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Full text of "The American traveller; or, Guide through the United States. Containing brief notices of the several states, cities, principal towns, canals and rail roads, &c. With tables of distances, by stage, canal and steam boat routes. The whole alphabetically arranged, with direct reference to the accompanying map of the roads, canals, and railways of the United States"

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THE 

AMERICAN TRAVELLER; 

OR 



THROUGH THE UNITED STATES. 

CONTAINING 
BRIEF NOTICES OP THE SEVERAL 

STATES, CITIES, PRINCIPAL TOWNS, 

CANALS AND RAIL ROADS, &c. 
WITH 

®aWt8 of Mstmm, 

BY STAGE, CANAL AND STEAM BOAT ROUTES. 

The whole 

Alphabetically arranged, with direct Reference to the 

accompanying Map of the Roads, Canals, 

and Railways of the United States. 



SIXTH EDITION. 



BIT H. S. TANNSEc 



PHILADELPHIA : 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 

NO. 309 MARKET STREET. 

1840. 



t~ ! jo 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, 

By H. S. Tanner, 

In the office of the Clerk of the District Court of the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 






JOSEPH AND WILLIAM KITE, PRINTERS. 



PREFACE. 



Encouraged by an increased demand for the American 
Traveller, I have been induced to prepare an enlarged and 
greatly improved edition of the work ; which now includes a 
great amount of fresh information regarding the Western 
States and Territories. This will be found to be the case, not 
only with respect to the recently organized Territories of 
Wisconsin and Iowa, but also, to a large extent, with nearly 
all the Western and South-western States, comprehending the 
entire Valley of the Mississippi. In some instances the old 
descriptions have been either greatly modified or written 
anew. 

New tables of distances have been added ; fresh accounts 
of Rail-roads and Canals have been inserted, and those of an 
early date corrected. The entire work, in short, has been 
subjected to a thorough and careful revision, and is thus 
brought down to the present time, and rendered, I trust, 
worthy of that approbation of which the rapid sale of the pre- 
vious editions affords the most gratifying evidence. 



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION". 

Brevity being an essential quality in a book designed for the 
pocket of the traveller, I have endeavoured to embody within 
the compass of a small volume, as many facts, and as much 
useful information, as a due regard to the leading object of the 
present work would admit. I have therefore omitted all such 
details and extraneous matters as would only serve to augment 
the size of the volume, without producing a corresponding 
increase of utility. The work will accordingly be found to 
consist of little else than very concise statements of such facts 
in relation to the several states, their population, number of 



(iv) 

counties, area, forms of government, cities, towns, roads, 
canals, distances, &c. as would be most likely to prove useful 
to, or deserve the notice of the traveller. 

Under the head of each city, or large town, is given an 
account, arranged in tabular form, of all the leading routes 
from each, distinguishing between those by Steam-boats, 
Stages or Canal-boats, with the distances from place to place, 
carefully noted. 

A brief account of the principal objects of curiosity in or 
near the larger towns, will also be found under the head of 
each. 

With regard to the canals and rail-roads of the United States, 
the reader will perceive, that I have entered rather more into 
details than in the other parts of the work. 

Regarding the subject as one of importance, I have drawn 
up from the most authentic sources, accounts of those works 
which will be found under the heads of the respective states. 
Those accounts will elucidate the extent, points of commence- 
ment and termination, and such other facts, as are considered 
important in reference to the general system of internal im- 
provements in our country. 

The accompanying map, it will be perceived, exhibits all 
the leading towns, roads, canals, &c with the distances from 
one place to another, distinctly indicated by figures. The 
numbers contained in each of the rhombs, formed by the inter- 
secting lines of latitude and longitude, refer to corresponding 
numbers in the descriptive volume. 

By consulting either the book or map, the place sought for 
in the other can be found with great facility. 

In addition to the information contained in the body of the 
map, there are appended to the same sheet, the following sup- 
plementary maps, plans, &c. — 1. Environs of Boston. 2. Of 
Providence. 3. Of New York. 4. Of Philadelphia. 5. Of 
Baltimore and Washington, with a plan of the City of Wash- 
ington. 6. Of Richmond, Va. 7. Of Charleston. 8. Of 
Quebec. 9. Of Montreal. 10. Of the falls of Niagara. 11. 
Of Albany. 12. Of Pottsville, Pa. 13. Pittsburg. 14. Map 
of the Hudson River. 15. Plan of Cincinnati. 16. Of Louis- 
ville, Ohio. 17. Of New Orleans. Four additional plans on a 
more extended scale, of Boston, New York, Philadelphia and 
Baltimore, respectively, will be found opposite the description 
of each of those places in the volume. 

H. S. TANNER, 



THE 



AMERICAN TRAVELLER, &c. 



*»*©««<« 



EXPLANATION. 



To find the position of any place on the map, observe the number 
in brackets, thus, (100,) immediately succeeding the name in the 
volume. Look for the corresponding number on the map and within 
the rhomb containing that number, the place sought for will be 
found. The map itself contains in each of the rhombs, figures which 
refer to the index ; thus reciprocally tending to facilitate their use 
and application, one to the other. 

Abbreviations. Me. Maine. N. H. New Hampshire. Vt. "Ver- 
mont, ft', ass. Massachusetts. R. I. Rhode Island. Ct. Connecticut. 
N. Y. New York. N. J. New Jersey. Pa. Pennsylvania. D. Dela- 
ware. Md. Maryland. Va. Virginia. N. 0. North Carolina. S. C. 
South Carolina G. Georgia. F. Florida. Al. Alabama. Miss. Mis- 
sissippi. L.Louisiana. Ark. Arkansas. Ten. Tennessee. K.Ken- 
tucky. Mo. Missouri. 11. Illinois. In. Indiana. Mic. Michigan. 
O. Ohio. Wis. Wisconsin. Io. Iowa. Can. Canada. C. H. Court- 
house. R. River. The population of the several states, &c. is 
given, according to the census of 1830, unless otherwise expressed. 

The great leading roads can be found by referring to the cities and 
towns through which they pass, thus for example, if the road from 
Washington to New Orleans be required, turn to the article " Wash- 
ington," where will be found the route to Richmond, Va. then to 
that of" Richmond," where the road to Raleigh is given, and so on. 



Alabama, state of, (247,) is divided into forty -nine counties, 
and contained in 1830, a population of 300,527, including 
117,549 slaves. Area 52,000 square miles. Capital, Tusca- 
loosa. Metropolis, Mobile, Lat. 30° 41'. Long. 11° 12' W. 

1* 



O ALABAMA. 

General Election, first Monday in August. Legislature meet, 
fourth Monday in October. Constitution formed, 1819. 

Government. — The Governor is elected for two years ; salary 
$3500. Secretary of State, $1000 and fees. Treasurer and 
Comptroller of Public Accounts, — salary of each, $1000 ; all 
elected by the Legislature. 

Legislature. — The legislative power is vested in two 
branches, a Senate and Ilouse of Representatives, which toge- 
ther are styled the General Assembly of the state of Alabama. 

The representatives are elected annually, and are appor- 
tioned among the different counties in proportion to the white 
population; the whole number cannot exceed 100, nor fall 
short of 60. The senators are elected for three years, and 
one-third of them are chosen every year. Their number can- 
not be more than one-third, nor less than one-fourth the 
number of the representatives. 

Judiciary. — The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, 
in circuit courts, and such inferior courts as the General As- 
sembly may, from time to time, direct or establish. The 
Judges are elected by joint votes of both houses of the General 
Assembly, every six years. 

The supreme court, which has appellate jurisdiction only, 
consists of one chief justice and two associate judges : each 
receives a salary of $2,500 per annum. It holds its sessions 
at the capital of the state on the first Mondays of January and 
June. The circuit court has original jurisdiction in civil and 
criminal cases, and appellate jurisdiction in all appeals from 
inferior courts; it is composed of nine judges, one for each of 
the nine circuits into which the state is divided. Each of the 
judges receives $2000 a year, except the judge of the fifth 
circuit, whose salary is $1,500. This court is invested with 
chancery powers, each judge is chancellor in his particular 
district. 

Education. — In addition to the numerous common schools 
established by the legislature, there are many academies dis- 
tributed throughout the state, in which the Greek and Latin 
languages are taught along with the higher branches of an 
English education. 

The University of Alabama, incorporated in 1820, is situated 
near Tuscaloosa, and is now in successful operation. La 
Grange College, established by the Methodists, is in the nor- 
thern part of the state, a few miles from Florence on the Ten- 
nessee river. Incorporated in 1830. College of Spring-Hill, 
a Catholic institution, occupies a pleasant situation a few miles 



ALABAMA. 7 

west of Mobile. South Alabama Institute in Perry county, 
was opened in 1835. 

Military Force — Consists of ten divisions, each under the 
command of a major-general ; twenty brigades and eighty-one 
regiments. All able-bodied white men, with some exceptions, 
from the ages of 18 to 45, are required to perform military 
duty. The militia assemble four times a year, two days for 
drill, one for regimental muster and one day for battalion 
muster. A new organization of the militia of this state is 
contemplated. 

Physical Structure. — In the northern part of Alabama, 
mountains of considerable elevation occur between the valley 
of the Tennessee and the head waters of the Tombecbee, Black 
Warrior, &c. Here the forests consist chiefly of oak, ash, 
hickory, elm, poplar, &c. The central and southern portions 
of the state, are nearly destitute of mountains, which wholly 
disappear in the south. The products of the forests here, are 
similar to those in the north, but interspersed with pine, which 
increases towards the south, forming, with the long leaved-pine, 
cypress, gum, swamp oak, holly, &c. the immense forest which 
still exists there. 

Rivers. — Tennessee, Alabama, Talapoosa, Coosa, Cahawba, 
Tombecbee, Black Warrior, Chattahooche, &c. 

Productions. — Cotton and corn are the chief, rice and sugar. 
Gold has been found in the northern part of this state. 

Internal Improvements. — Consist of a rail-road from Tuscum- 
bia to Decatur on the Tennessee river, length 47 miles. One 
from Pensacola in Florida to Montgomery on the Alabama : 
length 190 miles. One from Montgomery to West Point on 
the Chattahoochee in Georgia. Length 90 miles. Of a canal 
from Huntsville to Triano on the Tennessee : of a canal from 
the head of the Muscle Shoals to Florence on the Tennessee. 
Length 37 miles. Rail-roads are proposed to extend from 
Daleville to Greensboro, 50 miles. From Erie to Greensboro, 
17 miles. From Mobile to the Tennessee river, about 450 
miles. From Demopolis to Woodville. From Livingston to 
Moscow. From Benton to Haysville, 18 miles. 

Principal Towns. Mobile, Blakely, Montgomery, Tusca- 
loosa, Tuscumbia, Florence, Huntsville, &c. 
Alaqua, Fl. (313.) Alachua Ferry, Fl. (329.) 

Alatamaha R., G. (304.) Albemarle Sound, N. C. 

Alatamaha Canal, see Geor- (238.) 

gia, (304.) Albion, II. (166.) 

Albany, N. Y. (83.) Capital of the state of New York, 



8 



ROUTES FROM ALBANY. 



contains a population of about 35,000. The principal build- 
ings are : the Capitol in State-street. Academy, in which the 
lyceum of the Albany Institute is established. City Hall near 
the capitol, and about 20 churches, some of which are hand- 
some edifices; theatre, museum, public library, several banks, 
&c. The canal pier, and basin, deserve particular attention. 
Steam-boats, stages and canal-boats depart in every direction 
almost hourly. 

ROUTES FROM ALBANY. 



To New York by Steam 
Boats. 



Coeymans, 
Coxackie, 
Hudson, 
Catskill, 

(thence to Pine Orch- 
ard 14 miles,) 
Red Hook Landing, 
Kingston, 
Hyde Park, 
Pokeepsie, 
Newburg, 
West Point, 
Peekskill, 
Singsing, 
Phillipsburg, 
New York, 



Miles. 
13 

7 20 

8 28 
6 34 



11 45 

10 55 

10 65 

5 70 

15 85 
8 93 

10 103 
10 113 

16 129 
16 145 



To Utica by Rail-Road. 



Schenectady, 
Amsterdam, 
Caughnawaga, 
Palatine Bridge, 
Little Falls of Mo- 
hawk, 
Herkimer, 
Utica, 



16 

15 31 

9 40 

12 52 

20 72 

7 79 

17 96 



To Buffalo by Erie Canal. 
Troy, 7 

Junction, 2 9 



Schenectady, 

Amsterdam, 

Schoharie Cr. 

Caughnawaga, 

Canajoharie, 

Little Falls, 

Herkimer, 

Frankfort, 

Utica, 

Whitesboro, 

Rome, 

New London, 

Canistota, 

New Boston, 

Chitteningo, 

Manlius, 

Syracuse, 

Geddesburg, 

Canton, 

Jordan, 

Weedsport, 

Montezuma, (Lake 

Port) 
Clyde, 
Lyons, 
Lock vi lie, 
Palmyra, 
Fairport, 
Pittsford, 
Rochester, 
Ogden, 
Adams, 



28 

46 

53 

57 

69 

88 

95 

5 100 

10 110 

4 114 

125 

132 

14 146 



19 

18 

7 

4 

12 

19 

7 



11 

7 



4 150 
4 154 

8 162 

9 171 

2 173 
12 185 

6 191 
6 197 

9 206 
11 217 
9 226 
6 232 
9 241 

11 252 
8 260 

10 270 

12 282 

3 285 



ROUTES FROM ALBANY. 



9 



Brock port, 


5 290 


Beekmansville, 


19 45 


Holly, 


5 295 


Cherry Valley, 


7 52 


Albion, 


10 305 


Cooperstown, 


12 64 


Lock port, 


28 333 


Burlington, 


10 74 


Pendleton, 


7 340 


Smyrna, 


20 94 


Tonnewanta, 


12 352 


Deruyter, 


21 115 


Buffalo, 


11 363 


Truxtun, 


10 125 






Cortlandt, 


13 138 


To Buffalo by 


Stage. 


Ithaca, 


21 159 


Schenectady, by R. 


R. 16 






Amsterdam, 


16 32 


To SacJcefs Harbor, by 


Caughnawaga, 


11 43 


Stage. 




Palatine Bridge, 


11 54 


Utica, 


96 


Manheim, 


13 67 


Rome, 


16 112 


Little Falls, 


7 74 


Fish Creek, 


11 123 


Herkimer, 


7 81 


Redfield, 


20 143 


Utica, 


15 96 


Lorain, 


16 159 


Manchester, 


9 105 


Adams, 


8 167 


Vernon, 


8 113 


Sacket's Harbor, 


10 177 


Lenox, 


9 122 






Sullivan, 
Manlius, 


8 130 
6 136 


To Ballston and Saratoga by 
Rail Road. 


West Hills, 
Skaneateles, 
Auburn, 


12 148 

14 162 

7 169 


Schenectady, 
Ballston, 


16 
14 30 


Cayug-a, 
Waterloo, 


9 3 78 
8 186 


Saratoga, 6 36 
(thence to Lake George 


Geneva, 


6 192 


32 miles.) 




Canandaigua, 


16 208 






Bloomfield, 


9 217 


To Whitehall, by Champlain 


Lima, 


9 226 


Canal. 




Avon, 


7 233 


Troy, 


7 


Caledonia, 


8 241 


Junction, 


2 9 


Leroy, 


6 247 


Water ford, 


2 11 


Batavia, 


10 257 


Mechanicsville, 


8 19 


Pembroke, 


14 271 


Stillwater, 


4 23 


Ransom's Grove, 


8 279 


Bemus Heights, 


3 26 


Williamsville, 


8 287 


Schuylersville, 


9 35 


Buffalo, 


10 297 


Fort Miller, 


5 40 


— __ 




Fort Edward, 


8 48 


To Ithaca, by 


Stage. 


Kingsbury, 


5 53 


Hamilton, 


8 


Fort Ann, 


7 60 


Duanesburg, 


12 20 


Narrows, 


6 66 


Esperance, 


6 26 


Whitehall, 


6 72 



10 



ALB 



ALL 



To Whitehall, by Stage. 



Troy, 

Lansingburg, 

Waterford, 

Mechanicsville, 

Stillwater, 

Schuylcrsville, 

Northumberland, 

Fort Miller, 

Fort Edward, 

Sandy Hill, 

Kingsbury, 

Fort Ann, 

Whitehall, 



6 
3 9 

1 10 
8 18 

2 20 
13 33 



35 

38 



8 46 

3 49 
5 54 

4 58 
14 72 



To Montreal, by Stage and 
Steamboat. 
Whitehall, as above, 

Ticonderoga, 

Crown Point, 

Basin Harbor, 

Essex, 

Burlington, 

S. Hero, 

Plattsburg, 

Chazy, 

Isle au Noix, 

St. Johns, 
La Prarie, by Stage, 
Montreal, by Steam 
Boat, 



a 
o 

pa 
S 

ni 
o 

W 



i 



72 
23 95 

14 109 
12 121 

9 130 

15 145 
9 154 

8 162 
li 176 
15 191 

9 200 
17 217 

8 225 



To Burlington, Vt. via Ben- 
nington, Middlebury, §c. 
by Stage. 

Sand Lake, 11 



Berlin, 

Warm Spring, 

Pownall, 

Bennington, 

Shaftsbury, 

Sunderland, 

Manchester, 

Tinmouth, 

Rutland, 

Pittsford, 

Brandon, 

Middlebury, 

Vergennes, 

Charlotte, 

Burlington, 



10 
8 
4 

8 

8 
8 



21 

29 

33 

41 

49 

57 

8 65 

18 83 

17 100 

8 108 

9 117 
16 133 
14 J 47 

9 156 
13 169 



To Boston, by 

Union, 

Lebanon Spring, 

Pittsfield, 

Dalton, 

Peru, 

Worthington, 

Chesterfield, 

Northampton, 

Hadley, 

Belchertown, 

Western , 

Brookfield, 

Spencer, 

Worcester, 

Farmington, 

Brookline, 

Boston, 



Stage. 



n 

25 
32 
37 

46 
55 

60 
74 

78 



14 

7 

5 

9 

9 

5 
14 

4 

10 88 
14 102 

5 107 

8 115 

9 124 
21 145 
17 162 

4 166 



Allegheny Portage Rail R. see 
Pennsylvania, (130.) 



Aldboro Bay, U. C. (75.) 
Aldie, Va. (176.) 
Allegheny R. Pa. (103.) 

Allentown, Pa. (133.) A village situated on the right bank of 
the Lehigh, in Lehigh county, six miles S. W. from Bethle- 
hem, and fifty-five N. N. W. from Philadelphia. Population 
about 1800. 



ALTON. 



11 



Alligator Pt. Fl. (328.) 
Alexandria, N. Y. (34.) 
Alexandria, Me. (42.) 
Alexandria, II. (93.) 



Alexandria, Pa. (128.) 
Alexandria, Mo. (142.) 
Alexandria Canal, see Colum- 
bia, (176.) 



Alexandria, D. C. (176.) A neat and pleasant city and port 
of entry, on the right bank of the Potomac, occupies the south- 
ern angle of the District of Columbia. Population about 9,000. 
The public buildings are, a Court house, six churches, two 
banks, &c. 

(For routes from Alexandria, see Washington, D. C.) 
Alexandria, L. (294.) Alfred, Me. (63.) 

Alton, II. (163.) A thriving town of Illinois, on the left 
bank of the Mississippi, three miles above the mouth of the 
Missouri. Population about 3,000. Its chief buildings are the 
state penitentiary, market-houses, several extensive hotels, six 
churches, masonic lodge, &c. 

ROUTES FROM ALTON. 



To St. Louis, by » 


Steam Boat. 


Ramsay's Creek, 


28 67 


Missouri River, 




3 


Clarksville, 


8 75 


Chateau Island, 


9 


12 


Louisiana, 


12 87 


St. Louis, 


11 


23 


Saverton, 
Hannibal, 


18 105 
7 112 


To New Orleans 


, by Steam 


Wyaconda, 


28 140 


Boat. 






R. des Moines, 


22 162 


St. Louis, 




23 


Fort Armstrong, 


117 279 


Carondelet, 


6 


29 


Prairie Du Chienne, 


149 428 


Harrison, 


23 


52 






Herculaneum, 


1 


53 


Stage Route to Vandalia. 


St. Genevieve, 


31 


84 


Upper Alton, 


2 


JBainbridge, 


61 


145 


Cahokia River, 


15 17 


Cape Gerardeau, 


10 


155 


Shoal Creek, 


20 37 


Ohio River, 


41 


196 


Vandalia, 


21 58 


New Orleans, 


1077 1273 


. 










To Carlisle. 




To Prairie Du Chienne, 


by 


Edwardsville, 


13 


Steam Boat. 




Troy, 


9 22 


Peasau Creek, 




9 


Clifton, 


14 36 


Illinois River, 


10 


19 


Shoal Creek P. O. 


8 44 


Cuivre M 


20 


39 


Carlisle, 


9 53 



12 ALS 

To Springfield. 

Woodburn, 16 

Carlinsville, 20 36 

Girard, 12 48 

Springfield, 26 74 



ARKANSAS. 




To CarroUton. 
Lurton's, 

Jerseyville, 7 
Kane P. 0. 5 
CarroUton, 9 


12 

19 
24 
33 



Alston, S. C. (274.) Amsterdam, N. Y. (82.) 

Amboy, N. J. (134.) Amelia I., F. (318.) 

America, II. (185.) Amoskeag Canal, see New 
Amesville, O. (151.) Hampshire, (62.) 

Amhurst, U. C. (74.) Alachua, F. (315.) 

Amhurst, N. H. (85.) Anastatia I., F. (330.) 
Amhurst, C. H. Va. (195.) 

Annapolis, Md. (177.) Capital of the state, and seat of jus- 
tice of Anne Arundel county ; is situated on the Chesapeake 
Bay, and contains the State House, St. John's College, &c. 
Population about 2750. Distant from Washington 40 miles. 

Andover, Mass. (85.) Angelica, N. Y. (78.) 

Ann Arbour, Mich. (73.) Anson, Me. (40.) 

Antwerp, N. Y. (34.) Appalachie Bay, F. (327.) 

Andersonville, S. C. (252.) Applington, G. (271.) 

Arkansas, state of, (220) is divided into 35 counties. Popu- 
lation in 1830, 30,388, including 4,575 slaves ; in 1835, 58,134. 
Area, 60,700 square miles. Capital, Little Rock. Metropolis, 
Arkansas. Lat. 34° N. Longf. 14° 21' W. General election 
in August. Legislature meef every two years. Constitution 
formed, 1836. 

Government — The Governor receives $2000 per annum, is 
elected for four years, but is not eligible more than eight years 
out of any period of twelve years. 

Legislature. — Consists of a Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives, styled the General Assembly ; meets on the first Mon- 
day in November. The Senate can never consist of more than 
33 nor less than 17 members. The House of Representatives 
of not less than 54, nor more than 100 representatives. 

Judiciary. — The judicial power is vested in a Supreme 
Court, (3 judges,) whose jurisdiction is appellate ; circuit 
courts, county courts, and justices of the peace. The official 
term of the judges of the supreme court, is eight years ; and 
those of the circuit court four years. Justices, who are elected 
by the people, hold their offices for two years. The judges of 
county courts are chosen by the justices of the peace. 



ARK 



BAL 



13 



Physical Structure. — In the eastern part of the territory it 
is level, portions of it often inundated ; in the centre, hills begin 
to show themselves, and further west the country becomes 
mountainous, though level and elevated plains of considerable 
extent occur between the ridges. 

Rivers. — Arkansas, St. Francis, White, Washita, Red, &c. 

Productions. — Cotton, Corn, Wheat; the Peach, Grape, 
Plum, and some other fruits flourish in great abundance. 

Towns. — Little Rock, Arkansas, Point Chicot, St. Francis, 
Jackson, Batesville, Litchfield, Lewisburg, Helena, Jefferson, 
Scotia, &c> 



Arkansas River, Ark. (242.) 
Arkansas, Ark. (243.) 
Arlington, Vt. (60.) 
Armagh, P. (129.) 
Ash, Va. (176.) 
Assateague L, Md. (178.) 
Asheville,N. C. (232.) 
Ashboro, N. C. (235.) 
Asheville, Ala. (267.) 
Atchafalaya R., Lou. (322.) 
Atchafalaya Bay, Lou. (322.) 
Athens, P. (106.) 
Athens, O. (150.) 
Athens, II. (164.) 
Athens, T. (230.) 
Athens, Ala. (247.) 



Athens, G. (270.) 
Atkins, Va. (213.) 
Atlas, II. (142.) 
Auburn, N. Y. (80.) 
Augusta, K. (170.) 
Augusta, Miss. (297.) 
Augusta, G. (272.) 
Aurora, N. Y. (80.) 
Aurora, II. (145.) 
Aurora, O. (101.) 
Austenville, Va. (214.) 
Autauga, Ala. (284.) 
Averysboro, N. C. (236.) 
Avon, Me. (39.) 
Avon, N. Y. (79.) 



B. 



Balcony Falls Canal, see Vir- 
ginia, (195.) 
Balize, Lou. (325.) 



Back Bay, Va. (219.) 
Bainbridge, O. (149.) 
Bainbridge, G. (303.) 

Ballston Spa, N. Y. (83.) The Springs at Ballston have 
long been celebrated for their medicinal virtues, and are re- 
sorted to by many invalids and others. The waters resemble 
those of Saratoga, though not so strongly impregnated with 
the mineral ingredients. There are several good hotels and 
private boarding houses, reading rooms, &e. in the village, 
which is justly regarded as one of the most pleasant and salu- 
brious places of resort in the country. 

2 



14 BALLSTON. BALTIMORE. 

ROUTES FROM BALLSTON. 



Saratoga Springs, 6 

Saratoga Lake, 6 

Schenectady, by Rail R. 14 

Albany* « 30 



Waterford, by Stage, 
Glenn's Falls, 
Lake George, 



22 
25 

38 



Ballsrille, Va. (196.) 

Baltimore, Md. (156.) Is the chief city in Maryland, and 
the third in point of population in the United Stat s. It occu- 
pies a favourable position, and appears to much advantage on 
approaching it from the west. The country immediately in 
the rear swells into hills, sufficiently elevated to afford an ex- 
tensive view of the city and its environs, and to render the 
entire landscape particularly attractive. Population in 1830, 
80,625. The objects most worthy of attention, are Washing- 
ton Monument, at the intersection of Charles and Monument 
Streets ; it is surmounted by a colossal statue of Washington, 
elevated 163 feet. Battle Monument in Calvert street. Ex- 
change in Gay street. City Spring in Calvert street. Peni- 
tentiary on Madison street. Hospital in the N. W. suburbs. 
Cathedral ; Custom House ; two Colleges ; University buildings ; 
Alms House; Court House; two Theatres; Museum; Water 
Works, &c. &c. 

ROUTES FROM BALTIMORE, 



To Philadelphia, by R 


Road, 


Philadelphia, 


1 95 


via Havre Dc Grace 


Sfc. 


. 




Depot, 


1 


To Philadelphia, by 


S. Boat 


Back R. 


4 5 


and Rail Roac 


I. 


Gunpowder R. 


11 16 


Fort M'Henry, 


3 


Bush R. 


7 23 


Sparrows Pfc. 


6 9 


Havre De Grace, 


12 35 


North Pt. 


3 12 


Charleston, 


6 41 


Pool's Island, 


13 25 


Northeast, 


3 44 


Turkey Pt. 


23 48 


Elkton, 


6 50 


Frenchtown, 


16 64 


Newark Road, 


6 56 


N. Castle, by R. R. 


16 80 


Newport, 


8 64 


Chester, by S. Boat, 


17 97 


Wilmington, 


4 68 


Philadelphia, 


18 115 


Marcus Hook Road, 


9 77 






Chester, 


4 81 


To Philadelphia, by 


Steam 


Gray's Ferry Viaduct, 


9 90 


Boat and Canal, 


Philad'a. R. R. 


4 94 


Turkey Pt. as above, 


48 



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BALTIMORE. 



15 



f Bohemia, 10 58 

•3 1 Deep Cut, 5 63 

g { St. George's, 4 67 

^ J Delaware City 5 72 

I New Castle, 6 78 

Philadelphia, 35 113 



To Philadelphia, by Stage. 

Gunpowder V. 14 

Abingdon, 10 24 

Havre De Grace, 10 34 

Elkton, 16 50 

Wilmington, 20 70 

Chester, 13 83 

Philadelphia, 15 98 



To Washington, by Stage. 
Elkridge Landing, 8 

Waterloo, 5 13 

Vansville, 10 23 

Bladensburg, 8 31 

Washington, 6 37 



To Washington, by 
Boat. 


Steam 


Bodkin Pt. 


13 


Herring Bay, 
Patuxent, 


32 45 

32 77 


Pt. Lookout, 


20 97 


Washington's B. P. 


31 128 


Matthews Pt. 


18 146 


Cook's Ferry, 
Mt. Vernon. 


23 169 

18 187 


Alexandria, 


9 196 


Washington, 


8 204 



To Wheeling, Va. by Rail 

Road and Stage. 

. f Deep Cut, 2 

^ J Washington road, 3 5 

j§ j Still house run, 1 6 

-jj j Patapsco river, 4 10 

|g j Ellicott's, 2 12 

I Eagle Factory, 2 14 



*i 



12 
3 



f Crossing of Patap- 
sco, 
Sykes, 

Gillets run, 6 

Parrsville, 5 

New Market, 6 

Monocacy river, 9 

Frederick, 4 
(Thence to the Pt. of 

Rocks, 11 miles.) 

Middletown, 9 

Boonsboro, 7 
(Thence to Hagerstown, 

11 miles.) 

Williamsport, 12 

Big Spring, 10 

Hancock, 17 114 

Prattsville, 18 132 

Cumberland, 21 153 

Mt. Pleasant, 10 163 

Petersburg, 25 188 

Smythfield, 4 192 

Union, 21 213 

Brownsville, 12 225 

Hillsboro, 11 236 

Washington, 12 248 

W. Alexandria, 15 263 

I Wheeling, 16 279 



26 
29 
35 
40 
46 
55 
59 



68 
75 



87 
97 



H3 
O 



To Frederick, by Stage. 

Ellicotts, 10 

Lisbon, 12 22 

Poplar Spring, 5 27 

Parrsville, 4 31 

New Market, 5 36 

Frederick, 11 47 

To Annapolis, by Stage. 
Patapsco R. 7 

Indian Landing, 14 21 

Annapolis, 9 30 

To Gettysburg, Pa. by Stage. 
Hookton, 6 



16 



BAL 



BED 



Reisterstown, 
Westminster, 
Petersburg, 
Gettysburg 1 , 



11 17 

12 29 
15 44 
10 54 



To York, Pa. by Stage. 
Govanston, 



Towsenton, 

Golden Ho. 

Hereford, 

Wisebiiry, 

Strasburg, 

York, 



2 7 
7 14 
7 21 
2 23 
11 34 
14 48 



Baltimore and Ohio Rail 

Road. See Maryland, 

(156.) 
Baltimore and Susquehanna 

Rail Road. See Maryland, 

(156.) 
Baltimore and Port Deposit 

Rail Road. See Maryland, 

(156.) 
Baltimore and Washington R. 

Road. See Md. (156.) 
Bangor, Me. (41.) 
Banister, Va. (216.) 
Barataria Bay, Lou. (3Q3.) 
Barataria Lake, Lou. (323.) 
Barbourville, K. (211.) 
Bardstown, K. (189.) 
Bargaintown, N. J. (158.) 
Barnegat Inlet, N. J. (158.) 
Barnesville, O. (151.) 



Barnstable, Mass. (112.) 
Barnwell, S. C. (272.) 
Bartonville, Mo. (162.) 
Batavia, N. Y. (55.) 
Batesville, Ark. (223.) 
Bath, N.Y. (79.) 
Bath Rail Road. See New 

York, (79.) 
Bath, Va. (154.) 
Bath, N. C. (238.) 
Baton Rouge, Lou. (308.) 
Bays T., N. C. (231.) 
Beaufort, N. C. (258.) 
Beans Station, T. (211.) 
Beaver, P. (128.) 
Beaufort, S. C. (290.) 
Beardstown, II. (118.) 
Beck's Settlement, II. (144.) 
Bedford, N. Y. (109.) 



Bedford, P. (130.) County town of Bedford Co. Pa. is situ- 
ated among the Allegheny mountains, on the main road from 
Philadelphia to Pittsburg; 200 miles from the former, and 98 
miles from the latter place. Population about 1000. Bedford 
has long been celebrated for its mineral .springs, and is a 
favorite resort for invalids and others in search of health or 
pleasure during the summer season. These springs, which 
are used in chronic diseases, generally, contain carbonic acid, 
magnesia, sulphate of lime, muriate of soda, carbonate of iron, 
lime, &c. The water possesses laxative and sudorific powers 
in a high degree, and often act as an emetic. The accommo- 
dations here are upon an extensive and respectable scale, and 
afford to visiters every convenience found in similar establish- 
ments elsewhere. 



BEL 



BLA 



17 



Bellair, Md. (156.) 
Belle Fontaine, O. (125.) 
Belleville, II. (164.) 
Bellville, K.(187.) 
Bellefonte, P. (131.) 
Belfast, Me. (40.) 
Bclfont, Ala. (248.) 
Belgrade, II. (186.) 
Beelersville, F. (312.) 
Bellows Falls Canal. 

Vermont, (61.) 
Belmont, P. (107.) 
Belpre, O. (151.) 
Belvedere, N. J. (133.) 



See 



Bennetville, S. C (255.) 
Bennington, Vt. (83.) 
Benton, Vt. (60.) 
Benton, Mo. 185. 
Benton, Miss. (280.) 
Berkshire, Vt. (37.) 
Berlin, P. (154.) 
Berges, N. C. (236.) 
Berwick, P. (106.) 
Berkshire, O. (126.) 
Bertrand, Lou. (277.) 
Bethany, P. (107.) 
Bethania, N. C. (214.) 



Bethlehem, P. (133.) In Northampton county, 50 miles 
north of Philadelphia. Its inhabitants consist chiefly of 
Moravians, whose most extensive establishment is fixed here. 
The town is characterized by a degree of neatness and order, 
seldom surpassed, which the peculiar regulations and habits of 
the people enable it to maintain. It is supplied with water 
from the Lehigh, by means of a forcing pump, erected nearly 
80 years since. 



Beverly, Va. (173.) 
BigHatcheeR., T. (225.) 
Big Spring, K. (188.) 
B. la Fourche, Lou. (323.) 
Binghamton, N. Y. (81.) 
Blacksburg, Mich. (70.) 
Blacksburg, Va. (194.) 
Black's R. Ark. (204.) 
Black's Bluff, Ala. (299.) 
Blackwater, Va. (218.) 
Blakely.G. (301.) 
Blakely,Ala. (311.) 
Blandford, Mass. (84.) 
Block I., R. 1.(111.) 
Bloomfield, N. Y. (79.) 
Bloom field, K. (189.) 
Bloomfield, Ind. (146.) 
Bloomington, Ind. (146.) 
Bloomington, II. (120.) 
Blountville, T. (212.) 



Blountsville, Ala. (248.) 

Boardman, O. (102.) 

Boat Yard, or Kingsport, T. 
(212.) 

Bogue Inlet, N. C. (257.) 

Bolivar, Miss. (265.) 

Bolivar, T. (226.) 

Bolton, Mass, (85.) 

Boonville, N. Y. (58.) 

Boonville, Mo. (161.) 

Boonsville, Ind. (166.) 

Bordentown, N. J. (131) 

Boston, Me. (19.) 

Bellows Falls Canal. See 
Vermont, (61.) 

Belle-plain Rail Road, See 
Virginia, (176.) 

Blackstone CanaL See Mas- 
sachusetts, (85.) 



§* 



18 



BOSTON. 



Boston, Mass. (85.) Is the chief city of Massachusetts, and 
the fourth in magnitude in the United Stages. It is situated on 
a peninsula, which extends in a north-east direction from the 
main land, with which it is connected by several bridges, in 
addition to the "neck" so called. Its outline is about five miles 
in extent. There are several thriving villages in the neigh- 
bourhood of Boston, which may be considered as parts of the 
city, though under different municipal regulations. 

The principal of these villages are Charlestown, Lechmere 
point, the Neck, and South Boston. The objects of interest 
in and about Boston, are — Tremont house, in Common st., an 
immense hotel, containing 202 apartments. State house, oppo- 
site the common, (western part of the city.) Old State house, 
Court st. Faneuel hall, in Chatham st. Theatre, Federal st. 
Tremont Theatre. Atheneum. Statue of Washington in the 
state house. Navy Yard, and Breed's hill, rendered memora- 
ble by the battle between the British and American forces, on 
the 17th of June, 1775, commonly called the battle of Bunker's 
Hill. 

Besides the buildings devoted to public uses there is in 
Boston, an usual proportion of splendid private dwellings, 
churches, and scientific and literary institutions, forming 
altogether, one of the most attractive places in the Union. 

ROUTES FROM BOSTON. 



To Albany by Stage. 
Brook! ine, 
Farmington, 
Westboro, 
Worcester, 
Spencer, 
Brookfield, 
Belchertown, 
Hadley, 
Northampton, 
Chesterfield, 
Peru, 
Dal ton, 
Pittsfield, 
Lebanon Springs, 
Albany, 



17 

10 

11 
9 
8 

19 

10 
4 

14 106 

14 120 
9 129 
5 134 
7 141 

25 166 



4 
21 
31 

42 
51 

59 

78 
88 
92 



To Hartford, by Stage. 
Brookline, 4 



Dover, 

Medway, 

Mendon, 

Douglass, 

Thompson, 

Ash ford, 

Willington, 

Tolland, 

Ellington, 

Hartford, 



11 15 

12 27 
9 36 

12 48 

14 62 

20 82 

2 84 

7 91 

5 96 

14 110 



To Providence by Stage, and 

thence to New York by 
Steam Boat. 

Roxbury, 5 

Dedham, 5 10 

Wrentham, 18 28 

Attleboro, 7 35 

Pawtucket, 7 42 



ROUTES FROM BOSTON. 



19 



Providence, 3 45 

Pawtuxet, 5 50 

Newport, 20 70 

Point Judith, 14 84 

New London Harb. 35 119 
(Thence to New London, 

4 miles.) 

Connecticut R. 14 133 

Falkner's Is. 19 152 

New Haven Harb. 12 164 
(Thence to N. Haven, 

4 miles.) 

Blackrock, 19 1S3 

Southport, 5 188 

Oldwell, 8 196 

West Greenwich, 16 212 

Throgs Pt. 19 231 

New York, 16 247 



To Taunton, by Stage. 
Dorchester, 7 

Bridge water, 15 22 

Taunton, 12 34 

To Barnstable, by Stage. 
Quincy, 
Weymouth, 
Hanover, 
Kingston, 
Plymouth, 
.Sandwich, 
Barnstable, 





9 


6 


15 


9 


24 


11 


35 


6 


41 


18 


59 


13 


72 



To Concord, N. H. and 
thence to Montpelier, 
Vt., by Stage. 

Medford, 

Stoneham, 

Andover, 

Methuen, 

Londonderry, 

Hookset Falls, 

Concord, 

Boscawen, 

Andover, Vt. 

Grantham, 

Dartmouth Col. 

Stratford, 

Chelsea, 

Barre, 

Montpelier, 



4 
11 

4 
16 
19 

8 
10 
14 

22 114 
11 125 
16 141 

9 150 
15 165 

9 174 



6 
10 
21 
25 
41 
60 
68 
73 
92 



To Portland, Me, 

Saugus, 

Danvers, 

Topsfield, 

Rowley, 
! Newburyport, 
! Hampton, 

Portsmouth, 
I York, 

Wells, 
i Kennebunk, Pt. 

Saco, 

Portland, 



To Rutland, Vt. 
Cambridge, 
Concord, 
Groton, 
Townsend, 
New Ipswick, 
Keene, 

Bellows Falls, 
Chester, 
Cavendish 
Rutland, 



by Stage. 
4 
14 18 
14 32 



by Stage. 
10 

7 17 
6 23 

8 31 

5 36 

9 45 
13 58 

9 67 

15 82 

6 88 
10 98 

16 114 



To Newburyport, via Salem, 
by Stage. 

Chelsea, 5 

9 41 i Lynn, 5 10 

12 53 ! Salem, 5 15 
27 80 Beverly, 2 17 
20 100 ' Wenham, 4 21 

13 113 Hamilton, 2 23 
12 125 j Ipswich, 5 28 
26 151 [ Newburyport, 10 38 



20 



BOS 



ERU 



m Boat. 


York Harb. 5 77 




4 


Kennebunk H. 12 89 


6 


10 


Fletcher's Neck, 12 101 


6 


16 


Cape Elizabeth, 13 114 


3 


19 


Portland, 10 124 
Miscellaneous Rovtes by 


8 
r, 


27 


Steam Boats. 
Fort Warren, 2 
Fort Independence, 3 


10 


37 


Long Island, 6 


16 


53 


Pt. Alderton, 10 


7 


60 


The Brewster?, 10 


12 


73 





To Portland, by Steam Boat. 
Point Shirley, 
Nahant, 
Marblehead, 
Salem Harbor, 
(Thence to Salem, 

5 miles.) 
Gloucester Harb. 
(Thence to Gloucester, 

4 miles.) 
Cape Ann, 
Newbury Harb. 
Boar's Head, 
Portsmouth Harb. 

Boston and Lowell Rail Road. 
See Massachusetts, (85.) 

Boston and Providence Rail 
Road. See Massachusetts, 
(85.) 

Boston and Worcester Rail 
Road. See Massachusetts, 
(85.) 

Boston, O. (101.) 

Boston, N. Y. (78.) 

Bowling-green, Va. -(176.) 

Bowling-green, Mo. (141.) 

Bowling-green, K. (188.) 

Bowdoinham, Me. (40.) 

Bowerbank, Me. (19.) 

Bow Canal. See New Hamp- 
shire, (62.) 

Boydtown Va. (216.) 

Brandon, Vt. (60.) 

Brandon, Miss. (280.) 

Brattleboro, Vt. (84.) 

Brasstown, N. C. (230.) 

Brashears, Miss. (280.) 

Bridge Town, Md. (157.) 

Brunswick, N. J. (134.) An incorporated city, and seat of jus. 
tice for Middlesex county, on the west bank of the Raritan river, 
34 miles S. W. of New York, and 26 N. E. from Trenton ; 
population about 7000. Public buildings are, a Court house, 



Bridgetown, N. J. (157.) 
Bridgetown, Me. (63.) 
Bridge Town, D. 178.) 
Bridgetown, Va. (198.) 
Bridgewater, Ala. (247.) 
Bristol, R. I. (111.) 
Brockport, U. C. (34.) 
Brockport, N. Y. (55.) 
Brookfield, Mass. (84.) 
Brooklyn, C. (111.) 
Brooklyn, N. Y. (135.) 
Brookville, Ind. (148.) 
Brookville, Md. 156.) 
Brownington, Vt. (37.) 
Brownstown, Mich. (73.) 
Brownsburg, T. (225.) 
Brownsville, P. (120.) 
Brownstown, Ind. (168.) 
Brownsville, II. (185.) 
Browns, G. (250.) 
Brownsburg, Miss. (295.) 
Brunswick, Me. (63.) 
Brunswick, N. J. (134.) 



BUFFALO. 



21 



College, seven Churches, two Academies, a Lancasterian 
school, two Banks, &c. and a fine bridge over the Raritan. 
The Raritan canal has its eastern termination here, which, with 
rail and turnpike roads in all directions, affords extensive 
facilities for commercial purposes. 

