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Full text of "American wire rope catalogue and hand book"

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GIFT OF 




American 
Wire Rope 



. 

American 
Steel & Wire Company 

Sales Offices 

CHICAGO 72 West Adams Street 

NEW YORK 30 Church Street 

WORCESTER 94 Grove Street 

BOSTON 120 Franklin Street 

CLEVELAND Western Reserve Building 

PITTSBURGH Frick Building 

BUFFALO . ' 337 Washington Street 

DETROIT Foot of First Street 

CINCINNATI Union Trust Building 

OKLAHOMA CITY State National Bank Building 

ST. LOUIS Third National Bank Building 

ST. PAUL-MINNEAPOLIS .... Pioneer Building, St. Paul 

DENVER First National Bank Building 

SALT LAKE CITY . . . Walker Bank Building 



United States Steel Products Company 

EXPORT DEPARTMENT: NEW YORK . . . 30 Church Street 

PACIFIC COAST DEPART.: SAN FRANCISCO . . Rialto Building 

PORTLAND, Sixth and Alder Streets 
SEATTLE, 4th Ave. So. & Conn. St. 
Los ANGELES, Jackson & Cent. Aves. 

Warehouses 

For the convenience of our customers, we have established ware- 
houses at different points throughout the country from which quick 
shipment may be made, as follows: 

BALTIMORE KANSAS CITY, Mo. RICHMOND, IND. 

BUFFALO Los ANGELES SALT LAKE CITY 

CEDAR RAPIDS LOUISVILLE SAN FRANCISCO 

CHICAGO MEMPHIS SAVANNAH 

CLEVELAND NEW HAVEN, CONN. SEATTLE 

COUNCIL BLUFFS NEW ORLEANS ST. Louis 

DENVER NEW YORK ST. PAUL 

DES MOINES PHILADELPHIA TRENTON, N. J. 

DETROIT PITTSBURGH WICHITA 

FARGO PORTLAND, ORE. WORCESTER, MASS 



American 
Wire Rope 



Catalogue and Hand Book 






American Steel & Wire Company 



Copyright 1913 by American Steel & Wire Company 



,*" \ 



Issued January 1, 1933 

5 




Contents 

Hand Book Section 



Page 
Chapter I. Standard Methods and Facilities for Testing Wire 

Rope. 10 

Chapter II. Materials Composing Wire Rope and their Physical 

Characteristics. 11-13 



Chapter III. Standard Types of Wire Rope Construction The 

Strand and Various Combinations of Wires "One-Size Wire"; " Warrington" 
and "Scale Type" Construction. Composition of the Various Classes of 
Rope " Haulage," "Hoisting," "Extra Flexible," "Special Flexible," 
" Running Rope," etc. Abbreviated notation for describing Rope. The 
Structural advantages of different kinds of Rope, their susceptibility to 
abrasion, flexibility, strength, etc. Smooth and Flat Ropes, Regular and 
Lang's Lay. 14-26 

Chapter IV. Variety of Uses for Wire Rope of the various types. 

Examples showing the scope of Wire Rope adaptability. 27-28 

Chapter V. Mechanical Theory of Wire Rope. Stresses in Rope 
from: (1) Dead and Live Loads, (2) Bending, (3) Impact, on starting and 
stopping, (4) Slopes, (5) Spans. The maximum stress for Machinery in 
relation to the strength of the rope. The power derivable from multiple 
sheave blocks. Mathematical formulae and stress tables and graphical 
diagrams. Stresses in guys, and tables and diagrams for guy factors. 
Factors of safety advisable for various conditions of service. Sizes and 
kinds of rope for various stresses. 29-66 



Chapter VI. Practical Hints and Suggestions. Gauging the diameter. 
Sheaves and Drums, Grooves, Overwinding, Alignment; "Lead" from 
Sheave to Drum; Wear of Sheaves and Drums. Disadvantages of High 
Speed, Reverse Bending and Sudden Stresses. Proper Handling of Wire 
Rope. Strength of Galvanized Ropes. Lubrication, Power Transmission 
and effect of Heat on Wire Rope. 67-70 

Chapter VII. Instructions for Ordering Wire Rope. List of Items 

of Information that should accompany orders. Illustrative Sketches. 71 

Chapter VIII. Typical Applications of Wire Rope in Practice! 

Aeroplanes, Cableways, Tramways, Cable Roads, Clam Shell and Orange 
Peel Buckets, Cranes, Derricks, Elevators of various kinds, Excavating 
Machinery, Dredges, Ferries, Guying, Loading and Unloading Machinery, 
Lumbering, Mining Machinery, Suspension Bridges, Stump Pulling, Towing 
and Oil Well Drilling. 72-118 



Catalogue Section 

Page 

Chapter IX. Lists of Prices, Sizes, Strengths and Proper Diameters of 
Drums or Sheaves for Round and Flattened Strand Ropes, arranged in the 
order of their flexibility, commencing with the Least Flexible and running 
to the Most Flexible; in the following grades, viz.: (1) Iron, (2) Crucible 
Cast Steel, (3) Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel, (4) Plow Steel and (5) 
Monitor or Improved Plow Steel ; and for the following purposes, viz.: 
Transmission, Haulage or Standing Rope, Hoisting, Tiller or Hand Rope, 
Galvanized Rigging or Guy Rope, Running Rope, Hawsers and Mooring 
Lines, Deep Sea Towing Hawsers, Bridge Cables, Sash Cord, Aeroplane 
Strands, Galvanized or Tinned Flexible Aeroplane or Motor Boat Cord, 
Mast Arm or Arc Light Rope, Sawing Strand for Sawing Sandstone, 
Clothes Lines, Special Strands for " Messenger " work, Catenary Con- 
struction and Lightning Arresters, etc. Round and Interlocked Tramway 
Strands and Flat Rope. Table of estimated average number of coils of 
hollow cable clothes line per barrel, packed. Description of Flat Rope, of 
method of repairing it. Description and prices of American Steel and Wire 
Shield Filler for lubricating purposes. 119-199 

Chapter X. Lists of Prices and Descriptions of Special Equipment 
and Accessories Fittings and Methods of Attachment. Methods of joining 
two Ropes, Thimbles, Clips, Clamps, open and closed Sockets, Regular 
and Bridge Type, Single and Sister Hooks, Swivels applied to Sockets, 
Thimbles and Hooks. 200-215 

Locomotive Switching, Wrecking and Ballast Unloader Rope with Single and 

Double Fittings. 216-219 

Turnbuckles, Iron Guy Shackles, Heavy W T ire Rope Blocks, Sheaves, Accessories, 

Endless and Special Slings and Pulling in Cables. 220229 

Directions for Splicing, with Illustrations. 230-233 

Tables of Power Transmitted, Weights of Materials Handled, Comparison of 
Strength of Wire Rope versus Manila Rope, Numbers, Dimensions and 
Capacities of Reels, etc. 234-238 

Glossary of Terms used in the Wire Rope Industry. 239-243 

Index. 243-247 



American Steel and Wire Company 



The Properties 

THE trend of all Evolution 
is in the direction of greater 
adaptability of means to 
ends, and before entering upon the 
detailed discussions of the modern 
wire rope in all its variety of appli- 
cations it is eminently proper to 
investigate somewhat briefly its 
true inwardness as a mechanical 
device. By wire rope is here 
meant the rope of twisted wire, the 
successor of the twisted hemp rope, 
as distinct from the wrapped cable 
of straight parallel wires often 
used in suspension bridges. It is 
by no means as simple a contriv- 
ance as it appears, and a brief study 
of its construction and functions 
will throw a penetrating light upon 
how and why it has been respon- 
sible for the growth of several 
enormous industries. 

Adaptability in an engineering 
sense means economy and safety. 
The wire rope excels in economy 
for many purposes because of its 
long life under heavy duty, and be- 
cause of its superiority in strength 
per unit of size and weight it is 
for many uses the only available 
appliance that has yet been de- 
veloped. Compared with its hemp- 
en predecessor it has the following 
peculiarities : 

(1) Enormously greater strength 
for the same diameter. 

(2) Much greater strength for 
the same weight. 

(3) Equal strength whether wet 
or dry, which is decidedly not the 
case with a hemp rope. 



of Wire Rope 

(4) Constancy of length under 
all weather conditions. 

(5) Uniformity of strength 
throughout its length and through- 
out its life when properly used and 
cared for. 

(6) Greater certainty with which 
its strength can be computed. 

(7) Greater indestructibility. 

(8) Far greater variety in types 
of construction for different uses. 

(9) Approximately the same flex- 
ibility for the same strength. 

(10) Less softness for hand work. 

(11) Greater rigidity under stress, 
and smaller range of elasticity. 

(12) Lower cost per unit of 
strength. 

The above list is not supposed 
to be complete, but it is believed 
to be fairly representative of all 
actual working facts. It is appar- 
ent that except under certain con- 
ditions governing (9), (10) and 
(11), the wire is a better material 
for the purpose than hemp. 

A hemp rope is composed of 
three, or sometimes four, strands, 
each of which is formed by twist- 
ing together a comparatively large 
number of filaments or fibres. 
These filaments may be single 
threads of hemp or of yarn spun 
from a number of these threads or 
fibres. Since the original threads 
will seldom average more than 
three feet long, and often a good 
deal less than this, it is evident 
that the strand depends for its 
continuity of strength upon the 
binding action of the several helical 



American Wire Rope 



fibres under tension in the manner 
illustrated below. The action of 
fibres in a strand is identical with 
that of strands in a rope. 

Consider (Fig. 1) in section three 
circular strands, of equal length, 
whose centers are A, B and C, and 
which are laid parallel with each 
other untwisted and under no 
tension. Let their common length 
be denoted by L. Assume now 
that one end of the rope is fixed, 
and that the other end is rotated 
one complete revolution, still with- 
out tension. Then the axis of each 
strand will take the shape of a 
helix of which the radius of 
rotation is R, and the pitch is 
P, somewhat less than L. The 
length of the axis of each strand 
is L = V47r2 R 2 + 



JH 

to which equals 2H. Therefore 

F = 2^ H, and the radial force 
per unit length of a strand = 



Now apply to the rope a vertical 
tensile force 3T acting parallel to 
its axis, and which must act 
through each strand; and prevent 
the rope from untwisting by the 
force H, acting horizontally in 
each strand. These horizontal 
forces at each end of the rope form 
horizontal couples acting against 
each other and resisted by radial 
stresses N in the strands. The 
stress H may be compared to the 
tension in a band around a water 
tank resisting the radial forces of 
the water. 

Let F = 2N, represent the 
entire sum of the radial forces in 
one circumference. Then the radial 
force per unit of circumference will 

F 
be , and the forces perpendic- 

ular to any diameter will amount 



+ H 2 = S 2 . Note that V must 
always be less than S, which ac- 
counts for the fact that in any 
rope the strength of the whole is 
less than the sum of the strengths 

of the strands. -5 = tan / = ? ^ 

If the angle of friction of the 
material composing the strands be 
less than /^, then the strands will 
tend to slide upon each other. 

We are now in position to under- 
stand many of the observed facts 
about twisted rope of all kinds. In 
the hemp rope, the strands are 
made from yarns that are them- 
selves composed of parallel fibres 
of short length. It is manifest 
that the fibres would immediately 
pull apart upon subjecting the 
rope to tension were they not 
crowded together by the forces H. 
If H is sufficient as compared with 
V to securely bind the fibres to- 
gether, their tensile strength will 
be fully developed. Otherwise 
when brought under strain they 
would slide upon each other, and 
cause the rope to "pull out" with- 
out the actual breaking of the 
fibres. Wetting the hemp fibres 
will decrease their angle of friction, 
from which it follows that a hemp 
rope which is properly designed 
when dry to develop the proper 
friction to keep it from pulling out 
may have as much as thirty per 



Ill 



American Steel and 



Company 



cent, less strength when wet. The 
smaller the pitch of the rope the 
smaller the value of V in proportion 
to S, and consequently the weaker 
the hemp rope per unit of diameter. 
It is therefore evident that if the 
hemp rope be not twisted enough 
the elements of it will pull apart, 
while if twisted too much it will 
yield in tension under less than its 
normal load. 

In the above discussion we as- 
sumed an external couple equal to 
3 R H at each end of the rope 
to prevent untwisting, assuming 
absence of friction between the 
strands. As a matter of fact this 
couple 3 R H is just what is pro- 
vided by the friction in the rope 
itself. It is very much reduced in 
practice by laying up the alternate 
layers of yarn and strands in op- 
posite directions, the twist of one 
layer acting from left to right, 
while the adjacent ones act from 
right to left. 

The radial components of H 
tend to draw each strand into the 
axis of the hemp rope. Therefore, 
there is a limit to the number of 
strands that can be arranged 
around each other in stable equi- 
librium without a core. Thus three 
strands, in hemp rope practice, as 
we all know, make a stable struc- 
ture, no one strand having a tend- 
ency to crowd between the other 
two, while four strands theo- 
retically would tend to work into 
three in stable position with the 
fourth on the outside. Successful 
four-strand hemp ropes are on the 
market, the above-mentioned diffi- 



culty having been overcome of late 
years by making the strands of 
special shape and winding with 
great care. Thus a much smoother 
hemp rope is obtained, which, with 
a longer pitch, should be corre- 
spondingly stronger than a three- 
strand hemp rope. 

When a well made hemp rope is 
stretched beyond its strength, the 
friction from the H forces is so 
great as sometimes to cause enough 
heat to make the rope smoke; the 
fibres and strands approach each 
other with a reduction in the value 
of R, and the generation of internal 
heat amounting to the applied en- 
ergy. If A represents the length 
of the rope before stretching, and B 
its length just before yielding, then 
the amount of heat energy de- 

T 
veloped is (A B) . The action 

of a hawser used in warping a large 
vessel into dock against or across 
a strong tide strikingly exemplifies 
these facts. 

As a rope comes under stress, 
being more or less elastic it 
stretches and the pitch increases 
proportionately. The angle O 
therefore increases and the ratio of 
V to H increases, and it thus, up 
to its elastic limit, becomes more 
capable of resisting a given load 
the more it is stretched. Now the 
pitch of the fibres in the strands of 
hemp rope is greater than that of 
the strands in the rope in propor- 
tion to their respective diameters. 
Therefore when stretched the yarns 
would reach their ultimate stress 
sooner than the strands, were not 



American Wire Rope 



IV 



these latter given an initial stress 
by supplementary twisting during 
the process of manufacture. There 
is always some danger in the 
older hand made ropes there was 
great danger that the inner 
strands may actually break while 
the outer ones remain intact, thus 
leading to the gradual destruction 
of the hidden part of the rope 
which is not subject to inspection, 
and therefore without giving warn- 
ing of the loss of strength. 

The main characteristic of a 
hemp rope is its flexibility, which 
is incidental to its twisted structure. 
The fibres, yarns and strands not 
being parallel to the axis of the 
rope, when the latter is bent 
around a block or sheave the ele- 
ments composing it are partially 
free to roll upon each other, thus 
adjusting themselves more or less 
to changes in the direction of the 
axis, and being subject to far less 
tension and compression in bend- 
ing than would be the case were 
they laid up parallel to the axis. 
They are, however, subject to some 
direct tension because they are not 
entirely free to roll, and it is this 
tension coupled with torsion and 
rubbing together in the rolling 
process that destroys any rope 
either hemp or wire going over a 
small sheave faster than one going 
over a large one. By the nature of 
this problem it is evident at first 
sight that a mathematical investiga- 
tion covering all the factors, particu- 
larly those of rolling and torsion in 
the individual wires, would be very 
elaborate and complicated and 



would cover ground upon which 
we have but little experimental 
data, so it has not yet been at- 
tempted, but it is equally clear 
that the flexibility is very de- 
pendent upon the arrangement of 
the elements in the rope. Flexi- 
bility in a wire rope is increased by 
the insertion of hemp centers, etc. 
When a wire rope is not under 
stress the individual wires are 
pressed together only by the initial 
stress caused by the twist, and 
adjacent wires touch each other 
only at the helical loci of their 
common tangent points. When a 
heavy load is applied the wires are 
crowded together, generating a 
considerable amount of pressure 
between adjacent wires, and con- 
sequently compressing each other 
and the hemp centers if there are 
any. Hence, besides an elongation 
due to longitudinal strain, there 
is a lengthening caused by the 
change of pitch due to the lessen- 
ing of the mean diameter of the 
rope through the H forces described 
above. The unit strain for the 
same unit stress is therefore a good 
deal greater than in the case of a 
steel bar or wire. If X be the 
strain in the length P, and T be 
the tension on a steel area a, neg- 
lecting the strength of the hemp 
centers, which cannot be considered 
on account of the vast difference 
between the Modulus of Elasticity 
of hemp and that of steel, then 

X T 

- is the unit strain and is 
P a 

the unit stress. Therefore E, the 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Modulus of the rope, will be 

X PT a 

divided by = . The quan- 

Jr a X. 

tity X is the only one that will be 
materially affected by the twisting 
of the wires, since a is the cross 
sectional area of the metal. We 
see that X will be much larger for 
a rope than for a bar or chain, and 
therefore E will be correspondingly 
smaller. It is apparent from the 
above that no one value of E will 
do for all kinds of wire rope; the 
more the twist and the larger the 
proportion of hemp in the rope, the 
larger will be the value of X and 
the smaller that of E. For practical 
purposes of ordinary computation 
a compromise value for the different 
classes of wire rope has been de- 
termined as a fair average for 
general experience. See Chapter 
V. Section 2. 

Still another fact is apparent 
from a consideration of the last 
named formula. As the wires get 
stretched and crowded more and 
more into what may be called a 
permanent position, there will be 
less and less movement of the 
wires about each other upon the 
application of tension to the rope. 
Therefore as the rope grows older 
in use the value of E may be ex- 
pected to increase unless the per- 
manent set of the wires is inter- 
fered with by the bending of the 
rope around sheaves or drums. In 
general, then, when used on very 
large drums or sheaves the value 
of E tends to increase, while on 
small drums the opposite will be 
the case. Reduction in the value of 



E may also be caused by gradual 
deterioration of the hemp centers, 
in wire ropes used for long periods. 

In modern construction and min- 
ing work ropes of great length are 
very generally used, and the weight 
of the rope itself is a considerable 
item in the total load that the 
upper end of it has to carry. The 
upper end, then, must undergo a 
heavier stress than the lower end. 
The lower end, however, is subject 
to more severe impact stresses than 
the upper, since before raising a 
load, be it a bucket or skip or mine 
car, there is a slack to be taken up. 
This slack comes out with a jerk 
when the rope becomes taut, and 
develops an impact stress that is 
difficult to estimate. The jerk or 
impact is absorbed by the elasticity 
of the rope more and more in pro- 
portion as the impact wave travels 
away from the impact point. 
Therefore it is minimum at the top. 
We thus have the heaviest load 
stresses at the top and the heaviest 
impact stresses at the lower end, 
and for this reason it is the two 
ends rather than the middle that 
should be examined periodically 
for deterioration. Of the two the 
lower end is more dangerous than 
the upper, because the upper end 
is usually wound on a drum in a 
nice, warm, dry engine house, while 
the lower end is generally exposed 
to wet, hard knocks, twists and 
various other abuses. See Chapter 
V. Section 3. 

In a solid bar of steel, such as a 
chord member in a bridge, the 
" straining" or elongation and 



American Wire Rope 



VI 



shortening of the material is ac- 
companied by molecular motion of 
its particles. In a rope, besides 
this molecular motion of the par- 
ticles, there is a molar motion of 
the units, fibres or wires, com- 
prising the structure itself. The 
loss of power incidental to this 
molar motion can be very largely 
reduced by the use of internal lu- 
brication, which is a comparatively 
recent development in wire rope 
practice. The consequent reduc- 
tion of internal friction makes for a 
high mechanical efficiency of tackle, 
and eliminates a great deal of 
destructive effect of intermittent 
stresses on the rope itself. This is 
applicable to straight ropes that do 
not carry a quiescent load, but 
more particularly to all ropes that 
run over sheaves and drums. Ex- 
ternal lubrication, also, is valuable 
where the rope is subject to corro- 
sive action or mechanical attrition. 
Hemp rope deteriorates with age 
and with use. Wire rope deteri- 
orates with use, but not with age 
when properly cared for, and the 
rate of deterioration depends, 
among other things, on the follow- 
ing factors : 

(1) Character of the metal. 

(2) Arrangement of the wires. 

(3) Ratio of the stresses to the 

strength. 

(4) Ratio of the maximum to the 

minimum stress. 

(5) Diameter of sheaves and 

drums. 

(6) Corrosive and abrasive ex- 

ternal effects. 

(7) Quality of lubrication, in- 

ternal and external. 



To guard against deterioration 
frequent inspections and occasional 
tests of the rope are important, 
particularly when the rope is used 
for handling men. In different 
European countries there are well 
defined rules for testing and in- 
specting and in this country many 
of the States have laws intended 
to guard against breakages in 
service. The practice here has not 
yet been satisfactorily standardized 
as between the different States. 
Although in a wire rope the pitch 
of the inside strands is not the same 
as that of the outside ones, the 
outside wires are more likely to 
break than the others on account 
of the greater bending stresses of 
drums, etc. The binding action 
of the twist, that in a wire rope is 
not accompanied by initial torsion, 
is such as to equalize and dis- 
tribute the strain on all the wires 
between the center and the cir- 
cumference in a way that is an- 
alogous to the action of the rein- 
forcing steel in a concrete beam. 
As a corollary to the above, ex- 
ternal inspection of a wire rope is 
much more to be depended upon 
than outside inspection of a hemp 
one. If the visible wires are sound 
it is altogether probable that the 
inside ones are, too. This fact 
should not, however, be taken as 
an excuse to neglect regular and 
careful tests. 

A long rope, such as a mine 
hoisting cable, is subject to vibra- 
tions which become intensified at 
the load end, with the effect of 
causing a more rapid fatigue of the 



American Steel and Wire Company 



metal at the point of attachment 
to the car or skip than elsewhere. 
We therefore recommend cutting 
a few feet off of this end periodically 
and refastening the rope as before. 
By using in combination the 
qualities of flexibility and tensile 
strength, all the various contriv- 
ances of sheaves, pulleys and drums 
are applied for the transmission 
and multiplication of power. When 
a rope is bent against its own re- 
sistance, work is performed on it, 
and this work necessarily reduces 
the efficiency of the tackle. In 
ordinary manila tackle with blocks 



of good quality, the mechanical 
efficiency of a six-ply rig, for ex- 
ample, is likely to be between 
seventy and eighty per cent, of the 
theoretical figure, the remaining 
power being dissipated in the 
friction of the blocks and the work 
done by bending and stretching 
the rope. 

An important factor in the con- 
sideration of ropes is the efficiency 
of the various forms of knots and 
splices. For manila rope the fol- 
lowing results were obtained in 
tests at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, viz.: 



Efficiency of 
Knot 



KIND OF KNOT 



90% 

80% 
65% 
60% 
50% 

45% 



Eye splice over iron thimble. 

Short splice in the rope. 

Timber hitch, round turn, half hitch. 

Bowling slip knot, clove hitch. 

Square knot, weaver's knot, sheet bend. 

Flemish loop, overhand knot. 



These percentages are in terms 
of the full strength of the rope. 

The mechanical applications of 
rope may be divided into the fol- 
lowing classes : 

I. Static, such as guys, bridge 
cables, shrouds, etc. 

II. Kinetic, such as power trans- 
mission lines, running ropes, 
tackles, etc. 

In the static class there will be 
no bending stresses, except such as 
are incidental to the anchorages 
and splices. These by various 
mechanical contrivances are now 
capable of a very large percentage 



of efficiency, in contrast to the 
knot factors of hemp rope men- 
tioned elsewhere in this chapter. 
For static use flexibility is no ob- 
ject, and the most satisfactory 
types of rope for this purpose are 
therefore the dense ones of few 
wires and long pitch, thus giving 
the smallest cost and greatest 
durability for the required strength. 
A form of static rope is that used 
for cable way main cables, wherein 
the rope acts as a monorail besides 
acting in static tension, and suffers 
attrition of the outer wires. Special 
twisting of the outer strands and 



American Wire Rope 



such construction as the inter- 
locking wire rope are peculiarly 
adapted for such a purpose, since 
they combine economy of cost and 
weight with a comparatively 
smooth wearing surface. The span 
of the main cable in cableways 
often controls the kind of material 
that must be used in the wires of 
the cable. If the spans are reason- 
ably short the stresses in the cable 
from its own weight are small as 
compared with those from the 
load, and an ordinary steel wire of 
low price is suitable. Where the 
spans are long, however, and where, 
from the topography of the ground, 
the amount of allowable sag is 
limited, the stresses from the weight 
of the cable become very important 
and wire of a higher tensile strength 
and higher price must be used. A 
careful study of all the conditions, 
as well as an intimate knowledge 
of the various classes of rope on the 
market, is necessary in order to 
select the most economical one for 
the purpose. See page 53. 

For kinetic uses a rope of con- 
siderable flexibility is necessary. 
Mine hoists, for deep working, 
generally have drums of fairly large 
diameter, and the load carried by 
the rope is very considerable, be- 
sides which the weight of the rope, 
when the car is at the bottom, 
is a large item. Therefore, for this 
purpose a strong high tension 
material is necessary, together with 
moderate flexibility. For use with 
derricks, cable way falls, elevators 
and hoists, where the loads are 
comparatively light, and where the 



rope must run over sheaves of small 
diameter, flexibility becomes more 
important and high tensile strength 
per unit of weight less so. Hence 
for these purposes we need the 
hoisting ropes of small and numer- 
ous wires. There is a very large 
variety to choose from in selecting 
a rope for a specific purpose, and 
there can be only one kind that will 
be satisfactory for a particular 
purpose. Therefore, before order- 
ing any rope, the object that it is 
intended to fulfill as well as the 
characteristics of the rope should 
be thoroughly considered. When 
in doubt as to which of two ropes 
to select, it is better to take the 
chance of erring on the side of too 
much flexibility than on that of 
too little. The necessary strength 
will control the diameter, which 
can be taken from the tables in 
this volume. The effect of wear on 
a hoisting rope is most important. 
When used on a derrick such as in 
the construction of a bridge or 
high building, frequently the fall 
rope is used in a three-ply com- 
bination of sheaves, and where the 
fall rope is long the rope becomes 
twisted upon itself by the revolu- 
tion of the load. The raising and 
lowering of the load under these 
conditions, causing the ropes to 
rub each other while twisting about 
each other, is highly destructive 
of the rope. 

In the foregoing pages the prin- 
cipal characteristics of the wire 
rope, and its antecedent, the hemp 
rope, have been given, and it is 
believed that a perusal of them 



TX 



American Steel and Wire Company 



will place the reader in possession 
of so many of the general facts and 
conditions of the rope problem, as 
may be necessary to a good general 
conception of it. A great deal more 
of general discussion might be 
written. There is already an ex- 
tensive literature on wire rope, and 
as a mechanical device it represents 
a large field of investigation not 
yet covered by the mathematician, 
the testing expert and the metal- 
lurgist. The effects of tension, tor- 
sion and attrition acting simultane- 
ously, complicated by temperature 
changes and the results of corro- 
sion, lubrication and, at times, 
electrolysis, offer problems at once 
fascinating and elusive. The fact 
that many of them are still un- 



solved, however, does not detract 
from the certainty that as pro- 
duced in the mills of to-day, the 
wire rope is an appliance that is 
wonderfully well adapted to a mul- 
titude of uses, manifest and undis- 
covered, with a composition and a 
structure that can be varied almost 
endlessly to meet given conditions. 
It can be made with very great 
accuracy and reliability under 
proper service, and not least of its 
virtues is the fact that for the quan- 
tity of goods delivered it is far and 
away the most economical tool to 
be had for its purposes. The field 
of its use and its adaptability to 
various purposes have grown by 
leaps and bounds, and were never 
growing so fast as to-day. 



American Wire Rope 




Ffg. I. 




Fig. 2. 



'ib American Steel and Wire Company 



Chapter I 
Standard Breaking Strengths of Wire Rope 

The demand for accurate information regarding wire rope has led the 
various manufacturers of the United States to adopt standard figures for the 
strength of all sizes and qualities of rope. It was formerly the practice of 
most manufacturers and nearly all users of wire ropes to test the individual 
wires and to consider their combined strength as the strength of the finished 
rope. Strengths thus obtained were greater than actual strengths obtained 
by breaking the ropes as a whole. It was on this account that the standard 
strengths now given in this catalogue were adopted, all figures representing 
actual breaks. In no case was the intrinsic strength of the ropes reduced, but 
more accurate and scientific data are shown in the line of progress. With some 
constructions and qualities of rope, the strength given represents 95 per cent 
of the total strength of the wires taken singly, but in other cases with different 
constructions it may run down to 80 per cent or even less. The question 
which interests the user is whether a rope will stand when new the strain 
given in the tables, and we can state positively that our ropes will meet the 
strengths given herein if properly tested. 

Method of Testing American Wire Rope 

The testing of a wire rope is not a difficult matter, but it must be 
properly done or it is valueless. All finished wire used in our wire rope is 
given a rigid test on both ends of each coil to determine its strength, tough- 
ness and uniformity. No coil of wire that fails to meet the rigid tests is used 
in American wire rope. We have not only the latest and best methods of wire 
testing, but we have the most improved machinery capable of testing to rupture 
any wire rope shown in this catalogue. Tests are constantly being made of 
finished ropes to assure their adherence to the standard strengths given in the 
tables. 

The strengths given are correct only for our standard product of the 
construction shown, it being obvious that any variation or modification of 
the standards would somewhat alter the strength of the rope. We have 
figures for these modified constructions and qualities and can furnish them 
when required. 

These testing facilities are complete from a machine for the smallest wire 
to one for the largest rope listed herein, so that customers may rely absolutely 
on the information given. 



American Wire Rope 11 



Chapter II 
Material in Wire Rope 

Wire ropes are made almost exclusively from iron or steel and there have 
been applied to the various grades of strength of materials certain names 
which have clung to them until they can hardly be dispensed with. To many 
perhaps these terms have been more or less misleading or confusing. It is our 
intention to set this subject briefly before the trade so that there may be a 
clear understanding of the various trade names used in this catalogue. 

The materials used in the wire ropes as described in the succeeding pages 
are grouped into five main divisions as follows : 

1. Iron. 

2. Crucible Cast Steel 

3. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

4. Plow Steel 

5. Monitor, or Improved Plow Steel and Tico Special 

6. Hemp Centers. 



First : IRON This material was used almost entirely in the early days of 
rope manufacture and is employed to a limited extent at the present day, 
although by no means so extensively, owing to the development of the 
stronger and tougher steels. Iron is a very pure material containing very 
small amounts of phosphorus, sulphur and carbon. The physical characteris- 
tics of iron are softness, ductility and low tensile strength, being approximately 
85,000 pounds per square inch in the drawn wire entering into ropes. This 
applies to the iron transmission and hoisting rope illustrated on pages 121 and 
127. Purchasers of our bright iron rope are assured that it contains the best 
material that can be produced. 



Second: CRUCIBLE CAST STEEL This brand of steel derived its name 
from the early method of making carbon steel which could be hardened. This 
was formerly made in small crucibles capable of being operated by hand and 
containing from 50 to 100 pounds of steel each. This steel was then cast into 
small ingots or bars. The same grade of steel for rope is now universally 
made, both in Europe and America by the Siemens-Martin open hearth furnace, 
which differs from the original crucible principally in size and amount which 
can be made at one time. With the old crucible process, each small ingot 
was of different chemical composition, but with the open hearth furnace, the 
larger units of steel are of the same chemical composition and each batch from 
the Siemens-Martin furnace will make a number of large castings or ingots. 



American Steel and Wire Company 



When drawn into wire and properly treated, our crucible open hearth steel* 
will have a tensile strength from 150,000 to 200,000 pounds per square inch of 
sectional area, depending upon the size of finished wire and the properties 
required. 

Third: EXTRA STRONG CRUCIBLE CAST STEEL This, as its name 
indicates, is a stronger grade of crucible open hearth steel of somewhat different 
chemical composition, the strength of which runs from 180,000 to 220,000 
pounds per square inch of sectional area, depending upon the size of finished 
wire and properties required. 

Fourth: PLOW STEEL This name originated in England many years 
ago, and was applie/i to a strong grade of crucible steel wire which was used 
in the construction of very strong ropes employed to operate gangs of plows. 

The name of " plow steel," as applied to rope, means a high grade open 
hearth steel of a tensile strength in the wire of 200,000 to 260,000 pounds per 
square inch of sectional area, depending upon the size of the finished wire and 
the properties required. The name, although somewhat vague and unsatis- 
factory, has been associated with the trade for a long time. 

Eifth: MONITOR, OR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL AND Tico SPECIAL We 
have adopted the trade names of " Monitor" and "Tico Special" for the strongest 
grades of wire rope which we produce. ~ These are made of very carefully 
selected open hearth steel wire having a tensile strength from 220,000 to 280,000 
pounds per square inch of sectional area, depending upon the size of the finished 
wire used in the rope. These are the toughest materials of high strength that 
have yet been produced. They have a large and constantly growing field of use. 

Sixth : Hemp centers are usually employed in wire ropes to form an 
elastic cushion for the strands of the rope to rest upon. These are selected 
with great care and only the finest and most uniform fiber is used. 

The merits of these various grades of materials may be summarized 
briefly. 

Iron This is a low tensile strength material, very soft and ductile, but the 
heaviest in proportion to its strength and consequently of only limited 
usefulness. 

Crucible Cast Steel This is a medium tensile strength material, tough and 
pliable, of moderate cost and general utility. It weighs 

only about one-half as much as iron for the same strength and its lightness 
makes it very efficient. It is harder than iron and better resists external 
wear. 



term open hearth steel must not be confused with crucible open hearth steel, as the latter applies only 
to the higher grade of material of crucible quality, whereas the former may mean any grade of steel produced by 
the open hearth furnace. 



American Wire Rope 13 



Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel This is a grade midway between crucible 

steel and plow steel in tensile strength, 

and is a very serviceable material, tough, pliable, a little lighter for the same 
strength than crucible steel, and about two and a half times the strength of iron. 



Plow Steel This is next to the strongest material used in wire rope, combin- 
ing lightness and great strength. It is tough, but somewhat 
stiffer than crucible steel, and possesses very nearly three times the strength 
of iron. 



Monitor, or Improved Plow Steel This is a little stiffer in the same diameter 

than the preceding kinds, but strength 

for strength equally flexible. It is very useful where great strength, lightness 
and abrasive resisting qualities are required. It is the toughest steel of its 
strength that can be produced, and is fully three times as strong as iron. 

Tico Special Steel This special grade of steel wire is used in the manu- 
facture of Tico special ropes, which possess the highest 

degree of resilience and strength possible without sacrificing the inherent 
elasticity of the material. For list prices, see Monitor rope. 

The manufacture of these various grades of steel is an art in itself, which 
has been perfected after a half of a century of effort to its present high 
standard by the American Steel & Wire Company. Consumers mnv be assured 
that the materials used to-day in rope manufacture are more reliable tharv at 
any time in the past. The selection of ingredients going into the production 
of our rope steels is more carefully and scientifically handled and the resulting 
product more uniform than has hitherto been deemed possible. 

It will be found that the materials entering into American wire rope 
contain the smallest possible amounts of phosphorus and sulphur, the delete- 
rious effects of which are well known. Every heat of rope steel made is 
carefully analyzed and checked, and only such as conforms to our rigid 
chemical tests is ever used for wire rope. The same watchful supervision is 
given every process in the manufacture of the wire for the finished rope. The 
steel must be cast into ingots, rolled into billets, re-rolled from billets to small 
bars and then into rods before it reaches the wire-drawing stage. These rods 
must then be cleaned, drawn, given successive heat treatments and further 
drawing until the wire has been brought to the finished point. If at any of 
these stages the material shows mechanical defects, however slight, it is 
rejected, and every coil of the finished wire is given further exacting tests, all 
to determine its quality, which is the keynote in the production of American 
wire rope. 



14 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Chapter III 

Constructions 

In the development and application of wire rope there have been devised 
many constructions, some good and some bad, but in course of time odd com- 
binations of wires have been discarded and certain types have become 
standard. These standard constructions constitute the greater percentage of 
the wire rope ordinarily used in commercial work to-day. 

Wire rope as now produced consists of a group of strands the wires of 
which are twisted together symmetrically according to a definite geometrical 
arrangement. A group of strands is correspondingly laid symmetrically around 
a center core or neutral axis. 

Strands 

The fundamental unit in rope construction is the strand, and a short 
explanation of this is necessary to place the subject logically before rope users. 
To begin with, a vast number of geometrical combinations of wires are possi- 
ble, but for ordinary work the practice is to use one wire in the center of the 
strand, surrounding this with a layer of six wires, then successively with layers 
of twelve, eighteen, twenty -four and thirty wires, etc., this construction being 
known as concentric strand. 



12 



18 



24 



30 




. 1 
Wire 



Wij 



19 
Wires 



37 
Wires 



61 
Wire. 



91 
Wires 



The addition of one layer of six wires around a center wire produces a 
strand for a haulage rope. A supplementary layer of twelve wires makes a 
nineteen-wire strand for a hoisting rope. This strand in turn may be covered 
by a third layer of eighteen wires, making a thirty-seven-wire strand that is 
used in a special flexible hoisting rope. In connection with illustrations of 
strands of uniform diameter it is evident that the greater the number of wires 
in the strand, the more flexible will be the rope constructed therefrom. 



American Wire Rope 



15 




7 Wire Strand 




19 Wire Strand 




37 Wire Strand 




6 1 Wire Strand 




91 Wire St 



16 American Steel and Wire Company 

In the making of standard hoisting ropes, i. e., of six strands of nineteen 
wires each, certain desirable features result from a slight modification of the 
strands and wires : 

1. Common one-size-unre construction, nineteen wires all of one size, is 
the simplest hoisting rope strand made. 

2. Three-size-wire construction, sometimes called " Warrington" con- 
struction, consists of seven inside wires of uniform diameter surrounded by 
twelve wires which are alternately large and small. This combination increases 
the metallic area and strength by approximately ten per cent. Experience has 
demonstrated the advantages of this construction for general hoisting purposes 
and has led to its adoption in the manufacture of standard steel hoisting ropes. 

3. Seale construction, in which the center wire is large, the next layer 
of nine wires small and the outer layer of nine wires large. These strands 
produce a rope somewhat stiffer than the first two mentioned. See further 
reference to Seale construction. 

It is possible to make strands using two, three, four or five wires in place 
of one center wire, and to cover these wires with successive layers of wires, but 
these constructions are rarely used and have little commercial value. There 
are a few cases where odd constructions are advisable, and we shall be glad 
to give our customers any information necessary upon application. 

The types of concentric strand shown in the preceding illustrations are 
compact, present a uniform external surface to take wear and give a wide 
range of flexibility. 

Rope 

A number of strands, usually six, are laid together around a hemp 
center to form a completed rope. In the order of their flexibility from coarse 
to fine constructions they are 

6 strands, 7 wires each, known as " haulage rope " 

6 strands, 19 wires each, known as hoisting rope, "Seale type" 

6 strands, 19 wires each, known as "hoisting rope" 

6 strands, 37 wires each, known as " special flexible " 

8 strands, 19 wires each, known as " extra flexible rope" 

6 strands, 12 wires each, known as " running rope" 

6 ropes, 6 strands, 7 wires each, known as " tiller or hand rope" 

In describing a rope construction it is customary to use the following 
abbreviated notation, e. g. 6 x 7, which means six strands of seven wires each, 
the number of strands coming and the first number of wires last. 



American Wire Rope 



17 



Haulage, Transmission and Standing Rope 
Construction 




The coarsest rope, i. e., the 6x7 construction, is a relatively stiff rope 
with large wires capable of resisting external wear or abrasion, but it is the 
least flexible type shown and its use is limited to conditions where abrasion 
is excessive and bending around sheaves is a minor feature. See chapter on 
"Practical Applications," page 72. 



Scale Construction 




The next rope in point of flexibility is the 6 x 12 with one hemp core (each 
strand composed of three wires covered by nine wires), or better still the 6 x 19 
Scale type. The use of the 6 x 12 construction is not recommended, as it 
mak^s a poor rope structurally, and the 6 x 19 Seale type is not only 
identical so far as external surface of the strand goes, but is properly constructed 
internally. The name " Seale type construction" is applied to a rope each 
strand of which is composed of one large center wire surrounded by nine small 



IS 



American Steel and Wire Company 



wires and then by nine large wires, making a perfect mechanical construction. 
The Scale type is suited to a limited number of applications and is sold at the 
same price as the regular 6 x 19 construction. 



Hoisting Rope Construction 




The next step toward flexibility is the 6 x 19 construction, known 
universally as hoisting rope, due to its application to general hoisting purposes. 
The wires are smaller than in the 6x7 haulage rope and are less able to resist 
abrasion, but can be more easily bent around sheaves and drums. 



Special Flexible Hoisting Rope Construction 




The 6 x 37 special flexible rope is composed of still smaller wires than the 
6 x 19, possesses great flexibility and may be bent round fairly small sheaves, 
but it should not be subjected to much external wear, particularly in the 
smaller sizes, as the wires will be worn off too quickly. 



American Wire Rope 



19 



Extra Flexible Hoisting Rope 




The 8 x 19 extra flexible rope has more flexibility than the 6x19, being 
composed of two additional strands, and may be used over smaller sheaves 
than the latter. It is about as flexible as the 6 x 37 construction but not as 
strong, owing to its larger hemp center. 



Running Rigging Construction and Mooring Hawsers 




The 6 x 12 running rope is a modification of the 6 x 19 construction, 
being identical so far as external appearance goes, having a hemp core in each 
strand or seven in all. This type of construction is more flexible than the 
6 x 19 but only about two-thirds as strong. 



20 



American Steel arid Wire Company 



Tiller Rope Construction 




The 6x6x7 tiller rope construction makes an exceedingly flexible rope, 
and is capable of bending around very small sheaves. It is the most flexible 
standard rope on the market to-day. Being composed of very fine wires it 
will stand less surface wear than any type mentioned and the load should be 
light. 



Special Constructions 

In addition to the preceding constructions there are a number of special 
constructions which have been developed to meet unusual conditions. The 
particular qualifications of each are referred to in the following pages. 



Non-spinning Rope, 18 Strands 7 Wires 




This is a special construction of hoisting rope designed to prevent the 
rotating of a free load on the end of a single line. It is the only type of rope 
that really does accomplish this and is excellent for the purpose for which it is 
designed. 



American Wire Rope 



21 



Flattened Strand Hopes, Hoisting and Haulage 




Type A 




Type B 




Type C 




Type D 



22 



American Steel and Wire Company 




Type E 



These five styles of flattened strand have been designed to secure greater 
wearing surface and at the same time to retain as much flexibility as possible. 
It will be easily seen from an examination of the illustrations that these ropes 
more nearly approach a solid bar so far as external surface is concerned than is 
possible in the case of any style of rope made of round strands. In fact, flattened 
strand ropes possess about 150 per cent more wearing surface than the ordinary 
round strand rope. This is a distinct advantage for some wire rope applications 
where external wear on the wires results in a considerable decrease in strength 
as well as shorter life of the rope. 

Types C (5 x 9), D (6 x 8), and E (5 xll) correspond in general to the 
6x7 round rope, and types A (5 x 28) and B (6 x 25) to the 6x19 construc- 
tion in the general line of flexibility and usage. Their further uses are 
explained in detail under the various lists, pages 145 to 154. 



Steel Clad Hoisting Rope 




This kind of hoisting rope has each strand spirally served with flat steel 
strips, which give considerable additional wearing surface over the ordinary 
type. In fact, when the flat strips of a steel clad rope have worn through, 
there still remains a complete hoisting rope with unimpaired strength, Where 
ropes wear out quickly, this feature is a distinct advantage. 



American 



Rope 



Flat Rope 




This rope corresponds to a flat wire or ribbon and might be likened to a 
flat clock spring in this respect, that it will wind upon itself in a very narrow 
space. Some conditions are eminently suited to this type of construction, 
which can be made in any reasonable width, thickness or length. Further 
information regarding uses will be found on page 194. 



American Steel and W^ire Company 



Round Track Cable for Aerial Tramways 




Locked Wire Cable 




For cable spans or cableways there have been devised two special cables 
which present fairly smooth surfaces for wheels to run upon. The better is 
the interlocked type, as it presents the smoother external surface. See also 
pages 190-191 for further details. 

A point that should be noted in the foregoing discussion of wire rope 
constructions is that in going from a coarser to the next finer construction, 
or with each increase in flexibility, there is a corresponding decrease in 
the size of the wires and consequently in the wear resisting qualities. This 
should be borne carefully in mind in the selection of the type of wire rope to 
be used for a given application. In this connection a further discussion of 
this subject is found in the chapter on " How to Calculate Wire Rope Prob- 
lems," on pages 30-66. 



American Wire Rope 



Wire Rope Lays 

There are two general methods of laying up rope : the common type 
known as Regular lay, and the other as Lang's lay. 




Regular lay, right hand rope, 6x 19 




lay, 6x7 



In the Regular /ay, the wires of the strands are twisted in one direction 
and the strands laid into the rope in the opposite direction, giving the appear- 
ance shown in the first illustration. Most of the rope used in America 
is made in this manner, and it has become standard for general work. 

In the Lang's lay rope both the wires in the strands and the strands in the 
rope are twisted in the same direction, giving the peculiar appearance noted in 
the second cut. Lang's Jay rope is more easily untwisted than Regular lay and 
it is more difficult to tuck the strands securely in a splice, but it is especially 
adapted to resist external wear and grip action. Lang's lay rope should not be 
used without first consulting with us as to its adaptability. No universal rule 
can be given regarding its application, other than that its use is limited as 
compared with the standard Regular lay. 

It will be noted that all flattened strand ropes are made I J ang' l s lay. See 
illustrations on preceding pages 21 and 22. 



