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A History Of The Full Greatness 
Of Our Country's Achievements 


/- BY 



Commander-in-Chief American Expeditionary Forces 

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By Richard J. Beamish 




France, May 9, 1919 
My dear Mr. Beamish: 

Your letter of recent date requesting that I write a foreword 
for your book "America's Part In the World War" has been carefully 
noted, and I shall be glad to accede to your request. It Is important 
that every American should be informed of the part played by our 
country in the great war. A work of this kind, based on official 
records and actual experiences at the front. Is well fitted to present 
a true picture of the immensity of American effort. 

Never has the United States so fully demonstrated its ability 
to organize and act than In the last eighteen months of the world 
conflict. Never have we fought for a nobler cause nor for one Involving 
more fundamental principles of justice. Our military achievements 
are worthy of the best traditions of the nation as our army has played 
a vital and decisive oart in the final defeat of the most formidable 
military machine that ever menaced mankind. 

From no sense of personal pride, but with a profound admiration 
for the heroic armies it has been my honor and privilege to lead, I 
heartily endorse a work that will bring home to every American the 
full greatness of American accomplishment. 

Sincerely yours, 



Commander-in-Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces 

U. S. Official Photograph. 


A MERICA, peaceful, iGolated and serene in the midst of 
/% international intrigues yet not embroiled in them, 
suddenly found itself in August, 1914, an international 
power. Although it did not enter the World War until April 
6, 1917, its destiny was fixed when Gavrilo Prinzep on June 
28, 1914, shot and killed the heir to the throne of Austria- 
Hungary and Sophia Chotek, his morganatic wife. At first 
the web of circumstance binding the United States to the rest 
of the world as the consequence of that deed was gossamer 
fine. With German rapine in Belgium, the sinking of the 
unarmed Lusitania, the destruction of American lives and 
property through German plots and the growth of Teutonic 
militarism into a cloud that shadowed and menaced civiliza- 
tion, the filaments of the web grew into ropes and cables of 
steel drawing us irresistibly into the world conflict. 

This book tells the story of that web and how America 
acquitted itself therein. Deeds are more eloquent than words. 
America's entrance tipped the scales against Germany; but 
the decision came after England and her great colonies, heroic 
France, Belgium, Italy and Russia had held the Teutonic 
coalition to a stalemate on the bloodsoaked fields of Europe. 

America's share in the triumph of an idealistic civilization 
over a militaristic autocracy is told in these pages in narrative 
form. Every deed that is recited, every sacrifice that is set 
forth finds its warrant in the oflScial records of the Great 
War. The reading of this book is urged by the head of the 
American Expeditionary Forces, General Pershing, as a 
patriotic privilege and duty upon every American. The 
examples of those glorious dead whose blood hallows the 


X America's Part in the World War 

wheat fields at Chateau-Thierry, the dark depths of Belleau 
Wood and the forest of the Argonire must create in generations 
of Americans yet to be born ideals of democracy and of 
sacrifice that will continue the United States of America in 
the van of civilization. 

Authoritative documents and maps aid the reader in 
following the tremendous world changes achieved through 
America's magnificent adventure in the cause of international 
liberty. Official photographs illuminate the text and carry 
the reader into the scenes where men's souls were tried in the 
fiery crucible of war. 


It is fitting that this history should be dedicated. Of all 
those who made possible the defeat of Germany, one stands 
above all others, and to him, I dedicate this book. 

To the bravest of the brave; to one who took hardships 
gallantly; who left peace, prosperity and a happy home, ready 
to endure vermin, disease and privation on a foreign soil; to 
the man who bore wounds with a smile and who met death 
face to face serene and unafraid. 

To the Yankee fighting man of every creed and color this 
history of "America's Part in the World War" is a tribute 
and a memorial. 


Introduction by General John J. Pershing . „ iii 


I. America Remakes the World 

A Sword Unsheathed for Democracy's Sake — Autocracies Crumble — Old Nations 
Disappear— New States Take Their Place— The Map of the World Torn Apart 
and Reshaped — America Strikes the Deciding Blow — ^Tribute of Marshal Foch — 
The Return of General Pershing and the Famous First Division 19 

II. Signs Before the Storm 

Americans Caught in the TMiirlpool of the World War — List of War Declarations 
and Severance of Diplomatic Relations — Attempts to Keep America Out of the 
War Unavailing — ^Torpedoing of American Vessels — ^The Diabolical Destruction 
of the Lusitania — Nation-\vnde Rage Aroused by Germany's Ruthless Act ... 34 

III. America Strikes 

Germany Renews Submarine Warfare — ^Von Bemstorff Sent Home — The German- 
Mexican Plot — Germany's Offenses Against the United States — President Wilson 
Calls the Nation to War — America United in Patriotism — Scenes Surrounding the 
Declaration of War 46 

IV. Conscription of a Peaceful Nation 

The Die Cast for Selective Service — How the Drafts were Made — The Greatest 
Nation in the World Under Arms 54 

V. Transforming Citizens Into Soldiers 

A Modern Miracle that was Enacted Almost Over Night — ^The Story of the Canton- 
ments — The Lessons Learned in the Great War Applied in American Camps . . 66 

VI. Before America's Entrance 

Survey of the Military Actions of the World War from August, 1914, to April, 
1917 — Invasion of Belgium — The Marne — The Aisne — Campaign in the East — 
Tannenberg — Neuve Chapelle and Ypres — Verdun — Japan takes Tsing-Tau — 
Italy's Aid — ^The War in the Orient — Gallipoli — Germany's Lost Colonies — ^The 
Plight of Serbia and Roumania — The Jutland Battle 80 


xii Contents 

VII. "Lafayette, We Are Here" 

General Pershing and the First American Expeditionary Force Arrive in France — 
Doughboys Train in the Sector Made Sacred by Joan of Arc — Welcome of Our 
Troops in France and England 95 

VIII. America's Opening Gun 

Troops from the United States Fire the First Shots and Suffer the Fu^t Casualties — 
Taking Over the Sector Northwest of Toul — American Engineers to the Rescue — 
Anxious Days When Hope Was at its Lowest Ebb — British and French Forced 
Back by Great Enemy Drives — Germans Halt Before Amiens 102 

IX. America's First Attack 

Cantigny Taken by Americans in a Surprise Attack — The Doughboy's Baptism 
of Fire — Yankee Courage and Dash Tested — A Clean-Cut Victory That Came in 
the Allies' Darkest Hour — London Prophesies " Cantigny Will One Day Be Repeated 
a Thousand Fold" 114 

X. America's Glory at Chateau-Thierry 

Stopping the German Rush Forty Miles From Paris — The Second Battle of the 
Marne, in Which the Yanks Outfought the Teutons — Marmes and Regulars Strike 
at ChAteau-Thierry and Neuilly — The Story that Will Live in Letters of Flame 
Forever — Routing the Hims from Belleau Wood and Bouresches — Secretary Daniels' 
Tribute to the Marines 120 

XI. America the Deciding Factor 

More than One Million Troops in all Services Ready in France — Vaux Captured by 
Americans — The Back of Germany's Great Offensive Broken — Composition of 
Three American Army Corps 137 

XII. America's Counter-Offensive 

French and Americans Strike Hard on the Mame-Aisne Front — Teutons Driven 
Back Ten Miles— Germans Retreat to the Vesle — Allies Astride the Ourcq — 
Soissons Recaptured — Fismes Evacuated by Enemy 147 

XIII. The Allied Tide Sweeps On 

French and Americans Cross the Vesle— British, under Haig, Drive Back the 
Enemy Many Miles — Montdidier Recaptured — Twenty-seventh and Thirtieth 
Divisions Smash the Hindenburg Line — Bapaiune and Peronne Fall — ^Americans 
and Australians Form Firm Friendship 164 

Contents xiii 


XIV. American Army Organized 

The American Expeditionary Forces Ready to Act Independently — Five Army 
Corps Planned, to be Welded Into One Great Army Under Command of General 
Pershing — Organization Upon the Most Modern Lines — Arrangement by Army 
Corps as Made Just Before the Grand Assault in the St. Mihiel Salient . . . 169 

XV. The Battle of St. Mihiel 

America Strikes Alone — ^The Great Salient that Defied the French and British 
Wiped Out by the First American Army under Direct Command of General Pershing 
— America Accomplishes the Impossible Within a Few Hours — A Victory of Ameri- 
can Dash and EflBciency — A Hundred and Fifty Square Miles Wrenched from 
German Hands — Foch Congratulates Pershing 182 

XVI. Germany in Full Retreat 

Thirty Thousand Prisoners and Vast Quantities of Munitions Captured by French 
and Americans — Germans in Panic Abandon Old Positions — ^American Divisions 
with the British in the Battle for the Possession of Cambrai and St. Quentin — 
Germany Begins to Totter when Bulgaria Sues for Peace — ^The Collapse of the 
Enemy in the Balkans 194 

XVII. The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 

The Natural Fortresses in German Hands Since 1914 are Stormed by Americans— 
A Forest Drenched with Blood— The Terrain Worse Than That of the Battle of the 
Wilderness in the Civil War — Dugouts of Permanent Concrete Construction, Lighted 
with Electricity, Taken in the Irresistible Onslaught — Sergeant York's Spectacular 
Exploit — The Lost Battalion — General Pershing's Story of the Fighting — Forty- 
seven Days of Heroism and Sacrifice Rewarded 202 

XVIII. Saving the Wounded and Sick 

Medical Department of the United States Army makes a Glorious Record — Fifteen 
per cent of all American Doctors Enlist for Active Service — Caring for Men in 
Camps and on the Battlefield — Fighting the Influenza Epidemic — Heroic Service (rf ■ 
the Nurses — Reconstruction Work for Soldiers, Sailors and Marines — ^The American 
Army Hospital in France a Model City of Six Hundred Buildings 225 

XIX. All America Mobilized 

Commission on Training Camp Activities — ^The American Red Cross — Young 
Men's Christian Association — Young Women's Christian Association — Eoiights of 
Columbus — Jewish Welfare Board — Salvation Army — Colored Agencies .... 238 

XX. American Women in the War 

Women's Advisory Committee — A Network Reaching Into Every American Home — 
Home Conservation Helps to Win the War — Food — Gardens — Registration of 
Women — Americanization Through Women's Division on Patriotic Education — 
Women in the Liberty Loan Campaigns 259 

xiv Contents 


XXI. The Navy in the War 

Marvelous Expansion of Our Sea-Fighting Forces — ^America's Destroyer Program — 
Manning Merchant Ships with Naval Guns and Crews — The American Navy 
Rushes to the North Sea — "We Are Ready Now" — Outwitting the German Sub- 
marines — Maintaining the Blockade — American Vessels Simk by the Enemy — 
Commander Ghent's Graphic Story 273 

XXII. The Story of the Marines 

A Service That Makes the Highest Demands Upon Its Recruits — Activities — Honors 
— Casualties — Tributes from France — The Glorious Record Undimmed by Defeat . 290 

XXIII. An Avalanche of Munitions 

Powder — Shells — Poison Gas — T.N.T. — Guns — Sights and Fire Control Appa- 
ratus — The Machine Gun an American Invention — Rifle Production — Development 
ot the Grenade — "Tanks" — America One Great Hive of War-Making Industry . 295 

XXIV. Fighting the War on American Farms 

The Importance of the Farmer — Food a Winning Factor — ^The Tractor, Father of the 
"Tank" — The Food Administration — War Bread — Price Fixing — Meatless and 
Wheatless Days — "Every Garden a Munition Plant" 319 

XXV. Supplies for Overseas 

Transportation of the Army, its Munitions and other Supplies, Under the Efficient 
Direction of General March — American Transportation Genius Astonishes the World 
— President Wilson Assumes Control of the Railroads — Thousands of Motor 
Trucks Built for the Army — Over Four Hundred Locomotives and Six Thousand 
Freight Cars Shipped to France — French Roads Rebuilt from American Quarries — 
American Construction Work in France — Shipments of Troops and Cargo — Losses 
at Sea 536 

XXVI. Coal and Gasolene Help to Win the War 

Fixing the Price of Coal — Stimulating Production — The Fuel Administration — 
Workless Mondays — The Gasolene Shortage — Gasless Sundays 351 

XXVII. A Bridge of Ships 

The United States Comes to the Aid of the Despairing Allies with a Great Ship- 
building Program — Over a Billion Dollars Appropriated by Congress for Construc- 
tion — Standardized and Fabricated Vessels — America Resumes its Maritime 
Importance — Hog Island and Other Great Yards Work Night and Day — Manning 
the Vast Fleet Prepared Under Direction of the Shipping Board 359 

XXVIII. Death from the Sky 

America, Mother of Aviation, Sends Fliers to France Before the Arrival of the 
Doughboy — An Aviation Program that Terrified Germany — The Lafayette Esca- 
drille — The Air Force at Chateau-Thierrj-, at St. Mihiel and the Argonne — Aerial 
Combat — The Liberty Motor — Airplane Armament — ^The Aces 887 

Contents xv 


XXIX. American Business Men in the War 

Conscripting the Brains of the Republic — DolIar-a-Year Men — Council of National 
Defense — War Industries Board — National Research Council — Committee on 
Labor — EflSciency that Won the War 387 

XXX. How America Raised Funds 

America Lends Money with a La\'ish Hand — Liberty Loans and War Saving 
Stamps — Treasury Certificates — Turning a Nation's Cost to Thrift ..... 399 

XXXI. Labor in the War 

Patriotism Beyond Precedent — A Conference in ^Tilch Labor Pledged its Utmost 
Effort to Win the War — The Pledge Redeemed — Socialists, Loyal and Otherwise — 
Labor Adjustment Bureau — Labor Program of the Treaty of Peace 406 

XXXII. American Heroes 

Congressional Medals for the Fighting Men, the Highest Form of Recognition 
Established by the United States Government — Full List of the Valiant Soldiers, 
with Stories of their Deeds — Six Americans Win the Victoria Cross 418 

XXXIII. W^ith THE Americans in Siberia 

Battling Against Russian Bolshevist Troops — The Doughboy in the Blizzard-Swept 
V>'astes of the Arctic Region — The Work of the Czecho-Slovaks — The Inside 
Story of the Russian Revolution — Execution of the Czar — Rise of Lenine and 
Trotsky— The Peace of Brest-Litovsk 452 

XXXIV. Alien Property Seized 

America's First Alien Property Custodian — Transforming German Wealth in the 
United States Into American Shells — Unprecedented Confiscation of Millions of 
Dollars 468 

XXXV. Paving the Yv^ay for an Armistice 

The Central Powers, Facing Defeat, Plead for a Peace Conference — Austria- 
Hungary Makes the First Overture — America Returns a Flat Refusal — German 
Morale Breaks — Prince Max Becomes Chancellor, Displacing Von Hertling — 
President Wilson's Fourteen Points of Peace — The Five Points of His Liberty Loan 
Address 473 

XXXVI. Victory in Sight 

Grand-Pre and Clery-le-Grande Captured by Americans — Allies Strike in the 
North — Laon, La Fere, Lille, Douai, Bruges and Ostend Evacuated by the 
Enemy — Doughboys Sweep Over Fifty-Mile Front Above Verdim — Sedan the 
Last Battle-ground of the Yanks in the Great War — Canadians in Mons — Maubeuge 
Falls — The V\liite Flag on the Balkan Front — Austria's Emperor Abdicates — 
Germany's Greatest Ally Collapses] 477 

xvi Contents 


XXXVII. Germany Surrenders 

Prince Max Asks President Wilson to Conclude Peace on the Basis of His Fourteen 
Points— Exchanges of Notes— President Finally Refers Germany to General Foch 
for Terms — Plenipotentiaries Arrive in France — False News of an Armistice 
Arouses Tremendous Celebration in the United States — Real Armistice Comes on 
November 11th — Abdication of the Kaiser 483 

XXXVIII. With the Army of Occupation 

Terms Imposed Upon the Central Powers— The Text of the Turkish Armistice — The 
Austrian Armistice — The German Armistice — The Kaiser's Great Fleet Interned by 
Allies and Scuttled by the Germans — The March of the American Army to the 
Rhine — Greeted by Thousands of Cheering People in Luxemburg — Americans 
Enter Germany December 1st — They Cross the Rhine on December 13th — Coblenz 
Bridgehead Occupied — Demobilization of American Forces — Berlin Newspaper 
Man Gives His Impressions of Americans in Occupied Territory 49( 

XXXIX. Aftermath of the War 

Sale of Equipment and Property of the American Expeditionary Forces on French 
Soil — Disposal of Material Accumulated in Cantonments and Storehouses — 
Re-employment of Soldiers — Adjustment of Labor Conditions — Dr. Taylor's 
Report on Conditions in Europe — The High Cost of Living — The Air Route to 
Europe — Prohibition— America Emerges Serene Out of the Maelstrom of War . 50£ 

XL. The Treaty of Peace with Germany 

The Historic Conference in Paris — President Wilson's Visit to Europe — ^The Signing 
of tlie Treaty at Versailles — Objections Raised to Some of the Clauses in America — 
Full Text of the Covenant of the League of Nations— What Germany Loses by the 
Treaty 525 

XLI. The American Legion 

Soldiers and Sailors of the World War Organize — Ideals for Which America Fought 
Preserved for Posterity 546 

XLII. The Record of the Divisions 

The Day-to-Day Story of Each American Division from the Moment of Organiza- 
tion Until the March to the Rhine or Demobilization — Composition of the Divisions 
— Regular Army, National Guard and National Army — Commanding Generals — 
Insignia — Advances and Captures — Casualties — Distinguished Service Crosses 
Awarded — Work of the Combat Divisions in Each Sector — Record of the Formation 
of Other Divisions Denied Action by the Surrender of the Enemy 551 

Chronology of American Operations in France 

Prepared by General Peyton C. March, and Included in His Report to the Secretary 

of War fif^4 

Chief of Staff of the United States Army 


Center: Gen. John J. Pershing, Commander-in-chief; iop row, left fo right: Lieut.-Gen. 
Hunter Liggett, 1st Army; Maj.-Gen. Jcs. T. Dickman, 1st Corps; Lieut.-Gen. Robt. L. 
Bullard, 2d Army; lozver rote: Maj.-Gen. John L. Hines. 3d Corps; Maj.-Gen. Geo. H. 
Caraeron, 5th Corps; Maj.-Gen. Chas. P. Summerall, 5th Corps. 



America Remakes the World 

**"^F it had not been for America the war would not have 
been won." 

These are the words of Woodrow Wilson, President 
of the United States. They were uttered on the Fourth of 
July, 1919, in an address by the President to soldiers and 
sailors on the United States transport, George Washington, 
during the voyage of the President and his party back from the 
Peace Congress in Versailles. 

The President made this declaration after he had been in 
contact with official representatives of all the countries 
concerned in the World War. It came after conferences in 
which every shade of friendly and hostile thought had been 
developed. It was made after cool deliberation and with full 
knowledge that history would sit in judgment upon the words. 

The pronouncement of the President represented more 
than the opinion of an individual. It contained the proud 
record of a nation which entered the world-shaking conflict 
with no idea of profit. The fighting force of the United States 
in the World War was a sword unsheathed for Democracy. 
The plain statement of the President had in it nothing of 
boasting. It was a plain narration of fact set down so that 
future generations of Americans might look for inspiration to 
the mighty deeds of those who struck the deciding blow against 
Germany that civilization might live. 

Why did America enter the war? The immediate cause 
was the declaration by Germany of ruthless submarine war- 
fare. But there was a greater cause, a reason having deeper 
roots and truer significance. President Wilson described the 
real underlying cause in that same Fourth of July address: 

*' America did not at first see the full meaning of the war 
that has just ended. At first it looked like a natural raking 
out of the pent-up jealousies and rivalries of the complicated 


20 America's Part in the World War 

politics of Europe. Nobody who really knew anything 
about history supposed that Germany could build up a great 
military machine like she did and not refrain from using it. 

"They were constantly talking about it as a guarantee 
of peace, but every man in his senses knew that it was a 
threat of war, and the threat was finally fulfilled and the war 
began. We at the distance of America looked on at first 
without a full comprehension of what the plot was getting 
into, and then at last we realized that there was here nothing 
less than'a threat against the freedom of free men everywhere. 

"Then America went in, and if it had not been for 
America the war would not have been won. My heart swells 
with a pride that I cannot express when I think of the men 
who crossed the seas from America to fight on those battle- 
fields. I was proud of them when I could not see them, and 
now that I have mixed with them and seen them, I am prouder 
of them still. For they are men to the core, and I am glad 
to have had Europe see this specimen of our manhood. 

"I am proud to know how the men who performed the 
least conspicuous services and the humblest services per- 
formed them just as well as the men who performed the 
conspicuous services and the most complicated and difficult. 
I will not say that the men were worthy of their officers. I 
will say that the officers were worthy of their men. They 
sprang out of the ranks, they were like the ranks, and all — 
rank and file — were specimens of America." 

America performed her mighty task with a patriotism 
fired by the loftiest of motives. The determination that 
carried it through to victory was of slow but steady growth. 
The seed of it was planted when German atrocities in Belgium 
shocked the civilized world. The wanton destruction of the 
Lusitania gave to that determination fibre and substance. 
Thereafter it was only a question of days until American 
indignation would compel a declaration of war against the 
Teutonic allies. 

The armed forces of America called from all ranks in life 
made a thrilling demonstration of American vigor and effi- 
ciency. A total force of 4,800,000 men rallied to the colors of 
the a;rmy and the navy and the marine corps. Back of these 

America Remalies the World 21 

stood a united nation resolved upon a victory that would 
forever remove the menace of autocracy from the world. 

The maximum of America's effort naturally was exerted 
in France. There was the final battlefield, the chosen place 
where the hosts of militarism were overthrown by the armies 
of democracy. In that titanic conflict 2,084,000 American 
soldiers engaged, and of these 1,390,000 Yankee doughboys 
fought in the front line. 

This mighty army scored the greatest offensive success of 
the war against Germany when in the battle of the Argonne 
forest, lasting forty-seven days from September 26th to 
November 11, 1918, it, in the words of General Pershing, 
achieved its object which was "To draw the best German 
divisions to our front and to consume them." 

During its entire campaign in France, the American 
Army never retreated. At Chateau-Thierry, where the enemy 
had established a salient, the 2d and 3d Divisions of the 
American Army were thrown into a gap across the flood of the 
advancing German offensive. That offensive, flushed with 
victory and with a determination to end the war, was stopped 
dead in its tracks. Not only was the enemy halted, but the 
Americans immediately counter-attacked and wrested from the 
best divisions of the German Army the strongly fortified 
position of Belleau Wood, later named by the grateful French 
people "The Wood of the Brigade of Marines Vaux and 
Bouresches." This vigorous defensive and counter-offensive 
of the Americans stimulated the entire fighting force of the 
Allies. From that day there never was any question of an 
allied victory. 

Coupled with these hammer blows on defensive and 
offensive came American efficiency in lifting man power and 
weight of munitions until both outnumbered and outweighed 
the utmost the Teutonic Allies could put into the field. More 
than 2,000,000 men were carried from America to France during 
our nineteen months of warfare. Of these more than a million 
and a half were transported in the last six months of the war, 
as against half a million in the first thirteen months. "VMien 
transportation facilities had settled into a steady swing the 
average number of men Sent to France was 10,000 a day. 

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America RemaJies the World 23 

America produced 2,500,000 Springfield and Enfield rifles up 
to the time of the signing of the armistice, and sent overseas 
1 ,500,000,000 rounds of rifle munitions. More than 20,000,000 
rounds of complete artillery ammunition were produced in 
American plants, as against a total of 9,000,000 rounds pro- 
duced in French and British plants. Throughout the war, 
even before America entered, the Allies fought almost wholly 
with American powder and high explosive. At the time of 
the signing of the armistice, the American production of 
smokeless powder was forty-five per cent greater than the 
production of the British and French combined. 

Forty-two American divisions reached France, and of 
these, twenty-nine divisions participated in front line fighting. 
Of the divisions that did not participate, virtually all were 
used for replacements of men killed or wounded in the fighting 
or were just arriving in France when hostilities ceased. Ameri- 
can divisions were under enemy fire in battle for two hundred 
days, and during this time they fought in thirteen battles 
of some magnitude. Two of these battles, those of St. Mihiel 
and the Argonne, were fought wholly by Americans, under 
American ofiicers. 

From the second week of October, 1918, until the end of 
the war, all of the twenty-nine active American divisions were 
engaged with the enemy. They held 101 miles of battle front, 
which was twenty-three per cent of the entire battle line. 
From the middle of August until the end of the war, they held a 
longer front of the battle line than that held by theBritish forces. 

The advances of the American divisions against the enemy 
totalled 485 miles, an average advance for each of the twenty- 
nine divisions of seventeen miles. Most of this was achieved 
against the most desperate resistance of which the enemy was 
capable. The American forces captured 63,000 prisoners, 
1,378 pieces of field artillery, 708 trench mortars and 9,650 
machine guns. The total American battle losses of the war 
were 48,900 killed and 236,000 wounded. It was a terrific price 
paid in heroic lives and in wounds that in some cases were 
worse than death. But it purchased for the world a measure 
of true freedom such as the human race had never known. 

The cost in lives to the United States was far less than 

24 Atnerica's Part in the World War 

that of any other of the principal combatants. The official 
tabulation of the United States War Department shows the 
following bloody total of deaths: 

Russia 1,700,000 

Germany 1,600,000 

France 1,385,000 

Great Britain 900,000 

Austria 800,000 

Italy 330,000 

Turkey 250,000 

Serbia and Montenegro 125,000 

Belgium 102,000 

Roumania 100,000 

Bulgaria 100,000 

United States 48,900 

Greece 7,000 

Portugal 2,300 

Total 7,450,200 

The cost of the war in terms of money to all the nations 
involved approximated $186,000,000,000. Of this stagger- 
ing total, Germany spent $39,000,000,000 and the United 
States and its co-belligerents spent $123,000,000,000. The 
cost to the United States alone was approximately $22,000,- 
000,000. In addition to this money that was actually spent by 
the United States, it loaned almost $10,000,000,000 to the Allies. 

The maintenance and munitioning of the army cost more 
than $14,000,000,000. During the final ten months of the 
war, the daily expenditure of the United States for war 
purposes averaged more than $44,000,000. The total 
expenditures by the principal nations involved in the war 

Great Britain and Dominions $38,000,000,000 

France 26,000,000,000 

United States 22,000,000,000 

Russia 18,000,000,000 

Italy 13,000,000,000 

Belgium, Roumania, Portugal, Jugo-Slavia 5,000,000,000 

Japan and Greece 1,000,000,000 

Total United States and Allies $123,000,000,000 


America Remafies the World 25 

Germany $39,000,000,000 

Austria-Hungary 21,000,000,000 

Turkey and Bulgaria 3,000,000,000 

Total Teutonic Allies $63,000,000,000 

Grand total $186,000,000,000 

But while America struck the deciding blow, sight must 
not be lost of the heroism displayed by British, French, 
Belgian, Russian, Italians, Serbs and other Allies when the 
Teutonic hordes were fresh and all-powerful. Americans 
will be false to themselves if they fail to recognize that 
Germany would have triumphed early in the war had it not 
been for Belgium's first sacrificial onslaughts against the 
advancing tide of Germans and Austrians; Russia's fine first 
effort against the Germans, Austrians and Turks; the immortal 
glory of the defence by France at Verdun and along the 
entire fighting line when hope seemed dead and ruin gaped 
everywhere; the deathless courage of English, Scotch, Irish, 
Welsh, Canadians and Australasians who held on with bull- 
dog tenacity while whole families of fathers and sons were 
wiped out in the bloody welter and regiments melted like 
wax in a flame. 

No one nation won the war. It was a co-partnership of 
glory. While the loss of America was less than that of any 
other great power because of its late entrance into the war, it 
still was so heavy that it created throughout the land an over- 
whelming sentiment against future warfare and a determi- 
nation to shape a treaty of peace that would remake the world 
along lines tending away from conflict and toward better 
human understanding between nations. 

In such spirit was the treaty of peace concluded between 
the United States of America and the Allies on the one side 
and the German Government on the other side. That treaty 
remade the world. It was signed at Versailles on the twenty- 
eighth day of June, 1919 and was immediately referred to all 
the signatory nations for ratification. Under that compact 
autocracies crumbled and democracies arose. Old nations 

26 America's Part in the World War 

disappeared and new states took their places. The map of 
the world was torn apart and reshaped. 

Germany the aggressor in the World War suffered heavy 
penalties. The following table shows the losses sustained by 
the German Empire in areas and population. 

Sq. Mile« Population 

Alsace-Lorraine, to France 5,680 1,874,014 

Sarre Coal Basin, to League of Nations . . 738 234,200 

Schleswig, to Denmark 2,787 693,984 

Posen and part of Silesia, to Poland 

(including port of Danzig) 28,412 8,440,379 

Malmedy, to Belgium 382 119,184 

Total Losses in Europe 37,999 11,361,761 


Togoland 33,668 1,003,612 

Kamerun 305,019 3,501,537 

German Southwest Africa 322,432 102,586 

German East Africa 384,170 7,515,666 

New Guinea (Exclusive of the Ladrone 

Islands) 92,244 545,478 

Caroline Islands 560 39,000 

Marshall Islands 158 16,000 

Ladrone Islands 420 10,000 

German Samoan Islands 993 37,980 

Kiao-Chau (China) 213 196,470 

Total of Colonies 1,139,877 12,968,329 

Grand Total 1,177,876 24,330,090 


Before the war 208,825 64,925,993 

After the war 170,826 53,564,232 

Austria-Hungary's and Turkey's losses in territory and 
population were even greater in proportion to their totals 
before the war than were the losses of Germany. Turkey 
was virtually eliminated from Europe, and great stretches of 
territory in Asia Minor were severed from her control. Aus- 
tria-Hungary was dismembered, and Germanic Austria became 
one of the least considerable and powerful nations of Central 
Europe. Bulgaria was penalized for its share in the Teutonic 


Uj>per row, left to rigid: Brig.-Gen. F. E. Pamford, 1st; Biig.-Gen, Frank Parker, Isl; 
Maj.-Gen. B. B. Buck, 3d; ctmier: Moj.-Gen. M. L. Hersey. 4th; Maj.-Gen. C. E. Edwards. 
26th; Maj.-Gen. Chas. H. Muir, 28th; loiver: Maj.-Gen. W. G. Haan, 32d; Maj.-Gen. P. 
E. Traub, 35th; Maj.-Gen. C S, Farnsworth. 37th. 

' r:^piwHJ ' j i> . . LLwu i Mti i i i nwy i ^iu i jjgw ii . 11,1 . . ivrn fi gm 


Top row, left to right: Maj.-Gen. Chas. T. Menoher, 42d; Maj.-Ge^ii Rt^t, Alexander. 
77th; Maj.-Gen. James H. McRae, 78tli; center: Maj.-Gen. Jos. E. Kuhfi, 79ti; Jtlaj.-Gen. 
C. J. Bailey, 81st; Maj.-Gen. Geo. B. Duncan, 82d; hotiom: Maj.rGeft. Wm. Mj.i^Yrfglit, 
89th; Maj.-Gen. Henry T. Allen, 90th; Maj.-Gen. Wm. H. Johnston, 91st. 'v>>:^~^!,;w;r ,T 

America Remalies the World 29 

assault upon civilization by the loss of both wealth and terri- 
tory. Russia's revolutionary explosion resulted in the 
creation of a number of new independent states. 

According to the most authoritative or official statistics, 
the deaths directly due to the war or indirectly inflicted by it 
number between 16,000,000 and 20,000,000, over 7,000,000 of 
which were military and over 10,000,000 civilian. Of the 
civilian deaths, over 100,000 were directly caused and nearly 
10,000,000 indirectly caused by it. 

In the first category of civilian deaths there were the 692 
Americans and the 20,620 British subjects killed at sea, 1,270 
British victims of air raids, 30,000 Belgian and 40,000 French 
victims of German atrocities, and 7,500 neutral victims of the 
U-boat. The second category includes 1,085,441 Serbs dead 
through starvation or disease, 4,000,000 deaths from influenza 
and pneumonia, beyond the normal figure, and the 4,000,000 
Armenian, Syrian, Greek, and Jewish victims of the Turks, 
The following table, based on the official reports, has been 
brought up to date as far as possible. 


Prisoners Total 

Nation. Mobilized. Dead. Wounded. or Missing. Casualties. 
United States: 

Army 3,665,000 77,592 214,158 4,756 296,506 

Navy 529,504 1,142 1,142 

Marine Corps 78,017 1,609 2,513 57 4,179 

British Empire: 

United Kingdom . . 5,397,061 515,890 1.660,343 338,305 2,438,179 

Canada, &c 552,601 60,383 155,799 4,000 220,182 

Australia, &c 336,000 54,431 156,000 3,401 290,191 

* India 1,215,338 28,000 60,000 13,439 101,439 

fR. Navy. (Inc. in U. K.) 33,361 5,183 1,222 39,766 

France 7,500,000 1,385,300 2,675,000 446,300 4,506,600 

Italy 5,500,000 460,000 947,000 1,393,000 2,800,000 

Belgium 267,000 20,000 60,000 10,000 90,000 

Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000 

Japan 800,000 300 907 3 1,210 

Roumania 750,000 200,000 120,000 80,000 400,000 

Serbia 707,.343 322,000 28,000 100,000 450,000 

Montenegro 50,000 3,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 

Greece 230,000 15,000 40,000 45,000 100,000 

Portugal 100,000 4,000 15,000 200 19,200 

Total 39,676,864 4,882,008 11,099,903 4,946,683 20,928,594 

* These figures include both Indian and British-Indian, the former being mobilized to 

t To the British naval losses should be added those of the British merchant marine — 
killed, 14,661; captured, 3,295. 

30 America's Part in the World War 


Nation. Mobilized. 

Germany 11,000,000 

Austria-Hungary 6,500,000 

Bulgaria 400,000 

Turkey 1,600,000 

Total 19,500,000 











or Missing. 


















Grand total 59,176,864 

French "effectives" at various periods in the war are officially stated 
to have been 3,8'7^2,000 on August 15, 1914, increasing to approximately 
5,000,000 by February, 1915, and remaining at nearly 5,(200,000 from Janu- 
ary, 1916, to the end of the war. 

The American Army General Staff announced 515 casualties in Russia 
with the strength of 3,073 at Archangel and 8,460 at Vladivostok. 

According to statistics published by the Secolo of Milan, Italy during 
1918 had 800,000 deaths caused by grip, averaging sixty per cent more than 
the deaths caused by the whole war. The same paper estimated the 
deaths by grip throughout the world were double the deaths caused by the 

United States War Department gives total army and marine corps 
casualties as 302,645, with the following list in regard to the army: 

Killed in action 34,089 

Lost at sea 734 

Died of wounds 13,941 

Died of accident 5,260 

Died of disease 23.568 

Total 77,592 

Wounded (85 per cent returned to duty) 214,158 

Missing and prisoners (not including prisoners released and returned) 222 

Prisoners released and returned 4,534 

Total 296,506 

More than victory came from the World War to America. 
Understanding, brotherhood between the United States and 
the awakening democracies of Europe, a new sense of inter- 
national responsibilities came into being. 

It remained for the departure of General Pershing from 
France on the transport Leviathan, September 1, 1919, to 
bring forth expression of this brotherhood. 

Marshal Foch came aboard the transport shortly before 
she sailed and made a feeling address to the departing Ameri- 
can commander, in which he said: 

America Remalies the World 31 

In leaving France, you leave your dead in our hands. On our soil we 
will care for them religiously and zealously, as bearing \\dtness of the 
powerful aid you brought us. These dead vnW bring from America many 
thoughts of remembrance and pious visits and will bind still more strongly 
our already close union. 

Recalling wdth emotion the hours we have lived together — some of 
them full of anguish, some glorious — I am struck hard in the heart m 
passing with you the last moments of your stay among us. In your 
arrival, you said: "Lafayette, we are here." Allow a French soldier of 
today to return thanks to you, and in a few words recall the work you have 
done for the rights and liberty of the world. ... 

This arm,y, raised in all haste, with still only elementary instruction, 
recently organized and commanded by young officers, without military 
tradition, passed rapidly into your hands. You have shown yourself to 
be in the largest sense organizer, soldier, chief and great servant of your 
.country, crowning the generous efforts and noble spirit of America with 
victory by your armies. 

If the clouds of war should gather again in the future, would not 
these dead rise from their tombs and make their voices heard once more by 
a world which already knows that the same cause, the cause of liberty, 
has united us since the time of Washington and Lafayette? 

Readjustment after the armistice and before the formal 
signing of the Peace Treaty by all the belligerents was a slow 
and painful process. While the armistice brought hostilities 
to an end, actual demobilization of the fighting forces of 
America was not completed until almost a year later. 

For Americans generally, the return to this country of 
General John J. Pershing and of the famous 1st Division, 
first overseas and last to return, symbolized the end of the 
war and the beginning of a new era of peace. Two memorable 
parades of the 1st Division In complete war panoply, with 
tanks, artillery, field kitchens, supply trains, etc., gave to 
New York and Washington on September 10th and 17 th, 
respectively, an idea of the power and completeness of an 
army equipped for modern battle. 

Imperial Caesar, returning from a victorious campaign, 
captive kings and the rich loot of conquered nations in his 
train, was never hailed in victory-crazed Rome with such 
wild acclaim, such general and generous welcome as that which 
came on September 8, 1919, to commander-in-chief of 
America's battle hosts. General John J. Pershing, in the 
crowded canyons of New York. 

32 America's Part in the World War 

For Rome was a little town beside this gigantic metropolis 
of modern democracy and few of those who welcomed Csesar 
knew the story of his conquests or cared how or why the vic- 
tories came. But the throng that made the cliff-buildings of 
lower New York a vibrant frame of color, motion and sound, 
saw in the soldierly figure of Pershing a symbol of the great 
army that fared fearlessly overseas, leaving thousands of its 
dauntless boys in French graves. 

When the line of automobiles with General Pershing in 
the place of honor beside Rodman Wanamaker, chairman of 
the Mayor's Committee of Welcome, swung from Battery 
Place into that tremendous man-made chasm of lower Broad- 
way, the very air suddenly seemed to vibrate with the electric 
energy of America's welcome. From every window of the 
sky-scraping cliffs came confetti, spirals and showers of 
paper, so that looking up Broadway in the half mist of the 
morning it seemed that the atmosphere had mysteriously 
become visible; a shimmering, moving mass in which crystals 
and streamers eddied and swirled. The sensation was that 
of suddenly putting New York under a giant's fluoroscope. 

And the noise, the marvelous heart-catching blend of 
women's shrieks, the deeper note of men yelling as com- 
pelledly as wild things cry to the moon. Out in the harbor, 
tugs, ferryboats, liners, all sorts of craft, were shrieking in 
ear-torturing dissonance, their whistles tied wide open. 
Ashore, the compulsion of motion had pulled open the 
whistles of humanity and had tied wide apart the valves and 
clutches of repression. In the first automobile Pershing 
stood erect in his flawlessly fitting khaki, his Sam Brown belt 
as smooth upon him as though it had been painted upon his 
magnificent torso. His right arm chopped salutes to right 
and left with the slashing stroke of a beau sahreur. Not 
since the news of the armistice was there a crowd so affected 
as that mass v/hicli was banked solidly from curb to building 
line and stood row upon row at every window. 

Here was a girl in the late teens, evidently a stenographer. 
Her clenched fists were pressed side by side against her breast 
so hard that it seemed they must bruise the flesh. Down her 
pale face the tears poured unheeded in streams. She was not 

America Remalies the World 33 

weeping as we understand weeping. Her eyes shone big and 
brilliant and her lips moved in a repetition of one phrase. 
"Thank God, Thank God," she said without ceasing. Then 
there was the picture of the big policeman near Fulton Street 
whose fallen arches and ample girth proclaimed him a veteran 
of the force. A mere link he was in the human chain holding 
back the shrieking, pressing throng but as Pershing passed he 
suddenly went stark jumping mad, mad with emotion, with 
joy. No college cheer leader whipping his yelling mates to 
new atrocities of shrieks could hope to match the efforts of 
this red-faced, ancient, blue-clad man of peace and law. 

*' Come on now, let's ye'all yell, shout ye a — a — Yo — — 
O." His big arms rose and fell like blue flails beating the 
rhythm for his j^ells, and the crowd went crazy with him. 
Surely he had a son or two in the thick of the Argonne. At a 
guess they were in that famous old fighting 69th and the 
fighting blood in him had risen at the sight of Blackjack 
Pershing as the hackles of a fighting terrier rise when battle 
is near. 

But there were thousands of emotional jewels in that 
great human mass from wherever the victorious processional 
was set. Boys, rigid in the ecstacy of the moment, mothers 
whose faces showed their happiness, bookkeepers whose flat 
chests swelled suddenly and whose bodies straightened with 
a snap unconsciously as Pershing's vigorous erectness passed 
before them. And so the processional of triumphant democ- 
racy passed through the heart of New York, in a larger sense, 
through the heart of America, bearing at its head, to receive 
a formal welcome at City Hall, the symbol of Am^erica mili- 
tant, the home-returned captain of its battle hosts, John J. 


Signs Before the Storm 

MERICAN lives and American property were lost in 
the red welter of the World War long before President 
Wilson led the nation into the battle line. Before 
Germany's momentous declaration of ruthless submarine 
warfare provided the reason for the rupture of diplomatic 
relations, it was recognized in Europe and America that 
America inevitably would become a belligerent. 

The cause lay as far back as June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo 
Prinzep, a student in his twenty-first year, shot and killed 
Francis Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the thrones of Austria 
and Hungary, and his morganatic wife, Sophia Chotek, 
Duchess of Hohenberg. The assassinations were committed 
on the occasion of a state visit by the royal party to Sarajevo, 
the capital of Bosnia. 

Prompted by the German High Command, Austria 
immediately took the position that the Serbian Government 
was directly responsible for the murders and demanded that 
authority be granted to Austria to participate as prosecutor 
and judge in proceedings against everybody accused of 
connection with the crime. Other demands concerning 
anti-Austrian sentiment in Serbia were granted notwith- 
standing their arrogant tone and Serbia asked for further 
discussion of the demand for Austrian participation in judicial 

The German High Command which pulled the political 
strings in Austria as well as in Germany, following a secret 
conference in the imperial palace in Potsdam, directed that 
Serbia's pacific efforts should be swept aside and that Austria 
must declare war upon the Serbian people. The German war 
party was ready. The Potsdam conference had decided that 
"The Day" had arrived, the day for which militaristic 
Germany had planned and for which its officers, soldiers and 


Signs Before the Storm 35 

sailors had made Spartan sacrifices for more than forty years. 
It was recognized that Russia would surely espouse the 
cause of Serbia and that France, true to its treaty obligations 
would aid Russia. But what of that? The Russian frontier 
had been set with pitfalls by Von Hindenburg. The plan 
of campaign against France had been ready for more than a 
decade. It involved the violation of Germany's solemn cove- 
nant with Belgium and the invasion of that friendly little 
nation, but no sense of honor troubled the Potsdam plotters. 

Sir Edward Grey, acting for the British Empire through 
the British Foreign Ofiice, strove mightily with Russia, 
Germany, Serbia and Austria to avert the world-shaking 
catastrophe of war. For a time, it seemed his efforts would 
be successful, but Germany, resolved upon battle and ready 
to launch the stroke that was relied upon by its leaders to 
rivet German Kultur and the principle of military autocracy 
upon the world, decreed a war that was to violate sacred 
treaties and drench the world with innocent blood. England's 
conciliatory efforts were brushed aside impatiently and the 
mobilization of Germany's conscripted millions went forward 
silently, remorselessly. 

Russia's concentration of troops along the Austrian and 
German frontiers was made the excuse for a formal declaration 
of war on Saturday, August 1st. The German Kaiser was 
in Norway on a vacation yachting trip during the diplomatic 
preliminaries, but no doubt existed in any of the capitals 
involved that he was fully cognizant of all the moves of the 
German High Commands leading to the declaration of war 
against Russia. 

Peace of the entire world was shattered by Germany's 
declaration of war upon Russia. France immediately pre- 
pared for action. It was recognized by that Republic that 
she must come to the aid of her ally, Russia. Indeed, if she 
had not, Germany was prepared to invade French soil without 
such a pretext. While the declaration of war was against 
Russia, the first German blow was struck against France 

The utmost efforts of both France and Germany were 
immediately directed toward England. Germany wished to 
keep the British Empire out of the war. The hope of France 

36 America's Part in the World War 

lay wholly in bringing England in as her ally in accordance 
with her treaty obligations. The German Government in a 
formal note to Great Britain, offered guarantees for Belgian 
integrity if Belgium did not ally herself with France. Ger- 
many also guaranteed to respect the neutrality of Holland, 
and assured England that no French territory in Europe 
would be annexed if Germany won the war, provided England 
remained neutral. Sir Edward Grey in a formal note on 
July 30th, characterized the German proposition as "a 
shameful proposal" and rejected it. 

President Poincare of France on July 30th, formally 
asked for an assurance of British support. The British 
Ambassador to France and King George of England sent 
qualified refusals upon the ground that they wished to main- 
tain England's position of neutrality in an effort to avert the 
war. England then sent a note to France and Germany 
requesting a statement of purpose upon the question of 
Belgian neutrality. France immediately replied that it 
would respect every provision of the treaty of 1839, and its 
reafiirmation in 1870. This guaranteed the neutrality of 
Belgium. Germany replied on August 1st that it would 
respect the same treaty if England stayed out of the war. 

England's first warlike act was the decision by the British 
Cabinet on August 2d that if the German fleet attempted 
to attack the coast of France, the British fleet would 
intervene. To this Germany replied on the following day, 
agreeing to refrain from naval attacks on France if England 
would remain neutral. This declaration however, had been 
preceded on August 2d by Germany's notice to Belgium of 
its intention to enter that country for the purpose of attacking 
France. On the same day, Belgium appealed to the British 
Foreign Office for aid and was informed that Germany's 
invasion of Belgium would be followed by a declaration of 
war by England upon Germany. Belgium thereupon declared 
its purpose to defend its soil against foreign invasion by any 

The overt act which brought England into the war was 
committed on the morning of August 4th, when twelve 
regiments of Uhlans crossed the frontier near Vise, and 

Signs Before the Storm 39 

drove a small Belgian force back upon the defenses of Liege. 
Upon receipt of that news, England sent an ultimatum to 
Germany demanding withdrawal of German troops from 
Belgium and fixing midnight of August 4th as the time limit 
of the ultimatum. No reply was made by Germany and the 
formal declaration of war by England came at midnight. 

American citizens immediately suffered from the world- 
shaking catastrophe of war. Thousands were caught in the 
huge maelstrom which centered in continental Europe 
Railroads were seized for war purposes by France, Germany, 
Austria and Russia. Even neutral Switzerland and Holland 
were caught in the gigantic whirlpool. Americans found that 
negotiable paper of all kinds had suddenly lost nearly all its 
value and that even silver currency was difficult of negotiation. 
Continental Europe demanded gold and nothing but gold. 
Americans traveling for business or pleasure found them- 
selves suddenly cast upon the resources of the American 
embassies. These havens of refuge became centers of excited, 
anxious throngs, waiting for passports, money and for means 
of transportation which under the stress of war had become 
almost hopelessly disorganized. Food prices trebled and 
quadrupled. The gay capitals of Europe suddenly went 
dark and somber. Americans in their rush for the shelter of 
consular offices and embassies were tossed like chips upon 
the tremendous torrent of war mobilizations. 

Stock exchanges throughout Europe closed their doors 
and the exchanges throughout the United States followed 
this example. Ship insurance multiplied several times. 
Every train and every ship leaving the centers of European 
disorganization were crowded past the point of discomfort. 

In this emergency American individuals and the American 
Government performed notable services in rescuing their 
countrymen caught in the maelstrom of war. The armored 
cruiser Tennessee was sent by the American Government 
with $7,500,000 in gold consigned to the Americans who were 
virtually penniless in European countries due to depreciation 
in their negotiable paper. This depreciation brought many 
wealthy Americans to the verge of poverty. Oscar Straus, 
whose fortune exceeded $10,000,000, was stranded in London 

40 America's Part in the World War 

with nine dollars. His letters of credit were valueless when he 
attempted to cash them in Vienna. 

The demand for gold by both sides of the warring powers 
bade fair to drain North and South America of the precious 
metal. The premium on gold soared to record-breaking 
heights. A number of shipments of gold were made from 
South American ports to Germany. The German ship 
Kronprinzessin Cecile was sent from New York with a cargo 
of gold consigned to Hamburg. A wireless warning from the 
station at Tuckerton, New Jersey, that Allied cruisers were 
awaiting the ship off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland 
caused it to turn back to America. 

With the return of American tourists and business 
travelers from Europe, America settled into a condition of 
watchful neutrality. While a ring of battleflame encircled 
it, the United States through President Wilson, the State 
Department and Congress, endeavored to bring order out of 
chaos, peace out of war. How formidable that task was may 
be seen by a survey of the following list of war declarations 
and severances of diplomatic relations. The list is taken 
from the official files of the United States State Department: 


Austria against Belgium, August 28, 1914. 
Austria against Japan, August 27, 1914. 
Austria against Montenegro, August 9, 1914. 
Austria against Russia, August 6, 1914. 
Austria against Serbia, July 28, 1914. 
Belgium against Germany, August 4, 1914. 
Brazil against Germany, October 26, 1917. 
Bulgaria against Serbia, October 14, 1915. 
China against Austria, August 14, 1917. 
China against Germany, August 14, 1917. 
Costa Rica against Germany, May 23, 1918. 
Cuba against Germany, April 7, 1917. 
Cuba against Austria-Hungary, December 16, 1917. 
France against Austria, August 13, 1914. 
France against Bulgaria, October 16, 1915. 
France against Germany, August 3, 1914. 
France against Turkey, November 5, 1914. 
Germany against Belgium, August 4, 1914. 


Signs Before the Storm 41 

Germany against France, August 3, 1914. 

Germany against Portugal, March 9, 1916. 

Germany against Roumania, September 14, 1916. 

Germany against Russia, August 1, 1914. 

Great Britain against Austria, August 13, 1914. 

Great Britain against Bulgaria, October 15, 1915. 

Great Britain against Germany, August 4, 1914. 

Great Britain against Turkey, November 5, 1914. 

Greece against Bulgaria, November 28, 1916. (Provisional Govern- 
ment) . 

Greece against Bulgaria, July 2, 1917. (Government of Alexander). 

Greece against Germany, November 28, 1916. (Provisional Govern- 
ment) . 

Greece against Germany, July 2, 1917. (Govermnent of Alexander). 

Guatemala against Germany and Austria-Hungaria, April 22, 1918. 

Haiti against Germany, July 15, 1918. 

Honduras against Germany, July 19, 1918. 

Italy against Austria, May 24, 1915. 

Italy against Bulgaria, October 19, 1915. 

Italy against Germany, August 28, 1916. 

Italy against Turkey, August 21, 1915. 

Japan against Germany, August 23, 1914. 

Liberia against Germany, August 4, 1917. 

Montenegro against Germany, August 9, 1914. 

Montenegro against Austria, August 8, 1914. 

Nicaragua against Germany, May 24, 1918. 

Panama against Germany, April 7, 1917. 

Panama against Austria, December 10, 1917. 

Portugal against Germany, November 23, 1914. (Resolution passed 
authorizing military intervention as ally of England). 

Portugal against Germany, May 19, 1915. (Military aid granted). 

Roumania against Austria, August 27, 1916. (Allies of Austria also 
consider it a declaration. 

Russia against Germany, August 7, 1914. 

Russia against Bulgaria, October 19, 1915. 

Russia against Turkey, November 3, 1914. 

San Marino against Austria, May 24, 1915. 

Serbia against Bulgaria, October 16, 1915. 

Serbia against Germany, August 6, 1914. 

Serbia against Turkey, December 2, 1914. 

Siam against Austria, July 22, 1917. 

Siam against Germany, July 22, 1917. 

Turkey against Allies, November 23, 1914. 

Turkey against Roumania, August 29, 1916. 

United States against Germany, April 6, 1917. 

United States against Austria-Hungary, December 7, 1917. 

42 America's Part in the World War 


The nations that formally severed relations whether 
afterward declaring war or not are as follows: 

Austria against Japan, August 26, 1914. 

Austria against Portugal, March 16, 1916. 

Austria against Serbia, July 26, 1914. 

Austria against United States, April 8, 1917. 

Bolivia against Germany, April 14, 1917. 

Brazil against Germany, April 11, 1917. 

China against Germany, March 14, 1917. 

Costa Rica against Germany, September 21, 1917. 

Ecuador against Germany, December 7, 1917. 

Egypt against Germany, August 13, 1914. 

France against Austria, August 10, 1914. 

Greece against Turkey, July 2, 1917. (Government of Alexander). 

Greece against Austria, July 2, 1917. (Government of Alexander). 

Guatemala against Germany, April 27, 1917. 

Haiti against Germany, June 17, 1917. 

Honduras against Germany, May 17, 1917. 

Nicaragua against Germany, May 18, 1917. 

Peru against Germany, October 16, 1917. 

Santo Domingo against Germany, June 8, 1917. 

Turkey against United States, April 20, 1917. 

United States against Germany, February 3, 1917. 

Uruguay against Germany, October 7, 1917. 

The task of those who sought to keep America out of the 
war was difficult from the beginning. Great Britain made a 
formal declaration that it would follow the laws of naval 
warfare as laid down by the Declaration of London of 1909, 
subject to certain modifications and additions, known later 
as "Orders in Council." These consisted of new lists of 
absolute and conditional contraband. The British Govern- 
ment also declared its right to capture and hold any vessel 
which carried contraband of war with false papers if she were 
encountered on the return voyage. As a consequence of 
Great Britain's stand, a number of American ships were 
seized, and some friction resulted. The Government of the 
United States admitted the right of England to visit and 
search American ships on the high seas, when there was 
sufficient evidence that contraband goods might be carried 

Signs Before the Storm 43 

in the cargo, but it protested against American ships and 
cargoes being brought into British ports for search. 

This dispute upon questions affecting mere property 
faded into insignificance when Germany's submarine campaign 
against both hves and shipping was inaugurated by Admiral 
von Tirpitz. The submarine campaign was an extension 
of the German poHcy of SchrecMichkeit, or f rightfulness. The 
great heart of America had been stirred to its depths by the 
atrocities committed upon the Belgian people when the 
German hordes swept over that country. Murder, rape, 
arson, mayhem, deliberate destruction of homes, orchards 
and crops, confiscation of the wealth of communities, all these 
had been charged and proved notwithstanding Germany's 
vigorous disclaiming. Now the war of frightfulness was 
extended to the seas and German submarines like wolves of 
the waves preyed upon the commerce of the world, sinking 
ships and destroying lives and property without warning. 
German cruisers in sudden dashes across the North Sea 
bombarded the open and defenceless British towns of Yar- 
mouth, Scarborough and Whitby, killing many civilians 
including many women and children. German Zeppelins 
dropped bombs upon open towns in England, Belgium and 
France, killing hundreds of helpless non-combatants. 

Finally Germany directed its ruthless sea campaign against 
America. The American vessel William T. Frye was the 
first to be sunk deliberately by a German vessel. The Prinz 
Eitel Friedrich put an armed force aboard the William T. 
Frye which it overtook in the South Atlantic. The American 
ship was laden with wheat which was not contraband of 
war. This was being thrown into the sea when the German 
commander decided that this process was too slow. Accord- 
ingly he removed all members of his own and the Frye's 
crew to his own ship and sank the American ship with shell- 
fire, on February 28, 1915. 

On March 28, 1915, the British ship Falaba bound from 
Liverpool for the west coast of Africa was torpedoed and 
sunk. An American citizen, Mr. Leon Thrasher, was drowned. 
On the 28th of April, 1915, a German airplane dropped three 
bombs upon the deck of the American ship Gushing. The 

44 America's Part in the World War 

American oil tank steamship Gulflight was torpedoed off the 
Scilly Islands by a German submarine. The captain of the 
Gulflight and ten of the crew were killed. 

American sentiment had been crystallizing against Ger- 
many since the mailed fist of Teutonic kultur and the policy 
of SchrecMichkeit had been revealed in Belgium. The policy 
of ruthless submarine destruction served to prepare America 
for the inevitable declaration of war against a militarism that 
knew no bounds of humanity. German ruthlessness was 
now to add its final argument for American intervention. On 
April 22d, the German Embassy sent to the newspapers of 
New York City the following notice: 


Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded 
that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great 
Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent 
to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the 
Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, 
or of any of her allies are liable to destruction in those waters and that 
travelers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do 
so at their own risk. 

Imperial German Embassy, 
Washington, D. C, April 22, 1915. 

This was printed in the newspapers on the morning of 
May 1, 1915. On that day, the Lusitania, the crack ship of 
the Cunard Line sailed from the port of New York carrying 
1,251 passengers and a crew of 667. The world was startled 
and horror-stricken when the cable flashed the news that the 
Lusitania was sunk May 7th, about eight miles off Old Head 
of Kinsale on the south coast of Ireland. Two torpedoes 
struck the great ship without warning. Only ten lifeboats 
were launched, so rapidly did the great ship sink. The 
horrible deed dragged to their deaths 1,153 men, women and 
children of the ship's total of 1,918. Of the 188 Americans 
who were on board, 114 were lost. Among these were many 
persons of prominence and usefulness. 

While the outside world recoiled in horror, Germany 
celebrated the sinking of the Lusitania as a naval victory. 
Medals were struck in honor of the crime and school children 

Signs Before the Storm 45 

were given a holiday. President Wilson was criticised sharply 
during the later years of his administration because diplomatic 
relations with Germany were not severed immediately fol- 
lowing the destruction of the Lusitania. In his defense it was 
urged that public sentiment in America had not ripened 
sufficiently for a declaration of war. Neither had there been 
sufficient preparation by America for the entrance of the 
nation into hostilities. 

The sinking of the Lusitania was followed shortly by the 
resignation of Secretary of State Bryan who differed with the 
President upon questions of state policy. Secretary of War 
Lindley M. Garrison, of New Jersey, resigned his post. He was 
a strong advocate of the policy of preparedness for America. 

The destruction of the Lusitania was the ferment which 
transformed the United States from a country of pacifism into 
a nation resolved upon the extermination of Germany's 
autocratic militarism. It was a ferment that permeated all 
classes. American labor and American capital contemplating 
the Lusitania grew daily to hate more and more the ruthless 
policy that dictated the frightful deed. 


America Strikes 

GERMANY with her back to the wall, her submarines 
held within narrow limits, resolved upon a campaign 
of ruthless submarine warfare. The f ar-visioned among 
German statesmen realized that this decision would bring the 
United States into the war, but Von Tirpitz, head of the 
German Admiralty and the group associated with him believed 
that the United States could not be made ready for effective 
participation in the war before England could be blockaded 
and subdued. 

Ruthless submarine warfare commenced on February 1, 
1917. Approximately one hundred U-boats were sent from 
German and Belgian ports to spread terror and destruction 
throughout the seas. The British countered with a campaign 
of intensified destructiveness. From British Admiralty sources 
came the information that no fewer than forty -eight of these 
one hundred U-boats had been captured or destroyed by 
February 25th. 

President Wilson on February 3d informed Congress of 
the change in Germany's submarine policy and on the same 
day dismissed Count Von Bernstorff, the German Ambassador 
whose office was the center of German propaganda and de- 
structiveness in the United States. President Wilson on 
February 26th addressed a joint session of Congress in person. 
He asked for authority to supply armed crews and ammuni- 
tion to American merchant vessels and "To employ any other 
instrumentalities or methods that may be necessary and ade- 
quate to protect our ships and our people in their legitimate 
pursuits on the seas." 

News was received of the destruction, by a submarine, of 
the Cunard liner Laconia with loss of American lives and 
property, on the next day. This was followed on March 12th 
by the sinking with shellfire and bombs of the American ship 


America Strilies 47 

Algonquin, bound from New York to London with food. 
The attack was made without warning at 6 o'clock in the 
morning. A crew of twenty-six men, fourteen of whom were 
Americans, were in open boats for twenty-seven hours, before 
they reached Scilly. Germany gloried in the result of its 
ruthless policy. On March 19th, the following ojQBcial 
announcement was issued from Berlin: 

In February 368 merchant ships of an aggregate gross tonnage of 
781,500 were lost by the war measures of the Central Powers. Among 
them were 292 hostile ships, with an aggregate gross tonnage of 644,000 
and seventy-six neutral ships of an aggregate gross tonnage of 137,500. 
Among the neutral ships sixty-one were sunk by submarines, which is 
16.5 per cent of the total in February, as compared with 29 per cent, the 
average of neutral losses in the last four months. 

Coupled with the nation-wide indignation created by the 
sinking of American shipping without warning on the high 
seas, was the anger caused by the publication on March 1, 
1917, of a letter dated January 19, 1917, signed by the German 
Foreign Secretary Zimmermann, and addressed to the German 
IMinister Von Eckhardt in Mexico City. It revealed an anti- 
American alliance proposed by Germany with Mexico and 
Japan in the event that war was declared. The letter follows: 

Berlin, Jan. 19, 1917. 

On February 1st we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. 
In spit^ of this it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United 
States of America. 

If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the follow- 
ing basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together 
make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is imderstood 
that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory of New Mexico, Texas and 
Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement. 

You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above 
in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an 
outbreak of war with the United States, and suggest that the President of 
Mexico on his own initiative should communicate with Japan suggesting 
adherence at once to this plan. At the same time, offer to mediate between 
Germany and Japan. 

Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employ- 
ment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to 
make peace in a few months. 


48 America's Part in the World War 

The purpose of the people of the United States was now 
set definitely for war with Germany. It was a current as 
impetuous as the rapids of Niagara. Nothing could halt it. 
Everything that stood in the way was swept aside. Meetings 
of pacifists, conferences looking toward further negotiations 
with Germany were impatiently swept aside. On March 
6th Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels called the leading 
shipbuilders of the United States together and placed before 
them the proposition of the United States Government for 
immediate increase in the navy. As a result of that con- 
ference, Secretary Daniels on March 15th placed the largest 
single order that was ever given for fighting seacraft. Four 
huge battle cruisers and six scout cruisers costing ^112,000,000 
for hull and machinery alone were planned. 

A three-year navy building program was outlined for 
seven battleships, five battle cruisers, seven scout cruisers, and 
a host of destroyers, submarines, dirigible airships and other 

The record of Germany's offenses against the United 
States was set forth formally by the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs of the House of Representatives. It was a long one 
and included a series of intrigues against the peace of the 
United States, engineered by Germany's official representa- 
tives and spies in this country; fraudulent passports; supplying 
German warships with coal and provisions; the attempt to 
blow up the International Bridge at Vanceboro, Me.; placing 
bombs on ships; attempts to bring about strikes; conspiracy 
to send agents into Canada to blow up railroad tunnels and 
bridges; an elaborate system of espionage carried on by Paul 
Koenig, head of the secret-service work of the Hamburg- 
American Line; organizing an expedition to destroy the 
Welland Canal; attempts to organize an expedition to go to 
India to bring about a revolution there; financing a number of 
newspapers for the purposes of German propaganda; and 
encouraging and aiding activities of one or other faction in 
Mexico, the purpose being to keep the United States occu- 
pied along its own borders and prevent the exportation of 
munitions of war. Involved in these plottings were the 
official representatives of the Imperial German Government 

America Strifies 49 

in this country, Count Von BernstorfiF, the German Ambassa- 
dor; Captain Von Papen, Military Attache of the embassy; 
Captain Boy-Ed, Naval Attache; Dr. Dumba, the Austro- 
Hungarian Ambassador; Dr. Heinrich Albert, WoK von Igel, 
Franz von Rintelen and many others. 

All these plottings occurred while Germany was pro- 
fessing friendship with the United States; and, taken in 
conjunction with the destruction of Americans on the high 
seas, they vanquished the feeling of neutrality which this 
country had endeavored to maintain, and made war inevitable. 

It only now remained for the President to call the nation 
to arms. This he did in a memorable address delivered on 
the night of April 2, 1917. The President realized his heavy 
responsibility and his face was pale and his voice low and 
repressed as he commenced to read his address to the joint 
session of Congress and the most notable gathering of Ameri- 
cans and allies this country had ever seen. At first he leaned 
against the marble rostrum, but as the recital of the indignities 
suffered at the hands of Germany proceeded the words came 
vibrant with feeling. At the conclusion of the reading a dem- 
onstration unparalleled in its emotional sweep arose. It was 
the release of America's determination to join the Entente 
Allies for the extinction of a military autocracy that was 
threatening the future of the world's civilization. 

Among other things, the President said: 

. . . With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character 
of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves, 
but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I 
advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German 
Goverment to be in fact nothing less than war against the government and 
people of the United States; that it formally accept the status of bellig- 
erent which has thus been thrust upon it; and that it take immediate 
steps not only to put the country in a more thorough state of defense, but 
also to exert all its power and employ all its resources to bring the govern- 
ment of the German Empire to terms and end the war. 

It is a fearful thing to lead this great, peaceful people into war, into 
the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to 
be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall 
fight for the things which we have always carried nearest oin- hearts — 
for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a 
voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations. 

50 America's Part in the World War 

fer a universal domain of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall 
bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free, 

America's formal declaration of war against Germany 
was made by Congress on April Gth. The formal declaration 
of war by the United States against Austria-Hungary was not 
made until December 11th, but for all practical purposes, 
America was at war with all the Teutonic Allies from April 6, 

Thus was America brought into the war. No selfish 
motive actuated her. It was to her selfish interest to remain 
neutral. She might have coined from the necessities of the 
Allies wealth beyond all precedent in the history of nations. 
The unquestioned leadership of the world in material things 
lay ahead in the path of neutrality. In the path of war 
lay sacrifices both of blood and treasure. Heavy international 
obligations must be assumed by her the moment she became 
a belligerent. The selfish easy policy of national isolation 
became forever impossible once she entered the World War. 

She had nothing to gain by belligerency, that is, nothing 
in a material sense. Not an acre of land, not a dollar of 
profit would come to her. Instead she was certain to give 
up thousands of the lives of young Americans and to lose 
billions of dollars. Her only reward was to be an extension 
of the principle of true democracy throughout the world. 
The nation that had been derided in Europe as "the dollar 
country" was to set an example of idealism to serve as a 
beacon throughout future centuries. 

America really entered the war to destroy a German 
theory of government, a theory that a militarist group could 
take from the lives of its young men their best years and in 
these years train these men in the art of murder; that these 
men so trained operating under scientists specializing in the 
arts of human destruction could dominate the world and 
place the world under a system of heavy toll. 

America's entrance into the war demonstrated to the 
world that free peoples could leave the plow and the mill and 
the shop and within a few months by stoic training and 
sacrifice so steel themselves in the arts of war that materialistic 
militarism would be overwhelmed and destroyed. 


Upper row, left to right: Vice-Admlral Wm. S. Sims; Rear-Admiral Hugh Rodman; 
Vice-Admiral Henry B. Wilson; lower: Rear-Admiral Henry T. Mayo; Rear-Admiral 
Frank F. Fletcher; Rear-Admiral Albert Cleaves. 

U. S. Offiviiii PhotuQraph. 


American officers on second line of defense firing a machine gun on an anti-aircraft mount 

at German airplanes. 

• • iM.2: ■■-»ji '-^W ',.-:. ■ ■•••'*■ V.-. -...-r-.. :><•■. 

/l«?^r ^->^^rx;v- ^ 

U. S. Official Photograph. 

These light machine guns are well adapted for infantry work, and great numbers were used 

in service. 

America Strilies 53 

How American manliood, womanhood and childhood 
mobihzed in a mighty effort that ended the greatest war the 
world ever knew is a story of imperishable glory. ^ An army 
that for dauntless resolution and clear-eyed initiative and 
resourcefulness was never equalled broke the back of German 
militarism at Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, and in the dark, 
blood-soaked spaces of the Argonne forest. An American 
Navy, ready to spring like an unleashed tiger if the German 
Navy had ventured from behind its protecting mine fields 
co-operated with the British Navy in the blockade of the 
German coast and the destruction of the German submarine 
menace. Back of the army and the navy stood in serried 
ranks American labor, American farmers, American civilians 
in an overpowering array of industrial, agricultural and 
civilian effort. 

It was a mobilization such as no country had ever known 
against which the phalanx of autocracy could not compete. 

American effort ended the war. That is the judgment of 
history, a record that will inspire future generations of Ameri- 
cans and the peoples of other lands to future efforts for 
liberty's sake. 


Conscription of a Peaceful Nation 

HOW the flower of America's youth, answering the call 
to battle, sprang to the support of the colors; how 
America's army of democracy was raised almost 
overnight, trained in an incredibly short period of time and 
made ready for the front line trenches in the battle for civiliza- 
tion, is a story that will go down through the ages as a monu- 
ment for all time to the patriotism of America's young 

Shortly after the declaration of war, the War Department 
announced that Major-General John J. Pershing would com- 
mand approximately one division of regular troops which had 
been ordered to proceed to France as soon as possible, and 
that Pershing would accompany his staff before the troops 
left. President Wilson declined to accept the offer of the 
late Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, hero of San Juan Hill, and 
later President of the United States, to raise and equip a 
volunteer division, somewhat on the plan of the "Rough 
Riders" of Spanish-American War fame. Thus, at the time 
of the declaration of war with Germany, America had only 
one division to throw immediately into the balance on the 
side of the Allies. 

It was announced that a divisional unit of the army as 
reorganized on the plan used by the Allies, would consist of 
25,718 men and officers. Wagon trains and motor trains 
would raise this number to 28,334. To this would be added 
the medical contingent consisting of 125 officers, 1,332 enlisted 
men and forty-eight ambulances. 

The mobilization of the national guard had been ordered 
in all the states of the Union. The Vermont, Virginia, Mary- 
land, Delaware, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New York, 
New Jersey, Connecticut and District of Columbia National 
Guard divisions had been called out for police duty in March. 


Conscription of a Peaceful Nation 55 

They were stationed near railway bridges and water works as 
guards against German plotters. Before the end of March, 
twenty regiments and five battalions of the national guards in 
eighteen more .states were called. Twenty-two thousand 
guardsmen who were then returning from service on the 
Mexican border were not mustered out, but held in the 
service, and seven additional regiments were called out. 
On April 1st, out of a total of 150,000 national guardsmen, 
60,000 were under arms. 

On April 6th came the order for the mobilization of the 
navy. This branch of the service was found to be 35,000 men 
short of the 87,000 men authorized by law. It was necessary 
to recruit 99,809 men as regulars, and 45,870 men as reserves 
to put the navy on a war basis. Of these, 73,817 regulars and 
25,219 reserves were to be used on battleships, scouts, de- 
stroyers, submarines and training ships of the navy; 10,318 
regulars and 2,080 reserves were to be used for shore stations, 
and 10,633 regulars and 17,195 reserves were to be used for 
coast defense. 

Enlistments were opened almost Immediately. Every 
possible means to attract a recruit to the service was used. 
Women pleaded with noon-hour crowds at recruiting meet- 
ings, and the entire country was plastered with posters urging 
men to enlist. Volunteer recruiting was not a success in the 
United States. It was as flat a failure in this country as it 
had been in England. We later profited by England's 
example and drafted men into the army, but it was not until 
we had experienced some of the same symptoms which had 
marked England's entry into the war and a few subsequent 
months thereafter. 

Far from satisfactory were the recruits obtained by 
volunteer enlistment. Many gave fictitious names or addresses 
when they enlisted. Others failed to report to the stations 
to which they had been assigned. Thousands of volunteers 
failed to pass the physical examinations. Flat feet, bad hear- 
ing, bad teeth, defective sight and other physical defects 
barred many from the service. However, the daily enlist- 
ments for the navy rose from twenty-five to a thousand a day 
while the army, at the peak of its recruiting campaign, obtained 


America's Part in the World War 

nearly fifteen hundred recruits a day. By July 31st, more than 
a million men had volunteered, and of these, 558,858 had been 
accepted for service. Of this great number of recruits, the 
regular army received 163,633 men; the navy, 69,000 men. 







Sep Oat Hot ■ Dec jaa Feb Mar Apr May Jon Jul Ang Sap Pot Ho?- 


1918 • 

Chart Showing, in Thotisands, the Number op Men Drafted Each 
Month into the National Army 

This chart and the other charts in this book are reproduced from the "Statistical Sum- 
mary" prepared by Col. Leonard P. Ayres, Chief of the Statistics Branch, General Staff. 

the officers' training camps 35,000 men and the national 
guard received 145,000. 

On May 18th, after a month of wrangling, Congress 
passed the Selective Service Law, which called for the regis- 
tration of all males in the United States between the ages of 
twenty-one and thirty years, inclusive. The measure pro- 

Conscription of a Peaceful Nation 57 

vided for the increasing of the regular army to 287,000 men 
and the national guard to 625,000 men. It further adopted 
for the United States the theory and system of compulsory 
military service, providing a system of selective drafts of men 
between the ages mentioned. The President was authorized 
to take half a million men at once and another half million 
later, in addition to the regular army and national guard 
increases. In all, the legislation provided an army of approxi- 
mately 2,000,000 to be raised in the first year following the 
passage of the law. The vote in the Senate was 81 to 8, and 
the vote in the House of Representatives was 397 to 24. 

President Wilson signed the bill the day it was passed, 
and at once issued the proclamation calling the young men of 
the country to the colors. June 5th was fixed as the day for 
registration. The day was to be made the occasion of a great 
patriotic demonstration throughout the country. In his 
proclamation, the President said: 

"The power against which we are arrayed has sought to 
impose its will upon the world by force. To this end it has 
increased armament until it has changed the face of war. 
In the sense in which we have been wont to think of armies, 
there are no armies in this struggle, there are entire nations 
armed. Thus, the men who remain to till the soil and man 
the factories are no less a part of the army that is in France 
than the men beneath the battle flags. It must be so with us. 
It is not an army that we must shape and train for war; it is 
a nation. 

"To this end, our people must draw close in one compact 
front against a common foe. But this cannot be if each man 
pursues a private purpose. The nation needs all men; but 
it needs each man not in the field that will most pleasure him, 
but in that endeavor that will best serve the common good. 
Thus, though a sharpshooter pleases to operate a trip-hammer 
for the forging of great guns and an expert machinist desires 
to march with the flag, the nation is being served only when 
the sharpshooter marches and the machinist remains at his 

"The whole nation must be a team, in which each man 
shall play the part for which he is best fitted. - 

58 America's Part in the World War 

*'The significance of this cannot be overstated. It is a 
new thing in our history and a landmark in our progress. 
It is a new manner of accepting and vitaKzing our duty to 
give ourselves with thoughtful devotion to the common 
purpose of us all. It is in no sense a conscription of the 
unwilling; it is rather selection from a nation which has 
volunteered in mass. It is no more a choosing of those who 
shall march with the colors than it is a selection of those who 
shall serve an equally necessary and devoted purpose in the 
industries that lie behind the battle line." 

According to the provisions of the Selective Service Act 
as passed, the Vice-President of the United States, the officers, 
legislative, executive and judicial, of the United States, and 
of the several states, territories and District of Columbia; 
regular or duly ordained ministers of religion; students in 
recognized schools of divinity and theology; all persons in the 
military or naval service of the United States; members of 
sects whose creeds forbade them to engage in war; county 
and municipal officials; custom house clerks, those engaged in 
the transmission of the mails; artisans and workmen in armo- 
ries, arsenals, navy yards; pilots and mariners actually in 
sea service; those employed in industries and in agriculture 
necessary to the operations of the armed forces; those physic- 
ally or mentally deficient, and those upon whom someone 
depended for support, all these were or might be exempt. 


June 5th drew near. As the day approached on which 
all America's young manhood was expected to register itself 
as ready for the summons to action, anti-draft and anti-war 
demonstrations were made by socialists and other malcon- 
tents, who marched about the streets of the larger cities dis- 
tributing pamphlets and bearing banners inscribed with 
various legends protesting the draft and the war. These 
were dealt with summarily by groups of soldiers and sailors, 
who quickly tore down the red banner of one socialistic mob 
in Boston, and forced their band to play the *'Star Spangled 

The day came. The census bureau in an estimate gave 

Conscription of a Peaceful Nation 59 

ten million as the probable number of registrants. Never, in 
all the history of the country, did the young men of America 
show such patriotism, such love of country, such zeal and such 
true American spirit as on that day, the day which will stand 
out in letters of gold in the history of America's part in the 
fight for the freedom of the world, as the day on which America 
sprang to arms. Young men, from every walk of life, accom- 
panied by grandfathers wearing the uniform of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, streamed into registration places 
in all parts of the country, and filled out the registration 
blank. The men who registered for service, offering their 
all, if they should be needed, showed their noble spirit in many 
ways. Thousands left the question "Do you claim exemption 
from draft?" unanswered, preferring to leave it for the govern- 
ment to decide the matter of exemption. Diplomatic and 
consular representatives of foreign governments made requests 
during the day for additional registration cards to be used for 
the registration of American citizens of the required ages 

The polling booths and other places employed for election 
purposes were utilized as the places of registration. The 
registration blank contained twelve questions covering among 
others, name, age, address, nationality, birthplace, occupation 
and concluded with the question: *'Do you claim exemption 
from draft (specify grounds).'^" The day passed quietly. 
Although some trouble was expected from anti-conscription- 
ists, there was practically no disorder. A few arrests were 
reported, but the method employed by the young men who 
were opposed to conscription was in nearly every case, simply 
to neglect to register. 

A statement officially Issued by the Committee on Public 
Information on the evening of July 5th, said in part: 

Nearly 10,000,000 Americans of military age registered today for 
service in the army against Germany. The registration was accomplished 
in a fashion measuring up to the highest standards of Americanism. The 
young men came to the registration places enthusiastic; there was no 
hint of a slacking spirit anywhere except in a few cases where misguided 
persons had been prevailed upon to attempt to avoid their national 

From every state reports were received showing that the sporadic 

60 America's Part in the World War 

conspiracies to thwart the first step toward the mobilization of as large an 
army as the country may need to bring the war to a victorious conclusion 
had failed utterly. The Department of Justice had a tremendous machin- 
ery ready to cope with these conspiracies, but it proved to be unnecessary. 
Arrangements had been made by the Department of Justice and the War 
Department to secure immediate telegraphic reports upon any outbreaks 
or troublesome occurrences. 

The spirit of the yoimg men from whom the fighting forces are to be 
selected was evidenced in their attitude toward question twelve on the 
registration blanlvs, which asked if exemption was claimed. In thousands 
of cases yoimg men availed themselves of the right to ignore this question 
and to leave it entirely for the government to decide whether they should 
be selected. This spirit was evidenced again in the receipt during the day 
of numerous requests from diplomatic and consular ofiicials of the United 
States for additional registration cards to be used by citizens who are now 
in other countries ; this fact was impressive because registration is voluntary 
on t)ie part of Americans resident abroad. 

On the first registration day for selective service this 
country had ever known, 9,659,382 young men between the 
ages of twenty-one and thirty inclusive, reported. Of these, 
7,347,794 were white citizens, 953,899 were colored citizens, 
1,239,865 were unnaturalized foreigners from countries other 
than Germany, 111,823 were unnaturalized Germans, includ- 
ing "declarants," persons having declared their intention to 
become citizens but not having received their final citizenship 
papers, and 6,001 were Indians. 

The total registration results showed a discrepancy of 
4.1 of the estimate of 10,079,000 made by the census bureau. 
The apparent shortage, about 413,000 was considerably less 
than the number of men of the draft age who were estimated 
by the War Department to have been in the various branches 
of the military and naval services of the United States on 
June 5th, and for that reason exempt from the requirement of 
registration. This number is 600,000. On the face of these 
figures, the number of men in the United States between the 
ages of twenty-one and thirty, inclusive, was slightly in excess 
of the census bureau estimates. 


The registration by states, showing the total registration, 
the percentage of the census bureau estimate for the various 

Conscription of a Peaceful Nation 


states and the number of registered unnaturalized Germans 
follows : 



Per cent 



TIniteH States 


95.9' 111,823 











































































• • • • 












Delaware . 


District of Columbia 














Kansas . . . 




















New ITamnsliire 



New Mexico 



North Carolina 










Rhode Island 



South Dakota 






Vermont . . 









^a.tioiiAi Parks 


62 America's Part in the World War 

The next step in the estabhshment of the army of 
democracy was the estabhshment of local boards. It was 
provided in the selective service regulations that for each 
county of 45,000 population, and for each city of 30,000 there 
should be a local exemption board, with an additional board 
for each 30,000 population. These boards were to consist of 
three persons appointed by the President, one member to be 
a physician. These local boards, on being organized, took 
over all registration cards, numbered them serially without 
regard to alphabetical order, transmitted copies to the state 
adjutant-general, and prepared lists for Provost Marshal 
General Enoch H. Crowder, at Washington, who had charge 
of the national administration of the selective service 

The President then fixed the net quotas for the states, 
and the state organizations fixed the quotas of the various 
districts. The quotas for the first draft were fixed as follows: 

Net Quota. 

United States 687,000 

Alabama 13,612 

Arizona 3,472 

Arkansas 10,267 

California 23,060 

Colorado 4,753 

Connecticut 10,977 

Delaware 1,202 

District of Columbia 929 

Florida 6,325 

Georgia 18,337 

Idaho 2,287 

Illinois 51,653 

Indiana 17,510 

Iowa 12,749 

Kansas 6,439 

Kentucky 14,236 

Louisiana 13,582 

Maine 1,821 

Maryland 7,096 

Massachusetts 20,586 

Michigan 30,291 

Minnesota 17,854 

Conscription of a Peaceful Nation 63 

Net Quota. 

Mississippi 10,801 

Missouri 18,660 

Montana 7,872 

Nebraska 8,185 

Nevada 1.051 

New Hampshire 1,204 

New Jersey 20,665 

New Mexico 2,292 

New York 69,241 

North Carohna 15,974 

North Dakota 5,606 

Ohio 38,773 

Oklahoma 15,564 

Oregon "^17 

Pennsylvania 60,859 

Rhode Island 1,801 

South Carolina 10,081 

South Dakota 2,717 

Tennessee 14,528 

Texas 30,545 

Utah 2,730 

Vermont 1,049 

Virginia 13,795 

Washington '^',296 

West Virginia 9,101 

Wisconsin 12,876 

Wyoming 810 

Alaska 696 

Hawaii 000 

Porto Rico 12,833 

It was announced that the drawing of the 625,000 men to 
form the first army under the Selective Service Act would 
take place on July 15th in Washington. The serial numbers 
for each of the five thousand districts in the country were 
placed in a jury wheel, and would be drawn one at a time 
until the requisite number was attained. Each number 
drawn would apply to each registration district whose numbers 
reached the number drawn, so that nearly five thousand men 
would be drafted at one time. Thus, if the number "500" 
were drawn, the man in every district throughout the country 
holding that number would be selected for service and required 
to appear before the local board for physical examination, or for 
the hearing of his claim to exemption if he had one to present. 


America's Part in the World War 

The serial numbers on the registration cards were dis- 
carded, and in their places other numbers, known as "red ink" 
numbers, because they were marked in red ink, were assigned 
the registrants. These "red ink" numbers, numbering 
10,500, were placed each in a black celluloid capsule in a glass 
bowl. They were well mixed, and on Friday, July 20th, the 
drawing began. Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War, blind- 
folded, drew the first capsule. It was handed to the announcer 
who opened it. His shaky hand trembled for a moment, and 

SZZ 60 3D 64 

BB 50 70 59 

Per Cent of Drafted Men Passing Physical Examination, by States 

nervously he drew out the little slip of paper from the capsule 
and called out with a quiver in his voice, "Number 258." 
At that moment, one man in every one of the 4,557 districts 
throughout the United States, if as many as 258 had been 
registered in each district, was called to the standard to fight 
for democracy against military autocracy. 

The number announced was noted by three tally clerks, 
who wrote it on a huge blackboard in open sight of everyone 
in the chamber. It was then telegraphed to every town, 
village and hamlet from Maine to Washington, and from the 

Conscription of a Peaceful Nation 65 

Great Lakes to the Gulf. The second number was drawn by 
the Chairman of the Senate Committee on MiUtary Affairs, 
the third by the Chairman of the House Committee on Mihtary 
Affairs, and the fourth and fifth by the ranking minority 
members of the two committees. Motion picture machines 
chcked the celluloid record of the historic drawing for pres- 
ervation among the archives of the country, at the request 
of the Secretary of War. 

In the cities, towns and villages throughout the entire 
country, business was virtually suspended for the day. All 
day long, and far into the night, crowds of young men, anxious 
to know whether they were in the chosen ranks of democracy's 
knighthood, lawyers, laborers, machinists, drug-clerks, artisans 
and authors, rich and poor, thronged the sidewalks in front 
of every bulletin board whereon the numbers were displayed 
in order. The drawing of the capsules continued for sixteen 
and a half hours, until the ten thousand five hundred pellets 
had been taken from the bowl, and 1,374,000 men had been 
called to form the vanguard of the dauntless American Army. 


Transforming Citizens into Soldiers 

THE bugle sounded. *' To arms!" Clerks and lawyers, 
machinists and musicians, engineers and laborers, all 
America's manhood, overflowing with the ideals of 
democracy, flocked to the colors. 

The overall, the jumper, the silken socks, the alpaca oflfice 
coat — all were laid aside, and khaki clothed them every one. 
Overnight, it seemed, training camps sprang up, wooden 
cities housing thousands, growing out of the earth like mush- 
rooms after a rain. Training fields, drill grounds — levelled, 
laid out and perfected in less time than was ever hoped for 
by the War Department. The American Army, particul rly 
the National Army, literally "ate up" its training. The 
French trembled. "We are holding the enemy — but for how 
long.?" was the word from Foch. "We are fighting with our 
backs to the wall," said Field Marshal Haig, at the moment 
when the Allies' darkest hour had arrived. "Hold the line — 
We're coming, and we're aching for a fight," was the word 
from America. 

It took some time to wake America up, it is true, but 
once awakened — there was no let up until the armistice was 
signed in the special train of Marshal Foch in the little forest 
near the town of Senlis. As soon as the call was sounded, it 
was unthinkable that there should be any cessation of the tre- 
mendous war activities here, and there was none. 

With no hatred in their hearts for the German people, 
but with a determination to crush the Thing that dominated 
them and threatened to dominate the world, the Americans 
set themselves the task of winning the war— and what the 
American dares, he can do. 

Under the terms of the Selective Service Act with its 
subsequent modifications, approximately 23,709,000 males 
between the ages of eighteen and forty-five inclusive regis- 
tered for service in the National Army. The dates of regis- 


Transforming Citizens Into Soldiers 


tration, with the age groups of the registrants and the number 
of men who registered, follow: 

Date of Registration. 

Junes, 1917 

Junes, 1918 

August 24, 1918. . . 


September 12. 1918 

Grand total. 

Age Group 
of Regis- 




Number of 




After the order in which the registrants would be called 
for physical examination had been determined by the drawing 
at Washington, the local boards began to issue notices for the 
drafted men to appear for examination. In some parts of the 
country, notably in Oklahoma, groups organized to resist the 
draft. To these and to all others in all parts of the country 
who might resist the draft, Provost Marshal General Crowder 
issued a statement in which he said there was nothing to 
resist thus far. The call to appear before the examining 
boards. General Crowder said, was to afford all who were 
eligible for exemption an opportunity to present their claims. 
The Provost Marshal General emphasized the fact that 
failure to report for duty when ordered was desertion — ^in 
time of war a capital offense. 

Early in September, the mobilization of the young men 
drawn for service in the National Army began. On September 
5th, five per cent of the white men enrolled in the first quota 
of the National Guard left for the training camps established 
in all parts of the country. On September 19th and October 
3d, detachments of forty per cent each left for the camps, and 
the remaining fifteen per cent were sent out speedily thereafter. 

The days on which the men left were made national 
holidays. Workers left their machines, farmers their plows 
and wives and mothers their housework to furnish a fitting 
sendoff for the defenders of democracy. Cheerfully they went, 
with songs on their lips. On September 3d, came the farewell 
message from the President: 

68 America's Part in the World War 

"You are undertaking a great duty. The heart of the 
whole country is with you. Everything that you do will be 
watched with the deepest interest and with the deepest 
solicitude not only by those who are near and dear to you, but 
by the whole nation besides. 

"For this great war draws us all together, makes us all 
comrades and brothers as all true Americans felt themselves 
to be when we first made good our national independence. 

"The eyes of the whole world will be upon you, because 
you are in some special sense the soldiers of freedom. Let 
it be your pride, therefore, to show all good men, everywhere, 
not only what good soldiers you are, but also what good men 
you are, keeping yourselves fit and straight in everything and 
pure and clean through and through. 

"Let us set for ourselves a standara so high that it will be 
a glory to live up to it, and then let us live up to it and add a 
new laurel to the crown of America. 

"My affectionate confidence goes v/ith you in every battle 
and every test. God keep and guide you." 

The willingness with which the universal draft was ac- 
cepted by the American people is one of the most remarkable 
features in the history of our participation in the World War. 
That a nation founded on the principles which are the very 
antithesis of compulsory military service should take so 
readily to this means of raising men was almost inconceivable. 
The Germans scoffed. They little thought that the marvel 
which was to happen overnight was to come to pass at all. 
But it did; and the flower of the youth of America, concen- 
trated in the 77th, the 79th, the 93d and other drafted 
divisions of the National Army swept all that Germany could 
put in the field before them — cleared the terrain for miles 
in northern France, and after forty-seven days of raging hell 
sent back word to the States: "The Huns are gone from the 

It is a noteworthy evidence of the enthusiastic support 
given by the country to the war program that, despite previous 
hostility to the principle of universal liability for military 
service, a few months after the Selective Service Law was 
passed the standing of the drafted soldier was fully as honor- 

U. ti. Ojjicial Photuyrapli. 


The army engineers quickly converted this quiet French port into a hive of industry with 
great concrete docks, warehouses and hundreds of miles of railroad tracks. 

U . a. Official I'hotograph. 


In this port, the only deep water harbor available, were landed the great majority of the 

American Expeditionary Forces. 

Transforming Citizens Into Soldiers 


able in the estimation of his companions and of the country 
in general as was that of the man who enlisted voluntarily. 
At the outset, the drafted man was not thought so much of as 
was the enlisted man. But time and the fact that all were 
one in the cause for which they fought, tempered this feeling 
until the American soldier, draftee or National Guardsman or 
Regular, was the idol of the country. 

Moreover, the record of desertions from the army shows 
that the total was smaller than in previous wars. A smaller 
percentage occurred among drafted men than among those 






The Thkee Sources from "Which the Army Came 

who volunteered. Under the Selective Service Act, a total of 
24,234,021 men were registered, and slightly more than 
2,800,000 were inducted into the military service. All this 
was accomplished in a manner that was fair to the men, 
supplied the army with soldiers as rapidly as they could be 
equipped and trained, and resulted in a minimum of dis- 
turbance to the industrial and economic life of the nation. 
Our men were left in the posts where they were of most 
value to the country and the service. Of the total number 
registered, only twelve per cent were inducted into the service. 
In the course of the war, twenty-four million out of a total 
male population of fifty-four million registered for service. 

72 America's Part in the World War 

The story of the canionments and how they sprang up 
overnight is a story of American efficiency that is rivalled 
only by the story of the training of the American doughboys. 
For each of the sixteen divisional areas in the United States 
based on the population, there was built a great wooden city, 
where the National Army was quartered until its course of 
training was finished. The camps and their locations were as 
follows : 

Camp Devens, Ayer, Mass. 

Camp Upton, Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y. 

Camp Dix, Wrightstown, N. J. 

Camp Meade, Annapolis Jmiction, Md. 

Camp Lee, Petersburg, Va. 

Camp Jackson, Columbia, S. C. 

Camp Gordon, Atlanta, Ga. 

Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio. 

Camp Taylor, Louisville, Ky. 

Camp Custer, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Camp Grant, Rockford, 111. 

Camp Pike, Little Rock, Ark. 

Camp Dodge, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Camp Funston, Fort Riley, Kans. 

Camp Travis, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. 

Camp Lewis, American Lake, Wash. 

The National Guard Camps were as follows: 

Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C. 
Camp Wadsworth, Spartanburg, S. C. 
Camp Hancock, Augusta, Ga. 
Camp McClellan, Anniston, Ala. 
Camp Sevier, Greenville, S. C. 
Camp Wheeler, Macon, Ga. 
Camp MacArthur, Waco, Texas. 
Camp Logan, Houston, Texas. 
Camp Cody, Deming, N. Mex. 
Camp Doniphan, Fort Sill, Okla. 
Camp Bowie, Fort Worth, Texas. 
Camp Sheridan, Montgomery, Ala. 
Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Miss. 
Camp Beauregard, Alexandria, La. 
Camp Kearny, Linda Vista, Cal. 
Camp Fremont, Palo Alto, Cal. 

Among the special embarkation cantonments were: 
Camp Merritt, Dumont, N. J. 

Transforming Citizens Into Soldiers 73 

Camp Mills, IVIineola, Long Island, N. Y. 
Camp Stuart, Ne"^\T)ort News, Va. 
Camp Hill, Ne^\^ort News, Va. 

Other special camps and cantonments included: 

Camp Forrest, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. 
Camp Humphreys, Accotink, Va. 
Camp Abraham Eustis, Lee Hall, Va. 
Camp Knox, Stithton, Ky. 
Camp Johnston, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Camp Greenleaf, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. 

Within three months from the time ground was broken, 
the men were drilling on the parade grounds of the camps. 
The gigantic nature of the task of building the cantonments 
becomes clearer when one realizes that each cantonment 
required 25,000,000 feet of lumber; 7,500 doors; 37,000 
window sashes; 4,665 casks of portland cement; and 5,000 
yards of broken stone. The water supply of a cantonment 
was 2,500,000 gallons a day. Each cantonment had its own 
sewerage system, fire department, bakeries, ice plants and 
hospitals. A gigantic steam-heating plant was required for 
each. The task was really the erection of sixteen cities, each 
with accommodations for forty thousand inhabitants. 

The actual construction work at each of the cantonments 
was under the supervision of an ofiicer of the Quartermaster 
Corps, either regular or reserve, known as the Constructing 
Quartermaster. Under him was an assistant quartermaster. 
The Constructing Quartermaster was in full charge at each 
cantonment, directing the laying out of the buildings and 
supervising for the government the entire work of con- 
struction as carried on by the contractor. The personnel of 
the Contracting Quartermasters included a number of well- 
known civilian engineers who were given commissions as 
majors in the Quartermaster's Reserve Corps. In addition, 
several officers of the Regular Army Quartermaster's Corps 
acted in executive capacity. 

Orders were given to the governors of fifteen states to 
muster in the federal service sixteen companies of engineers 
of the National Guard who were assigned to do the prelim- 
inary engineering work on the sixteen sites for cantonments for 


America's Part in the World War 

the National Army, one company to a cantonment. One 
company was ordered from each of the following states: 
Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Mississippi, Iowa, 
Kansas, Texas and California, and two companies were 
ordered from New Jersey. The first work of each company 
was to plot out the site chosen for the cantonment, to prepare 
preliminary plans showing the contractor where sewers, 
water pipes, wires, roads, regimental camps, and all necessary 
buildings and other works were to be placed. 

Immediately, nine regiments of railroad engineers and 
one regiment of woodsmen and mill workers were organized 
as units of the National Army, and other forces were called 
before the general call which brought five hundred thousand 
men of the first increment into training at the cantonments. 


Slightly over 2,800,000 of the registrants were inducted 
into military service, 2,541,000 through calls issued to local 
boards to furnish their allotted quotas, and 259,000 through 
inductions of individuals. Approximately 140,000 of the 
latter were inducted in October and during the first ten days 
in November for the Students' Army Training Corps. The 
inductions durinsf each month are shown in the table below: 












Men In- 



















Men In- 



With the exception of the Students' Army Training Corps 
and a few thousand of voluntary inductions, no men of the 
last registration were inducted into the army. This means 
that of the 10,481,000 registrants between the ages of twenty- 

Transforming Citizens Into Soldiers 


one and thirty, approximately 2,630,000, or twenty-five per 
cent, were taken into military service through the draft. 
At the time of the signing of the armistice Class I of the 
twenty-one to thirty years old group was practically drained of 
men capable of rendering full military service. Those remain- 
ing classified therein were men qualified for limited service 
only, men granted temporary deferment on account of 
emploj^ment with the Emergency Fleet Corporation and men 
classed as delinquents on account of failure to file question- 
naires. These groups constituted about six per cent of the 
total registrants. About four per cent of the registrants were 
placed in deferred classes on the ground of employment in a 
necessary industrial or agricultural enterprise, and about sixty- 
five per cent on all other grounds. 

The table below shows the number and percentage of the 
entire army which was obtained through the draft and through 
sources other than the draft from each state. 


New York 

Pennsylvania. . 






Massachusetts . 


New Jersey . . . . 








North Carolina 







Mississippi. . . . 
West Virginia. . 
South Carolina 





























Per cent 
of Total. 









Colorado , 

Florida , 

South Dakota , 


North Dakota 



Rhode Island 


District of Columbia. 

New Hampshire 

New Mexico 






Porto Rico 





Total . 


Per cent 
of ToUl. 





76 America's Part in the World War 

The following table shows the number by main geograph- 
ical divisions. In studying these figures it should be borne in 
mind that the draft figures include voluntary enlistments on the 
part of the men who registered under the Selective Service Act. 




Southeastern . 
Southern .... 


Northeastern . 

Total . 




In the fall of 1917, the first half -million men came in 
rapidly. During the winter, the accessions were relatively 
few, and those that did come in were largely used as replace- 
ments and for special services. In the spring of 1918, came 
the German drive, and with it urgent calls from France for 
unlimited numbers of men. Then over a period of several 
months the numbers of new men brought into the service 
mounted into the hundreds of thousands and reached their 
highest point in July, 1918, when 401,000 men were inducted 
into the service. During the succeeding months the numbers 
fell off considerably on account of the epidemic of influenza 
and with November the inductions ceased entirely due to the 
unexpected ending of the war. 

Under the operation of the draft, the registrants were 
given physical examinations by the local draft boards in order 
that those men who were not of sufficient physical soundness 
and vigor for military life might be sorted out. Those who 
were found qualified for service were sent to camps. Here 
they were given another examination by army surgeons, and 
additional men were rejected because of the defects which 
had not been discovered in the first examination. Analysis 
of the records of physical examinations shows that the 
country boys made better records than those from the cities; 
the white registrants better than the colored; and native born 
better records than those of alien birth. These difl'erences 
were so considerable that 100,000 country boys furnished for 

Transforming Citizens Into Soldiers 77 

the military service 4,790 more soldiers than an equal number 
of city boys. Similarly, 100,000 whites furnished 1,240 more 
soldiers than did an equal number of colored registrants. 
Finally, 100,000 native-born registrants yielded 3,500 more 
soldiers than did an equal number of foreign born. The 
importance of these differences is to be appreciated by noting 
that an infantry regiment at full war strength contains 
3,500 men. 

The average American soldier, before he went to France, 
received six months of training in this country. After he 
landed overseas, he had two months of training before enter- 
ing the battle line. The part of the battle line that he entered 
was in a quiet sector, and here he remained one month before 
going into an active sector and taking part in the hard fighting. 

The experiences of thousands of soldiers differ widely 
from the typical figures just presented, but a careful study of 
the training data of nearly 1,400,000 men who actually fought 
in France gives the average results shown above. 

The building of the cantonments was authorized in May, 
1917. The last site was secured on July 6th, and on Septem- 
ber 4th accommodations were ready for 430,000 men. Where, 
in all the history of Germany, did scientific "kultur" match 
these figures for American efficiency? This capacity was 
shortly increased to 770,000, an average capacity per can- 
tonment of 48,000. Construction of the camps went forward 
at the same rapid pace. Although tents were provided for 
housing the soldiers, wooden buildings in considerable num- 
bers were necessary. The capacity of the camps reached 
684,000, giving a total camp and cantonment capacity of 
nearly a million and a half. Officers' training camps supplied 
officers to the number of one officer to every twenty men. 

Shortly after the first of the new camps had been estab- 
lished, France and England sent to the United States some 
of their ablest officers who had seen service on the western 
front to bring to our training approved methods developed in 
the war. The instructors were not numerous, but the aid 
they rendered was of first importance. Gas instruction, 
bayonet instruction, machine gun, sniping, trench mortar and 
other training was efficiently given by these military specialists, 

78 America's Part in the World War 

who devoted most of their periods of instruction to gas. A 
total of 286 French instruction officers and 261 British instruc- 
tion officers helped America train her army. In addition, the 
British detailed 226 non-commissioned officers as instructors, 
who were also assigned to different subjects in various training 
camps. The War Department report says of these men: 
*' These groups of foreign instructors attached to training 
schools, divisions and other units, rendered service out of all 
proportion to their number. They were a significant con- 
tribution to our training program." 

The real story of the training of the American draft army 
is as follows: On June 5, 1917, the men in question registered. 
By September, 1917, we had 500,000 men in this country 
training for overseas duty. We did not have 500,000 men in 
France until May, 1918, eight months later. It is probable 
that the millionth man who went overseas began training in 
December, 1917. He did not reach France until July, 1918, 
after seven months of training. Evidence of this character 
goes to show that for the first million men the standard of 
seven months' training was consistently maintained as an 
average figure. 