Brunswick, N. C. (256.) Buckstown, Me. (41.) 

Bryan C. H., G. (281.) Buffalo, Va. (172.) 

Buchannan, Va. (152.) 

Buffalo, N. Y. (78.) A flourishing city, situated on Lake 
Erie, and at the western termination of the Erie Canal. Pop- 
ulation about 16,000. The public buildings are a court-house, 
several churches, banks, museum, hotels, &c. Stages, steam- 
boats and sailing vessels, arrive at and depart from Buffalo 
almost every hour. 

ROUTES FROM BUFFALO. 



To Albany, by the 
Canal. 


Erie 


Schenectady, 
Troy, 


18 335 
21 356 


Tonnewanta, 
Pendleton, 


11 
12 23 


Albany, 


7 363 


Lockport, 
Albion, 


7 30 
28 58 


To Albany, by Stage. 
Williamsville, 10 


Holly, 

Brockport, 

Ogden, 


10 68 
5 73 

8 81 


Ransoms, 

Pembroke, 

Batavia, 


8 18 

8 26 

14 40 


Rochester, 


12 93 


Leroy, 


10 50 


Fairport, 


18 111 


Avon, 


14 64 


Palmyra, 


11 122 


Lima, 


7 71 


Lyons, 


15 137 


Bloomfield, 


9 80 


Montezuma, 


20 157 


Canandaigua, 


9 89 


Jordan, 


15 172 


Geneva, 


16 105 


Syracuse, 
Manlius, 


20 192 
9 201 


Cayuga, 
Auburn, 


14 119 

9 128 


New Boston, 


12 213 


Skaneateles, 


7 135 


Canistota, 


4 217 


Westbills, 


14 149 


Rome, 


21 238 


Manlius, 


12 161 


Whitesboro, 


11 249 


Lenox, 


14 175 


Utica, 


4 253 


Vernon, 


9 184 


Herkimer, 


15 268 


Utica, 


17 201 


Little Falls, 


7 275 


Herkimer, 


15 216 


Canajoharie, 


19 294 


Little Falls, 


7 223 


Caughnewaga, 
Amsterdam, 


12 306 
11 319 


Palatine Bridge, 
Amsterdam, 


20 243 
22 265 



22 



ROUTES FROM BUFFALO. 



Schenectada, 16 281 

Albany by R. Road, ] 6 297 



To Niagara Falls, by Stage. 
Blackroek, 1 

Chippewa, 16 17 

Niagara Falls, 2 19 



To Niagara Falls, by Stage, 
via Manchester. 
Blackroek, 1 

Tonnewanta, 8 9 

Schlosser, 10 19 

The Falls, 2 21 



To Rochester, by Stage. 
Batavia, as above, 40 

Bergen, 13 53 

Rochester, 17 70 



To Erie, Pa. by Stage. 

Hamburg, 11 

Cattaraugus, 19 30 

Dunkirk, 15 45 

Westfield, 15 60 

Burget's town, 16 76 

Erie, 14 90 



To Erie, and thence to De- 
troit, by Steam Boat. 
Cattaraugus, 28 

Dunkirk, 13 41 

Westfield, 15 56 

Erie, 30 86 



Bull's Bay, S. C. (291.) 
Bulitown, Va. (173.) 
Burksville, K. (209.) 
Burgettstown, P. (77.) 
Burlington, Vt. (36.) 
Burlington, N. Y. (81.) 
Burlington, N. J. (134.) 
Burlington, K. (148.) 



Falrport, 


74 160 


Cleveland, 


30 190 


Sandusky, 


60 250 


Detroit, 


75 325 



To Hamilton, by Stage. 
Hamburg, 11 

Boston, 12 23 

Springville, 10 23 

Ellicotville, 16 49 

Hamilton, 20 69 



To Ithaca, 


by Stage. 


Aurora, 


15 


Warsaw, 


'26 41 


Perry, 
Moscow, 


8 49 
7 56. 


Geneseo, 


4 60 


Dansville, 


18 78 


Conhocton, 


8 86 


Bath, 


20 106 


Jersey, 
Salubria, 


10 116 
15 131 


Ithaca, 


20 151 



To Ithaca, via Batavia and 
Cayuga Lake. 
Cayuga, as above, 119 

Union, by Steam B. 6 125 
Aurora, by Steam B. 7 132 
Milton, do. 7 139 

Ludlowsville, do. 10 149 

Ithaca, do. 8 157 



Burlington, Ind. (146.) 
Burlington, O. (171.) 
Burnthorn, Ala. (299.) 
Bushville, P. (108.) 
Butler, P. (120.) 
Buzzard's Bay, Mass. (112.) 
Byron, G. (302.) 
Byron, Mich. (73.) 



CAB 



CAT 



23 



C. 



Canfield, O. (J 02.) 
Canton, N. Y. (34.) 
Canton, Ind. (145.) 
Canton, O. (127.) 
Canton, Ala. (283.) 
Canisteo, N. Y. (79.) 
Cantwell, D. (157.) 
Cantrell's Ch. Lou. (323.) 
Cape Ann, Mass. (86.) 
C. Elizabeth, Me. (63.) 
Cape Cod, Mass. (86.) 
Cape Cod Bay, Mass. (112.) 
Cape Flenlopen, D. (178.) 
Cape May, N. J. (179.) 
Cape Malabar, Mass. (112.) 
Cape Girardeau, Mo. (185.) 
Cape Hatteras, N. C. (239.) 
Cape Charles, Va. (199.) 
Cape Henry, Va. (199.) 
Cape Lookout, N. C. (258.) 
Cape Fear, N. C. (275.) 
Cape Fear R., N. C. (235.) 
Cape St. Bias, F. (326.) 
Cape St. Joseph, F. (326.) 
Cape St. George, F. (327.) 
Cape Vincent, N. Y. (33.) 



Cabin Pt. Va. (197.) 
Cadiz, K. (207.) 
Cadiz, O. (127.) 
Cahawba R., Ala. (267.) 
Cahawba, Ala. (283.) 
Calcasiu R., Lou. (306.) 
Calcasiu Lake, Lou. (320.) 
Caldwell, N. Y. (60.) 
Caledonia, Mo. (184.) 
Calhoun, T. (230.) 
Cambridge, 0.(127.) 
Cambridge, Md. (177.) 
Cambridge, S. C. (253.) 
Camden, Me. (40.) 
Camden, N.J. (157.) 
Camden and Amboy Rail 

Road. See New Jersey, 

(134.) 
Camden, S. C. (254.) 
Campbellsville, K« (189.) 
Campbells T. (230.) 
Campbells, N. C. (255.) 
Campbelhon, G. (269.) 
CanandaigUa, N. Y. (79.) 
Canaseraga, N. Y. (58.) 
Canajoharie, N. Y. (82.) 
Canadea, N. Y. (78.) 

Carrollton, II. (142.) Seat of justice of Greene county, is 
pleasantly situated on the borders of Spring Prairie — is a 
thriving place, and is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile 
country. Population about 1500. 



Carrolton, G. (268.) 
Carlinville, II. (143.) 
Carlisle, Penn. (131.) 
Carlisle, Ind. (166.) 
Carlisle, K. (170.) 
Carlyle, II. (164.) 
Carmi, II. (165.) 
Carman, N. Y. (136.) 
Carnesville, G. (251.) 
Carney, G. (305.) 
Cartersville, Va. (196.) 



Carthage, N. C (235.) 
Carthage, N. Y. (58.) 
Carthage, T. (209.) 
Casco Bay, Me. (63.) 
Castine, Me. (41.) 
Catskill, N. Y. (83.) 
Catskill and Canajoharie R. 

Road. SeeN. Y. (82.) 
Cattaraugus, N. Y. (77.) 
Catletsburg, K. (171.) 
Catawba R., N. C. (233.) 



24 



CAT 



CHARLESTON. 



Catawba Canals. See S. Ca- 
rolina, (254.) 

Catharinestown, N. Y. (80.) 

Cavendish, Vt. (61.) 

Cayuga, N. Y. (80.) 

Cayuga Lake, N. Y, (80.) 

Cedar Bay, N. J. (168.) 

Cedar Inlet, N. C. (258.) 

Central Rail Road. See 
Pennsylvania, (132.) 

Centreville, O. (150.) 

Centreville, Md. (157.) 

Centreville, Va. (176.) 

Centreville, K. (187.) 

Centreville, Ala. (283.) 



Centreville, Pa. (103.) 
Centre, N. Y. (81.) 
Centre, P. (103.) 
Ceres, P. (104.) 
Chataugay, N. Y. (35.) 
Champlain, N. Y. (36.) 
Champlain Canal. See New 

York, (60.) 
Chambersburg, P. (155.) 
Chandelleur Isles, L. (325.) 
Chaplin T., K. (209.) 
Charleston, N. H. (61.) 
Charleston, Va. (155.) 
Charleston, Ind. (168.) 
Charleston, Va. (172.) 



Charleston, S. C. (291.) The metropolis of the state of 
South Carolina, and the sixth city of the Union in point of 
population. It contained in 1830, 30,289 inhabitants, includ- 
ing 15,534 slaves. It is situated on the point of junction of 
Cooper and Ashley rivers, which here unite and form the outer 
harbour. The public buildings are : Almshouse in Mazyck 
street ; the Orphans' Asylum ; Exchange ; Circular Church ; 
Court-house .and City Hall in Broad street ; Medical College 
in Short street ; Academy of Arts and Circus in Queen street ; 
South Carolina Society's Hall ; Hospital in Back street, and 
about twenty churches, some of which are very splendid. 

ROUTES FROM CHARLESTON. 



To Hamburg, 
by S. C. Rail Road. 
To Woodstock, 
Summersville, 
Branchville, 
Midway, 
Black sville, 
Aiken, 
Hamburg, 



To Columbia, by Stage. 

Dorchester, 20 

Four Holes Swamp, 17 37 

Kerrs, 14 51 





15 


7 


22 


40 


62 


10 


72 


8 


90 


30 


120 


16 


136 



Orangeburg, 

Conheim, 

Columbia, 



25 76 
25 101 
13 114 



To Savannah, Ga. by 
Stage. 

Guerin's Ferry, H 

Parker's, 17 28 

Pocataligo, 32 60 

Coosawhatchie, 6 66 

Hoggstown, 17 83 

Savannah, 23 106 



ROUTES FROM CHARLESTON. 



25 



To Savannah, by Steam 
Boat. 

Fort Moultrie, 4 

Coffin Land, 6 10 

Stono Inlet, 11 21 

So. Edisto Inlet, 27 48 

St. Helena So. 3 51 

Truncard's Inlet, 21 72 

Hilton Head, 4 76 

Bloody Point, 18 94 

Savannah, 17 111 



To Wilmington, N. C. via 
Georgetown. 

Jones', 33 

N. Santee R. 12 45 

Georgetown, 14 59 

Gr. Pedee R. 26 85 

Conwayboro, 15 100 

Lit. River Inlet, 27 127 

Brunswick, C. H. 24 151 

Brunswick, 17 168 



Oldtown, 
Wilmington, 



8 176 

8 184 



To Fayetteville, N. C. 
by Stage. 
Quinby Br. 

Santee R. 19 

Black Cr. 15 

Port's F. 34 

L. Pedee R. 30 

Lumberton, 34 

Fayetteville, 32 



25 

44 

59 

93 

123 

157 

189 



To Cheraw, by Stage. 
Bedheimer's, 
Monk's Corner, 
Gpurdine's F. 
Kingstree, 
Lynch's Cr. 
Darlington, 
Society Hill, 
Cheraw, 



9 
25 
14 
28 
19 
14 
13 



24 
33 

58 
72 
100 
119 
133 
146 



Chardon, O. (101.) 
Charlottsville, Va. (175.) 
Charlotte, N. C. (234.) 
Charlotte, T. (207.) 
Chataugay, L. C. (15.) 
Chattahochie, G. (269.) 
Chattahochie River, Ala. 

(301.) 
Chattahochie R., G. (250, 
Chatham, Mass. (112.) 
Chaumont, N. Y. t33.) 
Chagrine, O. (101.) 
Chehaw, G. (286.) 
Chelmsford, Mass. (85.) 
Chelsea, Vt. (61.) 
Cheeks, T. (211.) 
Chemung Canal. See 

York, (80.) 
Chenango Canal. See 

York, (80.) 
Cheraw, S. C. (255.) 



Cherokee, G. (249.) 

Cherry Valley, N. Y. (82.) 

Chester, N. Y. (60.) 

Chester, Vt. (61.) 

Chester, N. H. (85.) 

Chester, Pa. (157.) 

Chester T., Md. (156.) 

Chesterville, Me. (39.) 
) Chesterville, S. C. (253.) 

• Chesterfield, S. C. (254.) 

Chesapeake Bay, Md. (177.) 

Chesapeake and Delaware 
Canal. See Md. (157.) 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 
See Md. (157.) 

Chicago, 11. (95.) 
New Chickasaws, Miss. (245.) 

Chichis, Texas, (293.) 
New Chicot, Ark. T. (262.) 

Chillicothe, 0.(149.) 

Chipola F. (314.) 
3 



26 



CHI 



CINCINNATI. 



Chippewav, U. C. (54.) Chowan Navigation. See 

Chiswell, Va. (198.) ^ Virginia, (218.) 

Chittenango Canal. See New Christianburg, Va. (194.) 

York, (80.) Christianvilie, Va. (216.) 

Cholsonville, Va. (217.) Church, N. C. (257.) 

Cincinnati, O. (148,) the great emporium of the state of 
Ohio, was founded in 1789. Its population at present (1839,) 
is about 42,000, and is rapidly increasing. The public build- 
ings consist of, a Court-house in Tenth street ; four Market- 
houses ; Bazaar in Third street ; Theatre in Second street ; 
Banks ; College in Walnut street ; Atheneum in Sycamore 
street; Medical College in Sixth street; Mechanics' Institute 
in Walnut street; two Museums, one in Main, and the other 
in Fourth street ; Hospital in Plum street ; Lunatic Asylum ; 
High school, and about thirty churches. 

ROUTES FROM CINCINNATI. 



To Louisville, by 


Steamboat. 


Guyandot, 


7 151 


Lawrenceburg, 


24 


Gallipolis, 


34 185 


Aurora, 


4 28 


Pt. Pleasant, 


3 188 


Rising Sun, 


7 35 


Letart's Is. 


29 217 


Fredericksburg, 


20 55 


Belville, 


30 247 


Vevay, 


10 65 


Parkersburg, 


17 264 


Fort William, 


10 75 


Marietta, 


13 277 


Madison, 


13 88 


Newport, 


16 293 


Westport, 


21 109 


Sistersville, 


17 310 


JefFersonviile, 


22 131 


Elizabethtown, 


35 345 


Louisville, 


1 132 


Wheeling, 


13 358 


Thence to N. Orleans, 1448 


Warrentown, 


8 366 


Miles. See Louisville. 


Wellsburg, 


6 372 






Steubenville, 


7 379 


To Pittsburg, by 


S. Boats. 


Favvcetstown, 


22 401 


New Richmond, 


21 


Beaver, 


19 420 


Pt. Pleasant, 


5 26 


Economy, 


9 429 


Moscow, 


6 32 


Middletown, 


9 438 


Mechanicsville, 


3 35 


Pittsburg, 


11 449 


Augusta, 


6 41 






Ripley, 


9 50 


To Dayton, 


by CanaL 


Maysville, 


7 57 


Reading, 


12 


Manchester 


10 67 


Hamilton, 


16 28 


Portsmouth, 


36 103 


Middletown , 


14 42 


Burlington, 


41 144 


Franklin, 


6 48 



ROUTES FROM CINCINNATI. 



27 



Miamisburg, 
Dayton, 



6 54 

14 68 



To Columbus, by Stage, 



Reading - , 

Sharon, 

Lebanon, 

Waynesville, 

Xenia, 

Charleston, 

London, 

Georgesville, 

Columbus, 



10 

5 15 

16 31 

9 40 

15 55 

18 73 

11 84 

12 96 

13 109 



Brookvrlle, 
Somerset, 
Rushville, 
Indianapolis, 



17 40 
11 51 

14 65 

40 105 



To Louisville, by Stage. 
Lawrenceville, 23 

Madison, 34 57 

Louisville, 38 95 



' To Greenville, by Stage. 
Mt. Pleasant, 11 

Hamilton, 12. 33 

New comb, 18 41 

Eaton, 8 49 

Greenville, 28 77 



To Indianapolis, by Stage. 
Miami, 15 

Harrison, 8 23 



To Lexington, by Stage. 
Newport, 1 

Gaines, 12 13 

Theobolds, 12 25 

Georgetown, 29 54 

Lexington, 13 67 



To Chillicothe, by Stage. 

Newton, 8 

Batavia, 15 23 

Williamsburg, 8 31 

Hillsboro, 28 59 

Bainbridge, 22 81 

Chillicothe, 18 99 



Cinthiana, K. (169.) 
Circleville, O. (150.) 
Claiborne, Ala. (299.) 
Clarksburg, Va. (152.) 
Clarksburg, Md. (155.) 
Clarksburg, K. (170.) 
Clarksville, T. (207.) 

Cleveland, O. (101,) is a place of considerable trade, being 
situated on the northern termination of the Ohio and Erie 
Canal. 

ROUTES FROM CLEVELAND. 



Clarksville, G. (251.) 
Clarksville, Ala. (298.) 
Clarktown, N. Y. (109.) 
Claytonville, G. (251.) 
Clearfield, Pa. (104.) 
Clermont, N. Y, (83.) 



To Buffalo, by Steam Boat. 
Fairport, 30 

Erie, 74 104 

Westfield, 30 134 

Dunkirk, 15 149 



Cattaraugus, 



13 162 



Buffalo, 



28 190 



To Detroit, by Steam Boat. 
Huron, 50 

Sandusky, 10 60 

Detroit, 75 135 



28 cli 






COLUMBIA. 




To Portsmouth^ 


by 


Canal. 


Coshocton, 


26 133 


Akron, 




38 


Newark, 


40 173 


New Portage, 




9 47 


Bloomfield, 


52 225 


Massillon, 




21 68 


Circleville, 


11 236 


Bolivar, 




12 80 


Chillicothe, 


20 256 


New Philadelphia 




14 94 


Piketon, 


24 280 


Gnadenhutten, 




13 107 


Portsmouth, 


27 307 



Clinton, N. Y. (58.) 
Clinton, T. (210.) 
Clinton, K. (206.) 
Clinton, Lou. (308.) 
Clinton, G. (270.) 
Clover Ball, Va. (174.) 
Clubfoot Canal. See North 

Carolina, (258.) 
Coal M., Pa. (104.) 
Codorus Navigation. • See Pa. 

(132.) 



Colchester, C. (110.) 
Coldcamp, N. C. (256.) 
Cochecton, N. Y. (107.) 
Coleman, Lou. (307.) 
Coleraine, Pa. (148.) 
Coleraine, N. C. (218.) 
Coleraine, G. (317.) 
Coles, Va. (215.) 
Coles, N. C. (218.) 
Colington, F. (327.) 
Coolidge, Ala. (298.) 



Columbia, District of, (176.) Is divided into two counties. 
Population in 1830, 39,858. Area, 100 square miles. Capi- 
tal, City of Washington, Lat. 38° 53', N. The other towns, 
are Georgetown and Alexandria. 

Rivers. — Potomac, and its eastern branch. Internal Im- 
provements. — Alexandria Canal, extends from the point of 
termination of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal at Georgetown 
to Alexandria, 7 miles. Chesapeake and Chio Canal. See 
Maryland. Baltimore and Washington Rail Roads. See 
Maryland. 



Columbia, N. H. (38.) 
Columbia, Me. (42.) 
Columbia, P. (132.) 
Columbia, Mo. (161.) 



Columbia, Ind. (1G6.) 
Columbia, K. (189.) 
Columbia, Va. (186.) 
Columbia T. (227.) 



Columbia, S. C. (254.) The capital of the state of South 
Carolina, situated on the great road from Washington to New 
Orleans. The legislative halls, state offices, and S. C. college, 
are the chief buildings. 

ROUTES FROM COLUMBIA. 



To Charleston, by Stage, via. 

Orangeburg. 
Gran by, 1 



Conheim, 


12 13 


Orangeburg, 


25 38 


Kerrs, 


25 63 





COL 


COLUMBUS. 


29 


Four Holes Swamp, 14 77 


Fayetteville, 


24 148 


Dorchester, 


17 94 






Charleston, 


20 114 


To Yorkville, by Stage. 






Round Top, 


10 


To Augusta, Ga., by Stage. 


Winnsboro, 


19 29 


Lexington, 


C. H. 12 


Chesterville, 


25 54 


Leesville, 


17 29 


Yorkville, 


22 76 


Lumkins, 


6 35 


(Thence to Salisbury, N. C. 


Lotts, 


12 47 


74 miles.) 




Edgefield, 


10 57 






Augusta, 


15 72 


To Greensville, by Stage. 






Lexington, C. H. 


12 


To FayeltevUle, N. C, by 


Saluda R. 


14 26 




Stage. 


Newberry, 


17 43 


Colonels Cr 


16 


Belfast, 


16 59 


Ferry over 


Wateree, 14 30 


Huntsville, 


8 67 


Camden, 


2 32 


Laurensville, 


9 76 


Debrules, 


12 44 


Reedy R. 


19 95 


Sanders, 


12 56 


Greenville, 


19 114 


Black Cr. 


9 65 


■ 




Che raw, 


22 87 


To Winsboro, 


29 


Boundary, 


15 102 


— Ruff's Ferry, 


39 


Laurel Hill 


13 115 


— N. Edisto River, 


22 


Lumber R. 


9 124 


— M'Cord's Ferry, 


33 



Columbia, N. C. (238.) Columbiana, O. (128.) 

Columbia, Ala. (301.) Columbus, Ind. (147.) 

Columbus, O. (141.) Capital of the state, founded, in 1812. 
Population, about 7,000, and rapidly increasing. Public build- 
ings : state-house ; court-house ; state offices ; penitentiary ; 
deaf and dumb asylum ; theological seminary, &c. 

ROUTES FROM COLUMBUS. 



To Cincinnati, by Stage. 



Georgeville, 
London, 


12 


13 
25 


Charleston, 


11 


36 


Xenia, 


18 


54 


Waynesville, 
Lebanon, 


15 

9 


69 

78 


Sharon, 


16 


94 


Reading, 


5 


99 


(Cincinnati, 


10 109 



To Portsmouth, by Stage. 

Bloomfield, 17 

Circleville, 9 26 

Chillicothe, 19 45 

Piketon, . 19 64 

Lucasville, 13 77 

Portsmouth, 13 90 



3* 



To Athens, by Stage. 
Lythopolis, 21 



«su 


CONCORD. 






Green Castle, 


4 25 


Mt. Vernon, 




20 47 


Lancaster, 


7 32 


Loudonville, 




24 71 


Logan, 


17 49 


Wooster, 




22 93 


Nelsonville, 


16 65 


Jackson, 




12 105 


Millville, 


4 69 


Medina, 




12 117 


Athens, 


7 76 


Cleveland, 




27 144 


To Wheeling, 


Va. by the 


To Portsmouth, by 


Canal. 


National Road. 


Junction, 




10 


Hebron, 


28 


Bloomfield, 




7 17 


Zanesville, 


27 55 


Circleville, 




11 28 


Cambridge, 


25 80 


Chillicothe, 




20 48 


Fairview, 


21 101 


Piketon, 




24 72 


St. Clairsville, 


24 125 


Portsmouth, 




27 99 


Wheeling, 


10 135 












To Cleveland 


,by 


Canal. 


To Portland, 


by Stage. 


Hebron, 




34 


Worthington, 


9 


Newark, 




10 44 


Delaware, 


17 26 


Coshocton, 




40 84 


Norton, 


11 37 


Gnadenhutten, 




26 110 


Bucyrus, 


26 63 


Bolivar, 




26 136 


Portland, 


55 118 


Massillon, 




12 148 







Akron, 




33 181 


To Cleveland, 


by Stage. 


Cleveland, 




37 218 


Granville, 


27 




'85.) 




Columbus Canal 


. See Ohio, Columbus, G. (S 




(149.) 


Competition, Va 


. (215.) 


Columbus, K. (206.) Coombsville, K. 


(189.) 


Columbus, Miss. 


(265.) Compte, Lou. (293.) 




Cornells, Ala. (285.) 






Concord, N. H 


(62.) Capital of the state of New Hamp- 


shire. 








ROUTES FROM CONCORD. 






To Boston, by Stage. 


To Montpelier, 


Vt. by Stage. 


Hookset Falls, 


8 


Boscawen, 




10 


Londonderry, 


. 19 27 


Andover, 




14 24 


Methuen, 


16 43 


Grantham, 




22 46 


Andover, 


4 47 


Dartmouth Col. 




11 57 


Stoneham, 


11 58 


Stratford, 




16 73 


Med ford, 


4 62 


Chelsea, 




9- 82 


Boston, 


6 68 


Barre, 


' 


15 97 



CONNECTICUT. 



31 



Montpelier, 



9 106 



To White Hills, by Stage. 

Boscawen, 10 

Bristol, 22 32 

Plymouth, 13 45 

Thornton, 12 57 

Peeling, 11 68 

Bethlehem, 19 87 



Mt. Washington, 15 102 



To Portsmouth, by Stage. 
Deerfield, 18 

Nottingham, 6 24 

Denham, 10 34 

Newington, 5 39 

Portsmouth, 7 46 



Ceudersport, Pa. (104.) 
Cornwall, Can. (14.) 
Copenhagen, N. Y. (58.) 
Conneaught, O. (102.) 
Connecticut R. (38.) 



Concord, N. Y. (83.) 
Concord, N. C. (234.) 
Concordia, L. (295.) 
Conestoga Navigation. See 

Pennsylvania, (132.) 
Covington, N.Y. (78.) 

Connecticut, state of (109,) is divided into eight counties. 
Population in 1830, 297,711. Area, 5,100 square miles. 
Capitals, Hartford and New Haven. Metropolis, New Haven. 
Lat. 41° 19' N. Longitude 3° 58' E. General Election, first 
Monday in April ; Legislature meet first Wednesday in May ; 
Constitution formed, 1818. 

Government. — The Governor is elected annually ; salary 
$1,100. Lieutenant Governor receives $300 per annum. 

The Legislature is styled the General Assembly, and con- 
sists of twenty-one senators, and 208 members of the House of 
Representatives, elected annually, The pay of the former is 
$2 a day each, and of the latter $1,50 a day. 

The General Assembly has one staled session every year, 
alternately at Hartford and New Haven. 

Judiciary. — The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court 
of Errors, a Superior Court, and such inferior courts as the 
legislature may establish. The judges are appointed by the 
General Assembly, and those of the Supreme and Superior 
courts hold their offices during good behaviour, but not beyond 
the age of seventy years. 

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court receives $1,1 00 per 
annum. The four Associate Judges $1,050 each. 

Physical Structure.— The State of Connecticut is naturally 
divided into three parts by the rivers Connecticut and Housa- 
tonic. The eastern section is comparatively level, having but 
few, if any elevations deserving the name of mountains. The 
middle section, or that portion of the state lying between the 
Connecticut river on the east, and the Housatonic on the west, 



32 COF CRO 

is strictly a mountainous region, especially on the N. W. part 
of it. The third, or western section is, with the exception of 
the southern portion of Fairfield county, composed almost 
entirely of hills and mountains, some of which attain to an 
elevation of 3,500 feet. 

Rivers. — Honsatonic, Saugatuck, Connnecticut, Farming- 
ton, Thames, Quinebaug, and Shetucket. 

Towns. — Hartford, New Haven, Middletown, New London 
and Norwich are incorporated cities ; Bridgeport, Guilford, 
Killingworth, Newton, Stamford, Stonington, Waterbury, &c. 

Productions. — Indian corn, wheat, rye and other small 
grains; flax, hemp, &c. &c. 

Internal Improvements. — Farmington Canal extends from 
New Haven to the north boundary of the state. It is proposed 
to continue this canal to Northampton, a further distance of 22 
miles; entire length so far as completed 56 miles; Enfield 
Canal is designed to overcome the Enfield falls in Connecticut 
river. Length 5J miles. New York, Providence and Boston 
Rail Road from Stonington in Connecticut to Providence; 
length 47 miles. Worcester and Norwich Rail Road ; length 
48 miles. Hartford and New Haven Rail Road, via. Meriden, 
35 miles long. Rail-roads are proposed to extend from Hart- 
ford to Springfield ; Hartford to Worcester, &,c. &c. 

CofFeeville, Ala. (298.) Cowpens, S. C. (233.) 

Coteau da Lac, Can. (14.) Conwayboro, S. C. (274.) 

Connecuh R., Ala. (300.) Cootes Paradise, Can. (54.) 

Connelsville, Pa. (129.) Conyngham, P. (106.) 

Constant, N. C. (218.) ' Covington, II. (164.) 

Coolidge, Ala. (298.) Cooperstown, N. Y. (82.) 
Coupee, Lou. (308.) 

Corydon, (167,) formerly the seat of government of the state 
of Indiana. 

Coopersport, P. (104.) Covington, P. (105.) 
Cote Saus dessein, Mo. (162.) Coeymans, N. Y. (83.) 

Coosa, Ala, (267.) Cox's, II. (185.) 

Coosa watch ie, S.'C. (290.) Crab Orchard, Va. (213.) 

Coosa R., Ala. (267.) Crab Orchard, T. (230.) 

Cotton port, Ala. (248.) Coshatta Village, Ark. (277.) 

Covington, G. (270.) Crabs Bottom, Va. (174.) 

Covington, Lou. (309.) Craftsbury, Vt. (37.) 

Covington, T. (225.) Crawfordsville, Ind. (122.) 

Covington, II. (164.) Crocket, N. C. (254.) 



CRO 



DELAWARE. 



33 



Croghanville, 0. (99.) 
Crooked Lake Canal, see N. 

York, (79.) 
Cross River, Miss. (296.) 
Cr. Keys, Va. (217.) 
Croton, N. Y. (109.) 
Crown Point. N. Y. (60.) 
Crow Town, Ala. (249.) 
Crugers T., Md. (155.) 
Cuffey T., S. C. (271.) 
Culbreaths, S. C. 271.) 
Cumberland, Md. (154.) 



Cumberland, Va. (197.) 
Cumberland, R., K. (207.) 
Cumberland R., K. & T. 

(209.) 
Cumberland I., G. (318.) 
Cumberland Gap, Va. (211.) 
Cumberland and Oxford 

Canal, see Maine, (63.) 
Cunningham Id. O. (100.) 
Currituck Inlet, N. C. (219.) 
Curwinville, P. (104.) 
Cuthbert, G. (302.) 



D. 



Duguidsville, Va. (195.) 
Dalesville, Ala. (30.1.) 
Dallas, T. (229.) 
Damascus, O. (98.) 
Damascus, P. (107.) 
Dan Navigation, see Virginia, 

(215.) 
Danbury, C. (109.) 
Danbury, N. C. (215.) 
Danby, Vt. (61.) 
Dandridge, T. (231.) 
Danielsville, G. (251.) 
Danville, P. (132.) 
Dansville, N. Y. (79.) 



Danville, Vt. (37.) 
Danville, II. (121.) 
Danville, K. (190.) 
Danville, Va. (215.) 
Darlington, S. C. (255.) 
Darlington, C. H., S. C. (256.) 
Darien, G. (305.) 
Davidsonville, Ark. (204.) 
Davis, Va. (217.) 
Dayton, O. (148.) 
Decatur, II. (144.) 
Decatur, G (269.) 
Dedham, Mass. (85.) 
Defiance, O. (98.) 



Delaware, state of, (157,) is divided into three counties. 
Population, 76,739, including 3,305 slaves. Area, 2,200 square 
miles. Capital, Dover. Metropolis, Wilmington ; Lat. 39° 
44' N. Long. 1° 23' E. General election, first Tuesday in 
October. Legislature meet, first Tuesday in January, bien- 
nially. Constitution formed, 1792. 

Government. — Governor, term of office four years ; elected 
by the people; salary, $1,333, not eligible a second time. 
Legislature consists of a Senate, nine members. House of 
Representatives composed of twenty-one members. 

Judiciary. — Comprehends a court of errors and appeal; 
a superior court ; a court of chancery ; an orphans' court ; a 
court of oyer and terminer ; and some other minor courts. 

Physical Structure. — The two southern counties in this 
state are level. In the northern part of New Castle county 



34 



DEL 



DETROIT. 



hills of considerable elevation occur. One of the most remark- 
able features in the natural geography of the state, is the noted 
swamp, situated on the summit of the main ridge, from which 
the water flows into both the Chesapeake Bay on the West and 
Delaware on the East. 

Rivers. — Delaware, Indian, Mispillion Duck, Brandywine, 
and Christiana creeks, branches of the Delaware, Nantikoke 
river which flows into Chesapeake Bay. 

Islands. — Pea Patch, Reedy and Bombay-Hook Islands. 

Productions. — Wheat, rye, Indian corn, barley, oats, buck- 
wheat, &c. 

Toions. — Wilmington, New Castle, Dover, Delaware City, 
Milfoid, Georgetown, Lewistown, &c. 

Internal Improvements. — Chesapeake and Delaware Canal 
from Delaware to Bohemia; length 13 63-100 miles. New 
Castle and Frenchtown Rail Road extends from New Castle 
to Frenchtown ; length 16 I9rl00 miles. A rail-road to ex- 
tend from Wilmington to Downingtown in Pennsylvania, and 
one from Wilmington through the centre of the state to its 
southern border, are proposed. 

Delaware, O. (125.) Delhi, N. Y. (82.) 

Delaware R., P. (134) Delphi, Ind. (122!) 

Pelaware Bay, N. J. (157.) Demopolis, Ala. (283.) 

Delaware, Va ; (198.) Demints, II. ( 1 65.) 

Delaware and Raritan Canal, Denton, Md- (1?8.) 

see N. Jersey, (134.) Denny ville, Me. (42.) 

Delaware and Raritun Feeder, Dennis Cr. N. J. (158.) 

see N. Jersey, (134.) Deposit, N. J. (81.) 

Delaware, Ark. T. (260.) Deerfield, O. (101.) 

Detroit, Mich. (74.) This is the present capital of the state 
of Michigan. Its population is now (1839,) about 10,000. 
Founded by the French in 1670. The public buildings are, a 
legislative hall, market and court houses, churches, stale peni- 
tentiary, theatre, museum, &c. 

ROUTES FROM DETROIT. 



To Cincinnati, 


by Stage. 


Hardin, 


31 136 


R. Rouge, 


6 


Bellefontaine, 


22 158 


Brownstown, 


10 16 


West Liberty, 


8 166 


Monroe, 


19 35 


Urban a, 


11 177 


Perrysburg, 


30 65 


Springfield, 


14 191 


Finley, 


40 105 


Yellow Springs, 


9 200 



ROUTES FROM DETROIT. 



35 



Xenia, 

Waynesville^ 

Lebanon, 

Reading-, 

Cincinnati, 



9 209 
15 224 

9 233 
21 254 
10 264 



To Buffalo, by Steam Boat. 



Sandwich, 

Fighting Island, 

Grosse I. 

Amherstburg, 

Middle Sister, 

Bass I. 

Sanduskyj 

Cleveland, 

Fairport, 

Erie, Pa. 

Westfield, 

Dunkirk, 

Cattaraugus, 

Buffalo, 



5 

7 

4 

20 

17 

19 



15 

19 
39 

56 

75 



60 135 
30 165 
74 239 
30 269 
15 284 
13 297 
28 325 



To Chicago, by Stage. 
R. Rouge, 
Ypsilanti, 
Jackson, 
Jonesville, 
Factory, 
Post O. St. Joseph's 

River, 
Edvvardsville, 
Calamic River, 
Chicago, 



10 
18 28 
11 39 

47 86 
16 102 

50 152 
20 172 

81 253 
14 267 



To Chicago, via Montcalm. 
Schwartzburg, 20 

Dexter, 29 49 

Montcalm, 25 74 

Kalmazoo, 63 137 



Mouth of St. Joseph, 47 184 
Chicago by Steam B. 64 248 



To Chicago, by 
Boat. 
Grants Pt. 
Horsons I. 
Cottrellvillej 
Palmer, 
Bunceville, 
Fort Gratiot, 
White Rock, 
Pt. au Barques, 
Thunder Island, 
Middle I. 
Presque I. 
Mackinaw^ 
Beaver I. 
Manitou I. 
Chicago* 



Steam 



18 



12 
6 

7 



12 
30 
38 
50 
56 
63 



42 105 
35 140 
30 170 
25 195 
60 255 
55 310 
45 355 
35 390 
250 640 



To Ft. Howard, Green Bay, 
by Steam Boat. 
Beaver I. as above, 355 

I. Brule, 30 385 

G. Traverse, 10 395 

Chambers I. 25 420 

Green I. 15 435 

Fort Howard, 40 475 



To Saginaw, by Stage. 
Pontiac, 24 

Indian Vil. 35 59 

Saginaw, 34 93 



To Fort Gratiot, by Stage. 
Mt, Clemens, 20 

Palmer, 26 46 

Bunceville, 6 52 

Ft. Gratiot, 7 59 



Dickinsonville, Va. (212.) 
Dismal Swamp Canal. See 
Va. (218.) 



Dittos, Ala. (248.) 
Dixmont, Me. (40.) 
Dixon's F., II. (93.) 



36 



DOA 



EASTON. 



Doaks, Miss. (280.) 
Dobson,N. C. (214.) 
Doby Inlet, G. (305.) 
Doctortown, G. (305,) 
Dagsboro, D. (178.) 
Donaldsonville, Lou. (308.) 
Dorchester, S. C. (290.) 
Dorchester, L. C. (15.) 
Dover, N. H. (63.) 
Dover, capital of the state of 

Delaware, (157.) 
Dover, Va. (197.) 
Dover, T. (207.) 
Downing T., Pa. (133.) 
Doylestown, Pa. (133.) 
Drehr's Canal See S.C. (253.) 



Drummondton, Va. (199.) 
Dresden T. (206,) 
Duanesburg, N. Y. (82.) 
Dublin, G. (288,) 
Duerville, N. Y. (36.) 
Duktsburg, P. (133.) 
Dumfries, Va. (176.) 
Dumfries, Ala. (298.) 
DundaiF, P. (107.) 
Dunkirk, Va. (197.) 
Dunlapsville, Ind. (148.) 
Dunn, Ala. (266.) 
Duplin, C. H.,N.C. (257.) 
D wight, Ark. T. (221.) 
Dyersburg, T. (225.) 



E. 

Eastport, Me. (42.) Earleysburg, Pa. (13 1 .) 

East Andover, Me. (39.) 

Easton, Pa. (133,) a flourishing town, and seat of justice of 
Northampton county, situated at the junction of the Lehigh 
with the Delaware, 56 miles N. of Philadelphia. It contains 
a court house, jail, academy and two banks, five churches, 
Lefayette college, academy, bridges over the Delaware and 
Lehigh, library, &c, with a population of about 4000. 

ROUTES FROM EASTON. 



To Mauch Chunk, by Canal. 
Bethlehem, 
Allentown, 
Berlin, 
Lehighton, 
Mauch Chunk, 



5 
11 
14 

4 



12 
17 

28 
42 
46 



To Bristol, by Penn. Canal. 

Raubsville, 5 

Monroe, 6 11 

Erwentown, 9 20 

Lumberville, 9 29 

New Hope, 6 35 

Taylorsville, 8 43 

Yardleyville, 3 46 



Morrisville, 
Tullytown, 
Bristol, 



4 50 

5 55 
5 60 



To Jersey City, by Morris 
Canal. 
Hacket's, N. J. 
Dover, 
Boon ton, 
Paterson, 
Newark, 
Jersey City, 



26 
20 46 
10 56 
16 72 
14 86 
14 100 



To Reading, by Stage. 
Bethlehem, 10 



EAS 



EXE 



37 



Allentown, 
Trexlersville, 
Kutztown, 
Reading - , 



6 16 

8 24 

9 33 
17 50 



To Wilkesbarre, by Stage. 
Wind Gap, 13 

Stoddartsville, 27 40 

Wilkesbarre, 18 58 



To New York, by Stage. 
Schooley's Mt. Springs, 26 
Morristown, 21 47 

Newark, 19 66 



New York, 



10 76 



Easton, Md. (178.) 
East Fork, Irid. (167.) 
Eaton, O. (148.) 
Eatonton, G. (270.) 
Ebenezer, G. (280.) 
Ebensburg, P. (130.) 
Edenton, N. C. (218.) 
Edgar Town, Mass. (112.) 
Edgefield, S. C. (272.) 
Edington, Me. (41.) 
Edinburg, G. (252.) 
Edisto R., S. C. (273.) 
Edwardsburg, Mich. T. (96.) 
Edwardsville, II. (164.) 
Eddy ville, K. (187.) 
Egnice, N. C. (215.) 
Elba,N. Y. (36.) 
Elberton, G. (252.) 
Elizabeth L, Mass. (112.) 
Elizabethtown, N.J. (134.) 
Elizabethtown, K. (189.) 
Elizabeth, Mo. (162.) 
Elizabeth, N. C. (256.) 
Elizabeth City, N. C. (218.) 
Elkton, T. (227.) 
Elkton, Md. (157.) 
Elkton, K. (207.) 
Elkhart Grove, II. (143.) 



To Philadelphia, by Stage. 
Ottsville, 17 

Doylestown, 15 32 

Willow Grove, 11 43 

Philadelphia, 13 56 



To Trenton, N. J., by Stage. 
Bloomsbury, N. J. 8 

Flemmington, 19 27 

Pennington, 16 43 

Trenton, 8 51 



Ellicott, Md. (156.) 
Ellicottsville, N. Y. (78.) 
Ellis, N.C. (256.) 
Ellisville, Miss. (297.) 
Edisto I., S. C. (290.) 
Elms, S. C. (290.) 
Elmore, Vt. (37.) 
Elyria, O. (100.) 
Elysian Fields, Miss. (295.) 
Elyton, Ala. (267.) 
Emporium, Pa. (104.) 
Enfield Canal, see Ct. (110.) 
Englishman's Bay, Me. (42.) 
Epels, S. C. (254.) 
Erie Canal, in N. Y. (56.) 
Erie, Ala. (283.) 
Ernesttown,U.C.(33.) 
Erie, Pa. (76.) 
Errol, N. H. (38.) 
Essex, N. Y. (36.) 
Estelsviile, Va. (212.) 
Etowah, G. (250.) 
Etowah R., G. (250.) 
Euphrata, Pa. (132) 
Eutaw Springs, S. C. (273.) 
Evansville, Ind. (166.) 
Evansham, Va. (21-3.) 
Exeter, N. H. (86.) 



38 FLORIDA. 

F. 

Fairfield, C. (109.) Farmville, Va. (196.) 

Fairfield, 11. (165.) Fayetteville, N. C. (236.) 

Fairfield, Va. (195.) Fayetteville, T. (228.) 

Fairfax, Va. (1 75.) Fayetteville, Ala. (266.) 

Fairfax, Va. ( 1 76.) Fayetteville, G. (269.) 

Fairhaven, O. ( 1 00.) Finley, O. (99.) 

Fairview,0.(127.) Fmcastle, Va. (195.) 

Falmouth, K. (169.) Fish house, N. Y. (59.) 

Falmouth, Mass. (1 12.) Fishkill, N. Y. (109.) 

Fannetsburg, Pa. (131.) Fisher's I., C. (110.) 

Farmington, Ct. (1 10.) Flat Rock, Pa. (153.) 
Farmington Canal., See Ct. Flemington, N. J. (134.) 