26 



American Steel and Wire Company 




Regular lay, right hand rope 




Regular lay, left hand rope 

Rope is usually made right lay, which is standard for all our rope as well 
as that of all other manufacturers in the United States. Right lay rope 
corresponds to a right hand threaded screw of long pitch and left lay to 
a left hand threaded screw of long pitch. The use of left lay rope is limited 
and confined to rope used in pairs on elevators and similar places where the 
tendency of left lay rope to untwist in one direction is offset by the tendency of 
the right lay rope to untwist in the opposite direction. The majority of oil 
well drilling ropes are also made left lay. 




Reverse lay rope, also known 
as right and left lay rope 

This consists of a rope in which the alternate strands are made Regular 
and Lang's lay. In the case of a six-strand hoisting rope, as shown, 
there are three strands regular lay and three strands Lang's lay. Not many 
ropes are made in this way, but this description would be incomplete without 
reference to it. 



American Wire Rope 27 



Chapter IV 

Range of Application 

The use of wire rope for mechanical purposes has increased very largely 
in the past few years, so that it has almost completely superseded the older 
methods employing manila rope and steel or iron chain. 

The scope of application has become universal, involving the selection 
or at times the designing of a special rope to meet the conditions imposed. 
It sometimes necessitates a radical departure from the ordinary forms of 
construction. With the facilities and plants at our. command, we can try out 
rope for every class of service and give our customers not an experiment, but 
a proven rope. We make a complete line of wire rope for every practical 
purpose to which a wire rope can be applied. Some of the principal uses to 
which wire rope may be put are as follows: 
Haulage rope for mines, docks, etc. 

Hoisting rope for elevators of * all kinds, mines, coal hoists, ore 
hoists, conveyors, derricks, stump pullers, steam shovels, 
dredges, logging, ballast, unloaders, etc. 
Special flexible and extra flexible rope for cranes, counterweights, 

ammunition hoists, dredges and kindred uses. 
Flattened strand rope of all kinds for all purposes. 
Track cable for aerial cableways, both ordinary and locked types. 
All the foregoing ropes except the interlocked track strand are made in 
all strengths of material, viz. : 
Iron. 

Crucible Cast Steel. 
Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel. 

Plow Steel and Monitor grades and may be furnished galvan- 
ized if necessary. 
The following additional ropes are also made : 

Extra Galvanized Standing Rope for derricks, ships' rigging, etc. 
Extra Galvanized Hoisting and Running Rope for mooring and 

messenger lines, cargo hoists, ships' rigging, etc. 
Extra Galvanized Hawsers for mooring and towing. 
Galvanized Cables for suspension bridges. 

Wire Sash Cord, annealed, galvanized or tinned, iron or copper. 
Galvanized Mast Arm or Arc Light Rope. 
Galvanized and Extra Galvanized Strand in all sizes. 
Special Ropes of every size, construction or quality made to order 
on short notice. If it is rope or stranded wire we make it. 
All sizes of copper cable and strand for all electrical pur- 
poses. Also fittings of all kinds for attaching to wire rope. 



American Steel and Wire Company 



In the general definition of wire rope is included practically everything 
that is twisted into strands or ropes. Even wire sash cord -^ inch in 
diameter is a rope just as truly as a large dredge rope 2^ inches diameter 
and a small tiller or hand rope as much as a large mine hoisting rope. A 
small aeroplane stay strand differs from a large bridge cable only in size ; 
both are stranded products. It is difficult to give all the various uses to 
which v/ire rope can be put, but -from very small to very large sizes they 
cover a wide range of utility. Almost any special type of construction 
may be made if required by the conditions of use. 

It will be seen from the foregoing summary that wire rope in its vari- 
ous sizes is adaptable to the most delicate mechanisms, as well as to the handling 
of the heaviest and largest machinery. Its adaptability is one of its strongest 
merits. 

See also chapter on practical wire rope installations pages 72 to 118. 



Chapter V 

How to Calculate Wire 
Rope Problems 



30 American Steel and Wire Company 

Chapter V 

How to Decide Size, Quality and Construction of 

Wire Rope 

In discussing this important question, around which hinges the successful 
use of wire rope, we will consider it under two general headings. 

A. STRESSES. 

B. SIZES AND QUALITY OF ROPE TO MEET THE STRESSES. 

Under Stresses, the following detail sections will be taken up in the 
order given : 

Page 

1. Dead and live loads ...... 30 

2. Bending stresses . . . . . . . 31 

3. Stresses due to shocks of starting and stopping . 47 

4. Stresses of inclines and slopes . . . . . 49 

5. Stresses in spans . ... 53 

6. Stress limitations of machinery .... 58 

7. Multiple sheave blocks ...... 58 

8. Wire rope guys ....... 60 

9. Factors of safety ....... 64 

The above nine sections constitute the principal factors requiring con- 
sideration in wire rope operations. 

A. Stresses 

Section 1 

Dead and Live Loads Wire rope applications divide themselves into two 

general classes, one in which the load is stationary 

and the other in which it is movable or fluctuating. It is a comparatively easy 
matter to estimate the stresses in a rope when the loads are what might be 
termed dead loads, such as occur in guy ropes and similar uses. On the 
other hand, a live load immediately brings us to a point where a number of 
factors must be carefully considered. The principal factor of course is the 
changing of motion of the load. All loads are dead loads until they begin to 
move and then they become live loads. The effect of a live load at times is 
not very greatly different from that of a dead load, provided the stress induced 
is uniform, but there are many cases where the load is started and stopped 
quickly and such cases result in a series of stresses due to shocks of start- 
ing and stopping. Stresses due to shocks of starting and stopping will be 
considered under Section 3, of this chapter. 



American Wire Rope 



31 



Section 2 

Bending Stress on Wire Rope The subject of this section is not a new 

one by any means, but it has been regarded 

by many wire rope users as of no practical importance. This view of the 
case is erroneous, and we shall endeavor to show that it is not only im- 
portant, but neglect of consideration often leads to very poorly designed 
apparatus and subsequently high maintenance charges, discouraging both to 
the user as well as to the builder. The user often finds his maintenance 
charges excessive, and it is difficult at times for him to understand clearly that 
his rope conditions are at fault. 







SOLID BAR 



ROPE SENT AROUND DRUM 



The bending stress in a wire rope, as we define it, is the stress which is 
produced in the metal composing it when the rope is bent around a sheave or 
drum of any diameter. Unlike ordinary stresses it does not appeal to the eye 
of the rope user in the same way that a live or dead load does, but it exists to 
a greater or lesser degree in all wire rope applications. It takes its toll, 
whether it is recognized or not, and while it is not possible to eradicate it 
entirely, still when its value is known its deleterious action can be reduced to 
a minimum, provided sheaves and drums are made proper size. It is serious 
to neglect consideration of any of the stresses effecting a rope, no matter 
how produced, because the success or failure of such appliances centers 
around these points. 

It is not surprising perhaps that many rope users and even some 
engineers have avoided this subject, because it is a fact that a good deal of 
the information now extant upon the subject contains just enough of truth to 



American Steel and Wire Company 



be deceiving. This is because after an elaborate mathematical process one 
wrong assumption has been made which nullifies completely the results 
obtained. In the present chapter we have availed ourselves of data gleaned 
from practical experiments, covering a considerable period of time, and 
numerous tests, so that the information given may be taken at face value. l% 

If we attempt to bend a bar of iron or steel one inch in diameter 
around a sheave or drum three feet in diameter we would find that the 
material had been stressed beyond the elastic limit, or, in other words, it 
had stretched permanently. On the other hand, if a wire rope one inch in 
diameter were taken in the same way it would be found that it not only bent 
more easily but that it had little, if any, permanent set. The rope, however, 
has been stressed, although to a lesser degree. In fact, if it were a 6 x 19 
rope it would have a stress of 20,000 pounds per square inch, or multiplying 
by the area of the wire in the rope, we have 3 . 72 tons. The stress in the 
iron bar would be approximately 800,000 pounds per square inch, according 
to standard formulae. This figure looks absurd, but it shows about forty times 
as much stress in the round bar as in a hoisting rope of the same diameter 
bent around sheaves of identical diameter. 

Of course, long before the stress reached 800,000 pounds per square inch 
in the round bar, the material composing the bar would have begun to stretch 
as it would in the case of steel when the stress reached about 30,000 pounds 
per square inch. If it were possible to make material with an elastic limit of 
800.000 pounds, the round bar would have that stress when bent around a 
3-foot sheave. 

The formula usually used for calculating the stress in a solid bar bent 
around a sheave is given in most books on mechanics as follows : 



where S = stress per square inch in material due to bending 
E = Youngs modulus = 29,000,000 for steel 
d = diameter of bar 
D = diameter of bend 

It has been the practice of some engineers to calculate the bending stress 
on a rope by means of the above formula (1) modifying it by taking 

d = diameter of wire in the rope. 

This would be correct if a wire rope were composed of straight wires, but it 
is decidedly incorrect because of the fact that the wires of a rope are 
twisted, and the stress very much different. This is the principal point of the 
entire problem. 



American Wire Rope 



The twisting of the wires spirally in a rope has the effect of reducing the 
stress materially over that in a round bar. 

The keynote of the problem lies in taking the right modulus of elasticity, 
this fact being apparent when this subject is investigated, and it is this 
practical point which has been the stumbling block to many theoretical calcu- 
lators. We have determined by careful tests that the modulus of elasticity 
for ordinary wire ropes with a hemp center does not exceed 12,000,000 
pounds when the rope is new, and we have used this figure in the calculation 
of the tables given on the following pages. The formula used to make these 
calculations is 



S-E 
^D 

where E K = modulus of elasticity of the whole rope value = 12,000,000 

pounds for six-strand ropes 
d = diameter of wire in the rope 

D = diameter of sheave to center of the rope or neutral axis 
S = stress per square inch in wires of rope due to bending around 
sheave of diameter D 

The values obtained which have been tabulated on the following pages 
are reasonable, accurate and applicable to the calculation of all rope problems. 
They show the stress in a wire rope from the smallest to the largest practicable 
sheave that is used for any work, and we ask the careful consideration of them 
by all rope users. 

For the purpose of getting a line of uniform stress in a wire rope we have 
drawn zigzag diagonal lines which show the stresses in tons for a uniform 
stress per square inch, which will be valuable in indicating whether the sheaves 
and drums in a wire rope system are properly proportioned. 

In general the bending stress should be kept at as low a value as possible. 
This varies with the class of work or nature of application; values that would 
be considered high in mine work would be low for some classes of machinery, 
because in the latter case it may be necessary to sacrifice the life of the rope 
for the sake of greater economy in other respects. We do not believe in sacri- 
ficing the rope service until other means of successful solution of a problem 
have been carefully considered, because in the long run such propositions are 
usually expensive and unsatisfactory to the owner, and oftentimes present a 
difficulty that at best can only be partially solved by the rope manufacturer. 

It would hardly be advisable to use as large sheaves on a hand crane or 
machine operated only intermittently as on an apparatus that is constantly 
working. The effect of the bending stress is shown usually in the decreased 
life of a rope. 



34 A merit mi Steel and Wire Company 

The practical application of the following tables is best shown by an 
example solved in accordance with this rule : 

1. Divide the breaking strength of the rope as given under the tables of 
strength by the factor of safety which it is desired to use. From this quantity 
deduct the bending stress for the diameter of rope and size of sheave or drum 
under consideration, and the result will be the proper working load. 

e. g. What load will a ^s-rope carry with a factor of safety of 5 over a 
3-foot sheave? 

Catalogue strength of S/ 8 plow = 15.5 tons (6x19 Rope) 

Divide by 5 = 3.1 tons 

Deduct bending stress . . . = 0.91 ton 

Proper working load . . . = 2.19 tons 

which means that the working load is 2.19 tons after considering the bending 
stress. It must be noted in particular that the bending stress must not be 
deducted from the total strength of the rope, but only after the factor of safety 
has been applied. 

The total load on the rope is 3.1 tons, of which 2.19 tons is useful load 
and 0.91 ton is non-utilizable load or bending stress. 

It is only necessary to consider in any problem the minimum size of 
sheave because the maximum stress is produced by the smallest sheave, and 
the passing over more than one sheave does not alter the bending stress, 
although the greater the number of sheaves the greater will be the surface 
wear upon the rope. It is also true that the fewer the sheaves used in any 
wire rope system the longer the rope will last. 



American Wire Rope 



35 



Bending Stress for Different Sizes of Sheaves and Drums 



For 6x7 Rope in Net Tons 



Diatn.o 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


15'-0' 


14'-0' 


13'-0" 


12'-0" 


ll'-O' 


lO'-O* 


9'-6' 


9'-0' 


8'-6" 


8'-0' 


1# 
1# 

IX 
1# 
1 


5.04 


5.40 

4.16 


5.82 
4.48 


6.30 


6.87 
5.29 


7.56 


7.96 


8.40 
6 47 


8.89 
6 85 
5.14 


9.45 

7.27 
5.46 


3.88 1 
2.91 


4.85 
8JJ4 


5.82 
4 37 


6.13 1 
4.60 j 


3.12 
2.24 


3.36 

2.42 


3.97 

2.86 


4.86 
L 3 49 


2. 01) 
1.49 


2.62 

1.87 


3.14 
2.24 


3.31^ 
2.36 


3.69 


3.92 

2.80 


1.60 


1.72 


2.04 


2.49 


2.64 


jfe 
% 
# 

A 

# 


1.03 
0.63 


1.11 
0.67 


1.19 


1.29 


1.41 


1.55 


1.63 


1.72 


1 82 


1.94 


0.72 
0.42 


0.78 
0.46 


0.85 


0.94 


0.99 

0.58 


L 1.04 


1.11 


1.18 


0.37 
0.26 


0.39 
0.28 


0.50 
0.36 


0.55 
0.39 
0.28 


0.61 


0.65 
, 0.46 


0.69 
0.49 


0.30 
L.0.22 


0.33 
0.23 


0.41 
29 


0.43 
31 


0.19 


0.20 


25 


33 


35 


A 


0.13 


0.14 


0.15 
0.09 


0.16 


0.18 


0.19 
0.12 


0.20 
0.13 


0.21 


0.23 


24 


H 
A 
A 


0.08 
0.04 


0.09 
0.05 


0.10 


0.11 
0.06 


0.13 


0.14 
0.08 


0.15 
0.09 


0.05 
0.04 


0.06 
0.04 


0.07 


0.07 
0.05 


0.08 ' 


0.03 


0.04 


04 


0.05 


0.06 


0.06 


0.06 







For 6x7 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam. of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


7'-V 


7MT 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-8' 


1# 

iKs 
IX 
l# 
1 


10.08 


10.80 
8.32 


11.64 

8.96 


12.60 


13.74 

10.58 


15.12 


16.80 
13.94 


18.90 
14.54 
10.92 


8.96 


6.88 


7.761 

5.82 


9.70 1 

L 7.28 


11.641 

8.74 


6.24 


6.72 

4.84 


7.941 
5.72 


9.72 
6.98 


4.18 

2.98 


4.48 
3.20 


5.24 
L 3.74 1 


6.28 1 
4.48 


7.84 
5.60 


3.44 


4.08 


4.98 


6.40 


H 
X 
& 
A 

%_ 


2.06 
1.26 


2.22 
1.34 


2.38 


2.58 


[ 2.82 


3.10 


3.44 


3.88 


4.49 


4.76 

2.88 


1.44 
0.84 


1.56 
0.92 


L 1.70 


1.88 


2.08 


2.36 


2.68 1 


0.74 
0.52 


0.78 
0.56 


1.00 
0.72 


1.10 
0.78 
0.56 


1.22 i 


1.38 
L 0.98 


1.56 


1.68 


0.66 
L 0.43 


0.66 
0.46 


0.86 
O.C2 


1.12 
L 0.80 


1.20 


0.38 


0.40 


0.50 


0.70 


0.86 


i 
TS 

H 
A 
A 


0.26 


0.28 


0.30 
0.18 


0.32 


0.36 


0.38 
0.24 


0.43 


0.48 


0.56 
0.34 


0.60 


0.16 
0.09 


0.17 
0.10 


0.20 


0.22 
[ 0.12 


0.26 


0.30^ 
L 0.18 


0.36 
0.21 


0.10 
0.08 


0.12 
0.08 


0.14 
0.10 


0.16^ 
0.11 


0.20 ' 
0.14 


0.06 


0.07 


0.09 


0.12 


0.15 









36 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Bending Stress for Different Sizes of Sheaves and Drums 

For 6x7 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam.ol 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


2'-0" 


3'-3" 


2'-0" 


IMP 


l'-G" 


l'-3" 


r-0" 




IK 
1H 
1* 
l# 

i 


7.48 





















# 
H 
# 

9 
1? 

# 


5.16 
8.12 


5.64 


6.20 


4.16 


4.72 


3.12 


[ 2.64 








3.40 


3.76 
2.20 


1.84 
1.32 


2.00 
1.44 
1.00 


2.44 

1.72 


2.76 
1.96 
1.40 


1.56 
1.12 


2.24 
1.60 


0.92 


1.24 


1.84 


rV 
Ks 
T 6 * 

A 


0.64 


0.70 


0.76 


0.86 


0.96 
0.59 


1.12 


1.28 
0.79 








0.40 
0.23 


0.43 ' 
0.24 
0.18 


^J).47 


0.52 


0.68 
0.39 


0.28 
0.20 


0.31 
0.22 


0.35 


0.47 
[ 0.33 


0.16 


0.24 


0.28 









American Wire Rope 



37 



Bending Stress for Different Sizes of Sheaves and Drums 

For 6x 19 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam. of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


20'-0' 


18'-0' 


16'-0" 


15'-0" 


14'-0" 


13'-0" 


12MT 


ll'-O" 


lO'-O* 


y-6" 


2# 
2^ 
2X 
2 

1M 


11.63 


12.92 
9.71 


14.54 


15.51 
11.65 


16.47 
12.48 


17.89 


19.39 
14.57 


21.15 

15.89 


23.26 


24.50 
18.40 


8.74 1 
6.37 


10.92 1 
7.96 


13.45 
9.81 


17.48 1 
12.74 


7.08 1 
4.98 


8.49 
5.97 


9.10] 
6.40 


10.61 

7.47 


11.58 1 
8.15 


13.41 
9.43 


4.481 
3.00 


5.60 
3.74 


6.89 1 
4.61 


8.96^ 
5.99 


3.33] 


3.99 


4.28 


4.99 


5.45 


6.31 


i# 

iK 
i# 

iX 
15* 


2.40 

1.88 


2.67 


3.001 
2.36 


3.20 


3.43 


3.69 
2.90 


4.00 


4.36 
3.43 


4.801 
3.77 
2.91 


5.05 


2.09 1 
1.62 


2.51 
1.94 


2.69 1 
2.08 


3.14 1 
2.42 


3.97 
3.06 
2.30 


1.46 
1.09 


1.82 
1.36 


2.24 1 
1.68 


2.65] 

1.98 


1.21 

0.88 


1.45 
1.06 


1.56 1 
1.14 


1.82 1 
1.33 


2.18] 
1.59 


0.80 ' 


0.99 


1.22 


1.45 


1.68 


i 
H 
H 

H 
A 


0.56 


0.62 
0.42 


0.70 


0.75 


0.80 
0.54 


0.86 


0.93 
L 0.63 


1.01 


1.12 
0.75 


1.18 
0.79 


0.37' 


0.47 


0.50' 


0.58 


0.68 , 






0.37" 
0.21 


0.40 


0.43' 


0.47 


0.50 


0.23 


0.25^ 
0.19 


L 0.27 


0.29 


0.20 


0.21 


# 

rV 
H 

T 5 * 

















0.13 


0.14 


0.15 



For 6 x 19 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam. of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


9'-0" 


8'-G- 


8'-0" 


7'-G" 


7'-cr 


G'-6" 


G'-O" 


5'-6" 


5MT 


4'-6" 


2# 
2K 
2X 
2 

IK 


25.84 


27.36 


29.08 

[21.84 


31.02 


32.94 


35.78 
26.90 


38.78 


42.29 
31.78 


46.52 
34.96 

25.48 


28.32 
19.92 


19.48 
L 14.16 


20.56 
14.99 


23.30 
( 16.98 


24.96 

18.20 


29.141 
21.22 


15.92 
11.20 


19.62 
13.78 


23.16 
16.29 


9.96 
[ 6.66 


10.55 
7.05 


11.94 

7.98 


12.801 
8.56 


14.94 


17.92 


7.48' 


9.22 


9.981 


10.88 


11.98 


13.32 


\H 

W 
i# 

ix 
\y% 


5.34' 

L 4.18 


5.65 


6.00 


6.40 
5.02 


6.86 1 
5.38 
4.16 


7.38 


8.00 
6.28 


8.73 
6.85 
5.29 


9.60 


10.68 
[ 8.36 


4.44 
3.42 


4.72 
3.64 


5.80 
4.48 
3.36 


7.54 
5.82 
4.36 


3.24' 
2.42 


3.88 
2.90 


4.841 
3.64 


6.48 
4.84 
3.52 


2.56 

1.87 


2. 72' 
1.98 


3.12 


3.96' 
2.89 


1.76 


2.12 


2.28 


2.44 


2.66 


3.18 


i 

H 

X 
K 
& 


1.24 


1.32 


1.40 
0.94 


1.50 
1.00 


1.60 


1.72 
1.16 


L 1.86 


2.04' 


2.24 


2.48 
[ 1.68 


0.84 
LJK52 


0.88' 
0.55 


1.08 


1.26 


1.36 

0.85 


1.50 


0.59 


0.63 
L 0.36 


0.67 
0.39 


0.74 


0.80 


0.94' 


1.04 


0.30 
0.22 


0.32 
0.23 


0.34 
0.24 


0.42 


0.46 
L 0.33 


0.49 


0.54 


( 0.60 


0.26 


0.28 


0.30 


0.36 


0.40 


L 0.44 


*/2 

A 
H 
A 

X 


0.16 


0.16 
0.11 


0.17 


0.19 


0.20 


0.21 


0.23 
0.15 


0.25 
0.16 


0.28 
0.18 


[ 0.32 
0.21 


0.12 


0.13 
0.08 


0.13 
0.08 


0.14 
0.09 
0.05 


0.10 
0.06 
0.03 


0.11 
0.06 
0.03 


0.12 
0.07 
0.04 


0.13 
0.08 
0.04 



38 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Bending Stress for Different Sizes of Sheaves and Drums 

For 6x19 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam.of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


8'-G" 


3'-3' 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2'-0" 


IMP 


2K 
W 
2X 
2 

1% 


31.84 


33.96 


25.60 




[ 19.96 


21.76 


23.96 








22.40 
14.96 


23.881 
15.96 


17.12 


18.44 


1% 

IX 

Itt 

IX 
Itf 


12.00 
9.44 


12.80 


13.72 
L 10.76 


14.76 
11.60 

8.96 


16.00 
12.56 
9.68 


17.46 


19.20 
15.08 


16.72 
12.96 


14.56 
10.88 
7.92 


12.48 
9.12 


10.02 
7.76 


13.70 
10.58 
7.92 


7.28 
5.44 


8.32 


11.64 
8.72 
6.36 


5.80 


6.24] 
4.56 j 


6.72 


7.28 
L 5.32 


9.68 
7.04 


3.96 


4.24 


4.88^ 


5.78 


1 
H 

X 
H 
ft 


2.80 


3.00 


3.20 
2.16 


[ 3.44 


3.72 


4.08 

2.72 


L 4.48 


4.96 


5.60 
3.76 


[ .6.40 


1.88 
1.18 


2.00 
1.26 


2.32 


2.52 


3.00 

1.88 


3.861 


4.32 

[ 2.68 


1.34 


1.48 
0.84 


1.60] 
0.91 
L 0.66 


1.70 


2.08 


2.36 


0.68 
0.48 


0.72 
0.52 


0.78" 
0.56 


0.98" 
0.72 


1.08 


1.201 
0.88 


1.36 


L 1.56 


0.60 


0.801 


0.96 1 


1.12 


l /2 
& 

H 

A 

X 


0.34 
0.24 


0.38 
0.26 


0.40 


0.42 


0.46 
0.30 


0.50 
0.32 


0.56 


0:62 
0.42 


^0.68 


0.80 


0.27 
0.17 


0.28^ 
0.18 


0.36] 
0.24 


"0.47 
0.30 


0.54 
0.33 


0.15 
0.09 
0.05 


0.16" 
0.10 
0.05 


0.20 


0.22 
0.13 


0.26 
0.15 


0.10 
0.05 


0.11 
0.06 


0.12] 
0.06 


0.14] 


0.17 


0.19 

L o.io 


0.07 


0.07" 


0.08 


0.09 



For 6x19 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam.of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Dia.meter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


l'-6" 


l'-3" 


l'-0" 


0'-9' 














2# 

2^ 

2X 
2 

1M 






















Ifc 
1# 

1/8 

IX 
ij* 


10.64 




















1 
# 
X 
X 

A 


7.44 


8.96 
6.00 


7.52 

L 4.72 
















5.04 
3.20 


3.76 
2.16 


1.82 
1.32 


2.72 

1.82 


1.60 


% 
A 
H 
A 

X 


0.93^ 
0.63 


1.12 


1.36 
L 0.94 
















0.72 

0,48 


0.40 
0,23 
0.12 


0.60 
0.34 


0.28 
0.14 


0.17 



American Wire Rope 



39 



Bending Stress for Different Sizes of Sheaves and Drums 

For 6 x 37 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam.of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


U'-O" 


18'-0' 


12'-0" 


ll'-O- 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8MT 


7'-6' 


7' -or 


6'-6' 


2X 
2^ 
2X 
2 

1* 


11.11 


11.97 
8.99 


12.96 


14.15 
10.63 


15.56 


17.40 
12.99 


19.45 


20.75 
L 15.60 


22.22 
16.70 


23.94 

17.98 
13.10 


8.35 1 
6.09 


9.74 
7.10 


11.69 

8.52 


14.61 
10.65 


6.55 
4.62 


7.75 


9.47 
L 6.67 


11.36 

L 8.00 


12.18 
8.58 


4.29 1 

2.89 


5.00 


5.45 

3.68 


6.00 1 


7.50 


9.24 
L 6.22 


3.11 


3.38] 


4.05 


4.50 


5.06 


[ 5.40 


5.78 


1# 

IK 
1# 

IX 


2.29 ' 
1.80 


2.47 j 


2.68 
2.10 


2.92^ 
2.29 

1.77 


3.21 


3.57 1 
2.80 


4.01 


4.28^ 
3.36 


4.58 


4.94 
3.96 


1.98 
L 1.49 


2.52 
1.94 
1.46 


3.15 
2.43 


3.60 

2,78 


1.39 
1.04 


1.62 
1.22 


2.181 
1.62 


2.59^ 
L 1.95 


2.98 
2.24 


1.12 


1.33 1 


1.83 


2.08 


1/8 
1 

# 

X 

# 

T 9 * 


0.76" 
0.54 


0.82 


0.88 


0.97 


1.06 


1.18 


1.33 
0.94 


1.42 
1.00 


1.52 


1.64 
1.16 


0.58 


0.631 
L 0.42 


L 0.68 


0.75 
0.51 


0.831 


1.04 
L 0.72 


0.38 
0.23 


0.39 
0.25 


0.46] 
0.29 


0.56 


0.63 


0.68 


0.78 


0.261 
0.15 


0.31 


0.35 
0.20 


0.39 


0.42 


^0.46 


0.50 




0.14^ 


0.17 


0.18 1 
0.13 


0.23 
0.17 


0.24 
0.18 


0.26 


0.28 
[ 0.20 




0.12 1 


0.151 


0.19 


K 
TV 
X 























For 6 x 37 Rope in Nei Tons 



Diam.of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


6-0' 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6' 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


3'-6' 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


2X 
2 1 A 
2X 
2 

!M 


25.92 


28.30 


31.12 


34.80 
25.98 


38.90 


41.50 


33.40 


35.96 
[26.20 


20.00 


21.80 
^14. 72 


19.48 
14.20 


21.26 


23.38 
17.04 


29.22 
21.30 


31.20 

22.72 
L 16.00 


15.50 
10.90 


18.94 
13.34 


24.36 
17.16 


10.00^ 
6.76 


12.00 


15.00" 


18.48 
[12.44 


7.36 


8.10 


L 9.00 


10.12" 


L 10.80 


11.56 


13.52^ 


IH 

iK 
1# 
IX 
1% 


5.36 
4.20 


5.84 


6.42 
5.04 


7.14 
5.60 
L 4.36 


8.02 


8.56 
6.72 

5.18 


9.16 


9.88 
L 7.92 


L10.72 


11.68 
L 9.16 


4.58 
3.54 


6.30 
4.86 
3.66 


7.20 
5.56 
4.16 


8.40 1 
6.48 


3.24^ 
2.44 


3.89^ 
2.92 


5.96 

4.48 


7.08 
L 5.32 


2.66 
1.94 


3.24 
2.36 


3.90 

[ 2.84 


4.88^ 
3.54 


1.76 


2.13 


2.66 


3.04 


3.28 


3.88 


i 

ft 

X 
X 

T 9 * 


1.26 


1.36 
0.92 


1.50 


1.66 
L 1.12 


1.88 


2.00" 


L 2.08 


2.32 


2.52 
1.68 


L 2.72 


0.84" 
0.52 


1.01 


1.26 


1.36 


1.44 


1.56 


1.84 
L 1.16 


0.58 


0.63 
L 0.36 


0.70 


0.78 


0.84 
[ 0.48 


0.92 


1.00 


1.04 


0.30 
0.22 


0.33 
0.24 


0.40 
0.30 


0.44 
0.33 


0.52 
0.38 


0.56 
0.41 


0.61 


L 0.68 


0.27 


0.361 


0.44 


L 0.48 


# 

TV 
X 










L 0.23 


0.25 


0.26 


0.29 


0.31 


0.34 
L 0.23 
0.14 




0.21 
0.13 



40 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Bending Stress for Different Sizes of Sheaves and Drums 

For 6x37 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam. of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2'-0" 


l'-9" 


l'-6" 


r-ar 


l'-0" 


0'-9" 






W 

2^ 
2% 
2 

1# 


24.00 
16.20 


18.00 


20.24 
















1# 
1# 

1/8 
IX 
1# 


12.84' 
10.08 


14.28 


16.04 
12.60 


18.32 
14.40 


L 12.96 


11.68 

8.52 










11.201 

8.72 


7.78 
5.84 


9.72" 
7.32 


11.12 
8.32 


6.48] 

4.72 


9.76 

L 7.08 


4.26 


5.32 


6.06 


1 
ft 

X 
# 
A 


3.00 


3.32 ] 
2.24 


3.76 


4.16 


L 5.04 


6.00 
4 04 


7.52 
5.04 








2.02 ' 
1.26 


2.52 
1.56 


3.08 


3.36 

2.08 


1.40] 
0.80 


1.84 


2.521 


3.12 


0.73 ' 
0.54 


0.92 
0.66 


1.04 
0.76 


1 22 


1.401 


1.84 


0.60] 


0.88 


1.08 


1.32 


y 2 

A 
H 


0.38 
0.25 
0.16 


0.41 


0.46 
0.31 


0.52 


0.62 
0.42 


0.76 


0.92 








0.28] 
0.17 


0.39 
23 


0.50 1 
0.32 


0.62 


0.19 


0.26 


0.38 







American Wire Rope 



II 



Bending Stress for Different Sizes of Sheaves and Drums 



For 8x 19 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam. of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


7'-0" 


6'-0" 


5'-0" 


4'-6' 


4'-0' 


8'-9" 


8'-6" 


8'-8" 


3'-0" 




1# 
1# 

IX 

1# 

1 


3.29 


3.84 
[ 2.96 


4.61 


5.12 
3.94 


5. 76 


6.15 


6.58 


L 7.10 


7.68 
5.92 




2.54 1 
1.91 


3.55 
2.67 


4.44 
3.34 


4.73 1 
3.56 
2.59 


5.08 


5.47 1 
4.11 


2.22 
1.62 


2.96 1 
2.15 

1.52 


3.82 
2.78 


4.44 
3.24 


1.39 
0.98 


1.94 

L 1.37 


2.43 1 
1.71 


2.99 1 
2.12 


1.14 ' 


[ 1.83 


1.96 


2.28 


H 

% 

fl 
A 

^ 


0.65 
0.41 


0.76 


0.91 

0.58 


[ 1.01 1 


1.14 


1.21 


1.30 

0.82 


1.40 1 
0.89 


1.52 




0.48 
0.28 


0.64 1 
0.36 


0.72 


0.77 1 


0.96 
0.56 


0.24 
0.17 


0.33 
0.24 


0.42 
0.30 


0.45 1 
0.32 


0.48 


0.51 1 


0.20 
0.14 


0.27 1 
0.19 


0.34 
0.24 


0.37 1 
0.26 


0.40 


0.12 


0.17 


0.21 


0.23 1 


0.28 


A 

X 
A 
X 








0.13 1 


0.14 


0.15 


0.16 


0.17 1 
0.11 


0.19 






0.12 



For 8x19 Rope in Net Tons 



Diam. of 
Rope in 
Inches 


Diameter of Sheave or Drum in Feet and Inches 


2'-9" 


8>-6' 


2'-3" 


2'-0" l'-9" l'-G' 


l'-3" 


l'-0" 


0'-9" 




1# 

1H 

IX 

V/B 
1 


8.38 


9.22 

[ 7.10 


7.88 
5.92 


8.88 
6.68 
4.86 


7.64 
5.56 
3.92 


6.48 
4.56 


7.76 
5.38 






. 


6.45 

4.85 


5.34 

3.88 


3.53 

2.49 


4.30 
[ 3.04 


2.74 


3.42 


% 
X 
X 

A 

g 


1.65 
1.05 


1.82 


2.02 ' 


2.28 


2.60 
[ 1.64 


3.04 


3.64 
2.32 


4.56 

2.88 
1.68 


2.24 
1.60 




1.16 
[ 0.66 


1.28 s 
0.72 


1.44 


1.92 
[ 1.12 


0.'60 
0.44 


0.84 
0.16 


[ 0.96 


1.32 
L 0.97 


0.48 
[ 0.34 


0.54 ' 
0.38 


0.68 
0.48 


L 0.80 


1.20 

L 0.86 


0.31 


0.43 _ 


0.56 


L 0.68 


1.12 


& 
H 
A 

X 


0.20 


0.23 
0.14 


0.26 
0.16 


0.28 


0.32 
0.21 


[ 0.38 


0.44 
0.29 


0.56 


L 0.76 




0.13 


0.18 


0.24 
L 0.14 


0.36 ' 

L 0.21 


L 0.48 




0,12 


0.14 
0.09 


0.28 
0.20 




0,15 





42 



American Steel and Wire Company 




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American Wire Rope 



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American Steel and W^ire Company 



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46 



American Steel and Wire Company 




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American Wire Rope 47 



Section 3 

Stresses Due to Fluctuation of Load in Starting and Stopping 

The amount of stress upon a rope, the velocity of which changes fre- 
quently, is a factor dependent entirely upon the rapidity with which the 
change of velocity is made. A problem will make this perfectly clear. Let 
us consider a rope that is to lift a load vertically, starting from rest and to 
reach a certain speed within a given time. 

Let t = the time of acceleration. 

W = the weight to be lifted (mine cage, ore or similar proposition). 

w = the weight of the rope per foot in pounds. 

E r = the modulus of elasticity of the rope. 

a = the acceleration or retardation of the load in feet per second. 

S = the space in which the acceleration or retardation is made. 

V = the velocity of the load in feet per second. 

K the kinetic energy of the load. 

k = the kinetic energy of the moving rope. 

Kt= the total kinetic energy. 

1 = the length of rope hanging vertically. 

g = the force of gravity. 

Kt= K + k. 

K t = C (W + wl). 

When C equals a constant by which the load is increased due to kinetic 
energy, C being a factor representing the increase of the total load. 



Therefore, K t = - - - = (W + wl) 

but V2 = 2 a S 
substituting we have C (W + wl) = (W + wl) or a = ^ 

o _ 

a 2 t s 2g C. If t is equal to 1, a = \ 2 g C 
or a = 8.02j/C~~ 

In order to facilitate estimating the stresses, the following table has been 
calculated using the above formulae. In the first column are values of C rang- 
ing from to 5.00, while in the second column are the corresponding acceler- 
ations (a) in feet per second, squared. The third column shows the 
corresponding velocities (v) in feet per second, and these values will also 
represent the distance in feet (S) the load would travel during one second. 
The fourth column shows the total stress factor, and the fifth the safety factor 
corresponding to the acceleration (a) upon the basis of a factor of safety of 10 
with a quiet load. 



48 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Stresses of Acceleration and Retardation 



c 


a 
Feet per Second 2 


s 

Feet per Second 


C + 1 Total 
Stress Factor 


Safety Factor 10 for 
Quiet Load 


0. 


0. 


0. 


1.00 


10.00 


0.10 


2.54 


1.27 


1.10 


9.09 


0.20 


3.59 


1.79 


1.20 


8.34 


0.25 


4.01 


2.01 


1.25 


8.00 


0.30 


4.39 


2.20 


1.30 


7.70 


0.40 


5.07 


2 54 


1.40 


7.15 


0.50 


5.67 


2.84 


1.50 


6.67 


0.60 


6.21 


3.11 


1.60 


6.25 


0.70 


6.71 


3.36 


1.70 


5.88 


0.75 


6.94 


3.47 


1.75 


5.72 


0.80 


7.17 


3.58 


1.80 


5.66 


0.90 


7.61 


3.81 


1.90 


5.27 


1.00 


8.02 


4.01 


2.00 


5.00 


1.25 


8.97 


4.48 


2.25 


4.44 


1.50 


9.82 


4.91 


2.50 


4.00 


1.75 


10.61 


5.31 


2.75 


3.64 


2.00 


11.34 


5.67 


3.00 


3.33 


2.50 


12.68 


6.34 


3.50 


2.86 


3.00 


13.89 


6.94 


4.00 


2.50 


3.50 


15.00 


7.50 


4.50 


2.2$; 


4.00 


16.04 


8.02 


5.00 


2.00 


4.50 


17.01 


8.50 


5.50 


1.82 


5.00 


17.93 


8.96 


6.00 


1.67 



^ For example : With the value of C equal to 1, which corresponds to a 
change of kinetic energy equal to the load during the first second, the load 
could receive an acceleration of 8.02 feet per second 2 or would have moved a 
distance of 4.01 feet, doubling the stress on the rope over that of the corre- 
sponding dead load : in other words, if the factor of safety were 10 with a 
quiet load, it would be 5 with the load accelerated 8.02 feet in the first second. 
It will thus be seen that it is very necessary that the acceleration at the start 
be gradual, in order to be sure that the stress is not unduly increased, because 
it may readily be seen that if the acceleration is sufficiently high, the rope 
would be in danger of being snapped off. This is particularly true of shorter 
lengths of rope. 

While it is not impossible to break a long mining rope by a sudden 
starting of the engine, it is not as likely to occur in a long rope as it is in a 
shorter mining rope, owing to another factor which enters into the problem. 
This factor is the extension or permanent elasticity of a wire rope or the 
amount of stretch for different applications of load. For instance, with the 
value of C equal to 1, the following table shows the amount of extension 
which partly compensates for the stress on a rope at starting. 



Length 
Rope 
Feet 


Extension 
Crucible Steel 
Feet 


Extension 
Plow Steel 
Feet 


Length 
Rope 
Feet 


Extension 
Crucible Steel 
Feet 


Extension 
Plow Steel 
Feet 


500 

1000 
1500 
2000 
2500 


0.833 
1.667 
2.500 
3.333 
4.167 


1.000 
2.000 
3.000 
4.000 
5.000 


3000 
3500 
4000 
4500 


5.000 

5.833 
6.667 
7.500 


6.000 
7.000 
8.000 
9.000 



American Wire Rope 



I'. I 



This extension varies directly as the length of the rope. It will be noted 
from this table that taking a rope, say 2,500 feet long, if it were to be stressed to 
a value of C equal to 1 corresponding to an acceleration of 8.02 feet per second, 
the value of C would really not be as great as 1, owing to the fact that the 
stretch in the rope of 4.16 feet would be almost exactly equal to the space 
traversed in the first second or the value of C would be only .50. If, however, 
the value of C were increased, the factor of safety of course would be cut 
down correspondingly. 

Section 4 

Inclined Planes Many wire rope applications require that a wire rope 
operate on a slope or incline where the stress on the rope 
is a variable quantity due to the angle of the plane. The stress on a wire 
rope so employed is of course a function of the angle of inclination, the 
value of which can be accurately determined. A diagram and development 
of formula for making this calculation is given below. 




Let 6 = the angle of inclination. 

X = be = the height of the plane measured vertically. 

Y = ac = the length of the incline measured horizontally. 

Z = ab = the length of the incline measured along the slope. 

P! = the pull on the wire rope due to load neglecting friction. 

P 2 = the pull on the wire rope due to its own weight on the incline. 

F = the friction factor which is a function of W. 

W weight resting on the incline. 

P = the pull on the wire rope, friction and weight of rope included. 

P 



=P 



P a . 
WX 



= sn e = 



where W, X and Z are known. 



50 American Steel and Wire Company 

The friction F of the cars on the incline operates normally to the line ab 
and is therefore a function of cos d. The maximum friction is for a value 
cos 0=1 or on a dead level, and the minimum for cos = or 90 vertical. 
It is the starting friction which is the greater and if we take a value of 2% 
or -^ for this quantity we have 

(1) _ Wcosfl 



sin 



50 

Therefore P= P t + F + P 2 = W sin e + W c se +PZ= w ( si 

oO oO / 

Take the weight of the rope into account 

Let w = weight per foot of the rope 
1 = length of rope on the incline. 



(2) Therefore P 2 = wl (si 

\ 



sin 



50 ; 

(3) P = P x + F + P g = (W + wl) (sin e + 

LetC = (sme + C -^} 
V 50 ) 

(4) Then P = (W + wl) C 

For short inclines an approximate value of P may be obtained by neglect- 
ing the weight of the rope or 

(5) P = C W 

The values of C = (sin e H jhave been plotted in a curve from which 

50 / 

it will be easy to pick the constant by which the load is to be multiplied to get 
the pull on the rope. 

For a good many places the length of J;he incline makes it imperative that 
the weight of the rope be considered, and it is better to allow for this by using 
formula (3) or (4). 

For obtaining the number of degrees on an incline we advise the use of a 
degree rule which is similar to a carpenter's two-foot rule containing a spirit 
level and a degree graduation. In case a rule of this kind is not at hand, the 
degree of inclination may be determined by measuring the vertical elevation in 
100 feet of distance along the incline, and from curve on page 51 the degree 
can be found at once. 



American Wire Rope 



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American Wire Rope 



Having found the degree of inclination, the curve on page 52 will give 

the load factor or C = (sin d -\ -jfrom which by formula (4) page 50, the 

stress on the rope P is readily calculated. 

EXAMPLE : A load of 50 tons is to be pulled up an incline of 20 feet per 
100 feet of slope. The total length of the slope is 2000 feet. Required the 
size of rope necessary to handle the load if Plow Steel Rope 6 x 19 is to be 
used, and factor of safety of 0. 

1. Get the approximate diameter of the rope by using formula (5) 
page 50. 

For 20-foot rise per 100 feet of slope the degree of inclination = Il*4> 
(See page 51), and the load factor C = 0.22. (See page 52.) 

Hence the approximate value of P = 0.22 x 50 = 11 tons. 

This means a rope with a strength in excess of 66 tons. 

A 1^-inch rope has a strength of 58 tons, and a 13/6-inch rope a strength 
of 72 tons. Let us take the 13/8-inch rope which weighs 3 pounds per foot. 
P = C (W + wl) C = 0.22 W = 100,000 pounds w = 3 pounds f = 2000 
feet P = 0.22 (100,000 + 6000) = 23,320 pounds = 11.06 tons. 

This shows that the 13/6-inch rope is the right rope to be used. In this 
case the weight of the rope added about 6 per cent, to the load. 



Section 5 

Stresses in Spans The subject of this chapter is one on which a book 
might easily be written if we were to include all the data 

and statistical information available, but it would be difficult for the general 
reader to pick from such a mass of information the parts that would apply to 
the particular case under consideration. 

There are times, hovfever, when a rope user wants to know quickly 
whether he can accomplish certain results with a cable suspended horizontally 
in the air between two towers or supports and it is for such purposes that the 
information contained in these pages is given. 

The stress or tension on a cable suspended between two points is entirely 
different from that of any other type of rope application and is usually much 
greater than the suspended load. It is very necessary to recognize this 
fact because a rope sometimes breaks if the user has not made proper 
calculations of the stresses. 

It is usually required that a cable span shall have as small a sag or center 
deflection as possible, which is of course the condition of maximum tension on 
a cable span. 



54 



American Steel and Wire Company 



To show what some of the stresses present in a cable span are, it is 
necessary to only mention that all of the following factors must be considered 
carefully in important calculations : 

1 . Weight or load to be supported by cable span 

2. Position of load and whether position is stationary or movable 

3. Weight of supporting cable 

4. Stress due to fluctuations in temperature 

5. Ice load 

6. Wind load 

7. Modulus of elasticity of cable used in span 

8. Are both points of span support on a level? 

9. Height of towers above any given datum line if points of 

support are o?i different levels 

10. Length of spa?i 

11. Amount of deflection or dip in center of span 

12. Length of cable hanging between supports 

Other minor factors may need to be considered. In the case of large 
installations it is well to have the advice of the manufacturer so that all the 
various points may be given careful consideration. 

The formula for calculating the stress in the case of a span with level 
supports is as follows : 



Let L = the total span in feet = AB 
D = the deflection in feet = EF 
W = the dead load at point F 
w = weight per foot of the cable 
S = tension in the cable at F 
X = AE, the position of load W with reference to point A. 



American Wire Rope 55 



For the deflection due to weight of rope alone we have 



-^pr 

81) 



the center of the span 



This formula (1) is applicable to all cases of uniformly distributed load 
such as a wire rope or large guy strand used for supporting a lead telephone 
or power cable, or a bare copper high tension feeder cable, at frequent 
intervals. The value of w must be taken however as the total weight per foot 
of both suspended and supported cables. 

