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OCT I - 1941 


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Successful Men of Affairs 

An Encyclopedia of Contemporaneous Biography 


Vol. I. 









This encyclopedia of biographies of "America's Successful Men of 
Affairs" is the only work of its class ever published. Thoroughly national, 
covering every part of the United States, it presents sketches of the lives 
of the most conspicuous of those who have been active in business since 
the Civil War and have attained the most marked success. While nearly 
all of the men, whose biographies appear in these volumes are or have 
been persons of large possessions, they have not been included solely be- 
cause of their wealth. Works of American biography have so far dealt 
mainly with the lives of government officials, clergymen, poets, teachers, 
soldiers, editors, authors, explorers, and other members of professions, who 
while accomplishing a great work and exercising a useful influence, have 
done comparatively little directly for the material welfare of their fellow 
men or the actual development of their country. It is a singular fact that 
these works have, with a single exception, almost absolutely ignored the 
business men of the country, whether living or dead. 

It would seem, however, as if the lives of the great pioneers, merchants, 
manufacturers, railroad builders and other practical men of a nation like 
America, constituted as important a part of the country's history as those 
of any other class. In the field of purely material effort, it is these men 
who have brought the wild lands under cultivation, developed the mines, 
forests and farms, built the railroads, steamboat lines and canals, set afloat 
and managed the shipping, organized the corporations, and introduced the 
new processes in science and mechanics, which have so greatly reduced the 
cost and promoted the comfort of living while contributing to the power 
and prestige of the nation itself. They have dotted the surface of nearly 
every State with manufactories and provided employment, wages and 
homes for millions of their countrymen. The great cities are largely their 
creation. In the realm of education, science and art, these men are the 
pillars upon which the whole structure rests. It is by them that the col- 
leges, schools, churches and philanthropic institutions are built and main- 
tained. They found the great museums, provide the means for monu- 
ments, statues, libraries, reading rooms and researches in science, publish 
the books, buy the paintings, pay the larger part of the taxes, sustain the 
political campaigns, and in general provide the subsistence and a stage for 
the activities of the whole aggregation of other men, to whose lives exist- 
ing works of biography are generally devoted. 


The failure to consider the lives of men of affairs as of historical im- 
portance is a curious feature of a great many otherwise excellent volumes 
of biography. It is to remedy, in a measure, a serious omission in the 
literature of the times that this compilation has been undertaken. 

The majority of men whose lives are presented in this work are yet 
active in affairs. These volumes are, therefore, almost wholly devoted to 
contemporary biography. In this respect they are unique. When John F. 
Slater, Daniel Hand and Seth Low each gave $1,000,000 to the cause of 
education, and John D. Rockefeller and Daniel B. Fayerweather gave yet 
larger sums, existing works could be searched in vain for the story of their 
lives. From time to time, the attention and gratitude of the people of 
America are powerfully awakened by the princely gift, personal achieve- 
ment or public spirited labors of some fellow citizen, whose name may pos- 
sibly be known outside of the circle of his immediate acquaintance but of 
whose career there is no public record. A laudable curiosity is felt in such 
a case concerning the new benefactor of his race. It is hoped that the 
present work will meet in this respect a public want. 

The biographies of prominent business men are of general interest. 
All are full of instruction, some are replete with romance. One fact to 
which they call renewed attention is that the vast majority of successful 
men have made their own way in life, beginning with no capital beyond 
their own good health, sound common sense and weekly wages in the store, 
shop, mine, or mill, or on the farm or railroad; They illustrate the encour- 
aging fact that America is a land in which a man can start from the lowest 
level of poverty and obscurity and rise, honestly, by his own exertions, to 
influence and fortune, if he is capable of self sacrifice, untiring labor and 
intelligent effort. Men born upon the farm or in the country village, 
orphaned when young, compelled to face the hardships of existence while 
not yet of age, and forced into the arena with no other education than that 
of the country school, have been able to educate themselves, to initiate 
great movements, found institutions of learning and charity, exercise a 
beneficent influence in the highest social circles, and sway the destinies of 
a people by their talents in the field of practical affairs. These biographies 
should teach a lesson of courage and hope to all young men who are start- 
ing in life under inauspicious circumstances. 

Volume I. is devoted to that cluster of communities known popularly 
under the name of the Greater New York. 



HENRY EUGENE ABBEY, dramatic manager, descends from Connecticut ancestry, 
and was born in Akron, O. , June 27, 1846. A student in the public schools of Akron 
during boyhood, he began life as clerk in his father's jewelry store. He rose to 
partnership, and in 1873, succeeded to the business. In 1869, he leased the Akron 
Theatre, which he managed with so much success, that in 1876 he leased the Park 
Theatre in New York city, and from that time forward devoted his energies entirely 
to dramatic affairs. He is now the manager of Abbey's Theatre, at 1402 Broadway, 
and the Metropolitan Opera House, 1415 Broadway, and, in Boston, of the Tremont 
Theatre. Mr. Abbey was married in 1876 to Miss Kate Kingsley of Northampton, 
Mass., who died in 1883. In 1886, he married Florence Gerard of Boston. His one 
daughter is Kate Kingsland Abbey. Mr. Abbey has been elected to membership in 
the New York, Manhattan, New York Yacht and Larchmont Yacht clubs, and the 
Ohio Society. 

ABRAHAM ABRAHAfl, a leading dry goods merchant of Brooklyn, was born in 
New York city, March 9, 1843. His father, Judah Abraham, a native of Bavaria, one of 
the earliest German settlers in this city, emigrated hither in 1835. The young man 
learned the dry goods trade in Newark, N. J., as an apprentice, beginning at the age 
of fourteen. Later he aided his father in a wholesale dry goods store, and then in 1865 
formed a partnership with Joseph Wechsler, under the title of Wechsler & Abraham, 
and started a small retail dry goods store on Fulton street in Brooklyn, with a few 
employes. The partners were practical and extremely industrious, and their success 
led to repeated enlargements, culminating in the erection of a large store at 422 Fulton 
street. The interest of Mr. Wechsler was finally bought by Nathan and Isidor Straus, 
and Mr. Abraham became senior partner of the present firm of Abraham & Straus. 
He is an excellent merchant and his store is now the leading bazaar of Brooklyn, 
employing more than 2,000 persons, and covering about thirty city lots. A large addi- 
tion is now contemplated. Mr. Abraham is married and has four children, three girls 


and one boy. He is president of Temple Israel, vice-president of the Hebrew Orphan 
Asylum, Brooklyn, and director in The Brooklyn Society for Prevention of Cruelty to 
Children, The Kings County Trust Co. and The Long Island Bank, and member of 
Chamber of Commerce of New York, the Union League, Brooklyn, Oxford, and Law- 
rence clubs of Brooklyn, and the Harmonic club of New York, as well as of numerous 
charitable and other societies in both cities. 

DAVID DEPEYSTER ACKER, founder and head of the house of Acker, Merrall & 
Condit, merchants of fine groceries, one of the most active, capable and energetic men 
of his day and an excellent representative of the last generation of the "merchant 
princes" of New York, was born in Bergen county, N. J., June 13, 1822, and died 
March 23, 1888. Successful in his plans, the soul of honor in every transaction, kindly 
in every impulse, and unassuming in manner, his long and honorable record was free 
from the slightest blemish, and he won the unqualified respect of all with whom he 
came in contact. 

He was fortunate enough to be the son of a farmer, and in the healthful open air 
life of the country he gained, during his boyhood days, the vigorous health which fitted 
him for the arduous labors of later life. He was of Dutch descent, his ancestors having 
emigrated to America in the early part of the seventeenth century. The family 
possessed high character but their means were limited, and David was compelled to 
face the stern realities of life at an unusually early age. He came to New York city 
in 1833 seeking employment, and found it in the little old store of T. & A. S. Hope, 
afterwards Thomas Hope & Co., grocers, who then occupied the first floor and base- 
ment of the Franklin House, on the corner of Chambers street and College Place. At 
that period the homes of many cultivated people occupied the streets adjacent to this 
corner, and the brothers Hope enjoyed a large trade among the highest class of patrons. 
Their new clerk, even in the first years of his connection with the house, gave promise 
of future usefulness He was honest, thorough, attentive to details, and obliging, and 
soon rose into the confidence of the firm. He remained with the house for twenty-four 
years, and became intimately identified with its business, and in time practically the 
manager. His opportunity came in 1857, when the senior partner retired. Mr. Hope 
transferred to Mr. Acker the business, which the latter had done so much to build up, ' 
taking his promises to pay, and Mr. Acker, in partnership with William J. Merrall and 
John W. Condit, both of whom had been his fellow clerks in the old firm, now organ- 
ized the new house of Acker, Merrall & Condit, which under the management of the 
head of the concern, entered upon a career of great prosperity. Mr. Acker was the 
inspiring element from the first. While the business was systematized and divided into 
departments, Mr. Acker pervaded every part of the store and directed all of the firm's 

In 1867, under the firm name of Acker, Edgar & Co., a branch store was opened 
in Yonkers on the Hudson, with a local partner, an undertaking, which, in part, grew 
- out of the annual exodus of society from New York city to summer homes along the 
Hudson river. In 1871, the up town movement of population in the city led the 
firm to establish a local branch at No. 1,472 Broadway, on the corner of 42d street. 
Another large store was also opened at No. 1010 Sixth avenue, each one supplying a 
special part of the best residence section of the city with the finest class of groceries. 
Both to ensure the excellence of their goods and to be in a position to take proper 


advantage of the markets, Mr. Acker established a purchasing agency in Paris in 1874. 
These were all judicious ventures and every one of them was prospered. 

The growth of the business finally compelled Mr. Acker to enlarge the wholesale 
store down town, and in 1887 the old building on Chambers street was reinforced with 
the addition of another twice its size. The firm were then employing 300 men, 125 
horses, and 60 wagons in their flourishing trade. 

For many years, Mr. Acker was a prominent figure among the guests at Saratoga. 
He visited the springs every summer. He was always fond of the country, and he 
spent every spring and fall at his beautiful country seat of Fairlawn, near Paterson, 
N. J. During the last few years of his life, he spent the month of March in Florida. 

While taking a lively interest in public affairs, he was never allured by public posi- 
tion, and he refused positively to accept a nomination for Congress, which was once 
tendered him by his neighbors in New Jersey. 

Although closely devoted to the business of his firm, he found time to participate 
in the management of The National Exchange Bank, of which he was vice-president, 
and he was an interested member of the Produce Exchange and the Chamber of Com- 
merce. He also belonged to The Holland Society, deriving his eligibility from his 
ancestry. He was a devoted Episcopalian, and attended worship regularly at St. 
Thomas's church in New York and St. Paul's church in Paterson. He died March 23, 
1888, leaving his large fortune to his wife and seven children. Two of them, Charles 
L. Acker and Franklin Acker were at the time members of the firm. His son, 
CHARLES LIVINGSTON ACKER, born in New York city, Oct. 13, 1846, died here May 
26, 1891. He was a young man of great promise, received a sound education, and 
at the age of seventeen entered the wholesale and retail grocery store of Acker, 
Merrall & Condit. A thorough apprenticeship made him a good merchant, and 
when he attained his majority he became junior partner in the firm. When the branch 
store on Broadway at the corner of 42d street was opened in 1869, he was placed in 
entire charge thereof. Of sturdy physique and exceptionally good health, he succeeded 
in his management and had never been detained from businessa single day on account 
of sickness until he contracted the malady which ended his life. Sept. 2, 1868, he was 
married to Helena, daughter of the Hon. James J. Brinkerhoff, of New Jersey, and left 
a son, Charles L. Acker, Jr., and three daughters. He was vice-president of The 
Hudson River Bank, treasurer of several other corporations, and member of The 
Holland Society. FRANKLIN ACKER, merchant, son of the late David D. Acker, born 
in New York city, Feb. 16, 1853, received his education at the public schools and in 
Weston, Conn. He first engaged in business in 1870, with Acker, Merrall & Condit, 
and having mastered thoroughly every detail of the business, became a member of the 
firm in 1888. In 1892 his interest was sold to W. J. Merrall. Nov. 12, 1884, Mr. Acker 
married Emma, daughter of ex-State Senator James J. Brinkerhoff, of New Jersey. His 
family consists of two sons, David D. and Irving Fairchild Acker. He is a director of 
The David D. Acker Co. of this city and The Fiberite Co. of Mechanicville, N. Y., and 
a member of The Holland Society and Colonial and Hardware clubs. 

WARREN ACKERMAN, manufacturer, born in 1826, died in Scotch Plains, N. J., 
Aug. 26, 1893. He began life modestly, possessed of sound character, a clear head, 
and a worthy desire to succeed. During the Civil War he sold rubber goods, and filled 
some profitable contracts for the Government. Later he became interested in the 


manufacture of hydraulic cement, as president and principal stockholder of The Law- 
renceville Cement Co. In 1876, he married a daughter of Isaac L. Platt, one of the 
founders of The Chemical National Bank. He retired from business several years 
before his death, and devoted his time to a large estate, which included the beautiful 
Glenside Park, or Feltville. 

EDWARD DEAN ADAHS, banker, a man of special gifts and remarkable power of 
organization, was born in Boston, Mass., April 9, 1846. His father, Adoniram Judson 
Adams, a merchant, sprang from Puritan ancestry. Edward began his education as a 
student at Chauncey Hall in Boston, and fitted there for college. He graduated from 
Norwich University in Northfield, Vt., in the class of 1864, with the degree of 
Bachelor of Science, and added to the scholarly equipment thus attained by two years 
mainly spent in travel in Europe. Possessing excellent powers of observation and a 
studious and retentive mind, Mr. Adams gained greatly by these travels; and the 
knowledge thus acquired has since been regularly and extensively cultivated by travel 
in later years both abroad and to all parts of North America, more particularly in the 
United States, with all sections of which Mr. Adams is now intimately acqiiainted 

The young man wished to become a banker, and gained his first lessons in the 
requirements of this occupation by service, from 1866 to 1870, as bookkeeper and 
cashier for a Boston firm of bankers and brokers. In 1870 he assisted in organizing 
the banking house of Richardson, Hill & Co. , of Boston, which is yet in existence and 
has always enjoyed a high repute. He remained a partner until 1878. He then 
removed to New York city to accept a partnership in the old banking house of Wins- 
low, Lanier & Co., famous for conservative and honorable methods and its relations 
with important corporate interests. He was successfully occupied with the financial 
operations of this house until 1893, when he retired to devote his time to various large 
properties, in which in the meantime he had become deeply interested. During the 
fifteen years of his partnership in Messrs. Winslow, Lanier & Co. , he participated in 
many of the government, railway and municipal negotiations of that active period. 
He was especially occupied with construction and reorganization enterprises, into all of 
which his personality entered as a moving and controlling factor, and for which he was 
responsible. Some of the more noteworthy of these may be referred to. 

In 1882-83, ne organized The Northern Pacific Terminal Co., was elected president 
thereof, provided the funds and constructed the terminal plant in Portland, Oregon, 
which was afterwards successfully leased to The Northern Pacific Railroad and other 

In 1883, he organized The St. Paul & Northern Pacific Railway Co., provided the 
capital, and, as vice-president, supervised the acquisition and construction of the ter- 
minal facilities at Minneapolis and Saint Paul, now leased to the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road Co. 

In 1885, he organized and constructed The New Jersey Junction Railroad Co., now 
leased to The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Co. 

The same year, he prepared a plan for the reorganization of The New York, West 
Shore & Buffalo Railway, The New York, Ontario & Western Railway, and The West 
Shore & Ontario Terminal Co., and their allied properties, which plan was carried out 
in 1886, with hardly any variation from the programme as first submitted by him to 
Messrs. Morgan and Vanderbilt in 1885. The efficiency of his services in this undertak- 


ing was officially recognized by The New York Central Railroad Co. He received a 
graceful letter of thanks from Mr. Depew, president of The New York Central ; and 
Drexel, Morgan & Co., in their circular to The West Shore bond-holders, made special 
acknowledgment to Edward D. Adams, "who, for nearly a year past, has devoted 
almost his whole time to perfecting and carrying out the plan which has resulted in 
entire success. But for his activity and valued assistance, based on information which 
he alone possessed, the difficulties of the situation would have been greatly enhanced." 
T. Pierpont Morgan also made a generous and manly acknowledgment upon the success 
of the great work in reorganizing The West Shore Railroad, which he declared due to 
the special knowledge and personal devotion of Mr. Adams. 

The rescue of The Central Railroad of New Jersey in 1887 from its receivership 
was accomplished upon a plan, conceived by Mr. Adams and worked out by him with 
infinite care and close regard for all the interests involved, as chairman of its Finance 

Modest, caring nothing for public recognition, but delighting in the solution of 
intricate problems and the successful execution of carefully concerted plans, Mr. Adams 
brings to labors of this class a power of analysis, specially his own, and an energy and 
capacity for work, which bear the unmistakable stamp of genius. 

In 1888, he rendered an important service to The Philadelphia & Reading Railroad 
in the marketing of the new bonds of the company. The financial world places so much 
reliance in the judgment and integrity of Mr. Adams that in an enterprise like this, he 
succeeds where others are likely to fail. The directors of the company expressed their 
gratitude to Mr. Adams for the service he had performed in their behalf, by a special 
and expressive resolution of thanks. 

In 1890 he undertook a work, which gave new proof of his abilities. The 
American Cotton Oil Trust was then on the verge of bankruptcy. Mr. Adams entered 
upon a close, careful and extended investigation, and, as a result, reorganized the com- 
pany upon lines laid down and through channels and men selected by himself. He has 
enforced a severely economical administration and placed in positions of responsibility 
the men best fitted for their respective duties by natural gifts and experience, and con- 
tinues to this date to direct the business of the organization as chairman of the board of 
directors.. He exercises a daily scrutiny of the smallest details, and has rescued the 
company, by his energetic and untiring labors, from the calamities which threatened to 
engulf it in ruin. 

The Cataract Construction Co. , at Niagara Falls, has been fortunate in enlisting 
his co-operation. Of the two great engineering works of the present age, which, while 
practicable, are tasks of difficulty, and which are destined to bring a distinct fame to 
those who achieve them, one is the utilization of the enormous water power of Niagara 
Falls for the purposes of productive industry. In 1890, Mr. Adams was elected 
president of the company, which is developing the water power of Niagara, and has 
successfully directed the engineering operations there to the present moment. The 
Bachelor of Science has in this enterprise shown himself a master not only of science 
but of finance. 

In 1893, he accepted the proposals of a group of German bankers to represent 
their interests in America, and formed the Reorganization Committee of The Northern 
Pacific Railroad Co. , of which committee he is chairman. The fact that Mr. Adams 


has accepted a responsible relation with a scheme of this class at once gains the public 
attention, inspires confidence in the property, and supplies a guarantee of success. 

Mr. Adams is now occupied as chairman of the directors of The American Cotton 

011 Co., and president of its most important allied organizations; president of The Cat- 
aract Construction Co., and its associate corporations; vice-president of The Central & 
South American Telegraph Co., and director of The West Shore Railroad and The 
Central Railroad of New Jersey and its subordinate companies. 

He is very happy in his family life. His wife is Fannie A., daughter of William 
E. Gutterson of Boston, to whom he was married in 1872. His children are Ernest 
Kempton Adams, now an engineering student in Yale University, and Ruth, a young 

A gentleman of cultivated mind and agreeable manners, well informed, and of 
spotless integrity, he is as much respected in the social world as in financial circles. His 
resources for diversion are indicated by the following positions that he holds : Fellow 
in Perpetuity of the National Academy of Design; patron (with right of succession in 
perpetuity) of The American Museum of Natural History; trustee of The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art and the Gift Fund of The American Fine Arts Society; and fellow of 
The American Society of Civil Engineers. He is also a member of many of the lead- 
ing clubs, including the Metropolitan, City, Union League, Players', Lawyers', Tuxedo, 
Riding and Grolier, The New England Society of this city and the Chicago club of 

GEORGE TOWNSEND ADEE, merchant and banker, was born in Albany, N. Y., 
April 7, 1804, and died in New York city, Nov. 20, 1884. He was of English-French 
descent and son of William Adee, of Westchester. His mother was Clarissa Townsend 
of Albany. His great-grandfather, John Adee, came from England to Providence 
Plantations in the early part of the eighteenth century, and thence to Portchester, in 
Westchester county, N. Y. 

George Townsend Adee's education was gained at private schools in Portchester, 
N. Y. , and Fairfield, Conn., and at an early age he began his business career in the old 
firm of Adee, Timpson & Co., of Pearl street, New York, of which firm his father 
was senior partner. There his close, steady attention to the firm's affairs, his natural 
aptitude, broad views, probity and good judgment soon made him a partner. In due ' 
time, he took his father's place as head of the firm and remained an active member 
until 1850. 

In 1844 he married Ellen Louise, daughter of Philip Henry, merchant, of New 
York, a veteran of the war of 1812, whose son, Joshua Henry, was the senior of the 
> firm of Henrys, Smith & Townsend, a leading dry goods house transacting a large bus- 
iness North and South before the war of the Rebellion. 

Mr. Adee's family, for several generations, had been residents of Westchester 
county, N. Y. , his father's homestead being now the centre of Westchester town. In 
1851 he purchased the country seat of Edward Le Roy on Throggs Neck, Westchester, 
where he dwelt until his death and where his family yet reside. Here, on the border of 
Long Island Sound, was his chief relaxation from business cares. In quiet retirement, 
surrounded by his family, he indulged his taste for rural life, enjoying especially the 
culture of trees, fruit and flowers. Dignified, serene and amiable, he commanded the 
respect, admiration and regard of that community particularly. Always ready to sue- 


cor his neighbors with sound advice, he contributed freely to all worthy objects, and 
lending his strong support to St. Peter's Episcopal Church of Westchester, of which he 
was a member and for many years a vestryman, and in whose ancient church yard his 
remains and those of his ancestors now lie. 

His family consisted of his wife, Ellen Louise, and six children, George A., Clarissa 
Townsend, wife of M. Dwight Collier, Philip H., Frederic W., Edwin M. and Ernest 
R. Adee. All of his sons and his son-in-law were graduated at Yale College. 

In 1842 Mr. Adee became a director of the Bank of Commerce, in New York, 
and afterward, for ten years, its vice-president, and much of that time its acting presi- 
dent. He was also a founder and one of the directors of The Equitable Life Assuralice 
Society, the United States Trust Co. and The Republic Fire Insurance Co., and he held 
and administered many arduous private trusts with unvarying fidelity and success, and 
greatly to the advantage of the beneficiaries. His good citizenship, his unswerving 
patriotism and devotion to the government and to the Union cause during the Rebellion 
were notable. The exceptional success, at the time, of the great hospital for wounded 
soldiers at Fort Schuyler, on Throggs Neck, was due as much to Mr. Adee's efforts as 
to those of any one citizen, and his advice, on more than one occasion during the 
Rebellion, was sought and received by the Governor of the State of New York and the 
Secretary of the United States Treasury. 

After his withdrawal from commercial business, Mr. Adee became, even more than 
before, active, useful and prominent in regard to the great financial affairs of the city 
and of the nation. His high personal character, his large experience and remarkably 
cool, clear and sound judgment gave to his opinions great weight and influence, so 
that, not only by the monied institutions with which he was connected, but by officers 
of the Government and by financiers in other cities of this country and in England, his 
opinion and advice were highly valued. For several years before his death, he was at 
his business office at The National Bank of Commerce, daily, and entered it in his usual 
good health on the day of his death. His wife and six children survive him. 

Mr. Adee was a gentleman of refined, kindly and courteous manner, of dignified 
bearing, and of commanding influence. He was long and most highly esteemed by a 
large circle of social and business friends, among whom his name was a synonym for 
honor and integrity. 

niCHAEL JOSEPH ADRIAN, cigar manufacturer, was born in June, 1826, at Klin- 
genberg on the Main, Bavaria. He was educated in his native village and in the night 
schools of New York city. As an apprentice, after his arrival in this city in 1840, he 
learned to make cigars, and later bought his employer's business for 100,000. Until 
1865 he remained at the corner of Division and Gouverneur streets, and then removed 
to 472 Grand street. As soon as he had made sufficient savings, Mr. Adrian began 
buying unimproved local land and building thereon, and has been successful in a field 
in which many others have failed. He foresaw the real estate panic, which began in 
1870, and met it with prudence and advantage to himself. Some of his friends laughed 
at his predictions and were ruined by their real estate speculations. He is now a large 
owner of excellent realty. Since its organization, he has been president of The Ger- 
man Exchange Bank, one of the soundest of local financial institutions, having a sur- 
plus three times as great as its capital. Mr. Adrian is the father of six children, 
Charles L., George S., Joseph M., Arnoa M., Marie M., and Frank L. Adrian. 


FREDERIC KIRKHAfl AGATE, capitalist, born in New York city, Jan. 23, 1854; 
died in Luzerne, Switzerland, Aug. 17, 1887. Of English extraction, his father, Joseph 
Agate, of Yonkers, N. Y., was a wealthy man. Frederic graduated from Columbia 
Law School in 1875, but never practiced his profession. Wealth came to him in part 
by inheritance, but he employed his means with judgment and won a strong position, 
and, by his character, the respect of all who knew him. In April, 1879, he was mar- 
ried to Sarah Katharine, daughter of David T. and Elizabeth T. Jackson, who, with 
two children, Frederick Joseph and Mary Virginia, survive him. They had lived in 
New York since 1884. Mr. Agate, who had taken his wife and two children on a pleas- 
ure tour in Europe, passed away while in Luzerne. He was a member of the New 
York, Manhattan and Lambs' chibs. 

JOHN W. AITKEN, head of the wholesale and retail dry goods house of Aitken, 
Son & Co., Broadway, corner of i8th street, was born in this city, Jan. 31, 1850. 

His father, John Aitken, born in 1806, in Cumbernauld, Dumbartonshire, Scotland, 
was an only son in a family of five children. He received his early education in the 
village school. On the death of his father, John, at the age of twelve, felt a strong 
desire to come to this country, but repressed the wish until the death of his mother 
and after the other members of the family had been comfortably provided for, when 
he emigrated to this country. He landed in New York, July 20, 1833, and soon 
obtained a situation in the dry goods house of Andrew Mitchell & Co. He filled his 
place with satisfaction to his employers and credit to himself. A few years later, he 
started in business on his own account. In 1843 ne entered into partnership with 
James Miller, under the firm name of Aitken & Miller, on Canal street. Later the 
firm removed to 405 Broadway, afterward to No. 423, again to No. 473, and finally to 
Nos. 873 and 875. In 1873 Mr. Miller retired. Mr. Aitken then organized the present 
firm of Aitken, Son & Co., taking as partners his only son, John W. Aitken, and 
Archibald McLintock. 

John W. Aitken was educated at the school of Dr. Clark, formerly on the corner" 
of West 4th and Macdougal streets, and was prepared for Princeton College at the age 
of fifteen. He graduated in 1869 with the degree of A. B., receiving three years later 
the degree of A. M. On the completion of his college course in the spring of 1869, 
he entered, as clerk, the store of Aitken & Miller, passing from one department to 
another and familiarizing himself with every branch of the business in New York. In 
1871, he accompanied one of the foreign buyers of the house to Europe for instruction 
in the foreign branches of the business. In the summer of 1873, J ust prior to the 
dissolution of the firm of Aitken & Miller, Mr. Aitken went abroad to purchase a 
diversified stock of new goods for the new house of Aitken, Son & Co. His thorough 
knowledge of merchandise and close attention to details made the trip a successful 
venture. He then returned to the active management of the business in New York. 
In January, 1879, on the death of his father, he became the senior member of 
Aitken, Son & Co., now widely known for its successful past and present prosperous 

As a merchant, Mr. Aitken has been distinguished for considerate treatment of his 
employes, unbending integrity, sound judgment, quick perception, untiring patience, 
perseverance and courage. He has, in addition to these personal qualities, a fine taste, 
the exercise of which, in the selection of merchandise and the general conduct of busi- 


ness, has given his firm a national reputation for goods of the highest excellence in 
quality and elegance in style. 

Mr. Aitken has never sought or held public office. Although eminently qualified 
by natural gifts, judicial temperament and liberal education for active leadership in 
representative assemblies, he has always shunned rather than courted conspicuous 
places. He has, however, faithfully and often laboriously co-operated with others 
in matters affecting the welfare of the city and its worthy charities. He is a member of 
The Chamber of Commerce, a director of The Second National Bank, The Hudson River 
Bank, and The Broadway Insurance Co., and a trustee of The Bowery Savings Bank. 
His club memberships are in the University, Union League, Metropolitan, Grolier and 
City. He retains a deep interest in the affairs of Princeton College and is energetic 
in the furtherance of its material and educational progress. 

Mr. Aitken was married, Feb. 6, 1877, to Helen F. Powers, daughter of D. W. 
Powers, the banker, of Rochester, N. Y. He has two children, a daughter and a son. 

