 
CSooghlin illustrate it in this way : I want to know how 
moch a man owes me, and I have my account written 
thus : For 15 apples, • • • 15c. 

For 1 pound of nuts, '• 20e. 
For 6 pencils, • • • 12o. 

Now, I do not try to picture in my mind 15 apples and 
a pound of nuts and six pencils, bnt I use the facts that I 
have learued, that 12 and 20 are 32, and 32 and 15 are 



72. I cannot make my children think u^Aeit th^ ( 
reading. How exn II ^ Fibst Tkrm Tkxchmm 

That is a large quMtion. You do not tell me 
grade. I will assume that they have no trouble in 
nouncing words. I would take a portion of each readii^ 
lesson, or two reading lessons a week, for special aoDer- 
cises to remedy this defect I would use a book of lov 
grade than their Reader, or better yet, perhaps', the i 
familiar piece in their Reader. I would question them, 
and insist that the answer should be only in the langoage 
of the reading lesson. For illustration, the piece se- 
lected is: 

** Blssringi oo thte, little mao. 

Barefoot boy with eheek oi tui. 

With thy tnnied-vp psotolooDt, 

Aad thy morry wbiitlod tunes." 

Question.— Wha^i do I wish for the little fellow ? 
Answer, — ^'Blessings on thee, little man." 
Q.— Whom do I want bleseed ? 
Ans.^^'* Blessings on thee^ little man.'' 
Q.— What do I call the little fellow ? 
Ans.-^^' Blessings on thee, little man.** 
Q.— What kind of a man do I call him? 
Jns. — ^' Blessings on thee, little man," etc., etc 
Take another relection from Daniel v. 19 : 

*■ Whom ho would ho slew. 

<* Whom ho woold ho kept aUto. 

" Whom ho woald ho lot op. 

*' Whom ho would ho pat down." 

Read the first line to show his power : 

'< Whom he would he slew.*' 

Read the second line to show the choice he had : 

<' Whom he would he kept alive." 

Read the third to show that the power was his own : 

" Whom he would he set up." 

Read the fourth to »how his freedom : 

** Whom he would he put down." 



73. Will you give us a plan for teaehing young pupils 
to write Ixrge numbers f 

A KOT IjKOBNIOUS TSJLCHEa. 

I would not teaeh young pupils to write large numbeis. 
They learn to write the first ten some time before thsy 
go higher; then with ease from 10 to 100; wait a little, 
and then go to 1000. AU this l>efore you talk maeh 
about writing numbers. Then from 1000 to 1.000.000, 
wait a little, practicing upon these numbers, and then teaeb 
the words '*' billion " and " trillion," their meaning and 
use, with figures. I would never teaeh above milliosi 



1891.;] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



269 



until ibey were well advanced in the grrammar grade, and 
would defer billion and trillion until the last year in the 
gTammar grade, unless it wasreqaired earlier. 

74. Save we mere than five senses, ifso^ what ether 1 

T. H. P. 

Thi« is a qaesUon of opinion. There is a large class 
that insist npon a mascnlar sense, and my own jadgment 
ia that it will eventually be incorporated with the sense of 
touch which will be broadened. Bat the argament made 
for calling it a distinct sense is one not easily answered 
at present. Indostrial art and manaal training experts 
are quite inclined to insist npon it as a special eense. 

75. What is the very first lesson in numbers. 

CuaiosiTT. 

There is no "very first lesson " to be determined by 
any one. Before beginning to teach numbers the chil 
dren should have learned the use of the first twelve num- 
bers. I think the first lesson that I should teach children, 
foimally, assuming that they can pick out just as many 
plums or peppermints as I tell them they may have, under 
thirteen, would be that two and two are 4 ; that two twos 
are four ; that three twos are 6. Four would be merely 
2 twos; 6, 3 twos; 8, 4 twos; 10, 6 twos; and 12, 
6 twos, before I Uught anything dse about them. 
Then 6 would be also 2 threes ; 9, 3 threes ; and 12, 
4 threes. Then 10 would be 2 fives, and 12, 2 sixes. 
Then one half of,4 is 2; ^ of 6, 3 ; J of 10, 6 ; i of 
12,6. Then iof 6is2; 4of 9,3; iof 12.4. Then 
i of 8 is 2; i of 12, 3; i of 10, 2; and k of 12, 2. 
Then 3 would be 3 ones, one and two, two and one ; 6 
would be 4 + 1, 1+4,8 + 2,2-f 2-f 1; 7 would 
be 6 + 1, 1 + 6, 6 + 2, 2 -f 5, 4 + 3, and 3 + *. 
2 + 2 + 2+1, 2x3 + 1, 8x2 + 1, etc My 
aim would be to keep up an interest in aU the twelve 
numbers by their use ; taking the idea that runs through 
several of them, rather than all the ideas in any one of 
them. 



words they should know how to use correctly in speaking 
and writing. They give an excellent hint to reading- 
book makers of the possibilities of their art 



77. If y first and s^ond grades have been going home an 
hour before the regular timefi^r ditmisiol — two o* Utck — 
and it would suit vty cotinenienee to keep them nt school 
the whole five hours. Would it be loo long fir themf 

D. T. W., Btaufurt, S. C. 

I should be guided largely by local public sentiment. 
My own jadgment is that four hours is as long as small 
children can be profitably kept in school, but no harm 
can come to them under ordinary circumstance if they 
remain for five hours, hence my advice. Be guided 
largely by local sentiment 



PUBLISHEIJS' ApOUPMEHTS. 



W.0^^^^^^S^^S^ 



DiaOONTINUAMOEB,^ Aaj nbMrib«r wtohlnc to itop his p«p«r moat 
ooMfr tti« PabUtlMn,«Ml]Nv «y «« mrmm ota«nilM h*to twponilbto fm 
pKfXMBoX M long M tti« pap«r U Mnt. 

BOW TO REMIT. — Td MOiM Mfftty It y IBiportint that ramltMUMM 
•booM b« Diade by QiMekt, Smfts, pott^flM ord«n, eKpnM monar oreuB, or 
Mglitored totton. nuido payable to the PablUhen. 

BMCBIPTa,-^Bmn\tMMm w MkiioirMlgtd by ebSDii* of Sato foUowtoe 
th« tubMifbcr*! DMB* OB Um pap«r. Blioiild laob a ohanga fall to appaar 
wttiite two waatoaitta Sato o€iatoi tto aoa.aaba«lbata»hoald aottCyaaat 



Miesnra WUMBERS^-'^lhopM a nambar at tba Tbaohbb fan to raaeh 
ft labaeilbar. ha wtU aonfar a favor apon tha Pablltban by notifying ai of 
'.ha faet, apon looalpt of whtoh noHea tha mlulnic nambar wlU ba aant. 

CHANOE OF ADDREBB^m^m. a ohaaga of addraM la daalrad. both Iha 
jIA and tha now addraw of tha anbaaribar ahoald ba glTan. 

Alllottfln partaimngtotha Xdltoftel dapartmont, and an aooiaanlaa- 
(tona for tho pagaa of tho TBAoaaa ahoald bo addraaaad to tha Bdltoca. 
an lattara portainlna to tha baahiaaa naaaiainant of tha TBAomaa ahoaU 



ba aidrawad to tho PaMakmn. 

NBW BNOLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY, 



76. Row does-the~author intend us iouse the " 
tences " by Georgii A, ticdskins. Is it merely to write 
them on the board as facts? Jrwik L., Unionville. 

They are suggestive and are to be used in various ways. 
Firat, they are to be written upon the board to be read 
by the children. This is to give them a larger timely 
vocal vocabolsryi Second, the sentences are to be read 
to the children and they are to write from dictation upon 
the board or upon paper. This is to give them a larger 
and mose timely written vocabulary. Third, make a 
language lesson by having them restate each fact in dif- 
ferent langosge; first orally, then in writing. See in 
how many different ways they can state some of them. 
These are rare sentences, in that they are seasonable, 
that they use a great many words not usually found in 
readyig books, and th^ are at the same time the very 



AOBNCIBSt 

. WSLmniLTrK * OO., IIS A<lama St.. OhIoASO. 
GBMBa^L AaavTS pob iLLiaoiS. Wiacwxam, and Miohioav. 

. BJJtDKKlf • SmMSoao. M . T.. 

BrnmrnajLL Amwan pob Nbw Tobb Statb. 



The JotTRNAL ov Education for Ftb. 12 was de- 
voted almost exelusioely to Exercises for Arbor I ay. A 
copy will be sent to any address on receipt of six cents 

in stamps. 

- 1 *- - -■ 

Jo anyone who will cut this out and send it to us^ 
with address and 2$ cents in stamps^ we will mail the 
Journal of Education, a ^tun page weekly^ fot 

TWO MONTHS, pOS^oid. 



NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY 
5 SoMiRSR Sntxr, Boston, M>sft 



280 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



OL 



The American Teacher. 



▲. B. WIN8HIF. I 
W. B.BHSLDON,) 



COKTIEKTS OV THIS IHTMBBB. 

Vlney's Lettata (poem). •••»••• ^ 
TI10 Brook (poem) • •' • • • •' *^ 

Seen In a PiiTate Sehool, M5 

Talks wltb YouDS Teacben, MO 

Z%ctuiry*8Flr«t Year IQ School, • S48 

ModellDC In Papier Mach^ . . '-.^ u • « **• 

MBTHODS: Primary Beading - Percentage — The Honae We 

LWe f D ..>.••• • S5l'-S8l 

THINGS TO TEACH: The Children and the Foets-Leeaona In 

Zoology — March Sentences — *'Bugs and Things " — How to 

Teaoh the MuUlpUeatlon Table-The Oawego Primary. 953-257 
TALKS WITH TEACUEBS, '^ • « ««-«» 

BDITOBIAL: Nocea-' February Prize — Arbor Day-Book-a- 

Month Coarse S90-261 

The Partition of Afrlea, . •. ^ f _ • «. • -^ ** 

VBIDAY AiTTEBNOONR: I Can't and I Can— Onr F1ag~The 

Ftay of the Seaaons-Bxeretsea for SmaU Children— The Orass 

-Jack Frost's Ltrtie HIster, .... 264-M6 

BBPBODUGTION EXEB0I8B8. 26^267 

NOTES AND QUBBIBS. S6a-870 

KNOTS AND TANGLE!), 2n-272 

THE KINDEEGABTEN: Oeenp«Hona-A Mother's Lofe-How 

to Teaoh Cuior-Obserratlon Lessons, . . 273-276 



YouB health is of first importance. 
Thb school year is more than half gone. 
Bb gore that the sohod in all ways teaches honesty. 
School sentiment in the community is of great Yalne. 
Thb National Association will meet at Toronto, Joly 
13-16. 

Do not over-work either the popib^or yoarseWes in 
spring days. 

FuPiLs should not be allowed to sit " sliding down " 
in their seats. 

Thb American Institnte of Instmetion wOl meet at 
Bethlehem, N. H. 

Thb teacher should ncYcr plead lack of time. The 
great bankersi merchants, and professional men never do. 

Tou should have a glow of friendliness for your fellow- 
teachers. Teachers as critics of teachers are out of place. 

Taxb a few deep full breaths several times a day in 
good air, and see that the children all do it with the win- 
dows open. 

Wb aim to make the Ambbigajt Tbaohbb so cordial 
in its tone that its monthly visits will be looked forward 
to with bright anticipations. 

YoTJ can have the Arbor Day number of the Joxtbnal 
OF EDtTOATiON,— February 12,— by sending six cents in 
stamps to the New Bngland Publishing Co., 3 Somerset 
street, Boston. 

Thb article in the February number, entitled '< Scrap 
Fieturee," should have been credited to Harriet A. Lud- 
dbgton. The error b one for which it is useless to 
undertake to account 

Sfbciajl TO Boox-A Month Coubsb Rbadbbs.-— The 
pabUshers of TA« EvchUion of Dodd, which we an* 



nooneed, have gone oat of the publishing businees, so Cbt 
as this book is concerned. It may be had for 26 
by addressing the New England Publishing Co., 3 1 
erset street, Bostoii. 

Bat Gbbbnb Hulino, principal of the New Bedfsrd 
High School and president of the American Institate of 
InstruetioQ, whose portrait we present on another page, 
is one of the most deservedly popular and worthy eda 
tional men of New England. His local reputation ' 
made upon his sdioolroom work in Fitchbnrg. He took 
Lis stand as a leader through discriminating utterances 
upon several prominent issues. He has chosen as hb 
specialty the study of educational problems from the his- 
torieal standpoint, usbg an exhaustive study of histoty as 
the base line from which to project plans and purposes 
regarding the school of to-morrow. He has ona of the 
best high sehool positions in New England, and has had 
the privilege of deelining positions in Boston and other 
cities. 



FEBBUABT PBIZB. 



Although the prise offer in the Ameriean Teaeksr 
for January seemed to give little opportunity for variety 
m sentence-making, great ingenuity has been shown. 
Sentences have been received from pupils in the f oUow- 
ing states : Maine, New EUimpshire, Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Conneetieut, New York, Fennsylnmia, New Jersey, 
Texas, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio^ Wisconsin, Illinois, In- 
diana, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Washington, South Da- 
kota, West Virginia, California, and Nova Scotia. 

The prise is awarded to Miss Leona B. Whittemore ol 
Fayette, Me., who sent in die largest number of thor- 
oughly good sentfioices. Others worthy of special men- 
tion, and who will receive some recognition, are Elliot 
Peterson and LiU Palmer, Seattle, Wash., 6. Edgar 
Kline, FarmersviUe, Fa , and Fred MeClure, Augusta, 
lU. The largest number of sentences beginning with 
"^ February ''was 1,023. 



ABBOB DAT. 