(108.) Flemingsburg, K. ( 1 70.) 

Farmington, Mo. (1 84.) Flint River, G. (302.) 
Farringtcn, II. (118.) 

Florida, (313.) The territory of Florida is divided into 20 
counties, and has a population of about 44,000. Area 55,680 
square miles. 

Government — The governor is appointed by the president, 
by and with the advice and consent of the seriate : — salary, 
$2,500 per annum. Secretary, — salary, $1,500. 

The legislative council consists of twenty-seven members, 
elected annually by the people, on the second Monday in Octo- 
ber, and meets annually (at Tallahassee,) on the first Monday 
in October. 

Judiciary. — There are five judges, appointed by the Presi- 
dent and Senate — one for each of the five districts into which 
the territory is divided. The salary of the judges is $1800 
per annum, each, except the judge of the Southern District, 
who receives $2,300 a year. 

Physical Structure.— The entire Territory of Florida, with 
the exception of a small portion west of the Appalachicola, is 
remarkable for its level and unbroken surface. No elevation 
deserving the name of mountain, nor any hill exceeding 300 
feet in height, is to be found. In the vicinity of Toloso, a 
limestone ridge occurs, merely sufficient to give motion to the 
waters. Natural bridges, common to limestone regions, abound 
in this section of the territory. Proceeding southward, the 
ridge just mentioned becomes more depressed, until it reaches 
the source of the Oclawaha, where it disappears entirely, though 
si:nilar geological features may be traced several miles further 
8-Uth. All below the 28° of N. lat. consists of flat lands, sub- 



FLO 



FRA. 



39 



ject to occasional, and a large portion of it, to constant sub- 
mersion. 

Rivers. — St. Johns, Escambia, Yellow Water, Choctawhat- 
chie, Appalachicola, Oclackonnee, Suwannee, St. Mary's, With- 
lacooche, &c. 

Bays. — Perdido, Pensacola, Choctawhatchie, St. Andrews, 
Appalachee, St. Josephs, Charlotte, Gallivans, and Chatham on, 
the Gulf. 

No bays of any importance exist on the Atlantic side of the 
territory ; Mosquito Lagoon, Indian river, &,c, resemble 
bays, but like the St. Johns, they are merely expanded rivers, 
and cannot with propriety be called bays. 

Productions.— Cotton, rice, sugar, tobacco, indigo, Indian 
corn, &c, together with a great variety of garden vegetables. 

Towns. — Tallahassee, the capital ; Pensacola, St. Augustine, 
Alaqua, Webbville, Appalachicola, Quincy, Monlicello, Jack- 
sonville, &c. 



Florida, F. (312.) 
Florida, Ala. (298.) 
Florence, Ala. (247.) 
Fords, Miss. (297.) 
Forsyth, G. (270.) 
Forlin, Lou. (309.) 
Fort Gratiot, Mich. (51.) 
Fort St. Mary, O. (124.) 
Fort Amanda, O. (124.) 
Fort Recovery, O. (124.) 
Fort Portage, O. (99.) 
Fort Ann, N. Y. (60.) 
Fort Dearborn, II. (95.) 
Fort Edwards, II. (117.) 
Fort Erie, U. C. (77.) 
Fort Brown, O. (98.) 
Fort Necessity, O. (125.) 
Fort Deposit, Ala. (248.) 
Fort Early, G. (286.) 
Fort Armstrong, Ala. (249.) 
Fort Strother, Ala. (267.) 
Fort Chinnabie, Ala. (267.) 
Fort Talladega, Ala. (267.) 
Fort Williams, Ala. (267.) 
Fort Jackson, Ala. (284.) 
Fort Mitchell, Ala. (285.) 



Fort Bainbridge, Ala. (285.) 
Fort Lawrence, G. (286.) 
Fort Minims, Ala. (299.) 
Fort Crawford, Ala. (299.) 
Fort Dale, Ala. (300.) 
Fort James, G. (304.) 
Fort Gaines, G. (301.) 
Fort Scott, G. (315.) 
Fort Barrington, G. (305.) 
Fort Boy er, Ala. (311.) 
Fort St Philip, Lou. (324.) 
Fowl, T. (314.) 
Francestown, N. H. (85.) 
Franconia, N. H. (38.) 
Franklin, Pa. (103.) 
Franklin, Va. (174.) 
Franklin, Ind. (147.) 
Franklin, K. (208.) 
Franklin, T. (228.) 
Franklin, N. C. (231.) 
Franklin, G. (269.) 
Franklin, Miss. (295.) 
Franklin, Lou. (322.) 
Frank! intown, Lou. (309.) 
Franklinville, G. (316.) 
Frankfort, II. (186.) 



40 



FRA 



GALENA. 



Frankfort, Ind. (122.) 
Frankfort, Va. (194.) 
Frankfort, capital of Ken- 
tucky, (169.) 
Franktown, Va. (199.) 
Fraser, N. G, (2i7.) 
Fredericksburg, Ind. (167.) 
Fredericksburg, Va. (176.) 
Fredericktown, Md. (155.) 
Fredericktown, Mo. (184.) 
Fredericktown, O. (126.) 



Fredonia, N. Y. (77.) 
Fredonia, O. (167.) 
Freehold, N.J. (134.) 
Freeport, Pa. (129.) 
Freeport, Me. (63.) 
Frenchmans B., Me. (41.) 
French T., Miss. (311.) 
Friendsville, Pa. (106.) 
Fulsoms, Miss. (265.) 
Fryburg, Me. (62.) 
Foxboro, Mass. (85.) 



G. 



Gainsville, G. (251.) 



Galvezton, L. (309.) 



Galena, 11.(66.) Seat of justice of Jo Davies county, and 
the centre of an extensive lead region, in Illinois. Population 
about 2,000. 

ROUTES FROM GALENA. 



To St. Louis, by Steam 
Boat. 

Mississippi River, 4 

Apple Creek, 14 18 

Rush Creek, 8 26 

Plum Creek, 10 36 

Maradozia, 10 46 

Fort Armstrong, 24 70 

Copper Creek, 26 96 

Fort Edwards, 100 196 

Hannibal, 41 237 

Louisiana, 25 262 

Illinois River, 72 333 

Missouri River, 17 351 

St. Louis, 20 371 



To Prairie du Chi en. 
N. boundary of II. 

Gallipolis, O. (171.) 
Gallatin, T. (208.) 
Gandysville, Va. (153.) 
Gap, N. H, (38.) 
Garland, Me. (40.) 



17 



L. Platte, Cr. 
Grant, Cr. 

Cassville, 
Prairie du Chien, 



7 24 

6 30 

14 44 

24 68 



To Fort Winnebago, by land. 
Gratiot's Grove, 15 

Dodgeville, 30 45 

Moundville, 14 59 

Fort Winnebago, 54 113 

To Chicago, by land, 169 

To Vandalia, by land. 
Rock River, 65 

Peoria, 76 141 

Springfield, 65 206 

Vandalia, 55 261 



Gasconade, Mo. (162.) 
Gasconade R., Mo. (182.) 
Gasaways, II. (186.) 
Gates C. H., N. C. (218.) 
Gatewoods, 11. (166.) 



GEORGIA. 41 

Genereau, Mich. (49.) Georgetown, O. (170.) 

Geneseo, N. Y. *(79.) Georgetown, D. (178.) 

Geneva, N. Y. (80.) Georgetown, S. C. (274.) 

Georgetown, P. (132.) Georgetown, G. (271.) 

Georgetown, Pa. (128.) Georgetown, K. (169.) 
Georgetown, D. C. (176.) 

Georgia, (270.) The state of Georgia is divided into ninety- 
nine counties. Population, 516,567, including 217,470 slaves. 
Area, 61,500 square miles. Capital Milledgeville. Metropolis, 
Savannah, Lat. 32° 03' N., Lon. 4° 03' W. General election, 
first Monday in October. Legislature meet first Monday in 
November. Constitution formed, 1798. 

Government. — -The Governor is elected by the people, for 
two years ; salary $4,000. The legislative power is vested in 
a Senate and House of Representatives, styled the General 
Assembly. The members of both houses are chosen annually, 
on the first Monday in October, and meet on the first Monday 
in November. One senator is elected for each county, and 
the number of representatives is in proportion to population, 
including three-fifths of all the people of colour ; but each 
county is entitled to at least one but not more than four. 

Judiciary. — Superior Court, the judges of which are elected 
by the legislature, for three years, and receive annually $2,100 
each. The justices of the inferior courts, and justices of the 
peace, are elected quadrennially by the people. 

Physical Structure. — Nearly two-thirds of the state, on the 
south-east, presents a level aspect, nearly destitute of moun- 
tains. North-west of the great road leading from Augusta to 
Columbia, the country becomes mountainous, increasing in 
elevation as we proceed westward, until it attains a mean 
altitude of about 1200 feet. This inclined plane, which con- 
tains the gold region, is suddenly terminated by the Blue 
Ridge, which separates the waters of the Tennessee from those 
of the Coosa, &.c. 

Rivers. — Coosa, Chattahooche, Flint, Suwanee, Santilla, 
Alatamaha, Ocmulgee, Oconee, Ogechee and Savannah. 

Productions. — Cotton, rice, timber, tobacco, Indian corn, and 
fruits in great variety and abundance. Gold and some other 
minerals. 

Internal Improvements, consist of a Rail Road partly fin- 
ished, and in use from Savannah to Macon, length about 
200 miles. One from Macon to Forsyth, now in progress, 
length 25 ; an extension of this road of 60 miles, to meet the 

4* 



42 



GER 



GRE 



Western and Atlantic rail-road is contemplated. One from 
Decatur, in De Kalb county, to Chatanooga on the Tennessee, 
now progressing, length 120 miles. One from Augusta to 
Athens, Madison and Greensboro, respectively; 84 miles of 
this road, from Augusta to Greensboro, are now in use, and in 
a short time 20 miles more to Madison will be completed. 
This road will be extended from Greensboro, and united to the 
Western and Atlantic rail-road at Decatur. 

A rail-road; from Macon to Columbus, and thence to West 
Point, on the Chattahooche ; one from the head of steam-boat 
navigation of the Ocmulgee, to that of Flint river ; and one 
from Brunswick on the Atlantic coast, to a point in Florida 
not yet determined, are proposed. 

The canals are the Savannah and Ogechee canal, which 
commences at Savannah, and intersects the great Ogechee a 
short distance above the mouth of the Cannouchee. An 
extension of this work of 60 miles is proposed to the Alata- 
maha ; and one from Brunswick to the Alatamaha, length 12 
miles. 

Towns. — Savannah, Milledgeville, Augusta, Darien, Macon, 
Columbus, Washington, Louisville, St. Marys, Greensboro, 
Sparta, &c. 



Germantown, Pa. (133.) 
German town Va. (195.) 
Germantown, N. C. (238.) 
Germantown, N. C. (214.) 
Gettysburg, Pa. (155.) 
Gibraltar Pt., U. C. (54.) 
Gibsonport, Miss. (295.) 
Gilboa, N. Y. (82.) 
Gilead, II. (142.) 
Gilford, N. H. (62.) 
Gilmantown, N. H. (62.) 
Gloucester, Mass. (86.) 
Gloucester, Va. (198.) 
Glasgow, K. (189. 
Golconda, II. (186.) 
Goldboro, Me. (41.) 
Gold Region, G. (250.) 
Good, N. C. (233.) 
Gorham, Me. (63.) 
Goshen, N. Y. (108.) 
Governeur, N. Y. (34.) 



Grand Lake, Me. (21.) 
Grand Id., U. C. (33.) 
Grand R., Mich. (71.) 
Granger, O. (101.) 
Granville, Mass. (84.) 
Gratz, Pa. (132.) 
Gr. Egg Harbour, N. J. (158.) 
Gr. Menan Id., N. B. (42.) 
Gr. Ogechee R., G. (285.) 
Greensboro, Vt. (37.) 
Greensboro, G. (270.) 
Greensboro, Ala. (283.) 
Greensburg, Pa. (129.) 
Greensburg, Ind. (147.) 
Greensburg, K. (189.) 
Grecnupsburg, K. (171.) 
Greenville, II. (164.) 
Greenville, Miss. (295.) 
Greenville, S. C. (252.) 
Greenville, K. (187.) 
Greenville, O. (124.) 



GRE 



HAR 



43 



Greenville, Ind. (168.) 
Greenville, Mo. (184.) 
Greenville, T. (212.) 
Greenville, N. C. (237.) 
Greenville, Mis. (295.) 
Greenfield, Mass. (84.) 
Greenfield, Ind. (147.) 
Greenfield, O. (149.) 
Greensville, Va. (213.) 
Greensville, Ala. (300.) 



Green River, K. (187.) 
Greene C. H., Miss. (298.) 
Greene, N. Y. (81.) 
Greencastle, Ind. (146.) 
Greencastle, P. (155.) 
Greenock, Ark. (224.) 
Grinders, T. (227.) 
Grabb, Lou. (294.) 
Guildhall, Vt. (38.) 
Guyandot, Va. (171.) 



H. 



Haddam, Con. (110.) 
Haddensville, Va. (196.) 
Hadley (south) Canal. See 

Massachusetts (84.) 
Hagerstown, Md. (155.) 
Halifax, P. (132.) 
Halifax, N.C. (217.) 
Hallowell, Me. (40.) 
Halls, N. C. (235.) 
Hamburg, N. J. (108.) 
Hamburg, Pa. (133.) 
Hamburg, S. C. (272.) 
Hamilton, N. Y. (78.) 
Hamilton, O. (148.) 
Hamilton, Miss. (280.) 
Hamilton, Lou. (278.) 
Hampton, Va. (198.) 
Hampton, N. J. (158.) 
Hampton, Lou. (309.) 
Hanbyville, Ala. (267.) 
Hancocks T., Md. (154.) 
Hannas,N.C. (235.) 
Hanover, N.H. (61.) 
Hanover, Va. (197.) 
Hardin, O. (124.) 



Hardin, O. (125.) 
Hardinsburg, K. (188.) 
Hardinsville, (226.) 
Hardwich, Mass. (84.) 
Hartford, Md. (156.) 
Hargroves, Ala. (267.) 
Harlaem canal, see N. Y. (135.) 
Harlaem Rail Road, see New 

York, (135.) 
Harleesville, S. C. (255.) 
Harmony, Me. (40.) 
Harmony, Pa. (128.) 
Harmony, Ind. (166.) 
Harperfield, N. Y. (82.) 
Harpersfield, O. (101.) 
Harper's Ferry, Va. (155.) 
Harpshead, K. (187.) 
Harrington, Me. (42.) 
Harrisburg, Pa. (132.) 
Harrisburg, T. (225.) 
Harrisonburg, Va. (175.) 
Harrisonburg, Lou. (294.) 
Harrisville, Va. (217.) 
Harrisonville, II, (163.) 
Harrodsburg, K. (190.) 



Hartford, Con. (110,) one of the capitals of Connecticut, and 
next to New Haven, the most populous town in the state ; popu- 
lation 9,789 ; its public buildings consist of the State House, 
Deaf and Dumb Asylum on Tower-hill, the Lunatic Asylum, 
College, and several splendid churches, 



•II 



HARTFORD. 

IUHJTHH L'KOM IIAKTFOIil). 



I a (VffU I lit rr n, hi/ .SYii.'w . 



INI «• w 1 1 1 • ■ 1 1 »i i. 

Win lliuivlim, 
IMci iilrn, 

Walllngfbrdj 

Noilli I limn, 

New MllVill, 



6 
L9 

is 

:ti 
86 



'/;. IViru iiiv<n,vi,, Middle 

town, hi/ IStin'c. 

Stepney, s 

IMi.l.llrluwii, 8 16 

I >n rl in 1 1 1 , 7 98 

Northftod, h 8J 

NOW llavrii, 10 II 



'/;» Boiton, by Stagtt 

I -1 1 1 1 !-• ton. 



Tollund, 
VV Llllngton, 
-\ ■ . 1 1 1 , > i « i , 
"homo ■•i»n, 

DlHI^'lllNH, 

IMcihIuii, 

!Mr,lu., N , 

Dover, 

Ivitiiiklvilf, 

Doilon, 



7 

12 
"it 
II 
L9 

!l 
I ' 
II 

I 



I I 
l!l 

B6 
88 
18 

c > 
■< i 
83 

95 

106 

110 



'lh 1'inndnicr, hi/ Stnr;r. 

A -III, M.I, U ;lU>\r, 

Pomfrot, ll ti> 

Kill. ,.,.>, (j |S 

Providence, 98 71 

'/;> \,tr l.i>n,ii>ti,h,/ St, ir.r. 

< llai itonbui \ , 7 
Marlboro, 1 1 is 

< »olohoit< i , 8 96 
NVw Salem, 



Cheiterfield, 
New Londoi)| 



8 :<!> 
7 48 



'l)> Spring/it Id, hi/ Wmir. 
Wni.l.oi, 7 

Warohouia Pfc. 7 14 

Enfield, i is 

Springfield, io 128 



'/'a Wmri sin , hi/ $ltt!> r, 

Tolland, 

8tuttbrd Spr. H 

Stafford Oh, 12 

Slurbrldgo, 123 

Charlton, 10 

Worooiter, io 

7b S,ilishui i/, hi/ Stnyr. 



I!) 
97 

99 
59 
69 

712 



Northington, 
i lanton, 
V\ Inited, 
Norfolk, 
iM. ( ianaan, 
Salisbury, 



19 

10 



!) 
II 

96 
86 

ll 

is 



To I itrhjicld, hi/ Stag*, 
Firmington, 10 

Burlington, 9 19 

ii.hu 'in ton, 7 96 

Litohfleld, 8 84 



7(» Ihinhury, hy Sluor. 

Farmington, 

Drlatol, 7 

Plymouth, (» 

Watortown, 7 

Woodbury, < 

i\c\\ (own, l. r > 

Danbury, u 



10 
17 
123 

so 

37 

59 



ii a it ILL 45 

Hartfbrd, K. (1880 Hogton, N. O,(fl370 

Hartford, N. C, (218.) Hollldayiburg, Pa. (180.) 

Hartibrd, G. (287 I Hoimee, P, (814,) 

Harteville, T. (80s I Holmeeville, Mi« (908.) 

Harwiek, Man, (J 120 Holmeiville, <; (804.) 

Hauppage, N. v. (185.) Holeton, R,, V;.. (918.) 

Havana, a i.i. (246») Hooktet Oanal t aee N. Hanip 

Haverhill, N. n. (37.) ihiro, (82 I 

Havre Dc Grace, Md. (158.) Hoof Inn, N. O. (288.) 

Hay*boro,T. (208.) Hope, N.J, (184 ) 

Hyatt*, \,. ('. (17.) Uopetown, N. Y. (80.) 

Haali patch, i\. (191.) Hopkinton, N. V. (85 ) 

Helena, Ark, (244.) Hopkinton, N. n. ((J2 ) 

Hempatoad, N. y. (135.) Hopkinaville, K, (207.) 

Henderaon, I!. (118 ) Horn T., Va, (190.) 

Henderaon, IC (187 | Horne, N. O, (250.) 

H< ndt raon, N, O, (234.) Horry, G, (286 ) 

Hennepin, II. (93.) Hot Springe, Ark, (241.) 

Hi nry C. H., G (200 ) Howarda, I.C, (855.) 

Herculaneum, Mo, (103.) Hudeon, N. v. (63 ) 

Hcroford Inlet, n. .f. (158.) Hudton nnti. Delaware Canals 

Hi rkimer, n. v. (50.) ice New Kork, (1080 

Hick*, ' ; (240 ) Hughaville, v.,. (914 ) 

Hickitown, F, f :tl fl.; Hulineburg, Pa, (103.) 

Hiekeford, v... (217.) Hunwe,'S, O, (974.) 

Hickory Hill, B.C. (280.) Hunteri rille, v*. (1780 

Hii koi / T., Pa. (108.) Huntingdon, Pa, (130.) 

High Pt, U. C, (74.) Huntingdon, T. (900.) 

Hill, N. 0.(217.) Hunt*, N. ^.(70.) 

if. ii. Wcat, N.C.(80.) Huntaville, N.C, (914.) 

Hillaboro, Fnd. 'M.'i.j Huntaville, Ala. (948.) 

EJillttboro, O. rl4fJ.) Ilunlimilh: tJamd, mcu Alu 

Hillaboro, N. C. (215.) bam«« (948 ) 

Hillaboro, N. n. (102 , Huntaville, s. C, (958.) 

Hilton Head, 8, 0. (900.) Huaton, N. <:. (254.) 

Hindoetan, Ind, (107.) Huttonerille, v... (178.) 

[. 

iiiir,.,i -., itate '-f, (180,) Ii divided Into 82ootttitfe#i The 
population in 1830, waa 157,445, but ha* greatly ineffaeed 

aince, Area, 57,000 aquarc mile*. Capital and metropoHf, 

Vandalia, lai, 88° 5& N,,lcn, 11° W w. Springfield in 

Sangamon county, i* to be the teat of government in 1840, 

General election, finf. Monday in AhmmhI,, Inumnjlly. Ii«:j/i» 



46 ILLINOIS. 

lature meets first Monday in December every second year. 
Date of constitution, 1818.. 

Government. — Governor is elected for four years, salary 
$1000. The lieutenant-governor is president of the senate. 
The " General Assembly" consists of a senate and house of 
representatives. The members of the former are elected for 
four years, and those of the latter biennially ; pay of each, 
three dollars a day ; meet every other year on the first Monday 
in December. General election, first Monday in August, 
biennially. 

Judiciary. — The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice 
and three associate judges; salary of each $1000. They hold 
circuit courts also. There is another judge for the circuit 
north of Illinois river. The court of county commissioners, 
is composed of three persons, who are elected every two years. 
Justices of the peace are elected by the people, and hold office 
four years. There is a judge of probate in each county. Im- 
prisonment for debt, except in certain cases, is not allowed. 
Slavery is prohibited by the constitution. 

Physical Structure. — -The whole state is remarkably level, 
having no mountains, nor indeed any hills of great elevation. 
In the northern part of the state, a partial change in the sur- 
face is perceptible ; the country is somewhat broken and undu- 
lating, but its level character is maintained throughout the 
whole. The "American Bottom" so called, celebrated for its 
fertility, extends along the left bank of the Mississippi, from 
the mouth of the Missouri to Kaskaskia, nearly ninety miles. 
Prairies and barrens abound to a great extent in this state; 
probably one half of its surface consists of these natural 
meadows. 

Rivers. — Mississippi, Rock, Illinois, Sangamo, Kaskaskia, 
Ohio and Wabash. 

Productions. — Indian corn, wheat, tobacco, cotton, lead, &c. 

Internal Improvements. — These with partial exceptions are 
merely prospective. An extensive system of improvements 
has been adopted by the state legislature, and several of the 
proposed works are in active progress, though but little, com- 
paratively, is yet in actual use. The following rail-roads are 
among the state works : — a rail-road from Cairo, at the conflu- 
ence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, to the western terminus 
of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, passing through the towns 
of Vandalia, Shelby ville, Decatur, and Bloomington, and thence 
to Galena, Length about 435 miles. One from Alton to 
Mount Carmel, via Edwardsville, Carlisle, Salem and Albion; 



INDIANA. 47 

length 145 miles. One from Edwardsville to Shawn eetown, 
via. Lebanon, Nashville, Frankfort, and Equality ; length 140 
miles. One from Quincy, via. Columbus, M. Sterling, Marad- 
sia, Jacksonville, Springfield, Sydney, and Danville, to the state 
line ; length 225 miles. One from the Central R. R. to the state 
line in the direction of Terre Haute; length about 75 miles. 
One from Peoria, via. Canton, Macomb, Carthage, to Warsaw 
on the Missisippi; length 105 miles. One from Alton to the 
Central R. R. ; length about 75 miles. One from Belville, via. 
Lebanon, to intersect the Alton and Mt. Carmel R. R. ; length 
22 miles. One from Bloomington to Mackinaw, with a branch 
to the Peoria and Warsaw R. R., and a branch to Pekin. 

The following rail-roads, undertaken by joint stock compa- 
nies, will probably be merged in and form parts of the state 
works : — From a point opposite to St. Louis to the coal mines 
at the Bluffs, 6 miles. From Jacksonville to Augusta, 22 
miles. From Chicago to Dcs Plaines, 12 miles. From 
Naples to Jackson, 22 miles. 

The Illinois and Michigan Canal, from Chicago to Peru, via 
Juliet, Dresden, and Ottowa; length 100 miles. 

Towns. — Vandalia, Edwardsville, Belleville, Carrollton, Al- 
bion, Kaskaskia, Shawneetown, Springfield, Beardstown, 
Ottowa, Galena, and many others. 

Illinois R., II. (94.) Illinois R., Ark. (200.) 

Illinois Canxl. See II. (94.) Indiana, Pa. (129.) 

Indiana, state of, (166,) is divided into eighty-eight counties, 
and had, in 1830, a population of 343,031. Area, 36,500 
square miles. Capital, Indianapolis; metropolis, New Albany. 
Lat. 38° 19' N., long. 8° 44' W. Date of Constitution, 1816, 
General election, 1st Monday in August. Legislature meet, 
1st Monday in December. 

Government. — The Governor is elected for three years ; 
salary $1,500 per annum. Lieutenant-governor is president of 
the senate, and receives three dullars per day during the ses- 
sion of the legislature. 

The legislature is called the General Assembly of Indiana, 
and is composed of a senate, the members of which are elected 
for three years, and a house of representatives, whose members 
are elected annually. The number of the former is at present 
30, and the latter 75. Pay of members of both houses is three 
dollars a day each. 

Judiciary.— The judicial power is vested in a supreme 
court, circuit courts, and such other inferior courts as the 



48 INDIANA. 

general assembly may establish. The supreme court consists 
of three judges, and each of the circuit courts consists of a 
president and two associates. All the judges hold their office 
for seven years, if not removed for improper conduct. 

The judges of the supreme court receive $1500 each per 
annum, and are appointed by the governor, with the consent 
of the senate. The presiding judges of the circuit courts are 
appointed by the legislature, and the associates are elected by 
the people. There are nine presiding judges of circuit courts, 
who receive each a salary of $1000. 

Physical Structure, — The country along the Ohio, from the 
Wabash to the Miami, and 20 or 25 miles back, presents a 
broken and hilly appearance ; it is not, however, hilly in the 
strict sense of the term. The ridges, commonly so called, are 
mere buttresses which support the elevated plateaus in the 
rear. These gorges have evidently been occasioned by the 
abrasions of the streams which have thus formed those dark 
ravines which abound in this part of the state. In the central 
portions, the land is less broken, and in the north no moun- 
tains or hills of any magnitude exist. 

Rivers.—^ Ohio, Wabash, White Water, Laugherry, Silver, 
Indian, the four last are merely creeks. 

Productions. — Corn, wheat, rye, buckwheat, oats, flour, &c, 
many sorts of vegetables grow in great abundance. 

Internal Improvements. — A wide range of improvements by 
canals and rail-roads has been commenced under the auspices 
of the legislature. Several of the most important works are 
now in course of construction. They embrace an aggregate 
of 840 miles of canals, and 90 miles of railroads. Included 
in this estimate, is the Wabasli and Erie Canal, 80 miles of 
which are now in use. 

The canals and rail-roads authorized by the state are as 
follows '.—^Wabash and Erie Canal, extending from the town 
of Lafayette on the Wabash, via Delphi, Logansport, Peru, 
Wabash, Huntingdon and Wayne, to the eastern boundary of 
the state, and is thence extended by the state of Ohio, to the 
outlet of the Maumee near the town of Toledo ; length from 
Lafayette to the Ohio boundary, 127 miles. 

Central Canal commences at a point on the Wabash and 
Erie Canal, between Wayne and Logansport, and passes along 
the valleys of Mississincwa and White Rivers, and through 
Indianapolis to Evansvilleon the Ohio; length 180 miles. 

White River Canal, from the intersection of White Water 
river with the National Road in Wayne county to Lawrence-- 



INDIANA. INDIANAPOLIS. 



49 



burg; length 76 miles. This canal is to be extended ultimately 
so as to unite with the Central Canal. 

Terre Haute and Eel River Canal, will unite the Wabash 
and Erie, and the Central Canals ; length 40 miles. 

Madison and Lafayette Rail Road. Length 160 miles, 
about 50 miles of this road, from Madison to Columbus, are 
now in use. 

New Albany and Crawfordsville Rail Road. Length 158 
miles. 

A communication by canal or rail-road is proposed to connect 
the head of Lake Michigan with the Wabash and Erie Canal, 
and thus complete the connection between that lake and Lake 
Erie. 

Towns. — Indianapolis, the capital ; Vincennes, Lawrence- 
burg, Aurora, Vev;iy, Madison, JefFersonville, New Albany, 
Fredonia, Troy, New Harmony, Richmond, Logansport, La- 
fayette, &c. &c. 

Indianapolis, (146.) 

ROUTES FROM INDIANAPOLIS. 



To New Albany i by Stage. 


Spencer, 


24 54 


Franklin, 


20 


Bloomfield, 


23 77 


Edinburg, 


10 30 


Vincennes, 


45 122 


Columbus, 


12 42 






Brownstown, 


25 67 


To Vandalia, 


11. by 


Vallona, 


3 70 


Stage. 




Salem, 


19 89 


Belville, 


20 


Greenville, 


24 113 


Grcencastle R. 


17 37 


N. Albany, 


9 122 


Terrehaute, 


33 70 


(Thence to Louisville, K. 


Embarrass R. . 


45 115 


3 miles.) 




Ewington,- 


25 140 


To Cincinnati, b 


v Stare. 


Vandalia, 


30 170 



Rushville, 40 

Somerset, 14 54 

Brookeville, 11 65 

Harrison, 17 82 

Miami, 8 90 

Cincinnati, 15 105 



To Vincennes, by Stage. 
Port Royal, 16 

Martinville* 14 30 



To Covington, by Stage. 
Crawfordsville, 50 

Covington, 29 79 

To Wayne, by Stage. 



Connerstown, 


17 


Noblesville, 


4 21 


Strawtown, 


7 28 


Wayne, 


83 111 



50 



IOWA TERRITORY. 



To Columbus, O. by Stage. 
Greenfield, 
Centreville, 
Richmond, 



Infield, N. C. (217.) 



tage. 

14 64 
6 70 


Lewisburg, 
York, 
Springfield, 
Columbus, 


17 87 
16 103 
26 129 
43 172 



Instantur, Pa. (104.) 



Iowa Territory, (117,) is divided into 20 counties. Popula- 
tion about 25,000, which is rapidly increasing. Area, 90,720 
square miles. Capital and metropolis Burlington. N. Lat. 
40° 52'. W. Long. 14° 4'. Organized as a Territory, July 4th 
1838. 

Government. — The governor is appointed by the President 
of the United States, by and with the consent of the senate ; he 
is also superintendent of Indian affairs. Term of office three 
years. Salary $2500 per annum. 

Judiciary. — The judges (three in number) like the governor, 
are appointed by the President and Senate, for four years, and 
perform circuit duties. 

Legislature. — The legislative power is vested in the gover- 
nor and assembly, which consists of a council of thirteen 
members, elected for two years, and a house of representatives 
of twenty-six members, elected annually. Pay of members $3 
a day during the sessions of the legislative assembly. 

Land Offices, are established at Burlington and Dubuque. 

Physical Structure. — The vast extent, north and south, of 
this Territory, which occupies nearly nine degrees of latitude, 
must impart to it a great diversity of climate and soil. The 
southern, and especially that portion of the territory which 
borders on the Mississippi, consists of an undulating and fertile 
country, mostly prairie, but, along the streams, well supplied 
with timber. To this part of Iowa emigrants and others at 
present chiefly direct their steps. The population is, however, 
extending rapidly towards the west and north. Beyond the 
region just mentioned, the country becomes more broken and 
undulating, with an abundance of lakes, ponds and stagnant 
pools. The only elevation of any importance, yet discovered, 
is the famous " Coteau de Prairie," an elevated table land, 
which divides the waters of the Missouri on the west, from 
those running into the St. Peters and Red rivers on the east. 
Iowa is supposed to be entirely destitute of mountains, pro- 
perly so called. 

Rivers. — Mississippi, Missouri, Des Moines, Iowa, Wabsipi- 
nicon, Moquockity, Turkey, Upper Iowa, St. Peters, branches 



IPS 



KENTUCKY. 



51 



of the Mississippi and James, Sioux, Nashnebatona and Nan- 
doway of the Missouri, and Red river, with its numerous 
branches, which discharges itself into Lake Winnipeg - . 

Productions.— Lead, coal (bituminous), iron, Indian corn, 
wheat, rye, oats, &c. &c. 



Ipswich, Me. (86.) 
Irvine, K. (191.) 
Ithaca and Owego Rail Road. 
See N.York. 



Ischua, N. Y. (78.) 

Isle of Wight, Va. (218.) 



Jackson, Mich. (73.) 
Jackson, O. (150.) 
Jackson, Mo. ( 1 85.) 
Jackson, T. {226.) 
Jackson, capital of Miss. 

(280.) 
Jackson, Ala. (298.) 
Jacksonville, II. (142.) 
Jacksonville, G. (303.) 
Jacksonville, F. (318.) 
Jacksonburg, O. (148.) 
Jackson boro, G. (289.) 
Jacksonboro, S. C. (290.) 
Jacksonboro, T. (210.) 
Jaffrey, N. H. (84.) 
Jamaica, N. Y. (135.) 
Jamestown, N. Y. (77.) 
James River Canals, see 

Virginia, (197.) 
James R., Va. (197.) 

Kalamazoo R., Mich. (71.) 
Kanawha Navigation, see 

Virginia, (172.) 
Kanawha R., Va. (172.) 
Kankakee R., Ind. (95.) 
Kaskaskia R., II. (144.) 
Kaskaskia, Ind. (95.) 
Kaskaskia, II. (185.) 
Keene, N. H. (84.) 



J. 



James and Jackson R. Canal, 

see Va. (196.) 
James I., S. C. (219.) 
Jamesville, S. C. (273.) 
Jasper, T. (229.) 
Jay, Me. (39.) 
Jefferson, O. (102.) 
Jefferson, P. (103.) 
Jefferson, Mo. capital of the 

state, (161.) 
Jefferson, Va. (176.) 
Jefferson, N. C. (213.) 
Jefferson, Miss. (246.) 
Jefferson, G. (251.) 
Jefferson, G. (318.) 
Jeffersonville, Ind. (168.) 
Jeffersonville, Va. (193.) 
Jericho, N. Y. (81.) 
Jonesboro, II. (185.) 



K. 



Kempsville, Va. (218.) 
Kelleyvale, Vt. (37.) 
Kenjua, P. (103.) 
Kennard, G. (302.) 
Kennebeck R., Me. (40.) 
Kennebeck R., Me. (64.) 
Kennebunk, Me. (63.) 
Kent I., Md. (177.) 
Kentucky R., K. (191.) ' 



Kentucky, state of, (206,) is divided into 84 counties. Po- 
pulation in 1830, 687,917, including 165,213 slaves. Area, 



52 KENTUCKY. 

40,500 square miles. Capital Frankfort, metropolis Louisville. 
Lat. 38° 18/ N. Long. 8° 46' W. General election first Mon- 
day in August. Legislature meet, first Monday in November. 
Constitution framed, 1799. 

Government. — Governor's term of office, four years. Salary 
$2500 per annum. Lieutenant-governor $6 per day, as presi- 
dent of the senate ; secretary of state, $1000 ; auditor, register, 
and treasurer, each $1,500. 

The legislature consists of a Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, styled the General Assembly of the Commonwealth 
of Kentucky. The members of the former are chosen for 4 
years ; those of the latter annually. The senate consists of 38 
members; and the house of representatives of 100. The 
members of both houses receive $3 per day during the session 
of the legislature. 

Judiciary. — The court of appeals consists of a chief justice 
and two other judges; salary of each $2000. Circuit courts; 
the state is divided into 16 judicial districts for holding circuit 
courts. There is a judge for each circuit, who has jurisdiction 
of law cases over $50, and of chancery cases over £5, and holds 
three terms a year in each county of his circuit. The salary 
of the judges of the circuit courts is $1500 per annum. County 
courts are also held by three or more justices of the peace. 
Their jurisdiction is over inferior suits. They hear appeals 
from the decisions of single justices. 

Physical Structure. — The south-eastern portion of this state 
borders upon the Allegheny ridge of mountains, some of the 
spurs and detached ridges of which descend for a considerable 
distance into it. That part of the state is consequently of a 
mountainous character, with lofty eminences and deep ravines 
and valleys between them, affording landscape views of uncom- 
mon boldness and beauty. Along the Ohio river, and extend- 
ing from 10 to 20 miles in different places from it, are the 
" Ohio Hills," parallel with that beautiful stream. These hills 
are often high, generally gracefully rounded and conical, with 
narrow vales and bottoms around their bases. They give to 
that portion of the state, through which they extend, a very 
rough appearance. They arc covered with lofty forests, and 
have often a good soil on their sides and summits. The allu- 
vial bottoms between them and the Ohio, and along the streams 
which fall into that river, are of the richest kind. 

Rivers. — Ohio, Big and Little Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, 
Salt, Green, Cumberland, Tennessee, <fec. 



KENTUCKY.— KNOXVILLE. 53 

Productions.— Indian corn, wheat, rye, buckwheat, oats, 
hemp, tobacco, &c. 

Internal Improvements. — These consist chiefly of river 
improvements by dams and navigable pools.- Green, Ken- 
tucky and Licking rivers will, in this way, be rendered navi- 
gable for steamboats. 

The railroads of the state are, one from Lexington to the 
Ohio at Portland, via Louisville, a large portion of which is in 
use ; length 27 miles. One from Henderson to Nashville, Tenn. 
One from Russelville to Clarksville ; and several others are 
proposed. 

The Louisville and Portland Canal designed to overcome the 
falls of the Ohio, has been in use for many years; length about 
one mile and a half. 

Towns. — Frankfort the capital; Lexington, Louisville, 
Marysville, Greensburg, Augusta, Newport, Covington, Port 
William, Owenboro, Henderson, Flemingsburg, Washington, 
Paris, Georgetown, Harrodsburg, Verseilles, Bardstown, Shelby- 
ville, Russelville, Bowling-green, Princeton, Glasgow, together 
with others, many of them equally important. 

Keys, N. J. (158.) Kingston, N. C. (237.) 

Kilbourns, Vt. (37.) Kingstree, S. C. (274.) 

Killingwortb, Con. (110.) Kings, N. C, (237.) 

Kilpatricks, II. (164.) Kings, S. C. (289.) 

Kinderhook, N. Y. (83.) K. George C. H., Va. (176.) 

Kingston, U. C. (33.) K. & Queens C. H., Va. (198.) 

Kingston, N. Y. (108.) Kingwood, Va. (153.) 

Kingston, R. I. (111.) Kinsman, O. (102.) 

Kingston, Md. (178.) Kittanning, Pa. (129.) 
Kingston, T. (230.) 

Knoxville, T. (231,) the most important town in East Ten- 
nessee. Population about 3,000. The public buildings consist 
of a college, several churches, county offices, &c. 

ROUTES FROM KNOXVILLE. 



To Nashville, by Stage. 

Loveville, 14 

Kingston, 23 37 

Crab Orchard, 20 57 

Sparta, 38 95 

Liberty, 32 127 

Lebanon, 26 153 



Nashville, 28 181 



5* 



To Abingdon, 
Rutledge, 
Bean's Station, 


Va. 


by Stage. 
32 
10 42 


Mooresburg, 
Rogersville, 




8 
13 


50 
63 



54 



KNO 



LANCASTER. 



Kingsport, 
JBlountsville, 
Abingdon, Va. 



26 89 
17 106 
24 130 



To Warm Springs, N. C. by 

Stage. 

Dandridge, 32 

Newport, 15 47 

Warm Springs, N. C. 28 75 

Knoxville, G. (286.) 



To Athens, by Stage. 
Maryville, 8 

Madisonville, 29 37 

Athens, 15 52 



To Clinton, 

— Jacksboro, 

— Montgomery, 

— Tazewell, 



18 
36 
54 

50 



Kutztown, Pa. (133.) 



L. 



Lacadie, L. C. (15.) 
Lafayette, Ind. (122.) 
La Grange, G. (269.) 
Lake Champlain, N. Y. (36.) 
Lake Ontario, N. Y. (55.) 
Lake Michigan, Mich. (69.) 
Lake St. Clair, Mich. (74.) 
Lake Erie, O. (100.) 
Lake Borgne, Lou. (310.) 
L. Ponchartrain, Lou. (309.) 
L. St. Francis, L. C. (14.) 
L. of the two Mts. L. C. (14.) 
L. George, N. Y. (60.) 
L. George, G. (330.) 
L. Memphramagog, L. C. (16.) 
L. Mermentou, Lou. (321.) 
L. Bernard, G. (286.) 
Lancaster, N. H. (38.) 
Louisville and Portland 
Canal, see Ken. (168.) 



La Fourche Canal, see Lou- 
isiana, (323.) 

Lake Veret Canal, see Lou- 
isiana, (323.) 

Lackawaxen Canal, see 
Pennsylvania, (108.) 

Lake Drummond Canal, see 
N. C. (218.) 

Lancaster Canal, see Ohio, 
(150.) 

Lehigh Navigation, see Penn- 
sylvania, (133.) 

Lackawaxen Rail Road, see 
Pennsylvania, (107.) 

Lykins Valley Rail Road, see 
Pennsylvania, (132.) 

Loricks Canal, see S. Caro- 
lina, (253.) 

Lockhart Canal, see South 
Carolina, (253.) 



Lancaster, Pa. (132.) The city of Lancaster, formerly the 
capital of Pennsylvania, is a large and thriving place, having 
a population of 7,683, and considerable trade. The great road 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and the Columbia Rail Road 
pass through it. Its public buildings are, a court-house, jail, 
Lancasterian school house, and several handsome churches. 
ROUTES FROM LANCASTER. 



To Philadelphia, by Stage. 
Soudersburg, 8 



Coatesville, 
Downingtown, 



17 25 
7 32 



ROUTES FROM LANCASTER. 



55 



Paoli, 
Philadelphia, 



12 44 
20 64 



To Philadelphia, by Rail 
Road. 

Soudersburg, 9 

Mine Ridge, 8 17 

Coatesville, 12 29 

Downingstown, 8 37 

Schuylkill river, 29 66 

Philadelphia, 3 69 

To Harrisburg, by 
Rail Road. 

Mountjoy, 12 

Elizabethtown, 7 19 

Middletown, 7 26 

Harrisburg, 9 35 



Lancaster, O. (150.) 
Lancaster, Va. (198.) 
Lancaster, S. C. (254.) 
Landisburg, Pa. (131.) 
Langford, Ala. (298.) 
La Prairie, L. C. (15.) 
Laltimore, Miss. (296.) 
Laughlin T., Pa, (129.) 
Lawrenceburg, Ind. (148.) 
Lawrenceboro, T. (227.) 
Lawrenceville, S. C. (253.) 
Lawrenceville, O. (99.) 
Lawrenceville, II. (166.) 
Lawrenceville, G. (251.) 
Lawrenceville, Va. (218.) 
Lawrenceburg, Pa. (103.) 
Laurel T., D. (178.) 
Lead Mines, II. (66.) 
Lead M., Mo. (163.) 
Leaf R., Miss. (297.) 
Lebanon, N. Y. (83.) 
Lebanon, P. (132.) 
Lebanon, O. (148.) 
Lebanon, II. (164.) 



13 
24 
39 
53 

78 

97 

128 



To Pittsburg. 
Columbia, by Rail R. 