In June, with the German drives in full swing, the Allies 
called on us to continue the extraordinary transportation of 
troops begun in April. The early movement had been met 
by filling up the divisions that sailed with the best trained 
men wherever they could be found. Divisions embarked 
after July 1st, had to meet shortages with men who were 
called to the colors in the spring. When November was 
reached, the average period of training in the United States 
had been shortened to close to four months, and the average 
for the period of July 1st to November 11th was probably 
five months. 

For the first million men, then, seven months may be 
taken as the average training figure. For the second million, 
five months was the period of training on the average. This 
establishes an average for the army of six months as a period 
of training. 

After reaching France, the troops were given an average 
of two months' training in quiet sectors before going into 

Transforming Citizens Into Soldiers 79 

action in the center of the fight. However, many of the troops 
used as replacements in the days when the alhed effort was 
at its zenith, were not given this two months' training period. 
The induction of men in the last months of the war was 
carried forward at the greatest possible rate of speed, and 
every device for hastening the training of the men was used. 
The result fully justified the effort. More than 1,200,000 
were thrown into the great Meuse-Argonne offensive while 
thousands of troops were engaged in other parts of the line. 
Our training camp officers stood up to the test; our men, 
with their intensive drilling in open order fighting, which 
characterized American training, routed the best of the 
German divisions from the Argonne forest and the valley 
of the Meuse. 


Before America's Entrance 

THE Germans had long been waiting for "der Tag." 
Their plans had long been made. They knew well 
that they would have to fight France as well as Russia. 
As for Italy, she would be neutral if she were not on their 
side, and England had troubles of her own with Ireland. 
Besides, England was too rich and prosperous to wish war. 
Even if she should fight, it would matter little, for she only 
had "a contemptible little army." What Germany really 
feared, if it could be called fear, was the great unorganized 
power of Russia. If that power could be brought into play, 
the millions of men, and the enormous resources of the empire 
of the Czar might cause trouble. But Russia was badly 
organized, and almost barbarous. It would take months 
before her armies could be mobilized. The German policy, 
therefore, was clear enough. They would dash to Paris, 
they would crush France by one great stroke. And then 
with France at their mercy they would turn to the east and 
deal with Russia at their leisure. They were absolutely 
confident. It would seem that they had calculated well. 
Their troops were magnificently trained, and wonderfully 
equipped. They were ready to move at but a word. They 
could put two soldiers on the field for every Frenchman. 
The march to Paris would be easy, and Germany would soon 
take a place in the sun where her shadow would fall over every 
other European nation. Now, at last, it would be "Deutsch- 
land liber alles." 


And so, on the 4th of August, 1914, the Germans began 
their march toward Paris. The campaign had been worked 
out in every detail. The French frontier was too well forti- 
fied, they would go through Belgium and Luxemburg. To 


Before America's Entrance 81 

be sure they had pledged themselves by treaty to respect the 
neutrality of these countries, but treaties were only "scraps 
of paper." 

The invasion of Belgium was the first great mistake of 
the Germans, for it brought England into the war and alien- 
ated the sympathy of the world. 

The German armies came into France and Belgium in 
three mighty streams. The army of the Rhine marched 
directly into France in the south through the Vosges moun- 
tains; the army of the Moselle passed through Luxemburg, 
which was helpless; and the army of the Meuse, which 
was to make the great advance, marched into Belgium. The 
first great battle of the war was the struggle at Liege, which 
lasted for ten heroic days. Liege had been well fortified but 
its fortresses were old-fashioned and out of repair. It could 
not resist 'the great 42-centimeter guns. The Belgians were 
compelled to retire northward on Antw^erp, Louvain and 
Brussels, but they threatened the German flank and kept a 
quarter of a million of German soldiers from taking part in 
the German advance. The German Army was delayed and 
this delay saved Europe. The British Army landed in France 
and the French Army was mobilized and brought up against 
them. For a time it seemed as if resistance to the German 
forces could be made effective. 

If the French and English could form a line of battle from 
Verdun to the Sedan, connecting with the Belgian armies 
from Namur to Antwerp, the position would have been highly 
favorable. The German right would have been compelled 
to maneuver in a narrow area, and Namur would have been 
defended by the whole strength of the allied left center. But 
the French could not mobilize in time, and after reaching 
Namur the line turned sharply to the left along the river 
Sambre, forming a sharp salient. This salient depended upon 
the strength of the fortress of Namur. The English army 
was placed upon the left of the French line at the city of 
Mons. The first great battle between the allied forces and 
the German Army took place on August 20th, when the 
Germans attacked Namur, which soon fell. As in the case of 
Liege, its fortifications could not resist the great German 

82 America's Part in the World War 

guns. The French armies, along the Charleroi-Mons Une 
were driven back, and the Enghsh, fighting desperately at 
Mons with 75,000 men and 250 guns, found themselves 
faced by 200,000 Germans with 50,000 more sweeping round 
their left, and the French to their right in full retreat. 

Then began the famous retreat. Day after day they 
retired fighting. Again and again the English held, but 
without support, were compelled again to give way. The 
Germans captured fortress after fortress. On the 28th of 
August, Maubeuge of all the northern strongholds still held 
out. The French defense along the line of the Meuse was 
crushed, and a general retirement along the line of the Marne 
was ordered. The French center was also being steadily 
forced back by the great German armies, which had defeated 
it and which were now pushing in the direction of Rheims and 
Chalons. By September 3d, the allied armies were behind 
the line of the Marne. The long retreat was at an end. 

It looked then as if Paris was at the mercy of the Germans. 
The French cavalry were within cannon shot of the forts of 
Paris and the French government left Paris for Bordeaux. 
But the French were not defeated yet. The great allied 
retreat was essentially strategic. The French and English 
armies were still intact. The German generals knew well 
that they could not attack Paris until they had crushed those 
armies. Von Kluck, instead of attacking Paris, swung to the 
south to maintain contact with the French and English line. 
The moment had come for the Allies to strike back. 


Then came the famous battle of the Marne, when Gen- 
eral Joffre, on the 6th of September, turned against the 
German Army and drove them back. On the morning of 
that day the great French Marshal issued the following order: 

At the moment when a battle on which the welfare of the country 
depends is about to begin, I feel it my duty to remind you that it is no 
longer the time to look behind. We have but one business on hand — to 
attack and repel the enemy. An army which can no longer advance will at 
all costs hold the ground it has won, and allow itself to be slain where it 
stands rather than give way. Tlus '= no time for faltering, and it will 
not be suflfered. 

Before America's Entrance 83 

Sir John French issued a similar order, and the German 
general commanding the 8th Corps declared in an order of the 

The object of our long and arduous marches has been achieved. The 
principal French troops have been forced to accept battle after having 
been continually forced back. The great decision is undoubtedly at hand. 
Everything depends on the result of tomorrow. 

The battle lasted for four days, and the German armies 
were in full retreat. The most spectacular feat of the battle 
was the movement of General Gallieni's army defending 
Paris to attack the right wing of the German Army. In this 
maneuver every motor car in Paris was in line, and General 
Gallieni's force became the "army in taxicabs." The other 
great development of the battle was the attack of General 
Foch on the evening of September 9th on the German forces. 
He telegraphed to General Joffre, "The enemy is attacking 
my flank, my rear is threatened. I am, therefore, attacking 
in front." And he drove his army between Von Bulow and 
Von Hansen's Saxons, drove the Prussian Guards into the 
marshes of St. Gond and forced the Prussians and Saxons 
into their first great retreat. On the 11th and 12th of Sep- 
tember, the Germans retreated beyond the Marne, and the 
French armies were solidly established on the ground gained. 


Then began what was called the battle of the Aisne. 
The German armies had entrenched themselves, they had 
chosen for their stand not the line of the Aisne but the crest 
of the plateau beyond. Trenches had been prepared there 
while the troops were passing through the Marne. The 
French made a desperate endeavor to drive them back. For 
a time the fortunes of war wavered. The battle lasted until 
the end of the month. It ended in a stalemate. The French 
now endeavored to outflank the Germans, pushing their 
army steadily to the north, but the Germans met this move- 
ment by a similar one. It became a race for the sea. The 
line was extended throughout France, and the allied troops, 
taking a lesson from the Germans, dug themselves into 
trenches from which they could not be driven. 

84 America's Part in the World War 

The war became a war of attrition, and battle after battle 
took place without decisive result. The most important of 
these battles in 1914 was the battle of Ypres, which began on 
October 20th and lasted in various phases nearly for a month. 
At Ypres, the Germans were attempting to break through to 
the sea, but the line held. 


Meantime, the campaign in the east had developed Into 
a tremendous contest. The Russians had mobilized with 
greater speed than had been expected. It was necessary for 
them to fight both Germany and Austria. Western Russia 
projects as a great quadrangle into eastern Germany. It is 
bounded on the north by East Prussia, and on the south by 
Austria, while the western part reaches deeply into Germany 
itself. The Russians could not attack on the west until they 
had protected their flanks by the conquest of East Prussia 
on the north and Austrian Galicia on the south. They began 
the war promptly. The first clash took place when the 
Russian Army crossed the German frontier near Libau into 
East Prussia on August 3d. They then advanced steadily, 
driving the Germans before them and for a moment East 
Prussia was at their mercy. Germany became aroused. 
East Prussia was sacred soil. It was the cradle of the Prussian 
aristocracy. Forces were detached from the west and sent 
to the aid of the eastern army. A new commander was 
appointed. He was General Von Hindenburg, a veteran of 
the Franco-Prussian war, who had been for some years 

Then followed the battle of Tannenburg, in which the 
Russian armies were crushed, with enormous losses. After 
this victory, the German troops advanced to Angus toy, but 
were compelled to retire. Meanwhile, the greater portion of 
the Russian Army were fighting in Galicia, and were meeting 
with greater success. 

Austria had gathered together a force of a million men, 
but the Russian armies, under the command of the Grand 
Duke Nicholas, won victory after victory. On the 28th of 
August Tarnopol was captured. On September 4th Lemberg 

Before America's Entrance 85 

was occupied. The Russian armies moved toward Cracow, 
driving the Austrians before them. The great fortress of 
Jaroslav was captured in three days and Przemysl was besieged. 
The Grand Duke Nicholas issued a proclamation offering 
self-government to Poland. This led to demoralization of 
the Austrian armies. A considerable number of Czecho- 
slovak troops deserted to the Russian army and Poland 
remained loyal to Russia. 

The Germans then began an offensive in Poland. Their 
armies were directed toward Warsaw, and Von Hindenburg 
was personally in command. But every attempt to capture 
Warsaw was a failure. The German armies then turned to 
the south, and joining the Austrians drove back the Russian 
troops, who were threatening Cracow, and relieved Przemysl. 
But the Russians were reinforced and began a new advance 
that continued for the summer. The Austro-German forces 
were driven back, and once more Germany was threatening 
Cracow. Meanwhile, another attack upon Warsaw had 
turned out a failure, and by the beginning of 1915 both armies 
had come to the trench warfare so familiar in France. 

During the year 1915, the Russians began with many 
successes. Przemysl was captured, and the Russians took 
possession of the great passes in the Carpathian mountains. 
But Germany was gathering the strongest army in its history, 
and on the 28th of April, it began a tremendous attack upon 
the Russian armies along the Austrian border. Soon the 
Russians were in full retreat. Town after town was given 
up. Przemysl surrendered only ten weeks after its capture 
by the Russians. Lemberg fell. The Germans pushed 
steadily forward. On August 5th, Warsaw was abandoned. 
The Grand Duke was retreating steadily, trying to save his 
armies by giving up the country. 

On September 5th, the Emperor of Russia, himself, 
took command of the Russian forces, with General Alexiev 
as his Chief of General Staff. The Germans had now occupied 
Poland, but during September the German advance was 
checked. The Russian forces were extended in a line from 
Riga on the north, along the river Dvina down to Dvinsk. 
This line Von Hindenburg was unable to break. During the 

86 America's Part in the World War 

year 1916 the Russian armies fought with a new vigor, and 
the Germans were continually defeated, 200,000 men were 
captured, and on the southern part of the line the Russians 
regained a whole province. By the end of the year every- 
thing looked encouraging. 


Meanwhile, in France the warfare had been terrific but 
indeci'sive. Battle after battle took place, with terrific 
losses and varying success. In 1915 the British drive against 
Neuve Chapelle, beginning on March 10th, was the first 
great contest of the new British army against the Germans. 
The town was captured by the British and held against a 
determined German reaction. There was terrific slaughter, 
and the British paid a fearful price for the victory. On 
April 22d the Germans made a fierce attack on the Canadians 
at Ypres. In this battle, they for the first time, used poison 
gas. The Canadians were taken by surprise, but grimly 
held on and saved the day. 

On February 21st began the long-continued battle of 
Verdun. It lasted for months, wave after wave of Germans 
being sent against the twenty-five miles of earthworks which 
protected the city, but the French were determined. Their 
battle-cry was *'//5 ne passeront pas!" (They shall not pass), 
and the Germans did not pass. On the first of July came the 
battle of the Somme, which did not end until the 18th of 
November. This was the greatest effort of the British 
armies before the offensives of 1918. It surpassed the battle 
of Verdun in the numbers of men eiigaged and in its importance 
in the strategy of the campaign. It relieved Verdun, and 
detained the main German forces on the western front, 
giving Brussilov his chance in the east. The loss on both 
sides was terrible, and every yard gained by the British was 
paid for in blood. 


While France, Russia, and the British Empire were thus 
straining every power, other nations, one by one, had come 
to their aid. Japan was in from the beginning. She was 

U. S. Ojjiiuil I'/iulograph. 


Pounding the German lines opposite Baleycourt Woods, near Xi.\(\illf, Mciise, \\ii\i 
Freiicli ;{-KI millimeter guns on railway mounts manned hy Yankee gunners of the ;5.")th Coast 
Artillery, <S()tli Division. This gun hit two (ierman Army Head<|uarters thirty kilometers 

r. .S'. Otliiial I'hulograph. 


One of the most remarkable achievements of tlw Navy Ordnance Dejiartment was 
building these great railway mounts 

for 14-ineh naval guns which had a range of thirty 


United States troops in a bayonet charge in the early summer of 1918. An officer reported 
that he heard on all sides the shout "Lusitania!" as though welcoming the hour of punishment 
for that German crime. 

Before America's Entrance 89 

bound by treaty to aid Great Britain in the war. She also 
had been embittered against Germany by Germany's inter- 
ference in the China-Japanese war, and her ambitions in 
connection with China made the German occupation of the 
Chinese province of Tsing-Tau highly offensive. She declared 
war on August 23, 1914, threw her fleet and her army against 
Tsing-Tau on the 27th of August, and accepted the surrender 
of Admiral Waldeck, the German governor, on November 6th. 
Later, Japanese cruiser squadrons patrolled the Pacific, and 
did duty in the China Sea and in the Indian Ocean. Japan 
aided Russia with military supplies and later landed troops in 
Eastern Siberia, in association with the United States and Great 
Britain, to protect the Czecho-Slovaks from the Bolsheviki. 

Italy's aid 

On May 23, 1915, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. 
Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance, but according 
to the terms of the alliance, was bound to stand by Germany 
and Austria only in case of attack. She had refused to aid 
them in the beginning because they were the aggressors. 
Moreover, the feeling between Italy and Austria had never 
been friendly. The Austrians were still holding Italian 
provinces, and Italy felt toward Italia Irredenta as the 
French felt toward Alsace-Lorraine. The war was her 
opportunity. They demanded from Austria the restoration 
of Austria's Italian provinces. Negotiations lasted for some 
time, but finally Italy threw in her lot with the Allies on the 
basis of a private understanding, known as the Pact of London, 
entered into with Great Britain and France, by which she 
was to gain more than Austria could offer. 

Italy began her attack on the very day on which war was 
declared. Her object was to occupy Trieste. At first she 
met with great success and by May 27th had moved across 
the Isonzo River to Monfalcone, sixteen miles northwest of 
Trieste. But she was held at that point. The Austrian 
Army had been strengthened by troops that had been origihally 
assigned to the Austrian line in Galicia. Long and confused 
fighting followed, and when the United States entered the 
war, Italy was holding her own. Meantime Turkey joined the 

90 America's Part in the World War 

war on the side of the central powers. This was the result 
of German intrigue, carried on for many years. The Turkish 
army had been reorganized by the Germans, under the 
direction of General Liman von Sanders. Turkish statesmen 
believed that Germany would win and they saw in an alliance 
with her a chance to recover their lost provinces in Europe. 
The Turkish people at the beginning appeared to sympathize 
with France and Great Britain, who had long been the friends 
and allies of the Turkish government. 


The plan of Turkey was to attack Russia in Trans- 
Caucasia, to send an expedition against the Suez Canal and 
another toward the Persian Gulf. The British were ready for 
them. They were driven from the Suez Canal, and a British 
expedition was sent to the Persian Gulf where it occupied 
Kurna at the junction of the Tigris and the Euphrates, and 
entrenched itself there to establish a barricade against a 
hostile advance upon India. In Trans-Caucasia, the Turkish 
army under Enver Pasha was sent against the Russians, and 
on December 25, 1914, they were defeated at Khorason. 
In 1915, the British determined, for political reasons, to 
capture Bagdad. Their forces at Ivurna were reinforced, and, 
under command of General Townshend, moved north to 
Ivut-El-Amara, which they captured on September 29th. 
They continued the advance, but the Turks determined to 
defend Bagdad, and gathering a great army they forced the 
British to retreat to Kut. After a long siege and several 
desperate attempts by the British to send relief, Townshend 
was compelled on April 28, 1916, to surrender to the Turks. 
The surrender of the English created a world-wide sensation. 
It was a great blow to the prestige of Great Britain in the 
Orient. A new expedition was at once organized to capture 
Bagdad, which drove the Turks before them in great con- 
fusion, recaptured Kut-El-Amara February 26, 1917, and 
occupied Bagdad on March 11th. 


Meantime, England had carried the war to the Darda- 
nelles, and here occurred another British disaster. The 

Before America's Entrance 91 

Peninsula of Gallipoli is a tongue of land about fifty miles 
long, varying in width from twelve to two or three miles. 
It is a mass of rocky hills, hard to climb and easy to protect. 
It lies on the northern side of the Straits of the Dardanelles, 
and guards the entrance to the Sea of Marmora. Through 
the Dardanelles, guarded on each side by forts and bat- 
teries, covered with mine fields, it was necessary to pass to 
reach Constantinople. Yet the British determined to make the 
attempt. They reasoned that if Constantinople could be 
captured, Turkey would be forced to retire from the war. 
Easy communication with Russia would be established, open- 
ing up for the Allies the great Russian grain supply of which 
the need was already being felt. Bulgaria then meditating 
her attack upon Serbia, would be brought to terms, and 
Greece, which under King Constantine was inclined to aid 
Germany, would not dare to move. 

It was a magnificent conception. The expedition was 
planned with the greatest care, and it was near success. The 
attack was made at first by the fleet alone. It began on the 
19th of February, 1915. The English and French fleet 
passed up the Dardanelles smashing the Turkish forts and 
clearing up the mines for a distance of four miles. Then a 
detachment of marines was sent to shore, but was compelled 
to retreat to the boats. The forts at Cape Helles, at Sedd- 
El-Bahr and at Dardanelles were silenced. But on the 18th, 
an endeavor to pass the Narrows, about halfway up the 
Dardanelles, failed with serious loss of ships and men, and the 
allied fleet retired from the Dardanelles. 

Meanwhile, an expeditionary force was gathered. The 
main portion of it was composed of divisions from Australia 
and New Zealand, the Anzacs. The movement began on 
April 23d. The attack at the beginning seemed to be suc- 
cessful. The allied troops were landed at the southern end 
of the peninsula, and the Turks were pushed back. On 
June 4th a general attack was made with some of the most 
terrific fighting seen in the war. But the net result was an 
advance of about 500 yards. Strategy was then used and an 
expedition sent to Suvla Bay, on the western part of the 
peninsula to thi^eaten the Turkish communications, This 

92 America's Part in the World War 

expedition, however, failed and although the Turks were 
paying heavily for their success it became evident that the 
allied expedition was a failure, and it was withdrawn in 
December. Great Britain's loss in officers and men at 
Gallipoh was 112,921. 

Germany's lost colonies 

Wliile the great struggle was going on in Europe, Germany 
was losing her colonies in Africa. She had hoped much from 
the South African Union, and a systematic propaganda had 
been instituted to induce the Boers to break with the British. 
Many leaders of the Boers sympathized with Germany, and 
in the fall of 1914 a rebellion, under the command of General 
Beyers and General De Witt was organized. But General 
Louis Botha, one of the great Boer commanders and states- 
men, and General Jan Christian Smuts stood honorably by 
the new state to which they had sworn allegiance. A Union 
Defence Force was mobilized and martial law proclaimed. 
A series of battles ensued, ending in the rout of General De 
Witt in the battle of Marquard on November 12th. General 
Botha then planned the invasion of German South West 
Africa, which began on January 5, 1915, and ended in the 
complete overthrow of German power in that territory. 
Then came Kamerun and East Africa. More than a million 
square miles of territory were seized by the Allies. The 
stiffest fighting was in German East Africa, where in the 
beginning the Germans were on the offensive, only to be 
defeated later by the British forces under General Tighe, 
with the occupation of German East Africa, the German 
colonies in Africa were lost. 


To Serbia, whose refusal to yield to Austrian demands 
brought on the war, the war brought desolation. The first 
Austrian endeavor to overrun her territories was successfully 
resisted. But in the fall of 1915 she found herself surrounded 
by foes. A new Austrian Army had been organized and 
stiffened by German reinforcements. Bulgaria turned upon 
her, and King Gonstantine of Greece refused to come to. her 

Before America's Entrance 93 

help. Her territory was overrun, and her armies driven from 
the country. An aUied force sent to her aid arrived too late 
and entrenched itself at Saloniki, where it organized the 
forces which ultimately were to crush Bulgaria and start the 
movement which ended the war. 

The entrance of Bulgaria into the war was the end of a 
long intrigue. Bulgaria had been in the market waiting for 
the highest bidder. It had made up its mind that Germany 
was certain of victory. It owed its very existence as an 
independent state to Russia, and before it entered the war 
public opinion in Bulgaria was largely pro-ally, but the 
Bulgarians hated Serbia, who had got the better of them in the 
second Balkan War, and they were ready to fight so long as 
their armies were directed against that nation. 

During the whole of this contest, a political struggle was 
going on in Greece between King Constantine and the great 
Greek statesman Venizelos, who was a friend of the Allies. 
Greece was kept out of the war, but King Constantine was 
finally dethroned, and the armies of Greece joined the allied 
forces in the latter period of the war. 


On August 27, 1916, Roumania entered the war on the 
side of the Allies. She had tried long to remain neutral, but 
Russian intrigue forced her to take part. Germany was 
ready for her. The German armies, under General Von 
Mackensen, crushed the Roumanian forces, and on December 
6th entered Bucharest. 


One of the main factors in Germany's defeat was her 
weakness on the sea. When the war broke out her navy 
ranked second among the navies of the world, but from the 
beginning, the navy of Great Britain took control of the 
ocean. The great war splendidly illustrated Captain Mahan's 
dictum that sea power is the controlling factor in any contest 
between great nations. It was the British blockade of the 
German coast that so beat the German power that they finally 
gave up, without attempting the desperate defence that they 

94 America's Part in the World War 

themselves had met with, in France. They could not obtain 
supplies nor prevent the Allies from obtaining them. They 
could not hinder the transportation of the American millions 
across the water. 

From the date of the declaration of war the oceans of the 
world were practically rid of German warships and closed to 
their mercantile marine, despite the employment of sub- 
marines. It was the diabolical use of the U-boat that brought 
America into the war, and the coming of America meant a 
quietus on Germany's hopes for success. 

The German Navy remained for the most part in harbor, 
but there was. one great naval battle that must be recorded. 
This was the Battle of Jutland, which took place on the 31st 
of May, 1916. The British fleet was commanded by Admiral 
Jellicoe, and the German by Vice-Admiral Scheer. The first 
reports from this battle indicated a German victory, and in 
fact, the British losses exceeded those of the Germans. But 
the German fleet was driven from the ocean, and never again 
dared to venture on the seas. The British lost fourteen 
ships and 6,617 men, while the Germans admitted a loss of 
eleven ships and 2,863 men. That this was the extent of the 
German loss is not believed by the British Admiralty. The 
Battle of Jutland was the greatest naval battle in the world. 
Every form of modern science was used in the combat. In 
the air were seaplanes and zeppelins; underneath the water 
were the submarines. The great battleships were protected 
by screens of destroyers, and the torpedo boats were making 
the waters dangerous. Admiral Jellicoe was criticized for his 
prudence, but he understood the situation well and should be 
judged by the result. The next time the German fleet appeared 
upon the sea was when it sailed for Scapa Flow, there to be 
interned in accordance with the terms of the armistice. 


"Lafayette, We Are Here" 

A MERICAN blood was to be shed on foreign fields in the 

/\ new crusade for world democracy. That was decided 

when Marshal Joffre at the head of the French Mission 

to America appealed in the spring of 1917 for American 

soldiers at the earliest possible moment for the French battle 


Pacifists and persons whose sympathies were pro-German 
endeavored in vain to prevent or to delay the sending of 
American soldiers to France. It was argued that the Allies 
would win, through the weight of munitions and wealth that 
would be placed at their disposal by the United States, and 
that the sacrifice of American lives would be unnecessary. 
Against these pleas, Joffre and the leaders of the group 
favoring a strong American policy pointed out the increasing 
German pressure on the western front and the weakening of 
French and British resistance. 

On May 19, 1917, the President of the United States 
announced that a division of the United States regulars would 
be sent to France at the earliest date practicable, to be com- 
manded by Major-General John J. Pershing. The Secretary 
of the Navy, also the same day, announced that 2,600 marines 
would accompany the Pershing expedition. These announce- 
ments were the settlement of a question about which there 
had been much difference of opinion. A bill had been passed 
by Congress authorizing the formation of four divisions of 
volunteers at the pleasure of the President, of which it was 
intended that former President Roosevelt should be placed 
in command. The President then decided not to avail himself 
of the volunteer divisions, but to hand over the conduct of 
the war to professional soldiers. The announcement also 
made clear that American troops were to be sent to France, 
and that orders had been given for the formation of nine 


96 America's Part in the World War 

regiments of army engineers, which were to be sent to France 
as quickly as possible to build the railroads used as military 

Major-General Pershing was one of the most distinguished 
officers of the American Army. During the war with Spain 
he had served in Philippines, and later had been an observer 
for the government in the Russo-Japanese War. He was in 
command of the American expedition into Mexico, which 
had sought to capture Villa. General Pershing at once gath- 
ered a staff which consisted of fifty-three officers and 146 
men, including privates and civilian attaches, and sailed for 
England, arriving there safely on June 8th. He was received 
with great ceremony by a deputation consisting of the Lord 
Mayor of Liverpool, the admiral in command of the port, a 
British general with a guard of honor, and a regimental 
band which played the "Star Spangled Banner." 

In response to this most enthusiastic greeting he gave the 
following message to the British public: "We are very proud 
and glad to be the standard bearers of our country in this 
great war for civilization, and to land on British soil. The 
welcome which we have received is magnificent and deeply 
appreciated. We hope in time to be playing our part, and 
we hope it will be a big part, on the western front." 

General Pershing was then taken to London in an official 
state car, attached to a special train, and was received in 
London by Lord Derby, Secretary of State for War, General 
Lord French and other high officers of the British Army, the 
United States Ambassador, and Admiral Sims of the United 
States Navy. Every possible honor was shown him, and the 
popular greeting was full of enthusiasm. On the next day 
he was presented to King George at Buckingham Palace by 
General Lord Brooke, commander of the 12th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade. In receiving him the King said: *'It has 
been the dream of my life to see the two great English-speaking 
nations more closely united. My dreams have been realized. 
It is with the utmost pleasure that I welcome you at the head 
of the American contingent to our shores." 

On June 13th, General Pershing arrived at Boulogne, 
where he was greeted by General Dumas, commanding the 

''Lafayette, We Are Here" 97 

northern region. It was a historic moment — the first time a 
soldier in American uniform had landed on the European 
continent, with sword in hand, for the purpose of using it 
against an enemy. Said General Dumas: "I salute the 
United States of America, which has now become united to 
the United States of Europe." On the landing quay was a 
detachment of French Infantry in battle uniform, who had 
only recently come from the trenches. As the American 
general passed they came to salute and stood like iron statues 
as he passed down the line. 

General Pershing was met by a large deputation repre- 
senting the French Government and the French and British 
Armies and Navies. Great crowds gathered in the streets 
and greeted the American commander with tremendous 
enthusiasm. In Paris he received the greatest reception given 
to anyone up to that time, since the beginning of the war. 
The streets were filled with cheering crowds, held back by 
dense ranks of soldiers, which patrolled the route of the party 
from the Gard du Nord to the Hotel de Crillon, at which the 
General made his headquarters. As the American party 
passed, tens of thousands of American flags were waved and 
cries of "Vive I'Amerique" became a sustained roar all along 
the way. Bands at the station played the "Star Spangled 
Banner" and the "Marseillaise." Among those who greeted 
him were Marshal Joffre, M. Viviani, General Foch and 
Ambassador Sharp. In the evening General Pershing dined 
at the American Embassy, where he met the chief members of 
the Cabinet and officers of the army and navy. General 
Pershing was received as the representative, the symbol of 
the American power that was coming to the rescue of the 
French people, and recognizing this he acted with great 


On June 14th, the next day after his arrival in France, he 
visited the tomb of Napoleon, and stood with uncovered head 
before the resting place of the famous French soldier. The 
ceremony connected with this visit was of a striking character. 
As the American party entered the grounds of the Hotel des 
Invalides they passed a detachment of veterans of French 
wars, thrown up at salute. Passing into the vast rotunda, 

98 America's Part in the World War 

with its walls hung with battle flags, the party proceeded 
below to the crypt where the sarcophagus of Napoleon reposed. 
Entrance to this crypt is restricted to crowned heads or the 
rulers of states. Conducted by Marshal Joffre, General 
Pershing and his staff proceeded to the crypt. The great key 
was inserted in the brass door, and the French escort stepped 
aside, leaving General Pershing facing the door alone. He 
turned the key and opened the door. From an alcove inside 
of the crypt, the governor of the Invalides took Napoleon's 
sword, handed it to General Pershing, who held it at salute 
and then kissed the hilt. The same ceremony was followed 
with the cross of the cordon of the Legion of Honor. This 
was the greatest honor France ever bestowed on any man. 
No dignitary of France nor foreign king had ever before been 
allowed to hold the historic relics in his hand. 

After his visit to the Invalides, General Pershing was 
received by President Poincare, and later visited the Chamber 
of Deputies, where the deputies arose and stood cheering as 
the General entered the diplomatic box. Premier Ribot and 
M. Viviani made eloquent orations in honor of the United 
States, after which General Pershing was compelled to respond 
to another demonstration. 

On June 15th General Pershing and General Joffre were 
given a remarkable reception by the people of Paris, as they 
stood bareheaded together on the balcony of the military 
club looking down on the excited crowd. 

The of the welcome came in the afternoon when 
he visited Picpus Cemetery, where he placed a wreath of 
American Beauty roses on the tomb of Lafayette. The 
ceremony was brief and impressive. The Marquis de Cham- 
brun, a descendant of Lafayette, said a few words welcoming 
General Pershing, who replied simply, expressing the great 
pleasure of every American to visit the tomb of one who 
had done so much for the United States. 

General Pershing expressed the feeling of the American 
people when he said, as he approached the tomb: 

"Lafayette, we are here." 

His third, and last day, in Paris was occupied by official 
calls, and a visit to the Senate, where he was received with a 

''Lafayette, We Are Here'' 99 


^'f'rir'**^^ ^^*^^ ^'^o-'^^lm 4/^ V^A- *e«-t>«. c«^^ «^ 

Facsimile of the historic letter from the Commander-in-Chief of the American 
Expeditionary Forces, placirj the American troops at the disposal of the Generalissimo 
of the Allied armies. 

100 America's Part in the World War 

great demonstration, and on the next day he proceeded to his 
work of organizing American participation in the war. 

General Pershing had been preceded to France by 
various special units of the American Army, and on May 
24th the first United States combatant corps went to the front 
under Captain E. I. Tinkham and Lieutenant Scully, of 
Princeton. They consisted mainly of Cornell undergraduates. 
Other American sections drilling for active participation in 
the fighting included detachments from Andover, Dartmouth, 
Harvard, Johns-Hopkins, Yale, Chicago, Princeton and 
Williams College. Most of them intended to serve in the 
American Ambulance Corps, but many had joined the fighting 
forces after the United States entered the war. According 
to an official statement issued by the British War Office on 
May 28th, including the Americans serving in the British and 
French armies there were nearly one hundred thousand 
Americans in France. 

The first fighting contingents of the United States Army 
arrived in France on June 26, 1917. The transports which 
carried them had been attacked by submarines, but they 
arrived safely. They were under the command of Major- 
General William L. Sibert. A wild w^elcome was given them 
as they drew near the quay, and the town took on a holiday 
appearance. They were soon transferred to a camp near the 
port where they were inspected by General Pershing. General 
Pershing issued a statement declaring his satisfaction with the 
appearance of the men, and with the provisions which had 
been made for their comfort, and issued a general order empha- 
sizing the necessity of good behaviour. 

The 4th of July, 1917, was enthusiastically celebrated 
throughout Paris. There the chief feature of interest was the 
presence of a battalion of United States troops, which was 
about to leave for training behind the battle front. The 
streets were thronged with enthusiastic spectators, and the 
Stars and Stripes were flying from every building and even 
from automobiles, cabs, carts and horses' bridles. 

The greeting given the American troops who passed 
through England was quite as enthusiastic. On August 
15th a great demonstration took place when a large contingent 

"Lafayette, We Are Here'' 101 

of United States troops marched through the streets of London, 
escorted by the famous bands of the Enghsh, Scotch and Irish 
Guards. In every possible way the English sought to show 
their appreciation of the fact that America had come to their 
aid in the great struggle. 

The story of the life of the American Army behind the 
lines of France would fill a volume. The hospitality of the 
French people had something pathetic in it. They were 
expecting miracles of their new allies — and miracles were 
performed, as the world now knows. 

Camps were constructed on a huge scale. Enormous 
barracks were erected, railways built and telegraphs and 
telephones installed under the direction of American skilled 
workmen, and soon there were Y. M. C. A. canteens, Red 
Cross canteens, clubs for officers and men, theaters and moving 
pictures for the army, and a prodigious amount of food, all 
from America. In every little old French village American 
soldiers were billeted in cottages and farm houses. They 
were wonderful beings to their French hosts, and they did 
their best to entertain them. 

The training of the troops was carried on in the most 
elaborate fashion. Most of them had been trained in America, 
before they came to France, but France was the finishing 
school. The aviators were perfected in their work, the artillery 
and the infantry put under charge of French experts and 
taught the latest developments in the art of war. And all 
was done with a business-like determination. 

Actual and intensive training began on July 25th. 
Trenches were dug in way of practice with an enthusiasm 
equal to that with which soldiers dig themselves in under 
actual artillery fire. Dummies were constructed for bayonet 
practice, and the men taught the methods of attack. Instruc- 
tion in gas masks was begun, scouting, trench raiding, target 
practice and operations of all kinds, which might be called 
for in actual combat, were made the subject of careful instruc- 
tion. Lectures were delivered by American and allied officers, 
who were experts in modern warfare. Under such training 
it was no wonder that by the spring of 1918 American troops 
were able to hold their own against the best soldiers of Europe. 


America's Opening Gun 

'HEN the troops of the United States had made sufl5- 
cient progress in the training camps, to which they 
were sent in central France, detachments of them were 
sent from time to time into the trenches for advanced training 
under fire. During those periods of training in the trenches 
several local combats took place, reports of which began to 
come to America in the fall of 1917. The first such announce- 
ment was contained in a dispatch dated October 27, 1917, in 
which it was stated that the first American shot had been 
fired by the artillery and that American infantry had marched 
into the trenches. The section of the front in which this took 
place was the region of the Vosges mountains close to the 
point where the canal connecting the Marne with the Rhine 
crosses the border between France and Lorraine. 

The first gun was fired by a red-haired gunner as his 
comrades in the ranks and the assembled oflScers cheered. 
The first shell case was sent to President Wilson. The gun 
used in firing the first shot was one of the famous French 75 's. 
The first American troops to enter the trenches received a 
most enthusiastic welcome. Every American was shaken by 
the hand, some were hugged and even kissed on both cheeks. 
A few days later the first expedition of the Americans into 
No Man's Land followed. The first battalions of Americans 
in the trenches were relieved by others who underwent similar 
experiences. The first casualty reported was that of an 
officer who was wounded in the leg by shrapnel on October 21st. 

On November 3d, a salient occupied for instruction by a 
company of American infantry was raided by the Germans. 
The official statement issued at Washington said, "The enemy 
put down a heavy barrage fire, cutting off the salient from 
the rest of the men. Our losses were three killed, five wounded 
and twelve captured or missing. The enemy^s losses not 


America's Opening Gun 


known. One wounded German was taken prisoner." In this 
raid the Germans met with strong resistance, although the 
Americans seemed to have been taken by surprise, and thrown 
into confusion. The Germans left the trench as soon as 
possible taking their dead and wounded with them, and 











500 0<ia 390 Too 551 691 948 1100 1189 1Z!S 14E5 leaj ir9e 1953 2112 1360 2S58 DOOl 3433 3634 3«3 3O0O 5824 2323 2054 1754 

A^ mv jm JUL Aus im. oct m. dec jm. ri& wi apr rw jun Jot aug sept oct nov dec jah FEBmRAPRWY. 




Chart Showing, in Thousands, the Number of Soldiers in the American 
Army on the First of Each Month 

abandoning several rifles and a number of knives and 

The three men killed, the first Americans who actually 
fought in battle in this war, were Corporal James B. Gresham, 
of Evansville, Indiana, Private Thomas F. Enright, of Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., and Private Merle D. Hay, of Glidden, Iowa. 

104 America's Part in the World War 

Their burial took place on November 6th with great formality. 
The French officer commanding the section paid tribute to 
the fallen Americans in an eloquent address, ending with the 
words, *'We will, therefore, ask that the mortal remains of 
these young men be left here, be left with us forever. We 
inscribe on the tombs — 'Here lie the first soldiers of the 
Republic of the United States to fall on the soil of France for 
Liberty and Justice.' Private Enright, Private Gresham, 
Private Hay, in the name of France, I thank you. May God 
receive your souls. Farewell." 

Wliile these men were the first American fighting men 
who lost their life in the great war, they were not the first 
Americans belonging to the American Expeditionary Forces 
to lose their lives. On September 4, 1918, the United States 
War Department authorized the following statement: 

Today is the anniversay of the first casualties in the American Expe- 
ditionary Forces. The four men killed and the nine wounded were mem- 
bers of the Medical Department of the army, noncombatants engaged in 
merciful work. 

On September 4, 1917, a German airplane attacked the hospital 
groups at Dannes Camiers, where the members of United States Army 
Bases No. 5 (Harvard unit, Boston) and No. 12 (Northwestern University, 
Chicago) were operating British Hospitals Nos. 11 and 18, respectively. 
Five bombs fell in or close to the ward barracks, and their explosion 
resulted in the death or injury of the first members of the American Expe- 
ditionary Forces killed by the enemy in the performance of their duty. 
The names of the killed follow: 

First Lieutenant William Fitzsimmons, Private (first class) Leslie G. 
Woods, Private (first class) Rudolph Rubine, Jr., Private (first class) 
Oscar C. Tugo. 

The first officer of an American unit to fall in action was 
Second Lieutenant Jefl^erson Feigl, 7th Field Artillery, of the 
famous 1st Division. His death came at the position of 
Battery F, near Ramboucourt on March 21, 1918, the first 
day of the great German drive toward Amiens. He was 
buried at Manders, just back of the old trench lines north of 
Toul. Extraordinary honors were paid to the dead officer in 
the funeral ceremonies. All of the high officers of his com- 
mand including Major-General Summerall, Brigadier-General 
Holbrook and other artillery officers were in attendance. 

( . S. (Jjlficial riiutuyraiili 

Battery C, Gth Field Artillery, 1st Division, which fired the first gun for the American Army, 


r. -S. Official rhotogniph. 

One of the famous French 75 millimeter guns manned by gunners of Battery C, 10th 
Field Artillery, 3d Division, shelling Bois de Foret, located four kilometers to the northeast 
of their position; Madeline Farm, near Xautillois, Meuse, October 18, 1918. 


Top row: Robert Lansing, Sec'y of State; Win. G. McAdoo. Sec'y of the Treasury, Director- 
(ieneral of Railroads; Newton D. Baker, Sec'y of War; Thomas W. Gregory, Attorney- 
General; Center, left: President Woodrow Wilson; Upper: Albert S. Burleson, Post- 
master-General; lower: Josephus Daniels, Sec'y of the Navy; right: Thomas R. Marshall, 
Vice-President; lower row: Franklin K. Lane, Sec'y of the Interior; David F. Houston, 
Sec'y of Agriculture; William C. Redfield, Sec'y of Commerce; William B, Wilson, 
Sec'y of Labor. 

America's Opening Gun 107 

General Pershing sent the following letter to Colonel Fred 
Feigl, New York City, the dead officer's father: 

American Expeditionary Forces, 

Office of Commander-in-Chief, 
France, August 3, 1918. 

My dear Colonel Feigl : ^' 

I have had a very careful investigation made of the circumstances of 
the death of your son, Lieutenant Jefferson Feigl, concerning whom you 
wrote me under date of May 24, 1918. 

I found that as he entered his battery position, near Beaumont, 
France, on March 2, 1918, upon returning from his tour of duty at the 
observation post in his command, he was struck by a fragment of a shell 
from a hostile battery which had suddenly opened fire. 

Lieutenant Feigl was unquestionably the type and exemplar of the 
best in American spirit and action, for he risked and gave to his country his 
most precious possession — his life. 

I am glad to send to you, his father, this acknowledgment of deep 
sympathy for you and my appreciation of his and your great sacrifice. 

John J. Pershing, 
Commander-in-Chief, American Expeditionary Forces. 

It is worthy of note that the American Army's first 
offensive as an organization was launched from the vicinity 
of Lieutenant Feigl's grave. 

As time went on the Americans and the Germans engaged 
in a series of trench raids and skirmishes with incidental 
sniping and artillery fire. In this preliminary warfare the 
Americans suffered a certain number of casualties. By the 
end of the year they were occupying certain sectors of the 
line, and by February 5th it was announced that American 
troops were occupying the sector northwest of Toul, which 
indicated that they were on the south side of the St. Mihiel 
salient. The placing of the American troops in the Lorraine 
section of the line had a sentimental as well as a practical 
value. This station would place them in the front of the 
effort to recover for France their lost provinces of Alsace- 
Lorraine. It was also at that time '*a quiet sector of the 
front," and therefore, suitable for training inexperienced 
troops. The American troops engaged in these first skirmishes 
were those of the 1st Division under the command of Major- 
General Robert L. Bullard, and several lively combats took 
place, of which the most important was that of Seicheprey on 

108 America's Part in the World War 

April 20th, in which the Americans were rather roughly 

The Toul sector was not the only sector held by United 
States troops. On February 22d it was announced that 
American units were taking part in the defense of the famous 
Chemin-des-Dames sector along the Aisne. On March 6th 
they were reported as holding a sector in Lorraine east of 
Luneville near the border between France and German 
Lorraine. They were also reported in the Champagne 
sector. A report of casualties published by the War Depart- 
ment on March 15th indicated a total loss of 1,722 American 
troops, of which 1,212 had been killed. 

Meanwhile, the American troops had passed all the 
preliminary stages of training, and according to General 
Pershing's report "By March 21st, when the German offensive 
in Picardy began we had four divisions with experience in the 
trenches, all of which were equal to any demands of battle 
action. The crisis which this offensive developed was such 
that our occupation of an American sector must be postponed." 

The German offensive in Picardy was the first of the 
great drives in the spring of 1918 which the Germans were 
undertaking with the hope of winning the war before the 
American Army would reach its full development. In the 
spring of 1918 Russia was out of the war. It is true that the 
Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk did not bring about complete 
quiet on the eastern front, but the great mass of German 
troops on that front could now be withdrawn and incorporated 
in the armies of the west. For a time, at least, Germany was 
able to gather almost her whole strength on her western jfront. 
The German High Command knew well what was going on 
in America. They knew of the tremendous efforts that were 
being made across the seas to train and supply an army which 
all alone when fully developed would have been able to crush 
their greatest strength. And they knew that if the war was 
to be won at all it must be won now before the American Army 
could be sufficiently trained and brought to the front in great 

The commanding officers in France and England had a 
simple problem. All they had to do was to hold out until the 

Ameriea's Opening Gun 109 

American armies should be able to act. In the spring the 
forces of France and England on paper, at least, outnumbered 
the German Army even with their reinforcements. The 
armies of Great Britain in France numbered something 
over two million men, and the number of French soldiers 
was between four and five million. Including the Belgians, 
Portuguese, Russian and Polish troops, the allied forces must 
have numbered, at least, 8,500,000 men. The Germans on 
the western front before the Russian revolution numbered 
probably four million five hundred thousand men, and their 
reinforcements from their eastern front probably increased 
their strength to six million men. 

It would, therefore, seem to be an easy proposition for 
the English and the French to hold the Germans at bay until 
two or three million fresh American troops should be added to 
their strength. Yet it was not so easy as it might appear. 
The allied forces were under different commands, and it 
was with great difficulty that arrangements could be made by 
which they would be able to act in harmony. Moreover, the 
German troops were old soldiers, trained from boyhood in the 
art of war, commanded by splendidly trained officers. The 
English especially could not match them. The comparatively 
few trained English officers of England's ' ' contemptible little 
army" at the beginning of the war were now lying by thou- 
sands in heroes' graves. The English armies were officered by 
men who four years before were engaged in business or in 
peaceful professions. The French were better off, but they, 
too, had been bled white in the early years of the terrible 
struggle. Moreover, in an offensive of such magnitude as 
this it is always possible for the attacking side to outnumber 
the defending side at any given point by elaborate concen- 
tration of as many troops as possible at a point only known by 
the attacking commanders. A defense against such an attack 
would be difficult in any case, and it was all the more difficult 
because of the divided command among the Allies. 

Recognizing this, the allied governments came to an 
agreement to place all of the allied armies under a single 
command, and on March 28th General Ferdinand Foch, 
already famous as the greatest strategist in Europe, was 

110 America's Part in the World War 

made Commander-in-Chief of the armies of the AlHes. This 
was one of the most important acts of the alHed governments 
during the whole of the war. It was strongly approved by the 
United States which exerted its whole influence in its favor. 
From that time the direction of the allied campaign was 
magnificently conducted. 

General Foch took command at a very critical time. The 
great German drive through Picardy was in full force. This 
drive had as its object to drive a wedge between the French 
and British armies. 

This would have enabled the Germans to reach the 
Channel by way of the Somme, and thereby isolate most of 
the British Army and the entire Belgian and Portuguese 
armies in the north. A corollary of such an isolation would 
have been a movement south on Paris. The Germans, more- 
over, had selected a point where their railways allowed them 
the greatest possible concentration of troops, and where the 
Allies were relatively weak. 

In the first stage of the battle they first eliminated the 
Cambrai salient so as to protect their northern flank, and then 
concentrated their attack between St. Mihiel and La Ferek, 
where the French and British armies joined. The initial 
bombardment preceding the advance against the Cambrai 
salient began at eight o'clock on the morning of March 21st, 
and extended from Ypres on the north as far south as the 
Oise. The infantry attack which followed penetrated the 
first and second lines on a sixteen-mile front from Lagnicourt 
to Gauche Wood, then in rapid succession the British 
positions on the north between Arras and La Fere were 

By March 25th the Germans had captured an area of 
about five hundred square miles, and had penetrated beyond 
Croisilles, Bapaume, Peronne, Brie, Nesle and the forest north- 
east of Noyon. By March 27th they had recovered the 
entire battlefield of the Somme, occupying the British position 
at Albert and taking Roye and Noyon from the French. On 
the 29th the French counter-attacked, recovering a portion of 
their lost ground but west of this position the Germans 
penetrated seven miles on a twelve-mile front, and enveloped 

America's Opening Gun 111 

Montdidier. Further north Chauny and Hamm were both 
captured and Bapaume invested. 

On the 27th the British were forced to retreat on a wide 
front on both sides of the Somme. By April 8th the German 
Hne had been expanded from seventy-five miles to 125 miles, 
the ground gained being equal to eight hundred square miles. 
But the British positions around Arras w^ere holding strongly, 
while the French positions at Montdidier and on the south 
made progress west a dangerous movement, and the first 
German drive was stopped, pending the success of a new 
attack further north along the Lille front. The fighting during 
the drive toward Amiens was terrific, and both the German 
and the allied losses were enormous. 

The Germans claimed the capture of 90,000 prisoners and 
1,300 guns. At some points they had advanced a distance of 
thirty-five miles into allied territory. Their new line now 
extended southwest from Arras beyond Albert to the west of 
Moreuil, which is about nine miles south of Amiens, and then 
went on west to Pierrepont and Montdidier, curving out at 
Noyon to the region of the Oise. 

The objective of the German Army was nearly attained. 
The brunt of the attack had been borne by the Fifth British 
Army, under the command of General Gough. This army 
had become demoralized and separated from the Third British 
Army on the north, and the Sixth French Army on the south. 
If the German forces had been able to take advantage of the 
situation they would have broken through the allied line, 
but the German troops were by that time themselves little 
more than an armed mob utterly incapable of following up 
their advantage. The prompt military action of General 
Fayolle filled up the gap to the south, v/ith three organized 
French divisions, while the gap to the north was occupied by 
an extemporized army under the command of General Carey. 
No troops were available to throw into the opening, when 
General Carey, who had been home on leave and was trying 
to find his headquarters, was commandeered to hold the 
gap at any cost. 

A correspondent of the Associated Press gave this account 
of General Carey and his extraordinary army; 

112 America's Part in the World War 

A disastrous-looking gap appeared in the 5th Army south of Hamel 
in the later stages of the opening battle. The Germans had crossed the 
Somme at Hamel and had a clear path for a sweep south westward. 

No troops were available to throw into the opening. A certain 
Brigadier-General was commissioned by Major-General Gough, com- 
mander of the 5th Army, to gather up every man he could find and to 
"hold the gap at any cost." The General called upon the American and 
Canadian engineers, cooks, chauffeurs, road workmen, anybody he could 
find; gave them guns, pistols, any available weapon, and rushed them into 
the gap in trucks, on horseback, or on mule-drawn limbers. 

A large number of machine guns from a machine-gun school near by 
were confiscated. Only a few men, however, knew how to operate the 
weapons, and they had to be worked by amateurs with one "instructor" 
for every ten or twelve guns. The Americans did especially well in 
handling this arm. 

For two days the detachment held the mile-and-a-half gap. At the 
end of the second day the commander, having gone forty-eight hours 
^vathout sleep, collapsed. The situation of the detachment looked des- 

Wliile all were wondering what would happen next, a dusty auto- 
mobile came bounding along the road from the north. It contained 
Brigadier-General Carey, who had been home on leave and who was trying 
to find his headquarters. 

The general was commandeered by the detachment and he was found 
to be just the commander needed. He is an old South African soldier of 
the daredevil type. He is famous among his men for the scrapes and 
escapades of his schoolboy life as well as for his daring exploits in South 

Carey took the detachment in hand and led it in a series of attacks 
and counter-attacks which left no time for sleeping and little for eating. 
He gave neither his men nor the enemy a rest, attacking first on the north, 
then in the center, then on the south — harassing the enemy unceasingly 
with the idea of convincing the Germans that a large force opposed them. 

Whenever the Germans tried to feel him out with an attack at one 
point, Carey parried with a thrust somewhere else, even if it took his last 
available man, and threw the Germans on the defensive. 

The spirit of Carey's troops was wonderful. The work they did was 
almost supernatural. It would have been impossible with any body of 
men not physical giants, but the Americans and Canadians gloried in it. 
They crammed every hour of the day full of fighting. It was a constantly 
changing battle, kaleidoscopic, free-for-all, catch-as-catch-can. The Ger- 
mans gained ground. Carey and his men were back at them, hungry for 
more punishment. At the end of the sixth day, dog-tired and battle- 
worn, but still full of fight, the detachment was relieved by a fresh 
battalion which had come up from the rear. 

With General Carey's army were about three hundred American 

America's Opening Gun 113 

engineers. They had been in the thick of the fighting from the beginning. 
At Chaunnes they had destroyed material dumps under shell-fire, and when 
the British forces fell back to Moreuil they laid out trench work. During 
the period of thirteen days the American losses among these engineers 
were two officers killed and three wounded, while twenty men were killed, 
fifty-two wounded and forty-five reported missing. 

The first mention of Americans in the battle of Picardy 
was in the War Department's analysis of the war situation on 
April 7th, when it was declared that American transport 
sections had taken an active part in the battle, and that the 
American aviation section was co-operating with the British. 
Later reports from General Pershing indicated that two 
regiments of American Railway Engineers had been operating 
in the areas of Cliauny and the Crozet Canal along with 
Canadian engineers, under a Canadian commander. These 
engineers also went under attack, had thrown down their 
tools and seized the weapons with which they had for some 
months been armed and opened fire. According to the 
report of a British officer, "They held on by their teeth, until 
the last moment inflicting terrific casualties among the 
enemy. Then they moved back, and waited for the Germans 
and repeated the performance." These were the engineers 
with General Carey's army. 

Troops from the American training camps in France were 
also hurried as rapidly as possible to points where the French 
and British required reinforcement, and on April 29th the 
War Department stated, "Our own forces have taken part in 
the battle. American units are in the area east of Amiens. 
During the engagements which have raged in this area they 
have acquitted themselves well." Among these troops was 
the 42d or Rainbow Division, composed of troops from nearly 
every state in the union. The Americans, however, took no 
great part in the first great German drive. Their time was 
yet to come. They were still an unknown quantity, and the 
gallant exploits of the few who accompanied, and brigaded 
here and there, among the British and French troops were 
hardly a test of the power of the new American Army. 


America's First Attack 

THE time had arrived for the test of the American 
soldier. Upon that test depended the success or 
failure of the plans prepared by General Foch. If the 
Yankee doughboy proved himself a fighter steadfast in the 
trenches, courageous and resourceful in attack, General Foch 
could count upon him as an asset in the plans he had formu- 
lated to check Von Hindenburg and Ludendorff and finally 
to overthrow them. 

Assurance had reached the French commander that 
American soldiers sufiiciently trained for all practical purposes 
were on their way in numbers great enough to tip the balance 
of man power upon the side of the Allies. The only remaining 
question was the morale of the incoming host. 

The battle of Cantigny was a test of the fighting ability 
of the American Army. Just before it took place the Ameri- 
can lines at Picardy had been attacked by the enemy. On 
May 27th, before dayhght, the Germans, after a violent bom- 
bardment, with high explosives and gas, attacked our advance 
positions in three detachments. In two places they pene- 
trated small portions of our front line. Shortly afterward our 
troops counter-attacked, expelled the Germans at all points 
and occupied part of the German trenches. "Heavy losses 
were inflicted on the enemy, and some prisoners were taken," 
the oflScial report read, "Our casualties were light. In one 
case an American was taken prisoner, but was rescued by 
counter-attacks, and all of his captors were killed." 

This initial encounter with the American doughboy, 
though brief, taught the Germans that here was an opponent 
infinitely more formidable than any they had faced since 
August, 1914, and it was to the American sectors they sent 
their finest troops in the subsequent months of fighting. 

The battle of Cantigny followed immediately this 


America's First AttacJi 


defensive action and Avas fought with a dash and vigor that 
dismayed the enemy. It had been most carefully planned, 
and was a complete success. The town of Cantigny was m 
the center of a little salient projecting into the allied line \yest 
of Montdidier in a part held by the American 1st Division, 
composed of American regular troops. The plan was to 
destroy the salient, capturing the village of Cantigny and 

654 654 


754 754 754 


Jan. Fek. Mar* Aror* Uay Jtme July £.ug. Sept. Oot« Hot* 
31 28 21 10 10 10 10 la 10 10 U. 

Kilometers of Front? Line Held by Armies op Each Nation 

straightening the allied line. The attack was to be made by 
the 28th Infantry, a part of the 1st Division, on a front of a 
little more than a mile. The line was well intrenched and 
well guarded by machine guns, back of it were German 
infantry and artillery. The American infantry was supported 
by three French tank battalions, containing ten tanks, and 
a French platoon of flame throwers. Every detail of the 
attack was carried on with great technical accuracy. 

116 America's Part in the World War 

At 5.45 artillery preparation began, the infantry started 
at 6.45, the barrage started five minutes before this, and 
moved forward a hundred meters every two minutes for the 
first three hundred meters, then it held its fire for four min- 
utes, and then went on again until it had finished its work. 
The troops followed the barrage wdth the French tanks on 
either side protected by the artillery fire upon the woods 
ahead, and took the town with comparative ease, capturing 
250 prisoners. 

Then came the German counter-attacks, first a small one 
against Fontaine Wood, which failed, then a heavy counter- 
attack against Framecourt Woods, which was broken up by 
American artillery, and then another attack in waves from the 
east which was equally unsuccessful. Similar attacks took 
place next day without gain. 

The Americans lost 350 men and twenty-five officers of 
the 28th Regiment, and twenty-five men of the 1st Engineers, 
and with the losses from the counter-attacks and those from 
artillery the total loss was about six hundred men. The 
German losses in the actual battle were about three hundred 
and fifty men besides two hundred and fifty prisoners. They 
also lost many more in their counter-attacks. 

The American success at Cantigny came at a most oppor- 
tune time. On that same day the Germans were in the midst 
of their great victory drive, and each day was registering a 
new defeat of the French and British. On May 29th they 
had taken 25,000 prisoners, advanced ten miles, and crossed 
two rivers. They had captured Soissons and were threatening 

General Pershing's despatch from Cantigny was a rift 
in the cloud. It read as follows: "This morning in Picardy 
our troops attacked on a front of one and a fourth miles, 
advanced our lines and captured the village of Cantigny. 
We took two hundred prisoners and inflicted on the enemy 
severe losses in killed and wounded. Our casualties were 
relatively small. Hostile counter-attacks broke down under 
our fire." 

The battle of Cantigny was but a small affair, but it was 
intensely significant. There was no longer any doubt. The 

America's First AttaeJi 117 

Allies had known that the American soldiers were brave. 
Now they knew that they had learned how to fight. General 
Pershing in an ofiicial report to the Secretary of War well 
sums up the case: "Upon the morning of May 28th the 1st 
Division attacked the commanding German position on its 
front, taking with splendid dash the town of Cantigny and 
all other objectives, which were organized and held stead- 
fastly against vicious counter-attacks and galling artillery fire. 
Although local, this brilliant action had an electrical effect 
as it demonstrated our fighting qualities under extreme battle 
conditions, and also that the enemy's troops were not 
altogether invincible." 

The battle of Cantigny constitutes a memorable chapter 
in our military history, not because of the size of the town 
captured but because it showed that the American Army had 
arrived. Accounts of the battle indicate that it was not 
only a success from the military point of view but it was 
most picturesque in itself. When the Americans went over 
at 6.45 o'clock the sun had just risen, and the flashes from 
hundreds of massed guns could be seen flaming redly through 
the streaky clouds, accompanied by the crash of the explosions 
and the steady roar that is called drumfire. Cantigny itself, 
center of all, was a pillar of fire and smoke. The thin lines of 
American troops went over the trenches, and advanced at 
an easy walk, following their barrage as if they were on 
parade. In front of them went the tanks, grotesque monsters 
that crushed the German machine-gun nests. Behind the 
lines rumbled the great guns and airplanes were whirring 
overhead, dropping their bombs upon the hostile trenches. 
With the infantry went flame throwers, which were used 
against the cellars, during the house-to-house fighting, and 
the signal corps men with carrier pigeons. 

According to the plan of attack, the troops selected were 
sent into the trenches in two shifts, the first on the night of 
the 26th, and the second on Monday night, May 27th. Special 
trenches had been constructed for the increased number of 
men. Two hours before the time set for the attack they all 
withdrew to supporting trenches, and then, at the zero hour, 
6.45, went to the front trench. They attacked in three 

118 America's Part in the World War 

waves, with additional detachments to clear up the Cantigny 
cellars. On the right and center when the advance had been 
made to the ultimate objective the troops intrenched them- 
selves at that point. On the left, after carrying the German 
trenches they withdrew slightly to a better position, so as 
to connect with the whole front line. German batteries were 
not only pounded by artillery, but were drenched by gas. 
The infantry went forward, first at the rate of fifty yards per 
minute, and then at twenty-five yards per minute, following 
their barrage. They reached their final objectives at 7.20, 
and at 7.30 outlined their position with flares. As they 
advanced a heavy smoke barrage was thrown to blind the 
German gunners and interfere with the activity of the artillery, 
which for nearly half an hour was practically silenced. 

In the attack, bombs, bayonets, automatic rifles, machine 
guns and heavy trench mortars were used, smashing the 
German trenches and leveling all defenses to the ground. The 
barbed wire had been almost entirely destroyed, and for long 
stretches there was no wire at all. To an observer the battle- 
field presented a picture of terrible grandeur. Cantigny 
looked like a volcano In eruption, shooting up clouds of differ- 
ent colors while the air was filled with spiral-shaped clouds of 
exploding shrapnel. The artillery gunners behind the line 
were stripped to their undershirts, and working at their 
highest speed. The batteries were spouting fire and smoke. 
Everything went exactly as rehearsed. A heavy-artillery 
officer stationed behind the lines said: "From my observation 
booth we could see them for a couple of minutes. They 
went just the way they rehearsed, just walked along slowly, 
keeping in fine alignment. We could see two of the three 
waves, and not a single man out of place, following the bar- 
rage like veterans. We could even see an individual man 

Airplanes were soaring overhead, and ambulances waiting 
along the road. At headquarters officers at telephones were 
reporting steady successes, the messages came thick and fast: 
''The first boche shell hit our front line at 7.06 — the colonel 
has twenty prisoners — the right flank is sending back about a 
hundred — balloon reports grenade fighting west of Cantigny 

America's First Attaofi 119 

where our men are mopping up the trenches — two of our 
stretcher bearers are returning with an empty stretcher — one 
tank returning from Cantigny — our men are seen walking 
around the streets of Cantigny — flame throwers can be seen 
through the smoke clearing out the dugouts." 

Soldiers soon began to come in with prisoners to be put 
in the detention pen already prepared for them. One grimy 
but happy soldier saluted punctiliously: "Sir, I have brought 
back twenty prisoners." He was triumphant. "I went with 
the first wave," he said. "We got to a sort of trench, and all 
of a sudden the boche jumped upjin front of us and started 
to throw grenades. We went at 'em with grenades, bayonets, 
rifles, pistols and whatever came handy. I spitted one big 
fellow on my bayonet, but the bayonet stuck, so I pulled out 
my trench knife and went for him, but he yelled *Kamerad,' 
so I grabbed his gun, and hit a third one in the head with it. 
There were grenades busting all around, but I could hear our 
fellows shouting — 'Go to it, Yanks !';the same as they did all 
the way over No Man's Land. Pretty quick all the boches 
were yelling 'Kamerad,' and putting up their hands. The 
captain told me to herd these together and get them down 
quick, so they could be questioned. There's about a hundred 
more up in the woods cut off by the barrage." 

There were hundreds of similar instances of courage and 
enterprise. The soldiers were happy, even the wounded were 
cheerful. They only wanted to know how many Germans we 
bagged — they only asked, "Have you got a cigarette?" 

The feeling of England was well shown by the prophetic 
comment of the London Evening News upon the battle: 

Bravo! young Americans. Nothing in today's battle news from the 
front is more exhilarating than the account of their fight at Cantigny. 
It was clean-cut from beginning to end hke one of their countrymen's 
short stories, and the short story of Cantigny is going to expand to the 
full length which will write the doom of the Kaiser and Kaiserism. Can- 
tigny is one day to be repeated a thousandfold. 

The German report of the fight made no mention of the 
faot that Cantigny had been captured by American troops. 
They were still anxious to have their people believe that the 
American troops could not fight. 


America's Glory at Chateau-Thierry 

A NAME blazoned in letters of gold will live forever in 
American history : Chateau-Thierry. x\round it will 
cluster records of immortal valor, deeds of heroism 
that will to the end of time shed luster upon the American 
soldiers who there checked the tide of tyranny when it was 
at its flood. 

The German High Command selected as its second great 
drive of 1918 the sector along the Chemin des Dames north 
of the Aisne. The attack was launched May 27th, and four 
divisions of the British Army and the whole French line, from 
Rheims to a point a little east of Noyon were bent back like 
a huge bow. Soissons was evacuated by the French, and 
Paris, for the second time during the war, was threatened, 
French man power, tried to the utmost, was melting in the 
flame of battle like wax. The pressure of the enemy increased 
in intensity on the 30th and 31st of May, until it burst for- 
ward on a twenty-five-mile bulge reaching the river Marne 
between Chateau-Thierry and Dormans on a six-mile front. 
The time had come to test unto the limit the fighting 
power of America. If the German thrust was to be checked, 
this was the time. If America was to be really, this six-mile 
front where the crack infantry of the German Empire was 
surging forward afforded a battleground to test American 
manhood. The call for relief came to the 2d Division of the 
American Army, lying in billets in the Chaumont ex Vexin 
area. This division was composed of Regulars of the United 
States Army and a detachment of United States Marines. 
Elements of the 3d Division, a Regular Army organization, 
were also called into action. The orders to march reached 
the 2d Division Headquarters at five o'clock in the morning 
of May 30th. The start from its billets was made at five 
o'clock on the morning of the 31st. Transportation was made 


America's Glory at Chateau-Thierry 121 

in motor trucks, and at daj^break of June 1st the advance 
guard of the 2d Division reached Montreuil. 

Along the route the Americans had been hailed with 
cheers and tears by the women, old men and children of the 
French villages. They saw in the dust-covered doughboys 
their last desperate chance for victory. Without rest, and 
with only emergency rations, the Americans still presented 
a care-free, dauntless front as they came within the battle 
zone. The 9th Regiment, the first unit of the 2d Division to 
reach Montreuil, was sent immediately without sleep to the 
village of Le Thiolet to support the retreating French troops. 

Because of railroad congestion eighteen of the trains on 
which the artillery of the- 2d Division was to have been 
transported had been canceled and the entire equipment that 
was to have been placed upon these trains had been sent by 
road. Meanwhile the Germans had captured Chateau- 
Thierry, Vaux and the heights of Hill 204 on the north bank 
of the Marne. The southern suburb of Chateau-Thierry, 
lying across the Marne from the main portion of the town, 
was still in the hands of the Allies. 

Under the direction of Major-General Bundy, whose 
headquarters was in a schoolroom where he sat at the teacher's 
desk with staff officers using the desks of little children, 
American ammunition dumps and artillery were moved close 
behind the American lines for the purpose of coming to close 
grips with the advancing enemy. Emergency stations for 
the care of the wounded were immediately established and 
everything made ready for America's first great battle against 
the Teutonic hordes. 

The 3d Division, commanded by General Dickman, 
received a message from the French High Command to rush to 
the Chateau-Thierry sector at the same time the 2d Division 
received its message. Without waiting for complete mobiliza- 
tion and unification of the units under his command, General 
Dickman rushed the 3d Division with as much speed as the 
several units could muster. The 7th Machine Gun Battalion 
of the 3d Division, a completely motorized unit, earned the 
glory of first engaging the enemy in this historic battle. It 
reported first to the French at Conde-en-Brie, and from there 


America's Part in the World War 

was sent with all possible haste to Thierry. Two companies 
of the 7th Battalion rode immediately to the battle line and 
took position with the French Colonials at the crossing of the 
Marne where the Germans were fiercely fighting in an effort 




Composition of National Guard Divisions. 

to dislodge the allied forces. Unit by unit, the rest of the 3d 
Division came up to be brigaded with French troops, and 
went into battle without any training in French trenches. 
The division had not even been assembled as an organization 
since it left America. It was a number of days after the 

U. S. Official Photoyrupli. 


114th Infantry. 29tli Division advancing to attack in St. Leger Woods, France, August 

23, 1918. 

U. S. Official liiutograph 


American officers using observation instruments left behind by the Germans in then- 
hasty retreat from the Marne. The building was used by the former German heir at Mont- 
faucon, near Verdi m. 

America's Glory at Chateau-Thierry 125 

arrival of the infantry on the battlefront before the artillery 
of the 3d Division came into action. 

And now the 2d Division after two days in a support 
position on a twelve-mile front behind the French lines was 
ready for its baptism of blood. On the night of the 3d of 
June and the morning of the 4th of June, the French troops 
were removed from the front line and the regulars and marines 
of the 2d Division were face to face with the enemy along the 
twelve-mile front of Germany's great battle wedge. 

Germany's great moment had come. If that wedge could 
be driven across the Marne, and the Paris road at Le Thiolet 
could be opened to the German army, the stroke that would 
end the war might be delivered. Into the apex of that 
German wedge were placed two crack divisions of the German 
Army, facing the 2d Division of Americans. The twelve-mile 
front included Belleau Wood and the village of Bouresches. 
The battle that opened on the morning of June 4th was a 
mighty duel between two opposing military schools, the 
German school of cold, scientific precision with officers moving 
their units like pawns in a chess game; the American school 
of battle with units obeying as implicitly as did the Germans, 
but with an added initiative and resourcefulness of individuals 
in open fighting, an initiative and resourcefulness that was 
paralleled in the World War only by Canadians and Australians. 

The Germans held both the Belleau Woods and Bour- 
esches village. These positions afforded the enemy cover 
both for murderous machine-gun nests and for the launching 
of sudden attacks. In the meantime the French and the 
motorized 7th Machine Gun Battalion of the 3d Division had 
held the crossing against the German horde. Now the 
task of the 2d Division was to clear both Belleau Woods and 
Bouresches village of the enemy. Until that had been done 
Chateau-Thierry and the Paris road were in danger. Ger- 
mans stationed on the heights of Hill 204 were enabled to 
discern every movement of the Americans and sometimes 
to diagnose in advance and to anticipate what the Americans 
would do. In addition to this tremendous advantage, Ger- 
man airplanes scouted low over American lines, bombed our 
positions and spotted for their own artillery. 

126 America's Part in the World War 

The first attack of the decisive battle came from the 
Germans. They poured out of Belieau Wood in force and 
for the first time encountered the direct rifle fire of crack 
American marksmen. Coolly as though at target practice 
the marines of the 4th Brigade adjusted their sights, each 
doughboy picking his man in the advancing line of gray-green 
uniforms. Methodically as though they were in a training 
sector the machine-gun crews of the 2d Division sighted their 
pieces and fed their guns while whole rows of Germans fell 
like wheat before the reaper. It was marksmanship beyond 
praise, the coolness that comes from dauntless courage. 
Against the blasting fire of the marines the German advance 
was helpless. Its man power shriveled like dry leaves in a 
forest fire. Here and there under furious efforts of German 
ofiicers lines were reformed only to be mowed down merci- 
lessly as they came staggering forward. 

Major-General Harbord commanding the Marine Brigade 
was well content with the day's work when the Germans 
withdrew their shattered forces behind their defenses leaving 
the dead and wounded in windrows. General Harbord had 
been chief of staff under General Pershing before assuming 
his command. He was later succeeded as chief of staff by 
Major-General James W. McAndrew. A colonel of marines 
pinned upon the collar of Major-General Harbord's tunic the 
eagle, globe and anchor, the insignia of the marines, and no 
decoration received by General Harbord was more prized 

than this. 

In the meantime the 3d Brigade of the 2d Division, 
under Brigadier-General Lewis, was in action on the south 
side of the road to Paris. 

The Marine Brigade was called into action for attack on 
the morning of the 6th. The jump-off was made at dawn, 
in conjunction with French forces on the left of the brigade. 
The operation was for the purpose of straightening the allied 
line toward Torcy. The operation was entirely successful, 
the marines dashing through shell and machine-gun fire with 
great spirit and achieving their objectives long before noon. 

At length the way was clear for the advance upon Belieau 
Wood and Bouresches. The order came to attack at two 

America's Glory at Chateau-Thierry 127 

o'clock on the afternoon of the same day, June 6th. The battle 
was to be in two phases, first the capture of Belleau Wood, 
second the taking of Bouresches. The artillery opened the 
action with a raking fire concentrated on Belleau. At a 
signal the curtain lifted and was diverted to Bouresches. 
Immediately upon its lifting, the marines tore into the dark 
shades and thick tangle of Belleau. 

There was a brief, bloody struggle for German machine- 
gun positions on the outskirts of the wood. These were soon 
taken and then the German machine-gun nests in the rocky 
fastnesses of Belleau came into play. Every foot of ground 
in the forest was swept by these hidden miniature fortresses. 
The spaces about which an attack must come had been 
carefully laid out in checkerboard pattern by the defenders. 
None of the nests interfered with the zone of operation of any 
other defense. It was out of the question for the attackers 
to take any nest in flank. Hidden guns protected every nest. 
There was only one way to destroy these defenses; by rifle 
fire and bayonet assault. As coolly as when they were behind 
their own defenses, the Yankee skirmishers took advantage 
of every rock and picked off every machine gunner who pre- 
sented himself for a second to view. When opportunity 
presented itself the doughboys rushed in sudden bayonet 
charges, using the cold steel skilfully and terribly. Steadily, 
remorselessly the work went forward but at a terrible cost. 
'Out of the dark ravine trickled blood-stained processions 
bearing the dead and the dying of the marines. Stokes 
mortars and supplies of munitions were rushed into the wood 
in parallel processions. 

With the coming of nightfall, there was a lull in the 
action. The marines had made good their foothold in the 
wood. Some of the ground that had been captured was 
yielded to the enemy because it afforded no cover for our 
troops. Emergency rations taken from both American and 
German dead were eaten by the survivors and the water from 
the canteens of the dead served to allay the parching, acrid 
battle thirst. 

While the battle for Belleau was going forward furiously 
the attack upon Bouresches village was launched. Here, 

128 America's Part in the World War 

because of the openness of the ground, the American artillery 
preparation was more thorough and effective. When the 
attack came the marines literally swept all opposition before 
them. The German defenders who barricaded themselves 
in cellars were surrounded and many were taken prisoner. 
It was a house-to-house operation, with which the marines 
traditionally were familiar. Throughout this action there 
came co-operation from the 23d Regiment of Regular Infan- 
try. These doughboys, envious of the marines, speedily 
overran their objective. Like the marines in Belleau Woods 
they were recalled to an entrenched position during the night 
of June 6th. By dawn of the morning of June 7th, the entire 
village of Bouresches was in the possession of the marines and 
the rocky defiles of Belleau Wood made debatable ground. 
Gas attacks by Germans upon Bouresches and Belleau 
Wood only served to intensify the determination of the 
Americans to hold their positions at all costs. 

The second attack upon Belleau Wood commenced at 
five o'clock on the morning of June 11th. Artillery fire of 
greater concentration and intensity than that which had 
paved the way for the first attack, preceded the assault. 
Valuable lessons had been learned in the first attack. Each 
nest of German machine guns was treated as a separate 
problem. Crossfire from American rifles and machine guns 
and a looping machine-gun barrage isolated these positions. 
Upon a signal the Americans rushed and carried the positions 
with the bayonet. Usually they found the defenders hiding 
behind trees or lying in dog-holes they had hastily dug. 
There was no going back. Yard by yard the marines went 
forward. A regiment from the 3d Division was sent into the 
brigade to be "blooded." Stubbornly the Germans resisted, 
and steadily the Americans pressed forward. 

A French officer, believing that a different disposition of 
the troops should be made, suggested that the 2d Division 
be retired to another point. Major-General Omar Bundy, 
then commanding, respectfully said to the Frenchman: 

"I cannot retreat. They do not know the meaning of 
the word!" 

On June 21st and 22d units of the 3d Division attempted 

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America's Glory at Chateau-Thierry 129 

to reduce some very strong German positions in the wood. 
In the twihght of the forest it was almost impossible to differ- 
entiate friend from foe. To add to the confusion it was said 
that German machine gunners dressed themselves in the 
khaki uniforms of dead Americans. Finally the Germans 
were pushed back to the verge of the wood. Marine units 
that had been in Bouresches under shell and gas attacks were 
called back into Belleau Wood and the regiment of the 3d 
Division was recalled. Like wolves in sight of their prey the 
marines leaped forward in the last assault. A short, bloody 
struggle and Belleau was cleared forever of the enemy. The 
marines had gone through. 

While the marines were capturing Belleau and Bour- 
esches, the 3d Brigade of the 2d Division was making ready 
for an attack upon Vaux. These regulars went about their 
job with characteristic courage. Every officer and every 
man knew his lesson in advance. The Germans knew almost 
to the minute when the attack was to be made and anticipated 
the assault by artillery fire of the utmost intensity upon the 
American positions. This continued for fifteen hours. Work- 
ing in liaison with the French the attack was made on July 
1st. The French directed their assault on Hill 204 while the 
regulars paid attention solely to Vaux. 

So fierce and precise was the attack that within five 
minutes after they burst over the top, the regulars were in 
the outskirts of Vaux. The entire village was mapped and 
every cellar spotted in advance. American artillery cleared 
the way and the capture of the village was accomplished 
without incident. When evening of July 1st faded into night 
all of the American objectives had been taken; the German 
wedge had been blunted; the German drive had been checked. 
The road to Paris was in the indisputable possession of the 
Allies, and once more the banks of the Marne had proved 
a stone wall of defense against the Germans. 


For purposes of historical record the tribute paid by 
Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels to the marines of the 
2d Division is worthy of quotation: 

130 America's Part in the World War 

"Memorial Day shall henceforth have a greater, deeper 
significance for America, for it was on that day, May 30, 
1918, that our country really received its first call to battle — 
the battle in which American troops had the honor of stopping 
the German drive on Paris, throwing back the Prussian hordes 
in attack after attack, and beginning the retreat which lasted 
until imperial Germany was beaten to its knees and its 
emissaries appealing for an armistice under the flag of truce. 
And to the United States Marines, fighting side by side with 
equally brave and equally courageous men in the American 
Army, to that faithful sea and land force of the navy, fell the 
honor of taking over the lines where the blow of the Prussian 
would strike the hardest, the line that was nearest Paris, and 
where, should a breach occur, all would be lost. 

"The world knows today that the United States Marines 
held that line; that they blocked the advance that was 
rolling on toward Paris at the rate of six or seven miles a day; 
that they met the attack in American fashion and with 
American heroism; that marines and soldiers of the American 
Army threw back the crack guard division of Germany, 
broke their advance, and then, attacking, drove them back in 
the beginning of a retreat that was not to end until the "cease 
firing" signal sounded for the end of the world's greatest war. 

"Having reached their destination early on the morning 
of June 2d, they disembarked stiff and tired after a journey 
of more than seventy-two miles, but as they formed their 
lines and marched onward in the direction of the line they 
were to hold, they were determined and cheerful. That 
evening the first field message from the 4th Brigade to Major- 
General Omar Bundy, commanding the 2d Division, went 
forward : 

"Second Battalion, 6th Marines, in line from Le Thiolet through 
Clarembauts Woods to Triangle to Lucy. Instructed to hold line. First 
Battalion, 6th Marines, going into line from Lucy through Hill 142. 
Third Battalion in support at La Voie du Chatel, which is also the post 
command of the 6th Marines. Sixth Machine Gun Battalion distributed 
at line. 

"Meanwhile the 5th Regiment was moving into line, 
machine guns were advancing, and the artillery taking its 

Americans Glory at Chateau-Thierry 131 

position. That night the men and oflScers of the marines 
slept in the open, many of them in a field that was green with 
unharvested wheat, awaiting the time when they should be 
summoned to battle. The next day at 5 o'clock the afternoon 
of June 2d, began the battle of Chateau-Thierry, with the 
Americans holding the line against the most vicious wedge of 
the German advance. 

"The advance of the Germans was across a wheat field, 
driving at Hill 165 and advancing in smooth columns. The 
United States Marines, trained to keen observation on the 
rifle range, nearly every one of them wearing a marksman's 
medal or, better, that of the sharpshooter or expert rifleman, 
did not wait for those gray-clad hordes to advance nearer. 

"Calmly they set their sights and aimed with the same 
precision that they had shown upon the rifle ranges at Paris 
Island, Mare Island and Quantico. Incessantly their rifles 
cracked, and with their fire came the support of the artillery. 
The machine-gun fire, incessant also, began to make its 
inroads upon the advancing forces. Closer and closer the 
shrapnel burst to its targets. Caught in a seething wave of 
machine-gun fire of scattering shrapnel, or accurate rifle 
fire, the Germans found themselves in a position in which 
further advance could only mean absolute suicide. The 
fines hesitated. They stopped. They broke for cover, while 
the marines raked the woods and ravines in which they had 
taken refuge with machine gun and rifle to prevent their 
making another attempt to advance by infiltrating through. 
"Above, a French airplane was checking up on the 
artillery fire. By the fact that the men should deliberately 
set their sights, adjust their range, and then fire deliberately 
at an advancing foe, each men picking his target, instead of 
firing merely in the direction of the enemy, the aviator sig- 
naled below * Bravo!' In the rear that word was echoed 
again and again. The German drive on Paris had been 

"For the next few days the fighting took on the character 
of pushing forth outposts and determining the strength of 
the enemy. Now, the fighting had changed. The Germans, 
mystified that they should have run against a stone wall of 

132 America's Part in the World War 

defense just when they beheved that their advance would be 
easiest, had halted, amazed; then prepared to defend the 
positions they had won with all the stubbornness possible. 
In the black recesses of Belleau Wood the Germans had 
established nest after nest of machine guns. There in the 
jungle of matted underbrush, of vines, of heavy foliage, 
they had placed themselves in positions they believed impreg- 
nable. And this meant that unless they could be routed, 
unless they could be thrown back, the breaking of the attack 
of June 2d would mean nothing. There would come another 
drive and another. The battle of Chateau-Thierry was 
therefore not won and could not be won until Belleau Wood had 
been cleared of the enemy. 

"It was on June 6th that the attack of the American 
troops began against that wood and its adjacent surroundings, 
with the wood itself and the towns of Torcy and Bouresches 
forming the objectives. At five o'clock the attack came, and 
there began the tremendous sacrifices which the marine 
corps gladly suffered that the German fighters might be 
thrown back. 

"The marines fought strictly according to American 
methods — a rush, a halt, a rush again, in four-wave formation, 
the rear waves taking over the work of those who had fallen 
before them, passing over the bodies of their dead comrades 
and plunging ahead, until they, too, should be torn to bits. 
But behind those waves were more waves, and the attack 
went on. 

" *Men fell like flies,' the expression is that of an oflScer 
writing from the field. Companies that had entered the 
battle 250 strong dwindled to fifty and sixty, with a sergeant 
in command; but the attack did not falter. At 9.45 o'clock 
that night Bouresches was taken by Lieutenant James F. 
Robertson and twenty-odd men of his platoon; these soon 
were joined by two reinforcing platoons. Then came the 
enemy counter-attacks, but the marines held. 

"In Belleau Wood the fighting had been literally from 
tree to tree, stronghold to stronghold; and it was a fight 
which must last for weeks before its accomplishment in 
victory. Belleau Wood was a jungle, its every rocky forma- 

Amerioa's Glory at Chateau-Thierry 133 

tion containing a German machine-gun nest, almost impossible 
to reach by artillery or grenade fire. There was only one 
way to wipe out these nests — by the bayonet. And by this 
method were they wiped out, for United States marines, 
bare chested, shouting their battle cry of 'E-e-e-e-e y-a-a-h-h 
yip ! ' charged straight into the murderous fire from those guns, 
and won! 

"Out of the number that charged, in more than one 
instance, only one would reach the stronghold. There, with 
his bayonet as his only weapon, he would either kill or capture 
the defenders of the nest, and then swinging the gun about in 
its position turn it against the remaining German positions 
in the forest. Such was the character of the fighting in Belleau 
Wood; fighting which continued until July 6th, when, after 
a short relief, the invincible Americans finally were taken back 
to the rest billet for recuperation. 

"In all the history of the marine corps there is no such 
battle as that one in Belleau Wood. Fighting day and night 
without relief, without sleep, often without water, and for 
days without hot rations, the marines met and defeated the 
best divisions that Germany could throw into the line. 

"The heroism and doggedness of that battle are unparal- 
leled. Time after time ofiicers seeing their lines cut to pieces, 
seeing their men so dog-tired that they even fell asleep under 
shellfire, hearing their wounded calling for the water they 
were unable to supply, seeing men fight on after they had been 
wounded and until they dropped unconscious; time after 
time ofiicers seeing these things, believing that the very 
limit of human endurance had been reached, would send 
back messages to their post command that their men were 
exhausted. But in answer to this would come the word that 
the line must hold, and, if possible, those lines must attack. 
And the lines obeyed. Without water, without food, without 
rest, they went forward — and forward every time to victory. 
Companies had been so torn and lacerated by losses that they 
were hardly platoons, but they held their lines and advanced 
them. In more than one case companies lost every officer, 
leaving a sergeant and sometimes a corporal to command, 
and the advance continued. 

134 America's Part in the World War 

"After thirteen days in this inferno of fire a captured 
German officer told with his dying breath of a fresh division 
of Germans that was about to be thrown into the battle to 
attempt to wrest from the marines that part of the wood they 
had gained. The marines, who for days had been fighting 
only on their sheer nerves, who had been worn out from 
nights of sleeplessness, from lack of rations, from terrific 
shell and machine-gun fire, straightened their lines and pre- 
pared for the attack. It came — as the dying German officer 
had predicted. 

"At two o'clock on the morning of June 13th it was 
launched by the Germans along the whole front. Without 
regard for men, the enemy hurled his forces against Bouresches 
and the Bois de Belleau, and sought to win back what had 
been taken from Germany by the Americans. The orders 
were that these positions must be taken at all costs; that the 
utmost losses in men must be endured that the Bois de 
Belleau and Bouresches might fall again into German hands. 
But the depleted lines of the marines held; the men who had 
fought on their nerve alone for days once more showed the 
mettle of which they were made. With their backs to the 
trees and boulders of the Bois de Belleau, with their sole shelter 
the scattered ruins of Bouresches, the thinning lines of the 
marines repelled the attack and crashed back the new division 
which had sought to wrest the position from them. 

"And so it went. Day after day, night after night, while 
time after time messages like the following traveled to the 
post command: 

"Losses heavy. Difficult to get runners through. Some have never 
returned. Morale excellent, but troops about all in. Men exhausted. 

"Exhausted, but holding on. And they continued to 
hold on in spite of every difficulty. Advancing their lines 
slowly day by day, the marines finally prepared their positions 
to such an extent that the last rush for the possession of the 
wood could be made. Then, on June 24th, following a 
tremendous barrage, the struggle began. 

"The barrage literally tore the woods to pieces, but even 
its immensity could not wipe out all the nest that remained, 

America's Glory at Chateau-Thierry 135 

the emplacements that were behind almost every clump of 
bushes, every jagged, rough group of boulders. But those 
that remained were wiped out by the American method of the 
rush and the bayonet, and in the days that followed every 
foot of Belleau Wood was cleared of the enemy and held by 
the frayed lines of the Americans. 

"It was, therefore, with the feeling of work well done that 
the depleted lines of the marines were relieved in July, that 
they might be filled with replacements and made ready for a 
grand offensive in the vicinity of Soissons, July 18th. And 
in recognition of their sacrifice and bravery this praise was 
forthcoming from the French : 

"Army Headquarters, June 30, 1918. 

"In view of the brilliant conduct of the Fourth Brigade of the Second 
United States Division, which in a spirited fight took Bouresches and the 
important strong point of Bois de Belleau, stubbornly defended by a large 
enemy force, the General commanding the Sixth Army orders that hence- 
forth, in all ofiicial papers, the Bois de Belleau shall be named *Bois de 
la Brigade de Marine. 

"Division General Degoutte, 

"Commanding Sixth Army." 

An oflScial German Army report was captured July 7th 
on an oflicer taken in the Marne region. The document 
embodied a careful estimate by the Germans of American 

Intelligence Officer of the Supreme Command at Army Headquarters, 
No. 7, J. No. 3,528, Army Headquarters, June 17, 1917. 

Second American Infantry Division. Examination of prisoners from 
the 5th, 6th, 9th and 23d Regiments captured from June 5th to 14th in 
the Bouresches sector. The prisoners were not informed of the purpose 
of the attacks. The orders for the attacks on Belleau Wood were made 
known only a few hours before the attacks took place. 

The 2d American Division may be classified as a very good division 
perhaps even as assault troops. The various attacks on Belleau Wood 
were carried out -with dash and recklessness. The moral effect of our 
firearms did not materially check the advance of the infantry. The 
nerves of the Americans are still unshaken. The individual soldiers are 
very good. They are healthy, vigorous and physically well developed 
men of ages ranging from 18 to 28, who at present lack only necessary 
training to make them redoubtable opponents. The troops are fresh and 

136 America's Part in the World War 

full of straightforward confidence. A remark of one of the prisoners is 
indicative of their spirit— "We kill or get killed." 

In both attacks on Belleau Wood, which were carried out by one or 
two battalions, the following method of attack was adopted: Three or 
four lines of skirmishers at about tliirty to fifty paces distance: rather 
close behind these isolated assault parties in platoon column; abundant 
equipment of automatic rifles and hand grenades. The assault parties 
carried forward machine guns and were ordered to penetrate the German 
position at a weak point, to swing laterally, and to attack the strong 
points from the rear. 

Particulars on the American position: No details are available. The 
prisoners are hardly able to state where they were in position. According 
to their statements, it may be assumed that the front line consists only of 
rifle pits one meter deep, up to the present not provided with wire entangle- 
ments. The organization of the positions in rear is imknown. 

Morale: The prisoners in general make an alert and pleasing impres- 
sion. Regarding military matters, however, they do not show the 
slightest interest. Their superiors keep them purposely without knowl- 
edge of military subjects. For example, most of them have never seen a 
map. They are no longer able to describe the viflages and roads through 
which they marched. Their ideas on the organization of their unit is 
entirely confused. For example, one of them claimed that his brigade 
has six regiments, his division twenty-four. They still regard the war 
from the point of view of the "big brother" who comes to help his hard 
pressed brethren and is, therefore, welcomed everywhere. A certain 
moral background is not lacking. The majority of the prisoners simply 
took as a matter of course that they have come to Europe in order to defend 
their country. 

Only a few of the troops are of pure American origin; the majority 
is of German, Dutch, and Italian parentage, but these semi-Americans, 
almost all of whom were born in America and never have been in Europe 
fully feel themselves to be true-born sons of their country. 

(Signed) Von Berg, 
Lieutenant and Intelligence Officer. 


America the Deciding Factor 

jk MERICA was now ready to be tested as a factor in the 
/^ war. Men and munitions poured in an endless chain 
of ships across the ocean. Some httle prehminary 
training was given to troops before they were put into action, 
and while this training was going forward the older divisions 
were taken out of the training areas and put into the line. 
On June 30th, American troops in France in all departments 
of service numbered 1,019,115. 

Like an electric current the news had sped through the 
entire allied front that the Americans had proved masters of 
the Germans at Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, Bouresches 
and Cantigny. Along the lines of transportation from Brest 
American troops were pouring in streams of brown, virile, 
confident young manhood. New life surged through the 
arteries of the allied forces. For the first time they felt that 
the day of deliverance from the German menace was at hand. 
They had made a good fight against overwhelming odds. 
They had held the line against all that German scientific 
efficiency could hurl against them. Poison gas, airplanes, 
long-range guns, machine-gun nests, hammer strokes of Ger- 
man artillery and infantry against weak spots — all these had 
been endured. Now America vibrant with wealth, vouth 
and determination had come like a fresh, well-trained gladiator 
ready to strike the deciding blow against the formidable foe. 

Following closely upon the spirited defence at Chateau- 
Thierry and the capture of Belleau Wood and Bouresches 
came the attack on Vaux and communicating positions along 
the German lines to Hill 204. This action was commenced 
and completed on July 1st, by the regular soldiers of the 2d 
Division included in the 3d Brigade. 

While the marines of the 2d Division had been earning 
immortal laurels in Belleau Wood and Bouresches, the 


138 America's Part in the World War 

regulars of the 3d Brigade had been lying under almost 
constant shellfire. Little action had come to them. Now and 
then a German raiding party came across No Man's Land to 
encounter death and defeat. Once in a while the regulars 
made reprisal raids but the German lines remained intact. 
The regulars, envious of the marines, were eager for action. 
Hungrily they looked in the direction of Vaux with its formid- 
able trench system and its concentration of artillery and 
machine guns. 

Vaux was larger than Bouresches and more scientifically 
fortified. Every ruined house was a center for German 
troops. From the cellars ran communication trenches; con- 
crete embankments reinforced the substantial stone walls 
upon which the thrifty French had erected their homes. 

It was upon these cellars that the intelligence service of 
the 2d Division concentrated its attention. Every excavation 
was located and carefully plotted upon maps which went to 
both artillery and infantry headquarters. Balloons and 
airplanes were the eyes of the intelligence service. 

Slowly and with maddening deliberation the heavy 
artillery of the Americans bracketed their objectives until 
they finally came upon the target of each cellar in Vaux. 
The hits were registered, sights were adjusted and everything 
was made ready for the prelude to the assault. 

The Germans upon their side were fully aware of the 
3d Brigade's intentions. They sensed the time selected for 
the attack, and sought to prevent it. Their method was to 
pour into the 3d Brigade's position an intense shellfire for 
the purpose of destroying the morale of the Americans. For 
fifteen hours this terrific bombardment of the American 
trenches continued. The doughboys dug themselves in, 
took what toll of death the shells demanded with a stoicism 
that marked them as heroes, and waited for the zero hour. 

It came at dawn on the morning of July 1st. Every oflacer, 
every gunner, every infantryman was ready. More than that, 
every one knew exactly the part he was to play in the grand 
assault. Big guns increased the rain of heavy projectiles into 
the cellars of Vaux. Guns that were to protect the infantry 
laid a barrage that was a real curtain of death through which 

America the Deciding Factor 


no enemy might come. In the trenches, officers with maps 
showing the objective of each company and the location of 
every cellar, passed among the waiting regulars and marked 

Kaw x-oric 



Hew Jersey 

N. Oarolina 
H. Virginia 
S. Carolina 
S. sakota 
K. ]>akota 

Hhode Inland 
Porto Eico 
Met. of Col. 
H, Hanipslii"r8 
Hew Mexico 

Rot allocated 



297, e9i n 

251,074 — 


























47 1 805 











17*, 361 









Soldiers Furnished by Each State 

with satisfaction the readiness of each man for the charge. 
At a signal the brigade snapped off behind the barrage. 

On the right of the regulars the French were ready and 
moved forward in liaison with our men. Their objective was 

140 America's Part in the World War 

Hill 204 which commanded Chateau-Thierry. Smoothly and 
with the efficiency of a gigantic reaper the assault swept for- 
ward. German machine-gun nests were encountered but the 
Americans now knew the technique of nest destruction. 
Each of these deadly little forts was encircled and the Germans 
who failed to surrender promptly were finished by unerring 
rifle fire and automatics used at short range. 

So well did our barrage open and so keen was the follow 
of the regulars that within five minutes after the jump-off, 
the men of the 3d Brigade were in the outskirts of Vaux. 
Thereafter it became merely a matter of encircUng and over- 
running the fortified cellars. More than five hundred prisoners 
were taken and the Germans left heaps of dead within the 
village. The operation was one of the quickest and most 
successful of the war. Its preparation had been careful. 
To the Germans as well as to the Allies the victory was a 
demonstration in miniature of what was to come later in the 
Argonne. American determination and dash were no longer 
matters in doubt. The men of the 2d Division, both regulars 
and marines, had given a taste of their quality. The doom of 
the German Army had been foreshadowed in the action that 
began when the motorized machine-gun battalion of the 3d 
Division held the bridgehead at Chateau-Thierry and ended 
when the regulars of the 2d Division captured Vaux. 

With the great German drive halted at the Marne the 
high command of the Teutonic alliance was confronted with 
the immediate necessity for widening the salient that had been 
made at the Marne. They found that the 2d and 3d Divisions 
had blocked their progress over the road to Paris via Chateau- 
Thierry. In this emergency they decided to attack along the 
western side of the Marne salient with the idea of joining that 
wedge with the salient at Montdidier. The attempt was made 
behind intensive artillery preparation on the 9th of June. 
This time, however, both the British and French were active. 
The Germans made some headway but at terrific cost. The 
effort continued for several weeks but the strategic object of 
combining the salients was a flat failure. 

Held upon the western side the German High Command 
now resolved upon a terrific assault on the eastern face of the 

U. .S'. Official Photograph. 

Much of the perfection of our small arms was due to the painstaking care and accuracy 

of these women inspectors. 

Women played a prominent part in the production of munitions for the armies in France. 






















America the Deciding Factor 143 

Marne salient. This thrust was directed against the French 
Army commanded by General Gouraud. They planned to 
make this attack with a frontal thrust across the Marne in 
the Chateau-Thierry sector. 

The German plan was that of Ludendorff, and to it Von 
Kindenburg gave his approval. The strategy, like that of 
the thrust at Amiens, was to separate the French and American 
forces from the armies of the British. The German plan 
was to roll back the French and Americans southward and 
to pin the British in the territory north of the Somme. The 
German Crown Prince was nominally in command of this last 
great drive but Ludendorff pulled the strings of battle. It 
was estimated that forty-seven divisions were massed on the 
great Marne salient during this titanic operation. 

The maneuver was a desperate one but the case of the 
Germans required desperate measures. According to French 
estimates the losses of the German Army since the first drive 
of the year against Amiens up to the moment of commencing 
the latest Marne thrust, were between 700,000 and 1,000,000 
men. With the inrush of American troops the scale of man- 
power had tipped to the side of the Allies. American shells 
had given to the Allies an even greater preponderance in 

Von Hindenburg and Ludendorff believed that the 
Americans could not be thro^m into the line to the extent of 
their man-power because they had not been sufficiently 
trained in the war zone. They contended that the training in 
American camps was insufl&cient to prepare them for actual 
offensive and defensive work in the field. If that supposition 
were true, Foch had still no sufficient reserves to withstand 
a sudden onslaught. 

But the supposition was far afield. The Americans in 
France were far in excess of the German estimate and their 
training was far better than the German High Command 
supposed. General March, chief of the General Staff, 
announced that on July 1st, the 1st American Army Corps 
was organized, and on July 13th came the news that General 
Pershing had enough men and material to form three complete 
army corps. 

144 America's Part in the World War 

Each army corps numbered from 225,000 to 250,000 men, 
so that approximately 700,000 Americans were actually on 
the battlefront. The three corps were designated the 1st, 
2d and 3d. The 1st was composed entirely of veteran troops 
including the 1st and 2d Divisions of regulars and the Marine 
Corps Brigade which had distinguished itself in the Chateau- 
Thierry-Soissons sector. The complete composition of the 
three corps as given out by General March, was as follows : 


Temporarily commanded by Major-General Hunter Liggett. 

1st (Regular Army) Division, commanded by Major-General Robert 
L. Bullard. 

2d (Regular Army) Division, commanded by Major-General Omar 
Bundy, including marines. 

26th (National Guard) Division, commanded by Major-General 
Clarence R. Edwards, composed of New England troops, many of whom had 
seen service on the Mexican border. This was the first national guard 
division sent to France. 

42d (National Guard) Division, commanded by Major-General Charles 
T. Menoher, known as the Rainbow Division. 

41st (National Guard) Division, commanded originally by Major- 
General Hunter Liggett, composed of troops from the Pacific Coast States 
and known as the Sunset Division. 

32d (National Guard) Division, commanded by Major-General 
William G. Haan, composed of troops from Michigan and Wisconsin. 


77th (National Army) Division, commanded by Major-General George 
B. Duncon, composed of New York troops. This was the first national 
army division sent to France and to the front. f'. 

35th (National Guard) Division, commanded by Major-General 
W. M. Wright, composed of troops from Kansas and Missouri. 

82d (National Army) Division, commanded by Major-General William 
P. Burnham, composed of troops from Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee. 

30th (National Guard) Division, commanded by Major-General 
George W. Reid, composed of troops from Tennessee, North Carolina, 
South Carolina and the District of Columbia. 

28th (National Guard) Division, commanded by Major-General 
Charles H. Muir, composed of troops from Pennsylvania. 

4th (Regular Army ) Division, commanded by Major-General George 
H. Cameron. 

America the Deciding Factor 145 


3d (Regular Army) Division, commanded by Major-General Joseph 
T. Dickraan. 

5th (Regular Army) Division, commanded by Major-General John E. 

78th (National Army) Division, commanded by Major-General J. N. 
McRae, composed of troops from Delaware and New York. 

80th (National Army) Division, commanded by Major-General 
Adalbert Cronkhite, composed of troops from Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia. 

33d (National Guard) Division, commanded by Major-General 
George Bell, composed of troops from Illinois. 

27th (National Guard) Division, commanded by Major-General John 
F. O'Ryan, composed of troops from New York. 