The stress due to the weight alone is 

S 2 = at the center of the span 

(3) wL 2 + 2WL L (wL+ 2W) 
Sl * ~8D~ ~8D~ 

From the formula (3) we can get the stress on any cable due to load and 
weight of cable. 

In order to facilitate these calculations we have devised curves for calcu- 
lating the strain, which are found on the following pages. In using these 
curves it should be borne in mind that they represent the distributed load. 
If the load is in the center it is necessary to multiply it by 2. 

e. g. 1000 pounds in the center of a 100 span 
is = 2000 pounds distributed load or 20 pounds per foot 

The curves are calculated on one pound per foot distributed load, so it is 
necessary to multiply the stress obtained from the curves by the distributed 
load per foot. 

EXAMPLE : What stress is produced in a 1-inch rope weighing 1.6 pounds 
per foot on a 500-foot span with a deflection of 20 feet and a distributed load 
of 1000 pounds ? From the curve, page 56. 

A 500-foot span and 20-foot deflection gives a stress of 1562.5 pounds. 

Distributed load per foot = 1.6 + = 3.6 pounds 

500 

1562.5 X 3.6 pounds = 5625. pounds tension 

The maximum stress on a cable span is at the supporting points A and B 
when the load is suspended in the center. 

Tension at A or B = tension in center + the tension due to weight of rope 
wL and load W times the deflection I). 

(4) T = S + D (wL + W) 

The length of cable hanging between supports can be determined from 
the single curve for various ratios of sag to span, shown on page 56. 



American Steel and Wire Company 



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American Wire Rope 




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58 American Steel and Wire Company 

Section 6 

Stress Limitations of Machinery In connection with the use of wire rope 

a very important factor, namely, the 

power of the machinery, should be carefully considered. It is a well known 
fact that on many machines the pull which the engine drums are capable of 
exerting is very close to the strength of the rope, which is put on. This is 
considered bad practice because it permits overstraining of the rope and 
very often results in breaking it which may entail considerable damage. 
Users as well as designers of machinery should always ascertain the pull on a 
wire rope when full power is on, and if this approaches the strength of the 
rope, provision should be made in case of a steam engine or boiler to reduce 
the steam pressure or throttle the steam, and in the case of an electric motor 
to provide an automatic cut-out capable of regulating the maximum pull. 
Some unsuccessful applications of wire rope have had their trouble traced to 
this cause which may exist on a small or large piece of apparatus. A wire 
rope has a certain definite ultimate strength when new, but this should never 
be approached if good results are to be obtained. 

Section 7 

Multiple Sheave Blocks In a direct single line hoist, as shown by Fig. 1, 

with a sheave of good diameter, the stress upon 

the rope equals the load hoisted. By using a triple block with a double block, 
as in Fig. o, the five parts of the rope carry the load so that the stress upon 
each part is only one-fifth of the load. In brief, to ascertain the stress on the 
hoisting rope, divide the maximum load by the number of ropes, or by the 
number of parts of the same rope, carrying the hoisting hook and load, and 
add the bending stress to get the total stress on the rope. For bending stress, 
see Section 2, page 31. 



American Wire Rope 



59 









60 American Steel and Wire Company 

Section 8 

Wire Rope for Guys Many devices employing wire rope must be held in 
place by guy lines or ropes and since the action of 

these ropes is different from that of ropes under a straight pull, it is necessary 
to calculate the stresses in them very carefully. In order to do this a table 
has been devised which shows the relation between the number of guys upon 
a derrick or similar piece of machinery and the equivalent effective number 
of guys acting for any position of the load. This latter quantity is known as 
the guy factor. 

Reference to curve on page 03 shows the maximum and minimum 
values which the guy factor represents. If it is desired to find the number of 
guys working on a derrick, for example, all we have to do is to refer either to 
the table or to the curve and we will get directly the quantities involved. For 
example, on a derrick with 11 guys, the minimum value of the guy factor is 
3.494 or, in other words, for any position of the load the derrick guys have a 
strength equal to 3.494 times the strength of one guy. Maximum values have 
been given but these should not be used in calculations. They have been 
given simply to show that there is a variable effective number of guys acting 
for different positions of the load. 

Reference to the diagram, page 63, and the table page 61, will show conclu- 
clusively that it is best always to use an odd number of guys in guying a piece of 
apparatus of any size. This is because the maximum and minimum values of 
the guy factor are very close together for an odd number of guys, whereas with 
an even number of guys there is a much lower minimum value. For example, 
a derrick employing 6 guys has a guy factor of 1.732. The addition of one 
guy or increasing the guys by ^ will increase the value of the guy factor to 
2.248, an increase of 30 per cent. In the interest of economy it is always 
advisable, therefore, to use a large number of guys. It is further very essential 
that the guys be spaced evenly so that the angle between each pair of guys is 
the same as that between every other pair. See page 98. 

Another point that should be taken into consideration on guys is the 
angle that they make with the horizontal. It is apparent that when a guy pulls 
on the mast of a derrick that it will not give its full strength unless it pulls 
absolutely in a horizontal line. Whenever it pulls at an angle, the pull will 
be somewhat less than the total strength of the guy. Reference to curve on 
page 62 will show the value of the guy pull for various angles of the guy rope 
with the horizontal. The smaller the angle (9 of the guy of the horizontal the 
more effective the guy, but for practical purposes this angle may come up to 
about 26 degrees and still have at least 90 per cent of the strength of the guy. 
In figuring the strength of the guys, it is first necessary to get the guy factor 
by reference to curve on page 63 or the table on page 61, then refer to 
curve on page 62 and get the per cent of the guy acting and multiply this 



American Wire Rope 



(11 



decimal by the guy factor. The result obtained is the amount of pull in a 
horizontal line or perpendicular to the mast of a derrick, which pull will act 
to support a load. This pull must be multiplied by a factor of safety of not 
less than 4 and preferably 5 for all loads to be lifted. 



Values of Guy Factors and. Positions of Maximum and Minimum 
Values for Guy Ropes Equally Spaced 



No. 
Guys 


Min. 

Values 
Guy 
Factor 


Corresponding Line of Action 
of Force 


Max. 

Values 
Guy 
Factor 


Corresponding Line of Action of Force 


3 


0.866 


30 from 1 iruy 


1 000 


Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys 


4 
5 


1.000 
1.538 


Opposite 1 guy 
18 from 1 guy 


1414 
1 618 


Half way between 2 guys 
Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys 


6 


1.732 


30 from 1 guy .... 


2.000 


Opposite 1 guy 


7 


2.193 


12 51 ' from 1 guy . . . 


2.248 


Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys 


8 


2.414 


Opposite 1 guy .... 


2.611 


Half way between 2 guys 


9 


2.835 


10 from 1 guy .... 


2.879 


Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys" 


10 


3.078 


18 from 1 guy .... 


3.236 


Opposite 1 guy 


11 


3.494 


8 11' from 1 guy 


3.514 


Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys 


12 


3.732 


Opposite 1 guy .... 


3.864 


Half way between 2 guys 


13 


4.120 


6 55' from 1 guy 


4.150 


Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys 


14 


4.381 


12 51' from 1 guy . . 


4.494 


Opposite 1 guy 


15 


4.757 


6 from 1 guy .... 


4.783 


Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys 


16 


5.027 


Opposite 1 guy .... 


5.126 


Half way between two guys 


17 


5.399 


5 18' from 1 guy 


5.422 


Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys 


18 


5.671 


10 from 1 guy .... 


5.758 


Opposite 1 guy 


19 


6.046 


4 44' from 1 guy . . 


6.054 


Opposite 1 guy or half way between 2 guys 


20 


6.314 


Opposite 1 guy .... 


6.392 


Half way between 2 guys 



62 



Americaii Steel and Wire Company 

















































































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64 American Steel and Wire Company 

Section 9 

Factors of Safety In the previous sections many of the principal forms of 
stresses that are commonly present in wire rope applica- 
tions have been considered. Not all of them are present in any one case, but 
the factor of safety must always be considered. The proper selection of this 
factor is of vital importance, for on it depends to a great extent the success- 
ful operation of ,any mechanism employing wire rope. 

While it is not possible to give exact figures which should be employed 
for the many uses of wire rope, still certain general principles can be evolved 
which will indicate very approximately the figures that should be used. It is the 
practice of some users of wire rope to use a large factor of safety and figure 
on only dead load, whereas the load is probably a live one and the rope is bent 
around fairly small sheaves. In a case of this kind a large factor of safety 
may allow for the increased stress, but at best it is an unsatisfactory way to 
treat the subject. It is much better to determine what the stresses are and 
then apply a simple factor of safety. 

In the eight preceding sections we have considered the principal stresses 
to which a wire rope is subjected, and if these stresses are calculated wherever 
any of them occur and the result added to the already known load upon the 
rope, it will facilitate the use of an ordinary factor of safety. The figures 
given in the catalogue are for a factor of safety of approximately 5, neglecting 
the bending stress. This amounts to a net factor of safety of between 4 and 
4^ when this is considered with the sheaves given in the table. We would 
not recommend a factor of safety much lower than these figures for any class 
of work, and for a good many places the factor of safety ought to be larger. 
For example : It is the practice on elevators to have the wire rope calculated 
on a factor of safety of from 5 to 10, and similar practice is found in many 
mining propositions where the rope is not very long, the reason for which 
has already been explained in Section 3 of this chapter. Where ropes are 
very long, as sometimes occurs in mining practice, the weight of the rope 
itself is sufficiently great to deduct considerably from the strength of the rope. 
When this is the case the factor of safety is sometimes cut down as low as 4^ , 
because it is not possible to get quite as large a factor of safety as might 
otherwise be desired. For slow speed the factor of safety may be somewhat 
less than for high speed. 

For example : A derrick frequently works on what would be considered 
in other places a very low factor of safety, and the reason for it is that the 
load is steady and the speed slow enough so that there is no added strain 
on the rope other than that due to the load and the bending stress over the 
sheaves. In fast operating machinery, however, such as ore and coal handling 
clam shell buckets, the factors of safety employed are usually greater, and 
some run up as high as ten. It is generally conceded the greater the factor 



American Wire Rope 65 



of safety the longer the rope will last and the safer it is. Particular pains must 
be taken to avoid having too large a factor of safety. 

For example : The factor of safety such as 25 is altogether too large and 
the result is somewhat like using a 1-inch rope where a f^-inch would do. In 
other words, a rope could not give its best results under such light loading as 
a factor of safety of 25 would indicate. Every device using wire rope has 
of course to be considered on its own merits, as regards the selection of 
a factor of safety. On ballast unloader rope, such as is used for plowing 
material from flat cars by means of a plow and a wire cable, it frequently 
happens that the strain on the rope may run up to nearly one-half its breaking 
strength. This is because it is not possible to use a large drum and a larger 
rope and handle it economically, but such heavy loading in a case like this, 
where there is no risk to life, should not be taken as a precedent for heavy 
loading under other conditions where it is possible to use a sufficiently heavy 
rope. Derrick guy ropes are frequently strained severely when an exception- 
ally heavy stone is lifted, but it is never safe to strain them on the heaviest 
possible lift to over one-third of the breaking strength of the guys. It is 
probably true that the greater number of applications requiring the quick 
handling of loads employ a factor of safety ranging from 5 to 10. 

B Size and Quality of Rope to Meet the Stresses 

Having carefully considered the various stresses found in a wire rope 
and calculated them in accordance with the nine preceding sections, the 
question naturally arises what size of rope should be used for a given con- 
dition? This cannot be answered off hand, but there are factors entering 
into the problem which can be briefly generalized. In the first place, 
Section 2 must be carefully considered on all problems, and an unusually high 
bending stress in a rope is an indication that its life will be rather short. 
If on the other hand the bending stress is not excessive, the service obtained 
should be fairly good. Rope users should refer to the tables of bending 
stresses *for the construction which they propose to use and see what this 
amounts to before definitely deciding upon any construction In case of 
doubt as to which construction should be used our engineers are always ready 
to consider the problem and give the customer the benefit of our experience. 

In general, it might be noted that in a rope of a given strength we could 
use on hoisting rope say 1-inch crucible steel or a J^ inch plow steel and get 
almost exactly the same factor of safety. In a case where the sheaves must of 
necessity be small, the ^6 -inch plow steel probably would be preferable to the 
1-inch crucible steel, referring of course to the same construction. 

The figures given in the lists for proper working loads should be used 
for rough calculation only, because the factor of safety should be carefully 



66 American Steel and Wire Company 

considered as outlined in Section 8 of this chapter and the proper factor of 
safety selected for the work at hand. 

The relative strengths of the various materials in a wire rope are given in 
Chapter II, dealing with materials. This is also shown by the various 
strengths given in Chapter IX. 

Sections 1, 2, 3 and 8 will enter into consideration of practically every 
common wire rope problem. The remaining Sections 4, 5, 6 and 7 enter 
into the consideration of special rope problems. See page 30. 



American Wire Rope 



Chapter VI 

Suggestions to Rope Users 

The success or failure of a wire rope installation often hinges upon 
practical points which are sometimes overlooked. Such being the case there 
have been compiled a number of suggestions gathered from our long experience 
which are offered to the trade not as a final word but as an indication of what 
should be avoided and what may be beneficial to wire rope service. 




How to Gauge Wire Rope The diameter of a wire rope is the diameter 

of the circle which will just enclose all the 

strands. Care should be taken in gauging a wire rope to take the greatest 
and not the smallest diametrical dimension, as shown above. 



Sheaves and Drums Most wire rope applications use sheaves over which 
the rope runs and drums upon which it winds. 

These are indispensable units and the use of as large drums and sheaves as 
practicable is strongly recommended. Particularly attention is called to the 
section descriptive of bending stresses of rope found in the chapter on 
"Wire Rope Stresses," page ol. The effect of too small sheaves and drums 
will readily be seen by making a calculation in accordance with the information 
given therein. Drums should be lagged if possible, and wherever feasible the 
use of a grooved drum on hoisting machinery is recommended as better than 



68 American Steel and Wire Company 

a flat drum without grooves. It is important to have the grooves on drums 
spaced so that there is ample clearance between the successive windings. For 
example : A drum for a ^ inch rope should be arranged so that the grooves 
are not nearer than, say ^ of an inch on centers. This will prevent undue 
crowding or rubbing of one part or wrap of a rope against another. The 
grooves of sheaves and drums should be made smooth in order not to cut 
the wires of the rope which winds upon it. They also should be made of a 
slightly larger radius than the rope which is to run on them so that the rope 
will not wedge nor pinch. 

Overwinding It is also important wherever possible to have the drum large 
enough or wide enough so that the wire rope may wind 
upon it in one layer. 

The term overwinding has been applied to cases where wire rope has 
to wind two or more layers deep on a drum. This is a very bad condition and 
one that should be carefully avoided, because the wire rope will mash and 
jam more or less and will not last nearly as long. It may be a little more 
expensive to provide a larger drum and may necessitate a change in the 
gearing of the machinery, but for the best working conditions and lowest 
cost of operation overwinding must be avoided. 

Alignment of Sheaves and Drums The best possible alignment of sheaves 

and drums should be obtained, other- 
wise there will be undue wear on the side of the sheaves and drums as well as 
on the rope. In general the lead sheaves over which the rope runs from the 
drum should be lined up with the center of the drum, or if the drum is not 
entirely filled it should be in line with the center of that portion of drum on 
which the rope is wound. 

Leads It is necessary to have the proper amount of space between the lead 
sheave and the drum in order to avoid too sharp an angle. We recom- 
mend an angle not exceeding 1 30' between the line from the center of sheave 
to center of drum and the line from the center of sheave to the outer side of 
drum. 

Renewal of Sheaves The upkeep of a piece of machinery is essential in 
order to secure the best wire rope service. If sheaves 

become badly scored or worn, a new rope will not work properly and many 
careful users of wire rope insist on changing the sheaves or turning out the 
grooves before a new rope is put on. This insures best conditions for rope 
service. For mine hoisting in particular the best practice is to make the large 
sheaves and drums with liners which can be taken out and renewed when they 
wear out or whenever a new rope is installed. 



American Wire Rope 



Speed of Wire Rope A high velocity on a wire rope means that the rope 
will not last as long as if only a medium velocity were 

employed. Of course a high velocity means that more work is accomplished 
in a given time, but it is better to have the load increased and the rope slightly 
larger with the speed correspondingly slower to get the best results as far as 
tonnage handled. 

Reversed Bending By this term we refer to that sort of bending in which 
a wire rope is first bent around one sheave in one 

direction and at some other section the same rope is passed around another 
sheave with a bend diametrically opposite. This is an exceedingly severe 
condition of rope service and its use should be avoided wherever possible. 
There is no known way in which a wire rope may be worn out more rapidly 
by bending than by the use of the reversed bend. We have practically 
demonstrated that this is one of the severest conditions that wire rope has 
to meet. In many places by a little study or a slight change in design this 
feature can be avoided. It is of sufficient importance that many users of 
rope cha-nge their machinery over to get around it on account of the vastly 
increased service which they obtain from a rope where this condition is absent. 
Reverse bending cannot be too strongly condemned. There is a very limited 
number of cases where this reversed bending cannot be avoided, and at such 
times the rope has to be sacrificed, but knowing the bad effects resulting 
from such reversed bending, it is desired to sound a note of warning that 
should be heeded by all. 

Handling of Wire Rope It is not probable that any one would intentionally 

mishandle a piece of wire rope in installing it, but 

we feel that a word of caution should be given. In the first place a wire rope 
does not handle like a manila rope, in that structurally it differs. It must not 
be coiled or uncoiled like a hemp rope. If it is received in a coil it should be 
unrolled on the ground like a hoop and straightened out before attempting to 
pass it around the sheaves on machinery. If it is received upon a reel, the 
reel should be mounted upon jacks or a shaft so that it will turn and the rope 
be properly unwound. 

Sudden Stresses It is very essential to avoid sudden stresses or jerks on a 
wire rope because this increases the load to a great extent, 
as will be noted by reference to Chapter V, Section 3, page 47. A simple 
experiment will demonstrate the effect of this. A piece of twine fairly strong 
may be easily snapped by a quick pull. 

Galvanized Rope This is not used for general hoisting or general pur- 
poses because the zinc wears off rapidly from running 
over sheaves and drums. Galvanized ropes are about 10 per cent less in 



70 American Steel and Wire Company 

7? 

strength than ungalvanized ropes. The strengths forv galvanized ropes not 
shown in this catalogue can be furnished upon application. 

Protectiftn of Wire Rope A wire rope that runs out of doors should be 

protected as far as possible from the weather by 

the application of some suitable lubricant. We manufacture a lubricant which 
is an especially heavy compound for coating wire rope. It will adhere as 
tenaciously as any compound that we know of and has been successfully 
used for this purpose. All ropes, whether for inside or outside work, should 
be given some lubrication to keep them pliable. If this lubrication is omitted, 
internal as well as external rust may set in, stiffening the rope and causing it 
to give poor service. See page 199. 

Working Loads These have been carefully considered in Chapter V, Section 
9, but a good rule to follow is that these should not exceed 
one-fifth of the ultimate breaking stress of the rope. On a guy rope this is 
sometimes exceeded, but it never should be in mines or elevators where 
human life is at stake. 

Wire Rope Transmission There are not a great many applications requir- 
ing an endless wire rope for transmitting power. 

Such applications, however, require pulleys lined with wood, leather or rubber 
in order to ensure the most successful operation. See page 234. 

Rope Exposed to Heat A few conditions exist where rope is exposed to 

intense heat and at such places a soft iron wire 

center is usually substituted, and sometimes asbestos. The latter, however, 
rapidly disintegrates under constant bending, and we therefore do not recom- 
mend its use. For either of these special centers add 10 per cent to the list 
price of rope with hemp center. 



American Wire Rope 



71 



Chapter VII 

How to Order Wire Rope 

Use the exact terms given in catalogue describing the rope required, stating 
length, size, diameter (or circumference), quality, number of strands, number 
of wires in the strand, and whether hemp center or wire center is wanted, 
also whether bright or galvanized is desired, e. g., 750 feet long, 1^ inches 
in diameter, plow steel hoisting rope, six strands, nineteen wires, hemp center, 
one piece. 

If rope is to be equipped with thimbles, sockets, hooks, links, loops or 
other fittings, state the length from the pull of thimble, socket, hook, link, 
loop, etc., to end of the rope. Where fittings are to be put on each end, 
be sure and state the length from pull to pull of fittings. 




If in doubt as to the material to be used, the conditions under which the 
rope operates should be given or a sample of rope that is satisfactory sub- 
mitted so that the proper quality and construction may be furnished. 

If possible, submit a rough sketch with the order, or inquiry showing the 
size and relative position of the sheaves, together with the figures of maximum 
load in pounds. This greatly facilitates a complete understandir ~ of the require- 
ments which the rope must fill. See page 72. 

When ordering rope for elevators, state whether hoisting, counterweight, 
or hand or valve or safety rope is wanted, also whether right or left lay is 
desired. The ropes used for these purposes all differ and are not inter- 
changeable. 

For convenience in installing elevator hoisting or counterweight ropes 
when used in pairs or two-part lines, we will, at no extra expense, wind the rope 
upon a reel with the length of rope doubled in the middle so that the loop will 
come off the reel first or last as desired. 

Further information is contained in Chapter VIII on practical applications 
of wire rope, pages 72-118. 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Chapter VIII 

Practical Wire Rope Applications 

The vast number of devices employing wire rope as a flexible medium for 
utilizing mechanical or electric power in the handling of various commercial 
problems, would require a large work if each were to be but briefly described. 
The leading principles involved can, however, be shown by a few typical 
illustrations selected from the many that are available. The following seven- 
teen divisions have been chosen for illustration : 

Page 

1. Aeroplanes ......... 73 

2. Cableways and tramways .,... 74 

3. Cable roads ......... 77 

4. Clam shell buckets 79 

5. Cranes .......... 81 

6. Derricks 83 

7. Elevators hydraulic, electric and power driven . . 85 

8. Excavating machinery, including dredges, steam shovels, etc. 92 

9. Ferries 96 

10. Guying for derricks, ships, etc. ..... 97 

11. Loading and unloading machinery . . . . .102 

12. Lumbering, including skidding and loading . . . 104 

13. Mining rope arrangements ...... 107 

14. Oil well drilling 114 

15. Suspension bridges . . . . . . .116 

16. Stump pulling ........ 117 

17. Towing devices . . . . . - . . . 118 

In order to more clearly show the rope action, the working parts of the 
machinery involved alone have been depicted in most cases, all details that 
would obstruct the clearness of the diagrams having been omitted. 

Wire rope for any of the purposes detailed in this chapter, as well as 
many others, can oe supplied, but in case customers have machinery of the 
types shown herein, it will facilitate a clear understanding if reference is made 
in correspondence to the type of the machinery that is being used, provided it 
is illustrated herein. Machinery shown represents commercial machinery of 
leading machine builders in the United States. 



American Wire Rope 



7:5 



Division 1 

Aeroplanes One of the latest comers into the field of wire rope users is the 
aeroplane, and for its use special kinds have been devised known 
as aeroplane stay strand and flexible rudder steering cord (page 183). 



.| " i| || 'i. t. .! !, i! II .1 II V !l i II n FT 





74 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Division 2 

Cableways and Tramways Cableways consist of one or more large stationary 

track cables stretched between suitable towers 

with auxiliary smaller ropes for moving the mechanism. The principal use of 
cableways is for conveying large loads for a limited distance between the two 
main towers, also for excavating, dam building, canal work, logging, deep pit 
quarrying, and the conveying of any bulk material where natural obstructions 
interfere with any other method of operation. It is preferable to use for the 



Si 

S3 

o o 



American Wire Rope 



75 



main cables the locked wire track cable shown on pages 24 and 101, especially 
if the cableway is for constant operation, as the efficiency will be greater than 
the round wire cable described on page 190. The first cost of the locked 
wire type is of course greater than that of the round wire cable, but the 
increased life of the former makes it cheaper in the long run. 

The two types of cable ways shown below are among the latest types and 
are facsimiles of the thirteen now being used at the Panama Canal, building 
the locks at Gatun. Each uses a two and one-quarter-inch locked wire track 
cable for the main cable. 




76 



American Steel and 



Company 



As usually constructed, cableways may be used to handle a single load at 
any point between the towers and discharge at any other point between them, 
either into cars or to a spoil bank. 

Aerial Tramways are recognized in contradistinction to cableways in the 
fact that, as ordinarily constructed, they are designed to move a number of 
lighter loads in a continuous circuit over comparatively long distances. The 
materials are carried in receptacles (buckets usually) suspended from carriages 
on stationary track cables of the Locked Coil construction (see page 190) 
supported at varying elevations above the ground. 

The loaded carriers travel along a line of track cable in one direction, 
and the empty carriers in returning along a similar parallel track cable, these 
cables being of sizes corresponding to the weights they have to support. 
Motion is imparted to the carriers by a comparatively light endless rope 
commonly known as the traction rope, by means of large sheaves at either 
end, one for driving, and the other, which is usually mounted on a slide 
actuated by a counterweight, for maintaining the requisite tension in this rope. 
The application of tension, however, may be at either terminal station as 
desired. The carriers are despatched at definite intervals, determined by the 
individual loads, the amount of material to be transported in a given time, and 
the speed. For further particulars parties are referred to our separate pub- 
lication entitled "Aerial Tramways," which fully describes and illustrates the 
various equipments of this kind that we manufacture. 




~SS 2W5 fe *5 355- 

PROFILE OF BUEICHERT AERIAU TRAMWAY 



American \Vire Rope 



77 



Division 3 

Cable Roads Before the introduction of electric power for street railways, 
cable roads were very largely used. They are still used for 
very steep inclines, and also on industrial narrow gage roads. 

The illustrations which follow show a large broad gage industrial cable 
road, also two narrow gage industrial roads used on docks for handling coal 
and iron ore. Also an illustration of an incline railway running up a mountain. 




CABLE ROAD 



CAP. GKIP.S 



c 




i 1 1- 



H 1 



COAL DOCK HAULA6E ROAD AND BFUDGC 



78 



Americaii Steel and Wire Company 





I 1 1 1 1 1 l 

COAL DOCK HAVLACE OAO OOVBIC. U<OP 




L) 



o 



ORE DOCK HAULAGE ROAD FOR BROAD GUAGE CARS 



American Wire Rope 



79 



Division 4 

Clam Shell Buckets These consist of two scoops pivoted together and 
operated by two sets of ropes known respectively as 

the holding rope and the opening or closing rope. The former is attached to 
the top of the bucket by means of a thimble or socket spliced into the end of 
the rope, while the opening or closing rope passes down into the bucket and 
around several sheaves variously arranged to give a heavy force to close the 
two jaws of the bucket. The various types of bucket differ in the methods of 
working the opening and holding ropes. Various sizes are in use at different 
points varying from one ton up to twenty tons capacity. As a general propo- 
sition the bucket usually weighs nearly as much as the load it carries, the 
weight being necessary to give sufficient strength as well as digging power. 




80 



American Steel and Wire Company 






American Wire Rope 



SI 



Division 5 

* 

Cranes For handling large objects in buildings, warehouses, shops, etc., 
electric overhead traveling cranes are largely used. Their operation 
is simple, consisting of a drum electrically driven and a wire rope tackle block of 
sufficient number of parts and suitable size of rope to handle the required loads 
with proper safety factor. For steel mills and hot metal cranes, foundries, as 
well as for crane service in general, the 6 x 37 rope illustrated on pages 141 and 
142 will be found particularly useful. 





ELECTRIC TRAVfcUIINC CRANE. 



82 



American Steel and Wire Company 





OH 



LOCOMOTIVE CRANE 



American Wire Rope 



83 



Division 6 

American Patent Non-spinning Hoisting Ropes on Back-haul 
Quarry Derricks 

The back-haul derrick derives its name from the fact that the great lifting 
purchase is obtained by means of multiple back-haul blocks, or tackle, moving 
up and down the back of the mast. The pulling line from the tackle blocks runs 
through the derrick step to the hoisting engine. For the large single hoisting 
line, American Non-spinning Rope is now universally employed, having 
a socket and hook, or socket and shackle, at one end, the other end being 
attached by four or five Crosby clips to the lower tackle block on the back of the 




LARCt SINGLE LINC BACK HAUL DERRICK 



mast. This lower block is made heavy so as to overhaul the slack line when 
the engine drum is released. From 25 to 50 tons may be lifted with a single 
line, and by doubling the line through the shaft at the hoisting hook, from 50 
to 100 ton loads are handled with a medium size hoisting engine. The boom 
line runs out at the top of the mast direct to the engine. The bull wheel at 
the base of the mast is connected with the engine slewing drum by two wire 
lines which enable the engineer to swing the boom with its load in either 
direction. 

The special feature of this derrick is the single hoisting line which possesses 
the following advantages : No heavy sheave block is required at the hoisting 
hook. The socket and hook, or socket and shackle, on the end of the single 



84 



American Steel and Wire Company 



line, are easily carried about the quarry in order to reach and drag in blocks 
beyond the radius of the boom. The boom may be raised or lowered or 
swung in either direction while hoisting or lowering the load. 

In lifting heavy loads with a single line, hoisting rope of the ordinary 
construction permits the load to revolve. This spinning of the free load sus- 
pended by a single line could only be prevented by attaching to the granite 
blocks a tag line held by one or two men while the blocks are being 
hoisted and swung into place. By the adoption of American Non- 
spinning Rope on these single line derricks, heavy loads may be raised 
into the desired position without the use of a tag line, because the free load 
does not rotate. 




MEDIUM SIZE OUARRr DEJWCK 




CRANC DERRICK 



American Wire Rope 85 



Division 7 

Elevators An elevator is a lifting mechanism consisting of a cage or car 
propelled by suitable power, operated to raise or lower passengers 
or freight. 

The proper operation of these elevators necessitates a medium by means 
of which the power for raising or lowering the car may be applied. In the 
early days of elevators, chain was sometimes used, but it was found to be 
unreliable and so wire rope has taken its place. The reason is of course the 
liability of breakage due to defective welds in the various links of the chain, 
which liability increases with the length of chain used, and also the crystaliza- 
tion of the links of the chain from constant strain and bending. A wire rope 
composed of a large number of wires, each tested individually and then manu- 
factured, possesses the reliability so necessary for transmitting and controlling 
mechanism of an elevator. 

In order to place the matter clearly before the reader we have divided 
elevators into three classes as follows: 

1. Hydraulic 

a . Direct plunger type. 

b. Side plunger type. 

c. Horizontal plunger type. 

2. Electrically driven 

a. Electric geared elevator, 

b. Electric traction elevator, 

3. Worm geared elevators 

a. Electric. 

b. Belt driven. 



American Steel and Wire Company 



a. Hydraulic Elevators 



of the direct plunger type employ counterweight 
ropes, valve or hand rope (sometimes called shipper 



rope), and safety stop ropes. 







b. Side Plunger Elevators depend upon the plunger for counterweight and 

usually have a regulating rope to control the 

speed of the cage in case of accident or excessive speed. The other ropes are 
the main hoisting ropes and the valve or hand rope. 



American Wire Rope 



87 




SIDE PLUNGER 



c. Horizontal Plunger Elevators require counterweight ropes, main hoist- 
ing ropes, hand or valve ropes and 
regulating ropes. 



88 



American Steel and Wire Company 




HORIZONTAL PLUN6ER ELEVATOR 



Valve ropes are largely operated by means of a shifter lever situated in 
the elevator car, although if the speed is not too great they may be operated 
by hand. 

Direct hydraulic elevators have been successfully used on buildings up to 
twenty-one stories. 



American Wire Rope 



89 



2. Electrically Driven Elevators a . The electrically geared elevators have 

various methods of operation, but the two 

principal ones are to place the elevator drums either in the basement or the 
attic of a building. With the drum in the attic two sets of ropes are used, the 
main hoisting ropes and counterweight ropes. Both are attached to the same 
drum and as one set of ropes wind on the other set wind off. 

With drums located in the basement there are three sets of ropes known 
as main hoisting ropes, car counterweight ropes and drum counterweight ropes. 






ELECTRIC 



ELECTRIC OR BELT DRIVEN ELEVATOR 



American Steel and Wire Company 



3. Worm Geared Elevators These are used principally in factories where 

power is already available and are belted and 

worm geared to insure safety and moderate speed. These elevators require 
main hoisting ropes, car counterweight ropes and hand rope or shifter rope. 




WORM GEARED ELEVATOR 



American Wire Rope 



b. Electric Traction Elevators 



use the same set of ropes for both hoisting 
and counterweight purposes, there being 

two drums around which each rope passes from the car to the counterweight. 

This type of elevator has been used on some very tall buildings. 





ELECTRIC TRACTION ELEVATOR 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Division 8 

Excavating Machinery, including Steam Shovels, Dipper 
and Suction Dredges 

For dry land excavation, for railroad, canal or irrigation work, steam 
shovels are largely used. A good many of the most modern shovels use rope 
exclusively for digging in place of chain which was formerly considered indis- 
pensable for shovel work. Almost all shovels, however, use wire rope for 
swinging cables. Some of the principal types are shown diagrammatically 
below. 




STEAW SHOVEL. 



American Wire Rope 



For excavating under water dredging is almost universally resorted to, 
and either the dipper or the suction type of dredge used. The dipper dredge 
resembles the steam shovel except that it is a component part of a boat, whereas 
the steam shovel operates from a railroad car platform. Various sizes of 
dippers are used, depending upon the size of the dredge boat, three-quarter 
yard up to twelve yards being the commercial range. The smaller sizes of 
dredges are mostly used for drainage, ditching and dock construction, while 
the larger sizes are employed in digging deep channels in lakes and harbors. 
Ropes used are of three kinds, main hoisting cable, swinging cable and spud 
cables. 





LARGE OIPPCR DREDGE 




MEDIUM DIPPER DREDGE 



American Steel and Wire Company 




h 



SPVD RCPCS 




AUCTION 



Large dredges use two or three parts of medium sized rope or one part of 
a very large rope frequently made with a wire center to get additional strength. 
Small dredges for canal work employ bank spuds, but large dredges employ 
steel-capped timber spuds. 

Suction dredges consist of a rotary cutter and hydraulic suction pump 
through which the excavated material passes. The rotary cutter is mounted 



American Wire Rope 



95 



on a ladder which can be lowered or raised as required by the ladder hoist 
ropes. One pair of swinging cables attached to anchors and around the ladder 
sheaves and winding on separate drums swing the dredge back and forth while 
the spuds keep the cutter from backing off. Suction dredges are employed 
for digging wide channels and the excavated material is carried on pontoons 
through a discharge pipe to suitable dumping ground. 




Bucket Ladder Dredge with Conveyor 



96 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Division 9 

Wire Rope Ferries These are operated by means of an overhead cable and 
a ferry traveler running upon the same. A tackle block 

is arranged forward and aft, and the boat is carried across the stream by means 
of the current, the boat being reversed or carried at an angle to the current, 
which acts as the propelling medium in a manner similar to that shown in the 
sketch below. 



l\ 



\\ 





WIRE 



American Wire Rope 



97 



Division 1O 

Guying for Derricks, Ships Rigging, Stacks, Etc. 

Galvanized ropes are employed almost exclusively for this class of work 
on account of their durability. The stresses on guy ropes at various angles are 
fully described in Chapter V, Section 8, pages 60 to 63. Wherever possible 
guy ropes should be equally spaced all around the derrick, smokestack or mast 
which it is desired to guy because in most cases the strain on the guys due to 
the load will come at some time with equal effect on all the guy ropes. In 
quarries the derrick guy ropes are sometimes passed around trees and fastened 
with Crosby clips, or an eye bolt is made fast to a part of the rock in the 
quarry and the guy rope made fast by means of Crosby clips and thimble or a 
shackle. 

Where derricks have to be moved occasionally, or guys moved for any 
reason, the guy ropes may be made up in sections with thimbles spliced in each 
end of each piece. These are generally 50 or 100-foot lengths, so that they 
can be lengthened or shortened at will. Such a fastening is illustrated below. 

When it is necessary to guy very securely, double guys are used, e. g., 
instead of twelve separate guys, six pairs may be used with fairly good results. 

In order to take up slack in guy ropes, galvanized iron turnbuckles such 
as shown on pages 220 and 221 are used. Separate turnbuckles are required 
on each of the guys requiring to be tightened. 



American Steel and Wire Company 




3 GUYS 



6- 



GUYS 




GUYS 




6 GUYS 



7 GUYS 



6 GUYS 




GUYS 



10 GUYS 



II GUYS 





4- PAIR GUYS 5 PAIR GU/S 6 PAIR GUYS 



American Wire Rope 



99 




Plan of Smokestack Gnys of C. S. Battleanip Connecticut 
n>- ol ial vui*ed iron, traaiU, 7 wire* each, 2 1>2 inohra ciroumlereuce. 18.OOO i 



Guys on Battleship Connecticut 

The stacks of the Connecticut are guyed with galvanized iron guy rope 
composed of six strands of seven wires each about a hemp center, having a 
strength of nine tons. On the top of the stacks and at the midway anchorages 
they are fastened to the stacks by means of heavy galvanized shackles, and 
upon the deck, turret and flying bridge anchorages, they are fastened by means 
of turnbuckles. The guys running between the stacks are similarly anchored, 
turnbuckles being inserted on the bowsides of the second and third stacks. 
The guy ropes attached to the flying bridge are made of phosphor bronze, 
because the use of steel or iron rope would affect the magnetic instruments in 
the chart room just below them. The turnbuckles attaching them to the flying 
bridge are also made of phosphor bronze. 

The tables, page 101, show how largely wire rope has displaced manila 
rope for yacht rigging. The advantages possessed by an American galvanized 
plow steel wire rope over manila rope may be given briefly as follows : 

It does not shrink nor stretch as does all manila rope. 

Has seven times the strength of the same size of manila rope. 

Is one-third the diameter of manila rope of the same strength. 

Is 50 per cent lighter than manila rope of the same strength. 

Being made of heavily galvanized wires, it does not rust nor rot, but is 
good for many years of hard service. 



100 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Guys on Sailing Yacht 

Specifications of the Wire Rope and Manila Rope 

Employed in the Equipment of the 

Yacht "Taormina" 

Designed and Built by Geo. Lawley & Son, Boston 
American Wire Rope Used 



A. Mainsail D. 

B. Foresail E. 

C. Fore-staysail F. 



The Sails 

Jib 

Jib topsail 

Small jib topsail 



G. Foregaff-topsail 

H. Main gaff-topsail 

I. Main topmast-staysail 




Sail and Rigging Plan oi Yacht 



American Wire Rope J , , , ;V', \ ' ',/> ^; j'v 10J, J ' 



The Crucible Wire Rope 

Galvanized Plow Steel Hoisting Rope, six strands, nineteen wires each, 
one hemp center. 

Flexible for running through blocks. 





Circumference 
in Inches 


Diameter 
in Inches 




Circumference 
in Inches 


Diameter 
in Inches 


W 1 


1M 


K 


W 18 


IX 


TV 


W 2 


IK 


K 


W 20 


IX 


TV 


W 8 


iK 




W 21 


IX 




W 11 


\y% 


H 


W 22 


i* 




W 12 


IX 


yV 


W 28 






W 16 


IX 




W 32 


IK 


K 


W 17 


IX 


TV 









Galvanized Plow Steel Standing Rope, six strands, seven wires each, 
one hemp center. 

For standing shrouds or straight hauls only. Not for running through 
blocks. 





Circumference 
in Inches 


Diameter 
in Inches 




Circumference 
in Inches 


Diameter 
in Inches 


W 3 


2 


H 


W 19 


IX 


. 


W 4 


IK 


K 


W 23 




3 


W 5 


2 




W24 


2X 




W 6 


IX 


TV 


W 25 


IX 


TV 


W 7 


IX 


TV 


W 26 




K 


W 9 


IX 


_7 


W27 


2 2 


^ 


W 10 


2 


^ 


W 29 


3 


1 


W13 


IK 


K 


W30 


IX 




W 14 




K 


W 31 


IX 


V 


W 15 


IX 











The Manila Rope Rigging 

Four strands, long fibre. 





Circumference 


Diameter 




Circumference 


Diameter 




in Inches 


in Inches 




in Inches 


in Inches 


M 1 


2K 


if 


M 6 


2X 


X 


M 2 


IX 


TV 


M 7 






M 3 


IX 


TV 


M 8 


IX 


TV 


M 4 
M 5 


IX 
IX 





M 9 
M10 


2X 


r 



The use of manila rope is confined to the sheets and lower purchases on 
halyards and backstays. The topmast backstay W 9, is of wire with a manila 
purchase near the deck for greater convenience in handling and fastening to 
the deck cleats. The upper parts of halyards are of wire, but the lengths 
leading on to the deck are of manila. 



Ainerican Steel and Wire Company 



Division 11 

Loading and Unloading Machinery For the handling of bulk materials such 

as iron ore, coal, etc., from vessels to 

cars, there have been designed in recent years very efficient hoists employing 
some kind of clam shell bucket. For unloading iron ore from vessels we have 
ore conveyors or ore bridges, and for unloading coal, the coal tower. The 
various ore handling machines are usually named from their makers, and 
Brown hoists, Hewlett machines, fast hoists, etc., are familiar names to many 
rope users. The diagrams shown below illustrate some of the types in 
common use. 




CUE UNLOADE* P.I6 




ORE UNLOADER RlG 



American Wire Rope 



103 




CPE UNLOADED 




3A'_LK5r VNUOAPER AND TRAIN. 




104 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Division 12 

Lumbering, including The great lumbering industry depends for its suc- 

Skidding and Loading C essful operation to a marked degree on getting the 

logs to the mill with the least possible expense. To 

facilitate this, there have been devised skidding machines of different kinds, 
loaders and pull boats. 

Where the ground is swampy, overhead cableway skidders are largely used, 
but where the ground is firm a portable skidding machine with one or two 
booms is usually employed for medium sized timber. For very large timber, 
however, it is customary to mount a large engine, boiler and geared drum on a 
heavy log platform and pull the logs in by main force. The type of machinery 
is thus adapted to the character of the work, and it is also true that the kinds 
of wire rope employed for these several uses have been designed to meet as 
far as possible the character of the machinery and the kind of work to be 
performed. In no other industrial work is wire rope worked under such con- 
stantly heavy loads, and it is not surprising that under such conditions that 
sometimes a strand breaks or the rope parts. Logs frequently foul with roots, 
stumps and other logs, and much skill is required of operators of skidding 
machines to get out the logs promptly without unduly overstraining the rope. 
Where timber is located along a navigable stream, pull boats are frequently used 
which pull logs for several miles out of the woods. 




OVERHEAD LOG SKIDOtR 



American Wire Rope 



105 




4 LINE SKIODER WITH DECKING LINES 




COWBINtD SKIDOER AMD LOADER 



106 



American Steel and Wire Company 




LOG LOADER 







o 



SKIDDING Rape 



GROUND -SKID0ER 




American Wire Rope 



107 



Division 13 

Mining Rope Arrangements For vertical shaft work it is customary to use 

almost universally the 6x19 construction rope 

of one of the grades shown on pages 129-131 of this handbook. The cages are 
usually arranged in pairs so that as one is lowered the other is raised, this 
being known as the balanced hoist system. Two types of hoisting drums are 
in common use, the flat drum and the conical drum, the latter being designed 
to give a slower starting speed when the cage is lifted from the bottom 
of the mine. 





D 



BALANCED HOIST 
FLAT DRUMS 



D 



BALANCED HOIST 
CONICAL DRUMS 



108 American Steel and Wire Company 

The simplest arrangement is for the ropes to pass directly from the drum to 
two head sheaves carried on a wooden or steel tower, each sheave lined with the 
center of that part of the drum on which the rope has to wind. It is 
customary with either the flat or conical drum to attach one rope to the under 
side of the drum and the other rope to the top of the drum, leaving several 
turns on the drum when the cage is resting on the bottom of the mine shaft. 
The names " underwind " and " overwind " are applied to these two ropes. 

Conical drums are used more frequently on shorter mine ropes, but unless 
the smaller end has nearly as large a diameter as would be used for a flat 
drum, the rope service may not be much better than with a flat drum. It is 
a debatable point as to which type of drum is the better. 

We recommend wherever possible that installations of mine hoist ropes 
be made with as few bends as possible in a similar manner to the two 
preceding diagrams. In case a shaft has to be changed or if the engine 
room cannot be located, so as to carry the rope in the manner indicated, a turn 
sheave may be used with suitable lead and intermediate supporting sheaves 
to carry the rope. 



American Wire Rope 



109 




BALANCED WHITING HOIST 





HIM 



6X19 ROPE 



Mine haulage systems are very widely different one from another, so much 
so that it may almost be said that there are hardly any two alike. At the 
same time there are in common use three leading systems known respectively as 

1. Endless Haulage Rope System. 

2. Tail Rope System. 

J. Gravity Inclined Plane. 



110 



American Steel and Wire Company 



1. The endless system consists of a wire rope usually Gx7 construction, 
spliced endless with small cars gripped on to the rope at regular intervals 
either singly or in groups of two or three. Two kinds of drum driving 
arrangements are usually employed known as the elliptical and the figure 8 
style respectively. The elliptical arrangement is preferable to the figure 
8 as the rope in the latter case is subjected to reverse bending on the drums. 
Suitable slip rings should always be used on drums to equalize the tension of 
the different winds of rope, and a tension carriage with counterweight is also 
necessary. Position of engine and driving drums is usually dependent upon 
the location of pit mouth. Slow speed of about 3 to 4 miles per hour is the 
average of this system. 




ENDLESS ROPE HAULAGE SYSTEM 




ENDLESS ROPE HAULAGE SY-STEM 



American Wire Rope 



111 





6X7 ffOPC 



LNDLESS ROPE HAULAGE 




ENDLE.S5 ROPE HAULAGE SYSTEM 



112 



American Steel and Wire Company 



2. Tail rope systems consist of two ropes known respectively as head 
line and tail line, the latter usually being about double the length of the 
former. Each rope is carried upon a separate drum and it differs from the 
endless system in that its operation is intermittent and the cycle of operations 
is for the head line to pull out a trip of about fifty loaded cars at a speed of 
about ten miles per hour. The time taken for the trip is dependent upon 
the length of the head line. The tail line is always attached to the rear car 
of the trip and as soon as the loaded cars have been run to the tipple 
by gravity, an empty trip of cars is pulled back into the mine by the tail 
line while the head line is at the same time attached to the front end of the 
train. The train of loaded cars or empty cars, as the case may be, is thus 
always under perfect control whether coming from the mine or returning to it. 