York, do. 11 

Abbotstown, do. 15 

Gettysburg, do. 14 

Chambersburg, do. 25 

M'Connellstown, 19 

Bedford, 31 

Stoystown, 28 156 

Laughlintown, 16 172 

Youngstown, 13 185 

Greensburg, 10 195 

Stuartsville, 13 208 

Pittsburg, 19 227 

To Reading, by Stage. 

Ephrata, 13 

Adams, 9 22 

Reading, 9 31 



Lebanon, K. (189.) 
Lebanon, T. (208.) 
Lebanon, Va. (212.) 
Leesburg,V. (155.) 
Leeds, Va. (177.) 
Le Flors, Miss. (281.) 
Lehighton, Pa. (133.) 
Leicester, Va. (196.) 
Lenox, Mass. (83.) 
Leominster, Mass. (85.) 
Leonard T., Md. (177.) 
Le Raysville, N. Y. (34.) 
Leroy, N. Y. (78.) 
Lewistown, N. Y. (54.) 
Lewistown, D. (178.) 
Lewistown, II. (66.) 
Lewistown, II. (118) 
Lewistown, Pa. (131 .) 
Lewistown, Va. (216.) 
Lewis, Lou. (307.) 
Lewisburg, Va. (194.) 
Lexington, N. Y. (82.) 
Lexington, P. (102.) 



56 



LEXINGTON. 



Lexington, K. (169.) The county town of La fayette county, 
and formerly the capital of the state, is situated on the elevated 
ground between the Kentucky and Licking rivers, 77 miles 
E. S. E. from Louisville. Population about 7000. Its public 
buildings and objects of interest consist of eight churches, 
University (Transylvania,) court-house, and many Indian 
Cemeteries, remarkable for singular construction ; ancient 
fortifications, &c. 

ROUTES FROM LEXINGTON. 



To Louisville by Rail Road. 
To Elkhorn R., 
Franklin Co. line, 
Frankford, 
Shelby Co. line, 
Ballardsville road, 
Biownsboro, 
Middletown, 
Louisville, 



10 
7 
7 

28 

12 
6 

14 



10 

20 
27 
34 

62 

74 
80 
94 



To Louisville, by Stage. 
Frankfort, 24 

Shelbyville, 21 45 

Middletown, 20 65 

Louisville, 12 77 



To Nashvill, Ten. 
Shakertown, 



Harrodsburg, 

Perryville 

Lebanon, 

New Market, 

Summerville, 

Glasgow, 

Scottsville, 

Gallatin, 

Haysboro, 

Nashville, 



7 
10 
17 

6 
20 
31 



10 
20 
37 
43 
63 
94 



24 118 

33 151 

19 170 

6 176 



To Cincinnati, O. 
Georgetown, 12 

Harrisons, 18 30 

Theobalds, 11 41 

Gaines, 13 54 

Cincinnati, 12 66 



Lexington, Va. (195.) 
Lexington, T. (226.) 
Lexington, N. C. (234.) 
Lexington, G. (270.) 
Liberty, K. (190.) 
Liberty, Va. (195.) 
Liberty, S. C. (273.) 
Liberty, Miss. (296.) 
Licking R., K. (170.) 



Licking station, K. (191.) 
Lincolnton, N. C. (233.) 
Lincolnton, G. (271.) 
Lisbon, G. (271.) 
Litchfield, Con. (109.) 
Litchfield, K. (188.) 
Little Kanawha River, 
(151.) 



Va. 



Little Rock, capital of Arkansas, (242,) is situated on the 
right bank of the Arkansas river, in Pulaski county, of which 
it is the seat of justice. Population about 1500. 



LIT LOU 

ROUTES FROM LITTLE ROCK. 



57 



To the Mouth of the 


Arkai 


isas 


Fort Smith, 


25 158 


by Steam Boat. 









Candle Point, 




50 


To Columbia 




Pine Bluff, 


25 


75 


Cross Roads, 


18 


New Gascony, 


17 


92 


Des Arc, 


17 35 


Heccatoo, 


25 


117 


L. Red R., 


29 64 


Arkansas, 


45 


162 


White River, 


24 88 


Mouth of Arkansas, 


44 206 


Rock, P. 0. 


16 104 








Strawberry, 


12 116 


To Fort Smith 




Jackson, 


17 133 


Cadron, 




34 


Columbia, 


15 148 


Lewisburg, 


13 


47 







Pt. Remove, 


2 


49 


To Memphis. 




Dardanelle, 


23 


62 


Bayou Meteau, 


12 


Takatoka, 


6 


68 


Cache, P. O. 


54 66 


Scotia, 


6 


74 


Walnut Camp, 


19 85 


Spaldry Bluff, 


14 


89 


St. Faucis, 


34 119 


Arkansas Ferry, 


25 


114 


Marion, 


30 149 


Crawford, C, H. 


19 


133 


Memphis, 


10 159 



Little Egg Harbour, N. J. 

(158.) 
Lit. Prairie, Mo. (205.) 
Little Red R., Ark. (222.) 
L. Wabash R M II. (165.) 
Livingston, Miss. (280.) 
Lockport, N. Y. (55.) 
Loftus Heights, Miss. (295.) 
Logansports, Ind. (122.) 
Logan C. H. Va. (193.) 
Logan, O. (150.) 
London, U. C. (52.) 

Louisiana, state of, (277,) is divided into 33 parishes ; had 
in 1830, 215,739 inhabitants, including 109,588 slaves. Area, 
49,300 square miles. Capital and metropolis, New Orleans, 
lat. 30° N., long. 13° 1' W. General election, first Monday 
in July, biennially. Legislature meet, first Monday in January. 
Constitution formed in 1812. 

Government. — Governor — term of office four years — salary, 
$7,500 per annum, Secretary, treasurer, attorney -general, and 
surveyor-general. 



London, O. (149.) 
Long Pt., U. C. (56.) 
Long Pt., U. C. (76.) 
Long Lake, N. Y. (59.) 
Long Island, N. Y. (135.) 
L. I. Sound, N. Y. (110.) 
Long Branch, N. J. (135.) 
Long Bay, N. & S. C. (275.) 
Longacoming, N. J. (158.) 
Lorain, N. Y. (58.) 
Louisiana, Mo. (141.) 



58 LOUISIANA. 

Legislature. — The legislative authority is vested in a senate 
and a house of representatives, styled the General Assembly 
of the state of Louisiana. The senators are elected for four 
years. Their number is 17. The representatives are elected 
for two years. Their number is at present 50, — pay $6 a day, 
each, 'i he elections are held on the first Monday, Tuesday, 
and Wednesday of Jul}'. The general assembly elect by joint 
ballot for governor, one of the two who have received the 
highest number of the votes of the people. 

Judiciary. — The supreme court consists of three judges, 
who are appointed by the governor, with the advice and con- 
sent of the senate. Pay, $5000 per annum each. This court 
has only appellate jurisdiction. It sits in New Orleans for the 
eastern district, during the months of November, December, 
January, February, March, April, May, June and July. And 
for the western district, at Opelousas and Attakapas, during 
the months of August, September, and October. 

The criminal court at New Orleans has one judge. 

There are nine district courts and nine judges. The judge 
of the first district receives $5000 per annum ; the others 
$3000 a year. The district courts, with the exception of the 
first, hold in each parish, two sessions a year. 

The parish courts hold a regular session in each parish, on 
the first Monday in every month. 

The courts in the first district, viz: the parish, district, 
criminal and probate courts, are in session the whole year, 
excepting the months of July, August, September, and Octo- 
ber, in which months they hold special courts if necessary. 

Physical Structure. — There are three very dictinct portions 
in this state, as it regards soil and surface. 1. The north- 
eastern part, or the country lying east of the Mississippi and 
north of Ponchartrain, Maurcpas, and Ibberville outlet, embrac- 
ing the parishes of east and west Feliciana, east Baton Rouge, 
Washington, St. Helena, and St. Tammany, is hilly, of a sandy 
soil, covered with pine, possessing fine springs and a salubrious 
climate. The north-western portion of the state is also 
generally elevated, some of it very much so. 2. The south- 
western part, in the Opelousas country is covered with extensive 
prairies, of great fertility and generally level, or gently undulat- 
ing. 3. The whole delta, or country lying between the Atcha- 
falaya (Chaifalio) outlet on the west, and the Ibberville outlet 
with its continuation in lakes Maurcpas, Ponchartrain and 
Borgne, on the cast, is a dead level, and excepting along the 
margins of the numerous rivers and streams of a variable 



LOUISIANA. 59 

width of from a quarter of a mile to a mile and more, is chiefly 
continuous swamps, covered with cypress, swamp oak, gum, 
&c. This is the character of much of the country bordering 
the lower parts of the Red River, and the Ouachita, the Courta- 
buleau, and other streams. 

The whole southern line is a low marshy country, scarcely 
rising above the level of the ocean, and often overflown by the 
tides. Rising in a most gradual manner, the north-western 
part even'reaches the aspect of a mountainous character. The 
coast is lined with low and sandy islands, separated from the 
main land by shallow bayous, or stagnant inlets, and covered 
with stinted live-oak. 

Rivers. — Mississippi, Red, Ouchita, Atchafalaya, Courta- 
bleau, Teche, La Fourche, Amite, &c. 

Productions. — Sugar and rice are the principal, cotton, 
Indian corn, fruits of various sorts. 

Towns. — New Orleans, Madisonville, St. Helena, Baton 
Rouge, St. Francisville, Franklin, St. Martinville, Opelousas, 
Alexandria, Natchitoches, &c. 

Internal Improvements. — Barataria Canal, commences on 
the Mississippi, 6 miles above New Orleans and passes into 
the Lafourche, thence into Bcrwicks Bay. Length of canals 
22 miles, entire length including river and lake navigation 85 
miles. 

Canal Carondelet, forms, with the Bayou St. John, a water 
communication from New Orleans to Lake Fonchartrain. 
Length of Canal 2 miles. Do. B. of St. Johns, 4 miles. 

Or'rans Dank Canal, from New Orleans to Ponchartrain, 
length ±\ miles. 

Canal Veret, extends from a point on the Lafourche to Lake 
Veret. Length 8 miles. Several unimportant canals exist in 
the neighbourhood of New Orleans, and the parishes bordering 
on the Mississippi : these have been constructed by individuals 
for private use — 

The rail roads are — From NewOrlcanf^ to lake Pontchartrain, 
length 4i miles. One from New Orleans to Carrollton, 6£ 
miles. One from New Orleans to Lafayette, 2 miles. One 
from New Orleans, with the Bayou St. John, 1| miles long. 

Rail Roads in Progress. — From St. Francisville in Loui- 
siana, to Woodville, in Mississippi, 27 miles long. 

From New Orleans to Nashville in Tennessee, length of the 
Louisiana portion, 80 miles. 

From New Orleans, via the Lake Ponchartrain Rail Road, 
to Lake Borgne, 20 miles long. 



60 



LOUISVILLE. 



From Pount Coupee to Opelousas, 30 miles long. 
From Alexandria to Cheney ville, 30 miles. 
From Port Hudson to Jackson, Clinton, &c. 28 miles. 
From Clinton to Baton Rouge, 20 miles. 
Various rail roads, the aggregate length of which is about 
300 miles, are proposed. 

Louisville, K. (168,) situate on the Ohio at the head of the 
falls ; is a place of considerable trade ; population at present, 
20,000. The public buildings area court house, market houses, 
eight or ten churches, high school, marine hospital, and several 
factories of iron, cotton, &c. 

ROUTES FROM LOUISVILLE. 



To Lexington, 


by Stage. 


Fredericksburg, 


15 27 


Middletown, 


12 


Paoli, 


18 45 


Shelbyville, 


20 32 


Mt. Pleasant, 


25 70 


Frankfort, 


21 53 


Washington, 


18 88 


Lexington, 


24 77 


Vincennes, 


20 108 


To Nashville, Ten., by Stage. 


To Cincinnati, 


by Stage, 


West Point, 


21 


Charleston, 


13 


Elizabethtown, 


22 43 


Bethlehem, 


13 26 


Coombsville, 


9 52 


New London, 


8 34 


Munfordsville, 


21 73 


Madison, 


12 46 


Glasgow, 


20 93 


Aurora, 


31 77 


Scottsville, 


24 117 


Lawrenceburg, 


3 80 


Gallatin, 


20 137 


Cincinnati, 


23 103 


Nashville, 


25 162 










To Troy, by Stage. 


To Indianapolis, by Stage. 


New Albany, 


3 


New Albany, 


3 


Corydon, 


16 19 


Greenville, 


9 12 


Fredonia, 


16 35 


Salem, 


24 36 


Troy, 


28 63 


Valona, 


19 55 


■i 




Brownstown, 


3 58 






Columbus, 


25 83 


To Hopkinsville, by Stage* 


Edinburg, 


12 95 


West Point, 


21 


Franklin, 


10 105 


Philadelphia, 


16 37 


Indianapolis, 


20 125 


Hardinsburg, 


22 59 






Hartford, 


36 95 


To Vincennes 


, by Stage. 


Greenville, 


23 118 


New Albany, 


3 


Hopkinsville, 


27 145 



Greenville, 9 12 



ROUTES FROM LOUISVILLE. 



61 



To Lexington, by Rail 
Middletown, 
Brownsboro, 
Ballardsville road, 
Shelby Co. line, 
Frankford, 
Franklin Co. line, 
So. Elkhorn R. 
Lexington, 



road. 
14 

6 20 
12 32 

28 60 

7 67 
7 74 

10 84 
10 94 



To Springfield, by Stage. 
Shepardsville, 23 

Bardstown, 18 41 

Fredericksburg, 10 51 

Springfield, 8 59 



To Pittsburg, by 

West Point, 

Madison, 

Port William, 

Vevay, 

Fredericksburg, 

Lawrenceburg, 

Cincinnati, 

New Richmond, 

Point Pleasant, 

Augusta, 

Marysville, 

Portsmouth, 

Burlington, 

Gallipolis, 

Letart's Rapids, 

Belville, 

Parkersburg, 

Marietta, 

Wheeling, 

Steubenville, 

Pittsburg, 



Steam Boat. 
23 
11 
13 
10 
10 



31 108 
24 132 
21 153 

5 158 

15 173 

16 189 
46 235 
41 276 
41 317 

32 349 
30 379 

17 396 
13 409 
89 490 
21 511 
79 581 



Leavenworth, 

Stephensport, 

Rockport, 

Owensburg, 

Evansville, 

Henderson, 

Mt. Vernon, 

Carthage, 

Shawneetown, 

Cave in Rock, 

Cumberland R., 

Tennessee R., 

America, 

Mouth of Ohio, 

New Madrid, 

Little Prairie, 

Memphis, 

Arkansas R., 

Vicksburg, 

Natchez, 

St. Francisville, 

Baton Rouge, 

New Orleans, 



17 59 

33 92 
53 145 

8 153 

35 188 

11 199 
22 221 

12 233 

19 252 

20 272 
41 313 
11 324 

36 360 
11 371 
65 436 
30 460 

119 585 
172 757 
284 1041 
103 1144 
139 1283 

34 1317 
131 1448 



To New Orleans, by Steam 

Boat. 

Northampton, 42 



To St. Louis, by Steam Boat. 
Mouth of Ohio, as above, 371 

Elk Island, 8 379 

Dogtooth L, 8 387 

English I., 14 401 

Cape Girardeau, 11 412 

Bainbridge, 10 422 

Muddy River, 14 436 

La Cour, 16 452 

Marys R. 14 466 

Saline R. 9 475 

St. Genevieve, 8 483 

Ft. Chartres, 12 495 

Herculaneum, 19 514 

Harrison, 5 519 

Merrimac R., 7 526 

Carondelet, 12 538 

St. Louis, 6 544 



62 LOU MAINE. 

Louisvile, G. (271.) Lucas, N. C. (256.) 

Louisburg, N. C. (216.) Lumberton, N. C. (255.) 

Louisa, K. (171.) Lumpkin, G. (285.) 

Lovelace, Lou. (295.) Lynchburg, Va. (195 ) 

Lower Canada, (12.) Lynhaven Bay, Va. (198.) 

Lower Marlboro, Md. (177.) Lyons, N. Y. (57.) 

M. 

Machias, Me. (42.) Madison, Va. (175.) 

Mackeysville, N. C. (232.) Madison, T. 22.9.) 

Mackinaw, 11. (119.) Madison, G. (270.) 

Macon, G. (287.) Madisonville, K. ( 1 87.) 

Madison, II. (164.) Madisonville, T. (330.) 

Madison, Ind. (168.) Madisonville, Lou. (309.) 

Maine, state of, (18,) is divided into twelve counties, and 
had, in 1830, a population of 399,462. Area, 38,250 square 
miles; capital, Augusta; metropolis, Portland; lat. 43° 39' 
N., long. 6° 39' E. General elections, second Monday in Sep- 
tember ; legislature meet first Wednesday in January ; con- 
stitution formed, 1819* 

Government. — The governor is elected annually by the peo- 
ple, salary, $1,500; seven counsellors also elected annually. 
The legislative power is vested in a " General Assembly," 
consisting of a senate and house of representatives, members 
of both elected annually by the people. 

Judiciary. — Supreme court consists of a chief justice, who 
receives a salary of $1,800, and two associate judges, salary 
$1,500 each. Court of common pleas, a chief justice and two 
associate justices, each receives $1,200 per annum. 

Physical Structure. — The north-western border of this state 
consists of a series of steps or escarpments, which follow 
each other in such rapid succession, as in some places to attain 
an elevation of nearly 2000 feet in the space of a few miles. 
This elevation continues with slight interruptions along the 
entire line from the sources of the Connecticut to its termina- 
tion in the north-east angle of the state. From these data it 
will be perceived that the country, forms an inclined plane, 
having the Atlantic coast for its limit towards the south-east. 
This plane, however, is much broken by high hills and insu- 
lated mountain peaks ; examples are presented by Bald Ridge 
mountain, a spur from the main ridge ; Mt. Bigelovv, Saddle- 
back, Katawdin, and others ; some of these peaks are of great 
height, especially the one last mentioned. The state may be 
divided into three grand sections ; the Atlantic section is com. 



MAINE. 63 

paratively level, being much intersected by lakes and other 
indications of a flat surface; the second or middle section is 
hilly, and the third, or north-western part is decidedly moun- 
tainous. 

Rivers. — Andriscoggin, Kennebeck, Penobscot, St. Croix, 
St. Johns, Madawaska, Walloostook, &c. 

Productions. — Lumher, fish, pot and pearl ashes, small 
grain, provisions, &c. 

Towns. — Portland, the metropolis; Augusta, the capital; 
York, Paris, Wiscasset, Bath, flallowell, Castine Belfast, Ban- 
gor, Machias, Eastport, &,c. &c. 

Internal Improvements. — Cumberland and Oxford Canal, 
extends from Portland to Sebago Pond, 20| miles, whence, by a 
lock in Songo river, the navigation is extended into and through 
Brandy and Long Ponds a further distance of 30 miles. 

Bangor and Orono Rail-road, 10 miles in length. 

A Rail-Road from Portland to Dover N. H. : one from Ports- 
mouth N. H. to Portland ; one from Portland to Augusta ; one 
from Portland to Bangor; one from some point, not yet deter- 
mined, on the coast of Maine, to Quebec, 227 miles in length, 
are proposed. 

Middlesex Canal, see Massachusetts, (£5.) 
Muscle Shoals Canal, see Ala- Manaks, Ala. (284.) 

bama, (217.) Manahawken, N. J (158.) 

Montague Canal, see Massa-. Manchester, Vt. (60.) 

chusetts, (84.) Manchester, S. C. (273.) 

Mohawk and Hudson Rail- Manchester, K. (191.) 

Road, see N. York, (83.) Manlius, N. Y. (58.) 
Miami Canal, see O. (148.) Mansfield, O. (126.) 
Mauch Chunk Rail Road, see Mansfield, JN. J. (134.) 

Penn. (133.) Mine Bill Rail Road, see Pa. 

Mount Carbon Rail Road, see (132.) 

Penn. (132.) Mansfield, Va. (196.) 

Mill Creek Rail Road, see Mantua, O. (101.) 

Penn. (132.) Maramic, Mo. (183.) 

Morris Canal, see N. Jersey, Maramic R., Mo. (162.) 

(134.) Marathon, Ala. (247,) 

Manasquan Canal, see New Marengo, Ala. (283.) 

Jersey, (158.) Mariaville, Mc. (41.) 

Monongahela Navigation, see Marietta, O. (151.) 

Virginia, (152.) " Marion, Ind. (123.) 

Manchester Rail Road, see Marion, O, (125.) 

Virginia, (197.) Marion, Mo. (161.) 

Malone, N. Y. (35.) Marion, Ala. (283,) 



64 MARYLAND. 

Marion, G. (287.) Martinsburg, Ind. 146. 

Marion, C. H., S. C. (255.) Martinsburg, Va. (154.) 

Marksville, Lou. (294.) Marlinville, N. C. (215.) 

Marshville, Va. (152.) Martinsville, Va. (215.) 

Marshallsville, Va. (216.) Martins, N. C. (213.) 
Martha's Vineyard, Mass. Martins, N. C. (214.) 

(112.) Marysville, O. (125.) 

Marthasville, Mo. (163.) Marysville K. (169.) 

Martinsburg, N. Y. (58.) Marysville, T. (230.) 

Martinsburg, P. (130.) Maryville, Va. (196.) 

Maryland, state of, (153,) is divided into 20 counties, and 
contained in 1830, 447,040 inhabitants, including 102,994 
slaves ; area, 11,150 square miles; capital, Annapolis; metro- 
polis, Baltimore ; lat. 39° 18' N. ; long. 0° 26' E. General 
election, first Wednesday in October. Legislature meets, first 
Monday in December. Constitution formed, 1776 ; amended 
1838. 

Government. — Governor elected by the people, term of 
office, three years, salary, $4200. Senate, consisting of 21 
members, and house of delegates, 79 members, called the 
General Assembly, meet on the last Monday in December at 
Annapolis ; pay of members $4 a day, of the speakers, $5 each. 
The members of the house of delegates are elected annually 
by the people, on the first Wednesday of October. 

Judiciary. — Chancery court, chancellor. Court of appeals, 
chief judge, (salary $2500) and five associate judges, who 
receive a salary of $2,200 each. Baltimore court, one chief 
judge, and associate judges ; salary of the former $2,400, of 
the two latter, $1,500 each. 

Physical Structure. — Eastern section, bordering on the 
Atlantic ocean and eastern shore of Chesapeake bay, level ; 
centre, hilly, gradually increasing in elevation, until it meets 
the western section of the state, which presents little else than 
a succession of mountain ridges, extending from the Mono- 
cacy to the western limits of the state. The Back Bone moun- 
tain, so called, the .main ridge of the Allegheney, has a mean 
altitude of about 2,500 feet, and is the dividing ridge between 
the waters of the Atlantic and those running into the Ohio. 

Rivers. — Potomac, Patuxent, Patapsco, Susquehanna, Elk, 
Chester, Choptank, Nanlikoke, &c. 

Productions. — Tobacco, wheat, some cotton, flax, hemp, &c. 
&c. 

Towns. — Baltimore, Annapolis, Frederick, Hagerstown, 



MASSACHUSETTS. 65 

Rockville, Port Tobacco, Upper xMarlboro ; and on the eastern 
shore, Elklon, Chester, Centreville, Easton, Cambridge, &c. 

Internal Improvements. — Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, ex- 
tends from Georgetown to Pittsburg, length as proposed, 34 li 
miles. A canal 9 miles long, leading from Alexandria to 
intersect the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, at Georgetown 
is now constructing. (See District of Columbia.) Port Deposit 
Canal, is designed to overcome the rapids of the Susquehanna, 
above Port Deposit, length nearly 10 ms. Canal at Little Falls 
of Potomac, 2\ ms - long. Canal at Great Falls, built of stone, 
1200 yards long. Baltimore and Ohio R. R. extends from Balti- 
more to Harper's Ferry, on the Potomac, 81 ms. from Baltimore. 
This road is to be continued to the Ohio river. A road of a 
single track extends from the main line to Frederick, 3^ ms. 
Baltimore and Port Deposit Rail Road, commenced in 1830, 
extends to Havre de Grace; length, 34 ms. Baltimore and 
Washington Rail Road, length 37 3-4 miles ; this work is 
now completed. Baltimore and York Rail Road, 59J ms. 
long. Wilmington and Susquehanna Rail Road is an extension 
of the Baltimore and Port Deposit Rail Road, which, with the 
Philadelphia and Wilmington Rail Road, forms a continuous 
line from Baltimore to Philadelphia, 93 miles in length, and 
now in successful operation. 

Mason's, N. C. (233.) Maysville, Va. (196.) 

Massachusetts, state of, (83,) is divided into 14 counties. 
Population in 1830, 610,014. Area, 8750 square miles. Capital 
and metropolis, Boston, Lat. 42° 22' N. Long. 5° 57' E. Gen- 
eral election for governor and senators, first Monday in April ; 
for representatives, in May. Legislature meet, fourth Tuesday 
in October. Constitution formed, 1780. 

Government. — Governor, term of office, one year, salary 
$3,668 67. Lieutenant Governor $533 33. Secretary of com- 
monwealth, and state treasurer, each $2,000 ; adjutant general, 
$1,500, who are chosen by joint ballot, from the senators and 
nine counsellors; each holds his office for one year. Legisla- 
ture styled the general Court, is composed of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. Members of the senate are elected 
annually on the first Monday in April; the representatives are 
elected annually in May. 

Judiciary. — The judiciary power is vested in a Supreme 
Court, and a Court of Common Pleas, and such others as the 
General Court may establish. The judges are appointed by 
the governor and senate, and hold their offices during good 
behaviour. 

6* 



66 MASSACHUSETTS. 

Pkysical Structure. — The eastern part of the state is gene- 
rally level, with occasionally an isolated hill. In the central 
part, between Worcester and the valley of the Connecticut, 
those hills occur at frequent intervals, until passing to the 
westward, the lands increase in elevation, and assume the 
aspeet of a mountain region. 

The mean elevation of Berkshire, the extreme western 
county of the state, is not less than 1000 feet above tide. This 
portion is studded with innumerable hills and mountain peaks, 
some of which rise to a height of 3000 feet above their bases. 

Rivers, — llousatonic, Connecticut, Bawtueket, Charles, Mer- 
rimaek, ..V e. 

Pith! net ions. — Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, peas, 
beans, flaxseed, &C 

Towns. — Boston, the Capital ; Salem, Newburyport, Lowell, 
Worcester, Springfield, Northampton, Greenfield, Pittsrield, 
and many extensive towns and villages. 

Internal Improvements. — Middlesex Canal, extends from 
Boston to Chelmsford. Length "J7 miles. Pawtucket Canal, 
in town et* Lowell, is used both tor navigation and for manu- 
facturing purposes, length 1$ miles. Blaekstone Canal, extends 
from Providence R. L. to Worcester, Mass. length 45 miles. 
Hampshire and Hampden Canal, see Connecticut Monta- 
g . Canal, near the Montague falls in Connecticut river, 3 
miles long. Start Hmdley Canal, round the S. H. falls in the 
Connecticut, length mites. Worcester Rail Road, 44 miles 
in length. It is proposed to continue this road to the Connec- 
ticut, and to construct a branch to Miiberry. Boston and 
Providence Kail Rwd length 41 miles. Pedham Branch, 2$ 
miles, Taunton Branch, 11 miles. Boston and Lowell Rail 
RtMid, length CO miles. Quincij Rail Road, used for trans- 
porting granite from the quarry in Quiney to Neponset river, 
length 3 miles, branches 1 mile. Andover and Haverhill 
Rail Road, loA miles. Boston and Salem Rail Road, 15 ms. 
long. Norwich and Worcester R^H Road, 59 miles. Worces- 
ter and Springfield Rail Rihul, 54 miles. This road will ulti- 
mately be extended to the Hudson river. 
Sfasacre, I. Ala. [311.) M'Leansboro, 11. [165.] 

Mathews, C. H^Va, 198.] M-Neils, N. C. (835.; 

Itauch Chunk. P. (133.) M'MinnvihY, T. ,00 9.) 

Maumee, O. (99.) M'Kjnstry, S. C. [254.) 

M ..:uee R.. O. (98.) M*Catteums, S. C ,054.) 

Mavsville, 11. ,103/ M-Cees, Miss. (265.] 

M-Connelsville, O. (151.) M<Coun's BlutV. Ala. *6(>.) 

M'Connelstown, P, (154) M-Clair, Miss. (880.) 



^A 



& 






MEMPHIS. 



67 



M'Intoshs, G. (286.) Mechanicsville, S. C. (255.) 

M'Intoshs C. H., G. (305.) Medina, O. (100.) 

M'Daniels, Lou. (307.) Medway, Me. (85.) 

MeadvilJe, P. (102.) Meigsville, O. (151.) 

Memphis, Tenn. (224,) occupies the site of old Fort Picker- 
ing, on the left bank of the Mississippi ; situated on the great 
road from Nashville to Little Rock in Arkansas. Memphis ia 
advancing in commercial importance. Its present population 
is about 1500, which is rapidly augmenting in number. 

ROUTES FROM MEMPHIS. 



To New Orleans by Steamboat. 


Louisville, 


42 573 


Arkansas river 


172 






Vicksburg, 


284 456 


To Little Rock, 


Ark. 


Natchez, 


103 559 


Marion 


10 


St. Francisvilie, 


139 698 


St. Francis, 


30 40 


Baton Rouge, 


34 732 


Walnut Camp, 


34 74 


New Orleans, 


131 863 


Cache P. O. 


19 93 






Bayou Meteau, 


54 147 


To Louisville, 


by Steamboat. 


Little Rock, 


12 159 


Greenock, 


12 







Randolph, 


30 42 


To Nashville 




Fulton, 


6 48 


Summerville, 


43 


Little Prairie, 


57 105 


Bolivar, 


24 67 


New Madrid, 


36 141 


Jackson, 


28 95 


Columbus, 


44 185 


Huntingdon, 


38 133 


Mouth of Ohio, 


17 202 


Reynoldsburg, 


29 162 


America, 


11 213 


Charlotte, 


39 201 


Shawneetown, 


108 321 


Nashville, 


39 240 


Carthage, 


19 340 






Mt. Vernon, 


12 332 


To Florence, Al. 


Hendersonville, 


22 374 


Raleigh, 


9 


Evansville, 


11 385 


Summerville, 


34 43 


Owensberg, 


35 420 


Bolivar, 


24 67 


Rockport, 


8 428 


Purdy, 


30 97 


Stephensport, 


53 481 


Savannah, 


16 113 


Leavenworth 


33 514 


Florence, 


50 163 


Northampton, 


17 531 | 






Meredith, N. Y. 


(82.) 


Metcalf boro, T. (229.) 


Mercer, P. (102.) 


Mexico, Mo. (162.) 




Mercersburg, P. 


(154.) 


Micanopy, F. (329.) 




Meridianviile, Ala. (248.) 


Miccoton, F. (316.) 




Merrittsville, S. 


C. (232.) 







OS MICHIGAN. 

Michigan, state of ^-V is divided into 40 counties. V 

lation in 1830,31,639. Area, 59,700 square miles. Capital 

and metropolis, Detroit, let t#° 80 N. long. 60° l W, Gen- 
ere] election, first Monday in October. Legislature meets, 
first Monday iu January. Constitution formed May 11th, 
13 • 

r e governor Hilary $2000 end 

lieute arnor arc elected for twc yea rs. lue present 

fed lieutenant governor are to bold thftU offices until 

the 1st Monday in January, I83& 

S :.ie. — The legislative power is vested in a senate 

and house of representatives. The members of the former 

for twc years, one half of them every year, and to 
S neatly as may be, of one-third of the number of 

..lives, who art* chosen annually, and cannot be lej*s 

ore than 100. 

Donsists of a supreme court end sew 

courts as me legislature may establish. The judges of the 
supreme court are appointed by the governor and senate 

years « circuit and probate w 

end these of iv. - ..ted by the people for a term 

S :cturt. — The southern part of tl - koryis 

! .ntly undulating. The northern part is more 
Uong 1 . - tore of Huron there are, in pieces, very 
high blurts; and along the cast shore of 1 akc Michigan, are 
in many places, immense hills of pure send of from fifty to 
' hundred feet in height, which have been blown up by 
the .. 5 -slant western winds, swe. - the lake 

. margin on its eastern - 
Rivers. — Maumee, Rastn, Huron, G 
W .-. ! 1 
a. 

/'•. ':..-: ":.••:.< — Corn, w:\v.t, rye, buekw' 

..'. vegetables, grov a ie great ubuu- 

. Freneluev • . B owl stown, IV- 
v • Arbour, Byton, Montcalm, Niles, Newbury-port, 
& ' e , Port SIk St Joseph, a e 

>• — Graft i Detroit 

: ■ v . fast st shore of l eke Michigan; 197 miles 

. » em am Detroit to Ann Arbour, 40 mi 

M 

ami Pvttuc Rail Road, 25 miles long 



MIC 



Mississippi. 69 



Eric and Kalamazoo Rail Road, commences at Toledo in 
Lucas county, Ohio, and is completed from thence to Adrian 
33 miles. Branch of Ditto to Havre, 13 miles. 

Southern Rail Road, from a point on the river Raisin, near 
Monroe, to New Buffalo, via Hillsdale, Mason, Ccntrevillc, 
Edwardsburg, &.c. ; length ahout 187 miles. 

Detroit and Shelby Rail Road, 23 miles long. 

Palmyra and Jackson Rail, Road, 46 miles long". 

River Raisin and Lake Erie Rail Road, 50 miles. 

Ypsilanli and Tecumseh Rail Road, 25 miles. 

A canal, about 18 miles long, connecting the waters of the 
Saginaw and Grand rivers; one from Mount Clemens to Sin- 
gapore, via Pontiac, Howell, Hastings, &c, about 220 miles in 
length ; and one designed to overcome the Falls of St. Mary, 
arc in course of execution. 

Michigan, Ind. (96.) Milford, P. (108.) 

Middle T., Mich. (71.) Millcdgevtlle, capital of 
Middle T., N. J. (134.) Geo. (270.) 

Middle T., O. (148.) Millers T., P. (131.) 

Middle T., O. (149.) Millgrove, S. C. (274.) 

Middle T., Pa. (132.) Milhaven, G. (289.) 

Middle T., K. (168.) Millheim, Pa. (131.) 

Middlctown, N. Y. (82.) Mills, Va. (175.) 

Middletown, Con. (110.) Millvillc, N. J. (158.) 

Middlctown, Va. (154.) Millers, Ala. (248.) 

Middletown, Pa. (128.) Milton, Vt. (36.) 

Middlebury, Vt. (60.) Milton, N. II. (62.) 

Middicburn, Va. (152.) Milton, Pa. (106.) 

Middleboro, Mass. (112.) Mineral Point, Wis. (67.) 

Mifflin, Pa. (131.) Mines, lead, Mo. (184.) 

Mikasukie, F. (316.) Miram, Ind. (145.) 

10 Mile river, N. Y. (108.) Mississippi It. (92.) 
Milford, D. (178.) 

Mississippi, state of, (243,) is divided into 56 counties. 
Population, 1830, 136,621, including 65,659 slaves. Area 
47,680 square miles. Capital, Jackson, metropolis, Natchez. 
Lat. 31° 35' N., Long. 14° 33' E. General election, first Mon- 
day and Tuesday in November. Legislature meets, first 
Monday in January biennially. Constitution formed, 1817. 

Government. — The governor is elected for two years — salary 
$3,000 per annum. The secretary of state, treasurer, and 
auditor receives each $2,000 per annum, and the attorney- 
general. $1,000. 



70 MISSISSIPPI. 

The legislative power is vested in a senate and house of 
representatives, styled 77/e General Assembly cf the state of 
Mississippi. The members of the senate are elected for three 
years, and the representatives annually. The number of the 
representatives cannot be less than 37, nor more than 100, as 
soon as the free population shall amount to 80,000. The 
senate cannot consist of less than one-fourth nor more than 
one-third, as many as there are representatives. 

Judiciary. — High Court of Errors and Appeals, one chief, 
and two associate judges, salary of each $2,000 per annum. 
Superior Court of Chancery. Chancellor's salary $2,000. 

The circuit court consists of a chief justice and eight 
associate judges — the salary of each $2,000. The state is 
divided into nine districts, in which the judges of the supreme 
court severally hold circuit courts. These courts have original 
jurisdiction in cases where the sum in dispute exceeds $50 ; 
and appellate jurisdiction from the courts of justices of the 
peace, where the sum exceeds $20. They have also criminal 
jurisdiction. The county of Adams has a separate criminal 
court, whose jurisdiction however, does not supersede that of 
the circuit court. 

Every organized county has a probate court, and a county 
court held by three judges, of which the probate judge is the 
presiding justice. This court takes cognizance of offences 
committed by slaves, &c. The judges hold their offices during 
good behaviour, but not beyond the age of 65 years. 

Imprisonment for debt is not allowed in this stale, except in 
cases of a debtor who fraudulently withholds his property from 
his creditors. 

Physical Structure.-^- Along the Mississippi river, at various 
distances, there is a line of bluffs, of from 50 to 150 feet in 
height. The portions which are contiguous to the river, are 
called by different names, such as Walnut Hills, Grand-Gulf- 
blurl's, Natchez Bluffs, White Cliffs, and Loftus' Heights, &c. 

The country beyond these bluffs spreads out into a high, 
beautiful and fertile table-land, gently undulating and pro- 
ductive. 

Beyond the fertile belt of land, there stretches from south to 
north, and reaches eastward to the Alabama line, an extensive 
district of country, of various soils, but possessing much that 
is alluvial and fertile. 

The southern, middle and northern parts of this state, may 
be said to be beautifully undulating, with numerous ravines and 
streams. 



MISSISSIPPI. — MISSOURI. 7 1 

In its natural state, in which almost the entire state still is, 
it was covered with a vast forest of oak, hickory, magnolia, 
sweet gum, ash, maple, yellow poplar ; cypress in the swampy 
alluvial Mississippi bottoms, pine, holly, &c. &c., with a great 
variety of underwood, grape-vines, paw-paw, spice wood, &c. 

Ritiers. — Mississippi, Yazoo^ Tombeckbee, Yellowbusha, 
Buffalo, Big Black, Bayou Pierre, Homochitte, Amite, Pearl, 
Pascagoula, &c. 

Productions.—^ Cotton, tobacco, corn, sugar, the orange, f g, 
and fruits are abundant. 

Towns. -^Jackson, the capital, Natchez, Monticello, Port 
Gibson, Shieldsboro, Greenville, Winchester, Washington, 
Vicksburg, Warrenton, &c. 

Internal Improvement. — St. Francisville and Woodville Rail 
Road, 27 miles in length. Vicksburg and Clinton Rail Road, 
length 54 miles. JSalchez and Canton Rail Road, 150 miles. 
Jackson and Brandon Rail Road, 14 miles. Grand Gulf and 
Port Gibson Rail Road, 7 miles long. The New Orleans and 
Nashville Rail Road will pass through this state, 

Missisinewa, Ind. (123.) 

Missouri, state of, (115,) is divided into 62 counties, and had, 
in 1830, a population of 140,455, including 25,091 slaves. 
Area, 65,500 square miles; capital, Jefferson; metropolis, St. 
Louis; latitude 38° 37' north, longitude 13° 14' east. General 
election, first Monday in August, biennially ; legislature meet 
first Monday in November, every second year; constitution 
formed, 1820. 

Government. — Governor, term of office four years — salary 
$1500 per annum. Lieutenant-governor is president of the 
senate. 

Legislature. — The legislative power is vested in a general 
assembly, consisting of a senate and a house of representa- 
tives. The members of the former body are elected for four 
years ; the members of the latter, for two years. Every 
county is entitled to one representative ; but the whole number 
can never exceed 100 members. The senators are chosen by 
districts. The constitutional number is not less than 14 nor 
more than 33. 

The elections for senators and representatives are held bien- 
nially ; and for governor and iieutenant-governor once in four 
years, on the first Monday in August. The legislature meets 



72 MISSOURI. 

every second year (at the city of Jefferson,) on the first Mon 
day in November. 

Judiciary. — The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, 
circuit courts, and such other inferior tribunals as the general 
assembly may, from time to time, establish. 

The judges are appointed by the governor, by and with the 
consent of the senate ; and they hold their offices during good 
behaviour, but not beyond the age of 65 years. 

The supreme court consists of a presiding judge and two 
associate judges; the salary of each $1,100 per annum. 

There are five circuit courts and as many judges. The 
salary of each is 1,000 per annum. 

Physical Structure. — The surface of this state is greatly 
diversified. The alluvial bottoms are level. In the middle 
part rises a hilly region, extending from St. Genevieve south- 
westward into Arkansas, and is the commencement of the 
Ozark Mountains of that state. The northern part is undu- 
lating, but no where approaching what may, with propriety 
be called mountainous. Extensive prairies stretch out on the 
western and northern parts of this state. Even the St. Gene- 
vieve hills are marked with this character, and have the 
appearance, in places, of extensive uncultivated fields. The 
mine region, which lies about 70 miles south-west of St. Louis, 
is hilly, and a considerable portion of the state lying south of 
the Missouri and Osage rivers, is of the same character, 
and is in many places, marked with flint knobs of consi- 
derable elevation. The country between the Mississippi and 
Missouri rivers is delightfully undulating and variegated. The 
prairies, which are of variable widths, are generally fertile. 
The Mississippi is skirted with many rich alluvial prairies 
as well as extensive tracts of heavily timbered land. 

Rivers. — Mississippi, Missouri, Osage, Meramec, St. Fran- 
cis, White, &c. 

Towns. — Jefferson, the capital, St. Louis, New Madrid, 
Perryville, St. Genevieve, Alexandria, New London, Palmyra, 
Hannibal, Wyaconda, St. Charles, Florissant, Franklin, Boone- 
ville, Chariton, &c. 

Productions. — Corn, wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, tobacco, 
hemp, cotton, and garden vegetables in great variety. The 
forests consist of the oak, black and white walnut, yellow 
poplar, ash, elm, hackberry, hickory, sugar-tree, cypress, yel- 
low pine, cedar, &c. 

Internal Improvements. — Rail-roads are projected — From 



MISSOURI MOBILE. 



73 



St. Louis to Fayette ; from St. Louis to Bellevue and Mara- 

ttiec ; from Hannibal to Huntsville ; from St. Louis to Potosi ; 

and one from Louisiana in Pike county, to Columbia, in Boone 

county. 

Missouri R., (139.) Missouri, (163.) 

Missouritoni (139.) 

Mobile, Ala. (311,) the seat of justice for Mobile county, 
has a population of about 4,000; several handsome churches, 
cathedral, &c. and is a place of considerable trade. 

ROUTES FROM MOBILE. 



To New Orleans. 


Dumfries, 


15 62 


Springhill, by stage, 6 


St. Stephens, 


31 93 


Portersville, 24 30 


Coffeeville, 


18 111 


(Thence to New Orleans 


Demopolis, 


87 198 


by steamboat and rail- 


Erie, 


30 228 


road, 123 miles.) 


Tuscaloosa, 


57 285 


To Montgomery, by Stage. 


To Montgomery, 


by Steam 


Taitsville, 35 


Boat. 




Burnt Corn, 52 87 


Tombeckbee R., 


51 


Fort Dale, 45 132 


Fort Mimms, 


8 59 


Montgomery, 48 180 


Claiborne, 


45 104 


= 


Black Bluff, 


26 130 


To Leakesville, by Stage. 