The school is a great national blessing through the 
observance of Arbor Day, which has as its mission tree 
planting and plant culture in the school-yard, home-yard, 
by the highway, and in the forests. It is sow ninetcfi 
years sinoe Nebraska inaugurated this economic coston), 
which aims to repair the ravages of extenmve tree cut- 
ting by the settbg and care for thrifty young growths. In 
no other way could this beneficial work have been aceom- 
plished. It is for the public schools, '*that great circu- 
latory system which gives life to the Bepnblic," to spread 
the news and the interest broadcast The Nebraska plan 
was not distinctively a school movement, this having 
been faiaagurated in Ohio hi 1882. 



1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



261 



In 18S1, Baron Richard Yon Stenben, the royal ehief 
f cyrester of Grormany, who, with others of hit family, was 
traveliog throogh the United Statei, spoke on forestry, at 
a reception in Cincinnati. Some gentlemen who heard 
him became interested, met and organized, and began to 
lay the matter before the pobltc by means of the press. 
In April, 1882, sT three days' meeting was held in Cincin- 
nati, at which many prominent foresters in the Uoited 
States and Canada were present. The pnUic schools 
were closed for two days, and popils took part in the 
exercises. Since then, Arbor Day has come to be ob- 
•erred by most of the States. 



BOOK-A-HONTH COUBSB. 

Fro$ber$ Xdueatim of Man. A. Loyell 6d Co.'s Bdi- 
I ; price, $1.60. D. Appleton's Edition ; price, S1.50. 

We have already presented one of Festaloxsi*s best 
books in this series, and now present one of Froebel*s 
works. It mnst be understood that this book is a trans- 
lation, and that delightful and valuable sentences flash 
unexpectedly from what appear to be dry and inyolved 
paragraphs. Many will be inclined to slight passages and 
pass others with all too littie thought We shall not be 
surprised if some readers leave the book unfinished. 

Froebel was a philosopher. His aim was to educate 
the pupil through his sd^activity. The child-mind grows 
by self-revelation. Through play he ascertains what he 
can do, discovers the possibilities of will and thought In 
work he accepts the proclivities and inclinations of others. 
Froebel*s system is an attempt to unfold the rational self 
and duun down the irrational. This the child must do 
for himself. It is self-conquest, thus true freedom. 

SUOGBSTIONS. 

I should rather accept the thorough reading of the first 
two or three chapters of this book than the mere reading 
of the whole. It pays to reread sentences, paragraphs, 
and entire chapters of this book. 

Do not attempt to answer questions beyond the point 
to which you have read thoroaghly. If you have read 
but half tJie book, your paper will be judged from your 
answers to that point 

QUBSTIOKS. 

LAll answers are to be In verr plain langnsce, never nslnx Froebel*8 
labsuage ] 

1. Put in your own words, in the $imple$t tcwy, hie 
definition of education in the second section. 

2. The same with the science of education. 

3. The same with the theory of education. 

4. The same with the practice of education. 
6. To what should education lead ? 

6. In section 6, in the paragraph beginning ^The 
failure to apply this truth," etc, what do you leani that 
will help you as a teacher ? 

7. Enlarge upon the comparison between plants and 
ehildren , sesti on 8. 



8. Do you find inspiration in the second paragraph,— 
section 12 ? Bead it with great care. 

9. Write not over five sentences upon section 20. 

10. What do yon think of section 27 ? 

11. Do you agree with section SO ? 

12. Distinguish between the school and the school- 
room,— chapter iiu 

13. What do yon think of section 66 ? Treat it quite 
fully. 

14. Do you appreciate his view of teaching natural 
science? 16. Mathematics? 16. Language? 



A HABCH ABBIVAL. 

(Bird Talks for tbe Ghttdren.) 
BT aBORGIA A. HODOKIire. 



A great many people go south, every winter. Can 
yoo tell me why? As soon as the cold weather is 
gone they come home again. But, the other day, before 
the cold weather had gone, while the March udnds were 
blowing, I heard of the arrival of a visitor from the 
south. 

I heard him, two or three days before I saw him. 

One morning, I found him. He was perched on the 

limb of an apple tree, down in the orchard. He wore a 

blue coat and a red vest and he was singing^-oh, so 

sweetiy I This is what he sang : ~- 

*'DAffodi]i, daffodiU, say, do yoo bear f 
8ammer it eomiig and epriog-time ii here.'' 

New, do you know him ? Tet, it was the first blue- 
bird. The male bluebirds come north first. And, 
about a week later, the females foUow. In April they 
begin house hunting. What a gay time they have I 
Mrs. Bluebird flies about, looks in the martin-box, in 
the dove-cote, in the house that Mr. Woodpecker built 
for his winter home, and Mr. Bluebird follows after, as 
busy and as interested as she. At last, she finds a place 
which just suits her. It is a hole in the old stump, out 
in the field. Does he like it ? Oh, yes ; he is alwap 
pleased with everything she does. 

Now they will boild their nests. Mrs. Bluebird does 
most of the work, but her mate follows her and siogs 
to her. Do you think he is praising her work ? The 
nest is not very pretty ; but it is soft and warm. It b 
made of wool, soft grass and feathers. In the nest Mrs. 
Bluebird lays four or five greenish-blue eggs. Later, 
when the littie ones are hatched, both father and mother 
are kept very busy feeding and caring for them. Often 
after the first nestlings have left the nest, the old birds 
bring up another family in the same home. 

Mr. Burroughs, who loves the birds and has written 
many interesting things about tiiem, tells ns that when 
the people from England first settied here, they saw and 
liked the bluebird, as we do. It made them think of 
the English robin, which is not like our robin, and so 
they called it Uie '< blue rohin.'' 



£62 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



[IfASCff, 



THE PARTITION OF AFBICA4 

BY WM. B. SHKLDOir, ▲. M. 

n^HE eyes of the world are dqw tamed toward Afriea, 
P long known as the *' Dark Continent," from the faet 
that ext€>nded portions of its area had not been explored by 
civilized man. Since the search for LiTingstone by U. 
M. Stanley and his more recent journeys in eqnatoiial 
Africa, the great powers of Earope have been vyiog 
with each other in their efforts to secure territory that 
should be brought nnder their influence and control. 
The accompanying map is based upon one prepared for the 
Royal Geographical Sociefy of Great Britain. This 
map will aid teachers and students to understand how 
the divisions of Africa have been recently parcelled out 
by the European powers. A careful study of this 
will show how the sections of the continent have been 
assigned by their recent agreements to the several Eu- 
ropean nations, Of course the boundaries are, as yet, 
still unsettled. For instance, there is a controversy be- 
tween England and Portugal in relation to the interior 
region, south of the Zambesi River and west of Sof ala, 
including Mashonaland and Manica. Th^ " Anglo-Port- 
uguese Treaty " has not yet been ratified, but from the fact 
that the natives have recently indicated their disgust for 
Portuguese rule and that the chief of Maniea, '^ Mutassa " 
has sided with the claims of Great Britain, and has agreed 
to accept the protection of the British South Africa Com- 
pany, it is evident that British influence will ultimately 
prevail, and the boundaries in this section be read- 
justed. There is also some dispute to be settled in regard 
to a section of country north of the Zambesi River. 

There are in the whole of Africa about 11,900,000 
square miles of territory, of which area only about two 
and one half million square miles remain unassigned to 
the protection of some European power. 

The MouveTnent OSographiqueeonitinBhtMe showing 
the present area of the territory claimed by the yarious 
countries, including what are called their several " spheres 
of influence.'' The following are the summaries in square 
miles : Portugal, 774,993 ; Congo Free State, 1,000,000 ; 
Spain, 210,000: Italy, 360,000 ; France, 2,300,248; 
Great Britain, 1,909,445 : Germany. 1,035,720. In ad 
dition to these sections are the countries of Egypt, Tripoli, 
Morocco, the Central States of the Soudan on the north 
and the Orange Free State and Transvaal on the south, 
the Republic of Liberia on the west coast, and what is 
knoirn as the South African Republic The principal pos- 
sessions of Portugal are Angola and Mozambique. France 
controls Algeria, Tunis, Senegal and its dependencies, 
the Sahara, and Western Soudan, a portion of the gold 
coast and what is shown on the map as French Congo on 
the west coast The island of Madagascar is also as- 
signed to France, but her hold upon the island is by no 
means secure. The natives showing such a siurit of in- 



dependence that there may be d fficulty in orertomh^ 
their power. 

Germany has in the << Csmeroons '' 193,000 rquare 
miles, in Damaraland 885,000 square miles, and EkM 
Africa 450,000 square miles. 

British Africa ioclufies her west coast colonies, 445,0(K> 
square miles: Cape Colony, Basnto, Zulu snd Brchu- 
ana lands, 500,000 Fquare miles; Natal, 21000 square 
miles; the South African Republic or Company and 
Nyasaland, 500.000 square miles; East Af tics, 400 000 
square miles, and the Somauli Coast, 38,000 square miles. 

By the above figures it will be seen that France has 
within her '< sphere of influence'' between three and foor 
hundred thousand square miles more area of territory 
than any one of the other powers, but it will be remem 
bered Uiat much of her territory is desert, while Great 
Britain controls the best sections of the continent, and tlie 
▼alue of her possessions outrivals that of any of the 
other powers. Germany probably is the second in imnkv 
Tiewed from a political and commercial atandpoint. 

Italy's strip of territory on the east ooaaty eztendiDg 
from the Golf of Aden to the Jnba River has coat her 
dearly. A standing army has to be maintained against 
the Arab hosts adjacent, and nothing but a military oeeo- 
pation can be claimed. It is a question whether 
her "protectorate" o?er Abyssinia b very profitable. 
The future of the Congo Free State depends largely upon 
conditions that cannot be foretold. The commercial and 
political bterests of the whole ciTilized word combine te 
open the equatorial section of Africa by means of railroads 
connecting the west coast with the great inland lakes. 
Belgium began the work, but it is doubtful if so small a 
power of Europe will be able long to hold her Afriean 
positions of influence even on the Congo and its tribntariea 

The British, Germans, and French are sending expedi- 
tions to the West African coast to act together in estab- 
lishing the boundary lines of their frontiers. 

The French explorer, M. Crampel, has gone up the 
Congo River to the Mobangi River, hoping to cross the 
country to the Shari River and follow it down to 
Lake Tchad, and return across Sahara to Algiers, 
which will open to the world important geographifal in- 
formation. This region is now almost a white »pot on 
the map. Explorations are going on along all the navi- 
gable rivers of the Congo basin. The opening of Mash- 
onaland by the British South Africa Company promises 
a vast region of rich mining country. It is, thought to be 
richer than any section of South Africa. This is a most 
desirable section, capable of furnishing thousands of Eu- 
ropeans with healthful homes. Great Britain has an 
open eye for such colonies, and is ever ready to occopj 
territory that will yield her revenue. No nation hss won 
such colonial success. She seems to select the best posi- 
tions for the promotion of her political and commereiAl 
interests. Canada, India, and Australia are illnstntioni 
of her diplomatic shrewdness. 



1891.] 



THE AMERICA!? TEACHER. 



268 




ff^lDAY 
f\rjt 




n?^h5- 



1^^ 



I CAN'T AND I CAN. 

Tima, ** Too cant do \t, yon know." 

BT ADA 8IMPB0V SHXBWOOD. 

p7 fohool with itf dntlM too oftoo 'tit MOd, 

I ''I •M't do it," jom kw»w ; 

Moeh botfttr to Mbttltoto thtM worit 1 

I eaii do it, 500 know. 

I otn do it, yon kaow* 

I OAB do it, yoa know. 

Ma ih bttUr to rabotitnta th«t wocdi Ivtidl, 

I oM.do it, jo« kaow. 



do not gi?o np on tliat diffioiilt tMk, 
For yon out do it, yoa know ; 

Yon loM yonr own otrooKth whoo MdttaBOt yon aik, 

And yon otn do ir, yon know. 

You ana do it, yoo know. 

Yon can do it, yoo kaow. 
Yon loaa yonr own atrangth wkan awiittnoa yon tik, 

Aad yon aaa do it, yon know. 

1 cant ia an idlar, will narar anaaaad,^ 
I eanU do it, yoo know; 

I can kaa tha aonraga whlali all of na naad« 

Aad yon aaa do it, yon know. 

Yon aaa do it, yoa kaow. 

Yon aaa do it, yon kaow. 
J con kaa tha aonrai^a whiah all of na naad. 

And yon aaa do it, yon know, 

Iean*t ataala onr aaargy, oonrafa, and akiD,^ 

I ewU do it, yon know ; 
Icon bringa ■obbmb with hia brotfaar I naS, 

Aad yoa aaa do it, yon kaow* 

Yo« mm do it, yon know. 



264 



THE AMEBICAK TEACHER. 



[MA»e«, 



Ton ean do it, yon know. 
Jean brings iiioomi with hia hrolkhn, I wiHg 
And yon ean do it, yon know. 

O do not rabmit to thU oowtfd, I pmy,-~ 

I WD't do ii, yon know ; 
Wh«n A task ii Miigiiod yoa ihta q>Mdi]y My, 

I can do it, yon know. 

I oan do ^t, yon know. 

I mo do it, yon know. 
Wh«n a ta^k ia aaiiffncd yoa ihta iq>eadfly ny, 

I MB do it, yon know^ 



If 



OUR FLAG. 

BT APtT.T.A L. BAKBB. 

HBitan «ro two and forty-twoy 
And lot aiT'^Mt a sky of bloe. 
To tcaoh na all wo mnat be trnot 

Tho alripaa of white aro for tho right. 
For which wo'Il work with all our might, 
As thoao who Uto ia fraodom'a light. 

If any foo to oor dear land 

Shall riio la war, a ernal band, 

Than for our lifoa tho red atripaa atead. 

Throo laaaoaa, than, oor flag will taaah, 
In eolor aigna, if not ia apaceh,— 
^'Bo trao, joat, braTO,'* it aaya to aaoh. 