HERMAN DAGGETT ALDRICH, merchant, born at Mattituck, L. I., July 6, 1801, 
died in New York city, April 5, 1880. His family was of English descent, his father being 
James Aldrich, a resident of Long Island. Herman's early years were passed in his 
native village, where his opportunities for education were limited. While yet a boy, 
he came to this city and obtained employment in the store of Stephen Lockwood. He 
possessed a strong constitution, a clear mind and great firmness of character, and, once 
launched upon a mercantile career, made his way with admirable energy. Early in 
life he associated himself with Robert H. McCurdy in the dry goods commission busi- 
ness, the firm subsequently becoming McCurdy, Aldrich & Spencer. The partners 
were all distinguished for uprightness of dealing and ability, and the business yielded 
each partner a handsome fortune. In 1840 Mr. Aldrich was married to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Samuel Wyman of Homewood, Baltimore county, Md. His children were 
James H., William W., and Spencer Aldrich, Mrs. J. N. Steele, whose husband is con- 
nected with Trinity Church, and Mrs. T. N. Dudley, wife of Bishop Dudley of Louis- 
ville, Ky. He was a founder and trustee of St. Luke's Hospital, and greatly interested 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church. A striking feature of his life was the close inti- 
macy between him and his partner, Mr. McCurdy, extending from early youth to a ripe 
old age. They came to New York at the same time, met as boys in Mr. Lockwood's 
store, and shared the same room in the attic over the store. Their lives ran on side by 
side, until the end. For thirty years they lived in adjoining houses, and then died 
within a few hours of one another. Their funeral services were held in common, and 
the\" lie buried in adjoining lots in Greenwood Cemetery. 

JUNIUS B. ALEXANDER, banker, born in Virginia in 1814, died in New York city 
in January, 1893. His father was a large landholder, who employed negro slaves in the 
cultivation of his plantations. While a youth of 16, Junius went to Hardinsburg, Ky., 
began life as a clerk in a store, and rose to become a magistrate, president of a bank in 
Owensboro, and in 1853 cashier of The Southern Bank in Louisville. In 1858, he 
formed a partnership with H. D. Newcomb, of Louisville, to carry on a wholesale 
grocery trade, under the name of Alexander, Newcomb & Co. He removed to St. 
Louis, was a merchant and president of The Exchange Bank there, dissolved partnership 
in 1863, and moved to New York, where he engaged in private banking. Twice married, 
he was survived by his second wife and several children. He dwelt on Staten Island. 


WILLIAM C. ALEXANDER, president of The Equitable Life Assurance Society, 
born in Prince Edward county, Va., in May, 1806, died in New York city, Aug. 23, 1874. 
He was the second son of Dr. Archibald Alexander, one of the founders and first pro- 
fessor of the Theological Seminary in Princeton, N. J. Mr. Alexander graduated 
from Princeton College in 1824, having distinguished himself there both as a writer 
and speaker. Educating himself as a lawyer, he practiced his profession in New Jer- 
sey for thirty-five years. Taking an active part in the canvass then being hotly con- 
tested between Mr. Adams and General Jackson, his fame as an orator and a man of 
genius soon spread throughout the State. In 1835 he was unexpectedly nominated for 
the Legislature by the inhabitants of Middlesex county, but declined the honor and 
warmly espoused the cause of the person substituted in his place. In 1836, without 
his consent, he was again nominated and elected. On taking his seat, although one 
of the youngest members, he became the leader of his side of the House, and shortly 
afterwards, on the nomination of a member of the opposite party, was unanimously 
elected Speaker. Mr. Alexander's speeches, during the years in which he served in 
the Legislature, in behalf of education, civilization, the elevation of the workingman 
and the establishment of common schools, won for him the deserved respect and admi- 
ration of men of all parties. On several important occasions, he exhibited his inde- 
pendence by dissenting in debate from the great majority of his party. He continued 
to grow more prominent until, without his so'icitation, he was elected a member of 
the Senate and re-elected at the expiration of his term, and was three times chosen 
President of the Senate on the nomination of the opposition without a dissenting 
voice. At one time, nominated as Governor of New Jersey, he was frequently urged 
to allow his name to be used in connection with the United States Senatorship, when 
an election would have been sure, and was brought forward at the Charleston Con- 
vention as a candidate for the Vice-Presidency, but his preferences were in favor of a 
private life. He attended the Peace Congress at Washington just before the late war, 
and presided over that body during a great part of its sessions. In 1859 Mr. Alexan- 
der became the president of The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United 
States, and thereafter his business life was passed in New York city. His fine intel- 
lect found in the development of this great corporation a duty worthy of his powers. 
His success was great. 

FRANCIS ALEXANDRE, merchant, born on the Island of Jersey, in Great Britain, 
Aug. 5, 1809, died in New York city, June 8, 1889. He was the son of a farmer. With an 
inclination for a sailor's life, he went to sea at an early age, and acquired an education 
by attending school during his stay in various ports and devoting the spare time on 
ship-board to reading. At the age of twenty-one he took command of a vessel, which he 
directed for years, renouncing in favor of his sisters the estate which he had inherited 
from his father. When about twenty-eight years old, the young captain settled in New 
York city, establishing a small commission house in South street, paying at first as annual 
rental the sum of $25. In 1842 he established a line of sailing vessels between New 
York and Honduras, and subsequently between New York, Vera Cruz and South 
America. In this enterprise he succeeded so well that, in 1867, he sold the sailing 
vessels, substituted steamers, and for nineteen years carried mails, freights and passen- 
gers between New York, Havana and Mexico. Many remarkable ships were built for 
this line in subsequent years, including among others the City of Mexico, City of New 


York, City of Havana, City of Alexandria, City of Washington, City of Vera Cruz, and 
City of Pueblo. The business transacted was large and profitable. His three sons 
were successive!}" taken into partnership as they came of age, the great house taking 
the name of F. Alexandre & Sons. In 1888 the firm sold its vessels and retired from 
business. In 1838 Mr. Alexandre married Miss Civiles Cipriaut, of New York, who 
died Feb. 13, 1882. Three sons, John E., Joseph J. and J. Henry survived him. The 
secret of his success lay in his industry, integrity, exactness and justice of method, and 
natural business ability. He enjoyed a high reputation among those with whom he 
was associated. His sons have since attained prominence in the social life of the city. 

JAMES P. ALLAIRE, iron manufacturer, born in 1785, died at Howell Works, 
Monmouth county, N. J., May 20, 1858. He was the founder of the Iron Works, in 
the quaint and now deserted village of Allaire, N. J., there being deposits of iron in 
the vicinity, which were smelted at these works. At one time, he carried. on the 
largest marine engine building shops in the United States. In this business he was 
very successful, and gained both reputation and fortune. 

GEORGE H. ALLEN, importer of wines, has gained his position in New York city 
through the arduous labors of mercantile life, coupled with native shrewdness and 
energy, and his partnership in the importing firm of Paris, Allen & Co., of which he is 
now senior partner. He has also been, for a number of years, senior partner in W. A. 
Gaines & Co., distillers, in Frankfort, Ky., incorporated with a capital of $600,000, who 
control several distilleries in the West. Mr. Allen inherited some means from Marshall 
Allen, one of the original partners of Paris, Allen & Co. He is a member of The Man- 
hattan and New York Athletic clubs. 

HENRY ALLEN, stock broker, was born in Lexington, Ky., in April, 1848. He 
comes from English and Scottish ancestry, and his father was a native of Kentucky, 
his mother of Mississippi. During early life he found occupation in operations 
indigenous to the South, and was interested successively in farming, cotton, grain, 
banking and stocks. During the Civil War, he espoused the cause of the Confederacy, 
and later came North and opened a broker's office in this city. He is now senior 
member of Henry Allen & Co., stock brokers, and has built up a large and desirable 
business, with extensive collateral interests in railroads and railroad stocks. While 
of social disposition, he is not a club man, but has joined the Democratic club, because 
that organization represents his political faith. 

JOSEPH JENER ALfllRALL, merchant, was born in Yillafranca del Panades, Spain, 
in 1840. His early years were spent in his native land, where he received a sound edu- 
cation. Coming to America, he established the firm of Almirall & Co , importers and 
dealers of Havana leaf tobacco and general exporters. Competent, honest and per- 
sistent, he has created a large trade and is now a man of fortune. He is a director of 
The Chesebrough Manufacturing Co. 

JOHN ALSTYNE, broker, a native of New York city, born March 24, 1801, died 
here June 3, 1869. Of Dutch ancestry, his father was John Alstyne, a son of Jerome 
Alstyne, whose father bore the same name. They lived in the last century in a house 
owned by them at the junction of Maiden Lane and Liberty street, probably purchased 
with thalers brought from Holland. John Alstyne, sr., lived on a farm called Seaton 
Place, and afterward at Eastchester, but, after his death, his wife returned to the 
Liberty street house, and later removed with her family to Madison street. The son 


was educated in the family of the Rev. Platt Buffet, rector of the church at Stanwich, 
Conn., who, in addition to his church duties, fitted boys for college or business. He 
found his first employment as clerk for Mr. Beers, a leading broker in New York. 
Leaving Mr. Beers, he formed a partnership with Mr. Dykers, son of the Governor of 
one of the West India Islands, under the name of Dykers & Alstyne, Mr. Alstyne's 
capital being derived from his father's estate. Later, Mr. Jarvis was taken into the 
firm, which became Dykers, Alstyne & Co. Mr. Alstyne survived his partners. Mr. 
Alstyne invested his profits largely in real estate in and around New York city, which 
rose to great value. He was a man of strong will, kindly feelings, pleasant manners 
and good appearance, and a favorite in social life. He was a strong churchman, and 
always kind and attentive to his handsome mother, whose common sense was equal to 
her beauty. His fortune descended, mainly, to his niece, Desier A., wife of George P. 
Clapp of New York city, and daughter of Jasper Pryer. Mrs. Clapp died Sept. 17, 1881, 
leaving her property mainly to her husband. Mr. Clapp died in Algiers, Africa, Jan. 
25, 1884, and bequeathed the Alstyne property to charitable and religious institutions 
in New York. 

BENJAfllN ALTMAN, dry goods merchant, is a son of Philip Altman, who carried 
on a moderate dry goods business in New York city, and was for many years well and 
favorably known in the district devoted to that trade. He died in 1863, the business 
being afterward continued by his two sons, Morris and Benjamin. 

Morris Altman, Benjamin's eldest brother, was educated in the public schools, 
entered a business career when quite a young man and founded the house of Altman 
Brothers. He came into prominence as the moving spirit of the "Early Closing Asso- 
ciation," which advocated shortening the working hours of the dry goods clerks. He 
died in the prime of a promising manhood, in 1876, at the age of thirty-nine. A man 
of fine presence, splendid address and talent as a speaker on economic, social and busi- 
ness subjects, he was courteous and affable and commanded the respect and admira- 
tion of those who came in contact with him. 

Benjamin Altman, born in this city, July n, 1843, began his business career when 
not much over twelve years of age, up to which time he had attended the public schools. 
Such was his fondness for business, it may here be said, that after school hours he 
would go behind the counters in his father's store to discharge the duties of salesman, 
impressing his young mind at the time with all the requirements of a business man. 
This experience served him well in later years. Under the discreet management of 
the two brothers the business increased to such an extent that larger quarters were 
secured at Third avenue and loth street. Shortly afterward yet more commodious 
accommodations were sought for and obtained on Sixth avenue. Another removal 
being deemed necessary, the present location, i8th street, i9th street and Sixth ave- 
nue, was established in 1876. Mr. Altman remains unmarried, and has devoted him- 
self to the care and education of the children of his brother Morris, to whom he has 
been as kind as a father. The widow survived her husband only a few months. The 
tender care bestowed upon these four orphan children cannot be too highly commended. 
While devoted to his business, Mr. Altman is greatly interested in art matters. He 
has a valuable and costly collection of art objects and antiques. Porcelains, paintings, 
objects of Greek art, carvings in ivory, antique rugs and embroideries form part of a 
collection, many examples of which he gathered while on a voyage around the world, 


during which he enjoyed well earned and richly deserved recreation, the first in seven- 
teen years. He is also a liberal patron of the works of native artists. He is a con- 
tributor to philanthropic objects, his gifts, while open-handed, being, however, unos- 
tentatious. Many generous donations have been bestowed with the single stipulation 
that the deed should not be made public, so sensitive is he that his generosity should 
not be misunderstood. His career is an evidence of what application to business, hon- 
estly and persistently followed, will bring to a young man who devotes his young man- 
hood unflinchingly to the establishment of a reputation which will serve him in the 
later years of an honored life. 

QUSTAV AflSINCK, merchant, a sound, energetic businessman, has been for forty 
years an active spirit in the wholesale trade of this city. In 1861, he became a partner 
in the firm of L. E. Amsinck & Co., of which Gustav H. Gossler became a partner in 
1868. The present firm of G. Amsinck & Co., formed in 1874, are importers and com- 
mission merchants, dealing in almost all kinds of merchandise and with practically all 
parts of the world, a large portion of their trade being with Mexico. They also trans- 
act a banking business. The success of the firm has been continuous, and Mr. 
Amsinck's career has been characterized by energy, decision, integrity and scrupulous 
exactness in his obligations. He is a director of The Bank of New York and The 
Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., and has done much to promote the higher interests of 
New York city. The Union, Vaudeville, Liederkranz and Down-Town clubs have 
enrolled him as a member. 

ELBERT JEFFERSON ANDERSON, merchant, born in New York city, in October, 
1800, died in Newport, R. I., Feb. 13, 1888. Elbert Anderson, his father, a merchant of 
distinction, served in the War of 1812 as Lieutenant Colonel of militia and army con- 
tractor. Visiting Troy, N. Y., he purchased beef and provisions for the army, from 
Zbenezer and Samuel Wilson, the latter of whom was familiarly known as Uncle Sam. 
Through the mark "E. A.-U. S." on Mr. Anderson's boxes of army material finally 
arose the sobriquet of "Uncle Sam," as indicating the Federal Government. The 
boyhood of Elbert J. Anderson was spent in New York city, and at the age of twelve, 
he had the good fortune to be the first to convey to General Bloomfield, then in com- 
mand of the troops gathered for the defense of New York, the news of the declaration 
of war against Great Britain. He was educated in the local schools, and while not a 
college graduate, became a man of excellent taste and extended culture. In 1820, he was 
commissioned by Governor Clinton as ensign in the 85th New York Infantry, the crack 
regiment of the day, and subsequently rose to be its Lieutenant Colonel. In 1827, he 
became junior partner in the commission dry goods firm of Belah Tiffany & Co. , at the 
corner of Maiden Lane and Pearl street, in which business he was active for many 
years and greatly prospered. In 1825, he married Martha Maria, a daughter of one of 
the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. She died in 1879, an ^ was survived 
by one son, Elbert Anderson, and four daughters, Mrs. George von Gorrissen of Ham- 
burg, Germany; Miss Marie M. Anderson; Mrs. John Boker, now deceased; and Mrs. 
Thomas G. Ford. In 1847, Mrs. Anderson inherited the Redwood farm at Portsmouth, 
six miles from Newport, and eventually made his permanent residence there. The 
subject of this sketch was a director of The Manhattan Fire Insurance Co., The Farmers' 
Loan & Trust Co. and The Phoenix Bank. His high reputation for integrity and 
capacity caused him to be selected frequently for service on boards of arbitration. By 


his quick intelligence, uniform courtesy and attractive manner, he won a large circle 
of friends in Newport. 

JOHN ANDERSON, conspicuous as a merchant, born in New York in 1812, died 
in Paris, France, Nov. 22, 1881. He began life modestly in a little store, down town, 
for the sale of cigars and tobacco, was successful in attracting purchasers, and grew 
into popularity and a large trade. His store became famous through a tragic incident, 
the heroine of which gave to Edgar Allan Poe the theme of his romance of Marie 
Roget. Mr. Anderson conducted his business with success for about forty years, during 
part of that time being a manufacturer. It was he who introduced the use of lead foil 
as a wrapper for fine-cut chewing tobacco. John Anderson's Solace was known 
to purchasers throughout the whole country. The income from his business was 
invested mainly in real estate, and the great appreciation in value of property with the 
growth of the city brought him a fortune of several millions. In the winter of 1873 he 
founded The Anderson School of Natural History on Penekese Island, at the mouth of 
Buzzard's Bay, giving the island and a liberal sum in money to the new institution. 
The trust was in charge of Professor Louis Agassiz until his death. John Charles 
Anderson, his son, and Mrs. Laura Appleton and Mrs. Fannie A. Barnard, his daugh- 
ters, survived him. The family made their home at Tarrytown, N. Y., and Mr. 
Anderson spent most of his time there during his later years. 

LORINQ ANDREWS, merchant, born in Windham, Greene coiinty, Jan. 31, 
1799, died in New York city, Jan. 22, 1875. He was of English descent, the pioneer 
of the family in America having been a companion of John Davenport, who settled in 
New Haven in the very early days. In the neighborhood of the birthplace of Mr. 
Andrews, a thick growth of hemlock afforded material for the tanning of leather. 
With an elementary education, the lad was apprenticed at the age of fourteen to Foster 
Morss, one of the first tanners who brought leather to New York. With him the youth 
remained for eight years. He then traveled in the West for two years, in the hope of 
making a fortune. Finding the search elusive, he returned to Greene county and 
entered into a business arrangement with Mr. Morss, by which the former was to trans- 
port the hides and leather to and from the tannery and pay three cents a pound for 
tanning. Beginning with a capital of fifty cents and a thorough knowledge of the 
trade, Mr. Andrews was so able and shrewd that in four years he had made $4,000, and 
then entered into partnership with his employer. In 1829 he came to New York city 
with $7,000. He soon built up a trade of from 50,000 to 100,000 hides a year. In 
1832, he formed a partnership with William Wilson, in which Gideon Lee and Shepherd 
Knapp were special partners. The panic of 1837 swept away the profits of eight years. 
Nevertheless, by retaining the control of large capital, he continued in business and 
by prudent methods and close attention laid the foundation of a new fortune. In 1861, 
Loring Andrews & Sons conducted several large tanneries, and by 1863, handled an- 
nually 400,000 sides of hemlock cured leather. They ranked as the leading leather mer- 
chants. Success came to Mr. Andrews as the fruit of untiring industry, perseverance and 
sterling integrity. Like other merchants, he made conspicuously large purchases of 
real estate, which proved profitable. In 1839, Mr. Andrews was married to Blandina 
B., daughter of James B. Hardenbergh, D.D. His family consisted of seven children, 
William L., James B., Constant A., Loring, Walter S., Clarence and Isabel, the latter 
now married and living abroad. His -benefactions were systematic and large. The 


University of New York received from him $100,000 for the endowment of professorships, 
and nearly ever}' other leading philanthropic institution of the city enjoyed his liberal 
support. He was one of the early directors of The Mechanics' Bank, a founder and 
first president of The Shoe & Leather Bank, vice-president of The Globe Life 
Insurance Co., and a shareholder in The Atlantic Telegraph Co. His son, CONSTANT 
A. ANDREWS, banker, was born in this city, Feb. 25, 1844. He was educated 
in Columbia College grammar school and in Germany. Soon after the close of the 
Civil War, his father admitted him to partnership. Later, with his brother, William 
L. Andrews, he continued in the leather trade and held a conspicuous position up to 
the moment when the partners decided to retire from business. After spending a few 
years in Europe, Mr. Andrews returned and engaged in banking. The firm of Constant 
A. Andrews & Co. now occupies the same high position for conservative methods and 
sound judgment as did the old house of Loring Andrews & Sons, and their advice is 
sought in investments in street railroads, municipal bonds and business enterprises. 
Mr. Andrews is president of The United States Savings Bank and The Elkhorn Valley 
Coal Land Co ; a director of the Second Avenue Street Railroad, and largely influential 
in other directions, where his interest and counsel are demanded. He was married in 
1879 to Miss B lanche L. Vance, daughter of ex-Mayor Vance, of this city. 

WALLACE C. ANDREWS, president of The New York Steam Co. , a man of marked 
vigor and enterprise, is one of a large number of successful Ohio men, now engaged in 
business in New York city. Mr. Andrews is of New England descent. He is a son of 
the late Norman Andrews, who moved from Connecticut to a farm on the Western 
Reserve in Ohio in 1816. 

Mr. Andrews began life iipon the farm, and partly by inheritance, partly in the 
wholesome life of the country, acquired the physical vigor which enabled him to per- 
form great labors during his subsequent career. He revealed a talent for business early in 
life. He succeeded from the start, and, by the strictest economy, managed to save a lit- 
tle capital. When coal was discovered in the Mahoning Valley, his brother, the late 
Chauncey H. Andrews of Youngstown, O., and he, invested their savings in explora- 
tions for coal and the purchase of mines. They developed a large number of different 
properties. At first, they met with poor success, but finally made valuable discoveries. 
The two men looked after details themselves, conducted their business economically, 
and were able to mine coal, even after the profits had fallen to 25 cents a ton. During 
the petroleum excitement, they became operators in that industry also. They were 
also promoters of many new enterprises. They built furnaces and rolling mills in Ohio, 
and now and then a small railroad, and finally became the principal stockholders in a 
railroad between Cleveland and Pittsburgh. They bought several coal mining com- 
panies, working the mines themselves, but afterwards selling them at an advance. In 
this way, in time, they became the largest miners of coal in the State. 

At a later day, they bought the bed of one of the old-time Ohio canals and used it for 
a railroad between Cleveland and Pittsburgh, a rival to the one they had already built. 
Their operations were usually profitable, and the two brothers each gradually amassed a 
fortune. With other capitalists, they finally secured a large area of coal lands in the Hock- 
ing Valley in Ohio, and were interested in the purchase of The Hocking Valley Railroad 
and its connecting lines and in the transaction by which the roads were consolidated and 
the lands purchased. The schemes of Mr. Andrews were usually started with compara- 


tively little capital, but the projector threw his whole energy into development, secured 
the investment of outside capital, made his projects profitable, and then often sold his in- 
terests. By reinvesting rapidly, working somewhat with borrowed money, making use 
of his more valuable securities as collateral, he has succeeded remarkably in the acquisi- 
tion of wealth. 

Mr. Andrews is one of the promoters of the original Standard Oil Co. and was a 
director of the company for a long period of years and up to the formation of the Trust. 
He is yet a large stockholder in the company. One of the most important of his enter- 
prises is The New York Steam Co., a concern which supplies steam for heat and power 
by underground pipes in various sections of New York city, and has initiated a new era 
in the management of office buildings, by enabling their proprietors to dispense with the 
annoyances attending the production of steam in their own premises. Mr. Andrews is 
president of the company, and has managed its affairs with signal ability and success. He 
was lately president of The Standard Gas Light Co. of New York and is its largest stock- 
holder. He is a director in many local corporations, a man of unusual business sagacity, 
of great power of application, and untiring energy, and his large fortune is entirely the 
product of constructive talent and commendable business methods. The Ohio Society of 
this city has enrolled him as one of its members from the beginning. 

ADOLPH B. ANSBACHER, importer, is one of the leading merchants of paints. 
From the time when he began business on his own account, he has shown himself 
shrewd, diligent and wide awake, and was able, long ago, to expand his trade to 
substantial and remunerative proportions. In 1883, he admitted to partnership 
Maurice E. Ansbacher, who died in 1887, and Maurice D. Eger, thereafter doing 
business under the name of A. B. Ansbacher & Co. Their trade extends to every part 
of the United States, and, for a number of years, required the maintenance of a 
branch office in Chicago. 

EDWARD ANTHONY, civil engineer, born in Xew York, Jan. 31, 1819, died here 
Dec. 14, 1888. Jacob Anthony, his father, was for many years one of the principal tellers 
in The United States Branch Bank and cashier of the old Bank of the State of New 
York. The family derives their descent from Allard Anthony, an immigrant from 
Holland to New Amsterdam about 1628, who was one of the first five Schepens or 
Councilmen of the new colony. The pioneer was a man of note and of sufficient stand- 
ing to be sent as ambassador, on behalf of the new colony, to negotiate with the King 
of Holland. The coat-of-arms of the Anthony family is the same as that of the old 
Spanish Antonio family; and it is generally supposed that, during the wars of the 
Netherlands, one of the Spanish Antonios was captivated, either by the arms of the 
Dutch soldiery or the charms of a Dutch maiden and settled in Holland, in conse- 
quence thereof founding the Dutch family of Antoni, whose name, in the course of 
years, was modified to Anthony. Edward Anthony was in the seventh generation of 
descent from Allard. He graduated from Columbia Colfege in 1838, with an excellent 
record. Beginning life as a civil engineer, he obtained employment in building the 
original Croton Aqueduct, through which New York long drew its supply of pure 
drinking water from country streams and ponds. Before its completion, he was called 
to accompany Prof. James Renwick in the survey of the northeastern boundary of the 
United States, at the time of the dispute with Great Britain. He had for some time 
amused himself with experiments in the new art of making pictures with the aid of 


sunlight, just introduced by Daguerre. During the survey, he took satisfactory 
images of the hills along the boundary line, the existence of which had been denied by 
England. It was the first instance in which the art of photography had been made use 
of in diplomatic controversy. These photographs are yet preserved in the archives at 
Washington. After finishing the survey, Mr. Anthony engaged in photography, and, 
after a short but successful practice embarked in the business of supplying materials to 
the trade. His practical knowledge proved of invaluable assistance, and soon placed 
the house of E. Anthony in the front rank in New York. Henry T. Anthony, his 
brother, joined him in 1852, the firm becoming E. & H. T. Anthony & Co. In 1877, the 
firm was reorganized as a corporation, with Edward Anthony as president, Henry T. 
Anthony as vice-president, and Col. V. M. Wilcox as secretary. The corporation is 
yet in business at 591 Broadway, with Col. V. M. Wilcox as president, Richard A. 
Anthony as vice-president, and Frederick A. Anthony as secretary. Edward Anthony 

. was married in 1848, to Margaretta R., daughter of James Montgomery, a direct 
descendant of Count de Montgomerie of France, who accidentally killed Henry VII., 
in a tournament. The coat-of-arms of the Montgomerie family displays an arm, hold- 
ing a broken spear. To Mr. Anthony and his wife were born, Richard A. Anthony; 
Jane Kipp, wife of Charles Soleliac; and Eleanor Montgomery, wife of Louis Soleliac. 
-His son, RICHARD A. ANTHONY, was born May 24, 1861, in New York city. 
His parents gave him a careful education for two years in Rutgers College, followed by* 
two years in Columbia College, from which he graduated in 1881, receiving the degree of 
B.A. By a subsequent course of study, he gained a diploma as M. A. Attracted by both 
the scientific and commercial aspects of the trade in photographic materials, he entered 
the house of E. & H. T. Anthony as an employe, and after the death of H. T. Anthony, 
in 1884, became secretary of the corporation. Since his father's death, he has been 
the vice-president. He is an energetic, prudent and capable man and has greatly 
promoted the trade of the house. Mr. Anthony is a trustee of The United States 
Savings Bank, was a director of The Second Avenue Railroad for five years, and is a 
member of the University, Storm King and Central Commercial clubs. 

RICHARD KIP ANTHONY, merchant, born in New York, July 18, 1812, died in 
Rye, N. Y., June 16, 1886. He was a son of Jacob Anthony, above referred to. 
Richard received a common school training, and early in life entered the old-time wine' 
importing house of Robert Gracie & Co. as clerk. While employed there, he acquired 
the warm friendship of another clerk, William F. Nelson, with whom he went into 
partnership, under the name of Nelson & Anthony. The firm carried on an extensive 
business as wine importers and brokers, dissolving in 1861. Early in 1862, Mr. 
Anthony entered the house of Bowie Dash & Co., coffee merchants, as clerk. Here he 

-became a great favorite, and in 1870 was admitted into partnership, remaining with the 
firm until 1880. He then retired. Rye, N. Y., formed his home after April, 1862. 
He was an active member of Hose Company No. 16 in the old Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ment, and in the great fire of 1835 rendered such faithful service as to gain honorable 
mention. He was a member of the St. Nicholas Society, and one of seven brothers, 
who were brought up in the old Dutch Reform church in this city. Mr. Anthony mar- 
ried Ann Bowie, daughter of Daniel B. Dash, in March, 1849. Their children were 
Annie, Daniel Dash Anthony, Frances, wife of George C. Park, Laura and Anzonetta 
Dash Anthony. 


JUAN APARICIO, importer, a merchant of Spanish ancestry, began life as a planter 
in Guatemala. To market his own productions, he came to New York city and opened 
an office, and has since been engaged in the importation of coffee and other products of 
Central America. He controls great plantations in Guatemala, a fruitful and only par- 
tially developed region, where he has the advantage of low-priced labor. His success 
in raising large crops and skill as a merchant, enable him to transact an excellent trade. 