Canton, 


50 180 


Escatappa R. 28 


Portland, 


14 194 


Chickasawhay R. 20 48 


Cahawba, 


22 216 


Leakesville, 11 59 


Selma, 


15 231 




Vernon, 


44 275 


To Tuscaloosa, by Stage. 


Washington, 


16 291 


Florida, 31 


Montgomery, 


10 301 


Dumfries, 15 46 


" 




St. Stephens, 24 70 


To Pensacola, 


by Steam 


Clarksville, 14 84 


Boat. 




Choctawcorner, 28 112 


DogR., 


10 


Whitehall, 40 152 


Fowl R., 


6 16- 


Greensboro, 25 177 


Fort Bowyer, 


18 34 


Tuscaloosa, 31 208 


Perdido R., 


30 64 


— , — 


Barancas, 


15 79 


To Tuscaloosa, by Steam 


Pensacola, 


10 89 


Boat. 







Fort Stoddart, 47 







74 



MONTREAL. 



To Pensacola, by Stage, 

Sfc. 

Blakely, by Steam B. 11 



Bellefontaine, by 

Stage, 
Pensacola, 



26 37 
37 74 



Mobile Bay, Ala. (311.) 
Mobile Ft., Ala. (312.) 
Mohawk Indians, L. C. (32.) 
Monks Corner, N. C. (273.) 
Monroe, Mich. (99.) 
Monroe, 0.(100.) 
Monroe, G. (270.) 
Monroe, T, (209.) 
Montaug Pt., N. Y. (111.) 
Montcalm, Mich. (72.) 
Montezuma, N. Y. (57.) 
Montezuma, Ala. (300.) 
Montevalo, Ala. (267.) 



Montgomery, N. Y. (108.) 
Montgomery, T. (210.) 
Montgomery, Ala. (284.) 
Monticello,N. Y. (108.) 
Monticello, K. (210.) 
Monticello, G. (270.) 
Monticello, Miss. (296.) 
Monticello, Ala. (301.) 
Monticello, F. (316.) 
Montpelier, capital of Ver- 
mont, (37.) 
Montpelier, Ala. (312.) 



Montreal, L. C. (15,) the most populous city in British 
America ; by the census of 1 825, it contained 24,787 inhabi- 
tants ; this number has greatly increased since that time, 
and now probably amounts to 30,000. The chief objects of 
interest in and about Montreal, are "the mountain," new 
cathedral, catholic college, the barracks, hospital, baths, &c, in 
St. Paul's street, masonic hall, theatre, Nelson's monument, 
convents, seminary of St. Sulpice, and several churches, public 
walks, &c. (See map of Montreal.) 

ROUTES FROM MONTREAL. 



To Quebec, by Steam Boat, 


To Albany, by Steam Boat 


(the distances by 


land are 


and Stage. 




nearly the same.) 




La Prairie, by Stage, 


8 


St. Sulpice, by Stage, 


27 




' St. Johns, 


17 25 


La Valtrie, 


5 32 




Isle au Noix, 


9 34 


La Norayc, 


10 42 


o 


Chazy, 


15 49 


William Henry, 


11 53 


W 


Plattsburg, 


14 63 


Three River, 


43 96 


S * 


S. Hero, 


8 71 


Gentilly, 


14 110 


cd 

-2 


Burlington, 


9 80 


St. Anne, 


15 125 


m 


Essex, 


15 95 


Pt. aux Trembles, 


38 163 




Bason Harbor, 


9 104 


Quebec, 


17 180 


1 


„ Crown Pt. 


12 116 



MONTREAL. 



75 



5 S Ticonderoga, 
5 r 






Til 



Whitehall, 
'Fort Ann, 
Sandy Hill, 
Fort Miller, 
Stillwater, 
Troy, 
I Albany, 



14 130 
23 153 

14 167 
9 176 
11 187 
18 205 
14 219 
6 225 



To Boston, by Stage, via 

Burlington, Vt. 

St. Johns, 25 

PhiJlipsburg, 23 48 

St. Albans, 16 64 

Milton, 13 77 

Burlington, 12 89 

Richmond, 14 103 

Montpelier, 26 129 

Chelsea, 24 153 

Dartmouth Col. 25 178 

Shaker's Vil, 11 189 

Andover, 22 211 

Concord, N. H. 24 235 

Hookset Falls, 8 243 

Londonderry, 19 262 



Montrose, Pa. (107.) 
Morristown, N. J. (134.) 
Mooneys, Ark. (243.) 
Moore, N. C. (256.) 
Moorfield, O. (127.) 
Moorfields, Va. (153.) 
Moosehead lake, Me. (19.) 
Moscow, Mo. (162.) 
Moosetocmaguntic Lake, 

Me. (39.) 
Moundville, Mich. (44.) 
Mount Holly, N. J. (158.) 
Mount Joliet, II. (94.) 
M'Coy, Mich. (48.) 
Mt. Clemen, Mich. (74.) 
Mt. Desert Id., Me. (41.) 
Mt. Maria, Fa. (107.) j 



Andover, 
Boston, 



20 282 

21 303 



To the Falls of Niagara, by 

Steam Boat, Sfc. 
La Chine, 

Cascades, 16 

Les Cedres 7 

Coteau du Lac, 7 

Lake St. Francis, 4 

Head of ditto. 22 

Cornwall, 
Long Saut I. 
Chrysler's Field, 
Hamilton, 



6 

10 

17 

1 

18 



8 
24 
31 
38 
42 
64 
70 
80 
97 
98 
116 



Prescot, 

Elizabethtown, 14 130 

Kingston, 48 178 

Oswego, ' . 58 236 

Coburg, 74 310 

Port Hope, 36 346 

Toronto, (York), 66 412 

Niagara Vil. 30 442 

Queenston, 7 449 

Falls of Niagara, 6 455 



Mt. Pleasant, K. (211.) 
Mt. Carmel, II. (166.) 
Mt. Sterling, K. (170.) 
Mt. Salus, Miss. (280.) 
Mt. Vernon, Me. (39.) 
Mt. Vernon, O. (126.) 
Mt. Vernon, II. (165.) 
Mt. Vernon, Va. (176.) 
Mt. Vernon, K. (190.) 
Moscow, Mo. (163.) 
Mullins Ford, G. (251.) 
Munfordsville, K. (189.) 
Monroe, Lou. (278). 
Munrows, N. C. (235.) 
Munsee T., In. (123.) 
Murfreesboro, T. (228.) 
Murcellas, G. (305.) 



76 



NASHVILLE* 



Murphy, N. C. (215.) 
Muskingum R., O. (127.) 
Miamisport, Ind. (123.) 
Miami R., O. (148.) 
Maysville, K. (170.) 
Maysville, Va. (196.) 
Morgan, N. C. (256.) 



Morganfield, K. (187.) 
Morgantown, Va. (152.) 
Morgantown, K. (188.) 
Morgantown, N. C. (233. 
Morganville, Va. (196.) 
Moulton, Ala. (247.) 



N. 



Natchitoches, Lou. (293.) 
Natural Bridge, Va. (195.) 
Natural Bridge Va. (212.) 
Natural Bridge, F. (314.) 



Nacogdoches, (292.) 
Nantucket, Mass. (112.) 
Nantucket I., Mass. (112.) 
Natches, Miss. (295.) 

Nashville, T. (2(8), the capital and most important town 
in Tennessee, was founded in 1784, and is a remarkably 
beautiful city. Population about 8,000. The public buildings 
are : a court-house, market-house, college, academy, baptist, 
presbyterian and episcopalian churehes, penitentiary, water- 
works by which the city is supplied with water from the 
Cumberland, &c. 

ROUTES FROM NASHVILLE. 



To Florence, Ala. by Stage. 
Franklin, 
Columbia, 
Mt. Pleasant, 
Lawrenceburg, 
Florence, 



23 
11 
22 
41 



18 
41 
52 
74 
115 



To Memphis, by Stage. 



Charlotte, 

Reynoldsburg, 

Huntingdon, 

Jackson, 

Bolivar, 

Summerville, 

Memphis, 



39 
29 
38 
28 
24 
43 



39 
78 
107 
145 
173 
197 
240 



To Knoxville, by Stage. 
Lebanon, 28 

Alexandria, 18 46 

Liberty, 8 54 

Sparta, 32 86 



Crab Orchard, 
Kingston, 
Loveville, 
Knoxville, 



38 154 
20 144 
23 167 
14 181 



To Hvntsville, by Stage. 



Nolensville, 

Gideonville, 

Farmington, 

Fayetteville, 

Hazel Green, 

Huntsville, 



21 
12 
27 
17 
12 



17 

38 
50 
77 
94 
106 



To Lexington, K. by Stage. 

Haysboro, 6 

Franklin, K. 29 35 

Bowlinggreen, 22 57 

Monroe, 51 108 

New Market, 31 139 

Harrodsburg, 34 173 

Lexington, 29 202 



NEW 



2VEW HAMPSHIRE. 



77 



To New Orleans \ 


by Steam 


l To Louisville, by Steam 


Boat. 




Boat. 


Hillsboro, 


20 


Ohio River, as above, 203 


Clarkesville, 


49 69 


1 Rock Haven, 34 237 


Palmyra, 


6 75 


Shawneetown, 27 264 


Dover, 


32 107 


Carthage, 19 283 


Eddyville, 


55 162 


Mt. Vernon, 12 295 


Ohio River, 


41 203 


Hendersonville, 27 317 


America, 


47 250 


Rockport, 54 371 


Memphis, 


225 475 


Leavenworth, 86 457 


Vicksburg, 


456 931 


Louisville, 59 516 


Natchez, 


103 1034 





New Orleans, 


304 1338 





New Castle and Frenchtown 
Rail Road, see Delaware, 
(157.) 

New Jersey Rail Road, see 
New Jersey, (134.) 

Nash C. H., N. C. (236.) 

Nashua, N. H. (85.-) 

Nelson, K. (169.) 

Nelson's Ferry, S. C. (273.) 

Neuson, S. C. (255.) 

Neuse River, N. C. (236.) 

New Alexandria, Pa. (129.) 

Newark, O. (126.) 

Newark, N. J. (134.) 

New Berlin, Pa. (131.) 



New Berlin, N. Y. (81.) 
New Bedford, Mass. (112.) 
Newberne, N. C. (237.) 
Newberry, S. C. (253.) 
Newburn, Va. (194.) 
Newburg, N. Y. (108.) 
Newbaryport, Mass. (86.) 
Newbury port, Mich. (70.) 
New Castle, Pa. (102.) 
New Castle, Ind. (147.) 
New Castle, K. (168.) 
Newcastle, D. (157.) 
New Columbia, Miss. (297.) 
Newcomers, O. (127.) 
New Geneva, Pa. (153.) 



New Hampshire, (62,) is divided into eight counties. Popu- 
lation in 1830, 269,533. Area, 9,200 square miles. Capital, 
Concord. Metropolis, Portsmouth, lat. 43° 04' N. long. 6° IP 
E. General election, second Wednesday in March. Legis- 
lature meet, first Wednesday in June. Constitution formed, 
1792. 

Government.— Governor, salary $1,200. Five counsellors, 
all elected annually. The legislative power is vested in a 
senate and house of representatives, called, jointly, the General 
Court. The members of both are elected annually by the 
people, on the second Wednesday in March. 

Judiciary. — Supreme court, consists of one chief justice, 
salary $1,400 and two associate judges, $1,200 each. Court 

7* 



78 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



of Common Pleas, consists of 16 justices, who act in conjunc- 
tion with the judges of the supreme court. 

Physical Structure. — Within twenty or twenty-five miles of 
the coast, the land is nearly level. In the central part of the 
state it becomes hilly, with an occasional mountain peak or 
spur, from the elevated region in the north. All above is 
mountainous, having the White Hills, Moosehillock, Monad- 
nuc, Kearsarge, Sunapee, Ossipee, and other mountains, which 
impart to the entire north half of the state, a rugged and 
broken aspect. 

Rivers. — Connecticut, Merrimac, Androscoggin, Saco, Pis- 
cataqua, &c, 

Towns. — Concord, Portsmouth, Piscataqua, Exeter, Dover, 
Meredith, Amherst, Keene, Charleston, Claremont, Haverhill, 
Plymouth, Lebanon, &c. 

Productions. — Wheat, rye, corn, oats, barley, flax, stock, 
provisions, &c. 

Internal Improvements. — Nashua and Lowell Rail Road, 15 
miles long, to be extended to Concord, N. H. Concord Rail 
Road. Bow Canal, near Concord, around Bow falls, three 
quarters of a mile long. Hookset Canal, at the Hookset fall of 
Merrimac, 825 feet in length. Amoskeig Canal, at the falls of 
Amoskeig in the Merrimac. Union Canal, passes seven falls 
in the Merrimac ; length, including pools, nine miles. Sewalls 
Falls Canal. 

New Haven, O. (100.) 

New Haven, C. (110,) one of the capitals of the state of 
Connecticut. Population, 10,180. On a large open square in 
the centre of the town, stand the public buildings, state-house, 
Yale College, and several very handsome churches. The other 
places worthy of attention are, the observatory, museum, alms- 
house, and various factories, and the cemetery. 

ROUTES FROM NEW HAVEN. 



To New York, 


by Stage 




Stamford, 


9 


44 


Milford, 




11 


West Greenwich, 


7 


51 


Stratford, 


5 


16 


Rye, 


4 


55 


Black Rock, 


6 


22 


Mamaronec, 


6 


61 


Southport, 


5 


27 


West Chester, 


8 


69 


Saugatuck, 


4 


31 


New York, 


15 


84 


Norwalk, 


4 


35 


•■ 







ROUTES PROM NEW HAVEN. ")£ 


To New York, by 


Steam 


Southington, 6 22 


Boat. 




Farmington, 11 33 


Black Rock, 


23 


Northington, 7 40 


Southpoit, 


5 28 


Simsbury, 7 47 


Old well, 


8 36 


Granby, 5 52 


Stamford Harb. 


8 44 





West Greenwich, 


8 52 


To Hartford, by Stage. 


New York, 


35 87 


North Haven, 5 







Wallingford, 9 14 


To Providence, by 


Steam 


Meriden, 4 18 


Boat. 




Worthington, 6 24 


Faulkner's Island, 


16 


Newington, 6 30 


Connecticut R., 


19 35 


Hartford, 6 36 


New London Harb. 


14 49 


. ,* — 


(Thence to N. London 


To Hartford, via Middle- 


4 miles ) 




town. 


Point Judith, 


35 84 


Northford, 10 


Newport, 


14 98 


Durham, 8 18 


Pawtuxet, 


20 118 


Middletowh, 7 25 


Providence, 


5 123 


Stepney, 8 33 
Hartford, 8 41 


To Danbury, by Stage. 





Derby, 


10 


To Newport, by Stage. 


Honsatonic Ferry, 


3 13 


Branford, 8 


New Strafford, 


4 17 


Guilford, 10 18 


Newton, 


8 25 


E.Guilford, 4 22 


Danbury, 


9 34 


Westbrook, 9 31 
Connecticut R., 6 37 


To Granby, by Canal. 


New London, 17 54 


East Plains, 


6 


Mystic, 8 62 


Hamden, 


2 8 


Newport, 39 101 


Cheshire, 


8 16 




New Hope, Pa. (134.) 


New Inlet, N. C. (239.) 


New Ipswich, N. H 


(85.) 


New Iberia, Lou. (322.) 



New Jersey, state of, (134,) is divided into 17 counties. 
Population in 1830, 320,779, including 2,446 slaves. Area, 
7,500 square miles. Capital, Trenton ; Metropolis, Newark, 
lat. 40° 44' N. long. 2° 45' E. General election, second Tues- 
day in October. Legislature meets, fourth Tuesday in Octo- 
ber. Constitution formed, 1776. 

Government. — Governor, chosen annually, by a joint vote of 
the council and assembly ; salary, $2,000 per annum ; he is 



80 ni:w JERSEY. 

president of the oouncil. The governor, in conjunction with 
the oounoili form a court of appeals, Legislature is composed 
of a Initiative council, consisting of I I memhers, mid gonerul 
assernoly > r ><> members ; the members of both houses' are elected 

annually. 

Judiciary, — Supreme 1 court, composed ofa chief justice, sal* 
iiiy $1900 per annum, and two associate judges, $1100 per 
annum eaohi The judges are appointed by the legislature; 
those of the supreme court for a term of seven years, and those 
of the inferior courts for n v< - years. 

Physical Structure, — All that part of the state which lies 
south ofa lino extending from Bordentown to Amboy, is level, 
partly oomposed of sea sand, which is entirely destitute of 
vegetationi Immediately north of this line, an improvement 
hi the surface and general oharadter of (he soil becomes visible ; 
hills appear in rapid BueoessiOn, fbrming steps up to the 
elevated region in Morris and Sussex counties. These, and tin; 
adjoining counties are muoh broken \>y the ridges of the Alio- 
gheny mountains, which intersect this part of the state, ranging 
in a direction from north-east to south-west. 

Riven, — Delaware, Hudson, Passaio, Raritan, Millstone, 
Efaokensaok, Sohencks, G. Egg Harbor, L. Egg Harbor, Mau- 
rice, Ranoocus, Musooneoung, Pawlings, Sac, 

Productions, —Wheat, rye, oorny buckwheat, &c 

Towns.-- Newark. Patersori, New Brunswiok, Trenton, 
Elizabethtown, Belvidere, Bridgetown, Salem, Camden, iMount 
Holly, Perth Amboy, Morristown, &o. 

Infernal linpiovrmruts — Delaware ami litirittm Canal, 

commenoes at Bordentown, and extends through Trenton, and 
along the valleys of the Millstone and Raritan, to New Bruns* 
wick. Length 43 miles. A navigable feeder ~ I miles long 1 
has been constructed along the east hank of the Delaware, 
intersecting the main trunk in the city of Trenton. — Morris 
Canal, commences at Jersey City, opposite New York, and 
terminates on ihc Delaware at Phillipsbutg, opposite Easton. 

Length 101 miles. Salem Canal, extends from Salem creek 

to the Delaware. Length, fbnr miles. — Mamasouatn and Ihn- 

negat ('anal., (proposed), — Washington Canal, CUti off a con- 
siderable bend in Mannlapan creek, and lessens the distance 

from Washington to (he; Raritan river. Length, one mile. — 

Camden and Amboy Rail Road, commences at Camden, oppo- 

siie Philadelphia, and terminates at South Amboy. Length (il 

miles. — Paterson and Hudson Jiiiur Hail, Road, from Jersey 
city opposite New York, to Putcrson, on the Paasiuc. Length 



Ni:w ORLEANS. 



81 



1G 30*100 rnil<;. n if proposed to extend this road to iht 
Morris canal. New Jersey Rail Road, commencef on the l<i«t 
mentioned raiLroad, about two milei from Jersey City* and 
terminates at New Brunswick ; length, 31 miles. Camden 
uikI, Woodbury Rail Howl, completed and in oscj 'i miles. 

"Elizabeth and Sorrwrr/Ult: Hud Idtud, in i>n>i'rc/.vA. N<:w Jcr- 

iey and Hudson Rail Road, Delaware and Atlantic Rait 
Road. And the Morris and Eeeex, Burlington and Mi. Holly* 
Belvidere and Delaware, Camden and Mi. Holly Rail Road$ t 
ate proposed, and the necessary measure! have been taken to 
ensure their execution! 



Now Echota, a. (2490 

London, ( 'on, (1 10.) 
Now London, Mo, (141.) 
New Lexington, Ind. a 68.) 
Now Lisbon, O. (128.) 
Now Lebanon, N.C, (218.) 



Now Milford,Con. (109.) 
Newmarket, "/a. (175.) 
Madrid, Mo. (205.) 
New Mexico, Miss. (27ft.) 
New Portland, M. (390 
Now Richmond, 0.(1500 



Orleans, L. (3240 4 - n ' : great commercial emporium of 
the Mississippi valley, wai founded in 1719, and has about 
6*0,000 inhabitants. The chief objects of interest ore the 
cathedral in Chartres itreet, College iri St. Oloude street, 

Ursulino Con von t in L'rsulino hl.root, OrloariH thoatro, St. Anno 

street, theatre of St. Philip in St. Philip street, City HalL 
Condc itreet, churches, almi house, &c< Five miles below the 
centre of the city if the ground, rendered memorable by the 
battle of the 8thof January, 1815. 

ROUTES FROM NEW ORLEANS. 

To lMui.Hr/dLc, by Steam lioal. 



Arnaads Point, 
Red Church, 

DcHtrotohons I't. 

Bonnet Q. Bend, 
B. Quarre Church, 

Cantrelf \><>. 

Hampt 

Donaldson ville, 
St.. Gabi iels, 
Plaquemine, 
Baton Rouge, 
Thomas Pt. 
Thompson*! Cr. 



9 
12 

2 

5 
19 

8 



24 

6 

18 

JJ 



13 
22 
34 
36 

41 

60 

68 

73 

78 

i 02 

108 

126 

1 37 



12 149 



St. FrancisrUle and i't. 


Coupee, 


jo 159 


Tunica, 


27 186 


Red Itivor, 


22 208 


Fort Adams, 


9 217 


Homocbitto R. 


10 227 


White Cliffs, 


27 2. r >4 


Natchez, 


J7 271 


Coles Crook, 


22 2!;.** 


Rodney, 


19 'M-i 


Broinsburg, 


4 316 


Grand Gulf*, and ln> 




Blacb River, 


14 890 


Pt. Pleasant, 


10 340 


Palmyra. 


n :i 5 :^ 



82 



ROUTES FROM NEW ORLEANS. 



Warrenton, 


14 


367 


To St. Louis, by 


Steam Boat. 


Vicksburg, 


10 


377 


Mouth of Ohio, as 


above, 991 


Yazoo River, 


12 


389 


Tyawappita B. 


29 950 


Tompkins, 


32 


421 


Cape Girardeau, 


13 963 


Providence, 


26 


447 


Bainbridge, 


9 972 


Princeton, 


8 


455 


Muddy R. 


13 985 


Old River, 


48 


503 


Kaskaskia R. 


31 1016 


Pt. Chicot, 


12 


515 


St. Genevieve, 


17 1033 


Arkansas River, 


59 


574 


Chartier I. 


11 1044 


White R. 


9 


583 


Herculaneum, 


19 1063 


Helena, 


60 


643 


Maramec R. 


11 1074 


St. Francis I. 


14 


657 


Carondelet, 


12 1086 


35° N. Lat. 


48 


705 


St. Louis. 


6 1090 


Noncona R. 


10 


715 







Memphis, 


4 


719 


To Balize and Gulf of Mexico, 


Greenock, 


12 


731 


by Steam 


Boat. 


3rd Chickasaw Bluff, 18 


749 


Battle Ground, 


5 


Randolph, 


12 


761 


English Turn, 


6 11 


Fulton, 


6 


767 


Fort St. Leon, 


5 16 


Plum Pt. 


11 


778 


Poverty Pt. 


18 34 


Needhams Cut-off, 


26 


804 


Grand Prairie, 


27 61 


Little Prairie, 


20 


824 


Fort St. Philip, 


9 70 


Riddle's Pt 


23 


847 


S. W. Pass, 


9 79 


New Madrid, 


13 


860 


South Pass, 


2 81 


Mills Pt. 


28 


888 


Pass a* Loutre, 


2 83 


Columbus, 


16 


904 


Balize, 


4 87 


Mouth of Ohio, 


17 


921 


Gulf, 


5 92 


America, 


11 


932 







Tennessee R. 


36 


968 


To Natchitoches 


, by Steam 


Cumberland R. 


11 


979 


Boat. 




Rock Cave, 


41 


1020 


Red River, as above, 208 


Shawneetown, 


20 


1040 


Ouachita, 


36 244 


Carthage, 


19 


1059 


Bayou Saline, 


20 264 


Mt. Vernon, 


12 


1071 


Alexandria, 


54 318 


Hendersonville, 


22 


1093 


Bayou Cane, 


60 378 


Evansville, 


11 


1104 


Natchitoches, 


24 402 


Owensburg, 


35 


1139 






Rockport, " 


8 


1147 


To Little Rock, 


by Steam 


Stephensport, 


53 


1200 


Boat. 




Leavenworth, 


33 


1233 


Arkansas R. as above, 574 


Northampton, 


17 


1250 


Arkansas, 


27 601 


Louisville, 


42 


1292 


Harrington's, 


43 644 


(For continuation to Cin- 




Vaugines, 


23 667 


cinnati, Pittsburg 


&c. 




Little Rock, 


81 748 


See "Louisville." 












ROUTES FROM NEW ORLEANS. 



83 



To Mobile, by Steam Boat 
and Stage. 

L. Ponchartrain, by Rail 
Road, 
'Pt. Aux Herbes, 15 



GG 



Ft. Coquilles, 
L. Borgne, 
Grand Island, 
St. Joseph's Isl. 

g <{ W. Marianne, 
E. Marianne, 
Cat Island, 
Deer Island, 
Krebsville Har. 
^Portersville, 

Mobile, by stage, 



7 

11 

9 

4 

6 

5 

10 

17 



5 
20 
27 
38 

47 
51 
57 
62 
72 
89 



18 107 
16 123 
30 153 



To St. Stephens, by Stage. 

Madisonville, 32 

Jacksonville, 40 72 

Leakesville, 66 138 

Chickasawhay R. 17 155 

St. Stephens, 24 179 

To Natchez. 

Madisonville, by St. Bt. 32 

Liberty, by Stage, 69 101 

Natchez, " " 50 151 



New Orleans and Lake Pont- 
chartrain Canal, see Lou- 
isiana, (309.) 

New Orleans and Pontchar- 
train Rail Road, See Lou- 
isiana, (309.) 

New Philadelphia, O. (127.) 

Newport, N. Y. (55.) 

Newport, N. H. (61.) 

Newport, Ind. (145.) 

Newport, R. 1.(111.) 



To Berwick's Bay, and thence 

to Opelousas. 

Donaldsonville, 78 

Veret Canal, 14 92 

S. end Canal, 7 99 

Lake Palourde, 13 112 

Berwick's Bay, 10 122 

Franklin, 21 143 

Fausse Pt. 27 170 

St. Martinsville, S 178 

Opelousas, 36 214 



To Nashville, by Stage, via 
Florence, Ala. 

L. Pontcbartrain, 5 

Madisonville, 27 32 

Covington, 7 39 

Jacksonville, 33 72 

Columbia, ' 30 102 

Ellisville, 48 150 

Old Church, 47 197 

Koomsha, 45 242 

Columbus, 68 310 

Pikeville, 64 374 

Russelville, 30 404 

Florence, 22 426 

Lawrenceburg, 41 467 

Mt. Pleasant, 22 489 

Columbia, 11 500 

Franklin, 23 523 

Nashville, 18 541 



Newport, Mo. (162.) 
Newport, O. (151.) 
Newport, T. (231.) 
N. Paltz, N. Y. (108.) 
Newtown, Mich. (48.) 
Newtown, N. Y. (80.) 
Newtown, N. J. (108.) 
Newtown, II. (143.) 
Newville, Pa. (131.) 
New York, Va. (175.) 



84 NEW YORK. 

New York, state of, (78,) is divided into 56 counties. Popu- 
lation in 1830, 1,913,508, including 46 slaves. Area, 49,000 
square miles. Capital, Albany ; metropolis, New York; lat. 
40° 43' N., long. 2° 55' E. : general election at such time in 
October or November, as the legislature may provide. Legis- 
ture meet, first Tuesday in January ; Constitution formed, 
1821. 

Government. — Governor, term of office two years, salary 
$4,000. Lieutenant-governor and president of the senate, pay, 
$6 a day during the session. Legislature — senate consisting 
of 32 members, who are elected for four years, one-fourth 
being chosen annually. House of representatives, consists of 
128 members, elected annually. Pay, $3 a day. 

Judiciary. — Court of chancery, one chancellor, $2,500 per 
annum ; register, &,c. The eight circuit judges are vice- 
chancellors for their respective circuits. Supreme court — 
chief justice, $2,500 a year, and two associate judges, each 
2,500 per annum. There are eight circuit courts, with eight 
judges, salary of each, $1,600. 

Supreme court of the city of New York, chief justice and 
two associate judges, pay of each, $2,500 per annum. 

Physical Structure. — The eastern part of the state is greatly 
diversified : the Allegheny mountains pass through this section 
about 70 miles above the city of New York, cross the Hudson 
below Newburg, and pass in a north-east direction into the 
state of Massachusetts. Somewhat farther north, the Catskill 
mountains may be seen in the distance ; these are the most 
elevated mountains in the state. There arc mountains of great 
elevation west of lake Champiain, some of which are 3000 feet 
above the lake. The western part of the state is merely undu- 
lating, being entirely destitute of such mountains as mark its 
eastern section. 

Rivers. — Hudson, St. Lawrence, Mohawk, Delaware, Sus- 
quehanna, Allegheny, Genesee, Oswego, Black, Osvvegatchie, 
Raquctte, Saranac, &c. 

Productions. — Wheat, corn, rye, oats, flax, hemp, several 
kinds of grasses, vegetables and fruit. Iron is found in great 
abundance, gypsum, limestone, marble, slale, and lead occur in 
many places. in the centre of the state, salt is made in im- 
mense quantities. The mineral springs of New York are well 
known, the chief of which, those at Saratoga, are resorted to 
by people from all quarters. 



NEW YORK. 85 

Cities and Towns. — New York, (city) 5 Albany, the capital, 
Troy, Utica, Rochester, Buffalo, Schenectady, Hudson, New- 
burg, Poughkeepsie, Catskill, together with a large number of 
incorporated villages, and others not incorporated, having 
names different from their respective townships. 

Internal Improvements. — Erie Canal, from Albany to Buf- 
falo, length, 363 miles. Navigable feeder, 8 miles. — Cham- 
plain Canal, from the Erie Canal to Whitehall, length inclu- 
ding feeders and river navigation, 79 miles. — Hudson and 
Delaware Canal, from Hudson river near Kingston, to the 
mouth of the Lackawaxen, length, 82£ miles. — Oswego Canal, 
from Salina to Oswego, length 38 miles. — Seneca Canal, from 
Montezuma to Geneva, length 21 miles.— Chemung Canal, 
from Elmyra to Seneca lake, 23 miles; feeder 16 miles. — 
Crooked Lake Canal, from Penyan to Seneca lake, 8 miles. — 
Tonnawanta Canal, from the Erie Canal, near Wrightsville, 
to Tonnawanta creek, length 13 miles. Harlaem Canal, on 
Manhattan Island, from the Hudson to East River, length 1 J 
miles. 

Chenanga Canal, from Binghamton to Erie Canal length 
97 miles. — -Black River Canal, from Rome to the falls of Black 
river, 35 miles, and feeders 11 miles. — Sodus Canal, from Sodus 
Bay to Seneca river. Genesee Valley Canal, 107, and feeders 
15 miles. 

Rail-Roads. — Mohawk and Hudson Rail-Road, from Albany 
to Schenectady, 15 miles. — Schenectady and Saratoga Rail- 
Road, from Schenectady to Saratoga Springs, 21 ^ miles. — 
Catskill and Canajoharie Rail-Road, from Catskill to Canajo- 
harie (now in progress,) 70 miles. — Ithaca and Owego Rail- 
Road,^ miles. — Harlaem Rail-Road, on Manhattan Island, 5 
miles. — Rochester Rail- Road, (now in progress,) from Roches- 
ter to a point below the falls of Genesee 3 miles. — Schenectady 
and Utica Rail-Road, length 78 miles. — Bath Rail-Road, from 
Bath to Crooked lake, 5 miles. — Rochester and Batavia Rail- 
Road, (in progress) 28 miles. — Troy and Ballston Rail-Road, 
24^ miles. — Brooklyn and Jamaica Rail-Road, 12 miles. — 
Buffalo and Black Rock Rail-Road, 3 miles. — Buffalo and 
Niagara Falls Rail-Road, 23 miles. — Lockport and Niagara 
Falls Rail-Road, 20 miles. — Hudson and Stockbridge Rail- 
Road. Several other rail-roads are proposed in various parts 
of the state, portions of some are now in use. 

New York city, (134.) The commercial emporium of the 
United States, and metropolis of the state of New York,, is 

8 



86 



NEW YORK. 



situated at the point of junction of the Hudson and East rivers 
in N. lat. 40° 42' and E. long. 0° 55' 30" from Washington. 

The city proper, or that portion where the population is 
mostly concentrated, occupies the southern quarter of Man- 
hattan island, the whole of which, including Harlaem, York- 
ville, and some other villages, is under the jurisdiction of the 
city corporation, and is identical with the county of New York. 
The city, together with the suburbs just mentioned, contained 
in 1830, upwards of 30,000 buildings, and 213,470 inhabitants. 
The population at this time (1839) may be estimated at 
288,000. The densely settled part of the island, or what is 
called " the city," has an outline of 50,000 feet or ten miles, 
nearly. Its principal streets are Broadway, in which most of 
the retail business is transacted, Greenwich street, Pearl street, 
Broad, Wall and Chatham streets, the Bowery, Maiden-Lane, 
&c. &c. , 

The public buildings, and objects of curiosity, are the city 
hall, in the park, exchange buildings* in Wall street, college, 
hospital, Clinton hall, in Broadway ; battery, castle garden, 
N. Y. Institution, academy of fine arts, alms-house, three the- 
atres, medical college, baths, rooms of the National Academy 
of Design, masonic hall, in Broadway, house of refuge, or- 
phan's asylum, lunatic asylum, besides many others, and about 
100 churches, some of which are very splendid and capacious. 

The city government consists of a mayor, ten aldermen, and 
ten assistants, with an able and effective body of police officers. 
Steam boats, packets and stages, arrive at and depart from the 
city, at almost every hour, and for every part of the United 
States. 

ROUTES FROM NEW YORK. 



To Albany, by Steam Boat. 


Nyack, on Tappan sea, 


3 29 


Fort Ganeswort, 


2 


Sparta &. State Prison, 


3 32 


Hamilton's Monument, 


2 4 


Tellers Point, 


2 34 


Manhattanville, 


3 7 


Haver straw & Croton, 


1 35 


Fort Lee, 


3 10 


Stony Point, 


3 38 


Spuyten Duyvel Cr. 


2 12 


Verplank's Point, 


1 39 


Phillipsburg, 


4 16 


Peekskill, 


2 41 


Dobb's Ferry, 


6 22 


St. Anthony's nose, 


2 43 


Tappan Landing, 


3 25 


Fort Clinton, 


1 44 


Tarry town, 


1 26 


West Point, 


7 51 



* Since the first edition of this 
and 470 other huildings, have been 



work was issued, the Exchange, 
destroyed by fire. 



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fcoluinl.n 





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GOVEEKOTtS IV 


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NEW YORK. 



87 



59 
61 



♦8 f Crows Nest Mt. 4 55 

g J Butter Hill, 1 56 

2 1 Caldwell, 1 57 

g ! Canterbury, 1 58 

New Windsor, 1 

Newburg, West side, ) ^ 
Fiskill landing, E. S. ^ 
Hamburg, 6 67 

Hampton, 1 68 

Barnegat, 2 70 

Poukeepsie, 5 75 

Hyde Park, 5 80 

Pclham, 3 83 

Walkill Cr. 6 89 

Rhinebeck, 1 90 

Redhook, L. L. 6 96 

Glasgow, 3 99 

Redhook,U.L. 1 100 

Saugerties, 1 101 

Bristol, 1 102 

Catskill 9 111 

(Thence to Pine Orchard, 14 

miles.) 
Hudson and Athens, 5 116 
Columbiaville, 5 121 

Coxackie, 3 124 

Kinderhook Landing, 1 125 
New Baltimore, 5 130 

Coeymans, 2 132 

Schodack> 2 134 

Castleton, 1 135 

Albany, 10 145 

For routes from Albany, 

see article " Albany." 
The stage route from N. 
York to Albany, does not 
differ materially from the 
above. 

To Boston, by Steam Boat. 
Newtown Creek, 4 

Hell Gate, 5 9 

Flushing Bay, 4 13 



Throgs Point, 
Cow Neck, 
New Rochelle L. 
West Greenwich, 
Stamford, 
Old well, 
Southport, 
Black rock, 
Stratford Point, 
New Haven harb., 



3 16 
2 18 

6 24 

11 35 
8 43 
8 51 
8 59 
5 64 

7 71 

12 83 



(Thence to N. Haven, 

4 miles.) 
Falkner's Is. 12 95 

Hammonasset Pt., 8 103 

Connecticut River, 11 114 
New London harb., 14 128 
(Thence to N. London, 

4 miles,) 
Fishers Is. 5 133 

Point Judith, 30 163 

Beaver Tail, (Narragan- 

setbay,) 9 172 

Newport, 5 177 

Bristol Harb., 10 187 

Pawtuxet, 10 197 

Providence, 5 202 

Boston, by land, 43 245 



QD 



To Philadephia, via 
Amboy, fyc. 
f Castle Williams, 
Bedlow's Is. 
Kills, 

Ryers Ferry, 
c ^ Newark bay, 
Elizabethtown pt 
Rahway River, 
Perth Amboy, 
t South Amboy, 
. C Spotswood, 
«j | West's, 
*? -{ Rocky Brook, 
'IS J Centreville, 
P3 ^ Bordentown, 



South 



1 
2 
5 

7 
8 
12 
16 
25 
27 
36 
4 40 

8 48 
4 52 

9 61 



88 


NEW ' 


STORK. 




f Bristol, 


10 71 


Kingston, 


13 47 


B3 J Buriington, 


1 


72 


Princeton, 


3 50 


^ j Point no point, 
L Philadelphia, 


14 86 


Trenton, 


10 60 


5 91 


Bristol, 


11 71 








Holmsburg, 


11 82 


To Philadelphia by Rail Road 


Frankford, 


4 86 


via Trenton. 






Philadelphia, 


5 91 


Jersey City, 




1 






Hackensack river, 


4 


5 


To Easton, Pa. 


by Stage. 


.Newark, 


5 


10 


Newark, 


10 


Bound Brook, 


3 


13 


Morristown, 


19 29 


Elizabeth town, 


3 


16 


Chester, 


13 42 


Rahway, 


3 


19 


Schooley's mt. Springs, 8 50 


Matauchin, 


6 


25 


Mansfield, 


11 61 


New Brunswick, 


5 


30 


Easton, 


15 76 


Sand Hills, 


9 


39 






Williamsburg-, 


7 


46 


To Ithaca, 


N. Y. 


Clarks, 


3 


49 


Newark, 


10 


Trenton, 


8 


57 


Pompton, 


21 3t 


Tyburn, 


3 


60 


SnufFtown, 


12 43 


Tullytown, 


3 


63 


Deckertown, 


12 55 


Bristol, 


4 


67 


Milford, 


17 72 


Dunksville, 


4 


71 


Wilsonville, 


24 96 


Pennepack Cr. 


4 


75 


Rixes Gap, Pa. 


15 111 


Frankford, 


4 


79 


Montrose, 


34 145 


R. R. Depot, 


43 
^4 


83| 


o£ S Owego, 
c^ ( Ithaca, 


32 177 


State H. Phila. 


2 


85| 


30 207 


To Philadelphia, via New 


To New Haven Con., by 


Brunswick, Sf 


m 




Stage. 




Perth Amboy, S. Bt. 




25 


West Chester, 


15 


New Brunswick, " 


12 


37 


Mamaronec, 


8 23 


o I Kingston, 


14 


51 


Rye, 


6 29 


§° < Princeton, 


3 


54 


West Greenwich, 


2 31 


at f Trenton, 


10 


64 


Stamford, 


7 38 


^ S Bordentown, 
02 f Philadelphia, 


6 


70 


Norwalk, 


9 47 


30 


100 


Saugatuck, 


4 51 








Southport, 


4 55 


To Philadelphia, by Stage. 


Fairfield, 


3 58 


Newark, 




10 


Bridgeport, 


4 62 


Elizabethtown, 


6 


16 


Stamford, 


4 66 


Rah way, 


5 


21 


Milford, 


5 71 


New Brunswick, 


13 34 


New Haven, 


11 82 



NIAGARA. 89 

To Montauk Pt., by Stage, i Morriches, 10 68 

Jamaica, 11 ! Quag, 9 77 

Dix Hills, 18 29 S. Hampton, 14 91 

Smithtown, 11 40 B.Hampton, 7 98 

Carman, 18 58 Montauk Pt. 23 121 



Niagara, U. C. (54.) 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. (54.) This stupendous and unequalled 
work of nature, is formed by a ridge of lime-stone rocks, which 
is here broken and torn asunder by the waters from the great 
lakes above. This ridge, as it is improperly called, is a mere 
shelf, or a succession of steps, from the basin of lake Ontario, 
up to that of Erie, the difference of level being about 334 feet. 
The elevation of the great cataract from its brow at the 
crescent, to the surface of the strait is 158 feet, hence it will 
be seen that the rapids above the falls have a greater actual 
descent than the falls themselves. The rapids commence near 
the Burning Spring, about a mile above the precipice. 

The inclination of the plane over which the waters pass, 
increases as it approaches the chute, and thus augments the 
velocity of the current and the turbulence of its troubled waters. 
No spectacle can be more sublime, than is presented by the 
great falls, when viewed in connexion with the rapids above. 
The high grounds in the rear of Forsyth's hotel, affords such 
a view. 

In addition to the falls, there are several interesting objects 
in their vicinity, which deserve attention ; among them may 
be mentioned the Burning Spring, near the outlet of Chippewa 
creek ; whirlpool, two miles below the falls ; the bridge and 
platform at Goat Island ; the sorcerer's cave just below the 
falls; mineral spring \ mile below; the battle fields of Chip- 
pewa, Lundy's lane, and Queenston, Brock's monument, 
Welland canal, and the villages of Chippewa, Manchester, 
Lewistown, Queenston, Tuscarora indians, &c. 

ROUTES FROM NIAGARA. 

To Montreal, via Lake Onta- 
rio, by Steam Boat. Sfc. 
Queenston, 6 

Niagara Vil., 7 13 

Toronto, (York,) 30 43 

Port Hope, 66 109 

Coburg, 36 145 

8* 



Oswego, 


74 219 


Duck's Island, 


23 242 


Kingston, 


35 277 


Elizabeth town, 


48 325 


Prescot, 


14 339 


Hamilton, 


18 357 


Long Saut I., 


18 375 



90 



NIC 



NOR 



Cornwall, 10 385 

Lake St. Francis, 6 391 

Foot of do. 22 413 

Coteau du Lac, 4 417 

Les Cedres, 7 424 

Cascades, 7 431 

La Chine, 16 447 

Montreal, 8 455 

To Lockport, by Rail Road. 

Cayuga Cr. 11 

Cambria, 3 14 

Lockport, 6 20 

To Rochester, by Stage. 

Lewistown, 7 

Cambria, 15 22 

Hartland, 11 33 

Oak Orchard, 14 47 



Gainesville, 
Clarkson, 
Parma, 
Rochester, 



7 54 
16 69 

7 76 
11 87 



To Buffalo, by Stage, Canada 

side. 
Chippawa, 2 

Waterloo, 15 17 

Black rock, 1 18 

Buffalo, 1 19 



To Buffalo Am. side by Rail 

Road. 
Schlosser, 2 

Tonnewanta, 11 13 

Black Rock, 9 22 

Buffalo, 1 23 



Nicholasburg, Pa. (129.) 
Nicholasville, K. (190.) 
Nickojack, G. (249.) 
Noblesboro, Pa. (128.) 
Noblesville, Ind. (123.) 
Norfolk, Va. (218.) 
Norridgewock, Me. (40.) 
Norristown, Pa. (133.) 



Northampton, Mass. (84.) 
Northampton, C. H., Va. 