TAIL ROPE HAULAGE SYSTEM 




_LL 






6 K7 F?OP 




TAIL ROPE HAULAGE SYSTEM 



American Wire Rope 



113 




TAIL ROPE HAULAGE SYSTEM 




TAIL ROPE HAULAGE SYSTEM 



114 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Division 14 

Oil Well Drilling The oil wells of the United States use many thousands of 
feet of wire rope in the drilling of wells. The first thing 

that is done to drill an oil well is to erect a square tapering tower, or derrick 
as it is called, some 90 to 100 feet high. At the top of the derrick are located 
the sheaves for the drilling line and sand line, also the tackle block for the 
tubing or casing line. 




Oil Well Drilling Rig With Carnegie 
Steel Derrick 



American Wire Rope 115 



The first operation of drilling is known as spudding and consists in starting 
the well and drilling a short distance. The early portion of the work is fre- 
quently done with manila rope and the well drilled to a depth of 600 to 800 
feet. Wire rope is, however, being successfully used for the whole length and 
gradually displacing manila, especially where drillers are using the most 
advanced methods. Below a depth of 600 or 800 feet wire rope is almost 
invariably used. 

Wells are usually started with 10-inch or 12-inch casing which is carried 
down as far as possible, when the next size smaller is inserted and carried 
down a considerable distance farther. It frequently happens that a well has 
to be finished with 4-inch casing. For each different size of casings different 
sizes and weights of tools are used, depending upon the character of the soil 
through which the well is being dug. After drilling a short time the 
drilling line and tools are pulled out of the well and the well bailed out with 
the sand line which is attached to a tube with valve in the bottom known as a 
bailer that is lowered to the bottom of the well and back again as often as 
may be necessary to get out the mud and water. Another length of casing 
is then attached to the main casing after drilling about 20 feet and the casing 
lowered that far before drilling is resumed. The above method is usually 
followed where the soil conditions are such that the hole is liable to cave. If, 
however, the drilling is through rocky ground the casing is usually placed at 
the time the drilling of the well is completed. 

The successful drilling of an oil well is not a matter of chance, but requires 
a high degree of skill, for the well driller must be able to tell by placing his 
hand on the drilling line just how his drills are working. Many difficulties 
may be encountered, such as the casing becoming crooked and the rope wearing 
it in two, or the tools may stick and the rope break in getting them out, 
requiring a fishing job to recover the tools. All these conditions must be met 
by the drilling line. Our drilling lines are especially constructed to meet these 
conditions. Either the 6 x 19 or the 6 x 7 extra strong crucible steel, left lay, 
may be used for this work, although the 6x 19 rope should prove the superior 
of the two constructions, on account of its greater flexibility. See pages 123 
and 130 of this book. 

Further particulars about oil wells will be found in a separate pamphlet 
which will be sent upon request to those who are interested in this line of 
wire rope activity. 



116 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Division 15 

Suspension Bridges While very large suspension bridges are not composed 
of twisted wire cables, still smaller highway bridges 

and foot bridges may be so easily and cheaply made by using wire ropes as to 
be worthy of attention. The ropes usually used for this work are those shown 
on pages 175 and 181 of this book. Two suitable towers are necessary, one on 
either bank of the stream and the main ropes passed over the towers and 
carried back to suitable anchorages. Such a bridge is illustrated below. 




If the vertical suspenders are short, rods may be used together with 
clamps, washers and nuts and the cross floor timbers attached to them. The 
figures necessary to calculate the size of the cables are the total weight to be 
supported by each cable per foot, due to weight of floor and suspender rods, 
and also the maximum live load on the bridge at any given time, and whether 
the live load is uniformly distributed or in the center of the span. The 
formulae and information in Chapter V, pages 53 and 57, may then be used to 
calculate the size of bridge cables. 



American Wire Rope 



117 



Division 16 

Stump Pulling To clear land of stumps or imbedded rocks, a stump pulling 
or grubbing machine is almost universally used. This 
grubbing machine consists of a compact horse-power windlass upon which a 
wire rope is wound, the outer end being fastened around the stump or rock to 
be removed. Only wire rope of great strength and toughness can withstand 
the severe strain and the bending stresses incident to this service. 





GROSSING rvtACHIMe FOR 5TUIY1P PULLING 



118 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Division 17 

Towing Devices For all heavy sea and lake towing, tugs and towing steamers 
are equipped with automatic steam towing machines and 
galvanized steel wire hawsers. The hawser from the tow leads directly on to 
the towing machine drum, which is operated by steam. In a sea way, the 
tension of the hawser varies. Under a heavy strain the hawser is drawn from 
the drum, but as the drum rotates it opens the engine throttle until the steam 
pressure in the cylinders equalizes the pull on the hawser. When the tension 
is diminished, the steam causes the engines to haul in the hawser to its normal 
position, when the throttle is automatically closed. Thus a uniform tension is 
maintained on the hawser. The service requires an extra galvanized steel 
hawser of great flexibility and strength. 




American Wire Rope 



119 



Catalogue Section 



Chapter IX 

List Prices of Wire Rope 

Issued Jan. 1, 1913. Subject to Change Without Notice 



No. 

1 Transmission Rope ..... 

2 Hoisting Rope ....... 

3 Extra Flexible Rope ..... 

4 Special Flexible Rope ..... 

5 Flattened Strand Rope ..... 

6 Tiller Rope ....... 

7 Non-spinning Rope ..... 

8 Steel Clad Hoisting Rope .... 

9 Galvanized Guy Rope ..... 

10 Galvanized Running Rope .... 

11 Galvanized Hawsers and Mooring Lines 

12 Galvanized Bridge Cables .... 

13 Sash Cord ........ 

14 Galvanized High Strength Aeroplane Strand 

15 Galvanized Flexible Aeroplane or Motor 

Boat Cord ....... 

16 Galvanized Mast Arm ..... 

17 Stone Sawing Strand ..... 

18 Galvanized Strand ...... 

19 Track Strand, Round and Locked . . 

20 Clothes Lines ....... 

21 Flat Rope ........ 

22 A. S. & W. Shield Filler . 



12O-125 
126-132 
133-137 
138-143 
144-155 
155 

156-16O 

162-171 

175 

177 

178-18O 
181 
182 
183 

183 
184 
184 

186-188 
189-191 
192-193 
194-198 
199 



120 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Wire Rope Lists 

Transmission, Haulage or Standing Rope 




We present these lists in the order of their flexibility, from the least flex- 
ible to the most flexible. 

This rope is composed of 6 strands of 7 wires each, all laid around 
a hemp core. Their detail application is explained briefly under each of 
the five following lists. The particular advantage of this type of con- 
struction consists in its coarse wires which resist abrasion and corrosion to 
the greatest possible extent. It is not a flexible rope, however, and when- 
ever used must have the largest possible sheaves and drums over which to 
operate. 

This rope is made in five grades or strengths, as follows : 

1. Iron 

2. Crucible Cast Steel 

3. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

4. Plow Steel 

5. Monitor or Improved Plow Steel and Tico Special 



American Wire Rope 



121 



Iron Transmission, Haulage or Standing Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1'JIO 
6 Strands 7 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$0.51 


! 


4X 


3.55 


32 


6.4 


16 


.43 


IK 


4X 


3 


28 


5.6 


15 


.36 


IX 


4 


2.45 


23 


4.6 


13 


.30 


IK 


3/^ 


2 


19 


3.8 


12 


.24 


i 


3 


1.58 


15 


3 


10.5 


.18# 


K 


2X 


1.20 


12 


2.4 


9 


'.14 




-^X 


.89 


8.8 


1.7 


7.5 


.12 
.10 


I 


2 8 


.75 

.62 


7.3 

6 


1.5 
1.2 


7.25 

7 


.08X 




IX 


.50 


4.8 


.96 


6 


.06^ 


K 


1# 


.39 


3.7 


.74 


5.5 


.05^ 


yV 


IX 


.30 


2.6 


.52 


4.5 


.04^ 


H 


1/8 


.22 


2.2 


.44 


4 


.03^ 


T 6 * 


1 


.15 


1.7 


.34 


3.5 




A 


# 


.12^ 


1.2 


.24 


3 



All ropes not herein listed and composed of more than 7 and less than 19 wires to 
the strand, with the exception of 6 x 8, take 19 wire list. Siemens- Martin steel rope, having 
25 per cent greater strength than iron rope, at same prices as iron rope. Add 10 per cent 
to prices for wire center or galvanized rope. 

Iron haulage rope is not extensively used at present, except in some 
of the smaller sizes. It is composed of very soft wires, which do not 
possess high tensile strength. Some of the sizes given above are never used, 
but figures are given for comparison with the stronger grades. 



122 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Crucible Cast Steel Transmission, Haulage or 
Standing Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands- 7 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$0.60 


IX 


4X 


3.55 


63 


12.6 


11 


.51 


Itt 


4X 


3 


53 


10.6 


10 


.43 


IX 


4 


2.45 


46 


9.2 


9 


.36 


in 


3^ 


2 


37 


7.4 


8 


.29 




3 


1.58 


31 


6.2 


7 


.22^ 


H 


2^ 


1.20 


24 


4.8 


6 


.17 


If 


2X 


.89 


18.6 


3.7 


5 


.uy 2 




2>^ 


.75 


15.4 


3.1 


4X 


.12 


& 


2 


.62 


13 


2.6 


4^ 


.10 


T 9 * 


1# 


.50 


10 


2 




.08 


1 A 


1# 


.39 


7.7 


1.5 


3^ 


.06^ 


7 
T7? 


1^ 


.30 


5.5 


1.1 


3 


.05^ 


H 


w 


.22 


4.6 


.92 


2# 


.04^ 


A 


1 


.15 


3.5 


.70 


2X 


.04 


A 


# 


.12# 


2.5 


.50 


IX 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of more than 7 and less than 19 wires to 
the strand, with the exception of 6 x 8, take 19 wire list. Add 10 per cent to list prices for 
wire center or galvanized rope. 

This rope covers a wide range of utility, being particularly adaptable for 
use in mine haulage work, which includes tail rope and endless haulage sys- 
tems, gravity hoists, as well as coal and ore dock haulage roads operating 
small grip cars. In sizes, ^, T 7 -g, }4, T \, ^, it rinds use as sand lines 
for oil wells, and in the larger sizes, fyfa, %, fa, 1, is sometimes used for oil 
well drilling. In general, rope from this list can be used where abrasion is 
severe and flexibility required a minimum quantity. 



American Wire Rope 



123 



Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel Transmission, 
Haulage or Standing Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 7 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- Diameter 
ing Load in of Drum or 
Tons of 2000 Sheave in 
Pounds Feet Advised 


$0.75 


1# 


4X 


3.55 


73 


14.6 11 


.64 


1H 


4X 


3 


63 


12.6 


10 


.53 


IX 




2.45 


54 


10.8 


9 


.44 


i# 


3^ 


2 


43 


8.6 


8 


.35 




3 


1.58 


35 


7 


7 


.27 


H 


2X 


1.20 


28 


5.6 


6 


.20 


X 


2X 


.89 


21 


4.2 


5 


.17 


H 


2^ 


.75 


16.7 


3.3 


4X 


.14X 


H 


2 


.62 


14.5 


2.9 


4^ 


.12 


& 





.50 


11 


2.2 


4 


.09^ 


% 


IX 


.39 


8.85 


1.8 


3^ 


.07^ 


T 7 * 


IX 


.30 


6.25 


1.25 


3 


.06 


^8 


1H 


.22 


5.25 1.05 2% 


.05^ 


T 5 * 




.15 


3.95 


.79 


2X 


.05 


A 


H 


.13# 


2.95 


.59 


IX 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of more than 7 and less than 19 wires to 
the strand, with the exception of 6 x 8, take 19 wire list. Add 10 per cent to list prices for 
wire center or galvanized rope. 

This being the next stronger rope of this construction, its use is prac- 
tically the same as that of the crucible steel, except that in many cases a 
smaller rope can be used and the same strength obtained. This rope also 
covers a wide range of utility, being particularly adaptable for use in mine 
haulage work, which includes tail rope and endless haulage systems, gravity 
hoists, as well as coal and ore dock haulage roads operating small grip cars. 
In sizes -3/6, T 7 ^, *^, T 9 ^, y%, it finds use as sand lines for oil wells, and in the 
larger sizes, f, ^, ?/8, 1, is sometimes used for oil well drilling. In general, 
rope from this list can be used where abrasion is severe and flexibility required 
a minimum quantity. 



r_>4 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Plow Steel Transmission, Haulage or Standing Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 7 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 20UO 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$0.90 


1# 


4X 


3.55 


82 


16.4 


11 


.76 


IX 


4X 


3 


72 


14.4 


10 


.62 


IX 


4 


2.45 


60 


12 


9 


.51 


1# 


3X 


2 


47 


9.4 


8 


.41 


1 


3 


1.58 


38 


7.6 


7 


.32 


# 


2X 


1.20 


31 


6.2 


6 


.24^ 


X 


2X 


.89 


23 


4.6 


5 


.21 




2^ 


.75 


18 


3.6 


4X 


.17# 


^8 


2 


.62 


16 


3.2 


4^ 


.14^ 


I 9 T 


IX 


.50 


12 


2.4 


4 


.11/2 


K 


Itf 


.39 


10 


2 


3^ 


.09 


TV 


IX 


.30 


7 


1.4 


3 


.0614: 


^8 


1# 


.22 


5.9 


1.2 


2X 


.06 


A 




.15 


4.4 


.88 


2X 


.05^ 


A 


H 


.12^ 


3.4 


.68 


IX 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of more than 7 and less than 19 wires to 
the strand, with the exception of 6x8, take 19 wire list. Add 10 per cent to list prices for 
wire center or galvanized rope. 

This is a very strong rope, and its wires are harder and capable of with- 
standing more external wear than the softer crucible steel. Its general scope 
of application is for mine haulage, including endless, tail rope systems and 
gravity hoists, as well as ore and coal dock haulage roads operating small grip 
cars. Where it is necessary to secure increased strength and the physical 
requirements render it impossible to alter the working conditions, a plow steel 
rope may be used to distinct advantage without increasing the diameter of 
the rope. 



American Wire Rope 



125 



Monitor Plow Steel Transmission, Haulage or 
Standing Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands -7 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$1.05 


1# 


4X 


3.55 


90 


18 


11 


.88 


1# 


4X 


3 


79 


46 


10 


.72 


IX 


4 


2.45 


67 


13 


9 


.58 


1# 


3K 


2 


52 


10 


8 


.48 


1 


3 


1.58 


42 


8.4 


7 


.37 


H 


2# 


1.20 


33 


6.6 


6 


.28^ 


X 


2X 


.89 


25 


5 


5 


.24^ 
.20^ 


if 


S* 


.75 
.62 


20 
17# 


4 
3.5 


4X 
4X 


.17 


A 


W 


.50 


13 


2.6 


4 


.13^ 


% 


W 


.39 


11 


2.2 


3/2 


.11/2 


TV 


IX 


.30 


1% 


1.5 


3 


08X 


H 


IX 


.22 


Q/ 2 


1.3 


2X 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of more than 7 and less than 19 wires to 
the strand, with the exception of 6 x 8, take 19 wire list. Add 10 per cent to list prices for 
wire center or galvanized rope. 

This is the strongest rope of this construction, and although somewhat 
stiffer than the preceding qualities, may be used to advantage where conditions 
are suitable. For its strength it is the toughest rope that can be made, and 
in general a smaller diameter rope of this type should be used than any of the 
preceding qualities. When this is done it will give a good account of itself. 
Its uses are similar to those described under plow steel, extra strong and 
crucible steel. Sheaves for this rope should be somewhat larger than for the 
preceding qualities if possible, in order to get the very best results. Tico 
special rope, sold from same list. 



126 American Steel and Wire Company 

Standard Hoisting Rope 

6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




This term is applied to hoisting rope composed of 6 strands of 19 
wires each, laid around a hemp core. It has a wide and varied list of applica- 
tions, some of the principal ones of which are detailed under their respective 
lists. It is composed of smaller wires than the 6x7 construction and is more 
readily passed around sheaves and drums of moderate size. Its wires being 
smaller, it will not stand as much abrasion as the coarser transmission rope. 

This rope is made in six grades or strengths as follows : 

1 . Iron 

2. Mild Steel 

3. Crucible Cast Steel 

4. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

5. Plow Steel 

(>. Monitor or Improved Plow Steel and Tico Special 



American Wire Rope 



127 



Standard Iron Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter in 
Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$1.70 


2X 


8# 


11.95 


111 


22.2 


17 


1.40 


2^ 


7^8 


9.85 


92 


18.4 


15 


1.17 


2X 


^ 


8 


72 


14.4 


14 


.95 


2 


6X 


6.30 


55 


11 


12 


.88 


1# 


5# 


5.55 


50 


10 


12 


.80 


1# 


5^ 


4.85 


44 


8.8 


11 


.65 


1# 


5 


4.15 


38 


7.6 


10 


.57 


1^ 


4X 


3.55 


33 


6.6 


9 


.49 


1# 


4X 


3 


28 


5.6 


8.5 


.40 


ix 


4 


2.45 


22.8 


4.56 


7.5 


.33 


1# 


3^ 


2 


18.6 


3.72 


7 


.26 


1 


3 


1.58 


14.5 


2.90 


6 


.20 


# 


2X 


1.20 


11.8 


2.36 


5.5 


.16 


X 


2X 


.89 


8.5 


1.70 


4.5 


.12 


X 


2 


.62 


6 


1.20 


4 


.10 


A 


IX 


.50 


4.7 


.94 


3.5 


.08^ 


y* 


IK 


.39 


3.9 


.78 


3 


.07^ 


TV 


IX 


.30 


2.9 


.58 


2.75 


.07 


rs 


1# 


.22 


2.4 


.48 


2.25 


06X 


T 5 6 




.15 


1.5 


.30 


2 


.06^ 


X 


X 


.10 


1.1 


.22 


1.50 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of strands made up of more than 10 and less 
than 37 wires, take 37 wire list. Siemens- Martin Steel Rope, having 25 per cent greater 
strength than iron rope, at same price as iron rope. Add 10 per cent to list price for wire 
center or galvanized rope. 

The wires in our iron rope are made from the best quality iron, being 
soft, tough and pliable. Iron Hoisting Rope is most generally used for eleva- 
tor hoisting where the strength is sufficient. It is almost universally em- 
ployed for counterweight ropes, except on traction elevators (see page 91). 
For traction elevators we recommend the Mild Steel Hoisting Rope described 
on the following page. 

Iron Hoisting Rope is sometimes used for the transmission of power 
where the pulleys are comparatively small. 



128 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Mild Steel Elevator Hoisting Rope 

6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter in 
Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum 
or Sheave 
in Feet 


$0.66 


i# 





3.55 


54 


10.80 


7 


.56 


i* 


4X 


3 


45 


9.00 


6.25 


.46 


1 */ 


4 


2.45 


38 


7.60 


5.75 


.38 


IX 


3^ 


2 


30.5 


6.10 


5.25 


.31 


1 


3 


1.58 


24 


4.80 


4.50 


.24 


H 


2^ 


1.20 


18.5 


3.70 


4 


.19 


X 


2X 


.89 


13.5 


2.70 


3.5 


.14 


H 


2 


.62 


9.5 


1.90 


3 


.12 


& 


IX 


.50 


7.7 


1.54 


2.70 


.11 


*/2 


IX 


.39 


6 


1.20 


2.30 


.10 


TV 


IX 


.30 


4.6 


.92 


2 


.09^ 


9* 


IX 


.22 


3.4 


.68 


1.75 



Made especially for traction elevators in tall buildings (see page 91) where, on 
account of usual quick starting and stopping, a stronger and lighter rope is required than 
the Iron quality. This Mild Steel Elevator Hoisting Rope is not recommended for 
all styles of elevators. For elevators employing separate counterweight ropes, the Iron 
Hoisting Rope is recommended. 



American Wire Rope 



Standard Crucible Cast Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter in 
Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$2.10 


W 


8^ 


11.95 


211 


42.2 


11 


1.75 


2/ 2 


7^ 


9.85 


170 


34 


10 


1.44 


2X 


1 1 A 


8 


133 


26.6 


9 


1.16 


2 


6X 


6.30 


106 


21.2 


8 


1.02 


1H 


5^ 


5.55 


96 


19 


8 


.90 


1% 


5X 


4.85 


85 


17 


7 


.77 


1% 


5 


4.15 


72 


14.4 


6.5 


.66 


IX 


4X 


3.55 


64 


12.8 


6 


.56 


IH 


4X 


3 


56 


11.2 


5.5 


.46 


ix 


4 


2.45 


47 


9.4 


5 


.38 


IX 


z/ 2 


2 


38 


7.6 


4.5 


.31 


A 


3 


1.58 


30 


6 


4 


.24 


H 


*u 


1.20 


23 


4.6 


3.5 


.19 


X 


V 


.89 


17.5 


3.5 


3 


.14 


S A 


2 


.62 


12.5 


2.5 


2.5 


.12 


& 


IX 


.50 


10 


2 


2.25 


.11 


% 


IX 


.39 


8.4 


1.68 


2 


.10 


7 

T<? 


IX 


.30 


6.5 


1.30 


1.75 


.09^ 


tt 


IX 


.22 


4.8 


.96 


1.50 


.09^ 


A 


1 


.15 


3.1 


.62 


1.25 


.09 


X 


X 


.10 


2.2 


.44 


1 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of strands made up of more than 19 and less 
than 37 wires take 37 wire list. Add 10 per cent to list prices for wire center or galvanized 
rope. 

This rope is a leading seller, being applicable to a great variety of uses, 
among which might be noted mine hoisting, logging, elevators, derricks, hay 
presses, dredges, cable-ways, inclined planes, coal hoists, conveyors, ballast 
unloaders, skip hoist and many other kindred applications. The material used 
in making this rope is the best quality crucible cast steel, which is about 
double the strength of iron in the same diameter. 



130 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Standard Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 
Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of SiOJO 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$2.55 


2X 


8/8 


11.95 


243 


48.6 


11 


2.10 


2^ 


7^5 


9.85 


200 


40 


10 


1.70 




7'/ 8 


8 


160 


32 


9 


1.34 


2 4 


6X 


6.3 


123 


24.6 


8 


1.25 


1# 


5X 


5.55 


112 


22.4 


8 


1.10 


IX 


5X 


4.85 


99 


19.8 


7 


.94 


1^6 


5 


4.15 


83 


16.6 


6.5 


.80 


l/^ 


4X 


3.55 


73 


14.6 


6 


.68 


1^8 


4X 


3 


64 


12.8 


5.5 


.56 


IX 


4 


2.45 


53 


10.6 


5 


.46 


1^ 


3^ 


2 


43 


8.6 


4.5 


.37 


1 


3 


1.58 


34 


6.80 


4 


.29 


H 


2X 


1.20 


26 


5.20 


3.5 


.22 




2X 


.89 


20.2 


4.04 


3 


16> 


H 


2 


.62 


14 


2.80 


2.5 


.14 


T7T 


IX 


.50 


11.2 


2.24 


2.25 




X 


\y z 


.39 


9.2 


1.84 


2 


.11 V^ 


A 


IX 


.30 


7.25 


1.45 


1.75 


.11 






.22 


5.30 


1.06 


1.50 


.iox 


5 


l 


.15 


3.50 


.70 


1.25 


.io# 


X 


X 


.10 


2.43 


.49 


1 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of strands made up of more than 19 and 
less than 37 wires take 37 wire list. Add 10 per cent to list prices for wire center or 
galvanized rope. 

This rope is made from selected cast steel wires of higher tensile strength 
than the crucible steel, and, possessing greater strength, ropes from this list 
may be used with somewhat heavier loads than crucible steel. It has been 
found particularly useful for oil well drilling and tubing lines. Its other general 
uses are similar to those of the crucible steel, except that it may be used where 
loads are somewhat heavier. 



American Wire Rope 



131 



Standard Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 






List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$3.00 


2# 


8# 


11.95 


275 


55 


11 


2.50 


2^ 


7^ 


9.85 


229 


46 


10 


2.00 


2X 


7M 


8 


186 


37 


9 


1.58 


2 


6X 


6.3 


140 


28 


8 


1.46 


1# 


5% 


5.55 


127 


25 


8 


1.30 


1# 


5>/ 2 


4.85 


112 


22 


7 


1.08 


IH 


5 


4.15 


94 


19 


6.5 


.93 


1# 


4X 


3.55 


82 


16 


6 


.79 


Itt 


4X 


3 


72 


14 


5.5 


.65 


IX 


4 


2.45 


58 


12 


5 


.54 


1 1 A 


3^ 


2 


47 


9.4 


4.5 


.43 


i 


3 


1.58 


38 


7.6 


4 


.34 


# 


2X 


1.20 


29 


5.8 


3.5 


.26 


X 


2X 


.89 


23 


4.6 


3 


.19 


H 


2 


.62 


15.5 


3.1 


2.5 


.16 


& 


IX 


.50 


12.3 


2.4 


2.25 


.14 


% 


IK 


.39 


10 


2 


2 


.13 


A 


IX 


.30 


8 


1.6 


1.75 


.12% 


/8 


1# 


.22 


5.75 


1.15 


1.50 


.12X 


T 5 




.15 


3.8 


.76 


1.25 


.12 


X 


X 


.10 


2.65 


.53 


1 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of strands made up of more than 19 and 
less than 37 wires take 37 wire list. Add 10 per cent to list prices for wire center or 
galvanized rope. 

This is a very strong type of hoisting rope, used particularly for heavy 
mine hoisting, derricks, inclined planes, dredges, cableways for heavy logging 
and similar uses. In the case of deep mine shafts and long inclines it is 
especially efficient, because it possesses great strength for its weight. Conse- 
quently, it is the most economical rope to use where the weight of the rope has 
to be considered, or where the capacity of the machinery is to be increased 
without a corresponding increase in sheaves and drums. 



132 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Monitor Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$3.45 


2X 


S5/i 


11.95 


315 


63 


11 


2.80 




T/8 


9.85 


263 


53 


10 


2.50 


2X 




8 


210 


42 


9 


1.85 


2 


6X 


6.30 


166 


33 


8 


1.75 


1H 


5X 


5.55 


150 


30 


8 


1.60 


IX 


5X 


4.85 


133 


27 


7 


1.30 




5 


4.15 


110 


22 


6/4 


1.10 


IX 


4X 


3.55 


98 


20 


6 


.90 


l^i 


4X 


3 


84 


17 


5/4 


.75 


IX 


4 


2.45 


69 


14 


5 


.62 


iy & 


3X 


2 


56 


11 


4X 


.50 


1 


3 


1.58 


45 


9 


4 


.39 


% 


2X 


1.20 


35 


7 


3/^ 


.31 


X 


2X 


.89 


26.3 


5.3 


3 


.22^ 


X 


2 


.62 


19 


3.8 


%y 2 


.19 


9 


IX 


.50 


14.5 


2.9 


2X 


.17 


X 


IX 


.39 


12.1 


2.4 


2 


.15^ 


7 


IX 


.30 


9.4 


1.9 


IX 


14/^ 


II 




.22 


6.75 


1.35 




13X 




1 


.15 


4.50 


.9 


IX 


!l3 


5 


X 


.10 


3.15 


.63 


1 



All ropes not listed herein and composed of strands made up of more than 19 and 
less than 37 wires take 37 wire list. Add 10 per cent to list prices for wire center or 
galvanized rope. 

This grade of hoisting rope has been developed to provide a rope of very 
great strength, and in this respect has no equal. It is particularly useful on 
derricks, skidders, dredges and stump pullers. Being very strong, a smaller 
rope may be used than any of the preceding qualities of this construction. 
It is somewhat stiffer in the same diameter than the plow and crucible steel 
grades, but strength for strength, it is equally flexible. Sheaves should be 
somewhat larger for this quality of rope, if possible, to obtain the very best 
results. Tico special rope sold from same list. 



American Wire Rope 



133 



Extra Flexible Steel Hoisting Rope 

8 Strands 19 Wires to the StrandI Hemp Core 




This rope is composed of 8 strands of 19 wires each laid around a hemp 
core. It will be noted that there are two more strands in this type than in 
that of the Standard Hoisting Rope. The addition of these two strands 
increases the flexibility and permits of the rope beirig used over comparatively 
small sheaves and drums such as are frequently found on derricks. It is not 
good practice to use it where there is much overwinding, because it would 
flatten or lose shape more quickly than 6 x 19 rope. 

Galvanized Extra Flexible Crucible Cast Steel hoisting rope is much 
more pliable than the six-strand hoisting rope, and is preferred by the leading 
yachtsmen to the galvanized crucible cast steel running rope shown on 
page 177. 

For list prices add 10 per cent to the list for the bright rope. 
This rope is made regularly in four grades or strengths as follows : 

1. Crucible Cast Steel. 

2. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel. 
3. ' Plow Steel 

4] Monitor or Improved Plow Steel, and Tico special. 



NOTE The words " Extra Flexible " mean 8 strands, 19 wires each, one hemp core. 
The term " Special Flexible " means 6 strands, 37 wires each, one hemp core. For rope of 
the latter construction, see page 138. 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Extra Flexible Crucible Cast Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
8 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$0.73 


1^ 


4^ 


3.19 


58 


11.6 


3.75 


.62 


1/8 


4X 


2.70 


51 


10.2 


3.5 


.51 


IX 


4 


2.20 


42 


8.4 


3.2 


.42 


1# 


3X 


1.80 


34 


6.8 


2.83 


.34 


1 


3 


1.42 


26 


5.2 


2.5 


.27 


H 


2 


1.08 


20 


4 


2.16 


.21 


% 


2X 


.80 


15.3 


3.06 


1.83 


.16 


ft 


2 


.56 


10.9 


2.18 


1.75 


.14 


A 


1# 


.45 


8.7 


1.74 


1.5 


.12 


1 A 


IX 


.35 


7.3 


1.46 


1.33 


.11 




IX 


.27 


5.7 


1.14 


1.16 


.10^ 


a| 


1$ 


.20 - 


4.2 


.84 


1 


.10X 


T 5 6 


1 


.13 


2.75 


.55 


.83 


.10 


X 





.09 


1.80 


.36 


.75 



Add 10 per cent to list prices for galvanized rope. 

This rope is particularly adaptable for use over fairly small size sheaves 
on derricks, steam dredges, coal and ore handling machinery, pile drivers, and 
also for logging purposes, as well as tubing lines for oil wells. It is not quite 
as strong in the same diameter as the regular hoisting rope, 6x19, due to its 
larger hemp center, but it is more flexible. This rope when galvanized is 
known as galvanized extra flexible crucible cast steel hoisting rope and is much 
used by yachtsmen. 



American Wire Rope 



135 



Extra Flexible Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 
Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
8 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$0.88 


IK 


4X 


3.19 


66 


13 


3.75 


.75 


1# 


4X 


2.70 


57 


11 


3.5 


.62 


IX 


4 


2.20 


47 


9.4 


3.2 


.51 


1 


3^ 


1.80 


38 


7.6 


2.83 


.41 


1 


3 


1.42 


29.7 


5.9 


2.5 


.32 


# 


2^ 


1.08 


23 


4.6 


2.16 


.25 


X 


2X 


.80 


17.6 


3.5 


1.83 


.18# 


% 


2 


.56 


12.4 


2.5 


1.75 


.16 


& 


IX 


.45 


10.1 


2 


1.5 


.14 


/2 


IK 


.35 


8. 


1.6 


1.33 


.13 




IX 


.27 


6.30 


1.26 


1.16 


.12# 


H 


1# 


.20 


4.66 


.93 


1 


.12 
.H# 


3 


X 


.13 
.09 


3.05 
2.02 


.61 

.40 


.83 
.75 



Add 10 per cent to list prices for galvanized rope. 

This rope is made from selected cast steel wires of higher tensile strength 
than the crucible steel, and, possessing greater strength, ropes from this list 
may be used for somewhat heavier loads than crucible steel. Its general 
uses are similar to those of the crucible steel described on the preceding page. 



136 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Extra Flexible Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
8 Strands-19 Wires to the Strand- 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Loads in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$1.03 


IK 


4V 


3.19 


74 


14.8 


3.75 


.87 


\y% 


4X 


2.70 


64 


12.8 


3.5 


.72 


IX 


4 


2.20 


52 


10.4 


3.2 


.60 




3K 


1.80 


43 


8.6 


2.83 


.48 


1 


3 


T.42 


33 


6.6 


2.5 


.38 


H 


2X 


1.08 


26 


5.2 


2.16 


.29 




2X 


.80 


20 


4 


1.83 


.21 


jM& 


2 


.56 


14 


2.8 


1.75 


.18 


T 9 * 


IX 


.45 


11.6 


2.32 


1.50 


.16 


K 


IK 


.35 


8.7 


1.74 


1.33 


.15 


T^ 


IX 


.27 


6.90 


1.38 


1.16 


.14 


Y% 




.20 


5.12 


1.02 


1 


13/^ 


6 


1 


.13 


3.35 


.67 


.83 


'.13X 


X 


X 


.09 


2.25 


.45 


.75 



Add 10 per cent to list prices for galvanized rope. 

This is a very strong as well as a very flexible rope, principally used 
on derricks, dredges, coal and ore handling machinery, pile drivers and 
logging, where small sheaves necessitate a flexible rope and where greater 
strength than shown for preceding grades is required. This rope is also 
made galvanized and is then known as galvanized extra flexible plow steel 
hoisting rope, largely used on ships and yachts. 



American Wire Rope 



137 



Extra Flexible Monitor Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
8 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$1.19 


1# 


4# 


3.19 


80 


16 


3.75 


.98 


1ft 


4X 


2.70 


68 


13 


3.5 


.82 


W 


4 


2.20 


56 


11 


3.2 


.68 


w 


3^ 


1.80 


46 


9.2 


2.83 


.55 


1 


3 


1.42 


36 


7.2 


2.5 


.43 


n 


2# 


1.08 


28 


5.6 


2.15 


.34 


X 


2X 


.80 


22 


4.4 


1.83 


.25 


# 


2 


.56 


15 


3 


1.75 


.22 
.19 


* 


1# 

IX 


.45 
.35 


12 
9.5 


2.4 
1.9 


1.5 
1.33 



Add 10 per cent to list prices for galvanized rope. 

This is a very efficient rope for its strength where loads are heavy, 
it being the strongest rope that can be made in this type of construction. 
It is preferable to employ sheaves somewhat larger with this quality so as to 
insure greater durability. Tico special rope sold from same list. 



138 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Special Flexible Hoisting Rope 



6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




This rope is composed of 6 strands of 37 wires each, laid around a hemp 
core. It is a very flexible rope and much used on cranes and similar machinery 
where sheaves are of necessity rather small. Its wires are smaller than in the 
6-strand 19-wire rope and consequently will not stand as much abrasive wear. 
It is a very efficient rope because a little over 50 per cent of the wires and 
consequently over 50 per cent of the strength are in the inner layers of the 
strand, protected from abrasion. This explains its particular advantage in 
addition to its flexibility. Hoisting ropes larger than 1 % inches are usually 
made of 6 strands of 37 wires each, rather than of 6 strands of 19 wires. 

Special Flexible Hoisting Rope is made in five grades : 

1. Crucible Cast Steel 

2. Extra Strong Crticible Cast Steel 

3. Special Flexible Crane Rope (price same as Plow Steel) 

4. Plow Steel 

5. Monitor or Improved Plow Steel, and Tico special 



Special Flexible Crane Ropes These are composed of 6 strands of 37 wires 

to the strand, with a hemp center ; are sold 

from the plow steel list and are especially designed for service on electric 
cranes. 



NOTE The term " Special Flexible " means 6 strands, 37 wires each, one hemp core. 
The words " Extra Flexible " mean 8 strands, 19 wires each, one hemp core. For rope of 
the latter construction, see page 133. 



American Wire Rope 



139 



Special Flexible Crucible Cast Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 









List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 


ProperWork- 
ing Load 
in Tons of 2000 


Diameter 
of Drum or 
Sheave in 








in Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Feet Advised 


$2.30 


2X 


8^ 


11.95 


200 


40 




1.92 


2^> 


7^$ 


9.85 


160 


32 




1.60 


2X 


7/^ 


8 


125 


25 




1.35 


2 


6X 


6.30 


105 


21 




1.20 


IX 


5X 


5.55 


94 


18.8 




1.05 


IX 


5^ 


4.85 


84 


17 




.89 


l^J 


5 2 


4.15 


71 


14 




.79 


\y 2 


4X 


3.55 


63 


12 


3.75 


.65 


IX 


4X 


3 


55 


11 


3.5 


.55 


IX 


4 


2.45 


45 


9 


3.2 


.46 


IX 


3^ 


2 


34 


7 


2.83 


.37 


1 


3 


1.58 


29 


6 


2.5 


.28 


* 


2M 


1.20 


23 


5 


2.16 


.23 




2X 


.89 


17.5 


3.5 


1.83 


.18 


# 


2 


.62 


11.2 


2.2 


1.75 


.15 





IX 


.50 


9.5 


1.9 


1.5 


.13 


l 


!/ 


.39 


7.25 


1.45 


1.33 


!i2 2 


* 


IX, 


.30 
.22 


5.5 
4.2 


1.1 

.84 


1.16 
1 



Ropes composed of strands made up of more than 37 wires, add 10 per cent to list 
price of 6x37. Add 10 per cent, for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for general hoisting work where 
loads are moderate and where sheaves are small. It is a stronger construction 
than the extra flexible, but somewhat more expensive, and its wires will not 
stand as much abrasion as the 6 x 19 construction. 



140 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Special Flexible Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 
Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 


Diameter of 
Drum or 
Sheave in 








in Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Feet Advised 


$2.80 


2X 


8# 


11.95 


233 


47 




2.35 


2 l /t 


7% 


9.85 


187 


37 




1.90 


2X 


71^ 


8 


150 


30 




1.55 


2 


6X 


6.30 


117 


23 




1.41^ 


1H 




5.55 


106 


21.2 




1.28 


IX 


5^ 


4.85 


95 


19 




1.07 


1^6 


5 


4.15 


79 


16 




.95 


\y 2 


4X 


3.55 


71 


14 


3.75 


.78 


\y% 


4X 


3 


61 


12 


3.5 


.65 


IX 


4 


2.45 


50 


10 


3.20 


.55 


iy s 


3K 


2 


39 


8 


2.83 


.44 


1 


3 


1.58 


32 


6.4 


2.5 


.34 


# 


2X 


1.20 


25 


5 


2.16 


.27 


X 


2X 


.89 


19 


3.8 


1.83 


.21 




2 


.62 


12.6 


2.5 


1.75 


17# 





IX 


.50 


10.5 


2.1 


1.5 


!l5 


y^ 




.39 


8.25 


1.65 


1.33 


.14 


yV 


1^ 


.30 


6.35 


1.27 


1.16 


.13 


Ks 




.22 


4.65 


.93 


1 



Ropes composed of strands made up of more than 37 wires, add 10 per cent to list 
price of 6 x 37. Add 10 per cent, for wire center. 

This is the next stronger grade of this construction and can be used for 
heavier loads than the crucible steel, being considerably stronger in the same 
diameter. Its general uses are similar to the crucible steel. 



American Wire Rope 



141 



Special Flexible Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of *000 


Diameter of 
Drum or 
Sheave in 








in Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Feet Advised 


$3.30 


2X 


8^ 


11.95 


265 


53 




2.75 


2/^ 


7^6 


9.85 


214 


43 




2.20 


2X 


7 H? 


8 


175 


35 




1.80 


2 


6X 


6.30 


130 


26 




1.65 


in 




5.55 


119 


23.8 




1.50 


IX 


5^ 


4.85 


108 


22 




1.25 


i>6 


5 


4.15 


90 


18 




1.10 


i/^ 


4X 


3.55 


80 


16 


3.75 


.91 


\y % 


4X 


3 


68 


14 


3.5 


.75 


IX 


4 


2.45 


55 


11 


3.2 


.64 


1^ 


3^ 


2 


44 


9 


2.83 


.51 


i 


3 


1.58 


35 


7 


2.5 


.40 


n 


^x 


1.20 


27 


5 


2.16 


.31 


X 


^x 


.89 


21 


4 


1.83 


.24 


# 


2 


.62 


14 


3 


1.75 


.20 


_9 


IX 


.50 


11.5 


2.3 


1.5 


.17 


\/ 


IM 


.39 


9.25 


1.85 


1.33 


.16 


T 7 ff 


IX 


.30 


7.2 


1.4 


1.16 


.15 


Ks 




.22 


5.1 


1 


1 



Ropes composed of strands made up of more than 37 wires, add 10 per cent to list 
price of 6 x 37. Add 10 per cent, for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction are largely used on electric traveling cranes, 
dredges and similar machinery, where loads are heavy and sheaves are of 
necessity small. These ropes are very efficient and give excellent service 
where conditions favor their use. 



142 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Special Flexible Monitor Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or 
Sheave in 
Feet Advised 


$3.75 


2X 


8# 


11.95 


278 


55 




3.15 


2^ 


7^ 


9.85 


225 


45 




2.50 


2X 


7 /^ 


8 


184 


37 




2.10 


2 


6X 


6.30 


137 


27 




1.92X 


1^ 




5.55 


125 


25 




1.75 


1% 


5K 


4.85 


113 


23 




1.45 


IX 


5 


4.15 


95 


19 




1.25 




4^ 


3.55 


84 


17 


3.75 


1.05 


IX 


4X 


3 


71 


14 


3.50 


.86 


IX 


4 


2.45 


58 


11 


3.20 


.75 


IX 


3^ 


2 


46 


9.2 


2.83 


.59 


1 


3 


1.58 


37 


7.4 


2.50 


.46 


X 


2% 


1.20 


29 


5.8 


2.16 


.36 


X 


2X 


.89 


23 


4.6 


1.83 


.27 


X 


2 


.62 


16 


3.2 


1.75 


.23 


T 9 T 


1^ 


.50 


12X 


2.5 


1.50 


.20 


y z 


1/4 


.39 


9.75 


1.9 


1.33 


18/4 


7_ 


IX 


.30 


7.50 


1.5 


1.15 


17I** 


H 


IX 


.22 


5.30 


1.06 


1 



Ropes composed of strands made up of more than 37 wires, add 10 per cent to list 
price of 6x37. Add 10 per cent, for wire center. 

This is the strongest rope of the 6 x 37 construction made and suitable 
where conditions are unusually severe. It is largely used on dredges both for 
main hoist and spud ropes. We recommend its use where loads have to be 
increased without corresponding increase in diameter of rope. Tico special 
rope sold from same list. 



American Wire Rope 



L43 



Extra Special Flexible Hoisting Rope 

6 Strands 61 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Crucible Cast Steel 



List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter in 
Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 




3X 


10 % 


16.60 


280 


56 


11 




3 


9/4 


14.20 


240 


48 


10 


$2.53 


2^ 


8>6 


11.95 


200 


40 


9 


2.112 


2^2 


77/8 


9.85 


160 


32 


8 


1.76 


2% 




8.00 


125 


25 


7 


1.485 


2 


6X 


6.30 


105 


21 


6 



Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 



. 


3X 


iox 


16.60 


315 


63 


11 


. 


3 


9^ 


14.20 


275 


00 


10 


$3.08 


2% 


85/s 


11.95 


233 


47 


9 


2.585 


2/2 


7# 


9.85 


187 


37 


8 


2.09 


2% 


7 l /s 


8.00 


150 


30 


7 


1.705 


2 


W 


6.30 


117 


23 


6 



Plow Steel 





3X 


K>X 


16.60 


350 


70 


11 




3 


9# 


14.20 


310 


62 


10 


$3.63 


2% 


8# 


11.95 


265 


53 


9 


3.025 


2</ 2 


7ft 


9.85 


214 


43 


8 


2.42 


2# 


7 l /s 


8.00 


175 


35 


7 


1.98 


2 


6% 


6.30 


130 


26 


6 



Monitor Plow Steel 





3X 


iox 


16.60 


370 


74 


11 




3 


9# 


14.20 


325 


65 


10 


$4.125 


2% 


8# 


11.95 


278 


56 


9 


3.465 


2/ 2 


7^8 


9.85 


225 


45 


8 


2.75 


2X 


7 1 A 


8.00 


184 


37 


7 


2.31 


2 


6X 


6.30 


137 


27 


6 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction are particularly recommended for dredging 
purposes, and are usually made with a special wire center for that purpose. 
The Plow Steel and Monitor grades are most frequently used. 



144 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Flattened Strand Ropes, Hoisting and Haulage 



Type A 5 Strands 

28 Wires 1 Hemp Core 



Type B 6 Strands 

25 Wires 1 Hemp Core 



Type C 5 Strands 

9 Wires 1 Hemp Core 




Type D 6 Strands 

8 Wires 1 Hemp Core 




Typ5 E 5 Strands 

11 Wires 1 Hemp Core 



American Wire Rope 



145 



Flattened Strand Haulage Ropes 

Type C-5 Strands 9 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type D 6 Strands-8 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type E 5 Strands 11 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type C 




Type D 




Type E 



These ropes are primarily designed to give increased wearing surface above 
that to be obtained from a round strand rope. 

There are three types of this class of rope and four qualities, namely : 

1. Iron 

2. Crucible Cast Steei 

3. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

4. Monitor or Improved Plow Steel 

Their several uses are detailed under the respective lists. 
These ropes are always made Lang's lay. 