REHSEN APPLEBY, merchant, born in 1838, died in New York, Jan. 4, 1886. 
His father, Leonard Appleby, was a merchant of tobacco and snuff, and an enter- 
prising member of a very well-known family. While a young man, Remsen 
engaged in the tobacco and snuff business at Pine and Water streets, where he remained 
until 1865. His place was well known among the down-town merchants and business 
men, who were attracted by the genial qualities of Mr. Appleby. Retiring from trade, 
he became president of The Central Park Fire Insurance Co. When, a few years later, 
this company went into liquidation, he embarked in the giving of concerts at the Central 
Park Garden, which afforded great delight to the patrons of that resort. Later, he 
resumed the tobacco business. He was married to Mattie Bryan, who, with two 
children, Leonard Fletcher and Kate Remsen, survived him. 

DANIEL APPLETON, publisher, founder of the house of D. Appleton & Co., 
born in Haverhill, Mass., Dec. 10, 1785, died in New York, March 27, 1849. He began 
life as a dry goods merchant in his native town, subsequently went to Boston, and in 
1825 removed to New York. Here he began the importation of English books, in 
conjunction with the dry goods business. Their original place of business in New 
York was in Exchange place. Mr. Appleton soon abandoned the dry goods business 
and removed to Chirton Hall in Beekman street, thereafter giving his attention solely 
to the importation and sale of books. The growth of the city subsequently made nec- 
essary several removals to locations farther up town. In 1831 he made a venture in 
the publishing business by printing a collection of religious extracts, entitled "Daily 
Crumbs from the Master's Table." Of this work 2,000 copies were sold. From this 
modest beginning, the house enlarged its operations until they have now extended 
their publications into the entire field of literature. Mr. Appleton was one of the 
public spirited merchants of his day and identified with many measures for promoting 
the welfare of the city and its merchants. He was highly esteemed by his contem- 
poraries. May 4, 1813, he was married to Hannah Adams, daughter of John Adams, 
and from that union were born five sons, William Henry, John Adams, Daniel Sid- 
ney, George Swett and Samuel Francis Appleton. These sons were successively ad- 
mitted into partnership in the firm, which is yet carried on under the original title of 
D. Appleton & Co. by the surviving son, William H. Appleton, and several grandsons. 

COL. DANIEL APPLETON, publisher, born in New York, Feb. 24, 1852, is the son 
of John A. Appleton, and grandson of Daniel Appleton. He received his education in the 
schools of New York city and Carlsruhe in Germany, and, at the age of nineteen, entered 
the Appleton publishing house as a clerk. In 1879, he was admitted into partnership 
in D. Appleton & Co. Possessing fine business qualifications, he has been an efficient 
member of the firm. Colonel Appleton has long taken an active part in New York city's 
favorite militia regiment, the 7th, of which, July 18, 1889, he was by unanimous vote, 
promoted from a Captaincy to the Colonelcy. He is a director of the American Book 
Co. , and a member of the Union, Century, Aldine, Riding and New York Yacht clubs. 


WILLIAfl HENRY APPLETON, publisher, son of Daniel Appleton, was born in 
New York, Jan. 27, 1814. Educated at Andover, Mass., he entered his father's 
store, where he was placed in charge of the book department. In 1835 he was 
sent to represent the house in London, where the next year he established 
an agency at 16 Little Britain. In 1838 he was taken into partnership. At 
his father's death, in 1849, he inherited a moderate estate, which he has since 
increased by his own energetic prosecution of the business and by active partici- 
pation in other enterprises. Under his management the house devoted itself entirely 
to the sale of its own publications and has come to rank among the half dozen 
leading publishing houses of the United States. They have published the works of 
the most noted scientists of Europe and the United States, while in general literature 
their catalogue contains the books of Bancroft, McMaster, Bryant, Cooper, Dickens, 
Disraeli, Kipling, Caine and other standard authors. The literature of the civil war 
is represented on both sides by memoirs and biographies of eminent soldiers and states- 
men. Illustrated works have been printed in large number, comprising many art col- 
lections of a high order. Their text books embrace every subject taught in American 
schools, and they have a special department of medical works and another of Spanish 
books designed for the South and Central American markets. The American Cyclo- 
pedia issued by this house, the most widely circulated work of its kind ever produced 
in this country, brought them great reputation. The Annual Cyclopedia, a continu- 
ation of the great work, is now in its thirty-third year. Mr. Appleton was married 
in Lowell, Mass., to Mary Worth en, and his children are William Worthen, Kate, 
Mary and Henry Cozzens Appleton. He is president of The Manhattan Safe De- 
posit & Storage Co., and a director of The American Book Co., The Central Trust 
Co., The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, The New York Life Insurance 
Co. and The New York Security & Trust Co. He is a valued member of the Union, 
Aldine, Century, Players', Riding and Country clubs, and The New England Society. 

WILLIAM' WORTHEN APPLETON, publisher, was born in Brooklyn, Nov. 29, 
1845. He is a son of William H. Appleton and grandson of Daniel Appleton. He was 
fitted in New York for Harvard College. Owing to ill-health he did not enter, but 
travelled and studied abroad. He entered the house of D. Appleton & Co. in 1865 as 
an assistant in the school book department, and subsequently took charge of the manu- 
facturing department, being admitted to partnership in 1868. In recent years he has 
given more of his time to the editorial department and the London office, and has 
proved an active and capable member of the firm. He was married April 20, 1881, 
to Anna, daughter of Henry I. Sargent, of Boston. Their children are Margaret, 
William Henry, Mary and Sargent Appleton. He is a director in The American 
Book Co., a corporation founded in 1890, with a capital of $5,000,000, and is actively 
identified with the New York Free Library, of which he was one of the founders, and 
has held continuously the chairmanship of the Library Committee. He is also a 
director in The Bank for Savings and prominent in The Publishers' League, which 
was instrumental in bringing about the International Copyright Law. A keen busi- 
ness man, he is in social life a gentleman of courteous manners and a charming- 
companion. His clubs are the Union, Aldine, Century, Knickerbocker, Grolier and 
Riding, and he is also a member of The New England Society and Chamber of Com- 


CHARLES ARBUCKLE, coffee importer, born in Allegheny City, Pa., in 1833, died 
in Brooklyn, X. Y., March 27, 1891. His early years were passed in Allegheny City, 
where he became a prominent wholesale grocer. In 1871, Mr. Arbuckle, with his 
brother John, established a factory for the preparation of roasted and ground coffee in 
Brooklyn, and in 1875 transferred all his interests to that city. The business was at 
first conducted under the name of Arbuckle Bro's, but increased to such dimensions 
that it was, at one time, transferred to a stock organization, the Arbuckle Coffee Co. 
Subsequently, however, the corporation was abandoned, and the old firm of Arbuckle 
Bro's revived. The firm have imported immense quantities of raw coffee from Brazil, 
and established a permanent house at Rio. They acquired a wide reputation through 
the introduction of the " Ariosa" brand of coffee, which, roasted, ground and packed 
in one-pound bags, met with an extensive sale. Mr. Arbuckle personally superin- 
tended much of the work of the factory, and to his ability and untiring labor was 
largely due the success of this house. He added much to the attractions of Brooklyn 
by operations in real estate. Purchasing the old Dieter building opposite the City Hall 
in Brooklyn, he built five stories thereon, and made it the largest office structure in the 
city. He afterwards built an apartment house on Columbia Heights at Orange street, 
with suites of rooms for thirty-nine families, and owned another in the West Side 
region of New York. His country place at Brentwood, Long Island, contained 1,100 
acres. He was never married. 

JOHN ARBUCKLE, importer and manufacturer, spent his early life in Allegheny, 
Pa. In 1871, he engaged with his brother Charles in the preparation of roasted and 
ground coffee, their factory being located in Brooklyn, and he is now head of the firm 
of Arbuckle Bros. He is also a director in The Importers and Traders' Bank, and is 
president of The Royal Horse Association, a syndicate owning ranches in Wyoming 
devoted to horse breeding. Several good clubs have elected him to membership, includ- 
ing the Union League and Hamilton in Brooklyn, and the Down Town in New York city. 

JOHN DUSTIN ARCHBOLD, oil refiner, was born in Leesburg, O., July 26, 1848. 
His father, Israel Archbold, a Virginian, and a descendant from a Protestant Irish 
family, which emigrated to America in 1786, married a daughter of Col. William Dana, 
who removed from Massachusetts to Marietta, O., in wagons in the early days. John 
was a student in the public schools until thirteen years of age, and gained his first experi- 
ence in business pursuits as clerk in a country store in Salem, O., 1862-64. I Q l86 4 he 
joined the rush to the Pennsylvania oil regions, and spent eleven years there in various 
branches of the petroleum industry. He rose to prominence and has long been the 
chief proprietor and president of The Acme Oil Co. Since 1875, he has been identified 
with The Standard Oil Co. , and a director since its organization, and is now vice-presi- 
dent of The Standard Oil Co., of New York. He is president of the trustees of Syra- 
cuse University, and a director of The Post-Graduate Hospital and Training School, 
and St. Christopher's Home and Orphanage. In 1870 Mr. Archbold married at Titus- 
ville, Pa., Anna M., daughter of Major S. M. Mills, and his children are Mary L., 
Anna M., Frances D., and John F. Archbold. Mrs. Archbold is a sister of Col. Mills, 
commandant of West Point Military Academy. Mr. Archbold dwells in a comfortable 
home at Cedar Cliff, near Tarrytown on the Hudson. He is a member of several ex- 
cellent clubs, including the Union League, Manhattan, Racquet, Riding, Whist and 
Twilight, and of The Ohio Society. 


OLIVER HAZARD PERRY ARCHER, capitalist, a native of New York, born 
Jan. 14, 1825, is a son of Jonathan Archer, who, born in Tarrytown, died in 1832 
at the age of sixty. The latter was a firm friend of Commodore Perry and named his 
son after the old hero. Oliver made his entrance into the world of affairs at the 
unusally early age of ten. While yet a clerk, he bought an existing city express busi- 
ness and then another, and thereafter operated on his own account. The first baggage 
express delivery on The Hudson River Railroad, originated with Mr. Archer, at the 
time the railroad station occupied a site on Chambers street. Later, he contracted to carry 
on the entire express business of that railroad. Thus launched upon a prosperous 
career, he has continued in the management of various express, freighting and railroad 
enterprises, in the prosecution of which he has been successful. At one time he was 
chosen vice-president of The Erie Railroad. The first fast freight line ever known was 
started by him over The Hudson River Railroad About 1849-50 he made a contract 
to divert all the freight business possible to The Hudson River and The New York 
Central Railroads at five cents per hundred pounds, and became a power in freighting. 
The New York Central at that time yet consisted of a chain of independent railroads. 
In 1858, he transferred his operations to The Erie Railroad and handled its freight. 
The Joliet & Wilmington and The Suspension Bridge & Erie Junction Railroads were 
built by him. In 1873, he retired from business, but has since become a large owner 
of real estate. Mr. Archer is a trustee of Syracuse University and a manager of The 
Board of Home and Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church. June 4, 
1845, he was happily married to Mary Dean. Their children are Oliver H. P. and 
George D. Archer; Mrs. William P. Abbott; Miss Nellie L. and Dr. Henry M. 

DANIEL V. ARQUIMBAU, importer and broker, is a respectable Pearl street 
merchant, who, during an industrious and varied career, has gained a strong position 
by the ability with which he has conducted his business. Modest and unassuming, but 
diligent and shrewd, he makes steady progress in the peaceful accumulation of the 
fruits of his honest vocation. His transactions are largely in the nature of the broker- 
age of merchandise. He makes his home in the Hotel St. George in Brooklyn. The 
career of Mr. Auguimbau varies from that of thousands of men who devote their lives 
to practical pursuits, mainly in the fact that he has succeeded where many others, either 
from lack of capital or of talent, have failed. 

ROBERT H. ARKENBURQH, tobacco merchant, born in Nyack, N.Y., in 1815, died 
there, Sept. 20, 1890. He was a grandson of Daniel Arkenburgh, one of the original 
Dutch settlers of Albany county. In 1836, the young man ventured to begin the man- 
1 ufacture of cigars in Albany, succeeding from the start. In 1840, he removed to Phil- 
adelphia for a few years, but in 1 844 came to New York city and established a whole- 
sale trade in leaf tobacco, as R. H. Arkenburgh & Co. He was a splendid merchant, 
very enterprising and energetic. Large contracts were awarded to him by the govern- 
ment, both in this country and in Europe. After 1865, his firm bore the name of R. H. 
Arkenburgh & Sons. He established branch houses in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Ken- 
tucky and Connecticut, and is said to have been the first merchant to ship tobacco in 
hogsheads by railroad car to New York, the older method having been to bring the 
staple by water from New Orleans. He added to his fortune by judicious investments 
in local real estate, especially on the West side, and aided in founding The National 


Park Bank and The Metropolitan Gas Co. , being president of the latter a number of 
years. His wife and six children survive him. 

HERMAN OSS1AN ARIIOUR, member of a celebrated firm of packers and 
commission merchants, was born March 2, 1837, at Stockbridge in Madison county, 
N. Y. His father, Danforth Armour, represented the second generation of the founder 
of the family in this country, James Armour, a Scotch- Irish emigrant^ and a native of 
Ireland, who arrived in America about the middle of the last century. James was the 
father of eight children, the sixth of whom was John, born Feb. 25, 1765. The latter 
in turn was the father of nine children, the fourth of them being Danforth, born Jan. 
5, 1799. Danforth married Julia Brooks of Ashford, Nov. 27, 1825. This couple had 
eight children, the seventh of whom was Herman Ossian Armour. The other brothers 
were Simeon Brooks, born Feb. i, 1828; Andred Watson, born Jan. 27, 1829, who died 
in May, 1892; Philip Danforth, born May 16, 1832; Charles Eugene, born Sept. 10, 
1835, a Union soldier in the Civil War, who died in hospital Aug. 12, 1863; and Joseph 
Francis, born Aug. 29, 1842, who died Jan 5, 1881. The brothers now living are 
Simeon Brooks, Philip Danforth, and Herman Ossian Armour. 

The father of the Armour brothers was a sturdy farmer, of remarkable force of 
character, an upright and worthy man, and the boys were brought up to hard work 
under strict discipline on the farm. The vigorous health and strong constitutions 
which nearly all of them have enjoyed are undoubtedly due, in part, to the whole- 
some life, the habits of self-restraint, and the careful oversight of their physical as 
well as mental welfare, of those early years upon the farm. As they advanced 
to youth and early manhood, the restrictions of rural scenes and the limited 
opportunities for the development of business ability led them, one after another, to 
seek their fortunes amid more active surroundings. The education of all was neces- 
sarily limited to the local schools, although some of the children entered the village 
seminar}-. Early in life, Herman O. Armour was attracted by the business enterprises 
which were looming into view in the great West. In 1855 he went to Milwaukee, and 
after a few years of business training established himself, in 1862, in the grain commis- 
sion business in Chicago. The youngest brother, Joseph, joined Herman in Chicago. 
The latter in 1865 turned over the business he had established there to the care of 
Joseph, and removed to New York city, where a new firm was organized under the 
style of Armour, Plankinton & Co. Herman O. Armour proved himself a most 
efficient merchant and possessed of great financial ability. 

The firm name of H. O. Armour & Co., produce commission merchants, was 
retained in Chicago until 1870. As early as 1868 the packing of pork was begun on 
a large scale. The name of the firm was changed to Armour & Co. in 1870. The 
following year, a branch establishment was opened at Kansas City with the style and 
title of Plankinton & Armour, and placed under the management of the older brother, 
Simeon B. Armour. The failing health of Joseph, who was in charge of the Chicago 
house, finally led to the removal, from Milwaukee to that city, of Philip D. Armour, 
who was five years the senior of Herman O. Armour. The brothers had thus been 
brought together into a common business interest. 

In 1879, The Armour Brothers Banking Co. was established at Kansas City, Mo. 
One brother yet remained at the old homestead in New York State, namely, Andrew 
Watson Armour. Having been invited to take charge of the new enterprise in Kan- 


sasCity, he became its president and developed the same high quality of business tact, 
judgment and energy, which have characterized the other members of this notable family. 

The packing business of the Armour brothers is conducted on a stupendous scale. 
Their abattoirs in Chicago are of immense capacity. Thousands of animals are slaught- 
ered there every day. A member of the firm recently said, however, that he did not 
think there was one of the brothers who could stand and watch the process, without 
a sense of pity for the animals passing through the runways so innocently to their death. 
The firm not only supply millions of the people of the United States annually with fresh 
meats, through the method of distribution by refrigerator cars, but they are the largest 
shippers of cured goods across the ocean for the supply of Western Europe. They give 
employment in their several industries to upwards of 15,000 persons, while the auxiliary 
branches of the business attain to the number of about three hundred. 

Herman O. Armour is now one of the most respected merchants of New York city. 
He has identified himself thoroughly with the business and social life of the metropolis. 
His wife is Jeannie P. Livingston, a woman of noble character. The family spend 
their winters in town and in the summer season occupy a country home near Tarry- 
town on the Hudson. Mr. Armour has joined the Union League and Republican 
clubs, and, like his colleagues in those public-spirited organizations, has aided in pro- 
moting the interests of the great art museums of the city, and other public institutions. 

PHILIP DANFORTH ARflOUR, a brother of Herman O. Armour, was born May 
16, 1832, at Stockbridge in Madison county, N. Y. Philip's education was derived from 
the country schoolhouse and in part from the local seminary. As a boy and youth, he 
was conspicuous for physical and mental energy, as well as for geniality of disposition. 

In the winter of 1851-52, he was seized with the California gold fever, which at 
that time pervaded the whole country, and, with others, joined in an overland trip to 
the Golden State. Leaving Oneida, N. Y., in the spring of 1852, the party reached 
California after a journey of six months, during which they suffered the many trials 
and dangers incident to a journey through the wilderness as it then existed. For more 
than three years he pursued the rugged life of a miner. While subject to all the 
temptations of his vicious surroundings, the strict discipline of life which had been 
maintained under the paternal roof enabled him to withstand every evil influence tri- 
umphantly. He returned to the East in 1856 to visit his parents at the old homestead.- 
He had met with some rewards for his labor; and after a few weeks stay at the old 
home, he started westward and settled in Milwaukee, where he engaged in the commis- 
sion business. This was conducted successfully until 1863, when he entered into part- 
nership with John Plankinton, for carrying on the pork packing industry. Mr. Plan- 
kinton, the senior of Mr. Armour, recognizing the young man's ability and business 
energy, induced him to dissolve the old firm and enter a new organization. Upon the 
removal of Herman O. Armour to New York in 1865, the younger brother, Joseph, was 
placed in charge of the business in Chicago. Owing to the ill health of Joseph, Philip, 
in the year 1875, removed to Chicago to assume charge of the business in that centre. 

One of these brothers was recently asked how the pork packing industry began. 
The reply was characteristic: " It began itself ; it grew up, and we took hold of it and 
helped it along by the application of hard work and by attending to our business." Of 
the five brothers originally associated in the several ramifications of these vast enter- 
prises, two are dead, namely, Joseph F. and Andrew Watson. The oldest brother, 


Simeon B., resides in Kansas City, Philip D. in Chicago, and Herman O. in New 

Of all the Armour brothers, Philip has probably attracted to himself more public 
attention than any of the others, by reason of his remarkable personality and his prac- 
tical philanthropy, in which, however, he has been sustained by the liberality of the 
other brothers. The Armour Mission, one of the most conspicuous institutions in 
Chicago, has been developed through his activity, originality and generosity from an 
humble beginning to colossal magnitude. The youngest brother, Joseph, who died 
Jan. 5, 1881, bequeathed $100,000 in his will for the founding of a Mission in Chicago, 
to be conducted on certain novel lines. As the executor of the estate, Philip D. 
Armour became peculiarly interested in the cam-ing out of the trust imposed upon 
him. The Mission is incorporated under the laws of Illinois, and is managed by a board 
of five directors. It is said that the present investment associated with the Armour 
Mission represents the sum of 3,000,000. It is conducted on a self-supporting plan, 
the method being to construct flats for occupancy by persons pursuing their business in 
that immediate locality, who can, with their families, have the benefit of all the educa- 
tional, religious and social features connected with the mission, and the charities 
associated with it. A certain standard of care and cleanliness is exacted from every 
tenant, while a most perfect system of sanitary regulation is observed by those in charge 
of the trust funds under the law. Philip D. Armour is the moving spirit, and his 
energy is untiring in the direction of the guidance of the Mission, the Institute, the 
Manual Training School and other auxiliaries. The object of the institution is the 
promotion of the highest physical, intellectual and moral improvement of children and 

Philip D. Armour is a man of sturdy figure, a big head and small side whiskers. 
In appearance he resembles more a Protestant Episcopal bishop than a man possessing 
such transcendent business ability. He is an attendant of the Congregational Church, 
but the Mission is conducted on non-sectarian grounds. 

SIMEON B. ARflOUR, the oldest of the Armour brothers, was born Feb. i, 1828. 
In the development of the vast industry created by these energetic men, he was an 
active participant. The Kansas City branch came more directly under his supervision ; 
and for many years he has been the leading commercial spirit in that active and thriv- 
ing emporium. He lacks nothing of that keen business judgment which is so pre-emi- 
nently a family trait. He is possessed, also, of that amiability, cordiality and directness 
of speech characteristic of the family. One of the brothers, when asked to what one 
quality more than any other he ascribed their phenomenal success in life, replied, "To 
the distribution among us of the virtues possessed by our father and mother, and the 
training we received as boys on the old farm at Stockbridge. That comprised the root. 
What has developed since is the natural growth springing therefrom. We were taught 
how to work and to work hard. We were taught how to make money and how to use 
what we gained so as to make more. We had instilled into us as children some 
of the hard, old-fashioned common-sense of our parents. We have not acquired 
and held on to what we have without labor and care, and plenty of it, too." 

PHILANDER BANNISTER ARMSTRONG, life insurance president, was born in 
Brookville, Ind., Feb. 3, 1847. He is descended through the paternal line from a 
Scotch-Irish family, and through the maternal line from French Huguenots. No less 


than five of his ancestors took part in the American Revolution. His early life was 
passed upon a farm. When of age, he went to Cincinnati, found employment with 
The JEtna Life Insurance Co , and in 1869 became general agent in Southern Ohio for 
The Guardian Mutual Life Insurance Co. Having conceived the idea of mutual insur- 
ance as applied to merchants and mamifacturers, he founded The Phoenix Mutual Fire 
Insurance Co., in 1875, with a capital of $50,000, introducing the idea of large lines of 
insurance upon selected and protected properties. The directors opposed this policy. 
Mr. Armstrong resigned, and in 1880 came to New York city, where he organized The 
Mutual Fire Insurance Co., in which two hundred leading business houses subscribed 
for shares. This enterprise met with success. For many years he was president of the 
company. In 1888, he acquired a controlling interest in The Fire Association of New 
York, and, in 1889, organized The Armstrong Fire Insurance Co., becoming president 
of both. His methods were original, often opposed by conservative directors, but 
usually successful. In 1893, he organized The American Union Life Insurance Co., 
the only financial institution founded in New York city during that trying year, and is 
its president. Although a busy man, he has been identified with The Washington Loan 
and Trust Co. of Washington, D. C., The Mercantile National Bank, and The Twenty- 
eighth & Twenty-ninth Streets Railroad, of this city, and The Grand Rapids Hy- 
draulic Co., of Grand Rapids, Mich. His almond orchard in California is the largest 
in the world, there being 34,000 almond trees upon the ranch of 1,015 acres, with a 
total of 70,000 fruit trees, including figs, oranges, olives, peaches, apricots, cherries, 
pears, prunes, nectarines and lemons. He was married in 1872 to Josephine E., daughter 
of Henry Nietert, of Cincinnati. He occupies a beautiful house in Brooklyn, and is a 
life member of the Union League club of Brooklyn, of which he was one of the prin- 
cipal founders, and The Ohio Society and Sons of the Revolution and Insurance club 
of this city. 

AARON ARNOLD, merchant, born in the Isle of Wight, in 1794, died in New York, 
March 18, 1876. He was the son of a farmer. In 1825, he sailed for Philadelphia with 
his wife and daughter. After a careful study of the comparative advantages of differ- 
ent cities, he selected New York as the most desirable location, moved to this city, and 
in 1827, established a dry goods store at the corner of Canal and Mercer streets, with 
his nephew, George A. Hearn, under the firm name of Arnold & Hearn. On Mr. 
Hearn's retirement in 1842, his place was supplied by Mr. Arnold's son-in-law, James 
M. Constable, the firm thereupon taking the name of Aaron Arnold & Co. In 1853, 
Richard Arnold, his son, and J. P. Baker were admitted to the firm, of which the title 
has since been Arnold, Constable & Co. The rapid growth of the city, and the uptown 
tendency of the retail business, led to the removal of the store, in 1868, to its present 
quarters at Broadway and igth street. In 1877, Mr. Arnold retired. His children 
were Richard Arnold and Henrietta, wife of James M. Constable. Mr. Arnold's success 
was attributable to industrious habits, sterling honesty, business sagacity and stead- 
fast adherence to his friends, whether rich or poor. His son, RICHARD ARNOLD, born 
in New York in 1825, died here, April 7, 1886. When of age he entered the store of 
his father. He learned the trade thoroughly in all its details, and in 1853 was ad- 
mitted to partnership. A man of strong common sense, capable, and foreseeing, he 
proved .a competent merchant, gave the closest attention to details and directed the 
affairs of the house with notable skill and success He promoted the investment of a 


part of the earnings of the house in real estate on what was then upper Broadway, 
and the great appreciation in value of this property has proved the sagacity of this 
venture. He was twice married, first to Pauline, daughter of Noel J. Bicar, and after 
her death to Georgiana E., daughter of M. S. Bolmer. He left four children, three of 
them now deceased. 

HICKS ARNOLD, merchant, nephew of Richard.Arnold, was born in England, and 
first engaged in business in his uncle's store as a salesman. A diligent man, he was in 
time admitted to the firm of Arnold, Constable & Co. , and has since been an active and 
capable member of the firm. His wife is Harriette, daughter of Jame3 M. Constable. 
Mr. Arnold is a director in The Bank of the Metropolis. 

WILLIAM H. ASPINWALL, merchant, born in New York, Dec. 16, 1807, died 
here Jan. 18, 1875. He came from an honorable line of shipping men, his grandfather, 
Captain John Aspinwall, having been a captain of vessels hailing from his port long 
before the American Revolution, and his father, John, being a member of the famous 
shipping and mercantile firm of Gilbert & John Aspinwall. This latter house dealt 
largely in cotton, received goods on consignment from all parts of the world, and were 
large exporters of American products. William attended a local boarding school, and 
was trained as clerk for his uncles, Gardner G. and Samuel S. Howland. In 1832, he 
became a partner, the name being changed in 1837 to Howland & Aspinwall. The 
house transacted an immense business with the East and West Indies, the Mediter- 
ranean, China and England, owning seventeen or eighteen ships, including several 
Liverpool packets, and rose to be the largest shipping firm in the city. In 1850 Mr. 
Aspinwall relinquished the active management to his brother, J. Lloyd Aspinwall, the 
business thereafter taking the nature of banking, and devoted his attention to the 
building of The Panama Railroad and creation of The Pacific Mail Steamship Co. In 
the railroad enterprise he was aided by Henry Chauncey and John L. Stephens, and its 
pecuniary success was a proof of Mr. Aspinwall's sagacity. The profits of the road 
were $5,971,000 during the first seven years. The Pacific Mail Steamship Co. proved, 
especially in its earlier years, very successful. Mr. Aspinwall retired from the presidency 
in 1856, and devoted his remaining years to well-earned rest. He left five children, Lloyd 
and the Rev. John Abel Aspinwall ; Anna Lloyd, wife of James Renwick, the archi- 
tect ; Catharine, wife of Ambrose C. Kingsland, and Louisa, wife of John W. Minturn. 
Mr. Aspinwall was widely known for his generosity. A liberal patron of the fine arts, 
he collected a gallery of valuable paintings, including Stuart's head of Washington. In 
his will, he specifically stated that he left no bequests to public objects, because he had 
given according to his judgment during life. He enjoined his children to charity. His 
son, GEN. LLOYD ASPINWALL, born in New York in 1830, died in Bristol, R. I., 
Sept. 4, 1886. Early in life, he entered the firm of Howland & Aspinwall, of which 
his father was a member. In time, he succeeded his father and stood at the head of 
the firm at his death. He inherited large means, and added to them by his own effort. 
He was married to Henrietta Prescott, daughter of William De Wolfe of Rhode Island, 
who, with two sons, J. Lloyd and William H. Aspinwall, survived him. His military 
title was derived from service in the National Guard of New York, which began in 
1854. In 1857, he declined an election as Major of the 74th Regiment. In 1861, he 
formed the Minor Grays, afterwards the 22d, with which he went to the front in the 
fall of 1 86 1, as Lieutenant Colonel. Later, he was made Colonel and led the regiment 


during its three months service in the Gettysburg campaign, serving with credit in 
other capacities also during the war. In 1865-69, he served as Brigadier-General in 
the National Guard. Three times president of the Army & Navy club and a promi- 
nent member of The Military Order of the Loyal Legion and other veteran organiza- 
tions, he was also a member of the Union League Club, and at one time declined a 
nomination for Mayor of New York city. 