(199.) 
Norfield, Mass. (84.) 
Northwood, N. H. (62.) 
North West Canal, see N. 

Carolina, (218.) 
Northumberland, Pa. (132.) 



North Carolina, state of, (232,) is divided into 65 counties. 
Population in 1830, 738,470, including 246,462 slaves. Area, 
49,500 square miles ; capital, Raleigh ; metropolis, Newburn, 
in N. Lat. 35° 06', Long. 0° 6'. General election, no fixed 
day. Constitution formed, 1776, amended, 1835. 

Government. — Governor, term of office, two years, salary 
$2,000 ; is chosen by the qualified voters biennially ; is not 
eligible more than four years in any term of six years. Secre- 
tary of state, salary, $800 and fees. Treasurer $1500 per annum : 
and council of state, who are to continue in office two years. 

Legislature, — consists of a senate composed of 50 members, 
and a house of commons, of 120 members; all chosen bienni- 
ally ; meet every two years. 

Judiciary. — Supreme court, composed of a chief justice, 
salary $2,500, and two associate judges, each $2,500, per 



NORTH CAROLINA. 91 

annum. Circuit Court consists of seven judges. AH the judges are 
appointed by a joint vote of the senate and house of commons. 
The members of these bodies are elected by the people. 

Physical Structure. — The state of N. Carolina presents almost 
every variety of surface. In the east, we find immense 
flats of sea-sand marsh, swamp and other alluvious matter, 
but little elevated above their common parent, the Atlantic 
ocean. In the centre, hills of nearly all sizes and heights 
present themselves. These increase in magnitude and number 
in approaching the western section of the state, which is in 
every respect a mountain region. Some of the most elevated 
peaks of the Allegheny system, occur in the counties of Macon, 
Buncombe, Haywood, Yancy, &cc. 

Riters. — Meherrin, Roanoke, Tar, Famplico, Neuse, Cape 
Fear, Lumber, Yadkin, Catawba, Tennessee, French, Broad, 
&c. 

Productions — Cotton, rice, wheat, corn, tobacco, tar, pitch, 
turpentine, lumber, and recently gold. 

Towns. — Raleigh, the capital; Newborn, Salisbury, Wil- 
mington, Fayetteviile, Edenton, Salem, Charlotte, Hillsboro, 
Halifax, Alilton, «£c, 

Internal Improvements. — Dismal Swamp Canal, (see Vir- 
ginia.) Lake Drummond Canal, a navigable feeder of the 
preceding, extends from lake Drummond to the summit level 
of the Dismal Swamp Canal, length 5 miles. North West 
Canal, connects 2N. W. river with the Dismal Swamp Canal, 
length 6 miles. Weldon Canal, forms the commencement of 
the Roanoke Navigation. It extends around the falls of 
Roanoke, above the towns of Welden and Blakely, length 12 
miles. Clubfoot and Harlow Canal, extends from the head 
waters of Clubfoot to those of Harlow creek, near Beaufort, 
length lg miles. The navigation of the Roanoke from tbe 
Weldon Canal, to the town of Salem in Tirsrinia, a distance 
of 232 miles. The Cape Fear, the Yadkin, tne Tar, Xew and 
Catawba rivers have been greatly improved by joint stock 
compart =. 

The Rail Roads are, — One from Raleigh to Gaston on the 
Roanoke 56 miles in length. One from Weldon on the Roanoke 
to Wilmington on Cape Fear river, length 170 miles. 

The proposed Louisville, Cincinnati and Charleston Rail 
Road, will pass through the western part of this state. 

Several other rail-roads, are proposed, and surveys for some 
have been made. 



92 OHIO. 

(For an account of the Rail-road extending from Blakely 
to Petersburg and Norfolk, respectively, see Virginia.) 

Norton, O. (125.) Norwich, Conn. (110.) 

Norway, N. Y. (59.) Nottoway, Va. (196.) 

Norwich, N. Y. (81.) Nunen, G. (269.) 

O. 

Oakfuskee, Ala. (285.) Oconee R., G. (288.) 

Oakfuscoonene, G. (285.) Ocmulgee R., G. (303.) 

Obion R., T. (205.) Oewooha, Ala. (284.) 

Occacock Inlet, N. C. (239.) Ogdensburg, N. Y. (34.) 

Oeklawaha R., F. (329.) Ohio R., Pa. (128.) 

Oconee Station, S. C. (252.) Ohio R., K. (168.) 

Ohio, state of, (171,) is divided into 76 counties; population 
in 1830, 937,903. Area, 39,750 square miles. Capital, Co. 
lumbus; metropolis, Cincinnati, in lat. 39° 06' N. long. 7° 
31' W. General election second Tuesday in October. Legis- 
lature meets first Monday in December. Constitution formed 
in 1802. 

Government. — Governor, term of office two years, salary 
$1,500; secretary of state; treasurer, and auditor. Senate 
^consists of 36 members, elected biennially ; house of represen- 
tatives consists of 72 members, elected annually. 

Judiciary. — Supreme court consists of a chief judge and 
three associate judges — salary, $1,500 each. Courts of Com- 
mon Pleas. The state is divided into 12 districts, in each of 
which there is a presiding judge, salary $1,200; and two 
associates in each county, who receive each $2 50 per day, 
during their attendance at court, 

All the judges of the supreme court and the courts of 
common pleas are elected by the house of representatives for 
the term of seven years. The supreme court sits once a year 
in each county, and the court of common pleas three times a 
year. The only capital crime in Ohio is murder in the first 
degree. There is no imprisonment for debt, except in cases 
of fraudulent withholding of property. 

Physical Structure. — The eastern part of the state which 
borders on Pennsylvania is hilly, but gradually becomes more 
level as you advance westward. Along the whole course of 
the Ohio river, there is, in this state, a strip of land, of from 10 
to 15 miles, and in some places more, in width, which is broken 
and hilly. These hills, especially in the immediate vicinity of 



ohio. 93 

the river, are very high and often of quite a mountainous 
aspect. 

The western half of the state is in general remarkably level. 
On the immediate borders of Indiana, it is so much so, as to 
assume a very monotonous appearance. The central parts of 
the state, from the neighbourhood of the Ohio river up to lake 
Erie, may be compared, as regards level character, not with 
entire accuracy, to the country around Philadelphia, or rather 
that portion of Pennsylvania which is seen by the traveller as 
he passes from that city to Lancaster by the main turnpike road. 

Rivers. — Ohio, Mahoning, Little Beaver, Muskingum, Hock- 
hocking, Scioto, Little Miami, Great Miami, Maumee, Portage, 
Cuyahoga, Grand, Ashtabula, &c. 

Productions. — Wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, Indian corn, 
garden vegetables and fruits, are produced in great abundance. 

Towns. — Cincinnati, Columbus, Ripley, Portsmouth, Ma- 
rietta, New Lisbon, Canton, Wooster, Massillon, New Phila- 
delphia, Coshocton, Newark, Zanesville, Lancaster, Chillicothe, 
Circlesville, Dayton, Springfield, St. Clairville, Hillsboro, Ra- 
venna, Athens, and many others. 

Internal Improvements. — Ohio and Erie Canal, extends 
from Portsmouth on the Ohio river, to Cleveland on Lake Erie, 
length 307 miles. Miami Canal, from Cincinnati to Dayton, 
68 miles ; the extension of this canal to the Maumee is in 
progress; entire length when completed, 268 miles. Sandy and 
Heaver Canal, unites the Ohio Canal with the Pennsylvania 
Canal. Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, 89 miles. Columbus 
Canal, from the Ohio and Erie Canal to Columbus, 10 miles. 
Lancaster Canal, from the Ohio and Erie Canal to Lancaster, 
9 mile3 ; and the Zanesville Canal, from the same to Zanesville, 
14 miles. Wabash and Erie Canal, an extension of the Indiana 
Canal, which intersects the Miami Canal at Defiance. Chippe- 
way Canal. Billeville and Bolivar Canal. Franklin and 
Nevj Lisbon Canal. Walhonding Canal, 28 miles. Warren 
county Canal. 

Though a vast number of rail-roads are proposed in this 
state, but little progress has yet been made towards their exe- 
cution. 

Portions of the Sandusky City and Monroeville Rail Road, 
and Mad River and Lake Erie Rail Road, are completed and 
in use. The legislature, at its session in 1837, incorporated 
eleven Rail-road Companies, which with those previously 
incorporated, make upwards of fifty, for the construction of as 
many rail-roads in various parts of the state, Some of these 



94 



OHI 



PEE 



projects have been abandoned and others suspended, owing to 
the pecuniary difficulties of the times. Others however, are 
progressing and will speedily be completed. 



Ohio and Erie Canal, see 

Ohio, (171.) 
Old Agency, Miss. (282.) 
Oneida L., N. Y. (57.) 
Onslow, N. C. (257.) 
Onslow Bay, N. C. (257.) 
Opelousas, Lou. (307.) 
Opilacloy, F. (329.) 
Orange, C. H., Va. (175.) 
Orangeburg, S. C. (273.) 
Orwigsburg, Pa. (132.) 
Osage, Mo. (162.) 
Osbom, Va. (197.) 
Ossipee, N. H. (62.) 
Ossabaw Sound, G. (305.) 
Oswego, N. Y. (57.) 



Painesville, O. (101.) 
Painesville, Va. (196.) 
Painted Post, N. Y. (79.) 
Palatine, N. Y. (59.) 
Palestine, II. (] 45.) 
Palestine, Ind. (167.) 
Palermo, Me. (40.) 
Pallachuchee, Ala. (285.) 
Palmyra, Me. (40.) 
Palmyra, N. Y. (56.) 
Palmyra, Mo. (141.) 
Palmyra, Miss. (279.) 
Paoli, Ind. (167.) 
Pamlico Sound, N. C. (238.) 
Pamlico R., N. C. (238.) 
Papakunk, N. Y. (82.) 
Paris, K. (169.) 
Paris, Me. (39.) 
Paris, T. (206.) 
Parkman, O. (101.) 
Parker, N. C. (218.) 
Parkers, S. C. (210.) 



Oswego Canal, see N. Y. (57.) 

Ottawa, U. (94.) 

Ottawa, or Grand R., L. C. 

(13.) 
Ottsville, Pa. (133.) 
Ovid, II. (185.) 
Ovid, N. Y. (80.) 
Owego, N. Y. (SO.) 
Owenton, K. (169.) 
Owenboro, K. (187.) 
Owingsville, K. (170.) 
Oxford, N. H. (61.) 
Oxford, N. Y. (81.) 
Oxford, II. (166.) 
Oxford, N. C. (216.) 
Oyster Bay, N. Y. (135.) 



P. 



Parkers, Miss. (264.) 
Parkersburg, Va. (151.) 
Parrishville, N. Y^ (35.) 
Parry ville, II. (164.) 
Parrots, S. C. (254.) 
Parsonfield, Me. (63.) 
Pascagoola R., Miss. (311.) 
Pascagoola Bay, Miss. (311.) 
Pass Marian, Lou. (311.) 
Pater son and Hudson River 

R. Road, see N. J. (134.) 
Patterson, N. Y. (109.) 
Paterson, N. J. (134.) 
Patesville, K. (188.) 
Pattonsburg, Va. (195.) 
Patton, N. C. (236.) 
Pawtucket Canal, see Mass. 

(85.) 
Peaces, Ala. (248.) 
Pearl R., Miss. (296.) 
Pearlington, Miss. (310.) 
Peedee R., S. C. (255.) 



PENNSYLVANIA. 95 

Peekskill, N. Y. (109.) Penobscot R., Me. (20.) 

Pellicers, Fl. (330.) Penobscot Bay, Me. (64.) 

Pembroke, Mass. (86.) Pensacola, F. (312.) 

Pemmaquid Pt., Me. (64.) Pensacola Bay, F. (312.) 
Pennsboro, Pa. (106.) 

Pennsylvania, state of, (132,) is divided into 54 counties. 
Population in 1830, 1,347,672, including 3S6 slaves. Area, 
47,500 square miles. Capital, Harrisburg ; metropolis, Phila- 
delphia, in N. lat. 39° 57 E. long. 1° 47'. General election, 
second Tuesday in October ; legislature meet first Tuesday in 
January. Constitution formed, 1790. Amended, 1838. 

(rOtfernrnent-'— Governor, term of office three years, salary 
$4,000 ; ineligible after an official term of nine years ; secretary 
of state; treasurer; auditor-general; surveyor-general; and 
attorney-general. 

Legislature. — Senate, members elected for three years, — * 
one-third chosen annually. House of Representatives, mem- 
bers elecled annually. 

Judiciary — There is a supreme court, consisting of a chief 
justice and four associate judges, appointed by the governor 
and senate for a term of 15 years. This court holds its sessions 
in five places in the state, which is divided into five districts 
for that purpose. The state is also divided into 16 districts, 
for the sessions of the courts of common pleas. Each of these 
circuits has a presiding judge, and two associates from each 
county. The judges of the supreme court receive a salary of 
§2,000 per annum; the judges of the common pleas, 81,600 ; 
and the associates, 8200. The latter hold their offices for five 
years. 

Physical Structure. — The Allegheny mountains pass obli- 
quely across the central part of the state, ranging, generally, 
from north-east to south-west. The several ridges which con- 
stitute the system here are known by local names, differing in 
many cases, from those generally adopted by writers on geo- 
graphy. In passing along the great road from Philadelphia 
to Pittsburg, the traveller crosses, successively, the following 
ridges : Mine Hill ; South Mountain ; Blue Mountain ; Cove ; 
Sideling Hill ; Tussey's Mountain ; Dunning's Mountain ; 
Will's Mountain ; Allegheny Mountain ; Laurel Hill, and 
Chesnut ridge. The Allegheny is by far the most elevated 
among the group ; it is here that the waters which run east- 
ward and those flowing into the Ohio, have their sources. The 
ridges on either side of the great Allegheny, are little else than 



96 PENNSYLVANIA. 

mere steps from the plains below, up to the main ridge ; the 
valleys as well as the ridges, becoming more and more elevat- 
ed, as they approach the dividing ridge. Some of the peaks 
attain an elevation of 3,000 feet; the mean altitude of the 
Allegheny system, is about 2,500 feet above tide water. 

Islands. — With the exception of a few small islands in the 
Delaware and Susquehannah, there is none within the borders 
of the state. Those in the Susquehanna are, Duncan's island, 
at the mouth of the Juniata ; Hill island, near Middletown ; 
Fishing island, a few miles below, and some others. And in 
the Delaware, Tinicum, Hog, League, Pettys, Biles, &c. 

Lakes. — Erie, which borders the N. W. part of the state, and 
Conneaut, are the only lakes in the state, which is remarkably 
destitute of such aggregations of waters, as deserve the name 
of lakes. 

Rivers. — Delaware, Schuylkill, Lehigh, Susquehanna, Swa- 
tara, Juniata, West Branch, Ohio, Beaver, Allegheny, Cone- 
maugh, Clarion, French creek, Monongahela, Youghiogeny, 
&c. 

Productions. — Wheat, rye, Indian corn, barley, oats, flax, 
lumber, live stock, iron, &c. &c. 

Cities and Towns. — Philadelphia, the metropolis ; Harris- 
burg, the capital ; Pittsburg, Erie, Lancaster, York, Reading, 
Bethlehem, Easton, Potts vilie, Chester, West Chester, Carlisle, 
Bedford, Washington, &c. &c. 

Internal Improvements : — 

State Canals. — Central division, Pennsylvania Canal, ex- 
tends from Columbia to Hollidaysburg, length 171 3-4 miles. 
Western division, Pennsylvania Canal, from Johnstown to 
Pittsburg, length 104 miles. Susquehanna division, Pennsyl- 
vania Canal, extends from the central division on Duncan's 
island, to Northumberland, 39 miles. West Branch division, 
Pennsylvania Canal, from Northumberland to Dunnstown, 
65 3-4 miles. North Branch division, Pennsylvania Canal, 
from Northumberland to Nanticoke falls, 60J miles. An ex- 
tension of this canal, 14 98-100 miles, is now in progress. 
Delaware division, Pennsylvania Canal, extends from Bristol 
to Easton, 59 3-4 miles. Pittsburg and Erie Canal, is to 
extend from Pittsburg to Erie, 73-40 miles of this work is 
completed. 

Canals constructed by joint stock companies. — Schuylkill 
Navigation, extends from Philadelphia to Port Carbon, 108 
miles. Union Canal, extends from the Schuylkill near Read- 
ing to Middletown on the Susquehanna, 82-08 miles. Pine 



PENNSYLVANIA. 97 

Grove Canal, a branch of the preceding, 6-75 miles in length. 
Lehigh Navigation, from Easton to Mauch Chunk, 46-75 miles. 
Lackawaxen Canal, from M'Carty's point to Honesdale, 25 
miles. Conestoga Navigation, from Lancaster to Safe Harbor, 
on the Susquehanna, 18 miles. Codorus Navigation, from 
York to the Susquehanna, 11 miles. West Philadelphia 
Canal, around the western abutment of the permanent bridge, 
over the Schuylkill, about 500 yards in length. Columbia and 
Tide Canal, 45 miles. Bald Eagle Navigation, 25 miles. 
Mauch Chunk and Wright's Creek Canal, 26 miles. 

State Rail Roads, — Columbia Rail Road, extends from 
Philadelphia to Columbia, on the Susquehanna, length 81-60 
miles. Allegheny Portage Rail Road, from Hollidaysburg to 
Johnstown, forms the connecting link between the central and 
western divisions of the Pennsylvania Canal, length 36-69 
miles. 

Rail Roads constructed by joint stock companies : — Mauch 
Chunk Rail Road, from Mauch Chunk to the coal mines, 9 
miles. Room Run Rail Road, from Mauch Chunk to the coal 
mine on Room Run, 5-26 miles. Mount Carbon Rail Road, 
from Mount Carbon to Norwegian valley, 7-24 miles. Schuyl- 
kill Valley Rail Road, from Port Carbon to Tuscarora, 10 
miles. Branches of the preceding, 15 miles. Schuylkill Rail 
Road, 13 miles. Mill Creek Rail Road, from Port Carbon to the 
coal mines, near Mill Creek, length, including branches, 7 ms. 
Mine Hill and Schuylkill Haven Rail Road, from Schuylkill 
Haven to the coal mines at Mine Hill, length including 2 
branches, 20 miles. Pine Grove Rail Road, 4 miles in length. 
Little Schuylkill Rail Road, from Port Clinton to Tamaqua, 
23 miles. Beaver Meadow Rail Road, 26J miles. Lackawaxen 
Rail Road, from Honesdale to Carbondale, 16J miles. West 
Chester Rail Road, from the Columbia Rail Road to West 
Chester, 9 miles. Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown 
Rail Road, from Philadelphia to Norristown, with a branch to 
Germantown. Lyken's Valley Rail Road, from Broad Mountain 
to Millersburg. Philadelphia and Trenton Rail Road, 26 1-4 
miles in length. Central Rail Road, from the vicinity of 
Pottsville to Sunbury, 44-54 miles. Danville branch, 7 miles 
long, whole length, 51-54. Oxford R. Road, now in progress, 
extends from the Columbia Rail Road. Reading Rail Road 
to extend to Port Clinton. Philadelphia and Reading Rail 
Road, 54 miles. Philadelphia and Wilmington Rail Road, 27 
miles. Catawissa and Tamaqua Rail Road, 38J miles. Wil* 
liamsport and Elmira Rail Road, 73 J miles. Lancaster and 

9 



98 PHILADELPHIA. 

Harrisburg Rail Road. — Harrisburg and Chambersburg Rail 
Road, 50 miles. Downingtown and Norristown Rail Road, 20 
miles. Marietta and Columbia Rail Road, 3 miles. Strasburg 
Rail Road, 5 miles. 

Pennsylvania Canals and Perrysville, II. (164.) 
Rail Roads, see Pennsyl- Perrysville, T. (227.) 

vania, (132.) Person C. H., N. C. (215.) 

Penyan, N. Y. (79.) Petersburg, P. (131.) 

Peoria, II. (119.) Petersburg, P. (153.) 

Perdido R., F. (317.) Petersburg, P. (155.) 

Perrysburg, O. (99.) Petersburg, Ind. (166.) 

Perry, G. (287.) Petersburg, Va. (197.) 

Perrysville, O. (126.) Petersburg and Roanoke Rail 

Perrysville, P. (128.) Road, see Virginia, (217.) 

Perrysville, Mo. (185.) Peters T., Va. (194.) 

Philadelphia, P. (137.) The metropolis of the state of Penn- 
sylvania, and, after New York, the largest city in the U. S. 
Present pop. about 220,000. It is favorably situated between 
the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, about 5 miles from the 
junction of the latter with the Delaware. The city proper, or 
that portion of it which is limited by the Delaware on the east, 
the Schuylkill on the west, Vine st. on the north, and South or 
Cedar st. on the south, is under the jurisdiction of the corpora- 
tion. The adjoining districts have each separate and distinct 
municipal authorities and regulations, wholly unconnected, in 
a legal point of view, with the others, or either of them. These 
regulations, being merely local in their operation, are unim- 
portant in reference to the city, as it is generally understood, 
which, for all practical purposes, may be regarded as embrac- 
ing the adjoining districts of Kensington, the Northern Liber- 
ties, Spring Garden, Southward Moyamensing, &c. 

The densely built parts of the city and districts, have an 
outline of about 8£ miles. The principal streets of the city 
proper, are Market or High, Arch or Mulberry, Race or Sassa- 
fras, Vine, Chesnut, Walnut, Dock, Spruce, Lombard, South or 
Cedar, Front, Second, Third, &c. up to Thirteenth, which is 
succeeded by Broad street, &c. Those of the Northern Liber- 
ties, are Callowhill, Noble, Green, Coates, Brown, Front, Budd, 
Second, St. Johns, Third sts., Old York Road, &c. Those of 
Kensington, Beach, Queen, Maiden, Shackamaxon, Marlboro, 
Hanover street, &c. In Spring Garden, are Marshall, Law-* 



and 



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C. CUjf 

S . Southirark 

BT.I*. Northern Liberties 
Kensington 
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State H. ceAdenciidfSq. 
Arcade K-Jiuseum 
riieatre Chesnut St. 
Theatre Walnut St. 
Theatre Arch St. 
Musical Fund Sac. Mail 
Acad eat v at' Fin e Arts 
miosdplciciilBall 
rtimsyhama Hospital 
AlmsJUaise 
Childrens Asylum 
Widows ccOiidums do. 
Veafaad VumhUist'. 1 
Dispensary 
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Post iWice 











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PHILADELPHIA. 99 

renee, Eighth, Ninth, &c. Callowhill, James, Buttonwood, 
Spring-Garden, Washington streets, &c. In Southwark, 
Shippen, Plum, German, Catharine, Queen, Christian, Carpen- 
ter, Prime street, &c. And in Moyamensing, Shippen, Fitz- 
water, Catharine, Tidmarsh, Prime and Federal streets. In 
addition to the above, each district has several cross streets 
and avenues, most of which are well built. 

Public buildings, and other interesting objects in or near the 
city are : Independence Hall or State-house, in which the 
various courts are held, Bank of the United States, Philadelphia 
Bank and contiguous buildings, Theatre, Arcade, Masonic 
Hall, Academy of the Fine Arts, United States Mint ; all the 
above are in Chesnut street. Pennsylvania Hospital, in Pine 
street ; Alms-house, in Blockley Township ; Orphans' Asylum, 
in Cherry street ; Wills's Hospital for the Lame and Blind, in 
Race street; Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind, Race 
street; Orphan's (Catholic) Asylum of St. Joseph's, in Spruce 
street ; Widow's Asylum, in Cherry street ; Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, on Broad and Pine streets; 
Merchants' Exchange and Post Office, on Dock, Third and 
Walnut streets ; Custom-house, in Second street ; City Library, 
and Philosophical Hall and Atheneum, in Fifth street near 
Chesnut ; Hall of the Franklin (mechanics') Institute, in 
Seventh street; Academy of Natural Sciences, in Twelfth 
street ; University buildings, in Ninth street ; Jefferson Col- 
lege, in Tenth street ; Musical Fund Hall, in Locust street ; 
Adelphi, in Fifth street ; Washington Hall, in Third street ; 
Theatre, in Walnut street ; Theatre, in Arch street ; Museum, 
Ninth and Sansom streets ; Prisons, on Passyunk Road ; 
Eastern Penitentiary, and House of Refuge, in Coates' street ; 
Fair Mount Water Works, on the Schuylkill, N. W. of the 
State-house ; Marine Asylum, and United States Arsenal, on 
the Schuylkill, S. W. of the State-house; Navy Yard on the 
Delaware ; Friends' Lunatic Asylum, near Frankford ; about 
80 churches, 16 banks ; Alms-house, west side of the Schuyl- 
kill ; Girard College, N. W. of the State-house, &c. &c. 

ROUTES FROM PHILADELPHIA. 

. f Spread Eagle, 5 16 
^ | Paoli, 5 21 

pg { Warren, 1 22 



To Pittsburg. 
^ r Fair Mount, 1 

o J Viaduct over the 
# | Schuylkill, 2 3 

tf (.Buck Tavern, 8 11 



pj | Valley Creek, 7 29 

LDowningtown, 3 32 



100 



ROUTES FROM PHILADELPHIA. 



*< 



o 
bo 

-5 1 
w. 



" Coatesville, 
Gap Tavern, 
Mine ridge, 
Mill Creek, 
Soudersburg, 
Lancaster, 
Mt. Pleasant, 

..Columbia, 

fYorfc, 
Abbotstown, 
Gettysburg, 
Chambersburg, 
M'Connelstown, 
Bedford, 
Shellsburg, 
Stoystown, 
Laughlintown, 
Greensburg, 

„ Pittsburg, 



11 
1 
5 
3 
9 
8 
5 
11 
15 



40 
51 
52 

57 
60 
69 
77 
82 
93 
108 



14 122 
25 147 
19 166 

31 197 
9 206 

19 225 
16 241 
23 264 

32 296 



tf 



12 
15 



To Pittsburgh via Harris- 
burg. 
Lancaster, 
Mountjoy, 
Middletown, 
Harrisburg, 
5 ^ Carlisle, 
Stough's T. 
Shippensburg, 
L Chambersburg, 
Pittsburg, as above, 



9 105 
18 123 
13 136 

7 143 

11 154 

147 301 



To Pittsburg, by Pennsylva- 
nia Rail Road and Canal. 

Columbia, as above, 82 

r Marietta, 3 85 

Bainbridge, 6 91 

Falmouth, 4 95 

Middletown, 4 99 

g <{ Highspire, 3 102 

$ Harrisburg, 6 108 

Blue Mt. Gap, 5 113 
Port Dauphin, 3 116 
Duncan's Isd. 9 125 



O 



f Newport, 10 135 

Thompsontown, 11 146 

Mexico, 7 153 

Mifflintown, 4 157 

Lewistovvn, 14 171 

Waynesburg, 14 185 

Aughwich Fs, 12 197 

Huntingdon, 17 214 

Petersburg, 7 221 

Alexandria, 7 228 

Williamsburg, 12 240 

Frankstown, 10 250 

^Hollidaysburg, 3 253 

Johnstown, by R. R. 37 290 

f Laurel Hill, 7 297 

Lockport, 10 307 

Chesnut Hill, 5 312 

Blairsville, 8 320 

Saltzburg, 16 336 

Warrentown, 12 348 

Leechburg, 10 358 

Allegheny aqua. 3 361 

Logan's Ferry, 15 376 

I Pittsburg, 18 394 



To Erie, Pa. 
Manyunk, 
Norristown, 
Trap, 
Pottstown, 
Warrensburg, 
Exetertown, 
Reading, 
Hamburg, 
Orwigsburg, 
Pottsville, 
Sunbury, 
New Berlin, 
Milheim, 
Belle fonte, 
Phillipsburg, 
Curwinville, 
Brookville, 
Shippensville, 



by Stage. 

16 
25 
35 
40 
45 
52 
67 
78 
8 86 

36 122 
11 133 
25 158 
21 179 
27 206 
19 225 

37 262 
27 289 



9 
9 
10 
5 
5 
7 

15 
11 



ROUTES FROM PHILADELPHIA, 



101 



Franklin, 


18 307 


Meadville, 


25 332 


Waterford, 


23 355 


Erie, 


15 370 


To Pottsville, by 


Schuylkill 


Canal, 




Manyunk, 
Flat Rock, 


7 
1 8 


Spring Mills, 
Norristown, 


3 11 

5 16 


Phenixville, 


12 28 


Pottstown, 


15 43 


Unionville, 


3 46 


Birdsboro, 


6 52 


Reading, 


12 64 


Hamburg, 
Port Clinton, 


23 87 

4 91 


Tunnel, 


7 98 


Schuylkill Haven, 
Mount Carbon, 


3 101 

4 105 


Pottsville, 


1 106 


Port Carbon, 


2 108 


To Bethlehem, Pa 


by Stage. 


Sunville, 


3 


German town, 


3 6 


Flowertown, 


5 11 


Spring, 
Montgomery, 
Lexington, 
Sellersville, 


6 17 
4 21 
4 25 

7 32 


Quakertown, 

Fryburg, 

Bethlehem, 


5 37 

6 43 
8 51 


To Easton, by Stage. 


Shoemakertown , 


9 


Jenkintown, 


1 10 


Abington, 

Willowgrove, 

Newville, 


1 11 

2 13 

7 20 



Doylestown, 

Ottsville, 

Easton, 

To New York, by 

Frankford, 

Holmsburg, 

Bristol, 

Trenton, 

Princeton, 

Kingston, 

New Brunswick, 

Milton, 

Elizabethtown, 

Newark, 

New York, 



4 24 
15 39 
17 56 

Stage. 

5 

4 9 

11 20 

11 31 

10 41 

3 44 

13 57 
13 70 

5 75 

6 81 
10 91 



To New York, by Steam Boat 

and Stage. 
Burlington, by S. Boat, 19 
Bristol, do. 1 20 

Bordentown, do 10 30 
Trenton, by S. B. 6 36 

Princeton, by Stage, 10 46 
New Brunswick, do. 17 63 
Perth Arnboy, by S. 

Boat, 12 75 

New York, do. 25 100 

To New York, by Steam Boat 

and Rail Road. 
Bordentown, by S. Boat, 30 
Centreville, by Rail R. 9 39 
Spots wood, 16 56 

South Amboy, 9 64 

Perth Amboy, by S. 

Boat, 2 66 

New York, 25 91 

To Baltimore by Rail-Road 

via Wilmington, Sfc. 

Wilmington Rail-Road, 1 



[02 



ROUTES PROM PHILADELPHIA. 



Gray's Ferry viaduct, 

Chester, 

Marcus H. Road, 

Wilmington, 

Newport, 

Newark Road, 

Elkton, 

Northeast, 

Charleston, 

Havre De Grace, 

Bush River, 

Gunpowder R. 

Back River, 

Depot, 

Baltimore P. O. 



4 5 
9 14 

4 18 
9 27 
4 31 
8 39 
6 45 
6 51 
3 54 

6 60 
12 72 

7 79 
11 90 



94 
95 



To Baltimore, by Steam Boat 
ond Rail.Road. 

„. f Fort Mifflin, 8 

g j Lazaretto, 5 13 

°3 «{ Chester, 5 18 

| | Marcus Hook, 4 22 

« j Christiana Cr. 8 30 

w I New Castle, 5 35 

Frenchtown, byR. R. 16 51 

Baltimore, by S. B. 69 120 



To Baltimore, by Stage. 

Darby, " 6 

Chester, 9 15 

Wilmington, 13 28 

Elkton, 20 48 

Havre De Grace, 16 64 

Baltimore, 34 98 



To Baltimore, by Steam Boat 

and Canal. 
New Castle, as above, 

by Steam Boat, 35 

Delaware City, 6 41 

St. George's, by Canal, 5 46 

Deep Cut do. 4 50 



Bohemia, do. 5 55 
Turkey Point, by S. 

Boat, 10 65 

Baltimore, do. 48 113 

To Cape May, by Steam Boat. 

Delaware City, as above, 41 

Reedy Island, 5 46 

Alia ways Creek, 5 51 

Bombay Hook, 12 63 

Egg Island, 17 80 

Light Ho. C. May, 20 100 

Cape Island, 2 102 

To Cape May, by Stage. 

Woodbury, 9 

Jonesboro, 10 19 

Malaga, 10 29 

Millville, 13 42 

Port Elizabeth, 6 48 

Dennis Creek, 14 62 

Goshen, 4 66 

Cape May, C. H. 4 70 

Cold Spring, 9 79 

Cape Island, 2 81 



To Tuckerton, N. Jer. by 
Stage. 

Pensauken Creek, 9 

Hampton, F. 17 26 

Washington, 9 35 

Tuckerton, 14 49 

To Long Branch. 

Bordentown, by S. B. 30 

Allentown, by Stage, 7 37 

Monmouth, do 18 55 

Eaton, do. 10 65 

Long Branch, do 4 69 



PHI 



PITTSBURG. 



103 



Philadelphia (West) Canal, 
see Pennsylvania, (157.) 

Philadelphia, Germanlown $f 
JSorrislown Rail Road, see 
Pennsylvania, (133.) 

Philadelphia, K. (188.) 

Fhillipsburg, L. C. (16.) 

Phillipsburg, P. (130.) 

Pickensville, S. C. (252.) 

Pickensville, Miss. (280.) 

Picolata, F. (330.) 

Pierces, Ga. (289.) 

Pike, N. Y. (78.) 

Pikeville, K. (192.) 

Pikeville, T. (229.) 

Pikeville, Ala. (246) 

Piketon,0. (150.) 

Pickneyville, S. C. (253.) 

Pine Bluff, Ark. (242.) 

Pine Log, Ga. (250.) 

Pittston, Pa. (107.) 



Pineville, S. C. (273.) 

Pine Grove Rail-Road, see 

Pennsylvania, (132.) 
Pine Orchard, N. Y. (83.) 
Pinthocco, Ala. (284.) 
Piscatawav, Md. (177.) 
Piqua, O. (124.) 
Point Au Tremble, L. C. (15.) 
Pt. Pyrites, Mich. (69.) 
Pt. au Pins, U. C. (75.) 
Pt. au Playe, U. C. (100.) 
Pt. Pleasant, Va. (171.) 
P. DuRocher, II. (164.) 
P. Frederick. Md. (177.) 
Pt. Tobacco, Md. (177.) 
Pt. Comfort, Ala. (285.) 
Pt. au Fer, Lou. (322.) 
Pt. of Pines, Fl. (328.) 
Pt. Chico, Lou. (324.) 
Pittsfield, Mass. (83.) 



Pittsburg, Pa. (128.) The city of Pittsburg was founded in 
1765 ; and now contains a population of about 38,000 including 
the adjoining villages of Allegheny, Birmingham, &c. It is 
a place of great trade, and has extensive manufactories. The 
public buildings are, a court-house, exchange, college, moni- 
torial school house, several hotels, museum, banks, market- 
house, many foundries, and 16 or 18 churches of various deno- 
minations. 

ROUTES FROM PITTSBURG. 



To Cincinnati, O. 


by Steam 


Elizabethtown, 


13 104 


Boat. 






Sistersville, 


35 139 


Middletown, 




11 


Newport, 


17 156 


Beavertown, 


18 


29 


Marietta, 


16 172 


Fawcetstown, 


19 


48 


Parkersburg, 


13 185 


Steubenville, 


22 


70 


Bellville, 


17 202 


Wellsburg, 


7 


77 


Letart's rapids, 


30 232 


Warrenton, 


6 


83 


Point Pleasant, 


29 261 


Wheeling, 


8 


91 


Gallipolis, 


3 264 



104 



ROUTES FROM PITTSBURGH. 



Guyandot, 

Burlington, 

Portsmouth, 

Manchester, 

Maysville, 

Ripley, 

Augusta, 

Point Pleasant, 

Cincinnati, 

(See Cincinnati.) 



34 298 

7 305 

41 346 

36 382 

10 392 

7 399 

9 408 

15 423 

26 449 



To Philadelphia, 
Stage , Sfc. 
East Liberty, 
Wilkinsburg, 
Howardsville, 
Stewartsville, 
Adarnsburg - , 
Greensburg, 
Youngstown, 
Laughlin, 
Stoystown, 
Bedford, 
M'Connels T. 

f Chambersburg, 
K | Gettysburg, 
ra | York, 
p- -{ Columbia, 
>, j Lancaster, 
^ j Downingtown, 

L Philadelphia, 



by 



3 
3 

8 
6 
7 

10 
13 
16 
28 



11 
19 
25 
32 
42 
55 
71 
99 



31 130 
19 149 
25 174 
29 203 
11 214 
13 227 
37 264 

32 296 



Pittsboro, N. C. (235.) 
Plattsburg, N. Y. (36.) 
Pleasant Valley, N. Y. (36.) 
Pleasant Grove, Va. (216.) 
Pleasant River Bay, Me. (42.) 
Plymouth, N. H. (62.) 
Plymouth, Mass. (112.) 
Plymouth, N. C. '238.) 
Pocomoke Bay, Va. (199.) 
Pogoi Is., Fl. (328.) 
Point Alderton, Mass. (86.) 



To Philadelphia, by 
and Rail Road 
Allegheny Aqueduct, 
Blairsville, 
Johnstown, 
Hollidaysburg, R. R. 
73 f Huntingdon, 
g j Lewistown, 
O -\ Duncan Island, 
jg 4 | Middletown, 

^Columbia, 
Philadelphia, by R. R. 



Canal 



41 

30 
37 

39 



23 

74 
104 
141 
180 



43 223 

46 269 
26 295 
17 312 
82 394 



To Erie, Pa. by Stage. 

Woodville, 18 

Butler, 9 27 

Centreville, 18 45 

Mercer, 15 60 

Georgetown, 15 75 

Meadville, 15 90 

Waterford, 23 113 

Erie, 15 128 

To Wheeling, by Stage. 

Findlaysville, 13 

Washington, 11 24 

Martinsburg, 5 29 

Claysville, 4 31 

W. Alexander, 6 39 

Wheeling, 16 55 



Pokanaweethty, Fl. (314.) 
Pompion, N. J. (108.) 
Pontiac, Mich. (73.) 
Poplar Spring, Md. (155.) 
Portage, N. Y. (57.) 
Portage, O. (101.) 
Port Deposit Canal, see 

Maryland, (156.) 
Port Genesee, N. Y. (56.) 
Port Glasgow, N. Y. (57.) 
Port Bar net, Pa. (103.) 



POR 

Port Allegheny, Pa. (104.) 
Port Williams, K. (168.) 



PORTLAND. 

Port Royal, Va. (176.) 



105 



Portland, (63,) the metropolis of Maine, has a population 
of 12,600. Several handsome public and private buildings, 
among the former are a court-house, custom-house, 10 churches, 
6 banks, &c. 

ROUTES FROM PORTLAND. 



To Boston, by Stage. 

Saco, 

Kennebunk port, 

Wells, 

York, 

Portsmouth, 

Hampton Falls, 

Newburyport, 

Rowley, 

Tops field, 

Danvers, 

Sangus, 

Boston, 

To Boston, via Salem, by 
Stage. 

Rowley, as above, 

Ipswich, 

Hamilton, 

Wenham, 

Beverly, 

Salem, 

Lynn, 

Boston, 





16 


10 


26 


6 


32 


15 


47 


9 


56 


13 


69 


9 


78 


5 


83 


8 


91 


6 


96 


7 


104 


10 114 



83 

88 

93 

95 

99 

102 

107 

10 117 



To Eastport, by Stage. 

Freeport, 18 

Brunswick, 9 27 

Bath, 7 34 

Wiscasset, 15 49 

Waldoboro, 18 67 



Warren, 


9 76 


Thomastown, 


4 80 


Camden, 


11 91 


Belfast, 


18 109 


Castine, (by water,) 
Bluehill, 


9 118 
10 128 


Elsworth, 


14 142 


Franklin, 


12 154 


Cherryfield, 
Columbia, 


20 174 
12 186 


Machias, 


15 201 


Whiting-, 
Eastport, 


15 216 
15 231 


To Quebec, by Stage. 


Brunswick, 


27 


Bodoinham, 


13 40 


Gardner, 


11 51 


Hallowell, 


4 55 


Augusta, 
Waterville, 


3 58 

17 75 


Norridgwock, 
Solon, 


16 91 
20 111 


Moscow, 


13 124 


Ferry over Kenne- 
beck river, 


17 141 


Monument, 


48 189 


St. Joseph, 
St. Henry, 
Quebec, 


54 243 
28 271 
12 283 


„ — „ 





1UG POR 


- 


RALEIGH. 




To Alfred. 




Mt. Washington, 


47 88 


Buxton, 


15 






Alfred, 


14 29 


To Paris. 









Windham, 


15 


To White Hills. 




Raymond, 


11 26 


Standish, 


17 


Otisfield, 


11 37 


Hiram, 


14 31 


Paris, 


13 50 


Boundary line, 


10 41 







Portland, N. Y. (77.) 
Portland, Ala. (283.) 
Portersville, Ind. (167.) 
Ports, S. C. (274.) 
Portsmouth, N. H. (63.) 
Portsmouth and Roanoke Rail 

Road, see Va. (218.) 
Portsmouth, O. (171.) 
Potatoe F., S. C. (274.) 
Potomac, Md. (154.) 
Potomac R., Md. (177.) 
Potomac Navigation, see 

Virginia, (155.) 
Potosi,Mo. (184.) 
Pottsdam, N. Y. (35.) 
Pottstown, Pa. (133.) 
Pottersville, Pa. (102.) 
Poukeepsie, N. Y. (109.) 
Powelton, Ga. (271.) 
Prairie du Chien, Wis. (66.) 
Prairie Bluff, Ala. (283.) 
Prattsville, Md. (154.) 



Prestonburg, K. (192.) 
Prescott, U. S. (34.) 
Presque I., U. C. (56.) 
Presque Is., Pa. (76.) 
Princeton, N. J. (134.) 
Princeton, Ind. (166.) 
Princeton, K. (187.) 
Princess Anne, Md., (178.) 
Prophetstown, Ind. (122.) 
Providence, R. 1. (111.) 
Providence and Norwich Rail 

Road, see R.I. (Ill) 
Provincetown, Mass. (86.) 
Prudhomme, Lou. (293.) 
Prunty, Va. (152.) 
Puckna, Ala. (267.) 
Pughtown, Va. (154.) 
Pulaski, T. (227.) 
Pultneyville, N. Y. (56.) 
Purdy, T. (226.) 
Paris, S. C, (2S9.) 
Putnam, Ind. (146.) 



Q. 



Quapaw Villages, Ark. (242.) 
Queenstown, Md. (177.) 
Quincy, Mass. (86.) 



Quincy, II. (141.) 
Quincy, F. (315.) 



R. 



Raleigh, T. (225.) 



Racoon Spring, K. (191.) 
Reasville, Ga. (271.) 

Raleigh, N. C. (236.) Capital of North Carolina, contained 
m 1830, 1,700 inhabitants. The public houses are, a state- 



ROUTES FROM RALEIGH. 



107 



house, court-house, jail, market-house* theatre, two or three 
banks* two churches, &c. 

ROUTES FROM RALEIGH. 



To Richmond, Va. by Stage. 
Louisburg, 
Warrenton, 
Lawrenceville, 
Petersburg 1 , 
Richmond, 



23 

38 



35 

58 
96 



50 146 
21 167 



Wilmington, 



61 158 



To Edenton, by Stage. 