146 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Flattened Strand Iron Haulage or Transmission Rope 

Type C 5 Strands 9 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type C 



Diameter in 
Inches 


List Price 
per Foot 


Approximate 
Strength in Tons 
of 2000 Pounds 


Proper Working 
Load in Tons 
of 2JOO Pounds 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Diameter of Drum 
or Sheave in Feet 
Advised 


IX 


$0.45 


23 


4.6 


2.55 


9^ 


1# 


.36^ 


19 


3.8 


2.05 


S/ 2 


1 


.29 


15 


3.0 


1.65 


7% 


H 


.22 


12 


2.4 


1.24 


6# 


X 


.17# 


8.8 


1.76 


.92 


6 


H 


.12# 


6 


1.2 


.64 


4^ 


y* 


.08^ 


3.7 


.74 


.40 


3^ 



This rope is not used very much on account of the greater strength pos- 
sessed by crucible cast steel, but the figures are given for comparison with 
the other different qualities which may be made. 



American Wire Rope 



147 



Flattened Strand Crucible Cast Steel Haulage or 
Transmission Rope 

Type C-5 Strands-9 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type D 6 Strands 8 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type C 




Type D 







Type C 


Type D 




Diameter 
in Inches 


List Price 
per Foot 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum 
or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


IX 


$0.75 


63 


12.6 


3.65 


68 


13.6 


4.00 


8/2 


IX 


.64 


53 


10.6 


3.10 


57 


11.4 


3.45 


8 


IX 


.54 


46 


9.2 


2.55 


50 


10 


2.80 


?X 


1# 


.45 


37 


7.4 


2.05 


40 


8 


2.30 


6X 




.35 


31 


6.2 


1.65 


34 


6.8 


1.80 


5# 


H 


.275 


24 


4.8 


1.24 


26 


5.2 


1.38 


5 


U 


.205 


18.6 


3.72 


.92 


20 


4 


1.00 


4X 


X 


.14 


13 


2.6 


.64 


14 


2.8 


.72 


3^ 


% 


.10 


7.7 


1.54 


.40 


8.3 


1.66 


.45 


2^ 


3 /S 


.07 


4.6 


.92 


.23 


5 


1 


.25 


2 



Type D is the stronger of the two constructions and is used in logging, 
coal dock haulage and similar places. Although it is more expensive than 
round strand rope it is considered more economical by some rope users on 
account of its longer service under certain conditions. Type C is the older 
type and not used so much as type D. Always made Lang's lay. 

Add 10 per cent, for wire center for Type D. 



148 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Flattened Strand Extra Strong Crncible Cast Steel 
Haulage or Transmission Rope 

Type C-5 Strands 9 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type D 6 Strands 8 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type C 




Type D 







Type C 


Type D 




Diameter 
in Inches 


List Price 
per Foot 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons 
of 2UOO 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum 
or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


IK 


$0.93 


73 


14.6 


3.65 


79 


15.8 


4.00 


S>/ 2 


l# 


.80 


63 


12.6 


3.10 


68 


13.6 


3.45 


8 


IX 


.68 


54 


10.8 


2.55 


58 


11.6 


2.80 


W 


l# 


.54 


43 


8.6 


2.05 


46 


9.2 


2.30 


6X 




.45 


35 


7.0 


1.65 


38 


7.6 


1.80 


5^ 


7 A 


.35 


28 


5.6 


1.24 


30 


6.0 


1.38 


5 


X 


.27 


21 


4.2 


.92 


22.7 


4.54 


1.00 


4K 


ft 


.18 


14.5 


2.9 


.64 


15.7 


3.14 


.72 


3^ 


# 


.14 


8.85 


1.77 


.40 


9.6 


1.92 


.45 


2K 


H 


.11 


5.25 


1.05 


.23 


5.7 


1.14 


.25 


2 



This is a stronger rope than crucible cast steel and may be used for 
heavier loads, as shown by table above. Type D is the most popular con- 
struction and is frequently used on coal dock roads and similar places. 
Always made Lang's lay. 

Add 10 per cent, for wire center for Type D. 



American Wire Rope 



149 



Flattened Strand Monitor Plow Steel Haulage or 
Transmission Rope 

Type C 5 Strands- 9 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type D 6 Strands 8 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type C 




Type D 







Type C 


TypeD 




Diameter 
in Inches 


List Price 
per Foot 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load 
in Tons 
of 2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum 
or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


IX 


$0.88 


67 


13.4 


2.55 


73 


14.6 


2.80 


9^ 


1# 


.70 


52 


10.4 


2.05 


56 


11.2 


2.30 


8 


1 


.58 


42 


8.4 


1.65 


46 


9.2 


1.80 


6# 


H 


.44 


33 


6.6 


1.24 


36 


7.2 


1.38 


6 


X 


.35 


25 


5.0 


.92 


27 


5.4 


1.00 


5X 


H 


.25 


17# 


3.5 


.64 


19 


3.8 


.72 


4K 


X 


16X 


11 


2.2 


.40 


11.9 


2.38 


.45 


3# 



This is the strongest flattened strand haulage rope made and is used 
principally in type D for some coal dock haulage roads and in small sizes 
for logging. Always made Lang's lay. 

Add 10 per cent, for wire center for Type D. 



150 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Flattened Strand Hoisting Ropes 

Type A 5 Strands 28 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type B-6 Strands 25 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 

Flattened strand hoisting ropes are made in two types, known as type A 
and type B ; type A being the older construction and type B the newer one. 

These ropes compare in flexibility with the standard hoisting rope shown 
on page 126. They possess, however, about 150 per cent greater wearing 
surface than the round strand ropes of the same diameter, and they have 
been used generally in the same places. 

Type A is made in four grades, as follows : 

1. Iron 

2. Crucible Cast Steel 

3. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

4. Monitor or Improved Plow Steel 

Type B is made in three grades, as follows : 

1. Crucible Cast Steel 

2. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

3. Monitor or Improved Plow Steel 




Type A 




Type B 



American Wire Rope 



151 



Flattened Strand Iron Hoisting Rope 



Type A 5 Strands 28 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type A 



Diameter in 
Inches 


List Price per 
Foot 


Approximate 
Strength in Tons 
of 2000 Pounds 


Proper Working 
Load in Tons 
of 2000 Pounds 


Approximate 
Weight per Foot 
in Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet Advised 


2X 


$1.52 


72 


14.4 


8.00 


nx 


2 


1.20 


55 


11 


6.30 


10# 


1% 


1.04 


44 


8.8 


4.85 


9 


1% 


.82 


38 


7.6 


4.15 


7 1 A 


IK 


.74 


33 


6.6 


3.55 


W 


1H 


.625 


28 


5.6 


3.00 


6>( 


IX 


.52 


22.8 


4.56 


2.45 


5^ 


l# 


.43 


18.6 


3.72 


2.00 


5X 


i 


.34 


14.5 


2.90 


1.58 


4# 


H 


.26 


11.8 


2.36 


1.20 


4 


X 


.21 


8.5 


1.70 


.89 


3^ 


% 


.155 


6.0 


1.20 


.62 


3 


TS 


.13 


4.7 


.94 


.50 


2^ 


% 


.105 


3.9 


.78 


.39 


2 


H 


.095 


2.4 


.48 


.22 


1 



The use of this type of rope is confined almost entirely to elevators, but 
it is not used as largely as the iron hoisting rope shown on page 127. These 
ropes are always made Lang's lay. 



152 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Flattened Strand Crucible Cast Steel Hoisting Rope 

Type A 5 Strands 28 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type B 6 Strands 25 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type A 




Type B 







Type A 


Type B 




Diameter 
in 
Inches 


List Price 
per Foot 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in 
Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons of 
200U 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in 
Tons of 
2009 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum 
or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


2X 


$1.82 


133 


26.6 


8.00 


146 


29.2 


9.20 


8/2 


2 


1.44 


106 


21.2 


6.30 


117 


23.4 


7.25 


8 


IX 


1.21 


85 


17.0 


4.85 


94 


18.8 


5.60 


7X 


1^6 


.96 


72 


14.4 


4.15 


79 


15.8 


4.75 


6X 


1> 


.86 


64 


12.8 


3.55 


70 


14.0 


4.00 


&X 


1^ 


.73 


56 


11.2 


3.00 


62 


12.4 


3.45 


5^ 


IX 


.595 


47 


9.4 


2.45 


52 


10.4 


2.80 


5 


1/8 


.50 


38 


7.6 


2.00 


42 


8.4 


2.30 


4^ 




.395 


30 


6.0 


1.58 


33 


6.6 


1.80 


4 


# 


.30 


23 


4.6 


1.20 


25 


5.0 


1.38 


3X 




.24 


17.5 


3.5 


.89 


19.3 


3.86 


1.00 


3 


^ 


.18X 


12.5 


2.5 


.62 


13.8 


2.76 


.72 


2X 


T 9 


.165 


10 


2 


.50 


11 


2.2 


.58 


IX 


% 


.145 


8.4 


1.68 


.39 


9.3 


1.86 


.45 





Type A is more frequently used in the sizes smaller than one inch, 
although occasionally used in the larger sizes as well. Type B is used in all 
sizes for coal hoisting, dredging, etc. This rope is always made Lang's lay. 

Add 10 per cent, for wire center for Type B. 



American Wire Rope 



153 



Flattened Strand Extra Strong Crncible Cast Steel 
Hoisting Rope 

Type A-5 Strands -28 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type B 6 Strands 25 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type B 







Type A 


Type B 




Diameter 
in 
Inches 


List Price 
per Foot 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in 
Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in 
Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum 
or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


W 


$2.20 


160 


32 


8.00 


176 


35.2 


9.20 


8^ 


2 


1.77 


123 


24.6 


6.30 


135 


27 


7.25 


8 


1# 


1.55 


99 


19.8 


4.85 


109 


21.8 


5.60 


?X 


1# 


1.30 


83 


16.6 


4.15 


91 


18.2 


4.75 


6X 


IK 


1.05 


73 


14.6 


3.55 


80 


16 


4.00 


5^ 


1# 


.90 


64 


12.8 


3.00 


70 


14 


3.45 


5/ 2 


IX 


.70 


53 


10.6 


2.45 


58 


11.6 


2.80 


5 


1# 


.59 


43 


8.6 


2.00 


47 


9.4 


2.30 


4K 


1 


.48 


34 


6.8 


1.58 


37 


7.4 


1.80 


4 


K 


.38 


26 


5.2 


1.20 


29 


5.8 


1.38 


3K 


H 


.30 


20.2 


4.04 


.89 


22.2 


4.44 


1.00 


3 


# 


.225 


14 


2.80 


.62 


15.4 


3.08 


.72 


2X 


A 


.195 


11.2 


2.24 


.50 


12.3 


2.46 


.58 


1# 


K 


.175 


9.2 


1.84 


.39 


10.1 


2.02 


.45 


IK 



Types A and B are made and both have the same general uses as Crucible 
Cast Steel except that somewhat heavier loads may be handled than with the 
Crucible Cast Steel. This rope is always made Lang's lay. 

Add 10 per cent, for wire center for Type B. 



154 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Flattened Strand Monitor Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Type A 5 Strands 28 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
Type B 6 Strands 25 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Type A 




Type B 





Type A 


Type B 




Diameter 
in 
Inches 


List Price 
per Foot 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in 
Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approx. 
Strength 
in Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working 
Load in 
Tons of 
2000 
Pounds 


Approx. 
Weight 
per Foot 
in Pounds 


Diameter 
of Drum ' 
or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


2X 


$2.85 


210 


42 


8.00 


231 


46.2 


9.20 


12 


2 


2.25 


166 


33.2 


6.30 


183 


36.6 


7.25 


11 


IX 


2.08 


133 


26.6 


4.85 


146 


29.2 


5.60 


9 


1* 


1.56 


110 


22 


4.15 


121 


24.2 


4.75 


8^ 


1/2 


1.37 


98 


19.6 


3.55 


108 


21.6 


4.00 


8 


iX 


1.12 


84 


16.8 


3.00 


92 


18.4 


3.45 


ly* 


IX 


.89 


69 


13.8 


2.45 


76 


15.2 


2.80 


7 


i# 


.71 


56 


11.2 


2.00 


62 


12.4 


2.30 


6 




.60 


45 


9 


1.58 


50 


10.0 


1.80 


5 


n 


.49 


35 


7 


1.20 


39 


7.8 


1.38 


4^ 


X 


.375 


26.3 


5.26 


.89 


29 


5.8 


1.00 


4 


x 


.28 


19 


3.8 


.62 


21 


4.2 


.72 


3K 


& 


.25 


14.5 


2.9 


.50 


16 


3.2 


.58 


3 


% 


.20^ 


12.1 


2.42 


.39 


13.3 


2.7 


.45 


2^ 



This is the strongest rope of this construction that is made, and it is 
particularly adapted for dredging and heavy hoisting. Type B is preferable to 
type A. This rope is always made Lang's lay. 

Add 10 per cent, for wire center for Type B. 



American Wire Rope 



155 



Tiller Rope or Hand Rope 



6 Strands of 42 Wires Each 252 Wires in All 7 Hemp Cores 




Diameter 
in Inches 


Circum- 
ference in 
Inches 


List Price per Foot 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or 
Sheave in 
Inches 
Advised 


Approximate Breaking 
Strength 


Iron 


Crucible 
Cast Steel 


Iron, Lbs. 


Crucible Cast 
Steel, Lbs. 


1 


3 


$0.33 


$0.43 


1.10 


24 


22,000 


35,000 


H 


2^ 


.27 


.36 


.84 


21 


15,500 


26,000 


X sx 


.22 


.30 


.62 


18 


11,000 


18,000 


X 


2 


.17 


.24 


.43 


15 


7,000 


13,500 


T 9 * 


1# 


.14 


.20 


.35 


18# 


6,300 


11,000 


# 


1# 


.11# 


.17 


.28 


12 


5,800 


9,000 




IX 


.10 .15 


.21 


10# 


4,000 


6,500 


y% i# 


.09 .14 


.16 


9 


3,000 


4,800 


i 


.08 .12^ 


.11 


1 l /2 


1,900 


3,600 


X X 


-07^ 


.11 


.07 


6 


1,300 


2,500 



The wires in this rope are very fine, and should not be subjected to 
much abrasive wear. 

It is used to a limited extent for steering lines on yachts and motor boats. 
Galvanized Crucible Cast Steel Yacht Rope, 6 strands, 19 wires to the strand, 
1 hemp core, is preferred by many for motor boats. 

Three-eighths and one-half-inch diameter Iron Tiller or Hand Rope is used 
for starting and stopping elevators. This rope is also called Elevator 
Shipper Rope. 

Tiller Rope of tinned or galvanized iron or steel is furnished if required. 
For this rope add 10 per cent to the foregoing list prices. 



156 American Steel and Wire Company 

American Non-spinning Hoisting Hope 

18 Strands Composed of 7 Wires Each 1 Hemp Core 




Side View of American Non-spinning Rope, Showing Exact Lay of 
Inside and Outside Wires 



Non-spinning Hoisting Rope is constructed as follows : First, 6 strands of 
7 wires each, Lang's lay (wires in the strands and strands themselves twisted to 
the left), are laid around a hemp core ; second, these strands are then covered 
with an outer layer composed of 12 strands, 7 wires, Regular lay (wires in the 
strands twisted to the left and strands themselves twisted to the right). 

The real object of this combination of lays is to prevent a free load sus- 
pended on the end of a single line from rotating. The spinning of a load 
endangers the lives of employees, and the constant attention required to guide 
the load in its ascent not only means extra trouble but expense as well. 

We recommend this type of rope for "back-haul " or single line derricks; 
also for shaft sinking and mine hoisting where bucket or cage swings free 
without guides. 

Non-spinning Rope works best where it does not overwind on drum. 

Either a closed socket or an open socket makes the best fastening on the 
end of Non-spinning Rope. See pages 206 and 207. 

These may be fastened in the same manner as any rope socket, but great 
care must be taken in attaching the socket to the rope to see that the strands 
do not untwist or allow any slack to work back into the rope. It is best to 
seize the end of the rope tightly for a distance of 4 or 5 inches just outside of 
the socket until the socketing is completed, when it may be taken off. When- 
ever possible, it would be advisable for customers to have us attach the socket 
at our factory to ensure the best possible results. 

This rope is made in five qualities or strengths, as follows : 

1 . Iron 

2. Crucible Cast Steel 

3. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

4. Plow Steel 

5. Monitor or Improved Plow Steel 



American Wire Rope 



157 



Non-spinning Iron Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 

18 Strands 7 Wires Each-1 Hemp Core 

Patented 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Circumference 
in Inches 


Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking 
Stress in 
Tons of 2UOO 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working Load 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or 
Sheave in Feet 
Advised 


$0.80 


1# 


5/ 2 


5.50 


45.80 


9.1 


7.00 


.65 


1# 


5 


4.90 


39.80 


7.9 


6.50 


.57 


1# 


4^ 


4.32 


34.00 


6.8 


6.00 


.49 


1/8 


4X 


3.60 


28.20 


5.6 


5.50 


.40 


IX 


4 


2.80 


23.40 


4.6 


5.00 


.33 


1* 


3/ 2 


2.34 


19.60 


3.9 


4.50 


.26 


1 


3 


1.73 


14.95 


2.9 


4.00 


.20 


# 


2^ 


1.44 


11.95 


2.3 


3.50 


.16 


X 


2X 


1.02 


8.85 


1.7 


3.00 


.12 


^ 


2 


.70 


5.90 


1.1 


2.50 


.10 


T 9 6 


1# 


.87 


4.85 


.97 


2.25 


.08^ 


y 2 


IX 


.42 


3.65 


.73 


2.00 


.07^ 


T5 


IX 


.31 


2.63 


.52 


1.75 


.07 


H 


1# 


.25 


2.10 


.42 


1.50 



This grade of rope is not used very much, but figures given are largely for 
comparative purposes. 



158 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Non-spinning Crucible Cast Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 

18 Strands 7 Wires Each 1 Hemp Core 

Patented 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Circumference 
in Inches 


Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking 
Stress in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working Load 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or 
Sheave in Feet 
Advised 


$0.90 


IX 5X 


5.50 


85.90 


17.1 


7.00 


.77 


1# 5 


4.90 


74.40 


14.8 


6.50 


.66 


1# 


4X 


4.32 


63.80 


12.7 


6.00 


.56 


1# 


4X 


3.60 


52.00 


10.4 


5.50 


.46 


IX 


4 


2.80 


43.80 


8.7 


5.00 


.38 


1# 


3^ 


2.34 


36.80 


7.3 


4.50 


.31 




3 


1.73 


28.00 


5.6 


4.00 


.24 


10 


2^ 


1.44 . 


22.50 


4.5 


3.50 


.19 


X 


2X 


1.02 


16.70 


3.3 


3.00 


.14 


H 


2 


.70 


11.10 


2.2 


2.50 


.12 


A 


1# 


.57 


9.10 


1.8 


2.25 


.11 


AS 


1# 


.42 


6.90 


1.8 


2.00 


.10 


TV 


IX 


.31 


4.90 


.98 


1.75 


.09^ 


H 


1# 


.25 


3.90 


.78 


1.50 



This rope works best when used as a single end line, as it holds a load 
perfectly still, without untwisting. It should not be loaded as heavily as ordi- 
nary hoisting rope. It is especially adapted for single end derricks, mine 
shaft sinking, etc. It should not overwind on drum. 



American Wire Rope 



159 



Non-spinning Extra Strong Crucible Cast 
Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 

18 Strands 7 Wires Each 1 Hemp Core 

Patented 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Circumference 
in Inches 


Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking 
Stress in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working Load 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or 
Sheave in Feet 
Advised 


$1.10 


1# 


5^ 


5.50 


101.00 


20.2 


7.00 


.94 


1# 


5 


4.90 


87.60 


17.5 


6.50 


.80 


IK 


4X 


4.32 


75.00 


15.0 


6.00 


.68 


w 


4X 


3.60 


62.40 


12.4 


5.50 


.56 


IX 


4 


2.80 


51,60 


10.3 


5.00 


.46 


1# 


3^ 


2.34 


43.20 


8.6 


4.50 


.37 


1 


3 


1.73 


33.00 


6.6 


4.00 


.29 


# 


2^ 


1.44 


26.50 


5.3 


3.50 


.22 


X 


2X 


1.02 


19.60 


3.9 


3.00 


.16^ 


# 


2 


.70 


13.10 


2.6 


2.50 


.14 


T 9 * 


IK 


.57 


10.70 


2.1 


2.25 


.12^ 


/2 


1# 


.42 


8.10 


1.6 


2.00 


.n/ 2 




IX 


.31 


5.80 


1.1 


1.75 


.11 


8 


1# 


.25 


4.60 


.92 


1.50 



This rope is stronger than crucible cast steel and will carry somewhat 
heavier loads. It works best when used as a single end line, as it holds 
the load perfectly still without untwisting. It should not be loaded so heavily 
as ordinary hoisting rope if best results are to be obtained. This rope is 
especially adapted for single line derricks, mine shaft sinking, etc. It should 
not overwind on drum. 



160 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Non-spinning Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 

18 Strands 7 Wires Each 1 Hemp Core 

Patented 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Circumference 
in Inches 


Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking 
Stress in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper 
Working Load 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or 
> heave in Feet 
Advised 


$1.30 


1# 


5^ 


5.50 


111.10 


22.2 


7.00 


1.08 


1% 


5 


4.90 


96.30 


19.2 


6.50 


.93 


IX 


4^r 


4.32 


82.50 


16.5 


6.00 


.79 


1# 


4X 


3.60 


68.60 


13.7 


5.50 


.65 


IX 


4 


2.80 


56.80 


11.3 


5.00 


.54 


1# 


3^ 


2.34 


47.50 


9.5 


4.50 


.43 




3 


1.73 


36.30 


7.2 


4.00 


.34 


ft 


2^ 


1.44 


31.80 


6.3 


3.50 


.26 


% 


2^ 


1.02 


24.60 


4.9 


3.00 


.19 


ft 


2 


.70 


15.75 


3.1 


2.50 


.16 


T* 


1# 


.57 


12.80 


2.5 


2.25 


.14 


* 


IK 


.42 


9.75 


1.9 


2.00 


.13 




IX 


.31 


6.85 


1.3 


1.75 


-12X 





1/8 


.25 


5.55 


1.1 


1.50 



This is a very strong rope, and capable of lifting heavy loads. It 
works best when used as a single end line, as it holds a load perfectly 
still without untwisting. It should not be loaded so heavily as ordinary 
hoisting rope if best results are to be obtained. This rope is especially 
adapted to single line derricks, mine shaft sinking, etc. It should not overwind 
on drum. 



American Wire Rope 



161 



Noii-spinniii Monitor Plow Steel Hoisting Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 

18 Strands- 7 Wires Each 1 Hemp Core 

Patented 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Circumference 
in Inches 


Weight 
per Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking 
Stress in Tons 
of 2000 Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drumor Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$1.60 


IX 


5/2 


5.50 


122.00 


24.4 


7.00 


1.10 


IX 


4X 


4.32 


90.70 


18.1 


6.00 


.90 


1/8 


4X 


3.60 


75.50 


15.1 


5.50 


.75 


IX 


4 


2.80 


62.50 


12.5 


5.00 


.62 


1# 


3^ 


2.34 


52.20 


10.4 


4.50 


.50 


1 


3 


1.73 


39.00 


7.8 


4.00 


.39 


H 


2X 


1.44 


35.00 


7.0 


3.50 


.31 


X 


2X 


1.02 


27.00 


5.4 


3.00 


.22^ 





2 


.70 


17.30 


3.4 


2.50 


.17 


% 


1# 


.42 


10.70 


2.1 


2.00 


.uy 2 


X 


1* 


.25 


6.10 


1.2 


1.50 



Where the requirements are severe we recommend Monitor Plow Steel Rope. It is the 
strongest and most efficient rope produced. 

It works best when used as a single end line, as it holds a load perfectly 
still without untwisting. It should not be loaded so heavily as ordinary hoist- 
ing rope if best results are to be obtained. This rope is especially adapted 
for single line derricks, mine shaft sinking, etc. It should not overwind 
on drum. 



162 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Steel Clad Hoisting Rope 

6 Strands 19 Wire* to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 
6 Strands 61 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Steel Clad Ropes Are made in three constructions for the purpose of 
securing different degrees of flexibility. These con- 
structions are the 6 x 19, 6 x 37 and 6 x 61 types, each of which is furnished 
in four grades : 

1. Crucible Cast Steel. 

2. Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel. 

3. Plow Steel. 

4. Monitor or Improved Plow Steel. 

The flat strips of steel which are wound spirally around each of the six 
strands composing the rope, give it additional wearing surface without sacrific- 
ing the flexibility in any way. When the outer flat steel winding is worn 
through in service, a complete hoisting rope remains, with unimpaired strength, 
the flat strip having served to protect the inner wires from all wear up to this 
point. The worn flat strips naturally crowd down between the strands of the 
rope, and in this manner they provide additional wearing surface for the rope 
where it runs over sheaves or drums. 

These ropes are designed to meet very severe conditions of service. The 
increased life obtained by the use of steel clad rope easily offsets any increased 
first cost. In many places where conditions are suitable, additional service 
of from 50 to 100 per cent is frequently obtained. 



American Wire Rope 



163 



Steel Clad Hoisting Rope 

Crucible Cast Steel 
6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
Inches 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2-000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


#1.56 


2X 


2 


8.45 


106 


21.2 


8 


1.29 


2 1% 


6.70 


96 


19.2 


7.5 


1.16 


1% 1% 


6.02 


85 


17.0 


7 


1.01 




5.25 


72 


14.4 


6.5 


.89 


Ift I l /2 


4.62 


64 


12.8 


6 


.78 


I l /2 I ft 


3.95 


56 


11.2 


5.5 


.67 


IH 1% 


3.30 


47 


9.4 


5 


.57 


1% 1/-6 


2.80 


38 


7.6 


4.5 


.49 


iyi i 


2.12 


30 


6.0 


4 


.41 


1 7/X 


1.72 


23 


4.6 


3.5 


.36 


7 /s 


H 


1.30 


17.5 


3.5 


3 


.30 


% 


H 


1.00 


12.5 


2.5 


2.5 


.26 


H 




.70 


8.4 


1.68 2 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
Its use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



164 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Steel Clad Hoisting Rope 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 



6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
In< ics 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$1.74 


2X 


2 


8.45 


123 


24.6 


8 


1.52 


2 4 


1% 


6.70 


112 


22.4 


7.5 


1.36 


1^5 


13/ 


6.02 


99 


19.8 


7 


1.18 


I 3 / 15^ 


5.25 


83 


16.6 


6.5 


1.03 


IX !X 


4.62 


73 


14.6 


6 


.90 


IX 


IX 


3.95 


64 


12.8 


5.5 


.77 




IX 


3.30 


53 


10.6 


5 


.65 


IX 


1^ 


2.80 


43 


8.6 


4.5 


.55 




1 


2.12 


34 


6.80 


4 


.46 


1 


ft 


1.72 


26 


5.20 


3.5 


.39 


X 




1.30 


20.2 


4.04 


3 


.32 


K 


H 


1.00 


14 


2.80 


2.5 


.27 


* 




.70 


9.2 


1.84 


2 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
Its use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



American Wire Rope 



165 



Steel Clad Hoisting Rope 

Plow Steel 

Strands 19 Wires to the Strand I Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
Inches 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


#1.98 


oy 


2 


8.45 


140 


28 


s 


1.73 


2 4 17/ S 


6.70 


127 


25 


7.5 


1.56 


17/ S 13^ 


6.02 


112 


22 


7 


1.32 


IV 15^ 


5.25 


94 


19 


6.5 


1.16 


1^ 1^ 


4.62 


82 


16 


6 


1.01 


iy 2 iy g 


3.95 


72 


14 


5.5 


.86 


1H *X 


3.30 


58 


12 


5 


.73 


IX 1^ 


2.80 47 


9.4 


4.5 


.61 




1 


2.12 


38 


7.6 


4 


.51 


1 


% 


1.72 


29 


5.8 


3.5 


.43 


^ 


X 


1.30 


23 


4.6 


3 


.35 


X 


^ 


1.00 


15.5 3.1 


2.5 


.29 


* 


y* 


.70 


10 


2.0 


2 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
Its use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



166 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Steel Clad Hoisting Rope 

Monitor Plow Steel 
6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
Inches 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised ' 


$2.25 


2X 


2 


8.45 


166 


33 


8 


2.02 


2 


1# 


6.70 


150 


30 


7.5 


1.86 


IH 


Itf 


6.02 


133 


27 


7 


1.54 


i* 


1# 


5.25 


110 


22 


6.5 


1.33 


i# 


1# 


4.62 


98 


20 


6 


1.12 


i# 


1# 


3.95 


84 


17 


5.5 


.96 


iH 


IX 


3.30 


69 


14 


5 


.81 


IX 


Itf 


2.80 


56 


11 


4.5 


.68 


1# 




2.12 


45 


9 


4 


.56 


1 


# 


1.72 


35 


7 


3.5 


.48 


J/ 8 


X 


1.30 


26.3 


5.3 


3 


.38 


% 


# 


1.00 


19 


3.8 


2.5 


.32 # 





.70 


12.1 


2.4 


2 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
Its use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



American Wire Rope 



167 



Steel Clad, Special Flexible Hoisting Rope 

Crucible Cast Steel 

6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
Inches 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


#2.52 


2% 


2^ 


12.05 


160 


32 


8 


2.10 


2/ 2 


2X 


9.90 


125 


25 


7 


1.75 


2)4 


2 


8.00 


105 


21 


6 


1.47 


2 


IH 


6.60 


94 


18.8 


5.25 


1.31 


IH 


IK 


5.90 


84 


17 


4.75 


1.13 


IK 


i 


4.90 


71 


14 


4.25 


1.02 


i# 


IK 


4.30 


63 


12 


3.75 


.87 


i# 


1/8 


3.75 


55 


11 


3.5 


.76 


i# 


IX 


3.05 


45 


9 


3.2 


.65 


IX 


1# 


2.40 


34 


7 


2.83 


.55 


i# 


1 


2.00 


29 


6 


2.5 


.45 


i 


# 


1.75 


23 


5 


2.16 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
It's use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



168 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Steel Clad, Special Flexible Hoisting Rope 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


_ Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
Inches 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in . 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


#2.95 


2X 


2^ 


12.05 


187 


37 


8 


2.40 


2 y& 


2X 


9.90 


150 


30 


7 


1.95 


2% 


2 


8.00 


117 


23 


6 


1.68 


2 


1# 


6.60 


106 


21.2 


5.25 


1.54 


Iff 


1% 


5.90 


95 


19 


4.75 


1.31 


IK 


1 5^ 


4.90 


79 


16 


4.25 


1.18 


\y^ 


\y 


4.30 


71 


14 


3.75 


1.00 


ll A 


1/8 


3.75 


61 


12 


3.5 


.86 


1/8 


IX 


3.05 


50 


10 


3.2 


.74 


1 X 


1 i^ 


2.40 


39 


8 


2.83 


.62 


ly^ 


1 


2.00 


32 


6.4 


2.5 


.51 


1 


* 


1.75 


25 


5 


2.16 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
Its use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



American Wire Rope 



169 



Steel Clad, Special Flexible Hoisting Rope 

Plow Steel 

6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
Inches 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$3.35 


2X 


2 y 2 


12.05 


214 


43 


8 


2.70 


2 Vz 


2X 


9.90 


175 


35 


7 


2.20 


2X 


2 


8.00 


130 


26 


6 


1.92 


2 


1^ 


6.60 


119 


23.8 


5.25 


1.76 


1# 


!K 


5.90 


108 


22 


4.75 


1.49 


IX 


1^ 


4.90 


90 


18 


4.25 


1.33 


1^ 


l/^ 


4.30 


80 


16 


3.75 


1.13 


1# 


1^1 


3.75 


68 


14 


3.5 


.96 


IN 


!X 


3.05 


55 


11 


3.2 


.83 


IX 


\y % 


2.40 


44 


9 


2.83 


.69 


1/^5 


I 


2.00 


35 


7 


2.5 


.57 


1 


?/ * 


1.75 


27 


5 


2.16 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
Its use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



170 



American Steel and \V^ire Company 



Steel Clad, Special Flexible Hoisting Rope 

Monitor Plow Steel 
6 Strands -37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
Inches 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$3.75 


2# 


2X 


12.05 


225 


45 


8 


3.00 


2/^ 


2X 


9.90 


184 


37 


7 


2.50 


2.// 


2 


8.00 


137 


27 


6 


2.19 


2 


1# 


6.60 


125 


25 


5.25 


2.01 


1# 


1# 


5.90 


113 


23 


4.75 


1.69 


IV 


1 $A 


4.90 


95 


19 


4.25 


1.48 


1^ 


\y 


4.30 


84 


17 


3.75 


1.27 


1^ 


IH 


3.75 


71 


14 


3.5 


1.07 


1/8 


i# 


3.05 


58 


11 


3.2 


.94 




i/^ 


2.40 


46 


9.2 


2.83 


.77 


l^J 


i 


2.00 


37 


7.4 


2.5 


.63 


1 


# 


1.75 


29 


5.8 


2.16 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
Its use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



American Wire Rope 



171 



Steel Clad, Extra Special Flexible Hoisting Rope 

6 Strands -61 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Crucible Cast Steel 



List Price 
per Foot 


Finished 
Diameter over 
Serving in 
Inches 


Diameter of 
Bare Rope in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot in 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Diameter of 
Drum or Sheave 
in Feet 
Advised 


$3.90 

3.23 
2.71 
2.26 

1.88 


S* 
3 

2X 


3 

2^ 
2^ 
2X 
2 


16.80 
14.35 
12.05 
9.90 

8.45 


240 
200 
160 
125 
105 


48 
40 
32 
25 
21 


10 
9 
8 

7 
6 



Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 



#4.55 
3.78 
3.18 
2.59 
2.10 


3 4 
P 


3 

2% 
2^ 

2 4 


16.80 
14.35 
12.05 
9.90 
8.45 


275 
233 
187 
150 
117 


55 
47 
37 
30 
23 


10 
9 
8 

7 
6 


Plow Steel 


#5.10 
4.33 
3.62 
2.92 

2.38 


3 4 


3 
2# 

2# 

2 


16.80 
14.35 
12.05 
9.90 
8.45 


310 
265 
214 
175 
130 


62 
53 
43 
35 

26 


10 
9 

8 
7 
6 


Monitor Plow Steel 


#5.70 
4.82 
4.06 
3.25 
2.71 


3 4 

!# 


3 

2 4 


16.80 
14.35 
12.05 
9.90 
8.45 


325 
278 
225 
184 
137 


65 
55 
45 
37 
27 


10 
9 

8 
7 
6 



Add 10 per cent to above list prices for wire center. 

Ropes of this construction may be used for unusually severe conditions 
of rope service where the additional wearing surface due to the flat strips 
spirally served, materially increases the durability of the rope thus employed. 
Its use is recommended particularly for dredging and similar difficult conditions 
of rope usage. 



172 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Galvanized Wire Rope 

This rope is extra galvanized by our special process, which ensures adhe- 
sion of the zinc to the metal. The galvanizing does not crack, chip nor flake. 
Used where exposure to the weather, constant or periodical moisture, etc., 
are among the conditions that would tend to corrode a rope not protected 
in this way. 

Ship's Rigging or Guy Rope 




Usually made of 6 strands, 7 wires to the strand, 1 hemp core. Large 
sizes are sometimes constructed of 6 strands, 12 wires to the strand, 1 hemp 
core. Both constructions may be had in Iron, Crucible Cast Steel and Plow 
Steel grades, extra galvanized. Galvanized Iron Rope is used for ship's 
rigging, guys for derricks, smokestacks, etc. 



Yacht Rigging or Guy Rope 




Made of 6 strands, 7 wires to the strand, for yacht or ship's standing 
rigging and derrick guys, and of 6 strands, 19 wires to the strand, 1 hemp 
core, for running rigging and mooring lines. 

Our Galvanized Crucible Cast Steel Yacht Rope, 6 strands, 7 wires to the 
strand, 1 hemp core, because of its light weight, strength and durability, is 






American Wire Rope 



173 



now most generally employed for yacht or ship's standing rigging, and for 
derrick guys. When greater strength is required, we offer Galvanized Plow 
Steel Rope of 6 strands, 7 wires to the strand, 1 hemp core. 

Flexible Galvanized Crucible Cast Steel Yacht Rope, 6 strands, 19 wires 
to the strand, 1 hemp core, is used for mooring and messenger or warping 
lines on ocean and lake steamships, steering or tiller rope on motor boats, 
and for straight-hauls 'and backstays on yachts. See Galvanized Motor Boat 
Cord, page 183. 

4 

Running Rope 




Made of 6 strands, 12 wires to the strand, 7 hemp cores, in Iron and Cru- 
cible Cast Steel grades, extra galvanized. Designed for running rigging service 
where great flexibility is required and exposure to moisture is frequent. This 
construction, however, has much less strength than Galvanized Crucible Cast 
Steel Yacht Rope, 6 strands, 19 wires to the strand, 1 hemp core. 



Hawsers and Mooring Lines 




Made of 6 strands, 12 or 24 wires to the strand, 7 hemp cores, in Crucible 
Cast Steel quality, extra galvanized. These lines, with a hemp core in each 
strand as well as in the center of the rope, are commonly called " English 
Hawsers or Mooring Lines," and are used chiefly on foreign ships and 
steamers. 



174 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Galvanized Steel Deep Sea Towing Hawsers 




The construction is 6 strands, 37 wires to the strand, 1 hemp core. 
These hawsers are used in connection with automatic steam towing machines 
for sea, river and lake towing, where the greatest strength, flexibility and dura- 
bility are demanded. More than 50 per cent of the wires in the strands are 
on the inside, so that the outside layer of wires may be considerably worn 
before the strength of the inside wires become impaired. Our towing hawsers 
have been tested under the most severe conditions of service. It is not prac- 
ticable to coil wire hawsers like manila hawsers ; wire hawsers should be 
wound onto deck reels especially designed for the purpose. See page 118. 



American Wire Rope 



175 



Galvanized Iron Ship's Rigging or Guy Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 7 or 1 2 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price per Foot 


Diameter in 
Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Circumference 
of Manila 
Rope of Equal 
Strength 


7 Wires per 
Strand 


12 Wires per 
Strand 


$0.44 


$0.46 


IX 


5/2 


4.85 


42 


11 


.41 


.43 


144 


5X 


4.42 


38 


10^ 


.38 


.40 


1H 


5 


4.15 


35 


10 


.35 


.37 




4X 


3.55 


30 


9X 


.31# 


.33^ 


IT* 


4^ 


3.24 


28 


9 


.28^ 


.30^ 


1H 


4X 


3 


26 


8^ 


.25 


.26^ 


IX 


4 


2.45 


23 


8 


.22^ 


.24 1A 


3X 


2.21 19 


7^ 


19/^ 


.21 


l/^ 


3/^ 


2 18 


6/^ 


.17^ 


.18^ 


1 T V 


3X 


1.77 16.1 


6 


.15 


.16 


1 


3 


1.58 14.1 


5X 


.13 




H 


2# 1.20 11.1 


5X 


.11 


. 


it 


2^ 1.03 9.4 


5 


.09 


. 


X 


2X 


.89 7.8 


4X 


.08 





# 


2 


.62 5.7 




.07 




9 


IX 


.50 4.46 


3X 


.06 




% 




.39 3.39 


3 


.05 




7 


IX 


.30 2.35 


2^4 


.04^ 




H 




.22 1.95 


2X 


.03K 




T 5 * 


1 


.15 1.42 


2 


5 Strands 












.03 




-3 9 


H 


.125 1.20 


IX 


02 X 




X 


X 


.09 .99 


IX 


02X 


. 


A 




.063 


.79 


IX 


.02 




A 


1/2 


.04 


.61 





176 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Galvanized Crucible Cast Steel Yacht Rigging 
or Guy Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 7 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




Flexible Galvanized Crucible Cast Steel Yacht Rope 

6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price per Foot 


Diameter in 
Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Circumference 
of Manila 
Rope of Equal 
Strength 


Guy Rope 

7 Wires per 
Strand 


Flexible 
Yacht Rope 
19 Wires per 
Strand 


$0.47 


$0.50 


IX 


4 


2.45 


42 


13 


.44 


.46 1 T \ 


3X 


2.21 


38 


12 


.39^ 


.41# \Y% 


3/^ 


2 


34 


11 


.35 


.38 1 T V 


3X 


1.77 


31 


10 


31X 


.34 1 


3 


1.58 


28 


9 


.24^ 


.26X H 


2X 


1.20 


22 


8/2 


.22 


.23^ if 


2^ 


1.03 


19 


8 


18 l/ 2. 


.2034- & 


2X 


.89 


16.8 


7 


!i3 x 


15X 


g 


2 


.62 


11.7 


6 


.11 


.13 


T? 


IX 


.50 


9 


5X 


.08M 


.12 


i/ 2 


IK 


.39 


7 


4X 


.08 


.11 J^ 


15 


\y% 


.34 


6 


4 /4 


.07 


ill 


rV 


IX 


.30 


5 


4X 


.06 


.iox 


H 




.22 


4.2 


3X 


04X 


.10 


A 


i 


.15 


3.2 


3 



In ordering, specify exact construction desired. 



American Wire Rope 



177 



Galvanized Iron and Crucible Cast Steel 
Running Rope 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 12 Wires to the Strand 7 Hemp Cores 




List Price per Foot 






Approximate 


Approximate Strength in 
Tons of 2000 Pounds 




Diameter in 


Circumference 


Weight per 








Inches 


in Inches 


Foot 






Iron 


Crucible Cast 
Steel 






in Pounds 


Iron 


Cast Steel 


$0.22 


$0.30 


lyV 


3X 


1.18 


10.1 


22.5 


.20 


.27 


1 T * 


3 4 


1.05 


8.7 


19.5 


.17 


.23 


y% 


%H 


.80 


6.9 


15.5 


.14^ 


.20 


it 


2>^ 


.68 


6 


13.5 


.12 


.16^ 


H 


2X 


.59 


5.1 


11.5 


.10 


.14 


H 


2 


.42 


3.6 


8 


.08 


.11 


TS 


1% .33 


2.8 


6.5 


.07 


.09 







.26 


2.2 


5 


.06^ 


.08^ & 


ix 


.20 


1.7 


3.9 


.06 


07^ ^ 


1# .14 


1.8 


2.85 


.05^ 


^07 


1 


.10 


.82 


1.98 



In ordering, specify whether Iron or Crucible Cast Steel quality is 
desired. 



178 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Galvanized Steel Hawsers and Mooring Lines 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands -12 Wires to the Strand 7 Hemp Cores 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Size of Manila 
Hawsers of 
Equal Strength 
Circumference 


$0.78 


2& 


W 


4.43 


83 




.72 


2 


6X 


4.20 


77 




.67 


HI 


6 


3.89 


71 




.62 


HI 


5^ 


3.42 


66 




.57 


i5 


5^ 


3.23 


61 


13.5 


.53 


!H 


5^: 


2.94 57 


13 


.49 


1^6 


5 


2.76 


53 


12.5 


.44 


1# 


4K 


2.36 


45 


12 


.41 




4^ 2.16 


41 


11.5 


.38 


iH 


4X ^ 


38 


11 


.35 


IX 


4 


1.63 


31 


10 


.33 




3^ 


1.47 


28 


9.25 


.31 


ill 


3X 


1.33 


26 


8.75 



For smaller sizes, see Galvanized Running Rope 6 strands, 12 wires to the 
strand, 7 hemp cores. 



American Wire Rope 



179 



Galvanized Steel Hawsers and Mooring Lines 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands-24 Wires to the Strand 7 Hemp Cores 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per 
Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in 
Tons of 2000 
Pounds 


Size of Manila 
Hawsers of 
Equal Strength 
Circumference 


$1.22 


2i 


6/>2 


5.81' 


113 




1.14 


2 T * 


6^ 


5.51 


106 




1.06 


Hf 


6 


5.09 


98 




1.00 


IT! 


5^ 


4.48 


88 




.93 


IK 


5^ 


4.24 


82 




.86 


iH 


5# 


3.86 


76 




80 


1&$ 


5 


3.63 


74 




.73 


\v 




3.10 


63 


13.5 


.67 
.62 


\i 


4K 


2.92 
2.62 


55 

50 


13.0 
12.0 


.57 
.51 


IX 


4 


2.15 
1.93 


42 
38 


12.0 
11.0 


.45 


ill 


gi/ 


1.75 


34 


10.25 


.40 
.35 


I* 


3X 


1.54 
1.38 


27 
25 


9.25 

8.75 


.29 


% 


2|/ 


1.05 


20 




.25 


13 


2/^i 


.90 


17 




.22 


* 


3X 


.78 


14 





180 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Galvanized Steel Deep Sea Towing Hawsers 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
6 Strands 37 Wires to the Strand 1 Hemp Core 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in Tons 
of 2000 Pounds 


$1.60 


2^ 


ll/2 


8.82 


188 


1.52 


2JL 


75? 


8.36 


182 


1.44 


2X 


7^g 


8 


171 


1.35 


2/^ 


6^ 


7.06 


155 


1.28 


3 yV 


6^ 


6.65 


140 


1.20 


2 


6X 


6.30 


132 


1.12 


lyf 


6 


5.84 


125 


1.05 


113 


5|^ 


5.13 


112 


.98 


1^ 


5X 


4.85 


104 


.91 


1H 


5X 


4.42 


97 


.84 


i# 


5 


4.15 


87 


.77 


i^ 


4X 


3.55 


76 


.71 


i 7 


4^ 


3.24 


72 


.65 


i^i 


4X 


3 


66 


.60 


IX 


4 


2.45 


54 


.54 


l* 


3X 


2.21 


47 


.48 


1/^5 


35^ 


2 


42 


.42 


lyV 


3X 


1.77 


38 


2(7 


1 


3 


1.58 


31.5 


isi 


# 


2^ 


1.20 


26 


.26 


if 


2^ 


1.03 


22 


.23 




2X 


.89 


20 



This rope is only furnished galvanized. 