JOHN JACOB ASTOR, the greatest merchant of his time, and founder of one of the 
most conspicuous families in America, was born in Waldorf, near Heidelberg, Germany, 
July 17, 1763, and died in New York city, March 29, 1848. He was the son of Johann 
Jacob Astor, a respectable village merchant. Nature cast this young man in princely 
mould and endowed him with a soul in keeping with his outward aspect. He possessed 
a clear and courageous mind, an honest heart, and a spirit of unusual energy. In early 
youth, he encountered much hardship, but plain living and toilsome work in his 
father's store were interspersed with lessons at school and the reading of good books, 
and the modest circumstances of the family proved an impetus and inspiration, not an 
injury. His native village having become too small for the spirited and ambitious boy, 
he resolved to follow his older brother, Henry Astor, to London. He walked to the 
river Rhine, and voyaged down the river on a lumber raft, much as our American 
country lads often make their first visit to New York by freight boat on the Erie canal. 

In London he was employed by his uncle, who was the senior partner in Astor & 
Broadwood, makers of musical instruments. Three years sufficed to teach the youth 
the English language and a trade. In 1783, before the British troops had fully evacu- 
ated New York, Mr. Astor sailed for the new world, with the purpose of becoming a 
merchant there, bringing with him seven flutes and some other articles for sale upon a 
commission. Landing in Baltimore, Mr. Astor made his way to New York, where his 
brother Henry had already established himself as a merchant of cattle and meats, and 
there entered the service of a Quaker merchant, from whom he learned the details of 
the fur trade. He saved his earnings carefully, gained a little more by his own trading, 
and then opened a modest store on Water street as John Jacob Astor, fur merchant. 

In a little store on Queen street, he also became the pioneer merchant of musical 
instruments in the United States. 

Mr. Astor's occupation was the purchase of furs from the Indian tribes and the ship- 
ment of them to Europe. While he employed many trappers and traders upon the out- 
skirts of civilization at all times, he was nevertheless compelled to make many trips in 
person into the dense solitudes of the primeval forests of the North and the region of the 
Great Lakes. His life at this period was full of romantic adventure. To his honor, be 
. it said, that his personal aspect, his integrity and justice, and his tact, won the confidence 
and friendship of the wild tribes of the forests, and they always became his staunch 
and loyal friends. His unceasing energy resulted in a rapid development of his fur 
trade, and before the beginning of the present century, he was already worth $250,000. 
In the North, he was opposed by The Hudson Bay Co., which aimed at an entire 
monopoly upon that side of the American boundary. Nevertheless, Mr. Astor pushed 
his enterprise into Canada by way of Lake Champlain and Buffalo and into the West 
beyond Detroit. He even purchased furs upon the headwaters of the Mississippi and 
Missouri rivers, which Pierre Chouteau, the founder of St. Louis, regarded as his own 
especial field. 


The greatest venture of Mr. Astor was the founding of Astoria at the mouth of 
the Columbia river in 1809. He planted there a fort and a settlement, in person, won 
the friendship of the Indian tribes, and, during his four years oi control, carried on a 
large trade. Mr. Astor aimed at securing the whole of the Oregon region peacefully 
for the United States. In this he would have succeeded, in spite of the determined 
hostility of The Hudson Bay Co., had not the War of 1812 frustrated the plan. His 
agent betrayed his interests, dismissed \fr. Astor's Indian allies, and upon the first 
approach of a British ship of war, struck his flag and surrendered the post. 

The American Fur Co., which Mr. Astor organized, carried on a continental trade, 
and its sales in New York city were attended by buyers from every part of the world. 

At an early period, it became necessary for Mr. Astor to employ ships of his own in 
exporting furs to Europe. The return of these vessels laden with merchandise led him 
into an extensive foreign trade. He gradually acquired a large fleet, and his ships 
ploughed every ocean of the globe and carried cargoes both to and from England, Ger- 
many, France, Russia, China and America, the cargoes usually being purchased and 
sold on Mr. Astor's account. His ships were dispatched to various parts of the world 
with unerring judgment, and a single voyage sometimes brought him a profit of 
100,000 or more. For a long period, Mr. Astor invested two-thirds of each year's 
earnings in real estate. He acquired large tracts of land in Missouri, Wisconsin, Iowa 
and other parts of the West, and purchased many hundred acres upon the Island of 
Manhattan. He believed that the enterprise of his fellow merchants and himself would 
yet make New York the centre of a world wide trade and cover the rocks and swamps 
of this island with the edifices of a stately city. Sagacious in investment, he bought 
property in the city and its suburbs continually as opportunity offered. It was 
characteristic of him that he seldom sold a piece of property and never placed a mort- 
gage on any of his possessions. He constructed many prominent buildings, including 
the Astor House. The growth of New York from a population of 80,000 in 1810 
to half a million at the time of his death enormously increased the value of his 
property and brought to him the greater part of his fortune of $20,000,000. 

A daring enterprise in which he was associated in the early part of this century- 
was an attempt to purchase Louisiana from Napoleon. Mr. Astor expected to gain 
$30,000,000 had this purchase been consummated, but he was anticipated by Napoleon 
himself, who offered the territory to President Jefferson in order that it might be saved 
from capture by England. 

Mr. Astor was a man of commanding personality and won his way to fortune by 
intrepid, untiring and honorable effort and his early comprehension of the future of 
New York city. He was remarkable for his integrity, and won the good will of his 
fellow merchants by many helpful and magnanimous acts. 

For a time after his marriage to Sarah Todd, whom he was accustomed to describe 
as the best business partner he ever had, he made his home modestly at the store; but 
when prosperity came to him, he moved to the lower part of Broadway. His home: 
there was adorned with works of art and attended by a throng of servants, who were- 
natives of China and other lands with which he traded. Intellectual and eminent in his. 
attainments, he enjoyed the company only of men of merit. Albert Gallatin, Wash- 
ington Irving and other persons of distinction were his intimate friends. He retired, 
from business in 1822. Thereafter he spent many pleasant seasons in Europe. 


In America, Mr. Astor maintained not only a residence in the city but a summer 
place in Westchester county. He was fond of the simple and invigorating life of this 
farm. Public objects enlisted his cordial interest. The village of Waldorf received 
from him a $50,000 asylum for poor children, and his private charities were noble and 
extended. In his will, a legacy of $400,000 provided for the founding of The Astor 
Library. His children were John Jacob Astor, zd, William B. Astor and the wife of 
Vincent Rumpff. John Jacob Astor, ad, received injuries in the head, while riding, 
which unsettled his mind. He wrote some creditable verses after that, however, 
lived for many years on what was then a farm, on i4th street near Ninth avenue, 
the tract extending through to what is now isth street, and died when about 

WILLIAM BACKHOUSE ASTOR, son of John Jacob Astor, ist, began and ended 
his life in New York city. He was born Sept. 19, 1792, and died Nov. 24, 1875. He 
inherited the self-reliance and eminent character, rugged health and business capacity 
of his father in a marked degree. His education at the public schools in New York, 
was finished at Heidelberg and the University of Goettingen. He selected Chevalier 
Bunsen as his tutor, and with him traveled in various parts of Europe. Napoleon was 
then in the ascendancy upon the continent and Mr. Astor had the good fortune to 
witness some of the stirring and memorable events at that time. He saw Napoleon's 
troops assembling for the invasion of Russia, and later, the rising in Germany, when 
the French Emperor had been driven back from Moscow. After his return to America, 
Mr. Astor was married in 1818 to Margaret Rebecca, a daughter of Gen. John Arm- 
strong, a man of distinction, and successively United States Senator, Secretary of War 
and Minister to France. 

In 1820, Mr. Astor was admitted to partnership by his father, and became an 
efficient factor in a trade which extended to every part of the globe. The great fur 
sales were conducted by him for a number of years. He was president of The Ameri- 
can Fur Co., and during the latter part of his father's life held his father's general 
power of attorney. After 1825, he gradually discontinued the commercial ventures of 
the house, and that field was finally abandoned to other merchants. From his uncle, 
Henry Astor, a merchant on the Bowery, he inherited the sum of half a million. From 
his father he received the Astor House property. And by his excellent management 
of the fur business he gained an independent fortune of his own. 

Upon his father's death, Mr. Astor became the sole heir of an immense estate. 
Thereafter, he devoted himself to the preservation and growth of his property. He was 
a progressive man and one of the most active builders of his generation. It was said in 
1867 that he had inherited and built 720 dwellings and stores in this city. He had also 
promoted important railroad and insurance enterprises. He was liberal toward his 
tenants and generous in charity ; and his hatred of wrong doing, his purity of character 
and modest demeanor won the entire respect and good will of the community. His wife 
passed away Feb. 15, 1872, and thereafter his private affairs and the enjoyment of his 
library occupied his entire attention. He loved simple ways of living. Enthusiastic in 
athletic exercises, he was a good horseman and in early life a fencer, and until the age 
of seventy-five seldom allowed a day to pass without a brisk walk, regardless of the 
weather. His children were John Jacob Astor, 3d; William and Henry Astor; Emily, 
who married Samuel Ward and died early in life, leaving a daughter Margaret, who 


married John Winthrop Chanler ; Alida, wife of John Carey of England ; and Laura, 
wife of Franklin Delano, the merchant. 

He added 250,000 to the endowment of The Astor Library, and made a total of 
$550,000 in gifts to that institution. His estate was divided mainly and equally 
between his sons John Jacob and William Astor. 

JOHN JACOB ASTOR, third of the name, son of William B. Astor, was born in 
New York city, June 10, 1823, and died here Feb. 22, 1890. He received a good edu- 
cation and at an early age went into the real estate business with his father, assisting 
in the management of the vast property which was later to come in part under his con- 
trol. In 1846 he married Charlotte Augusta, daughter of Thomas Gibbes, of South 
Carolina, a woman of noble character, devoted to good works. She died Dec. 12, 
1887. From this marriage, one son was born, William Waldorf Astor. At the out- 
break of the Civil War, Mr. Astor enlisted as a volunteer, and served with credit on 
the staff of General McClellan. After the war, he remained in business with his father. 
After his father's death, in 1875, Mr. Astor increased his inheritance by continu- 
ing the purchase and improvement of real estate. He rarely sold. As a result of this 
policy, he was at his death the largest owner of real estate in New York city, aside 
from the Trinity Church corporation. He was a director and trustee in many institu- 
tions, and a vestryman in Trinity Church, in the affairs of which he took a deep interest. 
He was one of the principal owners of The United States Trust Co., and The Farmers' 
Loan & Trust Co. , and a stockholder in nearly all the older banks of New York city. 

In Mr. Astor's life, there were no incidents of public interest at all commensurate 
with his fortune. He was a modest, unobtrusive, well balanced man, exact in business 
matters, and generous in his charities. A master of both the French and German lan- 
guages and fond of literature, he devoted his leisure to reading and study. 

His estate was estimated variously between 75,000,000 and 100,000,000, the bulk 
of it going to his son, William Waldorf Astor, now the head of the family. He gave 
legacies of 400,000 to The Astor Library, 100,000 each to St. Luke's and the Cancer 
hospitals, and other sums to kindred public objects. 

WILLIAJ1 WALDORF ASTOR was born in New York, March 31, 1848, married 
Miss Mary Dahlgren Paul of Philadelphia, June 6, 1878, and succeeded to his father as 
head of the family in February, 1890. His life has been largely controlled by the 
influence of two women of noble character. To his mother, in early manhood, he 
owed his ideal; from his wife, in his maturity, he received an unfailing example of 
courage, chant}' and good sense. 

Upon the completion of his education, which was directed by private tutors and 
finished in Europe, young Astor was taken into the office of The Astor Estate at the 
age of twenty-three, his father having entered it at twenty-five, and his grandfather 
at twenty-eight. Here, he was instructed in every branch of business routine, which 
had gradually been developed into an elaborate and comprehensive system. He was 
sent about the city with a pocket map-book until he knew all the family property. 
He collected dividends, learned the art and mystery of coupon cutting, and listened 
to the perennial complaints of tenants. Above all, he had before him the example of 
his father and grandfather in the clearness, industry and justice, with which their 
daily task was accomplished. Those were days of incessant labor and of much 
vexatious routine, which might well have been remitted to a manager. 


In the midst of the fudge which the newspapers print about this family, four mis- 
takes deserve a passing correction First, it is supposed that the Astors delight in the 
foreclosure of mortgages. The truth is, that a foreclosure being a disagreeable and un- 
profitable process, is resorted to only in rare instances. Secondly, it is not true that 
they are their own insurers against fire. Thirdly, the assumption that much of the 
fortune was derived from the Astoria enterprise is incorrect, that brilliant and roman- 
tic venture having resulted in heavy loss. And lastly, the alleged rule never to sell real 
estate does not exist. Only narrow-minded and impractical men would imagine so silly 
a rule. The first John Jacob Astor was continually selling houses and lands whenever 
they could be disposed of at large profit. His son and grandson did the same as they 
found it expedient. The subject of this sketch sold a million dollars' worth of unprom- 
ising tenement-house property in 1890; and it is not rash to say, that he is alwavs ready 
to part with any of his New York real estate for double its value. 

The old office building, 85 Prince street, with all the accumulated ledgers, family 
settlements, trust papers, letter books, records of the Astoria enterprise, and docu- 
ments showing the management of the estate for over fifty years, passed in 1876, at 
the division of the property under the will of William B. Astor, into the possession of 
his eldest son, John Jacob, who bequeathed his entire estate, real and personal, abso- 
lutely and in fee simple, to his son, William Waldorf, without any limitations or trusts. 
He had previously received in 1878 a general power of attorney, by which his father 
placed him wholly in control over all his interests, giving him authority to do any act 
in connection therewith which he himself could legally perform. Mr. Astor's first act, 
upon succeeding his father, was to name his place of business at 21 West 26th street, 
"The Office of The Astor Estate." His next important decision was to erect at the 
corner of Fifth avenue and 33d street the hotel, which bears the name of the German 
home of the family at Waldorf. So successful has this venture proved, that it is about 
to be imitated upon the adjoining corner. 

Mr. Astor has received a more liberal share of newspaper abuse than falls to the 
lot of most men. He has been derided and reviled, reported dead and insane, and 
charged with mean and sordid motives. To all this he has made no reply, thinking it 
beneath him to enter upon the contradiction of willful misrepresentations, and perhaps 
knowing that many of his critics are destitute people, who have no other means of live- 
lihood It can hardly be necessary to remind New York that the Astors have been 
public-spirited citizens, given to service for the public good in hospitals, in the library 
which bears their name, benevolent institutions, and works of charity. It cannot yet 
be forgotten that in war times, John Jacob Astor, father of the subject of this sketch, 
went to the front and served in the field with the Army of the Potomac. Nor can it 
lightly be lost sight of that the name of Astor has been a synonym for honesty and high 
character and pure life in the history of New York. 

In September, 1880, Mr. Astor conceived the project of a London office, The ter- 
mination of his embryo career in politics in 1881, after an entirely creditable record of 
three years in the New York Legislature and his more than creditable career of three 
years as Minister to Italy under President Arthur, turned his thoughts to a residence in 
England, where he saw the possibility of a broader life than is included within the limits 
of Wall street, Fifth avenue and Newport. In 1888 and 1889 he represented to his 
father the advantages of a residence and office abroad, to which the latter agreed that 


it would probably be conducive to comfort and happiness, and might be expected to 
add to the security of the estate, though invariably declining to have anything to do 
personally with his son's "English plan," as it came to be called between them. "I 
am too old," he said, " for any change; some da}' you will take my place, and then you 
can do as 3 T ou please. But," he added on the last occasion when the project was dis- 
cussed, "be quite sure, before beginning, that you have the nerve to carry it through." 

This admonition was deeply laid to heart, and it may be said that Mr. Astor has 
found the "nerve to carry it through," and to make for himself and his children the 
opportunity for useful and happy and profitable lives. He cherishes, wherever he may 
be, the remembrance of his childhood's home, of many kind and loving friends in 
America, and of the enterprising genius of the great city of New York, where so many 
years of his life were spent. 

WILLIAM ASTOR, second son of the late William B. Astor, born in New York city, 
July 12, 1829, died in Paris, France, April 25, 1892. An able and vigorous man from 
his youth, he graduated second in his class from Columbia College in 1 849. Frank and 
generous in his nature, self-respecting, loyal to his friends, enthusiastic in athletic 
sports, he was exceedingly well-liked by all his classmates. He undertook a long journey 
through Egypt and the East, after his college days were over, and this tour made im- 
pressions upon his receptive mind which were never effaced and inspired in him a life- 
long interest in Oriental art and literature. 

Sept. 23, 1853, he was married to Caroline, daughter of Abraham Schermerhorn, a 
descendant of an old and distinguished family, which was founded in America in 1642 
and has always been conspicuous in affairs. 

Immediately after his marriage, Mr. Astor entered the real estate office of his father 
on Prince street, and undertook a share of the management of the vast properties be- 
longing to the family, and, after half of it had come to him by inheritance, he increased 
it largely by continual purchases and re-investment of receipts. Competent, judicious, 
and successful, he possessed the faculty of so regulating his business interests as to leave 
a portion of his time free for recreation. He was fond of farming and open air employ- 
ments, and especially enjoyed the company of the sea. Many trips along the coast were 
taken in his own steam yacht. 

In 1875, a visit to Florida awoke his interest in the vast undeveloped resources of 
that State ; and it is believed that his enterprise, during the next ten years, accomplished 
more for Florida, than that of any of his cotemporaries. He built a railroad from St. 
Augustine to Palatka, constructed several modern blocks of buildings in Jacksonville, 
and led other men of means to join in the work of re-creating a new Florida in place of 
the old one. His sendees were so valuable that the State Government voted him a 
grant of 80,000 acres of land. 

Both Mr. Astor and his wife were prominent in the social entertainments of the 
metropolis. Their eminent purity of character, discriminating taste, refinement and 
generous hospitalities made them the unchallenged leaders of the social life of the 
city. The approval of Mr. and Mrs. Astor ensured the success of every movement 
which depended in any manner upon the favor of the great and powerful. The}- were 
both singularly generous in their charities and equally scrupulous in avoiding public 
notice of them. Their children were Emily, who died in 1881, wife of James J. Van 
Alen of Newport; Helen, wife of James Roosevelt Roosevelt; Charlotte Augusta, 




wife of James Coleman Drayton ; Caroline Schermerhorn, wife of Marshall Orme Wil- 
son; and John Jacob Astor. 

A reference has been made to Mr. Astor's love of the ocean. The schooner yacht 
Ambassadress, built for him in 1877, gave him much pleasure during the following 
seven years. She was the largest sailing yacht ever constructed. In 1884, he caused 
to be designed and built the Nourmahal, a steamer heavily sparred and capable of a 
rapid run under sail alone. Mr. Astor projected a trip around the world in this sea- 
worthy vessel, but did not live to carry out the plan. The Ambassadress was sold to a 
Boston gentleman for private use, and several years later to a fruit concern in the West 
Indies. She is probably the swiftest ship afloat in the fruit trade. Mr. Astor was also 
the owner of the sailing yacht Atalanta, which won two out of three races in which she 
entered and carried off the Cape May and the Kane cups. 

Mr. Astor was also fond of fine horses and owned many thoroughbreds. Vagrant, 
purchased in Kentucky in 1877, more than paid for himself before his owner saw him. 
Another horse named Ferncliff, raised by him, was sold as a yearling for 4,800. A 
stallion bought in England in 1890 for $15,000 sold within a year for 30,000. 

JOHN JACOB ASTOR, fourth of the name, son of William Astor, was born 
July 13, 1864, at Ferncliff, near Rhinebeck, his father's country house on the Hudson. 
He is the most American of all the Astors, both by descent, marriage and patriotic sen- 
timent. Through the maternal line, he is in the fifth generation of descent from 
Robert Livingston, who received by royal patent the famous Manor of Livingston on 
the Hudson River, comprising a large part of the land in Dutchess and Columbia 
counties. His education, begun in St. Paul's School, Concord, N. H., and prosecuted 
at Harvard University, from which he graduated in the scientific class of 1888, 
has been continued by diligent reading and extended foreign travel. Before entering 
Harvard, he made a trip to the Pacific coast by the northern route, enjoying the novelty 
of travel by stage through the mountains and many expeditions on horseback and on 
foot in pursuit of big game. Since then he has visited nearly even- country in Europe, 
the West Indies, 'and many parts of South America. In Turkey the Sultan, Abdul 
Hamed, paid him the honor of a personal audience, having first fully satisfied himself 
that the young American was not an agent of Russia or England, or otherwise bent 
upon overturning the Turkish throne and convulsing the whole of Europe with the 
chaos of a general war. His originality has been repeatedly shown by avoidance of 
ordinary routes of travel. 

Upon his return from foreign travel, Mr. Astor identified himself with the manage- 
ment of the family estates. He gained a thorough knowledge of the business and has 
since devoted himself to practical affairs with abilit) r and success. 

In 1891, he was married in Philadelphia to Ava, daughter of Edward Shippen and 
Alice C. Barton Willing of that city, and thus became connected with a family of dis- 
tinction, which, besides being notable for its loft}' character, has given birth to many 
men of high social and official position. Thomas Willing, great-great-grandfather of 
Mrs. Astor, was Mayor of Philadelphia, Judge of the Supreme Court, and first presi- 
dent both of The Bank of North America and The Bank of the United States. He 
aided in drawing up that immortal document, the Constitution of the United States, 
and it was he who designed the United States coat-of-arms. Another ancestor of Mrs. 
Astor was Coloney W. Barton, a Member of Parliament in 1653 By this marriage. 


Mr. Astor gained the life companionship of a charming and congenial woman. His 
wife is fitted by native refinement, a bright mind, and thorough education for the exalted 
social position she occupies; and she enters graciously and with enjoyment into the 
open air recreations for which the Astors have always been noted. She is a good marks- 
man and with fire-arms made especially for her, has secured wild duck and other game 
many times during the hunting expeditions of herself and husband. In fact, upon 
their wedding trip, Mrs. Astor demonstrated the fact that she was a better shot, even 
than her husband, with revolver and rifle. A piece of slate, completely concealed by a 
half dollar coin, according to a spectator, was by her shot at and hit four times out of 
five, at a distance of fifteen paces. Mrs. Astor now owns quite an arsenal. She is as 
fond, not only of shooting but of open air amusements, as her husband, and frequently 
plays tennis and golf, and joins Mr. Astor in sailing. Her influence in the promotion 
of invigorating exercises is certain to prove far-reaching. 

Mr. Astor is a good citizen, a progressive and capable business man, and a gentle- 
man who has shown himself willing to endure discomfort in the public service. He 
has served as juryman in the local courts with admirable patience and public spirit. 
The influence of his name has been sought by financial institutions and he is a 
director in The National Park Bank, The Title Guarantee & Trust Co. , The Mercantile 
Trust Co. , The Illinois Central Railway, The Second National Bank, and The Plaza 
Bank. He belongs to the Knickerbocker, Union, Metropolitan, Tuxedo, City, Riding, 
Racquet, Country, New York Yacht, Down Town, and Delta Phi clubs, and is one of 
the governors of the Newport Golf Club and the Newport Casino. It may also be said 
that he is one of the patrons of the annual Patriarch's Ball, the greatest social event of 
each winter season in the metropolis. Already the possessor of many buildings in this 
city, Mr. Astor's civic pride, energy and business sagacity combined promise to place 
upon the Island of Manhattan several splendid buildings during the long business career 
which is before him. Various plans are now in. contemplation. 

It is one of the developments of modern times that a talent for practical affairs 
and literary ability are sometimes found united in the same man. This is the case 
with Mr. Astor. He is fond of the study of science and philosophy, and he has written 
a book, entitled, "A Journey in Other Worlds; A Romance of the Future," which, 
superbly illustrated by Dan Beard under Mr. Astor's direction, and handsomely printed, 
appeared in 1894 and attracted widespread interest and attention. In this entertain- 
ing work, Mr. Astor assumes that the conquest of nature has been achieved and 
that nearly all the forces which mankind is striving, so far in vain, to harness, 
have been brought under control, while new ones have been discovered, among 
them the principle of apergy, which tends to throw objects apart, as gravitation 
draws them together. He indulges in this romance in clever and daring philo- 
sophic speculation, revels in the luxuriant and wonderful life of Jupiter, makes 
the flowers sing, creates extraordinary reptiles, discovers a water spider 600 feet 
long, travels 300 miles an hour by railroad train, and, most marvelous of all, reveals 
New York as possessing clean streets, rapid transit and a good city government. His 
heroes visit Jupiter and Saturn and encounter strange and inspiring adventures, which 
are described with so much force and felicity of language, as to create the hope that 
Mr. Astor's pen may yet be employed upon other volumes. His first excursion into 
the realm of literature, judged solely by its own merits, not by the merits of the man. 


which are great, has received the approval of the most judicious critics. The work 
will soon be published in Paris in the French language. It has already been printed 
in London, and the sale of the London edition already exceeds the sale in New 
York, although the book has reached its fifth edition here. 

Mr. Astor has been commissioned a Colonel on the staff of Levi P. Morton, 
Governor of the State of New York. 

HUGH AUCHINCLOSS, merchant, born in New York, in 1817, died in New 
Canaan, Conn., June 18, 1890. He was the son of Hugh Auchincloss of Paisley, Scot- 
land, who in 1805 began in New York the importation and sale of dry goods and cotton 
thread. At an early age the younger Hugh and his brother John were taken into the 
firm, which until 1855 displayed the sign of Hugh Auchincloss, but then became known 
as John & Hugh Auchincloss, later as Auchincloss Bro's. The firm rose to prominence 
as the American agents for Coates's spool thread, of which they imported and sold 
enormous quanties. They were also manufacturers of thread in this country, and long 
held a high position in the mercantile world. Mr. Auchincloss left an only daughter, 
Mary Baldwin, wife of Lewis P. Childs of New Canaan, Conn. He was a director of 
various financial institutions, including The Merchants' National Bank and The Bleecker 
Street Savings Bank. For many years, he was a member of Grace Protestant Episcopal 
church and a man of the highest probity of character. 

JOHN AUCHINCLOSS, merchant, born in 1811, died in Quebec, Canada, June 26, 
1876. He was a son of Hugh Auchinchloss, of .Paisley, Scotland. Receiving a training 
in his father's store, he became a partner, and, after the death of his father, in 1855, 
joined his brother Hugh in continuing the business of the house, which was developed 
to large proportions. At the time of his death, Mr. Auchincloss was the oldest dry 
goods merchant in New York city in continuous management. He was a director of The 
Merchants' Bank, a trustee of The Equitable Life Assurance Society, and identified with 
various other institutions. Six sons and two daughters survived him. For many years 
he had been a member of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church and was highly 
respected in business and social circles. 

ROBERT FRANKLIN AUSTIN, merchant, born in Brownville, N. Y., Sept. 21, 
1827, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 31, 1885. His parents were of New England 
descent. At the age of sixteen, the young man entered the general country store 
of Daniel J. Schuyler at Three Mile Bay, afterwards rising to partnership. Mr. 
Austin made himself so popular among his neighbors that, while yet a young man, they 
sent him, in 1855, to the State Assembly for one term. About 1860, he removed to 
New York, and found employment as a clerk with Earle & Co., grocers. In 1861, he 
became a partner in Fitts, Austin & Turner in the same trade. Mr. Turner withdrew 
in 1864. The store, originally in Warren street, was moved, in time, to larger quar- 
ters in Murray street, and finally to Reade street. In 1878, the firm reorganized as 
Austin, Nichols & Co. Mr. Austin soon took leading rank among the business men of 
the city, the new firm being highly successful under his management. In 1880, they 
removed to. a new store on Hudson at the corner of Jay street. Mr. Austin was a keen, 
prompt, upright man, just, humane and democratic. In 1875, he was given a seat in 
the Chamber of Commerce, and often took part in discussions there, being an excellent 
speaker. In Augtist, 1850, Mr. Austin was married to Miss Anna Schuyler, daughter 
of his first employer. To them was born one son, D. William Austin, who died Oct. 2, 



1894. Among the institutions with which he was identified were The Importers & 
Grocers' Exchange, The Mercantile Exchange, The Board of Trade & Transportation, 
and The Hanson Place Baptist Church, in Brooklyn. 