The total number of officers and men in the army about the middle of 
July was approximately 2,200,000, distributed as follows: 

At the front with General Pershing 700,000 

Training in France and England, or en route to Europe . . . 400,000 
Training in the United States and stationed at army posts. 1,100,000 

Total 2,200,000 

The Germans launched their final attack in the Marne 
salient on July 15th. It was a simultaneous effort directed 
against Gouraud with the cutting of the French lines at 
Chalons and Epernay in the Champagne region as an objec- 
tive. The other phase of the attack was as has been said, 
directed against the Marne salient. 

But Gouraud was wide awake and waiting. By a miracle 
of intelligent efficiency the one-armed hero knew exactly the 
minute when the German assault would be launched. Not- 
withstanding the utmost secrecy with which the German 
artillery and infantry were made ready, and massed against 
Gouraud's front the French were prepared with a preponder- 
ance of men and munitions. With Gouraud was the spec- 
tacular 42d (Rainbow) Division of Americans. 

At the same time the attack against Gouraud was 
launched, the Germans smashed in the direction of Dormans 
and Chateau-Thierry. Here the Americans were massed in 
force. Pershing was as well informed and as ready as was 
Gouraud. The gigantic German effort, like a huge tidal 

146 America's Part in the World War 

wave, advanced behind an artillery barrage, skillfully laid 
and of intense fury. To the dismay of the German High 
Command there came an instant reply from the French and 
Americans. The artillery answer completely destroyed the 
effect of the German fire. Virtually every German gun was 
located and every mass of German infantry that swept for- 
ward behind the German barrage encountered a withering 
blast of machine gun and artillery fire. 

The experience was unprecedented in the history of the 
German troops. They faltered, wavered, dug themselves in, 
and retreated. Here and there small advances were made, 
but the effort was checked in its tracks. The plans of Luden- 
dorff. Von Hindenburg and the Crown Prince were dashed to 
fragments and the back of Germany's last great offensive was 


America's Counter-Offensive 

THE Germans were held in their tracks on the Marne- 
Aisne drive. There wasn't the shghtest doubt about 
that. Two great objectives lay immediately before 
the Germans; Soissons and Rheims. Before Rheims the 
enemy's advance was broken off as a lance is splintered when 
it encounters a stone wall. In other directions the Germans 
encountered the same dauntless spirit. Here for the first 
time the citizen soldiers of the American Republic received 
their baptism of fire in the Great War. L and M Companies 
of the 109th, and B and C Companies of the 110th Regiments 
of the £8th Pennsylvania National Guard Division were in 
the very forefront of the allied defense south of Dormans. 
With them in the line of the Marne from Chateau-Thierry to 
Dormans were the 3d Division of American regulars and the 
125th Division of French poilus. The Pennsylvania guards- 
men had been prepared for battle by being brigaded with the 
British for two weeks. The four companies named with a 
combined strength of a thousand men were put into the front 
line with French units separating them. 

The tremendous German barrage preceding the enemy's 
advance commenced at midnight of July 14th. German 
shells poured like hailstones into all the front-line trenches of 
the Allies. Back of it came the infantry in a desperate effort 
to break through. Held along most of the line, the Germans 
managed to swing their pontoons across the Marne at Dor- 
mans and to send their hosts across and down the south bank 
at Chateau-Thierry. 

A terrific attack was immediately launched upon the 
125th French Division which included the American National 
Guard units. More experienced and prudent in battle, the 
French units retreated in good order, leaving the four Penn- 
sylvania companies isolated to hold the front line. As one 


148 America's Part in the World War 

man the gallant one thousand fought to hold back the oncom- 
ing tide of invasion. Outnumbered jfifty to one with no 
supports and with no lines of communication for food or 
munitions four companies stood like rocks in the path of the 
German host. Each little band of two hundred and fifty men 
acting individually and without communication with any 
other group determined to fight it out on that line, let come 
what may. When that bloody first battle of American militia 
in the World War was done, less than four hundred of the 
thousand came back. Those who remained were for the 
most part either wounded or sustained severe shell-shock. 

In L Company Captain Cousart was captured, as was 
Lieutenant Abraham Mildenberg, while Lieutenant William 
Bateman was killed and Lieutenant James Dyer was reported 
missing. Lieutenant James Schock brought off a platoon of 

Captain Mackay, of M Company, also managed to escape 
with ten men as did Lieutenant Thomas B. W. Tales with a 
whole platoon, while Lieutenants William B. Brov/n, Walter 
L. Sworts and Edward Hitzcroth were captured. 

In B Company, of the 110th, Captain Fish, Lieutenant 
Claude Smith and Lieutenant Gilmore Hay man brought off 
about 123 men, while Lieutenant James Gus Graham and 
Lieutenant Bert Guy were taken prisoner, the latter being so 
badly wounded that he died shortly after reaching a German 
prison camp in Bauthen, Silesia. 

Captain Truxal and Lieutenants Wilbur E. Schell, C 
Company, 110th, were taken prisoner, as was James Gee, of 
A Company, who had been temporarily assigned to C, while 
Captain Charles L. McLain, of F Company, also assigned 
to C, was gassed, and Lieutenant Samuel S. Crouse killed. 

On the left the 3d American Division held intact, but the 
collapse of the French and the isolation and ultimate destruc- 
tion of the four companies of the 28th Division endangered the 
entire right flank of the American forces and at the same time 
formed a pocket which began at Mezy and continued west- 
ward to Dormans. In this extremity the 38th United States 
Infantry, the most eastern unit of the 3d I)ivision, swung its 
right wing down the course of the Sumerlin River as far as 

America's Counter-Off ensive 


Connigis, where a portion of the 125th French Division, 
reorganized, maintained a front extending southeasterly to 

From Monthurel due eastward ran the line of the 109th 
Infantry, thus suddenly thrown from support to a front line 



. ^.....liiieis 




Battle Deaths Each Week in the American Expeditionary Forces 

position. To the right of the 109th lay the 20th French 
Division, a shock unit which had been hurried up when the 
125th collapsed. The 110th American Infantry, west of the 
Sumerlin, while exposed to the Hun bombardment was pro- 
tected by the French line between Connigis and Monthurel, 
from direct attack. 

150 America's Part in the World War 

The German horde poured down through the Bois de 
Conde, hours behind schedule, due to the splendid resistance 
of the four companies, and emerged on the front of the 109th 
late in the afternoon. The 28th Division was by no means in 
shape to withstand the shock, but despite the fact that some 
of its equipment was missing and many of the auxiliary divi- 
sional organizations had not yet come up, it clung to its shallow 
trench line desperately. 

The 109th, the first battalion of the engineers and a por- 
tion of the 108th Machine Gun Battalion withstood the brunt 
of the German assault between Monthural and St. Agnan, 
breaking the formation of the Crown Prince's shock troops 
as they emerged from the wood and effectually preventing the 
massed infantry attack. On the left of the 109th's line Cap- 
tain (later Lieutenant-Colonel) William H. Williams, of H 
Company, won the Distinguished Service Cross for the manner 
in which he cut his way back with a detail of men when sur- 
rounded while reconnoitering and, although wounded, joined 
with the French in a brilliant counter attack. A similar 
honor was bestowed upon Captain (later Lieutenant-Colonel) 
Edward J. Meehan, of D Company, who led a desperate 
sortie, sustained a severe wound near the spine, but "carried 
on" in command of his company for the next four days. 

On July 16th, the 1st Battalion of the 109th, reinforced 
by K Company, joined with the French 20th Division in a 
brilliant counter-attack aimed at St. Agnan and the hills 
surrounding it. Captain Walter M. Gearty and Lieutenant 
Donald MacNutt, of A Company, and Lieutenant H. Q. 
Griffin, of C Company, were killed and Captain Felix Campu- 
zana, of B Company, and Lieutenant Walter Fiechter, of K 
Company, severely wounded. Corporal J. J. Lott, of B 
Company, was cited for bravery for the manner in which he 
twice slipped forward and cut barbed wire entanglements, 
returning each time to lead details through the gaps and not 
desisting until severely wounded. 

East of Mezy the 38th Regiment of the 3d Division per- 
formed an exploit quite as glorious as that of the immortal 
four companies of the 28th Division. The Germans in boats 
protected by a tremendous barrage and hidden by a smoke 

America's Counter -Offensive 151 

screen attempted to cross the Marne. At that point the river 
scarcely rises to the dignity of an American creek. The 38th 
Regiment, reaUzing that if a landing were made, danger 
threatened the entire allied line, defied the barrage of the 
Germans, remained in the open and with rifle and machine-gun 
fire, swept a storm of shot and shell through the smoke screen. 
The German boats w^ere smashed to kindling wood. Dead 
Germans floated in masses down the stream. The American 
artillery also got the range and their pointblank fire completed 
the work of destruction. Only one boat succeeded in getting 
across at this point. A sergeant with a handful of Americans 
was ready for it. Hand grenades were tossed into the boat 
with its living freight and all w^ere destroyed. 

Further east of Mezy, the Germans succeeded in landing 
on a point of land. This contingent was cut off and four 
hundred of the crack Sixth Prussian Grenadiers surrendered 
to half the number. 

Another American division, the 42d Rainbow Division 
also defeated the enemy on that bloody day. The men of 
the Rainbow were with Gouraud. Two battalions of the 
165th Regiment, the famous 69th, known as the Fighting 
Irish of New York, were in the front line near Somme-Py. 
When the German spear head with crack divisions of guards 
at its apex hit those two battalions there came a demonstra- 
tion of concentrated machine-gun and rifle fire such as these 
particular Germans had never before encountered. Besides 
the 3d, 28th and 42d Divisions, the veteran 2d Division, com- 
posed of regulars and marines met and smashed frontal 
attacks of the enemy. General Pershing in a message of 
personal thanks to these divisions declared this action to be 
"one of the most brilliant pages in our military annals." 

And now the time had come for the grand counter-attack. 
A deep pocket had been established at the Marne by the 
German drive and by the stonewall defense of the allied 
divisions on all sides. Foch, the master strategist of the war, 
seized this opportunity to launch the stroke that broke the 
back of the German offensive. 

He called upon General Pershing for every available man. 
The American commander-in-chief responded by ordering 

152 America's Part in the World War 

every division that had any sort of training into line for the 
counter offensive. To the veteran 1st and 2d Divisions was 
given the post of honor in the decisive thrust against Soissons. 
With them in this drive were picked divisions of French shock 


The attack commenced at dawn on July 18th. The 
German board of strategy was caught absolutely flatfooted 
and unprepared. No hint of the advance was given. ^ It was 
the custom to blaze the way for hammerstrokes of the infantry 
by a preliminary bombardment, usually beginning about mid- 
night and continuing through the zero hour, — that hour 
being selected secretly in advance and rated at zero because 
with it as a base, all calculations of advance, retreat and other 
military statistics were gauged. In this thrust there was no 
such preparation. Instead, the American artillery laid down 
a rolling barrage by their military maps, beginning at the 
zero hour. Behind this barrier of blighting death made 
scientifically exact through the use of dependable American 
powder and shells the infantry jumped off from their trenches 
and advanced steadily over No Man's Land. That advance 
was destined to continue without check or retreat until the 
Americans found themselves upon the banks of the Rhine. 

When the Germans found that Foch's master stroke was 
on its way, they hurriedly rushed shock divisions and veteran 
troops against the oncoming wave. Some of their best units 
were opposed to the Americans. 

When the front line of the German defense fell back 
exhausted, reserves of crack troops were ready to replace 

So stiff was the German resistance backed with cunningly 
placed machine-gun nests and camouflaged artillery that 
every step of the advance was made at great cost in killed 
and wounded. But the Yankees came on. Steadily, skill- 
fully, taking advantage of every sort of cover, the stout- 
hearted 1st Division fought its way through wire, over 
trenches, until it captured the heights overlooking Soissons 
and the village of Berzy-le-Sec. The 2d Division of marines 
and regulars in a whirlwind dash seized Vierzy and Beau 
Repaire farm within forty-eight hours' fighting. These two 

America's Counter-Offensive 


crack divisions in their resistless advance bagged more than 
one hundred pieces of German artillery and 7,000 prisoners. 

Other American divisions performed quite as gallantly. 
On the morning of the 18th, the 26th Division composed of 
national guard soldiers from New England, captured the 
village of Porcy and the 3d Division crossed the Marne, routed 
the Germans and pursued them toward the fortifications of 




Construction Projects of the Arjiy in France 
The A. E. F. left its trail in the shape of more or less permanent improvements 
over the greater part of France. Every dot represents a place at which one or some- 
times several projects were undertaken. 

Mont St. Pere and the villages of Charteves and Jaulgonne, 
ultimately capturing these objectives, notwithstanding con- 
centrated machine-gun and artillery fire. In this advance 
the Americans learned to value for the first time the fighting 
qualities of the famous Moroccan division of the French army. 
This crack organization included the historic Foreign Legion 
in which a number of Americans had enlisted as early as 1914. 

154 America's Part in the World War 

Ludendorff, Von Hindenburg and the Crown Prince 
realized too late that their position in the Marne salient was 
untenable. They now knew that the American soldier was a 
formidable fighter and that the balance of manpower and of 
all munitions of war had passed definitely from the Germans 
to the Allies. They realized further that the initiative had 
passed into the hands of Foch, and that German militarism 
for the first time since August 1, 1914, was on the defensive. 

In the beginning of the drive the Allies went forward 
behind tanks, but as the infantry gained impetus the tanks 
were left behind. After that it became an attack in which 
mobile artillery, airplanes, observation balloons and infantry 
played the principal parts. As the battle progressed, it 
increased in desperation. The 1st Division suffered casualties 
of 3,000 in a single day's fighting. It lost a total of more 
than 7,200 men out of its entire complement of 12,000 infan- 
try in this engagement. Fighting side by side with the 
Moroccans, it kept the hot pace established by those furious 
veterans and it remained in the fight after the Moroccans 
had been withdrawn for rest. More than sixty per cent of all 
the infantry officers of the division were wounded. The 
26th Regiment suffered losses of all officers above the rank of 
captain. It emerged from the battle commanded by a captain 
of less than two years' experience. 

The sudden rush of the Allies cut the Chateau-Thierry- 
Soissons road that was the principal communication between 
the German front lines and the base of supplies. This meant 
that the Germans must retreat in full force immediately if 
they were to avoid wholesale rout and capture. A battle of 
movement in which rear-guard actions by machine-gun nests 
and hidden riflemen were important factors ensued. In the 
van of the pursuing allied forces were three heroic American 
1 divisions. All were wearied by forced marching and heavy 
fighting, but they came on eager to fight to the end. These 
were the 28th Division, which crossed the Marne at Dormans; 
the 3d Division, which crossed at Chateau-Thierry and the 
26th, coming from the Belleau Wood sector. The 26th made 
good its footing early in the advance by taking Hill 204, 
overlooking Chateau-Thierry, by direct assault. 

America's Counter -Offensive 155 

The Germans turned to fight in the rocky ridges at 
Epieds. There the artillery was massed, machine guns hidden 
in carefully prepared nests swept the open country before 
them. Back of their front lines, the Germans massed 
reserves in a desperate effort to hold off the allied rush long 
enough to enable them to save guns, munitions and supplies 
that were pouring out of the ISIarne pocket, in long, heavily 
laden trains. Here some of the fiercest fighting of the war 
visited heavy casualties upon both sides. The French and 
Americans in perfect liaison finally swept the enemy from the 

The 42d Division which had been doing heroic work 
under General Gouraud in the Champagne region now relieved 
the 26th Division. On July 24th, the men of the Rainbow 
smashed through the Foret de Fere, capturing machine-gun 
nests in a series of brilliant strategic fights. On July 27th, the 
3d, 4th and 42d Divisions were well on their way to the Ourcq, 
and by nightfall of that day, the 42d reached the banks of 
that river. The 3d Division, was relieved by the 32d, national 
guardsmen from ^lichigan and Wisconsin. In co-operation 
with the 42d, the 32d Division made a brilliant dash against 
the German fortified positions on the heights beyond Cierges. 
The Rainbow men overran and captured Sergj% and soldiers 
of the 32d in a daring assault captured Hill 230. Germans 
retreated in disorder to the Vesle River. The exhausted 42d 
Division was thereupon relieved by the 4th Division of 
regulars and the victorious 32d Division was replaced by 
the Pennsylvanians of the 28th Division. These were joined 
by the 77th Division, an organization of the National Army 
coming wholly from New York City. 

As an example of the desperate resistance encountered 
by the Americans, this report from the headquarters of the 
1st Army Corps concerning the advance of the 42d Division 
gives a graphic picture: 

To halt our too rapid advance, fresh German divisions were thrown 
into line, and it was along the Ourcq that the most stubborn fighting along 
our corps' front, during the entire operation, occurred. On the yellow 
wheat fields that gradually slope eastward from Meucry Farm, on the 
hei"-hts of Hill 184, which dominated Fere-en-Tardenois, remained innum- 

America's Counter-Offensive 157 

erable evidences of the stubbornness of the fighting. The bodies of our 
men often lay in rows not twenty yards from the German fox holes; the 
opposing lines were often within a stone's throw of each other and the 
bodies of the German and American dead in the same machine-gun nests 
were a further testimony of the mutual stubbornness of the conflicts. 

With the arrival of the Americans at the Vesle, nine 
divisions of Yankee soldiers had been tested to the utmost in 
modern battle and all had acquitted themselves with dis- 
tinction. These divisions were the first in action almost con- 
tinuously from Cantigny to Soissons; 2d Division, heroes of 
Belleau Wood, Bouresches, Vaux and Soissons; 3d Division, 
Chateau-Thierry, Mezy; the 4th Division, the fighting along 
the Vesle; the 26th Division, Hill 204, the advance toward 
the Vesle; the 28th Division, defense of the Marne at Dor- 
mans, crossing of the Ourcq; the 32d Division, the advance 
to the Ourcq; the 42d Division, veterans of the Champagne 
sector, fighting at Fere-en-Tardenois and the crossing of the 
Ourcq; the 77th Division, the sector at Bazoches. 

The stand of the Germans at the Vesle was only half- 
hearted. Their one concern was to get out of the Marne 
pocket as speedily as possible. It was therefore compara- 
tively easy for the 4th Division to cross that river and to 
take the village of Bazoches. 

During this inferno of fighting the Am.ericans were 
drenched with poison gas and bombed from the air by daring 
German aviators. Occasionally American troops in the open 
were swept by machine-gun fire that burst upon them from 
swooping German airplanes. German flame throwers added 
to the horror, but still the Americans came on. 

A determined stand was to be made by the enemy in the 
town of Fismes. There all the roads between the rivers 
Aisne and Vesle converge. And there the Germans had made 
a depot of supplies and a center of communication. Careful 
preparations had been made by the French and Americans 
for the assault. 

To the surprise of the allied strategists, the Germans 
made little resistance until the Americans entered the out- 
skirts of Fismes. The real resistance developed on August 
5th, after our men were safely in the town. Then German 

158 America's Part in the World War ' 

guns stationed about three miles from the town gave a demon- 
stration that they had the range of every American position 
by opening a deadly fire upon our men. Fortunately our 
artillery was in position and opened a withering fire upon the 
German artillery positions. In the meantim^e, American 
troops advancing over the Vesle to the eastward of Fismes 
smashed machine-gun nests and infantry resistance. That 
doomed Fismes and the territory around it. 

The capture of this terrain was attended with heavy 
losses on both sides. Some of these casualties were due to 
German land mines of fiendish ingenuity. These were 
placed in dugouts, in ammunition dumps, and in open roads. 
They were set off by electrical discharge from a safe distance. 
In the Chateau des Fere near Fere-en-Tardenois, more than 
three tons of high explosive were placed, connected with 
wires so skillfully laid that the cutting of any filament would 
set off the entire battery of bombs. The French official 
report upon this brilliant action is a tribute to the soldierly 
qualities of the Americans: 

"Compelled to make a general retreat as a result of our 
counter offensive on July 18th, the Germans attempted to 
take positions on the Ourcq, and fought stubbornly on the 
heights dominating the river. They were compelled, how- 
ever, to give way under the repeated blows of the Allies, and 
then, from July 30th on, the enemy commenced a new retreat 
in the direction of the Vesle. Definitely dislodged from the 
heights of Scringes and Hill 220, northeast of Sergy, he had 
met a strong advance on the part of the American units, who 
were fresh and energetic and who were prepared to descend 
the slope of Roncheres, while on their right the French were 
advancing through Meuniere Woods. It was the movement 
of the American division, which advanced from Roncheres to 
Fismes, progressing nearly parallel to the route which runs 
through Colougnes, Cohans, Longueville Farm and Saint 
Gilles, that we will follow beginning July 30th, the date of this 
division's entry into the sector, until August 5th, when it 
entered Fismes. 

"An interesting point is that this division was made up 
of a great many men of German origin, who, thus shedding 

{'. .s'. Official Photograph. 


American soldiers of the 33'-2d Infantry on the Piave Front hurling a shower of bombs into the 
Austrian trenches near Varage, Italy, September Ifi, 1918. 

U . S. Official Photograph. 


Members of the 13'2d Infantry, 33d Division in a front line Irciuli expecting an attack 
at any moment. From this trench can be sci-n the \alley of tlic Mcuso where it is estimated 
that 70,000 men are buried. France. 

America's Counter-Offensive 161 

their blood for the United States, gloriously showed their 


"On July 30th, the Americans attacked Grimpeos Woods 
after a short artillery preparation and reached the south- 
eastern corner of the wood, but the German resistance at this 
point was very strong. They counter-attacked and threw 
back the advance troops of the division. The fighting was 
extremely severe, and there were many hand-to-hand combats. 

*'0n the next day, July 31st, the entire woods fell into 
the hands of the Americans. Machine-gun nests, which held 
up their advance on Cierges, had been crushed or captured, 
and the way was clear. Intrenched now in Jomblets Woods, 
the enemy, by a strong fire, attempted holding up the Ameri- 
can advance. Cierges is situated in a hollow, so that the 
Germans, after having evacuated the village under the 
American pressure, bombarded it heavily with gas. The 
Americans did not stop in Cierges itself. They went around 
it in a magnificent dash and stormed the northern slopes. 
Then, after a short rest, they captured part of the Jomblets 
Woods. During this tune the French had advanced on the 
right and debouched from Meuniere Wood, which had been 
cleared out thoroughly. 

"On August 1st, the Americans had a new series of 
obstacles ahead of them, the most important being Reddy 
Farm and Hill 230. During the previous day's fighting they 
already had shown a keen sense for infantry maneuvering, 
employing tactically the gains which w^ere most sure of 
accomplishing their purpose, and giving evidence of fine 
qualities of initiative and imagination. In addition, they 
showed excellent knowledge of the use of the machine gun, 
automatic rifles and light mortars. They were able again to 
reduce the German positions. Hill 230 was taken in a 
superb manner, and seventy prisoners were counted. 

"From that moment, the enemy fled, and only weak 
rear-guards were left to oppose the advance of the Americans 
who swept these obstacles before them on their route and took 
without much difficulty Chamery, Moncel and Villome. At 
Cohans the Germans hung on several hours, but had to 
give it up, and at the end of the day United States troops had 

162 America's Part in the World War 

attained the heights north of Dravegny. Consequently 
progress of six or seven kilometers was made on the day of 
August 2d. For seventy-two hours straight the infantry had 
fought, despite the difficulty of procuring food, caused by 
the fact that only a narrow road afforded the convoys an 
opportunity of coming up, and the hard rains had soaked the 

road. 1 • , 

"In spite of fatigue and privations, the advanced units 

pursuit was taken up again at dawn on August 3d. The line 

which runs by Les Bourleaux was reached easily enough, but 

then the enemy turned and faced the Americans with many 

sections of machine guns and a strong artillery fire which 

rained down on the villages of the valley, on the crossroads 

and the ravines. 

"It became necessary to retire methodically and maneuver 
on the strong points of the adversary. This permitted the 
United States troops to reach the slopes north of Mont St. 
Martin and St. Gilles. The division had thus added to its 
gains seven kilometers. One last supreme effort would permit 
it to attain Fismes and the Vesle. 

"On August 4th, the infantry combats were localized 
with terrible fury. The outskirts of Fismes were solidly held 
by the Germans, where their advanced groups were difiScult to 
take.'i The Americans stormed them and reduced them with 
light^mortars and 37's. They succeeded, though not without 
loss, and at the end of the day, thanks to this slow but sure 
tenacity, they were within one kilometer of Fismes and 
masters of Villes Savoye and Chezelle Farm. All night long, 
rains hindered their movements and rendered their following 
day's task more arduous. On their right the French by 
similar stages had conquered a series of woods and swamps of 
Meuniere Woods, to the east of St. Gilles, and were on the 
Plateau of Bonne Maison Farm. To the left, another Ameri- 
can unit had been able to advance upon the Vesle to the east of 
St. Thibaut. 

"On August 5th the artillery prepared for the attack on 
Fismes by a bombardment, well regulated, and the final 
assault was launched. The Americans penetrated into the 
village and then began the task of clearing the last point of 

America's Counter -Offensive 163 

resistance. That evening this task was almost completed. 
We held all the southern part of the village as far as Rheims 
road, and patrols were sent into the northern end of the 
village. Some even succeeded in crossing the Vesle, but were 
satisfied with making a reconnaissance, as the Germans still 
occupied the right bank of the river in great strength. All 
that was left to be accomplished was to complete the mopping 
up of Fismes and the strengthening of our positions to with- 
stand an enemy counter-attack. 

"Such was the advance of one American division, which 
pushed the enemy forward from Roncheres on July 30th a 
distance of eighteen kilometers and crowned its successful 
advance with the capture of Fismes on August 5th." 

In recognition of the American co-operation in Foch's 
master stroke. General Mangin of the French Army on August 
7th, issued the following order of the day: 

Shoulder to shoulder wath your French comrades, you threw your- 
selves into the counter-offensive on July 18th. You ran to it as if going to a 
feast. Your magnificent dash upset and surprised the enemy, and your 
indomitable tenacity stopped counter-attacks by his fresh divisions. You 
have shown yourselves to be worthy sons of your great comitry, and have 
gained the admiration of your brothers in arms. 

Ninety-one cannon, 7,200 prisoners, immense booty, and ten kilo- 
meters of reconquered territory are your share of the trophies of this 
victory. Besides this, you have acquired a feeling of your superiority 
over the barbarian enemy against whom the children of hberty are fighting. 
To attack him is to vanquish him. 

American comrades, I am grateful to you for the blood you generously 
sTnlled on the soil of my country. I am proud of having commanded you 
during such splendid days and to have fought with you for the dehverance 
of the world. 


The Allied Tide Sweeps On 

ON August 5th, 1918, Foch, generalissimo of the allied 
forces, gave the command for the British armies to 
close in on the German foe. At this time the distribu- 
tion of the allied forces on the western front from the North 
Sea to the southern terminus of the line was in the following 
order: The Belgian Army; 6th French Army under General 
Dagouete; 2d British Army under General Plummer; 5th 
British Army under General Birdwood; 1st British Army 
under General Horn; 3d British Army under General Byng, 
with the 2d American Army Corps consisting of the 27th 
New York National Guard Division and the 13th Division 
consisting of soldiers from Tennessee, North Carolina,- South 
Carolina and the District of Columbia; the sector in which 
the Americans were brigaded was north of Amiens towards 
St. Quentin; the 4th British Army under General Rawlinson; 
the 1st French Army under General Debeney ; the 10th French 
Army under General Mangin, with some Italian troops 
under General Morrone and French Colonials under General 
Bertholet; the 4th French Army under General Gouraud; 
the 2d American Army under Major-General Robert L. 
BuUard, and the 1st American Army under Major-General 
Hunter K. Liggett. Aside from the 2d American Army 
Corps, the 27th and the 30th Divisions, with the British 3d 
Army, the 2d Division was with the 4th French Army for a 
time; the 33d was with the 17th French Army Corps, and 
the 37th with the 34th French Army Corps, on the Scheldt. 

By the end of July the reconstruction of the British 
armies had been completed; the 9th Corps under command 
of Lieutenant-General Sir A. Hamilton-Gordon consisting of 
Pour divisions subsequently joined by the 19th was bracketed 
with the 6th French Army. The 1st French Army, General 
Debeney, had been placed under the command of Haig. 


The Allied Tide Sweeps On 165 

At a conference held on July 23d, when the success of the 
attack on Julj^ 18th was well assured, the methods by which 
the advantage already gained could be extended were discussed 
in detail. The allied commander-in-chief asked that the 
British, French and American Armies should each prepare 
plans for local offensives, to be taken in hand as soon as 
possible, with certain definite objectives of a limited nature. 
These objectives on the British front were the disengagement 
of Amiens and the freeing of the Paris-Amiens railway by an 
attack on the Albert-Montdidier front. The role of the 
French and American Armies was to free other strategic 
railways by operations further south and east. 

Following the brilliant example set by General Gouraud 
and General Pershing in their surprise attacks, the 4th 
British Army under General Rawlinson and the 1st French 
Army under General Debeney on August 8th made a sudden 
smash along an eleven-mile front. The surprise of the enemy 
was complete. As in the attack along the Marne, there was 
scarcely any artillery preparation. A rolling barrage was 
laid down at the zero hour and back of it came the infantry 
back of tanks wherever such maneuver was possible. The 
first objectives of the British Army were taken in an impetuous 
rush. Demuin, Marcelcave, Cerisy, south of Marlancourt 
all fell, and the defenses of Amiens, with the sole exception 
of La Quesnel were captured. Approximately fourteen 
thousand prisoners and four hundred guns were arrested from 
the enemy. The 1st French Army also obtained its objectives 
along the line Pierrepoint, Plessier, Fresmont. They captured 
3,350 prisoners and more than one hundred guns. 

The battle line immediately broadened to a width of 
twenty-five miles. The German lines above Montdidier from 
Albert to the River Avre were smashed. The penetration of 
enemy territory in some places extended to a depth of fifteen 
miles. Pressure upon the Germans from August 9th to August 
12th, resulted in the evacuation of Le Quesnel and in the 
re-occupation by the British of their old line from Roye to 

The Americans brigaded with the British under General 
Byng came into action on August 13th, when the 3d Army 


America's Part in the World War 

jumped ofiP in the direction of Bapaume. Tanks and armored 
car batteries kept pace with the infantry and mobile artillery 
swept a hurricane of shells into the ranks of the retreating 

All along the line German snipers and isolated machine-: 
gun billets were extremely busy, but these were silenced one 
by one as the advance proceeded. The Germans made an 
extraordinary effort to blow up with field-gun-fire ammunition 
and other dumps which they had to leave. They abandoned 


























1915 1916 1917 1918 

British and Amehican Expeditionary Forces on the Western Front 

an enormous quantity of stores and ammunition. Allied 
cavalrymen operated for more than twenty-four hours for 
the first time in four years. They rode through great holes 
torn in the German line by the infantry. Allied airmen blew 
up many of the bridges over the Somme river. The British 
cavalry rounded up many prisoners, but the most of those 
taken in the early stages of the fighting were captured by 
Australians and Canadians. 

The scene at Bayonvillers was typical of the rest of the 
battle area, broad fields of crops or brown grass fringed the 

ThQ Allied Tide Sweeps On 167 

town and spread for miles over the surrounding country. 
Abandoned German field guns with little piles of empty shell 
cases and the bodies of Germans lay here and there, telling 
the story of what had happened. Lying off on the side of 
the road were enemy motor trucks, one of them with a trailer 
filled with artillery maps — some the headquarters staff could 
not save. 

The guns abandoned here, as elsewhere, were in shallow 
pits three feet deep. Little holes nearby, covered with curved 
iron slabs, showed where the German gunners lived before 
they were killed or ran to save themselves. Harbonnieres 
was shelled to pieces. The walls showed the accuracy of the 
British artillery fire. Debris lay all over the streets, which 
bore little signs upon which German names had been written. 
Here the allied forces found the house which the German 
mayor of the town had occupied. The whole top had been 
knocked off and several shells had hit the walls, but there 
were evidences that the mayor had stayed until the last 
moment in a room on the ground floor. 

Montdidier, an important supply center for the Germans, 
was captured on August 10th. When the French troops 
entered, the Germans had not yet completely evacuated the 
town, clinging to the outskirts of the place with the help 
of machine guns. Some of these were being served by officers 
of the detachments, all the men having been killed or wounded. 
Following up this victory, the French cavalry, pushing far 
ahead, threw the Germans into disorder as they sought to 
fall back. In the wake of the cavalry came the armored cars 
with automatic guns, which scattered terror and destruction 
among the retreating foe. 

The 2d Corps, comprising the 27th and 30th Divisions 
of the American Army were assigned by General Byng to a 
position of high honor in co-operation with the Australian 
Corps during the assault upon the Hindenburg line. This 
attack was made from September 29th to October 1st inclusive 
at a point where the St. Quentin Canal passes under a ridge 
of hills through a tunnel. The 27th Division won glory for 
American dash and soldierly qualities when it smashed the 
Hindenburg line and pushed on beyond its objective until it 

168 America's Part in the World War 

occupied the town of Gouy, back of the Hne. The 30th 
Division also smashed through the German defenses and cap- 
tured all its objectives speedily. This assault was delivered 
through a maze of barbed wire entanglements, heavily fortified 
trenches and shell craters and through a scientific cross-fire 
from machine guns. 

The 30th and 27th Divisions remained in action on this 
front until October 19th. In that period they captured more 
than 6,000 prisoners, sustained heavy losses and advanced 
more than thirteen miles. 

Albert, Thiepval, Bapaume, Croisselles, Peronne, Pozieres 
and a "switch line" at Droucourt-Queant all fell. Tanks and 
mobile artillery kept pace with the advance of the infantry 
and fast motorized machine gun battalions ranged ahead of 
the British, Australian, Canadian and American wave. 
Airplanes swooping like corsairs of the air attacked German 
infantry and supply trains, creating panic wherever they 
appeared. In the town of Doury a number of German officers 
were captured with their battalions. Mont Doury was 
taken after a terrific assault. 

In this advance, the Americans and Australians formed 
a friendship founded upon mutual admiration of soldierly 


American Army Organized 

EVENTS marched so swiftly that the American forces in 
France were now ready to act independently. True 
they had lacked the intensive training in battle areas 
that had been given to the soldiers of the French, British, 
German and Austrian Armies, but their vigor, athletic habits 
and mental initiative and resourcefulness had fitted them for 
the gigantic offensive which had been planned by Marshal 

General Pershing to whom America had committed the 
direction of its forces in the field, after consultation with his 
associates in the American, British and French Armies, 
planned five army corps welded together in one great army 
under his command. His chief-of-staff was Major-General 
James W. McAndrew. 

Organization was upon the most modern lines with all 
battle services represented in units proportioned to the 
duties encountered in a warfare which combined aviation, 
poison gas, flame throwers, trench mortars and other destruc- 
tive agencies unknown in previous wars. 

The arrangement by army corps as made just before 
the grand assault in the St. Mihiel salient follows: 

1st aemy cokps 

Major-General Hunter Liggett, commanding. 

1st and 2d Divisions, Regular Army; 26th, (New England), 32d, {Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin), J^lst, (Washington, Oregon, North and South Dakota, 
Colorado, New Mexico, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Minnesota), and 
42d (Rainbow, troops from twenty-six states) Divisions, National Guard. 

1st Division — Major-General Charles P. Summerall, commanding; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell King, Chief-of-Staff ; Major H. K. Loughry, 

1st Brigade, Infantry — Major John L. Hines; 16th and 18th Regi- 
ments; 2d Machine Gun Battalion. 
10 C 169 ) 

170 America's Part in the World War 

2d Brigade, Infantry — ^Major-General Beaumont B. Buck; 26th and 
28th Regiments; 3d Machine Gun Battahon. 

1st Brigade, Field Artillery — (Commanding officer not announced) ; 
5th, 6th, and 7tli Regiments; 1st Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 1st Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 2d Battalion. 

Division Units — 1st Machine Gun Battalion. 

2d Division (u. s. m. c.) — Brigadier-General John E. Le Jeune, com- 
manding; Brigadier-General Preston Brown, Chief-of-Staff. 

Sd Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Hanson E. Ely; 9th and 
23d Regiments; 5th Machine Gun Battalion. 

4th Brigade, Infantry (Marines) — Brigadier-General John E. Le Jeune; 
5th and 6th Regiments; 6Lh Machine Gun Battalion. 

2d Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General A. J. Bowley; 12th, 
15th, and 17th Regiments; 2d Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 2d Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 1st Battalion. 

Division Units — 2d Division Headquarters Troop; 4th Machine Gun 

26th Division — Major-General Clarence R. Edwards, commanding; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Cassius M. Dowell, Chief-of-Staff; Major Charles A. 
Stevens, Adjutant-General. 

51st Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General George H. Shelton; 101st 
and 102d Regiments; 102d Machine Gun Battahon. 

52d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General C. H. Cole; 103d and 104th 
Regiments; 103d Machine Gun Battalion. 

51st Brigade, Field Artillery— Brigadier-General D. E. Aultman; 
101st, 102d, and 103d Regiments; 101st Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 101st Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 101st Field Battalion. 

Division Units — 26th Headquarters Troop; 101st Machine Gun 

32d Division — Major-General W. G. Haan, commanding; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Allen L. Briggs, Chief-of-Staff; Major John H. Howard, Adjutant- 

63d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General William D. Connor; 125th 
and 126th Regiments; 120th Machine Gun Battalion. 

64th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General E. B. Winans; 127th and 
128th Regiments; 121st Machine Gun Battalion. 

57th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General G. Le Roy Irwin; 
119th, 120th, and 121st Regiments; 107th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 107th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 107th Battahon. 

Division Units — 32d Headquarters Troop; 119th Machine Gun 

41sT Division (Sunset) — Major-General Robert Alexander, com- 

Amerioan Army Organized 171 

manding; Colonel Harry H. Tebbetts, Chief-of-Staff; Major Herbert H. 
White, Adjutant-General. 

81st Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Wilson B. Burt; 161st and 
162d Regiments; 147th Machine Gun Battalion. 

82d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Edward Vollrath; 163d 
and 164th Regiments; 148th Machine Gun BattaUon. 

66th Brigade, Field Artillery — (Commanding officer not announced); 
146th, 147th, and 148th Regiments; 116th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 116th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 116th Battalion. 

Di\dsion Units — 41st Division Headquarters Troop; 146th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

42d DmsioN (Rainbow) — Major-General C. T. Menoher, com- 
manding; (Chief-of-Staff not announced); Major Walter E. Powers, 

83d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General M. Lenihan; 165th and 
166th Regiments; 150th Machine Gun Battalion. 

84th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General R. A. Brown; 167th and 
168th Regiments; 151st Machine Gun Battalion. 

67th Brigade, Field Artillery— Brigadier-General G. C. Gatley; 149th, 
150th, and 151st Regiments; 117th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 117th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 117th Field Signal Battalion. 

Division Units — 42d Division Headquarters Troop; 149th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

2d aemy corps 

Major-General Robert Lee Bullard, commanding. 

^th Dwision, Regular Army; 28th, (Pennsylvania), 30th, (Tennessee, 
North and South Carolina, and District of Columbia), and 36th (Missouri 
and Kansas) Divisions, National Guard; 77th (New York) and 82d (Georgia, 
Alabama, and Florida) Divisions, National Army. 

4th Division — Major-General George H. Cameron, commanding; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Christian A. Bach, Chief-of-Staff; Major Jesse D. 
Elliott, Adjutant-General. 

7th Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General B. A. Poore; 39th and 47th 
Regiments; 11th Machine Gun Battalion. 

8th Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General E. E. Booth; 58th and 59th 
Regiments; 12th Machine Gun Battalion. 

4th Brigade, Field Artillery— Brigadier-General E. B. Babbitt; 13th, 
16th, and 77th Regiments; 4th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 8th Battahon. 

Signal Troops — 8th BattaUon. 

Division Units — 4th Division Headquarters Troop; 10th Machine Gun 

28th Division — Major-General C. H. Muir, commanding; (Chief-of- 


America's Part in the World War 

Staff not announced); Lieutenant-Colonel David J. Davis, Adjutant- 

55th Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General T. W. Darrah; 109th and 
110th Regiments; 108th Machine Gun Battalion. 

56th Brigade, Infantry — Major-General William Weigel; 111th and 
112th Regiments; 109th Machine Gun Battalion. 

53d Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General W. G. Price; 107th, 
108th, and 109th Regiments; 103d Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 103d Regiment. 

Signal Troops— 103d Battalion. 

The Western Battle Area. 
Showing the principal railways, roads, canals and forts from the German frontier to the sea. 

Division Units — 28th Division Headquarters Troop; 107th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

30th Division (Wild Cat) — Major-Generai Edward M. Lewis, com- 
manding; Lieutenant-Colonel Robert B. McBride, Chief-of-Staff; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Francis B. Hinkle, Adjutant-General. 

59th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Lawrence D. Tyson; 
117th and 118th Regiments; 114th Machine Gun BattaUon. 

60th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Samuel L. Faison; 119th 
and 120th Regiments; 115th Machine Gun Battalion. 

55th Brigade, Field Artillery — (Commanding oiBBcer not announced) ; 
113th, 114th and 115th Regiments; 105th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 105th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 105th Battalion. 

American Army Organized 173 

Division Units — 30th Division Headquarters Troop; 113th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

35th Division — Major-General Peter E. Traub, commanding; 
Colonel Robert McCleave, Chief-of-Staff ; Major J. M. Hobson, Adjutant- 

69th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Nathaniel McClm-e; 
137th and 138th Regiments; 129th Machme Gim Battahon. 

70th Brigade Infantry — Brigadier-General Charles I. Martm; 139th 
and 140th Regiments; 130th Machine Gun Battalion. 

60th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General L. G. Berry; 128th, 
129th and 130th Regiments; 110th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 110th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 110th Battalion. 

Di\'ision Units — 35th Division Headquarters Troop; 128th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

77th Division (Upton) — Major-General George B. Duncan, com- 
manding; (Chief-of-Staff not announced) ; Major W. N. Haskell, Adjutant- 

153d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Edward Wittenmeyer; 
205th and 306th Regiments; 305th Machine Gun Battalion. 

154th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Evan M. Johnson; 
307th and 308th Regiments; 306th Machine Gim Battalion. 

152d Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General Thomas H. Reeves; 
304th, 305th and 306th Regiments; 302d Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 302d Regiment. 

Signal Troops— 302d Battahon. 

Di\dsion Units— 77th Division Headquarters Troop; 304th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

82d Division — Major-General W. P. Burnham, commanding; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Royden E. Beebe, Chief-of-Staff; Lieutenant-Colonel John 
R. Thomas, Adjutant- General. 

16,3d Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General Marcus D. Cronm; 325th 
and 326th Regiments; 320th Machine Gun Battahon. 

164th Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General Julian R. Lmdsay; 
327th and 328th Regiments; 321st Machine Gun Battahon. 

157th Brigade, Field Artillery— Brigadier-General Charles D. Rhodes; 
319th, 320th and 321st Regiments; 307th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops— 307th Regiment. 

Signal Troops— 307th Battahon. 

Di\dsion Units— 319th Machme Gun Battalion. 

Sd army corps 

Major-General William M. Wright, commandmg. 
3d and 5th Division Regular Army; 27th (New York) and 33d (lUinois) 
Divisions, National Guard; 78th (Delaware and New York) and 80th (New 

174 America's Part in the World War 

Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Delaware and District of Columbia, Divisions, 

National Army. 

3d Division — Major-General Joseph T. Dickman, commanding; 
Colonel Robert H. Kelton, Chief-of-Staff; Captain Frank L. Purdon, 

5th Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General F. W. Sladen; 4th and 7th 
Regiments; 8th Machine Gun Battalion. 

8th Brigade, Infantry — (Commanding oflficer not announced); 30th 
and 38th Regiments; 9th Machine Gun Battalion. 

3d Brigade, Field Artillery— Brigadier-General W. M. Cruikshank; 
10th, 76th, and 18th Regiments; 3d Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 6th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 5th Battalion. 

Division Units — 3d Division Headquarters Troop; 7th Machine Gun 

' 5th Division — ^Major-General John E. McMahon, commanding; 
Colonel Ralph E. Ingram, Chief-of-Staff; Major David P. Wood, Adjutant- 

9th Brigade, Infantry— ^Brigadier-General J. C. Castner; 60th and 
61st Regiments; 14th Machine Gun Battalion. 

10th Brigade, Infantry — Major-General W. H. Gordon, 6th and 11th 
Regiments; 15th Machine Gun Battahon. 

5th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General C. A. F. Flagler; 
19th, 20th and 21st Regiments; 5th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 7th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 9th Battalion. 

Division Units — 5th Division Headquarters Troop; 13th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

27th Division (New York) — ^Major-General J. F. O'Ryan, command- 
ing; Lieutenant-Colonel Stanley H. Ford, Chief-of-Staff; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Frank W. Ward, Adjutant-General. 

53d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Alfred W. Bjornstad; 
105th and 106th Regiments; 105th Machine Gun Battahon. 

54th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Palmer E. Pierce; 107th 
and 108th Regiments; 106th Machine Gun Battalion. 

52d Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General George A. Wingate; 
104th, 105th and 106th Regiments; 102d Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 102d Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 102d Battahon. 

Division Units — 27th Division Headquarters Troop; 104lh Machine 
Gmi Battahon. 

33d Division — Major-General George Bell, Jr., commanding; Colonel 
William K. Naylor, Chief-of-Staff; (Adjutant-General not announced). 

65th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Edward L. King; 129th 
and 130th Regiments; 123d Machine Gun Battalion. 

American Army Organized 175 

66th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Paul A. Wolff; 131st and 
132d Regiments; 124th Machine Gun Battahon. 

58th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General James A. Shipton; 
122d, 123d and 124th Regiments; 108th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 108th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 108th Battalion. 

Di\dsion Units — 33d Division Headquarters Troop; 112th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

78th Division — Major-General James A. McRae, commanding; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Harry N. Cootes, Chief-of-Staff; Major Wilham T. 
MacMill, Adjutant-General. 

155th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Mark L. Hersey; 309th 
and 310th Regiments; 308th Machine Gun Battahon. 

156th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General James T. Dean; 311th 
and 312th Regiments; 309th Machine Gim Battahon. 

153d Brigade, Field ArtiUery — Brigadier-General Chnt C, Hearn; 
307th, 308th and 309th Regiments; 303d Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 303d Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 303d Battalion, 

Division Units — 78th Division Headquarters Troop; 307th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

80th Division — Major-General Adelbert Cronkhite, commanding; 
Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Waldron, Chief-of-Staff; Major Steven 
C. Clark, Adjutant- General. 

159th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General George H. Jamerson; 
317th and 318th Regiments; 314th Machme Gun Battalion. 

160th Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General Lloyd M. Bratt; 319th 
and 320th Regiments; 315th Machine Gun Battalion. 

155th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General Gordon G. Heiner; 
313th, 314th and 315th Regiments; 305th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 305th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 305th Battalion. 

Division Units — 80th Division Headquarters Troop; 313th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

4th ARilY CORPS 

Major General George W. Read, commanding. 

83d, {Ohio and Pennsylvania), 89th, {Kansas, Missouri, South Dakota, 
Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona), 90th, {Texas and Oklahoma), 
and 92d {negro troops) Divisions, National Army; 37th {Ohio) and 29th {New 
Jersey, Virginia, Delaware, Maryland and District of Columbia) Divisions, 
National Guard. 

29th Division — Major-General C. G. Morton, conunanding; Colonel 
George S. Goodale, Chief-of-Staff; Major James A. Ulio, Adjutant- 

57th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Charles W. Barber; 
113th and 114th Regiments; 111th Machine Gun Battalion. 

176 America's Part in the World War 

58th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General H. H. Bandholtz; 115th 
and 116th Regiments; 12th Machine Gun BattaUon. 

54th Brigade, Field Artillery — (Commanding officer not announced); 
110th, 111th and 112th Regiments; 104th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 104th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 104th Battahon. 

Division Units — 29th Division Headquarters Troop; 110th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

37th Division — ^Major-General C. S. Farnsworth, commanding; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Dana T. Merrill, Chief-of- Staff; Major Edward W. 
Wildrick, Adjutant-General. 

73d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General C. F. Zimmerman; 145th 
and 146th Regiments; 135th Machine Gun Battalion. 

74th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General W. P. Jackson; 147th and 
148th Regiments; 136th Machine Gun Battalion. 

62d Brigade, Field Artillery — (Commanding officer not announced); 
134th, 135th, and 136th Regiments; 112th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 112th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 112th BattaUon. 

Division Units — 37th Division Headquarters Troop, 134th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

83d Division — ^Major-General E. F. Glenn, commanding; Lieutenant- 
Colonel C. A. Trott, Chief-of-Staff ; Major James L. Cochran, Adjutant- 

165th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Ora E. Hunt; 329th end 
330th Regiments; 323d Machme Gun Battalion. 

166th Brigade, Infantry — ^Brigadier-General Malin Craig; 331st and 
332d Regiments; 324th Machine Gun Battalion. 

158th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General Adrian S. Fleming; 
322d, 323d and 324th Regunents; 308th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 308th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 308th Battalion. 

Division Units — 83d Division Headquarters Troop; 332d Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

89th Division — Brigadier-General Frank L. Winn, commanding 
(acting); Colonel C. E. Kilbourne, Chief-of-Staff; Major Jerome G. Pillow, 

177th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Frank L. Winn; 353d and 
354th Regiments; 341st Machine Gun Battalion. 

178th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Thomas G. Hanson; 
355th and 356th Regiments; 342d Machine Gun Battalion. 

164th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General Edward T. Don- 
nelly ; 340th, 341st and 342d Regiments ; 314th Trench Mortar 

Engineer Troops — 314th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 314th Battalion. 


The latest method of cleaning up German trenches with the aid of tanks. The tank 
proceeds along the edge of the trench fixing its machine guns, and is followed by a platoon 
of infantry to complete the work. 

U. !S. Officiil I'hoiuijraph. 


Fast whippet tanks were of the greatest assistance to our troops in wiping out machine-gun 

nests in the great battle. 

American Army Organized 179 

Division Units — 89th Division Headquarters Troop; 340th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

90th Division — Major-General Henry T. Allen, commanding; 
Colonel John J. Kingman, Chief-of-Staff; Major Wyatt O. Selkirk, 

179th Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General John T. O'Neill; 357th 
and 358th Regiments; 344th Machine Gun Battalion. 

180th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General W. H. Johnston; 359th 
and 360th Regiments; 345th Machine Gun Battalion. 

165th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General Francis C. Mar- 
shall; 343d, 344th, and 345th Regiments; 315th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 315th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 315th Battalion. 

Division Units — 90th Division Headquarters Troop; 349th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

92d Division — Major-General C. C. Ballou, commanding; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Allen J. Greer, Chief-of-Staff; Major Sherburne Whipple, 

183d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Malvern H. Barnum; 
365th and 366th Regiments; 350th Machine Gim Battalion. 

184th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General W. A. Hay; 367th and 
368th Regiments; 351st Machine Gun Battalion. 

167th Brigade, Field Artillery — (Commanding officer not annoimced); 
349th, 350th, and 351st Regiments; 317th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 317th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 317th Battalion. 

Division Units — 92d Division Hadquarters Troop; 349th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

5th army corps 

Major-General Omar Bundy, commanding, 

6th Division, Regular Army; 36th, {Texas and Oklahoma), Division, 
National Guard; 75th, (New England), 79th, (Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
District of Columbia), 85th, (Michigan and Wisconsin), and 91st (Wash- 
ington, Oregon, Alaska, California, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, and 
Utah) Divisions, National Army. 

6th Division — Brigadier-General James B. Erwin, commanding; 
Colonel James M. Pickering, Chief-of-Staff; Lieutenant-Colonel Robert S. 
Knox, Adjutant-General. 

11th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General W. R. Dashiell; 51st and 
52d Regiments; 17th Machine Gun Battalion. 

12th Brigade, Infantry-r-Brigadier-General J. B. Erwin; 53d and 
54th Regiments; 18th Machine Gun Battalion. 

6th Brigade, Field Artillery— Brigadier-General E. A. Millar; 3d, 
11th, and 78th Regiments; 6th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 318th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 6th Battalion, 

180 America's Part in the World War 

Division Units — 6th Division Headquarters Troop; 16th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

36th Division — Major-General W. R. Smith, commanding; Colonel 
E. J. WilUams, Chief-of-Staff ; Major William R. Scott, Adjutant-General. 

71st Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General Henry Hutchings; 141st 
and 142d Regiments; 132d Machine Gun Battalion. 

72d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General John A. Hulen; 143d and 
144th Regiments; 133d Machine Gun Battalion. 

61st Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General John A. Stevens; 
131st, 132d, and 133d Regiments; 111th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 111th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 111th Battahon. 

Division Units — 36th Division Headquarters Troop; 131st Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

76th Division — Major-General Harry F. Hodges, commanding; 
(Chief-of-Staff not announced) ; Major George M. Peek, Adjutant-General. 

151st Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Frank M. Albright; 
301st and 302d Regiments; 302d Machine Gun Battahon. 

152d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General F. D. Evans; 303d and 
304th Regiments; 303d Machine Gun Battalion. 

151st Brigade, Field Artillery — Major-General William S. McNair; 
301st, 302d, and 303d Regiments; 301st Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 301st Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 301st Battahon. 

Division Units — 76th Division Headquarters Troop; 301st Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

79th Division — Major-General Joseph E. Kuhn, commanding; 
Colonel Tenny Ross, Chief-of-Staff; Major Charles B. Moore, Adjutant- 

157th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General William L. Nicholson; 
313th and 314th Regiments; 311th Machine Gun Battalion. 

158th Brigade, Infantry — (Commanding officer not announced); 
315th and 316th Regiments; 312th Machine Gun Battalion. 

154th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General Andrew Hero, Jr.; 
310th, 311th, and 312th Regiments; 304th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 304th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 304th Battalion. 

Division Units— 79th Division Headquarters Troop; 310th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

85th Division— Major-General C. W. Kennedy, commanding; 
Colonel Edgar T. Collins, Chief-of-Staff; .Lieutenant Colonel-Clarence 
Lininger, Adjutant-General. 

169th Brigade, Infantry— Brigadier-General B. Dugan; 
337th and 338th Regiments; 329th Machine Gim Battalion. 

170th Brigade, Infantry — (Commanding officer not announced); 
339th and 340th Regiments; 'sSOth Machine Gun Battalion. 

^American Army Organized 181 

160th Brigade, Field Artillery— Brigadier-General Guy M. Preston; 
328th, 329th, and 330th Regiments; 310th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 310th Regiment. 

Signal Troops— 310th Battalion. 

Division Units— 85th Division Headquarters Troop; 328th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 

91sT Division — Brigadier-General F. H. Foltz, commanding; Colonel 
Herbert J. Brees, Chief-of-Staff; Major Frederick W. Manley, Adjutant- 

181st Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Jolm B. McDonald; 
361st and 362d Regiments; 347th Machine Gun Battalion. 

182d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Frederick S. Foltz; 363d 
and 364th Regiments; 348th Machine Gun Battalion. 

166th Brigade, Field Artillery— Brigadier-General Edward Burr; 
346th, 347th, and 348th Regiments; 316th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 316th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 316th Battalion. 

Di\-ision Units— 91st Division Headquarters Troop; 346th Machine 
Gun Battalion. 


81sT DmsiON — Major-General C. J. Bailey, commanding; Colonel 
Charles D. Roberts, Chief-of-Staff; Major Arthur E. Ahrends, Adjutant- 

161st Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General George W. Mclver; 
321st and 322d Regiments; 317th Machine Gun Battalion. 

162d Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General Monroe McFarland; 
323d and 324th Regiments; 318th Machine Gun Battahon. 

156th Brigade, Field Artillery — Brigadier-General Andrew Moses; 
316th, 317th, and 318th Regiments; 306th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 306tli Regiment. 

Signal Troops— 306th Battalion. 

Division Units — 81st Di\'ision Headquarters Troop; 316th Machine 
Gun Battahon. 

93d DmsioN — (Commander not announced) ; Major Lee S. Tillotson, 

185th Brigade, Infantry — (Commanding officer not announced); 
369th and 370th Regiments; 333d Machine Gun Battalion. 

186th Brigade, Infantry — Brigadier-General George H. Harries; 
371st and 372d Regiments; 334th Machine Gun Battalion. 

168th Brigade, Field Artillery — (Commanding officer not announced); 
332d, 333d, and 334th Regiments; 318th Trench Mortar Battery. 

Engineer Troops — 318th Regiment. 

Signal Troops — 318th Battahon. 

Division Units — 332d Machine Gun Battalion, 


The Battle of St. Mihiel 

A MERICA was thrilled from ocean to ocean on the 

/^ morning of September 12, 1918, when the news was 

flashed across the continent that Germany's "Dagger 

aimed at the heart of France, " the St. Mihiel salient, had been 

attacked and wiped out by the 1st American Army under the 

direct command of General John J. Pershing. 

The news electrified England, France and Italy as well as 
the United States. American efficiency had accomplished 
within a comparatively few hours what had been deemed 
impossible. By a coincidence, the salient was wiped out 
exactly four years to the day after it had been established by 
the German Army. The destruction of the German menace 
to Verdun and to the allied system of transportation was a 
triumph of American genius. 

Under the direction of General Pershing the most furious 
and concentrated artillery fire in the history of the world 
rained death and destruction upon the German positions. 
More than 1,000,000 shells fell upon these positions in four 
hours, the greatest concentration of artillery fire in all history. 
Only Americans were employed in the attack. These num- 
bered 550,000 men. Casualties, less than a total of 7,000 
killed and wounded, were so small as to excite the wonder and 
applause of all the allied powers. More than 16,000 prisoners 
were captured and 443 guns. 

At Cantigny, Chateau-Thierry, Bouresches, Belleau Wood 
and Vaux, the American troops engaged were acting in support 
of allied divisions and under the command of the generals 
of the Allies. St. Mihiel was the first distinctly American 
offensive, carried out for the most part by American troops 
and wholly under the orders of the American commander- 
in-chief; and it was one of the most significant successes of 
the war. 


The Battle of St. Mihiel 


The great German drives in the spring of 1918 forced 
back the French and British and they stood, as Haig expressed 
it, " With their backs to the wall." Help was urgently needed 
and General Pershing was compelled to temporarily abandon 
his original plan of developing a purely American Army or 

The American troops as fast as they were trained were 
sent into the battle line to fight side by side with the French 
and the British. But by the middle of August the situation 

I ■ 3 4 fl 

.Aai/i - HJemJnr 



^^C 12 "• or St^^ 

The Battle of St. Mihiel 

had changed. The German drives had failed, and American 
troops trained by actual warfare in great numbers were 
scattered over France. At the Battle of Cantigny the 1st, 
2d, 26th and 42d divisions were the only American divisions 
of any experience. Now they had become veterans and the 
24th, 28th, 32d and 77th divisions had all taken part in 
the war. General Pershing, therefore, with characteristic 
tenacity reverted to his original purpose, and during the month 
of August organized the 1st American Army, collecting the 
scattered divisions from their positions among the French 

184 America's Part in the World War 

and British and establishing the American Une as he originally 
planned along the bounds of the St. Mihiel salient. 

Up to this time American troops had fought under the 
direction of French and English commanders. It is true that 
on the 4th of July there had been organized the 1st American 
Corps under General Hunter I.iggett, but this corps had been 
a part of the 6th French Army, and most of the time it directed 
only one American division. With the exception of this 
corps all higher staffs had been French. 

The creation of efficient corps and army staffs is a very 
difficult undertaking. To create good soldiers in a year's 
training was difficult enough, — the Germans had believed it 
impossible, — but that working staff organizations should be 
created in the short time since the Americans had entered into 
the war was many times more difficult. 

Most of the ranking American officers when the war 
broke out had been majors, colonels and lieutenant-colonels 
of regiments consisting at that time of 800 men. To be pro- 
moted in a few months to the command of divisions of 28,000 
men and then to become corps commanders, responsible for 
81,000 men, and then to command an army consisting of from 
180,000 to 250,000 was a big increase in responsibility. The 
peaceful policies of the American Government had not 
trained the army officers for such a war as this. Yet it was 
necessary to organize American staffs, the soldiers wished it. 
They would fight better under American leadership, and it was 
ridiculous and would have been humiliating to put two 
million men in the fighting line under foreign generals. 

On the 10th of August the 1st American Army was 
formed under the command of General Pershing himself. 
This army acted under the direction of himself, as commander- 
in-chief, and of the General Staff of the American Expedi- 
tionary Force. It was determined that the first operation of 
this new American Army should be the capture of the St. 
Mihiel salient. The St. Mihiel salient was a difficult position 
to capture. Its position was almost entirely on high ground. 
A report of the Intelligence Section of the first corps 
created reads: "The strength of the enemy position had for 
four years seemed impregnable, and had withstood in 1914-15 

ThQ Battle of St. Mihiel 185 

the bloody attacks of the French at Les Eparges, Apremont, 
and the Bois Le Brethre. Such names in the early part of the 
war had vied in notoriety with Mons, Ypres, Louvain, Tahur, 
Vauquois and Verdun. They were symbolic of the days of 
trench warfare, in which opposing trenches were often no 
farther apart than ten meters, and in which mining and under- 
ground warfare played a principal part. They typified 
campaigns in which 100,000 lives were sacrificed to push 
back a trench line a few hundred meters. 

The St. Mihiel salient had been established on September 
12, 1914, when the Metz detachment of the 6th German 
Army under the Crown Prince of Bavaria, the main army 
having been driven from the Grande Couronne by the 2d 
French Army under General De Castelnau, tried to flank 
the latter by driving back the 3d French Army under General 
Ruffy and gain the heights of the Meuse, from which elevations 
it could, in co-operation with the Im.perial Crown Prince and 
the 5th German Army, have enveloped Verdun. 

Prince Rupprecht failed, but the salient he then estab- 
lished, embracing the plain of the Woevre, and the basin of 
the Moselle, where the German fortress of Metz was located, 
still remained with its vertex at St. Mihiel, resisting all 
attacks for four years. 

By the fall of 1918, St. Mihiel had become a quiet sector. 
It was held by nine German divisions, about 90,000 men, 
most of which were reserve, Landw^ehr, or Austro-Hungarian 
regiments, and this defense was so thoroughly organized and 
protected by machine guns, trenches, and lines of wire, sup- 
ported by artillery, that it was considered almost impregnable. 
The salient, however, had long ceased to be of any great 
military importance to the Germans. Their main reason for 
persisting in maintaining it was probably sentimental. How- 
ever, the existence of the salient caused much annoyance to 
the French. Colonel de Thomasson, a French military 
expert, explained the German tenacity as follows: 

"We believed in the spring of 1917 that the enemy was 
about to abandon the St. Mihiel salient. They did not, 
because they desired, first, to continue to encircle Verdun from 
the east; second, to cut at St. Mihiel the Commercy- Verdun 

186 America's Part in the World War 

railroad, obliging us to avoid the Commercy station, and make 
a detour by Condrecourt to communicate with Nancy; third, 
to keep the Briey mining basin far from the firing line. Those 
probably were the reasons which stopped General Ludendorff 
recently from straightening the front between the Meuse 
heights and the Moselle, an operation which would have given 
him much needed effectives." 

The new American Army made its preparations for 
attack with a great attempt at secrecy. The troops were 
moved at night, and concealed in the woods. The railroads, 
the artillery and the air service were ordered not to show 
unusual activity. 

The Germans, however, knew what was going on, and had 
a pretty accurate idea of the disposition of the troops, and 
even of the day the advance was to take place. Indeed, if 
they were deceived at all it was because the American prepara- 
tions were so easily detected that they suspected that they 
were only a feint. Meanwhile they determined to evacuate 
the site as soon as they had finished preparing a main defense 
line in the rear. Indeed, heavy artillery was being removed 
before the battle began. The Germans probably under- 
estimated the American strength and believed that their 
infantry could easily withdraw with little loss. That they 
were not able to do this was caused by the speed and vigor 
of the American attack. 

The troops under General Pershing were arranged as 
follows: On the extreme right of the line, on the southern 
side of the salient was the 82d Division, draft men from 
Georgia under Major-General Duncan; then came the 90th, 
another new division from Texas and Oklahoma, under Major- 
General Allen. Further west in order came the 5th and 2d 
Divisions of Regulars; then the 89th, a Missouri draft division, 
which had been trained in America by General Wood. To 
the left of the 89th came the Rainbow Division, the 42d, 
under Major-General Flagler, and lastly the 1st Division, of 
Cantigny fame. The line from the 1st Division west and 
north around St. Mihiel was held by the 2d French Colonial 
Corps whose duty was to follow the Germans when their 
retreat began. This line extended north until it joined the 

The Battle of St. Mihiel 187 

American 5th Corps, consisting of the 26th Division, a 
New England Division, which had on its left the 15th French 

The St. Mihiel salient was bounded by hills at every 
point except the valley of the Rupt de Mad. This valley was 
a sort of a triangle with its base on the south side of the 
salient, about one-half of the length of the salient. It was 
dominated by Mont Sec on one side and by the hills near 
Thiaucourt. The fortifications on Mont Sec were particu- 
larly high, and observers there could control artillery fire 
over practically the whole Rupt de Mad valley. 

General Pershing's plan of attack was to advance north 
in this valley, overcoming the observers on Mont Sec by 
superiority of artillery, while at the same time the 5th Corps 
on the north was to advance in the hilly country opposite its 
lines in a southeasterly direction, until it joined the American 
forces marching north, near the town of Vigneulles. If this 
succeeded, the Germans in the nose of the salient would be 
cut off from retreat and captured. 

The Rupt de Mad valley was not wide enough for the 
plan of attack of the American armies in the south, so that 
the troops on the right and left of the main attack would have 
to advance among the hills, but the distances that they would 
have to advance would not be so great. The operation 
worked out according to plan, except, indeed, that in many 
cases, the advancing troops were ahead of their schedule. 

On the night of the 11th of September it was raining hard, 
but this did not interfere with the American plan. At one 
o'clock in the morning the American artillery went into 
action and for four hours shelled the German positions. 
Mont Sec, the most dangerous point, was deluged with 
smoke shells to prevent the observers there from seeing the 
American advance. At five o'clock began the barrage, which 
moved ahead of the infantry as they went over the 

At first there was but little resistance to the American 
attack. The forward German trenches were only occupied 
by patrols, and the second line had been thoroughly crushed 
by the artillery. The lines of wire before these trenches were 


188 America's Part in the World War 

passed with great ease, some of the wire the Americans cut, 
some they just went over. 

As the Americans advanced the German defense became 
greater, and the American progress more difficult. Yet it was 
plain that the Germans were only fighting to protect 
their retreat, though at times stiff German resistance was 

Major-General Flagler reported after the battle, "The 
operation was unusual in its nature because of the small 
amount of resistance encountered, and it is not felt that its 
experience should be made the basis of general deductions for 
use in other operations." 

The German High Command claimed that their armies 
had "withdrawn according to plan," and indeed, they were 
able to withdraw the greater part of their heavy artillery and 
of their troops to the hill trenches, which they had previously 
prepared. But the speed of the American attack, and an 
unusual and unintended movement by a portion of the 26th 
Division interfered badly with their plans. The 26th Division 
had attacked on the north in the woods and hills south of St. 

At the end of the first day they found themselves only 
about halfway to their first day's goal. Now, according to 
custom, at nightfall the infantry stops, and fighting ceases 
except for the artillery, but the 102d Regiment of Infantry, 
a portion of the 26th Division, had no idea of stopping. 

Some time after dark they assembled on a road called 
La Grande Tranchee de Calonne and marched down that 
road six miles straight through the German line to VigneuUes, 
arriving there at 3.25 in the morning, so that when, some time 
later, the troops of the 1st Division, coming up from the south 
also ahead of their schedule, arrived at VigneuUes they found 
it already occupied. 

This extraordinary action closed up the sides of the 
salient, and made it possible to capture a vast number of 
prisoners and guns. 

Each division of the Americans engaged in the attack had 
done the duty assigned it with remarkable brilliancy. The 
main attack was made by the 4th Corps, consisting of the 

The Battle of St. Mihiel 189 

1st, 42d and 89th Divisions. The 1st Corps on its right was 
to keep in touch with the 4th Corps. To the extreme right 
the 82d Division had no advance to make, but made a holding 
attack to keep the enemy opposite busy. The 90th Division 
was only required to make a short advance, and accomplished 
it admirably by the afternoon of the first day. The 5th 
Division, to its left, had a somewhat longer advance, which 
was accomplished with equal speed. 

Then came the 2d Division, the famous division of regu- 
lars and marines, which had stopped the Germans at Chateau- 
Thierry. This division drove on to the hills beyond Thiau- 
court. Its advance was not so great as that assigned to the 
divisions in the 4th Corps to its left, but it was made over 
hilly and difficult country, and was an admirable bit of work. 
The advances made by the 4th Corps were made up the Rupt 
de Mad valley. The 2d Division collected three thousand 
prisoners and a great deal of material, and reported that if 
they had been two hours later this would not have been 

The 89th Division, the 42d, the Rainbow Division, and 
the 1st Division, which had the longest advances to make, 
performed their task in their usual admirable manner, moving 
forward on the first day far beyong Thiaucourt, and on the 
second day blotting out the salient by connecting with the 
26th Division on the north. 

On the third day, the American lines were pushed forward 
after the retreating Germans until they were halted before 
the previously fortified line which the Germans had made 
behind the salient. 

The American losses in the Battle of St. Mihiel were 
about 7,000 men; 14,439 German prisoners and 443 guns were 
captured. In this battle the Americans were assisted by the 
French. In the advance of the 26th Division on the north 
was accompanied by the French 15th Division, and as the 
American armies closed up back of the salient the 5th French 
Corps advanced all along the line capturing St. Mihiel and 
many prisoners. 

The American Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker, with 
General Pershing and General Petain, visited St. Mihiel a 

190 America's Part in the World War 

few hours after it was captured, and were greeted with hys- 
terical enthusiasm. The inhabitants of the saHent had been 
in the power of the Germans for four years, and were found to 
be absolutely ignorant of the events of history during those 
years. They had heard no news of relatives or of world hap- 
penings. Few beside women and children were found as 
practically every male had been forcibly removed. The 
Germans had made life a nightmare for the inhabitants, even 
boys from ten to sixteen years had been deported and the 
old people forced to work for the conquerors. 

When the Germans retreated they were so taken by sur- 
prise that they only partially wrecked the town. They 
endeavord to carry off what they could, but much of their 
booty was recovered. Stone bridges across the Meuse had 
been destroyed and the roads to the town from the east were 
blocked by wire and gaping trenches so that it was very 
difficult to enter the town. 

Seen from the outside the performance of the young and 
fresh American Army was a brilliant one. The intelligence 
officer of the high military command army detachment of the 
German Army describes it as follows: "The artillery prepara- 
tion prior to the attack was well carried out. Their objectives 
were bombarded with good effect, and they were able to 
switch from one target to another in the minimum time and 
with remarkable accuracy. The co-ordination between the 
infantry and the artillery was faultless. If the infantry ran 
up against a machine-gun nest, they would immediately fall 
back, and very soon new artillery preparation would be 
directed on that point. A great many tanks were in readiness 
for the attack, but they were only used in very small numbers 
as the masses of infantry accomplished the victory." 

The official statement given out by the German general 
staff was quite a contrast to this. It said: "We are now 
standing on our new lines which have been prepared. During 
the night the evacuation of the St. Mihiel salient, which was 
liable to encirclement, and which had been under considera- 
tion for some years, v/as completed without interference. 
In anticipation of the attack of the French and Americans 
we began evacuating the salient a few days ago," 

The Battle of St, Mihiel 191 

The French and the EngUsh papers were full of enthusi- 
asm, and American soldiers were idolized by the people of 
Paris who stopped them on the streets to grip their hands in 
congratulation for the victory. Marshal Foch telegraphed to 
General Pershing: 

My dear General: The first American Army under your command 
on its first day won a magnificent victory by a maneuver as skilfully 
prepared as it was gallantly executed. I extend to you, as well as to 
the officers and troops under your command, my warmest compliments. 

The American command, however, while triumphant, 
recognized that they still had much to learn and had not yet 
made a perfect American Army. In the first place it had been 
necessary to borrov/ much French artillery to carry out the 
artillery attack as desired. The airplane squadron was 
even less complete. Of the fourteen pursuit squadrons under 
General William Mitchell, eleven had been loaned by the 
French, and of the whole number of airplanes used only forty 
per cent were American. 

In many details of the battle there had been blunders 
and mistakes. TraflSc jams occurred preventing the artillery 
and transport from being in their proper positions. The 
infantry which had been equipped with colored panels to 
signal to the airplanes failed to use them. This, however, 
did not cause as much trouble as might have been expected 
as the stormy weather interfered with airplane work. Supply 
trains were sent along roads within an easy range of the 
German artillery, and to get through safely had to run the 
gauntlet of the German fire. But the army was so powerful 
that in spite of the rough edges of its performance, it carried 
all before it, and the new American staff was learning some- 
thing hour by hour. The training they received at St. Mihiel 
stood them in good stead in the greater battle that was to 


The destruction of the St. Mihiel salient removed a men- 
ace to the city of Verdun, and released the French armies at 
that point for active offensive operations. It also liberated 
the railway line from Verdun to Nancy. Its moral effect 
was even more important. It showed that the Germans 
were weakening, and that the American Army from that time 

192 America's Part in the World War 

on was to rank with the army of Halg and the army of Petain. 
However much the Germans tried to minimize the American 
victory, the fact remained that they were forced to leave in 
the hands of the victorious Americans the equivalent of two 
full divisions of troops, as well as an enormous amount of 
materials for the Allies to use against them, and that they had 
been compelled to destroy as much more. Paris was especially 
delighted that on the very day that General Pershing made 
his official report of the capture of the salient, the German 
Foreign Minister announced in Vienna that the American 
troops had as yet no military value. He spoke too soon. 

Something should be said of the work of the French troops 
who were associated with the Americans in the battle of St. 
Mihiel. A distinguished French officer describing the battle 
from the French point of view said as follows: "It was one of 
the most successful operations of the whole war. The attack's 
object was to reduce the St. Mihiel salient. Well, that not 
only has been done, but the sides have been pinched so effi- 
ciently that the junction was effected in less than thirty 
hours, with a total bag of prisoners that, when all are rounded 
up, will exceed even thirteen thousand. The fact is that the 
boches were taken completely by surprise. They expected the 
attack, but didn't expect it so soon, and what's more, they 
never expected that it would be delivered with such dash and 

"I cannot say too much of the conduct of the American 
troops. They were magnificent. From Sunday last the 
enemy already had begun to move his heavier guns and mate- 
rial from the salient. As far as we are able to reckon he was 
just about starting his infantry withdrawal when Pershing 
struck at the psychological moment and caught the boche 
napping, and practically unsupported by artillery. It is 
hardly possible for me to give a better description of the 
operations save as concerns the French units. 

"We had a few divisions engaged, one in the north 
region of Les Eparges, where fighting was so bloody in the 
first winter of the war, under the command of an American 
corps leader, and the remainder under French corps com- 
manders, subordinate, of course, to general American direction. 

The Battle of St. Mihiel 193 

These were grouped In the center of the sahent, one on either 
side, to co-operate with the American drive on the flanks of 
the pocket. 

"The American troops had the hardest task, as the enemy 
resisted stubbornly, in the fastnesses of the wooded and broken 
country known as Mountain Wood. We were rather fortu- 
nate as we encountered Austrians, whose value is less than the 
Germans. We took 2,300 of them, and fifty-seven oflScers on 
the first morning. 

"The Americans on our left pushed on irresistibly and 
kept pace with us — the poilus said nothing could stop les 
Americains — which is the highest praise our veterans can give. 
So rapid was the advance that the cavalry patrols from the 
left joined hands with the forces from the right early Friday 
morning. Our unit on the right met some resistance from the 
strong positions of Apremont and Loupmont woods and Mont 
Sec, which they occupied by a turning movement from the 
north. But the boche was already packing up for his back- 
ward move, and seemed to have little stomach for the fight. 

"In the center, St. Mihiel was taken by a turning move- 
ment, but the enemy had not waited. We entered the town 
early on Friday morning and are still busy cleaning the 
woods to the north where the boche stragglers and patrols 
are continually surrendering. 

"In conclusion, I would like to say a word about the 
Franco-American aviators, to whom no small part of the 
success is due. We found, and nearly all the prisoners 
emphasized this point, that the machine-gun fire from the 
air against the convoys moving northward blocked the roads 
and certainly prevented the escape of a large part of the boche 
forces. We knew already what American aid was worth, 
but even the most optimistic hardly counted on victory like 

It might be added that the operations of the American 
cavalry were of even greater importance than those of the 
aviation squadrons in preventing the escape of the German 
convoys. The American use of cavalry, although only a 
small number were engaged, aided much in making the victory 


Germany In Full Retreat 

THE master stroke of General Foch was now in full 
swing. From the Belgian border to the end of the 
line in the south the American and allied armies were 
driving forward. They had left behind definitely and forever 
the trenches in which they had battled for years, the bleak 
stretches of No Man's Land across which their raiding parties 
had ventured in the face of death. 

The war had suddenly become one of motion. The dead- 
lock of entrenchments had passed. The British dash along 
the Somme sector had been made possible because the com- 
bined American and French assault along the Oise, the 
Aisne, the Ourcq and the Vesle had been a surprise and a 
complete success. Now the little Belgian Army at last was 
avenging itself for the horrors visited upon their land when 
the Germans overran it in August, 1914. Five American 
divisions at various times engaged in the operations in Belgium 
and northern France. These were the 27th and SOth Divi- 
sions; elements of the 33d Division; and later the 27th and 
91st Divisions, which were sent to Belgium in the last stages 
of the Ypres-Lys offensive, October 31st to November 11th. 

Nor was the offensive in which Americans participated 
limited to the Belgian-French battle line. American troops 
to the number of twelve hundred were brigaded with Italians 
and participated in the decisive battle of Vittorio-Veneto, 
October 24th to November 4th, which terminated in the 
compete rout of the Austrian Army. 

The Americans who co-operated with the French along 
the battlefront from Montdidier to Rheims were in constant 
action. The French were under command of Generals Mangin, 
Humbert, Albert, Debeney, Degoutte, Berthelot and De 
Mitry. General Pershing in person commanded the Americans. 

Most important of the earlier victories of the Americans 


U. S. Official Photograph. 


" A German observation post and abandoned gun, relics of the great battle. The ladders 
and platforms of this post were so perfectly camouflaged at the time of the attack that they 
were invisible at more than 500 yards while commanding the entire circle of hills and inter- 
venin*^ ground over which the Americans advanced under concentrated machine-gun fare. 

Rescuing a comrade from a shell-hole. The incessant rains that characterize a Frencli 
winter turned the battle areas into mud wallows and the shell-holes into treacherous lakes of 
ooze more annoying to our soldiers than the Huns or even the "cooties," many of which the 
men declared wore service stripes. 

Germany in Full Retreat 197 

after the crossing of the Ourcq was the capture and complete 
occupation of Juvigny Plateau, north of Soissons. This 
important strategic height was won on August 29th. 

In the face of terrific pressure the Germans on all sectors 
of the western front maintained an orderly retreat. Ha- 
rassed from the North Sea to Verdun they were still able at 
enormous cost in prisoners and material to maintain an 
unbroken front. The French and Americans captured thirty 
thousand prisoners and vast quantities of munitions. In 
the salient at Lys the British and Americans captured strategic 
strongholds in Merville and Mont Kemmel compelling the 
Germans to withdraw on a twenty -mile front. 

American detachments operating in Belgium struck 
heavily north of Wytschaete on September 2d and captured 
Voormezeele. The British co-operated with the Americans 
to the south and captured Neuve Eglise. By September 9th, 
the Americans and British were in positions overlooking and 
dominating Wyteschaete, which later was evacuated. 

The operations in Picardy from August 18th to September 
18th made one long battle from Arras to Soissons. The 32d 
Division under General Mangin and the 27th and 30th 
Divisions co-operating with the 3d British Army under 
General Byng were formidable factors in this great movement. 
It was the 32d that figured most prominently in the defeat of 
the Germans on Juvigny Plateau. That defeat gave to 
Mangin a foothold which resulted in the formation of a new 
allied line extending from St. Gobain southward to the 
Aisne. That fine ultimately forced the Germans from Laon 
and compelled the abandonment of all the German positions 
south of the Chemin des Dames. 

The fighting of the 32d Division was so determined and 
impetuous that it earned among the French the title for the 
unit of "Les Terribles." Here from August 29th to Sep- 
tember 3d on the heights of Juvigny the 32d fought four 
of General Von Schwerin's crack divisions and defeated them. 
More than two thousand prisoners were taken by the Ameri- 
cans and the division crashed through the German lines for 
a total penetration of four miles on a two-mile front. The 
village of Juvigny was overrun w4th a rush, and the railway 

198 America's Part in the World War 

between the villages of Juvigny and Chavigny was captured. 
Besides these strategic gains the heroic division took possession 
of the St. Quentin-La Fere-Soissons highway and Terny-Sorny. 

The possession of Juvigny by the Americans was the end 
of a dramatic race with the 227th Division of the German 
Army. This crack organization had been rushed from Metz 
for the express purpose of crushing the Americans. The 
doughboys of the 32d had defeated the 7th German Division 
and had thrown back in disorder reinforcements of the 238th 
and the 23d Reserve Divisions of the German Army. The 
entrenchments of Juvigny were occupied by the Americans 
just before the 227th German Division came up. The Yankees 
made good their footing and in a fierce counter-attack defeated 
the latest accession to the German forces fronting them. 

Meantime the pressure of the British on the line east of 
Arras between the Lys and the Picardy salients outflanked the 
strongly fortified German positions in Lens and threatened 
the great depots established by the Germans at Douai and 
Cambrai. Lens fell without a struggle, but the British 
encountered strong opposition for Cambrai. 

To the heroic Canadians came the honor of penetrating 
the German positions north of Cambrai and leading the 
assault which captured the town. More than eleven thousand . 
prisoners and two hundred guns were captured between 
Cambrai and St. Quentin on October 7th in the fierce fighting 
which smashed the Hindenburg line, yielded to the Allies 
possession of the St. Quentin-Cambrai railway, took the 
railway center of Buciny and sent the German infantry into 
a hasty retreat, harassed by pursuing British cavalry. 

The retreating Germans burned everything of an inflam- 
mable nature in the villages through which they passed. 
Thirty German divisions were included in the rout. As in 
the preceding operations the 27th and 30th Divisions of the 
American Army co-operated with the British. 

The advance of the English and Americans in this great 
battle for the possession of Cambrai and St. Quentin was 
made behind a terrific barrage from the British artillery. 
The Americans drove toward the burning village of Bohain 
from their entrenchments at Fremont. The men of the 30th 

Germany in Full Retreat 199 

Division early on the morning of October 9th encountered an 
entire German regiment v/hich had been left *'up in the air" 
without support, due to the hasty retreat of regiments on 
either side. A Tennessee regiment charged the Germans, 
who fled indiscriminately rather than face the impetuous 

During the rapid advance in this sector the 30th Division 
captured two batteries of German 155's with complete ammu- 
nition and stores. American gunners were rushed to the 
positions and speedily turned the captured guns and shells 
upon the fleeing enemy. 

As the German retreat increased in momentum great 
confusion ensued within the enemy lines. Americans advanc- 
ing over the ground fronting the 27th and 30th Divisions 
found hundreds of Germans buried alive in collapsed dugouts 
which had been destroyed by British and American shells. 
British and American artillery were speedily placed in position 
before an enfiladed fire upon German batteries. British 
artillery supporting the attacking American troops broke 
down a German fire protecting Grandcourt. There the 
American infantry dashing over open ground, stormed the 
village and speedily reduced the German positions surround- 
ing it. 

Before Fresnoy le Grande the British artillery was even 
more effective. There the German machine-gun emplace- 
ments poured a deadly hail of missiles into the attacking 
forces. British gunners firing through open sights sniashed 
emplacement after emplacement. Shells which ordinarily 
were used in cutting barbed wire were directed against these 
nests and the bursts of steel fairly demolished the Germans 
and their guns. 

Individual heroism was everywhere during the attack 
and several incidents stand out from the others. 

A sergeant found himself in command of a tank, the 
officer having become a casualty. In an isolated position the 
machine temporarily became disabled. The sergeant led the 
crew of six men to a strong point some distance away and 
resisted for nearly an hour strong German units that tried^ to 
reach them. Meanwhile the abandoned tank was occupied 

200 America's Part in the World War 

by the Germans. The sergeant led his men back and drove 
the enemy out, after which he retained possession of the tank 
until relieved. 

At another point a tank was put out of action and the 
officer ordered the crew to remain inactive. The enemy, 
seeing the monster apparently helpless, approached in con- 
siderable numbers, shouting for it to surrender. 

Meanwhile the officer succeeded in fixing the trifling 
mechanical difficulty and swung his tank around in the midst 
of the astonished enemy. He then ordered the crew to give 
the Germans a broadside. 

The tank suddenly opened fire on the Germans and drove 
them back in great disorder. 

Certain defeat now loomed ahead in the path of the Ger- 
man Army. Like rats running from a sinking ship the allies 
of Germany opened negotiations for whatever terms of peace 
they might make with the victorious Allies. 

A death blow was struck against Germany when Bulgaria 
sued for peace and signed an armistice on September 29th. 
Hostilities ceased on the Bulgarian front and Bulgaria formally 
passed out of the war at noon on September 30th. 

On October 4th King Ferdinand abdicated his throne in 
favor of Crown Prince Boris. He found himself an obstacle 
to the new policies of Bulgaria, and was undoubtedly in fear 
of revolution. Ferdinand left for Vienna on October 4th. 

With the collapse of Bulgaria as a belligerent, Germany's 
dream of an empire of Mittel-Europa ended. For the realiza- 
tion of this ambitious concept, Germany needed Austria, 
Serbia, Bulgaria and Turkey, a dream which came into 
being when Germany, grown arrogant through military domi- 
nation of European situations, saw before her a vast expanse 
teeming with natural resources ready for exploitation under 
German kultur. A Berlin to Bagdad Railway, a Russia that 
would be merely a gigantic feeder to German trade and com- 
plete overlordship of Asia's riches were components of this 

The surrender of Bulgaria was the death knell to these 
hopes. From the day of that surrender Germany relapsed as 
a world power into a minor rank. 

Germany in Full Retreat 201 

While Bulgaria was thus being put out of action, the 
Italians and Serbians were di-iving the Teuton forces before 
them in Serbia and Albania. On October 3d Berat was 
occupied by Italian troops, and the Serbians with a Czecho- 
slovak division ascended the Vardar to the Morava river, 
and on October 13th occupied Nish, cutting the Orient railway, 
the only link between Berlin and Constantinople. On October 
13th the Italians occupied Durazzo, whose naval forces had 
been destroyed by the allied ships, including American sub- 
marmes, and later with the Serbian and French forces pushed 
their columns on into Serbia and Montenegro. 

Allied aviators took a most active part and gave very 
great help in the fighting. They constantly sent back informa- 
tion to the command, and without cessation they attacked 
enemy troops and convoys with machine guns, causing 
disorder among the enemy forces and preventing them from 
escaping from the advancing infantry. 


The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 

MERICA'S greatest effort was the Argonne-Meuse 
battle, fought by 1,200,000 men, unified in the 1st 
Army under the personal direction of General Pershing. 
Opposed to Pershing and the Americans was the pick of the 
German Army under General von der Marwitz, with the Ger- 
man Kaiser and the German Crown Prince as interested 
onlookers and collaborators. 

The German position was the strongest that had been 
occupied by the Teutonic allies since the beginning of the 
war. The possession of the Argonne with its natural fortresses 
of battlemented rock was one of the great objectives of the 
Crown Prince's drive into the heart of France in 1914. Since 
that time it had been the advanced post that constantly 
threatened France and the Allies. Back of it lay the Sedan- 
Mezieres railroad, a gigantic feeder for the American forces 
along the greater front of the German line in France. With 
that railroad and its branches as a system of transportation, 
Von Hindenburg and Ludendorff had been enabled to hurl 
great masses of men, munitions and supplies into strategic 
positions almost over night. 

The objective of the American attack was possession of 
the Sedan-Mezieres railroad. With this line cut, a German 
retirement along the whole front was inevitable. Upon the 
vigor and power of the offensive that would cut that line 
might depend the absolute rout of the German Army. 

General Pershing and Marshal Foch agreed that the 
price of that objective would be a heavy loss in American 
casualties. Both strategists, however, foresaw that a victory 
for the Americans in all probability would mean the entire 
collapse of the German Army and peace in 1918. If the attack 
were postponed it was certain the war would continue another 
year with another appalling total of casualties, far greater 


The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 203 

than the price that would have to be paid for the possession 
of the Argonne. 

One of the factors making for German defeat and the 
end of the war in the event of American possession of the 

The Battle of the Meuse-Argonne 

Argonne was the certainty that the great Briey iron fields held 
by the Germans would have to be evacuated. Germany 
depended upon these for much of its munition production. 

General von der Marwitz, commanding the German 
Fifth Army, realized all these heavy responsibilities whwi 

204 America's Part in the World War 

reports came to him of American concentration before the 
Argonne region. He reaUzed that a decisive victory might 
win for Germany a commanding position at the peace table. 
He knew that defeat meant the end of the war and utter 
disaster for the German Empire. He accordingly demanded 
and received replacements for divisions that needed rest so 
that when the American attack was launched it encountered 
the most formidable and seasoned troops that the German 
Army could muster. 

This was exactly what General Pershing had anticipated. 
He declared that the object of the American movement was 
"to draw the best German divisions to our front and to 
consume them." That sentence expresses exactly the out- 
come of the titanic conflict in the dark fastnesses of the 
Argonne. As division after division was pulled out of the 
German line depleted and exhausted, fresh divisions were 
sent in until every available unit had been used and consumed. 
Upon the American side every available division was cast 
into the scale until at the end of forty-seven days, the Ameri- 
cans had^^virtually consumed the enemy. 

It was the night of September 25th when the American 
troops noiselessly and with the speed of veterans took the 
places of the French troops which had held the line in the 
Argonne sector for four years. For a long time the line had 
been held thinly. The sector had been inactive. When the 
Americans entered the battle line on that night its right flank 
was protected by the river Meuse, and the left flank fronted 
and entered the dark Argonne. From right to left the order 
of battle was the 3d Corps, holding the line from the Meuse to 
Malancourt, with the 33d, 80th and 4th Divisions in the line, 
and the 3d Division in corps reserve; the 5th Corps, holding 
from Malancourt to Vauquois, with the 79th, 87th and 91st 
Divisions in line, and the 32d Division in corps reserve; the 
1st Corps, from Vauquois to Vienne-le-Chateau with the 
35th, 28th, and 77th Divisions in line, and the 92d Division 
in corps reserve; the Army Reserve at that time consisted of 
the 1st, 29th and 82d Divisions. 

In that battle line were many green troops. A large 
portion of the men had never been under fire. They were to 

The Argonne: Americans Greatest Battle 205 

oppose an army composed wholly of veterans. Had there 
been another checkmate such as that which confronted the 
British and French at the Somme, no surprise would have 
been experienced by strategists. Had there been another 
disaster like Gallipoli, plenty of reason might have been found 
for it. But in the minds of the American command and the 
American troops, no such contingency was considered. Gen- 

DiTl- Klle-^ 



Total 7821 


eral Pershing from his headquarters in a building that fronted 
the "sacred road" leading to Verdun was sole master of the 
operation. That room was the heart of the offensive in the 
Argonne battle. 

In Marshal Foch's plan for the grand offensive the 
Argonne operation was the most important factor.^ The 
French forces which were in conjunction on the left with the 
Americans were timed to attack at the same time on a front 


206 America's Part in the World War 

westward to Auberive-sur-Suippes. On the day following the 
inauguration of the American attack the British forces were 
to attack in the general direction of Cambrai. Shortly fol- 
lowing the British blow was to come another offensive in the 
Ypres salient by English and Belgian forces. This in turn was 
to be followed by another French drive on the Aisne and the 
final offensive was to be a French assault towards St. Quentin. 
Immediately fronting the general's office was the headquarters 
of Major-General James G. Mc Andrew, chief -of -staff to 
General Pershing. In nearby buildings were Major-General 
Liggett and the staff of the 1st Corps; Major-General BuUard 
and the 3d Corps staff; Major-General Cameron and the 5th 
Corps staff. 

The plan of Marshal Foch so far as it related to the 
greater part of the German forces in France was for the 
American 1st Army to smash northward through the Argonne 
forest, breaking the Sedan-Mezieres line, while the French 
Fourth Army was to break the line on the other side of the 
Argonne forest. The British Army with a few divisions of 
Americans in the meantime was to smash the Hindenburg 
line at Cambrai. This gigantic maneuver, if successful, 
would push the entire German Army concentrated in that 
vast sector back upon the forest of Ardennes, where transpor-. 
tation facilities were of the scantiest. 

The American attack was launched at dawn on Sep- 
tember 26th, over a twenty-five-mile front. The terrain to be 
traversed by the Americans was far worse than that in which 
the Battle of the Wilderness was fought in the Civil War. 
In addition to the tangled undergrowth characterizing the 
Wilderness, the Argonne abounded in rocky cliffs and ravines. 
At the beginning of the attack, the American divisions on 
Dead Man's Hill {Le Mort Homme) overlooked the German 
lines along the Meuse and the Forges Woods masking defenses 
which the Germans believed to be absolutely impregnable. 

Three, and in some places four, prepared strong defensive 
lines confronted the Americans. These were the Hagen 
Stellung, and the Volker Stellung, which comprised the 
principal portion of what was known as the Hindenburg 
Line. Back of this was the formidable Kriemhild Stellung 

The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 207 

and last of the defense lines was the Freie Stellung, which 
was only partly finished. The Hagen and Volker lines of 
defense were comparatively close together. The Kriemhild 
Stellung lay some distance behind the other two. These 
systems of defense consisted of scientifically prepared trenches; 
permanent emplacements reinforced by concrete, and sta- 





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German Pbisonbr9 Captured by Each Division 

tioned at places where their gunfire swept the terrain were 
concrete pillboxes. Light railways brought munitions to the 
guns and supplies to the troops. All the dugouts in this 
section were of permanent concrete construction. They were 
lighted with electricity and the center of miniature German 
villages, the product of four years' continuous perfection. 

208 America's Part in the World War 

The plan of campaign was for the 5th Corps to make a 
frontal attack over the terrain lying between the Argonne and 
the Meuse. The 1st Corps on the left of the wedge was to 
enter the Argonne and to advance up the Aire Valley. The 
3d Corps on the right of the 5th Corps, was to advance 
between the center of the wedge and the Meuse. Six miles of 
forest lay between this American wedge and the 4th French 
Army commanded by General Gouraud. Its advance was 
simultaneous with ours. 

During the progress of the battle General Pershing 
assumed the direction of both the 1st and 2d Armies. This 
came when new divisions were poured into the battle array. 
General Liggett thereupon assumed command of the 1st 
x\rmy. His place as commander of the 1st Corps was taken 
by Major-General Joseph P. Dickman, who came from the 
3d Division. General Cameron was succeeded in command of 
the 5th Corps by Major-General Charles P. Summerall from 
the 1st Division. General Bullard assumed command of the 
2d Army and Major-General John L.Hines,of the 1st Division, 
succeeded General Bullard in command of the 3d Corps. 
The artillery, virtually all of French make, and the tanks 
were in sufficient numbers but the army was deficient in 
horse transport and in airplanes. As the battle went forward 
these deficiencies were gradually remedied. For the most 
part the French chauchot automatic rifle was used in lieu 
of machine guns and a few American divisions had the light 
Browning machine gun but not in sufficient quantities. 

The jump-off from the trenches on the morning of the 
26th was preceded by a heavy bombardment. This was 
accompanied by a looping machine-gun barrage at the rate of 
seventy-five shots a minute from each gun. Each division 
went over the top as follows: First came two battalions of 
infantry, each consisting of one thousand men; two machine- 
gun companies and a number of teams of engineers for wire 
cutting. After this wave came two battalions of infantry as 
support. Finally came the last two battalions of the brigade 
as a reserve. The second brigade of each division followed 
later as division reserve, maintaining its freshness and its 
equipment for emergency. 

The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 209 

As the advance swept forward footbridges were thrown 
across brooks, wire was cut and the thinly held front line of 
the Germans was speedily overrun. The Volker Stellung and 
the Hagen Stellung were captured in most places before 
2.30 in the afternoon of the 26th. The plan was that, if 
possible, the advance would keep right on and smash the 
Kriemhild Stellung. One factor alone prevented the accom- 
plishment of this objective and that factor was the heavily 
fortified position of Montfaucon. 

Montfaucon lay directly before the 79th Division. 
On the right of it, the 4th Division attacked and on the left 
of it attacked the 37th Division. From the commencement 
of its advance upon Montfaucon the 79th encountered unex- 
pected difficulties. Twenty-five minutes had been allotted 
them to remove the wire in front of them. This proved to be 
so thick that they could not get through on schedule. The 
artillery barrage therefore moving on schedule time left the 
79th unprotected from the machine-gun nests in the woods 
of Montfaucon, Cuisy and Malancourt. This enabled the 
Germans to hold them in check until the 27th. This delay 
gave to the Germans an opportunity to reform their lines 
and made impossible the break through which had been 
hoped for by General Pershing. Montfaucon fulfilled its 
purpose, the purpose for which the German High Command 
had endowed it with extraordinary equipment of manpower, 
guns and munitions. 

Major John L. Evans, who commanded the 310th Machine 
Gun Battalion of the 79th Division, told of how the 79th 
Division was sneered at after its first five days in actual fight- 
ing because the division did not attain all its objectives. 
"But the division that succeeded us," Major Evans said, 
"did not gain a foot of ground and when that got around there 
was a different attitude toward the 79th." And, after that, 
the 79th went in along the Meuse and "showed them." 

"The 79th went into a historic sector at Verdun a few 
days before the big drive of September 26th. We occupied 
Hill 304, famous as the scene of fighting during the great 
German drives at Verdun. But the sector had been quiet for 
a long time and there was a sort of gentlemen's agreement 

210 America's Part in the World War 

between the Germans and the French that resulted in no 
firing at all. It was extremely peaceful when we took hold. 

"I remember one day that one of our boys sighted a Hun 
and it looked like a good shot to him. He had his rifle hunched 
up to his shoulder and was just about ready to fire when a 
French soldier saw him, seized him and dragged him back 
with horror in his eyes. He begged the American not to 
* start something,' using whatever French equivalent there is 
for that expression. 

"When we started our five-day drive our procession on 
the first day was hardly interfered with at all. And that 
took us away from our artillery. There had been a tre- 
mendous artillery preparation. So many guns had been 
assembled that they were almost literally hub to hub — 75's 
and heavies. The firing started at 2 a. m. and gradually 
increased in volume until it was impossible to hear yourseK 

"Montfaucon was one of our objectives the first day, 
but we did not take it until the second. And then we went 
on, without artillery. That country has been so fought over 
that transport was impossible without new roads, and we 
couldn't stop to wait for new roads. So we went ahead and 
cleaned out machine-gun nests and German artillery and 
infantry while our artillery was far behind, out of range. 

"That is one of the things that explains our heavy 
casualties. Nearly every major in the division was a casu- 
alty and I would not be surprised if the 79th lost more oflBcers 
than any other division. 

"The fact is that a much more determined resistance 
from the Germans met our advance than the American mili- 
tary authorities had anticipated. At any rate we came out 
after five days and went into a * quiet' sector at Troyon, 
south of Verdun. There was considerable firing there and 
some raids occurred, but there was nothing to speak of. 

"The final period of service of the 79th Division was along 
the Meuse, toward the end of October and continuing until 
the armistice, for about two weeks of fierce fighting and heavy 
punishment. This fighting was not like the * Going over the 
top' of the trench warfare. Conditions had changed and we 

The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 211 

were fighting in the open and we fought almost entirely 
against machine-gun nests and artillery. The German 
machine gunners stuck by their guns. I have yet to learn 
of a captured German gun that did not have at least one dead 
Hun alongside of it. 

"It was mostly Indian fighting, the troops advanced in 
lines, each man yards away from the next and when he found 
a nest it was his own private job to get rid of it and he did it 
with his rifle, or with a hand or rifle grenade. There was 
little bayonet fighting, if any. 

"But it was punishing work and our boys had to pay for 
their victories. But I don't believe we could have done it 
any other way. It certainly wouldn't have been any better 
if we had protracted the thing for another year. Our boys 
were eager to get through with it; to finish it, and they pre- 
ferred to play the game that way." 

Major Evans explained that the operation in which the 
79th Division played a part was the final one to break one of 
the two lines of communications of the Germans, and it 

" I believe the Allies would have captured half the German 
Army if the war had gone another month," he said, "and that 
explains the armistice terms accepted from Marshal Foch by 
the Germans. 

"The boche is a poor fighter when he is beaten and he 
quits like a whipped cur as soon as he is no longer fighting a 
victorious fight. He just kamerades on a large scale. 

"The 79th Division of National Army men fought the 
best in the German Army, and the American boys won. There 
were defects and things that went wrong, but the individual 
American soldier was a fine one. Officers could have been 
better. It takes more time to make a good officer." 

Major Evans commanded the divisional machine gun 
battalion. It was to have been motorized, but did not get to 
that point. Major Evans was gassed on the 5th of November, 
but stuck with his command until late in the day, when he 
was taken to the rear. 

From the 28th of September to the 4th of October, the 
gains of the Americans were relatively small. The time was 

212 America's Part in the World War 

spent mostly in preparation for another general attack. 
By that time, all the German defense lines except the Kriem- 
hilde Stellung had been crossed. Upon October 4th the 
advance upon the Kriemhilde line was opened. 