American Wire Rope 



181 



Galvanized Steel Cables for Suspension Bridges 

Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 
Composed of 6 Strands, with Wire Center 




Price per 
Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Circumference 
in Inches 


Weight per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking Stress 
in Tons of 2000 
Pounds 
Plow Steel 




2^ 


8^ 


12.7 


310 


f 


2# 


8X 


11.6 


283 


f 


2^ 


7^ 


10.5 


256 


> 


2^8 


7^ 


9.50 


232 





2X 


7>^ 


8.52 


208 




2M 


6^ 


7.60 


185 


, 


2 


6X 


6.73 


164 


t 


IH 


5^ 


5.90 


144 


t 


IX 


5/ 2 


5.10 


124 




i# 


5 


4.34 


106 


. 


i# 


4X 


3.70 


90 


m 


itf 


4X 


3.10 


75 





IX 


4 


2.57 


62 



We do not build or erect suspension bridges, but are prepared to supply 
cables fitted with special bridge sockets ready for attaching to anchorage bolts. 
Further particulars and prices furnished upon application. 



182 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Sash Cord 



6 Strands 7 Wires to the Strand 1 Cotton Core 




Trade 


List Price per Foot 




Weight per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate Breaking Stress 
in Pounds 


Number 








in Inches 














Annealed 
or Bright 


Galvan- 
ized Iron 


Copper 




Iron 


Copper 


Bright 
Iron 


Annealed 
Iron 


Bright 
Copper 


26 


$0.03 


$0.04 


$0.09 


X 


.101 


.115 


2200 


1650 


1320 


27 


.02^ 


.03X 


.07^ 


A 


.077 


.087 


1800 


1411 


1080 


27^ 


.02X 


.03 


.06 


A 


.056 


.064 


1400 


1100 


840 


28 


.01% 


.02X 


M/2 


tf 


.025 


.029 


550 


425 


350 


28^ 


.01^ 


.02 


.03^ 


A 


.014 


.016 


320 


250 


200 


29 


.01* 


.01* 


.03 


TV 


.006 


.007 


140 


110 


90 



Sash cord will be made " dead soft " unless specifically ordered to the con- 
trary. Used principally for window weights, bell cords, automobile brakes and 
whistles. Three thirty-seconds inch diameter Galvanized Sash Cord is used 
on electric open-car curtain fixtures. One-sixteenth inch Galvanized Sash 
Cord is used on steam car curtain fixtures. 



American Wire Rope 



183 



Galvanized High Strength Aeroplane Strand 




Net Prices per 
100 Feet 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Number of 
Wires 


Weight per 1000 Feet 
in Pounds 


Breaking Strength 
in Pounds 


$3.75 


!T 


19 


51.0 


3000 


2.50 >| 


19 


33.0 


2000 


1.75 


& 


19 


17.0 


1100 


1.50 


A 


19 


8.9 


500 


.75 




7 


23 


125 



Put up in coils 50, 100, 500, 1000 feet each ; or on 5000 or 10,000 feet 
reels. 

For reliable strength, light weight, flexibility, toughness and elasticity, 
this Galvanized High Strength Aeroplane Strand is unrivaled. This may be 
readily fastened and resists sudden strains and vibration better than a single 
stay wire. The sizes most commonly used are ^-inch and ^-inch diameter. 
The smaller sizes, however, are employed for light stays on the elevating and 
rudder frames. Approximately 600 feet of strand is required to properly guy 
a biplane, and about 250 feet for a monoplane. 



Galvanized or Tinned Flexible Aeroplane or 
Motor Boat Cord 




Net Prices per 
100 Feet 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Construction 


Weight per 1000 Feet 
in Pounds 


Breaking Strength 
in Pounds 


$5.75 


' 


19x7 


55.2 


2600 


5.00 




19x7 


38.5 


1800 


4.50 




19x3 


24.5 


1150 


4.00 


& 


12x3 


15.5 


725 



Designed to meet the demand for a light weight, flexible steel cord, with 
a minimum amount of stretch, to connect the control levers or wheel with the 
flexible wing tips, ailerons, elevating planes and rudder on an aeroplane, or 
for small motor boat steering cord. 



184 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Galvanized Mast-arm or Arc Light Hope 



Standard Strengths, Adopted May 1, 1910 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Weight per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking Stress 
in Pounds 


Construction 


$0.07 


Y2 


.335 


4700 


9x7 


.06 


T 7 fi 


.245 


3400 


9x7 


.05 


H 


.163 


2200 


9x7 


.03^ 


fV 


.107 


1530 


9x4 


.02X 


X 


.077 


1125 


9x4 



Used for arc lights, mast-arms or other purposes where exposed to moisture. 
This rope is more durable than manila rope and does not shrink. 



Stone Sawing Strand 



3 Wires Twisted Together 




List Price 
per 1000 Feet 


Approximate Diameter 
in Inches 


Approximate Gage 
of Wire 


Approximate Weight 
per 1000 Feet 


$13.50 


.210 


12 


100 


11.50 


.184 


13 


70 


9.50 


.160 


14 


50 


8.00 


.144 


15 


45 


6.75 


.126 


16 


35 



This is suitable for sawing blocks of sandstone or similar soft stone but 
should not be used for marble or granite. 



American Wire Rope 



is: 



Galvanized Strand 



7 Steel Wires Twisted into a Single Strand 




Standard Steel Strand 
Galvanized or Extra Galvanized 



Diameter in Inches 


Seizing Strand 
Trade Number 


Approximate 
Weight per 1000 Feet 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Strength in Pounds 


List Prices per 
100 Feet 


H 




800 


14000 


$7.25 


t - 




650 
510 


11000 
8500 


5.75 
4.50 






415 


6500 


3.75 


H 


.- 


295 


5000 


2.75 


6 




210 


3800 


2.25 


X 




125 


2300 


1.75 


F? 




95 


1800 


1.50 


T 3 ff 




75 


1400 


1.25 


fs 




55 


900 


1.15 


9 


18 


40 


700 


1.10 


% 


19 


32 


500 


1.00 


& 


20 


25 


450 


.90 


A. 


21 
22 


20 
13 


400 
300 


.80 
.70 



This strand is used chiefly for guying poles and smokestacks, for sup- 
porting trolley, wire, and for operating railroad signals. For overhead 
catenary construction of suspending trolley wire, the special grades of 
strand are considered preferable because they possess greater strength and 
toughness. 

The last five sizes listed are sometimes called Galvanized Seizing Strand, 
used for seizing or binding the ends of wire rope and thimble splices, and 
for tying rope into coils. 



186 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Extra Galvanized Special Strand 

7 Steel Wires Twisted into a Single Strand 




We manufacture three qualities of special grades of Extra Galvanized 
Strand that should meet all requirements for durability, strength, toughness 
and light weight. 

Extra Galvanized Siemens-Martin Strand. 

Extra Galvanized High Strength (Crucible Steel) Strand. 

Extra Galvanized Extra High Strength (Plow Steel) Strand. 

All three qualities are composed of 7 wires, having the heaviest coating 
of galvanizing that will ensure the longest life. 

Extra Galvanized Siemens-Martin Strand 



Diameter 
in Inches 


Tensile 
Strength in 
Pounds 


List Price 
per 100 Feet 


Minimum 
Elongation 
Per Cent 
in 10 Inches 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Tensile 
Strength in 
Pounds 


List Price 
per 100 Feet 


Minimum 
Elongation 
Per Cent 
in 10 Inches 


# 


19,000 


$4.35 


10 


X 


3,060 


$1.00 


10 


X 


11,000 


2.80 


10 


T 3 * 


2,000 


.85 


10 


T 7 * 


9,000 


2.30 


10 


X 


900 


.55 


10 


^8 


6,800 


1.80 


10 










& 


4,860 


1.48 


10 










A 


4,380 


1.10 


10 











Extra Galvanized High Strength Strand 



# 


25,000 


$6.25 


6 


9 

? 


7,300 


$1.75 


6 


% 


18,000 


3.95 


6 


l /4 


5,100 


1.50 


6 


7 
iff 


15,000 


3.45 


6 


A 


3,300 


1.30 


6 


H 


11,500 


2.70 


6 


H 


1,500 


.80 


6 


A 


8,100 


2.10 


6 











Extra Galvanized Extra High Strength Strand 



X 


42,500 


$8.75 


4 


9 


10,900 


$2.10 


4 


y z 


27,000 


5.50 


4 


X 


7,600 


1.90 


4 


7 


22,500 


4.60 


4 


3 

TIT 


4,900 


1.60 


4 


H 


17,250 


3.55 


4 


H 


2,250 


1.05 


4 


A 


12,100 


2.70 


4 











When either intermediate sizes or strengths are called for, if they are exactly midway 
between two sizes provided for, the average price of the two sizes shall apply : otherwise 
the price of the nearest size and strength shall apply. 

\ 



American Wire Rope 187 



The use of special grades of Extra Galvanized Strand is constantly in- 
creasing. The principal uses to which these special grades of strands are 
particularly adapted are as follows : 

Guy Strand Extra Galvanized Siemens-Martin Strand is now frequently used 
because of its strength and uniform quality, to guy electric 
railway, telegraph and telephone poles. 

Messenger Strand The heavy lead encased telephone wire cables are not in 
themselves sufficiently strong, without an unusual deflec- 
tion, to safely withstand the strain incident to stringing those cables between 
poles at considerable distances apart. It is a common practice now to stretch 
from pole to pole with very little sag y^-inch diameter Extra Galvanized 
Siemens-Martin Strand, ^-inch diameter or T 7 g-inch diameter Extra Galvanized 
High Strength Strand, and from this "messenger strand," so called, the heavy 
telephone cable is suspended by means of clips, wire or cord at short intervals. 
The messenger strand thus sustains most of the stress due to weight of cable, 
wind, or ice load. We have mentioned the sizes and qualities now generally 
employed by the largest telephone companies. The Extra Galvanized, Extra 
High Strength Strand, while affording the greatest strength for its weight, is 
naturally stiff and springy and difficult to fasten. The common galvanized 
strand should never be used for messenger lines as it does not possess the 
requisite strength and uniform toughness of the special grades of strand. 

Catenary Method of In the ordinary electric railway overhead con- 
Supporting Trolley Wire struction, the copper trolley wire dips and sags 

between the supporting points, which are oppo- 
site poles and from 100 to 125 feet apart. The catenary method of carrying 
the trolley wire consists of one or more messenger strands stretched over the 
center of the tracks. Every few feet along this messenger strand are pendant 
hangers that clamp on to the trolley wire and retain it in a rigid, straight, 
horizontal line, an especially desirable feature for the operating of electric cars 
at high speed. The catenary construction also makes it possible to space 
the poles at greater distances apart, but this necessarily causes great tension 
on the messenger strand and poles. The common galvanized strand is not 
suitable for this work. The selection of the best size and quality of strand 
depends upon the length of spans, the deflection of the messenger strand, and 
the weight of the trolley wire. In general, however, for a single messenger 
strand carrying a 4/0 copper trolley wire, we would recommend the following: 

For spans 125 to 150 feet, ^6-inch or T 7 ^-inch diameter Extra Galvanized 
Siemens-Martin Strand. 

For longer spans up to 225 feet, ^-inch or ^-inch Extra Galvanized 
High Strength Strand. 



188 



American Steel and Wire Company 



These two qualities have been found the best for catenary work. 

The messenger strand and trolley wire may be made to follow track 
curves by increasing the number of poles at the curve, but this is obviated by 
attaching to the hangers near the center of the spans what are known as 
" pull-off " strands. Our J^-inch or ^-inch diameter Extra Galvanized Siemens- 
Martin Strand is usually employed for this purpose. 

For reasons already explained, the poles should be well guyed, especially 
at the curves, with ^-inch or T ?-,-inch diameter extra galvanized Siemens- 
Martin strand. 



Lightning Arrester for In erecting the high tension current transmission 
Transmission Lines lines, which consist of bare copper cables strung on 

tall steel towers, it is customary to stretch between 

the highest points of the towers a 24 -inch diameter Extra Galvanized Siemens- 
Martin Strand, known as an "overhead ground strand." The purpose of this 
is to arrest lightning and convey it safely to the ground. The Extra Galvanized 
Siemens-Martin Strand is employed almost exclusively because it possesses 
greater conductivity than the other grades of high strength strarib. 



Long Spans in High Tension 
Current Transmission Line 



Long spans cannot be made with copper 
cables, because copper has a strength of 
only 65,000 pounds per square inch. Where 

it is necessary to cross rivers, lakes or bays with power transmission lines, 
the current is conducted through an Extra Galvanized Siemens-Martin Strand 
or an Extra Galvanized High Strength (crucible- steel) Strand of the size and 
strength that will show a safety factor of at least five. 



Properties of Special Cirades Kxtra Galvanized 
Special Strands 



Diameter of 
Strand 


Number of 
Wires 


Strength 
S. M. Strand 


Strength 
Crucible Strand 


Strength 
Plow Strand 


Approximate 
Weight per Foot 


in Inches 


in Strand 


in Tons 


in Tons 


in Tons 


in Pounds 


1# 


61 


55 


91.5 


121 


4.75 


1/8 


61 


45.5 


76 


100 


3.95 


IX 


37 


38 


63.5 


85 


3.30 


i# 


37 


32.5 


54 


72 


2.62 


1 


37 


25.5 


43.7 


60 


2.25 


H 


19 


19 


32 


45 


1.70 


X 


19 


14.2 


23.7 


35 


1.25 


H 


19 


10 


16.5 


23.5 


.81 



American Wire Rope 



IS!) 



Track Cable for Aerial Tramways 




19 
Wires 



37 
Wires 



61 
Wires 



91 
Wires 



Crucible Steel 



Plow Steel 



i nameier -> uinuer 

in of Wires in 
Inches Strand 


vv eigm 
per 100 Feet 
in Pounds 


List Prices 
per 
100 Feet 


Breaking Stress 
in Tons of 
2UOO Pounds 


List Prices 
100 Feet 


Breaking Stress 
in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


2X 


91 


1310 


$176.00 


285.00 


$246.50 


335.00 


2X ' 


91 


1036 


137.50 


233.00 


192.50 


266.00 


2}| 


91 


935 


123.25 


204.00 


172.50 


240.00 


2 


61 


840 


115.50 


185.00 


161.75 


218.00 


1ft 


61 


728 


101.50 


161.00 142.00 


189.00 


IX 


61 


659 


87.75 


145.80 122.75 


171.00 


i# 


61 


563 76.00 


124.00 106.50 


146.00 


1% 


37 


488 68.00 


108.40 95.25 


127.50 


i# 


37 


401 53.00 


88.80 74.25 


105.00 


IX 


37 


323 44.25 


71.80 62.00 


84.60 


1% 


37 


270 38.25 


60.00 53.50 


70.70 


1 


19 


220 31.25 


49.20 43.75 


58.00 


# 


19 


169 24.75 


37.60 34.75 


44.40 


% 


19 


124 19.00 


27.60 26.50 


32.50 


H 


19 


86 14.75 


19.20 


20.75 


22.30 



The importance of the wire rope tramway for transporting all kinds of 
material makes it expedient to insert the foregoing table of two different 
grades of track strand. This strand is designed to give as much flexibility 
as possible as well as a fairly smooth surface for traveler wheels to run upon. 
The plow steel quality affords the greatest strength with the least weight a 
very important advantage, especially in long spans. For end fastenings, see 
page 208. 



190 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Locked Coil Track Cable 

Crucible Cast Steel 





List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter in 
Inches 


Approximate Approximate Approximate 
Circumference in Weight per Foot in Breaking Stress in 
Inches Pounds Tons of 2000 Pounds 


11.17 


1# 


5^ 


6.30 


103 


1.00 


1% 


4# 


5.30 


89 


.85 


1# 


*# 


4.40 


75 


.72 


IX 


4 


3.70 


62 


.60 


IX 


3^ 


3.00 


50 


.49 


1 




2.35 


40 


.37 


7 /s 


2# 


1.80 


30 



Locked Coil Track Cable, illustrated above, is a modification of the Locked 
Wire Cable shown on the following page, and differs from it simply in the 
fewer number of wires composing it. These wires, consequently, are of larger 
diameter. Hence, the Locked Coil Track Cable is the stiffer of the two kinds, 
but it possesses sufficient flexibility to allow it to be shipped in coils from o 
feet to 6 feet in diameter. Locked Coil Track Cable is used expressly as a 
stationary overhead cable for aerial tramways. For such purposes it is 
superior in durability to any other construction and is used for the Bleichert 
Aerial Tramways, manufactured by us. If a cheaper track cable than the 
Locked Coil type is desired, the smooth coil cable shown on the preceding 
page may be used, but it is not as durable and its external surface is not as 
smooth for the carriage wheels that run upon it. 



American Wire Rope 



191 



Locked Wire Cable 

Crucible Cast Steel 




List Price 
per Foot 


Diameter 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Circumference 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight per Foot 
in Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking Stress in 
Tons of 2000 Pounds 


$3.00 


2K 


7% 


15.60 


240 


2.20 


2X 


7^ 


12.50 


190 


1.75 


2 


6X 


10.00 


160 


1.35 


1* 


5/ 2 


7.65 


120 


1.17 


1H 


5/8 


6.60 


103 


1.00 


IK 


4X 


5.70 


89 


.85 


itt 


4X 


4.75 


75 


.72 


IX 


4 


3.80 


62 


.60 


i# 


3^ 


3.15 


50 


.49 




3 


2.50 


40 


.37 


H 


2^ 


1.88 


30 


.27 


% 


2X 


1.30 


22 


.18 


H 


2 


.90 


15.5 


.16 


& 


IK 


.72 


12.5 


.14 


X 


1# 


.57 


10 



This cable may be used for fixed track lines on overhead cableways having 
fixed spans, and because of its very smooth external surface will not wear out 
the carriage wheels which run upon it. For such use it has no equal. This 
cable is suitable only for fixed spans and cannot be used for running purposes. 
Customers should give full information as to the use to which it is to be put 
and character of the work. For end fastenings, see pages 208-210. 



192 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Hollow Cable Clothes Lines, Galvanized 




No. 17 Wires No. 22 Gajie 




.,,,,, 



No. 2-9 Wires-No. 22 Gage 




No. 3-12 Wires-No. 22 Gage 




No. 411 Wires No. 2O Gage 




No. 186 Wires No. 18 Gage 



American Wire Rope 



i9: v > 




No. 19 Wires No. 19 Gage 




No. 206 Wires No. 2O Ga*e 

Prices quoted per dozen coils. 

Put up in coils of 50, 75 and 100 feet and packed in barrels. 



Estimated Average Number of Dozen to Barrel 



Style 


Sizes 


KM) Feet 


.K) Feet 


7") Feet 


GO Feet 


;"i() Feet 


10 Feet 


Hollow 

Cable 
Lines 


fNo. 1 
J No. 2 
1 No. 3 
[No. 4 


12 
8 
(> 
5 


12 

8 
6 
5 


15 
12 
8 
8 


21 
14 
11 
9 


24 
16 
12 
10 


25 
16 

12 

10 




fNo. 17 


5 


5 


6 


7 


8 


10 


Twisted 


j No. 18 


2 


6 


t 


2 


10 


12 


Lines 


1 No. 19 
[No. 20 


8 
10 


s 
10 


10 

12 


12 
14 


15 
18 


16 

25 


Solid 


fNo. S 


W 


5 


6 


7 


8 




Lines 


^ No. 9 


5# 


6 


i 


8 


9 




(One Wire) 


[NO. 10 


6^ 


7 


8 


9 


10 





Estimated Average Weight in Pounds per Dozen 



Hollow 
Cable 
Lines 


fNo. 1 
j No. 2 
1 No. 3 
[No. 4 


18 
22 
30 

42 


16 

20 
27 
38 


14 
17 
23 
32 


11 

13 
18 
25 


9 
11 
15 

21 


7 
9 
13 
18 




fNo. 17 


56 


50 


42 


34 


28 


30 


Twisted 


j No. 18 


46 


41 


35 


27 


24 


24 


Lines 


1 No. 19 


35 


31# 


25 


21 


17 


17 




[No. 20 


25 


22# 


20 


15 


13 


13 


Solid 


( No. 8 ' 


84 


76 


63 


50 


42 




Lines 


-1 No. 9 


70 


63 


52 


42 


35 




(One Wire) 


[No. 10 


58 


52 


r 43 


35 


29 





American Steel and Wire Company 



Flat Rope 




American Wire Rope 



195 



Flat Rope 




Flat Rope is composed of a number of wire ropes called u flat rope 
strands," of alternate right and left lay, placed side by side, then secured or 
sewed together with soft Swedish iron or steel wire, thus forming a complete 
rope as shown in the cut, usually of crucible steel, although it can be made 
of iron or plow steel, if necessary. The sewing or filling wires, being 
so much softer than the steel wires composing the strands of the rope, act as a 
cushion or soft bed for the strands, and wear out much faster than the harder 
wires composing the latter. When the sewing wires are worn out, the flat rope 
can be resewed with new wire, and if any of the rope strands are also worn or 
damaged, these can be replaced by new portions. In fact, flat ropes admit of 
being repaired by the replacing of any worn or injured part. Strands of any 
kind, size or quality can be furnished. A large stock of Swedish iron sewing 
wire is carried in warehouse, which can be furnished to repair or sew flat rope 
at the mine. 

Flat Rope is used principally for hoisting purposes. When large and long 
rope is used in hoisting heavy loads out of deep shafts, round rope requires 
large and heavy drums on which to wind, while flat rope, winding on itself, 
needs a reel but little wider than the width of the rope. When space for machinery 
is an object, the advantage of using the style of rope requiring the smallest 



I '-Hi American Steel and Wire Company 

reel is obvious. Furthermore, flat rope does not spin or twist in the shaft. 
Flat rope can be furnished from 1^ inches to 8 inches in width, and from 
Y^ inch to 7/6 inch in thickness, the length varying from 20 to 3,000 feet. 

Flat Rope 

Flat Rope is particularly applicable to the operating of spouts on coal and 
ore docks, also for raising and lowering of emergency gates on canals and 
similar machinery, giving long and satisfactory service. Its compact form 
combines the desirable features of flexibility and great strength, thus making 
possible the use of simple and compact hoisting machinery. Flat rope will 
wind on a drum of small diameter, as shown on page 1S)7. 

We recommend the use of either a closed or an open socket for fastening 
the outer end of the rope, as shown on page 210. If desired, a thimble can be 
sewed into the end of a flat rope but it will not give the full strength of the 
rope, as shown in the tables. The socket, on the other hand, can be depended 
upon to give the strength shown in the tables of strength. 

For attaching to the drum of a hoisting machine three methods are in 
vogue, viz : First. Where the drum is large so that the rope can be brought 
inside, it may be attached by clamps around a pin or spoke. This method is 
the least desirable. Second. A small loop can be sewed into the end of the 
rope and fastened to the drum by means of a pin. Third. A tapered hole, 
wedge-shaped, cast in the drum when it is made, so that rope may be socketed 
directly to the drum. We recommend this third method as the safest, strongest 
and simplest method that can be devised, as it requires only a quarter of one 
lap, compared with a lap and a half for the No. 2 method. 

We can furnish details on application regarding No. 3 method to those 
desiring to purchase this type of rope. 

Flat ropes are usually made single stitching, using eight sewing wires. 
More wires can be used, but we do not recommend the use of over ten or 
twelve sewing wires. The number of sewing wires is dependent upon the size 
of wire used in sewing. Double sewing is sometimes used but it increases 
the thickness of the rope over single sewing and is undesirable for that 
reason. Its use is not recommended as it frequently gives trouble. 

We have expert flat rope sewers constantly in our employ and can make 
up any of the sizes listed at short notice. 

The widths given for flat ropes are nominal, i. <?., in some cases ^ inch 
over or y% inch under the figures, due to the construction. For example, a 
half-inch thickness of rope means that approximately ^ inch is added to the 
width by the insertion of one rope strand so that widths cannot be changed 
except by regular steps or multiples of the diameter of a single rope strand. 
If space or clearance is small, customers should so state on their order, giving 
maximum permissible width for the rope, which can then be made to the 
nearest corresponding width. 



American Wire Rope 



197 



I )rums and sheaves for fiat rope should, of course, be as large as possible, 
particularly for mine hoisting work. A good rule is to have the diameter 
of the drum at the bottom ascertained by the following rule : 

D = ct 

D = diameter of drum at bottom in feet, 
t = thickness of flat rope in inches. 

c constant value, c = 100 for drum diameter. c= 1GO for sheave 
diameter. 

For short flat ropes, drums are usually made smaller as follows : 



Thickness of 


Diameter of Drum 


Diameter of Sheave 


Flat Rope 


at Bottom, Inches 


Inches 


X 


6 


12 


ft 


7X 
9 


15 
18 


X 


12 


24 


* 


15 


30 


X 


18 


36 


% 


21 


42 



Sheaves should be slightly crowned in the center and have good deep 
flanges to guide the rope. 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Flat Rope 

Crucible Steel Plow Steel 



List Price per 
Pound 


Width and 
Thickness in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight 
per Foot in 
Pounds 


Crucible Steel 


Plow Steel 


Approximate 
Breaking 
Stress in Tons 
of '2000 Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 200J 
Pounds 


Approximate 
Breaking 
Stress in Tons 
of sMX MI Pounds 


Proper Work- 
ing Load in 
Tons of 2UOO 
Pounds 



Thick 



, 


l /4 Xltf 

V 4 x2 

^x2^ 
\i x3 


0.65 

.82 
1.06 
1.23 


13 
17 

22 
26 


2.6 
3.4 
4.4 
5.2 


15.5 
20 
26.5 
31 


3.10 
4.00 
5.30 
6:20 


t 6 B -Inch Thick 


. . . 


A x IX 
3 5 S x2 
A x 2^ 
f,x3 
A*8# 
Ax4 


0.79 
1.10 
1.35 
1.60 
1.88 
2.15 


18 
23 
30 
36 
41 
48 


3.6 
4.6 
6.0 

7.2 
8.2 
9.6 


22 
28 
35 
43 
50 
57 


4.4 
5.6 

7.0 
8.6 
10.0 
11.4 


%-Inch Thick 


. . 


/ 8 x2 
3 /s *2 1 A 
/ 8 x3 
^x3^ 
^x4 
2x4^ 
^ 8 x5 

y% x 5^ 

Xsx6 


1.30 
1.70 
1.89 
2.30 
2.43 
2.85 
3.10 
3.50 
3.73 


27 
36 
41 
50 
54 
63 
68 
77 
81 


5.4 

7.2 
8.2 
10.0 
10.8 
12.6 
18.6 
15.4 
16.2 


33 

43 
49 
60 
65 
76 
81 
92 
97 


6.6 

8.6 
9.8 
12.0 
13.0 
15.2 
16.2 
18.4 
19.4 



%-Inch Thick 





^ x2X 


2.20 


45 


9.0 


54 


10.8 




y* x3 


2.50 


52 


10.4 


63 


12.6 




Xx3^ 


2.80 


60 


12.0 


72 


14.4 


. 


YT. x4 


3.15 


69 


13.8 


82 


16.4 




^ x4^ 


3.85 


83 


16.6 


99 


19.8 




y* x s 


4.20 


90 


18.0 


108 


21.6 




Kx5^ 


4.55 


98 


19.6 


118 


23.6 


. 


]/2 XG 


4.90 


105 


21.0 


126 


25.2 




K x7 


5.90 


128 


25.6 


153 


30.6 



^8-Inch Thick 





# x3>^ 


3.50 


68 


13.6 


79 


15.8 




# x4 


4.00 


79 


15.8 


92 


18.4 




# x 4;^ 


4.55 


91 


18.2 


105 


21.0 




5 /8 X5 


5.10 


102 


20.4 


119 


23.8 




ft X5/2 


5.65 


114 


22.8 


132 


26.4 




% x6 


6.15 


125 


25.0 


145 


29.0 




ft x7 


7.30 


148 


29.6 


171 


34.2 


. 


# x8 


8.40 


170 


34.0 


197 


39.4 



%-Inch Thick 



. . . 


|^x5 

3^X6 

% x7 
^ x8 


6.85 
7.50 
8.25 
19.75 


135 
151 

168 

202 


27.0 
30.2 
33.6 
40.4 


157 
175 
194 
234 


31.4 
35.0 

38.8 
46.8 


%-Inch Thick 


. . . 


H x5 

H x6 

^x7 
H x8 


7.50 
8.53 
9.56 
10.60 


155 31.0 
180 36.0 
203 40.6 
225 45.0 


177 
209 
233 

258 


34.4 
41.8 
46.6 
51.6 



American Wire Rope 199 



A. S. & W. Shield Filler 

This Shield Filler has been compounded to meet the demand for a first 
class lubricant of moderate cost, which should be suitable for as many wire 
rope conditions as possible. It is particularly recommended for mine hoists 
and haulage systems, coal dock haulage roads, dredge ropes, logging ropes, 
steam shovel ropes, oil well drilling ropes, quarry ropes, and, in fact, any rope 
where a heavy lubricant is desirable. 

A. S. & W. Shield Filler adheres very tenaciously to a wire rope and 
may be applied without any difficulty to a rope that has already had a coating 
of grease. It has a high drip point and is a flexible compound at low 
temperatures. Tests on mine ropes subjected to bad acid mine water have 
proven conclusively that it will protect such ropes as completely as possible 
from the corrosive action of such water, and thus prolong the rope service. 
It does not dry up quickly and flake off, like many compounds, but retains to 
a marked degree the elasticity necessary for a rope lubricant. 

Application of this lubricant is readily made by passing a rope slowly 
through a small tank which is filled with hot compound and arranging a wiper 
to take off any excess of compound. In order to heat the compound for 
application, a steam coil may be used, or, for small amounts, the cans may be 
heated by putting into hot water until contents are warmed clear through. If 
heat is not available, the Shield Filler can be applied without warming, but it 
will flow better when hot. 

For convenience, this material is furnished in 2, 5 and 10-gallon cans or 
about 50-gallort barrels. 

List Prices for A. S. & W. Shield Filler 

2-gallon cans . . . . $8 . 00 per can 

5-gallon cans 6 . 50 per can 

10-gallon cans 12. 00 per can 

50-gallon barrels ........... .11 per pound 



-00 American Steel and Wire Company 

Chapter X 

Special Equipment 

List Prices of Wire Rope Fittings and Methods 
ol Attachment 

Issued Jan. 1. 1913. Subject to Change Without Notice 

These various methods of attachment in 
common use, together with the necessary 
fittings, will be taken up in the following 
order : 

Paie 

1 Thimbles or Eyes, Regular or Extra Large, 

Spliced in End of Rope 2O2 

2 Crosby Clips and Thimbles 2O4 

3 Clamps, Regular and Strand, for Making Loops 2O5 

4 Closed Socket Fastened to End of Rope . . 2O6 

5 Open Socket Fastened to End of Rope . . 2O7 

6 Bridge Socket, Closed Type .... 2O8 

7 Bridge Socket, Open Type 2O9 

8 Step Socket 21O 

9 Socket with Chain 211 

10 Flat Rope Sockets 21O 

1 1 Swivel Hook and Thimble, Loose and Spliced In 211 

12 Swivel Hook and Socket 212 

13 Socket and Hook, Loose and Attached . . 213 

14 Hook and Thimble, Loose and Spliced In . 214 

15 Sister Hook and Thimble, Loose and Spliced In 315 

16 Single Locomotive Switching Ropes . . . 216 

17 Double Locomotive Switching Ropes . . 217 

18 Wrecking Ropes, Single Fittings . . . 218 

19 Wrecking Ropes, Double Fittings . . . 219 

20 Turnbuckles - 22O 

21 Shackles 222 

22 Wire Rope Blocks 223 

23 Wire Rope Sheaves 225 

24 Endless Rope Splicing 226 

25 Wire Rope Slings 227 

26 Drawing-in Cables 229 

27 Wire Rope Splicing 23O 






American Wire Rope 201 



Chapter X 

Special Equipment 

Wire Rope Fittings and For the proper fastening of wire ropes to different 
Methods of Attachment kinds of apparatus and machinery there have 

been developed various methods which can be 
successfully used. 

There are some types of fastenings which can be made by anyone, but 
there are others which require a certain amount of skill to make them advan- 
tageously. As a general rule, a factory-made fastening may be depended 
upon to give the best results. We have a large force of skilled workmen 
constantly employed and are prepared to do all kinds of splicing and attaching 
of rope fittings at reasonable rates. Customers will find it to their advantage 
to have such work done at our factory where our complete equipment enables 
us to handle it promptly as well as at a reasonable price. 

The successful use of wire rope frequently depends upon the proper selec- 
tion of the right kind of fitting or end fastening, and in the succeeding pages 
will be found illustrations of a large variety of fittings for different purposes. 
It is possible by a proper combination of them to accomplish any desired 
result for rapid and economical operation. Each represents the best of its 
type in general design, being compact, strong and universal in scope and 
adaptation. 

For example : 

Two ropes may be joined together in any one of the following ways : 

First. Closed socket on one rope and open socket on other, the pin on 
the open socket passing through the loop of the closed socket. 

Second. An open socket on one rope and a thimble spliced in the other 
rope are quickly connected by passing the pin of the closed socket through 
the eye of the thimble. 

Third. A shackle, page 222, may be used to connect any two ropes 
equipped in the following manner by removing the pin and putting the shackle 
through the fittings and reinserting the shackle pin. 

A. Two ropes with open sockets, page 207, on mating ends. 

B. Two ropes with closed sockets, page 206, on mating ends. 

C. Two ropes with thimbles spliced, page 203, on mating ends. 

D. Two ropes with thimbles and links spliced on mating ends. 
Fourth. Turnbuckles of one of the styles shown on page 221 are usually 

used to take up the slack on derrick guys, ships' rigging and other places where 
such slack would be objectionable. They are made with all styles of ends so 
as to make a quick and secure fastening to a rope equipped with a thimble, 
open or closed socket fastening. 



202 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Fifth. Swivel hook and thimble, page 211, allows the turning of a rope 
under load to avoid kinking. 

Sixth. Regular sockets, pages 206 and 207, are used on smaller ropes, 
but for very large ropes on cableways and bridges it is customary to use the 
bridge sockets, pages 208 and 200. 

In addition to the fittings shown herein, we are prepared to make and 
attach to wire ropes any practical design of fitting required by special work. 

Prices on such fittings and attaching them to rope will be furnished upon 
application to nearest Sales Office. 

Galvanized Oval Thimbles 




Regular 



Extra Large 









Diameter 


Diameter 










List Price 
in Cents 


Size 
Thimble 
Width of 


Circumfer- 
ence of 


of Pin that 
may be 
inserted in 


of Pin that 
may be 
inserted in 


Length 
Inside 
in Inches 


Length 
Inside 
in Inches 


Approxi- 
mate Weight 
in Pounds 


Approxi- 
mate Weight 
in Pounds 


Each 


vScore 
in Inches 


Rope 
in Inches 


Regular 
Thimble 


Extra Large 
Thimble 


Regular 

Thimble 


Extra Large 
Thimble 


Regular 
Thimble 


Extra Large 
Thimble 








in Inches 


in Inches 










50 


1/4 


4X 


2A 




3^ 


4X 


1.80 


2.20 


42 


1/8 




2yff 


2"H 


3^ 


4X 


1.40 


2.00 


33 


IX 


4 4 


2/8 


^yi 


3X 


4f^ 


1.05 


1.50 


25 
20 


1* 


3 2 


iff 


2ft 


0^8 


4X 


.90 
.60 


1.20 

.85 


16 


7 A 


2X 


IT^ 


2 


2^ 


3^ 


.44 


.75 


15 




2X 


lyV 


IX 


2^ 


3^ 


.37 


.50 


13 


^ 


2 


IX 


IT'* 


2/^ 


2^ 


.22 


.30 


12 


TG 


IX 






2 


. 


.13 




11 


\ 


1/5 


iA 


. . . 


1# 


. . . 


.13 




10 


TV 


IX 


1 




IX 




.09 




9 


M 




H 








.06 




8 
8 


$ 


1 

X 







1/8 


. . . 


.05 
.03 





Our Galvanized Oval Thimbles are heavily coated with zinc. 



American Wire Rope 



Galvanized Thimble Spliced Into Rope 







Diameter of 
Rope in Inches 


Circumference of 
Rope in Inches 


List Prices 
Complete for Steel Rope 


List Prices 
Complete for Iron Rope 


1# 


4X 


$6.50 


$6.00 


\y% 


4X 


5.75 


5.25 


l * 


4 


4.70 


4.35 




3^ 


3.90 


3.65 


i '" 


3 


3.00 


2.85 


% 


2X 


2.55 


2.40 


X 


2X 


2.00 


1.85 


H 


2 


1.55 


1.45 


_ 


14/ 


1.30 


1.20 


^ 


1^ 


1.25 


1.15 


If 


IX 


1.20 


1.10 






1.15 


1.05 


T\ 


1 


1.10 


1.00 


X 


X 


1.10 


1.00 



We secure all of the thimbles to the ropes with four tucks of each strand. 
The seizing is not used for strength purposes, as it serves solely to make a 
finished rope end -and protect the hands of operators from injury when hand- 
ling it. 



204 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Crosby Wire Rope Clips 

Galvanized 




Size Clip 
Corresponding 
to Rope 
Diameter 
in Inches 


List Price 
Each 


Approximate 
Weight 
Each 
in Pounds 


Size Clip 
Corresponding 
to Rope 
Diameter 
in Inches 


List Price 
Each 


Approximate 
Weight 
Each 
in Pounds 


2^ 


$11.50 




1 


$0.85 


3.00 


2X 


9.50 




# 


.75 


2.00 


2 


7.50 




X 


.65 


1.75 


1% 


5.50 




# 


.55 


.87 


1H 


3.50 




X 


.45 


.75 


1/2 


1.50 


5.75 


7 
TB" 


.45 


.37 


IX 


1.25 


5.75 


3 /* 


.40 


.37 


IX 


1.10 


3.75 


T 5 * 


.35 


.25 


1# 


.95 


3.75 


X 


.35 


.25 



Clips are not recommended as permanent fastening on hoisting ropes. 
They are easily applied and taken off, requiring no special skill, as in the case 
of thimbles spliced in or sockets attached. Care should be taken to see that 
the U-bolt bears on the short end of the rope so that the flat base of clip rests 
on the tension side of the rope, otherwise rope will be injured by putting a 
crimp into the tension side of rope. Not fewer than 2 clips to be used and 
preferably 4 to 6, particularly on large sizes of rope. 



American Wire Rope 



205 



Wire Rope Clamps 




Extra ll-a> 



List Price 
Each * 


Size Clamp and 
Diameter of Rope 
in Inches 


Circumference of 
Rope in Inches 


List Price 
Each 


Si/.e Clamp and 
Diameter of Rope 
in Inches 


Circumference of 
Rope in Inches 


$13.75 


2X 


7/8 


: $1.75 


1 


3 


8.50 


2 


6X 


1.30 


n 


2^ 


5.50 


IX 




1.15 


18 
Tff 


2% 


5.00 


1^5 


5 


1.05 





2X 


3.80 


ITS 


4^ 


.90 




2 


2.50 


IX 


4 


.60 


& 


1 


2.25 


1-j^f 


^X 


.60 


/4 


l/^ 


1.90 


l/^ 


3j^ 


.45 


A 


IX 


1.90 


1 T V 


3X 


.30 


T^ 


( 1 



Clamps are not recommended for permanent fastenings. From 2 to 6 clamps should 
be used for one end fastening. Alternate clamps and Crosby Clips are better than all 
clamps, but for permanent work sockets are preferable to either. See pages 206 to 210. 

Galvanized Three-bolt Telephone Clamp 




This is known as the standard A. T. & T. Co. hot galvanized rolled steel 
strand clamp or guy clamp; made from open hearth bar steel. Will hold any 
size of strand from ^ inch to ^ inch diameter. 

Prices on application. 



20(> 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Closed Sockets 

For Use with Either Steel or Iron Rope 



Size 
Socket and 
Diameter 
of Rope in 
Inches 


Circum- 
ference of 
Rope in 
Inches 


List Price for Steel or 
Iron Rope 


Diameter 
of Pin that 
may be 
inserted in 
Socket Loop 
in Inches 


Length of 
Basket 
in Inches 


Length 
Over All 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Weight in 
in Pounds 


Loose 


Fastened 


2X 


1/8 


$21.00 


$32.00 










2 


6X 


16.00 


25.50 










1# 


5/ 2 


13.00 


21.00 










1# 


5 


12.00 


18.00 










IX 


4X 


6.80 


11.80 


3# 


5K 


12# 


18.25 


1/8 


4X 


6.00 


10.25 


2X 


5 


11^ 


10.00 


IX 


4 


4.50 


8.00 


2X 


5 


11^ 


12.75 


1# 


3X 


3.30 


6.15 


2X 


. 4K 


10^ 


10.50 


1 


3 


2.40 


4.65 


2X 


4X 


iox 


8.75 


# 


2X 


1.85 


3.85 


2 


4 


9X 


6.00 





2X 


1.65 


3.15 


IX 


3>/8 


8 


3.75 


# 


2 


1.35 


2.65 


IX 


3 


6# 


2.25 


A 


IX 


1.10 


2.35 


1A 


2X 


6 


1.85 


X 


IK 


1.10 


2.25 


1 

*T* 


2X 


6 


1.50 


A 


IX 


.85 


2.00 


1H 


2X 


5X 


1.25 


tf 


Itf 


.85 


1.85 


W 


2X 


5X 


.87' 


A 


1 


.70 


1.60 


if 


1^ 


3X 


.65 


X 


X 


.70 


1.60 


if 


1^ 


3X 


.44 



As we attach them they are the strongest rope fastenings made, utilizing 
the full published strength of the ropes. All standard type sockets are drop 
forged weldless and stronger than any rope that may be inserted in them. 
Sockets of special dimensions take special prices. 



American Wire Rope 



'207 



Open Sockets 

For Use with Either Steel or Iron Rope 




Size 
Socket and 
Diameter 
of Rope in 
Inches 


Circum- 
ference of 
Rope in 
Inches 


List Price for Steel 
or Iron Rope 


Width 
Between 
Jaws 
in Inches 


Diam- 
eter of 
Pin in 
Inches 


Length of 
Basket 
in Inches 


Length 
Over All 
in Indies 


Approximate 
Weight 
in Pounds 


Loose 


Fastened 


2X 


7^ 


$23.00 


$34.00 


3X 


4 


9X 


22 


120 


2' 


6X 


16.50 


26.00 




8X 


8X 


20 


98 


IX 




15.50 


23.50 i 2X 


3X 




16X 


66 


IX 


5 * 


18.00 


19.00 j 2 T 7 fi 


2X 


y% 


13# 


45 




4X 


8.00 


13.00 


3 iV 


2X 


5^ 


13 


30 


IX 


4X 


7.50 


11.75 1 2 l / 8 


\ 7 / 8 


5 


UK 


24 


IX 


4 


6.10 


9.60 | 2/s 


1 7 /K 


5 




18.5 


IX 


3/^ 


4.50 


7.35 1# 


\fa 


4^ 


10 2 


15.5 


1 


3 


3.15 


5.40 1% 


1^6 


4/^ 


10 


12.75 


7 /8 


2X 


2.50 


4.50 


Ir 9 ff 


IX 


4 


8^ 


8.00 


X 


2X 


2.10 


3.60 


1* 


IX 


3^ 


7^ 


5.25 


X 


2 


1.65 


2.95 




1 


3 


6X 


3.87 




IX 


1.35 


2.60 


t 


^ 


2X 


6 


3.00 


? 




1.35 


2.50 


t* 


^ 


2X 


6 


2.25 




IX 


1.00 


2.15 




X 


2/^ 


5y 2 


1.75 


x 


IX 


1.00 


2.00 


H 


X 


2/^ 


5K 


1.25 




1 

X 


.85 
.85 




1 


X 


iH 


s| 


.95 
.62 



As we attach them they are the strongest rope fastenings made, utilizing 
the full published strength of the ropes. All standard type sockets are drop 
forged weldless and stronger than any rope that may be inserted in them. 
Sockets of special dimensions take special prices. 



208 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Bridge Sockets 

Closed Type 





List Price Each 


Size and 
Diameter 
of Rope 
in Inches 


Diameter 
in Inches 
of U-bolts 


Center 
to Center 
of Bolt 
Holes 


Thickness 
or Depth 
of Socket 
in Inches 


Outside 
Length 
of Socket 
in Inches 


Length 
from Pull 
of U-bolt 
to End of 
Bolts 


Take-up 
in Inches 


Approx. 
Weight 
in Pounds 


Fastened 


Loose 


$106.70 


$82.85 


2% 


3X 


12 


12 


19 


42 


18 


589 


89.30 


68.75 


2/4 


3 4 


a/4 


11 


17V 


42 


18 


485 


69.90 


53.80 


2/4- 


2% 


iox 


10 


16X 


40 


18 


378 


53.60 


41.25 


2 




9/^5 


9 


15 


38 


18 


290 


40.70 


31.30 


IK 


2X 


s*A 


8 


13^ 


36 


18 


218 


31.25 


24.05 


IH 


2 


8 


7X 


12/ 2 


32 


15 


170 


26.50 


20.50 


1/2 


1% 


7V. 


7 


12 


31 


15 


144 


22.00 


16.90 




IV 


7/4 


6/4 


11/4 


28 


12 


119 


15.75 


12.15 


IX 


i* 


11/4 


6 


10* 


27 


12 


87 



These sockets are constructed throughout of steel and are suitable for 
attaching to the galvanized bridge cables shown on page 181, and may also 
be used on the locked tramway and cable way strand shown on pages 190 and 
191, or any rope that corresponds in size to the opening. These fittings 
develop the full strength of the rope when properly attached. 