FREDERICK FANNING AVER, a lawyer of high standing in New York city, a 
son of the late Dr. James C. Ayer, of Lowell, Mass., was born in Lowell, Sept. 12, 1851. 
This family have been identified with the history of the country for the last 200 years. 
Mr. Ayer's paternal ancestors served in the American Revolution and in the War of 
1812. Through his mother, he descends from Lawrence and Cassandra Southwick, 
members of the Society of Friends, who were persecuted for conscience sake in colo- 
nial days in Boston. Their heroic endurance has been commemorated by Whittier in a 
poem. His mother's mother and the founder of the house of H. B. Clanin & Co , of 
New York, were children of Major John Clanin of Milford, Mass. 

Frederick F. Ayer was educated, first, in the public schools in Lowell, and in 1863, 
he was sent to St. Paul's School in Concord, N. H., where he enjoyed a four 
years' course. 

He then left school for a while to learn a trade. Dr. Ayer, his father, was, at that 
time, a large owner of stock in various mamifacturing companies. Some of these 
concerns had met with serious losses, owing to the incompetence of their managers, 
and the young man inherited from his father a conviction of the imperative necessity 
of acquiring a practical knowledge of the details of any form of business in which he 
might be engaged. It was certain that, in time, large manufacturing interests would 
be entrusted to him ; and he resolved to gain a thorough acquaintance with the details 
of the work in the mills. He entered Suffolk Mills, therefore, as an operative, begin- 
ning at the beginning of the processes of manufacture, and working in every room of 
the mill from wheel pit to belfry, until he had acquired a sound personal knowledge of 
every process through which cotton passes on its way from the bale to the finished 
cloth. Then, leaving the factory, he fitted himself for college. 

In July, 1869, The Franklin Literary Association was organized by him and other 
young men of Lowell. This was at first a large debating club. In that practical school, 
Mr. Ayer acquired the habit of thinking while on his feet, which served him in good 
stead in later years. Graduating from Harvard in 1873 with honor, he then spent some 
time travelling in Europe with his father. In 1874 he entered the Law School at Cam- 
bridge, being in due time admitted to the bar. In 1875 he began practice in partner- 
ship with Lemuel H. Babcock. The first service of the young lawyer in court came 
about in a sudden and unexpected manner. Dr. Ayer was then the controlling spirit 
in the company formed to supply the city of Rochester, N. Y., with water from Hem- 
lock Lake. Litigation had arisen between the company and the city. The case was 
one in which the family were deeply interested, and while yet in the Law School, Mr. 
Ayer had studied from curiosity the questions involved. When the case came up in the 
Supreme Court at Rochester for argument, Mr. Ayer was present to listen. To his 
great surprise, Judge Henry R. Selden, counsel for Dr. Ayer, introduced the young 
man to the court as his associate from Massachussetts and declared that Mr. Ayer would 
open the case. Mr. Ayer was taken unawares, but rose, without preparation, faced 
the court with quickly beating heart and shaking knees, and spoke for half an hour. 
He acquitted himself with such credit that his father presented to him a check for 
$10,000, his first professional fee. This experience with the ways of senior counsel 


made him shy of court rooms thereafter. In 1876, the failure of Dr. Ayer's health 
compelled Frederick to abandon the practice of the law and assume the responsible 
duty of managing Dr. Ayer's vast investments. He has since been fully occupied with 
the care of large interests. 

Mr. Ayer possesses the faculty of public speaking and has appeared before large 
audiences many times. He was never more felicitous in his remarks, perhaps, than 
upon Oct. 26, 1876, when, in behalf of his father, he made the address of presentation 
of the new Town Hall of Ayer to the authorities of the town and delivered to them the 
keys of the edifice. His father's life was drawing to a close and the occasion was an 
affecting one. Mr. Ayer spoke with fine control and much feeling. 

In 1885, he made an address in Michigan which was followed by important conse- 
quences. Like his father, he had become greatly interested in corporation reform. 
Among the first to see the justice and expediency of minority representation and cumu- 
lative voting in the directory of industrial corporations, he urged this idea upon the 
attention of public men; and when, in 1885, a bill to secure this result was introduced 
in the Legislature of Michigan, Mr. Ayer made an argument in its behalf which was 
so unanswerable that it led to the passage of the law. Similar laws have since then 
been enacted by other States. 

He has always taken a lively interest in public affairs and studied diligently the 
various branches of economic science. He has always opposed by voice and pen every 
successive scheme for debasing the currency, and has always favored a reasonable but 
moderate tariff. 

Upon his father's death in 1878, Mr. Ayer became the manager of the great proper- 
ties which his father had created, and for many years was obliged to resort to law and 
lawyers, as a client, to extricate the estate from dangers with which it was threatened. 
He has displayed business ability of a high order, and his previous legal training has 
aided to make him a successful financier. 

Mr. Ayer is a man of generous impulses. Among many philanthropic acts, it is 
told of him that in 1890 he gave $5,000 for books for a public library in the Town House 
of Ayer, and later built for the town the Ayer Memorial Library building, at a cost of 
about $40,000. There had previously been some attempts to maintain a public library 
in the village. In one case, the library had been so very free, that all of its books had 
disappeared within the fifteen years of its existence. Other attempts were made under 
better management, and in 1890 a library of about 2,800 books had been accumulated. 
Mr. Ayer's gift enabled the trustees to equip the shelves with a large number of the 
most valuable standard books, and his later generosity gave the town an excellent 
library building. He has also joined with his mother, Mrs. Josephine M. Ayer, in pre- 
senting to the city of Lowell a beautiful home for children. 

Mr. Ayer inherited a large interest in his father's property, and has many large 
investments of his own. The fortune of Dr. Ayer has been more than doubled by the 
jon by judicious investments. The latter is a director of The Lake Superior Ship 
Canal Railway & Iron Co., The Portage Lake & River Improvement Co., The 
Lowell and Andover Railroad, The J. C. Ayer Co., The Tribune Association in New 
York, and the Tremont and Suffolk Mills. 

In social life he is a man of cultivated taste, and, while not a club man, as that 
term is generally understood, is nevertheless a member of many social organizations, 


among them the Harvard, New York, Merchants', Riding, Down Town, New York 
Yacht, Union League, and Metropolitan clubs. 

MARSHALL AYRES, merchant, born in Truro, Cape Cod, Mass., in 1806, died in 
New York, Jan. 15, 1888. Receiving a fair education and some training in business pur- 
suits, he went, in 1835, with Josiah Lombard to Illinois, and passing through Chicago, 
then a town of 5,000 inhabitants, settled at Griggsville, sixty miles west of Springfield. 
They participated in the wonderful development of the great Northwest, and came 
in time to control the agricultural, grocery, dry goods, provision and banking trade of 
the county in which they had located. Both partners acquired fortunes. They built 
the first steamboat which ran upon Illinois rivers, and became heavily interested in the 
steamboat system of the Mississippi. In 1872, they sold their Western interests and 
made their homes in New York. They were succeeded in business by their sons under 
the firm name of Lombard, Ayres & Co., a prominent petroleum and lumber firm, 
having interests in The Sea Board Lumber Co. and The Sea Board Manufacturing Co. 
at Mobile, Ala. The two life long partners married each other's sister. Mr. Ayres 
was survived by a son of the same name. The present Marshall Ayres is a director in 
The Tide Water Oil Co., which is a consolidation of the oil interests of Lombard, 
Ayres & Co., The Chester Oil Co., The Ocean Oil Co. and The Polar Oil Co., the latter 
two of New York, and a member of the Harvard and Congregational clubs. 


B. T. BABBITT, manufacturer, born on a farm at Westmoreland, N. Y., in 
1809, died in New York, Oct. 20, 1889. He received a scant education, his youth being 
spent in the drudgery of the farm. He first learned the trade of blacksmith, removing 
to Utica. Saving his earnings, he went to Little Falls later and began the manufac- 
ture of farm machinery on a small scale with success, and, it is claimed, made the first 
mowing machine which would mow ever made in the world. Having accumulated 
about $10,000, he came to New York city in 1843 and began the manufacture of sale- 
ratus, leaving his business at Little Falls in charge of a manager. The latter proved 
recreant, and Mr. Babbitt lost every dollar he possessed. Undismayed, he soon dis- 
covered a new process for making saleratus at a great saving of cost, and in a few 
years acquired control of the trade of the whole country. He also manufactured soda 
and potash. In 1858 he began the manufacture of soap, from which he amassed a for- 
tune. In his factories were used many mechanical appliances of his own invention, 
and among the curiosities of New York were his six kettles for boiling soap, their 
aggregate capacity being 3,500,000 pounds, the value of the raw material required to 
fill them before boiling being $216,000. He had branch houses in Philadelphia and 
Cincinnati and a number in New York and elsewhere. His children were Ida J., wife 
of C. M. Hyde, and Lillia E. Babbitt, now deceased. Mrs. Babbitt died Dec. 20, 1894. 

GEORGE HERMAN BABCOCK, inventor, engineer, manufacturer and philanthro- 
pist, distinguished in each of these fields of activity, a native of Unadilla Forks, a hamlet 
near Otsego, N. Y., was born Jan. 17, 1832, and died at his home in Plainfield, N. J., 
Dec. 1 6, 1893. The family are of Rhode Island origin and were always thorough 
Puritans, sound and reputable people and of the best blood of New England. 

The father and mother of the subject of this sketch both came from families noted 
for inventive genius, Asher M. Babcock, the former, being well known as a mechanic 
and inventor of his times. The pin wheel motion in plaid looms, which sprang from 
his ingenious brain, as well as a shoe peg machine and many other mechanical appli- 
ances, were widely adopted by the manufacturers of his period and put into successful 
operation in the industries. The mother of George H. Babcock, nee Mary E. Still- 
man, was a daughter of Ethan Stillman, who attained distinction in the War of 1812 as 
a constructor of ordnance for the Federal Government. Her uncle, William Stillman, 
a lock maker and clock manufacturer, produced a pioneer unpickable bank lock, long 
before the days of Chubb and Hobbs 

George H. Babcock spent most of his boyhood in the villages of Scott and Homer, 
both in Cortland county, N. Y. He was a good boy and the pride of his parents. The 
family moved to Westerly, R. I., when he was twelve years old. George received a 
fair education, mainly in the public schools, but studied for a year in the Institute at 
De Ruyter, N. Y., and fhen, a bright, ambitious and earnest young man, seventeen 
years of age, he acquired a little experience in the machine shop and factory. His 
father was then a manufacturer of plaids. 

In Westerly, the young man met Stephen Wilcox, a capable mechanic of the village, 
and later famous as an inventor, destined to be his lifelong friend and longtime partner. 


Mr. Babcock's health was impaired to such an extent that he suffered from scrofula 
and was threatened with consumption. Unfitted for hard labor at a mechanical trade or 
for serious responsibilities, but unwilling to remain idle, he found occupation in the then 
aew art of daguerreotypy. Far from being injurious to him, the use of the chemicals 
required for developing daguerreotype plates proved beneficial. Mr. Babcock always 
believed that the fumes of the iodine, then freely used in his art, drove the scrofula from 
his system. At any rate, he regained his health and the cure was permanent. He en- 
joyed a remarkable amount of physical vigor during the remainder of his long and ardu- 
ous career. Photography never lost its fascination with him, and he continued to practice 
the art as an amateur the rest of his life, becoming successful and distinguished therein. 

In 1851 he gave up his gallery, and for three years his active mind found congenial 
employment in the publication of a newspaper. In the spring of the year named, he 
started The Literary Echo and Pawcatuck Advertiser, the pioneer newspaper of Wes- 
terly, organizing the first printing office in that locality. Although only nineteen 
years of age. the young proprietor carried on his weekly newspaper with success for a 
number of years as an adjunct to the general printing business, which is an inseparable 
accompaniment of a country newspaper. The paper is yet in existence, under the 
more practical title of The Westerly Weekly. Mr. Babcock sold his interest in 1854 to 
resume the art of daguerreotypy. 

Out of Mr. Babcock's experience as a printer grew his first invention. Until that 
time, and, indeed, down to the present day, in all except a certain few large printing 
offices, the production of a sheet of paper, upon which the impression is made in two 
or more colors, involved as many separate printings as there were separate colors. Mr. 
Babcock and his father studied the subject of a polychromatic press, by which a sheet 
could be printed in three colors at once, and, in 1854, they perfected the first machine 
of that kind ever known. Mechanically, the press performed what was required from 
it, but it failed commercially, being many years in advance of the times. On the other 
hand, an improved small foot power jobbing press, which the young man patented in 
1857, became popular. It proved of direct value to small printers. The Babcock 
presses were built by The Pawcatuck Manufacturing Co., of Westerly, now known as 
the firm of C. B. Cottrell & Sons, and the progenitor of a dozen other firms, engaged 
in manufacturing presses in different parts of the country, some of which are most 
noted. The patents were subsequently held by Cottrell & Babcock. In 1855 this 
press took a prize at the Crystal Palace Exhibition, in London, England. Its manu- 
facture brought to its inventor the capital with which he subsequently engaged in the 
production of other machines. 

From work upon the perfection of their new presses, the Messrs. Babcock, father 
and son, went back in 1858 to The Literary Echo, of which they resumed control in 
company with J. Herbert Utter, changing the name to Tlie Narragansett Weekly. They 
conducted the paper for about a year, and then the ruling passion again took possession 
of them. In 1859 the Babcocks sold their interest to the Rev. George B. Utter, a 
prominent clergyman and writer of the Seventh Day Baptist denomination, who lived 
during the latter part of his life in Westerly, devoting himself mainly to the manage- 
ment of The Narragansett Weekly. 

In 1860 Mr. Babcock removed to Brooklyn, N. Y., and spent three years in the 
office of Thomas D. Stetson, a prominent patent solicitor with a large practice. He 


was so proficient in mechanical matters that the authorities of Cooper Union engaged 
him to instruct a class in mechanical drawing, and his evenings were accordingly de- 
voted to Cooper Union, greatly to the advantage of himself as well as of his pupils. 
His reputation as a draughtsman and inventor led, in 1 860, to his employment by various 
persons and firms, among them the officers of The Mystic Iron Works, whose shops in 
Mystic, Conn., were then taking part in the construction of war vessels for the United 
States Government. Soon afterward, The Hope Iron Works of Providence, R. I., se- 
cured his services as chief draughtsman. For these two establishments, he designed 
the machinery for a number of steam vessels belonging to the merchant marine and 
the Federal Navy. Several of the latter performed good service in the blockading and 
other fleets operating on the Southern coast. In this field of work, Mr. Babcock grad- 
ually drew near the inventions which were destined to bring him fame and fortune. 
During this period he improved the shrapnel shell, employed during the war in action 
at close quarters. 

Just before the Civil War, the depressed condition of American industry had led 
Congress to enact the famous Morrill Protective Tariff Bill. Other laws followed, in 
which, for the sake of revenue, the duties on foreign goods were largely increased. 
An immense impulse was thereby given to manufacturing industry, and the subject of 
boilers and engines became important both to inventors and the proprietors of shops 
and factories. In 1867, Mr. Babcock and his friend Wilcox formed the firm of Babcock 
& Wilcox, taking out a patent for a steam boiler, which will be referred to hereafter. 
They also produced a steam engine, and in 1868 moved to New York city to push this 
branch of their business to better advantage. Arrangements were made by them for 
the building of their engines by The Hope Iron Works, of Providence; Morton, Poole& 
Co., of Wilmington, Del. ; Poole & Hunt, of Baltimore, and The C. & G. Cooper Co., 
of Mount Vernon, Ohio. The machine possessed some singularly interesting and 
ingenious elements of novelty and utility. The cut-off was effected by the action of 
an isochronous governor, the steam valve being operated by a ' 'positive motion" and 
the cut-off by a small independent steam piston, timed in its action by the governor 
connection. Babcock & Wilcox incorporated The New York Safety Steam Power Co. 
in 1868 to build their engines and boilers, and conducted the industry with satisfactory 
results financially for several years, when, the expiration of the Corliss patents per- 
mitting the builders of the whole country to flood the market with that form of engine 
at ruinously low prices, the Babcock & Wilcox engine was withdrawn from sale. In 
1878 the firm retired from The New York Safety Steam Power Co. and devoted them- 
selves to their boilers alone. 

Their most famous invention was the Babcock & Wilcox safety, or sectional, tubu- 
lar steam boiler, based upon an earlier invention of Mr. Wilcox in 1856, and so con- 
structed, as an earlier and equally famous inventor described it, that explosion would 
not be dangerous. Mr. Babcock so designed the boiler, however, that anything like a 
real explosion would not occur at all. The steam and water were confined in com- 
paratively small vessels, a set of inclined tubes constituting the major part of the heating 
surface, exposed to the action of the flame and the furnace gases. The larger volume of 
steam and of water, requisite in all boilers for satisfactorily steady action, was enclosed 
in steam and water drums above and removed from the localities of high temperature 
These drums, also, were of comparatively small diameter, and therefore strong and safe. 


After 1867, when the first patent was taken out, scarcely a year passed by until 
1883 without witnessing an improvement of some kind in the boiler. In 1869, a new 
design, first manufactured by the firm at The South Brooklyn Steam Engine Works, 
found its way to the market and met with instant success. In this design, wrought 
iron legs took the place of cast iron headers ; the tubes were expanded with the inside 
sheets ; and hand holes succeeded the large doors. The principal fault of this invention 
was the large first cost. Year after year, the firm applied for new patents, their pro- 
gressive improvements culminating in 1883, when, finally, the following principles were 
triumphantly worked out: ist, Sinuous headings for each vertical row of inclined 
tubes. 2d, A separate connection with the drum both front and rear. 3d, All joints 
to be made without bolts or screw threads, thus avoiding leaks from unequal expansion. 
4th, The absence of stays. 5th, The boiler to be supported independently of the 
brick work. And 6th, Every part to be accessible for cleaning. Since 1883, the only 
advance has been to make the whole boiler from wrought steel. The success of the 
Babcock & Wilcox boilers has been, from the beginning, remarkable, in spite of ever 
increasing competition and the yet more serious opposition growing out of the inertia 
and conservatism of the public mind. The boilers have found their way to nearly every 
part of the world. The large decrease in the number of frightful boiler explosions, so 
numerous thirty years ago, is undoubtedly owing to the inventive genius of this firm 
and the efforts of their competitors to produce boilers equally good. Substantially, all 
explosions of this class occur with the older shell boilers, which the new inventions are 
displacing; and the inventors of the "sectional" boiler have thus saved to the world 
lives and property of inestimable value. Such inventions are doubly precious. For 
many years' the Babcock & Wilcox boilers have been the most extensively built and 
sold of all devices of this nature. Large works for their production have been built in 
Elizabeth, N. ]., and in 1881, The Babcock & Wilcox Co. was incorporated, for the 
the more convenient management of the industry, Mr. Babcock becoming its presi- 
dent. In 1883, an English branch of the company was established, which met with 
such an excellent reception that its proprietors transformed it in 1891 into an incorpor- 
ated company. Works have been established in the city of Glasgow, from which the 
markets of the world are supplied. 

By a life of diligent and signally useful industry, Mr. Babcock gained both wealth 
and a world wide reputation. In personal traits he was a strong man. Alert, quick to 
comprehend, thorough in analysis and prompt in decision, he was, on the other hand, 
never impulsive ; and if, upon occasion, he could bring tremendous energy to bear up- 
on any work or operation he had in hand, he was nevertheless guided by previous 
thought and sound and level headed judgment. He displayed a tenacious memory and 
the ability to master a subject rapidly and gave new proof of this, after he was 58 years 
of age, by learning French. He was patient and kindly with every sincere, painstaking 
and conscientious worker in his employment, but never wasted time upon a man who was 
careless or refused to follow proved methods of accomplishing work. The latter was 
promptly dropped. To the cry of distress, he responded with generosity. Unbending 
in integrity, just, serious and companionable, he attached his friends to him by the 
strongest ties of affection. 

Of his wealth he made a worthy use. For many years, he gave time, thought and 
money to the promotion of the interests of the Seventh Day Baptists, the religious 


body with which he identified himself, and to the advancement of the cause of educa- 
tion, especially on its practical and technical side. He was deeply devoted to the cause 
of his denomination. Nothing which concerned their welfare was to him a matter of 
indifference. He made munificent gifts toward the educational, missionary and re- 
ligious work of the body and guided its leading spirits with sound advice, which was 
of even greater value. The American Sabbath Tract Society he served for nearly 
twelve years as corresponding secretary. During i874-'85 he presided over a Sabbath 
school in Plainfield as its superintendent, and gave a great impetus to the school by 
blackboard illustrations. An incident of his career illustrates his love of Bible study. 
In 1874, some of the commuters, who came from Plainfield daily to New York, used to 
gather in one corner of the car and study the Bible. At first one double seat was occu- 
pied, then two, and finally the class grew so large that it was widely spoken of by the 
religious press. Mr. Babcock was the principal worker in this class. He was presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of Alfred University, to which he gave large sums both 
during his lifetime and by bequest, and a non-resident lecturer at Cornell University from 
1885 to 1892 in the Sibley College courses in mechanical engineering. He prepared 
his most important papers, mainly on the scientific principles involved in the genera- 
tion and use of steam power and on the best modern methods of boiler construction, 
for the last named courses. His last engagement, abrogated by his death, was for a 
lecture in the spring of 1894. His papers were always well planned, thorough, full of 
facts and useful knowledge and polished in expression. In delivery quiet but im- 
pressive, he held an audience, whether of college students or business men, interested 
and attentive to the end, however long the address. He wrote a large number of 
treatises and in 1878 a " Natural History of the Bible," which possessed scientific 

. Mr. Babcock was a charter member and at one time president of The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. He became a life member early in the history of 
the Society. In 1870 he located in Plainfield, N. J., subsequently being elected presi- 
dent of the Board of Education, holding this office until his death. He was president 
of the Public Library of that city and of the trustees of Alfred University. By unceas- 
ing efforts, he promoted the growth of both. Public spirited as a citizen, he did much 
to improve the city of Plainfield by the erection of fine buildings and other improve- 
ments, for which he was personally responsible, as well as by promoting, wherever 
possible, all public works of value. A block of buildings constructed by him is con- 
sidered the finest, architecturally, between New York and Philadelphia. His activity 
and influence in the local congregation of which he was a member were equally marked 
and effective. The church owes much to his energy and personal liberality. Mr. 
Babcock was a man of culture and of broad and varied reading. He was devout and 
honorable, kindly affectioned and thoughtful of others and a model of the good citizen, 
the loving husband and father and the steadfast friend. In every relation of life he 
exhibited lovely and admirable qualities. 

Mr. Babcock was married Sept. 28, 1852, to Lucy Adelia Stillman, of Westerly, 
R. I., who died May 20, 1861. Sept. 25, 1862, he was married to Harriot Mandane 
Clarke, of Plainfield, N. J. She died March 5, 1881. His third marriage took place 
Feb. 14, 1883, to Eliza Lua Clarke, of Scott, N. Y., who died March 21, 1891. April n, 
1893, he was married to Eugenia Louise Lewis, of Ashaway, R. I. His children were 


George Luason Babcock, born Jan. 7, 1885, and Herman Edgar Babcock, born July g, 
1886, who died Aug. 6, 1886. His wife and one son survive him. 

PAUL BABCOCK, jr., merchant, born in New York city, Aug. :8, 1841, is a son of 
Paul Babcock, who was a dry goods merchant in this city during all his active business 
life. The young man received his education in the free schools of New York city, with 
one year at the Free Academy, when his father's poverty compelled him to begin to earn 
his own living. He first engaged in business as a clerk, in the old firm of H. J. Baker 
& Bro., where he continued until the war broke out in April, 1861. He entered the 
army on the night of the firing on Fort Sumter, joining a volunteer company, which 
tendered its services to the State of New Jersey and was the first company of organized 
soldiers raised in the United States with special reference to the late war. He became 
a director of The Standard Oil Co. in 1880, since which time he has been the president 
of The Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey, and of The Soule & F'aming Manufacturing Co. 
and of The Liebig Manufacturing Co. In 1865 he married Mary Webster, daughter of 
Prof. Edwin D. Sanborn, and grand daughter of Ezekiel Webster, and their children 
were Mary Webster, Emily, Paul and Alice. Mary Webster alone survives of his four 

SEflON BACHE, manufacturer, born in Fuerth, Bavaria, July 6, 1826, died in New 
York, Jan. n, 1891. He was of Hebrew descent, and son of Joel Bach, a native of 
Fuerth, who fought with Napoleon in Russia, was captured at Moscow, escaped, and 
suffered so greatly from the cold, that all his toes were frozen, making amputation nec- 
essary. Coming to this country in 1843, Semon spent a few years in Jackson, Miss., 
with an uncle named Engelhardt, and removed to New York city in 1846 to seek and 
find his fortune. In 1847, with a capital of less than $10,000, he established the house 
of Semon Bache & Co., importers of fancy goods and mirrors. Dependent entirely on 
himself, he threw all his energy into business, made rapid progress, and gradually with- 
drawing from the sale of fancy goods added all the different branches of the glass trade, 
dealing in window, plate and mirror glass. In 1857, Siegmund J. Bach, a brother, was 
admitted to the firm, and in 1883, Joseph S. Ulmann, a son of his old partner. In later 
years, Leopold S. Bache, his own son, was admitted. Since 1891, the firm have con- 
tinued under the original title. In 1890, they consolidated the German mirror plate 
branch of their business with that of six competing houses, as The German Looking 
Glass Plate Co. In 1893, they consolidated the plate glass branch with Heroy & Mar- 
rener and Holbrook Bro's, under the title of The Manhattan Plate Glass Co. In 1849, 
Mr. Bache married Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. Aaron S. Van Praag. His children are 
Henrietta, wife of Julius Kayser; Sarah, wife of Adolph Thurmann; Blanche, wife of 
Charles Neukirch; Jules Semon Bache; Leonora, wife of Leopold Rossbach; Leopold 
Semon Bache ; and Mamie, wife of Siegmund Politzer. Mr. Bache had valuable invest- 
ments in bonds, mortgages and real estate. He belonged to the Harmonic Club and 
various charitable societies. It was by the advice of his uncle, Engelhardt, that he 
Americanized his name by adding the final "e." 

JAMES ANTHONY BAILEY, showman, was born in Detroit, Mich., in 1847. 
Sacrificing the advantages of a comfortable home, a spirit of enterprise led him at an 
early age to secure work upon a farm at $3. 50 per month. This occupation proved dull, 
and he proceeded on foot to Pontiac, Mich., and found employment as call boy in a 
hotel. An agent of Robinson & Lake's circus, while a guest of this hotel, attracted by 


the brightness and energy of the boy, then gave him a place in the corps of advance 
agents of the show. He left the circus business in 1864 to become advertising 
agent of a theatre in Nashville, then served as clerk to an army sutler, witnessing all 
the battles from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and finally accepted a place once more in the 
advance corps of the old circus. Here, he became so valuable that James E. Cooper 
offered him an equal partnership in the circus business, and the firm of Cooper & 
Baile)^ was thereupon formed. His enterprise resulted in a tour of the Sandwich 
Islands, Australia, New Zealand, India and South America with the circus, which 
proved successful. Upon the return to America, the Great London Circus was bought 
and added to that of Cooper & Bailey and the firm engaged in a contest with P. T. 
Barnum, which was conducted with so much shrewdness and energy, as to force Mr. 
Barnum to abandon his favorite territory in the East. Mr. Barnum then offered Mr. 
Bailey a partnership, which was accepted, leading to the firm of Barnum & Bailey. In 
October, 1894, Mr. Bailey bought the interest of the heirs of his partner and so became 
sole proprietor of The Barnum-Bailey Greatest Show on Earth, which he yet conducts. 
His winter quarters are at Bridgeport, Conn. In 1868, Mr. Bailey married Ruth 
Louisa McCaddon in Zanesville, O. He is a stockholder in the Madison Square Garden 
in this city. 

JAflES STANTON BAILEY, manufacturer, born in Lebanon, Conn., Dec. 9, 1817, 
died in Brook^m, N. Y., Jan. 6, 1895. His family was planted in America by an im- 
migrant from Yorkshire, Eng., to Newburyport, Mass., in 1638. In the maternal line, 
he traced his pedigree to the Stantons and Shermans of Rhode Island, followers of 
Roger Williams. James received a fair education, and in 1836, found employment as 
clerk in a grocery store in New Haven, afterward acquiring a partnership. Having 
saved a small amount of money, he came to New York in 1847, and in 1848, with 
Charles F. Tuttle, as Tuttle & Bailey, began the manufacture of furnace registers and 
ventilators. Through his energy, honesty and ingenuity, and various patents, the 
little industry grew in the course of time to be the leading enterprise of its class in 
the United States. In 1866, seven years after the death of Mr. Tuttle, the firm incor- 
porated as The Tuttle & Bailey Manufacturing Co. , Mr. Bailey being its president. 
Their goods have been sent to all parts of the world. The office is now in this city on 
Beekman street; the factories in Brooklyn. A genial, kind-hearted, sagacious man, 
Mr. Bailey enjoyed the respect of every associate. He was a strong Republican and a 
reader of THE TRIBUNE from its first issue. In 1843, he married Augusta Caroline, 
daughter of Capt Roswell Trowbridge of New Haven, and lived to celebrate his golden 
wedding. Of his six children, five survived him He had been for many years presi- 
dent of the trustees of The South Congregational Church in Brooklyn. 