The Kriemhilde line was about two and a half miles in 
depth. Nowhere in the German defense system was there 
such a formidable array of entrenchments. Under von der 
Marwitz it was held from September 26th to November 11th 
by forty-four German and two Austrian divisions. Fifteen 
divisions were marked by the German High Command as 
shock troops of the first class. Of the total, thirteen divisions 
were used twice and two divisions were used three times in 
the vain effort to hold the American assault. 


It was in the Argonne on October 8th that the greatest 
individual feat of heroism of the war was performed. Sergeant 
Alvin C. York, a Tennessee mountaineer, of Company G, 
328th Infantry, of the 82d Division, single-handed killed 
twenty-five Germans, captured 132 German officers and men, 
put thirty-five German machine-gun nests out of commission 
and smashed a counter-attack by an entire German battalion 
upon the American position on Hill 223. For that extraor- 
dinary feat he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, 
the French Croix de Guerre with palm, the Congres- 
sional Medal of Honor, which is the highest distinction 
bestowed by the United States Government, and was signally 
honored by the State of Tennessee with a remarkable reception. 

Sergeant York was a conscientious objector to war when 
hostilities were declared. He was a deacon of the Church of 
Christ and Christian Unity, a sect that holds the belief that 
it is wrong to kill even in war. His religious scruples against 
participation in the war were overcome when officers of his 
company called to his attention this excerpt from the Book of 
Ezekiel : 

Son of man, speak to the children of thy people, and say unto them. 
When I bring the sword upon a land, if the people of the land take a man 
of their coasts and send him for their watchman; if when he seeth the 
sword come upon the land he blow the trumpet and warn the people, then 
whosoever heareth the sound of the trumpet and taketh not warnmg; 

U. i'. Ufficial Photogruph. 

Doughboys of the 18th Infantry, Lst Division, advancing up the slope near Exermont 
by digging in at intervals. They gained the summit in the face of a heavy rifle and machine- 
gun fire, Ardennes, October 11, 1918. 




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The hill on which this captured German machine gun in its camouflaged emplacement 
stands, one kilometer north of Grand Pre, was the scene of the most desperate German resist- 
unt-e, four American charges being necessary to capture it. 

The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 215 

and if the sword come and take him away, then his blood shall be upon 
his own head. But if the watchman see the sword come, and blow not the 
trumpet and the people be not warned; if the sword come and take any 
person from among them, he is taken away in his iniquity; but his blood 
shall I require at the watchman's hand. 

He brought his religious convictions into the army with 

"I couldn't always keep track of Sunday," he said. 
"All days looked alike to the Germans, and pretty soon 
it got so that all days looked alike to us, but every time I got 
a chance I went to religious services, mostly Protestant, but 
when I couldn't get to the Protestant I went to the Catholic 
or to the Y. M. C. A. or the Salvation Army. I can say when 
I get home that I split my religious duties and my fightin' 
duties as even as I could." 

His story of his immortal exploit was told by him with 
the simplicity of a child. He described how his company was 
formed for attack in their positions on Hill 223 at six o'clock 
on the morning of October 8th. The objective of the company 
was the railway two kilometers distant. The Americans 
were obliged to cross an open valley and a stream to gain 
possession of the road. 

"Half of the men had dropped before we were half way 
across," said Sergeant York, "and machine-gun jBre was 
beating on us from all sides. There were Germans all around 
us, but we pushed on because our orders were to get there and 
take the railway, and we had to do it. 

"We made a detour across the valley until we got behind 
a nest of the enemy, from which the crew of a machine gun 
had been picking off a right smart of our boys. It was very 
bushy and we were within two or three yards of the gun 
before we realized it. One of our men shot at them, and he 
sure started something. They fired on us from every direc- 
tion. Our boys either ran or fell on their stomachs, and the 
Germans did the same. I sat right where I was, and it seemed 
to me that every machine gun the Germans had was shooting 
at me. All this time, though, I was using my rifle, and they 
was beginning to feel the effect of it, because I was shootin' 
pretty good. 

216 America's Part in the World War 

"One of our boys yelled at me that it was impossible for 
us to get the best of the Germans, and I yelled back for him 
to shut up, because I knew that one American could lick ten 
Germans if he kept his wits. I turned in time to see a German 
lieutenant, with six or seven men, charging up the hill at 
me with fixed bayonets. They were only twenty yards from 
me when I pulled my automatic and knocked them off, one 
after another. 

"There was a major with the first bunch of Germans we 
come across, and he was lyin' on his stomach to keep from 
gettin' hit by his own machine-gun bullets, and he called to 
me in English that if I would stop shootin' he would make 
them all surrender, so I did. Then I called all our boys and 
we herded the Germans in front of us and started back toward 
our lines. I walked among four German officers and had our 
wounded bring up the rear. Once the major asked me how 
many men I had, and I told him I had a-plenty. 

"On our way back we walked into two or three machine- 
gun nests, but every time the major told me if I wouldn't 
shoot he would make them surrender, and I didn't shoot, and 
he did. He would order the gunners to quit shooting, and 
then he would blow a whistle and everybody would get in 
line and away we would go, and we had 132 of the Germans 
when we got back to our own people. 

"We lost six boys, though, and three others were badly 

Twenty days were spent by the American Army in 
piercing that tremendous obstacle. The Germans, because 
of their four years' occupation of the forest knew in advance 
every position where the Americans might find a foothold. 
Their artillery raked these defenses constantly and search- 
ingly. In addition, they had planted machine-gun nests 
behind rocky barriers placed so skilfully that every exposed 
foot of land was swept by a machine-gun fire. When these 
nests were carried by assault, other German machine-gun 
positions swept them and made them untenable. After the 
second line of machine-gun nests was captured, German 
artillery was in position to rake these positions and the 
combination of defense began all over again. 

The Argonne: Americans Greatest Battle 217 


The record for the greatest advance through the Argonne 
was made by the 77th Division, comprised of National Army- 
recruits from New York City. On the night of October 10th, 
this division emerged from the north side of the Argonne 
forest. It was the first division to break through. Through- 
out its advance it was always ahead of its objectives. During 
this period of the Seventy-seventh's advance Major Whittle- 
sey, and the celebrated Lost Battalion of the Seventy-seventh, 
made its stand against the German forces that completely 
surrounded it. The battalion was rescued after it had fought 
the enemy to a standstill. 

The heroic defense of the Lost Battalion of the 77th 
Division was one of the stirring episodes of the drive. But 
there was another episode, quite as heroic and thrilling, 
another "Lost Battalion" completely surrounded by Germans. 

It was on October 15, 1918, the second day of the 
American Army's second great push in the Meuse-Argonne 
battle. On the 14th the 60th Infantry, as a part of a general 
advance all along the front, the 1st Battalion leading, had 
captured the town of Cunel with great loss and had driven 
on to a position in the woods about a kilometer north of the 
town. This locality was of great importance to the enemy. 
It was one of the strong points of the famous Kriemhilde 
Stellung. The town of Cunel was at the apex of a triangular- 
shaped system of woods that formed a redoubt protecting the 
Andon Valley, which had been one of the chief German 
lines of communication. 

At the apex of these woods was the Bois de la Pultiere, 
covering about a square kilometer. Then, north of a small 
gap in the woods, there stretched the Bois des Rappes, a 
much larger tract, to the northwestward, and the Claire 
Chenes, a narrow, wedge-shaped woods to the northeastward. 
It was a formation which enabled the Germans to make a 
stubborn fight. 

Early on the morning of the 15th, Colonel Frank B. 
Hawkins, commanding the 60th, moved up into the Bois 
de la Pultiere to within a stone's throw of where his men were 
fighting their way forward through a tangle of trees, 

218 America's Part in the World War 

"We must reach the northern edge of the Bois des Rap- 
pes," he said. 

To the 2d BattaHon, commanded by Major Baldwin, fell 
the task. It was that battalion which had suffered least 
during the preceding several days. In the haze of breaking 
day Major Baldwin directed his companies to their positions, 
and assembling his battalion headquarters, consisting mostly 
of his runners, moved forward. 

At the head of those runners, as liaison officer, marched 
Second Lieutenant David Hochstein, the eminent violinist. 
He had gone scarcely 300 yards at the head of his men, the 
battalion runners, when a shell exploded almost at his feet. 
He was killed. 

This little battalion headquarters group pressed on, 
passed the gap between the two woods, and entered the Bois 
des Rappes, skirting an enemy machine gun, and putting 
one out of action there. About half way through the woods 
they came upon two German field pieces, still hot from use. 
Then they were joined by a detachment of about sixty men 
and three officers of the 61st Infantry, a part of the same bri- 
gade, who had fought their way through more to the westward. 

Finally, late in the morning, the combined detachment 
found itself on the coveted objective, the northern edge of 
the Bois des Rappes, overlooking the German line of commu- 
nications in the Andon Valley at Aincreville. Major Baldwin 
began to look around for the companies of his battalion. 
But they were not in sight. Taking his adjutant with him, 
he reconnoitred to the eastern edge of the woods and saw a 
section of German artillery galloping several hundred yards 
away in the direction from which he had come. At the same 
time his adjutant saw a reserve skirmish line moving toward 
them over a knoll about 400 yards away. Seizing a rifle, 
the adjutant. First Lieutenant O. K. Morrison of Texas, 
picked off four or five of them before they could take cover. 
Then the two officers rejoined their men. 

They found several disconcerting bits of information. A 
patrol sent to the western edge of the woods reported back 
that their were no friendly troops in that vicinity and that 
the place was thick with Germans, who were filtering in and 

The Atgonne: America's Greatest Battle 219 

out of the woods. A patrol sent back through the woods 
brought back word that the woods were full of Germans 
behind them. 

"Well," said the major to his officers, **we have gained 
our objective and we are going to hang on to it until we are 
properly relieved or ordered to give it up." 

A runner was sent back with this information, but he 
was either killed or taken prisoner, for the message did not 
reach the regiment. 

They learned later that all attempts by the bulk of the 
infantry to get from the Bois de la Pultiere into the Bois des 
Rappes were stopped by a murderous cross-fire from a score 
of machine guns in the southern point of the Claire Chenes, 
a small wood to the east of the advance, and which com- 
manded the narrow strip of clearing which had to be traversed 
in getting into the Bois des Rappes. It was not until several 
days later after the Claire Chenes had been conquered that 
successful attacks upon the Bois des Rappes were possible. 
It has never been explained how Major Baldwin and his 
small party chanced to get across that gap. 

With the coming of dusk the major and his small party 
fully realized their desperate position. On every side they 
could see the enemy filtering in and around them. By this 
time the Germans had located their position, but evidently 
were uncertain as to their force. All afternoon the Germans 
had sprayed the edge of the woods with machine-gun fire, 
killing several of the major's detachment. 

After dark, when his men could be moved without being 
seen by the fringe of machine gunners who hemmed them 
in, Major Baldwin distributed his small party into a triangle 
formation, with each man crouched in a shell hole or a fox 
hole of his ov/n making. 

Captain Theodore Schmidt of the 61st Infantry and his 
two lieutenants, James E. Cole and L. A. Rock, guarded 
two of the sides of this triangle; Major Baldwin and Lieu- 
tenant Rex P. Enochs guarded the other. The battalion 
adjutant and another lieutenant, Tom Cox, were started 
back under cover of darkness to report the situation to the 
regimental commander. 

220 America's Part in the World War 

Step by step, with luminous compasses in one hand and 
cocked pistols in the other, the two officers worked their way 
back, frequently under fir©. Once they stumbled into a 
German machine-gun nest. Halted and queried in German 
by the gunners, the two Americans let out a yell, and fired their 
pistols in the faces of the Germans and dashed over guns and 
gunners into the thicket beyond, where they lay low and 
waited. It was daylight before the two messengers reached 
the American line, skirting the northern edge of the Bois de 
la Pultiere. 

Meanwhile the little group in the thicket fared badly. 
The officers went from man to man and whispered instructions : 
*'Let no German get through this line. Use the bayonet. 
Don't shoot unless you have to. Shooting will draw fire." 

Use the bayonet they did, on several venturesome Ger- 
mans, who crept within striking distance. Nor did the 
defenders come through the night scatheless. The morning 
showed gaps in the line. ^. _ 

It was late in the morning that the first words from their 
own lines reached the beleaguered detachment. It told the 
major to give up the objective and fight his way back. 

But getting out proved even more arduous than getting in. 
The major found he had lost almost a third of his men; most 
of them were killed. The few wounded they were able to 
take back with them. In single file, with a small advance 
guard, the little party zigzagged its way back through the 
woods, finally entering its friendly lines about noon, with 
but few casualties. 


Concerning the later phase of the battle. General Pershing 
made this formal report: 

On October 4th the attack was renewed all along our front. The 
3d Corps tihing to the left followed the BrieuUes-Cunel road; our 5th 
Corps took Gesnes while the 1st Corps advanced for over two miles along 
the irregular valley of the Aire river and in the wooded hills of the Argonne 
that bordered the river, used by the enemy with all his art and weapons 
of defense. This sort of fighting continued against an enemy striving to 
hold every foot of ground and whose very strong counter-attacks chal- 
lenged us at every point. On the 7th the 1st Corps captured Chatel- 

The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 221 

Chehery and continued along the river to Cornay. On the east of Meuse 
sector one of the two Divisions co-operating with the French captured 
Consenvoye and the Haumont Woods. On the 9th the 5th Corps, in 
its progress up the Aire, took Fleville, and the 3d Corps which had con- 
tinuous fighting agamst odds was working its way through Brieulles and 
Cunel. On the 10th we had cleared the Argonne forest of the enemy. 

It was now necessary to constitute a second army, and on October 9th 
the immediate command of the First Army was turned over to Lieutenant- 
General Hunter Liggett. The command of the Second Army, whose 
divisions occupied a sector in the Woevre, was given to Lieutenant- 
General Robert L. Bullard, who had been commander of the 1st Division 
and then of the 3d Corps. Major-General Dickman was transferred to 
the command of the 1st Corps, while the 5th Corps was placed under 
Major-General Charles P. Summerall, who had recently commanded the 
1st Division. Major-General John L. Hines, who had gone rapidly up 
from regimental to division commander, was assigned to the 3d Corps. 
These four ofl5cers had been in France from the early days of the expedition 
and had learned their lessons in the school of practical warfare. 

Our constant pressure against the enemy brought day by day more 
prisoners, mostly survivors from machine-gun nests captured in fightmg 
at close quarters. On October 18th there was very fierce fighting m the 
Caures Woods east of the Meuse and in the Ormont Woods. On the 14th 
the 1st Corps took St. Juvin, and the 5th Corps, in hand-to-hand encounters, 
entered the formidable Kriemhilde line, where the enemy had hoped to 
check us indefinitely. Later the 5th Corps penetrated further the Kriem- 
hilde line, and the 1st Corps took Champigneulles and the important 
town of Grandpre. Our dogged offensive was wearing down the enemy, 
who contmued desperately to throw his best troops against us, thus 
weakenmg his line in front of our Allies and making their advance less 


Meanwhile we were not only able to continue the battle, but our 
37th and 91st Divisions were hastily withdrawn from our front and dis- 
patched to help the French Army in Belgium. Detraining in the neigh- 
borhood of Ypres, these divisions advanced by rapid stages to the fighting 
line and were assigned to adjacent French corps. On October 31st, in 
contmuation of the Flanders offensive, they attacked and methodically 
broke down all enemy resistance. On November 3d the 37th had com- 
pleted its mission in dividing the enemy across the Escaut River and 
firmly established itself along the east bank included in the division zone 
of action. By a clever flanking movement troops of the 91st Division 
captured Spitaals Bosschen, a difficult wood extending across the central 
part of the division sector, reached the Escaut, and penetrated into the 
town of Audenarde. These divisions received high commendation from 
their corps commanders for their dash and energy. 

222 America's Part in the World War 


On the 23d the 3d and 5th Corps pushed northward to the level of 
Bantheville. While we continued to press forward and throw back the 
enemy's violent counter-attacks with great loss to him, a regrouping of 
our forces was under way for the final assault. Evidences of loss of morale 
by the enemy gave our men more confidence in attack and more fortitude 
in enduring the fatigue of incessant effort and the hardships of very 
inclement weather. 

With comparatively well-rested divisions, the final advance in the 
Meuse-Argonne front was begun on November 1st. Our increased 
artillery force acquitted itself magnificently in support of the advance, 
and the enemy broke before the determined infantry, which, by its per- 
sistent fighting of the past weeks and the dash of this attack, had over- 
come his will to resist. The 3d Corps took Aincreville, Doulcon, and 
Andevanne, and the 5th Corps took Landres et St. Georges and pressed 
through successive lines of resistance to Bayonville and Chennery. On 
the 2d the 1st Corps joined in the movement, which now became an 
impetuous onslaught that could not be stayed. 

On the 3d advance troops surged forward in pursuit, some by motor 
trucks, while the artillery pressed along the country roads close behind. 
The 1st Corps reached Authe and Chatillon^Sur-Bar, the 5th Corps, Fosse 
and Nouart, and the 3d Corps Halles, penetrating the enemy's line to a 
depth of twelve miles. Our large caliber guns had advanced and were 
skilfully brought into position to fire upon the important lines at Mont- 
medy, Longuyon, and Conflans. Our 3d Corps crossed the Meuse on the 
5 th and the other corps, in the full confidence that the day was theirs, 
eagerly cleared the way of machine guns as they swept northward, main- 
taining complete co-ordination throughout. On the 6th, a division of the 
1st Corps reached a point on the Meuse opposite Sedan, twenty-five miles 
from our line of departure. The strategical goal which was our highest 
hope was gained. We had cut the enemy's m.ain line of communications, 
and nothing but surrender or an armistice could save his army from 
complete disaster. 

In all forty enemy divisions had been used against us in the Meuse- 
Argonne battle. Between September 26th and November 6th we took 
26,059 prisoners and 468 guns on this front. Our divisions engaged were 
the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 26th, 28th, 29th, 32d, 33d, 35th, 37th, 42d, 77th, 
78th, 79th, 80th, 82d, 89th, 90th, and 91st. Many of our divisions 
remained in line for a length of time that required nerves of steel, while 
others were sent in again after only a few days of rest. The 1st, 5th, 26th, 
42d, 77th, 80th, 89th, and 90th were in the line twice. Although some of 
the divisions were fighting their first battle, they soon became equal to 
the best. 


On the three days preceding November 10th, the 3d, the 2d Colonial, 
and the 17th French Corps fought a difficult struggle through the Meuse 

The Argonne: America's Greatest Battle 223 

Hills south of Stenay and forced the enemy Into the plain. Meanwhile, 
my plans for further use of the American forces contemplated an advance 
between the Meuse and the Moselle in the direction of Longwy by the 
1st Army, while, at the same time, the 2d Army should assure the offensive 
toward the rich coal fields of Briey. These operations were to be followed 
by an offensive toward Chateau-Salins east of the Moselle, thus isolating 
Metz. Accordingly, attacks on the American front had been ordered 
and that of the 2d Army was in progress on the morning of November 
11th, when instructions were received that hostilities should cease at 

11 o'clock A. M. 

At this momenet the line of the American sector, from right to left, 
began at Port-Sur-Seille, thence across the Moselle to Vandieres and 
through the Woevre to Bezonvaux in the foothills of the Meuse, thence 
along to the foothills and through the northern edge of the Woevre forests 
to the Meuse at Mouzay, thence along the Meuse connecting with the 
French under Sedan. 

For the forty-seven days of battle, progress was accom- 
plished slowly and at terrific cost. The number of guns 
employed to dislodge the enemy numbered 2,417, firing 
4,214,000 rounds of artillery ammunition. Eight hundred 
and forty airplanes dropped 100 tons of explosives on the 
lines of the enemy and 324 tanks waddled over the crude 
roads and over the waste spaces dealing death before them. 
In the American advance, 150 villages and towns were lib- 
erated, 16,059 prisoners were captured, 468 artillery pieces, 
2,864 machine guns and 177 trench mortars were taken at a 
total cost of 120,000 casualties to the Americans. 


The divisions participating in the drive as divisions were 
the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 26th, 28th, 29th, 32d, 33d, 35th, 
37th, 42d, 77th, 80th, 82d, 89th, 90th and 91st, a total of 
nineteen divisions. The 1st, 5th, 26th, 42d, 77th, 80th, 89th 
and 90th Divisions were in the line twice in the course of the 
forty-seven days' campaign. A number of other divisions 
were used for purposes of replacement. 

Shoulder to shoulder with the best shock troops were 
the colored soldiers of the 92d and 93d Divisions. Decora- 
tions singly and for entire units were awarded to the heroes 
of these divisions. The 369th, 370th, 371st and 372d Infantry 
Regiments of the 93d Division were brigaded with the French 


224 America's Part in the World War 

and performed heroically throughout their service. The 
369th was with the Fourth French Army, the 370th with the 
Second, the 371st and 372d with the Thirteenth French Army 
Corps. The battle service of these regiments was from July 
1st to November 11th. The 92d, known as the "Buffalo" 
Division, was so eager for service that it overran its objectives 
in the Argonne. 

The total number of colored soldiers participating in the 
war was nearly 400,000; over 200,000 served in France, 
Germany and Italy; colored commissioned officers numbered 
over 1,200, many of them college graduates. 

Colored men served in all branches of the military estab- 
hshment, cavalry, infantry, artillery (field and coast), signal 
corps (radio, or wireless telegraphy, etc.), medical corps, 
aviation corps (ground section), ambulance and hospital 
corps, sanitary and ammunition trains, stevedore regiments, 
labor battalions, depot brigades, engineers' regiments, and 
served as regimental clerks, surveyors, draftsmen, etc. 

Negro soldiers fought with especial distinction in France 
in the Forest of Argonne, at Chateau-Thierry, in Belleau 
Wood, St. Mihiel district. Champagne sector, Metz, Vosges, 
etc., winning praise from French and American commanders. 
Colored troops were nearest the Rhine when the armistice 
was signed. 

Entire regiments of colored troops cited for exceptional 
valor and decorated with the French Croix de Guerre — 369th, 
371st and 372d; groups of officers and men of the 365th, 
366th, 368th and 370th were likewise decorated; first 
battalion of the 367 th also decorated with the Croix de Guerre. 

Many individuals, like Harry Johnson, Needham Roberts 
and William Butler, were awarded Croix de Guerre and 
Distinguished Service Cross, and scores of officers earned 
promotions in their military units. 

Sixty colored men served as chaplains; over three 
hundred and fifty as Y. M. C. A. secretaries; numerous 
colored men were attached to the War Community Service 
in cities adjacent to army camps. 


Saving the Wounded and Sick 

NO branch of military service courted greater triumph 
during the war than the medical organization. It 
cared for the men scientifically in cantonment and in 
the battle line. Sewers, latrines, bathing faciUties, drinking 
water, camp epidemics, disease from unavoidable exposure to 
the elements, inhalation of poisonous gas and wounds on the 
battlefield all came under the ever watchful service of the 
Medical Department. 

More than fifteen per cent of all the physicians of the 
United States enlisted in active service as medical officers of 
the army. Major-General William C. Gorgas and his asso- 
ciates worked out plans of sanitation, health preservation 
and care for the wounded which established a new record 
unprecedented in warfare. 

Secretary of War Baker summarized the wonderful work 
achieved by this department of the army in this formal state- 

It must be a source of the deepest gratification to the country, as it 
is to me, that the health of the army has been so excellent, not only as 
compared with the army in other wars, but also as compared with the 
civilian population. 

For the year ending August 30, 1918, the death rate from disease 
among troops in the United States was 6.4 per thousand; in the 
American Expeditionary Force it was 4.7; for the combined forces it 
was 5.9. The male civiUan death rate for the age groups most nearly 
corresponding to the army age is substantially the same as the rate in 
the American Expeditionary Force. What this low figure means in 
lives saved is shown by comparing it with the rate of 65 per thou- 
sand in the Union Army during the Ci\al War, and the rate of twenty-six 
per thousand in the American Army during the Spanish War. Pneu- 
monia, either primary or secondary to measles caused 56 per cent of all 
deaths among troops and 63 per cent of the deaths from disease. 

About the middle of September the influenza epidemic which had 
been prevalent in Europe gained a foothold in this country. Begin- 


226 America's Part in the World War 

ning in the New England States it gradually spread south and west 
until practically the entire country suffered under its scourge. Natur- 
ally the camps and cantonments, with their closer concentration of men, 
provided especially favorable ground for the spread of the epidemic. 
In the eight weeks from September 14th to No^^embe^ 8th there were 
reported among all troops in the United States over 316,000 cases of influ- 
enza and over 53,000 cases of pneumonia. Of the 20,500 deaths during this 
period, probably 19,800 were the result of the epidemic. During eight 
weeks the epidemic caused more than twice as many deaths among troops 
in the United States as occurred during the entire year preceding the 
epidemic, and almost as many as the battle fatalities during the eighteen 
months of the war up to October, 1918. By the middle of November it 
was apparent that the epidemic had spent its force. The nmnber of 
deaths was still above normal, but was showing a steady decline. The 
American Expeditionary Force suffered somewhat from the epidemic, but 
far less severely than the troops in the United States. 

A vigorous campaign has been waged by the War Department for 
combating the great social evil of venereal disease. The program of 
attack has included the repression of prostitution and the liquor traflSc 
in zones near cantonments, provision for proper social surroundings and 
recreation, education of soldiers and ci\dlians m regard to venereal diseases, 
prophylactic measures against them, and prompt medical care. The Com- 
mission on Training Camp x\ctivities has been very active in carrying 
forward this campaign and has received splendid co-operation from local 
authorities, and local and national health officials. 

During the year ended August 30, 1918, among the troops in the 
United States the number of venereal admissions to sick report was 126. 
per thousand men. This figure includes duplicates and does not show 
the number of men sick at any given time. The great majority of these 
cases, moreover, were contracted before entering the army. Large incre- 
ments of new recruits from the draft were generally followed by great 
increases in the admissions to sick reports on account of venereal diseases. 
A special study of all cases of venereal diseases reported at five typical 
camps (Dix, Lee, Meade, Upton, and Pike) during a typical period of 
thirteen weeks (June 22d to September 20th) shows that ninety-eight per 
cent of all cases were contracted before enlistment and only two per cent 
after enlistment. 

Among the troops in France, where there were no recruits fresh 
from civil life, the record was even better than at home, and conditions 
improved steadily and rapidly until, in September of the year 1919, 
the cases were less than one among each thousand men. This is a showing 
unequaled in the records of any other army of modern times. 

Figures as to the health of our soldiers, bear eloquent tribute to the 
efficiency of the Medical Department of the army. With the invaluable 
assistance of the American Red Cross, it found itself in a position to render 
great service from the very beginning. In this connection it is significant 

Saving the Wounded and Sicli 227 

to note that the first casualties In the American Expeditionary Force 
occurred In the Medical Corps, when, on September 4, 1917, one officer and 
three men were killed and three officers and six men wounded in a German 
airplane attack on one of our base hospitals. 

On November 11, 1918, the army had eighty fully equipped hospitals 
in this country with a capacity of 120,000 patients. 

There were 104 base hospitals and thirty-one evacuation hospitals in 
the American Expeditionary Force and one evacuation hospital in Siberia. 
In addition, a special hospital for head surgery, an optical unit, and 
eight auxiliary units operated abroad. The capacity of the hospitals 
attached to the Expeditionary Force Is shown in the following table: 

CAPAaxT OF Army Hospitals ix the American Expeditionary Force, 

November 11, 1918. 

Base hospitals . . 
Camp hospitals . 

Total . . . 








Army hospitals In the United States cared for 1,407,191 patients 
during the war; those with the American Expeditionary Force cared 
for 755,354, a total of 2,162,545. 

In addition to furnishing Its medical personnel for the operation of 
the above units, the War Department, through the chief surgeon, 
detailed 931 American officers to serve vnth. the British forces and a further 
169 for service in base hospitals that we turned over to the British. 
Furthermore, several ambulance sections have been operating with the 
Italian Army. 

In order to provide properly trained personnel for the medical 
needs of the army outlined above, training camps were opened on June 
1, 1917, at Fort Oglethorpe, Fort Benjamin Harrison, and Fort Riley. 
The need for similar facilities for colored officers and men was quickly 
recognized, and on July 21st a camp was opened at Fort Des IMoInes for 
the training of colored persomiel. Simultaneously, special intensive 
training was given to all army medical officers, 1,724 receiving instruction 
in war surgery and six hundred in roentgenology. 

The vital importance of good teeth has been fully realized by the 
department. On November 11, 1918, there were 4,429 dentists in the 
army and 5,372 in the Reserve Corps not yet called to active duty. ^ 

Up to the end of July about fifteen per cent of the entire civilian 
m-edlcal profession of the United States went into active duty as medical 
officers of the army. Probably no working force has ever been organized 
which contained more distinguished men of a single profession than were 
enrolled in the Medical Department of the United States Army. 


America's Part in the World War 

No praise Is too great for these men and their many brothers who 
freely gave themselves to the country in the time of her need, sacrificing 
homes and positions that they might render their greatest service to the 
cause of democracy. 

The answer made by the graduate nurses in this country has been 
no less splendid than that of the doctors. When the armistice was 
signed an adequate staff of nurses was on duty at every army hospital in 














I 6th 










87 th 


f 6th 



Other units 



Grand total 
































Total oasoaltles 




3 18,154 


U 16,277 
3 16,005 

3 14,183 





] 11,956 




H 9,883 
3 9,253'' 





□ 1,818 
D 1,680 

D i.05r 


J 6,763 

] 6,496 



Casualties Suffered bt Each Division 

the United States. Eight thousand five hundred and ten were on duty in 
Europe, 1,400 were mobilized and awaiting transportation overseas, and 
2,000 more were available for immediate foreign service. The part played 
by these heroic women can best be told by our sons and brothers when they 
return from the battlefields; they, and only they, can pay proper tribute 
to the love and devotion with which our American nurses watched over 
them and cared for them. 

Saving the Wounded and Sicli 229 

During the period of the war over $500,000,000 was made available 
for the uses of the Medical Department. The expenditure of this vast 
sum was not merely a matter of placing contracts and awaiting deliveries. 
New sources of supply had to be created to meet the unprecedented demand 
for surgical instruments, medical and surgical supplies, bedding and beds 
and anaesthetics, and everything possible had to be done to standardize 
all staple articles so as to reduce manufacturing difficulties to a minimum. 
Under the direction of Major-General William C. Gorgas the Medical 
Department worked out a most satisfactory program. 

The War Department has believed that preventive as well as curative 
duties should be performed by its medical personnel. Accordingly, eight 
"survey parties" have been maintained to inspect all stocks of food and 
the manner of serving meals to troops in camps or hospitals. Provision 
was also made for the education of cooks and bakers in the science of 
their trades. 

During the first fifteen months of the war, all matters pertaining to 
the protection of troops against poison gases were under the charge of 
the surgeon-general, who devised, contracted for, and produced during 
this period over one and a half million gas masks. The magnitude of this 
work became so great, however, that a special "Chemical Warfare Ser\ace" 
was created to handle both the defensive end, formerly under the Medical 
Corps, and the offensive branch, theretofore under the Engineers. 

One of the most important activities under the direction of the 
Medical Department has been the reconstruction work planned for 
soldiers, sailors, and marines. At ports of debarkation, arrangements 
have been made for the rapid classification and assignment of returned 
sick and injured to the nineteen general hospitals selected for recon- 
struction work. At each of the hospitals courses of instruction are con- 
ducted which are adapted to the physical and educational qualifications 
of the men. These courses range from the most elementary instruction 
in the "three R's" to highly specialized trades; all of them, however, have 
the single purpose of enabling the man to overcome the handicaps resulting 
from his wounds and to resume his place as a productive member of 
society as speedily as possible. This work is being prosecuted in the 
greatest variety of subjects at Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, D. C, 
where important experiments are being made and where special attention 
is being given to fitting men with effective artificial legs, arms, and hands. 

At the beginning of the war there were only 750 officers, 393 nurses, 
and 6,619 enlisted men belonging to the Medical Department. In Novem- 
ber, 1918, the corresponding figures were 39,363 officers, 21,344 nurses, and 
245,652 enlisted men. During the period of greatest expansion, the depart- 
ment's program was guided by Major-General William C. Gorgas, the 
surgeon-general. After many years of conspicuous service in the army, 
Major-General Gorgas has retired in accordance with the provisions of the 
law, and was succeeded by Major-General Merritte W. Ireland, chief 
surgeon of the American Expeditionary Force, 

230 America's Part in the World War 

Under the authority and direction of Congress complete 
arrangements for rehabilitation and vocational training of 
disabled men were made by the Federal Board of Vocational 

Lieutenant-Colonel Strong of the Army Medical Corps 
informed the House Military Affairs Committee on January 
23, 1919, that three thousand of the total American combat 
force of 1 ,500,000 had lost either an arm or a leg. Figures given 
by Dr. James Munroe before the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers on February 18th estimated the number of disabled 
soldiers then in the United States at fifty thousand. Of these, 
he said, between five and ten per cent had lost limbs and forty- 
one per cent had contracted tuberculosis. These estimates, 
he stated, were given on the authority of the surgeon-general, 
and were made public in an address on the "Use of Cripples 
in Industry." Subsequent official advices gave the total of 
major amputation cases in the United States to the end of 
March as 3,034, a figure which harmonizes approximately 
with the estimate of Dr. Munroe. Of these 3,034 there w^ere 
600 arm amputations and 1,708 leg amputations. The remain- 
ing 726 were of hands, feet, and two or more fingers. A 
conservative deduction from all the figures given above 
would indicate that there have been about one hundred 
thousand cases of disablement, including both those returned 
from overseas and those still in hospitals abroad; that twenty 
thousand were victims of tuberculosis, and approximately 
three thousand had lost limbs, in whole or in part; that 
some twenty-five thousand are now [April, 1919] in the 
United States suffering from various kinds of disablement, 
including blindness; and another fifty thousand still abroad. 

The objects sought at such an institution as the Walter 
Reed Hospital were explained by Major B. T. Baldwin, 
Chief of the Educational Service, as curative and vocational, 
including the physical restoration of the disabled man, the 
realization on his part that he is again a social being and must 
function as such, and the educational development of the 
patient while confined to the hospital. In the first category 
falls the teaching of a man who has lost one arm to use the 
other, and his equipping with an artificial limb, with special 




q? ff t^ 

c ^ _- 

P. 3- '^- 

N 3 
2 7; 







C5 5 

I ♦ 


\ /. 

U a. Ujj'uiul Photoyruph. 


Ambulances with wounded arriving at American Military Field Hospital Number 1, Neuilly, 

France, June 7, 1918. 

@ Cvmiiiittee on I'ub'.ic IiifurmalUin. 

Fruin I] t.^ttiii .\i nspaper Union. 


As soon ag Ins lour of duty in the trenches ended the s(jldier made for the "Y" luit as llic 

nearest approach to liome and comfort. 

Saving the Wounded and Sicfi 233 

appliances suited to the man's special need. Major Baldwin 

The reconstruction of disabled men begins at the bedside. There are 
fifteen young women working here on bedside occupational therapy. They 
are giving work to patients in early convalescent stages. They help the 
men develop the proper attitude toward themselves and toward their 
future outlook in life. The patient may learn basketry, weaving, wood 
car\'ing, modeling or other lines of hand work. His chief interest Ls taken 
away from his discomforts or his disability and he is made to feel some 
sense of responsibility toward himself and others. When he is strong 
enough he is taught some of the more difficult handicrafts or industrial 
arts — telegraphy, automobile construction, academic instruction, the 
principles of electricity, etc. No time is lost in the work of physical and 
mental reconstruction, and after li\^ng in the atmosphere of the Walter 
Reed Hospital the patient begins to feel as if he were just as useful an 
indi\adual as any of his brothers on the outside. 

In their endeavors to return wounded men to something 
like their former condition army surgeons accomplished 
marvels, and surgery developed in the course of the war to 
a point which ordinarily would have taken many years to 

Major Duval, a celebrated French surgeon, before the 
American Clmical Congress, set forth some of the remarkable 
wartime achievements, especially in lung surgery, with the 
development of which he is largely credited. He told of the 
success of the new technique whereby, after the thorax has 
been opened, a bullet removed from the lung, and the wound 
cleansed, the cavity is closed over, leaving open only an 
"anatomical valve" through which the air is exhausted from 
the pleural cavity with an aspirating apparatus. The valve 
then is closed, and, as a rule, in from twelve hours to four 
days the lung inflates itself once more and functions normally. 

In New York — in the debarkation hospital that used to 
be a large department store — a battered American soldier 
was being examined. Over his damaged arm hung a white 
plate. And through the white plate Captain Charles Whalen, 
the X-ray expert of the establishment, was looking at the 
bone. He said it had been well set. Swinging the plate a 
foot to the left, the w^ounded lad's ribs w^ere promptly brought 
into view. And there, expanding and contracting rhythmic- 


America's Part in the World War 

ally, was his heart, and his lungs, as they filled and emptied, 
were visible. This contrivance by which the secrets of the 
body are bared to the human eye is the fluoroscope. An old 
story to doctors, it still indicates the wider field into which 
the various methods of surgery have expanded since the war. 
When the Army Medical Corps was confronted with the 
problem of choosing a site in France for a hospital center, it 



i BAttLC 






Baxlcaa liar 

CiTll *Uf' 


Spaslah Var 

to lor U 

Disease and Battle Deaths Contrasted in Fotjb Wars 

went to Beaune, a beautiful village in the Cote-d'Or region, 
where a small hospital built by the Duke of Burgundy in 
1443 had become famous throughout France for its cures. 

There, in the midst of vineyards famous for their Bur- 
gundy wine and under the shadow of C6te-d'0r Mountain, 
a gigantic hospital sprang up in a few months to overshadow 
the little institution at its side. It, too, already was famous 
for its surgery and its cures of ailments. The little American 

Saving the Wounded and Sicli 235 

cemetery among the trees has only 150 American graves, 
representing the deaths among about fifteen thousand who 
passed through the hospital. 

Surgeons say that in all France there were not two 
other hospitals to compare with these unique institutions. 
The American Army Hospital covers a square mile of territory, 
has six hundred buildings of a permanent type, with accom- 
modations for almost twenty-five thousand patients, and is 
more than fifteen times the size of Bellevue Hospital, the 
largest civilian hospital in New York City. 

The American Hospital is a model city in Itself, and it is 
to remain in France after the American Army has been 
withdrawn, as a permanent memorial to the co-operation of 
the two republics. 

Instead of being a single hospital, this vast institution 
became a series of ten hospitals, each able to care for more 
than two thousand patients, while the big convalescent 
camp, capable of caring for more than five thousand patients, 
became also a baseball field, a football gridiron, and a general 
sports center to aid in the rehabilitation and convalescence of 
wounded men. Each of these units had its own administra- 
tion buildings, kitchens, mess halls, bathhouses, operating 
rooms, laboratories, oflScers' and nurses' barracks, in addition 
to twenty separate buildings for patients. 

One of the units in the institution is a laundry capable 
of doing all the work for thirty thousand persons. In addition 
to the work for its staff and patients of about fifteen thousand 
in December, 1918, it served the wooden barracks hospital 
near Beaune, where about seventeen thousand patients were 
cared for. The estimate of Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Keep, 
who planned the work, was that all the units of this institu- 
tion, including the laundry, at the prices of labor and materials 
in the United States, would have cost six million dollars. 

All the work was done by the American Army engineers 
who directed the construction of the other army buildings in 
France, and their force of men comprised about five thousand 
American negro troops, with some French civilian labor and some 
Chinese. Railways were run to the tract and concrete mixers 
were kept going day and night until the last unit was finished. 

236 America's Part in the World War 

Each of the ten units of the hospital had a staff of about 
thirty officers of the American Medical Corps, ninety-six 
nurses, and two hundred enlisted men of the Army Medical 
Corps or the Sanitary Corps. The units had their own 
commanding officers and surgical staffs, but the entire hospital 
was under the direction of Colonel Clarence J. Manly of the 
Army Medical Corps, who had his own staff of surgeons and 
inspectors. He had been in the service more than twenty 

The World War added new horrors to the wounds and 
the deaths of the soldiers engaged in it. Poison gas bore 
in its train sufferings beyond the imagination of those who 
had served in former wars. Shell shock, caused for the most 
part by the impact and detonations of missiles from heavy 
artillery, was responsible for many thousands of victims. 

War neurosis which shattered the nerves of combatants 
included shell shock. Dr. Edward Strecker, who served in 
the front-line and base hospitals in France, described its 

"War neurosis is not clearly understood," he said. 
"It is traced back to the early days of the war, in which we 
were still *too proud to fight.' In the early rush of the Allies 
to get munitions some important things had to be neglected, 
and among them were the cases of neurosis. The Allies did not 
have the medical officers to cope with it, for in the rush of 
wounded the time necessary to study the cases could not be 
given, and many cases sent back as 'shell shock' were merely 
various mental nervous diseases. The British held a mistaken 
theory on shell shock, which is really an actual injury to 
some part of the nervous system. As an example of shell 
shock, a soldier during the Chateau-Thierry fight came 
running into my dressing station holding his hands to his 
head and cried: * Please do something for me, my head is 
bursting!' and before we could get him on the cot he had 
dropped dead. What had happened to him must have been 
hemorrhage of the brain. It was a case of real shell shock. 

"Self-preservation, the natural law, was subconsciously 
in the minds of everyone of the soldiers. They did not inten- 
tionally plan the conditions that led to neurosis, but the 

Saving the Wounded and Sicfi 237 

conditions were continually forming in their subconscious 
minds. The soldiers were as much surprised as their comrades 
when they succumbed. Due to the suffering, their power of 
resistance was lowered and in this condition the subconscious 
mind is strong. Under these conditions a man under heavj^ 
fire for a long period, a shell exploding near him, and partially 
covering him, would be stunned, and upon recovering, in a 
great many cases, would suffer neurosis, with a paralysis of 
some member. The condition is hysterical and soldiers have 
suffered from blindness after seeing particularly horrible 
sights; men upon burial details have lost the sense of smell, 
from the stench of the bodies of horses and men." 

Dr. Strecker said that the percentage of war neurosis 
in the American Expeditionary Forces, was very small in 
comparison with the French and British. At the end of the 
war there w^ere only ten thousand cases of neurosis in the 
American forces. In treating a case the surgeon would hold 
a conversation with the patient in order to get the mental 
attitude of the soldier, and from that they could give him 
the best treatment applicable to his particular case. Upon 
recovery the soldier would be told the mental conflict which 
had taken place in his mind that brought on the collapse, in 
order to fortify him against a recurrence. 


All America Mobilized 

IT was not in fighting and in the equipment that made for 
victorious fighting alone that America triumphed. Back 
of the battle line, in homes and shops, on farms and 
wherever Americans lived and labored, there came a union of 
effort for the winning of the war that far transcended every- 
thing the world had experienced in national effort. 

All America mobilized when the summons to battle came. 
"Women and children eagerlj^ sought opportunity to co-operate 
in the mighty effort for world freedom. In food production 
and conservation, in Red Cross workrooms, in training hos- 
pitals, in the welfare work for soldiers that made the American 
Army a miracle of contentment at home and overseas, and in 
countless other endeavors the urge of the American people 
toward victory was manifested. 

The taunt of the enemy that America was "a land of 
dollar worshipers" was proved to be false. Never had there 
been witnessed such a generous outpouring of resources. 
Rich and poor were brethren in sacrifice. It was a competition 
in patriotic service in which each vied with his neighbor and 
in which the American people released impulses making for 
regeneration and spiritual development. 

Foremost in the activities of American civilians were 
those concerned with the welfare of the nation's fighting 
forces. Most of this effort was concentrated under the 
direction of the Commission on Training Camp Activities. 
Secretary of War Baker thus summarized that work: 


The Commission on Training Camp Activities was created in April, 
1917, by the Secretary of War to advise him on all matters relating to 
the morale of the troops. Cut off from home, family, friends, clubs, 
churches, the hundred thousands of men who poured into the country's 
camps required something besides the routine of military training if they 


All America Mobilized 239 

were to be kept healthy mentally and spiritually. It became the task of 
the commission to foster in the camps a new social world. This was done 
through its own agents and through the agents of the affiliated organiza- 
tions over which it had supervision. It provided club life, it organized 
athletics, it furnished recreation through theaters and mass singing, it 
provided educational facilities, it furnished opportunity for religious 
services to be held, it went into the communities outside the camps and 
reorganized their facilities for offering hospitality to the soldiers. While it 
provided these advantages to the soldier, it also sought to protect him 
from vicious influences by a systematic campaign of education against 
venereal disease and by strict enforcement of laws against liquor selling 
and prostitution. The effort was to furnish for the men an environment 
not only clean and wholesome, but actually inspiring — to make them fit 
and eager to fight for democracy. 

While much of this work was carried on by the commission itself 
through government appropriations, a great deal of it was made possible 
by private organizations which worked under the super\'ision of the com- 
mission. These organizations, the Young Men's Christian Association, 
the Young Women's Christian Association, the National Catholic War 
Council (Knights of Columbus), the War Camp Community Service, the 
American Library Association, the Jewish W'elfare Board and the Sal- 
vation Army were enormously effective in maintaining the morale of our 
troops at home and overseas. 


One of the first things undertaken by the commission was the stimula- 
tion of athletic sports. Forty-four athletic directors and thirty boxing 
instructors were appointed in the various camps and an organization was 
built up by which the men in the camps were participating regularly in 
some form of athletics, both as part of their military training and as 
spare-time recreation. Mass athletics, boxing, hand-to-hand fighting, and 
calisthenics proved so valuable in promoting military efficiency that many 
of the ci\alian athletic directors were commissioned. At first it was 
difficult to obtain an adequate quantity of athletic equipment for the 
soldiers. Funds were lacking and raw material for manufacturing equip- 
ment was scarce. In many cases a company box of equipment had to 
serve a regiment. But later, funds appropriated by the government were 
available, supplemented by generous subscriptions collected by special 
committees working under the direction of the commission. 


Much attention, too, was given to the problem of social hygiene. 
A wide educational campaign along lines of sex hygiene was undertaken 
in all the camps and civilian population of the country regarding the 
nature and prevention of venereal disease. Lectures, moving pictures, and 
exhibits of various kinds were utilized, and extensive literature was devel- 

240 America's Part in the World War 

oped. More than 2,000,000 soldiers were readied by lecturers; fifty-eight 
camps received stereomotographs, and 116 camps and posts received 
placard exhibits. In the larger military estabhshments trained non- 
commissioned officers were in charge of this work. 

The Section on Men's Work conducted an extensive campaign of 
education among civilians. It sought to stimulate the enforcement of 
existing laws against prostitution and to pass new ones where needed to 
curb vice and liquor selling. Its chief effort was given to promoting edu- 
cation about venereal disease through industrial establishments, enlisting 
the support of employers who devoted time and money to furthering the 
work among their employees. The Section on Women's Work, by cir- 
culation of literature and exliibits, enUsted the special interest of women, 
individually and in groups, in the fight against disease. 

The Law Enforcement Division was the agency through which the 
commission acted in making effective the government policy of suppressmg 
prostitution and illicit liquor selling. 


When General Pershing said: "Give me a thousand soldiers occa- 
sionally entertained to ten thousand soldiers without entertainment," 
he voiced the need for entertainment in the camps. The Commission 
on Training Camp Activities built Liberty theaters in thirty-four camps. 
The smallest of these theaters seated about one thousand and the largest 
somewhat over three thousand. Built of wood, but so constructed as to 
be easily emptied in case of fire, they were modern in every respect and 
equipped with all necessary paraphernalia for the handling of scenery and 
lighting effects. The cost of the buildings varied from $5,000 to $50,000, 
depending upon the size; and the government appropriated $1,250,000 
for this work. Each theater was in the charge of a resident manager 
appointed by the commission. 

In addition to the regular performances staged in these theaters 
on a booking circuit, the commission appointed dramatic directors in many 
of the camps, so that the boys overseas were equipped to stage their own 
performances and thus were provided with means of self-entertainment. 


The great civilian agencies, notably the Young Men's Christian 
Association, the Young Women's Christian Association, the Knights 
of Columbus, the Salvation Army, the American Library Association, the 
War Camp Community Service and the Jewish Welfare Board served 
the young manhood of America with a helpfulness which passes all descrip- 
tion. They added the touch of home and affectionate interest; they gave 
comfort and diversion; they helped to create and preserve the spirit of 
manliness and dignity of behavior and thought which characterized our 
army, and they led our home communities in the formation of an environ- 
ment in which alone such an army could have been created. 

All America Mobilized 241 


Among the civilian organizations which devoted them- 
selves to the relief of human suffering and to care for our 
men in service, the most important was the American Red 
Cross. This organization had been in existence for many 
years, and had done a wonderful work as the protector of 
peoples and communities that had suffered widespread 
calamity and were unable to help themselves. On April 6, 
1917, the United States declared war on the Imperial German 
Government. On May 10, 1917, President Wilson, who was 
also president of the Red Cross, on account of the tremendous 
increase in the volume and scope of Red Cross work after it 
entered the war, created the Red Cross War Council as a 
Board of Managing Directors for the war period, and appointed 
as chairman Mr. Henry P. Davison, of New York, a member 
of the firm of J. P. Morgan & Co., and well known for his 
administrative ability. 

On March 1, 1919, Mr. Davison retired from this position, 
and in a statement addressed to the American people he 
summed up the activities of the Red Cross during the war as 
follows; *' During the past nearly twenty-one months the 
American people have given in cash and supplies to the 
American Red Cross more than $400,000,000. No value can 
be placed upon the contributions of service which have been 
given without stint and oftentimes at great sacrifice by millions 
of our people. The effort of the American Red Cross in this 
war has constituted by far the largest voluntary gifts of money, 
of hand and heart ever contributed purely for the relief of 
human suffering. Through the Red Cross the ardent spirit 
of the whole American people has been mobilized to take care 
of our own, to relieve the misery incident to war, and also 
to reveal to the world the supreme ideals of our national life. 

"Every one who has any part in this war effort of the 
Red Cross is entitled to congratulate himself. No thanks 
from anyone can be equal in value to the self-satisfaction 
everyone should feel for the part taken. Fully eight million 
American women have exerted themselves in Red Cross 
service. When we entered the war the American Red Cross 
had about five hundred thousand members. Today there are 


242 America's Part in the World War 

upwards of seventeen million full-paid members, outside of 
the members of the Junior Red Cross, numbering perhaps 
nine million school children additional. The chief effort of the 
Red Cross during the war has been to care for our men in 
service, and to aid our army and navy wherever the Red Cross 
may have been called on to assist. As to this phase of the 
work, Surgeon-General Ireland of the United States Army, 
recently said: *The Red Cross has been an enterprise as vast 
as the war itself. From the beginning it has done those 
things which the Army Medical Corps wanted done but 
could not do itself.' 

"The Red Cross endeavor in France was upon an excep- 
tionally large scale. Service was rendered not only to the 
American Army, but to the French Army and French people 
as well, the latter, particularly, during the trying period when 
the allied world was waiting for the American Army to arise 
in force and power. The American Red Cross work in France 
was initiated by a commission of eighteen men, who landed on 
French shores June 13, 1917. More than nine thousand 
persons were upon the rolls in France. Of them seven thou- 
sand were actively engaged when the armistice was signed.'* 

The work of the Red Cross in France was but a small part 
of its achievement. One of its most important labors was in . 
its Home Service Department. Features of this work were 
safeguarding girls, boys and women from bad working con- 
ditions, fitting people to the right job, and helping them to 
success by bringing the right job and person together, seeing 
that insurance policies did not lapse in case the mother and 
wife did not understand them thoroughly, moving families 
to better quarters, protecting the recipient of pay and allow- 
ance checks, furnishing the best legal advice for families in the 
perplexing problems arising from the war, being big brother 
and big sister to soldiers' children. 

The Red Cross established a Bureau of Communications, 
whose object was to serve as a clearing house between the men 
in the field and the people at home, with a special aim of 
obtaining accurate information about soldiers who were 
missing or dead. Some idea of the scope of its work can be 
obtained by a brief description of the work of its various 

All America Mobilized 243 

bureaus. The Bureau of Camp Service looked after the 
soldiers and sailors in military and naval establishments 
throughout the United States. Its activities consisted, first, 
in the distribution of comfort articles; second, in hospital 
service; third, in home service; fourth, in emergency service. 
During the first year of the war there were distributed 
6,582,781 articles, such as sweaters, socks, comfort kits, wrist- 
lets, mufflers, helmets, etc., as well as a large number of other 
supplies. In its hospital service, daily visits were made to 
patients as far as practicable. Convalescent houses were 
built to provide recreation and amusement for soldiers recover- 
ing from illness, recreation houses w^ere built for nurses to add 
to their comfort and a Communication Service was established 
to furnish information to the families. The Bureau of Medical 
Service organized forty-seven ambulance companies, which 
were sent with the army for service in France. First-aid 
instruction classes were established to teach young women to 
administer first-aid treatment properly and intelligently when 
emergencies arrived. Four thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-seven such classes were organized and fifty -four thou- 
sand six hundred and eleven certificates issued. The Bureau 
of Base Hospitals organized Red Cross Base hospitals which 
were transferred to the Medical Department of the United 
States Army, and sent to England and France for duty. Fifty 
such hospitals were organized, with one additional hospital 
specifically authorized by the Secretary of War for duty. 
These hospitals were thoroughly equipped by the Red Cross, 
and organized from the staffs of the best hospitals in the 

The Bureau of Reconstruction of Crippled Soldiers 
established an institute for the re-education of cripples, in 
New York City, through the generosity of Mr. Jeremiah Mil- 
bank, and distributed hundreds of thousands of leaflets on 
reconstructing the wounded soldier, and rehabilitating the 
war cripple. Various departments for training cripples have 
been inaugurated, and the Employment Bureau helps them 
to get positions. The Bureau of Canteen Service undertook 
to supplement the work of the army and navy in making the 
men comfortable during the movement of troops to camps and 

244 America's Part in the World War 

ports of embarkation. More than seven hundred canteens, 
with 250 canteen huts, were erected with more than fifty-five 
thousand women canteen workers. The necessity of this 
work will be appreciated when it is stated that more than fiif ty- 
one thousand nine hundred men needed medical assistance 
while en route to the camps. 

The Bureau of Sanitary Service undertook to secure 
sanitary control in civil districts adjacent to army canton- 
ments and naval bases. The work of this bureau was extremely 
important, and in many cases prevented what might have been 
serious attacks of disease. 

The Bureau of Motor Service helped In moving sick and 
wounded men from ships and trains to hospitals or homes, in 
calling for and delivering supplies, and in taking Red Cross 
nurses and workers on official errands. This service was 
rendered entirely by full-time volunteer women who gave at 
least sixteen hours a week of their time, and who wore a 
standard uniform and were subject in their work to strict 

The Bureau of Construction, the Bureau of Naval Medical 
Affairs, and the Bureau of Co-ordination with the Navy 
Department also belong to the Department of Military Relief. 

The most important department of the American Red 
Cross, however, was the Department of Nursing, under Miss 
Jane A. Delano, director-general. Behind every battle line 
of Europe stood that inspiring figiu-e, the Red Cross nurse. 
Like the soldiers of the National Army, she received and 
obeyed orders to report for duty where danger was thickest. 
She has proved her mettle when the enemy sent his death 
bombs from the sky; she has refused to leave her post when 
armies have retreated; she has died as valiantly as any hero 
of the war. Into homes, hospitals and camps she has gone, 
carrying healing in her hands. She has for her valor been 
decorated by governments, she has worked through the hours 
of the day and through the night, not counting time nor 
fatigue nor any personal desire. Hers has been a service of 
complete devotion to humanity. 

The Department of Nursing in the Red Cross created the 
bureaus of Enrolment, Field Nursing Service, Nurses' Aid 

All America Mobilized 245 

and Instruction, Town and Country Nursing Service, Dietitian 

The Bureau of Enrolment undertook to recruit nurses 
during the war, and more than thirty thousand Red Cross 
nurses were enrolled. The assignment of the nurses recruited 
to the military establishment and other field service activities 
was the duty of the Bureau of Field Nursing Service. 

The Nurses' Aid Bureau enrolled untrained nurses, as a 
supplement to the regular nurses' service. 

The Town and Country Bureau interested itself in the 
public health, and the Dietitian Service instructed in questions 
of household science. 

Another important department of the Red Cross was the 
Department of Supplies, which conducted one of the largest 
merchandising businesses in the world, and still another was 
the Bureau of Transportation, which shipped across the seas 
hundreds of thousands of cubic tons of supplies. 

The Department of Publicity did an important service in 
presenting to the public the needs of the Red Cross. It 
established the bureaus of Fuel Service, Motion Pictures, 
Advertising, Speakers' Bureau, Translation and Information, 
Reference and Clippings. Then there were also the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Relief and the Bureau of Medical Service for 
Foreign Commissions, which did valuable work. 

During the war the American Red Cross sent commissions 
into France, Russia, Great Britain, Roumania, Serbia, Bel- 
gium, Italy, Palestine, Switzerland, Greece, and sent aid to 
Poland, Canada, Azores and Madeira Islands, Portugal, 
Armenia and Assyria. Most of the overseas relief work was 
done in France. This work was divided naturally into two 
classes: Work among the soldiers and work for the civilian 

The Department of Military Affairs was organized for 
work among the soldiers, and the Department of Civil Affairs 
for the civilians. The Department of Military Affairs organ- 
ized an extensive canteen service, and established rest stations 
at railway points through which large numbers of troops 
passed. The work of its Medical and Surgical Section was the 
chief function of the work of the American Red Cross in the 

246 America's Part in the World War 

war. Among the activities undertaken by this section was 
the estabhshment of American Red Cross hospitals, American 
Red Cross Mihtary hospitals, dispensaries and diet kitchens 
and convalescent hospitals, the furnishing of medical sup- 
plies to army hospitals, the assignment of nurses to French 
hospitals, and supplying artificial limbs to French veterans 
and medical service to American Red Cross auxiliaries. The 
value of medical supplies is approximately $10,000,000. 

The Field Service Section distributed among the soldiers 
a great variety of comforts. It also furnished books, maga- 
zines and newspapers, stationery, phonographs and other 
musical instruments, tobacco, games and numerous articles 
needed by the sick while they were convalescing. It estab- 
lished libraries in each base and camp hospital, and created a 
moving picture circuit with six million feet of film to be shown 
the soldiers during the year. 

The Department of Civil Affairs established bureaus to 
aid the refugees outside of the war zone, to do relief work in the 
war zone, to educate cripples, to care for the tubercular and 
to care for the children. Similar work to that done in France 
was carried out among other foreign nations, assisted by the 
Red Cross according to their needs. 

A full understanding of the work of the American Red 
Cross cannot be obtained without a consideration of the work 
of the Woman's Bureau, which gave special attention to the 
selection of materials, the preparation of specifications for the 
manufacture of Red Cross surgical dressings and other relief 
supplies, and for the training of chapter workers engaged in the 
production of these supplies. This bureau was later discon- 
tinued, and its functions transferred to the Bureau of Chapter 
Production. Patterns, specifications, and directions for 
surgical dressings, hospital garments and supplies, refugee 
clothing, knitted articles, and comforts for soldiers and sailors 
were prepared after careful study and consultations with 
experts in the various lines. This form of Red Cross work 
attracted the interest of war workers in every part of the 
country, and during the first year of the war more than 
two hundred and twenty-one million articles were produced at 
an estimated value of more than $44,000,000. 

All America Mobilized 247 

Two great war fund drives were carried on to provide 
funds for the work of the American Red Cross. The first 
producing more than $110,000,000, and the second approxi- 
mating $176,000,000. Nearly eight million women took an 
active part in the Red Cross work. 

Y. M. c. A. 

Another civilian organization which took an active part 
in the work of the war was the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, under the direction of Dr. John R. Mott, General 
Secretary of the National War Work Countil. ^ 

During the World War the work of the "Y" was seen 
carried on in a thousand buildings, tents, and other structures, 
with a staff of over four thousand secretaries; in Italy, where 
there were three hundred workers ; in Russia where the Czecho- 
slovak were quoted as saying that they looked upon the Ameri- 
can Y. M. C. A. as the uncle of the Czecho-Slovak movement; 
in Mesopotamia, on the Gallipoli peninsula, and in Macedonia, 
with the British armies; besides the colossal task undertaken 
by it in connection with the American Expeditionary Forces in 

The Y. M. C. A. had in operation in France fifteen 
hundred huts, rented buildings and tents, the free use of 
which was given to every man in the American Army. It 
paid between sixty and seventy dollars a ton for coal during 
the bitter winter of 1917-18 in order that in the hundreds of 
villages where the Americans were billeted there might be one 
place where the doughboys who had been drilling in sleet or 
rain could come to dry themselves, and get some warmth and 
light, where they could write their home letters and read the 

The Association sent overseas hundreds of athletic direc- 
tors, and spent between one million and two million dollars on 
athletic supplies for the free use of the American soldiers 
and sailors. It maintained overseas one hundred entertain- 
ment troupes free of charge and every month over four million 
feet of films were shown each month in the Y. M. C. A. huts 
to a nightly attendance of nearly three hundred thousand men. 
The movies were the most popular of all the entertainments, 

248 America's Part in the World War 

and wherever an American film was on display, there the 
doughboys would be gathered together. 

In hundreds of American cities the Young Men's Christian 
Association gave regular membership privileges free for at 
least three months to all men in uniform, and the employment 
bureaus of the Association were among the most effective of 
all agencies for this purpose. 

Despite all this there were a great number of criticisms, 
mainly in connection with the canteen service which the 
War Department asked the " Y" to take over, and which they 
tried to run on a business basis. 

Dr. Mott, speaking to General Pershing, said to the 
General: "We are having many criticisms now." Pershing 
replied, "The Y. M. C. A. are not in this to avoid criticism, 
are they.^^^but to render as much service as possible to the 

In November, 1918, the Y. M. C. A. was doing a business 
of five hundred thousand dollars a month conducted almost 
entirely by men untrained for such work and under most 
abnorm^al conditions. "Why did the Y. M. C. A. undertake 
this canteen work if it wasn't prepared .f*" one of its officers 
was asked. " Because the War Department asked it to do so, " 
was his reply. "Vvhat would the American people have 
thought of the *Y' if it had refused .^^ What was there to do 
but help General Pershing out?" 

The fact is that it was wonderful that the Y. M. C. A. 
did as well as they did in their canteen work. Each canteen 
was managed by a secretary, and the secretaries had not been 
recruited from among men familiar with such work. They 
were largely lawyers, bankers, teachers, preachers. They 
suddenly found themselves selling tobacco, chocolate, razor 
blades, cakes, pins, etc., in something like twenty -five hundred 
canteens of the "Y" in the American operations during the 
St. Mihiel drive, the chief-of-staff of the American Army in a 
special order, expressed his appreciation. 

Forty-nine of the Y. M. C. A. secretaries were killed at 
the front, and eighty -nine seriously gassed and wounded; 
twenty-three had crosses conferred upon them or been cited 
for exceptional bravery, 

© i'liili niuml il/nl L nil' ' , • . 


College girls milking cows to do tlieir bit for I'ncle Sam. 

© Underwood and I n :• m - . /, \ . ) 


III the great shortage of men, women took up farm work and were of the greatest 

Uncle Sam in keeping np the food supplies. 

help to 





















P3 O 






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1— t 









• ?^ 














All America Mobilized 251 

Y. w. c. A. 

The work of the Young Women's Christian Association 
was closely connected with that of the Young Men's Christian 
Association. Its efforts were confined very largely to the 
army camps and naval stations in America. Wlien those 
camps and stations were established, thousands of women came 
flocking to them to see their men relatives. The problem of 
what to do with these women presented great difficulty to the 
commanding officers. The Y. W. C. A. undertook to solve 
the problem and had done so with the hostess houses. 
Millions have been spent to erect and operate the scores of 
such houses that were placed so as to be easily accessible to 
arrivals at the camp or training station. More than one 
hundred hostess houses were in operation in the different 
camps. Where there were negro troops special hostess houses 
had been provided for colored women. The Travelers' Aid 
Society worked in co-operation with the Y. W. C. A. in meeting 
trains. A secretary welcomed the visitors, and an able staff 
of women looked after their comfort. 

As the war went on, the Y. W. C. A. extended its work to 
France. Hostess houses were established there at Paris and 
Tours, clubs for French working women and business girls, 
clubs for nurses with the American Army, clubs for women of 
the signal corps, clubs for British women working with the 
American Army, and recreation w^ork for all women employed 
by the American Expeditionary Forces. 

K. OF c. 
One of the most popular civilian organizations which 
placed its resources at the disposal of the United States Gov- 
ernment, was the Knights of Columbus, which represented in 
the American camps the Catholic soldiers and sailors, and 
w^orked in harmony with the Y. M. C. A. and the Jewish Wel- 
fare Board, for their comfort. The work of this organization 
was done under the direction of James A. Flaherty of Phila- 
delphia, Supreme Knight of the Order. By an assessment of 
$2.00 per capita of the entire membership of the order, which 
was composed of nearly four hundred thousand men, a war 
fund was raised to be used in looking after the comforts of the 

252 America's Part in the World War 

Catholic soldiers and sailors. Provision was also made for the 
payment of the general dues and insurance assessments of 
members of this organization enlisted in service. Inasmuch as 
these were numbered at about forty thousand men the con- 
tinuance of insurance for these men aided much the morale 
of our fighting forces. Later on, special campaigns for funds 
were conducted by this order and more than twelve million 
dollars was raised in one year by their first appeal to the 
American people. The work of the Knights of Columbus in 
the various camps was everywhere extremely successful. 
Absolute avoidance of discrimination, coupled with the limi- 
tation of the religious feature of the service to Catholic boys, 
won plaudits from all over the land. They offered clean, 
manly, entertainment to the men, and their secretaries were 
sent into the field with the injunction to serve the men with 
the colors as they would serve their own sons and brothers. 
After having established themselves in the home camps, they 
turned their attention to work overseas. Certain obstacles 
were met with because of the fact that they were not well 
known by the governments associated with ours. But these 
obstacles were soon overcome. General Pershing extended a 
cordial welcome to the Knights of Columbus, and in General 
Order 64 placed them on a par with the Red Cross, and all 
other war relief organizations. Hundreds of secretaries and 
chaplains were sent overseas, the secretaries under the direct 
supervision of the Knights, the chaplains directed by Arch- 
bishop Patrick J. Hayes, Bishop of all Catholic Chaplains 
with the American Naval and Military Forces. Immense 
quantities of supplies were sent to France and furnished free to 
the men in service. Roller kitchens were sent over and fol- 
lowed the men right into action. As the war continued, the 
number of Knights of Columbus secretaries was still being 
increased. Several of them were cited for bravery under fire, 
many were seriously injured, five died from disease. 

All told the Knights of Columbus personnel abroad num- 
bered approximately 1,075 chaplains and secretaries, while at 
home 650 secretaries and representatives were on four hundred 
ships of the United States Navy. And their employment 
organization acted as an auxiliary to the United States 

All America Mobilized 253 

Employment Service. The Knights met incoming transports, 
and rendered aid to the incoming men. They conducted a lost 
sailors' and soldiers' bureau, which located hundreds of service 
men supposed to be missing. The growth of their work 
required a budget of thirty million dollars during the second 
year of the war, and they continued their policy of giving the 
soldiers free supplies wherever they established themselves. 

The head of the Order, James A. Flaherty; the Supreme 
Secretary, William J. McGinley of New York; Daniel J. 
Callahan, Supreme Treasurer, and the Supreme Advocate, 
Joseph C. Pelletier of Boston became members of the War 
Work Committee, P. H. Callahan of Louisville, Ky., being the 
chairman. James J. McGraw of Ponca City, Okla., another 
member of the board, was also voted on the committee. Later, 
this War Activities Committee was reorganized and enlarged, 
William J. Mulligan of Connecticut, a member of the Board 
of Directors, becoming chairman, and William P. Larkin of 
New York, also a director, joining the committee as home 
director of overseas operations. 

The amount expended was $25,000,000, allotted to the 
order from the united war relief and other funds. 

The Knights point to the fact that, while they expended 
approximately seven millions dollars for cigars, cigarettes, 
candy, and other "creature comforts" for the boys — declared 
to be more than all the other war relief organizations together 
— their administrative expenses were but $166,616.76, which 
was exceeded by the cash discounts granted for prompt pay- 
ment of bills. 

In the United States the "Caseys" maintained 178 
buildings and fourteen tents in the eastern-northeastern 
department; eighty -nine buildings and five tents in the 
southeastern; 152 buildings and seven tents in the central- 
southern, and forty-two buildings and six tents in the western, 
a total of 461 buildings and thirty-two tents. 

Overseas there were 125 permanent Knights of Columbus 
huts, with as many more temporary clubs that moved with 
the troops. There were "Caseys" in Germany with the 
army of occupation, in the British Isles, in Italy, in Siberia, 
and scattered throughout France, 

254 America's Part in the World War 


The Jewish Welfare Board did for men of the Jewish 
faith what the Young Men's Christian Association and the 
Knights of Columbus did for their own people. Fifty build- 
ings were erected in the army cantonments and 250 workers 
were sent to the various camps. Stationery, Jewish period- 
icals and newspapers, games and books were distributed to 
the men. The War Camp Community Service was organized 
in communities adjacent to the training camps to provide the 
men with social pleasures and recreations. Five hundred and 
thirty-two community services were organized, which opened 
information bureaus, hotels, lodgings, and restaurants for the 
men in service, gave them an opportunity for social pleasure 
and arranged for them amusements and recreations. 

The Jewish Welfare Board was created in the spring of 
1917 by the joint action of representatives from some ten or 
twelve national Jewish organizations, in order to meet the 
emergencies precipitated by the war. Colonel Harry Cutler 
was made chairman. Dr. Cyrus Adler vice-chairman, and such 
well-known Jews as Abram I. Elkus, Judge Julian Mack, 
Louis Marshall, Mortimer L. Schiff and Justice Irving Lehman 
were members of its executive committee. 

Trained workers were sent to camps, cantonments, forts 
and naval training stations to provide for the recreational and 
spiritual needs of all men in uniform. Buildings were erected 
in the various camps with auditoriums, rest and writing rooms 
and libraries. Classes in history, English, current events and 
the like were formed and concerts, theatrical and minstrel 
shows, patriotic celebrations, lectures, debates and other 
functions were arranged. Branch organizations for welfare 
work were established m more than one hundred and fifty 
cities, which established community centers for soldiers and 
sailors, containing rest, reading and social rooms, sleeping 
quarters and baths. Gifts and supplies were collected and 
distributed free of all cost among the soldiers. More than 
four hundred workers wore the uniform of the Jewish Welfare 

More than fifty huts were established in various parts of 
France and occupied Germany by the Jewish Welfare Board. 

All America Mobilized 255 

President and Mrs. Wilson, while abroad at the Peace Con- 
ference, visited a Jewish Welfare Board hut and attended a 
performance which was enacted by soldiers, the properties, 
costumes and other accessories, as well as the auditorium, 
being provided by the board. The commander-in-chief of the 
American Expeditionary Forces, General Pershing, Secretary 
of War Baker and other military leaders sent congratulatory 
messages to the board for the welfare work done during the 
war. Raymond B. Fosdick, Director of the Commission on 
Training Camp Activities, in a letter to the chairman of the 
board, said: 

"I want to express to you my hearty appreciation of your 
fine co-operative spirit in all the work we have jointly under- 
taken, as v/ell as my realization of the many obstacles you have 
had to overcome and the difficulties that have faced you." 


The Salvation Army also took an effective part in the 
war. It had had experience all through the Boer War, and 
through the early part of the great war. It provided 410 huts, 
hostels and rest rooms, and 1,200 trained and uniformed 
workers of whom eighty-five per cent were women. It also 
provided forty-four ambulances, and shipped more than 
three hundred tons of supplies every month for the soldiers 
and sailors. It served hot coftee, cocoa, chocolate, sand- 
wiches, pies and doughnuts to the troops without cost. It 
was ready to mend the soldiers clothes, to transfer money, 
and to take charge of valuables. The workers were all 
trained in first-aid work, and served as auxiliaries in this 
work when needed. 

No work of any organization was more popular with the 
soldiers in France. 

Colonel W^illiam S. Barker of the Salvation Army, who 
was the first of his organization to go to France after America 
entered the war, told of the work done on the western front 
by his people: 

"We began with the small sum of twenty -five thousand 
dollars, and seven workers were all I had when I first went 
over — four men and three women," he said. "But much 

256 America's Part in the World War 

help was given us. For example, we didn't know what to do 
for buildings, but the American Army immediately turned 
over to us twenty-one hangars at Bordeaux and Brest and 
other points, and we moved right into them. 

"The Salvation Army never at any time had a large force 
on the other side. In all, we sent over two hundred and forty- 
five American workers, and never had more than one hundred 
and seventy-six there at once. Our staff was augmented by 
details of French workers, so that we had about six hundred 
in all. We carried on a cash business with the soldiers, and 
when things are wound up we shall about break even. 

"When soldiers had no money they were welcome to what 
we had, and we were never afraid to trust the boys, and they 
dealt honestly with us. Once, in Paris, a young Jew who had 
been allowed leave to attend one of the Jewish holiday cele- 
brations came to me and asked to borrow ten dollars to get 
back to his regiment. He had asked for the loan at various 
organizations, and had been refused. I examined his papers, 
saw they were all right and loaned him the money. In a fort- 
night I received his money order for the amount." 

Colonel Barker told how the Salvation Army doughnut 
came into being: 

"When I landed in France," he said, "I was asked to 
dine with Brigadier-General George P. Duncan, commanding 
officer of the 1st Brigade. Desiring to be polite to the Ameri- 
cans, his chef, a fine one, prepared for us an alleged apple pie, 
which we, although also wishing to be polite, were quite unable 
to eat. The French can do many things, but they can't make 
pie. I told General Duncan that when our girls arrived 
they would bake him a pie, a real pie. Well they did, and then 
I thought that nothing would make the soldiers forget their 
homesickness like generous supplies of pie. 

"But, unfortunately, we couldn't get the stoves. Our 
best piemaker. Adjutant Margaret Sheldon of Chicago, then 
had an inspiration. Her stove in her hut at Montiers sur 
Sauls was only twelve inches square, and she could bake but 
one pie at a time. Why not, she asked, fry doughnuts, since 
the top of the stove would hold a fairly large kettle? So she 
started frymg doughnuts, at the same time baking her one 

All America Mobilized 257 

pie at a time. And those boys were so grateful! I've seen 
them sometimes stand in Hne in the rain two hours, each man 
holding up his little stick on which to receive the six dough- 
nuts to which he was entitled. 

"There was a chap named Fred Anderson of Seattle, who 
constructed a stove out of a metal wheelbarrow and fried 
flapjacks on a piece of sheet iron, which he laid over the fire. 
He was up at the front all the time, and used to make daring 
journeys back to buy eggs and supplies for the soldiers. Our 
workers were under fire many times, and often our women had 
to sleep out in the fields because the Germans were shelling 
the villages. But we came through without the loss of a life, 
save one man who died of the 'flu.' " 


Colored nurses were authorized by the War Department 
for service in base hospitals at six army camps — Funston, 
Sherman, Grant, Dix, Taylor and Dodge. Colored women have 
served as canteen workers in France and in charge of hostess 
houses in this country. 

One colored man, Ralph W. Tyler, was named as an 
accredited war correspondent, attached to the staff of General 
Pershing. Dr. R. R. Moton was sent on a special mission 
to France by President Wilson and Secretary Baker. 

Emmett J. Scott served as special assistant to the 
Secretary of War, in charge of affairs relating to the negro in 
connection with the military service and with the interests of 
the colored race in general. He has a spacious office in State, 
War and Navy Building, Washington, with an immediate 
staff of eight persons. The activities of this oflSce bring it into 
touch with every bureau of the War Department, in handling 
the manifold interests of the twelve miUion colored people of 
the country. 

A specially selected committee of one hundred colored 
speakers, acting with local groups everywhere, materially 
assisted in the work of maintaining the morale of the negro 
race, and continued this helpful work through the period of 
demobilization of the army and the reconstruction of the 
nation to a peace basis, 

258 America's Part in the World War 

Provision was made by the War Department for the 
training of twenty thousand colored young men in mihtary 
science and tactics, in conjunction with their general education, 
through Students' Army Training Corps and Vocational 
Detachments, established in upwards of twenty leading colored 
schools of the nation. 

A colored woman, Mrs. Alice Dunbar Nelson, was named 
as a field worker to mobilize the colored women of the country 
for war work. 

Colored women rendered exceptionally valuable service 
in the industries and on the farms, maintaining production in 
the mills and promoting the food supply through agricultural 
pursuits, releasing men for duty at the front. 

Colored people bought millions of dollars' worth of Liberty 
Bonds and War Savings Stamps and contributed most gen- 
erously to the Red Cross, Y. M. C. A, and Y. W. C. A. and 
other war relief agencies. 


The American Library Association placed hundreds of 
libraries in camps and stations and on ships, distributed 
the magazines contributed by the public, and bought educa- 
tional and technical books to meet the demand of the men 
for books that helped. 


American Women in the War 

F it had not been for the women of America the World 
War could not have been won. 

The truth of this statement will be revealed by an 
examination of the activities and achievements of American 
womanhood after this country entered the great conflict. 
Women were factors in the manufacture of shells, powder and 
munitions of all sorts. They tilled the soil and harvested 
immense quantities of food stuffs without which the Allies 
must have succumbed. It was the housewives of America 
who conserved food and cut off waste that the fighting and 
civilian populations with which we w^ere leagued might be fed. 
Triumphs of food preparations were achieved in American 
kitchens for the utilization of foods to which American house- 
holds were unaccustomed. 

Women drove ambulances, motor trucks and passenger 
vehicles. They released hundreds of thousands of able men 
for the fighting forces of the nation. They entered by 
thousands into the administrative offices of federal, state and 
municipal government. As nurses and teachers, they healed 
the sick and wounded and taught the crippled new means of 
gaining their livelihood. In workrooms that were countless 
they prepared bandages and other supplies for battlefield and 
hospital and clothing for the destitute of lands overrun by 
our foes. President W^ilson phrased their services when he 

I think the whole country has appreciated the way in which the women 
have risen to this great occasion. They have not only done what they 
have been asked to do, and done it with ardor and eflaciency, but they have 
shown the power to organize for doing things on their own initiative, which 
is quite a diflPerent thing and a very much more difficult thing. I think the 
whole country has admired the spirit and the capacity of devotion of the 
women of the United States. It goes without saying that the country 

15 (259) 

260 America's Part in the World War 

depends upon the women for a large part of the inspiration of its life. 
That is obvious. But it is now depending upon the women also for sug- 
gestions of service, which have been rendered in abundance and with the 
distinction of originality. 

Long before the war began the women in individual 
organizations had been interested in the war, and had sent 
aid to the suffering in Belgium, in France and wherever the 
aid was needed. When America entered into the war, for 
the first time in history official recognition was given to 
women in the construction of the war machine, and the 
response of the women to that recognition was universal. 
On April 21, 1917, fifteen days after Congress had formally 
declared that a state of war existed between this country 
and Germany, the Council of National Defense, made the 
following announcement: 

Realizing the inestimable value of woman's contribution to national 
effort under modern war conditions, the Council of National Defense has 
appointed a committee of women of national prominence to consider and 
ad\ase how the assistance of the women of America may be made available 
in the prosecution of the war. These women are appointed as individuals, 
regardless of any organizations with which they may be associated. The 
body will be known as the Committee on Woman's Defense Work. Its 
membership is as follows: Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, chairman; Mrs. Philip 
N. Moore, of St. Louis, President of the National Council of Women; 
Mrs. Josiah E. Cowles, of Cahfornia, President of the General Federation 
of Women's Clubs; Miss Maude Wetmore, of Rhode Island, Chairman of 
the National League for Woman's Service; Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, of 
New York, President of the National American Woman's Suffrage Associa- 
tion; Mrs. Antoinette F. Funk, of Illinois; Mrs. Stanley McCormich, of 
Boston; Mrs. Joseph R. Lamar, of Atlanta, Georgia, President of the 
National Society of Colonial Dames; Miss Ida M. Tarbell, of New York, 
publicist and writer. 

Later, Miss Agnes Nestor, of Chicago, President of the 
International Glove Workers' Union, and Miss Hannah Jane 
Patterson, of Washington, were added to the committee, and 
Miss Patterson was made resident director. 

The Woman's Committee, therefore, owed its creation 
to the Council of National Defense, a body authorized by act 
of Congress in August, 1916, consisting of the Secretary of 
War, Secretary of the Navy, Secretary of the Interior, Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary 

American Women in the War 261 

of Labor. This council was directed to nominate to the 
President, and the President to appoint an Advisory Com- 
mission, of not more than seven persons, quaUfied to assist 
in the work. It was given the power to organize subordinate 
bodies and committees, and the Woman's Committee was 
created in accordance with that power. The purpose of the 
committee was to organize the activities of the women of the 
country, and supply a direct channel of communication 
between the women and the government. 

Primarily, the Woman's Committee was advisory, and 
many of the national woman leaders regretted that the com- 
mittee was not given more power; but in actual practice, the 
committee initiated and carried out its wonderful work with 
almost complete independence. On May 2, 1917, it met in 
Washington and formulated a plan of organization which^was 
immediately sent out to leading women in each of the forty- 
eight states. The plan was to co-ordinate the women's 
organizations already in existence, so that no defense work of 
any kind already done should be lost. 

A temporary chairman was appointed in each of the forty- 
eight states, and the District of Columbia. These temporary 
chairmen were expected to call in conference the representa- 
tives of all woman's organizations, having state-wide scope, 
state branches of woman's national organizations, and such 
individuals as they thought fit to represent the state at large. 
These groups, with committees, in counties, cities and towns 
constituted the state divisions that became the ofiicial repre- 
sentatives of the Woman's Committee of the Council of 
National Defense for the States. These state divisions were 
charged with the duty of carrying forward all necessary forms 
of patriotic service or defense programs. Each state division 
elected a permanent chairman, one or more vice-chairmen 
and a secretary, a treasurer, and such other officers as were 

Each division adopted its own by-laws, and appointed 
its executive committee, authorized to do business. It was 
advised to divide its work into departments, each with a 
competent chairman, selected because of special fitness. 
City committees were urged to establish auxiliary units in 

262 America's Part in the World War 

each ward, with a temporary chairman presiding over the 
conference composed of individual members. 

This plan sought to link together existing organizations 
of women. Women, however, not members of any organiza- 
tion were entitled to representation. The Woman's Com- 
mittee, acting under governmental authority, was able to have 
the advantage of expert governmental advice, and the com- 
mittee acted as an agent to transmit any demand of the 
government to the woman's organizations. 

On June 9, 1917, the Woman's Committee issued a call 
to the heads of about two hundred national organizations of 
women to meet in Washington with the Woman's Committee 
on June 19th. More than fifty national organizations met in 
response to this call. 

The full power of the Woman's Committee was exerted 
in forwarding the national food administrator's first drive for 
food conservation. Then came a systematic plan for register- 
ing both the volunteer and the wage-earning women of the 
country for national service. Later the full machinery of its 
organization was placed at the disposal of the Liberty Loan 
Committee. It also became active in the effort to safeguard 
the morals of enlisted men in the camps. It interested itself 
in keeping the children in school, in enforcing the new Child 
Labor Law, in furthering the passage of the bill pending in 
Congress providing insurance and indemnity for our soldiers 
and sailors. It was also interested in questions of health and 
recreation for men of the camps. 

By October 1, 1917, the work of the committee was 
divided into twelve divisions: Food Conservation, Food 
Production and Home Economics, Education, Women and 
Industry, Social and Welfare Work, Liberty Loan, Health 
and Recreation, Child Welfare Organization, Registration, 
Maintenance of Existing Social Agencies, Home and Foreign 

The general plan for organization formulated by the 
Woman's Committee left each state free to perfect its organ- 
ization, as its leaders might think best. Each state, therefore, 
solved its individual problem in its own way. Alabama 
centered its efforts on Social Service, Connecticut on Medical 

American Women in the War 263 

Service, Virginia on Public Health, Neblraska went to work for 
Food Production. In Illinois meetings for women of foreign 
birth were held, at which some of them were taught to speak 
and understand English, and almost every state had some 
special interest. The organization extended not only through- 
out the forty-eight states, but throughout the entire territory 
under the American flag. The Panama Canal Zone, Porto 
Rico, the Philippine Islands, the Hawaiian Islands and 
Alaska were all organized. Thousands of women were already 
mobilized in special organizations. The Needlework Guild of 
America had two hundred and fifty thousand women ready 
to engage in war work, the American Red Cross had enlisted 
over nine thousand trained nurses, before the conference of 
June 19, 1917, and ninety-five thousand girls organized as 
the Camp Fire Girls were working with the Red Cross adopting 
Belgium babies and canning vegetables and fruits. 

Members of the committee made tours of certain states 
assisting in the organization work of those states. After their 
organization came the registration. Many private organiza- 
tions had already registered women for war service, among 
these was the National League for Woman's Service which 
sought to register the women of the country who wanted 
paid work under government contracts. The General Federa- 
tion of Woman's Clubs, and the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, made a thorough registration of their members. 
When the Woman's Committee, therefore, announced in July, 
1917, a general registration of the women of the country, 
much confusion arose, but by circulars sent widely through 
the country, by patriotic meetings, and by the use of the 
movie theaters, the object of the registration was made clear, 
and the registration carried out effectively. 

The work of the Food Conservation Commission was of 
very great importance. Mr. Hoover's dictum that "Food 
will win the War" was recognized as prophetic. President 
Wilson declared, "Every housewife who practices strict 
economy puts herself in the ranks of those who serve the 
nation." Secretary Houston, of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, issued an appeal to the women of the 
United States, to save food. And when the President 

264 America's Part in the World War 

appointed Mr. Hoover as National Food Administrator, one of 
his first ofiicial acts was a call to the women of America. He 
announced his intention to ask the women to sign a food 
pledge card. Every effort was made by the Woman's Com- 
mittee to distribute these cards and have them signed, and 
if the actual number of signed cards was less than they had 
hoped, the educational value of the campaign was incalculable. 

An immense amount of food was saved as a result of the 
agitation. Not only did the housewife practice economy but 
great quantities of food were canned, dried and preserved. 
In New York City where tons of perishable food are dumped 
in the river every day, this food was by voluntary labor, 
sorted, canned and saved. War gardens were instituted 
throughout the country, and an estimate of the value of the 
crops raised on back-yard lots shows it to amount to more 
than $350,000,000. Over 3,000,000 food gardens were planted 
in 1917, and 119,000,000 quart glass jars were delivered to 
housewives. This means the conservation of 460,000,000 
quarts of food, and in addition several million dollars worth 
of dried fruits and vegetables were saved. 

The work of the Child Welfare Division especially 
interested the women of the country. Several organizations 
were already in existence, whose object was to care for the 
moral and physical welfare of the children. A Children's 
Bureau in the Department of Labor, headed by Miss Julia 
Lathrop, of Illinois, had been created, and Miss Lathrop 
was asked by the Woman's Committee to act as chairman 
of its Child Welfare Department. The object of the depart- 
ment was to look after the welfare of the children, to keep 
them in school, and to see that they were decently clothed 
and well nourished. 

The Division on Health and Recreation was interested 
in the moral and physical welfare of the enlisted men, and 
was aided by the Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., the Knights 
of Columbus and other similar organizations. A commission 
was organized by the War Department to promote rational 
recreational facilities within and without the camps, and to 
safeguard the health and morals of the soldiers on land and 
sea. Under the direction of this commission there were 


American Women in the War 265 

authorized directors of music, libraries, theaters, and athletics, 
and in these activities women took a large part. 

The Division on Patriotic Education found a great work 
to do. There were' three million non-English-speaking immi- 
grants in America, and it was necessary to establish for such 
foreign grown persons night schools where they might learn 
the English language, and be informed of the nature of the 
American Government. Various industrial and social agencies 
joined in a systematic campaign for this purpose — the "Amer- 
ica first" campaign, the object of which is to develop an 
intelligent American life and citizenship. A national com- 
mittee of one hundred was appointed by the United States 
Commission of Education, and many educational institutions 
and industrial organizations, as well as great national organ- 
izations, such as the Sons of the American Revolution, 
Daughters of the American Revolution, the Y. W. C. A., and 
the Council of Jewish Women took part in the undertaking. 
Public mass meetings of women in the interests of patriotic 
education were held all over the United States at the sugges- 
tion of the Woman's Committee. A remarkable work has 
been done. 

The Woman's Committee also took an active part in the 
various Liberty Loan Campaigns. These were not essentially 
a woman's activity yet from the beginning the women took 
an active part in selling and in buying bonds. It is estimated 
that one-third of all the Liberty Bond buyers were women, 
and a complete organization was perfected to assist the 
organizations of the men, in obtaining subscriptions. The 
Woman's Committee of National Defense turned in the full 
power of its machinery to assist the Woman's Liberty Loan 
Committee, and the result amazed not only the national 
leaders but the women themselves. 

Of even greater importance than the work of the women 
and their great organizations was the work of the women in 
factories, in the shops, and in the various industries in 
America. Two millions of women before the war began were 
included in the ranks of industrial workers, and as millions of 
men were summoned to the flag, their places were taken 
throughout the country by loyal and patriotic women. A 

266 America's Part in the World War 

movement like this deeply affected various woman's organ- 

One of the most important phases of the questton of 
women in industrj^ is that concerning standards, which 
especially interested the National Woman's Trade Union 
League of America. Its president was Mrs. Raymond Robbins, 
of Chicago. This league adopted the following standards to 
protect the working women in the industrial field. These 
standards were: the highest prevailing rate of wages in the 
industry which the contract affected; equal pay for equal 
work; those trades where there was no wage standard what- 
soever to be placed in the hands of an adjustment committee; 
all wages to be adjusted from time to time, to meet the 
increased cost of living, by the committee; the eight-hour 
day; one day rest in seven; prohibition of night work for 
women; standards of sanitation and fire protection; pro- 
tection against over-fatigue and industrial diseases; prohibi- 
tion of tenement-house labor; exemption from the call into 
industry of women having small children needing their care; 
exemption from the call into industry of women two months 
before and after child birth. 

Under the Woman's Committee of the Council of National 
Defense there were organized in every state committees for 
the protection of women and children, which worked in 
connection with the National Woman's Trade Union League 
and other similar associations, and the standards established 
by these organizations were in every instance recognized by 
the government. 

The Committee on Labor appointed by the Council of 
National Defense, of which Mr. Samuel Gompers became 
chairman, appointed a sub-committee on Women and Industry, 
which interested itself in the protection of such women and in 
their wage standards. 

One of the most important phases of the women's work 
in the war was that connected with their service in the 
Woman's Bureau of the Red Cross. This v/ork, as well as 
the work of the Red Cross nurse, and of the Junior Red 
Cross, was carried on independently of the Woman's Com- 
mittee, and is described in another chapter. 

© Underwood and Underwood, N. V. 

Heading the Victory Fleet in its great review in New York Harbor after the close of the 
war was this new superdreadnaught of 34,000 tons displacement. This great fightmg ship is 
armed with thirty-four guns, of which twelve 14-inch guns compose the main battery. With 
her sister ships a new class of battleships was formed larger than any other warships in the 
world at the time of their launching. 

American Women in the War 269 

The National League for Woman's Service organized 
nearly three months before this country declared war against 
Germany Vv^as another independent association. Its object 
was to co-ordinate and standardize the work of the women 
of i^merica along lines of constructive patriotism, and its 
president was a member of the Woman's Committee of the 
Council of National Defense. The slogan of the organization 
was *'For God, for country, for home," and its work in 
general was not far different from that of the Woman's Com- 
mittee of National Defense. It divided the interests of 
women into thirteen national divisions as follows: Social 
Welfare, Home Economics, Agricultural, Industry, Medical 
and Nursing, Motor Driving, General Service, Health, Civics, 
Signaling, Map Reading, Wireless and Telegraphy, and 
Camping. Work under these divisions was developed in 
state and local organizations, each working unit being a 
detachment of not less than ten and not over thirty women, 
under the direction of detachment commanders. 

The program of these detachments included a standard- 
ized physical drill, an annual inspection of detachments, and 
an annual examination of individuals; promotions to be made 
on the basis of service and efficiency; annual state or district 
encampments; an organization uniform to be worn, and an 
organization badge and insignia. 

When America entered the v*^ar, before this plan of organ- 
ization was carried into effect, an emergency program was 
developed, by the appointment of a temporary state chairman, 
with temporary state committees and temporary local chair- 
men to be appointed if possible in every city, town or district 
throughout the state. In a short time there were complete 
working organizations in thirty-nine states, and the other 
nine were partially organized. The first service rendered by 
this bureau was the mobilization of wage-earning women, 
to meet the demands for trained woman labor in the govern- 
ment establishments, and in the private factories and mills, 
working for the government. This was a most difpcult under- 
taking, and was carried out most efficiently. Tlii's league also 
took an active part in all of the phases of patriotic work 
carried on by American women during the war. 

270 America's Part in the World War 

Another great woman's organization, which offered its 
services to assist in the prosecution of the war was the 
General Federation of Woman's Clubs, which had a member- 
ship of about three million. It was interested in the Children's 
Bureau, the Public Health Service, Home Economics, Bureau 
of Markets, and other similar questions. It established a 
service office in Washington, for the period of the war. 

A similar great organization was the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, with three thousand chapters and one 
million members spread over the United States. Through 
its war relief committee it undertook war work of various 
kinds, and was especially successful in selling Liberty Bonds. 

The Women's Christian Temperance Union also rendered 
enthusiastic service emphasizing the necessity of nation-wide 
prohibition as a war measure. 

The National Congress of Mothers endeavored to extend 
as far as possible the home influence to the boys in the army 
and navy camps, establishing united service clubs for this 

The Navy League, which was an outcome of the Spanish- 
American War, interested itself largely in knitting garments 
for the soldiers and sailors and in working in the camps. 
The knitting was done under the direction of the Comforts 
Committee, and it is estimated that the amount spent in the 
v/ork of this committee approximated one million dollars, 

A National Service School was conducted during April 
and May, 1917, under the direction of the Navy League to 
fit American women for the part they must play in the 
national service. On account of some differences of opinion 
the approval of the Secretary of the Navy was withheld from 
the work of the Navy League, and in December, 1917, the 
Woman's Naval Auxiliary of the Red Cross was organized, 
and much of the work that was being done under the Navy 
League was co-ordinated under the new plan. 

The League of American Pen Women, including some of 
the best known women writers of America, turned its full 
power also to help win the war. 

The Camp Fire Girls of America, one hundred thousand 
strong, were especially active in distributing the food pledge 

American Women in the War 271 

cards, and in caring for children, when their mothers were 
engaged in patriotic service. 

The Girl Scouts of America sold Liberty Bonds, distrib- 
uted food pledge cards, and engaged in the various forms of 
war work in every state in the union. 

The Woodcraft Girls also did their bit, among other 
things organizing what were known as Potato Clubs, where 
prizes were given for the production of potatoes. 

The Green Bough is an organization of children which 
sent aid to the starving children of Europe. 

The Associate Collegiate Alumnae offered its services to 
the government three days after war was declared and issued 
to ten thousand college graduates an appeal for trained stenog- 
raphers and secretaries to aid in the work of the government. 
It also organized a War Service Committee to co-operate with 
the Speakers' Division of the Committee on Public Infor- 

The Colonial Dames, and the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy also did splendid work in various fields. 

Volumes might be written concerning women's work in 
the various states of the union. In each state enthusiastic 
work was done, very often of an unusual and striking character. 
The work of the negro women in certain parts of the South for 
the negro soldiers deserves special mention. 

Among other activities of the American women none are 
more impressive than those devoted to the relief of the unfor- 
tunate victims of the war. Various organizations to take 
charge of this work of charity and mercy were formed, and 
many of these organizations were combined in the Federal 
Council of Allied War Charities. This organization had 
seventy-five separate agencies and raised for war relief 
nearly thirty million dollars. The first of these societies was 
the National Allied Relief Committee of New York, organized 
in July, 1915, to assist the suffering peoples of Europe. Money 
was raised by contributions and by bazaars, and while this 
was not strictly a woman's organization it was to the women 
that much of the credit of their success was due. 

Other organizations were the American Committee of the 
Allied Home Fund, for homeless children and women munition 

272 America's Part in the World War 

workers; the American Committee of the International 
Reconstruction League; the American Woman's Hospitals 
Committee; the National Surgical Dressing Conunittee; the 
American Woman's War Relief Fund; and the Stage Woman's 
W^ar Relief Fund, which developed extensively during the 
war, and furnished entertainment in the army camps in this 
country and abroad. Then there were also the Vacation 
Association, originally organized to enable self-supporting 
girls and women to save money by proper and healthy 
vacations, but Vv^liich developed its work into a Free Employ- 
ment Bureau for the benefit of those who had lost their posi- 
tions because of war conditions. 

Other organizations were the Flotilla Committee, to 
provide surgical motors for the advanced trenches, and the 
Militia of Mercy to care for children afflicted by Infantile 
Paralysis, and the Committee for Men Blinded in Battle, 
which has already assisted three thousand men, the Emergency 
Aid of Pennsvlvania a^nd the Commitee of Mercv, the League 
of Catholic Women of New York, the National Special Aid 
Society, the Trench Comforts Packet Committee, the Artists' 
Committee of One Hundred, the White Cross Guard move- 
ment. Southern "Women's Patriotic Committee, the Physi- 
cians', Surgeons' and Dentists' Fund, the Council of Jewish 
V/omen, and the Fund for Jewish War Sufferers, the Zionist 
Organizations, and the Authors' League Fund, all of which 
have special forms of relief and in all of which women take 
the main part. 

Scores of other charitable organizations of greater or less 
importance are scattered over the land, which give their 
sympathy and their help to the suffering in this country and 
abroad. In such organizations the women are naturally 
taking the lead, and they have done a wonderful work during 
the great war. 


The Navy in the War 

ON April 6, 1917, when war was declared, the navy was 
at once mobilized. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the 
Navy, issued an order which was sent out from the 
office of Admiral W. S. Benson, Chief of Naval Operations, 
placing the navy on a war basis. Mr. Daniels had for several 
years been developing the efficiency of the American Navy. 
He had seen for some months that America would be com- 
pelled to take part in the great war, and the Naval Department 
had been working at high speed preparing for active service. 
The various naval units vvhich were at the beginning of the 
war associated with the regular navy, were the Naval Reserve 
Force, the Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Reserve, the 
Naval Militia and the Coast Guard, all of which were called 
into active service in connection with the mobihzation. 

Elaborate plans had been made to provide training camps 
for new recruits. Besides the men required for duty in the 
seaman branch the navy needed men for service in special 
branches, such as artificers, yeomen, electricians, commissary, 
hospital corps and aeronautics. 

The Naval Reserve Force, authorized by Act of Congress 
August 29, 1916, contained six classes: the Fleet Naval 
Reserve, composed entirely of ex-service officers and men, 
which is intended for active duty at sea; the Naval Reserve, 
composed of ex-merchant marine officers and men, intended 
for duty on naval auxiliary vessels; the Naval Auxiliary 
Reserve, composed of officers and men serving on vessels 
of the United States merchant marine, listed by the Navy 
Department as desirable auxiliaries, which is intended to 
serve on such vessels when they are called into active service; 
and the Naval Coast Defense Reserve, intended for citizens 
of all ages who are capable of sea service to the navy, or in 
defense of the coast. This includes owners and operators 


274 America's Part in the World War 

of yachts and motor power boats, suitable for coast defense, 
who may have their boats taken over upon payment of a 
reasonable indemnity. 

The Naval Reserve also includes the patrol squadron, 
planned as a defense of the coast and harbors against the 
operations of submarines or raiders, the Naval Reserve Flying 
Corps open to qualified aviators, who might be ordered to 
duty at sea or on shore where aviators are necessary, and 
the Volunteer Naval Reserve, who served without pay, and 
without uniform in time of peace. 

Women may also enter service in the Naval Reserve as 
telephone switchboard operators, nurses, and yeowomen. 

The United States Marines, the "soldiers of the sea,*' 
are an independent branch of the military service of the 
United States, serving under the direction of the Secretary 
of the Navy. They protect government property and naval 
stations at home, they furnish the first line of defense of naval 
bases and stations beyond the limits of the United States. 
They go with the war ships, act as landing parties at shore, 
and are used as expeditionary forces and for advance duty. 
The Marine Corps was first called into existence during the 
Revolutionary War. It was disbanded at the close of the 
war, but was reorganized in 1798. It has participated in 
every expedition and action in which the navy has engaged, 
and has co-operated in campaigns with the army. The 
Marine Corps Reserve was authorized by Congress as a 
reserve force to be trained in time of peace, and called into 
active service whenever the country is at war. 

The Naval Militia has the same relation to the navy as 
the National Guard to the army. In time of war the Naval 
Militia become active members of the navy and serve in the 
main or reserve fleets, wherever they may be assigned. 

The United States Coast Guard was established in 1915 
to combine the revenue cutter service and life-saving service. 
In peace times it operates under the Treasury Department. 
It has for its purpose the saving of life and property from the 
destruction of the seas. In war times it operates as part of 
the navy. The United States Junior Naval Reserve was an 
organization for the training of American boys for the Ameri- 

The Navy in the War 


can Navy and merchant marine. These boys are enrolled 
at small posts throughout the country and are given instruc- 
tion in naval training in addition to their regular schooling. 