THE PLAT OF THE SEASONS. 

BT MABY BEGIN A POLLOCK, OOBTLAHD, K. T. 

iHESSED in tho varioiia ooatvmaa, aa giVaa bolow, tho 
ehildroB antor and taka thair poaitl o aa ao that with four 
ahildren in tha oentar of tho gronp, aaoh baa thvao bahiad 
him, f otming a aort of aqoaro : 



y^ARCKAPR.MAY. X 


/. Spr 
7 ^ S5 

z I- 




i -3 ^ 

\ ^ 


' p/ 
inv / 


\. 'AON'bO'-w^s >^ 


Btaading thoa they aing, " Song of tha lUiiaa;" 


'* Let na laugh and 
Dancing in a fair] 
We'Ubefatriaaoi 
DaaciagiBafaii] 


Mm rise, 

BtlMCtMM 



tw 



Tho iSiaaenf In tho center croaa handa and walk armod ia tha 
rbg; tho twolTO montlie join haada, going roand to morfe ia Ite 
oppoeite diteetioB. The Seaaona, after having foaad their ova 
plaeeeagaia, lead cff, each into a different eoraer of tlio atago or 
apace ia the room doToted to the play, and followed by ila ewm 
traia of ICoBtha. 

Tbea they march to the oeater again. Thia motenevt ia »- 
peatcd ; thoa the Seaeoae,— after oomiog beok to the eeBter,^}ma 
hande, each Scaioa with ita own train of moatha, ™*fc8«£ a \ 
Staadiag atill, they aing : 

•' Robbie ahall be Wiater wild, 
Helea may be Spring time mild; 
We'll be fairiee oa the green, 
Daaebg ia a fairy ring.*' 

Eaeh Seaeon bow forme a aeparato ring with ito tr^a eC 
Tliey walk roand in theee foor rbga; then each ria£ opeaa 
all form obo large eirele, and aing the laat irerae : 

'' Faater, factor, roood tiiey ge, 
While oar eheeka like roeaa gkv ; 
We are fiuriee oa the greea, 
Daaebg ia a fairy rug.'' 

While atill ainging. Spring nma with abort atepa aroaad ia Ifca 
ring, goea to her place, whea Sommar do9a the aame ; Aa 
takae her place, aad tliea Wiater, eaeh retorBing to ito 
plaee before the nezt oae oommencea. Sach of the twolTo i 
in iwn do the aame. Sach Seaaoa, thia time, provided witk 
decoratod t taffa, one in each hand, atopa into the ring, aad, with ea^ 
apread anna, croaaee wanda, formiog arohea. Jannary leada tha 
twelve monche in aad oat among the etaffa of the Seaaoaa oaee or 
twice, tbea reveraaa in the aame maoBcr. Fiaally they go aroaad 
the ootaida of the foar Seaeona and from the room, followed by tha 
Seaeone. 

If more time oaa be giran, tbea each Saaaoa eaa bring in ito owm 
appropriato aoag, for iaatanae, "Spring Song," (page 50^ 
NatUmtH Kindm-gartM Sangi): 

*' How lovely, how lovely. 

That apring baa come rooad, 
WhcB daiaiaa and violate 
Agi^ may be fonnd,*' ete. 

Sammer baa ite " Kowtog Soag" : 

'' Uader the apreadfaig apple tree* 
Hiah, awiah, gram ia falling ; 
Overhead, rockiog in the bfccie,— 
Hark! hark! birda are oaUing.*' 

^CkMrfid 

Aafaaia— *' Hnrrah t hnrrah ! the antanm bow ia here," eta. 
WUUr^** Skatiag Soag," (from Ckur/td Xekim) : 

" Stare ao bright, moonlight night ; 
Gold aad dear the air, 
,Tia BOt late, eome and akata, , 

Aad for aport prepare," ate. eta. 

THX 00STUMB8. 
Jamary : coaapicooaa for aaowflakee and tby deigh bdla. 
Ftbruary : with valeatbee coveriag the dreaa. 
March : dmple, with green eaeh ia boaer ot St. Patridb 
April : carriee a daiaty ombralla and waterprcof , 
May : white blceeoma and a May pola^ 
Jena .* roeaa oa her garueata. 
Jufy s red, white, and bine. 
AufuU : baaa email baadle of hay oa Ua back. 
StpUmbir: baa a pietty baaket of fmit| wdl faataacd in. 



1881.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



266 



JTommW.* mrIm a bfMoh witluMit iMifM. 
J9ietiikr ; k MtMfldly dMomtod with 

UUOVB. 
Bprmg: wmn a lovely mum of paariM, Mid hai 



of hoUy. 




a erawa of dairi«, and fa foigwiM with 
fai fod and yallow, with nuOl 



WmUr9 slfatMM with fnwt. 

ThbaoBcoaa he faitfodnood with eharadaff off Mt hi 
with tho Play of tiio 



FAIRY PLAY. 



L. P. 



P4h^mu \ iim 



1. We are a band of fairies bright, As soon as work Is 

2. We are a band of fairies bright, We laogb aod daoce and 



w^ 



of » • 



i^ ^ 



t=^ 



I ^ I 



S 



f 



done, All thro' the glo - rions summer night, We 
'sing ; And who • so - ey - er loves the right,May 



P^ 



-tf^T- 



•tf^TT 




meet to have our fun. We meet to have our f nn { 
come and join our ring, May come and join our ring ; 



kri^^ i iJnf-pf ^ 



Chorus. 



i 



•^X- 



r cf r 



i 






Ju ha, ]u he, ]u ha, ]u he,We meet to have our fun : 
Ju ha, ju he, ju ha,juhe,May come and join our ring ; 



ps 



3; 




Ju ha, ju he, ju ha,juhe,We meet to have our fun. 
Ju ha, ju he, ju ha, ju he.May come and join our ring. 



m 



m 



■<sh 



Ohr- 



zt 



m 



^ 



i 



From " Gheerftxl Echoes." 



With tho ehoras, "Jo, ha, jo ht,*' thay swioc th«b aims and 
haads gnoafuUy to tho right and ItfL (A daaoiag step with tho 
ittt aooompaaitt tho hand motion, hat may not alwaji ho praotioa^ 
hlo with Ttiy anall ' ehildron. ) 



EXERCISES FOR SHALL CHILDREN. 

A plnmp littlo lofain flow down iram tiio tMO 
To hnnt f ov a worm whioh ho h^ptnod to too. 



fa that! 



A frisky yoaagohiokon oamo soamporlng hy, 
And gasod at tho lofain with wondoring oyo. 

Saidtiioohfakon: '* What a qno«.looUn| 
Its wings aro so long and its hody so fat! ' 

Whilo tiio fohin romatkod lond onoogh to ho hoaid : 
*<Dsarmo! an oxooodingly straago lodUng hiid.*' 

" Can yon rfv f " lofain askod, and tho oUokon Slid <« Ho.*' 
Bat sskod in its ton if tho robin ooold i 



So tiio bird ooaght a tfoo and tiio ohiokon a wall, 
And oaoh thought tho oth« know nothing at alL 

KzEBons FOB Sight GHZiJ>Bnr. 

1. HowdotholoaYosgrow 

In spring npon tiioir stom f 

2. Tho sap swoUs ap with a drop lor all, 

AndthatfaUlstol 



f 
Mias, 



6. How do tiio loavos fado 

Bonsath tho aatamn Uastf 

0. OhlftdNtth^ygfowhofoiothsydfe, 
Thoir hrightoot fa thoiv last 

7. How aro wo liko Iostoo, 

O ehildron weak and 



8. WhatdotiioloaYoodo 
Throngh tho long 

4. TlMymakoahomotetiio 
A sholtor lor tho 



8. God knows oaoh loaf of tiiofoNotshado, 
Ho knows yon sash and alL 



(GMMMff.) 

ICaitetrL) 
(Gbaeirf.) 
(OmmwI.) 



SZSBCISX FOB FOUB OmLDBSV. 

1. IhadalittloyoUowhlrd 
Upoa a snmmor's day ; 

8. Ho nt npon my flngor 

And ho nofor flow away. 

8. Ho flattstod and ho flnttstod. 
And ho flattorod all tho day ; 

4. Bat ho noTor song a song, 
And ho noTor flow away. 



THE GRASS. 

(Glass Xxerelso by Young PapUs.) 



1. Hoo looms, stooping, stooping oftiywhoio; 

8. By tiio dnrty roadsido, 

8. Bythosoonyhillsido, 

4 Gloso hf tho noisy brook, 

5. In OTory shady nook, 

(Gsncirf.) I oomo eroopiag, stooping orstywhsosb 

6. Hoto I oomo, OEOopittg, eroopiag oTonhwm I 

7. All aroand tho open door, 

8. Whors sit tho sgod poor, 

0. Horo whoro tho ehildron play 

la In tho bright and oMrry May, 

(CMesTt) loon 



266 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



11. 

18. 
18. 
14 
1ft. 
(Omeert.) 

'le. 

17. 
18. 
10. 
20. 
(GbMcrf.) 

21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
26. 
lOomurt.) 



In the Boiiy oity ttraet. 

My pleMftDt fuM yoa'll meet, 

CheeriDir the nek at heert, 

ToUinif hie bney iMurt, — 

Silently eveeping, eveeping eTerywheie. 

Here I eome, oreepinfc, erecpinK ererywheie ; 

Yon ennnot lee me eomisg, 

Nor heer my low eweet hnmnung; 

For in the itenry night, 

And the glad momiog light, 

I eome qoietly ereeping, oreeping everywhere. 

Here I eome, oreeping, oreeping everywhere ; 

My humble eong of praise 

Meet joyfully FU raife 

To Him at whoee oommaod 

Tbeantify the land, — 

Creeping, lilently oreeping ererywhere. 



f! 



JACK FROST'S LITTLE SISTER. 

HIS morning when all the reet had gone down 

I itood by the window to lee 
The beaatilal pietnree whioh there hi the night 

Jaek Front had been making for me. 



There were monntaine and mills and bridges and boats, 

SoBoe queer looking honses and treee, 
A hammoek that swmig by itself in the air. 

And a giant eat off at the knees. 

Then there wse a steeple so erooked and high, 

I wee thinkiBg it sorely mnst fall. 
When right down below it I happened to spy 

The loTsliest thing of thsm all,— 

The ontest and ennningest dear little girl, 

I looked at her hard as I oonld ; 
And she stood there so dainty and looked back at me, 

In a little white nlster and hood. 

" Qood momiog,** I whifpered, for all in a flash 

I knew 'twas Jaek Freei's little sister ; 
I was so gUd to bavs her oome Tisitiog me, 

I reaohed np quite softly and kissed her. 

There ! oan yon belioTe it ? — the darling was gone. 

Killed dead in that one little mbnte! 
I never onoe dreemt that a kiss would do that. 

Nor oould thsre be any harm in it. 

Bat I am eo sorry I for though I hare looked 

Fifty timee at the window sinoe then. 
Half hoping to see her onoe more, yet I know 

She never ean oome back again. 

And it may be foolish, but all throngh the day 
I have feU, — and I knew that I shonld, — 

Jnst as if I had killed her, that dear baby^rl 
In a little white nlster and hood. 

— FoitfA's CosiiMMtoii. 



— Oallopiog, galloping, galloping in, 
Into the world with a stir and a' din. 
The north wind, the east wind, and wesC wind together, 
^beiaginip, Inbriiiglng, tbf Mmb wiW weatlMv^ 




(TheteaetaerwiU And tt pleasant as a variety, to silairtlyreiMtts 

storlee. or seleeMons, then repeat tn her own laar '^^^ — .w^--— 

wbteh In torn reprodaoee, orally or In writing.] 



REPRODUCTION EXERCISBS. 

BT M. ■• O. 

Whittikb*b Snow-Bouhd.* 

:Adapted.1 
TThlrd year ptlmair and lower cimmmar grades.! 

[To make a snoeess of the exercise given below, the teacher i 

{>rov1de berself with pictures of the poet his homes, and any otters 
Uustratlve of periods of bis llfet The entire selectton should be rsad 



to the children, and the sentiment expressed earefully analvied. t 
which portions may be copied by the ynplls from the blaekboaiC 
Whenever the copylDg occurs, an oral expression of the meotal msi- 
nre gained shoold be made. When the varlona selections bave been 
eonsklered, an oral lesson covering all the previous day's worlt shooM 
bc^eveloped.] 

L The sun that brief Dseember day 
Bose ehesrlees over hills of gray. 
And, darkly eireled, gave at wmb 
A sadder light than waning moon. 

e • * e e % e 

A ehill no eoat, however stoat. 
Of homeepnn stuff oonld quite shut ovt. 

e e • • e • 

The eombg of the snow-storm told. 
The wind blew east; we heard the roar 
Of Ojean on his wintry shore. 
And felt the strong pulie throbbing there 
Beat with low rhythm our inland air. 

II. Meanwhile we did cur nightly choree, — 
Brooght in the wood from oat of doois. 
Littered the stells, and from the mows 
Baked down the herds-grass for the oowa, 
Heard the horse whinnjiag for his eom; 
And sharply olashing horn on horn. 
Impatient down the stanchion rows. 
The eattle shake their walnut bows. 

IIL The gray day darkened into night,— 
A night made hoary with the swarm 
And whirl»dance of the blinding storm. 
As stgaeg wavering to and fro 
Grosssd and re<«rosied the winged enow ; 
And ere the early bedtime oame 
The white drift piled the windew-franse. 
And through the glass the clothes-line poeto 
Looked in like tall and sheeted ghosts. 

• e e e • • 
So all night long the storm rosrsd on ; 
The morning broke without a sun. 

• •««•• 
IV. All day the hoary meteor fell; 

And when the eeeond morning s hea a, 
We looked upon a world unknown. 
On nothing we oonld eall our own. 