COL. ANDREW D. BAIRD, merchant, born in Kelso, Scotland, Oct. 14, 1839, is 
the son of Andrew Baird, a stone mason. He acquired a public school education, and 
in 1853 came to America with the family, which settled in the city of Brooklyn. 
Andrew was first apprenticed to a blacksmith, but within a year afterward to the 
stone-cutting trade in the employment of Robinson Gill in Brooklyn. May 13, 1861, 
he enlisted in the 7gth N. Y. Vol's, the Highlanders, as they were called, the regiment 
being composed of men of Scottish descent. He served entirely through the war, 
taking part in forty-five battles and being wounded three times, and commanded 
the regiment after May, 1864. After the peace, he returned to his stone yards and 


quarries in 1867, becoming a partner in the firm of Gill & Baird, to whose affairs he has 
since devoted his attention. The yards on Wythe and Kent avenues are among 
the foremost in the United States. Colonel Baird is trustee or director of The Nassau 
Trust Co., The Kings County Trust Co., The Williamsburgh Savings Bank, The Manu- 
facturers' National Bank and The Twenty-sixth Ward Bank, as well as of other corpora- 
tions. Greatly interested in municipal affairs, he has served as alderman several times 
and twice as candidate for Mayor of Brooklyn on the Republican ticket. In 1866 he 
married Miss Mary Warner, of Brooklyn, and several years after her death, Miss 
Catherine Lamb, in 1882. He has several children. The Union League Club of 
Brooklyn claims him as a member. 

OSCAR EUQENE BALLIN, banker and stock broker, a native of this city, was 
born Nov. 29, 1856, and is a son of Eugene S. Ballin, a German, who emigrated to 
New York in 1846 and died in New York city in June, 1885. Oscar was educated in 
Columbia Grammar School, and then, in 1873, found occupation in his father's banking 
house. After the death of the senior Ballin, the bank was liquidated. The son inher- 
ited means from his father, which he has increased by his own efforts at the Stock 
Exchange, in dealing in investment securities. He is head of the firm of Ballin & Co., 
stock brokers, a director in The Iron Steamboat Co., and a member of the Lotus and 
Manhattan clubs. 

JACOB F. BAMBERQER, merchant, born in Germany, April 9, 1833, died in New 
York city, Aug. 31, 1894. After a limited education in Germany, he came to this 
country with his parents in 1 846, and began life in Louisville, Ky. , as clerk in a dry goods 
store. Early discipline brought out his qualities, and in 1856 he engaged in a dry 
goods business in Louisville on his own account. In 1862, in J. F. & L. Bamberger, 
he undertook the dry goods jobbing trade. In 1872, two firms consolidated as Bam- 
berger, Bloom & Co., the subject of this sketch being senior partner until his death. 
In 1872, an office was opened in New York city on Worth street, in the down-town dry 
goods district, and Mr. Bamberger thereafter made New York his home and became 
the resident buyer. Diligence, close attention to the wants of customers, and sound 
methods, brought 'him financial success. He never failed or compromised a debt. 
Well known among dry goods men, he was active in the several campaigns in which 
Mr. Cleveland was a candidate for office. He was one of the trustees of Temple 
Emanu-El, a director in The Hebrew Orphan Asylum and The United Hebrew Chari- 
ties, and a member of all of the Hebrew charitable and benevolent institutions in the 
city, in each of which he took an active interest, and to all of which he contributed 
generously. He was also a member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Harmonic 
club. By his marriage in 1863 to Pauline Ullman, he had three sons, Leon Jacob, 
Edward Sanford and Irving Washington Bamberger, all now living. 

WILLIAn DUDLEY BANCKER, merchant, was born in New York, April 19, 1836, 
and died in Brooklyn, Dec. 29, 1893. He was a son of Capt. Abraham Bancker, a for- 
eign news collector and at one time an associate of Commodore Vanderbilt. He re- 
ceived his education in the schools of Brooklyn, where the most of his life was passed. 
Beginning life as a clerk for Dick & Fitzgerald, book publishers, he became a partner 
and then engaged in the sale of books and newspapers in Ann street on his own ac- 
count. His business, in time, assumed the name of The New York News Co. When 
The American News Co. was formed in 1863 by a union of various wholesale firms in 


the news trade, he joined the company, became its secretary in 1879 and in 1885 gen- 
eral superintendent. He was a stockholder in the company and a man of force and clear 
mind, and aided materially in developing the enormous trade of the concern in news- 
papers, periodicals and books. Of the Washington Avenue Baptist church in Brook- 
lyn, he was a deacon, trustee and Sunday School superintendent. Nov. 14, 1860, Mr. 
Bancker married Jersey A. Huff, in Somerville, N. J. His family consisted of seven 
children, five of whom survived him, namely: Abraham, Margaret B., William Dud- 
ley, Edward Huff and Andrew Otterson Bancker. He was a member of the Oxford, 
Germania, Montauk, Atlantic Yacht and Riverside Yacht clubs. 

JAMES HOPSON BANKER, stock broker, born in New York city in 1827, died at 
Irvington on the Hudson, Feb. 12, 1885. He was the son of Edward Banker, of the 
old ship-chandlery firm of Banker, Schermerhorn & Co. Educated in the common 
schools, he entered business life in his father's employment, succeeded to the business, 
acquired a fortune and retired in 1869. The panic of 1873 called him from retirement; 
and as a stock broker he became associated with Commodore Vanderbilt in his Wall 
street operations. For several years, he served as a director of The New York Central 
& Hudson River and The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroads, being treasurer 
of the last named, and when control of The Western Union Telegraph Co. passed into 
the hands of Commodore Vanderbilt, he accepted the office of director of that company 
also. During his later years, the Edison inventions interested him and led him to be- 
come a director of The Edison Electric Light Co. and auxiliary corporations. He had 
no children. 

CHARLES BANKS, capitalist, born in this city, April 20, 1830, is a member of 
an excellent family. Educated in private schools and a man of refinement, he has 
devoted his business activity mainly to real estate investments. Large means have 
come to him by inheritance, absolving him from the drudgery of daily toil, and he has 
been able to spend his years largely in travel, cultivation and social enjoyment. He is 
a member of the Union, New York, and South Side Sportsmen's clubs. 

JAMES LENOX BANKS, fl. D., born in New York city, May n, 1832, died here 
June 3, 1883. He was the son of William Banks, a well-known shipping merchant of 
the last generation, and of Isabella Henderson Lenox, daughter of Robert Lenox. He 
graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1857, studied abroad for 
two years, and in 1859 began the practice of medicine in this city. He inherited means, 
but never abandoned his activity in the healing art. March 14, 1855, in this city, he 
married Miss Isabella Mozier, daughter of Joseph Mozier, the American sculptor at Rome. 
Mrs. Banks and eight children survived him, the latter being Isabella, wife of Thomas 
E. Satterthwaite, M. D.; William B. Banks; Josephine Mozier, who married Charles 
H. Marshall; James Lenox and Henry Lenox Banks; Maria, wife of Walter C. Taylor; 
J. Fisher S. and Lenox Banks. Dr. Banks was a member of The American Medical 
Association, The New York State Medical Society, The New York Pathological Society, 
The Medical Society of the County of New York, The New York Academy of Medicine, 
The New York Medico-Legal Society, and The New York Academy of Sciences, and 
at one time president of The Society for the Relief of Widows and Orphans of Medical 
Men. He served as consulting physician in The Presbyterian Hospital about eight 
years and occupied a similar position in The Presbyterian Home for Aged Women. 
He was also a trustee of The College of Physicians and Surgeons and The Lenox 


Library, a manager of The American Bible Society, and a member of the Geographical 
and Historical Societies. 

AMZI LORENZO BARBER, A.H., LL.B., was born at Saxton's River, Windham 
county, Vermont, on June 22, 1843. His father was the Rev. Amzi Doolittle Barber, 
whose grandfather, Thomas, and father, Calvin, settled and lived in Townsend, 

Thomas Barber, with two brothers, came to this country before the Revolution. 
One brother, named Joseph, settled in Massachusetts; the other brother went West or 
South, and of him nothing further is known. 

Mr. Barber's mother was Nancy Irene Bailey, who was born in Westmoreland, 
Oneida county, New York. His ancestors on his father's side were Scotch-Irish, and 
on his mother's side French-English, and he has, perhaps, in some degree, inherited the 
striking characteristics of these four different nationalities. His father was a self- 
educated Congregational clergyman of great simplicity of purpose and strength of char- 
acter. He was one of the students who left Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, 
because the discussion of the slavery question had been prohibited by the faculty of 
that institution, and he walked across the State of Ohio to Oberlin and entered Oberlin 
College, from whose theological department he graduated in 1841. Among his class- 
mates were many men who became distinguished for philanthropy and other qualities, 
among them ex-President James H. Fairchild and the Rev. Dr. M. E. Strieby of 
The American Missionary Association. His father is yet (1895) engaged in ministerial 
work at Castalia, O., and although eighty-five years of age, he enjoys excellent health, 
retaining all of his faculties except hearing, and is rendering acceptable service to the 
parish of which he has charge. 

The subject of this sketch at first contemplated a professional career. The family 
moved to Ohio in 1852 and lived at Bellevue, Huron county, until 1858, then in Cleve- 
land until 1862, and afterward in Austinburg and Geneva, Ashtabula county. Mr. 
Barber attended various schools and academies, including the high school of Cleve- 
land, during his minority, and in 1862 he entered Oberlin College at the head of his 
class in the preparatory department. An attack of pneumonia compelled him to leave 
college for a year, which he spent in the wilds of northern Michigan. He graduated 
from Oberlin College in 1867, taking the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and subsequently 
received from that institution the degree of Master of Arts. By working upon farms 
in the summer time and teaching school in the winter, he saved enough money to meet 
his college expenses. While pursuing a post-graduate course in the theological depart- 
ment of Oberlin College, he was invited by Gen. O. O. Howard, then at the head of the 
Freedmen's Bureau, to take charge of the normal department of Howard University, 
and in April, 1868, he moved to Washington for that purpose. Subsequently he took 
charge of the preparatory department, and, later on, was elected to a professorship of 
natural philosophy in that university. In 1872, he resigned his connection with that 
institution and engaged in the real estate business in Washington. A year later there 
followed the panic of 1873, which was commenced by the failure of Jay Cooke's bank- 
ing house. The depression in prices was very great and continued for several years, 
during which time many people engaged in the real estate business in Washington lost 
heavily. Mr. Barber, however, held on to his real estate interests and ultimately sold 
out to good advantage and realized a handsome profit. 


A dispute has arisen in recent years concerning the likelihood of success of a college 
man in business. Mr. Barber's career is a signal example of the eminence to which an 
energetic man can rise when his mind, naturally clear and active, has been trained by 
years of study and close thinking. 

Real estate operations in the District of Columbia led him to appreciate the value 
of good streets, and in 1878 his attention was called to and he engaged in the laying of 
asphalt pavements in the city of Washington. Many miles of streets in the Capital of 
the nation were paved with the new material by him, and the business growing rapidly, 
his operations soon extended to other cities. In 1883 he found it necessary to incorpo- 
rate The Barber Asphalt Paving Co., in order to systematize the work and most 
efficiently carry out the contracts which were obtained by his skill, energy and hard 
work. During the four years, 1882 to 1886, inclusive, he averaged one thousand miles 
of railway travel weekly, and slept an average of one hundred and twenty nights yearly 
on Pullman sleeping cars. Including about eighty thousand miles of travel upon the 
ocean, he estimates that he has traveled upwards of four hundred thousand miles in 
establishing and carrying out the business of which he is the head, the equivalent of 
circumnavigating the globe upwards of sixteen times. 

In order to obtain under the most favorable conditions an ample supply of the raw 
material, Mr. Barber negotiated in 1887 a concession from the Government of Great 
Britain for a lease of the celebrated lake of natural pitch on the island of Trinidad for 
a period of forty-two years. This reservoir of 114 acres contains an almost inexhausti- 
ble supply of asphalt. To acquire and operate this concession The Trinidad Asphalt 
Co. was organized in 1888. Mr. Barber is the leading stockholder, director and officer 
of the two corporations above named, representing an aggregate capital and surplus of 
nearly $7,000,000. Down to the present time, there have been laid upwards of 16,000,- 
ooo yards, or 1,000 lineal miles, of Trinidad asphalt pavements in eighty cities of the 
United States, at a cost of over $50,000,000. The Trinidad Asphalt Co. has supplied 
nearly all the material for this work, and The Barber Asphalt Paving Co. has done 
upwards of one-half of it, the remainder having been done by about thirty separate 
companies or firms, in which neither of the two companies above named nor Mr. 
Barber has any interest beyond supplying the material therefor. The pavement as 
laid by these companies, especially the Barber company, has proved s^ acceptable that 
it has come to be recognized as the standard pavement of the United States. Companies 
are now being formed to introduce the pavement into foreign countries. 

In 1868 Mr. Barber was married to Celia M. Bradley, of Geneva, Ohio, who died 
in 1870. In 1871 he married Julia Louise Langdon, daughter of J. Le Droict Lang- 
don, formerly of Belmont, New York. They have had five children, of whom four are 
living, namely Le Droict Langdon, Lorena Langdon, Bertha Langdon, and Roland 
the first three being adults and the last seven years old. 

Mr. Barber retains a strong affection for Oberlin College, and has long served it as 
one of its trustees. 

In 1875-6 Mr. Barber took the course of lectures in the law department of Colum- 
bian University at Washington, and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. Subse- 
quently he was admitted to the bar in Washington, but has never made a regular prac- 
tice of law. 

At one time Mr. Barber was a director of The Citizens' National Bank of Washing- 


many important cases, being noted for his success and acquiring a fortune in his profes- 
sion. At the age of twenty-three, he had charge of the settlement of claims arising 
under the treaty with Mexico, from which he received extraordinary fees. His ability 
to earn large fees was phenomenal. In one instance, he received $25,000 for half an 
hour's work, which was willingly paid, owing to the magnitude of the interests involved 
and his great tact in effecting an amicable adjustment. The firm of Bowdoin, Larocque 
& Barlow was formed in 1852. After the death of the two senior partners in 1868 and 
1870, Joseph Larocque, brother of the original member, William W. MacFarland and 
Mr. Barlow formed a new firm, to which was added in 1873 Judge William D. Shipman, 
Judge William G. Choate in 1881 taking Mr. MacFarland's place. A Democrat in poli- 
tics, Mr. Barlow was for several years a large stockholder in The New York World, and 
shaped its policy from 1864 to 1869. He was one of the founders of the Manhattan Club 
and a member of the Union Club. He had a fine collection of paintings and engravings, 
and his library of early American history was one of the most extensive in existence. 
Mr. Barlow's wife, Alice Cornell, daughter of Peter Townsend, survived him, as did an 
only son. His son, PETER TOWNSEND BARLOW, lawyer, was born in New York 
city, June 21, 1857. He graduated from Harvard University in 1879, fitted himself for 
the law at the Law School of Columbia College and in the office of Shipman, Barlow, 
Larocque & Choate. He was married in 1886 to Virginia Louise, daughter of Edward 
Matthews. Their children are Edward M. , and Samuel L. M. Barlow. A gentleman 
of education and fine mind, he has been elected to membership in many of the best 
clubs in town, including the University, Harvard, Union, Metropolitan, Players', Tux- 
edo, Racquet, Down Town and New York Yacht clubs. 

ALFRED BARMORE, ice merchant, born in Rockland county, N, Y., June 15, 1807, 
died in this city, May 13, 1875. Beginning life at the age of sixteen in the leather trade 
of this city, he did not come into prominence until, after Croton water had been brought 
into town, he began the sale of ice. Starting on a small scale, he devoted himself there- 
after exclusively to the development of the ice trade. In 1856 he became president of 
The Knickerbocker Ice Co., which position he held until his death. Under his energetic 
fostering, the company grew into a large concern, owning many ice houses on the Hud- 
son river, and retailing ice to every part of this metropolis. 

ALFRED SHITH BARNES, publisher, a native of New Haven, Conn., born Jan. 
28, 1817, died in Brooklyn, Feb. 17, 1888. He was descended from Stephen Barnes, 
an Englishman, who settled on Long Island the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
His early life was laborious. First a clerk in a shoe store, he then obtained employ- 
ment in Hartford in the publishing house of D. F. Robinson & Co., and being depend- 
ent entirely upon his own abilities, he made every effort to learn the business. At the 
age of twenty-one, he published the mathematical works of Charles Davies in Hartford, 
and successfully introduced his arithmetics and Mrs. Emma Willard's history as popular 
school books. In 1840, he went to Philadelphia for four years, and built up a profitable 
publishing business, which he then removed to New York city. His brother, five sons 
and a nephew were associated with him under the title of A. S. Barnes & Co. The firm 
attained eminence in the publication of school books. Mr. Barnes was connected with 
the Central Branch of The Union Pacific Railroad, The New York Elevated Railroad, 
The Hanover Bank, The Dime Savings Bank of Brooklyn, and The Home Insurance 
Co. He was naturally attentive to educational interests and identified with Cornell 


University, the Fisk University in Tennessee, and the Polytechnic and Adelphi acad- 
emies, in Brooklyn. He was a member of the Union League Club of New York, and 
the Hamilton Club, The Long Island Historical Society, and The New England 
Society of Brooklyn, and trustee of the Clinton Avenue Congregational Church of 
Brooklyn, which city was his home for many years. To the Good Samaritan and 
other institutions of Brooklyn, he was a generous donor, and he founded Barnes Hall, 
one of the most prominent buildings at Cornell University. Mr. Barnes was twice 
married, first in 1840 to Miss Harriet E. Burr of Hartford, and later in 1883 to Mrs. 
Mary Matthews Smith. He left ten children by his first wife. His son, Alfred C. 
Barnes, now represents the house in The American Book Co. The other children are 
Mary C., Henry P., Sarah F., Harriet E., Edwin M., Richard S., William D., Annie 
M., and Emilie B. Barnes. 

DEM AS BARNES, banker, born in Canandaigua, N. Y., April 4, 1887, died in 
New York city, May i, 1888. Leaving public school at the age of fifteen and starting 
as clerk in a country store, four years later he went into business on his own account. 
In 1849 h e established himself in New York in the wholesale drug business, and by 
untiring assiduity became a leading merchant of the city. In the early days, Mr. Barnes 
crossed the continent in a wagon, making a careful examination of the mineral re- 
sources of Colorado, Nevada and California. His experiences were afterward related 
in a series of letters in the newspapers. He was an earnest advocate of The Union 
Pacific Railroad. In 1866, his neighbors in Brooklyn elected him as a Democrat to 
Congress, where he served on the Committees on Banking and Currency, and Education 
and Labor. He was active in procuring legislation for the construction of the Brook- 
lyn Bridge and a member of the first Board of Trustees. In 1870 he retired from 
business. That able Democratic journal, The Brooklyn Eagle, at one time belonged to 
him, and of The Brooklyn Argus he was the founder, continuing publication until 
February, 1877. He was a director of The Long Island Railroad and several insurance 
companies, a member of the New York club and prominent in many public institutions. 
JOHN SANFORD BARNES, lawyer, was born in West Point, N. Y., May 12, 1836. 
His father, General James Barnes, was a graduate from the Military Academy in 
1825. John was sent to the Naval Academy in Annapolis, whence he graduated in 
1854. He served through the Civil War, rising to the rank of Commander, and then 
resigned, studied law and practiced his profession in Albany and New York. He was 
for twelve years a partner in the late firm of J. S. Kennedy & Co., bankers, and with- 
drew in 1879. In 1880, he retired from active business and has since devoted his atten- 
tion to the- law. He was married in 1862 to Susan Bainbridge Hayes, daughter of 
Capt. Thomas Hayes, U. S. N. , and grand daughter of Commodore William Bainbridge, 
U. S. N., who in command of the "Constitution" captured the " Java" in the war of 
1812, and their children are James, J. Sanford, Edith S., Charlotte Adams and Cornelia 
Rogers Barnes. Mr Barnes is of social nature and well fitted for a life in which 
refinement, a bright mind, abundant means and character are essential requirements. 
He belongs to many clubs, including the Union League, Metropolitan, Union, Univer- 
sity, Knickerbocker, Down Town, Whist and Westminster Kennel. 

CHARLES TRACY BARNEY, banker, born in Cleveland, O., Jan. 27, 1851, is a 
son of the late A. H. Barney, president of The United States Express Co. Charles 
graduated from Williams College and then entered business life. He has been engaged 


in banking in New York city for many years. Mr. Barney is a careful, competent and 
courageous business man, interested in diverse enterprises. Through loans of money 
to local builders, he has been led into real estate operations himself, one of them being 
the purchase of the Donnelly tract on the West Side in this city. He is director of 
The Safe Deposit Co., The New York Loan & Improvement Co., The Mercantile 
National Bank, The Hudson River Bank, and The Knickerbocker Trust Co. His clubs 
are the Metropolitan, Grolier, Century, Players', Union, University, City, Colonial, 
Whist, Down Town, Riding, New York Athletic, New York Yacht, and Westminster 

WILLIAM JOSHUA BARNEY, born at Fort Mackinaw, Mich., in March, 1823, 
died in New York, Jan. 5, 1886. He was a great-grandson of Commodore Barney, of 
the American Revolution, and the family yet possesses the sword presented to the 
Commodore for his defense of Bladensburg in the War of 1812. His father, Captain 
Joshua Barney, a graduate of West Point, was stationed for many years at Fort 
Mackinaw. William graduated from Baltimore College with honor, became a lawyer, 
and assisted his father in laying out the first Government road in Iowa, then a Terri- 
tory. After Iowa was admitted, he entered the first land warrant. Later, he started 
a bank at Dubuque, which he closed in 1857, removing then to Chicago, where he 
opened a real estate office. In 1871, after the great fire, he came to New York to live, 
although he continued his Chicago office. He acquired a fortune by real estate oper- 
ations in the West and in New York. Mr. Barney married Georgiana F. Carroll, of 
Kentucky, and left one son, I. C. Barney. He was a member of the Society of the 
Cincinnati and one of the founders of the Chicago Club. 

DR. JOHN C. BARRON, capitalist, began life as a physician and a Union volunteer, 
and then, having inherited wealth, embarked in practical business, in which he has 
since met with excellent success. 

He is a native of Woodbridge in the county of Middlesex, N. J., where he was 
born Nov. 2, 1837. He descends from an old and well-known family. John Barren, 
his father, was a man of fine character and large possessions, prominent in his day and 
of wide influence. His grandfather, Joseph Barren, was a farmer, merchant, tanner 
and capitalist, and president of the famous old turnpike roa'd from Woodbridge ,to 
Philadelphia, a great highway during the period before the advent of railroads, when 
travel took place on horse-back or by stage-coach and carriage. An uncle, Thomas 
Barron, was director of the Louisiana branch of The United States Bank; and a great 
uncle, Ellis Barron, served as a captain of the ist Middlesex Regiment in the war 
of the American Revolution. The maternal grand father of Dr. Barron was Col. 
Richard Conner of Staten Island, farmer, merchant and a man of position, and member 
of State Legislature when it took one week in the saddle to get to Albany from New 
York city. 

Mr. Barron received an excellent education. Choosing medicine for his profession, 
he graduated from The College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York city in 1861. 
The war for the Union had then broken out, and Dr. Barron, inspired by a generous 
loyalty to his country, at once entered the Union army as a volunteer assistant sur- 
geon. He was assigned to the "Mechanics' Rifles," and, soon afterward, at his own 
request, to the 6gth New York Inf., then already in the field. One of the first of 
his profession to volunteer in the four years' war, and enthusiastic in the discharge of 


his duties, Dr. Barren spared no pains in watching over the health of the Union vol- 
unteers, going so far on one occasion as to give $1,000 from his own means to the hos- 
pital department for medical supplies. He took part in the first battle of Bull Run 
with his command, the 6gth losing two hundred men in killed and wounded in that 
memorable fight. Soon after the battle he was promoted to the rank of surgeon. 

Returning to civil life at the end of his enlistment, he became a member and 
surgeon of the famous 7th Regiment of New York city from 1863 to 1871, and, after 
his resignation, he was appointed Surgeon General of the First Division of the National 
Guard of New York, with the rank of Colonel. 

After the war, Dr. Barren sought recreation in extended foreign travel. He 
visited the important countries of Europe, and then, with an energy characteristic of 
the man, made an adventurous trip of seven hundred miles up the river Nile. 

Upon his return to America, having inherited large wealth, the care of his property 
and the necessity of safe investment compelled him to abandon the practice of the 
healing art. Business pursuits thenceforth claimed his attention, and in this field he 
has proved an enterprising and successful man. He has made large investments and 
is at the head of nearly all his properties, being now president of The Carpenter Steel 
Works of Reading, Pa., The Kentucky Coal, Iron & Development Co., The Lyons & 
Campbell Ranch & Cattle Co., and The Gila Farm Co., and a director in The Brooklyn 
City Railroad Co., The United New Jersey Railroad & Canal Co., etc. 

A man of refinement and social disposition, Dr. Barron has been admitted to a 
large number of the most exclusive clubs in the city. He was one of the original 
members of the Union League club, having joined in 1863. He is also an active 
member of the Union, Down Town, New York Yacht, Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht, 
Larchmont Yacht, Jekyl Island and Currituck and Narrows Island Shooting clubs, and 
has been vice commodore of the Atlantic Yacht club, rear commodore of the Sea- 
wanhaka Corinthian and the New York Yacht clubs, and vice commodore of the 
Hudson River Ice Yacht club. Dr. Barron is exceedingly fond of yachting, and was 
the owner of the yacht Wave, one of the American boats, which, for the honor of this 
country, raced with the Scotch cutter Madge, about fifteen years ago. He built the 
yacht Athlon, and also owned the cutter Clara. 

Dr. Barron is a patron of literature and art. He has long been trustee and treasurer 
of the celebrated Barron Library in Woodbridge, N. J., founded by his uncle, Thomas 
Barron, in 1876, and he is a life member of The New York Historical Society and life 
fellow of The New York Geographical Society. 

JOSEPH BURR BARTRAM, merchant, born in Black Rock, Conn., May 17, 1839, 
is a son of Joseph Bartram, a sea-faring man in early life, and later part owner in many 
vessels in the old house of Sturges, Clearman & Co. of this city. Joseph attended school 
in Fairfield, Conn., and then, coming to New York in 1857, found a place as clerk for 
Cartwright & Harrison, at 1 1 1 Front street, where he remained about six years. In 
June, 1864, with his brother, Thomas W. , he established the firm of Bartram Bros, 
shipping and commission merchants, with a capital of $20,000, supplied by their father. 
Since the death of his brother in 1888, Mr. Bartram has continued the business under 
the old title, but Jan. i, 1894, admitted two associates to partnership, one his son 
Joseph Percy Bartram; the other his chief clerk. The business has grown to large 
proportions. Mr. Bartram is extensively engaged in the importation of sugar from the 


West Indies, having plantations on the islands of St. Croix and San Domingo, and con- 
trolling the product of several others. The sugar is imported by the New York house 
and sold for cash to the sugar refineries. In 1869 Mr. Bartram was married to Eleanor 
C., daughter of Benjamin Wardwell, and their children are: Joseph Percy, Rensselaer, 
Wardwell and Howard Preston Bartram. 

EDWIN BATES, merchant, born about 1830, in Derby, Vt., died in the same 
place, Xov. 27, 1887. He received such an education as the town academy supplied, 
and left home at the age of sixteen to make his way in the world, without other 
resources than the health, energy and character he had inherited from a Puritan 
ancestry. He located first in Charleston, S. C., as a clerk in a dry goods house. 
Thrift enabled him within a few years to establish the dry goods firm of McGahan, 
Bates & Co. Trade brought him a considerable fortune. At the close of the Civil 
War he came to this city, and with his brother, Charles K. Bates, established the 
clothing house of Edwin Bates & Co., remaining active therein until his physician 
warned him that his heart would not much longer perform its functions. His interest 
in the old South Carolina firm was retained to the last, and he owned 800 acres of 
land in that State, as well as a horse farm in Vermont. His wife, Mary E., daughter 
of ex-Mayor Brackett, of Rochester, and two children, survived him. 