American Wire Rope 



209 



Bridge Sockets 

Open Type 




















Length 








List Price Each 


Size and 
Diameter 
of Rope 
in Inches 


Diameter 
n Inches 
of 
Eye-bolts 


Center 
to 
Center 
of Holt 
Holes in 
Inches 


Thick- 
ness or 
Depth of 
Socket 
in 
Inches 


Size 
Eye in 
Inches 


Outside 
Length 
of 
Socket 
in 
Inches 


from 
Center 
of Eye- 
bolt to 
End of 
Same in 


Distance 
Between 
Eye- 
bolts in 
Inches 


Take-up 

in 
Inches 


Approx. 
Weight 
in 
Pounds 


Fastened 


Loose 


















Inches 








$123.75 


$95.25 


23^ 


3X 


12 


12 


5^ 


19 


42 


5 


18 


658 


101.60 


78.15 


2# 


3 


nx 


11 


o 


173^ 


42 


4^ 


18 


538 


80.10 


61.60 




23/ 


K>X 


10 


41^ 


16X 


40 


4 


18 


422 


63.25 


48.65 


> 


2J-2 


v/4 


9 


4 


15 


38 


*x 


18 


332 


47.60 


35.90 


1% 


2X 


8/2 


8 


3X 


13^ 


36 


3# 


18 


244 


35.40 


27.25 


1^ 


2 


8 


7^ 


3X 


12X 


32 


>x 


15 


188 


30.35 


23.35 


1 V 


1^ 


7V 


7 


3X 


12 


31 


3 


15 


160 


24.70 


19.00 


\'y % 




7/^ 


6/4 


2X 


\\y 2 


28 


'2X 


12 


131 


16.25 


12.50 


ix 


IK 


7X 


6 


2X 


10X 


27 


2^ 


12 


89 



The distance between eyes can be varied to suit point of service. These 
sockets are made of steel throughout and develop the full strength of the rope 
to which they are attached. They may be used with galvanized bridge cables, 
page 181, locked tramway and cableway strand, shown on pages 190 and 
191, or any rope that corresponds in size to the opening. 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Step Socket 




Made especially for Locked Wire Cable, shown on pages 190 and 191, 
Prices furnished upon application. 



Special Flat Rope Sockets 






This special steel socket has been designed to meet the rigid require- 
ments of this kind of rope fastening. It is made of steel throughout and when 
attached to a flat rope will develop the full strength of the rope (see pages 
194 to 198). Full particulars as to price and general dimensions for roue of any 
width and thickness will be furnished upon request. 



American Wire Rope 



211 



Hook, Swivel and Thimble 

For Use with Either Steel or Iron Rope 




Diameter of 
Rope 
in Inches 


Circumference 
of Rope 
in Inches 


List Prices for Steel Rope 


List Prices for Iron Rope 


Loose 


Fastened 


Loose 


Fastened 


IK 


4X 


$27.00 


$32.00 


$22.00 


$27.00 




4 // 


21.00 


25.25 


17.00 


21.25 


IX 


4 


17.00 


20.50 


13.50 


17.00 




3K 


12.00 


14.85 


9.00 


11.85 


1 ' 


3 " 


8.35 


10.60 


5.70 


7.49 


% 


2X 


7.00 


9.00 


4.75 


6.75 


X 


2X 


5.25 


6.75 


4.00 


5.50 


# 


2 


4.60 


5.90 


3.60 


4.90 




l^/ 


3.75 


5.00 


3.00 


4.25 


K 


IK 


3.55 


4.70 


3.00 


4.15 


rV 


IX 


2.85 


4.00 


2.55 


3.70 


3^ 




2.70 


3.70 


2.35 


3.35 


A 


i /8 


2.30 


3.20 


2.00 


2.90 







2.30 


3.20 


2.00 


2.90 



This hook swivel and thimble permits the load to rotate without unduly 
untwisting the rope. 

Socket and Chain 




Made for any size rope. Prices depending on length and size of chain. 



212 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Swivel Hook and Socket 




Diameter of 
Rope in Inches 


Circumference 
of Rope in 
Inches 


List Prices for Steel Rope 


List Prices for Iron Rope , 


Loose 


Fastened 


Loose 


Fastened 


1 ^2 


4X 


$35.00 


$40.00 


$30.00 


$35.00 


1^8 4X 


28.50 


32.75 


24.50 


28.75 


IX 


4 


23.10 


26.60 


19.60 


23.10 


l/^ 


3/^ 


16.50 


19.35 


13.50 


16.35 


1 


3 


11.50 


13.75 


8.85 


11.10 


7 A 


2X 


9.50 


11.50 


7.25 


9.25 


X 




7.35 


8.85 


6.10 


7.60 


^ 


2 4 


6.25 


7.55 


5.25 


6.55 


TV 


IX 


5.10 


6.35 


4.35 


5.60 


l /2 


1# 


4.90 


6.05 


4.35 


5.50 


7 
Ttf 


IX 


3.85 


5.00 


3.55 


4.70 


H 




3.70 


4.70 


3.35 


4.35 


T 5 f 


1 


3.15 


4.05 


2.85 


3.75 


X 


X 


3.15 


4.05 


2.85 


3.75 



American Wire Rope 



21:5 



Hook and Socket 



For Use with Either Steel or Iron Rope 







Diameter of 
Rope 
in Inches 


Circumference 
of Rope 
in Inches 


List Prices for Steel Rope 


List Prices for Iron Rope 


Loose 


Fastened 


Loose 


Fastened 


" 


w 


$14.50 


$19.50 


$12.50 


$17.50 


1# 4X 


12.30 


16.55 


10.25 


14.50 


IX 4 t 


10.00 


13.50 


8.00 


11.50 




8.25 


11.10 


6.25 


9.10 


1 8 3 2 


6.50 


8.75 


4.60 


6.85 


7 A 


2% 


5.25 


7.25 


3.70 


5.70 


X 


2X 


3.85 


5.35 


3.00 


4.50 


H 


2 


2.90 


4.20 2.30 


3.60 


TK 


1^ 


2.45 


3.70 2.00 


3.25 


l /2 


iK 2.10 


3.25 


1.95 


3.10 


T v 


IX 1-70 


2.85 


1.55 


2.70 


y& 


IX 1-65 2.65 1.50 


2.50 


* 


1 


1.45 
1.45 


2.35 
2.35 


1.25 
1.25 


2.15 
2.15 



These fittings may be attached to any style or construction of rope, but 
they are especially useful when attached to our Non-Spinning Rope, pages 156 
to 161. An open socket can be supplied, if desired, for a slight advance 
over above list (prices on application). Hooks are made extra strong to equal 
strength of rope. 



214 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Hook and Thimble 

For Use with Either Steel or Iron Rope 




Diameter of 
Rope 
in Inches 


Circumference 
of Rope 
in Inches 


List Prices for Steel Rope 


List Prices for Iron Rope 


Loose 


Fastened 


Loose 


Fastened 


1# 


4X 


$7.00 


$13.50 


$5.00 


$11.00 


\y% 


4X 


5.40 


11.15 


3.40 


8.65 


IX 


4 


4.60 


9.20 


2.65 


6.90 




3^2 


4.40 


8.15 


2.40 


5.90 


1 8 


3 


3.75 


6.70 


1.90 


4.65 


7 A 


2X 


2.90 


5.35 


1.40 


3.70 


X 


2X 


1.85 


3.75 


1.10 


2.85 


$ 


2 


1.40 


2.85 


.85 


2.20 


A 


IX 


1.10 


2.40 


.75 


1.95 


2 


l/^ 


.80 


2.05 


.65 


1.80 


T* 


IX 


.75 


1.95 


.60 


1.70 


rg 


l/'s 


.70 


1.85 


.55 


1.60 


5 


1 


.65 


1.75 


.50 


1.50 


X 




.65 


1.75 


.50 


1.50 



Used in many places, such as derricks, cranes, skidders, slings, etc. 



American Wire Rope 



Sister Hooks and Thimble 

For Use with Either Steel or Iron Rope 



Diameter of 
Rope 
in Inches 


Circumference 
of Rope 
in Inches 


List Prices for Steel Rope 


List Prices for Iron Rope 


Loose 


Fastened 


Loose 


Fastened 


1% 


4X 


$7.00 


$13.50 


$5.00 


$11.00 


1# 


4X 


5.40 


11.15 


3.40 


8.65 


IX 


4 


4.60 


9.20 


2.65 


6.90 


1 1 A 


3X 


4.40 


8.15 


2.40 


5.90 


i 


3 


3.75 


6.70 


1.90 


4.65 


H 


2X 


2.90 


5.35 


1.40 


3.70 


X 


2X 


1.85 


3.75 


1.10 


2.85 


tt 


2 


1.40 


2.85 


.85 


2.20 


1* 


IK 


1.10 


2.40 


.75 


1.95 


x 


1# 


.80 


2.05 


.65 


1.80 


TV 


IX 


.75 


1.95 


.60 


1.70 


H 


1# 


.70 


1.85 


.55 


1.60 


A 


1 


.65 


1.75 


.50 


1.50 


X 


X 


.65 


1.75 


.50 


1.50 



Sister hooks are frequently employed where a rope has to be quickly 
attached and detached from a load and at the same time to hold the load 
locked in position so long as the rope is under strain. Illustration shows the 
two parts of the hook apart ready to attach load. Such devices are used 
frequently for logging and drawing-in cables. (See page 229 for illustration 
of latter.) 



216 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Locomotive Switching, Wrecking and Ballast 
Unloader Rope 

Single Fittings 

Hook and thimble in one end ; thimble and link in other end. 

To determine the list price of Locomotive Switching, Wrecking and 
Ballast Unloader Ropes, add to the list price of the length, size and quality of 
rope specified (the length to be added being measured from the bearing of 
hook in one end to the bearing of the last link in the other end) the following 
extras for fittings spliced in: 

List Prices for Fittings Fastened to Ropes 



Diameter 
in Inches 


List Fittings 


Diameter 
in Inches 


List Fittings 


Diameter 
in Inches 


List Fittings 


2 

m 

i% 
\%> 


$36.00 
32.00 
25.00 
21.25 


IK 

1 3 A 
IX 
1H 


$17.25 
13.25 
10.00 
9.50 


1 

n 

^and ) 
smaller ( 


$7.00 
6.75 

4.00 



Example : For 30 feet 1 inch diameter crucible cast steel switch rope, 
6 strands, 19 wires to the strand, single fittings : 

List price for fittings spliced in $7 . 00 

List price of 30 feet 1 inch diameter cast steel rope at 31 cents foot . 9.30 
List price complete, 30 feet single switch rope 16.30 

For convenient use, the list prices of Crucible Cast Steel Switching and 
Wrecking Ropes, complete, of different sizes and lengths are given below. 

List Prices of Complete Locomotive Switching Ropes 

Crucible Cast Steel 

6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand One Hemp Core 
Single Fittings 

Hook and thimble in one end ; thimble and link in the other end. 



Length in 



Diameter in Inches 



Feet 


IK 


1^8 


i^ 


1% 


IK 


1/8 


l 


% 


M 


20 

25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 


$43.00 
47.50 
52.00 
56.50 
61.00 
65.50 
70.00 


$36.65 
40.50 
44.35 
48.20 
52.05 
55.90 
59.75 


$30.45 
33.75 
37.05 
40.35 
43.65 
46.95 
50.25 


$24.45 
27.25 
30.05 
32.85 
35.65 
38.45 
41.25 


$19.20 
21.50 
23.80 
26.10 
28.40 
30.70 
33.00 


$17.10 
19.00 
20.90 
22.80 
24.70 
26.60 
28.50 


$13.20 
14.75 
16.30 
17.85 
19.40 
20.95 
22.50 


$11.55 
12.75 
13.95 
15.15 
16.35 
17.55 
18.75 


$ 7.80 
8.75 
9.70 
10.65 
11.60 
12.55 
13.50 



Breaking Strengths Locomotive Switching, Wrecking 
and Ballast Unloader Ropes 

Crucible Cast Steel Rope 

Diameter of rope in inches 1^ 15/& 1>^ 1^/8 1^ l/^ I fa 3 A 
Breaking strain in tons . 85 72 64 56 47 38 30 23 17-5 

Extra High Strength Plow Steel Rope 



Diameter of rope in inches 
Breaking strain in tons . 



112 94 82 



1^8 
72 



58 47 



1 

38 



American Wire Rope 217 



Locomotive Switching, Wrecking or Ballast Unloader 

Rope 

Crucible Cast Steel Rope 




Single Fittings 

Hook and thimble in one end; thimble and link in other end 

Extra High Strength Locomotive Switching, Wrecking 
or Ballast Unloader Rope 

Plow Steel Rope 




Single Fittings 

Hook and thimble in one end; thimble and link in other end 



218 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Locomotive Switching, Wrecking and 
Ballast Unloader Rope 

Double Fittings 

Hook, thimble and link at one end ; thimble and two links in other end. 

List Prices for Fittings Spliced to Rope 



Diameter 
in Inches 


List Fittings 


Diameter 
in Inches 


List Fittings 


Diameter 
in Inches 


List Fittings 


2 


$43.00 
38.00 
30.00 
25.75 


1* 


$21.25 
16.75 
13.00 
12.00 


1 

H 

% and { 
smaller \ 


$9.00 
8.60 

5.50 



Extras for Other Styles 

List for thimble and two links spliced in both ends is same as for double, 
List for thimble and two links spliced in one end is one-half oft. double. 
List for thimble and two links spliced in one end and thimble and hook 

other end, or thimble and link spliced in one end and thimble link and hook 

other end, is half-way between single and double. 

For convenient use, the list prices of Crucible Cast Steel Switching and 
Wrecking Ropes, complete, of different sizes and lengths are given below. 

List Prices ol Complete Locomotive Switching Ropes 

Crucible Cast Steel 

6 Strands 19 Wires to the Strand One Hemp Core 
Double Fittings 

Hook, thimble and link in one end; thimble and two links in the other end. 



Length in 
Feet 


Diameter in Inches 


1% 


iH 


1% 


1J4 


IK 


1/8 


1 


% 


H 


20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 


$48.00 
52.50 
57.00 
61.50 
66.00 
70.50 
75.00 


$41.15 
45.00 
48.85 
52.70 
56.55 
60.40 
64.25 


$34.45 
37.75 
41.05 
44.35 
47.65 
50.95 
54.25 


$27.95 
30.75 
33.55 
36.35 
39.15 
41.95 
44.75 


$22.20 
24.50 
26.80 
29.10 
31.40 
33.70 
36.00 


$19.60 
21.50 
23.40 
25.30 
27.20 
29.10 
31.00 


$15.20 
16.75 
18.30 
19.85 
21.40 
22.95 
24.50 


$13.30 
14.50 
15.70 
16.90 
18.10 
19.30 
20.50 


$ 9.30 
10.25 
11.20 
12.15 
13.10 
14.05 
15.00 



Breaking Strengths Locomotive Switching, Wrecking 
and Ballast Unloader Rope 

Crucible Cast Steel Rope 

Diameter of rope in inches 13/ 1^ 1^ 1^4 1^ 1^8 1 



Breaking strain in tons . 85 72 64 56 47 38 
Extra High Strength Plow Steel Rope 

Diameter of rope in inches 1^ l^j 1^2 1^ 1# 1/8 
Breaking strain in tons . 112 94 82 72 58 47 



I ft M 

30 23 17.5 



1 

38 



29 23 



American Wire Rope 219 



Locomotive Switching, Wrecking and Ballast Unloader 

Rope 

Crucible Cast Steel Rope 




Double Fittings 

Hook, thimble and link in one end; thimble and two links in the other end. 

Extra High Strength Locomotive Switching, Wrecking 
and Ballast Unloader Rope 

Plow Steel Rope 




Heavy Double Fittings 

Hook, thimble and link at one end ; thimble and two links in other end 



220 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Turnbuckles 



Size ' 






Amount 












Turnbuckle 
and Outside 
Diameter 
of Thread 
in Inches 


Approximate 
Breaking 
Strength 
in Pounds 


Recom- 
mended 
Working 
Load 
in Pounds 


of Take-up 
Length in 
the Clear 
Between 
Heads 


Length of 
Buckle 
Outside 
in Inches 


Galvanized 
List, Each 


Plain 
List, Each 


Length 
Pull to Pull 
When 
Extended 
in Inches 


Approx- 
imate 
Weight 
Each 
in Pounds 








in Inches 












X 


1350 


270 


4 


4X 


$0.85 


$0.75 


12 


.40 




2250 


450 


4X 


5X 


.90 


.80 


1 ; >X 


.60 


9 


3350 


670 


4/^> 




1.10 


.90 


14 


.90 




4650 


930 


5 


6X 


1.25 


1.00 


16/4 


1.31 


ft 


6250 


1250 


6 


7/2 


1.50 


1.30 


18X 


1.87 


& 


8100 


1620 


?x 


9 


. 1.85 


1.70 


23^ 


3.00 


ft 


10000 


2000 


S/ 2 


10>2 


2.20 


1.80 


24X 


3.69 


X 


15000 


3000 


9X 


11* 


3.25 


2.50 




5.81 


Y* 


21000 


4200 


10 




5.00 


4.25 


30>J 


8.81 


i 


27500 


5500 


11 


14 4 


5.50 


4.75 


33 


. 12.56 


iy& 


34500 


6900 


12 


15K 


7.00 


5.25 


39 


17.00 


IX 


44500 


8900 


13 


16* 


8.25 


6.25 


40 


25.00 




52500 


10500 


14 


18 


9.50 


7.50 


50 


36.00 


1/4 


64500 


12900 


15 


1Q/4 


11.00 


9.00 


51 


40.00 


1ft 


75500 


15100 


16 


21 


15.00 


13.00 


51^ 


48.00 


1% 


87000 


17400 


18 


23 


20.00 


17.00 


55 1 A 


52.00 


lj% 


102500 


20500 


18 


23 


25.00 


22.00 


66 


89.00 


2 


115000 


23000 


24 


31 


28.00 


25.00 


74 


98.00 


2/ / 6 


132500 


26500 


24 


31 


33.50 


30.50 


^ 


. 


w 


151000 


30200 


24 


32 


38.50 


35.00 





. . . 






Turnbuckles are necessary in many places, such as guy ropes, etc., to 
take up slack and maintain a uniform tension on each rope. From the 
strengths and working loads given the proper size is readily selected, which in 
every case should be equal to the strength of the rope as given in the price 
lists. Where greater take-up than given in column No. 4 is required, two 
turnbuckles may be used. State style of ends wanted. 

Style No. 228 is most commonly used. 






American Wire Rope 



221 



Turnbnckles 




With Eye and Hook. Trade No. 227O 




With Two Eyes. Trade No. 228 




With Shackle and Eye. Trade No. 229 




With Two Shackles. Trade No. 229O 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Iron Guy Shackles 

Galvanized or Black 

Select size of shackle having strength equal to rope with which it is 
to be used. 




Size in Inches 
of Shackle 
(Diam. of Iron 
in Bow) 


List 
Galvanized 
Each 


List 
Black 
Each 


Gov. Test 
Max. Strength 
in Pounds 


Length 
Inside 
Inches 


Width 
Between 
Eyes 
Inches 


Diam. of 
Pin in 
Inches 


Approximate 
Weight of 
Each in 
Pounds 


H 


$0.25 


$0.23 


10,890 


1H 


H 


X 


0.30 


& 

/2 


.80 
.3(5 


.28 
.32 


15,200 
18,390 


1% 
ift 


tl 


ft 


0.48 
0.70 


& 


.40 


.36 


24,800 


V/8 


H 


ii 


0.90 


ft 


.46 


.40 


33,400 


W 


1& 





1.40. 


% 


.55 


.46 


43,400 


3 


1& 


H 


2.20 


% 


.73 


.61 


55,200 


3^ 


IH 


i 


3.40 


1 


1.08 


.84 


74,900 


4 


i# 


i# 


5.00 


1# 


1.67 


1.34 


90,200 


4^ 


1/8 


IX 


6.80 


1# 


2.10 


1.67 


92,040 


5 


2 


1^ 


9.40 


1# 


2.70 


2.15 


94,100 


5/2 


2^ 


1^ 


12.20 


\v* 


3.60 


2.90 


103,800 


6 


2X 


1^ 


16.40 


i# 


4.20 


3.35 


155,542 


Q/2 


2/ 2 


nr 


19.00 


i# 


5.30 


4.25 


172,400 


7 


2^ 


i^ 


24.00 


2 


9.25 


7.55 


235,620 


8 


3X 


2^ 


38.20 



Shackles are used to connect ropes, the ends of which are equipped with 
thimbles, sockets, turnbuckles, etc. 



American Wire Rope 223 



Heavy Wire Rope Blocks 

" American " Wire Rope Blocks are noted for their liberal dimensions, 
exceptional strength and weight. They are made in all sizes, single, double, 
triple and quadruple, with shackles, with and without plain or swivel hooks. 

Sheaves are made of specially selected iron, hard enough to prevent rapid 
wear from rope and tough enough to prevent fracture from such 
rough handling as a block is constantly required to withstand. 

Bushings Sheaves can be furnished plain bore or with the well-known 
" American " self-lubricating bushing, a factor which increases 
the life of a sheave fifty per cent, over the ordinary common bushed sheave. 
They do not cut the axles and new bushings can be put in an old sheave. 

Grooves are ground smooth and true to size to prevent undue wear on the 
rope. Hubs are accurately bored so that bushings can be renewed 
at any time. 

Axles are of generous dimensions, fastened so as to prevent their turning 
with the sheave. When sheave is to be lubricated by hard grease 
the axle is center bored and a heavy malleable grease cup is screwed on the 
axle. 

Shells The sheaves on our blocks are guarded by heavy steel plates which 

protect the sheaves from chipping or breaking, and absolutely prevent 

the rope from jumping the sheave. They are well turned to prevent chafing 

of the rope. 



Pins are of very hard cold rolled steel of ample size for the requirements. 

Hooks The " American " hook is of the finest quality of forging steel 
and of exceptional weight and strength. Either swivel or plain 
"American" hooks are interchangeable one with another and between single 
and double blocks. 

Shackles Can be attached to any " American " block when desired. They 
are of the same quality as the hooks and exceptionally strong. 



224 



American Steel and Wire Company 




217 



722 




218 




429 



Heavy Wire Rope Block 

With Plain Hook 



Outside 
Diameter 
of 
Sheaves 
Inches 


Diameter 
Rope 
Inches 


Iron Bearings 


Self-lubricating Bushings 


Price 
Single 


Price 
Double 


Price 

Single 


Price 
Double 


11 

14 
16 

18 
20 


Hr/2 

s/8or% 

X 

H 

i 


$ 9.00 

10.00 
12.00 
19.00 
21.50 


$14.50 
17.50 
23.50 
32.00 
35.00 


$10.00 
11.00 
13.00 
21.00 
23.50 


$16.50 

19.50 
25.50 
36.00 
39.00 




Cheeks for Wire Rope Blocks 

The cheeks are cast iron weights suit- 
able for the requirements made to overhaul 
the line of the hoisting drum. They are 
neat and can be attached to any " American" 
Block. 





11 


14 


16 


18 


20 


Blocks 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 




Price 


Price 


Price 


Price 


Price 


Light cheeks 












Heavy cheeks 


























Heavy Wire Rope Block 

With Swivel Hook 



Outside 
Diameter 
of Sheaves 
Inches 


Diameter 
Rope 
Inches 


Iron Bearings 


Self-lubricating 
Bushings 


Price 
Single 


Price 
Double 


Price 
Single 


Price 
Double 


11 

14 
16 

18 
20 


Hor l / 2 
ftr% 

X 
H 


$13.00 
14.00 
19.00 
34.50 
37.00 


$15.50 
21.50 
34.50 
45.00 
48.00 


$14.00 
15.00 
20.00 
36.50 
39.00 


$17.50 

23.50 
36.50 
49.00 
52.00 



Wire Rope Snatch Blocks 

This is of the strongest construction possible. 
The block is locked and unlocked by turning the 
hook and head to the required angle. This is easily 
accomplished and still always leaves the block 
securely locked. 



Outside Diameter 
of Sheaves 
Inches 


Diameter Rope 
Inches 


Iron Bearings 
Price 


Self- lubricating 
Bushings 
Price 


11 

14 
16 

18 


y&or y z 
ft or y 4 

I 


$15.00 
16.50 

24.00 
31.50 


$16.00 
17.50 
25.00 
33.50 



American Wire Rope 



225 




Heavy Wire Rope Block 

Without Hook 



219 



Outside 
Diameter 
of Sheave 
Inches 


Diameter 
of Rope 
Inches 


Iron Bearings 


Self-lubricating 
Bushings 


Price 
Single 


Price 
Double 


Price 
Single 


Price 
Double 


11 


^or X 


$ 6.50 


$ 9.00 


$ 7.50 


$11.00 


14 


X or % 


7.50 


11.00 


8.50 


13.00 


16 


X 


8.50 


12.00 


9.50 


14.00 


18 


% 


12.00 


17.00 


14.00 


21.00 


20 




14.50 


20.00 


16.50 


24.00 




Heavy Wire Rope Rlock 

With Shackle 



Outside Diameter 
of Sheave 
Inches 


Diameter of Rope 
Inches 


Self-lubricating Bushings 


Triple, Price 


Quadruple, Price 


14 


H r X 


$26.00 


$32.00 


16 


X 


35.00 


45.00 


18 


H 


46.00 


57.00 


20 




60.00 


75.00 



Solid Iron Sheaves 

For Elevators and Derricks 




Outside 
Diameter 
of Sheave 
Inches 


Diameter 
at Bottom 
of Groove 
Inches 


Finished 
Standard 
Bore 


Thickness 
Through 
the Hub 


Maximum 
Size of 
Rope that 
can be Used 


Net 
Price 
Each 


30 


27 


2^ 


3 


1 


$12.00 


28 


25 


2^ 


3 


1 


10.50 


26 


23 


2^ 


3 


1 


9.00 


24 


21 


2^ 


3 


1 


8.00 


22 


19 


2 


3 


1 


7.00 


20 


17 


2 


2X 


1 


5.75 


18 


15X 


W 


2X 


1 


4.50 


16 


is# 


l*/2 


2 


1 


4.00 


14 


12 


w 


2 


1 


3.25 


12 


10 


l*/2 


2 


X 


2.50 


10 

8 


s/ 2 

6^ 


IX 

IX 


2 
2 


* 


1.50 
1.30 



226 



American Steel and Wire Company 



List Prices for Labor for Splicing Endless Rope 



Diameter of Rope in Inches 


List Prices 


Diameter of Rope in Inches 


List Prices 


1# to IX 

1M to 7 A 

% to y 2 


$4.50 
4.00 
3.50 


T V tO H 

A to X 


$3.00 

2.50 



The above charges are for labor in making splices at our works, and do 
not include the additional 20 to 30 feet of rope used in making the splice. A 
special charge will be made for splicing done elsewhere, such charge depend- 
ing on the circumstances of each individual case. 

Exact lengths of endless transmission ropes should be specified, or else 
the exact distance from center to center of wheels, together with circumference 
of wheels. 



American Wire Rope 



227 



Wire Rope Slings 




228 American Steel and Wire Company 

Wire Rope Slings 

On the preceding page are illustrated two kinds of wire rope slings 
selected from the many which may be made. Also several special rope 
fittings, the use of which is self explanatory. 

A. Socket and swivel hook. 

B. Socket and hook. 

C. Self-locking swivel hook. 

Sling " D " as shown is equipped with two hooks, " E " and " F," but it is 
frequently made with special round links instead of the hooks. Such a 
modified sling is useful for handling heavy shafting, dynamos, motors, etc., or 
several slings may be used to lift locomotives or similar machinery. 

Sling " G " consists of a wire rope spliced endless. This may be passed 
around a block of stone or similar object and the end of the loop put into 
a crane or derrick hook. 

Where extra strong slings are required, these are made in such a manner 
as to give maximum strength. 

Suggestions for other types of slings are shown on page 71. 

In ordering slings for special work, a blue print or sketch with full 
particulars should accompany each order. 



American Wire Rope 



229 



Extra Flexible Plow Steel Pulling-in Cables 

8 Strands 19 Wires Each 1 Hemp Center 

Thimble spliced in one end. 

Thimble, swivel and sister hooks spliced in other end. 







Diameter of Rope 
in Inches 


List Prices of Rope 
Per Foot 


List Prices of Thimble 
Spliced In 


List Prices of Thimble, Swivel 
and Sister Hooks Complete 
Spliced In 


# 


$0.21 


$1.55 


$5.90 




.18 


1.30 


5.00 


y* 


.16 


1.25 


4.70 


7 


.15 


1.20 


4.00 


y* 


.14 


1.15 


3.70 


A 


.18* 


1.10 


3.20 



230 



American Steel and Wire Company 



These cables are used for pulling electrical cables into underground con- 
duits, and for cleaning sewers. The sister hooks snap into the eye of a wire 
pulling grip that is attached to the end of the cable to be drawn into the con- 
duit. The thimble end of the rope is wound on a small drum or hand winch. 
The most common sizes are ^ inch and ^ inch diameter. The lengths vary 
from 300 feet to 600 feet, measured from pull of thimble to pull of sister hooks. 

In ordering, state diameter of conduit or pipe in which rope is to be used. 

Directions for Splicing Wire Rope 

The tools required are a small marline-spike, nipping cutters, and either 
clamps or a small hemp rope sling with which to wrap around and untwist the 
rope. If a bench vise is accessible, it will be found very convenient for 
holding the rope. 

In splicing rope, a certain length is used up in making the splice. An 
allowance of not less than 16 feet for ^-inch rope, and proportionately longer 
for larger sizes, must be added to the length of an endless rope, in ordering. 

This extra length is equal to the distance "EE" in Fig 1, page 232. 
The additional length recommended for making a splice in different sizes of 
wire rope is as follows : 



Diameter of Rope 
in Inches 


Extra Length Allowed 
for the Splice, Feet 


Diameter of Rope 
in Inches 


Extra Length Allowed 
for the Splice, Feet 


H 


16 


1 


32 


/2 


16 


1# 


36 


% 


20 


IX 


40 


X 


24 


1# 


44 


ft 


28 







Having measured carefully the length the rope should be after splicing 
and marked the points J/and M' (Fig. 1), unlay the strands from each end 
E and E' to M and J/', and cut off the hemp center at M and M' , and then : 

First. Interlock the six unlaid strands of each end alternately, cutting 
off the hemp centers at M and M' and draw wire strands together, so that the 
points J/and M' meet, as shown in Fig. 2. 

Second. Unlay a strand from one end, and following the unlay closely, 
lay into the seam or groove it opens the strand opposite it belonging to the 
other end of the rope, until there remains a length of strand equal in inches to 
the length of splice EE in feet, e. g., the straight end of the inlaid strand A 
on one-half inch rope equal 16 inches for 16-foot splice. Then cut the other 
strand to about the same length from the point of meeting, as shown at A 
(Fig. 3). 

Third. Unlay the adjacent strand in the opposite direction, and following 
the unlay closely, lay in its place the corresponding opposite strand, cutting 
the ends as described before at B (Fig. 3). 

The four strands are now laid in place terminating at A and' B, with the 
eight remaining at J/and M\ as shown in Fig. 3. 



American Wire Rope 



231 




It will be well after laying each pair of strands to tie them temporarily at 
the points A and B. 

Pursue the same course with the remaining four pairs of opposite strands, 
stopping each pair of strands so as to divide the space between A and B into 

five equal parts, as shown in Fig. 4, and cutting 
the ends as before. 

All the strands are now laid in their proper 
places with their respective ends passing each 
other, as shown in Fig. 4. 

All methods of rope splicing are identical 
up to this point ; their variety consists in the 
method of securing the ends. One good way 
is as follows : 

Clamp the rope either in a vise at a point to the left of A (Fig. 4), and by 
a hand clamp applied near A open up the rope by untwisting sufficiently to cut 
the hemp core at A, and seizing it with the nippers, let your assistant draw it 
out slowly. Then insert a marlin spike under the two nearest strands to open 
up the rope and starting the loose strand into the space left vacant by the hemp 
center, rotate the marlin spike so as to run the strand into the center. Cut the 
hemp core where the strand ends, and push the end of hemp back into its place. 
Remove the clamps and let the rope close together around it. Draw out the 
hemp core in the opposite direction and lay the other strand in the center of 
the rope in the same manner. Repeat the operation at the five remaining 
points, and hammer the rope lightly at the points where the ends pass each 
other at A, A ', jS, B ', etc., with small wooden mallets, and the splice is 
complete, as shown in Fig. 5. 

If a clamp and vise are not obtainable, two rope slings and short wooden 
levers may be used to untwist and open up the rope. 

A rope spliced as above will be nearly as strong as the original rope, and 
smooth everywhere. After running a few days, the splice, if well made, cannot 
be pointed out except by the close examination of an expert. 




American 
Steel and 
Wire Co. 

2.32 



M 



C\l 




ffl 







234 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Power Transmitted by Wire Rope 

A table showing the proper relation between the rope and wheels used in 
transmitting power by means of wire rope, and approximately the amount of 
power that may be thus transmitted. The calculations are based upon a rope 
of the 6 strand, 7 wires per strand construction, as described on page 121. 



Diameter 
of Wheel in 
Feet 


Number of 
Revolutions 
per Minute 


Diameter 
of Rope 


Horse- 
power 


Diameter 
of Wheel in 
Feet 


Number of 
Revolutions 
per Minute 


Diameter 
of Rope 


Horse- 
power 


3 


80 


tf 


3 


7 


140 


A 


35 


3 


100 


3 A 


3^ 


8 


80 


H 


26 


3 


120 


H 


4 


8 


100 


H 


32 


3 


140 


H 


4^ 


8 


120 


H 


39 


4 


80 


3 A 


4 


8 


140 


% 


45 














T 9 6 


47 


4 


100 


H 


5 


9 


80 


H 


48 














A 


58 


4 


120 


ft 


6 


9 


100 


H 


60 














T 9 fi 


69 


4 


140 


x 


7 


9 . 


120 


# 


73 














A 


82 


5 


80 


TV 


9 


9 


140 


H 


84 














ft 


64 


5 


100 


T ? 6 


.11 


10 


80 


H 


68 














# 


80 


5 


120 


T\ 


13 


10 


100 


II 


85 

Qft 


5 


140 


A 


15 


10 


120 


7 
tt 


7U 

102 














3 


112 


6 


80 


X 


14 


10 


140 


11 


119 
93 


6 


100 


y* 


17 


12 


80 


3? 


99 














tt 


116 


6 


120 


y* 


20 


12 


100 





124 














H 


140 


6 


140 


% 


23 


12 


120 





149 


7 


80 


A 


20 


12 


120 


^ 


173 
















141 


7 


100 


A 


, 25 


14 


80 


W 


148 














i 


176 


7 


120 


A 


30 


14 


100 


IX 


185 



Comparatively few places now use wire rope for power transmission only, but the 
above table gives data sufficient for such cases. 



American Wire Rope 



235 



Weights of Materials Handled by Wire Rope 



Material 


Weight per 
Cubic Foot 


Material 


Weight per 
Cubic Foot 




166.5 
96 

55- 66 

38 
87 
504-524 
100 
125 
135 
140-150 
112-140 
450 
60 
78 
42 
35 
120-150 
50- 55 
84 
63 
120-140 
554 
72- 80 
82- 92 

90-100 
104-120 
35 
162 
164 
156-172 
1208 
48 
160-170 
90-106 
143 
24 
53 

58.7 
317 
327 
245 
239 
450 
480 


Lead 


710 

53-75 
170-200 

109 
35- 53 
49 
160-180 

144-165 
183 
90-100 
80-110 
120 

59 

48 

55 
25-30 
34 
45 
1344 

165 
69 

45- 49 
90-106 
118-129 
144 
162 
655 
175 
5- 12 
166-175 
25 
490 
125 
37 

62 
110-120 
459 
170-200 
20- 30 

38 
62.3 

437 


Anthracite, Pennsylvania, solid 
Anthracite, Pennsylvania, 


Lime, quick, loose .... 
Limestone . 


Magnesium 
Mahogany, dry 






Asphaltum 
Brass . .... 


Maple, dry 
Marble 
Masonry, granite, limestone or 
sandstone 
Mica 
Mortar 
Mud, dry 
Mud, wet, maximum 

Oak live dry 




Brick hard 




Brick, fire 




Cement, Portland, loose . . 
Cement, Rosendale, loose . 


Oak, white, dry 


Cherry, dry ...... 
Chestnut, dry 
Clay 


Petroleum 


Pine, white, dry 
Pine, yellow, Northern . 
Pine, yellow, Southern . 
Platinum 


Coal, broken, bituminous . 
Coal, solid, bituminous 
Coke ..... 


Concrete 
Copper 
Earth, common loam, loose . 
Earth, common loam, shaken 
Earth, common loam, rammed 


Quartz 




Salt . ... 


Sand, dry and loose .... 
Sand, perfectly wet .... 


Earth, as soft as flowing mud 


Shales, red or black .... 


Felspar 
Flint . ... 


Slate 


Glass 


Snow 


Gold 
Grain at 60 pounds per bushel 


Soapstone . ... 




Steel 


Oravpl 




Gypsum (plaster of Paris) . 
Hemlock dry 


Sycamore 


Tar 


Hickory dry 


Tile 


Tre 


Tin, cast 


Iron ore, magnetic .... 
Iron ore, red hematite . 
Iron ore, brown hematite . 
Iron ore, spathic .... 
Iron cast . ... 


Trap rock 


Turf or peat, dry .... 

Walnut, black, dry .... 
Water, pure 

Zinc 


Iron, wrought 





236 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Numbers and Dimensions of Reels 

For Wire Rope and Strand Worcester Works 



No. 


Diameter 
of Head in 
Inches 


Diameter 
of Barrel in 
Inches 


Width 
Inside in 
Inches 


Width 
Outside in 
Inches 


Arbor Hole 
in Inches 


Average 
Weight in 
Pounds 


W600 


6 


4X 


IX 


2 


2 


1 


W601 


6 


4X 


2 


2% 


2 


1 


W 602 


8 


4^ 


5/2 


1% 


2 


2 


W 603 


8 


4X 


5/2 


1% 


IX 


2 


W604 


20 


9 


8 


11# 


2^ 


12 


W605 


28 


14 


13/2 


18 


3^ 


32 


W 606 


32 


15# 


18# 


18 


3X 


82 


W 607 


32 


16 


15 


19# 


7X 


80 


W'608 


38 


20 


22^ 


27X 


^X 


165 


W609 


44 


24 


23 


27K 


7X 


190 


W610 


50 


28 


32 


37X 


^X 


340 


W611 


56 


30 


35X 


42 


7X 


475 


W 612 


56 


30 


41 # 


48 


?x 


490 


W613 


60 


30 


41 & 


48 


7^ 


550 


W614~ 


66 


30 


41# 


48 


7X 


610 


W615 


50 


25X 


16 


19# 


nx 


320 


W617 


35 


16# 


18# 


18 


3X 


80 


W618 


36 


15# 


u# 


18 


3X 


85 


W619 


72 


30 


47 


53X 


7X 


1045 


W622 


80 


40 


47^ 


58 


16^ 


1800 


W623 


84 


40 


60^ 


71 


16^ 


2000 


W624 


90 


40 


60X 


73 


1Q/2 


2600 


W625 


90 


40 


72 


84 


W/2 


3100 


W 626 


94 


40 


72 


84 


16^ 


4000 


W 627 


102 


42 


85 


98 


16^ 


6000 


W628 


112 


44 


89 


102 


16^ 


6100 


W629 


116 


44 


85 


98 


16^ 


6500 


W630 


28 


18# 


13# 


18 


3X 


32 


W 631 


92 


40 


44^ 


52 


16^ & 9 


3600 


W633 


50 


28 


23 


28X 


7X 


360 


W634 


56 


40 


34 


40X 


7X 


500 


W635 


60 


40 


35^ 


42 


7X 


580 


W636 


66 


36 


33^ 


40 


7X 


650 


W 638 


80 


36 


32^ 


39 


7X 


1600 


W 641 


35 


24 


16 


20^ 


?X 


106 


W 642 


50 


28 


32 


37X 


7X 


372 


W643 


44 


24 


22^ 


27 


^X 


642 


W644 


100 


36 


40 


53 


16^ 


2900 


W645 


78 


36 


42 


53 


16X 


1600 


W646 


20 


9 


8 


11^ 


2/s 


25 


W 647 


10 


3X 


6 


9^ 


ft 


10 


W648 


15 


6 


4X 


8X 


ft 


16# 


W649 


24 


10 


20^ 


24 


3X 


38 


W650 


22 


10 


19 


22^ 


3X 


35 


W651 


28 


14 


18# 


17 


4 


51 


W 653 


12 


4X 


5/2 


7X 


2 


4 


W654 


16 


10 


8 


10^ 


2^ 


11 


W655 


42 


30 


23 


27^ 


7X 


160 


W656 


12 


4 


5X 


7 


IA 


6 


W657 


12 


4^ 


6X 


8/2 


i# 


6 



American Wire Rope 



237 



Tensile Strength, Manila and Wire Rope Compared 

Approximate Breaking Stress Calculated in Tons of 2,OOO Pounds 



Diameter 


Wire Transmission Rope. One hemp 
core surrounded by six strands of seven 
wires each. 


Wire Hoisting Rope. One hemp core 
surrounded by six strands of nineteen 
wires each. 


Average 
Quality 
New 


















Inches 


Iron 


Crucible 
Cast 
Steel 


Extra 
Strong 
Crucible 


Plow 
Steel 


Iron 


Crucible 
Cast 
Steel 


Extra 
Crucible 


Plow 
Steel 


Manila 
Rope 








Cast Steel 








Cast Steel 








Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


2^ 










111 


211 


243 


275 


26 


2*2 










92 


170 


200 


229 


21 


^/2 

23/ 










72 


133 


160 


186 


17 


/^T 

2 










55 


106 


123 


140 


13^ 


1 










44 


85 


99 


112 


- Lt '/2 

11 


/*T 

IH 










38 


72 


83 


94 


9jZ 


/*> 

1# 


32 


63 


73 


82 


33 


64 


73 


82 


8 /2 


w 


28 


53 


63 


72 


28 


56 


64 


72 


7 


IX 


23 


46 


54 


60 


22.8 


47 


53 


58 


6 


1# 


19 


37 


43 


47 


18.6 


38 


43 


47 


5 


1 


15 


31 


35 


38 


14.5 


30 


34 


38 


4' 


# 


12 


24 


28 


31 


11.8 


23 


26 


29 


3 


K 


8.8 


18.6 


21 


23 


8.5 


17.5 


20.2 


23 


2X 


# 


6 


13 


14.5 


16 


6 


12.5 


14 


15.5 


$ 


A 


4.8 


10 


11 


12 


4.7 


10 


11.2 


12.3 


1# 


# 


3.7 


7.7 


8.85 


10 


3.9 


8.4 


9.2 


10 


1 


TV 


2.6 


5.5 


6.25 


7 


2.9 


6.5 


7.25 


8 


# 


H 


2.2 


4.6 


5.25 


5.9 


2.4 


4.8 


5.30 


5.75 


% 


T 5 * 


1.7 


3.5 


3.95 


4.4 


1.5 


3.1 


3.50 


3.8 


3 /* 


A 


1.2 


2.5 


2.95 


3.4 













5 










1.1 


2,2 


2,43 


2.65 


5 











Signal Strand Reels 

All Works 



No. 


Diameter 
of Head in 
Inches 


Diameter 
of Barrel in 
Inches 


Width 
Inside in 
Inches 


Width 
Outside in 
Inches 


Arbor Hole 
in Inches 


Average 
Weight in 
Pounds 


700 


42 


20 


24 


27^ 


2% 


150 


701 


38 


20 


24 


27^ 


2% 


115 


702 


36 


20 


24 


27M 


2^ 


105 


703 


35 


16 


14M 


18 


2j| 


80 


704 


35 


16 


13^ 


17 


2% 


75 


705 


34 


12 


16 


19K 


2% 


80 


706 


32 


12 


16 


WK 


2^ 


70 


707 


32 


12 


13K 


17 


2% 


65 


708 


32 


16 


14M 


18 


2K 


68 


709 


30 


12 


16 


19H 


2K 


60 


710 


28 


12 


16 


19 


2y 2 


53 


711 


28 


12 


18 


17 


2% 


47 


712 


26 


12 


12 


15^ 


2M 


40 


713 


24 


12 


12 


15^ 


2^ 


35 


714 


22 


12 


12 


15M 


2% 


32 


715 


20 


12 


12 


15j| 


2% 


27 


716 


20 


12 


8 


11^ 


2% 


23 


717 


18 


12 


12 


M>j| 


.Zvg 


25 


718 


28 


13 Yz 


16 


19K 


1% 


32 


719 


28 


13^ 


14M 


18 


f>&7 


32 


720 


26 


13*1 


16 


1H 


1% 


28 


721 


26 


13Jfc 


12 


15^ 


IM 


26 


722 


26 


16 


14K 


18 


2^ 


27 


723 


24 


13 


12 


15^ 


1 


20 


724 


24 


16 


14H 


18 


2V? 


23 


725 


22 


13 


12 


15Ji 


1% 


18 


726 


22 


18H 


14K 


18 


2H 


19 


727 


20 


12 


12 


15H 


1% 


14 


728 


20 


10 


8 


11 jl 


2S 


12 


729 


18 


12 


12 


I5H 


1% 


11 



238 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Numbers and Capacity of Reels in Feet of Different 

Sizes of Rope 



Diam. 








N 


o, of Reel 










Weight 


in 
Inches 


653 


646 


651 


606 


607 


641 


617 


608 


609 


in 
Pounds 


J/ 




2000 


5000 








10000 






.10 


JL 




1800 


4000 


5280 


5280 










.12^ 


3 6* 

re 
# 

$ 


H 

7/R 


650 

450 
330 
250 

200 
160 


1500 

1000 
800 
600 

500 

400 
250 


3000 

2500 
1500 
1150 

900 
700 
500 


5000 

4000 
3300 
2500 

2000 
1500 
1000 

800 


5000 

4000 
3300 

2500 

2000 
1500 
1000 

800 


1800 
1500 
1000 

800 


8000 

5000 
3600 
3000 

2400 
1800 
1000 

900 


11000 

8000 
6000 
5000 

3500 
2800 
1700 

1100 


15000 

11000 
8000 
6000 

4800 
3900 
2500 

1900 


.15 

.22 
.30 
.39 

.50 
.62 

.89 

1.20 


1' 

1 1 A 


. . . 