•Arrangements nave been made with MLessrt. Honghtop, MHBIb, A 
Oompany for the use of this poem. 

t Very good pictures may be found In back numbers of BagiiliiN.or 
one may obtain an Ulusirated catalogue of some large pnbttshuKiia. 
The well mounted photographs aqd small etchings In ibe mttkiC an 
expenalve bm valtntoleatdf to the langonie tessoog. 



I 



1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



267 



VL 



Tb« old familiar aigliti of oint 

Took marTtlona thapaa ; atnoica domaa and towara 

Roaa np whara aky, or aom-erib atood» 

Or gardan-wall, or bait of wood ; 

A amooth wbita mound tha bmab-pUa abowad, 

A fanaalaaa drift wbat oaea waa road ; 

Tba bridla-poat an old man aat 

Witb looaa-flooir aoat and bigb ooekad hat. 

With mittanad handa, and aapa drawn low, 
To gnard onr naeka and aan from anow, 
Wa eat tba aolid wbitanaaa tbroagb ; 
And, wbara tba drift waa daapaat, nada 
A tnnnal wallad and OTarlaid 
Witbdaxilingaryatal; • • • • a • 
Wa raaebad tba bam witb marrj din, 
And ronaad tha priaonad bnitaa within. 
Tba old bona tbmat bit Iodk band out, 
And gniTa witb wondar gaiad aboat ; 

Tba oxan laabad thair tailt, and hookad, 
And mild raptoaoh of hangar lookad. 

All day tha gnaty north winda bora 
Tba looaaning drift ita braath bafora ; 
(And) Aa oighi draw on « « « « « 
Wa pilad with oara oar mighty ataek 
Of wood agaioat tba ebimnay baek. 
« a a a than, boTaring naar 
Wa watabad tha firat rad blaaa appaar 
( Aad) Shat in from all tha world witbont 
Wa aat tha alaaa-wiogad baarth aboat, 
Gontant to lat tba north wind roar. 



'*I Don't Oabx." 

[For ant year's wockart In primary aebooli. Baad onea, r apro d aaa orallyO 

Elria ia a Uttla girl who baa a bad habit of Myfaig, "I don't 
oara.*' Ooa day Aant Mary mid to bar, ''£laia, wiU yoa do an 
arraad forma?*' "Oh, yaa,ma*aml'* ariadaha; '< wbat ia it f ** 
" Take yonr nanghty * doa*t oara ' away up in tha garrat and hida 
it" Bkia Ungbad, and than laokadTaryaabar. Than aba iiUd, 
"1 will, Aant May ; " and away aha raa. Sha maat bara biddan 
it Tary oarafnlly, for aba baaa't foond it agaia. 

Baby Ro8k*b Wintkb Nap. 

lAdapted.^ 
[Thla may be read to tba aaoond and third orimary gradaa, and 

reproduced orally with tha one and In writing witb the other.] 

Lait fall, wbaa tha eold froata aaoM, oaa btara littla bad that 
waa trying to be a roaa grew qnita blank and fall off tba atam. 
Vary aooa all tba laafaa fall, too, aad tha abUdraa aaid, *'Tbia 
frott baa kiUad tha roaa-baah.** Thay did aot kaow that thara 
ware baby roaea alaapiog oa tba old roaa-boab. If thay bad lookad 
oloaaly they would baTo foond tiny brown eradlaa, qnito different 
from tba one in whieb Baby Groona takca bar winter nap. Tbaaa 
roaa- e r a dlaa are vary littla, and brown, aad mada of a gisod maay 
layera of aomatbing like ^rary thin, rongh, brown paper. Tba 
whole ia made anng by theae layan being ataek tightly together. 

When the weather grew very, Tery eold. Mother Boaebaah, Baby 
Roaa, aradlea and all ware eofared with a warm aoat of atraw. Aa 
tha apriog aaa growa qaito warm. Baby Roae will wake ap, and tha 
•traw will be takea off. Neat a tiny little greea hand will bo 
thmat oat of eaoh littla eradle. Old Mother Roee wUl be kept 
baty feeding eaoh waking baby with a kind of jaiee whieb aba 
brioga np from tba groand in noma woaderfal way. Tba babiaa 
will grow atrongar and atroagar, and pretty aooa will atrateh a great 
many green banda ont iato the •aaabiae aad air. 

At laat, aome Jnae morniog, a aweet little pink faee, all waahed 
ia dew, will be lifted np, and tha obildraa will aay, '' Why, tha 
roae-bnah ia not dead I Hera ia tha awaataatroaa that arer waa aaea.'* 



Maury s Geographies 

Contain new maps of Africa and Central Africa, 
•howing the features of the continent as now 
known. Including Stanley's recent discoveries, etc. 

The six New States of the United States as ap- 
pear as such, in text and maps. 

The figures of the new U. S. Census of 1890. as 
yet only partially completed and published, are 
Incorporated in the text of these Geographies at 
the earliest practical moment. To any teacher 
using Maury we will, on request, send advance 
tabulated Information. 

These are only Illustrations of the watchful care 
exercised to keep Maury's Geographies abreast 
of ail geographical changes. 

Oorrespondence solicited concerning these 
books, and Holmes' ^New Headers. Vcnable's 
New ArHhmetlcs, Glldersleeve's Latin, etc.. etc. 



UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING CO., 

THOMPSON, BROWN ft CO., NEW YORK. 

9»H«wlwr %X^ POSTON, 




THEMMMUC 



WW a aetable feature of fbe 
- ahareh fair <»f oar yoanfcer 
4fty«. Tmi paid Tonr nftoney. luid yon fcnt. not your 
etaolee. bat yeerloek. The element of attraeKoa 
WM that yoa olwov ■ got MmethlDK. Some Affoneiee 
are earrlod oa la Ibis way. By hook or eronk they 



getaaroat i 



ay tooehert' ooaiot. ofteo by froe 

- _ "roatatralloa fee to bo paid whoa 

ploeo Is feeared.** By erook or hodk th^ ro* Id for- 
roatloo of a irreat many real or sopposod ▼oeourloi. 
Br notifyloK lo a wholetalo way tomo forty or fifty 
eaodldaten of Mcb one of iheae potrtbla ▼aeane l et they fill a great muny 

Elacoa. If a •^hool hat boon laeky lo this kind of a draw oat of the grab- 
■g It pralsM the /.. 

tonn« and th« Agenoy \ 
bat (bin part lealar one 1 

with oth^r Ag^nelot or 

way Prtnetpal Loroll. of the Kimlra Free Academy, eame to at In 1800 fn 
two Udy-toanbcm at $660 and fSOO. Wo told him wo ooaM not fill the first 
place at all. and h«d only two candidates for the soeond. One of these waa 
teaching In No? a Kootlo. bat she got the place and she filled It well. No. 
body eljie was notified of either place. Now It seems to at that this It 
f^etter than grab bag wor^. bat every one mnst choo«e to salt himself 
Only. If one concern ha« fi'VMled yoa «Lh TCfiOUCDC JIOCIIPICC 
letters from Imposvlble candidates. dun*t tay I CIlLnLKa IlllCliultOi 
It l« the w*y nf nil (hi othef 

U/ll I IT DflV ^^" *' r*"iiltti*T' Tl5*t Li after kN ibt m^ln ftne^Mrtn 'wkh 
ffILL 11 r** 1 t*'flcki'*fi Tlmy *iiioir th« b"it pJse«« nr* ftU^d by 
Agendo*, n^d ttjat •omi» m«Ti anH wamen&r«< th^rehr' pr^nnni^rt wuh. ffTfa^ 
rapldltr. M"t a iftK^l mi»nit t*iPt»<fT« reirV«t«r And *trt i>ot pM iiU'*«» Waw 
can a tewc'^ef t^n Jwft^nphitn*! ^hwilier tlia Tw^> I>t>linri l« a ^l«<f lnv,-it- 
ment?— W^l| in \h¥ *r*i plHce, ^e c#n't %tM f 'r *i*r*. Tnerel^i hii Bl»<i«iPnt 
of risk In tU tnve'rm«4nt>, If s ntnn vnnt* fai tKi Ji.tMohiif'ly 'm th«iiHrn >li1o 
h* mast if^vvT Apeiirl m r^^BTif «vc«pt far thi<< hreid ttt^t h* «*«!« and ih« 
clothOtf thHt lift w^ATi, iLijd b(i muftt bar thttin v^r^r tHfl j-naut^r, jtetiffm: 
them when h« li^ta for tb^m. A a AiEvnt^T tnnj ti« « HOod tbtm^, luid « Rfood 
thing for Tf'U. M<(i Tt'C ^JiH tc» net yoa a pine? thr dr«t yHir or two But ih«rf> 
are certain iff>ii4«rril prto«1plM for khn#« w^o titid«r4t4n<t. \}^^% »nri>« ttivi^it- 
ment4 are wj'*«i«<vt}m nhttn (hf^y do not poAUIi'vi^T nomitfl lmn;iiMlUt«r^t tiros 
which an tipt^rloncft ^f 4^1 tfMjFM^rt sj^ It 4i>«>«ij't {at tm^ tt^^elit^r* to 
makes as ihtnic fundiLaiifnTaf. (l!^ mC retflater^ Thfij' that jcet oiici p^Oi^a 
ihroogh an Aiti^ix'r^Vpiit iber will rji^v^r ^v\ mjn^ther thr'^iiKli \K- An At^ncy 
is h«>ld respr^^»1bi« for It* rmndMKt«i, m.uA It iri^ppi j^nhnrn vitTcb ou xhmr 
work aftOf I h«^t iir« plicred. i^i t E dcwnii't ftfif for t^n^'ht^Ti w ho have * rOTir4 
failurtu to Tim\*K<iT. Notob tejictaPn iecm to thliite ibitt thi^ Ia wh«E an 
Ageocy ts tor-^ to provide pla$e»araonK itmnf^r* for thot*. vh*^ r^^n't ^dt 
placet where ttiAf ofo kno^n Not a bit ^t \ii the AE«nCT uiunllr flodi oal 
what year rtcord is. iS^ It doestt'l par fffr*tif/ teachufit |^ rv^iter, who 
want to gi^r. twiro «4 innch talarr At thfy cmn »Brn. Wet try Go f^t for 
teachers til their {innLIH'^tl'^n* 4nd expC'-r1^tL€t<> TaItTt d««flrv«, but wO 
thOQld be vPiTj ncrFT to put n P5^ t9«f^h*T lax*> n. f lOOO plito't ^r* Mutb 
dot let to school t>oiirdn lu weW k-i to fetvliAri. (4t It do^fri t pnT rtj^^ttlatiint 
teachert t^ r<-irUtf<r Our w^rit ti-onhle tii with t«%A(j Y'fi QCplC^rCD'O 
ert who a«^ tor « c^rUtn k4 n4 i^f p't{ir?« mna thon ref 0*4 I U n CUI 4 I LH T 
It when oil'' rt-d. Jtut n p;iri from t h^v '« f nn r r iMfdi, we bol hs vt- J t p.i v 5 evtTf 
teacher to --«,•* ii.i:»u^u. ^^ iua** j;.,^**^^*!.^ 

iinO A I ^°^ ^ T^^ Dollars and yonr name will be entered at once, and 
MUKAL blankt forwarded to yoa to be filled an by yoa with the lafer- 
matton neeetsary to seoare the place yoa are bitt fitted for. 

Bcbool Billetto IceBCTt C W. av«eeB» Sjraceie, !• i: 



168 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Mam.. 



{jXottB anb Ouerie0« 



ttMlimof 

Thb T] 

BtodUi 



auwen for tiM Notes and Qnertot mmild rMeh HI bf 
monttL We reepeettolly reqoeet.aU.tlie reAdenpi 
to tike purt 
andtornJih 



ne noses ano wuenee looiua rMon VB Di 
) reepeettnlly reqoeet All tbe reeden oi 
i In m& dlieaitioni of tlilf deutftmattL 
I auwen to queftUmt ctreo.— Sdb. 



ANBWXBB TO QUXBIMa. 

711. W]ittiiiiMMit1i7'<HeliM80BevpSeltRiT«r"f 
" Belt BiTer " b a aBell ■tNem In the north eentnl pert of Ken- 
taeky, flowing north* into the Ohio tome mUee weet of Loniirille. 
Al *'ntti Point" it reeeiYW tiie wetan of " BolUng Bnuieh." 
Many yean ago, ao goee the etoryi in the adminietiation of General 
Jadnoa, the Poitaaaeter General deoirinifoooie aoeorato information 
astothe point wheie ^'Salt Hirer" flowa into the Oldo, wvoto to 
tiiepoatmaaterof '< Htti Point," and hi hb letter aaked, '* Where 
does Salt RiTor ran npf " The Pitta Point poatmaater, heb|r a 
wwgf seeing an opportonity to perpetrate a jdlce iqpon liia snperior, 
replied in a enrt note, "SaitBirar doea not ron np; it ranadown." 
The next maQ troas Washington, hroaght a letter from the poat- 
BUHter general to the postmaster at Htts Point, whieh eontained 
only the loUowiag laeonle sentenee : ** Sir, the U. S. Goremment 
has no farther nse for year se i i J ees." A faoe t ioos fellow, being 
aaked what had beeome of Mr. Blanlc, the poetmaster, laplied that 
Old Hiekory had seat him np Salt RiTer. Sinoe then, the ezprse- 
sion, "Up Salt RiTer," has been appUed to a pereon who has oeev- 
pied an offiee er plaee nader gofemment, and has been displaoed 
eitlier by the appointment of a new oeenpaat or failed to saoeeed 
in a rsSleetion. Bat it does not apply to the defeat of a new ean- 



D. R. W., WhiU Plaifu, N.T. 



724. " Can an image prodnee an image f" Thia i 
the snbjeat of light in pUloeophy. 