HENRY BATTERflAN, merchant and banker, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
where he has always dwelt, Nov. 5, 1849. His parents came to this country from Han- 
over, Germany. Receiving an education in a business college, Henry learned the 
requirements of trade as a clerk, and then in 1867, with borrowed capital, opened a 
small retail dry goods store in Brooklyn. An excellent merchant, he made rapid pro- 
gress, until the growth of his trade compelled him to build the present large store at 
the corner of Broadway and Graham and Flushing avenues. He employs 500 clerks, 
and conducts the most important trade in the Eastern district of Brooklyn. He is pres- 
ident of The Broadway Bank of Brooklyn, and a member of the Hamilton, Union 
League, and Germania clubs, and several charities. In 1870, he married Sarah E., 
daughter of John Cutter, and their children are Harry L. and Adelaide H. Batterman. 

CHARLES ALFRED BAUDOUINE, manufacturer and realty owner, born June 
i, 1808, in this city, died at his home on Fifth avenue, Jan. 13, 1895. His ancestors 
were Huguenots, who had fled to this country from France. Having learned the art 
of furniture making as an apprentice, Charles began on his own account at the age of 
twenty-one, and became the founder and proprietor of a furniture making industry, 
which, in 1850, had grown to be the largest of its class in the country. From this he 
finally retired, and invested his fortune in realty in this city, which is well located and 
has continually improved in value. He possessed exceptional capacity as a business 
man, and in recent years was prominent at the annual Horse Show. June 3, 1833, ^ e 
married Ann P. Postley of this city. A son, Abram, and two grandsons, Charles A. 
and John F. Baudouine, survived him. 

GEN. HORACE HENRY BAXTER, railroad builder, born Jan. 18, 1818, in Sax- 
ton's River, Vt., died Feb. 17, 1884, in New York city. His father, Horace Baxter, 
a man of fine presence, a lawyer and judge in Vermont, intended to call his son to the 
bar, but the latter preferred a different career, and began business life as assistant 
bookkeeper in a dry goods commission house in Boston. Less than a year later, while 
only sixteen years of age, he became head accountant, and served until his health failed 


on account of overwork. After recruiting among the hills, he opened a store in 
Bellows Falls, Vt., gave credit to those who could not pay cash, and made his first and 
last failure in life, closing the store. An athletic man, of towering form, animated, 
energetic, and capable of handling bodies of men, he found more congenial work 
shortly afterward, upon taking a small contract to grade the depot grounds at Bellows 
Falls. This led him into contract work on The Rutland & Burlington and The Western 
Vermont Railroads. He was noted from the start for thoroughness. He then built The 
Cleveland, Norwalk & Toledo Railroad, completing it in 1854, and next bought the 
marble quarries at Rutland, Vt., which he operated until 1863, when he sold them. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War, he attended the Peace Congress as a delegate from 
Vermont, and when that meeting failed of its object, he became Adjutant General 
of Vermont on a salary of $75 a year, and spent a small fortune in organizing and 
forwarding to the front the volunteer troops of Vermont. After the war, he entered 
Wall street, and, with Henry Keep, advanced the price of Michigan Southern Railroad 
stock, gaining thereby a large profit. He followed Mr. Keep as president of The New 
York Central Railroad, and was the only one of the old managers retained after Com- 
modore Vanderbilt came into control. It was due to his persistent advice that the 
Grand Central depot and the grain elevator on the Hudson river were built. General 
Baxter also had a large interest in The Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, the Emma 
silver mine in Utah, The Baxter National Bank in Rutland, The Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Co., The Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, The Panama Railway, The Conti- 
nental Bank of New York city, and The Pullman Palace Car Co., being a director in 
these enterprises, and also took part in the construction company which built some of 
the elevated railroads of New York city. General Baxter was twice married, first, to 
Eliza Wales, of Bellows Falls, Dec. 21, 1841, who died Sept. 8, 1849 ; an d next, Dec. 
8, 1851, to Mary E. Roberts, of Manchester, Vt. Two children were born to them, 
Henry, May 18, 1856, who died March 20, 1860, and Hugh Henry Baxter, born Oct. 
2, 1861. While New York city was the scene of his principal achievements, he made 
Rutland, Vt., his home after 1854. 

MOSES YALE BEACH, publisher, born in Wallingford, Conn., Jan. 15, 1800, died 
there, July 19, 1868. Descended from some of the first settlers of Stratford, Conn., on 
his mother's side, he was a relative of Elihu Yale, the founder of Yale College. In 
youth he was apprenticed to a cabinet maker in Hartford, Conn., and by working 
overtime managed to save $400. At the age of eighteen he purchased his release. 
Then, with a partner, he began business in Northampton, Mass. A man of inventive 
mind, he was associated with Thomas Blanchard in the construction of the first stern 
wheel steamboat used on the Connecticut river. Among his devices was a machine 
for cutting rags, now a part of the outfit of every paper mill, but he reaped little 
benefit from this invention owing to delay in issuing the patent. In 1827, he moved 
to Saugerties, N. Y., to engage in paper manufacturing. Through his wife, Nancy 
Day, a sister of the late Benjamin H. Day, founder of The New York Sun, Mr. Beach 
became interested in that paper. He bought a half interest from Mr. Wisner for 
^5,200, and later purchased the other half for $19,000. Possessed of rugged abilities 
and marked traits of character, prompt, energetic and far seeing, he insisted that The 
Sun should have all the news, regardless of expense, and devised many novel schemes 
for quick collection as well as for the rapid distribution of the paper after publication. 


Carrier pigeons, express trains, etc., were freely employed by him. He encouraged 
Mr. Locke in the preparation of the celebrated story known as the " Moon Hoax," which 
first appeared in The Sun. His children were Moses Sperry, Henry, Alfred Ely, 
Joseph P., and William Yale Beach, and Brasilia Brewster. His son ALFRED E. 
BEACH, inventor and editor of The Scientific American, was born in Springfield, Mass., 
in 1826. He received an academic education, and, in 1846, with Orson D. Munn, 
founded the firm of Munn & Co., and they became proprietors of The Scientific American. 
For almost fifty years, Mr. Beach has been active in the editorship of this newspaper 
and in the extensive patent business of the firm. In 1847 he invented a typewriting 
machine, from which, it is claimed, the great typewriter industry of the world has 
arisen. One of these machines, placed in operation at the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 
the American Institute in this city in 1856, received the gold medal as ranking among 
the most ingenious and important inventions of the time. The machine had the key 
board, the pot of type bars, the ink ribbon, the spacing bar, the paper moved by the 
keys, the separate adjustment for each type bar, etc., all now so generally in use. Mr. 
Beach sold his patent for a small sum. Prior to 1868, Mr. Beach planned a system of 
underground railways for New York, and in 1869, legislative authority having been 
granted, he constructed a section of underground railway under Broadway, New York, 
extending from Warren to Murray street. This work was executed while all the travel 
of the street went on overhead, by means of the Beach hydraulic shield, which was the 
first example of the hydraulic tunneling shield, now in common use by engineers in 
all parts of the world. The Beach hydraulic shield was used in the construction of the 
great railway tunnel under the St. Clair river at Port Huron and Sarnia, between the 
United States and Canada, as well as in excavating the underground railway tunnels 
in London and Glasgow, the Hudson river tunnel, and other similar works. Mr. 
Beach is the designer of many other inventions. 

OLIVER THOflAS BEARD, lawyer, born in New York city, Nov. 13, 1832, is one 
of three notable brothers. His father, the late William Beard, a native of Ireland, 
came to America in 1825, and through tireless- energy and unusual foresight rose to 
prominence as a railroad builder and contractor, dying in Brooklyn, Jan. 7, 1886, at the 
age of eighty-two. A portion of his property in Brooklyn consisted of wharves and 
stores, now extremely valuable. Oliver studied during boyhood in the local schools 
and at Nazareth, Pa. Inheriting his father's enterprise, he crossed the plains at the 
age of sixteen and engaged in gold mining, the construction of wharves and similar 
enterprises, and in 1852 in railroad building in South America. Returning to his 
native land, he enlisted in April, 1861, as a private in the 7ist N. Y. Vol's, and rose 
to be Lieutenant Colonel of the 48th N. Y. Moore's Rebellion Records give him credit 
for commanding the first body of colored troops actually engaged in battle. During 
the draft riots of 1863 in New York city, he aided in placing the office of THE NEW 
YORK TRIBUNE in a state of defense with barricades of bales of paper, etc. After the 
war Mr. Beard practiced law in Ohio and Michigan with some success, later edited The 
Post and Tribune, of Detroit, and, being an ardent Republican, took an active part in 
political affairs. For more than twenty years he served his party in various parts of the 
Union as a campaign orator, and was chairman of the committee of the Union League 
of America, which notified Mr. Lincoln of his re-nomination in 1864. He has written 
much for publication, including novels and short stories, principally of a political 


nature, his "Bristling With Thorns" being a study of Southern character. Mr. Beard 
inherited a large property, which now occupies his time, consisting mainly of the Erie 
Basin, Columbia Basin, and Amity and Congress streets warehouses in Brooklyn. He 
married Elizabeth Mossgrove in Steubenville, O., and has five children, IdaM. Welton, 
Ula Lanphere, Mary D. Perkins, Anson McCook Beard, and William Mossgrove Beard. 

WILLIAM HENRY BEARD, contractor, born in Richmond, Mass., Oct. 12, 1839, 
died Jan. 31, 1893. He was a son of the late William Beard, and gained an excellent 
education in private schools and Kinderhook Academy. He then devoted himself to 
the construction of improvements and public works under contract. Beginning with 
a section of the brick conduit through which Brooklyn derived its supply of water, 
he built twenty miles of sewer in that city, excavated Baislie's Pond, constructed parts 
of The Sea Beach and The Manhattan Beach Railways, and the water works in Middle- 
town, Conn., and fulfilled numerous other important contracts. The wharves and 
improvements at the Erie Basin were superintended by him. Mr. Beard inherited a 
large estate from his father, but his own rugged abilities and energy would have made 
him a man of fortune without that aid. Contract work led him into various auxiliary 
enterprises, and he was president of The W. H. Beard Dredging Co. and senior partner 
in Beard & Kimpland, the largest dealers in wharf building materials in the United 
States. His brothers and he owned a large interest in wharves and stores in Brooklyn. 
He was a director in The Kings County Bank, member of the Oxford and Union League 
clubs of Brooklyn and The Society of Old Brooklynites, a presidential elector and 
member of the Republican State Committee eight years. His children were William, 
Edith and Henry S. Beard. 

GEORGE BECHTEL, brewer, born in Germany, Nov. 17, 1840, died on Staten 
Island, June 16, 1889. While an infant of six months, he was brought by his parents 
to America. Acquiring an education at the Columbia College grammar school, upon 
the completion of his course, he entered, at the age of eighteen, as apprentice, the 
brewery which his father had established at Stapleton on Staten Island in 1853. A 
strong, hearty, energetic young man, he mastered every detail of the brewing business 
ajid gained the experience to which, coupled with natural ability, was due the great 
success which he afterward achieved. 

From 1860 to 1865, he occupied the position of superintendent of the establish- 
ment, and, while serving in this capacity, erected the first ice house ever operated in 
connection with a brewery in the Eastern States. In 1865, he leased the property from 
his father and, in 1870, purchased the entire interest, becoming sole proprietor. Finding 
the old quarters inadequate to the demands of a rapidly increasing business, Mr. Bech- 
tel, in 1871, built the present commodious brewery, giving special attention to its 
thorough equipment. So energetically was the work of erection pushed, that ten 
weeks after the first stone had been laid, brewing had been resumed. The continued 
increase of his business grew out of the high excellence of all his productions. In 
1876, his beer received the award of the Centennial Exposition; in 1877, the medal of 
the Gambrinus Verein of New York; in 1878, a gold medal at the Paris Exposition; 
and in 1879, the first prize at the Fair in Sidney, New South Wales. After an analy- 
sis of his beer, Professor Doremus pronounced it pure and free from all deleterious 

Mr. Bechtel's activity was by no means confined to his own business. He took a 


leading part in all public and benevolent movements upon Staten Island. During the 
draft riots in 1863, he sheltered numbers of unfortunate negroes, for which protecting 
kindness the colored people of the island hold him in grateful remembrance. Upon 
the incorporation of the village of Edgewater, Mr. Bechtel was elected trustee in the 
face of strong opposition. From 1871 to 1879 he took no prominent part in politics, 
but in 1879, he received a joint nomination by the Republican and Democratic parties 
for supervisor and was elected by an overwhelming majority. Thereafter, the people 
re-elected him annually for a number of years. When he first took office, Richmond 
county bonds sold for 80 cents on the dollar, taxes ruled at eight per cent. , and the vil- 
lage of Edgewater was in debt $125,000. When he retired, his good management had 
resulted in payment of the village debt, a reduction of taxes to two per cent., and a rise 
in value of the bonds to 1.12. Mr. Bechtel not only greatly improved the condition 
of the public highways, but succeeded in refunding the $50,000 war debt at four per 
cent, and a premium of i 1-2 per cent., a record not equalled in any other county in 
the state. 

In 1879, he attended the Democratic state convention as the first delegate ever 
elected from Richmond county, was three times re-elected, and twice its first vice 
president. While in the convention, he was appointed by the first Congressional dele- 
gation a member of the state and executive committees of the party. 

Mr. Bechtel's interest in public affairs did not cause him to neglect his industry 
on Staten Island. He became so noted as a brewer, that in 1879, his establishment 
was visited by the Japanese Embassy, in company with the Secretary of State and other 
officials. The foreigners, delighted with what they saw, gave Mr. Bechtel an order 
for 100,000 bottles for shipment to Japan. Upon reaching their own country, they 
sent him many flattering letters and a pair of costly vases, in token of appreciation and 
esteem. By reason of his large investments, he rose to be the largest individual tax 
payer on Staten Island. Among his possessions, he acquired a water front of nearly 
eighteen hundred feet, having an average water depth of thirty feet at low tide. He 
created an extensive and complete brewery plant with commodious offices, handsomely 
furnished and decorated, their general design being that of the Queen Anne period. 
A feature of the establishment is the Russian bath house, laid in cement with imported 
white and blue tiles. The brewery stables, which are models of cleanliness and com- 
fort, commanded the special commendation of Mr. Bergh, president of The Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, of which society Mr. Bechtel was a member. 
Previous to his improvement of the Edgewater roads, he was obliged to stable his 
horses in New York city, employing a steamboat for their conveyance to and from the 

To Mr. Bechtel's influence and activity, the growth of Richmond county in his 
time was largely due. He possessed foresight and judgment, was quick to discern the 
need of improvements, and prompt to carry them to completion. He was the first to 
introduce refrigerating machines and the electric light on Staten Island. Personally 
genial in nature, kind and companionable, he was, like most other men, ambitious for 
wealth, and acquired it by hard work. He held it with no miser's grasp, however, 
and was liberal in gifts to public and private charities, ever ready to extend a helping 
hand to the deserving poor. Many poor families on Staten Island were the recipients 
of his bounty. It was his intention to found upon Staten Island a hospital for unfor- 


tunates of all sects and nationalities, but his death prevented the completion of this 
enterprise, upon the execution of which he had already entered, purchasing a house 
and fitting it up with hospital appliances. The building has since been transferred to 
The S. R. Smith Infirmary, a worthy institution, which sold the property and with 
the proceeds erected a new pavilion, which in honor of the donor has been named the 
"Bechtel" ward. When it was found that several thousand dollars were yet needed to 
make the ward all which could be desired, Mrs. Bechtel promptly supplied the money 
for its completion. 

In 1865, Mr. Bechtel was married to Miss Eva Schoen, of New York city, who, 
with four daughters and one son, survived him. 

CHARLES BATHQATE BECK, philanthropist, who died in Richfield Springs, 
N.Y., in October, 1893, derived a large property in land, in 1887, from his mother and 
his uncle, Dr. James Bathgate. It consisted mainly of a farm, located originally in 
what was Westchester county but now included within the northern boundaries of the 
city corporation and the centre of a thickly populated district. This estate had already 
become valuable. At his death, Mr. Beck willed the greater portion of his possessions 
to Dr. Parkhurst's Society for the Prevention of Crime, Columbia College, The Presby- 
terian Board of Home Missions, and The New York and The Presbyterian Hospitals, 
making specific legacies of $100,000 to The First Presbyterian Church of West Farms 
and about $55,000 to various local charities and societies. 

NELSON HARVIN BECKWITH, merchant, born in Cazenovia, N. Y., 1807, died 
in New York city, Sept. 24, 1889. He was a son of Judge Beckwith, a member of the 
convention which drafted the State Constitution. In his earlier years, he filled various 
mercantile positions in Canada and Europe, but about 1835, returned to New York, 
where he began the importation of coffee and spices, being at one time in partnership 
with George W. Dunscomb. He was at one time president of The Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Co. In 1852, he retired temporarily, but in 1857 went to Hong Kong to become 
managing partner of the great mercantile house of Russell & Co., remaining there 
three years. It was due to his efforts that American steamers obtained control in 
Chinese inland waters. Removing to Paris in 1861, at the outbreak of the Civil War, 
he and Consul General John Bigelow proved largely instrumental in preventing the 
departure of certain Confederate vessels from French ports. At the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1867, Mr. Beckwith served as Commissioner General for the United States 
and won the high regard of Napoleon III., who bestowed upon him the Cross of the 
Legion Of Honor. In 1876, he represented New York State at the Centennial Expo- 
sition. He was married in 1842 to Frances, daughter of Colonel Grant Forbes. His 
wife died in 1885. Their children were Leonard, who married the daughter of 
Edwards Pierrepont; Arthur, an artist; and a daughter. Vice president of The 
vSociety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, he was also actively connected with 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art and a member of the Century and Union clubs. 

HENRY BEDLOW, capitalist, descendant of an old family, was born Dec. 21, 
1821, on Harman street, now East Broadway, in this city. Isaac Bedlow, founder of 
the family in America and owner of Bedlow's Island in New York harbor, who immi- 
grated from Leyden, Holland, about 1639, was a son of Godfrey Bedlow, physician to 
William, Prince of Orange. In 1668, the island to which he gave his name, came 
to him by purchase, and there he made his home. One son in each generation has 


since represented the family. William, grandfather of Henry Bedlow, served as one 
of the commissioners to survey and establish the Military Academy at West Point, and 
married Catherine, sister of Col. Henry Rutgers. His son, Henry, father of the 
subject of this sketch, was the heir at law of Col. Henry Rutgers (in the event of the 
Colonel dying intestate) and inherited property also from an aunt. Henry Bedlow, son 
of the last named, studied under private tutors at Yale University, and graduated later 
from Harvard Law School. He was admitted to the bar, but, instead of engaging in 
litigation in the courts, he then studied medicine, both at home and in France. Early 
in life he became an attache of the American Legation at Naples. He also served in 
1848 as assistant physician of the American expedition to the Dead Sea. While 
thoroughly a New Yorker, Mr. Bedlow long ago made Newport, R. I., his home, and 
held the office of Mayor of that city in 1875, 1876 and 1877. The local press described 
him as a splendid Mayor. A Union man during the war, educated, genial, public 
spirited and clear headed, he is a worthy descendant of a noble family. March 2, 1850, 
he married Josephine Maria De Wolf Homer, daughter of Fitzhenry Homer of Boston. 
Their children are Harriet Hall, widow of Lieut.-Comm'r Francis Morris, U. S. N., and 
Alice Prescott, wife of William Henry Mayer. Mr. Bedlow's clubs are the Reading 
Room, Casino, Golf and Harvard clubs of Newport, and the Players' and Union League 
of New York. 

HENRY RUTGERS BEEKMAN, Judge of the Superior Court, a lawyer of recog- 
nized ability and a member of the well-known Beekman family, was born in the city of 
New York, Dec. 8, 1845. His paternal ancestors came from Holland and his maternal 
ancestors from Ireland. He is a lineal descendant of Gerardus Beekman, at one time 
Governor of New York. Gerardus Beekman was Major under Jacob Leisler and a 
member of the Council at the time of the Revolution of 1688. After the arrival of 
Governor Slaughter, when Leisler was condemned and executed for treasonable con- 
duct in refusing to give up New York, Gerardus Beekmen was one of the eight who 
were condemned with him but recommended to the Governor's mercy. He gained his 
liberty, and in 1700 became Lieutenant Colonel under Governor Belmont, afterward 
becoming a member of Governor Cornbury's Council. 

When Governor Ingoldby was removed, Gerardus Beekman was made President 
of the Council and acting Governor, filling this position until the arrival of Governor 
Hunter in 1710. He afterward became a member of Governor Hunter's Council, 
which office he held until his death, which occurred in 1728. He was also a physician 
and a wealthy landowner. 

Another member of this distinguished family was William Beekman, who sailed 
with Peter Stuyvesant to the New Netherlands, and was an officer in the West India 
Company and an alderman in New York under English rule. 

Judge Beekman's mother was the daughter of William Neilson, a prominent New 

At the age of sixteen, the young man entered Columbia College and soon became 
known as a careful and industrious student. He graduated in 1865 and took up the 
study of law in the Columbia Law College, from which he graduated, being admitted 
to the bar in 1867. He enjoyed a lucrative and growing practice almost from the 
beginning. Previous to his election as Judge of the Superior Court, he was a member 
of the law firm of Ogden & Beekman. 


As a citizen, Judge Beekman is broad-minded and patriotic and widely known as a 
political reformer. He has held a number of appointive and elective offices, the first 
being that of school trustee for the Eighteenth Ward in 1884. Then followed his 
appointment in 1885, by Mayor Grace, as Park Commissioner. In 1886, he was elected 
President of the Board of Aldermen, for which office he was nominated by the United 
Democracy. In 1888 he was appointed by Mayor Hewitt, Counsel to the Corporation 
of the City of New York, to succeed Morgan J. O'Brien, who had been elected Judge 
of the Supreme Court. He was subsequently appointed by Governor Hill a member 
of the Commission for the Promotion of Uniformity of Legislation in the United States 
on Marriage, Divorce and other laws, all of which offices he has filled to the great 
advantage of the city and the State. As Corporation Counsel, he gained the reputation 
of being the most forcible and effective official who had ever appeared before the legis- 
lative committees at Albany. 

He advocated, when President of the Board of Aldermen, the establishment of 
small parks for the city, and in 1887 succeeded in having a bill passed in the Legisla- 
ture which embodied his ideas. While a member of the Park Board, he was an ardent 
worker in behalf of the maintenance of public baths for the poor, to be erected in the 
small parks situated in the thickly populated portions of the city. 

For some years past, he has taken an active part in attempts to obtain legislation 
which would enable the city of New York to secure adequate rapid transit facilities. 
He drew the bill for the Chamber of Commerce which passed the Legislature in 1894, 
reconstituting the Rapid Transit Commission and authorizing municipal construction of 
a rapid transit road when sanctioned by a vote of the people, and on Nov. 6, 1894, this 
measure was ratified by them. He was appointed Counsel to the Board by the Rapid 
Transit Commissioners. 

Mr. Beekman was nominated in 1894 by the Committee of Seventy for Judge of the 
Superior Court. He received the support of all factions except Tammany Hall and 
was elected by an overwhelming vote, his plurality over his opponent, Judge Truax, 
being 40,019. 

Judge Beekman is a member of the Union, Century, University, Manhattan, City, 
and Democratic clubs. He was married in New York city, in 1870, to Isabella Law- 
rence, daughter of Richard Lawrence, an old and prosperous East India merchant. 
They have four children, Josephine L., William F., Mary E., and Henry R. Beekman. 

JAflES WILLIAfl BEEKMAN, land owner, born in New York city, Nov. 22, 
1815, died here, June 15, 1877. He was descended from Wilhelmus Beekman, the com- 
panion of Peter Stuyvesant and was a second cousin of Henry R. Beekman. After 
graduation from Columbia College, he came into possession of a large property from 
his father, which was increased by inheritance from his uncle, James Beekman, of the 
family estate in New York city on East River, near 52d street. Beekman Hill ran 
from 42d to 5 5th streets on the East River, and thereon stood the old Beekman man- 
sion, a place of historic interest, by reason of its prominence in the American Revolu- 
tion. Mr. Beekman made this old mansion his home. He figured to some extent in pub- 
lic affairs, and in iSsowaschosen State Senator from New York city, serving two terms. 
Erastus Corning, Thurlow Weed and he attended the Peace Convention in Washington 
in 1 86 1 as delegates Mr. Beekman made generous use of his means in charitable work. 
The New York Hospital, of whieh he was vice-president, The Women's Hospital, 



of which he was president, and The New York Dispensary, of which he was a direc- 
tor, found him a useful official, in consequence of his careful study of hospital methods 
in England and on the Continent. Always proud of his connection with the original 
settlers of the Island of Manhattan, he was a prominent member of The New York 
Historical Society and president of the St. Nicholas and Century Societies. Two sons 
and two daughters survived him. 

JULIUS BEER, merchant, a native of Germany, was born Sept. 1,1832. After 
roaming around the world for a year or two, visiting South America in 1848, and then 
taking ship for California, he settled in San Francisco in 1849, and in tne firm of Weil 
&Co., engaged in the tobacco trade. In 1865 he came to New York to manage the 
affairs of the firm in this city. The San Francisco house was given up in 1874. Mr. 
Beer is a large importer of leaf tobacco from Havana, and is now sole member of the 
house of Weil & Co. He has made himself thoroughly at home in New York, is a 
supporter of Mount Sinai Hospital, Montefiore Home, and other charities, and belongs 
to several societies. In 1868 he married Sophia Walter, and has six children living. 

EDWIN BEERS, lumber merchant, born in Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y., in 1821, 
died in Brooklyn, Nov. 18, 1894. While a lad of thirteen, he came to the city of Brooklyn 
and grew up in the insurance business, first as boy and clerk, and later aiding in the 
organization of The Phenix Insurance Co., of which he was a director for many years. 
Later yet, he became one of the organizsrs and secretary of The Montauk Insurance 
Co. In 1860, Mr. Beers entered the firm of H. N. Conklin, Son & Beers, lumber deal- 
ers, who were succeeded by Beers & Resseguie. His lumber yards supplied an im- 
mense quantity of lumber for .the construction of homes and stores in Brooklyn. Pos- 
sessing the power of acquisition, he gained a fortune, through the investment of which 
he became, for twenty years, president of The Broadway Railroad of Brooklyn; di- 
rector of The First National Bank of the Eastern district and The Nassau Gas Co; 
chairman of the executive committee of The Long Island Loan & Trust Co. ; and trus- 
tee for The Dime Savings Bank. For many years Mr. Beers served as vestryman in 
the Church of the Holy Trinity and treasurer of The Church Charity Foundation. He 
was also identified with The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and The Brooklyn 
Art Association, and helped found the Adelphi Academy. An adventurous tempera- 
ment led him in early life into the militia and gained for him a commission as Lieuten- 
ant Colonel, when 24 years old. During the War, he served as a captain in the 23d 
Regiment. His widow, a daughter of the late Seymour L. Husted, and two children 
survive him. 

JOSIAH BELDEN, merchant, a native of Cromwell, Conn., born May 4, 1815, died 
in New York city, April 23, 1892. He was a descendant from one of two brothers, 
who settled in Wethersfield, Conn., in 1645, his mother being Abigail McKee. Left 
an orphan at the age of fourteen, and entirely dependent upon his own exertions there- 
after, his early life was full of toil. In 1830, he found a place as dry goods 
clerk in New York, then learned the silversmith's trade in Albany, sailed before the 
mast to Liverpool, and drifting South, became a merchant in Yazoo City, Miss. In 
May, 1841, Mr. Belden started, with a party of thirty pioneers, for the Pacific Coast, 
taking the overland route and arriving after six months of hardship and privation, liv- 
ing on coffee and horse meat the latter part of the journey. At Monterey, in 1842, he 
made arrangements with Thomas O. Larkin to take charge of a branch store at 


Santa Cruz, and, from that time, was successfully engaged in mercantile pursuits. 
When Captain Jones, of the frigate "United States," took possession of California for 
the Government, Mr. Belden was appointed Alcalde of Santa Cruz, and, with his own 
hands, raised the American flag in California for the first time. He returned to Mon- 
terey in 1845, and in 1846 removed to San Francisco, then a village of about twenty 
houses, engaged in business, and two j-ears later opened a store in San Jose. In 1 849, 
he retired from active business, thereafter investing his means successfully in real 
estate in San Francisco. First Mayor of San Jose in 1850, he made that town his 
summer home, building a fine house there in 1855, in a park of ten acres of ground. 
During the Civil War, his contributions to the sanitary fund were notably large. Mr. 
Belden was married Feb. i, 1849, to Sarah Margaret Jones, of San Jose, who had 
crossed the plains in 1846 with her father's family. His children are Charles A. Belden, 
of San Francisco ; George F. Belden, of Cincinnati ; Mary E., wife of Luis F. Emilio; 
Laura J., wife of George Rutledge Gibson, and Louise A., wife of Lewis M. Iddings. 
Mr. Belden established his home in New York in 1881, and was a member of the Union 
League club of New York and the Pacific Union club of San Francisco, and a director 
of The New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad. He owned a large amount of real 
estate in New York, as well as in -San Francisco, and bore a reputation for the highest 
integrity in all commercial relations. 

fllLO flERRICK BELDING, silk manufacturer, was born in Ashfield, Mass., April 
3, 1833. He is a son of Hiram Belding, a merchant, and grandson of John Belding, 
who served in the war of the Revolution. The family is one of the oldest as it is one 
of the most public spirited and influential in the United States, having been planted 
here in 1635. The old homestead, built in 1800, is now in the possession of Mr. 
Belding' s son. 