A Flying Corps is also associated with the navy. It 
conducts an aeronautic school at Pensacola, Florida, for a 
course of training and instruction. At this school men may 
qualify as mechanics or as flyers. Balloonists are also 
instructed and dirigible balloons are used at Pensacola for 
training purposes. 

£:a8sljui (Brltl&h control) - 20«000'^ 1^ 
Preneh - 47,obo - 2^^ \t^ 
5taliaa_- 65,000 - S^-i^ \ \ _ 

.Total - 2,036, OC'O. 
American Troops Carried by Ships of Each Nation 

The operations of the United States Navy during the 
World War have extended all over the world. Its forces have 
been stationed at Corfu, Gibraltar, along the Bay of Biscay, 
at the English Channel ports, on the Irish Coast, in the 
North Sea, at Murmansk, at Archangel, as well as along the 
coast of the United States and its various territories. Its 
exploits may not have been as spectacular as that of the army, 
yet without it our forces at the front could not have carried 
on the successful campaign that they did. Indeed, they would 
not have been able to reach the fighting front in great strength. 

276 America's Part in the World War 

Naval men have served on nearly two thousand craft that 
plied the waters — on submarines and in aviation. On land 
marines and sailors have shared with the army their glorious 
victories, and gun crews of sailors have manned the monster 
fourteen-inch guns which were of such notable importance 
in land warfare. 

In the official report of Secretary Daniels the employ- 
ment of the fighting craft of the navy is summed up as follows: 
"(1) Escorting troop and cargo convoys, and other special 
vessels. (2) Carrying out offensive and defensive measures 
against enemy submarines in the western Atlantic. (3) 
Assignment to duty and the despatch abroad of naval vessels 
for operations in the war zone in conjunction with the naval 
forces of our Allies. (4) Assignment to duty and operation 
of naval vessels to increase the force in home waters. Des- 
patch abroad of miscellaneous craft for the army. (5) Pro- 
tection of these craft en route. (6) Protection of vessels 
engaged in coastwise trade. (7) Salvaging and assisting 
vessels in distress, whether for maritime causes or from the 
operations of the enemy. (8) Protection of oil supplies from 
the Gulf." 

It may be added that before the war began, during the 
period of what was called an armed neutrality, merchant ships 
were armed by the government for protection against the 
submarine, and crews from the navj^ assigned to work the 

On April 6, 1917, the day the United States declared war 
on Germany, there were 364 vessels on the navy list, and the 
regular navy comprised 64,680 enlisted men and 4,376 officers. 
On the day the armistice was signed, November 11, 1918, 
there were no fev^^er than 2,003 vessels in the service of the 
navy, and the total personnel had been increased to 540,059 — 
507,607 enlisted men and 32,452 officers. Including the 
reserves and marines and the several thousand workmen and 
civilian employees, there were more than 700,000 men and 
women under the naval establishment. 

On the day war was declared the enlistment and enroll- 
ment of the navy numbered 69,056 officers and men. On the 
day Germany signed the armistice, the enrollment of the navy 

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French Naval Escort <-> 

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278 America's Part in the World War 

had increased to 540,059 men and women, for it became 
necessary to enroll capable and patriotic women as yeomen 
to meet the sudden expansion and enlarged duties imposed by 
war conditions. 

The expansion of the navy before the war began had 
been very great. In 1912 there were 3,094 oflScers, and 47,515 
enlisted men. By July 1, 1916, the number enrolled was 
4,293 ofl&cers and 54,234 enlisted men. Again during that 
year it was increased to 68,700 men, and Congress had author- 
ized the President to augment that force to 87,800 men. On 
the outbreak of the war the navy was recruited to its full 
strength, and it was found that there were not sufficient 
officers for war work. 

The necessary reserves were found in the Naval Militia. 
This organization in 1913 was under state control with no 
federal supervision. In 1914 a Naval Militia under federal 
control was created with provision for its organization and 
training in peace as well as its utilization in war. It, how- 
ever, could not be used outside the territory limits of the 
United States, and to overcome tliis difficulty, the National 
Naval Volunteers were created in August, 1917. Under this 
act members of the Naval Militia organization were author- 
ized to volunteer for any emergency. 

Other laws, included in the same measure, provided for a 
reserve force, — with increase of the officer personnel in each 
corps to correspond with the increases in the number of 
enlisted men, — for a Naval Flying Corps, special engineering 
officers and the Naval Dental and Dental Reserve Corps. It 
also provided for taking over the Lighthouse Division in time 
of war. On July 1, 1917, the number of officers was increased 
to 8,038, the number of enlisted men to 171,133. By April, 
1918, there were 18,585 officers and 283,777 men. When the 
armistice was signed there were 32,452 officers and 507,607 
men. The development of the aviation corps in the navy was 
even more striking. When the war began the naval aviation was 
still in its infancy. On July 1, 1917, there were only forty-five 
naval aviators. On July 1, 1918, there were 823 naval 
aviators, with approximately 2,052 student officers and 4,000 
ground officers. In addition there were more than 7,300 

The Navy in the War 279 

trained mechanics, and more than 5,400 mechanics in training. 
The total enUsted and commissioned personnel at this time 
was about 30,000 men. On the day war was declared 197 
ships were in commission. On December 8, 1918, there were 
2,003, which were all furnished with trained officers and men, 
and crews and officers for many of the new merchant marine 
were supplied by the navy. 

The first duty of the navy after its entrance into the 
war was the destruction of the submarine menace. 

It was the illegal warfare conducted by Germany through 
her submarines that brought America into the war. In her 
desperation Germany was attempting to blockade the coasts 
of France and Great Britain by the use of these treacherous 
craft. Unless the dangers of the submarine were overcome 
America would not be able to aid the Allies with either men or 
supplies. Her ships could not cross the ocean, and Germany 
would win the war. All of the energy available then for new 
construction was directed toward vessels to deal with the 
submarine menace. More than 350 one-hundred-and-ten-foot 
wooden submarine chasers were completed during the first 
year of the war. Of these, fifty were transferred to France, 
and fifty more were ordered to France and completed during 
the second year. Orders for the construction of destroyers 
were placed which not only used up all capacity for production 
for more than a year, but required a great expansion of the 
existing facilities. 

Contracts were made for four battleships, one battle 
cruiser, two fuel ships, one transport, one gunboat, one 
ammunition ship, 223 destroyers, 58 submarines, 112 fabri- 
cated patrol vessels, including 12 for the Italian government, 
92 submarine chasers, including 50 for the French govern- 
ment, 51 mine sweepers, 25 seagoing tugs, and 46 harbor tugs, 
besides a large number of lighters, barges, and other minor 
harbor craft. Ships launched during the year up to October, 
1918, included one gunboat, 93 destroyers, 29 submarines, 26 
mine sweepers, four patrol vessels, and two seagoing tugs. 

There were added to the navy during the year two 
battleships, 36 destroyers, 28 submarines, 355 submarine 
chasers, 13 mine sweepers, and two seagoing tugs. There 

280 America's Part in the World War 

were also added by purchase, charter, etc., many hundred 
other vessels of various kinds, from former German Trans- 
Atlantic liners, to harbor tug boats and motor boats. During 
the year 1918 the construction of large vessels was to a great 
extent suspended. It was indeed only continued upon vessels 
which had already made material progress toward completion. 

One of the first forms of mobilization was the orga,nization 
of a fleet of mosquito craft to patrol the Atlantic coast, and 
keep on the watch for submarines. Many of these boats 
had been private yachts, and others were especially con- 
structed for this kind of patrol duty. Hundreds of young 
men from the colleges were included among those who vol- 
unteered for this work. War zones v/ere established along 
the whole coast line of the United States. The harbors were 
barred at night, and every endeavor made to prevent attacks 
by German submarines. The government also seized all 
wireless stations in the United States and dismantled those 
that the government did not need to use. 

One hundred and nine German ships which had been 
interned in American ports were seized. The Germans had 
endeavored to sink these ships, or prevent them from being 
useful by damaging their machinery, but they were all repaired 
and became an important part of our transport fleet. As new 
vessels were constructed, it was necessary to train crews for 
them on a large scale. Naval camps, therefore, were estab- 
lished at various points. The main ones were those at League 
Island, Philadelphia, Newport, Cape May, Charleston, Pensa- 
cola. Key West, Mare Island, Puget Sound, Hingham, Norfolk, 
New Orleans, Santiago, New York Navy Yard, Great Lakes, 
Pelham, Hampton Roads and Gulf Port. 

In connection with these camps schools in gunnery and 
engineering v^^ere established, and the training of gun crews by 
target practice became an important part of this work. Net 
only was this training done in connection with the big guns, 
but also with guns of smaller calibre, which were especially 
useful in the attacks that were made upon the submarine. 
One month after the declaration of war a division of 
destroyers was in European waters. By January 1, 1918, there 
were 113 United States naval ships across, and in October, 

The Navy in the War 281 

1918, the number had reached 338 ships of all classes. There 
were 5,000 officers, and 70,000 enlisted men serving in Europe, 
a greater force than the full strength of the navy when the 
United States entered the war. 

The destroyers had their base at Queenstown, where every 
facility was provided for the comfort and recreation of the 
officers and men. The destroyers and patrol vessels waged 
an unceasing offensive warfare against the submarine. And 
it may be noted that the losses by submarine which had 
reached their highest mark in April, 1917, began to diminish 
on May 4, when the xVmerican destroyer fleet arrived at 
Queenstown. Indeed, they were thoroughly prepared when 
they arrived for the work before them. 

The first fleet was under the command of Admiral William 
S. Sims. When they arrived, the British Commander w^ho 
came to welcome him asked: "\Mien w^ill you be ready for 

"We can start at once," replied Admiral Sims promptly. 

The Americans were in fact prepared, except that their 
uniforms were too light for the cool climate. The appearance 
of the American flotilla at Queenstown being the first appear- 
ance abroad of their new ally Vv'as made a most im^portant 
occasion by the English. Streets were decorated with the 
Stars and Stripes, moving pictures w^ere taken by the official 
British government photographer, and the water front was 
lined with an excited crowd carrying small American flags 
with much cheering and great enthusiasm. 

At the time of the appearance of the American fleet 
the danger from the German submarine was at its height. 
The monthly loss of merchant vessels for the Allies, and 
especially by Great Britain, had mounted to a dangerous point. 
The whole power of the American fleet, therefore, was directed 
against the submarine. Many new methods were used with 
different degrees of success. In the first place merchantmen 
were armed and provided with trained gun crews. In some 
cases what were called mystery ships were built, which pre- 
sented the appearance of unarmed merchantmen, but which 
would suddenly expose a powerful armament w'hen the 
submarine came within reach. 

282 America's Part in the World War 

The arming of the merchantmen did a great deal to 
lower the percentage of losses, and was bitterly resented by the 
Germans, as was shown in the case of Captain Charles Fryatt, 
a gallant British seaman and master of the steamship Brussels, 
who was captured by the Germans, courtmartialed and 
executed, because of his endeavor to fight when an officer of 
a merchant ship. 

Merchantmen were also instructed to pursue a zigzag 
course if attacked, and they were kept continually informed 
of the presence of submarines, and the safest courses to follow. 
At certain points great nets were used and blockades composed 
of anchored mines. 

The most effective means, however, of destroying the 
submarine seems to have been the organized efforts of the 
destroyers. The whole sea near Great Britain and France 
was divided into districts and each district carefully patrolled. 
When the submarine appeared its appearance was immediately 
reported to a central base, and destroyers were at once sent 
circling round the point where the submarine had been dis- 
covered. As the submarine could only travel at a certain 
amount of speed during a given time under water, it was 
possible to calculate when the locality was known about how 
far from that point it would be found at any later period. In 
course of time the submarine would be compelled to come up 
for air, and then it would be likely to find its foe waiting for it. 
When the destrover discovered the submarine it wasted no 
time in maneuvering, but immediately endeavored to ram, 
dropping death bombs as it passed over the point where it 
supposed the enemy to be. These bombs were constructed to 
explode under water, and the force of the explosion was so 
great that even though the bomb did not strike the submarine, 
it might seriously damage it and even throw it out of the 
water, when it would be at the mercy of its foe. 

Another effective weapon against the submarine was the 
plunging shell, which was fused to burst both on contact and 
at a certain depth beneath the water. Airplanes also and the 
small dirigible balloons, known as "blimps," not only aided 
in discovering the submarine but were able to drop bombs 
upon the point where they were observed. As the result 

The Navy in the War 283 

of the intensified effort of the American and alUed forces, 
the losses of merchant ships diminished rapidly in 1917, and 
by 1918 had almost disappeared. 

The second duty of the American fleet was to escort and 
guard vessels carrying troops and supplies between the allied 
countries. This was done by the escort system, which proved 
an almost complete defense against the danger of such sub- 
marines, as were able to pass through the allied blockade. 
Secretary Daniels in his report of December, 1918, said that 
this convoy system was suggested by President Wilson, and 
he continues: "It is probably our major operation in this 
v\^ar, and will in the future stand as the greatest and most 
difficult troop transporting effort which has ever been 
conducted across seas." 

In this report he summarizes the work of the American 
escort vessels during July and August, 1918. During that 
period 3,444,012 tons of shipping were escorted to and from 
France by American escort vessels. Of the tonnage escorted 
into French ports, only 16,988 tons were lost through enemy 
action, and of the tonnage escorted out from French ports 
only 27,858 tons were lost through the same cause. During 
the same period 259,604 American troops were escorted to 
France by United States escort vessels without the loss of a 
single man through enemy action. During the same period 
destroyers based on British ports supplied seventy-five per 
cent of the escort for 318 ships, totaling 2,752,908 men, and 
including escorted vessels carrying 137,283 United States 
troops, with no loss through enemy action. During the war 
American and British ships have carried over two million 
American troops overseas; 924,578 of these troops were 
transported under escort of the United States cruisers and 
destroyers. In these operations not one east-bound American 
transport has been torpedoed or damaged by the enemy and, 
according to Secretary Daniels, only three were sunk on the 
return voyage. The three American troopships sunk were the 
iV.ntilles, President Lincoln and the Covington. There were 
three fighting ships lost, the patrol ship Alcedo, the torpedo 
boat destroyer Jacob Jones, and the cruiser Santiago. 

The most serious loss of life was the loss of the coast guard 

284 America's Part in the World War 

cutter Tampa, with all on board, in Bristol channel on the 
night of September 26, 1917. The Tampa had gone ahead 
of her convoy, and the exact manner in which the vessel met 
its fate is unknown. In addition to these vessels mentioned 
by Secretary Daniels as being lost in connection with the 
convoy, the Tuscania was sunk in February, 1918, with a loss 
of 204 men, the Oronsa with a loss of three men, the Moldavia 
with a loss of fifty-five men, and several other transports were 
torpedoed with a slight loss, but were able to proceed to port. 

Besides the war against submarines, and the escort of 
naval convoys, the American Navy took an active part in the 
blockade of Germany, in connection with the English fleet, 
and also operated the transportation service which grew during 
the war from ten ships to a fleet of 321 cargo carrying ships, 
with a deadweight tonnage of 2,800,000 tons. This vast fleet 
was officered and manned Vvith a seagoing personnel from 
the American merchant marine, the officers and men of the 
United States Navy and graduates of technical schools and 
training schools developed by the navy since the United 
States entered the w^ar, some 5,000 officers and 29,000 enlisted 
men being required for the operation of this fleet. The 
navy also took part in the war on land, land batteries of 
fourteen-inch naval guns on railway mounts on the western 
front being manned by bluejackets under the command of 
Rear-Admiral C. P. Plunkett. 

The great deeds of the Marine Corps are also a part of the 
history of the American Navy in this war. With only 8,000 
men engaged casualties numbered 69 officers, 1531 men dead, 
and 78 officers and 2,435 men wounded. Only fifty-seven 
United States Marines w^ere captured by the enemy. The 
Marine Corps played a vital part in holding the German 
drive near Chateau-Thierry, and participated in the hard 
fighting near Rheims and in Champagne, and won for itseK 
imperishable glory. 

Among the oflScers who especially distinguished them- 
selves were Admiral Sims, Commander-in-Chief of American 
Naval Forces in European waters, Rear-Admiral Rodm,an, in 
command of the American battleships with the British fleet, 
Vice-Admiral Wilson in France, Rear-Admiral Niblack in 

P ■ 





2 ^ 





















The Navy in the War 287 

the Mediterranean, Rear-Admiral Dunn in the Azores, Rear- 
Admiral Strauss in charge of mining operations and Rear- 
Admiral Earle, head of the Bureau of Ordnance. 

The following tables from the report of Secretary Daniels 
to President Wilson show the number of American vessels 
sunk by the enemy, their tonnage and the number of lives 

Naval Vessels No. Tons Lives 
From April 6, 1917, to November 11, 1918: 

By Submarines 14 103,583 677 

By Mines 5 45,356 54 

By Collision 15 30,794 65 

Miscellaneous 14 31,128 348 

Total of navel vessels 48 210,861 1,144 

Merchant Vessels 
From August, 1914, to April 6. 1917: 

By Submarines 15 53,671 68 

By Mines 5 10,770 4 

By German Cruiser — Eitel Friedrich 1 3,374 

From April 6, 1917. to November 11, 1918: 

By Submarines 124 244,385 342 

By Raiders 6 4,388 

Total of merchant vessels 151 316,588 409 

Grand total 199 527,449 1,553 

The Antilles, the President Lincoln and the Covington 
were the only actual troop ships lost in the war by the cruiser 
and transport force. The Westbridge, a cargo carrier, reached 
a French port, the Mt. Vernon also got to port. 

Full reports from the commanding officers of these vessels 
are on record. From the report of Commander Daniel T. 
Ghent, the following selections are taken, as a typical descrip- 
tion of the experiences of American transports which were 
victims to German submarines: 

We left October 15th for America with the transports Henderson and 
Willehad in the convoy, and the Corsair, Kanawha and Alcedo as escort. 
All zigzagged as we knew the waters to be infested wath submarines. The 
second day we were forced to reduce our speed to permit the Willehad, 
which had been feeling the hea\'y seas, to regain formation. Passing 
through submarine zones everyone is on edge, and when fire was discovered 
early the following morning on the promenade deck everyone was stimu- 
lated to swift action. The fire was soon under control. A half hour later 
just before dayUght a torpedo w^as sighted heading for us two points abaft 
the port wheel. It was at least four hundred feet distant when sighted. 

288 America's Part in the World War 

The helm was put hard over to dodge, but the torpedo hit near the after 
engine room on the portside. 

The explosion was terrific. The ship shivered from stem to stern, 
listing immediately to port. A lookout on the main top was thrown clear 
of his five-foot canvas screen and killed. Guns were manned instantly 
but no submarine was seen. The engine room filled with ammonia fumes 
from the hoist machine and dynamo, and it was beheved everyone on duty 
in the engine room was instantly killed or disabled, except one oiler. 
Within a few seconds after the explosion the water was over the crossheads 
of the main engines, which were still turning over slowly. Of the twenty- 
one on duty in the engine and fire room only three escaped. Two firemen 
got through a ventilator safely. 

That only four boats out of ten succeeded in getting clear was due to 
several causes, the short time the ship remained afloat, the headway left 
on the ship due to the fact that the engine room personnel was put out of 
action, rough seas, hsting of the ship, and destruction of one boat by the 
explosion. The behaviour of the men was equal to the best traditions of 
the service. The two forv/ard gun crews remained at their stations while 
the ship went down, and made no move to save themselves until ordered to 
leave their stations. Radio Electrician Ausburne went down with the 
ship while at his station in the radio room. Ausburne and McMahon were 
asleep in the adjacent bunks opposite the radio room. 

ReaUzing the seriousness of the situation, Ausburne told McMahon 
to get his life preserver on, saying as he left to take his station at the 
radio key, "Good-bye, Mac." 

McMahon later finding the radio room locked and seeing the ship 
was sinking tried to get Ausburne out, but failed. The Henderson made a 
thick screen of smoke which completely hid her from view as soon as she 
saw what had happened. The Willehad made off at her best speed. 
The Corsair and Alcedo circled for two hours when the Alcedo began the 
rescue of survivors, and the Corsair continued to look for the submarine. 
The Antilles had 234 men on board. Too much credit cannot be given to 
the officers and men of the Corsair and Alcedo for their work, whole- 
heartedness and generosity. The work of their medical officer was of the 

An instance comes back to me of the coolness of the gim's crew. One 
member was rescued from the top of an ammunition box, which by some 
means had floated clear, and in an upright position. He semaphored the 
Corsair not to come too close, when he saw her approaching to pick him 
up as the box contained live ammunition. 

The reports of Commander P. W. Foote, of the President 
Lincoln, and Captain R. D. Hasbrouck, of the Covington, tell 
very similar stories. After the President Lincoln had sunk, 
a large German submarine emerged and came among the 

The Navy in the War 289 

boats and crafts searching for the commanding officer, and 
some of the senior officers whom they desired to take prisoners. 
The submarine commander was able to identify only one 
officer. Lieutenant E. V. M. Isaacs, whom he took on board. 

During the last year of the war the appropriations by 
Congress for the navy amounted to $3,250,000,000. In the 
regular appropriation bill signed on July 1, 1918, several 
changes of policy in connection with the navy were embodied. 
Among them was the abolition of the seniority rule, and the 
establishment of the method of promotion by selection 
throughout the navy. This was strongly approved by Secre- 
tary Daniels. Another was the abolition of the National 
Naval Volunteers, and the transfer of the members thereof 
to the Naval Reserve. The permanent enlisted strength of 
the navy was increased from 87,000 to 131,485 men, and it was 
provided that an increase of officers should come automatically 
with the increase of ships and the men to man them. In the 
end the new law will give eighteen additional rear admirals, 
seventy-two captains, 125 commanders, and over sixteen 
hundred of the lower grades of service. The Marine Corps 
was permanently increased to seventy-five thousand men, with 
one new major-general, one temporary major-general, six 
brigadier-generals, twenty-two colonels, and twenty-two lieu- 
tenant-colonels. The sum of $220,000,000 was provided for 
aviation, and large appropriations made for ordnance. The 
bill also directed the construction of a modern dry-dock at 
Charleston, S. C, which could be used by ships of only the 
dreadnought type. 


The Story of the Marines 

IT is fitting that separate record should be made of the 
United States Marine Corps' share in the World VVar. 
This famous organization has a tradition that makes of 
it one of the corps d'elite of the world. 

Although it is part of the organization of the Navy 
Department it operates on land and in the air as well as at 
sea. Its insignia — the globe, the anchor and the eagle— are 
emblematic of the variety of its service. 

The record of the marines in the World War is in keeping 
with the best traditions of that spirited organization. No 
branch of any service on either side had a prouder record. 

That portion of the marines in France which served with 
the 2d Division formed the 4th Brigade and consisted of the 
5th and 6th Regiments and the 6th Machine Gun Battalion. 
Their activities were as follows: 

Verdun sector Mar. U to May 14, 1918 

Chateau-Thierry sector May 31 to July 9, 1918 

Soissons offensive July 18 to July 20, 1918 

Marbache sector Aug. 9 to Aug. 20, 1918 

St. Mihiel offensive Sept. 9 to Sept. 16, 1918 

Champagne offensive (Blanc Mont) Sept. 30 to Oct. 9, 1918 

Meuse-Argonne offensive Oct. 30 to Nov. 11, 1918 

March to the Rhine Nov. 17 to Dec. 13, 1918 

Army of Occupation, Germany Dec. 1 to 

There were 30,821 marines sent overseas as follows: 

Naval Headquarters, London 77 

Expeditionary Detachment, Azores 120 

First Marine Corps Aero Company 69 

Detachment, Cardiff, Wales 97 

Ships Detachments 1,300 

Navy Personnel 937 

American Expeditionary Forces 27,721 

Twelfth Replacement Battalion A. E. F 500 

Of these 59.4 per cent were engaged in actual battle. 


The Story of the Marines 291 

The following decorations were bestowed upon officers 
and men of the Marine Corps: 


Medal of Honor 1 

Distinguished Service Medal 4 

Distinguished Ser\ace Cross 87 

Croix de Guerre (French) 198 

Legion of Honor 7 

Ordre de la Couronne — Chevaher 1 

Croix de Guerre (Belgian) 

Medaille Militaire 













298 1,126 1,424 

In addition to the individual citations given in the above 
table two regiments of marines, about 3,000 men each, and 
one machine-gun battalion of 600 men were cited, and two of 
the organizations were cited twice. This gives every man in 
the organizations the croix de guerre. 

The casualty list is given in detail below: 

Killed in action: Officers 49 

Men 1,553 


Died of wounds : Officers 30 

Men 796 


Died of disease: Officers 18 

Men 280 


Accidentally killed : Officers 1 

Men 13 


Died (other causes) : Officers 2 

Men 5 


Total of death (all causes) : Officers 100 

Men 2,647 


292 AmeriQa's Part in th9 World War 

Wounded (severely) : Officers 9 

Men 1,951 


Wounded slightly : Officers 

Men 608 


Wounded (degree undetermined) : Officers 146 

Men 5,985 


Total wounded: Officers 238 

Men 8,544 


In hands of enemy : Officers 


Missing: Officers 

Men 132 


The marines who served at Chateau-Thierry sector, 
Bouresches, etc., etc., were mainly the 5th and 6th Regiments 
and the 6th Machine Gun Battalion. Other units, from which 
replacements were drawn and a portion of whose personnel 
fought in different actions as such replacements, were the 
11th and 13th Regiments and various base detachments, etc. 

The average percentage of marines with the Service of 
Supplies back of the lines was 18.6. 

Marine Corps aviators formed the day wing of the 
Northern Bombing Group. Marine avaiators served with 
Squadrons 213 (Pursuit Squadron), 217 and 218 (Bombing 
Squadrons), of the Royal Flying Corps of Great Britain, and 
with pursuit, observation and bombing squadrons of French 
Flying Corps. 

A tribute to the valor and vigor of the entire 2d American 
Division with which the marines were brigaded at Chateau- 
Thierry was given in the following report of the German 
Intelligence Section which was captured later by the French: 

The Story of the Marines 293 


'The 2d American Division may be considered a very- 
good division, perhaps even an assault division. The various 
attacks of the two regiments upon Belleau Wood were exe- 
cuted with dash and intrepidity. The moral effect of our 
fire was not able to seriously check the advance of the infan- 
try. The nerves of the Americans are not yet worn out." 

During the war, the following troops of marines served 
with the American Expeditionary Forces in France: 5th 
Regiment, 6th Regiment, 1st Machine Gun Battalion, 
1st, 2d, and 3d Replacement Battalions, 1st Machine Gun 
Replacement Battalion, 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th Separate Battal- 
ions, 1st and 2d Casual Replacement Battalions, 1st Separate 
Machine Gun Battalion, and 13th Regiment, totaling 495 
officers and 19,807 men; and a part of the 11th Regiment, 
totaling 45 officers and 1,514 men. 

The Secretary of the Navy's recital of the gallant work 
of the marines was included in Chapter X, "America's Glory 
at Chateau-Thierry." 

General Orders No. 46, Headquarters of the 2d Division 
of the American Expeditionary Forces in France, dated July 
21, 1918, paid this tribute to the marines: 

It is wath keen pride that the division commander transmits to the 
command the congratulations and affectionate personal greetings of Gen- 
eral Pershing, who visited the division headquarters last night. His praise 
of the gallant work of the division on the 18th and 19th is echoed by the 
French High Command, the 3d Corps commander, American Expeditionary- 
Forces, and in a telegram from the former division commander. In spite 
of two sleepless nights, long marches through rain and mud, and the dis- 
comforts of hunger and thirst, the division attacked side by side with the 
gallant 1st Moroccan Division and maintained itself mth credit. You 
advanced over six miles, captured over 3,000 prisoners, 11 batteries of 
artillery, over 100 machine guns, minnenwerfers, and supplies. The 2d 
Division has sustained the best traditions of the Regular Army and the 
Marine Corps, The story of your achievements will be told in millions of 
homes in all allied lands tonight. 

The following letter from the mayor of Meaux, dated 
June 26, 1918, to the commanding general of the 2d Division, 
American Expeditionary Forces, with w^hich the marines were 
serving is self-explanatory : 

294 America's Part in the World War 

On behalf of all the mayors of the Meaux district assembled in con- 
gress at the city hall, I have the honor to send you herewith a copy of the 
resolution they have taken m order to pay homage to the gallantry dis- 
played by the troops under your command and to the effectiveness of the 
help they rendered us. 

The civilian population of this part of the country will never forget 
that at the beginning of this month of June, when their homes were threat- 
ened by the invader, the 2d American Division victoriously stepped forth 
and succeeded in saving them from impending danger. 

I am personally happy to be able to convey to you this modest token 
of their thankfulness, and I am. General, 

Yours, respectfully, 

(Signed) G. Leegol, 
Mayor of Meaux, Depute de Seine et Mame. 


The mayors of the Meaux district, who were eye witnesses to the 
generous and efficacious deeds of the American Army in stopping the 
enemy advance, send to this army the heartfelt expression of their 
admiration and gratefulness. 
Meaux, June 25, 1918. 

The President of the Committee, 
(Signed) G. Leegol. 

Official commendation of the bravery of the marines was 
given in this telegram from the expeditionary commander-in- 
chief to General Omar Bundy, their divisional commander: 

Please accept for the division and convey to General Harbord and the 
officers and men under him my sincere congratulations for the splendid 
conduct of the attack on the German lines north of Chateau-Thierry. 
It was a magnificent example of American courage and dash. 


An Avalanche of Munitions 

THE great war was not a war of armies against armies 
alone, but of peoples against peoples. To put in 
France an army of two million men in nineteen months 
was an extraordinary feat. The armies, however, had to be 
equipped and supplied, and for this purpose it was necessary 
to enlist the full power of the American workshops and 
factories, and the mobilization of industry and production of 
munitions was quite as important as the organization and 
training of troops. 

When the war first began, the gravity of the situation was 
hardly realized. It was even thought that America could 
do her part without sending troops abroad, that the armies 
of the Allies were competent to defeat the Central Powers, 
and that the financial and moral support of America would 
be all the aid which America need give. There was even open 
opposition among many patriotic citizens to sending troops 
out of the country. 

As the months passed by, however, it became plain that 
the situation of the Allies was a serious one. Men were 
needed, for France had been bled white, and the operations 
of the German submarines were so effective that it was no 
easy task for America to send to Europe either troops or 
munitions. America found it necessary, therefore, not only 
to ship food to the Allies and give them the aid of their 
financial support, not only to send them munitions of war, 
but to collect a great army herself, and to equip that great 
army and train it so that it could be able to face the veteran 
German troops. 

During the summer of 1917, continual conferences took 
place between American representatives and allied leaders, 
and the American plans developed as the result of such con- 
ferences. In the Supreme War Council General Bliss repre- 

17 (295) 


America's Part in the World War 

sented the United States, General Foch represented France, 
General Robertson, Great Britain. Premier Clemenceau of 
France, Winston Churchill, the British Minister of Munitions, 
and Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England also took 
part. One of the outcomes of these conferences was what 
may be called the International Ordnance agreement. The 
substance of this agreement was cabled to Washington by 

lieSit artillsry 
iBritiBii [ 

5.593 I 

Ezsrj artillery 
Brltlfih ( 


Sii^t artillei7 Bholls 
Brltldi I 



Eeory artillery shells 


British and American Production of Artillert Ammunition Produced 

General Bliss, and in order to understand the American policy, 
the essential parts of this agreement must be kept in mind: 

The representatives of Great Britain and France state that their 
production of artillery (field and heavy) is now established on so large 
a scale that they are able to equip completely all American divisions as 
they arrive in France during the year 1918, with the best make of British 
and French guns and howitzers. 

The British and French ammunition supply and reserves are sufficient 
to provide the requirements of the American Army thus equipped at 
least up to June, 1918, provided that the existing six-inch shell plants in 
the United States and Dominion of Canada are maintained in full activity, 
and provided that the manufacture of six-inch howitzer carriages in the 
United States is to some extent sufficiently developed. 

An Avalanche of Munitions 297 

On the other hand the French, and to a lesser extent the British, 
require as soon as possible large supphes of propellants and high explosives, 
and the British require the largest possible production of six-inch howitzers 
from now onward, and of eight-inch, and nine and two-tenth-inch shells 
from June onward. 

In both these matters they ask the assistance of the Americans. 
With a view, therefore, first, to expedite and facilitate the equipment of 
the American Army in France, and second, to secure the maximum ulti- 
mate development of the ammunition supply with the minimum strain 
upon available tonnage, the representatives of Great Britain and France, 
propose that the American field, medium and heavy artillery be suppUed 
in 1918, and as long after as may be found convenient from British and 
French factories, and they ask: (a) that the American efforts shall be 
immediately directed to the production of propellants and high explosives 
on the largest possible scale; and (&) Great Britain also asks that the 
six-inch, eight-inch, and nine and two-tenth-inch shell plants already 
created for the British service in the United States, shall be mamtained 
m the highest activity, and that large additional plants for the manu- 
factm-e of these shells shall at once be laid out. 

In this way alone can the tonnage difficulty be minimized, and 
potential artillery development, both in guns and shells, of the combined 
French, British and American armies be maintamed in 1918 and still 
more in 1919. 

According to this agreement, therefore, American troops 
in France during the year 1918 were to be equipped with 
British and French guns and howitzers, and America was to 
deVote her energy to the production of munitions of high 
quality, with the object of bringing the full weight of Ameri- 
can power into the conflict, not in the year 1918, but in 1919 
or even in 1920. The collapse of Germany in 1918, therefore, 
occurred before the American force had been developed to its 
utmost, and thus gave opportunity to the superficial critic 
who observes that the American troops in France were 
dependent upon French and Enghsh supphes. 

The American Army in France had few American air- 
planes, it had few American guns and none at all from America 
of certain essential calibres. It used no American gas shells, 
and was largely equipped with French and British machine 
guns. But the impression produced by such criticism would 
be entirely unjustified. The American production of muni- 
tions was in reality an amazing feat, and although the full force 
of her effort was not felt because of the sudden ending of the 

298 America's Part in the World V/ar 

war, the supplies furnished by her to the allied troops exceeded 
many times those furnished to her troops, by the English and 
the French. 

A recollection of the developments of the war during the 
years 1917-18 will make plain the soundness of the allied and 
American strategy. When America entered the war in 1917, 
Russia was still in the field and nearly half of the German 
armies was employed in operations against them. The 
Allies largely outnumbered the German forces. Their need 
was not of men but of supplies. 

It was the collapse of the Russian power during that year 
that enabled the Germans to throw their full force upon their 
western front, and it was this that made it necessary for 
America to send over troops as rapidly as possible. The 
British and the French being already able to supply these 
troops, it would be unwise for America to waste her time in 
producing quickly munitions of an indifferent class. The 
Russian collapse, therefore, brought about the change in 
policy, and the spring of 1918 showed the German armies 
fighting desperately to win the war before America could 
use its strength. 

If Germany had been disposed, after the tide of battle 
turned against her, to fight as desperately on the defensive 
as the French had done in the first days of the war, in defense 
of Paris, the war might easily have lasted as predicted by the 
military experts of the Allies throughout the j^^ear 1920. 

American munitions were not largely used by American 
troops during 1918. This, however, was not the result of the 
inefficiency of American production, but a condition arising 
from the agreements of America with the Supreme War 
Council of the Allies in accordance vv^ith a well-reasoned plan. 
The millions of men sent across the ocean during the year 
1918 were more than three times the number contemplated 
for that period during the previous year. These reinforce- 
ments to the allied man-power were absolutely necessary, and 
the necessity of sending them interfered with the shipping of 

Lieutenant-Colonel Repington, the British military critic, 
sums up the situation as follows: "The British War Cabinet 

An Avalanche of Munitions 299 

implored America to send in haste all available infantry and 
machine guns, and placed at her disposal, to her great sur- 
prise, a large amount of transports to hasten arrival. The 
American Government acceded to this request in the most 
loyal and generous manner. Assured by their Allies in 
France that the latter could fit out the American Infantry 
divisions on their arrival with the guns, horses and transports, 
the Americans packed their infantry tightly in the ships, and 
left to a later occasion the despatch to France of guns, horses, 
transports, labor units, flying service, rolling stock and a 
score of other things originally destined for transport with the 

If subsequently, and indeed, up to the day that the 
armistice was signed. General Pershing found himself short 
of many indispensable things, and if his operations were 
thereby conducted under real difficulties, of which he must 
have been only too sensible, the defects were not due to him 
and his staff, nor to the Washington administration, nor to the 
resolute General March and his able fellow-workers, but solely 
to the self-sacrificing manner in which America had responded 
to the call of her friends. 

The work done by the Ordnance Department of the 
United States, under the admirable direction of Benedict 
Crowell, Assistant Secretary of War and Director of Muni- 
tions, was an immense one, and full of complexities. The 
ordnance does not mean artillery alone. The American 
ordnance catalogue of supplies contains more than 100,000 
separate items. Thousands of these had had to be designed 
and produced for the first time during the war. 

When Am.erica entered the war not only was her army so 
small that its power would not have been felt if it had been 
sent to Europe without reinforcement, but its equipment was 
comparatively meager, and there was in the country but 
little knowledge of the technique of ordnance production. 
The whole commissioned personnel of the American Ordnance 
Department consisted of ninety-seven officers, only ten of 
this number were trained so as to be able to design artillery 
weapons. For the army, which it was planned to put in the 
field, would be needed eleven thousand trained officers. To 

300 America's Part in the World War 

take care of this need alone from the civilian population would 
be an extraordinary feat. 

In 1914 there were but six government arsenals and two 
private ordnance works able to produce heavy weapons. 
During the period before our entrance into the war, many 
war industries sprang up and sent their product to the armies 
of the Allies, but there were only about twenty firms manu- 
facturing artillery ammunition, big guns, rifles and machine 
guns for the Allies. On November 11, 1918, nearly 8,000 
manufacturing plants were working on ordnance contracts for 
the United States. 

During this period wonders were done. Thousands of 
new kinds of ordnance had to be produced, many of which 
were entirely unknown to the American experts. The Allies 
furnished plans, specifications, working models, secret devices 
and complete manufacturing processes. New factories were 
built, new tools constructed, and new methods of production 

Some idea of ordnance development since 1914 may be 
obtained by enumeration of some of its more important items. 
In the artillery, for instance, we find the baby two-man cannon 
of thirty-seven millimeters, used by troops in the field against 
machine-gun emplacements. Then there were the famous 
75 's, and guns of similar size used in shelling the enemy's 
middle area. Then came the eight-inch and nine and two- 
tenth-inch howitzers, with the 240-millimeter howitzer. 

Then there were the great guns running from eight- 
inch to fourteen-inch in calibre used in pounding the depots 
in the enemy's back area. These weapons were of tre- 
mendous weight, and required especially strengthened cars to 
enable them to be fired from a standard heavy railway track. 
For such guns as these, immense quantities of shell or shrapnel 
had to be produced, and an immense amount of heavy equip- 
ment manufactured to drag them into place. Then, too, 
repair shops must be fitted out for each division, with base 
repair shops of three times as great capacity as all the 
manufacturing arsenals in the United States in time of peace. 

Millions of shoulder rifles and millions of cartridges for 
them had to be manufactured, and machine guns by tens of 

An Avalanche of Munitions 301 

thousands. Then came sighting instruments of the most 
deUcate kind, and hundreds of thousands of automatic pistols 
for the personal equipment of each soldier, and trench knives 
with heavily weighted handles. Then there were mortars, 
the sizes ranging from the three-inch Stokes to the great 
240-millimeter trench gun, with a great variety of bombs and 
shells; and hand grenades, some of them gas grenades, some 
molten metal grenades, some paper grenades to kill by con- 
cussion, and rifle grenades, fitted on the muzzle of a rifle. 

In addition there were the Livens projectors to throw 
gas containers, and bayonets, and bolos, and helmets, peri- 
scopes, range finders, and most important of aU, tanks — the 
** whippet" tanks, the six-ton tanks, and the heavy tanks. 
And there were also the machine guns for airplanes, incendiary 
bullets for hostile balloons, tracer bullets and many ingenious 
contrivances to assist the airman's accuracy; the drop bombs 
for the bombing machines; the personal equipment of the 
troops, their belts, haversacks, their holsters; cutlery for the 
mess, shotguns and hundreds of similar items. 

Many of these articles had never been made in this 
country, many of them never before made in any country, 
while some, of course, such as automobiles, trucks, mess 
equipment and the like were familiar enough. Moreover, the 
demand for munitions was very much greater than would be 
expected from the numerical expansion of the army. 

When an army is doubled in number it takes approxi- 
mately twice as much clothing as before, but the consumption 
of ammunition in the time of war is increased many times. 
In the present war, the increase was startling. 

In the American Civil War, at the Battle of Gettysburg, 
the Union forces expended 32,781 rounds of artiUery ammuni- 
tion. In the battle of the Somme, the British expended four 
million rounds, while in the battle of St. Mihiel, the United 
States used 1,970,217 rounds of artillery ammunition. 

The use of artillery, preceding infantry action, had 
enormously increased, and as the war developed there was an 
increasing tendency to depend upon the mechanical or machine 
gun methods of fighting as opposed to those emphasizing the 
human factor. An army machine gun in time of peace might 

302 America's Part in the World War 

need for practice 6,000 rounds a year. In the great war, one 
such gun would need 288,875 rounds of ammunition. A 
three-inch field gun, in time of peace, would use 125 rounds of 
ammunition a year. In the war, the estimated supply for 
each gun was 22,750 rounds for each gun. 

Many more guns were used in the great war than ever 
before. In the equipment for a division in the United States 
in time of peace each infantry division was supposed to have 
fifty machine guns. When the war ended, such a division 
would have 260 heavy machine guns, and 768 light automatic 
rifles. If the war had continued, an additional number of 
automatic rifles would have been added to the divisional 
equipment. Horses were much less used. This meant an 
enormous use of gasoline motors. The total cost of the 
ordnance estimated as necessary for the American Army was 
between twelve and thirteen billions of dollars. 

The successful accomplishment of the task set before the 
American Ordnance Department was one of the most remark- 
able performances in connection with the war. It was only 
made possible by the fact that the American people have an 
astonishing gift for organization, that the country contains 
enormous stores of raw material, and the selective service law 
left in the workshops a splendid body of skilled mechanics 
and men of engineering skill, perhaps superior to those of any 
other nation. 

In nineteen months America produced over 2,500,000 
shoulder rifles, many more than those produced by either 
France or England in the same period; 2,879,000,000 rounds 
of rifle and machine-gun ammunition were also manufactured, 
a quantity somewhat less than that produced by France or 
England this being due to the fact that France and England 
had their production in a higher state of development at the 
beginning of this period, while America had to begin almost at 
the beginning. 

America also produced as many machine guns and auto- 
matic rifles as did Great Britain during this time, an extra- 
ordinary feat when we remember how long a time must 
elapse before machine-gun factories can be properly equipped 
for work. America's production of high explosive shells, 

TJ. iS'. Offici^'l rhiitujraph. 


A battery of trusty "75.s." so well-beloved by French artillerymen, was in equally high favor 
with the Yanks, wlio worked this type of field-piece with record speed. 

V . S. Official riiolograph. 


At dawn, as "good morning" to the Hun, this American battery of "155s" icts go a salvo 

onto the enemy's lines north of the Argonne Forest. 





. 4) 


o -^ 
c c 


« 6 








An Avalanche of Munitions 305 

gas shell and shrapnel was similarly developed, and in the 
last months of the war practically in all such forms of muni- 
tions the American Ordnance Department was producing a 
greater quantity than any other nation. 

When it is said that the American Army found it neces- 
sary to purchase much artillery and other supplies abroad, it 
must be remembered that it was constantly selling ordnance, 
or material for munitions to the allied governments. From 
April 6, 1917, to November 11, 1918, purchases from allied 
governments amounted to $450,234,256. The sales from 
the Ordnance Department to the allied governments amounted 
to $200,616,402, while the sales by other United States manu- 
facturers was $2,940,787,984. The sales to the allied govern- 
ments were five times the purchases. 


The first, and perhaps the most important form of muni- 
tions is the gun. The technical history of warfare is very 
largely a story of gun development. In times of peace, mili- 
tary powers are constantly experimenting and inventors are 
constantly planning to obtain more powerful guns. The 
problem is not simply the production of the gun that can 
fire a very great distance. If that were all, the famous long- 
range gun of the Germans, which was used against Paris in 
the spring of 1918, would be the greatest gun in the world. 
Such a gun, however, should be considered rather as a freak, 
than a useful weapon of warfare. It would be soon worn out, 
and the damage inflicted by it was not proportionate to the 

Something more is necessary than great range for a 
gun's successful use. It must be possible to transport it 
readily, and it must have a reasonably long life, and a possi- 
bility of repair. Closely connected, therefore, with the 
manufacture of such guns must be the production of a gun 
carriage, which must be able to take care of the recoil of the 
gun. The gun also to be useful must be capable of being fired 
rapidly. The 75-millimeter gun of our modern army can be 
fired at the rate of twenty shots a minute. The larger guns 
set up on railway mounts, as well as on fixed emplacements, 

306 America's Part in the World War 

usually are fired but once a minute. Rapid firing heats the 
gun and lessens its life. To produce guns, therefore, of great 
range, of power, which can be quickly moved, quickly fired, 
and readily repaired is the object of the artillery experts. 

In the production of a fourteen-inch gun it may require 
thousands of workmen and more than ten months of time to 
produce the gun ready for the first test. One such gun costs 
$200,000. The life of such a gun at the normal rate of firing 
is 150 shots, each of which will last about one-fiftieth of a 
second. The gun, therefore, which has taken ten months to 
build has a life of only three seconds. Such a gun, however, 
may be repaired so as to be fit for service without great 
expense or time. To be a useful weapon it must be made of 
the very best material and constructed by expert workmen. 
Before the war, very few such guns were manufactured in any 
country in the world, except in Germany. There were only 
two manufacturers in the United States who had the equip- 
ment for the manufacture of these guns. 

Before America entered the war, the gun makers of this 
country were fully occupied with orders from the French and 
Enghsh armies, and this work which was immediately useful 
for the Allies was allowed to go forward. American manu- 
facturers were also sending to Great Britain and France great 
quantities of partly finished ordnance material. At this time 
there were nineteen factories which were practically at full 
operation. The number employed in this production by 
October, 1918, was more than 42,000. The producton of the 
gun, however, was not the whole story. Each one of these 
guns had to be equipped with mechanism to take up the recoil, 
to render it mobile on the field. 

The manufacture of the equipment was in reality the 
most difficult problem presented to the government. The 
recoil mechanism known as the recuperator has to be finished 
with the precision of a watch. The action of a 240-millimeter 
recuperator after a shot is equivalent to stopping a locomotive 
engine traveling at fifty miles an hour in less than four feet 
in half a second. American ingenuity, however, was equal 
to the situation. The obstacles in the way were overcome, and 
the recuperators began to come. 

An Avalanche of Munitions 307 

The smallest weapon of all the field guns built in America 
was a French 37-millimeter gun. This was dragged along by 
foot soldiers and used to break up machine-gun nests, and 
German concrete pill-boxes. The most useful piece of 
artillery was the 75-millimeter gun which made up almost 
half of the American field artillery. Other important big 
guns were the 155-millimeter howitzer, which previous to the 
war had only been built in France, and the anti-aircraft guns 
on truck mounts which were a development of the war. 

An interesting feature of ordnance production is what 
may be called railway artillery. When the war began many 
heavy guns, which were being used in coast defense or by the 
navy, were in the possession of the United States. To make 
them available for use the Ordnance Department devised the 
plan of mounting them on railway cars. Mortars on railway 
cars had been used in the American Civil War, and later 
artillery so mounted had become a feature of the American 
coast defense. 

The construction of railway mounts for great guns became 
an important feature of munition work. Each unit is a heavy 
train in itself with ammunition cars, fire-control cars, spare 
parts cars, and supply cars as well as the mount for the gun. 
After each discharge the whole mount moves backward along 
the track for twenty or thirty feet. 


While America was thus struggling with the problem of 
producing great and small guns, with the idea of using them 
in quantity in the year 1919, and relying upon the allied 
Governments for her needs in 1918, her production of 
explosives, propellants and artillery ammunition was being 
stimulated to the utmost. It was these munitions which the 
armies of France and Great Britain needed most. The 
result was an enormous production of such munitions, no 
other phase of the ordnance program being developed to such 
a degree. The propellant is the powder that sends a shell 
from a gun, the explosive is the bursting charge in a shell. 

In the nineteen months during which America was a 
belligerent, America produced 632,504,000 pounds of pro- 

308 America's Part in the World War 

pellants. In those same nineteen months France produced 
342,155,000 pounds, and Great Britain 291,706,000 pounds, 
America, therefore, producing about as much as England and 
France together. During the same period, America produced 
375,656,000 pounds of explosives. In those same months, 
England produced 765,110,000 pounds of such explosives, 
while France produced 702,964,000 pounds. In the last 
month of the war x^merica was producing 42,775,000 pounds, 
France was producing 17,311,000 pounds, and England 
12,550,000 pounds. In the production of artillery ammuni- 
tion at the end of the war, America was producing 7,044,000 
rounds as against 7,748,000 rounds for Great Britain, and 
6,661,000 rounds for France. 

The slow American production of such explosives was 
due to the fact that when America entered the war the exist- 
ing American explosive manufacturers were operating to 
their very limit, for the allied governments. Even though the 
business had increased enormously they had fallen short of 
meeting demands. It was necessary, therefore, for the 
Ordnance Department, while not interfering with the great 
production then going on for the Allies, to expand enormously 
the facilities for further production. And that meant the 
production of entirely new manufacturing plants. Fifty- 
three such plants were undertaken at a cost of $360,000,000. 
By the end of the war, most of this construction work was 
completed and in full operation. 

The problem of the Ordnance Department, however, 
was not simply how to increase production. It was necessary 
to make careful investigation and experiment to decide upon 
the best policy in the selection of explosives, and the production 
of material necessary for their manufacture. The standard 
filling scheme was as follows: "Trinitrotoluol — T. N. T. — 
for shell, between and including the calibres of 75-millimeter 
and 4.7-inch; amatol for shell of calibres between 4.7-inch 
and 9.2-inch, including the latter; ammonium picrate for 
shell of ten-inch calibre and higher," To obtain the raw 
materials necessary for the production of these explosives was 
a most difficult undertaking, and necessitated the invention 
of many new processes. 

An Avalanche of Munitions 309 

The term propellant includes smokeless powder and 
black powder. In 1914, America was able to produce 1,500,000 
pounds of smokeless powder each month. When America 
entered the war, this capacitj^ had been increased about 
thirty times, and the entrance of America indicated the 
necessity for a greater increase. New smokeless powder 
plants were, therefore, constructed, the two largest being 
the Old Hickory plant, near Nashville, Tenn. and the Nitre 
plant near Charleston, W. Va. 

The Old Hickory plant was the biggest plant of its kind 
in the world, with a capacity of one million pounds a day, 
built at a cost of nearly $90,000,000. It covers an area of 
5,000 acres, and in connection with it there was built a city 
housing twenty odd thousand people, with schools, churches 
and other city features. The plant at Nitro has a capacity 
of 625,000 pounds a day and it also necessitated the building 
of a large town for the housing of its workmen. In making 
smokeless powder new processes were invented diminishing 
the time required. The question of black powder did not 
present many difficulties, it being produced at the rate of 
840,000 pounds a month when the armiistice was signed. 

The problem of loading powder into fixed ammunition 
was quite as important as the problem of manufacturing it, 
and required the establishment of great plants and the labor 
of thousands of operators. The manufacture of the shell was 
also an important phase of munition work and several new 
inventions to improve the efficiency of the shell were pro- 
duced. Among these were two improvements invented by 
Major F. R. Molton, who before the war had been Professor 
of Astronomy at the University of Chicago. Major Molton 
designed a plan for remedying the inaccuracy of the six-inch 
shell by redesigning the rotating band, and he also elongated 
the nose of the shell and tapered its sides making the first 
American stream-Hne design. This added two or three miles 
to the range. 


Another matter of immense importance was the pro- 
duction of sights and fire-control apparatus. The old days 

310 America's Part in the World War 

for firing a cannon point blank at an invisible enemy are 
gone by. Artillerists are now firing at objects below the 
horizon or behind hills and mountains. This is what is 
known as indirect firing, and has been brought to great 
perfection. By it when an enemy battery has been discovered, 
attacking gunners located miles aw^ay, the battery is de- 
stroyed with an avalanche of shell. Or a wall of missiles is 
laid down a few yards ahead of a body of advancing troops, 
and kept steadily moving forward ahead of the moving 
soldiers. This is called the barrage. To obtain such results, 
fire-control apparatus must be of extreme precision. 

Among the instruments of the artillery officer are aiming 
circles, azimuth instruments, battery commander telescopes, 
prismatic compasses, plotting boards, and field glasses. In 
aiming the gun there are sights of different types, elevation 
quadrants, clinometers and other instruments. One of the 
most important of these is the panoramic sight, used in firing 
at an unseen target. Other instruments such as range deflec- 
tion boards, deviation boards and wind indicators, also 
self-luminous aiming posts used at night, and on airplanes, 
sights to aid the pilot in dropping bombs under gun fire — all 
these had to be provided. 

To produce apparatus of this kind in the quantities 
desired was no easy undertaking, and many of the firms 
engaged in the optical industry before the war were under 
German influence. Optical glass was procured almost entirely 
from Germany. To meet the situation it was necessary to 
increase the existing facilities and to convert other industries 
to the production of fire-control material. This was done 
with gTcat success, and though American fire-control instru- 
ments did not reach the front in large numbers, great quanti- 
ties were in process of manufacture, and if the war had lasted 
another year the American product woidd have cared for all 
of the needs of the army. 

The manufacture of optical glass, after a number of 
unsatisfactory experiments, was referred to the Geophysical 
Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution, which by November, 
1917, had solved the problem, and was producing large 
quantities of optical glass of good quality. 

An Avalanche of Munition* 811 


Another feature of the production of the Ordnance 
Department was the complete motorization of field artillery. 
Previous to our entry into the war our field artillery had been 
drawn by horses, but the horse was now replaced by mechan- 
ical power. Trucks necessary for this purpose were readily 
produced by the various American motor companies. For 
moving large guns caterpillar tractors of various types were 

One of the most striking, and also most important weap- 
ons produced by the great war is what is known as a tank. 
The terrific destruction caused by the machine guns and other 
instruments of precision had directed the attention of every 
inventive mind in the allied armies to some method of pro- 
tection for advancing troops, but not until the tanlv appeared 
did it seem that any successful attack upon entrenched 
soldiers could be made without terrific loss. It is still unde- 
cided as to whom the credit of the invention should be given. 
The fundamental feature of the tank is the caterpillar tractor 
device which enables the tank to overcome almost any kind 
of obstruction. This was invented by an American. The 
French, however, were the first to build tanks, and the French 
government awarded the medal of the Legion of Honor to a 
French ordnance officer, whom it hailed as the tank's inventor. 
The French, however, built their tank only as an experi- 
ment and did not use it. It was the British Army which first 
used the tank in actual fighting, but the British Navy pro- 
duced the first ones made in England. Tanks were first 
brought forth as a surprise during the great British drive for 
Cambrai. They found great favor, and as the war continued 
were used by both sides in increasing numbers. 


When the United States entered the war, it had no special 
knowledge of the methods of tank construction. Experi- 
ments, however, were at once made and it was decided to 
supply the American Army with two kinds of tanks — one of 
the large size, such as those used by the British, and the other 
a small two-man tank. After consultation with the British 

312 America's Part in the World War 

General Staff, it was agreed that 1,500 of the large size would 
be constructed, England to furnish the hulls and ammunition, 
while the United States furnished the power plant and driving 
details. More than seven hundred of these tanks had been 
completed when the war came to an end; 1,450 All-American 
tanks of the large type were also in process of construction 
at that time. The approximate cost of such a tank is 
$35,000. Contracts for 4,440 of the small tanks, known as the 
Renault tank, were made, each machine costing $11,500. 
These were being finished and sent in in October, sixty-four 
being completed when the armistice was signed. Two other 
types of tanks were also being produced, one a two-man tank 
weighing three tons, built by the Ford Motor Company, 
costing about $4,000, the other, a successor to the Renault, 
but somewhat larger and more powerful. The end of the 
war prevented the full development of the American plans. 


Another important weapon produced under the direction 
of the Ordnance Department was the machine gun. This is 
an American invention. An American invented the first 
machine gun, and another American invented the gun which 
was mainly used. Still another gave the American forces the 
most eflScient machine gun ever put into action. The first 
machine gun was invented by Richard Jordan Galling in 
1861. Sir Harlem S. Maxim invented the Maxim gun, now 
known as the Vickers gun, used by the English army. John 
M. Browning invented the Colton machine gun, while the 
American inventor. Colonel I. N. Lewis produced what is 
considered in America the best machine of all, the Lewis 
gun. Before America entered the war, the Secretary of War 
had appointed a board of five army officers and two civilians 
to study the machine-gun situation. Six months before we 
declared war, the War Department, acting on a report 
received from this board, contracted for four thousand 
Vickers machine guns. This was a gun of the heavy type, 
and the board recommended that further tests be made of 
other guns. 

When the war began, the American Army was in posses- 

An Avalanche of Munitions 313 

sion of 670 Benet-Mercie rifles, 282 Maxim guns, 353 Lewis 
guns, and 148 Colt guns. There were only two factories in 
the United States producing machine guns in quantities. 
It was, therefore, necessary to build up new factories for 
producing such guns. A contract was at once made with the 
Savage Arms Corporation for 1,300 Lewis guns, an order 
which was subsequently greatly increased; and 2,500 Colt 
guns were also ordered from the Marlin-Rockwell Corporation. 

Meanwhile the tests were continued, bringing to the front 
two new weapons of special merit. These were the Browning 
heavy machine gun and the Browning light automatic rifle. 
These, with the Lewis gun, were recommended by the board 
to the Ordnance Department, and preparations were at once 
made for an enormous manufacture of such guns. 

An improved type of the Marlin gun, which originally 
was the old Colt machine gun, invented by Mr. Browning, 
was used in airplanes , so constructed that it could be central- 
ized to fire through the whirling blades of an airplane propeller. 
This gun w^as so successful that in 1918 the French tried to 
secure Marlins from this country. 

During the nineteen months of the war America produced 
181,662 machine guns and machine rifles, as against 229,238 
by France, and 181,404 by England during the same period. 
American troops, which first went to France were equipped 
with weapons supplied by the French government, but after 
May, 1918, the heavy machine-gun equipment of these troops 
was American built, and after June, 1918, all iVmerican troops 
W'cre supplied with a full equipment of American guns. 


One of the great feats of the war w^as the rifle production 
of the United States. From the very beginning each rifle- 
man of the 2,000,000 soldiers sent to France carried his own 
gun. Some of these were the Springfield rifles, the most 
accurate and quickest firing rifle that had ever come from an 
arsenal. Using this rifle the army shooting teams had, time 
after time, won the international competitions. When the 
war began, the ordnance officers studying the rifle problem 
perceived that it would be impossible to equip our troops with 


314 America's Part in the World War 

this rifle. The demand for such rifles by our country prior to 
1917, had been so small that the output of them from the 
Springfield armory had been greatly reduced, and the skilled 
artisans once employed in their manufacture had been dis- 
persed. After every effort to gather these men again, and to 
speed up production, it became plain that they could not 
begin to supply the quantity of rifles which would be neces- 
sary. To extend the manufacture of Springfields to other 
plants would be extremely difficult, for the rifle is of a very 
intricate construction, and it would take many months to 
build up adequate manufacturing equipment. 

On the other hand, many American private corporations 
were already engaged in the production of rifles on a huge 
scale for the British and French Governments, and they were 
entirely unable to turn out every rifle that the American 
Army required. These private plants were making the British 
Enfield rifle, which is a weapon of comparatively simple 
construction, and which was regarded by the American rifle 
experts as an inferior weapon. It was, however, superior to 
the French or the Russian rifle. 

The Ordnance Department was confronted by a difficult 
decision. If they continued to manufacture Springfields 
there would be great delay in equipping the troops. If they 
accepted the Enfields the American troops would have an 
inferior rifle. It was found, however, that it was possible to 
modify the Enfield so that it could use American ammunition, 
without very great delay, or any fundamental change in 
machinery used in its manufacture. And this was the course 
decided upon. 

The first rifles were delivered to the government in August, 
and ten months after we declared war against Germany our 
production was twice as large as that of Great Britain for 
that time. The production of Enfields and Springfields during 
the war was 2,506,307 guns. Of these 312,878 were Spring- 
field rifles. The Enfield rifle as modified turned out to be very 
successful, and possessed the advantages of accuracy and 
speed over the German Mauser. 

The American Army was also armed with a good auto- 
matic pistol, of which 743,663 were produced during the war 

An Avalanche of Munitions 315 

period. This turned out to be a very efiective weapon, of 
special usefulness in trench fighting. The nations of Europe 
had neglected to secure a valuable weapon, and their revolvers 
were but toys compared with the American automatics. 
The Colt automatic was the weapon approved for the army. 
In order to increase pistol equipment 153,311 Smith and 
Wesson revolvers were also purchased. The production of 
small arms ammunition was handed over to the American 
Society of Manufacturers of Small Arms Ammunition. Many 
plants for the production of such munitions already existed. 
These were increased and others added. The total production 
of ammunition for all the small arms increased month by 
month. For the month of November, 1917, it was 156,102,792 
rounds, for November, 1918, it was 3,507,023,300. 

The great war was to an unusual degree a war in trenches, 
and trench warfare produced a number of weapons which 
were entirely novel. As soon as America entered the war a 
trench-warfare section was organized in the Ordnance Depart- 
ment to take charge of the production of these novelties. 
There were some forty-seven new devices, many of them 
extremely diflScult to make. In producing these new devices 
the government co-operated with private manufacturers, many 
of whom were joined in formal associations. One of these was 
a Hand Grenade Manufacturers' Association, another the 
Drop Bomb Manufacturers' Association, another the Six-inch 
Shell Trench Mortar Manufacturers' Association, and there 
was the Rifle Grenade Manufacturers' Association, and the 
Livens Projectors Manufacturers' Association. 


One of the most important of these new weapons was the 
hand grenade. Grenades had been used before the war but 
they were crude weapons of no very great importance. The 
new hand grenade was a carefully built weapon. There were 
seven different kmds of hand grenades, the defensive hand 
grenade, made of metal to be throv^'n from trenches, the 
offensive grenade, made of paper, to be thrown during an 
attack. As they were made of paper there were no pieces of 
metal to fly back and wound the thrower. The third develop- 

316 Americans Part in the World War 

merit was a gas grenade filled with poisonous gas, a fourth was 
filled with phosphorus which released a cloud of smoke, a 
fifth was a combined hand and rifle grenade, a sixth was of an 
incendiary type, used to destroy structures under attack, the 
seventh was the thermit grenade, which melts and developes 
an intense heat. These were used to destroy captured guns. 

The first defensive grenade designed by the Americans 
turned out to be a failure. It had been made too safe. It 
required five movements to touch off the fuse, and in the 
excitement of battle the American soldier usually forgot 
to go through these operations. This meant the scrapping of 
a great mass of munition. Before the war was over, the 
production of grenades of all kinds was in rapid progress, 
and while only a small proportion had been sent overseas, 
the production at home had become enormous. 

The production of rifle grenades was delayed until they 
were fully designed. The rifle grenade is made to fit on the 
holder at the muzzle of an ordinary service rifle. When the 
rifie is fired the bullet passes through a hole in the middle of 
the grenade, and the gases follow the bullet through the 
grenade about two hundred yards. In endeavoring to pro- 
duce this v/eapon in imitation of the French no consideration 
was taken of the difference between the French bullet and our 
bullet. The result was that some 3,500,000 completed 
grenades had to be salvaged. After the rifle grenade had 
been redesigned their production proceeded with great 


Use of poisonous gas was another extraordinary feature 
of the war. At the great conference in 1899, many of the 
prominent nations of Europe and Asia pledged themselves not 
to use any projectiles, whose only object was to give out suffo- 
cating or poisonous gases. Germany signed and ratified this 
pledge, but the United States never signed it. The first use 
of toxic gases in the great war was on April 22, 1915, when the 
Germans employed it in an attack against the French and 
British lines on the upper Ypres salient. After Germany had 
thus determined to use poisoned gas, the allied nations were 

An Avalanche of Munitions 317 

compelled to adopt the same policy, and as a matter of fact, 
the allied nations and America at the time of the armistice 
were producing such gases in much greater quantities than 
was possible in Germany. 

When America entered the war, it was soon discovered 
that private chemical companies were unwilling to undertake 
the manufacture of poison gases. The government, therefore, 
adopted the plan of building various chemical plants at the 
Edgewood Arsenal in connection with the filling plant. In 
June, 1918, the Chemical Warfare Service was organized, 
and the Edgewood Arsenal was transferred to it. In the 
meantime, the government had been able to persuade a 
number of private chemical firms to manufacture toxic gases, 
the government agreeing to finance all new construction. 

The poison gases used in the war were of various kinds. 
That used by the Germans in their first attack on the defense- 
less Canadian troops at Ypres was chlorine. Afterward 
came the mustard gas, properly called dichlorethyl sulphide. 
Other common gases were phosgene and white phosphorus. 
Against most of these gases masks specially prepared oft'ered a 
reasonable protection. In the production of such masks came 
another duty for tlie Ordnance Departm^ent. 

The full force of the American v/ork in the manufacture 
of gases was not felt because of the unexpected ending of the 
war. It is an open secret that poison gases of terrific power 
had been prepared by the Am.erican experts, but perhaps 
some of the current reports to the extent of this power may 
be taken with a grain of salt. 

WTien gas was first used it was thrown out in the form of a 
gas cloud from pressure tanks, and success was dependent 
upon conditions of the weather. Other means of throwing 
such gases, were, therefore, devised. Sometimes the gas 
was enclosed in shell shot from the big guns of the artillery, 
sometimes it was in grenades thrown by hand from the 
trenches and sometimes it was thrown by an ingenius inven- 
tion, known as the Livens projector. 

The Livens projector was a deep secret until the close of 
hostilities. It was composed of long steel tubes buried in 
the ground from which drums filled with gas, about twenty- 

318 America's Part in the World War 

four inches long and eight inches in diameter were projected 
at the throwing of an electric switch so that a veritable rain- 
fall of them would come hurtling down upon the enemy a 
mile or more away. The manufacture of such projectors 
as well as of the trench mortars of various kinds, became one 
of the most important phases of the tremendous task of the 
Department of Munitions. 


Fighting the War on American Farms 

NO factor was more vital in winning the World War for 
American democracy than the American farm. Long 
before the United States entered the war, it was rec- 
ognized throughout the v/orld that food would win the war. 
Without American wheat, corn, livestock and other foodstuffs 
the British, French, Belgian and Italian Armies would have 
succumbed. The civilian populations of these nations would 
have demanded peace upon any terms. 

It was the administrative genius of an American, Herbert 
C. Hoover, that led the food army of America in this world 
crisis. Calm in the midst of panics, with a foresight and 
judgment that commanded the admiration of the civilized 
world, he marshalled the forces of food production, food con- 
servation and food distribution in an array that supplied the 
fighting and civihan elements struggling against German 
autocracy until victory crowned the gigantic effort. 

Back of Hoover rallied American farmers, farmers' wives 
and farmers' children, with a loyalty and an energy unparal- 
leled in any time and any clime. Responsive to every sug- 
gestion, they were as truly a part of democracy's army as the 
soldiers who fought in the front line. Their loyalty was 
sanctified by the presence of their sons and their neighbors' 
sons upon the battlefields of France. The world owes a debt 
to the American farmer, a debt that future generations will 
freely acknowledge. 

On August 10, 1917, the Congress of the United States 
passed the Food and Fuel Control Act. The Provision of the 
Act outlining its scope reads as follows: 

That by reason of the existence of a state of war it is essential to the 
national security and defense, for the successful prosecution of the war, 
and for the support and maintenance of the army and navy, to secure an 
adequate supply and equitable distribution, and to facilitate the move- 


320 America's Part in the World War 

ment of foods, feeds, fuel, including fuel oil and natural gas, and fertilizer 
and fertilizer ingredients, tools, utensils, implements, machinery and 
equipment required for the actual production of foods, feeds, and fuel, 
hereafter in this Act called necessaries; to prevent, locally or generally, 
scarcity, monopohzation, hoarding, injurious speculation, manipulations 
and private controls, affecting such supply, distribution, and movement; 
and to establish and maintain governmental control of such necessaries 
during the war. For such purposes the instrumentalities, means, methods, 
powers, authorities, duties, obligations and prohibitions, hereinafter set 
forth, are created, established, conferred and prescribed. The President 
is authorized to make such regulations and issue such orders as are essential 
effectively to carry out the provisions of this Act. 

The method by which this law undertook to control food 
and fuel was by the establishment of a system of licenses. By 
the control of licenses of dealers and by acting as a purchasing 
agent of food supplies it found itself possessed of great power. 
When America entered the war the most urgent need was not 
men and munitions but food and ships. America itself was 
already suffering from the scarcity of food, but it now became 
necessary to supply food, not only to itself but to its allies. 

A serious situation was presented. The American food 
situation had become serious before the war began. Food 
production had not kept pace with the growth of the popula- 
tion. Indeed, the relative volume of agricultural industry 
had been steadily declining and the export of foodstuffs 
decreasing for many j^ears. The main cause of this was the 
tendency of Americans to abandon agriculture and concen- 
trate in cities. This naturally led to a shortage of farm labor. 

When the war began the movement from the farm to the 
city was accelerated by the high wages offered by munition 
manufacturers. Indeed, in portions of the country one could 
see the abandoned farms. Prices were steadily growing 
higher. The shortage of labor and the high prices led many 
farmers to kill and sell their stock, even their breeding stock, 
and while our exports of foodstuffs increased about the begin- 
ning of the year 1917, our granaries and larders were barer 
than they had been for many years. To some extent also 
middlemen and speculators added to the danger by imposing 
upon the consumers unreasonably high prices. 

In Europe the able-bodied men among the Allies were on 

U. S. Official Photograph. 


A V. ?. Signal Corps officer experimenting with telephone apparatus left behind by 
the enemy in his hurried retreat from the St. Mihiel sector; Essey, Meurthe et Moselle, 
September 19, 1918. 

Fighting tlie War on American Farms 323 

the fighting line. Even in peace times England, France, 
Italy and Belgium needed outside help for their food supplies. 
Indeed, taken together, these countries ordinarily produced 
only about sixty per cent of the grain necessary for their 
bread. With the war the grain of Russia could not be 
exported, and the grain of Bulgaria, Rouniania and Serbia 
went to the Central Powers, x^ustralia and India could help 
much less than ever before, because of the scarcity of ships, 
and the loss through submarines. 

America then was the only resource. It was its great 
duty to supply the food for the great armies of the Allies, — 
armies in the field, armies in the war industries, and the 
armies of women and children at home. If America should 
fail, the war would be lost. 

It was under such circumstances that Congress passed the 
Control of Food and Fuel Act. Prices in the United States 
of all forms of foodstuffs had at that time enormously increased. 
When Senator Gallinger, of New Hampshire, presented to the 
Senate on May 2d a table showing a comparison of prices in 
April, 1914, with those of April, 1917, the table included sixty 
items with an average increase on all items of 85.32 per cent. 

President Wilson had been using all his authority to 
cope with the food crisis, and had declared that it was abso- 
lutely necessary for Congress to give him greater power to 
prevent hoarding and speculation, and to regulate the dis- 
tribution and consumption of food. He declared his intention 
to appoint Mr. Herbert C. Hoover as Food Administrator. 
Mr. Hoover had already attained world-wide fame through his 
supervision of the Belgium Relief movement, a movement in 
which the people not only of America, but of all the world had 
united to save the stricken people of Belgium from starvation. 

It was hoped that if President Wilson received the powers 
he demanded the cost of living would be reduced about 
twenty per cent in a comparatively short time. President 
Wilson decided to exercise the powers conferred upon him 
by the Embargo Clause in the Espionage Act, and to make it 
impossible for neutral countries or the allies of America to 
export from this country wheat or other essential grain with- 
out obtaining a license, and the approval of an exports council 

324 America's Part in the World War 

cjomposed of Mr. Hoover, and representatives of the Depart- 
ments of State, War, Navy and Commerce. He also deter- 
mined, without waiting for complete legislation, to interest 
as far as possible the great voluntary forces of the country 
in the work of saving food. In a letter addressed to Mr. 
Hoover on June 12th he said as follows: 

My Dear Mr. Hoover : It seems to me that the inauguration of that 
portion of the plan for food administration which contemplates a national 
mobilization of the great voluntary forces of the country which are ready 
to work toward saving food and eliminating waste admits of no further 
delay. The approaching harvesting, the inmiediate necessity for wise 
use and the saving not only in food, but in all other expenditures, the many 
undirected and overlapping efforts being made toward this end, all press 
for national direction and inspiration. 

While it would in many ways be desirable to wait complete legislation 
establishing the food administration, it appears to me that so far as 
voluntary effort can be assembled we should not wait any longer, and, 
therefore, I will be very glad if you would proceed in these directions at 

The women of the nation are already earnestly seeking to do their 
part in this our greatest struggle for the maintenance of our national ideals, 
and in no direction can they so greatly assist as by enlisting in the service 
of the food administration, and cheerfully accepting its direction and 
advice. By so doing they vnW increase the surplus of food available for 
our own army and for export to the Allies. 

To provide adequate support for the coming year it is of absolutely 
vital importance to the conduct of the war, and without a very con- 
scientious ehmination of waste and very strict economy in our food con- 
sumption we cannot hope to fulfill this primary duty. 

I trust, therefore, that the women of the country will not only respond 
to your appeal and accept the pledge to the Food Administration which you 
are proposing, but that all men also, who are engaged in the personal 
distribution of foods will co-operate with the same earnestness and in the 
same spirit. 

I give you full authority to undertake any steps necessary for the 
proper organization and stimulation of their efforts. 

The government's food control program was outlined by 
President Wilson as follows: "The objects sought to be served 
by the legislation asked for are: Full inquiry into the existing 
available stocks of foodstuffs, and into the costs and prac- 
tices of the various food producing and distributing trades; 
the prevention of all unwarranted hoarding of every kind, and 

Fighting the War on American Farms 325 

of the control of foodstuffs by persons who are not in any 
legitimate sense producers, dealers or traders; the requisi- 
tioning when necessary for the public use of food supplies, 
and of the equipment necessary for handling them properly; 
the Hcensing of wholesome and legitimate mixtures and 
milling percentages, and the prohibition of the unnecessary 
or wasteful use of food. 

*' Authority is asked also to establish prices, but not in 
order to limit the profits of the farmers but only to guarantee 
to them when necessary a minimum price which will insure 
them a profit where they are asked to attempt new crops, and 
to secure the consumer against extortion by breaking up 
corners, and attempts at speculation when they occur by 
fixing temporarily a reasonable price at which middlemen must 

The Senate was slow in passing the bill. It objected to 
giving one man dictatorial powers, and was considering the 
creation of a Congressional Board to supervise the conduct of 
the war, but at last the administration bill was passed, and 
Mr. Hoover formally appointed Food Administrator. 


He immediately issued a full statement of his plans, in 
which he said: "The hopes of the Food Administration are 
threefold. First, to so guide the trade in the fundamental 
food commodities as to eliminate vicious speculation, extor- 
tion and wasteful practices and to stabilize prices in the 
essential staples; second, to guard our exports so that against 
the world's shortage we retain suflficient supplies for our own 
people, and to co-operate with the Allies to prevent inflation 
of prices; and third, that we stimulate in every manner 
within our power the saving of our food in order that we may 
increase exports to our Allies to a point which will enable 
them to properly provision their armies, and to feed their 
peoples during the coming winter. 

"The Food Administration is called upon to stabilize 
and not to disturb conditions and to defend honest enter- 
prise against illegitimate competition. If there are men or 
organizations scheming to increase the trials of this country, 

326 America's Part in the World War 

we shall not hesitate to apply to the full the drastic, coercive 
powers that Congress has conferred upon us in this instrument. 
*'The deep obligation is upon us to feed the armies and 
the peoples associated with us in this struggle. The diversion 
of 40,000,000 of their men to war or war work; the addi- 
tional millions of v*^omen drafted to the places of their hus- 
bands and brothers; the toll of the submarine, have all 
conspired to so reduce production that their harvest will 
fall 500,000,000 bushels of grain below their normal pro- 
duction. Therefore, whereas we exported before the war 
but 80,000,000 bushels of wheat per annum, this year by one 
means or another, we must find for them 225,000,000 bushels, 
and this in the face of a short crop. 


"Our best will but partly meet their needs, for even then 
they must reduce their bread consumption twenty-five per 
cent, and it will be war bread they must eat — war bread, of 
which a large portion consists of other cereals. Already the 
greater call for meat and animal products, due to the stress 
of war on the millions of men on the fighting line, and the 
enhanced physical labor of populations ordinarily subsisting on 
lighter diets, coupled with the inadequate world supply, have 
compelled our allies to kill upward of 33,000,000 head of their 
stock animals. This is burning the candle at both ends for 
they are thus stifling their annual production. Therefore, 
not only must we increase their supplies of meat and dairy 
products, but must prepare, as the war goes on, to meet an 
even greater demand for these necessary commodities. 

"France and Italy formerly produced their own sugar, 
while England and Ireland imported largely from Germany. 
Owing to the inability of the first named to produce more 
than one-third of their needs, and the necessity for the others 
to import from other markets, they all must come to the 
West Indies for very large supplies, and therefore, deplete 
our own resources. Because of the shortage of shipping, only 
the most concentrated of foods, wheat, grain, beef, pork and 
dairy products and sugar can be sent across the seas. Fortu- 
nately, we have for our own use a superabundance of food- 


Fighting the War on American Farms 327 

stuffs of other kinds, — the perishables, fish, corn and other 
cereals — and surely our first manifest duty is to substitute 
these for those other products which are of greater use to our 
fellow fighters. 

''Our second duty is to eliminate wastes to the last degree. 
Seventy per cent of our people are well known to be as thrifty 
and careful as any in the world, and they consume but little 
or no more than is necessary to maintain their physical 
strength. It is not too much to ask the other thirty per 
cent, by simpler living to reduce their consumption. 

"The substitutions we ask impose no hardships. There is 
no royal road to food conservation. It can be accomplished 
only through sincere and earnest daily co-operation in the 
twenty million kitchens and at the twenty million dinner tables 
of the United States. If we can reduce our consumption of 
wheat fiour by one pound, our meat by seven ounces, our fat 
by seven ounces, our sugar by seven ounces per person per 
week those quantities multiplied by a hundred million will 
immeasurably aid and encourage our allies, help our own 
growing armies and so effectively serve the great and noble 
cause of humanity in which our nation has embarked." 


The Food Administration at once began its work with 
great vigor. Mr. Hoover, anticipating his appointment, had 
been getting ready. He had begun his organization. He had 
found them headquarters, he had made his plans, and the 
day after the bill was signed things began to happen officially. 
A fifty million dollar federal wheat corporation with all 
its stock owned by the United States Government was estab- 
lished to buy and sell wheat at the principal terminals. Its 
chairman was Mr. Hoover, and its president Julius Barnes, 
a Duluth exporter, who had been serving as a voluntary aid 
in the Food Administration. 

A price-fixing commission headed by Dr. H. A. Garfield 
was appointed to fix the price for the year's wheat yield. 
Mr. Hoover declared that gambling on the wheat exchanges 
must end, even if the government had to purchase the entire 
wheat supply of the nation, and that he had decided to take 

328 America's Part in the World War 

over control of all grain elevators and mills with a daily milling 
capacity of one hundred barrels of flour and place them under 
a system of licenses which would make hoarding impossible. 

He gave out the following announcement: "With a view 
to determining a fair price, the President has approved the 
appointment of a committee to be selected from representa- 
tives of the producing and consuming elements in the com- 
munity. The committee will be assembled under the chair- 
manship of President Garfield, of Williams College, and 
it will be the duty of this committee to determine a fair price 
for the 1917 harvest. Upon the determination of this fair 
basis, it is the intention of the Food Administration to use 
every authority given under the bill, and the control of 
exports to effect the universality of this fair basis throughout 
the whole of the 1917 harvest year, without change or 

"It should thus be clear that It will not be to the advan- 
tage of any producer to hold back his grain in anticipation of 
further advance, for he will do so only at his own cost of stor- 
age and interest, and if it is necessary for the government to 
buy the entire wheat harvest in order to maintain this fair 
price in protection of the producer, w^e intend to do so. 

"Furthermore, the holding of wheat or flour contracts by 
persons not engaged in the trade, and even when in trade in 
larger quantities than is necessary for the ordinary course of 
their business, is unlawful under the Food Act, and such cases 
will be prosecuted with vigor. We would advise such holders 
to liquidate their contracts at once." 

The promulgation of Mr. Hoover's plans led to an 
immediate decline in the prices of grain, vegetables and 
poultry. The price-fixing commission fixed the price of the 

1917 wheat crop at $2.20 a bushel, which was twenty cents 
higher than the price named in the Food Control Act for the 

1918 crop. The government then under the newly organized 
United States Grain Corporation went into the market on 
September 5th and took possession of the wheat in elevators 
and terminals buying at the price fixed by the price-fixing 

From that day on every bushel of wheat in the country 

Fighting the War on American Farms 329 

passed through the Grain Corporation from the elevators and 
terminals to the mills. It was sold at an advance of one per 
cent to cover the cost of handling, the government making 
no profit. To prevent hoarding the millers were allowed to 
keep at hand only a thirty-days' stock. 

Another provision of the Food Control Act went into 
effect on September 8th. It prevented the making or importa- 
tion of distilled liquors, with the object of saving the millions 
of bushels of grain used annually in the manufacture of 
whisky. This forced certain small distilleries to close down, 
but as 230,000,000 gallons had accumulated in the bonded 
warehouses, liquor stores and saloons, the whisky drinker was 
not immediately affected. On September 15th the sugar 
industry was taken over by the government, and agreements 
entered into by the Food Administrator and the beet and 
cane sugar manufacturers. Mr. Hoover fixed the price of 
beet sugar at $7.25 a hundred pounds, 


The first article in which the American people experienced 
a shortage was sugar. Before the war the Allies had been 
consuming annually about three million tons and producing 
less than half of it, England in particular producing no sugar 
at all. She was compelled to import what was necessary 
from foreign sources, seventy per cent being obtained from 
the European countries and the rest mainly from North and 
South America. As the result of the war, less than half 
of the usual crop in Europe was produced each year, which 
meant that the demand of the Allies from the United States 
and Cuba was far greater than their supply. The French 
people ordinarily produce enough sugar for their own needs, 
but they were forced to ask for aid. 

Mr. Hoover stated: "We have received a request from 
the French Government that we allow them to export from 
the United States one hundred thousand tons of sugar during 
the next month and probably more at a later period. Our 
own situation is that we have just sufficient sugar to maintain 
our normal consumption until the 1st of January when the 
new West Indian crop becomes available. Our consumption 

330 America's Part in the World War 

is at the rate of ninety pounds per person per year, a little 
under four ounces per day per person. The French people 
are on a ration of sugar equal to only twenty-one pounds per 
annum per person, or at the rate of less than one ounce per 
day, a little more than the weight of a silver dollar each day. 
The English and Italian rations are also not over one ounce 
per day. 

"The French people will be entirely without sugar for 
over two months if we refuse to part with enough from our 
stocks to keep them supplied with even this small allowance, 
as it is not available from any other quarter. Sugar, even to 
a greater amount than the French ration, is a human neces- 
sity. If our people will reduce by one-third their purchases 
and consumption of candy and of sugar for other uses than 
preserving fruit, which we do not wish to interfere with, we 
can save the French situation." 


On October 10th President Wilson issued a proclamation 
putting under the control of the Food Administration prac- 
tically all of the essential foodstuffs, and providing that a 
license, issued under regulations governing the conduct of 
the business of the licensee, must be secured on or before 
November 1st by dealers in food. All direct trading by 
handlers of flour with European countries was prohibited and 
the business taken over by the Food Administration. This 
was not only to make the best use of the American flour, but 
also to regulate the quantities sent to neutral countries. 

The baking industry v\^as put under license November 
12th. x\ll bakeries using more than ten barrels of flour a 
month w^ere compelled to use standard weights and the 
formula for war bread. This applied not only to bakers 
but to hotels, restaurants and clubs, and heads of households 
were requested to watch carefully the formulas and co-operate 

On October 19th Mr. Hoover made another appeal for a 
reduced use of sugar, and the publicity led to a sugar panic 
and a rush on retail grocery stores in r-^tjxy parts of the 
country. Unscrupulous dealers took the opportunity to 

Fighting the War on American Farms 331 

raise the prices, although the wholesale price did not change. 
Mr. Hoover relieved the situation by obtaining two hundred 
million pounds of raw sugar from Louisiana. 

A patriotic campaign was instituted throughout the 
country to aid the Food Administration in food conservation. 
Public addresses were made on the subject, appeals to the 
people published in the newspapers and flashed upon the 
screen in the moving-picture theatres. The women of the 
country took an active part in this campaign and voluntary 
pledges of support were made over all the land. By Novem- 
ber 6th, the total number of these pledges was 7,406,544, repre- 
senting about one family of every three in the United States. 
Almost all of the hotels and restaurants supported the 


Meatless Tuesdays and Wheatless Wednesdays were 
established and almost universally accepted by public eating- 
houses and in homes, without complaint. The general appeal 
made to the patriotism of the American people was strikingly 
successful. The people were told that "Food Will Win the 
War," and they felt that they were helping our armies. 
Indeed, the ultimate downfall of the Central Powers was in 
large part the result of the scarcity of food. Wars are no 
longer fought by armies. The people at home can do their 

The Embargo Policy of the United States adopted on 
July 15th turned out also to be a powerful weapon. This was 
carried out by the War Trade Board, of which the Honorable 
Vance McCormick was chairman. Its especial object was 
to prevent supplies from being sent from America to the 
Central Powers. When the policy went into effect Germany 
was obtaining from the neutral countries of northern Europe 
fats enough for full rations for 2,500,000 men. This was only 
made possible through the importation by those countries of 
foodstuffs and flour from the United States. This was 
promptly cut off, and from that time on the supply of fats 
obtained by Germany from such sources was reduced almost 
to nothing. Moreover, it enabled the United States and 


332 America's Part in the World War 

Great Britain to make agreements with neutral countries by 
which those countries were to be suppHed with needed food 
and fuel provided their ships lying idle were leased to the 
allied powers. 

Later on trade agreements were made by which neutral 
countries gave satisfactory assurances against the exportation 
to the Central Powers of imported foodstuffs and other articles. 
It was the general policy of the United States to supply 
neutral peoples with absolutely necessary food and other 
commodities, without allowing them to assist the Central 
Powers. This was all done by a system of licenses, and 
trading with foreigners was regulated by an Enemy Trading 
List, composed of firms with which it was unlawful to trade. 
While thus enforcing the Embargo Policy against the Central 
Powers the United States was supplying the Allies with food- 
stuffs in increasing quantities. 

A statement by Mr. Hoover on July 11, 1918, summarizes 
the effort of the American people in support of allied food sup- 
plies. During the fiscal year the total value of the food ship- 
ments purchased through the Food Administration amounted 
to $1,400,000,000. The shipments of meats and fats to 
allied destinations were $3,011,100,000 , an increase of 
$844,600,000 over the preceding year. Nearly all of this 
increase took place during the last half of the fiscal year after 
the Food Administration had got fairly to work. In cereals 
and cereal products the American shipments to the Allies 
were 348,803,000 bushels, an increase of 80,900,000 bushels. 
Besides these cereals the shipments of wheat from the harvest 
of 1917 amounted to 141,000,000 bushels, in addition to which 
10,000,000 bushels were shipped to neutrals. 

It should be noted that when the Food Administration 
was created in August, 1917, the 1917 crop had already been 
planted and partly harvested. No effort, therefore, of the 
Food Administration could make it larger. In fact, according 
to Mr. Hoover not only was there a very large failure in wheat, 
but also the corn failed to mature properly. The total nutri- 
tional production of the country for the fiscal year 1917-18 
was between seven and nine per cent below the average of 
the three previous years. The wheat crop just about 

Fighting the War on American Farms 333 

equaled the normal consumption of the United States. The 
shipments to allied destinations, therefore, represent approxi- 
mately savings from our own wheat bread. 

It was a year of universal shortage in the northern 
hemisphere, yet both the Allies and United States came in 
sight of a new harvest with health and strength fully main- 
tained. Said Mr. Hoover: ''Our contributions to this end 
could not have been accomplished without effort and sacri- 
fice, and it is a matter for further satisfaction that it has been 
accomplished voluntarily and individually. It is difficult to 
distinguish between various sections of our people — the homes, 
public eating places, food trades, urban or agricultural popu- 
lation — in assessing credit for these great results. But no 
one will deny the dominant part of the American women." 

But there were other phases of the food problem beside 
that of food conservation. It was necessary to stimulate 
production. Long before the war the nation possessed 
officially organized agencies which had been for many years 
studying agricultural problems. Among these were the 
Federal Department of Agriculture, the State Departments of 
Agriculture and the State Agricultural Colleges. There 
were also many important farmers' organizations. 

Early in April, 1917, the Secretary of Agriculture called 
agricultural conferences which considered the question of 
food supply, and elaborate plans were made to stimulate 
food production. Women were especially appealed to not 
only to prevent waste, but to conserve food by home canning 
and drying, and millions of bulletins were distributed, dealing 
with questions of this character. 


Special efforts were made to stimulate the planting of 
home gardens, and efforts were made to supply the labor 
where needed for the farms of the country. Many volunteer 
organizations co-operated in this effort, including the Boy 
Scouts, Camp Fire Girls and Boys' Working Reserve. The 
National War Garden Commission was organized in March, 
some weeks before the United States entered the war, by Mr. 
Charles Lathrop Pack, The commission included such names 

334 America's Part in the World War 

as Luther Burbank of California, Dr. Charles W. Elliott, 
John Hays Hammond, John Grier Hibben and other men of 
equal note. The aim of this commission was to arouse the 
patriots of America to the importance of putting all idle 
hands to work, and to teach them how to do it. 

Near every city were vacant lots which were potential 
sources of food supply. The object of the commission was to 
turn these vacant lots into food gardens. An extensive 
propaganda was instituted, with elaborate posters and wide 
distribution of carefully prepared pamphlets. 

Newspapers were furnished with articles and feature 
stories dealing with various phases of war gardens, and repre- 
sentatives of the commission visited cities and towns stir- 
ring up local Chambers of Commerce and other similar organ- 
izations. As a result of this propaganda the war gardens 
sprang up as though by magic. Gardening came to be the 


Many of the posters were by artists of national reputa- 
tion and popularized slogans which helped to stimulate 
enthusiasm. One of these was the famous "Can the Kaiser" 
poster, which appropriately was the work of a Belgian, J. 
Paul Verries, a soldier artist who had been wounded in one 
of the early battles of the war, and was incapacitated for 
further military service. Another poster was by James 
Montgomery Flagg with the slogans "Sow Seeds of Victory" 
and "Every Garden a Munition Plant." 

This movement spread with great rapidity, not only in 
America but in foreign countries. In the first season it 
resulted in the planting of approximately 3,500,000 home food 
producing lots. These increased in 1918 to 5,285,000 war 
gardens. The food value of the 1917 food products was 
estimated at something like $350,000,000. In 1918 the value 
was $525,000,000. It was estimated that in 1917 there were 
put up and stored on the pantry shelves more than 500,000,000 
quarts of canned vegetables and fruits. And this number 
increased in 1918 to 1,450,000,000 cans. The increased pro- 
duction and the bountiful harvest of 1918 made the problem 
for the winter of 1918-19 a somewhat simpler one. 

The ending of the war took away much of the strain, 

Fighting the War on American Farms 335 

yet it was just as necessary to supply food for the allied 
peoples during the period of the armistice as during war time. 
On February 24, 1919, the United States Congress appro- 
priated one hundred millions of dollars for the relief of the 
ever-increasing famine in Europe, and the American Relief 
Administration was created by President Wilson with Mr. 
Hoover as director-general. Supplies and foodstuffs v/ere 
sent to the people of Belgium and northern France. This 
food was carried in army and navy transports. It was esti- 
mated that the number of destitute people in Belgium was 
2,200,000. These supplies were sent to Antwerp and to 
Rotterdam, from which points the feeding of northern Europe 
was carried on. From Rotterdam supplies were sent also to 
Finland in Finnish boats carried by the Finns themselves. 
American steamers with cargoes of grain were sent to Italy, 
and great quantities of supplies from United States were 
dehvered to Switzerland, Czecho-Slovakia, Poland, the Balkan 
States, Serbia, Montenegro and the near East. Great Britain 
was assisting us in this work, especially in Assyria, Meso- 
potamia and other eastern countries controlled by their 

armies. . 

The shipment of food to Germany was in exchange tor 
the surrender of the German merchant marine. The Gerrnan 
ships were used in transporting home American and Australian 
soldiers, on their return voyage carrying food to Germany. 
The total shipping capacity thus made available was estimated 
at 350,000 tons, and Germany was allowed to pay for these 
supplies out of her credits in neutral countries. The des- 
perate food conditions, therefore, did not end with the armis- 
tice. In fact, in some respects the situation has been more 
serious than ever, owing to a natural lessening of patriotic 
endeavors to conserve after the war was over. The result is 
seen in the steadily increasing prices, with their natural 
sequence of hardship, starvation and pubhc disturbance. 

If it was true that ''Food Will Win the War" it may also 
be just as true that food may save society. The Bolshevist 
movement and the general strikes are very largely brought 
about because of the high price of food. People who are 
starving are ready to try anything that promises relief. 


Supplies for Overseas 

THE raising of a great American Army and the training 
of it was a huge problem, but one equally difficult soon 
presented itself. This was the transportation of that 
army, its munitions and other supplies, overseas. The problem 
manifested itself with increasing insistence during the latter 
part of 1917 and January, 1918. So slow was the movement 
of men and material that it was realized the transportation of 
both must be speeded up if disaster to the Allies was to be 
prevented when Germany's great drive would be launched in 
the spring of 1918. President Wilson and Secretary of War 
Baker decided that a great executive was needed to organize 
and speed up the transportation of America's fighting forces 
and their equipment. 

In this emergency they turned to General Peyton Conway 
March. The announcement was made on February 6, 1918, 
that General March, then a major-general, chief of the staff 
on artillery with the American forces in France, had been 
appointed as Chief -of -Staff of the United States Army with 
headquarters in Washington. His success in organizing the artil- 
lery service in France had made him noted by both the French 
and British. At the time of his appointment as chief -of -staff, 
he was fifty-three years old and the youngest of the major- 
generals who had gone to France. He had seen service in the 
artillery branch of the army continuously since his graduation 
from West Point with the exception of duty as major and 
later as lieutenant-colonel of volunteer infantry in 1899 and 
1901 in the Philippines. He commanded the Astor Battery 
in the Spanish- American War and during the Russo-Japanese 
War he was military observer for the United States Army with 
the Japanese Army. 

Under his vigorous direction the transportation of fighting 
Americans overseas increased until it averaged more than 


Supplies for Overseas 





Jul AUa 
























1 6th 
, 7th 

. 88th 







Oct Nov 




~i — : 







jan I FqTj JMar | Apr May Ijtm (Jul U-'og jSep 



\ i Organization to arrival in Franco 
^^^ Arrival in Franco to entering lino 
f — 1 Entering lino to active tattle servloo 
Service as active combat division 

Time from Organization of American Divisions to Entering Line 

338 America's Part in the World War 

10,000 men a day. During the last six months of American 
participation in the war, more than 1,500,000 men were trans- 
ported across the Atlantic. 

This amazing record made possible the check and defeat 
of the Germans at Chateau-Thierry. It won for the Allies 
the decisive second battle of the Marne; it dealt to Germany 
the death stroke of the Argonne. To the genius of General 
Peyton Conway March, America and the victorious Allies 
are indebted for the mighty tide of victorious khaki that 
ended German aggression forever in the fall of 1918. 

During the nineteen months of our participation in the 
war, more than two million American soldiers were carried to 
France. These men had to be moved, first, to the various 
training camps, then to ports of departure, then across the 
ocean to England and France, from there to training camps, 
and lastly to the front. Supplies for these men had to be 
carried, including immense quantities of munitions. 

Five days after the declaration of war against Germany, 
the presidents of the principal American railroads met at the 
national capitol and agreed that during the war they would 
subordinate every other interest to help win the war, that 
they would eliminate all competitive rivalry, and merge their 
interests under the direction of the American Railway Asso- 
ciations' Special Committee on National Defense. 

To every army department headquarters was assigned 
an expert in railway operations, with a corps of assistants 
placed at railway centers to take charge of the movement by 
rail of troops, munitions and supplies as desired by the military 
authorities. The movement of the National Guard organiza- 
tions was conducted without an accident to a single man, 
without delay at the point of origin, on the route, or at destina- 
tion, without a hitch in the arrangements as originally planned. 
Throughout the war all of the movements of troops were thus 
satisfactorily conducted. 

The movement of supplies, however, was not carried on 
with so great success. The railroads in America were crowded 
by the natural freight movements in America, which were 
largely increased by the movement of supplies purchased 
from this country by the allied powers. More than three 

U. S. Official Photograph. 


Left to right: 1. Defensive; 2. Offensive; 3. Gas; 4. Phosphorus. The soldier grasps 
the grenade so as to hold the lever down, pulls out the pin to which the ring is attached and 
throws, the lever flying off in the air and the grenatle exploding in a fixed number of seconds. 

... 1 1 [Hcial Photograph. 


The explosion of the rifle cartridge whisks the little cylinders off in a long arc to burst >ipon 

the enemy's lines. 



M.- U 


© Comiiiiltif uii I'libtic liijormuliuii. From Undcrwuud and Uridcruuml, A'. 1 , 


A powerful 155 millimeter gun with its caterpillar tractor following the retreating Germans. 

U. S. Official Photograph. 


Rolling Field Kitchen of Company H, 38th Infantry, 3d Division, showing cooks preparing 

dinner near the front line trenches. 

Supplies for Overseas 341 

billion dollars had been expended for such purposes, and as 
these supplies had to be sent to a few Atlantic ports for ship- 
ment to Europe, a great deal of congestion had arisen at those 
points. The declaration of war by the United States made it 
necessary also to move immense masses of supplies for the 
American troops. The President of the United States finally 
determined to have the government take complete control 
of the roads. 

He derived his power from an Act of Congress dated 
August 29, 1916, which reads as follows: "The President in 
time of war is empowered, through the Secretary of War, to 
take possession and assume control of any system or systems 
of transportation, or any part thereof, and to utilize the same 
to the exclusion as far as may be necessarj^ of all other traffic 
thereon, for the transfer or transportation of troops, war 
material and equipment, or for such other purposes connected 
with the emergency as may be needful or desirable." 

The President, therefore, issued a proclamation which 
went into effect on December 28, 1917, assuming control of 
"each and every system of transportation and the appurte- 
nances thereof, located wholly or in part within the boundaries 
of the continent of the United States, and consisting of rail- 
roads, and owned or controlled systems of coastwise and inland 
transportation, engaged in general transportation, whether 
operated by steam or electric power, including also terminals, 
terminal companies and terminal associations, sleeping and 
parlor cars, private cars and private car lines, elevators, 
warehouses, telegraph and telephone lines, and all other 
equipment and appurtenances commonly used upon or oper- 
ated as a part of such rail or combined rail and motor systems 
of transportation." He declared, "that the possession, control, 
operation and utilization of such transportation systems shall 
be exercised by and through William G. McAdoo, who is 
hereby appointed and designated director-general of railroads. 
Said director may perform the duties imposed upon him so 
long and to such extent as he shall determine through the 
boards of directors, receivers, officers and employees of said 
system of transportation." 

In a statement issued by President Wilson he said: 

342 America's Part in the World War 

"The public interest must be first served, and in addition 
the financial interests of the government and the financial 
interests of the railways must be brought under a common 
direction. The financial operations of the railway need not, 
then, interfere with the borrowings of the government, and 
they themselves can be conducted at a great advantage. 
Investors in railway securities may rest assured that their 
rights and interests will be as scrupulously looked after by 
the government as they could be by the directors of the 
several railway systems. Immediately upon the reassembling 
of Congress, I shall recommend that these different guarantees 
be given." 

The result of President Wilson's proclamation was a 
great rise in the market value of railway stocks. The business 
men of America generally recognized his action as proper 
under existing circumstances, and Congress adopted the 
Railway Control Bill in accordance with his recommendation, 
with the proviso "that the government control of the railroads 
shall not continue more than twenty-one months after the 
war." The holders of railroad stocks and bonds were guar- 
anteed a net annual income equal to the average net income 
for the three years ending June 30, 1917. The railroad system 
in the United States consisted at that time of 260,000 miles 
of railroad owned by 441 distinct corporations, with about 
650,000 shareholders, and it employed 1,600,000 men. It 
represented a property investment of $17,500,000,000. The 
outstanding capital in round numbers was $16,000,000,000, 
some $9,000,000,000 of which was represented by a funded 
debt. The rolling stock comprised 61,000 locomotives, 
2,250,000 freight cars, 52,000 passenger cars and 95,000 
service cars. All this came under the direction of William G. 
McAdoo as director-general. 