If an objsot is plaoed between two plane parallel i 
one prodaees an image of its own and reprodaeee tiie image i 
from the otfier. This image of an image ia again refleeted by i 
to the otfier nntil by sneesssiTe refleetione, the rays are no lei 
dieeemable. If the mirrors be at right angles to 
objsot will prodnee three images. Oae SMide by < 
rsfleetion from boUi. If plaeed so aa to form an angla of (KT, iwa 
imagea will be made; 45^ will prodnee seren imagaa. 

B. MeC T, Bipbg. Okm, 

730. A eompany dfaiing at a honae of enterhrfameat had to pay 
$8.50, bat before the biU was praesnted, two of theei left, in eoa- 
esqnenee of wbieh thoee who remained had to pay aaeh 90 esaas 
more tlian if all had been preesnt How maay persons dined f 

H. G. M., SaxmmlU, WU 

Let * ■■ nnmber of persons who dined, jr — S ■■ nmnlier off 
petaono who renudned to esttle the bilL 

$8.60 



$8.50 
jp-2 



— am' t eaoh oae who dined ahoold hare paid. 



» am't eaoh oae rsmaiaing paid. 
$8.50 $8 50 



gires:**— Sv— SS. 



.-2 , ^ 

Clearing eqnation of fraethaw and transpi 
Completing sqnare, X* — 2x + 1 -i 80. 
BztraetiBg sqvare root, jr ~ 1 avO. 
Transposing, then jr -■ 7. Kamher who dfaMd. 

B. KeCy, B^iZty, OUs. 
Credit to W. B. L., Carmel, N. H. ; W. O. B., Uzbtidga, K. D. ; 
J. L., Springfield, Mo. ; B. J. F., Germaatown. K.Y. 

748. When aad where was the first National Politieal Coa^an- 
tionheldf Give the name of the party and the i 
nceted with it. 



FOR EXAMINATIONS, YOU NEED 

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MaayBeeks Bednfedte^ae TalaablA Telswe.— CAetelai 0,000 Ovm- 

uoaii eaH Aanwen o« Firteca BranrhM of Rtsdj. — HoUm 

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DBPABTMBNTB. 
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tlons is followed by a de- 
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lame sabjeet, eaoh ques- 
tion being nnmbered, and 
the answer haying a oor- 
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its authority appended 

HlSTOBT. — PounOAL 
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TIO. — Obthoobapbt. — 
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BAPHT.— GiTIL GOVBBK- 

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The leading Training Schools of the country constantly repraeented 
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with the ITorld."— BUPt. JoBBAl, 
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*-lt is tbe bestteMheis* Jonrwa I 
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1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



269 



la 1800« eudidAtM lor th« pnrideii^ ww oominAtod In eoo- 
SMMlontl OMUNi^ Menilj eoBTMied In Philsdapliia. Li ISOI. 
•ad agiOa in 1806, th« oandidntM w«n nomiutad in Um nme 
■MBMr. Li Septembtr, 1812, tli« fint nntionnl eoBTratkni, oom- 
poMd of dtkgMM from Um diff mnt ftetM, oMfc in Naw York to 
Buik» tbo Fodocnl Bomfamtioot, and nf tor a Morat ■ — i o n of throe 
dmy nftmkntf^ D«^tt Clintoo for Pioddont and Jaiod Ingonol 
for V1oo-PfMld«it BltTOB otatoo wwo l o pt ntn t od. Mr. Clintoo 
wan a Domoerafc, bat wni tho leador ia afnetioa of hio party opposed 
to iho administration. Tho Fodomlitt party was nonrly dead, and 
tb« only kopo lay in aniting with tho Clintoalnn Dttnooratn. 

W. B. H., Jf ondUtttfr, if. H. 

AfMihtr ORfiPfr.— The tati-MMOBio party bald, at PhiladalpUa, 
ia 1880, tha first natbnal poUtioal eoBTantion that arar amamblad 
iathaUnitadStataa. Aeaording to ita raoommandation, tha party 
mat hi aoBfaatkm at Baltimore, September 1881, and aomiBatad 
William Wirt and Amoa Bllmaakar aa their aaadidataa for PraaU 
dant and Viaa-PieoidaBt of the U. 8. 

C. L. F., Jffojt Peorto, HI. 

784. Who wroto the ballad. "OldGrimaa," awl who waa tha 
aabieetofUf 

The original Gfimaa wee fiiat immortaliaad by the Bngliah poet, 
Crabbe. Grimaa waa the aabjaet of one of his talsa ia rbyme. 
Later the Ameriaaa poet, Albert G. Greeae of Rbade Islaad, wrote 
the hamorooa ballad, •' Old Grfanaa k Dead.'' 

0. L. F., Eatt Pwria, IlL 

768. Name three wordafai tha BkigUahhuigni«e that have three 
letters fai alphabetiaal order in them. One with lonr. 

l^Wi ^AtbeUine, •/ghoit oigai^jfamp. I do not know whether 
the kwt word is allowable, bat it k the only oae I aaa flad, anawar- 
iaf tiie qasatiott. N. 

Amoiher.^DeftMt cff/U^ato, <f</ama, <f«/knlt, d!«/eat, cfs/eet. 



<£</end, tUftg^ eta. Webatsr gifea one haadred and fifty words 
eoMteining <£«/! 0. L. F^ JSagt FuriOt HL^ 

What aboat tiie one with four f *Bd. 



766. Were there two MisMmtiComptomSassf Ifso,i^ve1 
There was bat oae Miswari eompromise. Later oobbp 

Immght forward by Clay had ao ooanaetioB with it. Tlia 1 
Nebraaka bill broagkt forward by Stephen A. Dooglaa Tirtaally 
rapadiated it. W. B. H., MantAuttr, Jf . H. 

767. When the deelaiation of Independenoe was signed, was it 
signed by all of the signers on the 4th of Jnly, 1770, or were there 
signets who signed after that time f J. B. W. 

The Deelaratioa of Independsnoe, after its pesssge an Jaly ith, 
1770, waa signed only by Joha Haaeoek aa praaideat and the sse> 
rotary of Goagress, bat its eagMesmaat was ordered. On Aagaat % 
f oUowing, fif ty-loar memben met at Philadelphia aad signed tha 
engfoeMd oopy, and aabscqosatly two other delsgatsa afllaad their 
ngaatares. X. T. 

Credit to H. A. P., Stormville, K. T. 

768. Whieh is the aaoendfa« node, tiie oraasiMr of Unea, so to 
speak, ia the spring or fall f B. C. 

In the spring, whsn the north pole of the earth toma toward the 
san, aad the son bsgias its apparent joaniay aorthward. 

760. Whaa4 k the eenter of popnlation of the United States, 
aaeording to the eeasns of '00 f 
Aboat sixty milse soathwaat of dnehmatt 

H. A. P., StormvOU, if. T. 

701. AhosaagoeaonehalfaaftiatdowahiUaaoBthe]eval,aBd 
three timse aa feat dowa hill aa ap-hiU. It took 2} houa to go 
from A to B, and 2} to retnm from B to A by the eama road, there 
befaig 2 mHaa more of ap-hlll going than setornfaig, aad tiia level 
road beiag one fif «h of the whole dbtaaee. How £sr was it fram 
AtoBf 



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WiZX HOU> ITS SSYSHTH ASVUAL SXSSIOV 

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Prof. AURTINO. APOAB. Normal Sehool, Trenton, N. J. 
Supt. I. PBBIIIAN HALL. Leomtnstor. Mass. 
Prof. B A. aiNBDALS. UoiTerstty of Mlehigan. 
L. A. BXJTTBRFIBLO. PH.D., Bmerson College Oratory, Boston. 
Dr. THOMAS HUMS. UolTerBtty of North Carolina. 
Prof. WALTBB A. PBBBT. Pratt iDttttote. Brooklyn. 
Miss 8TBLLA SKINNBB. formerly of Winona, Mlon. 
Prof. OTTO H. L. 8CHWBT8KY, Normal School. Oswego, N.T. 
Miss ANNA B. BADLAM« Prln. Training Sehool, Lewlston, Me. 
pal Sloyd Behool, Boston, and many otiien. 

MHBBnARr irifil^IAIMS, ClIeHs Fall*, FT. T. 



Dr. B. N. WHITB, Clnehinakl, OMo. 
Bnpl Q. I. ALDBIOH. Quinsy. Mass. 
PrWpal CHABLB8 P. KINQ. Boston, Mms. 
H. P. BMLTH, formerly Head Drawing Teaeher, Brooklyn. 
Prof. JOHN WOODHULL College for Training of Teaehers, 
Baperlatondent W. J. BALLA.Blf, Jamalea, L. L [N. T. City. 

VfS. LYMA.N D. SMITH, Hartford. Conn. 
Miss SARAH ARNOLD. Supt. Prl Sobs . MlnneapolU. Minn. 
Miss CAROLINE T. HAVKN. Felix Adler's SebooLN. Y. City. 

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By Fbahgis COGSwai'ii. Saperintendent of fiehools, Cambridge, Mass. Prtee, t6 cents. 

This book Is In many of Its features quite different from any work for the grade hitherto pnbllshed. and will be found especially adapted 
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270 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Mabcb, 



By writkwutic^l^ golii|r, tiM h«rM olimbad a t vomiU hill, whieb, 
Moordinif to tlw teroit of Um probkm, took M mooh tima as to ipo 
throe mike on the IotoI, thai lodng ooo milt. lo roiorBioK, he 
deMonded the eeme hill in the Mme time ai he eoiild hare gone one 
mile on the leTel, ihos fcainin^ one milt. Actual diffaranoe between 
the two trips, two milea on the level. Aetad diffdrenee in time 
between two tripi, \ hoar. Henet tht hortt traTek at tht rata of 
8 milet an hour on the level. It took him 2\ hoars to make the 
joomey from A to B. 8X2^ •■20 milet, dietanee from A to B, 
had the gronnd all been level Now he looeo one mile during the 
jeorney, which would make tht eqvaltsMl level distance 19 miles. 
Kow only ^ of the distance MleTd. ,V«<ld — 1^* 1.9+2 » 8.0. 
19 — 3.9 » 16.1. 15.1 -i- 2 =« 7 65. Hence there were, in going 
from A to B, 1.9 milte level giouid, 7.65 BiUsa down hill, and 9.55 
miles nphilL X. Y. 

763. What office dcea the atmesphere el the earth perf cm f 

It snpplisa animals and phmts wish air, Mtains and modiBsa the 
solar heat, and earriee moistare over the snrfaoe of the land, where 
it dcecends as rain or snow. Therefore without the atmosphere, 
the earth would be a barren and lifeless waste. 

8. J. P., Lagrange^ Va, 

Another OMSwer. — The atmesphere snetains life, deadens the 
attraction of gravitation so that a fall is Ian severe, enables objects 
on the earth to keep their pontion notwitlistandtng the rotation 
and revolution of the earth, changes the light of the sun into heat, 
^ Bsakes combustion on the earth poaiible, etc. Its offices are many 
and Tariad. 

764. Did the Liberty Bell proclaim liberty on the 4th of July f 
Vw heard it wee the 8feh of July. W. T. M., Hamilton, Ala. 

There waa no ringing of the " liberty Bell " on July 4th, 1776. 
It was on the 8 ih of July, in aooordaace with preTions notice, that 
the oitisans gathered at Independeace Hall. Tlie bell was rung 
and the declaration read. X. Y. 




QUXBlEa. 

797. Name the floids of the body? 

79S. Why is Pekin called the Gvlettial Cityf 

799. Diagram and aaiiijssl ^^Gratiane opcaka an iaftuta < 
of nothing, more than any man in ail Vebice." 

800. At what age do bonee arrive at perfectioaf and 
the bones of the tknll. 

^ 801. How maay inch boards oan be eawed from a ttietk aff 
timber 2 ft eqoare, if the eaw out is -j^ of an inch. 

802. What thr€4 literary prod notions have had a 
inflaence on the hietory of this country. 

803. How can one best learn aad distinguish betwaea tiha t 
j and cA. Having trouble with tlieae sounds I should like to 1 
how to overcome this defect. A. SOBSCBIBKB. 

804. Does Ice freest on top or on the bottom. 

805. What ie the *' CivU Service Reformf '* 

806. The enm of the three digits composing a number ie 20. 
The digit ia units* place is 1} timee that in hundrede' place. If 
297 be added to the number, the order of the digits will be rwimiad. 
What is the namber ? Show how it caa be solved arichmatfically. 

J. M. W., Tukumga, CaL 

807. Pleaee paree for me the italioissd words ia follovi^ 
sentence taken from QaacA:sii6of* Orammar: " We wei 
by pirates, aad oame acor Uing drowned.'* Is the eeata 
Eogliahf M. L. B. 

806 Who said that Howe hada't taken Philadelphia aa mnak as 
Philadelphia had taken Howe f 

809. In what war waa Lincoln a captain and DaTis a lisnteaaat f 

810. What coione^ when aeked if he coold take a batteiT. la- 
plied. Til try, sir"!' 

811. A packing hoaie cbargtd 1} per cent, commimica, aad 
cleared $2316.15 after pacing out $1208.75 for all expafcas af 
peeking ; how many pounds of pork were packed, if it ocst 4^ ceats 
a ponad t 

812. A taak is 8x10 feet at the top, aad 6x10 feet at the 
bottom, and ten feet deep. How high is the water when it k half 
fall ? 8. A. W. 

813. Give the correct spelling of the proper adjsctiva devivad 
from Sigouraey. B. S. M. 



« WEBSTER'S INTERNATIOirAL DICTIONABT. m 

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A. tfetr Book from. Oover to Cover. Fully A-breftsC -with, tbe I'im.ea. 



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Boaton Herald. — It is the book des- 
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Boston Journal of Bdncation.^ 
Unquestionably the rlchtful heir to tbe pre- 
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Noah Webster and its successive revised 
edlri «ns. 