Wakefield, 20 

Tarboro, 46 66 

Williamston* 34 100 

Jamestown, 11 111 

Plymouth, 13 124 

Edenton, 14 138 

To Newbern, by Stage. 
Smith field, 30 

Waynesboro, 24 54 

Kingston, 26 80 

Newbern, 47 127 

To Wilmington, by Stage. 
Fayetteville, " 58 

Elizabeth, 39 97 



To Columbia, S. C. 
Fayetteville, 58 

Laurel Hill, 33 91 

Cheraw, 28 119 

Evans Ford* 22 141 

Lit. Lynches Cr. 21 162 

Camden, 12 174 

Columbia, 32 206 



20 
34 



To Knoxville, T. by Stage. 
Branthys, 
Pittboro, 
Ashboro, 
Salisbury, 
Statesville, 
Morgantown* 
Ashville, 
Warm Springs, 
Newport, T. 
Dandridge, T. 
Knoxville, T. 



16 
36 

70 



32 102 

27 129 
38 167 
62 229 
36 265 

28 293 
15 308 
32 340 



Raleigh's Bay, N. C. (258.) Ravenna, O. ( 101 .) 

Rantales, S. C. (290.) Raymond, Me. (63.) 

Rappahannock R., Va. (198.) Reading, N. Y. (80.) 

Reading, Pa. (133.) Seat of justice of Berks county* 
Population in 1830, 5,859. The public buildings consist of a 
court-house, two banks, county offices, 7 or 8 churches, &c* 
The inhabitants are mostly Germans* or descendants of Ger= 
mans. 
ROUTES FROM READING. 

To Philadelphiai by Stage. 
Exetertown, 7 

Warrenburg, 5 12 

Pottstown, 5 17 



Trap, 


10 


27 


Norristown, 


9 


36 


Manayunk* 


9 


45 


Philadelphia * 


7 


55* 



108 



RHODE ISLAND. 



To Philadelphia, by Schuyl- 
kill Canal. 



Birdsboro, 

Unionville, 

Pottstown, 

Phenixville, 

Norristown, 

Manayunk, 

Philadelphia, 



12 

18 
21 



To Pottsville, by 
Canal. 
Hamburg, 
Port Clinton, 
Schuylkill Haven, 
Pottsville, 
Port Carbon, 



15 36 

12 48 

9 57 
7 64 

Schuylkill 

23 

4 27 

10 37 

5 42 
2 44 



To Pottsville, by Stage. 
Maiden Creek, 
Hamburg, 8 

Port Clinton, 5 

Orwigsburg, 6 

Pottsville, 8 



To Middletown, by Union 

Canal. 

Berneville, 15 

Womelsdorf, 10 25 

Stouchstown, 3 28 



Myerstown, 
Lebanon, 
Tunnel, 
Swatara river, 
Quittapahilla R. 
x\liddletown, 



5 33 

8 41 

1 42 

7 49 

11 60 

19 79 



To Lancaster, by Stage. 
Adamstown, 9 

Rearastown, 5 14 

Ephrata, 4 18 

Lancaster, 13 31 

To Harrisburg, by Stage. 
Sinking Spring, 
Womelsdorf, 
Myerstown, 
Lebanon, 
Millerstown, 
Palmyra, 
Hummelstown, 
Harrisburg, 



4 
9 13 



20 
26 
31 
37 
43 
52 



To Easton, by Stage. 
Kutztown, 17 

Trexlerstown, 9 26 

Allentown, 8 34 

Bethlehem, 5 40 

Easton, 10 50 



Reading, O. (148.) 
Red River, Lou. (294.) 
Red Church, Lou. (323.) 
Redheimers, S. C. (273.) 



Reister, Md. (156.) 
Renssellaerville, N. Y. (82.) 
Reynoldsburg, T. (207.) 



Rhode Island, state of, (111,) is divided into five counties. 
Population in 1830, 97,212. Area, 1,300 square miles. Capi- 
tals, Providence and Newport; metropolis, Providence; lat. 
41° 49' N. long. 5° 28' E. General election, April and 
August. Legislature meets, first Wednesday in May and 
last Wednesday in October. Date of Charter (from Charles 
II.) 1663. 

Officers of the government for one year ; governor, salary 



RHODE ISLAND. i09 

I; lieutenant-governor, $200 ; secretary of state, fees and 
$750 ; state treasurer, $450 ; attorney-general, fees. 

General Assembly. — Senate consists of the governor, lieu- 
tenant-governor, and eight senators. House of representatives 
consists of 72 members, elected semi-annually. 

Judiciary, — is vested in a Supreme Court, composed of a 
chief justice ($650 per annum,) and two associate judges 
($550 each,) and a court of common pleas, composed of five 
judges for each county of the state. All the judges are 
appointed annually by the general assembly. 

Physical Structure. — No mountains of great elevation exist 
in this state. In the north-west quarter, hills of considerable 
magnitude occur, at frequent intervals ; the substratum being 
composed almost entirely of rocks which frequently exhibit 
themselves not only on the hills, but in the valleys also. 
These give to this part of the state a rugged and exceedingly 
broken surface. The other three quarters may be regarded 
as level, with slight interruptions occasioned by low hills ; 
these, however, diminish in number and importance as the 
sea board is approached, and within a few miles of which they 
terminate altogether. 

Lakes. — Watchogg and Charles in the south-w T est. Paw- 
tuxet and several smaller lakes on the north-west. 

Rivers and Bays. — Narraganset Bay ; Taunton, Pawtucket,. 
Pawtuxet, Pawcatuck, Charles rivers, &c. 

Islands.— -Rhode, Connanicut, Prudence and some smaller 
islands. 

Productions. — Wheat, rye, corn, oats, barley, garden vege- 
tables, cattle, &.c. &c. 

Towns. — Providence, Newport, Bristol, S. Kingston, Paw- 
tucket, Burrelville, Slatersville, Pawtuxet, &c. 

Internal Improvements.— Blackstone Canal, (see Massachu- 
setts.) Stonington Rail Road, extends from StoningtOn in 
Connecticut, to Providence, 46 miles in length. A company 
has been incorporated to construct a Rail Road from Provi- 
dence to Norwich, in Connecticut* 

Rhodes,- T. (228.) Richland, N. Y. (57.) 

Rhinebeck, N. Y. (109,) Richmond, N. Y. (1 34.) 

Rieeboro, G. (305.) Richmond, Ind. (148.) 

Kichardsonville, S. C. (272.) Richmond, C. H., Va, (1 77.) 
Richfield, N.Y. (81.) 

Richmond, Va. (197,) capitai and metropolis of Virginia? 
Population in 1830, 16 T 085. Public buildings, stale-hoase> 

10 



110 



ROUTES FROM RICHMOND. 



penitentiary, court house, Virginia armory, theatre, and 8 or 
10 handsome churches. 

ROUTES FROM RICHMOND. 



T<r Norfolk by Steam Boat. 

Warwick, 7 

Osborn, 10 17 

Eppes Island, 22 39 

"Windmill point, 11 50 

Jamestown, 24 74 

Burrell's Bay, 13 87 

Newport News, 15 102 

Carney Island, 9 111 

Norfolk, 6 117 

To Baltimore, by Steam Boat. 

Newport News, as above, 102 

Fort Calhoun, 8 110 

Old Pt. Comfort, 1 111 

New ditto, 23 134 

Rappahannoc R. 22 156 

Light Boat, 21 177 

Cedar Point, 32 209 

Sharp's Island, 25 234 

Herring Bay, 10 244 

Thomas' Point, 12 256 

Bodkin Pt. 20 276 

North Pt. 3 279 

Fort M'Henry, 7 286 

Baltimore, 3 289 



To Washington City by 
Stage. 

Hanover, C. H. 19 

Bowlinggreen, 23 42 

Fredericksburg, 22 64 

Stafford C. H. 9 73 

Aquia, 5 78 

Dumfries, 9 87 

Occoquan, 9 96 

Alexandria, 17 113 



Washington, 



9 122 



To Raleigh N. C. by Stage. 
Petersburg, 21 

Notoway R. 32 53 

Lawrenceville, 18 71 

Roanoke R. 19 90 

Warrenton, 19 109 

Louisburg, 23 132 

Raleigh, 25 167 

To Norfolk, by Stage. 
Petersburg, 21 

Cabin Point, 26 47 

Surrey, C. H. 14 61 

Smithfield, 18 79 

NansemondR. 11 90 

Norfolk, 25 115 



To Knoxville, Ten. 
Powhatan C. H. 
Cumberland C. H. 
Lynchburg, 
New London, 
Liberty, 
Big Lick, 
Salem, 

Christiansburg, 
Newbern, 
Evansham, 
Mt. Airy, 
Abingdon, 
Blountsville, 
Kingsport, 
Rogersville, 
Rutledge, 
Knoxville, 



by Stage. 
32 

25 57 
56 113 
11 124 
15 139 
28 167 

7 174 

27 201 
17 218 

28 246 
15 161 
41 302 
24 326 
17 343 

26 369 

31 400 

32 432 



To Guyandot, via Warm 

Springs, by Stage. 

Goochland C. H. 29 



RIC 




ROCHESTER. 


111 


Columbia, 


19 48 


To Winchester, 


via Harrison- 


Monticello, 


17 65 


burg, by 


Stage 




Charlottesville, and 


I 3 78 


So. Anna R. 




21 


University of Va. 


Louisa C. H. 




30 51 


York, 


19 97 


Gordonsville, 




15 66 


Waynesboro, 


6 103 


Barboursville, 




6 72 


Staunton, 


12 115 


Stannardsville, 




15 87 


Gap, 


17 132 


Magaughey T. 




23 110 


Warm Springs, 


36 168 


Harrisonburg, 




11 121 


Hot do. 


5 173 


Mt. Pleasant, 




25 146 


White Sulphur Sp. 


38 211 


Woodstock, 




13 159 


Lewisburg, 


10 221 


Strasburg, 




31 170 


Salt Works, 


82 303 


Newtown, 




11 181 


Charleston, 


4 307 


Winchester, 




8 189 


Guyandot, 


40 348 









Richmond, K. (190.) 
Ridgefield, N. Y. (58.) 
Ridge ville, Pa. (131.) 
Ridge, S. C. (272.) 
R. des Moines, (90.) 
R.St. Croix, Me. (21.) 
R. St. Francis, L.C. (16.) 
R. St. Lawrence, U. C. (33.) 
River St. Clair, U. C. (51.) 
River Head, N. Y. (136.) 
Rivers, S. C. (272.) 
Roanoke R., Va. (216.) 
Roanoke Inlet, N. C. (239.) 
Robbinston, Me. (42.) 
Robertsville, S. C. (289.) 



Rochester Rail Road, see N. 

York, (56.) 
Rochester and Batavia R. 

Road, see N. York, (56.) 
Roanoke Navigation, see N. 

Carolina & Va. (516.) 
Room Run Rail Road, see 

Pennsylvania, (133.) 
Reading R. R, see Pa. (133.) 
Rappahannock Navigation, see 

Virginia, (176.) 
Richmond and Petersburg 

Rail Road, see Va. (197.) 
Richmond and Fredericksburg 

Rail Road, see Va. (197.) 



Rochester, N. Y. (56,) a large commercial and manufactur- 
ing city, in Monroe county, situate on the Genesse river, 
above the great falls, and six miles from its entrance into Lake 
Ontario; founded in 1812 ; population is about 24,000. Public 
buildings, &c. — court-house, jail, twelve churches, two banks, 
arcade and observatory, a splendid aqueduct, 804 feet long, 
and five or six excellent hotels, bath house, &c. &c. 

ROUTES FROM ROCHESTER. 



To Albany, by Erie Canal, j Palmyra, 
P Htsford, 10 j Newark, 



19 29 
8 37 



112 



ROC 



RUS 



Lyons, 

Clyde, 

Montezuma, 

Jordan, 

Syracuse, 

Manlius, 

Canistota, 

Rome, 

Utica, 

Little Falls, 

Canajohane, 

Amsterdam, 

Schenectady, 

Albany, 



7 


44 


9 


53 


11 


64 


15 


79 


go 


99 



9 108 
Ifi 124 

21 145 

15 160 

22 182 
19 201 

23 224 

16 240 
28 268 



To Buffalo, by 
Ogden, 


Erie Canal. 
12 


Adams's Basin, 


3 


15 


Brockport, 

Holly, 

Albion, 


5 

5 

10 


20 
25 
35 


Wrishtsville, 


11 


46 


Middleport, 
Lock port, 
Pendleton, 


9 
9 
9 


55 
64 
73 


Tonnewanta, 


10 


83 


Buffalo, 


12 


95 



Rock R. II. (93.) 
Rock Pt., Lou. (279.) 
Rockaway, N. Y. (135.) 
Rock Haven, 11. (186.) 
Rockfcrd, N. C. (214.) 
Rockport, Ind. (188.) 
Rockville Ind. (145.) 
Rockvillc Md. (155.) 
Rockingham, N. C. (235) 
Rockymount, Va. (215.) 
Rogers, Pa. (106.) 
Rome, N. Y. (58.) 
Rome, N. Y. (108.) 



To Niagara Falls. 

Parma, by ridge road, 1 1 

Clarkson, 7 18 

Gainesville, 15 33 

Oak Orchard, 7 40 

Hartland, 14 54 

Cambria, 12 66 

Lewistown, 15 81 

Niagara Falls, 6 87 



To Utica. 
Pittsford, 
Mendon, 
Bloomfield, 
Canandaigua, 
Geneva, 
Cayuga, 
Auburn, 
West Hills, 
Lenox, 
Utica, 



8 

7 15 

5 20 

9 29 

16 45 

14 59 

9 68 

21 89 

26 115 

26 141 



To Bvffalo, by Stage. 



Bergen, 

Batavia, 

Pembroke, 

Ransom's Grove, 

Williamsville, 

Buffalo, 



17 

13 30 

14 44 
8 52 
8 60 

10 70 



Rome, Ind. (167.) 
Romney, Va. (154.) 
Rossville, T. (229.) 
Rotterdam, N. Y. (58.) 
Rouse's Point, L. C. (15.) 
Rowlando, (255.) 
Royalton, Vt. (61.) 
Rumford, Me. (39.) 
Rushville, II. (118.) 
Rushville, Ind. (147.) 
Russel, N. Y. (34.) 
Russelville, K. (208.) 
Russelville, Ala. (247.) 



RUT 



SARATOGA. 



113 



Rutland, Vt. (61.) 
Rutledge, T. (211.) 



Rutherfordton, N. C. (233.) 
Ryegate, Vt. (37.) 



S. 



Saluda Canal, see S. Carolina, 

(253.) 
Savannah andOgechee Canal, 

see Ga. (289.) 
Seneca Canal, see N. Y. (80.) 
Schenectady and Saratoga 

Rail-Road, see N. Y. (83.) 
Schenectady and Utica Rail. 

Road, see N. Y. (82.) 
Schuylkill Navigation, see Pa. 

(134.) 
Schuylkill Valley R. Road, 

see Pa. (132.) 
Schuylkill Rail-Road, see Pa. 

(132.) 
Schuylkill (Little) R. Road, 

see Pa. (133.) 
Stonington Rail-Road, see 

Rhode Island, (111.) 
Salem Canal, see New Jersey, 

(157.) 
South Carolina Rail-Road, see 

S. Carolina, (273.) 
Santee Canal, see S. Carolina, 

(273.) 
Sabine Lake, Lou. (319.) 
Sabine R. Lou. (306.) 
Sacket's Harbor, N. Y. (57.) 
Saco, Me. (63.) 
Sagharbor, N. Y. (136.) 
Salem, Mass. (86.) 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y. (60.) The most celebrated of these 
springs, 7 in number, occupy the central part of Saratoga 
county, and are about equi-distant from Schenectady and 
Glenn's falls. Every accommodation is afforded the visiters, 
by the spacious and elegant hotels, which abound here. The 
most noted of these are, Congress Hall, near the Congress 
Springs, United States Hotel, in the centre of the village, the 

10* 



Salem O. (148.) 
Salem, N, J. (157.) 
Salisbury, N. H. (62.) 
Salem, 11. (165.) 
Salt Works, II. (121.) 
Salt Licks, Lou. (278.) 
Salt River, Mo. (141.) 
Salubria, N. Y. (80.) 
Saltzburg, Pa. (129.) 
Sandersville, Ga. (288.) 
Sandusky Bay, O. (100.) 
Sandusky C. 0.(100.) 
Sandwich, U. C. (74.) 
Sandwich, Mass. (112.) 
Sandy Point, Mass. (112.) 
Sandy Hook, N. J. (135.) 
Sandy Hill, N. Y. (60.) 
Sangamon R. II. (144.) 
Sangerfield, N. Y. (81.) 
Santa Rosa I., F. (312.) 
Santa Rosa Bay, F. (313.) 
Sautaffe Bay, Fl. (328.y 
Santee R. S. C. (273.) 
Santilla R. Ga. (304.) 
Sapelo Sound, Ga. (305.) 
Sauk Village, II. (92.) 
Slate Navigation, see 

ginia, (196.) 
Shenandoah Navigation, 

Virginia, (175.) 



Vir- 



see 



114 



SAVANNAH. 



Pavilion, near Flat Rock Spring, Union Hall, opposite Con* 
gress Hall, Columbian Hotel, near the Pavilion, Washington 
Hall, in the north end of the village, together with some other 
hotels and boarding houses. There are also commodious 
bathing houses, circulating library, reading rooms, mineralo- 
gical cabinet, &c. &c. 

ROUTES FROM SARATOGA SPRINGS. 



To Albany, by Rail-Road. 

Ballston Spa, 6 

Schenectady, 14 20 

Albany, 16 36 

To Albany, via Waterford. 

Ballston Spa, 6 

Waterford, 22 28 

Troy, 4 32 



Albany, 



8 4Q 



To Whitehall, by Stage. 
Northumberland, 4 

Glenn's falls,, and Sandy 

hill, 15 19 

Fort Ann, 10 29 

Whitehall, 12 41 



Savannah, Ga. (289,) metropolis of Georgia. Population 
in 1830, 7,303. Public buildings, &c. — exchange, banks, 
academy, several handsome churches, public squares, &c. 

ROUTES FROM SAVANNAH. 



To Augusta, by Steam Boat. 

15 
31 

36 

46 

65 

90 

95 

111 

135 

146 

158 

171 

174 
185 
195 
224 
231 



Argyle Island, 




Isla I. 


8 


Purisburg, 


16 


Beck's Ferry, 


5 


Ebenezer, 


10 


Sisters' Ferry, 


19 


Hudson's Ferry, 


25 


Blanket Point, 


5 


Brier Creek, 


16 


Burton's Ferry, 


24 


Lower 3 runs, 


11 


Steel Creek, 


12 


Limestone Bluff, 


i3 


Dog Ferry, 


3 


Demaries Ferry, 


11 


Gray's Landing, 


10 


Wallicon's Ferry, 


29 


Augusta, 


7 



To Charleston, by 


Steam 


Boat, 




Fort Jackson, 


3 


Elba Island, 


5 9 


Long I. 


3 11 


Bloody Point, 


6 17 


Hilton Head, 


18 35 


Trancard's Inlet, 


4 39 


Fripp's Inlet, 


12 51 


St. Helena Sound, 


9 60 


S. Edisto Inlet, 


3 63 


N. do. do. 


13 76 


Stono Inlet, 


14 90 


Coffin I. L. House, 


11 101 


Fort Moultrie, 


6 107 


Charleston, 


4 111 



To Augusta, by Stage. 
Aberccm, 17 

Ebenezer, 8 25 



SAV 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 115 



Jacksonboro, 


45 70 


Jefferson, 


20 98 


Augusta, 


65 135 


St. Mary's, 


20 118 


To Milledgeville, by 


To Darien, by Stage. 


Stage. 




Sunbury, 


20 


Gr. Ggechee R. 


20 


Sapelo, 


16 36 


Statesboro, 


29 49 


Darien, 


12 48 


Sandersville, 


86 135 


■ 




Milledgeville, 


28 163 


To Charleston, 


by Stage. 






New River, 


14 


To St. Mary's, by Stage. 


Hogtown, 


9 23 


Bryan, old C ? H, 


17 


Coosawatchie, 


17 40 


Riceboro, 


17 34 


Pocotaligo, 


6 46 


Barrington, 


20 54 


Parker's Ferry, 


32 78 


Buffalo Cr. 


14 68 


Guerin's Ferry, 


17 95 


Scilla R. 


10 78 


Charleston, 


U 106 



Savannah R., Ga. (290.) 
Schenectady, N. Y. (83.) 
Scodic Pt., Me. (41.) 
Seawright, S. C. (273.) 
Sellers, Pa. (133.) 
Selma, Ala. (283.) 
Seneca Ind., U. C. (77.) 
Seneca L., N. Y. (80.) 
Shakers, (61.) 

Shallow Lakes, N. H. (31.) 
Shandecan, N. Y. (82.) 
Shawneetown, II. (186.) 
Sheffield, Mass. (83.) 
Shelby ville, II. (144.) 
Shelbyville, Ind. (147.) 
Sherbourne, N. Y. (81.) 
Shieldsboro, Miss. (310.) 
Shippensburg, Pa. (131.) 
Shippingport, II. (94.) 
Shinersville, (106.) 
Shirleyburg, Pa. (131.) 
Shoreham, Vt. (60.) 



Shoal R., II. (118.) 
Shullsburg, Mich. (66.) 
Sidney, Me. (40.) 
Simpsons, II. (186.) 
Sistersville, Va. (151.) 
Three Sisters' Islands, Mich. 

(99.) 
Skeneateles, N. Y. (80.) 
Small Pt., Me. (54.) 
Smith's, II. (186.) 
Smithport, Pa. (104.) 
Smithfield, Va. (152.) 
Smyrna, Del. (157.) 
Solon, N. Y. (81.) 
Somerset, Pa. (129.) 
Somerset, O. (150.) 
Somerville, N. J. (134.) 
Sorel, Lou. (322.) 
Sorrel R., L. C. (15.) 
So. Bend, Ind. (96.) 
Sotos, Lou. (277.) 



South Carolina, state of, (253,) is divided into 29 districts, 
Population 1830, 581,458, including 315,665 slaves; area, 
31,750 square miles; capital, Columbia; metropolis, Charles- 
ton ; lat. 32° 45' N. long. 2° 53' W. General election, second 



116 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Monday in October, biennally. Legislature meet, fourth Mon- 
day in November; constitution formed 1790, since amended. 

Government. — Governor — term of office two years, salary 
$3,500, chosen by the general assembly — lieutenant governor, 
&c. 

Legislature. — The legislative power is vested in a senate, 
having 45 members, elected for four years, one-half being 
chosen biennially ; and a house of representatives, composed 
of 124 members, elected for two years ; these bodies are styled 
the General Assembly. 

Judiciary. — Consists of a court of appeals, composed of three 
judges, who receive $3,500 per annum, each ; a court of equity, 
with two judges, styled chancellors, each of whom receives 
$3,500 per annum; and a court of general sessions and 
common pleas, six judges, with a salary to each of $3,500 per 
annum. 

Physical Structure. — The entire sea coast and for several 
miles inland, the surface is remarkably level. The soil con- 
sists of swamps and marshes, interspersed with ridges suffi- 
ciently elevated merely to escape submersion, some of which 
are quite inaccessible, and are thus rendered useless. After 
passing the alluvial border, which is marked by the great road 
leading from Fayetteville to Augusta, the country assumes a 
more undulating appearance ; the hills increase in number and 
magnitude, until they become so numerous as to form continu- 
ous ridges ; these continue to enlarge in proceeding westward, 
and ultimately form the spurs and flanks of the great blue 
ridge, which here forms a part of the boundary of the state. 

Rivers. — Pedee, Waccamaw, Little Pedee, Lynches Creek, 
Santee, Wateree, Catawba, Congaree, Broad, Tyger, Ennoree, 
Saluda, Cooper, Ashley, Edisto, Combahee, and Savannah. 

Islands. — North I., Murphey, Cape Roman, Bulls, Dewees, 
Sullivans, Holly, Johns, Wadmelaw, Edisto, Reynolds, Hunt- 
ing, St. Helena, Ladies, Port Royal, Hilton Head, &c. &c. 

Productions. — Cotton, rice, tobacco, fruits, &c. &.c. 

Towns. — Charleston, Columbia, Georgetown, Cheraw, Cam- 
den, Yorkville, Spartanburg, Pendleton, Abbeville, Edgeville, 
Hamburg, Beaufort, &c. &c. 

Internal Improvements. — South Carolina Rail Road, com- 
mences at Charleston, and terminates in the town of Hamburg, 
opposite Augusta, entire length, 135-75 miles. It is proposed 
to construct a branch to Orangeburg, and thence to Columbia, 
&c, and another to Barnwell C. H. Santee Canal connects 
the harbour of Charleston with the Santee, length 22 miles. 



SPA ST. LOUIS. 117 

Winyaw Canal, extends from Winyaw Bay to Kinlock Creek, 
a branch of Santee river, length 7-40 miles. The navigation 
of the Catawba has been improved by the construction of 
several small canals. Saluda Canal, extends from the head 
of Saluda shoals to Granby Ferry on the Congaree, 6-20 miles 
in length. Drear's Canal, is designed to overcome a fall of 
120 feet in Saluda river, length 1 1-3 miles. Lorick's Canal, 
on Broad river, 1^ miles above Columbia, 1 mile long. Lock- 
hart's Canal, in Union District, around Lockhart's shoals, in 
Broad river, 2 3-1 miles long. A rail-road from Charleston to 
Cincinnati and Louisville, about 600 miles in length, is pro- 
posed. 

Spains, Ga. (286.) St. Andrew's Bay, Fl. (314.) 

Sparta, Lou. (279.) St. Andrew's Sd., Ga. (318.) 

Sparta, Ala. (299.) St. Augustine, Fl. (330.) 

Spencer, IS. Y. (80.) St. Catharine's Sound, Ga. 
Spencer, Ind. (146.) (305.) 

Spillers, Lou. (309.) St. Charles, Mo. (163.) 

Springfield, Mass. (84.) St. Clairsville, O. (128.) 

Springfield, II. (143.) St. Clair, Mich. (74.) 

Springfield, O. (149.) St. Dennis, L. C. (15.) 

Springfield, Lou. (309.) St. Francisville, Lou. (308.) 

Springfield, Va. (154.) St. Gabriel, Lou. (308.) 
Springs, Schooley's Mt., N. St. Helena Sound, S. C. (290.) 

J. (134.) St. Helena, Lou. (309.) 

Squam Beach, N. J. (134.) St. Joseph's R., Ind. (97.) 

St. Albans, Vt. (36.) St. John's R., Fl. (318.) 
St. Amand, L. C. (16.) 

St. Louis, Mo. (163,) the metropolis of the state, and seat of 
justice for St. Louis county, situated on the right bank of the 
Mississippi, 20 miles below the confluence of that river and 
the Missouri. Its chief buildings are, a court-house, orphans' 
asylum, hospital, eight or ten churches, a nunnery, theatre, 
museum, and a depot of the American Fur Company. 

The position of St. Louis is admirably adapted for commer- 
cial operations, and the numerous facilities of intercourse with 
the interior afforded by steam-boats and other means of con- 
veyance, must ensure to St. Louis a continuance of that pros- 
perity which has marked its rapid progress thus far. The 
present population of the city, according to a late census, is 
16,207, including, of course, a large proportion of blacks. 



118 



ROUTES FROM ST. LOUIS. 
ROUTES FROM ST. LOUIS. 



To New Orleans, 


by Steam 


Wisconsin R., 


24 444 


Boat. 




Prairie du Chien, 


4 448 


Carondelet, 


6 






Harrison, 


23 29 


To Peru, by Steam Boat. 


Herculaneum, 


1 30 


Mouth of Illinois R., 


37 


Fort Chartres, 


19 49 


Macoupin R., 


19 56 


St. Genevieve, 


12 61 


Apple Cr., 


16 72 


Bainbridge, 


61 122 


Montezuma, 


14 86 


Cape Girardeau, 


10 132 


Augusta, 


5 91 


Mouth of Ohio, 


41 173 


Naples, 


10 101 


New Madrid, 


65 238 


Meredosin, 


7 108 


Little Prairie, 


30 268 


Lagrange, 


9 117 


Memphis, 


119 387 


Beardstown, 


7 124 


Arkansas river, 


172 559 


Sangamon R., 


7 131 


Vicksburg, 


284 843 


Havana, 


25 156 


Natchez, 


103 946 


Pekin, 


31 187 


St. Francisville, 


139 1085 


Peoria, 


9 196 


Baton Rouge, 


34 1119 


Little Detroit, 


5 201 


New Orleans, 


131 1250 


Rome, 


11 212 


— i — 




Columbia, 


14 226 


To Prairie du Chien, by 


Henry, 


5 231 


Steam Boat. 


Hennepin, 


12 243 


Mouth of Missouri, 


20 


Peru, 


14 257 


Alton, 


3 23 







Mouth of Illinois R 


., 14 37 


To Louisville, by 


Steam 


Dardenne R., 


10 47 


Boat. 




Ramsay's Cr., 


38 85 


Mouth of Ohio, as above, 1 73 


Clarksville, 


8 93 


America, 


11 ]84 


Louisiana, 


12 105 


Paducah, 


36 220 


Saverton, 


18 123 


Rock Cave, 


52 272 


Hannibal, 


7 130 


Shawneetown, 


20 292 


Marion City, 


9 139 


Carthage, 


19 311 


Wyaconda, 


19 158 


Mount Vernon, 


12 323 


Fort Edwards, 


13 171 


Hendersonville, 


22 345 


R. des Moines, 


9 180 


Evansville, 


11 356 


Henderson's R., 


52 232 


Owensburg, 


35 391 


Copper Cr., 


39 271 


Rockport, 


8 399 


Fort Armstrong, 


26 297 


Stephensport, 


53 452 


Fever R., 


66 363 


Leavenworth, 


33 485 


Platte R., 


34 397 


Northampton, 


17 502 


Cassville, 


23 420 


Louisville, 


42 546 



ROUTES FROM ST. LOUIS. 



119 



To Independence, Mo. by 
Steam Boat. 
Mouth of Illinois R., 37 

Belle Fontaine, 3 40 

St. Charles, 19 59 

Pt. Look-off, 28 87 

Newport, 19 ]06 

Griswold & Pinkney, 6 112 
Gasconade, 22 134 

Osage, 28 162 

City of Jefferson, 8 170 

Marion, 15 185 

Mount Vernon, 15 200 

Rocheport, 9 209 

Franklin & Booneville, 9 218 



Chariton, 

Jefferson, 

Brunswick, 

Lexington, 

Camden, 

Napoleon, 

Sibley, 

Independence, 



30 248 

5 253 

18 271 

52 323 

14 337 

5 342 

7 349 

22 371 



To City of Jefferson, by 
Stage. 

Pt. Look-off, 35 

Newport, 20 55 

Griswold, 5 60 

Gasconade R., 20 80 

Osage R., 26 106 

City of Jefferson, 9 115 



To Wyaconda, by 
Stage. 
St. Charles, 

Troy, 34 

Alexandria, 6 

Tenton's, 4 

Bowling Green, 22 

New London, 21 107 

Palmyra, 18 125 

Wyaconda, 20 145 



20 
54 
60 
64 

86 



To Potosi, by Stage. 

Merrimec R., 16 

Herculaneum, 14 30 

Potosi, 33 63 



To Vandalia, 11. by Stage. 

Collinsville, 14 

Troy, 8 22 

Hickory Grove, 20 42 

Greenville, 10 52 

Mulberry Grove, 8 60 

Vandalia, 10 70 

To Carrollton, by Stage. 

Alton, 24 

Linton's, 13 37 

Jerseyville, 7 44 

Kane P. O., 6 50 

Carrollton, 9 59 

To Springfield, by Stage. 

Alton, 24 

Woodburn, 16 40 

Carlinville, 21 61 

Girard, 12 73 

Springfield, 26 99 

To Carlisle, by Stage. 

Illinois Town, 2 

French Village, 5 7 

Rock Spring, 13 20 

Lebanon, . 4 24 

Shoal Cr. P. O., 19 43 

Carlisle, 9 52 



To Shawneetown, 
Belleville, 


by Stage. 
14 


Middleton Ferry, 
Nashville, 


20 

18 


34 
52 


Lit. Muddy R. P. ( 
Frankfort, 


3., 33 
15 


85 
100 


Fancy Farm P. O. 

Equality, 

Shawneetown, 


9 109 
27 136 
15 151 



120 



TALLAHASSEE. 



St. Marks, Fl. (315.) 
St Martin, Lou. (308.) 
St. Mary's R., Ga. (317.) 
St. Marv's, Ga. (318.) 
St. Regis, L. C. (14.) 
St. Simons I., Ga. (305.) 
St. Stephens, Ala. (298.) 
St. Sulpice, L. C. (15.) 
Stafford, Ct. (110.) 
Statesboro, Ga. (289.) 
Stedham, PI. (314.) 
Sterling, II. (145.) 
Steubenville, O. (128.) 
Stillwater, N. Y. (83.) 
Stoddardsville, Pa. (107.) 
Stockbridge, Mass. (83-) 



Stockport, Pa. (107.) 
Stoystown, Pa. (130.) 
Strasburg, Pa., (156.) 
Strawberry Ferry, S. C. (274.) 
Stuart T., N. H. (38.) 
Sturbridge, Mass. (84.) 
Sturgeon Pt., N. Y. (77.) 
Sullivan's I., S. C. (291.) 
Sunbury, Pa. (132.) 
Susquehanna R., Pa. (105.) 
Suwanee R., Ga. (316.) 
Suwanee, Fl. (328.) 
Swansboro, Ga. (288.) 
Sweatz, Lou. (307.) 
Swedesboro, N. J. (157.) 
Syracuse, N. Y. (57.) 



T. 



Tallapoosa R. Ala. (278.) Talbot Ft. U. C, (76.) 

Tallahassee, Fl. (315,) capital of Florida* founded and 
immediately incorporated as a city, in 1825. Population, 
about 1500. The public buildings are the capital, some 
churches, &c. 

ROUTES FROM TALLAHASSEE. 



To Pensacola 




Richardson* 


29 45 


Salubrity, 


10 


Suwanee Ferry, 


30 75 


Aspalaga, 


34 44 


Dells P., O. 


54 129 


Chipola, 


16 60 


Picolati, 


65 184 


Choctawbatchee R. 


47 107 


St. Augustine, 


22 206 


Anderson's, 


58 165 






Pensacola, 


37 203 


To Lake Iamony, 


9 






— Lake Jackson, 


4 


To St. Augustine* 


— St. Marks, 


21 


Gadsden, 


16 







Taney T., Md,, (155.) 
Tappahannock, Va. (198.) 
Tarboro, N. C. (237.) 
Tarleton, O. (150.) 
Tatesville, Ala. (299.) 
Tattnall, C. H., Ga. (238.) 
Taunton, Mass. (111.) 



Taylorsville, Va. (214.) 
Taylor, Ga. (289.) 
Tecumseh, Mich. (73.) 
Tolland,- Ct. (110.) 
Tennessee R., T. (206.) 
Tennessee R. Ala. (248.) 



TENNESSEE. 121 

Tennessee, state of, (226,) is divided into 67 counties. 
Population in 1830, 681,903, including 141,603 slaves. Area, 
40,200 square miles. Capital and metropolis, Nashville; lat. 
36° 07' N. long. 9° 44' W. General election, first Thursday 
and Friday in August, biennially. Legislature meet, third 
Monday in September, every second year ; date of constitu- 
tion, 1796. 

Government. — Governor, term of office, two years, salary 
$2,000 per annum ; legislature is composed of a senate (25 
members) and house of representatives, (75 members) styled 
the General Assembly. The members of both are elected 
biennially, and receive each $4 a day during the session of the 
legislature. 

Judiciary. — The supreme court of errors and appeals con- 
sists of three judges, salary of each $1,800 per annum, three 
chancellors, $1,500 each. There are eleven circuits, and a 
like number of judges, salary of each $1,300 per annum. The 
judges of the supreme and inferior courts. are elected by a 
joint vote of the two houses of the general assembly. The 
former for a term of twelve years, and the latter for eight 
years. 

Physical Structure. — The most elevated portion of this 
state is a ridge of mountains which divides it from the state 
of North Carolina, to which several local names have been 
applied. The most noted of these are Unika, Iron, Smoky, 
Bald, and Stone mountains. These several mountains form 
a single ridge of the Alleghenies, which, next to the blue 
ridge on the east, is the most elevated in the series. In 
descending the ridge just mentioned, westward, several infe- 
rior mountains occur at frequent intervals, from which spurs 
issue in all directions, and thus modify and establish the 
hydrography of this portion of the state. 

The same, or nearly a similar configuration, marks the 
country in the west of the Tennessee river, whose bed, though 
in a deep valley, is greatly elevated above the level of tide 
water. 

A few miles west from and nearly parallel with the Ten- 
nessee the Cumberland mountain attains its greatest height, 
and presents a remarkable feature in the geology of this part 
of the state. The Cumberland mountain, so called, assumes 
the appearance and is in fact an extensive plateau, elevated, 
probably, from 1,200 to 1,500 feet above the ocean. The mean 
width of this table land is not less than 40 miles ; the western 
shelf of the Cumberland plateau, forms, with the exception of 

11 



122 TENNESSEE. 

some hills, the last of the numerous elevations which distin- 
guish the whole of the eastern part of the state, which is 
emphatically a " mountain region." 

Immediately west of the Cumberland bat few hills are seen, 
and the country generally begins to assume a level aspect ; 
further west, the surface continues to decline until it is again 
broken by the Tennessee, which here intersects the state from 
south to north ; all beyond is comparatively level, no elevation 
deserving the name of mountain, existing in the entire space 
between the Tennessee and Mississippi rivers. 

■Rivers. — Mississippi, Obion, Forked-Deer, Hatchy and 
Wolf, branches of the Mississippi ; Tennessee, French, Broad* 
Holston, Clinch, Hiwassee, Elk, Duck, &c, branches of the 
Tennessee ; Cumberland ; Clear fork, Obeys, Caney, and 
Stones, branches of the Cumberland. 

Productions. — Wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, corn* 
cotton, tobacco, hemp, garden vegetables, and fruits of many 
sorts. 

Towns. — Knoxville, Kingston, Washington, Clinton, Rut- 
ledge, Newport, Blountsville, &c, in east Tennessee. Nash- 
ville, Franklin, Columbia, Murfreesboro, M'Minnville, Fayette- 
ville, &c, in the centre ; and Memphis, Bolivar, Brownsville, 
Lexington, Jackson, Trenton, Dresden and Reynoldsburg in 
west Tennessee. 

Internal Improvements. — None yet completed. Navigable 
communication between the waters of the Tennessee and 
those of the Coosa, are contemplated. A rail-road from the 
town of Randolph, on the Mississippi, to Jackson in Madison 
county, 65 miles, and one from Nashville to New Orleans, are 
proposed, and measures for insuring their early completion, 
have been adopted. A rail-road extending eastward from 
Memphis is now in progress. 

Terre Haute, Ind. (145.) Ticonderoga, N. Y. (60.) 

Tazewell, T. (211.) Timballier Bay, Lou. (323.) 

Tessuntee, N. C. (231.) Tioga R., N. Y. (79.) 

Texas, Mex. (274.) Tolosa, Fl. (329.) 

Theobald, K. (169.) Tombecbee R., Ala. (282.) 

Thomasville, Ga. (316.) Tomkinsville, K. (209.) 

Thompson, Ct. (111.) Towanda, Pa. (106.) 

Thompson's, S. C. (290.) Towson, Ark. (260.) 

Thornton, N. H. (62.) Trenton, Me. (41.) 

Thorntown, Ind. (122.) Trenton, N. Y. (58.) 
Thurlow, U. C. (32.) 



TRENTON. 



123 



Trenton, N. J. (134,) capital of New Jersey. Population 
about 5,000. The public buildings are, a state-house, two 
banks, several large cotton factories, &c. 

ROUTES FROM TRENTON. 



To Philadelphia 


, by Rail- 


Sand Hills, 


7 18 


Road. 




New Brunswick, 


9 27 


Tyburn, 


3 


Matouchin, 


5 32 


Tullytown, 


3 6 


Railway, 


6 38 


Bristol, 


4 10 


Elizabethtown, 


3 41 


Dunksville, 


4 14 


Boundbrook, 


3 44 


Pennepack Cr. 


4 18 


Newark, 


3 47 


Frankford, 


4 22 


Jersey City, 


9 56 


Rail-Road Depot, 


4| 26f 


New York, 


1 57 


State H. Philadelphia, 2 28f 










To New York t 


by Stage. 


To Philadelphia 


by Stage. 


Princeton, 


10 


Tullytown, 


7 


Kingston, 


3 13 


Bristol, 


4 11 


New Brunswick, 


13 26 


Holmsburg, 


11 22 


Milton, 


13 39 


Frankford, 


4 26 


Elizabethtown, 


5 44 


Philadelphia, 


5 31 


Newark, 


6 50 







New York, 


10 60 


To Philadelphia, 


by S. Boat. 






Lamberton, 


2 


To New York, by Stage and 


Borden town, 


4 6 


Steam Boat. 


Bristol, 


9 15 


New Brunswick, 


as 


Burlington, 


1 16 


above, 


26 


Bridesburg, 


16 32 


Perth Amboy, 


12 38 


Philadelphia, 


3 35 


New York, 


25 63 


To Easlon, Pa. 


by Stage. 


To Crosswicks, 


by Stage. 


Penington, 


9 


Bloomsbury, 


1 


Ringoes, 


10 19 


White Horse, 


3 4 


Flemington, 


6 25 


Sand Hills, on C 


. & A. 


Pittstown, 


9 34 


Rail Road, 


2 6 


Hickorytown, 


4 38 


Crosswicks, 


3 9 


Bloom sbury, 


5 43 







Easton, 


8 51 


To New Brunswick , by Del- 
aware and Raritan Canal. 


To New York, by 


Rail Road. 


Millham, 


1 


Clarks, 


8 


Williamsburg, 


10 11 


Williamsburg, 


3 11 


Kingston, 


3 14 



124 



TRENTON. 



Rocky Hill 
Griggstown, 
Black wells, 
Millstone, 
Bound brook, 
New Brunswick, 



4 22 
3 25 



30 
37 



To Bordentown, by Dela- 
ware and Raritan Canal. 
Bloomsbury, 1 

Lamberton, 1 2 



Bordentown, 



4 6 



To Saxtonville by Canal. 



Yardleyville Ferry, 
Jacobs Creek, 
Titus ville, 
Belle Mt. 
Lambertville and 

New Hope, 
Prattsville, 
Saxtonville, 



5 

7 

10 
13 

16 
21 
24 



Troupsville, N. Y. (56.) 



Trenton, T. (226.) 
Trenton, N. C. (237.) 

Troy, N. Y. (83,) a large and flourishing city, and seat of 
justice tor Renssellaer county. Its population is about 15,000, 
with numerous elegant public buildings and private dwellings. 
Among the former are four banks, seven churches, a court- 
•louse *Scc 

ROUTES FROM TROY. 



To Whitehall, by Champlain 
Canal. 

Lansingburg, 4 

Anthony's Kill, 10 14 

Stillwater, 3 17 

Bern is' Heights, 4 21 

Fort Miller, 12 43 

Fort Edward, 5 48 

Sandy Hill, 2 50 

Kingsbury, 4 "54 

Fort Ann, 4 58 



Whitehall, 



12 70 



To Saratoga, by Rail Road. 
Water ford, 4 

Anthony's Kill, 8 12 

Round lake, 4 16 

Ballston, 8£ 24J 

Saratoga, 6 30 1 

(For routes to Montreal, Uti- 

ca, Buffalo, &c. see " Routes 

from Albany.") 