Mr. McAdoo appointed an advisory board to assist him 
composed of expert railway men, and soon found that under 
the direction of this new commission, this gigantic railway 
system was able to work without serious hitch. The board 
consisted of John Skelton Williams, controller of the currency; 
Hale Holden, president of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 
Railroad; Henry Walters, chairman of the Board of Directors 

Supplies for Overseas 343 

of the Atlantic Coast Line; Edward Chambers, vice-president 
of the Sante Fe Raih^oad and head of the Transportation 
Division of the United States Food Administration, and Walter 
D. Hines, chairman of the Executive Committee of the 
Sante Fe. Mr. Williams was assigned to deal with the financial 
problem, Mr. Holden undertook the direction of the work of 
committees and sub-committees, Mr. Hines became assistant 
to the director-general. Mr. McAdoo immediately undertook 
to end the congestion of traffic in New York City and Chicago. 
All lines entering these cities were given equal rights in 
trackage and water terminal facilities. All terminals, ports, 
locomotives, rolling stock, and other transportation facilities 
were pooled. Coal was given the right of way, which brought 
about great relief In those sections of the country which in 
the winter of 1917-18 had been suffering from fuel shortage. 
More than two hundred and fifty passenger trains were 
dropped from the schedule of eastern roads, permitting a 
great increase in freight traffic. Empty box cars were sent 
to the wheat producing centers to carry wheat to the Atlantic 
seacoast for shipment to England and France. 

On July 16, 1918, President Wilson signed the bill author- 
izing the President to take control of all telegraph, telephone, 
cable and radio lines, and later assumed such control. 

The transportation of the American Army across the 
ocean was the greatest military feat of its kind ever accom- 
plished in history. The railroads in existence were not 
sufficient, and it was necessary to build new roads, new docks, 
new terminals, both in America and in France. Hundreds of 
American ships were built with miraculous speed, and even 
then it was necessary for England to come to the rescue. 
But the army was sent across, its every want was supplied, 
even its leisure hours were looked after, and the whole move- 
ment was conducted with clock-like precision. 

To supplement the railroads, it was found advisable to 
make use of an enormous number of motor trucks. Before 
the war the motor truck had been used during the punitive 
expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Francisco Villa. Tests 
had been made upon various trucks by army experts as early 
as 1904. In 1914 the Society of Automobile Engineers, 

344 America's Part in the World War 

perceiving the importance of motor transportation in the war 
in Europe, had offered its services to the War Department for 
the purpose of making a complete survey of the automobile, 
in the hope that it might be found that that industry might 
be able to provide the necessary motor equipment for the 
armv in case of war. 

In 1916 the War Department accepted this offer and a 
committee of the engineers from five companies manufacturing 
trucks, from five companies assembling trucks, and an engineer 
from a truck company not making the types of trucks under 
consideration, was appointed to co-operate with the army 
officers in providing suitable auto trucks. This committee 
drew up specifications for one-and-a-half and three-ton trucks 
for army use. These trucks were at once ordered in quantities 
and used by our forces along the Mexican border. The use 
of motor trucks was so successful that after numerous con- 
ferences between representatives of the War Department 
and the automobile industry, standard specifications for two 
classes of auto trucks were established. 

Early in 1917 an appropriation of $175,000 was made 
for the purpose of designing and drawing up specifications of 
a complete new vehicle which would become a standardized 
truck for our military forces. On October 10th the new type 
of truck was designed and two sample trucks completed and 
formally presented to the War Department and pronounced 
wholly successful. Orders for ten thousand of these trucks 
were at once placed, and in April eight thousand more were 
authorized, and in September twenty-five thousand more, 
which, however, were never delivered on account of the signing 
of the armistice. 

Other branches of the army were buying commercial 
trucks of different makes for their special uses; the Ordnance 
Department had ordered thirty thousand four-wheel drive 
trucks; the Signal Corps specialized in light and heavy 
trucks for aviation service assembled from known and tried 
units; the Engineering Corps had adopted a five-and-a-half- 
ton truck, and the Medical Corps had selected two models 
for ambulances, causing thus a decided lack of standardization 
in the army motor trucks. The government, therefore, created 

Sapplks for Overoe^$ 345 

a Standardization Board, composed of representatives of 
each of the various corps which standardized for use a number 
of well-known types. 

While these vehicles were being tested, the motor trans- 
port service was being formed, and the need for trucks 
increased so rapidly that it was impossible to purchase the 
standardized trucks in sufficient quantities to meet the 
demand. It was, therefore, determined to procure certain 
other types until the standardized truck could be produced 
in sufficient numbers. 

In April, 1917, the army possessed 3,039 trucks, 437 
automobiles, 670 motor cycles and twelve tractors. One and 
a half years later it owned 85,000 trucks, and had planned to 
have 185,000 trucks, together with 30,000 ambulances, 
40,000 passenger cars, 70,000 motor cycles and 70,000 bicycles, 
a grand total of 400,000 vehicles, costing over $700,000,000. 

The need of the army for motor cycles, side cars and 
bicycles was so great that practically the entire output of 
these vehicles was taken by the government. Horse and 
hand-drawn vehicles were also used by the army in great 
numbers, being used as ambulances, escort wagons, combat 
wagons, spring wagons, w^ater carts, ration carts and medical 
carts; 181,177 of such vehicles being ordered up to the time 
of the armistice. 

As the American Army arrived in France, it was soon 
found necessary to provide thousands of miles of railway 
track, not only to connect the fighters with the various fields 
of operation, but with the great bases of supply, and it was 
necessary to ship across the seas, thousands of every kind of 
freight car, to build hundreds of locomotives and transport 
them to Europe, to provide fabricated track that could be 
laid under heavy shell fire, and hospital trains to care for our 

On July 10, 1917, General Pershing cabled for three 
hundred locomotives and two hundred kilometers of track. 
Arrangements were made with the American Locomotive 
Works and with the Baldwin Locomotive Works to build 
each 150 locomotives of the consolidation type. The consoli- 
dation locomotive weighs 166,400 pounds. It has one pair 

346 America's Part in the World War 

of engine truck wheels and four pairs of driVers. The engine 
is as large as it is possible to use within the French tunnels. 
It is not, however, so large as the freight engines used in 
America. The order placed with the Baldwin concern was 
carried out with such speed that only twenty working days 
elapsed before the first engine was completed and ready for 
shipment. This is a new record for locomotive construction. 
All the other locomotives were delivered promptly, those 
built at the American Locomotive Works costing $51,000 
each, and those of the Baldwin Works, $46,000 each. All 
subsequent orders for engines went to the Baldwin people, 
and from time to time reductions were made in the price, so 
that the last engines of the 3,340 ordered from this concern 
cost $37,000 each. 

There were shipped in all to the American Expeditionary 
Force 1,303 locomotives. Others were turned over to the 
American railways to help out the railroad congestion in this 
country. The director-general of military railways was 
appointed custodian of the undelivered locomotives ordered 
by the Russian Government from the Baldwin and American 
works. These engines were converted to meet American 
requirements, and purchased by the American Government. 
Orders for 90,103 freight cars were also placed with American 
contractors, contracts for 40,915 of these cars were cancelled 
at the time of the armistice. Eighteen thousand three hun- 
dred and thirteen of these cars had been shipped overseas. 
The American locomotives and cars were shipped across the 
Atlantic on their own wheels, packed in baled hay instead 
of being disassembled at the sea ports and carried over in 
parts. The number of cars actually shipped overseas if made 
into one solid train would be 140 miles long. Arrangements 
had been made for speeding up the production of locomotive 
and freight cars before the time of the armistice, and the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works was producing and shipping 
engines at the rate of three hundred a month. 

Rails were also purchased in great abundance. The first 
purchase amounting to 102,000 tons was made on the basis 
of thirty-eight dollars a ton for Bessemer steel and forty dollars 
a ton for open-hearth steel, a much cheaper rate than the 

Supplies for Overseas 347 

Allies were paying. Subsequent orders were on a basis of 
fifty-five dollars for Bessemer, and fifty-seven dollars a 
ton for open-hearth, which then became the prices for all 
purchasers, the government, the Alhes and the public. Over 
nine hundred miles of railway track was laid in France from 
the material shipped from this country. In purchasing 
freight cars it was decided to use the American type of car, 
which it was found could be used on the French railroads. 
All cars shipped from the United States were the American 
eight-wheel type with a thirty-ton capacity. If the lighter 
French cars originally asked for had been built and shipped 
it would have cost thirty-two million dollars. 

Ambulance trains were also desired by General Pershing. 
To build these ambulance trains with their complicated 
design and specialized equipment in this country would 
have caused a great deal of delay and very heavy expense. 
Ambulance trains built by the London and Northwestern 
Railway had been turned out with great speed, and had 
proved entirely satisfactory; it was, therefore, determined 
to place the orders for our ambulance trains with this company. 
At the end of the war, nineteen such trains had been com- 
pleted, with a total of 304 cars. 

It was also found necessary to construct narrow-gauge 
railroads in the combat areas behind the front-line trenches. 
Large quantities of sixty-centimeter locomotives, cars, and 
track were needed for such railroads. Photographs and 
designs were brought over from France, and certain modifica- 
tions were made to produce greater efficiency. Orders for the 
first lot were placed with the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 
Delivery of steam locomotives, gas locomotives and freight cars 
for these narrow-gauge railways began early in the fall of 1917. 

Up until the time the armistice was signed 427 loco- 
motives, 6,134 cars were completed, and almost all of them 
had been shipped overseas. Among those used by the Expedi- 
tionary Force were 600 box cars, 166 tank cars, 500 flat cars, 
1,555 eight-wheel gondola cars, 330 dump cars, 100 artillery 
truck cars, 970 motor cars, 180 inspection cars, 300 hand 
cars and 990 push cars. 

For the nax*row-gauge railway a special type of fabricated 

348 Americans Part in the World War 

track was designed, consisting of short sections of rail bolted 
to steel cross ties. Most of this track was in five meter 
lengths, though shorter sections were used. All were in 
multiples of one and one-fourth meters, and were accurately 
sawed so as to insure absolute fit of intermediate sections, 
when shell fire made replacement necessary. Quantities of 
curved track, as well as switches and turn-outs, were also 
built. About 605 miles of fabricated narrow-gauge steel 
track were purchased, and 460 miles of it shipped to France. 

These narrow-gauge railroads were operated under extreme 
conditions of grade and curvature, and were the lines of com- 
munication between the rail heads of the broad-gauge system 
and the dumps and depots in the front sectors. In periods 
of activity and during advance they not only transported 
troops, munitions, materials and subsistence stores, but they 
were used to bring up railway artillery rapidly. When the 
track was destroyed by shell fire, as often happened, it was 
easy for the engineers to replace broken sections by new 
material. In order to use the motor trucks it was necessary 
to maintain the roads immediately behind the front in good 
condition, and this was done by road-building units recruited 
from among men accustomed in civil hfe to road building. 
These regiments frequently worked under the direct fire of 
the enemy. 

In the construction of these roads many quarries were 
opened to obtain the necessary material. In quarries operated 
by the American engineers about forty-two thousand cubic 
meters of rock were obtained, while in quarries jointly operated 
with French forces seventy-five thousand cubic meters were 
obtained. The problem of transportation then, which at the 
beginning appeared to be extremely difiicult, was most effectu- 
ally solved, and, indeed, as the war went on there was a 
constant increase in the number of men and the amount of 
supplies carried across the ocean. 

For many weeks during the summer of 1918 the number 
of men carried was more than ten thousand a day. No such 
troop movement as this had ever been contemplated, and 
no movement of any such number of persons for such a 
distance and such a time had ever previously occurred. 

Supplies for Overseas 349 

The record of the United States in bringing these same men 
back to the shores of the United States excels even the 
record made in transferring them to Europe. 

The troops saihng from the United States left America 
from ten ports. Eleven thousand sailed from Quebec, 34,000 
from Montreal, 1,000 from St. Johns, 5,000 from Halifax, 
6,000 from Portland, 46,000 from Boston, 1,656,000 from 
New York, 35,000 from Philadelphia, 4,000 from Baltimore 
and 288,000 from Norfolk, a total of 2,086,000. Some of 
these went directly to France, and others to England. In 
England 45,000 went to Glasgow, 4,000 to Manchester, 844,000 
to Liverpool, 11,000 to Bristol ports, 1,000 to Falmouth, 1,000 
to Plymouth, 57,000 to Southampton and 62,000 to London, 
a total of 1,025,000 men. In France, 13,000 went to Le 
Havre, 791,000 went to Brest, 198,000 to St. Lizere, 4,000 
to La Pallice, 50,000 to Bordeaux and 1,000 to Marseille. 
Among every hundred men who went over, forty-nine went 
in British ships, forty-five in American ships, three in those of 
Italy, two in French, and one in Russian shipping under 
English control. 

As time went on, the turn-around, by which is meant the 
movement of a ship across to Europe and back again, became 
shorter and shorter. When operations began, the turn-around 
for troop ships averaged about fifty-two days, and for cargo 
ships sixty-six days. During the summer of 1918, the turn- 
around for cargo ships became standardized at about seventy 
days, and for troop ships at about thirty-five days. During 
winter the time taken was much longer. The fastest ships 
averaged under thirty days. The Leviathan landed the 
equivalent of a German division in France each month. 
The shipment of cargo was done almost entirely by American 


During the whole period of active hostilities the army 
lost at sea only 200,000 deadweight tons of transports. Of 
this 142,000 tons were sunk by torpedo. No American troop 
transport was lost on its eastward voyage. After the armistice, 
the American troops at once began to return to the United 
States. In the movement to Europe, the British had carried 
about one-half of all these troops. On their return to America 

350 America's Part in the World War 

the British ships were not used, but our large cargo ships were 
converted into troop-carrying vessels, and great aid was 
rendered by the navy which put at the army's disposal 
cruisers and battleships, so that the army was brought back 
home even more rapidly than it was taken to France. 

From the files of the United States Navy the table 
included in Chapter XXI has been taken showing the total 
number of United States troops carried overseas and the 
nationality of the ships which transported them. 


Coal and Gasolene Help to Win the War 

ONE of the most important questions before the country 
during the progress of the war was the question of fuel. 
The great dependence of almost all forms of industry 
upon the supply of coal made it absolutely essential that the 
coal production in our country should be increased during the 
war, and that so far as possible there should be economy in 
its use. Before the war the Bureau of Mines had studied 
the problem, and issued many reports tending to solve many 
of the difficulties met with in the burning of coal. One of 
its conclusions was that in many localities the substitution of 
coke for anthracite coal was desirable on the score of economy 
and cleanliness. The Council of Defense appointed a com- 
mittee on coal production during the war, and the following 
statement as to its work was issued in the middle of June : 

"The primary purpose of the Committee on Coal Pro- 
duction as outlined when it was created is to increase coal 
production so that an adequate supply will be available. 
How well it has accomplished this purpose is shown by 
the following figures. Bituminous coal loaded at the mines 
in the United States for rail movement amounted in May to 
nearly 40,000,000 tons, or over seven million tons more than 
was loaded in May a year ago, and four million tons more 
than in April of this year. Anthracite shipments in May 
were over 1,300,000 tons more than for May a year ago. 
This mine activity probably makes a record month for rail 
shipments to the consumers, and figures already reported for 
the first half of June show that a still further increase is going 
on, which is expected to make June exceed May by a sub- 
stantial tonnage. So far, this year, therefore, the mines have 
been surpassing previous records." The chief coal-producing 
states in the United States are Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 
Illinois and Ohio. 


352 America's Part in the World War 


On June 27th a special committee of coal operators 
established in Washington a permanent Bureau in co-operation 
with the government. It approved a proposition that coal 
prices during the war should be fixed by a joint governmental 
commission composed of the Secretary of the Interior, the 
Defense Council's Coal Production Committee and the 
Federal Trade Commission. The price of coal had been 
steadily rising until it had reached $5.50 or $6.00 per ton. 
The Coal Operators Committee suggested a price at the mine 
of $3.00 a ton east of Pittsburgh, and $2.75 to the west. On 
July 1st Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War, refused to 
accept this proposition despite the approval of other members 
of the government, on the ground that the price was exorbi- 
tant, and for nearly two months there was no fixed price, 
until on August 21st when President Wilson at the suggestion 
of Federal Trade Commissioner W. B. Colver fixed the price 
at $2.50 a ton. During this period orders for many millions 
of tons throughout the country were cancelled, and there 
was no movement of coal on the railroads. It was this delay 
which largely helped to cause the crisis in the following winter. 

The Food and Fuel Control Law passed on August 10, 
1917, authorized the creation of a Fuel Administration, and 
on August 23d President H. A. Garfield, of Williams College, 
was appointed Fuel Administrator. He was given authority 
to fix fuel prices, to license dealers and to punish by revocation 
of licenses for violation of the terms of the law, or regulations 
made pursuant thereto. Late in September Dr. Garfield 
fixed the price of coal at $2.00 a ton, which was the basic 
price when the coal crisis came. He also promulgated a series 
of regulations in connection with contracts for the sale of coal 
and coke. As the year went on, shortage of coal developed. 

It seems to be evident that plenty of coal had been 
mined, and that the difiiculty was caused by the shortage of 
cars and the general condition of congestion at terminals. 
Federal Trade Commissioner Colver declared the railroads 
alone were to blame, and John P. Wliite, labor advisor to 
the National Fuel Administration, declared that there were 
miles and miles of loaded coal cars that were not moving. 

Coal and Gasolene 353 


To relieve this congestion, on January 16, 1918, Dr. 
Garfield issued an order "that in all portions of the United 
States east of the Mississippi River on January 18th, 19th, 
20th, 21st, 22d and on each Monday beginning January 28th 
and continuing to March 25th, inclusive, no manufacturing 
plant should burn fuel or use power derived from fuel, except 
in such plants as must be operated seven days a week to 
avoid serious damage, plants manufacturing perishable foods, 
newspaper plants and certain munition factories." 

It was also ordered that on the INIondays betvv^een January 
21st and March 25th, inclusive, no fuel should be burned, 
except enough to prevent injury to property from freezing, 
in any business or professional ojQSces except those of the 
national, state or Federal Government or public utility com- 
panies, banks, physicians and dentists, nor was the use of fuel 
permitted in any stores or business houses, or in theaters or 
other places of amusement, or in places where liquor was sold. 
The order also provided that priority in shipping coal should 
be given to the needs of private residences, hospitals, rail- 
roads, military cantonments, public utilities, shipping for 
bunker purposes, manufacturers of perishable foods, and 
federal, state and municipal governments. 

This order was widely criticized and Dr. Garfield fiercely 
attacked by business men and by representatives of other 
political parties. But it was universally obeyed. It had 
been approved by President Wilson. Many thousands of 
tons of coal were saved on each of these heatless days, and the 
congestion of freight was gradually relieved. Several million 
men and women were rendered idle and in the great majority 
of cases they lost their wages. The people, however, gen- 
erally recognized that the close-down was necessary to the 
execution of war plans. Monday became virtually a holiday, 
theaters and places of amusement being allowed to open on 
that day and to close down on Tuesday instead. 

To aid in this endeavor to relieve the congestion of 
freight, Mr. McAdoo, as Director- General of Railroads, on 
January 23d ordered an official embargo on all new shipments 
of freight, except fuel, food and a few war necessities, on the 

354 America's Part in the World War 

Pennsylvania lines east of Pittsburgh, the Baltimore & Ohio 
lines east of the Ohio River, and the Philadelphia and Reading 
system. The Fuel Administration, also, undertook to control 
the supply of coal by the institution of a zone system in the 
East. Mr. J. D. A. Morrow was appointed to head a new 
division of the Fuel Administration to take exclusive charge 
of all movements of coal from producer to consumer. This 
new division had its representatives in every community, 
and by careful organization it attempted to fairly distribute 
the coal from the mines as fast as it could be delivered. 

In the spring of 1918 the Fuel Commission took a still 
stronger hold on the whole situation. By proclamation of 
the President on the 15th of March, dealers in coal and coke 
were required to secure a license, and immediately thereafter 
rules and regulations governing the distribution of coal and 
coke by persons subject to license were promulgated. These 
regulations were very complete, and the Fuel Administration 
prepared to enforce them with great thoroughness. They 
endeavored to develop a complete coal budget indicating the 
probable production in 1918; the coal required for direct war 
work, the coal required by non-war industries, and then to 
develop by agreement with the non-war industries a suffi- 
cient reduction to enable the probable output of coal to supply 
the nation's needs. The great production of coal in the year 
1918, the readiness of all purchasers to stock up early, and 
the reduced demand caused by the ending of the war enabled 
the country to conclude the following winter without shortage. 


During the summer of 1918, however, a shortage began 
to make itself felt in the supply of gasolene on account of 
the heavy war demand. In a report presented to Congress on 
September 11, 1918, Mr. Garfield declared that there had been 
a daily deficit in production of 6,000 barrels since April 1st, 
indicating a yearly deficit of approximately 2,000,000,000 
barrels. The gas stocks on the Atlantic seaport for shipment 
abroad were at a particularly low level. 

Gasolene was a seasonal product with the maximum con- 
sumption during the period from April to September inclusive. 

Coal and Gasolene 355 

with the peak load coming in the months of June, July and 
August. The records show a reduction in stock of gaso- 
lene and naphtha during the month of July of approximately 
1,367,000 barrels, and it was estimated that the reduction in 
August would be close to two million barrels, or a daily 
deficit of 65,000 barrels. It was on account of this unsatis- 
factory condition that on August 27th the Fuel Adminis- 
tration called upon the public in the states east of the Miss- 
issippi River to cease the uses of all classes of automobiles, 
with a few named exceptions, motor cycles, and motor boats 
on Sunday, until further notice. Motor vehicles which were 
excepted were tractors and motor trucks employed in actual 
transportation of freight, vehicles of physicians used in per- 
formance of official duties, ambulances, fire apparatus, police 
patrol wagons, undertakers' vehicles and the conveyances 
used for funerals, railway equipment using gasolene, repair 
outfits employed by telephone and public service companies, 
and motor vehicles on errands of necessity in rural communi- 
ties where transportation by steam or electricity is not 


A statement issued by Administrator Garfield and Mark 
S. Requa, Director of the Oil Division, of the Fuel Adminis- 
tration, explains this action: 

The United States Fuel Administration considers it necessary that a 
limited conservation of gasolene be undertaken in the states east of the 
Mississippi River, in view of the increasing demand for gasolene for war 
purposes and the paramount obligation of meeting promptly and fully all 
overseas requirements. An appeal is made, therefore, to the people of 
the United States, east of the Mississippi River to exercise a rigid economy 
in the consumption of gasolene during the next few weeks, as a necessary 
and practical act of patriotism. 

War necessities are being, and will continue to be promptly and fully 
met, but this is the period of the year when consumption of gasolene is 
at its highest. And the increased domestic demands, together with the 
extensive military operations in France, have rendered necessary for a 
limited period the adoption of safeguards against possible shortage. 

In view of the difficulty, if not the impossibility, of differentiating 
between the various uses to which automobiles are applied, the United 
States Fuel Administration beheves that the greatest measure of economy 

356 America's Part in the World War 

can be eflFected with the least interference with the business of the country 
through the discontinuance of all classes of motor vehicles, motor boats 
and motor cycles activities. The United States Fuel Administration, 
therefore, requests that in the section of the United States east of the 
Mississippi, there shall be a discontinuance of use of the vehicles above 
specified, including all such as are operated for hire, on each Sunday, 
hereafter, until notification that the need for such discontinuance has 

The statement ended with an appeal to tlie patriotic men 
and women of America east of the Mississippi River to 
undertake voluntarily additional conservation in the operation 
of their own automobiles wherever possible. The Fuel 
Administration had in contemplation the extension of the 
prohibition of gasolene on Sunday throughout the West if 
it should seem later to be necessary. 

Some idea of the operation of this Sunday conservation 
may be obtained from the consideration of the conditions in 
the state of New York alone. On June 1, 1918, there were 
421,084 automobiles hcensed in the state of New York. It 
would be a conservative estimate that if these cars should run 
on Sunday they would consume a total of 2,105,420 gallons. 
In the city of Is^ew York alone, 962,160 gallons would be con- 
sumed on any one Sunday. In the whole country there are 
about 5,500,000 automobiles. If all were operated on Sun- 
day the gasolene consumption would reach the stupendous 
total of 27,500,000 gallons. 

Although obedience to the request of the Fuel Adminis- 
tration was entirely voluntary, the people so universally 
responded to the appeal of the Fuel Administrator, that it 
was not necessary for the Oil Division to exercise the powers 
given it by law, and by the middle of October it was possible 
to cancel the order. The patriotism of the people had been 
appealed to and the request of the Fuel Administration was 
not only obeyed, but was obeyed with the greatest good will. 
Sunday joy riding stopped all over the states east of the 

e, Harris :.-r J,,. <,.., 

Upper row, left to right: Charles M. Schwab, Director General, Emergency Fleet 
Corporation; Vance C. McCormick, Chairman, War Trade Board; Samuel Gompers, 
President, American Federation of Labor; center: Herbert C. Hoover, Food Administrator; 
Bernard M. Baruch, Chairman, War Industries Board; lower: Harry A. Garfield, Fuel 
Administrator; Frank P. Walsh, Chairman, National War Labor Board; W. P. G. Harding, 
Manager-Director, War Finance Corporation. 


A Bridge of Ships 

ONE of the most important questions which confronted 
the United States of America upon its entrance into 
the World War was the obvious need of a greater 
merchant marine. Indeed, it was generally thought that the 
Allies had no great need of men, and that America would be 
doing her share if she should be able to furnish the allied 
peoples with food and munitions. The submarine warfare 
conducted by the Germans had been destroying so much of 
the seagoing tonnage of the world that the problem presented 
enormous difficulties. 

In July, 1914, the total steam seagoing merchant tonnage 
of the Allies was 34,924,000 gross tons. During the war the 
Allies lost 12,815,000 tons through enemy action. They also 
lost 2,193,000 tons through marine risk, and about 210,000 
tons through seizures by the enemy, making a total loss of 
15,218,000 tons. On the other hand, by the construction of 
new ships there was a gain of 11,856,000 tons, and 2,393,000 
tons was captured from the enemy, a total gain of 14,249,000 
tons. The net loss, therefore, was only 969,000 tons. 

The United States seagoing merchant marine in August, 
1914, included 624 steamers of 1,758,465 tons and 870 sailing 
vessels and schooner barges of 947,652 gross tons, making a 
grand total of 1,494 seagoing merchant vessels of 2,706,117 
gross tons. On November 11, 1918, when the war ended the 
steam merchant marine had increased to 1,366 vessels of 
4,695,263 gross tons, and the sailing vessels and schooner 
barges had decreased to 747 vessels of 829,917 gross tons, 
making a grand total of 2,113 seagoing vessels of 5,515,480 
gross tons. This did not include the seized enemy vessels, 
which at the end of the war aggregated 88 vessels of 562,005 
gross tons. 

The total construction of the United States added to the 


360 America's Part in the World War 

merchant marine during the war 875 vessels of 2,941,845 
gross tons. The purchase from foreign governments of 233 
vessels of 833,854 gross tons, the movement to tlie ocean 
from the Great Lakes of 6Q steamers of 139,469 gross tons 
and miscellaneous acquisitions amounting to 31 vessels of 
39,219 gross tons, are other sources of acquisition. The loss 
of 114 vessels of 322,214 gross tons by enemy action, of 278 
vessels of 405,400 gross tons by marine risk, of 130 vessels of 
268,149 gross tons by sale to England, and of 64 vessels of 
149,761 gross tons through sale to the United States Govern- 
ment, abandonment and other causes, accounts for the 

This comparatively slight loss in the total tonnage of the 
Allies caused by the war and the tremendous increase of the 
American merchant marine was the result of an extraordinary 
effort put forth by all the Allies and especially by the United 
States Government, to prevent the German policy of sub- 
marine piracy from blockading the allied coasts, and so winning 
the war without it being possible for the full power of America 
to be brought into play. 

The wonderful effort on the part of the American Govern- 
ment to build a bridge of ships to Europe was cordially sup- 
ported by the whole American people. Indeed, America had 
been brought into the war by the action of the German 
Government in directing submarine attacks upon her merchant 
vessels. Germany had undertaken to terrorize America. On 
the 7th of October, 1916, the U-53, a German war submarine 
made its appearance at Newport, R. I., and on the next day 
it sank five merchant vessels — British, Dutch and Norwegian 
just outside of three-mile limit. The action of the U-53 was 
not followed by similar expeditions. It was obviously intended 
as an object lesson to America to show the power of the 
submarine, to make plain that the Germans could destroy 
overseas trade, and that if the United States should endeavor 
to send troops across the water they would be able to destroy 

Instead of terrorizing the American people, this brutal 
act aroused a general feeling of indignation, and public senti- 
ment in America supported strongly the government in every 

A Bridge of Ships 361 

effort it made to overcome the submarine threat. At the 
very beginning of the war, before there was any movement 
of soldiers to France, the American Navy was sent to help 
in the destruction of lurking submarines, and an immense 
effort was made to build ships to supply the places of those 
that had been sunk. 

One of the first acts of American Congress was to appro- 
priate $1,135,000,000 for this purpose. In the beginning two 
independent organizations were entrusted with the execution 
of the government's shipbuilding program. The Emergency 
Fleet Corporation and the United States Shipping Board. 
General Goethals, just returned from building the Panama 
Canal, was made manager of the Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion, and Mr. William Denman was made chairman of the 
United States Shipping Board. Serious differences of opinion 
arose between these two men at the Very start. Mr. Denman 
favored the building of a number of wooden ships, a policy 
which General Goethals did not approve. After a consider- 
able delay both men resigned, and as a result of a reorganiza- 
tion, the Fleet Corporation was made subordinate to the 
Shipping Board, though still in entire control of construction. 
Rear-Admiral Capps succeeded General Goethals, but resigned 
shortly afterward on account of ill health. Then Rear- 
Admiral Harris was appointed to the office, but resigned 
because in his opinion he had not enough authority. 

Then came Mr. Charles Piez into the Fleet Corporation. 
Mr. Edward N. Hurley had succeeded Mr. Denman as chair- 
man of the United States Shipping Board and under the 
direction of these two men much progress was made. 

In the spring of 1918 under pressure from the Allies 
every endeavor was made by the United States to speed up. 
It had become a race between Germany and the United 
States. Germany was making gigantic endeavors to win 
the war before the Americans should come. In the pursuance 
of this speed-up policy, on April 16, 1918, Mr. Charles M. 
Schwab, chairman of the Board of Directors of the Bethlehem 
Steel Corporation, was made director-general of the Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation. 

During May, 1918, the first month after Mr. Schwab 

362 America's Part in the World War 

began his work, the record of production had mounted from 
160,286 tons to 263,571 tons. During that month forty-three 
steel ships and one wooden ship had been completed and 
delivered. Mr. Schwab moved his headquarters from Wash- 
ington to Philadelphia in order to be closer to the center of 
the shipbuilding region. Nearly fifty per cent of the work in 
progress was within a short range of Philadelphia. New 
shipyards, however, were built in various parts of the country. 

The most important of these great shipyards was that 
at Hog Island, southwest of Philadelphia. This was the 
largest shipyard in the world. Its construction was a marvel- 
ous feat of engineering skill. It is true that the war ended 
before many ships had been produced but the fact that the 
United States had undertaken such a colossal accomplishment 
in so short a time had a splendid effect upon the allied morale. 
If the war had lasted a few months more the great shipyard 
would have justified its staggering expenditure of billions of 
dollars. It was a shipyard that haunted the thoughts of the 
Hun naval lords when they calculated the impossibility of 
overwhelming their new enemy from the new world on the 
sea with their stiletto-like submarines. 

Hog Island was about ten times the size of ordinary ship- 
yards. It employed over thirty thousand men. Being 
located outside the city limits of Philadelphia it was absolutely 
without any facilities, such as sewerage, water, electric power 
for either power purposes or illumination and telephone, and 
in addition to the ordinary work of constructing a shipyard 
all of such facilities had to be constructed. 

The Hog Island Shipyard contained eighty-two miles of 
standard gauge railroad track, sixteen locomotives, twenty 
passenger cars, 469 freight cars, 206 motor driven vehicles, 
thirty-eight horse driven vehicles, seventy self-propelling 
locomotive trains, 451 stiff-neck derricks, twenty-eight self- 
propelling gantry cranes, one overhead bridge crane of one 
hundred ton capacity, and forty-two items of marine equip- 
ment, forty derricks, pile drivers, barges, tugs and motor 
boats. The telephone system measured by the number of 
calls per day would serve a city of approximately one hundred 
thousand inhabitants. There were four fire stations, and a 

A Bridge of Ships 363 

police organization sufficient for a city of fifty thousand 

From November 1, 1917, to December 31, 1918, 12,491,- 
000 passengers were transported to and from Hog Island. 
The area of the shipyard was 927 acres; the area of the 
surface of the fifty shipways, 1,529,560 square feet; the area 
of the piers between the shipways, 442,193 square feet; the 
areas of the surface of the piers in the wet basin, 898,326 
square feet. The square feet floor area of all buildings approxi- 
mated 103 acres of floor space. The steel storage yards, 
equipment storage yards, and coal storage yards contained 
approximately 153 acres. There were 11.6 miles of fence, 
twentv-one miles of roads and two miles of sidewalk. The 
piling used in the construction of the shipyard would construct 
a railroad trestle about 137 miles in length. It required 
115,000,000 feet of lumber to construct the shipyard. 

It should be understood that this enormous plant was 
not a shipyard in the usual sense of the term. It was rather 
a shipbuilding assembling plant. In the old-line shipyard 
the steel plates and angles are fabricated on the premises in 
shops provided for the purpose. Hog Island Shipyard con- 
tracted with steel shops, such as bridge builders, big car 
plants, and others properly equipped, for shaping, punching 
and assembling steel to do this work from blue prints furnished 
by the shipyard, and to ship the fabricated steel to the ship- 
yard at Hog Island where it was placed in storage and then 
ordered out to the different hulls, as it was needed. All of 
the turbines, gears and other machinery and outfitting were 
purchased from the manufacturers, and shipped to the ship- 
yard, there to be assembled on the ship. 

The Hog Island site was a wild swamp on September 20, 
1917. In January, 1919, it was the largest shipyard in the 
entire world, with five ships of 7,500 tons net weight, each 
completed and delivered and in service, nine more ships of 
the same size launched and outfitting in the wet basin and 
soon to be delivered, fifty hulls in varying stages of completion 
on the fifty shipways, and more than 216,000 tons of fabricated 
steel ready to be placed on the ships on hand, in storage, 
suflficient to completely construct sixty ships. 

364 America's Part in the World War 

The shipyard at Hog Island was the most important of 
the new shipyards which were producing American cargo 
ships, but it was only one of nearly two hundred such ship- 
yards scattered all over the country. Some of these were of 
steel, others of wood and concrete, and there was considerable 
difference of opinion as to which was the most efficient type. 

On May 31, 1918, the steamship Agawam was launched 
in the yards of the Submarine Boat Corporation at Newark, 
the Agawam being the first of 150 vessels of that type to be 
constructed in that yard. It was essentially a standardized 
steel cargo ship. 

The plan was at this shipyard to launch two such vessels 
in each week. These ships had a carrying capacity of 5,500 
tons, and an average speed of ten and a half knots. Twenty- 
seven steel mills, fifty-six fabricating plants, and two hundred 
foundries and equipment shops were called upon to construct 
a ship. 

The first step in the construction of concrete ships was 
taken on April 3, 1918, when the construction of four 7,500- 
ton concrete ships was authorized in a Pacific coast shipyard. 
A concrete ship, the Faith, had been built at San Francisco 
by private capital. It had been carefully inspected and 
tested by Mr. R. J. Wig, of the Emergency Fleet Corporation, 
who had found it to be entirely satisfactory. A month later, 
fifty-eight more such ships were contracted for. 

An important part of the Shipping Board's work was the 
manning of the vast fleet prepared under their direction. 
Not less than one hundred thousand officers and men had to 
be enrolled and trained for service on the merchant vessels 
operated under authority of the Shipping Board during the 
period of the war, this being in addition to another one hundred 
thousand used on the merchant ships operated by the navy. 

For the new merchant marine the Shipping Board 
organized a recruiting and training service. Schools in 
navigation and marine engineering were built in various parts. 
In navigation schools the term was six weeks, and in the marine 
engineering schools one month. Only men who had been 
two years at sea were admitted. The men graduated were 
listed as mates, or assistant engineers in the merchant service. 

A Bridge of Ships 365 

In fifteen months those schools graduated more than five 
thousand men. The Shipping Board Training Service also 
undertook the training of seamen, firemen, cooks and stewards 
and later on developed a system of training crews with a fleet 
of training ships based at Atlantic and Pacific coast ports, 
with a ship authorized for the Gulf and another for the 
Great Lakes. On these training ships there were about five 
thousand apprentices. The course of instruction was six weeks, 
which was followed by actual sea service on the American 

The extraordinary success of the program of the United 
States Shipping Board naturally depended very largely upon 
the fidelity of the workmen employed at the government 
plant, and upon their enthusiastic co-operation in the speed-up 

The titanic task of bridging the Atlantic with a procession 
of ships had been thoroughly understood by the American 
Government from the beginning of the war. "We have to 
bridge two thousand miles of dangerous water to strike the 
blows which are required to end the menace of ruthless 
militarism," declared the Secretary of War. "Not a bullet 
can be fired, nor a mouth fed by Americans over there unless 
a rivet has first been driven home here." 

The work done by the Shipping Board was under severe 
handicap. America had ceased to be a maritime nation — its 
flag had almost vanished from the seas. And with exception 
of a few widely scattered shipyards, merchant marine con- 
struction had almost become a lost art in America. Then 
came the sudden call to outdo the rest of the world in the 
upbuilding of a merchant marine. A call coming at a moment 
when the navy was undergoing the greatest expansion in its 
history, when most if not all of the established yards were 
feverishly engaged in rush construction of dreadnoughts, 
destroyers, submarines, fuel ships, tenders and other auxiliary 
craft, and when munition makers were absorbing that part 
of skilled labor which had not been called to remote navy 
yards nor private shipbuilding plants. So it was a case of 
not working from the ground up but of first securing the 
ground, upon which to make a start. 

366 America's Part in the World War 

At the time of our entrance into the war, there were 
only thirty-seven steel shipyards in America and probably 
le^s than fifty thousand men were employed in them. By 
the fall of 1918 there were 171 shipyards, of which seventy-six 
are steel, eighty-six wood, seven concrete and two composite. 
Instead of fifty thousand shipworkers, there was an army of 
nearly four hundred thousand, with another two hundred and 
fifty thousand in training. The program of the Shipping 
Board, which was never completed, because of the unexpected 
ending of the war, was an enormous one. Contracts had been 
made for the construction of 2,249 passenger, cargo, refriger- 
ator and tanker ships, ranging from 3,500 to 12,000 tons 
each, with an aggregate deadweight tonnage of 13,212,712. 
It had contracted for forty-two concrete ships, with a dead- 
weight tonnage of 381,500, 170 wooden barges, 279 steel, 
wood and concrete tugs, of one thousand horse-power for 
ocean and harbor service, one hundred trawlers, and twenty- 
five harbor oil barges of a deadweight tonnage of fifty 

"The men who built the ships," said Secretary of Navy 
Daniels, "as truly did their part in winning the war as did 
the men who were on the ships and in the trenches." 



Death from the Sky 

AMERICA'S share of the thriUing war in the air 
/\ naturally fell under two heads. The amazing work of 
our industrial army in aircraft production was not 
less wonderful than the work of the American government in 
enlisting and training American aviators for aviation service. 
When war was declared in April, 1917, the United States 
could hardly have been worse off than it was either in air- 
craft production or the training of aviators. She had then two 
aviation fields and 224 airplanes, of which only fifty-five were 
considered serviceable. The national Advisory Committee 
on Aeronautics advised that fifty-one of these airplanes were 
obsolete and the other four obsolescent. Some of these 
airplanes had been used during General Pershing's expedition 
into Mexico in his pursuit of Villa, and had shown serious 

The American air service, which at that time was part 
of the signal corps, had been given in 1914 an appropriation 
of $250,000 for the purchase of new airplanes and equipment. 
Five officers had been sent to the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology for a course in aeronautics. When the war 
broke out in Europe in 1914 these men were the only tech- 
nically trained ofiicers in the air service of the United States. 
When America entered the war there were sixty-five ofiicers, 
with an enlisted and civilian personnel of 1,330 men, and yet 
if there was one branch of warfare in which the people of the 
United States expected America to take the lead, it was in 
the warfare in the air. 

The airplane had been invented in America, both theo- 
retically by Professor Langley, and practically by the Wright 
Brothers. It had been improved by American inventors, 
and many aviators of America had become famous. More- 
over, many adventurous young men in the United States had 
21 (367) 

368 America's Part in the World War 

early in the great war enlisted in the allied aero squadrons in 
France. Many of these had gained great fame. The service 
especially appealed to adventurous and daring young men. 
It was almost the only service in which men of unusual 
courage and physical ability were sure to obtain distinction. 
The young man who might become a lieutenant in the infantry 
or the artillery might serve with the greatest valor and never 
be heard of by the general public, but the daring aviator 

was a hero. 

Among the Americans who enlisted at the beginning of 
the war in the French Foreign Legion as infantrymen, and 
afterwards were transferred to the aviation service, were 
William Thaw, Kiffen Rockwell and Victor Chapman.^ These, 
with Norman Prince, who had already flow^n in America, were 
sent to the French Aviation School and with Cowdin, Hall, 
Masson and the famous ace, Raoul Lufbery, trained in the 
art of fighting in the air. 

From the beginning they seem to have had an idea of 
forming a squadron of American pilots. The French Min- 
istry of War did not at first approve of this proposition, for 
America at the time was strictly neutral, and to have an 
American fighting unit among the French aero squadrons 
certainly might suggest a breach of neutrality. After a time, 
however, through the persistence of Norman Prince and 
Major Edmund Gros an American organization was formed, 
commanded by a French Captain, and was called the 
Escadrille Americaine. 

This squadron was financed by Mr. and Mrs. W. K. 
Vanderbilt. It was composed of Captain Thenault and 
Lieutenant de Laage de Meux of the French service, with 
Lieutenant William Thaw, Sergeants Norman Prince, Elliott 
Cowdin, W. Bert Hall and Corporals Victor Chapman, Kift'en 
Rockwell and James McConnell. Soon after came Raoul 
Lufbery, Charles C. Johnson and Clyde Balsley. Later on, 
before the United States entered the war, more than two 
hundred American volunteers at one time or another, were 
members of this squadron. It became famous. 

On November 16, 1916, it was notified by Colonel Barres, 
Chief of French Aviation, that it could no longer be known as 

Death from the Sl^y 


the Escadrille Americaine. It appeared that Count Von 
Bernstorff had protested to Washington that Americans were 
fighting on the French front, that French official statements 
contained the name Escadrille Americaine, and that these 
impudent Americans had even painted the head of a red Sioux 
Indian in full war paint on their machines. 






S«p Oct H07 Deo Jan Pel? Mar Apr Hay Jan jgl Atig Sep Oct Not 
1917 1918 

Phodttction of Airplane Engines to the End of Each Month. The Total 
Output of Liberty Engines to the Date of the Armistice was 13,574 

Washington as in duty bound had protested to France. 
Major Gros then suggested as a name which would not lead 
to diplomatic disputes, Lafayette Escadrille. 


The American pilots of the Lafayette Escadrille were 
transferred from the French to the American service Decem- 

370 Ameriea's Part in the World War 

ber 26, 1917, flying as civilians until formally commissioned 
in January, 1918. 

Under the name of the Lafayette Flying Corps, the 
members of the Lafayette Escadrille took a most vigorous 
part in aerial activities. A report of its exploits when first 
organized reads as follows: 

*'The American pilots who enlisted in the French army 
are already distinguishing themselves by a series of exploits. 
The First Escadrille is composed of only seven Americans, 
and here are the results of the last seven days. Sergeant 
Elliott Cowdin attacked twelve German planes and brought 
one down within our lines (military medal). Sergeant 
Kiffen Rockwell a few days later brought down a L. V. G. 
enemy plane. The next day Bert Hall used his machine gun 
on another airplane which developed flames. Finally two 
days later Lieutenant William Thaw destroyed a Fokker.'* 

The members of the Escadrille received over forty cita- 
tions. Lufbery brought down seventeen German machines, 
and received the Legion of Honor, Military Medal, a War 
Cross with sixteen palm leaves, and the English Military 
Cross. Thaw was given the Legion of Honor, Military Medal 
and War Cross of four palms. 

Men like these had made a great impression on the 
American imagination, for it seemed to be the general idea 
that it would be an easy task to send thousands of them to 
France in a short time, after America entered the war. But 
aviation training is no easy matter. It divides itself into 
three stages, elementary, advanced and final. 

The elementary training included physical training, 
various practical and theoretical military subjects, the study 
of the structure and mechanism of airplanes, signaling, 
observation, ground gunnery and elementary flying. Advanced 
training consisted of specialized work necessary to make the 
man an all-round pilot observer. The final training which was 
given in Europe was special instruction on a particular type 
of machine, or the particular military problem to which the 
aviator was finally assigned. 

All this took time, and as America began with only two 
fields, and only a few competent instructors, almost all of 

Death from the Sky 


the early graduating classes were retained as instructors. 
But with true American energy, the aviation schools were 
enlarged and strengthened, and on the day of the armistice 
there were thirty-four fields in operation, with 1,063 instruc- 
tors, 8,602 men had been graduated from elementary training, 
and 4,028 from advanced training, There were still in training 






£59 t» 3M *" 

Sep Oct Hot Dec jaa Feb Har Apr Hay Jan Jul Lvg Sep Oct Kor 
1917 1918 

Pboduction of Sbrvich Planes to thb End of Each Month 

6,528 men. There had been sent to the American Expedi- 
tionary Force more than five thousand pilots and observers, 
of whom at the date of the armistice 2,226 were still in training. 
The total personnel of the air service, including non-flying 
officers and enlisted men, had increased from about 1,200 at 
the outbreak of the war to nearly 200,000 at the close. 

In addition to the purely American operations two full 

372 America's Part in the World War 

squadrons were attached to the British Royal Air Force, and 
fought with the British from the drive in Picardy to the 
battle of Cambrai. Others were in Italy. 


Strictly American operations began in March, 1918, by 
an American pursuit squadron, which patrolled the front at 
Villeneuve-les-Vertus. This was a complete success, and by 
the middle of May squadrons of all types were in operation 
over the allied front. At that time they were equipped with 
British and French service planes. 

The squadrons were of four kinds : observation squadrons, 
whose duty was to make observations, take photographs 
and direct artillery fire; pursuit squadrons, which protected 
the observation planes under fire, or attacked the enemy; 
day bombers which dropped bombs on roads and railroads; 
and night bombers with heavy bombs, for the destruction of 
enemy works. In April, America had three squadrons — 
two for observation and one for pursuit. In May there were 
nine. By the time of the armistice there were forty-five, 
with 740 planes in action. 


A description of the operation of the American Army in 
three important battles will giVe some idea of the way in 
which they developed. In the fighting associated with 
Chateau-Thierry, the Germans had a pronounced superiority 
in the air. The Americans, however, photographed the entire 
front, and by their vigorous attack played an important part 
in putting German air forces on the defensive. The American 
force consisted of four pursuit squadrons, three observation 
squadrons, and two balloon companies. 


In the Battle of St. Mihiel there was the largest concen- 
tration of air force ever made up to that time in support of 
the American Army. One-third of this was American, and 
the rest French, British and Italian squadrons, operating 
under American command. Though they were hampered by 

Death from the Sliy 


bad weather, American artillery was directed with admirable 
accuracy. Photographs of every movement of the enemies' 
lines were made and Tiursuit planes with machine guns flew 







ia&xlcaa. »iesiiy ty American 

)jy eaany 'American l)y tocoy 

Airplanes and Balloons Brought Down in Action bt Americans and Germans 

Bo^ny ly 

low over the German lines, firing at the infantry. The 
American air force was composed of twelve pursuit squadrons, 
twelve observation squadrons, three bombing squadrons, and 
fifteen balloon companies, and did approximately three times 

374 America's Part in the World War 

as much work as was done during the Chateau-Thierry 


The Meuse-Argonne engagement covered six weeks, and 
the American air activities were continued during that period 
upon the same scale as during the St. Mihiel defensive. The 
losses, of course, were heavy, but replacements were made so 
rapidly that at the end of the action the American strength 
was greater than at the start. 

During the war American aviators brought down 755 
enemy planes. Their losses were only 357 planes. They 
destroyed seventy-one German balloons, losing forty-three 
American balloons. But the work of the American squad- 
rons in great battles and in great bombing expeditions was 
perhaps not so picturesque, as the exploits of its individuals. 
The members of the Lafayette Flying Corps grew in fame, 
and hundreds of other names were added to the list of gallant 
knights of the air, who fought for America. Many of them 
lost their lives, — among them, Lufbery, Chapman, Rockwell, 
Prince and Quentin Roosevelt. Roosevelt had not been 
long enough in the service to have become an ace, but his 
gallant character and his conspicuous position as the son of 
Ex-President Roosevelt made him the center of world-wide 
interest and sympathy. Many, too, went through the war 
after dozens of hair-raising escapes without injury. Among 
these the most conspicuous was Edward Rickenbacker, whose 
name has become a household word. 


The work of the aviators in bombing, in photography, 
and in observation, no doubt, in the long run is the most 
important work that they do, but the most interesting work 
is that connected with individual combats. The aerial com- 
bat necessitates physical ability, skill, dauntless courage and 
brains. The aviator who is attacking attempts to obtain 
the most favorable position. He desires^ to surprise his 
adversary and to be flying at a higher altitude. He must 
weigh and estimate the relative qualities of his plane and 

V iuhru-i)od and VmlenvuiHl, .V. 1 

Photograph taken from machine above showing a bombing squadron flying over the Hnes. 

f ? «tj \ -^ <. 

L . S. OffnUd ritutdfiruuh. 


Training gri)ini(l of dur military ,i via tors to lieeome liic eyes of Ihc army in France. 

U. S. Official I'holoyriijih. 


American Air Service oflBcer about to release a pigeon from an airplane. These birds were 
frequently used to convey messages to headquarters. 

© Undtrao'kl mid I' iKliriniiiil, .V. }'. 


A powerful enemy airplane shot down in flames during an aerial battle is still burning after 

crashing iij-'^irle the allied lines. 


Death from the Sl^y 


that of his adversary. The modes of attack differ according 
to the type of enemy machine. If the foe is alone, and his 
plane is a single seater, a favorite mode of attack is to dive 
down from on high and then turn up slightly under and 
behind the opponent. There the foe can be fired at without 
being able to return the fire as his gun is mounted forward. 

Bom r 



1 1 

T W 







CyWU -" 


1 nnrt 































. d* 

i k iiiiia i iiaiti loirMi 7 )4±2&4 Aib^i 9 ] 

330613 » ^4 i 18 25 i ftiSSBJiifsis 




APR ru»y 

jun JUL 



nov DEC 


FtB MAR wa 

1918 1919 

Chart Showing the Hotms Spent in the Air Each Week by American 
Service Planes at the Front 

Another mode of attack used when one meets the enemy 
head-on is to dive and come up behind the enemy, where 
again he is defenseless. The best position for this form of 
attack is from the front somewhat to the side where the enemy 
pilot cannot fire at the diver without shooting through his 

378 America's Part in the World War 

wings. The enemy, of course, dodges to prevent the attack- 
ing plane from obtaining this position, and the duel becomes 
a series of acrobatic maneuvers, each man trying to protect 
himseK by dives, slips and loops so as to head out of the line 
of fire. If one is surprised in the air by an enemy, he always 
climbs, spiralling upward and watching for an opportunity 
to dive under him. 

A two-seater is a more dangerous adversary, for it is 
better protected by gun-fire, but it has not the agility of the 
smaller machine. A good pilot must be able to do the most 
complicated acrobatic feats, and do them automatically while 
his mind is on other matters. He must handle his machine 
subconsciously, while he directs his attention upon his 

Much air fighting was done through squadrons, which 
flew high up with a decoy five thousand or six thousand feet 
below. When an enemy attacked a decoy the other mem- 
bers of the squadron came diving down, pumping shots into 
him from all directions. The aviators, also, did other work 
besides their fighting. Sometimes they carried members of 
the secret service, and landed them in the enemy country. 
At other times, they carried bundles of leaflets or newspapers 
designed for propaganda and dropped them among the hostile 
troops. Sometimes they attacked the enemy balloons, and 
always they were engaged in tasks requiring intelligence, 
coolness and courage. 


Brilliant as was the development of this army of soldiers 
of the air, the industrial effort which enabled the United 
States to produce the necessary planes for such an army, 
with their motors, armament and equipment was even more 
wonderful. When the United States entered the war no 
American-built airplane had ever mounted a machine gun, 
whfle such things as oxygen apparatus, electrically heated 
clothing, radio communication with airplanes, landing and 
bombing fires, electric lighting, bomb-dropping devices, instru- 
ments for measuring height and speed were entirely unknown. 
Indeed, the average man does not remember that during the 


Death from the Sliy 379 

first year of the great war there was no fighting in the air, 
that it was not until the summer of 1915 that aircraft were 
provided with armament. The hostile aviators waved their 
hands to each other in a friendly way as they passed. 

The first recorded aerial combat was where a Russian 
aviator destroyed a German machine by ramming it as a 
destroyer might a submarine. Both machines crashed to the 
ground. It is true some experiments were made. The United 
States had successfully fired a machine gun from an airplane 
in 1912, and at the opening of the war the French had equipped 
a few heavy airplanes to carry machine guns, but in August, 
1915, the usual equipment for an aviator was a rifle, a shot 
gun or an automatic pistol. Some of the earlier planes also 
carried a few trench grenades or steel darts to drop upon the 
enemy's trenches. 

Our ignorance about airplane Instruction and equipment 
in the early days of 1917 was no greater than our want of 
knowledge of what would be necessary for a nation with our 
resources to do to be of service to our allies. In February, 
The Signal Corps discussed the possibility of building 1,000 
planes in a year. In March they raised this number to 2,500. 
In April when war was declared we raised It to 3,700. In the 
early part of June our joint Army and Navy Board recom- 
mended to the Secretaries of War and the Navy that we 
start at once to produce 22,000 airplanes, 12,000 for active 
service in France and the remainder for training our flyers and 
for the defense of the United States. 

Even then, the task before the United States was not 
realized. For every airplane spare parts must be made 
equivalent to eight-tenths of another airplane. Producing 
22,000 airplanes, therefore, really meant producing 40,000 
airplanes. The whole country was Interested in the American 
plan for aircraft supremacy. On May 12th Congress voted 
$10,800,000 for military aeronautics. On June 15th an 
appropriation of $43,450,000 was voted for the same purpose. 
On July 24, 1917, the President signed a bill appropriating 
$640,000,000 for aircraft. 

Three joint boards were appointed to aid In the great 
aviation project — the joint Army and Navy Board on Design 

380 America's Part in the World War 

and Specifications, the joint Army and Navy Board on Aero- 
cognizances, and the joint Army and Navy Board on Zeppehns. 
The Council of National Defense appointed an Aircraft Pro- 
duction Board, with Mr. Howard E. Coffin as chairman. The 
duty of this board was to bring manufacturers together, and 
to assist the government in stimulating the production of air 
machines, aircraft material, and the construction of aviation 
schools and supply depots. Arrangements were made with 
certain leading institutions to give instruction in military 
aeronautics. These were the Universities of California, 
Texas, Illinois, and Ohio, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, Georgia School of Technology, Carnegie University, 
Princeton University. 

The airplanes used in Europe when America went into 
the war had been built by private firms. Agents for these 
European manufacturers at once rushed to the United States 
to demonstrate the excellence of their various machines. 
Many of these machines had been very successful, but it was 
evident that it was impossible in America to make a decision, 
as to which were the best. Moreover, the United States had 
no desire to pay royalties for the use of these machines. 
Consequently, the United States sent at once to Europe a 
commission of six civilian and military experts headed by 
Major R. C. Boiling, who studied the question and advised 
the War Department. Requests were also sent to England, 
France and Italy for aviation experts, and one hundred skilled 
mechanics were sent to Europe to be trained in the foreign 
airplane plants. 

Pending the reports from the Boiling commission the 
Signal Corps bent its energies upon the manufacture of 
training equipment. Orders were given to French factories 
for 5,875 planes of regular French design to be delivered by 
July 1, 1918. Much of the raw materials for these machines 
was furnished by the United States. The manufacture of 
machines in America was a very difficult undertaking. It 
was necessary for our aircraft officers to go to France, England 
and Italy and study first principles. Only in one respect 
were we prepared in professional skill and mechanical equip- 
ment to go ahead. This was in the matter of producing 

Death from the Sliy 381 

engines. Few aviation engines, it is true, had been pro- 
duced, but in the automobile industry there was a vast engine- 
building capacity, which with a little change could be used 
for the manufacture of airplane engines. 

The production of airplanes, it soon appeared was some- 
thing more than a mere manufacturing job. The factories 
had to be equipped, and the raw materials procured, and 
sometimes actually produced. When our designers had 
saturated themselves in the science and were abreast of the 
development of Europe they went ahead with relentless speed, 
but before that condition was attained there naturally was 
much waste. 

The United States had no accurate information in the 
beginning as to sizes, capacities and types of planes or engines, 
or character of ordnance, armament or aeronautical appli- 
ances, necessary for the service. Three hundred and fifty 
airplanes ordered in April, 1917, proved to be so inadequate 
in their design that a few months later the manufacturers of 
them asked to be released from their contract. Yet, when the 
armistice came America had produced 11,754 airplanes with 
most of the necessary spare parts, and in October, 1918, the 
factories in this country turned out 1,651 planes, which was 
at the rate of twenty thousand planes per year. This meant 
that the 22,000 airplanes hoped for in July, 1917, would have 
been produced in twenty-three months after that day. On 
the day the armistice was signed the United States had 
obtained from "all sources 16,952 planes. Of course, no such 
number of planes was ever at one time ready for use. 

The mortality in airplanes is very great. The production 
of airplanes presented many problems. An airplane must 
have wings and an engine with a propellor to make it go. 
It must have a tail and a body; part of the tail moves side- 
ways, and steers the airplane from left to right; part moves 
up and down and makes the airplane go up or down. Parts 
of the wings move up and down and make the airplane tip 
from side to side. All these things must be connected to 
controls in the hands of the pilot. In the airplanes built for 
the United States the propellor was in front pulling the 
machine. The United States airplanes were biplanes, which 

382 America's Part in the World War 

were of a greater strength than monoplanes. Every part of 
the biplane had to be as light as possible. 

The principal components of an airplane are wood, sheet 
steel, wire, cloth and varnish, all of which have to be of the 
best quality. Castor oil is used as a lubricant. To procure 
these materials turned out to be difficult. The supply of 
castor oil was not nearly sufiicient, and the government was 
compelled to procure from Asia castor beans enough to seed 
100,000 acres in this country. When the United States entered 
the war linen was used for the covering of wings. The three 
principal sources of flax, were Belgium, Russia and Ireland. 
Belgium and Russia could no longer be counted on, and 
Ireland could not supply enough. Elaborate experiments 
were made with cotton fabrics, and two grades of cotton 
goods were finally manufactured, and turned out to be better 
than linen. To stretch the cloth tight and create on it a 
smooth surface a varnish was used, called a dope, and a new 
dope suitable for the cotton fabric had to be discovered. 


America's main contribution to the war in the air was the 
Liberty engine. Major-General George O. Squier, Chief 
Signal Officer of the army in an address before the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers of New York City said: 
"As we look back on the record of accomplishment in the 
problem of obtaining large numbers of high-powered aviation 
engines for our army and navy air services, both in this 
country and abroad, it seems to most of us who are in close 
contact with the work and the difficulties, more like a fairy 
tale than the statement of hard facts which it is in reality. 
On the face of things it certainly would seem to be the height 
of presumption to assume that this country could, following 
its almost total neglect of aviation development in previous 
years, hope to design, develop and produce in unprecedented 
quantities an acceptable aircraft engine of greater power than 
had been evolved by any of the European nations even 
under the spur of governmental encouragement and tre- 
mendous war demands. Yet just that and nothing else was 
the only thing to do, and the story of its doing is one of the 

Death from the Sliy 383 

most brilliant chapters in the history of our country's part in 
the great war. 

"So well recognized had the value of the Liberty engine 
become that the Allies had an order, at the time of signing the 
armistice, for 16,741 airplane engines, and were constantly en- 
deavoring to increase their rate of monthly delivery. Air- 
planes were being designed around this engine in all allied 
countries, and it was fast becoming the predominating 
aeronautical engine of the allied cause. It is of interest in this 
connection to note that this standardized engine already has 
been tested in the twenty -four-cylinder model, and showed 
results which will prove that the original basic idea will provide 
for engines of any size which would have been required for any 
probable increase in airplane size during years of continuation 
of the war. The sixteen-cylinder was also proved by the 
success of the larger engine." 

In May, 1917, the equipment division of the Signal Corps, 
after a careful study of allied engines, found it highly advisable 
for the American Army to design and produce a standard 
engine of its own. The Allies in Europe were using so many 
different makes of engines, the French having developed 
forty-six, and the British using thirty-seven, that if the 
United States should have to study all these engines and 
decide which v/as best, procure suitable drawings and speci- 
fications and negotiate with foreign owners for rights to 
manufacture, the delay that would be necessary might have 
disastrous results. 

Two expert engineers, Mr. J. G. Vincent, of the engineer- 
ing staff of the Packard Motor Company, and Mr. E. J. 
Hall, of the Hall-Scott Motor Car Company, men qualified in 
talent and in experience for the work, were selected to design 
a new engine. Arrangements were made by which these men 
could draw freely upon the experience and achievement of all 
American inventors regardless of patent rights. 

In association with Colonel E. A. Deeds, and Colonel S. 
D. Waldon, of the Signal Department, the Liberty engine 
was designed, and in spite of the enormous difficulties was 
soon being produced at extraordinary speed. Meanwhile, 
many other engines were also produced, chiefly for use in the 

384 America's Part in the World War 

training service. In the nineteen months of the war the 
United States turned out complete and ready for service 
32,420 aeronautic engines. Of these 15,572 were Liberty 
engines. Meanwhile, a commission sent abroad for the 
purpose had selected types of foreign service planes suitable 
for this country. These models had to be redesigned for the 
Liberty motor. The first successful type of plane to come into 
quantity production was the British DeHaviland 4. Opera- 
tions began February, 1918, and by October a monthly output 
of 1,200 had been reached. By the time of the armistice four 
other airplanes had been tested and adopted by the United 
States Government. They were the Lepere, the United 
States DeHaviland 9A, the Martin Bomber, and the Loening 
two-seater fighter. 

Many difficulties were encountered in obtaining the 
spruce and other lumber used in the manufacture of the air- 
planes. Labor difficulties arose in the northwest brought 
about by I. W. W. The Chief -of -Staff of the army formed a 
military organization to take care of the situation, known 
as the Spruce Production Division of the Signal Corps, under 
the command of Colonel Brice P. Disque, and a Loyal Legion 
of Loggers and Lumbermen was organized to offset the I. W. 
W. propaganda. Specifications for logs were standardized, 
financial assistance given, and a system of instruction insti- 
tuted for the personnel. 

Many striking inventions were developed by the Science 
and Research Division of the Signal Corps. Of these, a tele- 
scopic signaling device, which made possible signaling in day- 
light over a distance of eighteen miles, and with the aid of an 
ultra-violet light signaling by night for six miles was of great 
use. Other inventions were propaganda balloons with a range 
of more than one thousand miles, improvements in the means 
of navigating airplanes with the aid of a sextant and artificial 
horizon, bomb sight stabilizers, and most remarkable of all 
airplane telephone apparatus by which the voice can be used 
to communicate between airplanes in fight and from airplanes 
to the ground. 

Brigadier-General Mitchell in referring to these inventions 
said: *' America is a nation of initiative — it had many men 

Death from the Sliy 385 

with inventive minds. This much is estabhshed from either 
an economic or mihtary standpoint, that henceforth whoever 
holds the mastery and supremacy of the air will hold the 
supremacy and mastery of all the elements, the air, the land 
and the water. If we are to hold the mastery of land and sea, 
we must master the air as well. The United States must 
organize to lead in aerial development, so that the country 
that invented the airplane may also be a leader in its expansion 
and use." 

The war built up in the United States a new industry in 
the manufacture of airplanes. It developed new inventions. 
The future will decide the result. 


The development of armament for the fighting in the 
air began with the use of Lewis machine guns, made for use 
in the trenches. These ground guns were taken into the 
planes and fired from observer's shoulders. On account of 
the great speed of the airplane it was only with rapid fire that 
one could hope to bring down a hostile plane. The ordinary 
machine gun, however, soon began to be adapted to airplane 
use. The pursuit airplanes which engaged in the spectacular 
air combats were single seaters, the pilot of such a machine 
could not drop his controls and fire a machine gun from his 
shoulder. This necessitated a fixed gun that could be oper- 
ated while the pilot maintained complete control of the 
machine, and led to the invention of the synchronizing gear, 
where a fixed gun fires through the whirling propellor without 
hitting the propellor blades. This method of using the 
machine gun was a development after various other methods 
had been tried. 

In three years of warfare the Allies developed only a 
single machine which could be synchronized to fire through a 
revolving airplane propeller. In twelve months of actual 
effort America produced two others as good, both susceptible 
of factory quantity production. The United States also 
built balloons at a rate suflScient to supply more than its 
own needs, and devised a commercial practical method of 
obtaining non-inflammable helium gas for balloons and air- 

386 America's Part in the World War 

ships, which because of its safety from fire opened up a new 
era for the dirigible balloon. 

The war ended too soon for the full force of the American 
effort in the production of machines and in the training of 
aviators to be felt. But the moral effect was, no doubt, great. 
The Germans knew well what was going on. They had lost 
their early supremacy in the air, and they knew that in a 
short time they would be overwhelmed by the tremendous 
airplane fleets that were coming from the west. Indeed, 
already hundreds of raids were working havoc in the great 
industrial centers of the Rhine. Cologne, Stuttgart, Mann- 
heim, Mainz and Coblenz had been bombarded. Between 
June 6th and November 10th 550 tons of bombs had been 
dropped on enemy territory by the British squadrons alone. 
Plans had been made for boml3ing Berlin and other centers. 
In one more year the war might have been won in the air. 


American Business Men in the War 

BEFORE America entered into the war, it had been made 
plain by the course of events in Europe that if America 
should be compelled to fight it would be just as neces- 
sary to organize our civihan and economic forces for victory 
as it would be to mobilize a great army. Agitation in favor 
of preparation had been going on from the beginning. Theo- 
dore Roosevelt and General AYood had been especially insis- 
tent, and the President of the United States had headed a 
preparedness parade on the streets of Washington. On 
August 29, 1916, a law creating a Council of National Defense 
was approved by the President. 

According to the terms of this law the members of this 
council were the Secretary of War, Secretary of the Navy, 
Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary 
of Commerce and the Secretary of Labor. It was provided 
by the terms of the law creating the Council of National 
Defense that it should nominate to the President, and the 
President should appoint an Advisory Commission, consisting 
of not more than seven persons *'each of whom shall have 
special knowledge of some industry, public utility, or the 
development of some natural resource or be otherwise specially 
qualified in the opinion of the council for the performance of 
the duties hereinafter provided." 

In accordance with this provision, the following men 
were appointed upon the Advisory Commission: Daniel 
Willard, President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
chairman; Howard E. Coffin, Vice-President, Hudson Motor 
Company; Julius Rosenwald, President, Sears, Roebuck & 
Company; Bernard M. Baruch, Banker; Dr. Holhs Godfrey, 
President, Drexel Institute; Samuel Gompers, President, 
American Federation of Labor; and Dr. Franklin Martin, 
Secretary, General American College of Surgeons, Chicago. 



America's Part in the World War 

According to the terms of the law the object and purposes 
of the Council of National Defense were as follows: 

That a Council of National Defense is hereby established for the 
co-ordination of mdustries and resources for the national security and 
welfare. That it shall be the duty of the Council of National Defense to 
supervise and direct investigations and make recommendations to the 
President and the heads of executive departments as to the location of 
railroads with reference to the frontier of the United States so as to render 

&LUO/^S or£X>U/l/fS SPEAfT 

Chart SnowixG, m Eii^uons of Dollars, the Amount Spent Bf Each Nation 
FOR Direct War Expenses to the Spring of 1919. The Total Expendi- 
tures WERE $186,000,000,000. 

possible expeditious concentration %i troops and supplies to points of 
defense; the co-ordination of military, industrial, and commercial pur- 
poses in the location of extensive highways and branch lines of railroad; 
the utilization of waterways; the mobihzation of military and naval 
resources for defense; the increase of domestic production of articles and 
materials essential to the support of armies and of the people during the 
interruption of foreign commerce; the development of seagoing trans- 
portation; data as to amounts, location, method and means of production 

American Business Men in the War 389' 

and availability of military supplies; the giving of information to pro- 
ducers and manufacturers as to the class of supplies needed by the military 
and other services of the government, the requirements relating thereto, 
and the creation of relations which will render possible in time of need the 
immediate concentration and utilization of the resources of the nation." 

The administrative work of the council was carried on by 
a director and various committees immediately under his 
supervision. The first director of the council was Mr. W. S. 
Gifford, now controller of the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Company, who was succeeded later by Grosvenor 
B. Clarkson, who had been secretary of the council and also 
director of the Field Division. The council began as a small 
body employing five persons, and occupying three rooms in an 
office building. It ended by becoming an organization with 
1,600 people on its pay roll, with offices occupying a whole 
block and terminals in distant prairies. 

The Council of National Defense was itself, however, 
but a development. The Navy Department had taken the 
first step toward linking up the nation's fighting forces with 
its industrial system. It had established the Naval Consulting 
Board, to which electric engineering and other scientific 
societies were invited to send representatives. This meant the 
enlistment of scientists, inventors and technical experts in the 
service of the nation. To enlist the organizers of production 
a committee on industrial preparedness was organized, with a 
chairmanship in Howard E. Coffin, engineer, and captain of 
industry. This committee undertook to carry through a 
complete survey of the whole industrial capacity of the 
United States, for the purposes of war. The Council of 
National Defense was a direct result of the Committee on 
Industrial Preparedness. 


Immediately upon the outbreak of the war the Advisory 
Commission of the Council of National Defense appointed a 
number of committees "of specially qualified persons to serve 
without compensation" covering many lines of industry. 
Each of these committees was composed of experts and busi- 
ness men, and each was charged with some special duty. 

390 America's Part in the World War 

Members of these committees and boards were business men, 
who were placing themselves and their resources at the service 
of their country without pay. The council made of itself a 
channel for centralizing and directing this voluntary effort. 
Among these men were numbered hundreds of the greatest 
business men of the country. They were known as Dollar-a- 
Year Men, and it was owing to their loyalty and patriotism, 
as well as their ability that the mobilization of the forces of 
the country was accomplished with such success. 


The most important board in the Council of National 
Defense was the General Munitions Board. This was reor- 
ganized in July, 1917, as the War Industries Board. It was 
composed of seven members selected by President Wilson, 
himself. These men were Frank A. Scott, chairman; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Palmer E. Pierce, Rear-Admiral Frank M. 
Fletcher, Bernard M. Baruch, Robert S. Brookings, Robert S. 
Lovett, and Hugh Frayne. This change was caused by the 
fact that voluntary workers were made to appear as buying 
from themselves as producers, and selling to themselves as 
agents of the government. This was not, in fact, true, as they 
had no power to buy or to fix prices, but only to recommend. 

It seemed advisable to avoid even the appearance of the 
possibility of graft, and disassociate the industrial committees 
of all connection with purchases in behalf of the government. 
The War Industries Board in 1918 was formally separated 
from the Council of National Defense. It was the American 
equivalent of the British and French Munition Ministers, 
with a difference that its head did not occupy a place in the 

On March 4, 1918, when the board became independent, 
it consisted of Bernard M. Baruch, chairman; R. S. Brookings, 
Brigadier-General P. E. Pierce, Rear-Admiral F. F. Fletcher, 
Hugh Frayne, Edwin B. Parker, George N. Peck, J. L. 
Replogle, L. L. Summers, Alexander Legge. The War 
Industries Board established certain commodity sections and 
divisions to deal with the problems of the war with respect to 
particular products and activities. 

American Business Men in the War 391 

Among these are agricultural implements, animal and 
hand-drawn vehicles, wood products, automotive products, 
brass and copper, building materials, chains, chemicals and 
explosives, cranes, electric and power equipment, hide, leather 
and tanning material, linen thread, linters, and cotton goods, 
lumber, machine tools, mica, non-ferrous metals, optical glass 
instruments, power production, small tools and hardware, 
steel supplies, tin, tobacco, wiring cable, wood chemicals, 
wools, fire prevention. 

Other important functions of the board were carried out 
by the Allied Purchasing Commission, whose duty was the 
making of purchases for the Allies; the Priorities Commission, 
with the power to issue priority orders governing the prece- 
dence of the supply of raw materials required by the government 
on account of war activities ; the Conservation Division which 
endeavored to secure economy in the use of men and materials 
in commercial business as an aid to war requirements; and 
the Price Fixing Committee with power to arrange a joint 
agreement with the representatives of various industries 
fixing maximum prices for particular products. 

The War Industries Board was thus originally one of the 
agencies of the Council of National Defense, and just as it 
became independent, so other boards and committees went 
through a similar process of separation, from the creating 
body. The Shipping Committee became the Shipping Board, 
the Committee on Coal Production became the Fuel Adminis- 
tration. Other important committees and boards thus 
originated include the Aircraft Board, the Commercial Econ- 
omy Board, the Industrial Inventory, Highways, Transport, 
Raw Materials, Supplies and Labor Committees and the 
General Medical Board and Medical Section. Just as the 
business men of the country were giving their services gratui- 
tously to the War Industries Board, so the scientific men of 
the country were working in the Department of Science and 


In April, 1916, the National Academy of Science had 
offered its services toward organizing the scientific resources 

392 America's Part in the World War 

of the country. As the result of this offer the National 
Research Council was organized, composed of the chiefs of 
the technical bureaus of the army and navy, the heads of the 
government bureaus engaged in scientific research, investi- 
gators representing educational institutions, and other repre- 
sentatives of industrial engineering research. This National 
Research Council when the war began became the Department 
of Science and Research of the Council of National Defense. 
Its duties were various, it acted as an advisory agent of the 
Signal Corps, obtained scientific information relating to war 
problems, investigated patents, invented plans for new 
developments in concrete available for ships, gasolene tanks 
for aviation, signaling lamps, aviation equipment, gases, optical 
range finders and hundreds of necessities for modern war. 


The Committee on Labor of the Council of National 
Defense, of which Samuel Gompers, a member of the Advisory 
Commission, was chairman, was one of the most important 
committees in connection with the war, as was also the 
Woman's Committee of the Council. The work of each of 
these committees is elsewhere described. The Council of 
National Defense when it began its work found in every part 
of the country patriotic organizations, organized with a 
desire to serve in the defense of their country. 


In several states Committees of Public Safety were 
already appointed. On April 6, 1917, the council instituted 
a section on co-operation with the states. The Secretary of 
War, as chairman of the Council of Defense issued to governors 
of all states and to the commissioners of the District of Col- 
umbia a request that they create State Councils of Defense 
to co-operate with the National Council. Before the end of 
June every state had a State Council, either by appointment 
of the governor or by action of State Legislature. These 
councils became the recognized war bodies in each state. 
Local Councils of Defense were also organized in cities, 
counties and townships, so that altogether there were more 

Photu Jruia L itdcru'ood ami L'ndcncood, A', i'. 

Tliese huge vanes act like wings in submerging or rising to the surface. 

( <tinmittff of Public I iij)>rrntitfon 

Front L mlt nn/uii iitut i nii' ru tinu , ,\ . ) 


From this base our submarines kept up a constant patrol which did much to lioid down tlic 

German submarine menace. 

American Business Men in the War 395 

than 4,000 such councils. This Council of Defense system 
soon became recognized both in Washington and in the states, 
as the best method of reaching the individual citizen, and 
through them requests and recommendations of the Council 
of National Defense were distributed wide-cast. 

These state organizations increased by thousands the 
number of business men who were thus mobilized for the war. 


There were many others forms of government activity 
which interested the business men of the country besides the 
work of the various boards and commissions already men- 
tioned. The work of the Aircraft Board especially attracted 
public attention. The personnel of the board when organized 
according to the provisions of the law of October 1, 1917, was 
as follows: Chairman, John D. Ryan; civilian members, 
Richard F. Howe, Harry B. Thayer; representing the army. 
Major- General Squier, Colonel Montgomery, Colonel Deeds; 
representing the navy, Rear-Admiral Taylor, Captain Irwin, 
Lieutenant-Commander Atkins, Secretary John W. Ford. 

The duty of the board was, as indicated by its name, to 
direct and supervise the purchase, production and manu- 
facture of aircraft, and whatever was used in connection 
therewith. This commission made agreements concerning the 
use of patents relating to the production of aircraft, with a 
corporation known as the Manufacturer's Aircraft Corpora- 
tion, by which various patents held in the United States were 
placed at the disposal of the government. Associated with the 
work of the Aircraft Board was the National Advisory Com- 
mittee of Aeronautics, organized under the provisions of the 
Naval Appropriation Laws, which co-operated with the various 
government departments, private institutions of research, 
and universities in questions connected with the development 
and application of aeronautics, and directed and supervised 
the scientific study of the problems of flight. 

Another phase of governmental activity in connection 
with business was the work of the Alien Property Custodian, 
elsewhere described in detail. There was also the National 
War Labor Board, composed of five representatives of 

396 America's Part in the World War 

employers and five of the American Federation of Labor. 
Each of the five was to nominate a representative of the pubhc 
to be added to the membership of the board. The National 
Industrial Conference Board named as their representatives: 
Loyall A. Osborne, L. F. Loree, W. H. Van Dervoort, C. E. 
Michael, B. L. Worden; and the American Federation of 
Labor named: Frank J. Hayes, W. L. Hutcheson, Thomas J. 
Savage, Victor A. Olander, T. A. Rickert. The employer 
representatives then nominated Ex-President Taft, and the 
union representatives Frank P. Walsh, as representatives of 
the public. These twelve men were appointed as members of 
the board by the President of the United States. 


In the proclamation instituting the National War Labor 
Board, the President declared its powers, functions, and duties 
to be as follows: "To settle by mediation and conciliation 
controversies arising between employers and workmen in 
fields of production necessary for the effective conduct of the 
war, or in other fields of national activity, delays and obstruc- 
tions, which might in the opinion of the National Board afTect 
detrimentally such production; to provide by direct appoint- 
ment or otherwise for committees or boards to sit in various 
parts of the country where controversies arise, and secure 
settlement by local mediation and conciliation, and to sum- 
mon the parties to controversies for hearing and action by the 
National Board, in the event of failure to secure settlement 
by mediation and conciliation." 

Before the organization of this board there had been an 
enormous loss of time through labor strikes, the loss from 
April 26th to October 6, 1917, according to investigation made 
by the National Industrial Conference Board amounting to 
6,285,519 production days. During the month of September, 
1917, the United States lost more working days through 
strikes than the German Empire from the same cause in the 
whole year of 1916. Through the work of this new board an 
immense improvement in labor conditions was brought about. 
Its work was co-ordinated with the work of similar boards 
already in existence, such as a Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment 

American Business Men in the War 397 

Board, the President's Commission, which investigated labor 
conditions in the West, the National Adjustment Commission 
to adjust conditions of labor in the loading and unloading of 
vessels, the Saddlery Adjustment Commission, the Arsenals 
and Navy Yard Commission, the Cantonment Adjustment 
Commission, and the Railroad Wage Commission. 


Another governmental activity in connection with busi- 
ness was the Federal Trade Commission, with W^illiam B. 
Colver as chairman, which undertook to supervise associa- 
tions engaged in export trade. This commission also carried 
out the provisions of the Trading with the Enemy Law, by 
establishing a license system for corporations desiring to 
use patented or copyrighted matter owned or controlled by the 


The Tariff Commission and the War Trade Board con- 
troling imports and exports were also important. The 
chairman of the War Trade Board was Vance C. McCormick. 
Its work was done through the following bureaus whose names 
will give an idea of the importance of the board: Exports, 
Imports, Enemy Trade, War Trade Intelligence, Adminis- 
tration, Transportation, Research, Tabulation and Statistics, 
Foreign Agents and Reports, Branches and Customs, Division 
of Information. It had offices in sixteen of the great cities of 
the country. A War Trade Council was also instituted by the 
President, consisting of the Secretaries of State, Agriculture, 
Commerce, the Treasury, and the chairman of the United 
States Shipping Board and the Food Administrator. This 
council acted as an advisory body to the President and to the 
War Trade Board, the Fuel Administration, the Food 
Administration, and the Shipping Board with the Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, were also government activities which 
called upon business men for patriotic support, and assistance. 
In the extensive mobilization of the industries of this country, 
and of their leaders, the United States was able to take ad- 
vantage of the experiences of European countries which had 
been engaged in war for several years, 

398 America's Part in the World War 

Early in 1917 Lord Northcliffe as a special representative 
of the British Government emphasized in addresses in this 
country the necessity of industrial mobilization. He helped 
to rouse the business men to their duty, but the leaders of 
American thought had not been unobservant. They were 
already preparing. Much had still to be learned, but American 
business men are quick to learn. They made mistakes, but 
they corrected their mistakes. 

No doubt, there was profiteering, no doubt many of the 
great factories were able to enrich their owners, but the great 
mass of the business men were patriotic and honest. They 
not only were willing to give their fortunes and their abilities, 
and their time to serve the government, but the immense sums 
of money contributed by them to the great charities and 
organizations of mercy, insftuted during the war, have made 
a record for the United States of which the American business 
man may well be proud, 


How America Raised Funds 

THE cost of the World War was enormous. After the 
Revolutionary War the debt of our government was 
$76,781,953. After the war of 1812 it was $127,041,341. 
After the Mexican War it amounted to $68,304,796. And the 
total debt after the close of the Civil War was $2,844,649,616. 
This amount had been reduced so that the debt of the United 
States at the time the United States entered the war was in 
round figures one billion of dollars. When adjustments and 
settlements have all been made the maximum debt for the 
present war will be about $30,000,000,000 against which 
total should be placed an asset of about $10,000,000,000 of 
interest-bearing obligations of foreign governments, repre- 
senting loans made to our allies during the progress of the 
war. These loans in the natural course of events will be 
repaid, and according to the law under which they were made, 
such repayments must be used in the liquidation of a corre- 
sponding amount of our national indebtedness. 

The national wealth of the United States is estimated as 
about $300,000,000,000, so that the debt today is about ten 
per cent of the national wealth. As great as this debt is, it is 
small compared with the debt of the other great nations, taking 
part in the war, compared with their resources. The national 
debt of Great Britain is now about $36,000,000,000, while 
its wealth is estimated at $120,000,000,000. Great Britain, 
too, has made loans to her allies and Dominions amounting to 
about $5,000,000,000, which presumably will be repaid. The 
gross debt of France is about $36,000,000,000, the gross debt 
of Italy about $12,600,000,000, the gross debt of Germany 
about $39,000,000,000. 

In order to pay its debt the Congress of the United States 
has instituted an annual sinking fund beginning in 1920, 
which calls for the retirement each year of two and one-half 


400 America's Part in the World War 

per cent of the aggregate amount of bonds and notes issued 
for war purposes. The specific appropriation called for by 
this act in addition to that for the interest charge is in the 
neighborhood of $500,000,000, and taking into consideration 
the development of the resources of the nation which have 
taken place since 1865, it ought to be possible to liquidate 
the new debt quite as easily as it was to dispose of the Civil 
War debt. 

The United States wisely undertook to raise about twenty 
per cent of the war-time expenses by taxation, a proportion 
which assures a solid foundation for the loans, and does not 
hamper the social output or interfere with desirable con- 

The main sources of revenue from taxation were the 
property tax, which is in large part a tax on real estate, the 
inheritance tax, the income tax, the excess profits tax, and 
indirect taxation by tariffs and excises. The main increases 
in taxes were naturally in the income tax and the tax on 
excess profits. The United States was extremely fortunate 
that when the war broke out she had on hand ready for 
immediate application the machinery of the income tax, which 
also was valuable for the tax on excess profits. If that 
machinery had to be set up from the beginning, it would have 
taken many months, perhaps several years before it would 
have been in such good working order that anything like the 
revenue produced could have been obtained from it. 

The greatest good fortune, however, was the preparedness 
of the United States to issue great government loans. The 
establishing of the Federal Reserve System, co-ordinating the 
banking resources of the country and stabilizing the currency 
made it possible to finance the present war with comparative 
ease. The method used is briefly as follows: In anticipation 
of the receipt of the proceeds of Liberty loans the Treasury 
issued certificates of indebtedness. These certificates were 
apportioned to the Twelve Federal Reserve Districts, and 
divided among the banks in each district according to their 
respective standing. When the time seemed suitable for the 
issuance of a permanent loan, the advances of the banks were 
repaid from the proceeds of such loans. When it was thought 

How America Raised Funds 


wise to finance a Liberty loan, the Secretary of the Treasury 
notified the governors of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks. 
These governors each appointed a committee, made up of 
men of prominence and wide activity, and the country was 
portioned out, and in each large federal reserve center two 
or three men, experts but unknown to the public undertook 
to sell in four weeks billions of dollars in bonds. And every 
city, town or village had its Liberty Loan committee, acting 
under the direction of these experts. 

There were five loans issued under such conditions; 


Where the Army Dollar Went 

each case a large portion of the loan had already been used 
by the government through certificates of indebtedness. The 
reports of the Treasury Department show that certificates for 
$868,205,000 were issued in anticipation of the first loan; 
$2,320,293,000 in anticipation of the second loan; $3,012,085,- 
500 in anticipation of the third loan; $4,659,820,000 in antici- 
pation of the fourth loan, and about five billion in anticipa- 
tion of the Victory loan. In addition to the certificates based 
upon the Liberty loan, certificates for about four millions of 
dollars were issued in anticipation of the payment of taxes. 
The major part of these certificates bears interest at four 
and one-half per cent. 

402 America's Part in the World War 

Another class of certificates has been issued in anticipa- 
tion of the revenue from internal revenue taxes, and to tide 
over special emergencies. All of these certificates of indebted- 
ness have been placed directly with the banks, and all subse- 
quent transactions have been between the banks and their 

The war debt includes besides these certificates of indebt- 
edness, most of which have already been automatically retired, 
Liberty bonds, Victory Liberty notes, and War Savings Certifi- 

There have been five issues of Liberty bonds. The sub- 
scription for the first issue opened on May 14, 1917, there were 
4,500,000 subscribers, and the total amount subscribed was 
$3,035,426,850. The bonds bore interest at three and one-half 
per cent and were exempt from all taxation except the inherit- 
ance tax. The holder had the privilege of exchanging these 
bonds for bonds of any subsequent series bearing a higher rate 
of interest. Only $2,000,000 of this issue were alloted. 

The Second Liberty Loan campaign opened October 1, 

1917, and closed October 27th. The total amount offered 
was $3,000,000,000, bearing interest at four per cent. The 
amount subscribed v/as $4,617,532,300. The amount alloted 
was $3,808,716,150. There were nine million subscribers. 
These bonds bore interest from October 2, and were con- 
vertible to any subsequent series bearing interest at a higher 
rate than four per cent. 

The Third Liberty Loan opened its books for subscription 
on April 6, 1918, and closed on May 4th. The bonds bear 
interest at a rate of four and one-fourth per cent. The amount 
offered was $3,000,000,000. The amount subscribed was 
$4,176,516,250, all of which was alloted. There were about 
eighteen million subscribers. 

The Fourth Liberty Loan was opened on September 28th, 

1918, the campaign closing on October 19th. The amount 
offered was $6,000,000,000 with interest at four and one- 
fourth per cent, the amount subscribed and alloted was 
$6,593,073,250, and there were about twenty-one million 
subscribers to this loan. 

The Fifth Liberty Loan, known as the Victory loan, was 

How America Raised Funds 403 

offered on April 21, 1919, the books closing on May lOtli- 
The amount offered was $4,500,000,000. These were called 
Victory Liberty notes, and bear interest at four and three- 
fourths per cent per annum, and mature in from three to four 
years. It was officially stated that this w^ould be the last 
Liberty loan, and the Secretary of the Treasury said: 
"Although as the remaining war bills are presented further 
borrowing must be done, I anticipate that the requirements 
of the government in excess of the amount of taxes and other 
income can, in view of the increasing scale of expenditure, be 
readily financed by an issue of Treasury certificates from 
time to time as heretofore, which may be ultimately refunded 
by the use of notes or bonds, without the aid of another great 
popular campaign such as has characterized the Liberty 
loans." The campaigns for this loan lagged at the start, 
but in the last few days of the campaign there was a great 
rush of investors and the loan went over the top. Approxi- 
mately fifteen million people bought Victory notes in the 
campaign. The total amount of the over-subscription aggre- 
gated more than $6,000,000,000. 

Another popular method of borrowing was by the War 
Savings Certificates and Thrift Stamps. These are intended 
for the convenience of the small investor. These are discount 
certificates, that is to say, when paid at the end of the five 
years they have to run, the payment will include the return 
of the investment plus an amount which will be about four 
per cent per annum. The War Savings Certificates are made 
an obligation of the United States aflixing to them War 
Saving Certificate stamps. There are two series of such 
stamps. One series with a maturity value of $5.00, matures 
January 1, 1923. The second series, maturing January 1, 
1924, is in two denominations, one of $5, and the other of 
$100. The issue price of the 1923 series, was $4.15 for the 
month of April, and one cent additional for each subsequent 
month. Each War Saving Certificate has places for twenty 
War Savings Stamps, each having a maturity value of $5.00 
in 1924, or in case of large stamps of $100 each. These stamps 
are payable at any Money Order Post Office at maturity, or 
they may be cashed prior to maturity ten days after written 


404 America's Part in the World War 

demand. Loose stamps are not redeemed. United States 
Thrift Stamps having a face value of 25 cents, bearing no 
interest, have also been sold. They cannot be redeemed in cash, 
but may be exchanged for War Savings Certificate Stamps in 
amounts of four dollars. The owner must pay in addition 
the difference between that amount and the current issue 
price of War Saving Certificate Stamps. 

Perhaps no agency brought the war more closely to the 
American people than the great campaigns carried on through 
the country, in connection with the flotation of the five great 
Liberty loans. These were conducted with even greater 
enthusiasm than political campaigns. The whole country 
was thoroughly organized and every method of influencing 
public opinion was extensively used. Long before each 
campaign began the newspapers were filled with advertise- 
ments of the most attractive character. Placards of an 
artistic type were displayed at every point of vantage, and 
when the campaign itself began it was marked by parades, 
mass meetings, curbstone assemblies, and every possible 
method of educating the people. 

AU financial and civic agencies took an active part in 
these canvasses and through the big Liberty Loan committees 
nearly every person in the United States was solicited for 
contribution. Newspapers, great and small, contributed the 
use of their columns free. The greatest artists of the land 
organized to produce impressive posters. Actors, theatrical 
managers, photo-play producers and their stars all used their 
utmost endeavors to sell bonds. A definite allotment was 
given to every town and every district in the country, and 
flags of honor was sent to each community that exceeded its 
quota. It was the great ambition of the committees in each 
district to carry their district "over the top." 

The working propaganda carried on in the moving picture 
theatres, was especially notable. Not only were appeals to 
patriotism flashed daily upon the screen, but effective pleas 
were prepared by distinguished actors and actresses working 
voluntarily and these plays were shown throughout the 
country to millions of people. Notable stars traveled the 
country, speaking at mass-meetings and selling miUions of 

How America Raised Funds 405 

dollars worth of bonds. The moving pictures showed them- 
selves to be a new power in the land in their wonderful work 
in influencing people to contribute. Public speakers pre- 
sented the attractions of the various loans to enormous 
audiences. Speaking propaganda was thoroughly organized 
under the direction of a division of Four-Minute Men in the 
Department of the Committee on Public Information. Mr. 
William H. Ingersoll, the Director of the Four-Minute Men, 
organized bands of speakers in every community in the 
country and classes for four-minute speakers were trained in 
many of the colleges and universities. These aided the 
government in their food propaganda, and other patriotic 
endeavor, but they became particularly important at the 
time of the Liberty loans, giving four-minute speeches night 
after night, in practically every theatre in the country whether 
a photoplay or regular theatre. 

Every possible method was used to render impressive 
the great parades and public meetings organized not only 
in the large cities, but in almost every smaller center of the 
nation. Special days were set aside by President Wilson for 
"the people of the United States to assemble in their respective 
communities and liberally pledge anew their financial support 
to sustain the nation's cause and to hold patriotic demonstra- 
tions in every city, town and hamlet throughout the land." 
In the great parades marched divisions of the mothers who 
sent their sons to the front, carrying service flags often with 
three, four or five stars for the relatives in service. Brigades 
of troops sent back from the trenches, or from the Alpine 
regiments of France, brought the war home to the people. 

On the last day of the first loan the Liberty Bell at 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, was rung for the first time 
in half a century, and other bells in all parts of the country 
echoed the sound. 

The wonderful propaganda for the sale of the Liberty 
loan bonds was not onlv a wonderful success, but it has had 
educational value. It has taught to a people, coming from 
countries all over the globe, a love of their new fatherland. 
It has stimulated patriotism, it has made America a united 


Labor in the War 

THE attitude of American Labor in the great war was 
eminently patriotic. Certain socialistic organizations 
and anarchistic organizations, such as the I. W. W., 
antagonized the policies of the American Government, but 
the great mass of labor, especially the American Federation of 
Labor, under the lead of Mr. Samuel Gompers, supported the 
war, after it was once begun, with every effort that they could 
make. The American Federation of Labor represents, accord- 
ing to Mr. Gompers, fully four million organized workers in 
America, and in Mr. Gompers they had a leader, wise, patriotic 
and aggressive. 

Mr. Gompers was born in England, but came early to the 
United States and worked for twenty-six years at his trade as 
a cigar maker. He has been for many years the President of 
the American Federation of Labor. Before the war began, 
he had been a strong advocate of peace. He was, he says, "a 
man who has seen sixty-eight years of life, and who for more 
than fifty years of that life, was one of the most active pacifists 
in the world, belonging to all the peace organizations of 
America and of the world, who as a pacifist gave his assistance 
to the movement of labor, to the movement of the men and 
women of other walks of life, to maintain the peace of the 
world. But,*' he adds, "the man or the men who would not 
fight in defense of freedom, the men who would not fight in 
defense of their country, engaged in a righteous cause, are 
unworthy to live and enjoy the privileges of a free country." 

Before America entered the war, the American Federation 
of Labor through their executive council and their annual 
conventions made various endeavors to bring about peace. 
In 1915 it proposed that a World's Peace Conference should be 
held, composed of representatives of the organized labor 
movements of the world. This plan fell through on account 


Labor in the War 


of the refusal of the labor movement of Great Britain and the 
federations of trade unions of Germany to give it their 
approval. It then suggested that a general peace conference 
should be held to determine terms and conditions of peace 
at the close of the war, so that representatives of wage earners 
could be seated with other representatives of the nations in 
general conferences connected with the formulation of peace 
terms. And in substance it also suggested the organization of 
a league of nations to promote peace. 

When America entered the war, the Federation of Labor 

Construction Projects of the Army in the United States 

realized at once the importance to them of the struggle to 
save democracy. By March 12th when it had become plain 
that America would fight, the Executive Council of the Feder- 
ation approved a proposition submitted to them by Mr. 
Gompers that a conference should be held to consider the 
position of American labor toward the war situation. Invi- 
tations were sent to representatives of all national organiza- 
tions, both those afiihated with the Federation and those not 
affiliated, asking them to meet in Washington, in the Federa- 
tion of Labor Building on March 12th. There were present 
at that conference 148 representatives of seventy-nine affiliated 

408 America's Part in the World War 

organizations, five unaffiliated organizations and five depart- 
ments of the Federation of Labor in addition to the members 
of the Executive Council. 

The full list of those present follows: 

Executive Council: President, Samuel Gompers; Secretary, Frank Morri- 
son; Treasurer, John B. Lennon; First Vice-President, James Duncan; 
Second Vice-President, James O'Connell; Third Vice-President, 
Joseph F, Valentine; Fourth Vice-President, John R. Alpine; Fifth 
Vice-President, H. B. Perham; Sixth Vice-President, Frank Duffy; 
Seventh Vice-President, WiUiam Green; Eighth Vice-President, 
WiUiam D. Mahon. 

Asbestos Workers: Joseph A. Mullaney, V. C. McLelland. 

Bakery and Confectionery: A. A. Myrup, Charles F. Hohmann. 

Bill Posters and BHlers: P. F. Murphy, WUliam McCarthy. 

Blacksmiths: G. C. Van Domes. 

Boilermakers: J. A. Franklin, Charles F. Scott, A, E. Barksdale. 

Bookbinders: A. P. Sovey. 

Boot and Shoe Workers: C. L. Baine, CoUis Lovely. 

Brewery Workmen: A. J. Kugler, Joseph Obergell, John Sullivan. 

Bricklayers: Thomas R. Preece. 

Bridge and Structural Iron Workers: Joseph E. McClory, Edward Ryan. 

Carmen, Railway: M. F. Ryan, J. F. McCreery, J. S. Wilds, R. E. 

Carpenters, United Brotherhood : Frank Duffy. 

Carriage, Wagon, Automobile Workers: William A. Logan. 

Cigarmakers: G. W. Perkins, Samuel Gompers. 

Clerks, Post Office: Thomas F. Flaherty. 

Clerks, Railway: James J. Forrester. 

Clerks, Railway Postal : Carl Freeman. 

Clerks, Retail: E. E. Baker. 

Coopers: Andrew C. Hughes. 

Diamond Workers: Andries Meyer. 

Electrical Workers: F. J. McNulty, William A. Hogan, W. S. Godshall, 
J. J. Purcell, George L. Kelly, J. S. McDonagh. 

Elevator Constructors : Frank Feeney, Frank Schneider. 

Engravers, Photo: Matthew Woll. 

Firemen : Timothy Healy, Newton A. James. 

Fur Workers: A. W. Miller. 

Garment Workers, United: Thomas A. Rickert, B. A. Larger, Abe Berkson. 

Glass Bottle Blowers: John A. VoU, Harry Jenkins, James Maloney. 

Granite Cutters: James Duncan. 

Hat and Cap Makers : M. Zuckerman, Max Zaritsky. 

Hatters: John W. ScuUey, Martin Lawlor. 

Hodcarriers: D. D'Alessandro. 

Horseshoers: Hubert S. Marshall, John F. Kane. 

Labor in the War 409 

Hotel and Restaurant Employees : Edward Flore. 

Iron, Tin and Steel Workers: John Williams, M. F. Tighe. 

Jewelry Workers: Julius Birnbaum, Abraham Greenstein. 

Lace Operatives: David L. Gould. 

Lathers, Wood, Wire: William J. McSorley. 

Laundry Workers : Harry L. Morrison. 

Leather Workers on Horse Goods: W. E. Bryan. 

Longshoremen: Anthony J. Chlopek, William F. Dempsey. 

Machinists: William H. Johnston, Fred Hewitt, E. L. Tucker, A. E. Holder. 

Maintenance of Way Employees: Allan E. Barker, Henry Irwdn. 

Masters, Mates and Pilots : J. H. Pruett, Ulster Davis, Alfred B. Devlin, 

Robert S. Lavender. 
Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen: Homer D. Call. 
Metal Polishers: W. W. Britton. 

Metal Workers, Sheet: John J. Hynes, O. E. Hoard, Harry H. Stewart. 
Mine Workers, United: William Green, Van Bittner, William Diamond. 
Molders, Iron: John P. Frey. 
Musicians: Joseph N, Weber, J. E. Birdsell. 
Painters: George F. Hedrick, J. C. Skemp. 
Pattern Makers: James Wilson, James L. Gernon, A. J. Berres. 
Paving Cutters: Carl Bergstrom. 
Plasterers, Operative: E. J. McGivern, Charles Smith. 
Plate Printers: James E. Goodyear, William G. Holder. 
Plumbers: John R. Alpine, William J. Spencer, William J. Tracy. 
Potters, Operative: Edward Menge, Frank H. Hutchins, John T. Wood, 

S. M. Moore. 
Print Cutters: Ralph T. Holman. 
Printing Pressmen: Joseph C. Orr, Henry J. Hardy. 
Quarry Workers : Fred W. Suitor. 

Railway Employees, Street and Electric: W. D. Mahon. 
Roofers, Composition: J. T. Hurley. 
Seaman's Union: Andrew Furuseth, V. A. Olander. 
Signalmen, Railroad: A. E. Adams. 
Steel Plate Transferrers: Benjamin Goldsworthy. 
Stage Employees, Theatrical: Charles C. Shay. 
Steam Shovel and Dredgement: T. J. Brady. 
Stereotypers and Electrotypers : James S. Briggs. 
Stonecutters : Samuel Griggs, Walter W. Drayer. 
Switchmen: S. E. Heberling. 
Tailors: Thomas Sweeney. 
Teachers: Charles B. Stillman. 
Teamsters: Daniel J. Tobin, H. Jennings. 
Textile Workers : John Golden. 
Tobacco Workers: A. McAndrew, E. Lewis Evans. 
Tunnel and Subway Constructors: Michael J. Carraher, Tito Pacelli. 
Upholsterers: James H. Hatch, John Hanley. 