Ohio Edaoatlonal Monthly.— 

Rogllsb- speaking people throughout the 
world may point with pride to Webster's In* 
teroaMonal Dictionary as one of the great- 
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Canfionl! 

There have recently been Issued scTeral 
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Many announcements concemtnc them 
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X88L] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



2T1 



Oifgliial ponies, annran, ana all octier oorr o pqndww ralattag lo 
Ids mvaraneiit, ■hould be indoned " For Knots and Tangles" and 
dUreaaed to Pusxle Rdltor. Box sse, Bharon, Pa. 



XIS. ChABADX. Firat, 

The flowece of ipriBi^tiino 

Bloom at m j kiM ; 
The gross on the hill-side 
Shows Inah lovslinsss 

8§eond. 
I add to heanty, hrightosas,— 

To rishasasy mote of gtaee; 
To drsm I give eompUteness, 

An otnaBssnt in plsee. 

Wkola. 
I eome so fair and fleetiBg, 
To ptomiee full eompleOag* 
That after night the snn shall rise, 
And snnshine follow stormy skies. 



aw.H. 



lis. KUMXBIOAL EVIOMA. 

I am eompoeed of 67 letters. 

1. My 68, 1, 17, 5, 4, 87, 63, 8, 16, 64, a aotsd people in BiUe 
history. 

8. My 68, 24,0. 22, 6, 7,27, 20, one of the sons of Jaeoh. 

8. My 14, 48, 47,66, 86, 61, 46, 44, 67, 63. 22, eoontry between 

4. My 81, 10, 86, 26, 68, 16, 11, 0, 10, 4, 8, 42, a eon of 



6. My 80, 12, 48, 6. 47 was mitaenlonsly healed by Peter. 

6. My 87, 8d, 21, 66, 44, the plaee where the adraele was 
wrought. 

7. Mf 86. 7, 68, 87. 63, 85. 86, 53, a eity of Maoedonla. 

8. My 14, 6, 6, 4, 65, 60, 12, 63, 22, an eztsnsiTe distiiet of 
Gcesee. 

0. My 57. 22, 0. 7, 8 >. 43, 37, 5. 42, as anetest bsrisl plaoe. 

10. My 30. 28, 42, 68, 39. 3A, 53, 44, a oonntry in Afrioa. 

11. My 47, 27, 35, 80, 42, 53, 41, 84, a wieked woman who eame 
to an nntimsly end. 

12. My 67. 44. 25, 10, 7. 43. 29. one of the OTaogelista. 

13. My 15, 6. 25. 26, 24, 26. 43, 15, 27, the mother of a Uag of 
Jodah. 

14. My 16, 44, 17, 26, 27, 2, 37, 18, 57, 10, 29, one of the 
twelve Apostlss. 

16. My 16, 6, 45, 8, 68, 67, 4, 8, 64, a nun miraonloosly healed 
by Christ 

16. My 0, 83, 80, 17, 10, 64, an islnnd Tiiited by St PaaL 

17. My 16, 48, 18, 87, 44, 42, the poetieal name given to a 
beentif ol land. 

18. My 0, 7, 22. 45, 68, 8, 23, a Tirtne greatly eommended by 
Pan]. 

10. My 1. 6. 57, 82, 20. 68. 12, one of the divisions of Palestiae. 
20. My 0, 48. 12. 40. 44. 0, 7, 10. 20. 53, 15, a king of Aisytia. 
My whole k a wiss though brief prayer. 

114. AVAOBAMS. 

An BngHsh anther and some of his works. 

TIBGIL Im DKTH0M08. 

1. Alged Trees lived. 4. Wioked Love Affair. 

2. BUa v. Bbettor. 6. Tseht " YtpeUt" 
8. Hope Torqnone's Costa. 0. B. H. Hettrisk 

F.M.C. 



NOT A DISSBNTINQ VOICE 

AS TO THB MBBBITS OF 

Montgomery's American History. 

FOB EZAUPLE: PfiOVIDENCE, B. I. 

I. Unaninwuslp desired by the JPrindpdle. 

Providbncs, R. I., Dec 19, 1890. 
At a meetiDg of the Grammar Principala of this city, held on Monday evening, Nov. 24, 1890, it was voted, vithont 
a dissenting voice, to ask the Text-book Committee, to introduce Mont^mery's United States History in place of the 
text-book then in use. J. M. Hall, Prin* DoyU Avmui School. 

II. Unanimoueiy recomfmended by the Teoct^heelh Cknn/mUtee. 

At the meeting of Nov. 28, 1890, the Committee on Text -Books submitted the following report: — 
To tko School Committee of the City of Providence : 

Your committee, to whom was referred the resolution regarding; a change in the text-book on United States Hiitory, 
and directing os to report which is best adapted for use in our grammar schools, respectfully report as follows :^ 

We have carefully examined into the matter Among the several books above referred to, your com- 
mittee recommend as best adapted to the work we desire accomplished in our schools, '* The Leading Facts of American 
History," by Montgomery* Hunter C. White, Chairman^ for the Committee. 

III. Unanimously adapted by the School Board. 

The report was received, and the recommendations contained therein were adopted by an aye and nay vote, as 
foUows: — Ayest 27; nays, none. 

Suck an exampU ipeak» for Uadf. 



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272 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[li*«m 



115. Pboblbm. 

[Proof ihM following to be trm.j 

(90- 10) 4- (40 -10) + (24-1) 
(10-1)+ (4-1) 



F.U.Q. 



TIm 



110. Qbogbaphioal Aobostio. 

1. TIm **FoMrt aty." 2. TiM "aty of SpindW' 8. 
"Bdlrond City." 4. TIm ''City of Booki." 5. A rivmr 
iaf " iwift wftttt.'' 6. A UIm meaniBg '* Tillage ob a moontdii." 
7. Tha " City of Blmt." 8. Tho ** Athmn of Amwioa." 0. The 
<<Cradlo of LiUrty.'' 10. The "Hawkeye Stata." 11. City 
BManiaff '* Cold ■pring.'' 12. The *' Gate City.'' The faiitiala 
read dowawavd give the name of a pramineat maa. Fba. 



m. 

L 



Squabb Wobdb. 

1. Olherwiee. 2. A weapon. 8. Eiad of table. 4. A 
_ K>per name. 5. Tlie groape fonnded on the dietiagoiih- 
ing peeoliarity of plants 

IL 1. A eaUaal oratory within the temple at ICeeoa. 2. Red 
aaadal wood of China. 8. APortognaee phyaieian. 4. The genna 
of a bird of ptey f oond in Eorope and Ameriaa. 5. la reality. 

Maok. 



ANSWSBS TO FEBRUABT PUZZLES. 
100. 8(tsi)eeB-«eeB ; fi(T)e-lle ; tw(elT)e-wet ; eCis) hiui(d)fe(d)- 
ihni ; •(U)ty on(e)*itoBy. 
100. L IL 

BHBD FLAX 

HIYB LIOX 

XTBV AOHX 

DBVT HBXD 

107. l,MinneapoHai 2, Providenee; 8, Indiaaapolie ; 4, Phila- 
delphia; 5, Harriibitfg; 0, ICawaokee; 7, San Franeiaoo; 8^ 
Loniarille; 0, Omaha; 10, Woroeater. 

108. Ada, Amy, Bnth, Bertha, Mabel. Alioe, Kyra, Ella, 
Bridget, 



100. The enrfew tolla the knell of parting day. 

The lowing herd wind* alovly o'er the lea. 
The plooghmao homeward plode bia weary way. 
And leaTie the world to daTknem and to ma. 

110. Ireland, reland, eland, lead, and, an. 

111. Wander, feint, tiBud,BOflud, oat: ''TioMaad tidewaiftfa 
no man.*' 

Anawera hare been reee i ?ed from Oraee E. Walton. 



WARNER'S 

Safe Cure 

LABORATORIES: 

zoirnoN, 

JPABIS, 

Melbaume, 
JFrankfari, 

Toronto, Ont. 

JEtoehesier, y. T. 

THI WORLD-AROUND RIMIDY 

FOB 

KldDsy andJJver Diseases. 

SOLD EVERYWHERE. 



BRAIN WORKERS NEED BRAIN FOOD. 

HEALTHFUL BRAIN WORK may be maintained for yeara withoat ujory, bat oTerwork, excitement, amdety, worry, oae vp the 
yital phosphite of the brain, chaoges it into inert phoaphtf/fx, and caoaea nerroaa brodidown. Hondrede of eminent Phy- 
•idfna and brain workers, testifjr to the relief given by Vitalised PhoaphitM inall forma of nenronanen, debility, brain wearioeaa, 
and dyapepaia. Thia vital nutriment feeds the blood and restores brain power, in the aged and the yoong. It containa neither adfli- 
alant or narcotic, but is a Vital Phoapliita, not an inert add Vhosphati, It is not a secret remedy , the formula is on every bottle^ 
Duar^tioe famphUt free. P. CROSBY C0.» 66 West 26th St., Now York. Druggists 9r h mail^ $txn. 



Teachers Co-Operative Association 

Establlahed In ISS^. ' Positions filled. 2300. Seek 



70-72 DEARBORN 8T. 

CHICAQO. 

Seeks Teaohers who 
are ambitious for advanoement rather than those without positions. 



THE INTERNATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA. "*»< m pimm iMm. 

"As a work of [general referenee lor tte 
teaeher or literary man, it has so soperior.''- 
JoHN L. N. Hunt. Ph D., PrmidmU of Jhmrd 
of XdueaHon, New York, 

'* The Faealty iroanimoasly acree tbat tt li 
Jost what we want for our Normal stodents."- 
Z. X. Smtdxb, Fb.D, President State Normal 
Sehoolt Indiana^ Pa, 

"Is taday the OyelopedU best salted to the 
most readers."— 0. F. F. Bancbott. Ph.D, 
PHnoipal PhiUipe Aeademy, Jndaver, Mam. 

••M for Cask •r •■ Mmmj PmyaMBis* 
J>ellTeredl Free at BxpoMao. 

Write for descrlptlTe eirenlars to 

DODO, MEAO & COMPANY, 

BntaeripUoB Departmeati 
768 and 766 Broadway, N. T. 




1891.] 



THC AMERICAN TSA^CHXR. 



278 




OCCUPATIONS. 
Tbb Fttn OocvPATion. — Perforating. 
The fdlowiog k % sunple of th* work done : 



>• 



.••« 






V • 






Perfoimttnc Needle. 



5;. J 

^y Tbb Sbooitd Oooxtpation. — 80Uh 

'••:% tfi^ (J^m^rouferiii^). 

/*>:n4 ^ (^^^ ®^ ^^ material for the 
.-' >^'^...''^'* preeediog, the First Oeeopation, 
Prieking, may be used for thie, and mee vena. 

Thx THUiD OoouPATiON. — Net-work J)ra'w%ng, 

Thb Foubth Occupation. — Coloring and Fainting 

(in Water Colon). 

Thb Fivth Oocupatiov. — Mat^laiting (Weaving^ 
Braiding). 

Strips of colored paper are, by means of a steel or 
wooden needle of peculiar constraetion, woven into an- 



other (difbrently eelored) leaf of paper, which is cut into 
strips throQgboQt its entire sarfaee» except that a margin 




is left at each end to keep the strips in their places. A 
yery great wwtietf of designs are thns prodncedy and the 
inventive powers of teacher and popil are constantly stim- 
olated. 

Thb Sixth Occupation. — Faper4nterlaeing (Inter- 
tteining,) 
Paper strips of various odors, lengths, and widths, 
folded lengthwise, are oised to represent a variety of geo- 



r> 




metrical, as well as bokej forms by plaiting them accord- 
ing to certain roles. 



COLOR IN THE KINOERGAIiTEN. 

Thb Ambbican Tbach> 
bb for Janoary says, editori- 
aUy: **Itig Hot Safe for 
anyone to talk or write 
of color who has no^ 
learned of the recent rev- 
elations.*' That is one 
reason why yon should send 
a postage stamp, value two 
cents, for our new pamphlet ^* Color in the Kinder- 
garten." For two stamps we will add *^A ICanual of 
Primary Color Instruction," with suggestions for twenty 
color lessons. If you want to give the whole subject 'the 
attention it deserves, buy the book ''Color in the School- 
Boom," price by mail $1.00. Our Complete Color 
Outfit, Wheel and Disks, ooiU $10.00, express charges 
pud by the buyer. We will mail a sample box of 
Bradley's Educational Colored Pi^pers for 60 cents, 
provided you mention The American Teacher. 




MILTON BRADLEY CO., 
SpringMd, Mass, 










B\C-HB?S! 



15 VOLUMES NOW READY. 

For full particulars, address 
D. ApPLETON a Co., Publishers, 
I, 3, Ik Bond 81., NEW YORK. 



TE ACHERS /int ittiBflEMSiJ 

J — *^ TO SCHOOL- ♦ 




OFFICERS. 



^ N«i7aDS/iRBeRN ST. CTiica^o. 



m^mmfmtmgmm 



274 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[ILucai, 



\A 


t 




Wj 



SsvBMTH OoouPATioir. — FofptT-foUAwg. 

The material for paper-folding eonBiBts of sqoare, reo- 
tangnlar, and fcriangnlar pieees, with 
which yarioiuly shaped objects are 
formed, and the elements of geom- 
etry are taaght in a practical manner. 
The variety is endless and prepares 
the pnpil for many similar and osefol 
manaal performances in practical life. 

The Eighth Occupation. — Paper-cutting^ Paprn^ 
mounting f and Silhouetting. 

Squares or triangles of 
paper are folded, cat ac- 
cording to certain rales, and 
formed into figores. The 
child*s inclination for nsing 
the scissors is here so in- 
geniously tarned to account as to prodnee very gratifying 
results. 

Ninth Occupation.— P«m or Cork Work. 