Tannewanta Canal, see N. 

York. 
Troy and Ballston Rail Road, 

see N. York, (83.) 
Troy, 0.(124.) 
Troy, Ind. (167.) 
Troy, Ten. (205.) 
Truxtun, N. Y. (80.) 
Truxville, O. (125.) 
Tuckerton, N. J. (158.) 
Tuckersville, Ga. (305.) 



Tulins, Lou. (277.) 
Tunkhannock,Pa. (107) 
Turner, N. C.(217.) 
Tuscaloosa, Ala. (266.) Capi- 
tal of the state. 
Tuscaloosa R., Ala. (266.) 
Tuscumbia, Ala. (247.) 
Tuscumbia Rail Road, see 

Alabama, (246.) 
Tushcacuta, Miss. (246.) 



UNITED STATES. 125 

U. 
UfaJlah, Ga. (301 .) Unadilla, N. Y. (81.) 

Underwood, Ala. (246.) Union Canal, (85,) see N. H. 

Underwoods, Miss. (264.) Union, Mo. (163.) ' 

Union, N. Y. (83.) Union, S. C. (253.) 

Union Canal, (132,) see Pa. Union T., Va. (194.) 
Union, Pa. (153.) Unity, Me. (40.) 

United States of North America, or "America," as they are 
termed by foreigners, consist of the following States, Territo- 
ries and Districts. 

States. — Maine : New Hampshire ; Vermont; Massachu- 
setts ; Rhode Island ; Connecticut ; New York ; New Jersey ; 
Pennsylvania ; Delaware ; Maryland ; Virginia ; North Caro- 
lina ; South Carolina ; Georgia; Alabama; Mississippi; Lou- 
isiana ; Tennessee ; Kentucky ; Missouri ; Illinois ; Indiana ; 
Ohio; Arkansas and Michigan. 

Territories, — Florida, Wisconsin and Iowa. 
Districts. — Columbia ; Mandan ; Oregon ; Osage and Ozark. 
The Districts of Oregon, Mandan, and Ozark, comprehend 
the entire region lying west of the states of Missouri, Illinois, 
Arkansas, Michigan, and the territory of Iowa. A large 
portion of Mandan, and nearly the whole of Osage and Ozark 
districts have been assigned to the emigrating Indians, and 
are known as " the Indian territory." 

The whole having a population according to the census of 
1830, of 12,835,106, and an area of 2,037,165 square miles. 

(A more detailed account of the States, &c. will be found 
under the head of each.) 

Capital, Washington, lat 38° 53' N. Metropolis, New York, 
lat. 40° 43' N., long. 2° 55' E. Congress meet, first Monday 
in December. Date of Constitution, September 17th, 1787. 
The elections for President, and members of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, are determined by the state govern- 
ments respectively, and occur at different periods. The presi- 
dent is elected for four years ; the members of the senate for 
six, and those of the house of representatives, for two years. 

Government. — The executive department consists of a Pres- 
ident, who receives $25,000, and a Vice-President, $5,000 per 
annum. Four Secretaries, who are respectively charged with 
the duties of the various departments of state, the treasury, 
war, and the navy. Each of the secretaries receive a salary of 
$6,000 per annum ; one post master general, $6,000 ; and the 
attorney general, $3,500. These hold their offices at the will 
of the President. 

11* 



126 UNITED STATES. 

Department of State. — The Secretary of this branch of the 
government, conducts the diplomatic correspondence at home 
and abroad; negotiates treaties with foreign powers; dissemi- 
nates the acts of" Congress and all treaties ; grants passports; 
has charge of the patent-office, and of the seal of the United 
States, &c. &c. 

The Secretary of the Treasury, superintends all fiscal con- 
cerns of the government, and, upon his own responsibility, 
recommends to Congress measures for improving the condition 
of the revenue, and settles all government accounts, in which 
he is aided by two comptrollers, five auditors, a treasurer and 
a register. The General Land Office is a subordinate braneh 
of this department. 

The secretary of war has the superintendence of military 
affairs generally; the erection of fortifications; of making 
topographical surveys ; surveying and leasing the national lead 
mines, and of the intercourse with Indian tribes. 

The secretary of the navy issues all orders to the navy of the 
United States, and superintends the concerns of the navy 
establishment generally. The board of navy commissioners 
consisting of three officers of the navy, is attached to the office 
of the secretary of the navy. This board discharges all the 
ministerial duties of that office. 

General Post Office. — This department is under the super- 
intendence of the post master general, who has two assistants. 
The post master general has the sole appointment of all the 
post-masters throughout the United States, and the direction 
of every thing relating to this department. 

The Legislature, — Consists of a Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, styled the Congress of the United States ; meet once 
every year. The Senate is composed of 52 members ; two 
from each state. They are chosen by the legislatures of the 
several states, for the term of six years, one third of them being 
elected biennially. 

The vice-president of the United States is president of the 
Senate. In his absence a president pro-tempore is chosen by 
the Senate. 

The House of Representatives is composed of members from 
each of the states, elected by the people for a term of two years. 
The present number of representatives is 235, and three dele- 
gates, one from each of the territories. 

The Judiciary. — The Supreme Court consists of a Chief 
Justice, with a salary of $5000 per annum, and six associate 
justices, who receive annually $4500 each ; one attorney-gen- 



UTICA. 



127 



era], clerk, marshal, &c. The Supreme Court meets once a 
year, on the second Monday in January. 

Circuit Courts. Each of the justices of the Supreme Court, 
attends also in a certain circuit, consisting of two or more dis- 
tricts, appropriated to each, and, in conjunction with the judge 
of the district, compose a circuit court, which is held in each 
district of the circuit twice a year. The district courts are 
held respectively by the district judge alone. They are com- 
posed of twenty eight judges, to each of whom a certain district 
is assigned. Each of these districts embraces an entire state, 
except those of New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Alabama, 
Louisiana and Tennessee, which are divided into two districts 
each. 

- (For information on the physical structure, productions, &c. 
of the United States, see the individual states.) 

University, N. C. (235.) Upperville, Va. (155.) 

Upper Canada, U. C. (54.) Urbanna, O. (125.) 

Upper Marlboro, Md. (177.) Urbanna, Va. (198.) 
Upper Sandusky, O. (125.) 

Utica, N. Y. (58.) On the right bank of the Mohawk, 96 
miles by rail-road, W. N. W. of Albany. Population about 
15,000. Utica, like most of the towns in middle and western 
New York, presents an air of uncommon neatness, which 
viewed in connection with the vast amount of its business, docs 
not fail to arrest the notice of strangers. The Erie Canal, and 
the rail road from Albany, westward, pass through the heart 
of the city, giving life and animation to all its parts. Several 
hundred persons, chiefly emigrants, daily arrive at and depart 
from the city, by means of the canals, rail and turnpike roads, 
which diverge as from a centre, to every quarter of the state. 
The Trenton Falls, about 14 miles north of Utica, deserve 
notice. They consist of a succession of cascades formed by 
the passage over a limestone ridge of the West Canada Creek, 
a tributary of the Mohawk. The principal fall has a descent 
of about 70 feet, none of the others exceed 30 feet in perpen- 
dicular height. The aggregate fall of the entire series, is about 
400 feet, extending in a direction from north to south, nearly 
four miles. The rock, a slaty limestone, has every appearance 
of having been abraided by the action of the water, to its top- 
most stratum. In some places, the sides of the narrow ravine 
are nearly two hundred feet above the surface of the stream, 
which is constantly encroaching upon its bed, and sinking 
deeper and deeper into the solid rock. 



128 



UTICA VANDALIA. 

ROUTES FROM UTICA. 



To Albany by 


Canal. 




To Rochester, 


by Canal. 


Frankfort, 




10 


Whitesboro, 


4 


Herkimer, 


5 


15 


Rome, 


11 15 


Little Falls, 


7 


22 


New London, 


7 22 


Canajoharie, 


19 


41 


Canistota, 


14 36 


Caughnawaga, 


12 


53 


New Boston, 


4 40 


Amsterdam, 


11 


64 


Chitteningo, 


4 44 


Schenectady, 


18 


82 


Manlius, 


8 52 


Troy, 


21 


103 


Syracuse, 


9 61 


Albany, 


7 


110 


Geddesburg, 
Canton, 


2 63 
12 75 


To Albany, by Rail Road. 


Jordan, 


6 81 


Herkimer, 




17 


Montezuma, 


15 96 


Little Falls, 


7 


24 


Clyde, 


11 107 


Palatine Bridge, 


20 


44 


Lyons, 


9 116 


Caughnawaga, 


12 


56 


Palmyra, 


15 131 


Amsterdam, 


9 


65 


Pittsfbrd, 


19 150 


Schenectady, 


15 


80 


Rochester, 


10 160 


Albany, 


16 


96 







V. 

Vacasausa B., FI. (328.) Vance, G. (250.) 

Vandalia, II. (164,) capital of the state of Illinois. Popula. 
tion, 1,500. 

STAGE ROUTES FROM VANDALIA. 



To Terre Haute. 

Ewington, 31 

Embarras R. 28 59 

Terre Haute, 46 105 



To St. Louis, Mo. 

Greenville, 16 

Edwardsville, 33 49 

St. Louis, 20 69 



To Vincennes. 



Maysville, 
Lawrenceville, 



45 

42 87 



Vincennes, 



10 97 



To Shawneetown. 

Salem, 25 

Mt. Vernon, 24 49 

M'Leansboro, 30 79 

Shawneetown, 28 107 



To America. 
Salem, 
Mt. Vernon, 
Frankfort, 
Vienna, 
America, 



25 

24 49 
30 79 
36 115 

25 140 



VERMONT. 



129 



To Kaskaskia, 

Carlyle, 28 

Covington, 10 38 

New Nashville, 8 46 

Kaskaskia, 40 86 



To Galena. 
Springfield, 



70 



Elk Hart Grove, 

Athens, 

Pekin, 

Little Prairie, 

Peoria, 

Rock River, 

Galena, 



8 78 
10 88 
40 128 

9 137 
1 138 

76 214 
63 277 



Vansville, Md. (156.) 
Vareens, S. C. (275.) 
Varennes, S. G. (252.) 
Vassalboro, Me. (40.) 



Venus, II. (117.) 
Vergennes, Vt. (36.) 
Vermillion R. II. (120.) 
Vermillion Bay, Fl. (321.) 



Vermont, state of, (84,) is divided into 13 counties. Popu- 
lation in 1830, 280,679. Area, 9,800 square miles. Capital, 
Montpelier. Metropolis, Bennington, lat. 42° 53' N. long. 3° 
45' E. General election, first Tuesday in September. Legis- 
lature meet, second Thursday in October. Constitution 
formed, 1777. 

Government. — Governor, salary $750 per annum. Lieuten- 
ant-governor, and a council of 12 persons, who are all chosen 
annually. Legislature consists of a single body, a house of 
representatives, the members of which are elected annually, 
and are styled the General Assembly. 

Judiciary : — consists of a supreme court, having a chief 
justice and four associate judges, and a county court for each 
county, composed of one of the judges of the supreme court 
and two assistant judges, all elected annually by the general 
assembly. A council of censors, (13 persons,) is chosen every 
seven years, for the purpose of inquiring whether the laws 
have been faithfully executed, &c. 

Physical Structure. — Vermont, as its name implies, is a 
mountainous region, the great Allegheny mountains pass 
through the entire length of the state, separating the waters 
of the Connecticut, from those running into Lake Champlain. 
A few miles east from Middlebury, a spur leaves the main 
ridge, and passing in a north-eastern course, is successive- 
ly broken by Onion, Lamcelle and Misisque rivers. The 
space intervening between the primary and secondary ranges, 
forms a table-land, having a mean altitude of not less than 
800 feet above the surface of Lake Champlain. This plateau, 
in its turn, supports a multitude of hills and mountain peaks, 



1 30 VIRGINIA. 

in some places insulated, and in others forming continuous 
ranges of several miles in extent. Besides the ridges just men- 
tioned, other mountains of great elevation, occur in the south- 
western part of the state, altogether presenting a surface 
exceedingly rough and uneven. 

Lakes. — Champlain, Memphramagog, Seymour, Westmore, 
Trout, Bombazine, &c. 

Rivers. — Connecticut, White, Passumsick, Missisque, La 
Moelle, Onion, Otter, &c. 

Islands. — North Hero, South Hero, La Motte, &c. 

Productions. — Wheat, rye, barley, indian corn, oats, pot and 
pearl ashes, provisions. &c. 

Toions. — Montpelier, Bennington, Burlington, Middlebury, 
Windsor, Woodstock, Rutland, Danville, Fayetteville, Vergen- 
nes, St. Albans, &c. &c. 

Internal Improvements. — Bellows Falls Canal, around those 
falls, half a mile long. Waterquechy Canal. White River 
Canal. All the preceding canals are designed to overcome 
falls in the Connecticut river. 

Vernon, N. Y. (58.) Versailles, K. (169.) 

Vernon, O. (102.); Vevay, Ind, (168.) 

Vernon, N. J. (108.) Vicksburg, Miss. (279.) 

Vernon, Ind. (147.) Victor, N. Y. (79.) 

Vernon, T. (227.) Vienna, Md. (178.) 

Vernon, Ga. (288.) Vienna, II. (186.) 

Versailles, Ind. (147.) Vincennes, Ind. (1 66.) 

Virginia state of, (193,) is divided into 123 counties. Popu- 
lation, in 1830, 1,211,272, including 469,724 slaves. Area, 
66,624 square miles. Capital and metropolis, Richmond. 
Lat. 37° 32' N. Long. 0° 26' W. Constitution amended and 
adopted in 1830. General election, April. Legislature meet, 
first Monday in December. 

Government. — Governor elected by the General Assembly 
— term of office three years, salary $3,333 1-3. Lieutenant- 
governor, $1,000. Two counsellors, each $1,000. Treasurer 
and auditor, each $2,000. Legislature, styled the General 
Assembly of Virginia, consists of a senate and house of dele- 
gates. The senate consists of 32 members : and the house 
of delegates of 134, of which 31 are elected by the counties 
in western Virginia. The legislature meets annually on the 
first Monday in December, at Richmond, the capital of the 
state. 



VIRGINIA. 131 

Judiciary. — The court of appeals consists of a president 
with a salary of $2,750, and four other judges, whose salary- 
is 2,500 each. This couit holds two sessions annually, one at 
Richmond for East Virginia ; the other at Lewisburg in Green- 
brier county, for West Virginia, including all the counties 
west of the blue ridge, commencing on the first Monday in 
July, and continuing ninety days, if business requires it. 

General court — The state is divided into ten districts and 
twenty-one circuits. There are twenty-one judges, — one for 
each circuit. A circuit superior court of law and chancery is 
held twice every year in each county and corporation. 

Physical Structure. — All that portion of the state which lies 
east of the road leading from Fredericksburg to Petersburg, 
&c. comprising about 8,000 square miles, is level and but 
little elevated above the ocean ; some parts of it are constantly, 
and others occasionally inundated. The country which inter- 
venes between that just mentioned and the Blue ridge, is much 
broken, its ascents abrupt and rocky, and presents other cha- 
racteristics of a mountainous region. West of the Blue ridge, 
the entire region consists of a succession of elevated ridges, 
between which, valleys of great fertility occur, these, although 
greatly depressed below the summits of the adjacent mountains, 
are elevated several hundred feet above the ocean tides. 

After passing the Allegheny mountain, the surface is much 
broken by the action of the waters, as they passed over the 
surface of that immense inclined plane, and thus formed those 
deep chasms and ravines, through which the streams gene- 
rally flow. To this abrasion may be ascribed the mountainous 
appearance which the western part of the state presents. What 
appears to be mountains, are however nothing more than but- 
tresses, which support the table-land in the rear. The natural 
geography of the state may be thus briefly defined ; in the 
east, level ; in the centre, mountainous ; and in the west, hilly 
with extensive elevated plains. 

Bays and Rivers. — Chesapeake Bay, and rivers Potomac, 
South Branch of Potomac, Shenandoah, Rappahanoc, York, 
James, Appomatox, Nottoway, Roanoke, Dan, &c. in the east ; 
Ohio, Monongahela, Cheat, Great and Little Kanawha, Elk, 
Gauley, Greenbrier, New, Guyandot, Sandy, Clinch, Holston, 
&c. in the western part. 

Productions. — Wheat, rye, Indian corn, oats, buckwheat, 
tobacco, &c. Salt is manufactured in large quantities in the 
western part of the state, gold is found ia Spotsylvania, and 
some of the adjacent counties. 



132 VIRGINIA. 

Towns. — Richmond, Petersburg, Norfolk, Lynchburg, Fre- 
dericksburg, Williamsburg, Charlottsville, Fairfax, Warrenton, 
Leesburg, east of the blue ridge. Winchester, Staunton, Har- 
risonburg, Warm Springs, Wheeling, Parkersburg, Charleston, 
Pt. Pleasant, Abington, &c. in the west. 

Internal Improvements. — James River Canal, is merely a 
series of 12 locks, which connects the river with a basin at 
Richmond 80 feet above tide water. From this basin pro- 
ceeds the Richmond Canal, 25 feet wide, and 4 deep, for 2J 
miles, when it unites with the river. Three miles further is a 
short canal of three locks, around a fall of 34 feet. James and 
Jackson River Canal and Navigation, commences at the basin 
at Richmond, and extends to Maiden's Adventure Falls, 30| 
miles. Balcony Falls Canal extends along the bank of James 
River, through a gap of the Blue ridge, length 6-81 miles. An 
extension of the James River Canal, to Lynchburg, is now in 
course of execution, and its continuation to Covington is propo- 
sed. The Roanoke improvement consists of a slack water navi- 
gation, and extends from the Weldon Canal in N. Carolina to 
Salem in Virginia, 244 miles. The Dan, Chowan, Slate, Rap- 
pahanoc,Appomatox, Shenandoah, Potomac, Monongahela, and 
Kanawha rivers, have been similarly improved. Dismal Swamp 
Canal, extends from Deep Creek, a tributary of Chesapeake 
Bay, to Joyce's Creek, a branch of Pasquotank river of Albe- 
marle sound, length 23 miles. Two lateral canals, one from 
Lake Drummond, 5 miles in length, which in addition to its 
uses for the purposes of navigation, serves as a feeder to the 
main trunk ; and the other 6 miles long, opens a communi- 
cation between the principal canal, and the head waters of 
North W T est river. — Rail Roads. Manchester Rail Road, 
extends from Manchester to the coal mines, length 13 miles. 
Winchester Rail Road extends from Harper's Ferry to Win- 
chester, length 30 miles. Petersburg and Roanoke Rail-Road, 
extends from Petersburg in Virginia, to Blakely, at the foot of 
the Roanoke canal, in N. Carolina, length 59-38 miles. A 
branch from this road leaves the main lines about 10 miles 
from Blakely, which extends to the head of the rapids of 
Roanoke, length about 12 miles. Portsmouth and Roanoke 
Rail Road, commences at Portsmouth opposite Norfolk, passes 
in a direct course, intersects the Petersburg road 6 miles from 
Blakely, and terminates in the Roanoke, a short distance below 
the Petersburg branch, length 80 miles. Richmond and Pe- 
tersburg Rail Road, length 21-50 miles. Richmond and Fre- 
dericksburg Rail-Road length 64 miles. A branch leaves this 



VIRGINIA. WAR 133 

road near Hanover court house, and extends to Gordonsville a 
distance of about 55 miles. Belleplain Rail-Road, extends 
from Fredericksburg to Belleplain, situated on a branch of the 
Potomac, (in progress,) length 11 miles. The Baltimore and 
Ohio Rail-Road, after crossing the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, 
will be carried through Jefferson, Berkeley, Morgan and 
Hampshire counties of Virginia, and thence pass into Mary- 
land. 

The Eastern shore Rail-Road of Maryland will also be ex- 
tended into Virginia, passing into the peninsula of Accomac 
and Northampton counties. These sections are now in pro- 
gress. 

Rail-roads from Fredericksburg to Alexandria in the district 
of Columbia, with a branch to Warrenton ; — From Petersburg 
to Farmville ; — From Richmond to Danville, via Cumberland 
C. H,, Farmville, Maryville and Banister ; — From Danville to 
Martinsville, thence toEvansham, Abingdon, &c. to unite with 
the Tennessee Rail-road from Knoxville ; — From Danville to 
Newbern in Montgomery county ; — From Lynchburg to New- 
bern ; — From Buchannan to Salem, with a branch to Fincas- 
tle ; — From Covington, the proposed western terminus of the 
James river canal, to Loop Shoals, on the Great Kanawha ; — 
From Weldon, in N. Carolina, along the right bank of the 
Roanoke, to Danville ; — From Orange C. H. to Charlottsville ; 
and from Gordonsville to Harrison, are proposed. 
Volina, F. (338.) 

W. 

Wabash and Erie Canal, see Carolina, (274.) 

Indiana, (123.) Winchester Rail Road, see 

Weldon Canal, see N. Caro- Virginia, (154.) 

lina, (217.) Wabash R. Ind. (122.) 

West Chester Rail-Road, see Wabash R. II. (144.) 

Pennsylvania, (133.) Wacanda, Mo. (117.) 

Waterquechy Canal, see Ver- Waddington, N. Y. (34.) 

mont, (61.) Wadesboro, K. (206.) 

White River Canal, see Ver- Wadesboro, N. C. (234.) 

mont, (61.) Wallace, Lou. (277.) 

Wilmington and Downing. Wallingford, Ct. (110.) 

town Rail-Road, see Dela- Walnutgrove, K. (190.) 

ware, (157.) Walterboro, S. C. (290.) 

Washington Canal, see New Walton, N. Y. (81.) 

Jersey, (134.) Wareboro, Ga. (304.) 

Winyaw Canal, see South Warm Springs, N. C. (132.) 

12 



134 WASHINGTON. 

Warm Springs, Va. (174,) a rioted watering- place, situated 
in Bath county, on the western declivity of Spring mountain. 
The waters, used chiefly for bathing, are characterized by a 
high and uniform degree of temperature, (97|°,) and the pre- 
sence of sulphuretic hydrogen, and carbonic acid gasses. 
(For distances between the various watering places in central 
Virginia, see " White Sulphur Spring.") 

Warren, Me. (40.) Washington, N. H. (61.) 

Warren, O. (102.) Washington, Pa. (128.) 

Warren, Pa. (103.) Washington, O. (149.) 

Warren O. (128.) Washington, Ind. (166.) 

Warren, Va. (196.) Washington, Va. ( 1 75.) 

Warrenton, Va. (176.) Washington* T. (230.) 

Warrenton, N. C. (216.) ' Washington, N. C. (237.) 

Warrenton, Ga. (271.) Washington, N. C. (257.) 

Warrington, Miss. (279.) Washington, Ark. (260.) 

Warwassing, N. Y. (108.) Washington, Ga. (271.) 

Warwick, R. I. (111.) Washington, Ala. (284.) 

Warwick* Md. (157.) Washington, Miss. (295.) 

Washington, D. C. (176.) Capital of the United States. 
Population, 18,827. 

_ This city is laid out on a great scale. Its avenues and prin- 
cipal streets, radiate from centres formed by the various public 
buildings, and are from 130 to 160 feet wide. Pennsylvania 
Avenue, which leads from the capitol to the president's house, 
is the principal place of business, and the great promenade of 
the city. Many of the other streets are wide and well built. 
The greater part of the city plot, however, remains unoccupied. 
The public buildings, &c. are, 1. The capitol, 363 feet in 
length, with an open area containing 22 J acres; cost of the 
capitol was $2,596,500. 2. The president's house about 1 1-4 
mile from the capitol. 3. The public offices, four in number, 
in the immediate vicinity of the president's house: these 
buildings are occupied by the four departments of the govern- 
ment. 4. The general post office. The navy yard is situated 
on the eastern branch of the Potomac. In addition to the 
above, which belong to the United States, there are many public 
buildings, erected by the local authorities of the city and others, 
among these are; the city hall, Columbia college, catholic 
college, market house, theatre, several banks, 17 churches, &c. 



WASHINGTON. 



135 



ROUTES FROM WASHINGTON. 



To Baltimore, by Stage. 


Aldie, 


24 47 


Bladensburg, 6 


Upperville 


14 61 


Vansville, 8 14 


Millwood, 


10 71 


Elkridge Landing, 15 29 


Winchester, 


13 84 


Baltimore, 8 37 







To Dover, Del 




Bladensburg, 


6 


Pawtuxet R., 


20 26 


Annapolis, 


14 40 


Broad Cr. (by water,) 


12 52 


Sharktown, 


4 56 


Queenstown, 


8 64 


Centreville, 


7 71 


Georgetown, 


25 96 


Dover, 


8 104 


To Point Lookout. 


Welby, 


7 


Piscataway, 


8 15 


Port Tobacco, 


14 29 


Newport, 


13 42 


Chaytico, 


10 52 


Leonardtown, 


5 57 


Great Mills, 


11 68 


St. Inigoes, 


7 75 


Pt. Lookout, 


10 85 


To Richmond, Va. 


Alexandria, 


9 


Oecoquan, 


17 26 


Dumfries, 


9 35 


Aquia, 


9 44 


Fredericksburg, 


14 58 


Bowlinggreen, 


22 80 


Hanover, C. H. 


23 103 


Richmond, 


19 122 



To Winchester, Va. 

Alexandria, 9 

Fairfax C. H. 14 23 



To Virginia Springs, by 
Stage. 



Alexandria, 

Fairfax C. H. 15 

Centreville, 8 

Bull Run, 3 

Buckland Mills, 11 

New Baltimore, 4 

Warrenton, 6 
Lee's Sulphur Springs, 6 

Jefferson, 3 

Fairfax C. H. 12 



Cedar Mt. 
Rapidan, 
Orange C. H. 
(Thence to Montpelier, 

seat of Mr. Madison, 

5 miles.) 
Gordonsville, 
Monticello, 
Charlottesville and f 

University of Va. 
York, 

Waynesboro, 
Staunton, 
Jennings N. Mt. 
Clover dale, 
Green Valley, 
Warm Springs, 
Hot Springs, 
Jackson River, 
Calahan's, 
White Sulphur Sp. 
Sweet Sulphur Sp. 
Salt Sulphur Sp. 
Red Sulphur Spr. 



9 

24 
32 
35 
46 
50 
56 
62 
65 
77 
83 
89 
95 



8 104 
16 120 

3 123 



19 
6 



142 

148 

12 161 

17 177 

12 189 
11 200 

13 213 
5 218 
9 227 

11 238 

18 256 
28 284 

1 285 

14 299 



136 



WAS 



WHEELING. 



To Frederick, Md. 

Simon sville, 7 

Rockville, 7 14 

Seneca, 7 21 

Middlebrook, 5 26 

Hyattstown, 8 34 

Frederick, 11 45 

To Baltimore, by Steam Boat. 

Alexandria, 
Mount Vernon, 
Crane Island, 
Cook's Ferry, 
Boyd's Hole, 
Mathew's point, 
Cedar Pt. 



9 17 

5 22 

13 35 

15 50 

8 58 

7 65 



Washington's Birth 

place, Jl 76 

Ragged Point, 15 91 

Point Lookout, 16 107 

PawtuxentR. 20 127 

Sharp's Island, 22 149 

Herring Bay, 10 159 

Bodkin Pt. 32 191 

Baltimore, 13 204 



To Harper's Ferry, by Canal. 

Great Falls, 13 

Seneca Creek, 10 23 

Peter's Quarry, 17 40 

Monocacy R. 5 45 

Cotoctin, Cr. 12 57 

Harper's Ferry, 12 69 



Washitta R., Ark. (241.) 
Washitta R., Lou. (278.) 
Waterford, Me. (39.) 
Waterford, N. Y. (83.) 
Waterford, Pa. (102.) 
Waterford, Pa. (131.) 
Waterford, O. (151.) 
Waterholes, Miss. (296.) 
Waterloo, Ala. (246.) 
Watertown, N. Y. (58.) 
Watertown, Ct. (109.) 
Waynesboro, T. (227.) 
Waynesboro, G. (272.) 
Waynesboro, N. C. (236.) 
Waynesville, N. C. (232.) 
Waynesburg, Pa. (152.) 
Wayne, Ind. (97.) 
Wayne, Pa. (133.) 
Weathersford, Ala. (284.) 
Weatlotucko, Ga. (285.) 



Webbville, Fl/(314.)' 
Well, K. (189.) 
Welfleet, Mass. (112.) 
Wellsboro, Pa. (105.) 
Wells, Me. (63.) 
Wells, Pa. (156.) 
Wentworth, N. H. (62.) 
Wentworth, N. H. (215.) 
Westminster, Vt. (61.) 
Westminster, Md. (156.) 
Westport, Md. (153.) 
West Point, N. Y., seat of the 
United States Military Aca- 
demy, (109.) 
Weston, Va. (152.) 
Westville, Miss. (296.) 
West Union, O. (170.) 
WestChester, Pa. (157.) 
West, N. Y. (57.) 
Weymouth, N. J. (158.) 



Wheeling, Va. (128.) This town is not only important as 
it regards population, but is also the leading point in one of 
the great thoroughfares of this section of the United States. 



WHEELING. 



137 



Its population in 1830, was 5,221, but the number has in- 
creased considerably since that period. The national road 
leading from Cumberland to the western capitals, passes 
through Wheeling ; at this point emigrants and travellers 
embark on board of steam boats for every part of the western 
country. 

ROUTES FROM WHEELING. 



To Baltimore, by the National 

Road. 
W. Alexandria, Pa. 
Claysville, 
Washington, 
Hillsboro, 
Brownsville, 
Union, 
Smyth field, 
Mt. Pleasant, Md. 
Cumberland, 
Prattsville, 
Hancock, 
Williamsport, 
Boonsboro, 
Frederick, 
Baltimore, by R. R. 



16 

22 

31 

43 

54 

66 

87 

116 

10 126 

21 147 

18 165 

27 192 

12 204 

16 220 

59 279 



6 

9 

12 
11 
12 
21 
29 



To Columbus, O. by the 
National Road. 
St. Clairsville, 
Morristown, 



12 
12 
14 
7 
15 
10 



10 
22 
34 

48 
55 
70 

80 



Fairview, 

Washington, 

Cambridge, 

Norwich, 

Zanesville, 

Hebron, 27 107 

Columbus, 28 135 

To Chillicothe. 
Zanesville, as above, 
Union, 9 

Somerset, 9 

Rushville, 8 



80 

89 

98 

106 



Lancaster, 10 116 

Tarlton, 14 130 

Kingston, 8 138 

Chillicothe, 12 150 

To Wooster, O. 

Harrisville, 13 

Cadiz, 9 22 

New Philadelphia, 33 55 

Dover, on Canal, 3 58 

Paintville, 18 76 

Wooster, 16 92 

To Pittsburg. 

Washington, Pa. 31 

Canonsburg, 7 38 

Birmingham, 17 55 

Pittsburg, 1 56 



To Pittsburg, by Steam 
Boat. 



Warrenton, 

Wellsburg, 

Steubenville, 

Fawcetstown, 

Beaver, 

Economy, 

Middletown, 

Pittsburg, 



8 
14 
21 



22 43 

19 62 

9 71 

9 80 

11 91 



To Cincinnati, by S. Boat. 
Elizabethtown, 13 

Sistersvilje, 35 48 



12* 



138 



WHITE SULPHUR SPRING. 



Newport, 


17 65 


Portsmouth, 




41 255 


Marietta, 


16 81 


Manchester, 




36 291 


Parkersburg, 


13 94 


Maysville, 




10 301 


Bellville, 


17 111 


Ripley, 




7 308 


Letart's Rapids, 


30 141 


Augusta, 




9 317 


Point Pleasant, Va. 


29 170 


Point Pleasant, 0. 


15 332 


Gallipolis, 


3 173 


Cincinnati, 




26 358 


Guyandot, 


34 207 


(For continuation 


to N. Or- 


Burlington, 


7 214 


leans, see 


" Cincinnati.") 



White Apple, Miss. (295.) 
Whitehall, N. Y. (60.) 
White Hills, N. H. (38.) 



White Plains, N.Y. (109.) 
White River, Ind. (123.) 
White R. Ark. (201.) 



White Sulphur Spring, Va. (194,) in Greenbrier county, 
a place of fashionable resort during the months of July, 
August and September, and the most celebrated among the 
innumerable mineral springs which abound in the central 
parts of Virginia. The water is highly charged with sul- 
phuretted hydrogen gas, which affects the atmosphere at 
night, to a considerable distance around the spring. 

ROUTES FROM THE WHITE SULPHUR SPRING. 



To Washington City. 
Callahan's, 
Jackson river, 
Hot Springs, 
Warm Springs, 
Green Valley, 
Cloverdale, 
Staunton, 
Waynesboro, 
York, 

Charlottesville, 
Monticello, 
Gordonsville, 
Orange C. H. 
Fairfax C. H. 
Jefferson, 

Lee's Sulphur Spring, 
Warrenton, 
New Baltimore, 
Centreville, 
Alexandria, 





18 


11 


29 


9 


38 


5 


43 


13 


56 


11 


67 


29 


96 


12 


108 


6 


114 


19 


133 


3 


136 


16 


152 


8 


160 


19 


179 


12 


191 


3 


194 


6 


200 


6 


206 


18 224 


23 247 



Washington City, 9 256 



To Guyandot. 




Lewisburg, 

Shrewsbury, 

Charleston, 


10 

78 88 
8 96 


Barboursville, 


36 132 


Guyandot, 


5 137 


To Richmond. 




Callahan's, 


18 


Covington, 


7 25 


Colliertown, 


25 50 


Lexington, 


8 58 


Lynchburg, 
Planterstown, 


40 98 
32 130 


Cumberland C. H. 


24 154 


Scottsville, 


25 179 


Richmond, 


32 211 



WILMINGTON. 



139 



To Winchester. 



Warm Spring, 

Gap, 

Spring, 

Harrisonburg, 

New Market, 

Mt. Pleasant, 

Woodstock, 

Strasburg, 

Winchester, 



35 

7 



43 

78 
85 



22 107 
18 125 
7 132 
13 145 
11 156 
18 174 



From White Sulphur Spring 
to 

Red Spring, S. S. E. 71 ms. 
Sweet Spring, S. S. E. 18 « 
BlueS^lp.do.W. N. W.21" 
Sweet Sul." S. S. W. 28" 
Salt Sulp. " S. S. W. 29 » 
RedSulp. « S. W. 43" 
Grey Sul. « S. S. W. 50" 



Wickford, R. 1.(111.) 
Wilderness, Va. (176.) 
Wilford, Ala. (298.) 
Wilkesbarre,Pa.(l07.) 
Wilkesville, N. C. (213.) 
Williamsburg, O. (149.) 
Williamsburg, Va. (198.) 
Williamsburg, T. (209.) 
Williamsburg, K. (210.) 
^Williamsburg, Miss. (297.) 
Williamsboro, N. C. (21 6.) 
Williamsport, Pa. (105.) 
Williamsport, Ind. (121.) 



Williamston, Vt. (37.) 
Williamston, Mass. (83.) 
Williamston, N. C. (237.) 
Williamstown,N. Y. (34.) 
Williams, Ark. (259.) 
Williams, Ala. (311.) 
Williamsport, K. (169.) 
Williston, Vt. (37.) 
Willowgrove, Pa. (133.) 
Willstown, Ala. (249.) 
Wilmington, Vt. (84.) 
Wilmington, O. (126.) 
Wilmington, O. (149.) 



Wilmington, Del. (157,) the metropolis of the state of Dela- 
ware. Population in 1830, 6,628 ; is now probably 8,000. 
The public buildings are a city hall, two market houses, three 
banks, alms house, arsenal, 13 churches, &c. There are in 
and about Wilmington upwards of 100 extensive manufactories, 
chiefly on the Brandywine creek. The Brandywine springs 
are situated about 5 miles west of Wilmington. 

ROUTES FROM WILMINGTON. 



To Philadelphia by Stage. 
Chester, 13 

Darby, 9 22 

Philadelphia, 6 28 

To Philadelphia, by Rail 

Road. 

Marcus Hook road, 9 

Chester, 4 13 



Gray's Ferry, 
Philadelphia R. R., 
Philadelphia, 



9 22 
4 26 
1 27 



To Baltimore by Rail Road. 
Newport, 4 

Newark road, 8 12 

Elkton, 6 18 

Northeast, ■ 6 24 



140 WIL 




WISCONSIN. 




Charleston, 


3 27 


Red Lion, 


7 12 


Havre de Grace, 


6 33 


St. George's, 


3 15 


Bush River, 


12 45 


Trap, 


4 19 


Gunpowder R. 


7 52 


Cantwell's, 


4 23 


Back River, 


11 63 


Smyrna, 


10 33 


Depot, 


4 67 


Hamsville, 


7 40 


Baltimore 


1 68 


Dover, 


5 45 


To Baltimore, by Stage. 


To Philadelphia, by 


Steam 


Christiana, 


9 


Boat. 




Elkton, 


11 20 


Delaware R. 


3 


Havre de Grace, 


16 36 


Marcus Hook, 


8 11 


Hartford, 


11 47 


Chester, 


4 15 


Gunpowder, 


10 57 


Lazaretto, 


5 20 


Baltimore, 


15 72 


Fort Mifflin, . 


5 25 






Gloucester Point, 


5 30 


To Dover, Del, 




Philadelphia, 


3 33 


New Castle, 


5 







Wilsons, Miss. (264.) 
Wilshire, O. (124.) 
Winchendon, Mass. (84.) 
"Winchester, Ct.( 109.) 
Winchester, O. (124.) 
Winchester, Va. (154.) 
Winchester, K. (169.) 
Winchester, T. (228.) 
Winchester, Miss. (298.) 
Wind Gap, Pa. (133.) 
Windham, Me. (63.) 
Windham, Ct. (110.) 
Windsor, Vt. (61.) 
Windsor, Ct. (110.) 
Windsor, N. C. (237.) 
Winsboro, S. C. (253.) 
Winyaw Bay, S. C. (274.) 
Wiscasset, Me. (64.) 



Wisconson R., Mich. (44.) 
Witamky, Fl. (329.) 
Womelsdorf, Pa. (132.) 
Woodbury, N. J. (157.) 
Woodsfield, O. (151.) 
Woodstock, Me. (39.) 
Woodstock, Vt. (61.) 
Woodstock, Va. (175.) 
Woodville, Va. (197.) 
Woodville, Miss. (295.) 
Woodville, Lou. (324.) 
Wooster, O. (126.) 
Worcester, Mass. (85.) 
Worthington, O. (125.) 
Wyliesburg, Va. (216.) 
Wynton, N. C. (217.) 
Wyoming, Pa. (107.) 



Wisconsin, Territory of, is divided into 18 counties. Popu- 
lation, about 30,000. Area, 90,720 square miles. Capital, 
Madison. Lat. 43° 51' N., Long. 12° 27' W. 

Government. — Governor appointed by the President and 
Senate ; and secretary, who continue in office two years. 



WIS ZAN 141 

The judicial as well as the executive officers of the Territory 
are chosen by the president of the U. States, by and with the 
consent of the senate. 

Physical Structure. — Extending from the lat. of 42° 30' to 
49° North, with an area, equal in extent, to two of the border- 
ing states, the Territory of" Wisconsin possesses almost every 
variety of soil — nothing deserving the name of mountain is 
found within its limits, and, with the exception of the innu- 
merable lakes and swamps which abound in the northern part 
of the Territory, every part of its surface is susceptible of 
cultivation. Even in the lead districts, where fertility is 
scarcely looked for, the agricultural products are in no wise 
inferior to those of other sections of the country. 

Mines of lead have for many years been worked to great 
advantage. Copper ore has also been recently found in great 
abundance, and of superior quality. 

x. 

Xenia, O. (149.) 

Y. 

Yadkin R., N. C. (213.) York, Pa. (1 56.) 

Yakunnee, Miss. (282.) York, Va. (198.) 

Yancvville, Va. (196.) York H., P. (132.) 

Yazoo R., Miss. (263.) York R., Va. (198.) 
York, or Toronto, U. C. (54.) Yorkville, S. C. (253.) 

York, Me. (63.) Youngs, II. (165.) 
York, II. (145.) 



Z. 



Zanesville, O. (150.) 



TABLE OF MONEY. 



143 



TABLE 

OF THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF MONEY, 



DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OF EUROPE, ESTIMATED 
IN DOLLARS AND CENTS. 

The fractional parts of the cents are decimals. 



Great Britain. 


Holland. 






$ cts. 




$ cts. 


Farthing 


00,46 


Stiver 


01,94 


Penny 


01,85 


Scalin 


11,64 


Groat 


07,40 


Guilder, or Florin 


38,80 


Shilling 


22,22 


Rix dollar 


97,00 


Crown, or 5 shillings 


1 11,16 


Ducat 


2 07,86 


Sovereign, or pound 


4 44,44 


Gold Ducat 


8 00,00 


Guinea, 21 shillings 


4 66,66 


Portugal. 




France. 




Re 


00,12 






Vinton 


02,50 


Denier 


00,08 


Testoon 


12,50 


Sol, or 12 deniers 


00,92 


Crusade of ex 


50,00 


Livre Tournois, or 




Milre* 


1 25,00 


20 sols 


18,52 


Moidore 


6 00,00 


Ecu, or crown, 6 




Joannese 


8 00,00 


livres 


1 10,00 






Pistole* 10 livres 


1 85,17 


Italy. 




Louis d'or 


4 44,44 






Frane 


18,74 


Soldi 


00,80 


Five francs 


93,70 


Chevelet 


03,18 






Lire* 


15,92 


Spain. 




Testoon 


23,88 






Croisade 


79,60 


Maravadie* 


• 00,30 


Pezzo of ex* 


92,60 


Rial 


10,00 


Genouine 


1 36,12 


Pistarine 


20,00 


Pistole 


3 20,00 


Piaster of ex* 


80,00 






Dollar 


1 00,00 


Switzerland. 


Ducat of ex* 


1 10,00 






Pistole 


3 60,00 


Fenning 


00,24 



144 



TABLE OF MONEY, 





$ cts. 


Prussia. 




Cruitzer 


00,92 






Sol* 


02,77 




$ cts. 


Gulden 


55,55 


Grosh 


00,86 


Rix dollar 


1 00,00 


Coustic 


04,32 


Austria. 




Tinse 


12,96 


Crutzer 
Grosh 
Batzen 
Gould 
Rix dollar 


00,86 
03,14 
03,44 
51,85 

77,77 


Ort 
Florin 
Rix dollar* 
Ducat 
Frederick d'or 


15,55 

25,92 
77,76 

2 07,40 

3 88,80 


Ducat 


2 07,40 


Russia. 




Sweden. 












Atlin 


03,00 


Stiver 


00,72 


Grievener 


10,00 


Copper marc 


02,88 


Polpotin 


25,00 


Silver marc 


08,64 


Poltin 


50,00 


Copper dollar 


11,52 


Ruble 


1 00,00 


Caroline 


25,92 


Zervonitz 


2 00,00 


Rix dollar 


1 03,70 






Ducat 


2 07,40 


Turkey. 




Denmark. 












Mangar 


00,28 


Shilling 


01,04 


Asper* 


01,12 


Duggen 


06,24 


Parac 


03,33 


Marc* 


16,66 


Bestic 


05,55 


Rix marc 


20,83 


Estic 


11,11 


Rix ort 


25,00 


Solata 


22,22 


Crdwn 


66,66 


Piaster* 


88,88 


Rix dollar 


1 00,00 


Caragrouch 


1 11,10 


Ducat 


8 83,34 Xeriff 


2 22,20 



* These are merely nominal, and not represented by any 
real coin. 



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