410 America's Part in the World War 

Weavers, American Wire: John F. Curley. 
White Rats, Actors: Jack Hay den. 


Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen: W. S. Carter. 

Railway Trainmen: W. G. Lee. 

Railway Conductors: L. E. Sheppard. 

Locomotive Engineers: W. S. Stone. 

National Window Glass Workers : Herbert Thomas. 


Building Trades Department: John Donlin. 
Metal Trades Department: A. J. Berres. 
Mining Department: James Lord. 
Railroad Employees Department: A. O. ^Vllarton. 
Union Label Trades Department: J. W. Hays. 

The members of this conference were representative 
Americans, each anxious for the improvement of the condition 
of the wage earners of their craft, but recognizing that such 
improvement could only come under a democratic form of 
government, and that the triumph of German autocracy would 
be a death-blow to their hopes. They recognized the power 
and the importance of labor in war as in peace. They dis- 
cussed their duty, and they decided. Their declaration was 
full of patriotism. It reads in parts as follows: 

We speak for hundreds of Americans. We are not a sect, we are not 
a party. We represent the organizations held together by the pressure of 
our common need. We represent the part of the nation closest to the 
fundamentals of life. Those we represent wield the nation's tools, and 
grapple with the forces that are brought under control in our material 
civilization. . . .In the struggle between the forces of democracy and 
special privilege for just and historic reasons the masses of the people 
necessarily represent the ideals and the institutions of democracy. . . . 
Industrial justice is the right of those living within our country, but with 
this right there is associated obligation. In war time obligation takes the 
form of service in defense of the Republic against enemies. We, the 
officers of the National Trade Union of America, in national conference 
assembled in the capitol of our nation, hereby pledge ourselves in peace 
or in war, in stress or in storm, to stand unreservedly by the standards of 
liberty and the safety and preservation of the institutions and ideals of 
our republic. 

On May 15th, Mr. Gompers, as chairman of the Labor 
Committee, of the Council of National Defense, invited many 

Labor in the War 413 

of America's greatest industrial magnates, to discuss methods of 
co-operation between employers and workmen. Among leaders 
of capital w^ho were present were John D. Rockefeller, Jr., 
Emerson McMillan, Daniel Guggenheim, Theodore Marburg 
and Colgate Hoyt. Pledges of co-operation were agreed 
upon, and pledges received from men representing great 
interests who were not present. After the conference its 
members were received at the Wliite House by the President 
of the United States. The labor leaders also conferred with 
British labor representatives, and learned the methods of 
co-operation between employers and workers in England. 

From that time on organized labor in the United States 
was in substantial accord with the war plans of the government. 
In the annual report of the Executive Council of November 
12, 1917, it is declared: "Since the war began the American 
labor movement has secured the best agreements with the 
government that have been secured in any w^arring country. 
The agreements established a new period in the industrial 
world, a period in which the government has sanctioned 
standards based upon principles of human welfare, and has 
substituted these standards for the old system under which 
profits were paramount." 

The necessity that those employed in industry should be 
shifted from one location to another was also discussed in this 
report. The proposition had been proposed in the beginning, 
but the report reads: "In the light of the experience gleaned 
in foreign countries now engaged in war, it appears that the 
shifting of workers has not only been necessary but vital to the 
carrying on of the great conflict . . .The primary agency 
necessary for dealing with proper adjustment of workers is a 
national Employment Bureau equipped to give workers 
information of employment opportunities, and employers 
information of available and suitable workers. It is one of the 
jiecessary and essential activities of the war that certain 
industries on occasions are called upon to materially increase 
production, and in this event some plan must be inaugurated 
to meet the needs of the government." 

During the year a plan for an International Conference of 
Socialists to meet at Stockholm to discuss the basis of peace 

414 America's Part in the World War 

came before the American Federation of Labor. Mr. Gompers 
replied in answer to the inquiry from representatives of Enghsh 
and French labor organizations, that the American Federation 
of Labor would not send representatives. He later attacked 
the People's Council of America, which declared it represented 
American labor in an effort to foster a peace movement. He 
said, "It has been the constant claim of the People's Council 
that it represented labor. Nothing could be further from the 
truth. It is true there are some few local unions affihated 
with the People's Council, but when it is considered that 
there are about 15,000 local unions in America, it will be seen 
that even the half hundred that may be affiliated with the 
People's Council is an insignificant number. The American 
labor movement as a body is loyal to America and steadfast 
in its determination to help secure victory for this country 
and the cause of democracy. It has nothing to do with those 
Anti-American pro-Kaiserist activities of which the People's 
Council is the local order. 

"The American Federation of Labor is the organized 
labor movement of America. There is no other. Its position 
is clear. It is loyal. It was so expressed in the manifesto 
issued at the Washington Conference on March 12th, and 
there has been no change since. No other organization can 
express the wishes of the American labor movement, and the 
pretenses of the so-called People's Council in that direction 
are nothing short of ridiculous. The People's Council is an 
organization that is for the most part evidently alien in 
membership, so far as it has membership, led by men who 
have never been known as labor men, though some of them 
have made frantic claims to having been labor men for various 
reasons. Money evidently is plentiful and the work of 
undoing America proceeds merrily. American labor must 
denounce any such movement and any such foreign propa- 
ganda. I suggest that the methods of the organization are 
entirely German in character, and that undoubtedly the 
Kaiser is greatly cheered by the reports he gets of the People's 
Council's activities. We shall do our best to put an end to 
operations of that kind." 

Not all socialists, by any means, were opposed to the war 


Labor in the War 415 

policies of the United States. On September 6, 1917, the 
American AlUance for Labor and Democracy met at Minne- 
apoHs and was presided over by Mr. Gompers. It adopted 
resolutions in which it described itself as "We, the men and 
women of the Trade Union and Socialist movements of America 
organize into the American Alliance for Labor and Democ- 
racy." It strongly approved of the aim set forth by the 
government as entirely consistent with the great ideals of 
democracy and internationalistn. It condemned the efforts 
of pacifists who were claiming to represent labor organizations, 
and declared that a peace could not be made with the von 
Hohenzollerns but only with a democratized Germany. 

The agreements made between organized labor and the 
government of the United States did not prevent occasional 
labor diflSculties. In February, 1918, when the Shipping 
Board in its effort to hasten the production of ships from the 
new yards which came into existence during 1917, initiated a 
campaign to obtain 250,000 additional shipyard workers, a 
strike on the part of the workingmen threatened to tie up 
every yard on the Atlantic coast. A demand was made for a 
closed shop in shipyards and a wage scale similar to that 
enforced on the Pacific coast. The workmen appeared to 
ignore their agreement that differences of this kind should be 
settled by the government Labor Adjustment Bureau. 

This was the first serious labor trouble since the nation 
went to war. There had been difficulties with labor in the 
West in connection with the spruce lumber used in airplanes. 
This, however, was brought about by the I. W. W. who had 
never made agreements with the government but had been 
continually antagonistic. The shipyard strike was a strike of 
workers belonging to the unions affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labor. 

The trouble was ended through President Wilson who 
addressed a telegram to Mr. William D. Hutcheson, general 
president of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Jointers of America, in which he said: 

I feel it to be my duty to call your attention to tie fact that the 
strike of carpenters in the shipyards is a marked and painful contrast to 
the action of labor in other trades and places. All the other unions 

416 America's Part in the World War 

engaged in this indispensable work have agreed to abide by the decision 
of the Shipbuilding Wage Adjustment Board. If you do not act upon this 
principle, you are undoubtedly giving aid and comfort to the enemy, 
whatever may be your own conscious purpose. 

Mr. Hutclieson promptly replied that he was attempting 
to induce the striking carpenters and jointers to return to 
work. Conferences were held, and the difficulties finally 

Strikes like this were not common. On the whole the 
workman did his work faithfully and well. The government 
paid high wages, but this was made necessary by the high 
cost of living. The immense production of war munitions 
and other necessary supplies was one of the miracles of 
the war. 


In accordance with the suggestions of the Federation of 
Labor an International Labor Commission was organized in 
connection with the Peace Conference after the armistice. 
It was appointed on January 18, 1919, and consisted of fifteen 
members representing the United States, Great Britain, 
France, Italy, Japan, Belgium, Cuba, Poland and Czecho- 
slovakia. It made its final report to the Peace Conference on 
April 11th. Mr. Gompers presided as general chairman over 
the meetings. 

The report suggested a permanent organization to remedy 
industrial evils and injustices; and that an International 
Labor Conference should meet at least once a year, and should 
consist of four representatives from each state, including two 
representing the government, one the employers and one the 
employees. The first meeting was recommended for October, 
1919, in Washington. Various labor principles were proposed 
for the adoption of the International Labor Conference. 
These included the principle of the eight-hour day and the 
forty-eight hour week, a minimum age for the employment 
of children and other similar measures. It suggested that an 
International Labor Office should be established at the seat of 
the League of Nations. 

The recommendations of this commission were made an 

Labor in the War 417 

integral part of the peace treaty, and President Wilson cabled 
his approval in the following words: 

The Labor program which the Conference of Peace has adopted as a 
part of the Treaty of Peace constitutes one of the most important achieve- 
ments of the new day, in which the interests of labor are to be systematic- 
ally and mteUigently safeguarded and promoted. Amid the multitude of 
other interests this great step forward is apt to be overlooked, and yet no 
other single thing that has been done will help more to stabilize conditions 
of labor throughout the world and ultimately relieve the unhappy conditions 
which in so many places have prevailed. Personally, I regard this as one 
of the most gratifying achievements of the conference. 


American Heroes 

HEROES were in every division of the American troops 
fighting in France. Decorations were far too few 
to do justice to those whose heroisms wrested strong 
positions from the enemy, rescued wounded comrades and, 
by the flaming torch of their example, fired others to deeds of 
glorious sacrifice. Only a fraction of these heroisms could 
be recognized by citations and decorations. 

The highest form of recognition established by the 
United States Government is the Congressional Medal of 
Honor. Seventy-eight of these prized decorations were 
awarded among the 1,200,000 soldiers who engaged in battles 
against the Teutonic Allies. 

Of the seventy-eight who won the honor, which is given 
only to those who achieve an act of supreme courage, or as it is 
officially expressed in general orders, to those who in action 
have fought with "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity 
above and beyond the call of duty," seventy-six were Ameri- 
cans, one was an Englishman, and one was a Norwegian. For 
every 15,400 soldiers who were in action one received the 
Medal of Honor. 

The table that follows gives the statistical story of the 
Medal of Honor by divisions: 

Thirtieth 12 Twenty-sixth 2 

Eighty-ninth 9 Thirty-fifth 2 

Thirty-third 8 Thirty-sixth 2 

Second 7 Forty-second 2 

Twenty-seventh 6 Eighty-second 2 

Seventy-seventh 6 Twenty-eighth 1 

Ninety-first 4 Thirty-first 1 

Twenty-ninth 3 Seventy-eighth 1 

First 2 Ninety-third 1 

Third 2 — 

Fifth 2 Total 75 


American Heroes 


Fifty-seven of the number were enlisted men and twenty- 
one were officers. The division which made the best showing 
in the awards was the 30th, the National Guard organization 
of the Carolinas and Tennessee. Second honors go to the 
89th Division, which is the selective draft unit of western 
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, South Dakota, and 
New Mexico; the third largest is in the 33d, or National Guard, 
Division of Illinois. Fourth honors go to the famous 2d 

American PARTiaPATioN in the Alued Offensives op 1918 

Division of regulars, which includes the marines, while fifth 
place is shared by the two New York divisions, the 27th and 

The other awards were two to soldiers of the Tank Corps 
and one to Lieutenant Frank Luke, Jr., an aviator. 

The table by states shows that New York leads with nine, 
Illinois is second with seven, and California, Missouri, New 
Jersey, South Carolina, and Tennessee share third honors with 
six each. Thirty-nine of the medals went to men of the 

420 America's Part in the World War 

National Guard divisions, twenty-three to soldiers of the 
selective draft organizations, thirteen to regular army and 
marine units, two to the Tank Corps, and one to the Air 

This table is as follows: 

New York 9 Alabama 1 

Illinois 7 Iowa 1 

California 6 Kansas 1 

Missouri 6 Michigan 1 

New Jersey 6 North Carolina 1 

South Carolina 6 Oregon 1 

Tennessee .6 Texas 1 

Colorado 4 Washington 1 

Massachusetts 4 Wisconsin 1 

Oklahoma 3 — 

Arizona 2 Total 76 

Idaho 2 England 1 

Kentucky 2 Norway 1 

Minnesota 2 — 

Virginia 2 Grand total 78 

The names of the soldiers, alphabetically arranged, to 
whom the Medal of Honor was awarded, follow : 

Adkinson, Joseph B., Sergeant, Company C, 119th 
Infantry, 30th Division, Atoka, Tenn. — Bellicourt, France, 
September 29, 1918. When murderous machine-gun fire at 
a range of fifty yards had made it impossible for his platoon to 
advance, and had caused the platoon to take cover. Sergeant 
Adkinson alone, wfth the greatest intrepidity, rushed across 
the fiifty yards of open ground directly into the face of the 
hostile machine gun, kicked the gun from the parapet, into 
the enemy trench, and at the point of the bayonet captured 
the three men manning the gun. The gallantry and quick 
decision of this soldier enabled the platoon to resume its 

Allex, Jake, Corporal, Company H, 131st Infantry, 33d 
Division, Chicago. — At Chipilly Ridge, France, August 9, 
1918. At a critical point in the action, w^hen all the officers 
with his platoon had become casualties, Corpora! Allex took 
command of the platoon and led it forward until the advance 
was stopped by fire from a machine-gun nest. He then 

American Heroes 421 

advanced alone for about thirty yards in the face of intense 
fire and attacked the nest. With his bayonet he killed five 
of the enemy, and when it was broken used the butt end of his 
rifle, capturing fifteen prisoners. 

Allworth, Edward S., Captain, 60th Infantry, 5th 
Division, Crawford, Wash. — Clery-le-Petit, France, Novem- 
ber 5, 1918. W^hile his company was crossing the Meuse 
river and canal at a bridge-head opposite Clery-le-Petit, the 
bridge over the canal was destroyed by shell-fire and Captain 
AUworth's command became separated, part of it being on 
the east bank of the canal and the remainder on the west bank. 
Seeing his advance units making slow headway up the steep 
slope ahead, this oflacer mounted the canal bank and called for 
his men to follow. Plunging in, he swam across the canal 
under fire from the enemy, followed by his men. Inspiring 
his men by his example of gallantry, he led them up the slope, 
joining his hard-pressed platoons in front. By his personal 
leadership he forced the enemy back for more than a kilo- 
meter, overcoming machine-gun nests and capturing a hundred 
prisoners, whose number exceeded that of the men in his 
command. The exceptional courage and leadership displayed 
by Captain Allworth made possible the re-establishment of a 
bridge-head over the canal and the successful advance of 
other troops. 

Anderson, Johannes S., Sergeant, Company B, 132d 
Infantry, 33d Division, Chicago, 111. — Consenvoye, France, 
October 8, 1918. While his company was being held up by 
intense artillery and machine-gun fire. Sergeant Anderson, 
without aid, voluntarily left the company and worked his 
way to the rear of the nest that was offering the most stubborn 
resistance. His advance was made through an open area and 
under constant hostile fire, but the mission was successfully 
accomplished, and he not only silenced the gun and captured 
it, but also brought back with him twenty-three prisoners. 

Barger, Charles D., Private, First Class, Company L, 
354th Infantry, 89th Division, Stotts City, Mo.— Bois de 
Bantheville, France, October 31, 1918. Learning that two 
daylight patrols had been caught out in "No Man's Land" 
and were unable to return, Private Barger and another 

422 Americans Part in the World War 

stretcher bearer, upon their own initiative, made two trips 
five hundred yards beyond our lines, under constant machine- 
gun fire and rescued two wounded officers. 

Barkeley, David B., Private, Company A, 356th Infan- 
try, 89th Division, San Antonio, Texas. — Pouilly, France, 
November 9, 1918. When information was desired as to the 
enemy's position on the opposite side of the River Meuse, 
Private Barkeley, with another soldier, volunteered without 
hesitation and swam the river to reconnoitre the exact 
location. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite 
the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. 
Having obtained his information, he again entered the 
water for his return, but before his goal was reached he was 
seized with cramps and drowned. 

Barkley, John L., Private, First Class, Company K, 
4th Infantry, 3d Division, Blairstown, Mo. — Cunel, France, 
October 7, 1918. Private Barkley, who was stationed in an 
observation post half a kilometer from the German line, on 
his own initiative repaired a captured enemy machine gun and 
mounted it in a disabled French tank near his post. Shortly 
afterward, when the enemy launched a counter-attack against 
our forces, Private Barkley got into the tank, waited under the 
hostile barrage until the enemy line was abreast of him, and 
then opened fire, completely breaking up the counter-attack 
and killing and wounding a large number of the enemy. 
Five minutes later an enemy 77-millimeter gun opened fire 
on the tank point blank. One shell struck the driver wheel 
of the tank, but this soldier nevertheless remained in the 
tank, and after the barrage ceased broke up a second enemy 
counter-attack, thereby enabling our forces to gain and hold 

Hill 253. 

Bart, Frank J., Private, Company C, 9th Infantry, 2d 
Division, Newark, N. J.— Medeah Farm, France, October 3, 
1918. Private Bart, being on duty as a company runner, 
when the advance was held up by machine-gun fire volun- 
tarily picked up an automatic rifle, ran out ahead of the line, 
and silenced a hostile machine-gun nest, killing the German 
gunners. The advance then continued, and, when it was 
again hindered shortly afterward by another machine-gun 

American Heroes 423 

nest, this courageous soldier repeated his bold exploit by 
putting the second machine gun out of action. 

Blackwell, Robert L., Private, 119th Infantry, 30th 
Division, Hurdles Mills, N. C. — Saint Souplet, France, 
October 11, 1918. When his platoon was almost surrounded 
by the enemy and his platoon commander asked for volun- 
teers to carry a message calling for reinforcements. Private 
Blackwell volunteered for this mission, well knowing the 
extreme danger connected with it. In attempting to get 
through the heavy shell and machine-gun fire this gallant 
soldier was killed. 

Call, Donald M., Second Lieutenant, Tank Corps, 
Larchmont, N. Y. — Varennes, France, September 26, 1918. 
During an operation against enemy machine-gun nests west of 
Varennes, Lieutenant Call, then corporal, was in a tank with 
an oflScer, when half of the turret was knocked off by a direct 
artillery hit. Choked by gas from the high-explosive shell, 
he left the tank and took cover in a shell hole thirty yards 
away. Seeing that the officer did not follow, and thinking 
that he might be alive. Corporal Call returned to the tank 
under intense machine-gun and shell fire and carried the 
officer over a mile under machine-gun and sniper fire to 

Chiles, Marcellus H., Captain, 356th Infantry, 89th 
Division, Denver, Col. — Le Champy-Bas, France, November 
3, 1918. When his battalion, of which he had just taken 
command, was halted by machine-gun fire from the front and 
left flank he picked up the rifle of a dead soldier and, calling 
on his men to follow, led the advance across a stream, waist 
deep, in the face of the machine-gun fire. Upon reaching 
the opposite bank this gallant officer was seriously wounded 
in the abdomen by a sniper, but before permitting himself to 
be evacuated he made complete arrangements for turning 
over his command to the next senior officer; and under the 
inspiration of his fearless leadership his battalion reached its 
objective. Captain Chiles died shortly after reaching the 

CoLYER, Wilbur E., Sergeant, Company A, 1st Engineers, 
1st Division, Ozone Park, L. I.— Verdun, France, October 9, 

424 America's Part in the World War 

1918. Volunteering with two other soldiers to locate machine- 
gun nests, Sergeant Colyer advanced on the hostile posi- 
tions to a point where he was half surrounded by the nests, 
which were in ambush. He killed the gunner of one gun with 
a captured German grenade and then turned this gun on the 
other nests, silencing all of them before he returned to his 
platoon. He was later killed in action. 

CosTiN, Henry G., Private, Company H, 115th Infantry, 
29th Division, Cape Charles, Va. — Bois de Consenvoye, 
France, October 8, 1918. When the advance of his platoon 
had been held up by machine-gun fire and a request was made 
for an automatic rifle team to charge the nest. Private Costin 
was the first to volunteer. Advancing with his team, under 
terrific fire of enemy artillery, machine guns, and trench 
mortars, he continued after all his comrades had become 
casualties, and he himself had been seriously wounded. He 
operated his rifle until he collapsed. His act resulted in the 
capture of about one hundred prisoners and several machine 
guns. He succumbed from the effects of his wounds shortly 
after the accomplishment of his heroic deed. 

CuKELA, Louis, First Lieutenant, 5th Regiment Marines, 
2d Division, Minneapolis, Minn. — Villers-Cotterets, France, 
July 18, 1918. When his company, advancing through a 
wood, met with strong resistance from an enemy strong point. 
Lieutenant Cukela (then sergeant) crawled out from the 
flank and made his way toward the German lines in the face 
of heavy fire, disregarding the warnings of his comrades. 
He succeeded in getting behind the enemy position and rushed 
a machine-gun emplacement, killing or driving off the crew 
with his bayonet. With German hand grenades he then 
bombed out the remaining portion of the strong point, captur- 
ing four men and two damaged machine guns. 

DiLBOY, George, Private, First Class, Company H, 
103d Infantry, 26th Division, Boston, Mass. — Belleau, France, 
July 18, 1918. After his platoon had gained its objective 
along a railroad embankment, Private Dilboy, accompanying 
his platoon leader to reconnoitre the ground beyond, was sud- 
denly fired upon by an enemy machine gun from one hundred 
yards. From a standing position on the railroad track, fully 

American Heroes 425 

exposed to view, he opened fire at once, but, failing to silence 
the gun, rushed forward with his bayonet fixed through a 
wheat field toward the gun emplacement, falling within 
twenty-five yards of the gun with his right leg nearly severed 
above the knee and with several bullet holes in his body. 
With undaunted courage he continued to fire into the emplace- 
ment from a prone position, killing two of the enemy and 
dispersing the rest of the crew. 

DoziER, James C, First Lieutenant, Company G, 118th 
Infantry, 30th Division, Rock Hill, S. C— Montbrehain, 
France, October 8, 1918. In command of two platoons. 
Lieutenant Dozier was painfully wounded in the shoulder 
early in the attack, but he continued to lead his men, display- 
ing the highest bravery and skill. When his command was 
held up by heavy machine-gun fire he disposed his men in the 
best cover available and with a soldier continued forward to 
attack a machine-gun nest. Creeping up to the position in 
the face of intense fire, he killed the entire crew with hand 
grenades and his pistol and a little later captured a number 
of Germans who had taken refuge in a dugout nearby. 

Eggers, Alan Louis, Sergeant, M. G. Company, 107th 
Infantry, 27th Division, Summit, N. J.— Le Catelet, France, 
September 29, 1918. Becoming separated from their platoon 
by a smoke barrage. Sergeant Eggers, Sergeant John C. 
Latham, and Corporal Thomas E. O'Shea took cover in a shell 
hole well within the enemy's lines. Upon hearing a call for 
help from an American tank which had become disabled thirty 
yards from them, the three soldiers left their shelter and started 
toward the tank, under heavy fire from German machine guns 
and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area Corporal 
O'Shea was mortally wounded, but his companions, unde- 
terred, proceeded to the tank, rescued a wounded oflBcer, and 
assisted two wounded soldiers to cover in a sap of a nearby 
trench. Sergeant Eggers and Sergeant Latham then returned 
to the tank in the face of the violent fire, dismounted a Hotch- 
kiss gun, and took it back to where the wounded men were, 
keeping off the enemy all day by effective use of the gun, and 
later bringing it, with the wounded men, back to our lines 
under cover of darkness. 

426 America's Part in the World War 

Ellis, Michael B., Sergeant, Company C, 28th Infantry, 
1st Division, East St. Louis, 111. — Exermont, France, October 
5, 1918. During the entire day's engagement he operated far 
in advance of the first wave of his company, voluntarily 
undertaking most dangerous missions and single-handed 
attacking and reducing machine-gun nests. Flanking one 
emplacement, he killed two of the enemy with rifle fire and 
captured seventeen others. Later he single-handed advanced 
under heavy fire and captured twenty-seven prisoners, includ- 
ing two ofiicers and six machine guns, which had been holding 
up the advance of the company. The captured ofiicers indi- 
cated the locations of four other machine guns, and he in 
turn captured these, together with their crews, at all times 
showing marked heroism and fearlessness. 

Forrest, Arthur J., Sergeant, Company D, 354th 
Infantry, 89th Division, Hannibal, Mo. — Remonville, France, 
November 1, 1918. ^ When the advance of his company was 
stopped by bursts of fire from a nest of six enemy machine 
guns, without being discovered he worked his way single- 
handed to a point within fifty yards of the machine-gun nest. 
Charging, single-handed, he drove out the enemy in disorder, 
thereby protecting the advance platoon from annihilating 
fire, and permitting the resumption of the advance of his 

Foster, Gary Evans, Sergeant, Company F, 118th 
Infantry, 30th Division, Inman, S. C. — Montbrehain, France, 
October 8, 1918. When his company was held up by violent 
machine-gun fire from a sunken road Sergeant Foster, with an 
oflScer, went forward to attack the hostile machine-gun nests. 
The officer was wounded, but Sergeant Foster continued on 
alone in the face of heavy fire and by effective use of hand 
grenades and his pistol killed several of the enemy and captured 

Funk, Jesse N., Private, First Class, 354th Infantry, 
89th Division, Calnan, Col. — Bois de Bantheville, France, 
October 31, 1918. Learning that two daylight patrols had 
been caught out in "No Man's Land" and were unable to 
return, he and another stretcher bearer, upon their own initia- 
tive, made two trips five hundred yards beyond our lines, 

American Heroes 427 

under constant machine-gun fire, and rescued two wounded 

Furlong, Richard A., First Lieutenant, 353d Infantry, 
89th Division, Detroit, Mich. — Bantheville, France, Novem- 
ber 1, 1918. Immediately after the opening of the attack in 
the Bois de Bantheville, when his company was held up by 
severe machine-gun fire from the front, which killed his 
company commander and several soldiers. Lieutenant Fur- 
long moved out in advance of the line with great courage and 
coolness, crossing an open space several hundred yards wide. 
Taking up a position behind the line of machine guns, he 
closed in on them, one at a time, killing a number of the enemy 
with his rifle, putting four machine-gun nests out of action, 
and driving twenty German prisoners into our lines. 

Gaffney, Frank, Private, First Class, 108th Infantry, 
27th Division, Lockport, N. Y. — Ronssoy, France, Septem- 
ber 29, 1918. Private Gaffney, an automatic rifleman, pushed 
forward alone with his gun, after all the other members of his 
squad had been killed, discovered several Germans placing a 
heavy machine gun in position. He killed the crew, captured 
the gun, bombed several dugouts, and, after killing four more 
of the enemy with his pistol, held the position until reinforce- 
ment came up, when eighty prisoners were captured. 

Gregory, Earl D., Sergeant, H. Q. Company, 116th 
Infantry, 29th Division, Chase City, Va. — Bois de Consenvoye, 
north of Verdun, France, October 8, 1918. With the remark 
**I will get them," Sergeant Gregory seized a rifle and a 
trench mortar shell, which he used as a hand grenade, left 
his detachment of the trench mortar platoon, and, advancing 
ahead of the infantry, captured a machine gun and three of the 
enemy. Advancing still further from the machine-gun nest, 
he captured a 7.5-centimeter mountain howitzer and, entering 
a dugout in the immediate vicinity, single-handed captured 
nineteen of the enemy. 

GuMPERTZ, Sydney G., First Sergeant, Company E, 
132d Infantry, 33d Division, New York City.— Bois de Forges, 
France, September 26, 1918. When the advancing line was 
held up by machine-gun fire Sergeant Gumpertz left the 
platoon of which he was in command and started with two 

428 America's Part in the World War 

other soldiers through a heavj^ barrage toward the machine- 
gun nest. His two companions soon became casualties from 
bursting shell, but Sergeant Gumpertz continued on alone 
in the face of direct fire from the machine gun, jumped into 
the nest and silenced the gun, capturing nine of the crew. 

Hall, Thomas Lee, Sergeant, Company G, 118th Infan- 
try, 30th Division, Fort Hill, S. C. — Month rehain, France, 
October 8, 1918. Having overcome two machine-gun nests 
under his skillful leadership. Sergeant Hall's platoon was 
stopped eight hundred yards from its final objective by 
machine-gun fire of particular intensity. Ordering his men 
to take cover in a sunken road, he advanced alone on the 
enemy machine-gun post and killed five members of the crew 
with his bayonet and thereby made possible the further ad- 
vance of the line. While attacking another machine-gun nest 
later in the day this gallant soldier was mortally wounded. 

Hatler, M. Waldo, Sergeant, Company B, 356th Infan- 
try, 89th Division, Neosho, Mo. — Pouilly, France, November 
8, 1918. When volunteers were called for to secure informa- 
tion as to the enemy's position on the opposite bank of the 
Meuse river, Sergeant Hatler was the first to offer his services 
for this dangerous mission. Swimming across the river, he 
succeeded in reaching the German lines, after another soldier 
who had started with him had been seized with cramps and 
drowned in midstream. Alone he carefully and courageously 
reconnoitred the enemy's positions, which were held in force, 
and again successfully swam the river, bringing back infor- 
mation of great value. 

Hays, George Price, First Lieutenant, 10th Field Artil- 
lery, 3d Division, Okarchee, Okla. — Greves Farm, France, 
July 14-15, 1918. At the very outset of the unprecedented 
artillery bombardment by the enemy of July 14-15, 1918, his 
line of communication was destroyed beyond repair. Despite 
the hazard attached to the mission of runner, he immediately 
set out to establish contact with the neighboring post of com- 
mand and further established liaison with two French bat- 
teries, visiting their position so frequently that he was mainly 
responsible for the accurate fire therefrom. While thus 
engaged, seven horses were shot under him and he was 

American Heroes 431 

severely wounded. His activity under most severe fire was 
an important factor in checking the advance of the enemy. 

Heriot, James D., Corporal^ Company I, 118th Infan- 
try, 30th Division, Providence, S. C. — Vaux-Andigny, France, 
October 12, 1918. Corporal Heriot, with four other soldiers, 
organized a combat group and attacked an enemy machine- 
gun nest which had been inflicting heavy casualties on his 
company. In the advance two of his men were killed, and 
because of the heavy fire from all sides the remaining two 
sought shelter. Unmindful of the hazard attached to his 
mission, Corporal Heriot, with fixed bayonet, alone charged 
the machine gun, making his way through the fire for a dis- 
tance of thirty yards and forcing the enemy to surrender. 
During his exploit he received several wounds in the arm, 
and later in the same day, while charging another nest, he was 

Hill, Ralyn, Corporal, Company H, 129th Infantry, 33d 
Division, Oregon, 111. — Dannevoux, France, October 7, 1918. 
Seeing a French airplane fall out of control on the enemy side 
of the Meuse river with its pilot injured. Corporal Hill 
voluntarily dashed across the foot-bridge to the side of the 
wounded man, and, taking him on his back, started back to 
his lines. During the entire exploit he was subjected to 
murderous fire of enemy machine guns and artiliery, but he 
successfully accomplished his mission and brought his man 
to a place of safety, a distance of several hundred yards. 

Hilton, Richmond H., Sergeant, Company H, 118th 
Infantry, 30th Division, Westville, S. C. — Brancourt, France, 
October 11, 1918. While Sergeant Hilton's companj'- was 
advancing through the village of Brancourt it was held up by 
intense enfilading fire from a machine gun. Discovering that 
this fire came from a machine-gun nest among shell holes at 
the edge of the town, Sergeant Hilton, accompanied by a few 
other soldiers, but well in advance of them, pressed on toward 
this position, firing with his rifle until his ammunition was 
exhausted, and then with his pistol, killing six of the enemy 
and capturing ten. In the course of this daring exploit he 
received a wound from a bursting shell, which resulted in the 
loss of his arm. 

432 America's Part in the World War 

Hoffman, Charles F., Gunnery Sergeant, 5th Regiment 
Marines, 2d Division, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Chateau-Thierry, 
France, June 6, 1918. Immediately after the company to 
which he belonged had reached its objective on Hill 142 
several hostile counter-attacks were launched against the line 
before the new position had been consolidated. Sergeant 
Hoffman was attempting to organize a position on the north 
slope of the hill when he saw twelve of the enemy, armed with 
five light machine guns, crawling toward his group. Giving the 
alarm, he rushed the hostile detachment, bayoneted the two 
leaders, and forced the others to flee, abandoning their guns. 
His quick action, initiative, and courage drove the enemy from 
a position from which they could have swept the hill with 
machine-gun fire and forced the withdrawal of our troops. 

Johnston, Harold I., Sergeant, Company A, 356th 
Infantry, 89th Division, Denver, Col. — Pouilly, France, 
November 9, 1918. When information was desired as to the 
enemy's position on the opposite side of the River Meuse, 
Sergeant Johnston, with another soldier, volunteered with- 
out hesitation and swam the river to reconnoitre the exact 
location of the enemy. He succeeded in reaching the opposite 
bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to 
prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he 
again entered the water for his return. This was accom- 
plished after a severe struggle, which so exhausted him that 
he had to be assisted from the water, after which he rendered 
his report of the exploit. 

Karnes, James E., Sergeant, Company D, 117th Infan- 
try, 30th Division, Knoxville, Tenn. — Estrees, France, Octo- 
ber 8, 1918. During an advance his company was held up by 
a machine gun which was enfilading the line. Accompanied 
by another soldier, he advanced against this position and 
succeeded in reducing the nest by killing three and capturing 
seven of the enemy and their guns. 

Kaufman, Benjamin, First Sergeant, Company K, 308th 
Infantry, 77th Division, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Forest of Argonne, 
France, October 4, 1918. He took out a patrol for the purpose 
of attacking an enemy machine gun which had checked the 
advance of his company. Before reaching the gun he became 

American Heroes 433 

separated from his patrol, and a machine gun bullet shattered 
his right arm. Without hesitation he advanced on the gun 
alone, throwing grenades with his left hand and charging with 
an empty pistol, taking one prisoner and scattering the crew, 
bringing the gun and prisoner back to the first-aid station. 

Katz, Philip C, Sergeant^ Company C, 363d Infantry, 
91st Division, San Francisco, Cal. — Eclisfontaine, France, 
September 26, 1918. After his company had withdrawn for a 
distance of 200 yards on a line with the units on its flanks. 
Sergeant Katz learned that one of his comrades had been left 
wounded in an exposed position at the point from which the 
withdrawal had taken place. Voluntarily crossing an area 
swept by heavy machine-gun fire, he advanced to where the 
wounded soldier lay and carried him to a place of safety. 

KocAK, Matej, Sergeant, Company C, 5th Regiment 
Marines, 2d Division, Albany, N. Y. — Soissons, France, 
July 18, 1918. When the advance of his battalion was 
checked by a hidden machine-gun nest he went forward alone, 
unprotected by covering fire from his own men, and worked in 
between the German position in the face of fire irom an 
enemy covering detachment. Locating the machine-gun 
nest, he rushed it, and with his bayonet droTe off the crew. 
Shortly after this he organized twenty -five French Colonial 
soldiers who had become separated from their company and 
led them in attacking another machine-gun nest, which was 
also put out of action. 

Kelly, John Joseph, Private, 6th Regiment Marines, 2d 
Division, Chicago, III. — Blanc Mont Ridge, France, October 
3, 1918. Private Kelly ran through our own barrage 100 yards 
in advance of the front line and attacked an enemy machine- 
gun nest, killing the gunner with a grenade, shooting another 
member of the crew with his pistol, and returned through the 
barrage with eight prisoners. 

Latham, John Cridland, Sergeant, M. G. Company, 
107th Infantry, 27th Division, Westmoreland, England. — Le 
Catelet, France, September 29, 1918. Becoming separated 
from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Sergeant Latham, 
Sergeant Alan L. Eggers, and Corporal Thomas E. O'Shea took 
cover in a shell hole well within the enemy's lines. Upon 

434 Americans Part in the World War 

liearing a call for lieip from an American tank, which had 
become disabled thirty yards from them, the three soldiers 
left their shelter and started toward the tank under heavy 
fire from German machine guns and trench mortars. In 
crossing the fire-swept area Corporal O'Shea was mortally 
wounded, but his companions undeterred, proceeded to the 
tank, rescued a wounded officer, and assisted two wounded 
soldiers to cover in the sap of a nearby trench. Sergeant 
Latham and Sergeant Eggers then returned to the tank, in 
the face of the violent fire, dismounted a Ilotckhiss gun, and 
took it back to where the wouned men were, keeping off the 
enemy all day by effective use of the gun and later bringing it, 
with the wounded men, back to our lines under cover of 

Lemert, Milo, First Sergeant y Company H, 119th 
Infantry, 30th Division, Grossville, Tenn. — Bellicourt, France, 
September, 29, 1918. Seeing that the left flank of his com- 
pany was held up, he located the enemy machine-gun emplace- 
ment which had been causing heavy casualties. In the face 
of heavy fire he rushed it single-handed, killing the entire 
crew with grenades. Continuing along the enemy trench in 
advance of the company, he reached another emplacement, 
which he also charged, silencing the gun with grenades. A 
third machine-gun emplacement opened upon him from the 
left, and, with similar skill and bravery, he destroyed this 
also. Later, in company with another sergeant, he attacked 
a fourth machine-gun nest, being killed as he reached the 
parapet of the emplacement. His courageous action in 
destroying in turn four enemy machine-gun nests prevented 
many casualties among his company and very materially aided 
in achieving the objective. 

LoMAN, Berger, Private^ Company H, 132d Infantry, 
33d Division, Chicago. — Consenvoye, France, October 9, 
1918. "Wlien his company had reached a point within 100 ? 
yards of its objective, to which it was advancing under terrific 
machine-gun fire, Private Loman, voluntarily and unaided, 
made his way forward, after all others had taken shelter from 
the direct fire of an enemy machine gun. He crawled to 
a flank position of the gun and, after killing or capturing the 

American Heroes 435 

entire crew, turned the machine gun on the retreating 

Luke, Frank, Jr., Lieutenant, 27th Aero Squadron, 
Phoenix, Ariz. — Murvaux, France, September 29, 1918. After 
having previously destroyed a number of enemy aircraft 
within seventeen days, he voluntarily started on a patrol after 
German observation balloons. Though pursued by eight 
German planes, which were protecting the enemy balloon 
line, he unhesitatingly attacked and shot down in flames three 
German balloons, being himself under heavy fire from ground 
batteries and the hostile planes. Severely wounded, he 
descended to within fifty meters of the ground, and flying at 
this low altitude near the town of Murvaux, opened fire upon 
enemy troops, killing six and wounding as many more. Forced 
to make a landing and surrounded on all sides by the enemy, 
who called upon him to surrender, he drew his automatic 
pistol and defended himseK gallantly until he fell dead from 
a wound in the chest. 

Mallon, George H., Captain, 132d Infantry, 33d 
Division, Kansas City, Mo. — Bois de Forges, France, Sep- 
tember 26, 1918. Becoming separated from the balance 
of his company because of a fog, Captain Mallon, with nine 
soldiers, pushed forward and attacked nine active hostile 
machine guns, capturing all of them without the loss of a 
man. Continuing on through the woods, he led his men in 
attacking a battery of four 155-millimeter howitzers, which 
were in action, rushing the position and capturing the battery 
and its crew. In this encounter Captain Mallon personally 
attacked one of the enemy with his fists. Later, when the 
party came upon two more machine guns, this ofiicer sent 
men to the flanks while he rushed forward directly in the face 
of the fire and silenced the guns, being the first one of the 
party to reach the nest. The exceptional gallantry and 
determination displayed by Captain Mallon resulted in the 
capture of 100 prisoners, eleven machine guns, four 155- 
millimeter howitzers, and one anti-aircraft gun. 

Manning, Sidney E., Corporal, Company C, 167th 
Infantry, 42d Division, Flomaton, Ala. — Breuvannes, France, 
July 28, 1918. When his platoon commander and platoon 

436 America's Part in the World War 

sergeant had both become casualties soon after the beginning 
of an assault on strongly fortified heights overlooking the 
Ourcq river, Corporal Manning took command of his platoon, 
which was near the center of the attacking line. Though 
himself severely wounded, he led forward the thirty-five men 
remaining in the platoon, and finally succeeded in gaining a 
foothold on enemy position, during which time he had 
received more wounds and all but seven of his men had fallen. 
Directing the consolidation of the position, he held off a large 
body of the enemy only fifty yards away by fire from his 
automatic rifle. He declined to take cover until the line had 
been entirely consolidated with the line of the platoon on the 
flank, when he dragged himself to shelter, suffering from nine 
wounds in all parts of the body. 

Mestrovitch, James I., Sergeant, Company C, 111th 
Infantry, 28th Division, Fresno, Cal. — Fismette, France, 
August 10, 1918. Seeing his company commander lying 
wounded thirty yards in front of the line after his company 
had withdrawn to a sheltered position behind a stone wall. 
Sergeant Mestrovitch voluntarily left cover and crawled 
through heavy machine-gun and shell fire to where the ofiicer 
lay. He took the ofiicer upon his back and crawled back to a 
place of safety, where he administered first-aid treatment, his 
exceptional heroism saving the oflBcer's life. 

Miles, L. Wardlaw, Ca^ptain, 308th Infantry, 77th 
Division, Princeton, N. J. — Revillon, France, September 14, 
1918. Captain Miles volunteered to lead his company in a 
hazardous attack on a commanding trench position near the 
Aisne Canal, which other troops had previously attempted to 
take without success. His company immediately met with 
intense machine-gun fire, against which it had no artillery 
assistance, but Captain Miles preceded the first wave and 
assisted in cutting a passage through the enemy's wire 
entanglements. In so doing he was wounded five times by 
machine-gun bullets, both legs and one arm being fractured, 
whereupon he ordered himself placed on a stretcher and had 
himself carried forward to the enemy trench in order that he 
might encourage and direct his company, which by this time 
had suffered numerous casualties. Under the inspiration of 

American Heroes 437 

this officer's indomitable spirit his men held the hostile position 
and consolidated the front line after an action lasting two 
hours, at the conclusion of which Captain Miles was carried to 
the aid station against his will. 

Miller, Oscar F., Major, 361st Infantry, 91st Division, 
Los Angeles, Cal. — Gesnes, France, September 28, 1918. 
After two days of intense physical and mental strain, during 
which Major Miller had led his battalion in the front line of 
the advance, through the forest of Argonne, the enemy was 
met in a prepared position south of Gesnes. Though almost 
exhausted, he energetically reorganized his battalion and 
ordered an attack. Upon reaching open ground, the advancing 
line began to waver in the face of machine-gun fire from the 
front and flanks and direct artillery fire. Personally leading 
his command group forward between his front-line companies, 
Major Miller inspired his men by his personal courage, and 
they again pressed on toward the hostile position. As this 
officer led the renewed attack he was shot in the right leg, 
but he nevertheless staggered forward at the head of his com- 
mand. Soon afterward he was again shot in the right arm, 
but he continued the charge, personally cheering his troops 
on through the heavy machine-gun fire. Just before the 
objective was reached he received a wound in the abdomen 
which forced him to the ground, but he continued to urge his 
men on, telling them to push on to the next ridge and leave 
him where he lay. He died from his wounds a few days later. 

McMuRTRY, George G., Captain, 308th Infantry, 77th 
Division, New York City. — Forest d'Argonne, France, October 
2 to 8, 1918. Captain McMurtry commanded a battalion 
which was cut off and surrounded by the enemy, and, although 
wounded in the knee by shrapnel on October 4th and suffering 
great pain, he continued throughout the entire period to 
encourage his ofiicers and men with a resistless optimism 
that contributed largely toward preventing panic and dis- 
order among the troops who were, without food, cut off from 
communication with our lines. On October 4th, during a 
heavy barrage, he personally directed and supervised the 
moving of the wounded to shelter before himself seeking 
shelter. On October 6th he was again wounded in the shoulder 

438 America's Part in the World War 

by a German grenade, but continued personally to organize 
and direct the defense against the German attack on the 
position until the attack was defeated. He continued to 
direct and command his troops, refusing relief, and personally 
led his men out of the position after assistance arrived before 
permitting himself to be taken to the hospital on October 8th. 
During this period the successful defense of the position was 
due largely to his efforts. 

Neibaur, Thomas C., Private, Company M, 167th Infan- 
try, 42d Division, Sumner City, Idaho. — Landers, St. Georges, 
France, October 16, 1918. On the afternoon of October 16, 
1918, when the Cote de Chatillon had just been gained after 
bitter fighting and the summit of that strong bulwark in the 
Kriemhilde Stellung was being organized, Private Neibaur 
was sent out on patrol with his automatic rifle squad to enfilade 
enemy machine-gun nests. As he gained the ridge he set up 
his automatic rifle and was directly thereafter wounded in 
both legs by fire from a hostile machine gun on his flank. 
The advance wave of the enemy troops, counter-attacking, 
had about gained the ridge, and, although practically cut off 
and surrounded, the remainder of his detachment being killed 
or wounded, this gallant soldier kept his automatic rifle in 
operation to such effect that by his own efforts and by fire 
from the skirmish line of his company, at least 100 yards in 
his rear, the attack was checked. The enemy wave being 
halted and lying prone, four of the enemy attacked Private 
Neibaur at close quarters. These he killed. He then moved 
along among the enemy lying on the ground about him, in 
the midst of the fire from his own lines, and by coolness and 
gallantry captured eleven prisoners at the point of his pistol 
and, although painfully wounded, brought them back to our 
lines. The counter-attack in full force was arrested, to a large 
extent, by the single efforts of this soldier, whose heroic 
exploits took place against the sky line in full view of his 
entire battalion. 

O'Shea, Thomas E., Corporal, M. G. Company, 107th 
Infantry, 27th Division, Summit, N. J.— Le Catelet, France, 
September 29, 1918. Becoming separated from their platoon 
by a smoke barrage, Corporal O'Shea, with two other soldiers, 

American Heroes 439 

took cover in a shell hole well within the enemy's lines. 
Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank, which 
had become disabled thirty yards from them, the three soldiers 
left their shelter and started toward the tank under heavy 
fire from German machine guns and trench mortars. In 
crossing the fire-swept area Corporal O'Shea was mortally 
wounded and died of his wounds shortly afterward. 

Peck, Archie A., Private, Company A, 307th Infantry, 
77th Division, Hornell, N. Y. — Argonne Forest, France, 
October 6, 1918. While engaged with two other soldiers 
on patrol duty he and his comrades were subjected to the 
direct fire of an enemy machine gun, at which time both his 
companions were wounded. Returning to his company, he 
obtained another soldier to accompany him to assist in bring- 
ing in the wounded men. His assistant was killed in the 
exploit, but he continued on, twice returning, and safely 
bringing in both men, being under terrific machine-gun fire 
during the entire journey. 

Perkins, Michael J., Private, First Class, Company D, 
101st Infantry, 26th Division, Boston, Mass. — Belleau Bois, 
France, October 27, 1918. He, voluntarily and alone, crawled 
to a German "pill box" machine-gun emplacement, from which 
grenades were being thrown at his platoon. Awaiting his 
opportunity, when the door was again opened and another 
grenade thrown, he threw a bomb inside, bursting the door 
open; and then, drawing his trench knife, rushed into the 
emplacement. In a hand-to-hand struggle he killed or 
wounded several of the occupants and captured about twenty- 
five prisoners, at the same time silencing seven machine guns. 

Pike, Emory J., Lieutenant-Colonel, Division Machine 
Gun Ofiicer, 82d Division, Des Moines, Iowa. — Vandieres, 
France, September 15, 1918. Having gone forward to recon- 
noitre new machine-gun positions. Colonel Pike offered his 
assistance in reorganizing advance infantry units, which had 
become disorganized during a heavy artillery shelling. He 
succeeded in locating only about twenty men, but with these 
he advanced and when later joined by several infantry platoons 
rendered inestimable service in establishing outposts, encourag- 
ing all by his cheeriness, in spite of the extreme danger of 


440 America's Part in the World War 

the situation. When a shell had wounded one of the men in the 
outpost, Colonel Pike immediately went to his aid and was 
severely wounded himself, when another shell burst in the 
same place. While waiting to be brought to the rear, Colonel 
Pike continued in command, still retaining his jovial manner 
of encouragement, directing the reorganization until the 
position could be held. The entire operation was carried on 
under terrific bombardment, and the example of courage and 
devotion to duty, as set by Colonel Pike, established the 
highest standard of morale and confidence to all under his 
charge. The wounds he received were the cause of his death. 

Pope, Thoivias A., Corporal, Company E, 131st Infantry, 
33d Division, Chicago. — Hamel, France, July 4, 1918. His 
company was advancing behind the tanks when it was halted 
by hostile machine-gun fire. Going forward alone, he rushed 
a machine-gun nest, killed several of the crew with his bayonet, 
and, standing astride of his gun, held off the others until 
reinforcements arrived and captured them. 

Pruitt, John H., Corporal, 78th Company, 6th Regiment 
of Marines, 2d Division, Phoenix, Ariz. — Blanc Mont Ridge, 
France, October 3, 1918. Corporal Pruitt single-handed 
attacked two machine guns, capturing them and killing two 
of the enemy. He then captured forty prisoners in a dugout 
near by. This gallant soldier was killed soon afterward by 
shell fire while he was sniping at the enemy. 

Regan, Patrick, Second Lieutenarit, 115th Infantry, 
29th Division, Los Angeles, Cal. — Bois de Consenvoye, 
France, October 8, 1918. While leading his platoon against a 
strong enemy machine-gun nest which had held up the 
advance of two companies. Lieutenant Regan divided his 
men into three groups, sending one group to either flank, and 
he himself attacking with an automatic rifle team from the 
front. Two of the team were killed outright, while Lieutenant 
Regan and the third man were seriously wounded, the latter 
unable to advance. Although severely wounded, Lieutenant 
Regan dashed with empty pistol into the machine-gun nest, 
capturing thirty Austrian gunners and four machine guns. 
This gallant deed permitted the companies to advance, avoid- 
ing a terrific enemy fire. Despite his wounds, he continued 

American Heroes 441 

to lead his platoon forward until ordered to the rear by his 
commanding officer. 

RoBB, George S., First Lieutenant, 369th Infantry, 93d 
Division, Saline, Kan. — Sechault, France, September 29-30, 
1918. While leading his platoon in the assault on Sechault, 
Lieutenant Robb was severely wounded by machine-gun fire, 
but rather than go to the rear for proper treatment, he 
remained with his platoon until ordered to the dressing station 
by his commanding officer. Returning within forty-five 
minutes, he remained on duty throughout the entire night 
inspecting his lines and establishing outposts. Early the 
next morning he was again wounded, once again displaying his 
remarkable devotion to duty by remaining in command of his 
platoon. Later the same day a bursting shell added two more 
wounds, the same shell killing his commanding officer and 
two officers of his company. He then assumed command of 
the company and organized its position in the trenches. 
Displaying wonderful courage and tenacity at the critical 
times, he was the only officer of his battalion who advanced 
beyond the town, and by clearing machine-gun and sniping 
posts, contributed largely to the aid of his battalion in holding 
their objective. His example of bravery and fortitude and his 
eagerness to continue with his mission despite severe wounds 
set before the enlisted men of his command a most wonderful 
standard of morale and self-sacrifice. 

Roberts, Harold W., Corporal, Tank Corps, San 
Francisco, Cal. — Montrebeau Woods, France, October 4, 
1918. Corporal Roberts, a tank driver, was moving his tank 
into a clump of bushes to afford protection to another tank 
which had become disabled. The tank slid into a shell hole 
ten feet deep, filled with water, and was immediately sub- 
merged. Knowing that only one of the two men in the tank 
could escape. Corporal Roberts said to the gunner, "Well, only 
one of us can get out, and out you go," whereupon he pushed 
his companion through the back door of the tank and was 
himself drowned. 

Sampler, Samuel H., Sergeant, Company M, 142d 
Infantry, 36th Division, Mangum, Okla. — St. Etienne, France, 
October 8, 1918. His company having suffered severe casu- 

442 America's Part in the World War 

alties during an advance under machine-gun fire, was finally 
stopped. Sergeant Sampler, then a corporal, detected the 
position of the enemy machine guns on an elevation. Armed 
with German hand grenades, which he had picked up, he left 
the line and rushed forward in the face of heavy fire until he 
was near the hostile nest, where he grenaded the position. 
His third grenade landed among the enemy, killing two, 
silencing the machine guns and causing the surrender of 
twenty-eight Germans, whom he sent to the rear as prisoners. 
As a result of his act the company was immediately enabled 
to resume the advance. 

Sandlin, Willie, Private, Company A, 132d Infantry, 
33d Division, Hayden, Ky. — Bois de Forges, France, Sep- 
tember 26, 1918. He showed conspicuous gallantry in action 
by advancing alone directly on a machine-gun nest which was 
holding up the line with its fire. He killed the crew with a 
grenade and enabled the line to advance. Later in the day 
he attacked alone and put out of action two other machine-gun 
nests, setting a splendid example of bravery and coolness to 
his comrades. 

Sawelson, William, Sergeant , Company — , 312th 
Infantry, 78th Division, Harrison, N. J. — Grandpre, France, 
October 26, 1918. Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole 
some distance away calling for water. Sergeant Sawelson, upon 
his own initiative, left shelter and crawled through heavy 
machine-gun fire to where the man lay, giving him what water 
he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell 
hole, obtained more water and was returning to the wounded 
man when he was killed by a machine-gun bullet. 

Seibert, Lloyd M., Sergeant, Company F, 364th Infan- 
try, 91st Division, Salinas, Cal. — Epinonville, France, Sep- 
tember 26, 1918. Suffering from illness. Sergeant Seibert 
remained with his platoon and led his men with the highest 
courage and leadership under heavy shell and machine-gun 
fire. With two other soldiers he charged a machine-gun 
emplacement in advance of their company, he himself killing 
one of the enemy with a shotgun and captured two others. 
In this encounter he was wounded, but he nevertheless con- 
tinued in action, and when a withdrawal was ordered he 

Ameriean Heroes 443 

returned with the last unit, assisting a wounded comrade. 
Later in the evening he volunteered and carried in wounded 
until he fainted from exhaustion. 

Skinker, Alexander R., Captain, 138th Infantry, 35th 
Division, St. Louis, Mo. — Cheppy, France, September 26, 
1918. Unwilling to sacrifice his men when his company was 
held up by terrific machine-gun fire from iron pill boxes in 
the Hindenburg line, Captain Skinker personally led an auto- 
matic rifleman and a carrier in an attack on the machine 
guns. The carrier was killed instantly, but Captain Skinker 
seized the ammunition and continued through an opening in 
the barbed wire, feeding the automatic rifle until he, too, was 

Slack, Clayton K., Private, Company E, 124th Infan- 
try, 31st Division, Lampson, Wis. — Consenvoye, France, 
October 8, 1918. Observing German soldiers under cover 
fifty yards away on the left flank, Private Slack, upon his own 
initiative, rushed them with his rifle and, single-handed, 
captured ten prisoners and two heavy-type machine guns, thus 
saving his company and neighboring organizations from heavy 

Smith, Frederick E., Lieutenant-Colonel, 308th Infantry, 
77th Division, Portland, Ore. — Binarville, France, September 
28, 1918. When communication from the forward regimental 
post of command to the battalion leading the advance had 
been interrupted temporarily by the infiltration of small 
parties of the enemy armed with machine guns, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Smith personally led a party of two other officers and 
ten soldiers, and went forward to re-establish runner posts and 
carry ammunition to the front line. The guide became con- 
fused and the party strayed to the left flank beyond the out- 
posts of supporting troops, suddenly coming under fire from 
a group of enemy machine guns only fifty yards away. Shout- 
ing to the other members of his party to take cover, this oflScer, 
in disregard of his own danger, drew his pistol and opened fire 
on the German gun crew. About this time he fell, severely 
wounded in the side, but, regaining his footing, he continued 
to fire on the enemy until most of the men in his party were 
out of danger. Refusing first-aid treatment, he then made 

444 America's Part in the World War 

his way in plain view of the enemy to a hand-grenade dump and 
returned under continued heavy machine-gun fire for the 
purpose of making another attack on the enemy emplacements. 
As he was attempting to ascertain the exact location of the 
nearest nest, he again fell, mortally wounded. 

Talley, Edward R., Sergeant, Company L, 117th 
Infantry, 30th Division, Russellville, Tenn. — Ponchaux, 
France, October 7, 1918. Undeterred by seeing several 
comrades killed in attempting to put a hostile machine-gun 
nest out of action, Sergeant Talley attacked the position 
single-handed. Armed only with a rifle, he rushed the nest 
in the face of intense enemy fire, killed or wounded at least 
six of the crew, and silenced the gun. When the enemy 
attempted to bring forward another gun and ammunition, 
he drove them back by effective fire from his rifle. 

Turner, Harold L., Corporal, Company F, 142d Infan- 
try, 36th Division, Seminole, Okla. — St. Etienne, France, 
October 8, 1918. After his platoon had started the attack. 
Corporal Turner assisted in organizing a platoon consisting of 
the battalion scouts, runners, and a detachment of the Signal 
Corps. As second in command of this platoon, he fearlessly 
led them forward through heavy enemy fire, continually 
encouraging the men. Later he encountered deadly machine- 
gun fire which reduced the strength of his command to but 
four men, and these were obliged to take shelter. The enemy 
machine-gun emplacement, twenty-five yards distant, kept 
up a continual fire from four machine guns. After the fire had 
shifted momentarily. Corporal Turner rushed forward with 
fixed bayonet and charged the position alone, capturing the 
strong point, with a complement of fifty Germans and four 
machine guns. His remarkable display of courage and fear- 
lessness was instrumental in destroying the strong point, the 
fire from which had blocked the advance of his company. 

Turner, Wilijam S., First Lieutenant, 105th Infantry, 
27th Division, Dorchester, Mass. — Ronssoy, France, Sep- 
tember 27, 1918. He led a small group of men to the attack, 
under terrific artillery and machine-gun fire, after they had 
become separated from the rest of the company in the darkness. 
Single-handed he rushed an enemy machine gun, which had 

American Heroes 445 

suddenly opened fire on his group, and killed the crew with his 
pistol. He then pressed forward to another machine-gun 
post twenty-five yards away and had killed one gunner him- 
self by the time the remainder of his detachment arrived and 
put the gun out of action. With the utmost bravery he con- 
tinued to lead his men over three lines of hostile trenches, 
cleaning up each one as they advanced, regardless of the fact 
that he had been wounded three times, and killed several of 
the enemy in hand-to-hand encounters. After his pistol 
ammunition was exhausted, this gallant officer seized the 
rifle of a dead soldier, bayoneted several members of a machine 
gun crew, and shot the others. Upon reaching the fourth 
line trench, which was his objective, Lieutenant Turner 
captured it with the nine men remaining in his group, and 
resisted a hostile counter-attack until he was finally surrounded 
and killed. 

Van Iersal, Louis, Sergeant, Company M, 9th Infantry, 
2d Division, Newark, N. J. — Mouzon, France, November 9, 
1918. While a member of the reconnoissance patrol sent out 
at night to ascertain the condition of a damaged bridge, 
Sergeant Van Iersal volunteered to lead a party across the 
bridge in the face of heavy machine-gun and rifle fire from a 
range of only seventy-five yards. Crawling alone along the 
debris of the ruined bridge, he came upon a trap, which gave 
away and precipitated him into the water. In spite of the 
swift current, he succeeded in swimming across the stream 
and found a lodging place among the timbers on the opposite 
bank. Disregarding the enemy fire, he made a careful 
investigation of the hostile position by which the bridge was 
defended and then returned to the other bank of the river, 
reporting this valuable information to the battalion com- 

ViLLEPiGUE, John C, Corporal, Company M, 118th 
Infantry, 30th Division, Camden, S. C. — Vaux-Andigny, 
France, October 15, 1918. Having been sent out with two 
other soldiers to scout through the village of Vaux-Andigny, 
he met with strong resistance from enemy machine-gun fire, 
which killed one of his men and wounded the other. Con- 
tinuing his advance without aid 500 yards in advance of his 

446 America's Part in the World War 

platoon and in the face of enemy machine-gun and artillery 
fire, he encountered four of the enemy in a dugout, whom he 
attacked and killed with a hand grenade. Crawling forward 
to a point 150 yards in advance of his first encounter, he 
rushed a machine-gun nest, killing four and capturing six of 
the enemy and taking two light machine guns. After being 
joined by his platoon he was severely wounded in the arm. 

Walker, Reider, Sergeant, Company A, 105th Infantry, 
27th Division, Noretrand, Norway. — Ronssoy, France, Sep- 
tember 27, 1918. In the face of heavy artillery and machine- 
gun fire, he crawled forward in a burning British tank in 
which some of the crew were imprisoned, and succeeded in 
rescuing two men. Although the tank was then burning 
fiercely and contained ammunition which was likely to 
explode at any time, this soldier immediately returned to the 
tank and, entering it, made a search for the other occupants, 
remaining until he satisfied himself that there were no more 
living men in the tank. 

Ward, Calvin, Private, Company D, 117th Infantry, 
30th Division, Morristown, Tenn. — Estrees, France, October 
8, 1918. During an advance Private Ward's company was 
held up by a machine gun, which was enfilading the line. 
Accompanied by a noncommissioned officer, he advanced 
against this post and succeeded in reducing the nest by kilhng 
three and capturing seven of the enemy and their guns. 

West, Chester H., First Sergeant, Company D, 363d 
Infantry, 91st Division, Idaho Falls, Idaho — Bois de Cheppy, 
France, September 26, 1918. While making his way through 
a thick fog with his automatic rifle section, his advance was 
halted by direct and unusual machine-gun fire from two guns. 
Without aid, he at once dashed through the fire and, attacking 
the nest, killed two of the gunners, one of whom was an 
ojfficer. This prompt and decisive hand-to-hand encounter on 
his part enabled his company to advance further without the 
loss of a man. 

Whittlesey, Charles W., Lieutenant-Colonel, 308th 
Infantry, 77th Division, Pittsfield, Mass. — Binarville, in the 
Forest d'Argonne, France, October 2-7, 1918. Although cut 
off for five days from the remainder of his division, Major 

American Heroes 449 

Whittlesey maintained his position, which he had reached 
under orders received for an advance, and held his command, 
consisting originally of 463 officers and men of the 308th 
Infantry and of Company K of the 307th Infantry, together, 
in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, during the five 
days. Major Whittlesey and his command were thus cut off, 
and no rations or other supplies reached him, in spite of 
determined efforts which were made by his division. On the 
fourth day Major Whittlesey received from the enemy a 
written proposition to surrender, which he treated with con- 
tempt, although he was at that time out of rations and had 
suffered a loss of about fifty per cent in killed and wounded 
of his command and was surrounded by the enemy. 

WicKERSHAM, J. HuNTER, Secoiid Lieutenant, 353d Infan- 
try, 89th Division, Denver, Col. — Limey, France, September 
12, 1918. Advancing with his platoon during the St. Mihiel 
offensive, he was severely wounded in four places by the burst- 
ing of a high-explosive shell. Before receiving any aid for 
himself he dressed the wounds of his orderly, who was wounded 
at the same time. Then he ordered and accompanied the 
further advance of his platoon, although weakened by the 
loss of blood. His right hand and arm being disabled by 
wounds, he continued to fire his revolver wuth his left hand, 
until, exhausted by loss of blood, he fell and died from his 
wounds before aid could be administered. 

Wold, Nels, Private, Company I, 138th Infantry, 35th 
Division, Mcintosh, Minn. — Cheppy, France, September 26, 
1918. He rendered most gallant service in aiding the advance 
of his company, which had been held up by machine-gun nests, 
advancing wdth one other soldier and silencing the guns, 
bringing wdth him upon his return eleven prisoners. Later the 
same day he jumped from a trench and rescued a comrade w^ho 
was about to be shot by a German officer, killing the officer 
during the exploit. His actions were entirely voluntary, and 
it was while attempting to rush a fifth machine-gun nest that 
he was killed. The advance of his company was mainly due 
to his great courage and devotion to duty. 

WooDFiLL, Samuel, First Lievtenant, 60th Infantry, 5th 
Division, Fort Thomas, Ky. — Cunel, France, October 12, 

450 America's Part in the World War 

1918. "While he was leading his company against the enemy 
his line came under heavy machine-gun fire, which threatened 
to hold up the advance. Followed by two soldiers at twenty- 
five yards, this oflScer went out ahead of his first line toward a 
machine-gun nest and worked his way around its flank, leaving 
the two soldiers in front. When he got within ten yards of 
the gun it ceased firing, and four of the enemy appeared, 
three of whom were shot by Lieutenant Woodfill. The fourth, 
an officer, rushed at Lieutenant Woodfill, who attempted to 
club the officer with his rifle. After a hand-to-hand struggle. 
Lieutenant Woodfill killed the officer with his pistol. His 
company thereupon continued to advance until shortly after- 
ward another machine-gun nest was encountered. Calling his 
men to follow, Lieutenant Woodfill rushed ahead of his line in 
the face of heavy fire from the nest, and when several of the 
enemy appeared above the nest he shot them, capturing three 
other members of the crew and silencing the gun. A few 
minutes later this officer for the third time demonstrated 
conspicuous daring by charging another machine-gun posi- 
tion, killing five men in one machine-gun pit with his rifle. 
He then drew his revolver and started to jump into the pit, 
when two other gunners only a few yards away turned their 
gun on him. Failing to kill them with his revolver, he grabbed 
a pick near by and killed both of them. Inspired by the 
exceptional courage displayed by this officer, his men pressed 
on to their objective under severe shell and machine-gun fire. 

York, Alvin C, Sergeant, Company G, 328th Infantry, 
82d Division, Pall Mall, Tenn.— Chatel-Chehery, France, 
October 8, 1918. After his platoon had sufl'ered heavy 
casualties and three other noncommissioned officers had 
become casualties. Corporal York assumed command. Fear- 
lessly leading seven men, he charged, with great daring, a 
machine-gun nest which was pouring deadly and incessant 
fire upon his platoon. In this heroic feat the machine-gun 
nest was taken, together with four officers and 128 men and 
several guns. 

In the case of all posthumous awards the Medal was 
presented in the name of the government to the soldier's 
nearest surviving blood relative. 

American Heroes 451 


Six Americans out of 12,000 who served with the Canadian 
Army, were awarded the Victoria Cross, according to the 
final hst of honors completed by the British War Records 
office. The records show that more Americans, in proportion 
to the number in the Canadian forces, won that coveted deco- 
ration than did Canadians or British. 

Two hundred and thirty-eight Victoria Crosses were dis- 
tributed during the Great War, six among Americans in the 
Canadian Army, fifty-five among the rest of the Dominion's 
450,000 soldiers, and 177 among the British troops, who 
numbered approximately 5,000,000 in 1917-18. That is: 
to Americans, 1 to 2,000; to Canadians, 1 to 8,100; to 
British, 1 to 28,200. 

The Victoria Cross is the highest military honor bestowed 
by the British Government. It is the rarest decoration given 
by any nation, fewer than one thousand having been granted 
since it was instituted in 1856, at the close of the Crimean 
war. For these reasons, and the additional reason that 
the wearer gets a life pension of £10 ($50) a year, it is the 
most prized of all military decorations. 

The Americans upon w^hom the cross was bestowed are: 

Corporal H. G. B. Miner, V. C, born on a farm near 
Cleveland, O., killed in action. 

Sergeant G. H. MuUin, V. C, M. M., born in Portland, 

Sergeant W. L. Bayfield, V. C, born in New York. 

Captain B. S. Hutcheson, V. C, M. C, born at Mt. 
Carmel, 111., practising physician of Mound City, 111. 

Corporal W. H. Metcalf, V. C, M. M., born in Walsh 
County, Me. 

Sergeant R. L. Zengel, V. C, M. M., born at Faribault, 

Four of the six, it will be noted won the Military Medal or 
the Military Cross in addition to the Victoria Cross. 


With the Americans in Siberia 

MERICA'S soldiers served in the World War not only 
in the struggle against militant autocracy but also in 
the fight against ruthless and murderous radicalism. 
They invaded the blizzard-swept wastes of the Arctic region 
to battle against Russian Bolshevist troops with the same 
determined courage that met the shock troops of Prussia and 
compelled the surrender of Germany on the western front. 

The need for American artillery, infantry and engineers 
came when Bolshevik control endangered great stores of 
supplies owned by the Allies in Archangel, Vladivostock and 
their neighborhoods and when large numbers of Russians, 
rising against Bolshevik domination rose under the leadership 
of Admiral Kolchak, General Judenich and General Denikin 
against the government of Lenine and Trotsky. 

The reign of terror in Russia was accompanied by sporadic 
efforts at resistance. Here and there throughout the country 
attempts were made to establish local governments. A pro- 
visional Siberian government was proclaimed on July 10, 
1918, under the leadership of Lieutenant-General Horvath, 
and the whole of the Murman coast region seceded from 
Russia on July 7th. Turkestan was declared to be a republic 
on July 26th, and on August 7th the authorities at Archangel 
declared that they repudiated the Bolshevist government. 
All these movements were welcomed, and to a large extent 
aided by the Allies. But it was the Czecho-Slovak exodus 
which brought about allied military intervention. The 
Czechs are the inhabitants of Bohemia, Moravia and Austrian 

The Slovaks lived in the upper regions of Hungary but 
are of the same race and language as the Czechs. They had, 
for many years, been in a state of unrest, and after the war 
began many thousands had been captured by the Russians 

( 452 ) 

With the Americans in Siberia 


early in the war, or had surrendered because of their unwilling- 
ness to fight against men of Slavic blood had enlisted under 
the Russian colors. 

When the Russian armies collapsed the Czecho-Slovaks 
marched off toward Vladivostok hoping to go from thence 
to France or Italy and fight again on the allied side. The 
Bolsehvist troops were sent to disarm them. In the fighting 
that ensued the Czecho-Slovaks were victorious, and seized 
upon a large section of the Trans-Siberia railroad. The allied 

Germ.vnt's Strategic R.'Vilwats. 
This map of the railways connecting France and Belgium with Russia and Aust,.^ 
shows how the Germans v.ere able to transfer troops east or west as pressure of the AlHes 


nations sympathized strongly with the Czecho-Slovaks, and 
a joint expedition was dispatched to Siberia and Russia to 
co-operate with them. To technically justify this act the 
Czecho-Slovaks were recognized as a belligerent nation. 
There had been much difference of opinion as to the advisa- 
bility of intervention in Russia. America in particular had 
feared that such action would be resented by the Russian 
people, and she also was determined that no action of hers 
should be taken which might ultimately lead to the re-estab- 
lishment of the Russian autocracy. But the Czecho-Slovak 

454 America's Part in the World War 

resistance swept away all doubt. On August 3d the United 
States and Japan issued proclamations disclaiming any 
desire of territorial aggrandizement, or any intention of dic- 
tating a form of government for Russia, but declaring it to 
be their purpose to protest their supplies, and to assist the 
Czecho-Slovaks as well as any Russian efforts at self-govern- 
ment which would accept their assistance. 

On August 7th it was announced that Major-General 
William S. Graves would command the American Expedition- 
ary Force which would number about seven thousand men, 
including the 27th and 3 1st Regiments of Regular Infantry, 
which were then in the 1 Philippines. Prior to this, however, 
the American forces had intervened in the north. On July 
15th an allied force in which there was a detachment of 
American marines had landed at Murmansk, an arctic port 
northeast of Petrograd, under the command of Rear-Admiral 
Kemp, of the British Navy. The whole Murmansk coast was 
declared to be Russian territory under allied protection. On 
August 4th another detachment landed at Archangel . 

The American forces in Russia faithfully conformed to 
the announced policy of the American Government. They 
took part in aggressive campaigns, they protected railroads, 
fed the people, and assisted the Czecho-SloVaks and the 
native population in their struggle against the Bolsheviki. 
This was not done without many skirmishes, but the losses 
of American troops were slight. The primary object of the 
occupation of Murmansk and Archangel was to keep the 
large stores of American munitions and supplies at Kola, 
which had been purchased during the rule of the Czar, but 
never paid for, from falling into hostile hands. When the 
allied troops landed the Americans were greeted with enthu- 
siasm by the people of northern Russia. The various anti- 
Bolshevist elements were organized into a provisional govern- 
ment of the country of the north. Ambassador Francis and 
other diplomatic representatives of the allied powers at once 
established themselves at Archangel, and the American Red 
Cross sent in large supplies of foodstuffs and other necessities. 
Throughout the year war was carried on with more or less 
vigor against the Bolshevist forces. 

With the Americans in Siberia 455 

In the spring of 1919 there were at Archangel 13,100 
British troops, 4,830 American, 21,349 French, 1,340 Itahans, 
1,280 Serbians and 11,770 Russians. In Siberia there were 
55,000 Czecho-Slovaks, 12,000 Poles, 4,000 Serbians, 4,000 
Armenians, 2,000 Itahans, 1,600 British, 760 French, 28,000 
Japanese, 4,000 Canadians and 7,500 Americans. The 
Russian forces added to these made an army of about 210,000 
men. The loyal Russians in Siberia were united under the 
government of Admiral Kolchak, and were holding possession 
of nearly all Siberia. 


One of the most awful features of the great war was the 
tragedy of Russia, and yet that tragedy with its boundless 
suffering and its Red Terror began as a comparatively peaceful 
revolution. It was not the Bolshevists that overthrew the 
Czar. They were a small minority. Their leaders were in 
hiding or in exile. The revolution itself was brought about 
through the action of Moderates, and for some time was 
controlled by representatives of the people in the Russian 
Duma. It was the result of long agitation. The Russian 
Czars, in recent years, at least, had been well-meaning men, 
but they had surrounded themselves by a corrupt bureau- 
cracy, which had antagonized the liberal parties of Russia 
and had been administering the government autocratically 
and corruptly. Disaffection had shown itself long before the 
war, but had been put down with a ruthless hand. 

The war itself was immensely popular. The Russian 
naturally sympathized with Serbia, a Slavonic sister state, 
and he was willing to support the policy of the old regime in 
their long-continued attempt to capture Constantinople. 

All parties joined in the support of the Russian armies, 
but as the war went on the feeling of discontent with the 
Russian Government grew greater and greater. The Russian 
people were suffering horribly. They were losing millions of 
men in what appeared to be fruitless battle. Food had become 
scarce, and the cost of living was growing day by day. More- 
over, the Russian bureaucracy was filled with men who 
were German by birth or by descent, and the Russian patriot 

456 America's Part in the World War 

thought that he was fighting not only the German armies 
but treachery at home. 

Much of this feehng was, no doubt, unjustified. In times 
of stress the world is filled with unfounded rumors, which are 
readily believed. But the Czar made little effort to free 
himself from suspicion. He employed in office ministers 
who were unpopular and suspected of being German tools. 
In 1915 Sukhomlinov and Maklakhof were driven from power 
by the influence of the army and the Duma. In 1916 Stuermer, 
a German by descent, became Prime Minister, and Proto- 
popov became Minister of the Interior. Protopopov was a 
tool of the notorious Rasputin, and deeply under suspicion. 
On November 14, 1916, the opposition to ministerial incompe- 
tents showed itself in the Duma when Miliukov, the leader of 
the Constitutional democrats, made a fierce attack upon the 
Prime Minister and compelled him to resign. His successor, 
Trepov, was forced to retain Protopopov in the ministry. 
A little later came the first move in the Russian Revolution, 
the assassination of Rasputin, who posed as a sort of a saint 
and miracle worker. He became the friend of men of import- 
ance, and it was rumored that he had an extraordinary 
influence upon the Czarina. The public believed him to be 
the evil spirit of the Imperial Circle and to be responsible for 
the appointment to office of Protopopov and other men 
suspected of being under German influence. On the 29th 
of December he was invited to dine with Prince Yusapov, a 
young gentleman of wealth and position. Upon entering 
Prince Yusapov's house, he found there the Grand Duke 
Dmitri Pavlovitch and M. Purishkevitch, a member of the 
Duma. After a short altercation he was shot and his body 
taken to the Neva River whei-e, weighted with stones, it was 
dropped into the water through a hole in the ice. 

After the death of Rasputin there was a period of calm. 
Endeavors were made by Protopopov to encourage disturb- 
ance, so that he might strengthen himself by its forceful 
repression. But these endeavors were fruitless. The people 
remained calm, but they Vv^ere hungry. The Czar was on the 
battlefield. The Russian armies were now in better shape 
than they had been for many months. He was absorbed in 

With the Amerieans in Siberia 457 

the war, and paid little attention to warnings that he received 
of the dissatisfaction of the people behind the hnes. But the 
food problem became more and more diflficult, and, as usual 
under such conditions, wild rumors spread of profiteering and 
of hoarding. On March 8, 1917, several bakershops were 
looted. The next day the streets were crowded and Cossacks 
rode here and there fraternizing with the people. Street 
speakers began to appear denouncing the government. The 
police could not repress disorder. On March 11th the streets 
were cleared and guarded by police and soldiers. Rioting 
began and more than two hundred of the rioters were killed. 

One regiment on being ordered to fire on the mob muti- 
nied, and Rodzianko, president of the Duma, warned the 
Czar that anarchy was reigning in the capitol and demanded 
that a new government be formed. The Prime Minister, 
who at this time was Prince Golitzin, prorogued the Duma, 
declaring it to be the center of disaffection, but the Duma 
refused to be dissolved and declared itself the sole constitu- 
tional authority of Russia. 

On March 12th the city was seized by a mob. The police 
were hunted through the streets, fighting desperately, and the 
prisoners were released from the jails. The Duma kept in 
constant session. Message after message was sent to the 
Czar urging him to come to the capitol, but he did not come. 
The Duma appointed an executive committee to form a 
provisional government. It contained such names as Rodzi- 
anko, Lvov, Miliukov and Kerensky. The workmen and 
soldiers also formed a committee, thus beginning the Soviet 
organization, afterwards to become so notorious. The Duma 
committee was composed of men of modern political views. 
The Soviet committee w^as full of extremists. On March 
13th it became evident that the army would accept the 
authority of the provisional government, and on Wednesday, 
the 14th of March, the revolution was over. 

The provisional government and the Soviet of Petrograd 
at first worked in harmony. They issued proclamation after 
proclamation. Many of these were sensible, but one of them 
ultimately turned over the control of the nation into the 
hands of the Bolshevists. This was a proclamation to the 

458 America's Part in the World War 

army directing that "the orders of the War Committee must 
be obeyed, saving only on those occasions when they shall 
contravene the orders and regulations of the labor deputies 
and military delegates." It also abolished the necessity for 
private soldiers to salute their officers, and thus destroyed 
military authority and enabled the Bolshevists to control 
the army. Meanwhile, the Czar had set out for Petrograd, 
but had been stopped at the Bologoi station where workmen 
had pulled up the track, and had returned to Pskov. He then 
attempted to make terms with the Duma, but it was too late. 
He was compelled to abdicate, and on March 15th issued a 
proclamation handing over the throne to his brother, the 
Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch. A new ministry was 
then formed with Prince George Lvov as Prime Minister, 
Miliukov as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Kerensky as 
Minister of Justice. The announcement that Grand Duke 
Michael would succeed the Czar was not acceptable to the 
Petrograd mob. He was compelled to decline the appoint- 
ment, and, on Friday, March 16th, handed overall power to 
the provisional government. 

The provisional government was controlled by the Mod- 
erates, who made up the majority of the Duma. The Petro- 
grad Soviet was composed of extremists. Their creed was 
socialism. There were three groups of socialists in Russia, 
the first was the Social Revolutionists, of whom Kerensky 
was the leader. They believed in the socialist state but did 
not preach class war or internationalism. They were patriotic 
in their desire to carry on the war. The second group were 
the Bolsheviki. The word means majority. They were 
followers of Karl Marx. They cared nothing for national 
life, recognized no political boundaries and were eager for 
peace on any terms. The only war in which they were 
interested was the war of the proletariat against the bour- 
geoisie. At first they were but a small minority, but they 
were able to attract to their standard the mass of the people 
by promising the nation peace, and by promising the peasants 
land. They included among their numbers the densely 
ignorant and the criminal classes, who, long repressed by law, 
now saw their opportunity to revenge themselves upon the 

With the Americans in Siberia 459 

supporters of the law. Their leaders, however, were fanatical 
SociaUsts, anxious to experiment in Russia with their theories 
of proletariat rule. The main leaders of this group were 
Vladimir II j etch Uljanov, known throughout the world under 
the name of Nicholas Lenine, and Leon Trotsky, whose real 
name was Leber Braunstein. 

Lenine was of good family and educated at the Petrograd 
University. He was a man of ability and had written several 
books on the economic phases of Russian life. Before the 
war he had been driven from Russia because of his socialistic 
activities, and was living in Switzerland at the time of the 
revolution. By permission of the German Government he 
at once returned to Russia and assumed the leading position 
among the Bolsheviki. Trotsky three months before the 
revolution was living in New York City, and was a Jew, 
born in the Russian government of Kherson near the Black 
Sea. He, too, had at once returned to Russia and become a 
Bolshevist leader. 

The third group of Russian Socialists were the Menshe- 
viki, the minority. They were socialists but believed in 
using existing forms of government to carry out social reform. 

During the period in which the provisional government 
was on the throne, the Czar and his family were treated with 
respect. They lived quietly in the Alexandrovsky Palace in 
Tsarskoe-Selo. The Czar amused himself by shoveling snow 
in the Palace Garden, and the Czarina nursed her children 
who were very ill with measles. The Bolsheviki, later on, 
transferred them first to Tobolsk and then to Yekaterinberg, 
where, on July 16th, they were murdered by the Ural Regional 
Council. The overthrow of the Czar, on the whole, was not 
regretted by the Allies, but his murder produced a wave of 
indignation. He was personally of amiable character, patri- 
otic and loyal to the Allies, but it was believed that he was 
surrounded by traitors, who were constantly interfering with 
the conduct of the war. 

The Allies hoped to find the war conducted with greater 
vigor on the Russian front, and America, which shortly after 
entered the war, was pleased to find that in her contest for 
democracy she did not have to count among her Allies the 

460 America's Part in the World War 

Russian autocrat. At first the provisional government 
appeared to be a great success. The great army generals 
accepted the revolution; the grand dukes, indeed, were retired, 
but splendid soldiers took charge of the Russian Army. Alexiev 
became commander-in-chief; Ruzsky commanded the north- 
ern army; Brusilov, the southern; Kornilov was in command 
of Petrograd, and Lechitsky commanded the center. The 
provisional government attempted to continue the war, and 
Kerensky, a new political figure, in inspiring speeches was 
stirring the country to new efforts. Many liberal measures 
were passed, which naturally led to public good-feeling. Polit- 
ical prisoners were released, Poland promised its indepen- 
dence, the Finnish constitution restored, and the absolute 
political equality of the Jews proclaimed. 

The outlook seemed full of promise, but clouds soon 
appeared on the horizon. The Bolshevists were not satisfied, 
and were conducting a persistent propaganda in favor of 
immediate peace. At first the Soviet supported the govern- 
ment, and Kerensky, who became more and more the leading 
personality in Russia, took the post of Minister of War amid 
popular acclaim. But Miliukov and those who, like him, 
favored a republic, were compelled to retire. It was about 
this time that special missions were sent to Russia by the 
Allies to encourage the government in its new policies. Among 
these was the American mission to Russia headed bv Elihu 
Root, former Secretary of State. Mr. Root conducted himself 
with great tact and good sense, and his mission on the surface 
was extremely successful. But the Bolsheviki, at that time 
in the backgTound, believed him to be a representative of 
American wealth, and were little affected by his inspiring 

Meanwhile, the war went on. At first the Russian Army 
m,et with great success, but later the want of discipline brought 
about by Soviet influences made itself felt. Regiments 
refused to fight or to obey their oflScers. 

While the Russian armies were thus defeating themselves, 
one regiment made itself conspicuous by its loyalty and 
discipline. This was the woman's regiment, known as the 
"Command of Death." This regiment was commanded by 

With the Americans in Siberia 461 

a girl, Lieutenant Britchkarev. It was composed of girls 
mostly between eighteen and twenty-five years old, many of 
them pretty. They were dressed in the ordinary soldier's 
khaki blouse, short breeches, green forage cap, ordinary 
woman's black stockings and neat shoes. They wore their 
hair short or had their heads entirely shaved. This battalion 
had been carefully drilled by a male sergeant of the Volinsky 
regiment. It fought with great bravery setting an example 
of courage to the mutinous regiments. 

The defeat of the Russian armies led to riot and anarchy 
throughout the country. But Kerensky retained the con- 
fidence of the people. He was made dictator, and organized 
a government which acted with great vigor. Ringing addresses 
were issued to the army denouncing its mutinous spirit, but 
the army could not be rallied, and a general retreat followed. 
Kerensky, who earlier had been responsible for the abolition 
of the death penalty, now insisted that it be restored in the 

An extraordinary council met at Moscow August 26, 
1917. This conference consisted of twenty-five hundred 
delegates, representing the Duma, the Soviets and all organ- 
ized Russia. Both Kerensky and General Kornilov, who had 
been made commander-in-chief of the army, made important 
addresses. Kornilov, in particular, insisted upon the necessity 
of regenerating the army. General Kaledines, leader of the 
Don Cossacks, read a resolution passed by the Cossacks 
demanding a continuation of the war. But the conference 
took no definite action, and immediately after its adjournment 
Riga, the most important Russian Baltic port, was captured 
by the Germans. 

This led to a political crisis, and to a split between General 
Kornilov and Premier Kerensky. The exact nature of this 
difference is still in dispute. Kornilov, it was reported, 
demanded a surrender of all power into his own hands. 
Kerensky denounced him as a traitor, and he raised the 
standard of rebellion. Kerensky assumed the functions of 
commander-in-chief, and took military measures to resist 
the rebels. The revolt collapsed. Kornilov was arrested 
and the provisional government appeared to be stronger thaii 

462 America's Part in the World War 

ever. A statement made on September 24, 1917, by General 
Alexiev, whose patriotism and honor are proverbial throughout 
Russia, throws a peculiar light upon these incidents. He says: 

"It is now proved by documents that Kerensky and 
Kornilov had come to an agreement to stifle by force the 
maximalist menace, and to establish a dictatorship. With 
this object in view, Kornilov, in perfect accord with Kerensky, 
had begun to assemble trustworthy troops around the capitol. 
I do not know what were the motives that caused Kerensky, 
while this coup was in progress, to abandon Kornilov and to 
throw in his lot with the Petrograd council of workmen and 
soldiers. Consequently, Kornilov is neither a reactionary nor 
a traitor. He acted in accord with the provisional government 
for the purpose of increasing its strength." 

In thus breaking with Kornilov Kerensky had lost not 
only the strong support of that great soldier but the confidence 
of many of the strongest forces that were keeping him in 
power. The agitation against his government continued, and 
on November 7th an armed insurrection, led by Leon Trotsky 
and Nicholas Lenine, took possession of Petrograd. There 
was little resistance except that by the woman's battalion 
and the military cadets. Kerensky escaped from Petrograd 
and organized an army of Cossacks and military cadets, 
with which he advanced toward Petrograd, but his troops 
met with defeat and Kerensky was forced to flee. For months 
he was in hiding, but finally turned up in England, safe, 
indeed, but much discredited. 

Kerensky was a patriot and an honest man. He appears 
to have had an extraordinary power of oratory. Again and 
again he saved the provisional government from the attacks 
of anarchy. But he made two great mistakes, first, in weaken- 
ing army discipline, a mistake which he himself found out 
too late; and, second, in deserting Kornilov, who had been 
one of the main sources of his strength. 

On the assumption of power by the Bolshevists, a new 
cabinet was named. Its Premier was Nicholas Lenine, its 
Foreign Minister, Leon Trotsky. It at once opened negotia- 
tions with the Central Powers for an armistice, and on Decem- 
ber 17th such an armistice went into effect, Russia was in a 

With the Americans in Siberia 463 

turmoil, but the Bolshevist Government held strongly to its 
position. Negotiations for peace were instituted. Meanwhile, 
numerous edicts of a revolutionary character were issued by 
the new government. Titles, distinctions and privileges were 
abolished, the corporate property of nobles, merchants and 
burgesses was to be handed over to the state, as well as all 
church property, lands, money and precious stones. Religious 
instruction was to cease in the schools. All loans and treasury 
bonds held by foreign subjects were repudiated. Kornilov 
and the associates of Kerensky were imprisoned, and the 
houses of the leaders of the Cadet party were raided. The 
secret treaties made between Russia and foreign governments 
were made public. Strilces were in progress everywhere, and 
disorder rampant. 

Negotiations for peace went on and continued amidst 
acrimonious debate at Brest-Litovsk. The Russians found 
that their hopes for "no annexations, no indemnities" could 
not be fulfilled. Resistance on their part was met only by 
threats. On January 27th, Trotsky reported conditions to 
the Soviets at Petrograd. He declared that the government 
of the Soviets would not sign a treaty such as was insisted 
upon by Germany. It was then decided to demobilize the 
Russian Army and yield to the German demands without 
signing a treaty. The German forces at once began a new 
invasion in Russia, upon which the Bolshevist Government 
announced that peace terms had been accepted. The treaty 
was signed at Brest-Litovsk on March 3, 1918. On March 
14th the Russian Council of Soviets voted to ratify the treaty. 
Trotsky still resisted, but was overruled. The following is 
the substance of what Russia lost by the treaty of Brest- 
Litovsk : 

Inhabitants 56,000,000 

(About one-third total European Russia) 

Territory 300,000 square miles 

(About one-sixth total European area) 

Railways 13,000 miles 

(About one-third total mileage) 

Coal < 89 per cent 

Iron 73 " 

Machinery 1,073 factories 

464 America's Part in the World War 

Textiles ^18 factories 

Paper 615 '^^ 

Chemicals 244 

Tobacco 1^^ 

Spirits 1,685 distilleries 

Beer 574 breweries 

giigar • 268 refineries 

This treaty was not recognized by the allied nations, nor 
did it lead to peace on the Russian frontier. Germany was 
still compelled to keep large bodies of troops in the east to 
hold the new territory, but formally the war between Russia 
and Germany was at an end. 

The Bolsheviki government was now able to turn its 
attention to Russia. Lenine's government proceeded to 
work out an elaborate scheme of state control over national 
production and distribution as a preliminary step toward the 
complete socialization of the country's industry and commerce. 
It issued a degree abolishing private ownership of land. 
All the forests, mines, waters, and landed estates, with their 
livestocks, buildings and machinery were declared the common 
property of the people. All newspapers were seized by the 
government. Trotsky explained that the abstract legal 
notion of the freedom of the press is meaningless in the social 
republic of Soviets; that a free press is a press serving the 
interests of the people, that is, the workmen and peasants. 
All national loans issued under the imperial and bourgeois 
regime were definitely repudiated. The banking system was 
nationalized and the authorities empowered to transfer to 
the state bank all funds contained in the strong boxes of the 
private banks, and to confiscate all gold coin and bullion. 
A Red Army was organized, which was to consist of the most 
revolutionary elements of the working classes. The courts 
were replaced by revolutionary tribunals, generally composed 
of men and women without special knowledge of the law. 
A scheme to control production was the so-called Soviets 
of Workmen's Control, which undertook to regulate the 
economic life of industrial plants, the control in each enter- 
prise being given to elective bodies of the workmen. The 
Institute of Social Soviets of National Economy was created. 

U. S. Official Photograph. 


A familiar sight in the quiet sectors of the battle line was this \-iew of an American soldier 

assiscing French women in the fields. 

U. S. Official Photograph. 

French peasants released from German bondage are expressing the thanks of a grateful people. 






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With the Americans in Siberia 467 

"for the purpose of organizing and regulating the economic 
life of each industrial section in accordance with the national 
and local interests." Land committees were appointed to 
put into effect the decree nationalizing land, and compulsory 
insurance was carried out by the Institute of Insurance 

These and other numerous acts brought about constant 
disorder and suffering. Food conditions became terrible, 
and the nationalization of industries led to industrial chaos. 
The Red Terror became a fact. Wholesale murder of innocent 
civilians, seizure without legal process of all property, absolute 
suppression of free speech and free press, became the daily 
story of Russian life. 


Alien Property Seized 

AN Important phase of the operation of the government 
A\ during the war was the treatment of ahen enemies 
residing in this country. In 1917 two acts of Congress 
were passed deaUng with this question. One known as the 
Espionage Act, approved June 15th, and the other the Trading 
with the Enemy Act, approved October 6th. Each of these 
acts covers a variety of subjects. The Trading with the 
Enemy Act, in deaUng with subjects of Germany who are 
residents of the United States, authorized the appointment 
of an Ahen Property Custodian, for the custody and control 
of enemy property within the United States, and on October 
22d, A. Mitchell Palmer was appointed to the office, which he 
filled until March 5, 1919, when he became Attorney-General 
of the United States, and was succeeded by Francis P. Garvan, 
of the New York Bar, who had been his main assistant. 

Mr. Palmer had been a member of Congress from the 
Twenty-sixth District of Pennsylvania for several years and 
had become a Democratic leader in Congress and in Penn- 
sylvania. By common report, a report not denied, he had 
been offered the position of Secretary of War in President 
Wilson's first cabinet, but had refused the position because of 
his Quaker origin and associations. Yet Mr. Palmer had 
shown in politics that he had plenty of good fighting blood, 
and he emphasized this characteristic as Alien Property 

It has now become plain that long before the beginning 
of the great war Germany had been laying the foundation for 
the industrial conquest of America. Her powerful financial 
interests had invaded this country, and had acquired an 
immense degree of power and influence in the business affairs 
of America. The German Government was undoubtedly of 
the opinion that the German power in America would be 

( 468 ) 

Alien Property Seized 469 

easily able to keep America out of the war, or if we should go 
in to paralyze our efforts. It is not alone that thousands of 
German citizens in the natural course of business had invested 
their earnings in American corporations or other enterprises, 
it was also discovered that an immense amount of capital 
was invested in America by interests closely associated with 
the German political and military powers. Such investors 
were already controlling many of the greatest industrial and 
commercial enterprises. These investors were aided by the 
German Government, and were hostile to the United States. 
They were secret allies of the German Government. 

Years before the war the Germans had been coming to 
America and settling and becoming citizens of the new 
country. Yet by German law, they still retained their Ger- 
man citizenship. They held fast to their German language, 
they established German schools and newspapers and organ- 
ized themselves into great German societies which kept con- 
stantly in touch with the Fatherland. They were good citi- 
zens, peaceful, industrious and educated, yet they did not 
assimilate readily with their fellow American citizens. Their 
love for the old country was kept alive by deliberate German 

They sympathized with Germany, and expressed their 
sympathy with great frankness. When America entered into 
the war such Germans and their children, born perhaps in 
America but German at heart, were in a most difficult posi- 
tion, and it is much to their credit that a very great majority 
of them preferred to stand by the country that they had 
adopted rather than the country of their birth. But a mi- 
nority, strong in intelligence and wealth, became active 
enemies. It was with this class of men that the Alien Property 
Custodian had mainly to deal. 

When Mr. Palmer began his duties he found that the 
act creating his office gave him very limited power, and he 
describes himself as at first being m.erely a *' benevolent con- 
servator of the property of our enemies." He was only to 
act as a sort of guardian of the interests of others who could 
not look after their own property. He at once went before 
Congress to obtain greater power, and after some delay 

470 America's Part in the World War 

obtained the adoption of three amendments to the Trading 
with the Enemy Act — first, the power to dispose of enemy 
property which might come into his possession; second, the 
power to seize and dispose of patents owned by Germans which 
were being protected by the American Government; and third, 
the power of requiring a corporation, a portion of whose stock 
was owned by enemies to issue new certificates in the name of 
the AHen Property Custodian for shares held in enemy terri- 
tory. Each of these amendments was highly necessary, and 
it was not until they had passed that the Alien Property 
Custodian was able to turn over into American hands the 
important industries owned by the Germans. 

On February 5, 1919, 35,400 reports of enemy property 
had been filed in the office of the Alien Property Custodian. 
For each verified case a separate trust was created. The 
number of those trusts when Mr. Palmer became Attorney- 
General was 32,296 with an aggregate book value of $502,945,- 
724. Nine thousand other cases had not at that date reached 
the stage of valuation. This, of course, was only a small 
part of the German investment in this country. During the 
winter before America entered the war German investors, 
foreseeing the certainty of war, dumped on America millions of 
dollars' worth of securities, which were thus, of course, owned 
by American citizens, when America entered the war. 

The German property seized by the Alien Property 
Custodian is more than suflScient to repay American citizens 
for their losses by German submarines, before the war began, 
and will probably be used for that purpose. A great majority 
of the 32,000 trust estates were simply held by the Alien 
Property Custodian as being private investments of individual 
Germans with no connection with the political powers of 
Germany, and such trust estates may easily be restored to the 
individual owners if that policy is thought wise. But these 
were in most cases comparatively small investments. 

Big corporations which were German controlled were 
not only using their power against America, but in some 
cases turned out to be centers of German propaganda or 
even for German spies. An illustration of this was found in 
the Bayer Company owned by great German chemical inter- 

Alien Property Seized 471 

ests. This corporation endeavored to continue business 
under the camouflage of American ownership and finally, 
when Mr. Palmer was able to obtain control, he discovered, 
in the first place, more than a million dollars of concealed 
government taxes, and in the second place, government agents 
found in the cellar of the company's warehouse twenty-three 
trunks containing letters and documents from private files 
of Bernstorff, Dernberg and other leaders of the German 
spy system in America. 

Another interesting German company was the Orenstein- 
x\rthur Koppel Company which manufactured certain railroad 
supplies and machinery used in large industrial plants. At 
the beginning of the World War this company contracted to 
supply these railway supplies to Russia. This was contrary 
to German law, but in a communication sent to the German 
Embassy at Washington they expressed the hope that they 
would be pardoned, as they really had rendered a great 
service to the Fatherland by making the contract and failing 
to deliver the goods. This same company, as well as eighteen 
branches of German insurance companies in this country, 
obtained ostensibly for their own use floor plans and specifi- 
cations of the various industrial plants with which they did 
business, and the fact that in many of these plants explosions 
later on occurred at vulnerable points, seemed to government 
agents an extraordinary coincidence. 

Another interesting bit of information was brought to 
light by the Alien Property Custodian in connection with the 
harbor of St. Thomas. Germany for a long time had pre- 
vented Denmark from selling these islands to America. In 
January, 1917, the United States purchased the islands. 
When the Alien Property Custodians seized the Hamburg- 
American line he investigated the ownership of the great 
terminal of that line at St. Thomas. He found that the 
plant was fitted up as a naval base, that the principal building 
commanding the harbor was of reinforced concrete, that the 
plaza in front of it had an eight-foot foundation of concrete 
such as is used for gun emplacements. It would have been eas- 
ily possible for a ship of the Hamburg-American line, in which 
the Kaiser was a stockholder, to have unloaded long-range 

472 America's Part in the World War 

guns from its hold and made the port a fortification of tre- 
mendous strength. The owner of the property was a Danish 
lawyer, by name Jorgensen, who claimed to have purchased 
it from the agent of the Hamburg-American, five days after 
the United States had purchased the islands, for $210,000, 
for which he had given his note, a note payable in three 
months without interest, with the provision that it should be 
renewed every three months until after the war. The Ham- 
burg-American agent, who had been the German Consul to 
St. Thomas, was still in charge. The Germans were caught 
in their own trap. Jorgensen was forced to transfer his title 
to the Alien Property Custodian and the property was sold 
to the Government of the United States for the nominal sum 
which the Hamburg-American line itself had fixed as its price 
in the sale to Jorgensen. 

This company's ofiice in New York was a meeting place 
for all German agents in America before America entered the 
war. After the seizure of this property and the transfer of 
its ownership to the United States Government Herr Ballin, 
the head of the Hamburg-American line, seeing his dream of 
world-wide commercial empire dissolved, committed suicide. 

One of the most important weapons employed by the 
Alien Property Custodian was the seizure of German-owned 
patents, especially of those connected with the dye-stuff 
industry. German chemists had a practical monopoly of dye- 
stuff and chemical business in American markets on account 
of their patents of processes and products. This industry 
was almost a German state institution. Some 4,500 German 
patents were seized by the Alien Property Custodian and a 
corporation was formed known as the Chemical Foundation, 
with a capital stock of $400,000 and a common stock of 
$100,000 to acquire these patents. Under this company the 
use of the processes and products covered by the patents was 
granted to the entire chemical industry, and thus an important 
impulse has been given to the upbuilding of industrial 
chemistry in America. 

This is but one of the great American industries which 
has been freed from German control as a result of the war. 