Peas are soliked in water for 8 or 12 hours, and pieces 
of wire, of various lengths, pointed at the ends are stuck 
into them for the purpose of imitating real objects and 
the various geometrical figures. Skeletons are thus pro- 
duced, whicH train the eye for perspective drawing most 




saeeessfoUy. Wooden sticks similar to those osel m. 
stiek-laying, bat thinner (only one-sixteenth of aa mA 




thick) are also used for this purpose. In place of 
many persons prefer cork cabes, which may be used 
again and again* 

Thb Tenth Occupation. — Cardhoard Work. 
Thx Eucyknth Occupation. — Modding. 



A Boxwood ModellDg-KDlie, eommon kind. 

NOTB.^Kiiid«rgartiMn will find aU Um mAteriBl for th« m» «C 
childran in tho aboro gifti uid ooonpfttuNii in Boston, at 24 Con- 
hill, J. L. Hammott'i ; at Spriogfieid, BiaM., Milton Bradloy CV, 
who maoiifaotoM •▼•ry kind of kindorgarton matorlal; at tho 
Ghioaffo Agmioy, Wabadi AvMino, and £. Stoiger & Co., 25 Paik 
Plaoe, Now York City. 



J. B. LIPPINCOn COMPANY'S NEW SERIES OF READERS. 



By EBEN H. DAVIS, 8upt. of Schools, Chelsea, Mass. 

Till Beglmr's Readtag-Book. 

with 38 lUustrations. Teach«r*B 
BdUion. 148 pages. Cloth. 43 
ets. Scholar' $ Ed. 128 pp. 26et8. 

The SicoDd Roadtag-Book. 

with 8 full-page and 62 imallei 
Illustrations. 208 pages, ikmo. ^ 
Cloth. 40cenU. ■h^'-o-*'' 

X^llieral 17erms for ^C^^i; , 

JBjcolxaiiire. 



.nd^ 




Reading Book. 



COHPLBTB in four BOOK& 

Tki Tkird Readtag-Book. 

with 12 full-page and 19 smaDer 
Illustrations. 886 pages. Umo 
Cloth. 66 cents. 

Tko Foortk Roadtag-Book. 

with 12 full-page and 14 smaller 
Illustrati«>ns. 448 pages. iSmo. 
^ Cloth. 80 cents. 

'^ Descriptive eirctdare eomt on 
^applioation. Correepamlenae ro> 
UUing to Books for Examinatiim 
and Introduetion UwUed. 



AMttm J. B. LIPPINCOTT 

F. n. AIUBBOSB, N.W 



CO.. - - 716 & 717 Market Street, PHILADELPHIA. 

SaslMBd Aseat, 34 IlarHa«a Ave. Mxtmmmlmmf Bo«t«a, Hmso. 



The Praiig Gourse of Instmction in Form and Dialing. 



This course is the outgrowth of nearly twenty years* experience de- 
TOted to the deTelopment of this single subject in publie education, 
under the most varied conditions. 

It differs widely from all the so-called ** Systems of Drawing " before 
the public. 

The mIm •r •bject mt tke iMstmcti^B Is differoal. 

Tlie JIIeik«da mi TomcIiIbc «■« tke W«rk •€ Fapilo are 
MCfereat. 

The iniMlHt, Toxt-B**lu, aadl AlMierlaU mro •■ ma ea* 
tirely diff ereat edacaltoaal plaa. 

. JpRANO'S HORWIAL ORAWmO CLASSES.-These^ ^. --.-.i- i .w r v . w ,^z:r 

in Drawing through home study and by oorrespondence. All teachers can, through these classes, prepare themsenres to teach Drawhig In 
their Schools. 

MW^Send for Olreulars in regard to THE PRAKG COURSE Of mSTRUCTIOK IK FORM STUDY AND DRAWlJSfQ, and afeo te 
regaird to PRANG'S NORMALDRAWINO CLASSES, Address 

THE PBANG EDUCATIONAL OOMPASTY, 

7 Park Street, BOSTON. 151 Wabash Avo., CHICAGO. 16 Astor Plaoe, NEW YORK. 



Tke reoalt* la Mck^^la are widely aad radically dlfferoai. 
It U tke aaly Caarse baoed aa tke a»e af Aladela aad 

Objects la tke kaada aff papUii, aad far wkick Aledeb 

kare keea prepared. 

The Ooorse prepares directly for Kanual Tralntaig. Many of the 

ezereises are in themselTcs elementary exercises in Manual TnUntaig. 

THB PRANG COURSE has a much wider adoption in the b«t 

schools of the country than all the 'nsystems of Drawing " put together. 

More than two mimons of children in publie schools are oeingtaoglit 

FOBM AND DsAwni o by Tms Fbano Ooubsk. 

haTO been estobllshed for giTing the Tory beet kind of Instnctios 

^" nselTi - - 



1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



276 



A MOTHER'S LOVE. 

BT AUeUSTA BBINSTXnr. 

Far far away, up in tho iky, 
God MM OS every day ; 
Bat Tery near and jntt m dear, 
Our mothen watoh and pfay. 



HOW TO TEACH COLOR. 

In tMiohiDg oolor to yoong ohildreii there 
la a great difference of opinion as to meth- 
ods, jnat M there ia a differenM of opinion 
regarding all other branehM of edoeation at 
tte preeent time. IndMd, color teaching m 
m ayatematic branch of primary education ia 
in ita infancy, oonMqnently each educator 
with poaitlTe ideaa on the subject ought to 
give a fair consideration to the opinion of 
mil others who haTc experience in general 
edncation and interest enough in this branch 
to devote to it any considerable thought. 

Hitherto all attempts to teach color in 
tho primary gradM have been almost wholly 
from the ffisthetic side, while the science of 
oolor M briefly soggMted in the school text- 
books on physiM hM bMu Mparated from 
the artistic consideration of the subject. 

A recent contribution to the matter of 
oolor teaching hM been made by Milton 
Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass, in a manual 
entitled ** Color in the School Room," in 
which the general laws of color and oolor 
oombinations are so stated m to give the 
teacher hints regarding the directions in 
which she may expect to find good pombina- 
nations se m to help her know tHe combi- 
natioM for herself and iMd the children 
to the same results. The last two chap- 
ters were written hj a teacher who hM 
had considerable experience in color in- 
struction in the public schools. They 
are iDt«>nded chiefly m hints to begin- 
ners in this line of work, m each teacher 
will, of course, adopt certain methods of her 
own, M they from time to time suggest 
themselTM to her. 

The simplwt problems in color should be 
taaght in every elementary Mbool, and this 
can be readily done if the facts essential to 
a knowledge of color-education are known. 
Later the study of the more complex rela- 
tione ean be taken up by those who desire to 
become artists. Among the things that 
shoald be universally taught is the true the- 
ory of light and oolor, the proper combina- 
tion of colors, and the beet methods of illus- 
trating; the teaching in the classroom. 



OBSERVATION LESSONS- 

The young children in the Kindergarten 
should be taught by converMtional lessons, 
how they move, why chef eat, kinds of 
food, hoir to breathe properly, usm of the 
blood, Yftlue of pure air, care of their bodiM, 
ete., developed from observation of them- 
selves. Iliey should be taught to obMrve 
snd elsnify common animals, their modta 
of life snd habits. They should have their 
attention directed to the Masons, sonriM 
snd SDDset, the phMM of the moon, the 
e?ening star, the north star, the great 
dipder and to natural phenomena which 
thev ehould be led to obeerve and about 
whioh they should inquire. 




COPYRIOHT 1890 



C^ 



THEY FBOTE EYEBYTHING. 

[SCENE IN EDITOR'S SANCTUM.] 



EfUer Subscriber — "I suppose you 
are ready to substantiate any statement 
your paper makes ? " 

Editor— ^^ OK yes; we have the com- 
positors ^ prove-' everything that is *set 
up.' " 

Sub. — Well, then, can you prove that 
Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy will cure 
Catarrh in the Head — you advertise it 
to do so?" 

^J.— Certainly, my dear sir. Tens 
of thousands have proved that. Why, 
the proprietors offer $500 for an in- 
curable case of Catarrh in the Head, 



and they are responsible and able to 
pay if they fail." 

Symptoms op Catarrh.— Headache, 
obstruction of nose, discharges falling 
into throat, sometimes profuse, watery 
and acrid, at others, thick, tenacious, 
mucous, purulent, |)loody and putrid; 
eyes weak, ringing in ears, deafness, 
difficulty of clearing throat, expectora- 
tion of offensive matter; breath offen- 
sive, smell and taste impaired, and 
general debilltv. Only a few of these 
svmptoms likely to be present at once, 
'thousands of cases result in Consump- 
tion and end in the grave. 




On the move 

—Liver, Stomach, and Bowels, after 
Dr. Pierce's Pleasant Pellets have done 
their work. It's a healthy movement, 
too— a natural one. The organs are 
not forced into activity one day, to 
sink back into a worse state the next. 
They're cleansed and regulated — mild- 
ly and quietly, without wrenching or 
griping. One tiny, sugar-coated Pel- 
let is all that's needed as a gentle 
laxative; three to four act as a ca- 
thartic They're the smallest, cheap- 
est, the easiest to take. Sick Headache, 
Bilious Headache, Constipation, Indi- 
gestion, Bilious Attacks, and all de- 
rangements of the Liver, Stomach and 
Bowels are promptly relieved and per- 
manently cured. 



276 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



REASONS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FREE 
KINDERGARTENS.* 

fHE kindergarten is no longer an experiment in this 
country ; bat sinee its first introdaetion, twenty-six 
years ago, has proven to, be of great benefit to young ehil- 
dren. 

1. It gives to the ehild of the bread-winner two 
extra years of school life« not under a teacher, as the 
term is generally understood, but with a person who 
assumes the place of a wise mother for a few hours per day. 

2. The child of parents in comfortable eireumstanees 
enjoys the gratification ef his social instincts, learning 
thonghtfulness for others under the gentle control of an 
educated person, of special qualifications, — substitute, a 
few hours each day, for a mere nurse. 

Even the most conscientious mother does not know how 
to satufy the active child's cry, «' What can I do?*' un- 
less she has studied the kindergarten philosophy, and the 
younger children do not claim her attention. In the kin- 
dergarten this Grod-given desire for occupation and love of 
industry is gratified and encouraged. 

3. The intellectual training given in tho kindergarten 
with toy materials meets the child's wants, adds to his 
happiness, and prepares him for school, which, entered 

* A petition presented by tbe cltizenB of the District of ColnmMa to 
the Oongress ot the Ualted States. 



upon without this preparation, frequently provee a 
shock to his nervous system. 

4. The physical training which the child 
the kindergarten, by means of musical ^ya» gives 1 
creased health and strength, as well as gmee of 
and stores up in hb memory sunny reeolieetioiis to 
him in the battles and storms of life. 

6. A child who has enjoyed one or two years of 1^ 
dergarten training is apt not only to reeogniie his oi 
position in life as related to others, but having Insmod 
observe and admire the gifts of his Heavenly FUher, 
goes through life with eyes that see, ears that hear y 
understanding, and with a heart strengthened in its i 
tions and grateful for the love of others. 

No one will doubt the assertion that, during the < 
years of a child's life, the most lasting impressioiia ars 
made, and that by early training depraved tendencies 
may be modified and corrected. 

The public kindergarten will be an inesttmaUe boeo fee 
the poor, n^lected ckildren we meet in our alleys sad 
by-ways, who, for want of care, make up that part ol osr 
population for whom we are taxed to maintain prisons, 
almshouses, and reform schools ; the saving even of qds 
child from a life of crime affects the welfare and seeorily 
of the whole community. Dr. Elisha Ferris makes this 
stotement : *' No less than twelve hundred debased pei^ 
sons have been traced to the lineage of six children who 



SEYMOUR EATON'S BUSY WORK LEAFLETS. 

Thousands of teaehers know Bbymoub Baton as the originator of niore and better devices for Retting praotieal work done in lehool i 
any other man. They will hall with delight anything he prepares. To these and others I am pleased to announce the BUS T-WORK LEAF- 
LETS described herewith These are for DrUI. RevUWs omA Practice in Primary, InicrmediiUc, High, and Cowntry SchooU. Bnoogh for all 
and hundreds to spare! 0¥ JEB SIOOO BXSBOIMBS. The snocess of your sehoo) depends upon what your pupils do rather than npam 
what you do. If you keep their minds profitably aotiTe yon will be a soeeess The Lsavubts described below are very praetleal, and as 
handy as they are practical. They can be handed to individual pupils as oecasion presents. 




Something entirely new, uniformly printed on separate leaflets, so 
as to be handed to individual pupils. Hundreds of practical exercises 
suggested and required to be performed by pupils. 
HERB ABB ▲ FBW TITLB8. 

Business Exercises for Oramnar Grade PapUa. 

Easy Exercises for Younir Tbinkera* 

Ten-RIInate Exercises. 

Search i^uesilons for Honse Stndjr. 

Friday Affcernoon Fun. 

Business Exercises for Business Boys. 

Sample package of such extrclses containing 36 leaflets, or some 260 
exercises, for 90 oeau i or four packages, no two alike, for 6e eta* 
Sq9 Special Offer, 



In these leaflets are also the following: 

Saynours Fann Arithnstic Problens. 

Yon will And nothing like them in any Arlthmettc published. Ob 
leaflets, for diitribution among pupils. Price, sample, 9# ugaiB 
See Special Offer, 

75 Yory Easy Drawing Ijssons. 

ETcry drawing a picture. Just what thousands of teachers want 
f6r busy work. Sample package, 90 ceate. See Special Offer, 

Others in this series on the same plan are : 
Sk«rt Cats la Vi0Hr«e» - - • 90 eeata. 