600 


600 


600 


800 
600 


1000 
700 


1400 
1200 


1.58 
2 


I 1 / 


















900 


2 45 


A 7 

13% 


















800 


3 


1 14 


















700 


3.55 


1/2 
























633 


610 


642 


635 


611 


612 


613 


614 


619 




JL 




14000 
















.30 


V-> 


8000 


10000 


10000 


14500 


16000 


16000 








.39 


T 9 6 

# 

# 
# 

1 

1# 

IX 

1H 

IK 
1# 

1# 

2 


5000 
3400 
2500 

1800 
1400 
1100 

950 
750 


8250 

6000 
4200 
3400 

2500 
2000 
1600 

1300 
1150 
900 

750 


8250 

6000 
4200 
3400 

2500 
2000 
1600 

1300 
1150 
900 

750 


11400 

9200 
6400 
4750 

3600 
2800 
2300 

1900 
1600 
1350 

1100 


12000 

10000 
6500 
5200 

3900 
3000 
2500 

2000 
1800 
1400 

1200 
900 


13000 

11000 
7200 
6000 

4100 
3200 
2600 

2100 
1800 
1500 

1300 
1000 


15000 

14000 
9400 
7200 

5500 
4500 
3600 

3000 
2400 
2000 

1750 
1200 


17000 
12500 
9000 

7700 
5400 
4400 

3600 
3100 
2600 

2200 
1700 


26000 
20000 
13700 

10000 
8200 
6700 

5500 
4650 
4000 

3400 
2600 


.50 

.63 
.89 
1.20 

1.58 
2 
2.45 

3 
3.55 
4.15 

4.85 
6.30 


2 5/ 










700 


800 


1000 


1300 


2000 


8 


2^ 












650 


750 


1100 


1650 


9.85 


2 












550 


600 


900 


1350 


11.95 

























Reels mentioned are those most generally used. 



American Wire Rope 



239 



Wire Rope Glossary 



Abrasion. External or surface wear on the wires of 
a cable. Amount of abrasion is a partial criterion of 
service given by a cable. 

Aeroplane Mrand. A small seven or nineteen-wire 
galvanized strand made from high strength plow 
steel wire. Also made from crucible steel. 

Ammunition Hoists. A device for hoisting ammu- 
nition from the magazine of a warship to guns by 
means of wire rope. 

Anchorage Bolts. Foundation bolts to which a wire 
rope socket is attached on a cableway or bridge. 

Arc Light Rope. A rope consisting of nine strands 
of four or seven galvanized wires and hemp center 
used for supporting arc lights. 



Back Haul Derrick. A derrick using a single or 
double end line on which a multiplying tackle is used 
on the back of the mast to increase power of hoisting 
engine. 

Bail of a Socket. The U-shaped loop on a closed 
socket. 

Ballast Unloaders. A device consisting of a V-- 
shaped plow, a large wire rope and an engine with 
geared propelling drum ; used for stripping flat cars 
of gravel, rock, etc., in railroad or excavation work. 

Basket of a Socket. The hollow conical tapered 
part of a socket into which a wire rope is inserted. 

Bending Stress. Stress produced in a wire rope 
when it is bent around a sheave or drum. It varies 
with the construction of the rope and the diameter of 
the sheave or drum. It is constant for a fixed ratio 
of drum to rope diameter for a given construction of 
rope. 

Bicycle Cord. A small rope consisting of nineteen 
strands of three wires each, made either from crucible 
or plow steel. 

Boom Fall Hoist. A rope on a derrick for support- 
ing and also for raising and lowering the boom. 
Usually used with four to nine parts in the hoisting 
block. 

Brake Cables. Short pieces of galvanized flexible 
steel cables used on electric cars to give spring to the 
braking mechanism. 

Breaking Strength. The load which a wire rope 
will stand at the point of rupture. 

Breaking Stress. Stress induced in a wire rope at 
the point of breaking and corresponds to breaking 
strength. 

Breaking Strain. Strain produced in a material at 
the point of rupture. Is not synonymous with the 
term breaking stress. It is the stress that produces 
the strain. 

Bridge Crane. A crane for outdoor work consisting 
of a fixed girder attached to movable towers, which 
span a given place. 

Bridge Socket. A (special) type of wire rope socket 
used especially for suspension bridge work and large 
aerial cableways. It is made in two types, viz. : 
open and closed, the former consisting of a casting 
with tapered conical hole into which cable is inserted, 
spread and held up, filling the interstices with babbitt, 
lead or zinc, and also two eye bolts, nut and pins ; 
the closed type being similar except that it consists 
of a U-bolt instead of two eye bolts. 

Bright Rope. Any wire rope that is not galvanized 
or tinned. 

Brittle ness. A condition of crystallization. Shown 
by inability of wire to stand bending when new. 

Bucket Dredge. A dredge having a series of buckets 
propelled by an endless chain. 

Bull Sheave. A large single grooved deflecting 
sheave used in wire rope applications. 

Button Rope. A wire rope used on a cableway to 
distribute the trail carriers by means of special 
clamps fastened to the rope. 



Cable. An indeterminate name applied frequently to 
a wire rope. It may consist of stranded, or twisted, 
or bunched wires, or it may be made of fibrous ma- 
terial. 



Cableine. A wire rope dressing of a black, sticky 

nature. 
Cable Laid. Twisted or laid together like a cable. 

Usually applied to a compound rope construction, 



e. g., 6 x ti xJ7. Also sometimes called hawser laid. 

>le 

E se 
toget 
Cable Road. A tramway or street railroad operated 



Cable Laid Rope. A compound laid rope consisting 
of several ropes or several layers of strands laid 
ether into one rope, e. g., 6 x 6 x 7. 



by means of an endless wire rope furnishing power, 
and cars propelled therefrom by means of detachable 
grips. 

Cableway. A movable piece of machinery consisting 
of two towers and a cable hung between them for 
conveying bulk material intermittently back and 
forth. 

Car Dumper. A machine for raising and tilting cars 
to unload contents into bins or chutes, used princi- 
pally for coal and iron ore. 

Cargo Hoist. A derrick hoist rigged to a mast on 
shipboard for unloading and loading boats. 

Carrier. A moving traveler used on a cableway car- 
riage consisting of a frame and suitable sheave sheels. 

Carriage Rope. A rope for pulling the carriage of a 
cableway back and forth. 

Casing Lines. A line used with a multiplying tackle 
block for placing the casing on an oil well and raising 
or lowering the same. 

Center. The heart of core around which the strands 
of a wire rope are laid. It may be cotton, hemp, 
jute, manila or a steel twisted strand or rope. 

Checker. A short length of wire rope used in logging 
operations to attach to a lot to pull it to the loading 
point. 

Circumference. The distance around a wire rope, 
used more frequently in designating the size of ships' 
rigging and hawsers. 

Clam Shell Bucket. A bucket consisting of two 
movable scoops hinged together resembling some- 
what a gigantic clam, from which it derives its name. 
It is largely employed for handling ore, coal, etc. 

Closed Socket. A rope fastening device consisting 
of a casting or forging consisting of a U-shaped bail 
and a tapered conical hole into which the end of a 
wire rope is spread out and held by filling the inter- 
stices with babbitt, lead or zinc. 

Closing Rope. A wire rope used on a clam shell or 
orange peel bucket for shutting or closing the bucket 
and scooping up the load. 

Coal Hoists. Consist usually of a movable hoisting 
tower and clam shell bucket with hoisting apparatus 
for same. Used for unloading coal from boats to 
cars, docks or stock pile. 

Coil. A circular bundle of rope or wire of any diam- 
eter. Also used in designating wire, etc. 

Concentric Strand. A geometrical collection of wires 
twisted helically and symmetrically in any number of 
layers about a central wire. All the wires in each 
layer are equidistant from the center of gravity on 
the strand. 

Conical Drum or Tapered Drum. A grooved drum 
of varying diameter designed to give variable speed 
to a mine hoist and other similar machinery. End 
of rope is usually attached to the small end of the 
drum. 

Conveying Rope. A wire rope used on a cableway 
for moving the carrier or load from one point to an- 
other. Also an endless rope used to handle material 
in bulk. 

Core. The center or heart of a wire rope and consists 
of wire, hemp, jute, manila, sisal or cotton, according 
to conditions. 

Corrosion. Oxidation or wearing away of a wire rope 
due to atmospheric conditions or moisture containing 
acid of acid fumes. Is usually present in mine work 
and where ropes are frequently wet. 

Counterweight Rope. A wire rope used on an ele- 
vator for supporting weight used in balancing the 
weight of empty cage or car ; also any rope used on 
machinery to counterbalance a piece which has to be 
moved more or less frequently. 

Crane Rope. A wire rope consisting of six strands of 
thirty-seven wires around a hemp center. 



240 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Cranes. A movable bridge or girder with hoisting 
apparatus for lifting and transferring machinery, etc 

Crosby Clip. A grooved casting and U-shaped bolt 
and nuts for fastening wire ropes together. Named 
from the patentee. 

Crystallization. The brittleness induced in a wire 
rope either from vibration or bending around too 
small sheaves. It is usually coincident with worn 
out condition of a wire rope. 

Crucible Steel. A carbon acid open hearth steel 
having a tensile strength of 150,000 to 200,000 pounds 
per square inch in finished wire. 

Cypress Skidder. Usually an overhead skidder for 
logging cypress and similar woods in swampy coun- 
try. Consists of a suspended cable, movable carriage 
and engine operating carriage and hoisting lines. 

Dead Line -Endless A flexible wire rope used 

ioi removing discarded oil well tubing. 
Dead Load. A quiet or steady load on a wire rope. 
Deflection. The amount of dip at the center in a 

cableway or bridge span of wire rope. 
Derrick. A general term for an apparatus consisting 

of a fixed mast and a movable boom for lifting the 

load. The mast is usually guyed at the top with six 

or more lengths of wire rope. 
Diameter. The normal unit of measurement of the 

size of a wire rope. It is the distance across a circle 

circumscribing the strands of the same. 
Digging Rope. A wire rope used on a clam shell or 

orange peel grab to close and fill the bucket without 

lifting the bucket. 

Dip. The sag in the center of a cable span. 
Dipper Dredge. A dredge equipped with a dipper for 

excavating under water. 
Double Galvanized Strand. Strand made from very 

heavy galvanized wire capable in most sizes of stand- 
ing four dip immersion test. 
Double Switch Rope. A switch rope with hook and 

link in one end and double link in other end. 
Dragon Rope. A 6 x 25 triangular flattened strand 

rope with alternate regular and lang lay strands, 

usually made with hemp center. 
Drilling Line. A wire rope of varying construction 

used for drilling oil wells from a depth of 800 feet 

and over. Drilling lines are usually made left lay. 
Drum. A round barrel upon which a wire rope is 

wound or stored when in use. 
Dump Rope. A wire rope used on a cableway to 

discharge by tilting a loaded bucket of material. 

Ears of a Socket. The two projections on an open 
socket through which is passed a pin. 

Elastic Limit. The point at which the ratio of stress 
to strain ceases to be a constant or the point beyond 
which the material, if further stressed, takes perma- 
nent set. 

Elongation. Amount of stretch in a material when 
stressed to breaking point. Usually expressed as a 
percentage. 

Elevator. A cage or car operated usually by wire 
cable for moving passengers or freight. 

Elevator Rope. Wire rope used for hoisting ele- 
vators. It is usually made of iron and composed of 
six strands, nineteen wires, one hemp core. 

Emergency Hawser. A very flexible steel hawser 
for emergency towing purposes. 

Endless Rope. A wire rope having two ends spliced 
together and made continuous. 

Extra Flexible Hoisting Rope. A rope consisting 
of eight strands of nineteen wires each with a large 
hemp center. 

Extra High Strength Strand. A plow steel strand 
made of extra galvanized wires. 

Extra Strong Crucible Steel. A carbon acid open 
hearth steel somewhat stronger than crucible steel. 
Tensile strength runs from 180,000 to 220,000 pounds 
per square inch. 

Eye Bolt. A bolt with a loop welded or forged in 
one end and the other end threaded. Used for an- 
chorage purposes on guys, etc. 

Eye. A thimble or loop spliced in the end of a wire 
rope. 

Factor of Safety. The number of times stronger a 
rope is than the load it has to carry. 



Fall Rope. The main hoisting rope of a derrick used 

in any number of parts. 
Fall Block. The main hoisting block of a derrick or 

cableway. 
Fall Rope Carrier. A device for supporting the 

operating rope on a cableway and preventing undue 



Fast Hoist. A machine for discharging cargoes of 
iron ore. 

Ferry Rope. A rope consisting of six strands, seven 
wires each, either bright or galvanized, used for 
guiding a ferry boat across a stream. 

Ferry Traveler. A carriage operating on a wire 
cable used for guiding a ferry boat across a river. 

Flat Drum. A drum of uniform diameter, usually 
smooth, but sometimes grooved. It is the common 
type in use. 

Flat Rope. A rope consisting of alternate right and 
left lay rope strands, each rope strand consisting of 
four strands of seven wires, all sewed together with 
a number of soft iron sewing wires. 

Flattened Strand Rope. A wire rope having non- 
cylindrical strands, usually of the oval or triangular 
type, so called from the fact that the center wire of 
each strand is an oval or a triangular wire. 

Flexibility. Pliability. A comparative term employed 
by rope users to distinguish between different con- 
structions as regards the ease of bending the com- 
pleted rope. 

Galvanized Rope. A rope made up f roin wires coated 
with zinc for protection from rust. 

Galvanized Signal Strand. A seven-wire strand 
made up from single galvanized wire ; sometimes 
made with nineteen wires. 

Glotzen. A wire rope dressing of a heavy nature used 
on mine rope haulage and hoisting. 

Grass Rope. A wire rope used in lumbering for pull- 
ing back a skidding line. 

Gravity Hoist. Any balanced hoist arranged so that 
the loaded car in descending an incline pulls an empty 
car back. This type of hoist is usually found in mine 
or quarry work, where the material has to be trans- 
ferred to a lower level. 

Gravity Plane. A balanced incline hoist where the 
empty car is pulled up by a loaded car descending 

Grip. An attachment for clamping to a moving cable 
to transmit power to cars, etc. 

Gripwheel. A special type of sheave equipped with 
numerous dogs whose sides grip a rope due to lateral 
pressure caused by tension on the rope. It takes the 
place of several wraps around a drum. 

Grooved Drum. A drum fitted with scores or grooves 
helically arranged to guide the rope in winding on 
and off. 

Grooves. Semi-circular channels cut in drums or 
sheaves to guide a wire rope in its winding or un- 
winding 

Ground Skidder. Consists of a donkey engine boiler 
and winding machinery for coiling a wire rope. It 
is used for pulling logs out of the woods by main 
strength. 

Grubber Rope. A strong plow steel rope used for 
clearing land from stumps after logging operations 

Guy Rope. A galvanized rope consisting usually of six 
strands of seven wires each and one hemp core used 
principally for derricks and ships' stranding rigging. 

Guy Strand. Galvanized seven-wire strand for guy- 
ing poles, smokestacks and such like. 

Hand Rope. A very flexible rope used to operate the 
valves on a hydraulic elevator or the clutch on a 
mechanical lift. It consists of six ropes each, com- 
posed of six strands of seven wires each and seven 
hemp cores. 

Hardness. An indefinite term allied to stiffness. Is 
really the measure of the resistance of a material to 
abrasion from outside sources. 

Haulage Rope. A rope usually composed of six 
strands, seven wires each, one hemp core. Used 
largely in mines, inclined planes, coal docks, etc. 

Hawser. A wire rope used on ships for towing pur- 
poses. Consist usually of six strands, thirty-seven 
wires, one hemp core, or six strands twenty-four 
wires, seven hemp cores. 



American Wire Rope 



241 



Haul Down Line. A wire rope used on a cableway 
for changing the length of the digging rope by means 
of a tackle block. 

Hay Press Wope. A rope used to operate a hay 
press, usually (5 x 19 or 8 x 19 construction. 

Head Hope. The pulling out rope on a mine haulage 
system. 

Head Sheave The sheave at the top of a mine shaft. 

Heart. The center or core of a rope usually of fibrous 
material. 

Hemp. A general term applied to manila, jute, sisal 
and other kindred fibers. Grows in many different 
countries. Originally a plant of the genus Cannabis, 
the fibrous skin of bark of which is used for cordage. 

High Strength Strand. A crucible steel strand com- 
posed of double galvanized wires. 

Hoisting Rope. A wire rope consisting of six strands 
of nineteen wires each, usually made with a hemp 
center. Also any rope used for lifting or hoisting a 
load. 

Holding Rope. The wire rope used on a clam shell 
or orange peel bucket for holding the empty bucket 
while opening to take the grab. 

Idler. Any supporting sheave for a wire rope. 
Inclined Plane. A system of wire rope application 

where the rope works up an incline. 
Inertia Is that property of a body by virtue of which 

it tends to continue in its state of rest or motion in- 
definitely unless acted upon by some external force. 
Inhaul Rope. A wire rope used on a cableway to 

pull the carriage back to landing or dumping point. 
Inlay. To insert or tuck a wire or strand or wind or 

twist together. 
Interlocked Tramway Strand. A concentric strand 

composed largely of special interlocking wires to 

make a smooth external surface. 
Iron. As applied to wire rope means a soft Bessemer 

or Basic steel of low phosphorous and sulphur 

content. 
Ironsides. A heavy wire rope dressing used in some 

mines for protecting rope. 

Jupiter Wire Rope Clip. A wire rope clip consist- 
ing of a swinging U-bolt and nut together with cast 
iron or steel gripping piece. 

Jute. The strong fiber of the East Indian Cochorus 
olitorius and Corchorus capsularis used for making 
bagging, cordage, paper, etc. 

Kinetic Energy. The energy possessed by a body 
due to its weight and velocity. May be applied to 
any wire rope problem, including moving rope and 
load. 

Kink. A short, sharp bend in a wire rope very inju- 
rious to the material composing it. 

Knock-off Hook A hook arranged with a latch 
which can be quickly fastened or released. 

Lang Lay. A wire rope in which both the wires in 

the strands and the strands in the rope are twisted in 

the same direction. 
Left Lay. A wire rope whose strands form a helix 

like a left-hand screw thread. Made by a right-hand 

revolution of the laying machine. 
Left Twist. Made by a left-hand rotation of the rope 

machine ; is also called right lay. 
Laid. Closed or twisted together, e. g., strands are 

laid into a rope. 
Lay. The pitch or angle of the helix of the wires or 

strands of a rope usually expressed by the ratio of the 

diameter of the strand or rope to one complete twist. 
Live Load A fluctuating, moving or changeable load. 
Lloyd's Hawser. A hawser composed of six strands, 

twenty-four wires and seven hemp cores. 
Load Factor. The quantity by which the actual 

weight of a load must be multiplied to get the stress 

corresponding thereto. See inclined planes, spans, 

etc. 
Loading Line. A short piece of wire rope used on a 

skidder for loading logs on to cars. 
Locomotive Crane. A boom crane mounted on a 

car capable usually of self propulsion from one point 

to another. 
Loop. A large eye of any size spliced in the end of 

wire rope. 



Manila. A fibrous hemp obtained from the Musa 
textilis, a plant allied to the banana, growing in the 
Philippine and other East India islands, called by 
the natives, " abaca." 

Marline. A small hemp twine used on ships for 
serving splices. 

Marline ^pike. A long tapered steel spike used in 
rope splicing for opening up a wire rope. 

Mast Arm Rope. The same as arc light rope. Con- 
sists of nine strands of four or seven wires each on 
hemp core. 

Messenger Lines. Lines or ropes used on shipboard 
for moving boats short distances at the docks to 
facilitate loading, etc. 

Messenger Strand. Seven-wire galvanized strand 
used for supporting lead-covered telephone cables. 

Modulus of Elasticity. The ratio of the load ap- 
plied per square inch to the extension in inches. Is 
known as Young's modulus. As applied to wire 
rope we deduct the permanent stretch from the total 
extension to get the true modulus. 

Monitor. The strongest and highest grade of plow 
steel for wire rope purpose. Runs from 220,000 to 
280.000 pounds per square inch, according to size. 

Mooring Hawser. A. short piece of galvanized wire 
rope used for mooring ships ; 6 x 1 2 construction 
sometimes used. 

Mooring Lines. Short lengths of galvanized hoist- 
ing or galvanized extra flexible hoisting rope with 
loops in one end, used for holding boats to the dock. 

Non-spinning Rope. A wire rope consisting of 
eighteen strands of seven wires each in two layers, 
the inner layer of six strands lang lay and left lay 
around a small hemp core, and the outer twelve 
strands regular lay, right-hand lay. Will carry a 
load on a single end without untwisting. 

Open Socket. A rope fastening device consisting of 
a casting or forging with a tapered conical hole into 
which the end of a wire rope is spread out and held by 
filling the interstices with lead, babbitt or zinc, latter 
material preferred. (Composed of a conical tapered 
basket with two ears and a pin through the ears ) 

Orange Peel Bucket. A clam shell bucket with four 
leaves resembling an orange with the peel partly 
opened up. 

Ore Bridge. A crane operated in connection with 
clam shell buckets for unloading iron ore. 

Outhaul Rope. A wire rope used on a cableway to 
haul the carriage from dumping to loading point. 

Overhead Skidder. One that uses an overhead line 
and traveller for skidding logs from swamps and 
similar places. 

Overwinding. The winding of one layer of rope over 
another on a drum. Very bad practice for any wire 
rope and should be avoided if possible. 

Pile Drivers. A hoisting engine and weight operated 
by a wire rope for setting piles. 

Pine Skidder. A semi-overhead skidder used for 
logging hard pine timber. 

Plow Steel. A medium high carbon acid open hearth 
steel having a tensile strength in finished wire from 
220,000 to 260,000 pounds per square inch, according 
to size. 

Pullboat. A boat used for logging operations. Car- 
ries engines and long lengths of wire rope. 

Pulley. A term sometimes applied to a sheave. 

Regular Lay. Strands twisted to the right and rope 

twisted to the left. Helix of the strands takes the 

direction of a right-hand screw thread. 
Reel. A round cylindrical wooden drum with two 

flanges around which wire rope is wound for shipping 

and storage purposes. 
Reverse Bending. Consists in passing of a wire 

rope over sheaves in different directions so that it 

alternates the strain in the wires from tension to 

compression, a condition very destructive to life of a 

wire rope. 
Reverse Laid. Alternate right and left lay strands 

in a wire rope. 
Reverse Laid Rope. A wire rope with alternate 

strands, right and left lay. 



242 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Rheostat Rope. A small rope consisting of eight 
strands of seven wires, used to operate controllers on 
electric cars. 

Right Lay. Known also as regular lay. Strands 
twisted to the right and rope twisted to the left. 
Corresponds to a right-hand screw thread. 

Right Twist. Corresponds to left lay, or to a left- 
hand screw thread. 

Rope Clips. A light compact fastening consisting of 
U-bolt, casting and two nuts for clamping together 
ends of a wire rope to make a loop, etc. The best 
type is known as the Crosby Clip. 

Rope Clamps. Consist of two castings and two or 
three bolts for clamping together the ends of a wire 
rope to make a loop. 

Rope Dressing. Any compound applied to a wire 
rope for lubricating or preserving it. 

Rope Drive. Term applied to wire rope application 
for power transmission. 

Rope Laid. A term applied to a rope composed of a 
number of small ropes laid together into a larger 
rope. Also applied to a rope composed of the ordin- 
ary number of strands and wires in contradistinction 
to concentric laid. 

Rope Lubricant. A mixture having for its base an 
oil or grease adapted to reducing friction on a wire 
rope, particularly in passing over sheaves or drums. 

Rope Wire. A general term for wire used in making 
wire rope, but usually means crucible or plow steel 
grades. 

Running Rope. A flexible rope used largely on ship- 
board usually composed of six strands, twelve wires 
each and seven hemp cores. 

Sag. Amount of deflection at center of a cable span 

when both ends of cable are at same level. 
Selvage. An early type of wire rope not used now. 

It consists of a bundle of straight wires. 
Sand Line. A small rope of six strands, seven wires, 

used for pumping out sand and water from oil wells 

during the process of drilling. 
Sash Cord. A small rope consisting of six strands, 

seven wires, one hemp core, used for window weights, 

car curtains, etc ; sizes % inch and smaller. Is used 

galvanized or plain. 
Scale Patent. A special strand and construction 

made in one operation consisting of one large center 

wire surrounded by nine small wires and then by nine 

large wires, making nineteen in all. 
Seize. To wrap or wind closely with wires or marline, 



e. g., a thimble splice is seized. 
eizit 



Seizing Strand. A small galvanized seven-wire 
strand used on shipboard for serving rope splices, 
usually made l /$ inch diameter and smaller. 

Semaphore Strand. A signal strand used on rail- 
roads to operate signals, and made of galvanized 
wires. 

Serve. To wrap closely with marline, wire or strand. 
All thimble and eye rope splices are sewed. 

Sewing Wire. A soft iron wire for sewing flat 
ropes. 

Shackles. A U-shaped clevis with pin for fastening 
for connecting two pieces of wire rope. 

Shears. Machinery arranged in connection with wire 
rope for hoisting materials in bulk. An indefinite 
term for a semi-derrick apparatus. 

Sheave. A round grooved wheel around which a 
wire rope is passed on machinery. 

Ship's Rigging. A term applied usually to a gal- 
vanized rope of six strands, seven wires, one hemp 
core which is used for guying masts, etc. 

Side Line. A wire rope used to move logs sidewise 
in connection with a ground skidder. 

Siemens Martin Steel. A grade of steel interme- 
diate in strength between iron and crucible steel. 
Used largely for special grade of strand known as 
S. M. strand. 

Signal Strand. Unusually consists of a seven-wire 
galvanized strand. 

Single Galvanized Strand. Strand made from sin- 
gle galvanized wire. 

Single Switch Rope. A switch rope with hook in 
one end and one link in the other end. 

Sisal. A hemp fiber prepared from the Agave Amer- 
icans or American aloe. It is a cactus growing in 
Yucatan and is named from the port of Sisal. 



Sister Hooks. A pair of hooks, right and left hand, 
arranged to prevent the hooks from slipping out 
under load. Used largely for electric cable instal- 
lation in underground ducts. 

Skidding Line. A wire rope used for skidding logs. 

Skidding Hachine. A machine used for logging 
purposes. 

Skip Hoist. A term applied to apparatus on a blast 
furnace for charging it with ore, coke and limestone. 

Skip Rope. A wire rope attached to a skip or car in 
a mine or blast furnace hoist. 

Sling. A short piece of wire rope especially equipped 
for binding together or holding any load that is to be 
hoisted or moved from one point to another by means 
of derrick crane or other appliance. Sometimes 
made endless. 

Snatch Block. A quickly detachable wire rope block 
used in lumbering for side lining purposes. 

Socket. A rope fastening device consisting of a cast- 
ing or forging with a tapered conical hole into which 
the end of a wire rope is spread out and held by fill- 
ing the interstices with babbitt, lead or zinc, the 
latter material preferred. The best known type of 
rope fastening, as well as the strongest and most 
efficient. 

Span. The distance between the supporting points of 
a wire cable suspended between two towers. 

Special Flexible Hoisting Rope. A wire rope con- 
sisting of six strands, thirty-seven wires and one 
hemp core. 

Splice. The method of uniting two separate pieces of 
wire rope, or of making an eye or loop in the end of 
the same. 

Spud Rope. A wire rope used for raising and lower- 
ing the spuds on a dredge boat. 

Standing Rope. Another term applied to galvanized 
guy rope which consists of six strands, seven wires, 
one hemp core. 

Step Socket. A series of sockets, one behind the 
other, for fastening successive layers of wires on a 
tramway strand. Used principally one interlocked 
strand, although not necessary as ordinary bridere 
socket will hold. 

Stone Sawing Strand. A short lay three-ply strand 
for sewing limestone rock. 

Strand, n and v. A geometrically arranged and 
helically and regularly twisted assembly of wires. 
To strand is to become untwisted or opened up. 

Stranded. The state of having become loosened up 
or untwisted as applied to a strand. 

Street Railway Cable. A wire cable used for street 
railway purposes. 

Stump Pulling Rope. Otherwise known as grubber 

Sucker Rod. A heavy seven-wire galvanized strand 
used for operating a number of oil well pumps from 
a central power plant. 

Suction Dredge. A dredge consisting of a rotary 
cutter for churning up mud and rock, and suction 
pumps for carrying the mud to spoil point. Operated 
by two wire ropes known as swinging cables. 

Suspended Skidder. A type of overhead skidder 
used in lumbering operations. 

Suspension Bridge. A bridge held or carried by 
two or more cables, e. g., Brooklyn bridge, etc. 

Suspension Bridge Cable. A cable used in con- 
struction of a suspension bridge consisting in large 
sizes of straight wires laid parallel and bound together. 
They are usually constructed in position. 

Swinging Cable. Wire rope used for swinging 
dredges, steam shovels, etc. 

Swinging Rope. Same as swinging cable. 

Switching Rope. A short length of rope equipped 
with hook one end and link other end, or with hook 
and link one end and double link other end, used for 
railroad shipping. 

Swivel Socket. A socket with swivel eye in the end. 

Tackle Block. A collection of sheaves around which 

a wire rope is passed. 
Tag Line. A light wire rope used in lumbering to 

return the skidding line. 
Tail Rope. A wire rope used in mine haulage for 

pulling the head rope back into the mine. 
Tail Sheaves. A sheave for taking up slack in a 

wire rope system. 



American Wire Rope 



243 



Taper Rope. A wire rope made of gradually de- 
creased size of wire. A beautiful theory but very bad 
practice commercially. 

Thimble. An oval steel reinforcement piece around 
which a wire rope is bent when splicing an eye in a 
piece of rope. It also serves as a protector against 
internal chafing from pin which goes through the eye. 

Tightener. A sheave used for taking up slack on a 
wire rope drive. 

Tiller Rope. A rope consisting of six ropes of six 
strands each, seven wires and seven hemp cores used 
originally for steering gear on boats but now almost 
exclusively for hand ropes or elevators. 

Tinned Rope. A wire rope composed of tinned wires. 
Rarely made and used only in sash cord. 

Torsion. The twisting of a. wire about its neutral axis. 

Towing Hawser. A large flexible wire rope made 
of galvanized wires. Usual construction, 6 x 37 or 
6x24. 

Track Strand. A concentric type of strand used for 
cableway spans. Made with a smooth outside surface 
for wheels to run on. 

Trail Carrier. A device for supporting inhaul and 
outhaul ropes on a wire rope cableway to prevent 
undue sagging. 

Tramway. A combination wire rope system for 
transferring material in frequent small amounts con- 
tinuously. 

Transmission Rope. A wire rope composed of six 
strands, seven wires each and one hemp core. Also 
a rope spliced endless for transmitting power from a 
distance. 

Traveller. A block containing supporting sheaves 
and rope sheaves for use on cableway or ferry. 

Triangular Flattened Strand Rope. A six-strand 
Lang lay rope with a triangular center wire around 
which the strand is twisted. 

Trolley. A combination carriage used on a cableway 
for running back and forth on the main cable. 

Trolley Rope. A wire rope used to operate a trolley 
or carrier on a cableway or similar apparatus. 

Tubing Lines. Wire rope used for placing oil well 
tubing. 

Tuck. The finishing operation of a wire rope splice 
consisting of inserting the strand into the center of 
the rope. 



Turnbuckle. Two nuts connected by two bars, one 
with right and one with left-hand threaded nuts ; and 
bolts equipped with eyes, clevises or hooks for taking 
up slack in cables and similar work. 

Twist. To form a strand or rope. 

Twisted. Any collection of wires or strands formed 
helically together. 

Universal Lay. Another name for Lang lay. 

Warrington Lay. Known also as three-size wire 

construction. 
Whipping. The undue and violent slapping back 

and forth of a wire rope when in motion. 
Wire Cable. A geometrically arranged collection of 

wires into strands evenly and helically twisted and 

the assembly of strand helically into a wire rope or 

cable. 
Wire Center. An arrangement of wires replacing the 

hemp core under certain very severe conditions. 

Sometimes made of a single strand of 7, 19 or 37 

wires, but it is preferred to make it of a rope 6x7, 

7 x 7, 6 x 19 or 7 x 19, etc. 
Wire Rope. A collection of strands helically twisted 

with a uniform pitch about a central axis or core, 

each strand consisting of a plurality of wire twisted 

helicaiiy with a uniform pitch around a central axis 

or core. 
Wire Rope Preservative. Any compound designed 

for application to a wire rope for the purpose of pre- 
venting rust or corrosion. 
Working Load. Breaking strength of the rope 

divided by the safety factor used, which runs from 5 

to 10 on wire rope applications. 
Wrecking Rope. A short piece of strong wire rope 

equipped with extra heavy wire rope fittings for 

wrecking purposes on railroad work. 

Yacht Rigging. Galvanized wire rope either of six 
strands, seven wires, or six strands, nineteen wires, 
any size used for guys, etc., on yachts, ships, der- 
ricks, etc. 

Yarding Lines. Short pieces of wire rope used in 
connection with skidding machinery for piling the 
skidded logs ready for loading. 



244 



American Steel and Wire Company 



Ind 



ex 



PAGE 
Aeroplanes 73 

Aeroplane Strand 183 

Alignment of Sheaves and Drums . . 68 

A. S. & W. Shield Filler 199 

Arc Light Rope 184 



Back Haul Derrick 83 

Balanced Mine Hoists, Vertical, with 

Flat and Conical Drums . . . 107 

Ballast Unloader Rope 103 

Bending Stress Curves .... 42-46 
Bending Stress Tables .... 35-41 

Bending Stresses 31 

Breaking Strength of Wire Rope . . 10 

Bridge Cables 181 

Bridge Sockets, Open and Closed . . 208 
Bridges, Suspension 116 



Cable Roads 77 

Cableways 74 

Casing Lines 134 

Clamps 205 

Clam Shell Buckets 77 

Closed Sockets 206 

Closed Bridge Sockets . . . . .208 

Clothes Lines 192 

Closed Sockets, Loose and Fastened . 206 

Coal Dock Haulage Roads .... 79 

Coal Handling Machinery .... 102 

(Constructions of Wire Rope) ... 14 

Constructions of Strands 14 

Constructions of Ropes 16 

Crane Derrick 84 

Crane Rope 138 

Cranes 81 

Crosby Clips 204 

Crucible Cast Steel Extra Flexible 

Hoisting Rope 134 

Crucible Cast Steel Haulage Rope . 122 

Crucible Cast Steel Hoisting Rope . 129 
Crucible Cast Steel Special Hoisting 

Rope 139 

Crucible Cast Steel Standing Rope . 122 
Crucible Cast Steel Transmission 

Rope 122 

Crucible Cast Steel Wire 11 



Dead and Live Loads . . 

Derricks 

Derrick Guys 

Dictionary of Wire Rope Terms 
Double Galvanized Strand 



PAGE 

30 

83 

60 

240 

185 



Dredges, Large, Medium, Suction and 

Bucket Types 93-95 

Drilling Lines for Oil Wells . . . 123-130 



Jilasticity of Wire Rope 47 

Electric Geared Elevators .... 89 
Elevators, Hydraulic, Electric and 

Power Driven 86-91 

Electric Traction Elevators .... 91 
Electric Traveling Cranes .... 81 
Endless Haulage Systems .... 110 
Extra Galvanized Extra High Strength 

Strand 186 

Extra Galvanized High Strength Strand 186 
Extra Galvanized Siemens Martin 

Strand 186 

Extra Galvanized Strand 185 

Extra Flexible Crucible Cast Steel 

Hoisting Rope 134 

Extra Flexible Extra Strong Crucible 

Cast Steel Hoisting Rope . . . 135 
Extra Flexible Monitor or Improved 

Plow Steel Hoisting Rope ... 137 
Extra Flexible Plow Steel Hoisting 

Rope 136 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

Haulage Rope 123 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

Hoisting Rope 130 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

Special Flexible Hoisting Rope . 140 
Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

Standing Rope 123 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

Transmission Rope 123 

Extra Strong Crucible Cast Steel 

Wire 12 

Extra Special Flexible Hoisting Rope 143 



.r actors of Safety 
Ferries 



64 
96 



American Wire Rope 



245 



PAGE 

Flat Rope Construction 23 

Flat Rope 198 

Flat Rope Sockets 210 

Flattened Strand Rope 144 

Flattened Strand Crucible Cast Steel 

Hoisting Rope 152 

Flattened Strand Crucible Cast Steel 

Haulage Rope 147 

Flattened Strand Extra Strong Crucible 

Cast Steel Hoisting Rope ... 153 
Flattened Strand Extra Strong Crucible 

Cast Steel Haulage Rope . . . 148 

Flattened Strand Hoisting Rope . . 150 

Flattened Strand Haulage Rope . . 145 
Flattened Strand Monitor Haulage 

Rope 149 

Flattened Strand Monitor Hoisting 

Rope 154 

Flattened Strand Rope Constructions 21 

Flattened Strand Iron Haulage Rope 146 

Flattened Strand Iron Hoisting Rope 151 



Galvanized Crucible Cast Steel Yacht 

Rigging or Guy Rope .... 
Galvanized High Strength Aeroplane 

Strand ......... 

Galvanized Iron and Crucible Cast 

Steel Running Rope . . . . 
Galvanized Iron Ships Rigging or Guy 

Rope .......... 

Galvanized Mast Arm or Arc Light 

Rope .......... 

Galvanized Sash Cord ..... 

Galvanized Siemens Martin Strand . 
Galvanized or Tinned Flexible Aero- 

plane or Motor Boat Cord . . . 
Galvanized Special Strands .... 
Galvanized Steel Cables for Suspen- 

sion Bridges ....... 

Galvanized Steel Deep Sea Towing 

Hawsers, 6x37 ...... 

Galvanized Steel Hawsers and Moor- 

ing Lines, 6 x 24 ...... 

Galvanized Steel Hawsers and Moor- 

ing Lines, 6 x 12 ...... 

Galvanized Ropes ....... 

Galvanized Strand ....... 

Galvanized Wire Rope ..... 



176 
183 
177 
175 

184 
182 

186 

183 
189 

181 

18 
!79 

178 
172 
185 
172 



PAGB 

Gravity Inclined Plane 77 

Ground Skidder 106 

Guy Factors 61 

Guying for Derricks, Ships Rigging, 

etc 98-99 

Guy Rope 1 75 

Handling of Wire Rope 69 

Hand Rope 155 

Haulage Rope, 6x7 120 

Haulage Rope (Flattened Strand) . 145 

Hawsers, 6 x 37 l&Jjj 

Hawsers, 6x24 179J 

Hawsers, 6x12 178 [ 

Hoisting Rope (Standard, 6x19). . 126 

Hoisting Rope (Flattened Strand) . 150 

Hoisting Rope (Special Flexible, 6x37) 138 

Hoisting Rope (Extra Flexible, 8 x 19) 133 

Hoisting Rope (Galvanized, 6 x 19) . 176 

Hook and Chain 210 

Hook and Thimble 214 

Hook and Sockets 213 

Hook, Swivel and Thimble .... 211 

Horizontal Plunger Elevators ... 88 

How to Order Wire Rope .... 71 

Hydraulic Elevators 85 

How to Gage Wire Rope .... 67 

Inclined Cable Ropes 77 

Inclines and Slopes 49 

Interlocked Track Strand .... 191 

Iron 11 

Iron Haulage Rope, 5x9 . . . . 145 

Iron Haulage Rope, 6 x 7 .... 121 

Iron Hoisting Rope, 6x19. . . . 127 

Iron Hoisting Rope, 5 x 27 . . . . 151 

Iron Standing Rope 121 

Iron Transmission Rope 121 

Lang Lay Rope 25 

Lay of Rope 25 

Lead of Rope 68 

Left Lay Rope 26 

Loading and Unloading Machinery . 102 

Locomotive Cranes 82 

Locomotive Switching Ropes, Single 

and Double Fittings 216 

Locomotive Wrecking Ropes, Single 

and Double Fittings 218 



246 



American Steel and Wire Company 



PAGE 



Log Loaders 106 

Lumbering, including Skidding and 

Loading 104 

Lubrication of Wire Rope .... 70 



PAGE 

Plow Steel Transmission Rope, 6x7. 124 
Plow Steel Standing Rope, 6x7 . . 124 

Plow Steel Wire 12 

Pulling-in Cables 229 



IManila Rope Compared with Wire 

Rope 236 

Mast Arm Rope 174 

Materials in Wire Rope 11 

Mild Steel Elevator Rope .... 128 

Mining Rope Arrangements .... 107 

Monitor Haulage Rope 125 

Monitor Hoisting Rope 132 

Monitor Extra Flexible Hoisting Rope 137 
Monitor Special Flexible Hoisting 

Rope 142 

Monitor or Improved Plow Steel . . 12 

Monitor Wire 12 

Mooring Hawsers, 6x12 178 

Multiple Sheave Blocks 59 



Non-spinning Hoisting Rope, Crucible 

Cast Steel .158 

Non-spinning Extra Strong Crucible 

Cast Steel 159 

Non-spinning Hoisting Rope, Monitor 161 

Non-spinning Hoisting Rope, Plow 

Steel 160 

Non-spinning Hoisting Rope, Iron . 157 



Oil Well Drilling 114 

Open Bridge Sockets 209 

Open Sockets, Loose and Attached . 207 

Ore Unloading Machinery .... 102 

Ore Dock Haulage Ropes .... 78 

Overhead Skidders 104 

Overwinding 68 



Pile Drivers, Rope for 129 

Plow Steel 12 

Plow Steel Haulage Rope, 6x7 . . 124 

Plow Steel Hoisting Rope, 6x19 . . 131 
Plow Steel Extra Flexible Hoisting 

Rope, 8 x 19 136 

Plow Steel Special Flexible Hoisting 

Rope, 6x37 144 



Quarry Derrick ....... 84 

Range of Rope Application ... 27 

Regular Lay Rope 26 

Renewal of Sheaves 68 

Reverse Bending 68 

Reverse Lay Rope ....... 26 

Right Lay Rope 26 

Rope Exposed to Moisture, Heat, etc. 70 

Rope Reels, Capacities of .... 238 

Rope Reels, Sizes of 239 

Round Track Strand 199 

Running Rigging ....... 177 

Sand Lines . . 123 

Sash Cord 182 

Seale Patent Rope 17 

Sewing Wire for Flat Rope .... 195 

Shackles, Plain and Galvanized . . 222 

Sheaves and Drums 67 

Sheaves and Wire Rope Blocks . . 224 

Ships Rigging, Galvanized Iron . . 175 

Siemens Martin Strand 186 

Single Galvanized Strand .... 185 
Sister Hooks and Thimble, Loose and 

Attached 215 

Skidding Machines, Single and Double 

Slings 227 

Slopes 49 

Socket with Chain 210 

Sockets, Open and Closed .... 206 

Sockets, Bridge Type 208 

Spans 53 

Special Constructions 20 

Speed of Wire Rope 69 

Special Extra Galv'd Strands ... 189 

Special Flexible Hoisting Rope, 6 x 37 138 

Special Wire Rope Fasteners . . . 227 

Splicing Endless, etc 226 

Splicing Wire Rope, Instructions . . 230 

Standard Hoisting Rope, 6 x 19 . . 126 
Standard Breaking Strengths of Wire 

Rope 10 

Standing Rope 120 



American Wire Rope 



247 



PAGE 

Steam Shovels 92 

Steel Clad Hoisting Rope, 6 x 19 . . 162 

Steel Clad Hoisting Rope, 6 x 37 . . 167 

Steel Clad Hoisting Rope, 6 x 61 . . 171 

Step Socket 210 

Stone Sawing Strand 184 

Strands, Construction of 14 

Stresses Due to Shocks on Wire Rope 47 

Stress Limitations of Machinery . . 58 

Stresses Due to Bending ..... 31 

Stresses Due to Dead and Live Loads 30 

Stresses in Multiple Sheave Blocks . 59 

Stresses in Wire Rope Guys ... 60 

Stresses Imposed by Machinery . . 58 

Stresses in Spans 53 

Stresses in Wire Rope 30 

Stresses Due to Shocks 30 

Stresses of Inclines and Slopes . . 49 
Stresses of Acceleration and Retarda- 
tion 47 

Stump Pulling 117 

Sudden Stresses 69 

Suggestions to Wire Rope Users . . 67 

Suspension Bridges 116 

Switching Ropes, Single and Double 

Fittings 216 

Swivel Hook and Socket 212 



Tail Rope Haulage Systems . . . 112 

Telephone Clamps 205 

Testing of Rope and Wire .... 10 
Thimbles, Loose, Regular and Extra 

Large 202 



PAGE 

Thimbles, Spliced In 203 

Tiller Rope 155 

Towing Devices 118 

Track Strand, Round and Locked . . 24 
Track Strand for Aerial Tramways, 

Round 190 

Track Strand for Aerial Tramways, 

Locked 191 

Tramways 76 

Transmission Rope, 6x7. ; . . . 120 

Transmission Rope, 5x9 145 

Turnbuckles with Eyes, Hooks and 

Clevis End . 221 



TT eights of Miscellaneous Substances 235 

Whiting Hoist . 109 

Wire Rope Blocks 224 

Wire Rope Clamps 205 

Wire Rope Clips 204 

Wire Rope Lists 119 

Wire Rope Transmission .... 234 

Working Loads 70 

Worm Geared Elevator, Electric and 

Belt Driven 86-91 

Wrecking Trains 103 

Wrecking Ropes, Single and Double 

Fittings 218 



Yacht Rope a . . 176 

Yarder for Logs ... .... 106 



248 American Steel and Wire Company 



Products of the 

American 
!ire 




Americore Rubber Covered Wire 
American Wire Rope 

Aeroplane Wire and Strand 
Piano Wire 

Mattress Wire 
Weaving Wire 
Broom Wire 
Fence Wire 

Flat Wire Flat Cold Rolled Steel 
Spoke Wire for Wire Wheels 

Wire Hoops 

Nails, Staples, Spikes Electrical Wires and Cables 
Barbed Wire Rail Ronds 

Woven Wire Fences Rale Ties 

Fence Gates Tacks 

Steel Fence Posts Ignition Wire 

Springs Auto Towing Rope 

Concrete Reinforcement 

Juniata Horse Shoes and Calks 
Sulphate of Iron 
Poultry Netting 
Wire Rods 

Shafting Cold Drawn Steel 
Wire of Every Description 



Separate illustrated catalogue issued for each of these products 
Furnished free upon request 



The Read Printing Co. New York 



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