Paving the Way for an Armistice 

GERMANY overwhelmed on land by the forces of the 
Allies, and with its submarine menace checked in 
every sea, was now on the point of unconditional sur- 
render. Ludendorff and Von Hindenburg saw in the ava- 
lanche of khaki that was breaking through the Argonne the 
destruction of the great German Army. Orderly retreat on 
the western front was daily becoming more difficult. The 
air forces of the Allies due to America's immense production 
of Liberty motors and the advance host of American battle- 
planes and aviators were almost ready to make the long 
heralded dash into the heart of Germany. Mountains of gas 
shells and munitions of many varieties were waiting in America 
or had already been transported to France. A military defeat 
had been suffered by Germany on the western front. It was 
approaching the proportions of an ignominious rout. Back 
of that defeat loomed a disaster greater than any that had 
befallen any great army in the history of the world. The time 
had come for peace at any price. 

Germany paved the way for its peace overtures by dis- 
missing Count Von Hertling as chancellor of the Empire and 
by raising to the chancellorship Prince Maximilian of Baden 
on September 30th. 

Maximilian was not a militarist in the sense that Von 
Bethmann HoUweg and Von Hertling had been. He was 
rated as a moderate at home and abroad. The Entente 
Allies and the Germans recognized that proposals of peace 
were about to be made through official channels. 

Previous to this the Austro-Hungarian Government on 
September 15th addressed a note to all belligerents and 
neutral powers and to the Vatican asking for a peace con- 
ference. This overture was made at the direct suggestion of 
Germany. It was a cunning plan involving a conference 


474 America's Part in the World War 

without actual cessation of war activities. Germany's idea 
was that hostihties would be half-hearted during the peace 
discussion, and that the death-grip of Foch upon the German 
Army would be released. America's reply was an emphatic 

The Government of the United States feels that there is only one reply 
which it can make to the suggestion of the Imperial Austro-Hungarian 
Government. It has repeatedly and with entire candor stated the terms 
upon which the United States would consider peace and can and will 
entertain no proposal for a conference upon a matter concerning which it 
has made its position and purpose so plain. 

The pressure of America and its co-belligerents along the 
entire western front continued. German morale at home 
and in the field was breaking fast. 

Prince Maximilian realized that the end had come, and 
he set to work to avert the disaster that threatened the 
German armies by an abject appeal to President Wilson to 
end the war on his own terms. 

For his purpose Prince Max selected the President's 
famous "fourteen points of peace" and his Liberty Loan 
speech of September 27th as the basis of negotiations. 

It was on Tuesday, January 8, 1918, that the President 
of the United States enunciated his fourteen points of peace 
before both' Houses of Congress in joint session. The fourteen 
principles were: 

First. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there 
shall be no private international understanding of any kind, but diplomacy 
shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. 

Second. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside terri- 
torial waters, aUke in peace and war, except as the seas may be closed in 
whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international 

Third. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and 
the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations 
consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. 

Fourth. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national arma- 
ments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. 

Fifth. A free, open-minded and absolutely impartial adjustment of 
all Colonial claims based upon a strict observance of the principle that in 
determining all such questions of sovereignty, the interests of the popula- 


Paving the Way for an Armistice 475 

tions concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the 
Government whose title is to be determined. 

Sixth. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement 
of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest co-opera- 
tion of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered 
and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of 
her own political development and national policy, and assure her of a 
sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her 
own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind 
that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia 
by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their 
good will, of their comprehension of her needs, as distinguished from their 
own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy. 

Seventh. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and 
restored, without any attempt to hmit the sovereignty which she enjoys 
in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as 
this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they 
have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations 
with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and 
validity of international law is forever impaired. 

Eighth. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions 
restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871, in the matter 
of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly 
fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made 
secure in the interests of all. 

Ninth. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected 
along clearly recognized lines of nationality. 

Tenth. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the 
nations we wish to see safeguarded and restored, should be accorded the 
freest opportunity of autonomous development. 

Eleventh. Roumania, Serbia and Montenegro should be evacuated, 
occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to 
the sea, and the relations of the several Balkan States to one another 
determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of 
allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political 
and economic independence and territorial integrity, of the several Balkan 
States, should be entered into. 

Twelfth. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should 
be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now 
under Turkish rule, should be assured an undoubted security of life and 
an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and 
the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the 
ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees. 

Thirteenth. An independent Polish State should be erected which 
should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, 
which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose 


476 America's Part in the World War 

political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be 
guaranteed by international covenants. 

Fourteenth. General association of nations must be formed under 
specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political 
independence and territorial integrity to great and small States alike. 

In his Liberty Loan address of September 27th President 
Wilson said: 

First. The impartial justice meted out must involve no discrimination 
between those to whom we wish to be just and those to whom we do not 
wish to be just. It must be a justice that plays no favorites and knows no 
standard but the equal rights of the several peoples concerned; 

Second. No special or separate interest of any single nation or any 
group of nations can be made the basis of any part of the settlement 
which is not consistent with the common interests of all; 

Third. There can be no leagues or alliances or special covenants and 
understandings with the general and common family of the League of 

Fourth. And more specifically, there can be no special, selfish eco- 
nomic combinations within the league and no employment of any form of 
economic boycott or exclusion except as the power of economic penalty 
by exclusion from the markets of the world may be vested in the League of 
Nations itself as a means of discipline and control; 

Fifth. All international agreements and treaties of every kind must 
be made known, in their entirety to the rest of the world. 


Victory in Sight 

THE campaign of the American 1st Army in France may 
be said to have had three phases. The first, which 
began on September 26th was the drive north through 
the country east of the Argonne forest. The second phase 
carried the 1st Army through the Argonne, smashed the 
Kriemhilde line and captured Grand Pre. The third phase 
began on November 1st, when General Liggett's army marched 
up through the country west of the Meuse, liberating hundreds 
of French villages and capturing thousands of prisoners until 
its final entry into historic Sedan. 

In its last drive the object of the American Army was two- 
fold: first, to cut the railroad in the neighborhood of Sedan; 
secondly, to clear the country east of the Meuse, in the direc- 
tion of Longwy, and so to threaten the Briey Basin, from 
whose iron fields Germany had obtained the supplies which 
had enabled her to prolong the war. The drive north for the 
railroad began on November 1st. It was a new experience 
for the American troops. German resistance had disappeared. 
The American advance began at 5.30 in the morning, when the 
77th, 80th, 2d, 89th, 90th and 5th Divisions marched forward. 

The Germans retreated rapidly, fighting only rear-guard 
actions, and by November 7th the Americans entered the 
city of Sedan after liberating a hundred French villages, and 
cutting the main German system of communication. As 
the American troops on the west bank of the Meuse pushed 
their way to the north they found themselves exposed to 
artillery and machine-gun fire from the heights on the east 
bank. Operations east of the Meuse had, indeed, begun before 
November 1st under the direction of the 17th French Corps, 
which had under it the 2d Colonial French Corps and a 
number of American divisions. The 29th and the 33d Divi- 
sions, under command of General Coudal, were assigned to this 

( 477 ) 

478 America's Part in the World War 

duty. The Germans were in great force because of their 
desire to protect the Briey Basin. 

The attack began the morning of October 8th. There 
was great diflSculty in crossing the Meuse, and when this was 
accomplished the allied forces were subjected to terrific fire 
from the German artillery on Etrayes Ridge. The 26th 
Division was then sent to their aid, and though for several 
days these troops suffered great loss they managed at last to 
push their way forward. By October 23d they had stormed 
the Etrayes Ridge, and four days later the Bois de Belleau 
was cleared after a stubborn defense. 

The American line then waited until their line west of 
the river had advanced. On November 5th, the American 
5th Division was sent over the Meuse from a line reaching from 
Brieulles to the neighborhood- of Montigny. This was a 
difficult undertaking, as the eastern bank of the Meuse was 
studded with machine guns. Two attempts were made. 
In the first attempt only two companies got across, one 
battalion crossing on rafts, duck boards with poles and ropes, 
and by swimming. These maintained their position and so 
enabled the rest of the division to cross the river. Two days 
later the 5th Division had stormed the northern bulwark 
of the banks of the Meuse, and with the aid of the divisions 
on its right, had driven the enemy through the plain of the 
Woevre. The American armies were in position to /attack the 
city of Metz, and advance into Lorraine. 

The advance of the American Army west of the Meuse 
was a much easier matter. Indeed, at many points the Ger- 
mans retreated with such speed that contact with the enemy 
was lost. At certain points, however, rear-guard actions 

were fought. 

The advance began at 5.30 o'clock in the morning of 
November 1st, and was preceded for two hours by intense 
artillery preparation, during which the Americans fired two 
hundred thousand gas shells. Then the American center 
shot ahead. The left was held up at the Bois-de-Loges. On 
the right along the Meuse there was heavy resistance in spite 
of which Clery-Le-Grande was occupied. 

On November 2d there was fighting at Buzancy and 

Victory in Sight 479 

Clery-le-Petit, which is near the Meuse river. For a part 
of the day the Americans followed the retreating Germans in 
trucks, but the difficulties of the roads prevented this from 
being an ordinary method of pursuit. On November 3d the 
Americans swept on taking Authe, Beauclair and Montigny. 
On November 4th the Germans made more of a stand, and 
there was fighting along the Meuse south of Stenay. On 
November 6th, the advance continued until it reached the 
southern outskirts of the city of Sedan. On November 7th 
bridges across the river at Sedan were built under heavy fire, 
and the Germans were driven out of Sedan. 

American operations after November 7th were mainly 
those advancing the line east of the Meuse. On November 
10th, the German 5th Army, which had been holding out 
strongly at Stenay, and preventing American progress north 
on the eastern side of the Meuse, and which was strongly 
protected by hundreds of machine-gun nests and terrific 
artillery barrages from the hills about it, was compelled to 
surrender to the American 1st Army. 

This was America's last important battle. On November 
11th came the end of the war. Just before eleven o'clock 
when the armistice went into effect, the Germans hurled a few 
parting shells into Verdun, and at exactly eleven, thousands of 
American heavy guns fired their last shot. At many batteries 
the artillerists joined hands forming a long line as the lanyard 
of the final shot. 

While the Americans were making this dash upon Sedan 
the allied forces upon all other fronts were advancing with 
almost equal ease. The French and British armies which had 
captured Cambrai and established themselves east of Le 
Gateau were marching northward. These were the 4th 
British Army under the command of General Rawlinson, 
who had on his right the French 1st Army, under General 
Debeney, and on his left the 30th and later the 27th Divisions 
of the American Army. These forces on October 20th pushed 
north of the Selle river, pressing forward on a twenty-five- 
mile front, which extended from a point northwest of Tournai 
to a point southwest of Valenciennes. By the 23d they had 
reached the suburbs of Valenciennes, which was captured by 

480 America's Part in the World War 

the Canadians on November M. The American Divisions 
had notably contributed to the success of this advance, occu- 
pying the Le Quesnoy-Valenciennes railway and taking over 
five thousand German prisoners. On November 4th the 
British 1st, 3d and 4th armies with the two American Divisions, 
made a further advance, carrying their front more than three 
miles east of the Oise-Sambre line. In this advance ten 
thousand prisoners were captured, and many towns liberated. 
Among these towns were Landrecies, and Le Quesnoy, which 
was taken by the New Zealanders after it had been surrounded 
and had refused to surrender. 

Day after day the advance gained impetus, until finally 
on November 11th the English cavalry and Canadian troops 
marched into the city of Mons, the very town in which the 
British had been stationed when the war began, and from 
which they had made their famous retreat. On the Oise- 
Aisne front General Mangin, with Debeney on his left and 
Berthelot and Gouraud on his right, were advancing with 
equal speed. After the occupation of Laon and La Fere, 
General Mangin's army pushed rapidly forward and soon 
caught up with Gouraud's advance from the south. On 
October 24th he crossed the Oise Canal at Longchamps, south- 
east of Le Cateau, relieving General Debeney's army, which 
had been slowed up by German resistance. On October 25th 
a further advance pierced the Hunding line. By the end of 
October, Debeney and Mangin had driven beyond the Oise, 
and were pushing the Germans back from the Scheldt to the 
Aisne. On November 8th the French armies reached the 
outskirts of Mezieres. On the 9th, they entered Hirson, and 
Maubeuge was occupied by Rawlinson's army. 

To the east of this advance General Gouraud was pushing 
forward simultaneously with the American drive to his right. 
He had been held up at Vouziers where his line fell south of 
the Aisne until Rethel was reached. The French made 
little advance until November 1st, being hampered by opera- 
tions to their left. On November 1st Gouraud's front swept 
across the Aisne, in spite of valiant resistance on the Alleux 
Plateau, and the Croix-aux-Bois defile. From that point 
Gouraud's Army continued its advance northward, without 

Victory in Sight 481 

serious German resistance, and by November 11th had occu- 
pied the whole country between the American forces and 
Mangin's army up to the Meuse. 

During this last week it was already practically certain 
that the German surrender was coming. Only weak rear- 
guards were opposing the allied advance. The Germans, 
however, were retreating in an orderly manner, and fighting 
desperately, whenever it was necessary to prevent the rolling 
up of their flanks or the rupture of their center. It was prob- 
ably the German idea to give the impression that they had 
saved their army, and would be still capable of resistance in 
case they could not procure satisfactory terms of peace. 

The movement of the Belgian-French Armies in the north, 
which has previously been described, had extended the line 
from Zeebrugge on the coast, southeast of Bruges, on Courtray, 
east of Lille, Douai, and Cambrai, and steadily continued in 
the direction of the River Scheldt, where the enemy were 
fortified. Here again the Germans made no stubborn 
resistance. By October 20th the coast of the Dutch frontier 
had been cleared, the Lys Canal toward Ghent had been 
crossed, and many bridges had been taken. Town after town 
which had been in possession of the Germans for four long 
years was liberated. The British 2d Army co-operated with 
the French. On October 31st it captured Audenarde, fourteen 
miles southwest of Ghent, while the Belgian armies were push- 
ing on further north until they were within five miles of Ghent. 

The last Belgian town to be liberated before the armistice 
was the city of Ghent. The Germans deserted Ghent on 
November 11th at two o'clock in the morning, and at seven 
o'clock the Belgian troops marched in. The streets were 
filled with citizens shouting, cheering and embracing. Bells 
rang out from the belfries of all the churches. The city was 
full of joy. The celebration continued until midnight, and 
indeed, it may almost be said to have continued until Novem- 
ber 13th, when King Albert and the young queen made 
their triumphal entry, escorted by Belgian, French and 
British Generals. 

While the armies of Germany were thus being driven 
headlong from the countries they had treated with such 


482 America's Part in the World War 

brutality, important events were transpiring which were 
leading to the absolute destruction of the military power and 
were even threatening the political existence of the central 
nations. Bulgaria had withdrawn from the war and Turkey 
had surrendered. It was now the turn of Austria. 

On the evening of October 29th, an Austrian officer, 
bearing a white flag, approached the Italian lines, coming 
from the enemy trenches close to Serravalle in the Adige 
Valley and applied for an armistice. As he was not sufficiently 
credited he was sent back. The next day a group appeared 
under the white flag headed by General von Weber, an 
Austrian corps commander. They were driven in motor 
cars to General Diaz's headquarters, and negotiations for an 
armistice were at once begun. As a result of various 
pourparlers the armistice was signed by General Diaz to go 
into effect at three o'clock November 4th. 

Revolution was already agitating the whole of the Dual 
Empire, and its dissolution had begun. The empire was 
breaking up into independent states. Rioting had taken 
place in Budapest. Emperor Charles acquiesced in the 
inevitable by appointing Professor Lammasch as head of the 
ministry to restore their former imperial powers to the various 
national governments. Hungary declared its independence, 
and a National Council, headed by Count Michael Karolyi, 
took over the government. On November 11th, Emperor 
Charles abdicated. The empire of Austria had come to an 

The armistice of November 4th was a complete surrender. 
It provided for the total demobilization of the Austro- 
Hungarian Army, and the immediate withdrawal of all 
Austro-Hungarian forces operating on the front from the 
North Sea to Switzerland. It also provided for the evacuation 
of all territories invaded by Austria-Hungary since the 
beginning of the war, and gave to the Allies the right of free 
movement over all road and rail and waterways in Austro- 
Hungarian territory. Prisoners of war were to be returned, 
all hostilities at sea were to be ended, and the Austro- 
Hungarian Navy either surrendered or disarmed. Germany's 
greatest ally had collapsed. 


Germany Surrenders 

THE armistice which ended the war was signed by the 
German plenipotentiaries at 5 a. m., Paris time, mid- 
night, western time on November 11, 1918. It went 
into effect at 11 a. m., French time, six o'clock, western 
time, on the same day. Negotiations for an armistice had 
begun on October 6th, when Prince Maximilian, of Baden, 
the then German Imperial Chancellor, sent to President 
Wilson a letter, reading as follows : 

The German Government requests the President of the United States 
to take in hand the restoration of peace, acquaint all the belligerent 
states with this request, and invite them to send plenipotentiaries for the 
purpose of opening negotiations. 

It accepts the program set forth by the President of the United 
States in his message to Congress on January 8th, and in his later pronounce- 
ments, especially his speech of September 27th, as a basis for peace 

With a view to avoiding further bloodshed, the German Government 
requests the immediate conclusion of an armistice on land and water 
and in the air. 

On October 8th, President Wilson replied asking whether 
the Imperial Chancellor was speaking merely for the con- 
stituted authorities of the empire, who had so far conducted 
the war. He stated, moreover, that he would not feel at 
liberty to propose a cessation of arms so long as the armies of 
the central powers were upon the soil of the Allies. 

On October 12th, Dr. W. S. Solf, the Imperial Foreign 
Secretary, replied to President Wilson, declaring the German 
Government to be representative of the German people, and 
that it was ready to evacuate all foreign territory and to 
accept President Wilson's terms. This was regarded in 
Germany as the ending of the war, and was received with 
great enthusiasm. An Amsterdam despatch to a London 
paper declared, "People in Berlin are kissing one another in 


484 America's Part in the World War 

the streets though they are perfect strangers, and sending 
peace congratulations to each other. The only words heard 
anywhere in Germany are 'Peace at last.' " 

On October 23d the President announced that he had 
transmitted this correspondence with the German authorities 
to the allied governments with the suggestion that the terms 
of an armistice should be prepared to insure to the associated 
governments the unrestricted power to safeguard and enforce 
details of peace. He pointed out that it was not clear that the 
German Government were veritable representatives of the 
German people, and declared that if the United States "must 
deal with the military masters and the monarchical autocrats 
of Germany now, or if it is likely to have to deal with them 
later in regard to the international obligations of the German 
Empire, it must demand, not peace negotiations, but 

On October 27th the German Foreign Secretary acknowl- 
edged President Wilson's previous note, declared that peace 
negotiations were being conducted by a government of the 
people in whose hands rested both actually and constitu- 
tionally the authority to make decisions, and stated that it 
was now ready for proposals for an armistice. 

On October 31st representatives of the allied governments 
met at Versailles to consider the terms of an armistice. Among 
those present were Premier Clemenceau, of France; Premier 
Orlando, of Italy; Premier Lloyd George, of Great Britain; and 
Colonel E. M. House, of the United States. Among military 
advisers present were General Tasker H Bliss, Marshal Foch 
and Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. 

Meanwhile, the allied armies were smashing the German 
lines, which were retreating from Belgium and France with 
enormous losses. On November 5th a note was sent to 
Germany by Secretary of State Lansing in which he stated 
that Marshal Foch had been authorized to receive German 
delegates, and to communicate to them the terms of an 
armistice. It also stated that the allied governments were 
willing to make peace according to the terms laid down in 
President Wilson's addresses, except that they reserved to 
themselves complete freedom on the subject of Clause 2, 

Germany Surrenders 


relating to the freedom of the seas, about which there was 
some difference of opinion. 

The German Government acted at once. On the 7th of 
November the following communication from the German 
High Command to Marshal Foch was made public: 

The German Government, having been informed through the President 
of the United States that Marshal Foch had received powers to receive 
accredited representatives of the German Government and communicate 


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Chart Showing, in Thousands, the Battle Deaths in the World War — 

A Total of 7.582,000 

to them conditions of an armistice, the following plenipotentiaries have 
been named by it: Mathias Erzberger, General H. K. A. von Winterfeld, 
Count Alfred von Oberndorff, General von Grunnel, and Naval Captain 
von Salow. 

The plenipotentiaries request that they be informed by wireless of the 
place where they can meet Marshal Foch. They will proceed by auto- 
mobile, with subordinates of the staff, to the place thus appointed. 

Later in the day, it was announced that the German 
plenipotentjiaries had left Spa and would reach, by five o'clock 

486 America's Part in the World War 

in the afternoon, the French outposts at a certain point on 
La Capelle. Orders were given to cease fire on this front at 
3 p. M. until further notice. The delegates arrived in 
three automobiles at 9.15 p. m., having been delayed by the 
condition of the roads. They were received by officers whom 
Marshal Foch had detailed to guide them. They were then 
escorted in automobiles, with the window curtains drawn, to 
the Chateau Francf ort in Compiegne forest, where they passed 
the night. The next morning they were taken to Rethondes 
where they found Marshal Foch in his special train. 

They were speedily acquainted with the harsh terms of 
the armistice and told that it was to be accepted or rejected 
within seventy-two hours. Permission was given to send a 
courier to Spa, and to communicate with that place by 

With General Foch at the time of the interview were 
Major-General Maxime Weygand, his assistant; Vice-Admiral 
Sir Rosslyn Wemyss, First Lord of the British Admiralty, and 
the American Vice-Admiral William S. Sims. 

A German courier, bearing the text of the armistice 
arrived at German headquarters at 10 a. m. November 10th. 
There had been some delay because the German batteries were 
bombarding the route he had to follow. An attempt was made 
to send him across the lines by airplane, but in spite of orders 
from German headquarters the German batteries went on 
firing without intermission. At last the batteries directed 
against La Capelle ceased fire, and the courier. Captain 
Helldorf, was able to start by automobile. 

Nineteen hours after he reached the German headquarters 
the armistice was signed, oflficial notification being made at 
Washington at 2.40 a. m., November 11th, by the Secretary of 

On November 7th it was announced in New York, four 
days before the armistice was actually signed, that Germany 
had surrendered. The announcement was based on a false 
report sent out by the United Press Association, a private 
corporation supplying news to many afternoon newspapers 
throughout the country. A cablegram had been received by 
this association from the city of Brest, which contained the 

Germany Surrenders 487 

information. It had been obtained from Rear-Admiral 
Henry B. Wilson, one of the most distinguished officers of the 
American Navy. The dispatch had passed the censor in 
France and was taken as authoritative. 

The next day Admiral Wilson assumed the responsibility 
for the mistake, stating that the news had been made public 
from his office on the basis of what appeared to be official and 
authoritative information. The mistake probably originated 
from the order to cease firing at 3 p. m. at that part of the 
front where the German delegates were to cross the line. 

The news was sent widely throughout the United States, 
and was followed by a tremendous celebration, in every city, 
village and hamlet of the country, as well as in the city of 
Brest, where the report originated. The city of New York, 
in particular, went mad with joy. Crowds paraded the 
streets. Fifth Avenue was jammed for three miles and the 
whole town was aroused. The courts were closed, and all 
business ceased, except theatrical performances and the 
dispensing and retailing of food. 

The tremendous tension of years of war was over, and 
when the sirens, whistles and bells began their clamor about 
one o'clock in the afternoon, men and women of all ages, and 
all stations in every part of the country stopped their business 
and joined in a hilarious carnival of joy which was beyond 
comparison with anything ever seen in the history of the 
country. The streets were filled with a jostling, squeezing, 
crushing stream. Familiarities that would have been horri- 
fying in old friends were forgiven to passing strangers. Everj^- 
thing was turned upside down. By some mystic under- 
standing people in the cities all over the country were empty- 
ing wastebaskets of paper from windows, and tearing up 
newspapers and throwing them into the air to serve as 
confetti. In some streets the pavements were ankle deep 
with paper. Society girls, shop girls and factory girls, rich 
men, poor men, soldiers, sailors, anarchists, capitalists mixed 
together in the crowds. In New York the mob was too dense 
to penetrate. It was a vast quivering jelly of men, women, 
street cars taxi-cabs, trucks, limousines, and delivery wagons. 

When the real news came on Novemeber 11th the celebra- 

488 America's Part in the World War 

tion was even greater; perhaps there was a Uttle less spon- 
taneity, a little more of a pre-arranged air about it, but it 
was none the less hearty, none the less universal. Streets 
were filled with processions. Again all business was suspended, 
and the whole country, with the rest of the world, joined in 
the celebration. 

Throughout the entire world, the nations gave them- 
selves up to holiday. Strangely enough, the soldiers on the 
front were much more restrained in their joy than the civil 
populations. The armies fought to the last minute. At 
eleven o'clock there was one great salvo from the guns, then 
the sharp order "Cease firing." The men stood still, as if 
numb with shock. They knew nothing of what was coming, 
most of them, then they broke into laughs as they learned 
that the war was over. The Germans sprang from their 
positions and began to shout and sing with joy, and wave 
white flags, beckoning to the allied soldiers to come over. 
Strict orders had been given, however, against fraternizing. 
The Americans, perhaps, showed more enthusiasm than the 
soldiers in the other armies. In their camps, the bands 
' played, and the men marched in the streets, cheering and 
celebrating. Thousands of flags appeared suddenly, and 
among the English every soldier had a bit of color at the end 
of his rifle, or stuck to his belt. The joy in Belgium was even 
greater, and the bells rang out from the churches, the bands 
played, and the people crowded round their marching troops, 
dancing and singing, until the midnight chimes. 

Thousands of Americans managed to get to Paris in time 
to join in the celebration there. The strict shackles of military 
organization could hardly keep the soldiers, or even the 
officers in hand. The military police in American uniforms 
were kept busy, but could not prevent America from having 
her part in the wonderful Paris celebration. 

President Wilson made the announcement of the armistice 
before a joint session of the Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives at 1 p. M., November 11th, in the Hall of the 
House of Representatives. The galleries were crowded with 
men and women whose names were familiar throughout all 

Germany Surrenders 489 

Before going to the Capitol, the President had issued 
a proclamation to the people announcing the conclusion of 
hostilities and directed that the employees in the various 
Government Departments should be given a holiday. The 
proclamation reads as follows: 

My Fellow-Coimtrymen: The armistice was signed this morning. 
Everything for which America fought has been accomphshed. It will now 
be our fortunate duty to assist by example, by sober, friendly counsel, 
and by material aid in the establishment of just democracy throughout 
the world. 

On November lOth, the Kaiser fled across the Dutch 
frontier, and took up his residence at Count Goddard Bent- 
inck's Chateau of Amerongen. The Crown Prince also fled to 
Holland, and was interned at Mosterland. The Kaiser had 
resisted a demand for his abdication up to the last hour, and 
had attempted to prevent the armistice delegation from being 
sent to the French lines, but except by a group of his personal 
friends he found no support. The situation was hopeless. 
As he signed his abdication, he is reported to have said, "It 
may be for the good of Germany." 

Germany was beaten to her knees and the iron rule of 
militarism was at an end. The great monarchy, with its 
sword-swinging Kaiser as ruler, became a republic, with a 
saddler — Ebert by name — at its head. 


With the Army of Occupation 

WITH the unconditional surrender of Bulgaria, the 
smashing of the Hindenburg line and the headlong 
retreat of the German armies along the entire western 
front, the Teutonic coalition crumbled to ignominious defeat. 
Turkey met its disaster at the end of September and the 
beginning of October, when General Allenby captured Damas- 
cus, routed two Turkish armies and besieged Aleppo. Palestine 
had been overrun and Jerusalem had been taken. On October 
26th, British cavalry and armored cars entered Aleppo and 
cut the important railroad artery between Constantinople and 
Bagdad. General Marshall on October 29th defeated the 
Turks at Kaleh Shergat and cut communications with Mosul. 
These operations resulted in the concluding of an armistice 
with Turkey on October 31, 1918. The armistice imposed 
upon Turkey follows: 


First — The opening of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus and access 
to the Black Sea. Allied occupation of the Dardanelles and Bosporus forts. 

Second — ^The positions of all mine fields, torpedo tubes and other 
obstructions in Turkish waters are to be indicated and assistance given 
to sweep or remove them, as may be required. 

Third — All available information concerning mines in the Black Sea 
is to be communicated. 

Fourth — All allied prisoners of war and Armenians, interned persons 
and prisoners, are to be collected in Constantinople and handed over 
unconditionally to the Allies. 

Fifth — Immediate demobilization of the Turkish army, except such 
troops as are required for surveillance on the frontiers and for the main- 
tenance of internal order; the number of effectives and their disposition 
to be determined later by the Allies, after consultation with the Turkish 

Sixth — ^The surrender of all vessels in Turkish waters or waters 
occupied by Turkey. These ships will be interned in such Turkish port 
or ports as may be directed, except such small vessels as are required for 
police and similar purposes in Turkish territorial waters. 


With the Army of Occupation 491 

Seventh — The Allies have the right to occupy any strategic point in 
the event of any situation arising which threatens the security of the Allies. 

Eighth — Free use by allied ships of all ports and anchorages now in 
Turkish occupation and denial of their use by the enemy. Similar condi- 
tions are to apply to Turkish mercantile shipping in Turkish waters for 
the purposes of trade and the demobilization of the army. 

Ninth — Allied occupation of the Taurus Tunnel system. 

Tenth — Immediate withdrawal of Turkish troops from Northern 
Persia to behind the pre-war frontier already has been ordered and will 
be carried out. 

Eleventh — A part of Transcaucasia already has been ordered to be 
evacuated by Turkish troops. The remainder to be evacuated if required 
by the Allies after they have studied the situation. 

• Twelfth — Wireless, telegraph, and cable stations to be controlled by 
the Allies. Turkish Government messages to be excepted. 

Thirteenth — Prohibition against the destruction of any naval, military, 
or commercial material. 

Fourteenth — Facilities are to be given for the purchase of coal, oil 
fuel, and naval material from Turkish sources, after the requirements of 
the country have been met. None of the above materials is to be exported. 

Fifteenth — The surrender of all Turkish officers in Tripolitania and 
Cyrenica to the nearest Italian garrison. Turkey agrees to stop supplies 
to and communication with these officers if they do not obey the order 
to surrender. 

Sixteenth — The surrender of all garrisons in Hedjaz, Assir, Yemen, 
Syria, and Mesopotamia to the nearest allied commander and withdrawal 
of Turkish troops from Cilicia, except those necessary to maintain order, 
as will be determined under Clause Five. 

Seventeenth — ^The use of all ships and repair facilities at all Turkish 
ports and arsenals. 

Eighteenth — The surrender of all ports occupied in Tripolitania and 
Cyrenica, including Misurata, to the nearest allied garrison. 

Nineteenth — All Germans and Austrians, naval, military, or civilian, 
to be evacuated within one month from Turkish dominions, and those in 
remote districts as soon after that time as may be possible. 

Twentieth — Compliance with such orders as may be conveyed for the 
disposal of equipments, arms, and ammunition, including the transport 
of that portion of the Turkish army which is demobilized under Clause Five. 

Twenty-first — An allied representative to be attached to the Turkish 
Ministry of Supplies, in order to safeguard allied interests; this representa- 
tive to be furnished wath all aid necessary for this purpose. 

Twenty-second — Turkish prisoners are to be kept at the disposal of 
the allied powers. The release of Turkish civilian prisoners and prisoners 
over military age to be considered. 

Twenty-third — An obligation on the part of Turkey to cease all relations 
with the Central Powers, 

492 America's Part in the World War 

Twenty-fourth — In case of disorder in the six Armenian vilayets, the 
Allies reserve to themselves the right to occupy any part of them. 

Twenty-fifth — Hostilities between the Allies and Turkey shall cease 
from noon, local time, Thursday, the 31st of October, 1918. 

An additional clause, made public two days later, dealt 
with the Russian region of the Caucasus, as follows : 

Allied control officers are to be placed on all railways, including such 
portions of the Transcaucasian railways as are now under Turkish control; 
these must be placed at the free and complete disposal of the allied authori- 
ties, due consideration bemg given to the needs of the population. This 
clause is to mclude the allied occupation of Batum. Turkey will raise 
no objection to the occupation of Baku by the AUies. 

Italy's glorious victory over the Austro-Hungarian armies 
was the direct cause of the Austrian surrender and the dissolu- 
tion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. General von Weber 
headed the Austrian delegation which on October 31st went 
to the headquarters of General Diaz commanding the Italian 
forces and asked the conditions on which an armistice would 
be granted. As a result of that mission, the terms of the 
armistice were presented to the Austrians and signed by them 
on November 3d, taking effect at 3 p. m., November 4th. 
Emperor Charles V followed the armistice by resigning his 
imperial throne on November 11th. 


As a result of the pourparlers the following armistice was 
signed by General Diaz on Nov. 3, to go into effect at three 
o'clock, Nov. 4th: 

Military Conditions 

One — The Immediate cessation of hostilities by land, by sea, and by air. 

Two — Total demobilization of the Austro-Hungarian army and 
immediate withdrawal of all Austro-Hungarian forces operating on the 
front from the North Sea to Switzerland. 

Within Austro-Hungarian territory, limited as in Clause Three, below, 
there shall only be maintained as an organized military force a body reduced 
to pre-war effectiveness. 

Half the divisional, corps, and army artillery and equipment shall 
be collected at points to be indicated by the Allies and United States of 
America for delivery to them, beginning with all such material as exists in 
the territories to be evacuated by the Austro-Hungarian forces. 

With the Army of Occupation 493 

Three — Evacuation oi all territories Invaded by Austro-Hungary since 
the beginning of the war. 

Withdrawal within such periods as shall be determined by the com- 
mander-in-chief of the allied forces on each front of the Austro-Hungarian 
armies behind a line fixed as follows: From Pic Umbrail to the north of 
the Stelvio it will follow the crest of the Rhetian Alps up to the sources 
of the Adige and the Eisach, passing thence by Mounts Reschen and 
Brenner and the heights of Oetz and Zoaller. The line thence turns south, 
crossing Mount Toblach and meeting the present frontier Carnic Alps. 
It follows this frontier up to Mount Tarvis, and after Mount Tarvis the 
watershed of the Julian Alps by the Col of Predil, Mount Mangart, the 
Tricorno, (Terglou), and the watershed of the Cols di Podberdo, Pod- 
laniscam, and Idria. From this point the line turns southeast toward the 
Schneeberg, excludes the whole basin of the Save and its tributaries. 
From the Schneeberg it goes down toward the coast in such a way as to 
include Castua, Mattuglia, and Volosca in the evacuated territories. 

It will also follow the administrative limits of the present province 
of Dalmatia, including in the north Lisarica and Trivania, and to the 
south territory limited by a line from the (Semigrand) Cape Planca to the 
summits of the watersheds eastward, so as to include in the evacuated area 
all the valleys and water courses flowing toward Sebenico, such as the 
Cicola, Kerka, Butisnica, and their tributaries. It will also include all 
the islands in the north and west of Dalmatia from Premuda, Selve, Ulbo, 
Scherda, Maon, Paga, and Puntadura, in the north, up to Meleda, in 
the south, embracing Santandrea, Busi, Lisa, Lesina, Tercola, Curzola, 
Cazza, and Lagosta, as well as the neighboring rocks and islets and 
passages, only excepting the islands of Great and Small Zirona, Bua, 
Solta, and Brazza. 

All territory thus evacuated shall be occupied by the forces of the 
Allies and the United States of America. 

All military and railway equipment of all kinds, including coal 
belonging to or within those territories to be left in situ and surrendered 
to the Allies, according to special orders given by the commander-in-chief 
of the forces of the associated powers on the different fronts. No new 
destruction, pillage, or requisition to be done by enemy troops in the terri- 
tories to be evacuated by them and occupied by the forces of the associated 

Four — The Allies shall have the right of free movement over all 
road and rail and water ways in Austro-Hungarian territory and of the 
use of the necessary Austrian and Hungarian means of transportation. 
The armies of the associated powers shall occupy such strategic points in 
Austria-Hungary at times as they may deem necessary to enable them 
to conduct military operations or to maintain order. 

They shall have the right of requisition on payment for the troops of 
the associated powers wherever they may be. 

Five — Complete evacuation of all German troops within fifteen days, 

494 America's Part in the World War 

not only from the Italian and Balkan fronts, but from all Austro-Hungarian 

Internment of all German troops which have not left Austria-Hungary 
within the date. 

Six — The administration of the evacuated territories of Austria- 
Hungary will be intrusted to the local authorities, under the control of 
the allied and associated armies of occupation. 

Seven — The immediate repatriation without reciprocity of all allied 
prisoners of war and internal subjects of civil populations evacuated 
from their homes, on conditions to be laid down by the commander-in- 
chief of the forces of the associated powers on the various fronts. Sick 
and wounded who cannot be removed from evacuated territory will be 
cared for by Austro-Hungarian personnel, who will be left on the spot 
with the medical material required. 

Naval Conditions 

One — Immediate cessation of all hostilities at sea and definite informa- 
tion to be given as to the location and movements of all Austro-Hungarian 

Notification to be made to neutrals that freedom of navigation in all 
territorial waters is given to the naval and mercantile marine of the 
alhed and associated powers, all questions of neutrality being waived. 

Two — Surrender to the Allies and the United States of fifteen Austro- 
Hungarian submarines completed between the years 1910 and 1918, and 
of all German submarines which are in or may hereafter enter Austro- 
Hungarian territorial waters. All other Austro-Hungarian submarines 
to be paid off and completely disarmed and to remain under the super- 
vision of the Allies and the United States. 

Three — Surrender to the Allies and the United States with their 
complete armament and equipment of three battleships, three light cruisers, 
nine destroyers, twelve torpedo boats, one mine layer, six Danube monitors, 
to be designated by the Allies and the United States of America. All 
other surface warships, including river craft, are to be concentrated in 
Austro-Hungarian naval bases to be designated by the Allies and the 
United States of America and are to be paid off and completely disarmed 
and placed under the supervision of the Allies and the United States of 

Four — Freedom of navigation to all warships and merchant ships of 
the allied and associated powers to be given in the Adriatic and up the 
River Danube and its tributaries in the territorial waters and territory of 

The Allies and associated powers shall have the right to sweep up all 
mine fields and obstructions, and the positions of these are to be indicated. 

In order to insure the freedom of navigation on the Danube, the 
Allies and the United States of America shall be empowered to occupy 
or to dismantle all fortifications or defense works. 


With the Army of Occupation 495 

Five — The existing blockade conditions set up by the allied and asso- 
ciated powers are to remain unchanged and all Austro-Hungarian merchant 
ships found at sea are to remain liable to capture, save exceptions which 
may be made by a commission nominated by the Allies and the United 
States of America. 

Six — All naval aircraft are to be concentrated and impactionized in 
Austro-Hungarian bases to be designated by the AlHes and the United 
States of America. 

Seven — Evacuation of all Italian coasts and of all ports occupied by 
Austria-Hungary outside their national territory and the abandonment of 
all floating craft, naval materials, equipment and materials for inland 
navigation of all kinds. 

Eight — Occupation by the Allies and the United States of America 
of the land and sea fortifications and the islands which form the defenses 
and of the dockyards and arsenal at Pola. 

Nine — All merchant vessels held by Austria-Hungary belonging to 
the Allies and associated powers to be returned. 

Ten — No destruction of ships or materials to be permitted before 
evacuation, surrender, or restoration. 

Eleven — All naval and mercantile marine prisoners of the aUied and 
associated powers in Austro-Hungarian hands to be returned without 

The armistice with Germany was signed on November 
11, 1918, and the great World War, which began in August, 
1914, came to an end. The armistice terms imposed on 
Germany were so drastic that a renewal of the struggle was 
impossible for her. Germany was compelled to evacuate all 
the territory on the left bank of the Rhine, the Allies reserving 
a neutral zone on the right bank and occupying the bridge- 
heads at Mayence, Coblenz and Cologne. In addition to the 
surrender of thousands of guns and airplanes and locomotives 
and motor wagons, Germany had to surrender all her sub- 
marines and turn over to the Allies and Associated Powers 
her High Seas Fleet consisting of six battle cruisers, ten battle- 
ships, eight light cruisers, (including two mine layers) and 
fifty destroyers of the most modern types. 

The great fleet was interned at Scapa Flow, but just 
before the Peace Treaty was signed most of the ships were 
scuttled by the Germans who had been permitted to remain 
on board. Following is the complete text of the Armistice 
with Germany: 

496 America's Part in the World War 

7. Military Clauses on Western Front 

One — Cessation of operations by land and in the air six hours after 
the signature of the armistice. 

Two — Immediate evacuation of invaded countries: Belgimn, France, 
Alsace-Lorraine, Luxemburg, so ordered as to be completed within fourteen 
days from the signature of the armistice. German troops which have 
not left the above-mentioned territories within the period fixed will become 
prisoners of war. Occupation by the allied and United States forces jointly 
will keep pace with evacuation in these areas. All movements of evacuation 
and occupation will be regulated in accordance with a note annexed to 
the stated terms. 

Three — ^Reparation beginning at once to be completed within fifteen 
days of all the inhabitants of the countries above enumerated, (including 
hostages, persons under trial or convicted.) 

Four — Surrender in good condition by the German armies of the 
following war material: Five thousand guns (2500 heavy, and 2500 
field), 25,000 machine guns, 3000 minenwerfer, 1700 airplanes, (fighters, 
bombers — firstly, all of the D 7's and all the night bombing machines). 
The above to be delivered in situ to the allied and United States troops 
in accordance with the detailed conditions laid down in the note (annexure 
No. 1) drawn up at the moment of the signing of the armistice. 

Five — Evacuation by the German armies of the countries on the 
left bank of the Rhine. The countries on the left bank of the Rhine shall 
be administered by the local troops of occupation. The occupation of 
these territories will be carried out by allied and United States garrisons 
holding the principal crossings of the Rhine, (Mayence, Coblenz, Cologne), 
together with the bridgeheads at these points of a thirty-kilometer radius 
on the right bank and by garrisons similarly holding the strategic points 
of the regions. A neutral zone shall be reserved on the right bank of the 
Rhine between the stream and a line drawn parallel to the bridgeheads 
and to the stream and at a distance of ten kilometers, from the frontier 
of Holland up to the frontier of Switzerland. The evacuation by the 
enemy of the Rhinelands (left and right bank) shall be so ordered as to 
be completed within a further period of sixteen days, in all, thirty-one 
days after the signing of the armistice. All the movements of evacuation 
or occupation are regulated by the note (annexure No. 1) drawn up at 
the moment of the signing of the armistice. 

Six — In all territories evacuated by the enemy there shall be no 
evacuation of inhabitants; no damage or harm shall be done to the persons 
or property of the inhabitants. No person shall be prosecuted for offenses 
of participation in war measures prior to the signing of the armistice. 
No destruction of any kind shall be committed. Military estabHshments 
of all kinds shall be delivered intact, as well as mihtary stores of food, 
munitions, and equipment, not removed during the time fixed for evacua- 

With the Army of Occupation 497 

tion. Stores of food of all kinds for the civil population, cattle, etc., shall 
be left in situ. Industrial establishments shall not be impaired in any 
way and their personnel shall not be removed. 

Seven — Roads and means of communication of every kind, railroads, 
waterways, main roads, bridges, telegraphs, telephones, shall be in no 
manner impaired. All civil and military personnel at present employed 
on them shall remain. Five thousand locomotives and one hundred and 
fifty thousand wagons in good working order, with all necessary spare 
parts and fittings, shall be dehvered to the associated powers \^^thin the 
period fixed in annexure No. 2, and total of which shall not exceed thirty- 
one days. There shall likewise be delivered five thousand motor lorries 
(camion automobiles) in good order, within the period of thirty-six days. 
The railways of Alsace-Lorraine shall be handed over within the period 
of thirty-one days, together with pre-war personnel and material. Fmther, 
the material necessary for the working of railways in the countries on the 
left bank of the Rhine shall be left in situ. All stores of coal and material 
for the upkeep of permanent ways, signals, and repair shops shall be left 
in situ. These stores shall be maintained by Germany in so far as concerns 
the working of the railroads in the countries on the left bank of the Rhine. 
All barges taken from the Allies shall be restored to them. The note, 
annexure No. 2, regulates the details of these measures. 

Eight — The German command shall be responsible for revealing within 
the period of forty -eight hours after the signing of the armistice all mines 
or delayed action fuses on territory evacuated by the German troops and 
shall assist in their discovery and destruction. It also shall reveal all 
destructive measures that may have been taken, (such as poisoning or 
polluting of springs and wells, etc.). All under penalty of reprisals. 

Nine — The right of requisition shall be exercised by the allied and 
United States armies in all occupied territories, subject to regulation of 
accounts with those whom it may concern. The upkeep of the troops 
of occupation in the Rhineland (excluding Alsace-Lorraine) shall be charged 
to the German Government. 

Ten — ^The immediate repatriation without reciprocity, according to 
detailed conditions which shall be fixed, of all allied and United States 
prisoners of war including persons under trial or convicted. The allied 
powers and the United States shall be able to dispose of them as they 
wish. This condition annuls the pre%nous conventions on the subject of 
the exchange of prisoners of war, including the one of July, 1918, in course 
of ratification. However, the repatriation of German prisoners of war 
interned in Holland and in Switzerland shall continue as before. The 
repatriation of German prisoners of war shall be regulated at the conclusion 
of the preliminaries of peace. 

Eleven — Sick and wounded who cannot be removed from evacuated 
territory will be cared for by German personnel, who will be left on the 
spot with the medical material required- 

498 America's Part in the World War 

II. Disposition Relative to the Eastern Frontiers of Germany 

Twelve — All German troops at present in the territories which before 
belonged to Austria-Hungary, Roumania, Turkey, shall withdraw immedi- 
ately within the frontiers of Germany as they existed on August 1st, 1914. 
All German troops at present in the territories which before the war 
belonged to Russia shall likewise withdraw within the frontiers of Germany, 
defined as above, as soon as the Allies, taking into account the internal 
situation of these territories, shall decide that the time for this has come. 

Thirteen — Evacuation by German troops to begin at once, and all 
German instructors, prisoners, and civilians as well as military agents 
now on the territory of Russia (as defined before 1914) to be recalled. 

Fourteen — German troops to cease at once all requisitions and seizures 
and any other undertaking with a view to obtaining supplies intended for 
Germany in Roumania and Russia, (as defined on August 1, 1914). 

Fifteen — Renunciation of the treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk 
and of the supplementary treaties. 

Sixteen— The AUies shall have free access to the territories evacuated 
by the Germans on their eastern frontier, either through Danzig, or by 
the Vistula, in order to convey supplies to the populations of those terri- 
tories and for the purpose of maintaining order, 

III. Clause Concerning East Africa 

Seventeen — Evacuation by all German forces operating in East Africa 
within a period to be fixed by the Allies. 

IV. General Clauses 

Eighteen — ^Repatriation, without reciprocity, within a maximum period 
of one month in accordance with detailed conditions hereafter to be fixed 
of all interned civilians, including hostages, (persons?) under trial or 
convicted, belonging to the allied or associated powers other than those 
enumerated in Article III. 

Nineteen — The following financial conditions are required: Reparation 
for damage done. While such armistice lasts, no public securities shall be 
removed by the enemy which can serve as a pledge to the Allies for the 
recovery or reparation for war losses. Immediate restitution of the cash 
deposit in the National Bank of Belgium, and in general immediate return 
of all documents, specie, stocks, shares, paper money, together with 
plant for the issue thereof, touching public or private interests in the 
invaded countries. Restitution of the Russian and Roumanian gold yielded 
to Germany or taken by that power. This gold to be deUvered in trust 
to the Allies until the signature of peace. 

V. Naval Conditions 

Twenty — Immediate cessation of all hostilities at sea and definite 
information to be given as to the location and movements of all German 

With the Army of Occupation 499 

ships. Notification to be given to neutrals that freedom of navigation 
in all territorial waters is given to the naval and mercantile marines of 
the allied and associated powers, all questions of neutrality being waived. 

Twenty-one — All naval and mercantile marine prisoners of the allied 
and associated powers in German hands to be returned without reciprocity. 

Twenty-two — Surrender to the Allies and United States of all sub- 
marines (including submarine cruisers and all mine-laying submarines) 
now existing, with their complete armament and equipment, in ports 
which shall be specified by the Allies and United States. Those which 
cannot take the sea shall be disarmed of the personnel and material and 
shall remain under the supervision of the Allies and the United States. 
The submarines which are ready for the sea shall be prepared to leave 
the German ports as soon as orders shall be received by wireless for their 
voyage to the port designated for their deUvery, and the remainder at the 
earliest possible moment. The conditions of this article shall be carried 
into effect within the period of fourteen days after the signing of the 

Twenty-three — German surface warships which shall be designated by 
the Allies and the United States shall be immediately disarmed and there- 
after interned in neutral ports or in default of them in allied ports to be 
designated by the Allies and the United States. They will there remain 
under the supervision of the Allies and of the United States, only caretakers 
being left on board. The following warships are designated by the Allies: 
Six battle cruisers, ten battleships, eight light cruisers, (including two 
mine layers), fifty destroyers of the most modern types. All other surface 
warships (including river craft) are to be concentrated in German naval 
bases to be designated by the Allies and the United States and are to be 
completely disarmed and classed under the supervision of the Allies and 
the United States. The military armament of all ships of the auxiliary 
fleet shall be put on shore. All vessels designated to be interned shall 
be ready to leave the German ports seven days after the signing of the 
armistice. Directions for the voj^age will be given by wireless. 

Twenty-four — ^The Allies and the United States of America shall have 
the right to sweep up all mine fields and obstructions laid by Germany 
outside German territorial waters, and the positions of these are to be 

Twenty-five — Freedom of access to and from the Baltic to be given to 
the naval and mercantile marines of the allied and associated powers. To 
secure this the Allies and the United States of America shall be empowered 
to occupy all German forts, fortifications, batteries, and defense works of 
all kinds in all the entrances from the Cattegat into the Baltic, and to 
sweep up all mines and obstructions within and without German territorial 
waters, without any question of neutrality being raised, and the positions 
of all such mines and obstructions are to be indicated. 

Twenty-six — The existing blockade conditions set up by the allied 
and associated powers are to remain unchanged, and all German merchant 

500 America's Part in the World War 

ships found at sea are to remain liable to capture. The Allies and the 
United States should give consideration to the provisioning of Germany 
during the armistice to the extent recognized as necessary. 

Twenty-seven — All naval aircraft are to be concentrated and immobil- 
ized in German bases to be specified by the Allies and the United States 
of America. 

Twenty-eight — In evacuating the Belgian coast and ports Germany 
shall abandon in situ and in fact all port and river navigation material, 
all merchant ships, tugs, lighters, all naval aeronautic apparatus, material 
and supplies, and all arms, apparatus, and supphes of every kind. 

Twenty-nine — All Black Sea ports are to be evacuated by Germany; 
all Russian war vessels of all descriptions seized by Germany in the Black 
Sea are to be handed over to the Allies and the United States of America; 
all neutral merchant vessels seized are to be released; all warlike and other 
materials of all kinds seized in those ports are to be returned and German 
materials as specified in Clause Twenty-eight are to be abandoned. 

Thirty — All merchant vessels in German hands belonging to the 
allied and associated powers are to be restored in ports to be specified 
by the Allies and the United States of America without reciprocity. 

Thirty-one — No destruction of ships or of materials to be permitted 
before evacuation, surrender, or restoration. 

Thirty-two — The German Government will notify the neutral govern- 
ments of the world, and particularly the governments of Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark and Holland, that all restrictions placed on the trading of their 
vessels with the allied and associated countries, whether by the German 
government or by private German interests, and whether in return for 
specific concessions, such as the export of shipbuilding materials, or not, 
are immediately canceled. 

Thirty-three — No transfers of German merchant shipping of any 
description to any neutral flag are to take place. 

VI. Duration of Armistice 

Thirty-four — The duration of the armistice is to be thirty days with 
option to extend. During this period if its clauses are not carried into 
execution the armistice may be denounced by one of the contracting 
parties, which must give warning forty days in advance. It is understood 
that the execution of Articles III and XVIII shall not warrant the 
denunciation of the armistice on the ground of unsuflScient execution 
within a period fixed, except in the case of bad faith in earring them into 
execution. In order to assure the execution of this convention under the 
best conditions, the principle of a permanent international armistice 
commission is admitted. This commission will act under the authority 
of the allied military and naval commanders-in-chief. 

VII. The Limit for Reply 

Thirty-jive — This armistice to be accepted or refused by Germany 
within seventy -two hours of notification. 

With the Army of Occupation 501 

This armistice has been signed the 11th of November, 1918, at 
5 A. M., French time. 

F. FocH, 

R. E. Wemyss, 


A. Oberndorff, 


Von Salow. 

When Germany surrendered on November 11th, more 
than three million German soldiers were massed on the actual 
fighting front, in four great armies commanded by Generals 
Below, Marwitz, Hutier and Carlowitz. Opposed to them 
were the following allied forces under the direction of Marshal 


Two Belgian 300,000 

Five British 1,500,000 

Three American 1,338,169 

Ten French 2,500,000 

One Italian, plus Polish and Czechoslovak detachments 300,000 

Total 5,938,169 

According to the terms of the armistice the German 
troops were obliged to evacuate Belgium, France, Luxemburg, 
and Alsace-Lorraine by November 25th, and all the terrain 
west of the Rhine and east of it for a distance of ten kilo- 
meters, and at Cologne, Coblenz, and Mayence (Mainz) 
semicircles with a radius of thirty kilometers, by Decem- 
ber 11th. 

The Germans at once began their retreat. The armies 
selected to occupy the evacuated territory were the following: 

All the Belgians 

Two British 

One American 

Three and then two French 

For Rhine 









Total ■ 1,670,000 1,150,000 

The retreat of the German Army under Hindenburg was 
conducted by the transportation expert. General Groene. 

502 America's Part in the World War, 

The American Army under General Pershing commenced 
its march to the Rhine at five-thirty o'clock on the morning 
of Sunday, November 17th. It was the zero hour for the 
march of victory. Not in the long accustomed line of battle 
did the men set forth, but in long columns of joyful and 
peaceful parade. The Americans took no chances. They 
sent engineers in front to inspect and repair bridges and roads, 
to examine for land mines and for bombs every object and 
position that might conceal a trap. Wells and streams were 
closely examined for traces of poison and disease. 

The path of the American Army lay through Lorraine. 
The first important town in what was once enemy territory 
entered by the Yankees was Montmedy in the Briey iron 
basin which had supplied Germany with much of the iron 
ore used in guns and armament. Montmedy went wild 
with joy when the 5th Regiment of Marines, heroes of Chateau- 
Thierry swung into the central square, the Marine Band 
ripping out *'Hail, Hail, the Gang's All Here." Over the 
city hall of Montmedy floated the Stars and Stripes, and 
everywhere the tricolor of France floated from flagstaffs and 

The American Army of Occupation was designated as the 
3d Army, under command of Major-General John T. Dickman. 
The divisions leading were the 2d and 32d of the corps com- 
manded by General Hines, and some divisions of the 3d and 
4th Corps, General Muir commanding. 

Supporting the 3d Corps went the 42d Division, com- 
manded by General MacArthur, and in support of the 1st 
and 3d Divisions the 4th Corps, commanded by General 
Hirschey. The divisions on the line were carefully selected. 
The 2d was commanded by Major-General John A. Lejeune, 
commander of the marines, who won honors beginning at 
Belleau Wood and added to them at Chateau-Thierry, St. 
Mihiel, and Champagne. On the right was the 32d Division, 
renowned for its work north of the Marne, later at Soissons, 
and also in the recent operations. It was made up of men 
from Michigan and Wisconsin and commanded by General 

The 1st Division was one of regulars, commanded by 

With the Army of Occupation 503 

General Frank Parker. The 3d Division, also made up of 
regulars, was commanded by General Preston Brown. Both 
these regular divisions were made up of picked men. 

Along the road from Verdun to Spincourt, a distance 
of about twenty-five miles, released prisoners of various nation- 
alities traveled toward Verdun in great streams, passing the 
Americans going in the opposite direction. Many of the 
former prisoners were attired in cast-off German uniforms 
and had their effects in wheelbarrows, carts, hand trucks, 
and baby carriages. 

The withdrawal of the German armies from the occupied 
portions of France and Belgium, in accordance with the 
terms of the armistice, began on Tuesday, November 12th, 
the allied armies and the Americans moving forward into the 
evacuated regions. The departure of the invaders, with their 
surrender of munitions and the liberation of prisoners in the 
occupied territory, was accomplished without a hitch and in 
apparent good faith. 

A period of fifteen days after the signing of the armistice 
had been granted the Germans to evacuate Belgium, Luxem- 
burg and Alsace-Lorraine. On November 21st, after ten of 
the fifteen days allotted the allied armies had passed beyond 
Brussels, had penetrated into Luxemburg, and had reached 
Saarbrucken and the line of the Rhine to the Swiss border. 
In these ten days the Belgians had advanced fifty miles, the 
Americans and British thirty, and the French forty, and the 
entire front was being advanced from eight to ten miles a day. 
Antwerp was formally occupied November 17th, Miilhouse 
November 17th, Antwerp November 18th, Brussels, by the 
King of the Belgians on November 22d, and Strassbourg on 
November 23d. Everywhere the advancing troops were 
welcomed by the inhabitants. The demonstrations by the 
people in Alsace and Lorraine were marked by undisguised 
joy; even in Luxemburg, which was believed to have strong 
German leanings, the American troops were cordially received. 

When the Americans passed through Luxemburg they 
were reviewed by General Pershing from the balcony of the 
palace of the Grand Duchess, who stood beside him with 
members of the Cabinet. 

504 America's Part in the World War 

Prior to the entry of the troops General Pershing in a 
proclamation assured the public that the American Army 
would remain only as long as was necessary, and while it was 
in Luxemburg would conduct itself in conformity with the 
civil law. The proclamation was distributed among the 
troops as well as among the population. 

General Pershing entered the city ahead of his troops. 
The American commander-in-chief and his staff drove into the 
capital in automobiles. The general was greeted by thousands 
of cheering Luxemburgers and with the blowing of sirens and 
the ringing of church and school bells. The 18th Infantry 
of the 1st Division were the first American troops to enter 
the city. 

The American Army of Occupation entered Germany 
December 1, 1918. It crossed the Moselle and Sauer rivers 
and spread out over a sector of sixty miles. The first important 
city to be occupied was Treves. Silence that was variously 
construed as suUenness and fear marked the demeanor of the 
inhabitants. Units of the American forces were immediately 
entrained for Coblenz, which became the center of American 
occupancy along the Rhine. The great fortress of Ehren- 
breit stein was occupied by the Americans on December 10th, 
and on December 13th the American Army crossed the 
Rhine. By December 17th, all the American units assigned 
to the Coblenz bridgehead and the sector of which it was the 
center had settled down into their billets. An American post- 
oflSce was immediately established and patrols of the 1st, 2d 
and 32d Divisions saw to it that the regulations imposed by 
General Dickman were enforced. 

These provided that there should be no fraternizing 
between German civilians and American soldiers. It was 
diflBcult to prevent German children from making friendships 
with American doughboys and the regulations were eased 
so far as they related to the youngsters. As the occupation 
continued the rules were adjusted so that they bore less heavily 
than at first upon both civilians and soldiers. 

Sales of firearms in Coblenz were prohibited by orders 
of the Burgermaster inspired by General Dickman. All 
theaters and cafes were compelled to close at eleven o'clock 

With the Army of Occupation 505 

at night. Stringent regulations were made preventing the 
sale of intoxicants by civilians to American soldiers. Most of 
the punishments were for infractions of the last named regula- 
tion. Public buildings were utilized as headquarters but 
hotels and private homes were used as billets. 

General Pershing under date of December 22d issued a 
code for the government of the inhabitants of all regions in 
Germany occupied by Americans. The code w^as framed with 
the idea of avoiding humiliation of the people or anything 
that would seem to imply a spirit of revenge. On the other 
hand, the clauses of the code were enforced with strict 

Demobilization of the American forces drew from the 
Army of Occupation steadily. The 1st Division which was 
the first great unit to go overseas and the first division to 
enter Germany, was the last to leave the zone of occupation. 
By April 1, 1919, the homeward rush was in full swing. 
General March, chief-of-staff of the United States Army, 
on that date gave the following data of demobilization. 

Orders from November 11, 1918, to April 5, 1919, for the demobilize 
tion of approximately 1,836,500 men were as follows: 

Troops in the United States 1,326,000 

Oversea troops returned to the United States 510,500 

Total ordered demobilized 1,836,500 

The estimated strength of the army on April 1st was 2,055,718. We 
have demobilized forty-four per cent of the men who were in the ser\nce 
on November 11, 1918, and forty-eight per cent of the officers; 30,636 
officers have been appointed to commissions in the Reserve Corps on their 
own application, and 15,101 of these officers have applied for appointment 
in the regular army. Sailings from Europe have reached the total of 
627,510 since November 1st. 

American occupancy of German territory ended in 
September, 1919, when the 1st Division, with full equipment 
was welcomed home with a tremendous demonstration. 

How the occupied territory was administered under 
American military authority is told in the Tageblatt of Berlin 
by a staff correspondent under date of March 19th: 

I was sent to an inn of the sort which is generally frequented, in times 
when travel is unrestricted, by those vagrants who travel around through 

506 America's Part in the World War 

the country with barrel-organs and monkeys. I was not surprised to 
find that the room lacked not only the convenience of washing facilities 
but also all means of lighting and heating. Hardly had I found the bed — 
for it was night — when someone knocked loudly at the door and, in the 
name of American law, assigned me a room-mate in the person of a rural 
laborer, who unfortunately did not bring in the products of his cattle- 
culture but only the dirt and smell. This sort of entertaimneut is so 
impossible for women that they generally avoid it by passing the night in 
the waiting-rooms of railway stations. 

WTien one comes to look about by daylight, it becomes apparent at 
once that there are three entirely distinct civilizations juxtaposed here, 
which, however, do not touch: the native population, the Americans, and 
the French. The American soldiers are forbidden to have any dealings 
with the population. This restriction applies all the way from higher 
headquarters to the smallest town in the occupied area. It cannot be so 
well enforced naturally in urban districts, but is maintained very strictly 
in Coblenz, especially as it applies to the daughters of the land. Nowhere 
does one see an American speaking with a German. Should an oflBcer be 
seen on the street with a German woman, he would immediately be stopped 
by the American military police, members of which are stationed, armed 
with clubs, with prodigal frequency on every street-corner. 

Strange as is the effect of this restriction — it does not exist in the 
region occupied by French troops and was not in force with the German 
troops either during the war — it originates not in any feeling inimical 
toward us, but from a peculiarity in the American way of thinking. The 
Americans require from the Germans no manifestations of submissiveness 
or of affection; the population is allowed to express its feelings and opinions 
in so far as they are not unfriendly to the Americans. They do not censor 
the press except to this extent. On the other hand, they see no occasion 
for assuming any other attitude toward us than one of sober and unemo- 
tional detachment. The motto which governs their dealings and punctu- 
ates their speech is: "It is war." Therefore, there should be no fra- 
ternizing. In solicitiously attempting to restrain all fraternization, they 
are influenced in no small degree by the dread of being corrupted with 
Bolshevistic ideas, especially in view of unmistakable rumors which have 
arrived from Belgium, rumors indicating that the danger of extreme 
radicalism is imminent. 

As was said before, the American authorities firmly restrain all social 
relations with the native girls, although they might not be considered a 
political factor. The Americans know what complications of family life 
would result if they should allow 15,000 idle and strapping soldiers to 
kick over the traces in a city of 60,000 inhabitants. In order to avoid 
entanglement themselves, and also in order to guard the civil population 
from developments which would not be quite in accord with their views 
of sexual ethics, the American authorities have proclaimed the permanent 
celibacy of the soldiers. 

With the Army of Occupation 507 

"When a lieutenant, intoxicated by the heavy Rhenish-Hessian wine, 
for which he had a predilection, and also by the beauty of the German 
barmaid, made harmless amatory advances to her in an officers' casino, 
he was punished for it by the loss of his rank as an officer. The commander 
of his regiment sent apologies to the management of the establishment on 
account of his officer's behavior, and informed the proprietor of the 

To the disappointment of many who had entertained visions of 
America as a fairy, bearing a horn overflowing with butter, eggs, and 
hams, the Americans show themselves very parsimonious with regard to 
food. Even the common soldier lives like a first-class passenger on an 
ocean liner. He receives, or three times a day, meat which does 
not need to be disguised in a thin soup of vegetables and potatoes, but 
which is served up with gra\'y in good, honest fashion. AYhen he has 
sated his appetite w4th luscious steaks of beef and has swallowed his cup of 
coffee wdth milk and sugar to speed digestion, he is at Hberty, especially 
if he is an officer, to buy every day a pound of the finest chocolate or a 
can of jam at the price of four marks. 

This prerogative is the more exercised because a private receives a 
daily wage of eight marks and a lieutenant of forty marks as his dolce far 
niente. (The writer apparently regards the wage as sufficient to banish 
all pecuniary cares). But woe to the soldier who gives or sells a portion 
of his superfluity, and thrice woe to the civilian who accepts or buys said 
portion! A mere cigarette, received by a mendicant, may entail prosecu- 
tion for "unauthorized possession of American property." There have 
been twenty-three convictions, out of sixty-six cases, for this crime between 
January 5th and January 28th, according to published accounts of Ameri- 
can judicial proceedings at Coblenz. Such an offense must be atoned by a 
fine of five hundred to one thousand marks; whereas, for the purchase 
of American property, the minimum punishment is three months 

More astounding than the severity of these punishments is the system 
of espionage used by the American executive authorities. Coblenz teems 
with gentlemen who are nothing other than decoys. With tempting bacon 
they hunt the street, striving to detect some impoverished caterer in crime; 
they also practice their noble arts with the utmost success in spying on 
dealers in alcoholic beverages. Alcohol is an ill friend to the Americans 
and they all have reason to fight against it. The sale of ardent spirits is 
prohibited and the sale of wine and beer is limited to the periods from 
twelve to two o'clock and from five to seven o'clock. It is distinctly their 
own business to determine how they wish to guard their men from the 
depredations of alcohol. There can be no objection if patrols of officers 
make the rounds of public houses as coffee inspectors to discover whether 
the coffee is genuine or is mixed with brandy. But we cannot quite under- 
stand why they use secret agents to entrap Germans also in the enjoyment 
of their bitters. 


508 America's Part in the World War 

No excess of delicacy prevents the Americans, moreover, from inform- 
ing tliemselves by extremely minute questions, even in cases of small 
industries, about the nature and the extent of production, the fixing of 
prices, the exportations, and other important details. But the Americans 
excel all their AUies in their good nature: their attitude toward us is 
not at all chauvinistic. When they invested the city, they entered without 
any theatrical demonstration, demanded no submissive reception from 
the city government, and regarded arrogant proclamations as entirely 
superfluous. They all sought to occupy their own quarters as soon as 
possible without unnecessary display, to wash themselves, and to attend 
to sleeping accommodations. The French soon presented a striking con- 
trast. When a detachment of them came to Coblenz, they made haste 
to find the monument of William I and to run derisively around it, as 
though possessed, blowing their trumpets. This scene amused the 
Americans vastly. The American officers quite properly punish pre- 
meditated affronts; but it is not in harmony with their manner of thinking 
or acting to exact more deference than accrues to men who exercise neutral 
control . They are rather inclined to protect the Germans from discomfiture 
by the French, 


Aftermath of the War 

A MERICA'S tremendous vitality was never revealed to 
A% better advantage than in her recovery from the stress 
and burden of the World War. A sacrificial spirit was 
born in the millions who were banded in America's fighting 
forces of land, sea and air, and in the hundred million men, 
women and children, who enrolled themselves back of the 
fighting lines in the victorious effort to advance democratic 
ideals over the earth. The cost in lives and in money was 
heavy, but it was light in proportion to that sustained by 
those who had battled years before America entered the 
conflict. The loss to the nation in deaths from wounds and 
disease and in the number of wounded men returned to 
America has been told. The financial burden laid upon 
future generations would have been staggering to any other 
but the American people. Resolutely they set themselves 
to the task of entering into the new international relations 
thrust upon them by their entrance into the great copartner- 
ship of peaceful nations. 

One of the first details of finance to be cleared up during 
the period of reconstruction was the sale to France of all the 
equipment and property of the American Expeditionary 
Forces on French soil. The original cost of this vast store of 
supplies, locomotives, motor trucks and other equipment was 
more than one billion dollars. The special liquidation com- 
mission sent by the American Government to France to 
arrange for the sale of this property placed a value upon it 
of $749,000,000. That value was placed on August 1, 1919. 
A deduction of twenty-five per cent was allowed to cover 
the cost of selling the equipment in small lots by the French 
Government, reducing the estimated value to $562,000,000. 
The French Government offered to pay $400,000,000 for all 
these stores and after considerable negotiation this proposition 


510 America's Part in the World War 

was accepted by America. It was estimated that the labor 
of 40,000 men for seven months would be required to sort, 
salvage and dispose of the property. The sale was consum- 
mated August 28, 1919. Payment was made in ten-year gold 
bonds bearing five per cent interest from August 1, 1920. 

The problems of demobilization extended of course both 
to material and to men. Immense quantities of material had 
been accumulated in cantonments and storehouses. Had this 
mass been thrown upon the market by the government, 
immediate demoralization of industry would have resulted. 
To prevent this manufacturers in various lines arranged with 
the government to purchase and pool these commodities. 
In this way they came to market little by little. The plan 
prevented the shut-down of thousands of factories. Air- 
planes, automobiles, plumbing supplies and numerous other 
lines of manufacture were safeguarded. 

The problem of re-employment of soldiers was one that 
confronted all countries. Various plans were tried, some 
nations adopting the expedient of slow demobihzation. The 
idea back of this process was the gradual and certain absorp- 
tion of the demobilized men back into the industries from 
which they came. The protests against this scheme came in 
avalanches. The soldiers demanded immediate return to 
their homes and this demand was intensified by the tremendous 
pressure to the same end exerted by the families of the 
soldiers. America's policy was one of speedy demobilization. 
At first, thousands of jobless soldiers walked the streets, but 
the Knights of Columbus, the Jewish Welfare Board, the 
Y. M. C. A., the Salvation Army and other civilian agencies 
added their efforts to those of the government, with the 
result that re-employment advanced faster and more satis- 
factorily in America than in any other belligerent nation. 

Another serious problem was the adjustment of labor 
conditions affecting women who had taken men's places during 
the war. This was an economic question of great gravity. 
Through the wisdom of American women, be it recorded that 
the fears of friction and of grave difficulty that had been 
expressed concerning this condition were never realized. 
Hundreds of thousands of women who had gone into business 

Aftermath of the War 511 

and industry continued their work, but the amazing growth 
of new industries absorbed this additional labor. 

It was natural that there should be a labor ferment follow- 
ing the war. Bolshevism had radiated from "Red" Russia 
and its spores were carried to America. Strikes and labor dis- 
turbances featured the year 1919. The Socialist Party split 
in twain into moderates and radicals, the latter espousing 
the principles put forward by Lenine and Trotsky in Bolshevist 
Russia. It was a period of adjustments of violent reactions 
on the part of both capital and labor. 

The question of food and the high cost of living as it 
affected food extended throughout the world. The United 
States Government sent to Europe Dr. Alonzo E. Taylor of 
Philadelphia, head of the Division of Research of the United 
States Food Administration who made a detailed report 
upon the conditions found by him overseas. 

"There are millions of people in Europe who have no 
food," he said, "and who look to the United States to supply 
it. Growing of crops abroad is curtailing pending territorial 
adjustments. Governments will not spend millions of dollars 
for farm implements, even if they can obtain them, to be used 
on land that may shortly be given to a neighboring nation. 

"The great defect in central Europe today, indeed, in 
Europe as a whole, is the failure of production. Loss of man- 
power is not responsible for the condition, since in all countries 
unemployed men are drawing out-of-work stipends. The 
causes of the reduced productivity may be summarized as 
scarcity of coal, raw material and food, depreciation of cur- 
rency, disinclination on the part of labor to work and loss of 
initiative and enterprise on the part of capital." 

Discussing his work overseas, Dr. Taylor said he belonged 
to one of the optimistic groups of students of European affairs, 
particularly with respect to their relations to America. Then 
he said: 

"The treaty with Germany being signed and ratified by 
Germany, central Europe is now most concerned with the 

"After the treaties with Austria, Bulgaria, Turkey and 
Hungary have been concluded, there will remain only the 

512 America's Part in the World War 

problem of the relations of western Europe and the world 
with inscrutable Russia — inscrutable because of the fact that 
the future Russia lies in the psychology of the Russian peasant. 
Just as the problem of importation of food was uppermost 
in the minds of all the peoples between the Baltic and Adriatic 
Seas during the six months after the armistice was signed, 
so the results of the harvest are now uppermost, since it is 
felt that the problems of economic and industrial reorganiza- 
tion cannot be undertaken until the relations of the food 
supply during the coming year are known. 

"Poland is in a fairly hopeful situation, despite the great 
scarcity of work animals. The crops being harvested promise 
to cover about three-quarters of the requirements, leaving, 
however, for import something like thirty million bushels of 
bread grains. American cotton is now reaching Poland. 

"There is a particularly difficult racial problem in Poland, 
within whose present boundaries are contained one-half the 
Jews of the world. These are divided in two groups, those who 
desire assimilation with the Polish State and those who wish 
to remain foreigners outside of citizenship and enjoying 
special rights as foreigners. 

"Finland and the East Baltic States are in a condition 
of chaos. In Finland the cause is largely finance; in the 
East Baltic States the causes are racial and geographical. 

" Czecho-Slovakia is in good condition. Within the 
boundaries of the new republic are large resources in coal 
and metals. Prague has large textile industries that are now 
operating on American cotton. 

"Roumania has also been carried to the present harvest 
upon American and British foodstuffs. The present Roumanian 
boundaries correspond fully to the distribution of her people. 
The Germans had robbed the country in a merciless fashion. 

"The kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is 
harvesting a good crop which will give them an exportable 
surplus. Serbia is busily engaged in the rehabilitation of the 
railways destroyed by the Austrians. The northern areas, 
passed to the new state from the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, 
were practically self-supporting. Serbia has been fed since 
the armistice by the American relief administration. 

Aftermath of the War 513 

"Austria is in very bad shape. The Httle repubhc has a 
population of a Httle over seven million, of which two and 
one-quarter are in Vienna. Of these, however, one and one- 
quarter million are non-Germans, and these may be expected 
to emigrate to the surrounding national states to which they 
belong. But with a population of six million and a capital 
of one million, Austria will not be self-supporting agricul- 

"Austria has been fed since Christmas, to the extent of 
three-quarters of her food supply, on credits extended by the 
United Kingdom, France and Italy. She wull have to be fed 
during the next year on credits extended by somebody. 

"The present Hungary with a population of nine or tea 
millions represents practically all of the Magyars of the 
previous Hungary, living in a concentrated area and needs 
assistance after its disastrous experiment with Bolshevism. 

"Bulgaria has remained outside of the field of relief, 
politically, economically and in every other way. Bulgaria, 
like 'Brer Fox,' is lying low, in the hope of escaping as lightly 
as possible the penalty for her responsibility and conduct in 
the war. 

"There are nearly one hundred million of people in 
Central Europe. The armistice left these In political chaos, 
divided Into new states struggling with Inexperienced govern- 
ments, their transportation disorganized, with scarcity of 
coal, great depreciation of currency, acute struggles between 
labor and capital, and over all the pall of war fatigue. The 
problem of food was the immediate problem. If they could 
be carried Into the new harvest, this would afford time In 
part for their governments to become stabilized, their com- 
munications to be restored, their railways reorganized, their 
supply of fuel stabilized. 

"This would give six months for the study of their 
problems of currency and for the re-establishment of industry 
in order that interstate commerce might be resumed. All 
hung upon food. The feeding of Central Europe was under 
the control of the Supreme Economic Council, In theory; 
in fact, it was organized by Herbert HooVer and executed 
through the American Relief Administration. The United 

514 America's Part in the World War 

States has supplied three-fourths of the credit and four- 
fifths of the food. The amount of food supplied has repre- 
sented practically a third of the food supply of the peoples 
concerned and has meant the difference between life and death. 
The food supplied was suflScient to check physical deterioration, 
allay social unrest, restore the confidence of the people in 
their future and enable the beginnings of industrial productions 
to be undertaken. 

"In addition, the American Relief Administration has 
undertaken a child feeding program the same^ year, this 
representing an outright gift." 


The advance of prices was not confined to the United 
States or to the countries which participated in the war. 
It was world wide. Nor did it occur exclusively in the 
products required for war purposes, nor for the use of the 
millions engaged in the war. Practically every article entering 
international trade advanced in price in the country in which 
produced, irrespective of their proximity to the war area. 
Nor were prices reduced to a perceptible degree in any part 
of the world after the close of the war. There were, of course, 
a few exceptions to this general rule, but they were so few 
and so plainly due to peculiar conditions that they "proved 
the rule" that the advance was world wide and that the 
termination of the war did not reverse the movement or at 
least cause any material decline in any considerable proportion 
of the important articles of world production and world con- 

The extent of the increases in world prices and their dis- 
tribution to all parts of the globe irrespective of relation to 
the war area is illustrated by a compilation showing the 
1919 prices in the country of production of the principal 
articles forming the international trade of the world and 
comparing these 1919 prices with those of the month preceding 
the war. In the distant Orient, in the tropical world, in the 
interior of Africa, Australia and South America, and in the 
islands of the Pacific, the prices demanded for the articles 
offered for exportation were far above those of the pre-war 

Pholot — © Underiojod riiid L'ndenciiol 


Top: American Navy Seaplane NC-l which crossed the ocean ^^■\ih one stop at the 
Azores reaching Portugal, May 27, 1919. Caiter: The British Vickers-Vimv bombing plane 
which ma(le the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic, June 16, 1919. Bottom: The British 
dmgible K.34 which flew across the Atlantic, July 6, 1919. 

Aftermath of the, War 517 

period, the advances ranging from 50 per cent to 100 per cent 
and sometimes 150 per cent. 

Rice, for example, of which the United States imported 
about four hundred milHon pounds from China and Japan in 

1918, cost in the country of production 7.2 cents per pound 
for that imported in December, 1918, as against 2.6 cents 
per pound for that imported in the month preceding the war, 
July, 1914. Nitrate of soda, drawn chiefly from Chile, for 
which the war demands ceased at the date of the armistice, 
cost in the country of production $57.40 per ton for that 
imported in May, 1919, against ^26.65 per ton for that 
imported in the month preceding the war. Raw silk, of 
which we obtain our entire supply from China and Japan, 
cost in those countries an average of $6.12 per pound for the 
imports of the closing month of the war, and $3.84 per pound 
in the month preceding the war. Wood pulp bleached, chiefly 
from Canada and not produced in the war countries, cost in 
the country of production $160 per ton for the quantity 
imported into the United States in January, 1919, against 
$49 per ton for that imported in the month preceding the 
war. Goat skins imported from China, India, Mexico, 
and South America cost in those countries an average of 62.8 
cents per pound for those reaching the United States in May, 

1919, against 24.5 cents per pound for those imported from 
the same countries in the month preceding the war. Flaxseed, 
imported chiefly from Argentina and not an article demanded 
for war purposes, cost in the country of production $3 per 
bushel for that reaching us in January, 1919, against $1.47 
per bushel for that imported in July, 1914. Mattings for 
floors, imported chiefly from Japan and China, cost in the 
countries of production 26.4 cents per square yard for the 
quantities reaching the United States in May, 1919, against 
9.1 cents per square yard for the quantities which reached us 
in July, 1914. Jute, imported from India, cost in that country 
$172.75 per ton for the quantity imported into the United 
States in March, 1919, against $49.56 per ton for that imported 
in the month preceding the opening of the war. 

Curiously too, the prices of many articles advanced with- 
out reference to the fact that the war terminated. Of the 


America's Part in the World War 

seventy-five articles named by the Department of Commerce 
as "Principal Articles Imported," more than one-half of 
those entering the United States in May, 1919, actually showed 
higher prices in the country of production than the prices of 
the same articles imported in the closing month of the war, 
and coming from the same country. 


(Based on the wholesale price of articles in the markets of the countries from which imported, 

for unit of quantity stated.) 





Macaroni, vermicelli, etc 












sq. yd. 

sq. yd. 

sq. yd. 
























sq. yd. 


309 . 43 

66 00 





Rice-flour, meal, etc 




Flour, wheat. . 


Bristles, assorted, etc 


Nitrate of soda 


Coal, bituminous 


Cocoa, crude 




Conoer. Dicr. incrots. etc 


Cotton, raw 

Cotton, cloths, unbleached 


Cotton cloths bleached 


Cotton cloths, colored. . . 


Ecfffs . . 






Jute and jute butts 

Manila . 


Sisal grass 


Bindinff twine. . . 


Cod. haddock, etc 










piers . 






Walnuts. . . 


Calf skins . . 


Cattle hides 


Coat skins. ... 


ShppD skins 


India rubber, crude 


Pig iron 


Bar iron 


Steel, ineots, blooms, etc 


Tin nlates 


Mflttinff and mats for floors 


Beef fresh 


Aftermath of the War 



Oils: olive, edible 

Seeds : flaxseed or liuseed 

Slid, raw 


Sugar, cane 


Tin, in bars, blocks, etc 

Tobacco, leaf, for wrappers 

Other tobacco 




Pulp wood 

Boards, deals, planks, etc 

Wood pulp, mechanically ground . 
Wood pulp, chemical, unbleached 
Wood pulp, chemical, bleached. . . 
Wool, unm'f'd. class 1, clothing. 
Wool, unm'f'd. class 2, combing. . 
Wool, unm'f'd. class 3, carpet. . . 







$ 0.164 

$ 0.358 










doz. qts. 

16. 7G 





























M. ft. 






















$ 0.473 


The war gave an impetus to many lives of adventure, 
invention, experiment and industry. In no direction was that 
impulse felt with greater effect than in aerial navigation. 
The amazing achievements of airplanes, seaplanes and 
dirigibles during the war directed the attention of mankind 
to the possibilities of transportation through the air. Scarcely 
had the armistice been signed when a dramatic international 
race commenced for the honor of crossing the Atlantic Ocean 
between Europe and America. 

The first airplane to achieve this adventure was the 
NC-4, an American tractor biplane, equipped with four 
Liberty motors, each of four hundred horsepower. It had a 
wing span of 126 feet, a hull length of fifty feet, a gasoline 
capacity of two thousand gallons and an average speed of 
eighty miles an hour, and a carrying capacity of twenty-eight 
thousand pounds. Its commanding ofl^cer was Lieutenant- 
Commander A. C. Read, U. S. N., and it was manned with 
five other officers of the United States Navy. The NC-4 
and its sister planes NC-1 and NC-3 flew from Rockaway 
Beach, N. Y., bound for Halifax, N. S., on the morning of 
May 7th. The NC-1 and the NC-3 reached their destination 

520 America's Part in the World War 

the next morning at eight o'clock. The NC-4 was forced down 
by engine trouble and proceeded on the surface of the ocean 
to Shatten Bar on the Massachusetts coast, where repairs 
were made and the flight resumed on May 15th. 

The three planes flew from Trepassy Bay, Newfoundland, 
whither they had flown from Halifax, about six o'clock on 
the evening of Friday, May 16th, bound for the Azores. 
The NC-1 and the NC-3, commanded respectively by Lieu- 
tenant-Commander E. L. Bellinger and Commander John H. 
Towers, were compelled to descend to the surface of the 
ocean by thick fog, but the NC-4 succeeded in flying to the 
harbor of Horta. Both the NC-3, which rode out a gale and 
reached Ponta Delgada under its own power, and the NC-1 
were so badly damaged that they could not continue the flight. 

The NC-4 resumed its journey on the morning of May 
27th, reaching Lisbon, Portugal, that night at 9.02. 

Lieutenant-Commander Read and the NC-4 flew from 
Lisbon headed for Plymouth on May 30th. Twice the plane 
was compelled to descend on account of engine trouble, first 
at the mouth of the Mondego River and again at Ferrol on 
the northern coast of Spain. At this latter port repairs were 
made and the NC-4 on the morning of May 31st set out on 
the last lap of its journey over the Bay of Biscay swooping 
low over the harbor of Brest where it exchanged wireless 
greetings with the cheering soldiers at that port of American 
embarkation and straight across the English Channel to the 
great harbor of Plymouth, where it dropped lightly at rest 
at 2.26 o'clock in the afternoon of May 31st, completing the 
first flight over the Atlantic Ocean in the history of the world. 

A gallant attempt was made by the United States Navy 
dirigible C-5 to cross the Atlantic but this came to disaster 
on the afternoon of May 15, 1919, when after a successful 
flight from Montauk, N. Y., to Halifax, N. S., the C-5 burst 
its moorings, was blown out over the ocean and destroyed. 

Harry Hawker, an Australian aviator, and Lieutenant- 
Commander MacKenzie Grieve, of the British Navy, made a 
spectacular but unsuccessful effort for a non-stop flight over 
the Atlantic on May 18, 1919. Because of stoppage in the 
water filter to the feed pipe, the Sopwith plane in which the 

522 America's Part in the World War 

attempt was made was obliged to descend to the ocean on 
May 19th, where Hawker and Grieve were picked up by the 
Danish steamer Mary. 

The first nonstop flight over the Atlantic was accom- 
plished June 14-15, 1919, by Captain John Alcock, an English- 
man, and Lieutenant Arthur W. Brown, an American, in a 
Vickers-Vimy plane. The start was made at 4.28 p. m. 
Greenwich time from Newfoundland and the plane landed 
at Clifden, Ireland, at 8.40 a. m. June 15th, a trip of 1980 
miles accomplished in sixteen hours and twelve minutes. 

The first dirigible to fly over the Atlantic was the British 
rigid airship R-34. This transatlantic pioneer left East 
Fortune, Scotland, at 2 a. m. July 2d, and after a flight of 
approximately seven thousand miles via Newfoundland, 
arrived at Roosevelt Field, L. I., at 9 a. m. Sunday, July 6th. 
The return trip to England commenced just before midnight 
of July 9th and ended at Pulham, England, the trip consuming 
seventy-four hours and six minutes. 


One of the consequences of the World War was the 
sweeping prohibition of the sale of alcoholic beverages which 
became effective July 1, 1919, when the entire country was 
placed upon a prohibition basis until the legal consummation 
of peace. Congress had passed, the President had signed and 
a sufficient number of State Legislatures had ratified the 
constitutional amendment forbidding the manufacture and sale 
of intoxicating liquors after January 16, 1920. Opposition to 
both wartime prohibition and the constitutional amendment 
was widepsread and powerful but the transition was accom- 
plished without violent disturbance. 


The ten thousand technical experts who were recruited, 
either in uniform or in shop or office, to mobilize the nation's 
industries for the conduct of the war, were organized in 1919 
into a solid, working body prepared to meet any emergency 
which may arise and to conserve the "know how" which it 
took the nation nine months to obtain so that the millions of 

Aftermath of the War 523 

young men put into the field could be properly equipped to 
win the World War. 

This organization was the "Army Ordnance Association" 
and its founding committee consisted of a group of the promi- 
nent men representing American industry who supplied the 
technical knowledge which made America's rapid mobilization 
of resources the wonder of the world. The object was to 
keep in close touch the men qualified to take care of special 
branches of ordnance, engineering or production and to stimu- 
late their interest in these specialties so that what they learned 
about them during the war would not be forgotten. The 
organization was by ordnance districts and cross-sectioned 
into specialized committees. 

The founding committee of this organization was Herbert 
W. Alden, vice-president of the Timken-Detroit Axle Com- 
pany; Waldo C. Bryant, president Bryant Electric Company; 
C. L. Harrison, president Missouri Mutual Life Insurance 
Company; James C. Heckman, general manager of the Larkin 
Company; Robert P. Lamont, president American Steel 
Foundries; Bascom Little, building contractor of Cleveland, 
Ohio; Samuel McRoberts, vice-president National City Bank; 
Alton S. Miller, vice-president Bartlett, Howard Company, 
Baltimore; David C. Seagrave, vice-president Pacific Coast 
Shipbuilding Company; John R. Simpson, formerly of E. A. 
Filence Company, of Boston; William C. Spruance, director 
Explosives Manufacturing Department for E. I. du Pont de 
Nemours & Company; Guy E. Tripp, chairman board of 
directors Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany; Charles Eliot Warren, president Lincoln National Bank 
of New York, was acting treasurer of the association, and 
Major John H. Van Deventer, acting secretary. 

Out of the maelstrom of war and the storms of radicalism 
following the war, America emerged serene, possessed of 
greater vitality and a greater determination to spread the 
gospel of human liberty than ever before. Millions who had 
been impoverished in foreign lands and who were fearful of 
radical experiments that were being thrust upon them were 
eager to make their homes in America. Had the doors of 
naturalization and of immigration remained open, immedi- 


America's Part in the World War 

ately after the war it is probable that at least ten million 
persons would have come to America. The peoples of the world 
had learned to look to America as the home of freedom, the 
land where hope might blossom into prosperity and happiness. 
America sheathed the sword it had drawn in the cause 
of world freedom. The world had seen that the sword was 

W^O/fTH SEA'x 

J^>"^^* V HOLLAND 

^ANTWERP */%,>-^, 


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How THE German Armie3 were Pinched Out op France and Belgium 

keen and swift. It had seen also that the sword was not drawn 
in haste and was gladly restored to its scabbard. Within the 
brief space of time when the sword was in action there came 
to the world a realization of American power and of American 
purpose that redounded to the glory of a nation peacefully 
minded but sternly resolved upon the right when it had 
entered a conflict between right and wrong. 


The Treaty of Peace with Germany 

THE clock of history tolled the beginning of a new era 
when at 3.00 p. m. on Saturday, June 28, 1919, the 
treaty of peace, signalizing the destruction of Germany's 
military autocracy was signed. No more significant act had 
been consummated by America since the execution of the 
Peace Treaty that ended the Civil War. The peace which 
ended the Revolutionary War gave birth to the democratic 
ideals embodied in the United States of America. The 
treaty that brought the Civil War to an end made certain the 
preservation of that democracy. The treaty of Versailles 
extended the ideals and principles of true democracy through- 
out the world into nations whose age-long oppression had held 
struggling millions under the heel of tyranny. 

The setting which surrounded the ceremony of the signing 
the treaty of Versailles befitted the sacred occasion. Into the 
noble avenues and wide spaces surrounding the famous 
Place d'Armes of Versailles throngs had come through the 
mists of a threatening morning. Sunshine dissipated the 
clouds by noon and gleamed upon the accoutrements of eleven 
regiments of French cavalry and infantry. Through this 
avenue of heroic poilus In horizon blue and the human 
embankments of eager sightseers, the plenipotentiaries, dele- 
gates and honor guests poured in an endless stream of auto- 
mobiles, to be saluted as they reached the broad marble stair- 
way leading to the Queen's Apartment and the Hall of Peace 
which opened upon the historic Hall of Mirrors. German 
delegates were admitted to the Hall of Mirrors through a 
separate entrance, a circumstance which angered some of the 

A special honor was paid by the huge throng to General 
Foch, Premier Clemenceau, President Wilson, General 
Pershing and Premier Lloyd George. 


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Hew Fnnch Frontier 1 
Restored to France JLt2±2a 
Tp be administered 

by League of Nations-*' 

Areas Por PIcblscitG_^S3 

Detached From < . 1 ; 1 m i 

Union "■' ' '" '• 

Scale of Miles. 
10 20 30 40 

Righting the WnoNa Done to France in 1871 
In accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Peace, Alsace and Lorraine were restored 
to France; the Saar Basin was taken out of German control for fifteen years; Luxemburg 
ceased to form part of the German ZoUverein; Eupen and Malmedy were given to Belgium. 

The Treaty of Peace with Germany 527 

It was sheer justice that the document which destroyed 
German imperial autocracy should be signed in the very hall 
where the German Empire was born and commenced its 
ruthless being. In that same Hall of Mirrors forty-nine years 
before at the dictation of Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor, 
President Thiers had been compelled to sign the terms of a 
crushing defeat. Along the back wall of the mirrored chamber 
four hundred seats had been placed for guests of honor and 
along the right wall were an equal number of places for 
representatives of newspapers throughout the civilized world. 
The peace table was a huge hollow rectangle with an open 
side facing the windows looking out over the throng. 

Three dramatic incidents slightly delayed the proceedings. 
These were the spirited but unavailing protests of the German 
delegates, the flat refusal of the representatives of the Chinese 
Republic to attend the ceremony because of concessions 
granted to Japan in Shantung by the Peace Conference, and 
the solemn protest of General Jan Christian Smuts of the 
South African Peace Delegation that some provisions of 
the treaty were out of harmony with the peaceful temper 
which should have animated all the signatories. 

Just before three o'clock struck, forty-five wounded 
soldiers, fifteen each from the x\merican, French and British 
armies entered the hall, took their places in the embrasures of 
the wide windows. Premier Clemenceau gave a human 
touch to the scene by going quickly to each of the wounded 
soldiers of France and expressing his regret for the sufferings 
they had undergone and his joy at the glory that had come to 

It was seven minutes past three o'clock when the German 
delegates Dr. Hermann Mliller, German Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs, and Dr. Johannes Bell, Colonial Secretary, came into 
the hall. They had been preceded a few minutes earlier by a 
group of correspondents for German newspapers and maga- 
zines. They took seats between the Japanese delegation on 
their right and the Brazilians on their left. 

The ceremony of signing the treaty was of the simplest 
character. Premier Clemenceau, as president of the Peace 
Conference, speaking in French, said: 

Assigned to Poland — 

Free City of Paniig [ 

ArMS PorPIebiscita— E33 
Oebflched From Prussia— !%>:> 

\ OV i«?c« o ^jtOt/itesV^"'* SC<VLC OF MllEi 

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C/ « A \ V z Ji \ ^^ I 1 . 1 h n I I I I f 

The Re-estabushment of Poland 
Germany's greatest losses in territory and population were sustained in the east. 
By the terms of the Peace Treaty the independence of Poland was recognized and Germany 
ceded to that state Posen and part of Silesia (about 28,500 square miles; population, 8,440,- 
000) as well as a part of East Prussia. Plebiscites are to be taken in certain areas. Danzig 
is made a free city under the protection of the League of Nations. 

The Treaty of Peace with Germany 529 

The session is open. The allied and associated powers on one side 
and the German Reich on the other side have come to an agreement on 
the conditions of peace. The text has been completed, drafted, and the 
President of the Conference has stated in writing that the text that is 
about to be signed now is identical with the two hundred copies that have 
been delivered to the German delegation. The signatures will be given 
now, and they amoimt to a solemn undertaking faithfully and loyally to 
execute the conditions embodied by this treaty of peace. I now invite the 
delegates of the German Reich to sign the treaty. 

For a few moments silence that was both dramatic and 
tense held the throng. Then without a word, the German 
delegates arose, moved to the signatory table and placed 
upon the treaty the signatures attesting Germany's abject 

President Wilson, who outranked in power and position 
all the delegates to the Peace Conference, was the first to sign 
after the Germans. The other American delegates followed 
President Wilson. Then came Premier Lloyd George and the 
British delegation. Premier Clemenceau and the French 
delegates, Baron Saionji and his fellow Japanese delegates 
and the representatives of the smaller powers. 

Scarcely had the function ended with the signing of the 
last name when the German representatives, accompanied by 
their suite left the hall by the separate exit. No one rose as 
they left the room. They passed in silence through walls of 
stern set faces. No aggression met them, yet everywhere were 
walls of implacable starkness and hostility. 

Simultaneous with the signing of the treaty, President 
Wilson cabled an address announcing that fact to the 
American people. He said: 

My Fellow-Countrymen: The treaty of peace has been signed. 
If it is ratified and acted upon in full and sincere execution of its terms it 
will furnish the charter for a new order of affairs in the world. It is a 
severe treaty in the duties and penalties it imposes upon Germany; but 
it is severe only because great wrongs done by Germany are to be righted 
and repaired; it imposes nothing that Germany cannot do; and she can 
regain her rightful standing in the world by the prompt and honorable 
fulfillment of its terms. 

And it is much more than a treaty of peace with Germany. It lib- 
erates great peoples who have never before been able to find the way to 
liberty. It ends, once for all an old and intolerable order under which small 


America's Part in the World War 

groups of selfish men could use the peoples of great empires to serve their 
ambition for power and dominion. It associates the free governments of 
the world in a permanent league in which they are pledged to use their 
imited power to maintain peace by maintaining right and justice. 

The Saar Basin 
In accordance with Section IV of the Peace Treaty, Germany ceded to France the coal 
mines situated in the Saar Basin, and renounced in favor of the League of Nations the 
government of this territory. At the end of fifteen years the inhabitants of the Saar Basin 
shall be called upon to indicate the sovereignity under which they desire to be placed. 

It makes international law a reality supported by imperative sanctions. 
It does away with the right of conquest and rejects the policy of annexation 
and substitutes a new order under which backward nations — populations 
which have not yet come to political consciousness and peoples who are 

The Treaty of Peace with Germany 531 

ready for independence but not yet quite prepared to dispense with 
protection and guidance — shall no more be subjected to the domination and 
exploitation of a stronger nation, but shall be put under the friendly 
direction and afforded the helpful assistance of governments which under- 
take to be responsible to the opinion of mankind in the execution of their 
task by accepting the direction of the League of Nations. 

It recognizes the inalienable rights of nationality, the rights of min- 
orities and the sanctity of religious belief and practice. It lays the basis 
for conventions which shall free the commercial intercourse of the world 
from unjust and vexatious restrictions and for every sort of international 
co-operation that will serve to cleanse the life of the world and facilitate 
its common action in beneficent service of every kind. It furnishes guar- 
antees such as were never given or even contemplated for the fair treat- 
ment of all who labor at the daily tasks of the world. 

It is for this reason that I have spoken of it as a great charter for a 
new order of aflFairs. There is ground here for deep satisfaction, universal 
reassurance, and confident hope. 

Included in the treaty of peace was the constitution of 
the League of Nations, the purpose of which was the preven- 
tion of future war. Around this constitution raged violent 
discussions in America and Europe. Particular objections 
were made to the following clauses of the treaty: 

Article 10, which obligated the members of the League 
to preserve as against external aggression the territorial 
integrity and existing political independence of all members 
of the League. (In the view of some United States Senators 
this took the war-making power out of the hands of Congress 
and transferred it to the League of Nations.) 

Article 21, which read: "Nothing in this covenant 
shall be deemed to affect the validity of international engage- 
ments, such as treaties of arbitration or regional under- 
standings like the Monroe Doctrine, for securing the main- 
tenance of peace." (The objections to this clause in the. 
American Senate were on the grounds that the Monroe i 
Doctrine was neither an "international engagement" nor a 
"regional understanding.") 

Articles 156 to 158, which transferred to Japan the 
German rights in Shantung. (It was understood that Japan 
had given a verbal promise to eventually restore these rights 
to China, but some American senators insisted that the treaty 
should provide for this restoration. Because of these clauses. 



4. «§• ^ *fr ^ _,^ 

«f» «4.j 




Area for 

ScHLESwiG — German or Danish? 
The new frontier between Germany and Denmark is to be fixed in conformity 
with the wishes of the inhabitants. The map indicates the zone in Schleswig where 
the plebiscite is to be taken. This zone is placed temporarily under the authority of 
an International Commission. 

The Treaty of Peace with Germany 535 

the delegates from the Chinese RepubHc at the Versailles 
conference refused to sign the treaty of peace.) 

The treaty of peace with Germany included the following : 

Surrender of the Kaiser and other officials for trial; restoration of 
Alsace-Lorraine; internationahzation of the Sarre Basin for fifteen years, 
France to be ceded the coal mines therein; internationalization of Danzig; 
cession to Belgium of Moresnet and districts of Eupen and Malmedy; 
cession to Czecho-Slovakia of Upper Silesia; cession of Upper Silesia to 
Poland, with plebiscites in certain districts; cession to Allies of Memel; 
cession to Poland of most of Posen and portions of West Prussia and Pom- 
erania west of the Vistula, and of West Prussia east of the Vistula, plebis- 
cites to be taken in certain cases; creation of three zones in Schleswig, 
nationality to be settled by self-determination; recognition of independ- 
ence of Austria, that independence to be inalienable; renunciation of all 
rights outside of Europe; reduction of army to one hundred thousand by 
March 31, 1920, conscription to be abolished; all forts fifty kilometers 
east of the Rhine to be dismantled; allied occupation of parts of Germany 
for fifteen years, or until reparation is made; reduction of na\y to six 
battleships, six light cruisers, twelve cruisers and twelve torpedo boats, 
mthout submarines, and a personnel of not over fifteen thousand men; 
all other war vessels to be surrendered or destroyed; Helgoland forts to be 
demolished; Kiel Canal to be opened to all nations; Germany's fourteen 
submarine cables to be surrendered; no air forces permitted with the 
military or naval services; full responsibility accepted for all damages 
caused during war, initial payment to be 20,000,000,000 marks, the 
Inter-AUied Reparation Commission to make a final determination of the 
total due from Germany before May 1, 1921. 

The Covenant of the League of Nations was recognized 
in Europe as an American policy, and indeed it was due to 
President Wilson that the League became an essential part 
of the great treaty. Because of its vital interest to Americans 
the full text of the covenant is given here. 


The High Contracting Parties, 

In order to promote international co-operation and to achieve inter- 
national peace and security 

by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war, 

by the prescription of open, just and honourable relations between 

by the firm establishment of the understand