Il«w t« Teack !<«•••■•, - • • lO << 

C«rreflip«adleac0 I^eea^Bft, - • 90 *< 

l««well HHlilplicatUa Bale, - • 10 •« 

OO I.eM«Hs la Aaalyais •f Scateacee, 90 ** 

And others, 1 9 Facka^ee in all, containing hundreds of exeroises^ 
all prepaid, at this 

SPSGI^IL. OJPFEIR s #1.8ff 

FOR THE ENTIRE LOT. 

Money must reach me, at this price, before Msish 1st, isst 

Tour SuceesM Dq^ends upon What Your PupiU ])q^ 



jL FLANAGAK» * p J!! 180 Wabash Avenuey Ohieago. 



1.891.3 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



277 



bom of on« depraved womma" In noeovduMe m a 
flb ehild 18 led during the first yean of hie life, hia natural 
^endenctee may become either yioee or ▼irtoea. 

6. It will require about the same amount of money to 
giTe free kindergartens to eight hundred fitUe ehildren 
mm it would to improve from six to eight squares or bloeks 
of a street Whatever is done for the ehild, to educate 
Ilia hand, heart, and head, is done not only for the pres- 
ent, bnt for future generations. Testimoiiials ean be 
Ivronght from many parents and puUie sehool teachers, 
who have proved for their ehildren and pupils the moral 
and aasthetie influence of kindergarten training. 



KINDBR6ARTBN DEPARTMENT OF N. E. A. 

The next meeting of the National Association will be 
held at Toronto, Canada, July 14, 17, and will assume a 
more or less international character. 

The eordial cooperation of all kindergartners and all 
friends of the caose is invited to make the meetings and 
exhibit of the Kindergarten Department of special 
interest All willing to make exhibits will address Mrs. 
Budora L. Hailmann, president of the department, La 
Porte, Indiana, or Miss Eliza A. Blaker, Secretary, 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 



Educational Bureaus. \ 

^OMMtradbMtlaiewBlmU.S. Ifta.iSU. 
wJ 8 East 14th St.. N.Y. 



Tke N. I Mm of 

Whose litid to the Nation, Is dotaig 
boainess at 

3 •omoraot St-, Beaten, Maaa. 

It pledget promptness and fidelity to all Its 
patroDtt both Bohoot Offloers end xeaehen. 

Now IB THS Tn» TO BKOTSTaa. 
HIBA.ML OBCaTT, : : Makaobb. 



TEACHERS WANTED. 
N. Y. Tenbm CHIpintin AtsocfitlH. 

M. y. BIUOOOD. Muiager, 
Box 1M». M.W York City. 

Union Teachers' Agency. 

iE§ieMi$heS in 1880.) 

^ Behool oflieUto wanting teaehers for nozt 
fall bare already begun to eoDmU us In refer- 
ence to their needs. Wide awake teachers 
who are deeiroos of seeurlog better positions 
for next year will see the wisdom of register- 
log now. so we ean have sufficient time to get 
well scquatnted with them and theur wants. 
This ageney has no oonnectlon with any other 
teachers' agency or bureau. Bend stamp for 
applleatlon blank. 

H. H. HAISBIIfOTOlf , Pr«p'r, 
!f«. A9 I<mf ayette PImce, (f . Y. 



NO FEE FOR REGISTRATION. 

Bnt radUiles. Ifldeat Service, la^rgt 

BiiiisH. not In coUeccing adTanee fees, but 
in proTldhig oompetent Teachers with Post- 
ttoni. Form for stamp. Employers are serred 
wtthoat eharge. Our supply of Teaehert Is 
the LAB0B8T and aasr. 

P. y. HUTSSOON (late R. B. AYBBT), 
▲MiBioAir School Bubbau, 
2 West 14th bt. NEW TOtUL 

Mooal Teachers' fiareao. 

4tk Ave. * 8ih St., HSW TOBK. 

TBACHBR8 

deiMiig to Mcwe first elaas sltoatioiis should 
addroM 

HABOLD 0. COOK, Mavagkb. 

PRINCIPALSHIPS. 

Ktoven prlDclpalsblps In Penna to be fllled 
by ttf before Juoe. Salaries from $40 to 9185 
per month. Nobxal Tbacbbbs' Rubbau» 
mnto^fa. Send stamp for partlenlaia. 

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THE AMERICAN tEACHER. 



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BARNKS'S >gRlgS, 

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Bsraes's Brief History of the Halted BUtes. BoTised to the pres- 
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HAJoa-OawaaAL Hbsbt W. Blooitm. Brookiwn, Jf. F.. sayst **I hoTC 
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282 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



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NSWTOBX. 



A food book fe a goodfriMd; so akth 
the Iblnteook Psa with wkiah thshiik 



1891.] 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



283 



IMPORTANT TO PROFESSORS AND TEACHERS. 

In reply to constant inquiry, and to prevent misapprehension, Messrs, 
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Marpen^s Latin IHciianary. 

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Ijefwis^n XHementary Latin Dictionary » 

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Franklin Square, March, 1891. 



284 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER. 



[Amu* 



SILVER, BUBDETT & GOMPANT, 

O Hancocli: .A.^eiin.e, Boston^ 

Invite the attention of Teachers and School Officers to iheir popular School an^ 
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BEWARE of SUBSTITUTES and 
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CA VTIOlf .-Be aara the ward « Hanffavd»a » fa pvtelad 
aai the lahal, AU athan are aparlaae. If ever aald !■ halk. 



A HERICAll 







Vol. XIV. 



DEVOTED TO THE METHODS AND PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING. 



No. 8. 



SPRING'S PROCESSIONAL. 

BT HABT B. li. BICHABD80H. 

iB^YO.UttleOiMwI 

Whan yon hmt Um aomid 
Of Spriag*! fMtliend ehorvi, 

From Um mold yon boond, 
Aad Uilnrl your pcnnaiit, while the merry robins ring, 
•'HeUlheUtoBpriiigl" 

Beuid your standard quiekly, 

Their sslnle to make, 
Bnttsseops rise thiekly, 

Prompt and wide awake. 
Lavish of their yellow gold, their blotsoms gay they bring. 
'*Haa! haUtoSpriagI" 
Lilies of the Valley 

And AneBMme 
All their foross rally ; 

Gowilips dsek the lea; 
Jonqvil and Naidsras, too, their elans are gathering. 
**HaU! haUtoSpringl" 

Yioleis sedately 

Join the eaTaleade; 
Hyaeinths look stately, 
Regally arrayed ; 
Tolipa light their tovehes, and the daintylUne-bells ring, 
'•HaUIhaUtolSprinffP 

Hsfe and there a elnster, 
Dandelions glsam ; 
FknTM ds U$ will mnster 

By the rippling stream ; 
o^er the pageant Trailing Arhatos will flfaig. 
«*HaUI haa to Spring!" 



CHILDREN'S EASTER. 

RBAKB the joyfnl Easter dawn, 

Clearer yet and stro n g er ; 
Winter from the world has gooe ; 

Death shall be no kngsr. 

Far away good angels drive 

Night and sfai and sadnsss ; 
Earth awakss in smilss, aliTS 

With her dear Lord's gkdness. 

Open, happy bods of spring. 

For the s«n has riMnI 
Tliroagh the sky s weet Toiess ring, 

OalUng yon from priMW. 

Little ehildren dear, look vp! 

Towards his brightassi pussiinr; 
Lift np every heart, a sup 

For the dear Lord's blmring. 

— Lacy XoreoM. 



HISS ANDREWS' SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEH. 

BT IDA H. GAEDHSB. 

fT was the noon reeess. Tht g^k were grouped aboni 
in the pUyroom, eating their lonches. The teachers, 
in their daily gathering place, were difleoBmng theirs 
along with the morning's news. A knoek at the door, 
and a request that had become very freqnent of late,— 
<< Please may Jennie and I go to Jameson's to get some- 
thing for loneh ? " 

*<Yoa may,'' was the pleasant answer; bat as IDss 
Andrews retomed to her seat she remarked, ^' My girls 
are forcing me to make a rale. I cannot allow them to 
go so often to Jameson's unless I know that their parents 
approve. I fear the mothers do not know how often the 
girls go." 

When the recess was' over, and the girls were again 
gathered in the study hall, Miss Andrews, with a pleasant 
voice that was free from any taint of annoyance or dis- 
pleasure, explained to the girls her attitude in regard to 
the matter. They were good girls, and the greatest har- 
mony existed between teachers and puinls. 

<< Personally I have not the slightest objection to your 
going to Jameson's now and then, when your mothers 
think it best But I wish them to know how often you 
go, and that hereafter you should bring me their written 
permission. Do not misunderstand me. I am willing 
you should go occasionaUy, but you have asked so often 
that I must make this rule. Hereafter I shall excuse no 
one to go to Jameson's who does not bring me the writ- 
ten excuse from her parents." 

The girls smiled with a perfect understanding of llGss 
Andrews' position, and an equally apparent conviction 
that the required excuses would be readily granted. On 
the following morning Hattie Allison, one. of the new 
girls, approached Miss Andrews with a cheery ^good 
morning" and a winning smile. 

*' Miss Andrews, mamma wrote an excuse for me to go 
to Jameson's to-day with some of the other girls who 
were to bring exauses, and I came away in such a hurry 
that I forgot the excuse and left it lying on the table." 

^ThaX was too bad," said Miss Andrews, with hearty 
sympathy, as Hattie stopped to take breath. 

'* The other girls have brought their excuses, and, — ^I 
know what you said yesterday, but couldn't I go to-day 



:286 



THE AMERICAN TEACHER 



[Apxii^ 



.4uid bring the excuae to morrow ? " and the bright yonng 
face was so pretty in its pleading that Miss Andrews' 
kind heart was tempted to yield. 

She was too tme a friend to her girls, however, to let 
-her actions toward them be governed by impulse ; bat the 
impulse did make her voice very kind and sympathetic as 
she asked gently, '< What is the rule, Hattie ? " 

** I know. Miss Andrews, but mamma wrote the exeose, 
^nly I forgot it" 

^And if you forgot your own interest, is that any 
reason why I should break my word ? " 

^< No-o I " was the reluctant admission. 

** Not at all I And, Hattie, though I am truly sorry to 
Tcf use yon, I think, after all, deep down in your heart, 
you will find by and by a real satisfaction that I did not 
let you go. You would a great deal rather know that 
Miss Andrews' word can be depended upon when she 
promises you something as well as when she denies you 
«ome request I know you will be proud to feel that the 
laws of your school are well kept and respected. For 
myself, I love to feel the majesty of law as law, and I 
love it even when it triumphs at my cost" 

The sparkling eye bore witness to the truth of the 
words, and the sweet smile took away the sting of disap- 
pointment from Hattie Allison's heart as she went to her 
seat, conscious for the first time in her life that law had 
aomething to do with her young, happy experience. 

When the noon recess can^e again, and the girls were 
:gatheied in the playroom, — for they had not availed 
themselves of their own permission to go to Jameson's 
«ince Hattie could not go, — suddenly there came into 
their midst a hand with a dainty napkin full of lunch, 
juid a kindly voice that said, '' Hattie, I couldn't break 
tny word, but I am only too happy to share my lunch 
trith you." 

*^0h, Miss Andrews, how kind ! but, indeed, I do not 
need it. I brought some lunch to have in case the other 
^rirls could not go. Thank you, though, very much." 

*' You are sure you do not need it ? I have enough 
without, and if I had not I would rather go hungry than 
break my word, and let you feel that I might fail you 
some day when you depended on my truth." 

It was all done and said so quickly that the girls had 
hardly recovered their breath before Miss Andrews had 
Faaished. 

Hattie Allison, before she went home that night, came 
to the desk to thank Miss Andrews again for her ^^ great 
kindness," and the teacher saw, with a thrill of gladness, 
how much better for Hattie had been " the law first and 
grace afterward." 

As for the other girls they said nothing, but the room 
was strangely quiet with a conscious hush when Miss 
Andrews read for the next morning's lesson, without a 
word of comment, ^' I will keep thee as the apple of 
mine eye ; " *^ Keep my law as the apple of thine eye." 
And that was the way Miss Andrews taught ^' morals." 



BOYS' GAHES. 



BT m. PATSOV. 



^B^E have high New England authority for ilia i 
^l ment, that whoever would win distinctioii in sed- 
entary pursuits needs extraordinary toughness of body as 
well as extraordinary mental gifts. There have, indeed, 
been men of feeble bodily powers, yet whose towermg 
intellects have raised them far above their fellows. Baft 
who shall tell on what heights they might have walked, 
had bodily vigor been equal to the demands of their 
mental force ? We need strong bodies for our boyi be- 
cause we need them in our men. We do right to en- 
courage athletic sports to a certain extent among our 
boys. We need to be careful not to frown upon 
door excursions, walking expeditions, hunting trips, i 
the like, unless they grow to be an overwhelming bogbesr. 

When Hercules wrestled with Antssus, he found that 
the giant gained new strength every time he touched his 
mother, earth. We, too, can gain new strength by con- 
tact with mother-earth, — by fishing in her streanu, 
roaming over her hills, floating on her lakes, breathing 
her fresh, inrigorating air. Let boys, or teacher, or per- 
haps both together, do this, and they retam to ihe school- 
room with new vigor. These are not set games, to be 
sure, but the same principle runs through both classes of 
amusements. Vigorous physical exercise, out of doors, 
whether a set game or athletics in a less regular and fixed 
form, is highly profitable to school boys to give them a 
new energy for the present and a good physique for tho 
future. These are subjects appropriate for the teacher's 
attention, because it makes a great difference to him 
whether his boys have good health or not ; and besides 
this he needs the same invigorating influence himself. 
There is no sacrifice of valuable time in taking the boys 
on long walks over the hills and through the fields ; and 
it is not necessary to '' point a moral or adorn a tale " by 
every object along the road. To be eternally moralizmg 
makes one a bore, and that kills influence among boys. 

But the playground develops and displays character. 
We can there find much that we fail to discover in the 
schoolroom. Your reserved boy never appears to good