Milo received an education at the Shelburne Falls academy, and spent his vaca- 
tions in the wholesome labor of a farm. He began life when seventeen years of age, 
with $20, borrowed from an uncle. Investing this small sum in sewing silk, bought 
from a manufacturer in Northampton, he sold the goods in the towns of western 
Massachusetts. The trip proved a financial success. Believing that the silk business 
presented an excellent field for his vigorous enterprise, Mr. Belding took a position in 
the firm of W. M. Root & Co., of Pittsfield, Mass., with whom he remained till 1858. 
He then purchased a team and again became a travelling merchant in the eastern dis- 
tricts of the commonwealth. His father and two brothers removed to Michigan in 
1858, and, in 1860, Milo began sending them small invoices of silk thread to sell. The 
success of this experiment led Mr. Belding, in 1 863, with two of his brothers, to estab- 
lish a silk house in Chicago, and, in 1865, one in New York city. Of the latter he took 
charge in person. In 1866, they started a silk factory in Rockville, Conn., having 
leased a floor in a mill for that purpose. The brothers were very capable men and 
pushed their industry with so much vigor that they were able in 1869 to buy the mill in 
Rockville and occupy the whole of it. Later, it was greatly enlarged. In 1874, they 
built a second silk mill in Northampton, Mass., and later one in Belding, Mich., the 
latter a thriving city, founded by the family in Otisco township, which has grown up 
around the industries they have established. They now have in operation five large 
silk mills, including, besides the three mentioned, establishments in Montreal, Canada, 
and Petaluma, Cala. 


Mr. Belding is now at the head of the firm of Belding Bro's & Co., of New York 
city, the largest silk manufacturing house in the world, and the chief emporium for the 
distribution of the products of their factories. They employ about 3,000 operatives and 
consume in the manufacture of various kinds of silk goods about 2,500 pounds of raw 
silk per day, a daily consumption of raw silk which is not excelled by any firm in the 
world. Branch houses are maintained in Boston, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, 
Chicago, St. Paul, Baltimore and San Francisco. 

Mr. Belding has built up a city of over 5,000 inhabitants at Belding, Mich., where 
the family have large real estate and manufacturing interests, including two silk mills 
and a handsome fireproof hotel and opera house and various minor industries. He is 
president of The Livonia Salt & Mining Co., at Livonia, N. Y., where salt is mined 
from native beds in the earth, the works having a capacity of 3,000 tons of salt in 
twenty-four hours. From his marble quarries at Gouverneur, N. Y. , a beautiful gray 
marble is produced, resembling granite and splendidly adapted to building and monu- 
mental purposes. Among his other possessions, are large interests in mining and tim- 
ber lands in North Carolina and Tennessee, mining properties in the Harlem valley, 
and a ranch in Montana, besides an ownership in numerous commercial enterprises. 
He has been since its organization president of The Commonwealth Fire Insurance Co. , 
and is also president of The American Union Life Insurance Co., both of New York 
city. Few men display the ability to manage so many independent enterprises with so 
much skill, energy and success. Strong in personality, sound in judgment, and com- 
manding large capital, he wields great influence in the world of affairs, and is one of 
the men of constructive temperament who rank among the best examples of patriotic 
and energetic American manhood. 

In 1856, Mr. Belding was married to Emily C., also of Revolutionary ancestry, 
daughter of William Leonard, of Ashfield, Mass. They have one son, Milo 
Merrick Belding, jr. Too greatly occupied to give any important share of his time to 
purely social relaxation, Mr. Belding is a charming companion nevertheless in private 
life, and is a member of the Colonial club, Chamber of Commerce, Sons of the Revo- 
lution, American Geographical Society, Silk Association, and several other like organ- 

ROBERT LENOX BELKNAP, a gentleman of high social position, was born in 
New York city, July 23, 1848. The surname of his family is of Norman origin, having 
been originally spelled Belleknappe. It is supposed to have indicated a "beautiful 
hill," and is first found recorded in English history about the year 1067, on the roll of 
the Battle Abbey. Several men of the name achieved distinction in their day. Their 
lives can be traced through the histories of Kent and Warwickshire. Sir Robert 
Belknap, Knight, who died in 1400, Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas dur- 
ing the reign of Richard II, possessed considerable land in the counties of Kent and 
Sussex. His son, Sir Hammond Belknap, Knight, who died in 1428-29, was made Lord 
Treasurer of Normandy. Sir Edward Belknap, born 1471, grandson of Sir Hammond, 
had the custody of Warwick Castle in 1502, and the rank of Esquire of the Body to 
King Henry VIII. The name cannot at present be found in England, nor has the 
connection of the American family with the English family been established, except 
by the fact that the early members in this country used the same arms as borne by 
the English family. The American family is descended from Abraham Belknap. who 


came to this country about 1625 and settled in Salem, Mass.. where he died in 1643. 
The subject of this biography is descended from this Abraham Belknap through 
Joseph Belknap of Boston, Mass, who died Nov. 14, 1712; Thomas Belknap of 
Woburn, Mass., who died Oct. 15, 1755; Samuel Belknap, who died Jan. i, 1771; Abel 
Belknap of Newburgh, N. Y., who died Nov. 15, 1804; Aaron Belknap of Newburg, 
N. Y., who died March 14, 1847; and his father, Aaron Betts Belknap, a practicing 
lawyer in New York city, who died June 4, 1880. His grandfather, Aaron Belknap of 
Newburgh, married his cousin, Mary Josepha Lydia Stearns Belknap, who died July 
20. 1862, and was the daughter of Capt. Samuel Belknap of Woburn, Mass., commander 
of a, company of the ad Regiment of militia of Middlesex county, Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, and took part in the campaign for American independence, which began 
with the Lexington alarm. Mrs. Belknap's brother, Samuel Belknap, who died May 
19, 1845, was the father of Gen. William Goldsmith Belknap of the United States 
Army, who served during the War of 1812 and the Mexican War and was the father of 
Gen. William Worth Belknap, Secretary of War under the_ Presidency of General Grant. 
Robert Lenox Belknap's mother was Jennet Lenox, the daughter of Robert Maitland 
of New York and Eliza Sproat Lenox, his wife, the latter being the daughter of Robert 
Lenox, a conspicuous merchant of the early part of the present century in New York. 
Mr. Lenox was the brother of Major David Lenox of Philadelphia, President of The 
United States Bank, an officer of the Pennsylvania Continental Line during the Revo- 
lution. Mr. Maitland was of Scotch descent and a direct descendant of Thomas de 
Mautlant, who died in 1228. 

The subject of this sketch prepared for college at the Collegiate school under the 
late George Payne Quackenboss, LL.D., and entered Columbia College, from which 
he graduated in 1869. The same year he received the degree, ad cumici/i, from the 
college of Princeton, New Jersey, and in 1872, the degree of A. M. from Columbia 
College. He is a member of the Psi Upsilon and Phi Beta Kappa college fraternities. 

In 1866, while yet a student, Mr. Belknap entered the 7th Regiment, N. G. , S. N. Y., 
the favorite military organization of this city, which then, as now, contained many 
members of the leading families of the city. After six years of experience, he was in 
1872 commissioned upon the staff of the First Brigade, First Division. In 1880 he 
retired from active service, resigning his commission as Lieutenant Colonel and Assis- 
tant Adjutant General, and being commissioned Colonel by brevet. During 1875 ne 
served as Acting Assistant Inspector General of the State of New York. 

Mr. Belknap inherited a large property from his father and mother, which he has 
since doubled by his own efforts. The management and improvement of various large 
properties now fully occupies him. His success is frequently pointed to as a proof that 
the "college man in business " is capable of displaying the highest qualities of the 
practical and executive faculty. From 1878 to 1888, he was treasurer of The Northern 
Pacific Railroad Co., and is president of The Northern Trust Co., of Wisconsin, presi- 
dent of The Duluth Gas and Water Co., director of The Land and River Improvement 
Co., and trustee of The Real Estate Trust Co., of New York. 

One of the most generous of men in the promotion of philanthropic work in this 
city, he has lent the influence of his name to several important charitable and educa- 
tional institutions. His service on several boards has been especially long and credita- 
ble. Since 1877, he has been a manager of The Presbyterian Hospital, and was its 


treasurer, 1880-92. He has been a manager of The American Bible Society since 
1879, and of The New York Lying-in Hospital since 1881. The Presbyterian Church 
on University Place elected him a trustee in 1882, and he retains this relation to the 
present time, having been president of the Board since March, 1884. Since 1887, he 
has been a trustee of the Theological Seminary in Princeton, N. J. 

A man of cultivated tastes, genial in nature, broad and patriotic in his views, 
animated by generous sentiments, and a charming companion, he is one of the leaders 
of the social life of the city. His clubs are the Union, Union League, University, Down 
Town, Columbia Alumni, New York Yacht, and Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht clubs. 
In the right of his great grand uncle, Major David Lenox, he enjoys the distinction of 
membership in The Society of the Cincinnati, and by virtue of descent from Samuel 
Belknap and Abel Belknap, his great grandfathers, is a member of The Sons of the 
Revolution. He has also joined The Society of Colonial Wars. 

Mr. Belknap was married Feb. 3, 1870, to Mary P , daughter of Henry Rutgers 
Remsen, and his children are : Robert Lenox, jr. , Waldron Phoenix, Mary Remsen, 
Jennet Maitland, Elizabeth and Maitland Belknap. 

GEORGE BELL, shipping merchant, born in New York city, April 8, 1804, died 
at his home, No. 20 West zoth street, Dec. 9, 1881. His life was a busy one, not 
especially eventful, and prosperous. A partner with his father for a number of years 
on South street, his mind occupied with ships, cargoes and questions of foreign trade, 
he carried on the business afterward on his own account and gained a large fortune. 
He was senior director of The National Fire Insurance Co. , and a director of The Butch- 
ers and Drovers' Bank, at his death. His estate descended to his daughter, Catherine 
B. Bell, and various collateral relatives. 

ISAAC BELL, jr., capitalist, born in New York, Nov. 16, 1846, died here, Jan. 
20, 1889. He was the son of Isaac Bell, a prominent citizen of New York, who held 
many positions of trust and served for years as Commissioner of Charities and Correc- 
tion and member of the Board of Education. His mother, Adelaide, was a daughter of 
Dr. Valentine Mott. Isaac Bell, his grandfather, was an old time shipping merchant 
of this city in the East India trade. Isaac, jr. , as the subject of this sketch always 
called himself, was educated in private schools and at Harvard College. He began life 
as clerk in the bank of Brown Bro's & Co., and proved a competent business man. 
Becoming finally interested in the cotton trade, first at Savannah, Ga., and afterward 
as a member of the firm of Arthur Barnwell & Co. , of Charleston, he established two 
houses, one in New Orleans and one in New York city, under the name of Isaac Bell, 
jr. , & Co. He inherited means, but was a shrewd, upright and successful merchant 
and retired with a fortune in 1877. He was married, in 1877, to a sister of James Gor- 
don Bennett, and in 1880 made Newport, R. I., his home. Three children were born 
to them, Isaac, Nora and Rita. Mr. Bell took an active part in the campaign of 1884, 
as a Democrat, and was in 1885 appointed by President Cleveland Minister to the Neth- 
erlands. He attended the St. Louis Convention in 1888 as a delegate from Rhode 
Island. The Union and New York clubs of this city claimed him as a member. 

AUGUST BELMONT, banker, born in Alzey, now a province of Prussia, Dec. 6, 
1816, died in New York, Nov. 24, 1890. His father was a banker and land proprietor. 
At the age of fourteen, he secured a position as errand boy in the banking house of 
the Rothschilds at Frankfort, and three years later was their clerk in the branch at 


Naples. He proved efficient, took charge of the Naples branch, and there managed 
some of the enormous financial transactions of the Rothschilds. At the age of twenty- 
one, he came to New York as the agent of his employers and settled the affairs of 
their branch in this city, which had suspended during the panic of 1837. Soon after- 
ward, he embarked in banking on his own account, with moderate capital, but large 
experience and abundance of energy, continuing to represent the Rothschilds. His 
business was greatly prospered. In 1841, he fought a duel over a point of honor, in 
which he was wounded, with the result of being lamed for life. Becoming a citizen of 
the United States, he identified himself with the Democratic party. From 1844 to 
1850 he was Consul General for the Austrian Government, and in 1853 was appointed 
United States Charge d' Affaires at the Hague. In 1854, he was made Minister Resi- 
dent, resigning in 1858, having first negotiated a highly important consular convention, 
for which, with other diplomatic services, he received the special thanks of the depart- 
ment at Washington. Upon his return to New York, he resumed banking and estab- 
lished the house of August Belmont & Co., which is yet carried on by other members 
of the family. He served the National Democratic Committee, 1860-72, as chairman 
of that body. Mr. Belmont joined the Manhattan, Union, Knickerbocker, American 
Jockey, Coney Island Jockey and New York Jockey clubs, and, for many years, ranked 
as a social leader of New York. Wealth enabled him to gratify a liking for fine horses^ 
his stable sheltering many noted animals. His wife was a daughter of Mathew Gal- 
braith Perry, brother of Commodore Perry, the hero of Lake Erie. To them were 
born Perry, August and Oliver H. P. Belmont, a daughter who married Samuel S. 
Howland, and Jane Pauline and Raymond, who died while young. His son, PERRY 
BELMONT, lawyer, born in New York city, Dec. 28, 1851, graduated from Harvard 
College in 1872, and from Columbia Law School in 1876. Being admitted to the bar, 
he practiced his profession until 1881. Having established his home in Oyster Bay, on 
Long Island, he was, in 1880, elected to Congress. He served four successive terms, 
until March 4, 1887. During his first term, he was a member of the Committee on 
Foreign Affairs, and came into notice through his examination of James G. Blaine, 
concerning the latter's supposed interests in the guano deposits of Peru, and his media- 
tion between Chili and Peru while Secretary of State. In 1885, he was made chairman 
of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, but resigned in 1888 to accept the position of 
Minister to Spain. Mr. Belmont has an interest in the banking firm of August Belmont 
& Co., but has taken no active part in its management, his inclinations being in the 
direction of public and social life. He has joined many of the best clubs in town, in- 
cluding the Metropolitan, Democratic, Manhattan, Bar, Union, Knickerbocker, Univer- 
sity, Harvard, Racquet, Coaching, Country, Liederkranz, Fencers' and South Side 
Sportsmen's clubs. AUGUST BELflONT, banker, son of August Belmont, was born in 
New York city, Feb. 18, 1853. Graduating from Harvard College in 1875, he entered 
the bank of August Belmont & Co. where he soon proved a competent, clear-headed, 
and prudent banker. He is now at the head of August Belmont & Co., the American 
representatives of the Rothschild bank abroad. In 1881, he married Bessie Hamilton 
Morgan, and has three sons, August, Raymond and Morgan. The family make their 
country home at Hempstead on Long Island. Mr. Belmont is a director of the Bank 
of the State of New York, The National Park Bank, The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railway, The Louisville & Nashville Railroad, The Manhattan Trust Co., The 


Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. and The Kings Count}- Elevated Railroad. 
He was at one time president of The New York Athletic Club, is one of the organizers 
of the annual Patriarchs' Ball, and a member of more than twenty of the best clubs in 
New York, including the Union, Manhattan, Knickerbocker, Country, Lawyers', Down 
Town, Coaching, City, Harvard, and several of the nunting and yachting clubs. 

ELIAS CORNELIUS BENEDICT, banker and stock broker, born Jan. 24, 1834, 
is a son of the Rev. Henry Benedict. His native place is Somers in Westchester 
county, N. Y. The family was planted in America by Thomas Benedict, an immi- 
grant from Nottinghamshire, England, in 1638. At the age of sixteen, Elias, without 
means and with only a fair education, began to master the mysteries of stock broker- 
age, as clerk in the employ of Corning & Co., in New York city. In 1857 he opened 
an office of his own on Wall street, displaying the sign of Benedict & Co. , and for 
nearly forty years has been one of the most active, ingenious and indefatigable opera- 
tors in the whirlpool of this centre of speculation. The Gold Exchange Bank, which 
grew out of gold speculation during and after the war, originated with him. He has 
always dealt largely in investment securities, and has especially represented transac- 
tions in the stocks of gas companies. Mr. Benedict is a Democrat in political faith, and 
an intimate friend of President Cleveland. His clubs are the Manhattan, Players' and 
City, and several yachting organizations. 

HENRY HARPER BENEDICT, one of the partners in the firm of Wyckoff, Seamans 
& Benedict, who have attained a world-wide reputation as the manufacturers of the 
Remington Typewriter, is a man of education and a successful and highly respected 

He traces his descent through a long line of worthy and capable ancestors, extending 
back to William Benedict, who was living in Nottinghamshire, England, in the year 
1500. William's great-grandson, Thomas Benedict, was born in Nottinghamshire, 
England, in 1617, and came to America in 1638. He lived first on Long Island at 
Southold, Jamaica and Huntington, and later in Connecticut. The first of the name of 
Benedict in America, he was a notable man in his day. He was a deacon, and aided 
actively in the founding of the first Presbyterian Church in America, at Jamaica. He 
held a number of local offices on Long Island, and was appointed by Governor 
Nichols a delegate to what is believed to have been the first legislative body ever 
convened in New York, to settle "good and known laws" for the inhabitants of Long 
Island. From 1670 to 1675, he served as a member of the General Assembly of the 
State. Mr. Benedict died in Norwalk, Conn., in 1690. 

His son James constituted one of the eight men who bought the land and settled 
the city of Danbury, Conn. , and here James, grandson of the emigrant, was born in 
1685, the first white male child of the place. John, a son of James, was a member of 
the Connecticut Legislature for many years and acquired the title of Captain in military 
service. His son James moved to Ballston, N. Y., after the Revolution, thence tf> 
Auburn in 1793. The men of this line were all pioneers, enterprising and courageous, 
and they acquired in the life of the frontier a self-reliance of character and sturdiness 
of constitution which have always characterized the family. 

Elias, the son of James, came to Herkimer county, N. Y., about 1790, and built the 

log cabin in which his son Micaiah, the father of Henry Harper Benedict, was born in. 

1801. Both Elias and Micaiah bore a man's part in the subjugation of the wilderness. 


Micaiah Benedict was a remarkable man. He attended school one summer, when 
about seven years old, and never received a day's farther training in any other school 
than that of experience. Nevertheless he became a man of extended learning. A local 
historian says "that which made him erudite was reading, thinking and remembering" 
through his whole life. He read the best books diligently, and, possessing a wonderful 
memory, merited more fully than many others to whom the term has been applied the 
soubriquet of a ''walking encyclopedia." An ardent Democrat, he admired Andrew 
Jackson, and served as a local magistrate for many years. He cast his last vote as a 
Democrat for Franklin Pierce, and then became a Republican and remained such until 
his death in 1881. He was an enthusiastic member of the Masonic order, and lectured 
much on the subject of Masonry. For several years he occupied the position of Deputy 
Grand Master in this State. 

Henry Harper Benedict was born in German Flats, Herkimer county, N. Y., Oct. 
9, 1844. His father, anxious that the boy should receive that scholarly tuition which 
had been denied to himself, educated Harper at the public schools and at Little Falls 
Academy and Fairfield Seminary in Herkimer county. Later the young man spent 
some time at Marshall Institute at Easton, N. Y., and then enjoyed the regular course 
at Hamilton College, being graduated therefrom in 1869. At college he joined the 
Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. 

The young man was an excellent student, and aided in his own education by 
serving during 1867 and 1868 as professor of Latin and the higher mathematics in Fair- 
field Seminary. 

After completing his college course, Mr. Benedict entered the employment oi 
E. Remington & Sons, manufacturers of rifles and guns at Ilion, N. Y. , in a confi- 
dential position. He -won the respect of his employers at an early period, and showed 
so much zeal and talent that he was elected in time a director of the corporation oi 
E. Remington & Sons, and treasurer of The Remington Sewing Machine Co. With 
characteristic energy he identified himself heartily with the local interests of Ilion, and 
for thirteen years was regarded one of the most valued citizens of the place. He 
helped to organize the First Presbyterian Church there, and served as an elder, 
trustee and treasurer therein. He was also president of The Herkimer County -Bible 
Society. When The Ilion Literary Association was formed, he became one of its lead- 
ing spirits, and for many years its president. This association held annual courses of 
lectures, and Mr. Benedict's duties as president brought him the acquaintance of many 
of the most prominent people in the country. 

In 1882, having been admitted to membership in the firm of Wyckoff, Seamans & 
Benedict, he removed to New York city to engage in the sale of Remington typewrit- 
ers. This remarkable invention made slow progress at first, but, once in practical use 
among a number of firms, won its way rapidly into public favor. The machine has 
been advertised with great ingenuity and energy, and its sale is now world- wide. In 
1886, the firm purchased the entire typewriter plant of the Remingtons, including all 
rights and franchises, and have since conducted the manufacture as well as the sale of 
the machine, attaining a remarkable success. 

In 1884, Mr. Benedict made a first trip to Europe in the interest of his firm, and 
"has since been abroad many times, both for business and for pleasure. In his trips, 
his family usually accompanies him. He has had charge of the foreign department of 


his firm's business, which is now firmly established, with connections in every part of 
the world. 

In 1867, he married Maria Nellis, daughter of Henry G. Nellis, and granddaughter 
of General George H. Nellis, of Fort Plain, N. Y. They have one child living, a 
daughter, fifteen years of age. Their home has been at 1 1 6 Willow Street, Brooklyn 
Heights. Mr. and Mrs. Benedict are members of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian 
Church in New York city, Dr. John Hall's, but attend the Church of the Pilgrims in 
Brooklyn, the Rev. Dr. Storrs, pastor. Their daughter is a member there. Mr. Benedict 
is a member of the Hamilton club and Long Island Historical Society in Brooklyn, and 
of the Grolier, Republican, Delta Kappa Epsilon and Arkwright clubs in New York. 

A man of refined tastes, he has made a collection of engravings and etchings by 
the great masters, which is of the highest quality, perhaps unsurpassed by any other of 
its size anywhere. He also possesses a good library and a collection of oil paintings, 
mostly by American artists, which, like his prints, represent the several artists at 
their best. 

JAflES GORDON BENNETT, 'proprietor of The New York Herald, born in New 
York city, May 10, 1841, is the son of James Gordon Bennett, founder of Tke Herald. 
He was carefully educated, chiefly by private tutors, and prepared for journalism. It 
was a cherished wish of the elder Bennett to see his son at the head of The Herald. The 
latter was thoroughly trained in all branches of the newspaper business, and on the 
death of his father in 1872 inherited both a fortune and The Herald. He has continued 
the management of his successful morning journal down to the present time, exercis- 
ing constant and careful supervision over both the business and editorial management. 
While a resident of Paris, France, during recent years, his interest in the management of 
The Herald never relaxes, the cable telegraph placing him in daily, almost hourly, com- 
munication therewith. He has originated many remarkable enterprises, including 
publication in England of storm warnings transmitted from the United States, the 
Jeanette polar expedition, and the sending of Stanley to Africa in search of Living- 
stone. He published for a time a London edition of The Herald, and conducts a suc- 
cessful Paris edition. In 1883, with John W. Mackay, he organized The Commercial 
Cable Co., which laid a new cable between America and Europe, to compete with the 
combined English and French lines, and after a prolonged and anxious war with the 
older cable companies, scored a triumphant success. Tlie Herald long occupied a site at 
the corner of Ann street and Broadway but was recently moved to a beautiful building 
on Broadway at 35th street. Mr. Bennett has always taken great interest in open air 
sports, being a good horseman and a first rate yachtsman. While a resident of New 
York city, he was the life of yachting, high class racing on the turf, polo, and kindred 
sports; and his removal to Paris was a serious loss to the lovers of open air recreations. 
He retains a home in New York, but owns houses also in Paris, and is a member of 
the Union, Metropolitan, Racquet, Country, Coaching, New York Yacht, and New 
York Athletic clubs of this city, the Meadow Brook Hunt, the Eastern Yacht club, 
and other social organizations 

JOSIAH S. BENNETT, merchant, a native of Connecticut, who died in this city, 
June 6, 1887, in his seventieth year, was one of the old race of business men, whose use- 
ful activities did so much to promote the growth of New York during the first half of 
the present century. A nephew of Jonathan Sturges, he was a partner in Sturges, 


Bennett & Co., for twenty years, and retired with ample means about 1865, being there- 
after occupied with investments and the enjoyment of well earned rest. His wife sur- 
vived him. 

ADOLPH BERNHEIMER, merchant, born in Buttenhausen in the Suabian Alps, in 
1833, died in this city, Oct. 19, 1894. Educated in a commercial institute in Bamberg, he 
secured an apprenticeship in a wholesale dry goods house in Furth, Bavaria. He came 
to New York city in 1852 and took his place as a clerk in the store of Bernheimer Bro's 
& Co., a large dry goods house. Three years later, he was admitted to partnership, 
and, as their buyer, made frequent trips to Europe. He conceived the idea of having 
certain cotton fabrics made in this country, which he was in the habit of buying in 
Manchester, and was operating factories in Rhode Island, when the outbreak of the 
Civil War made the industry unprofitable. After the war, the firm of Bernheimer 
Bro's was dissolved, and Mr. Bernheimer then began on his own account the manu- 
facture of dyed and printed cotton fabrics. He was one of the pioneers of this industry 
in the United States, all such goods having been previously imported from England, 
and was largely instrumental in introducing American cotton goods into the West 
Indies, Mexico and Central America. The surviving members of his family are his 
wife Fannie, and three children, Leopold A. and Rosie Bernheimer and Mrs. Florence 
B. Walter. He was a member of the Chamber of Commerce and of the Merchants' 
Central chib, and conspicuous for his generous contributions to worthy charities. 

ISAAC BERNHEIMER, clothing merchant, born in Jebenhausen, Germany, June 
n, 1813, died in this country, July 23, 1893. He received his education in his native 
land, but left school at fourteen to learn the trade of cotton manufacturing. After nine 
years of toil in this occupation, he came to the United States in 1836 to establish a 
business connection, and liked the country so much that he resolved to stay, thus 
becoming the pioneer of his family in this country. In Cincinnati, he engaged in the 
clothing and dry goods trade, afterward removing to Philadelphia and later to New 
York, where he joined his brothers in this business. He retired in 1866, devoting his 
attention thereafter to real estate, mining ventures, and The Central National Bank and 
The Germania Life Insurance Co., of which he was a director. By his marriage with 
Isabella W. Arnold of Philadelphia in 1846, he had eight children, Jacques A , Charles 
D., and Meyer A. Bernheimer, Mrs. Kate Drey, Mrs. Charles Blum, and. Cora A., 
Blanche A. , and Alice A. Bernheimer Many charitable societies have cause to re- 
member him with gratitude. 

SIMON BERNHEIF1ER, clothing merchant, was born in Jebenhausen, Germany, 
Nov. 20, 1819. He came to the land of freedom and business opportunities in 1838, 
spent two years in Cincinnati, and then in 1840, joined his brothers, Herman and 
Emanuel, in the clothing trade in New York. Isaac joined them later. Having 
amassed a fortune, he retired from business in 1866, and since has lived quietly in town 
in the management of investments. Since its organization, he has been a director of 
The Central National Bank. By his marriage with Rosetta Gosling, in 1846, Mr Bern- 
heimer is the father of twelve children, of whom the following are yet living: Jacob 
S., Mayer S., Irving and Lorin Bernheimer, Mrs. Addie Seligman, Mrs. Lillie Lilien- 
thal, and Beatrice Bernheimer. 

SIMON E. BERNHEIflER, brewer, born in New York city, Nov. 26, 1849, is of Ger- 
man descent and a son of the late Emanuel Bernheimer, a merchant and brewer for many 


years of this city. After graduation from a commercial college, he served a year each in 
the dry goods and clothing trades to gain experience, and then, about 1865, entered the 
Lion Brewery, on io8th street. There he learned the mysteries of brewing. In 1878, 
he assumed charge of the business, when the old firm of Bernheimer & Schmid, com- 
posed of Emanuel Bernheimer and Joseph Schmid, proprietors of the establishment, 
were succeeded by their sons, Simon E. Bernheimer and August Schmid, under the 
same name. When originally started, the brewery was a very small one, but it grew 
rapidly after the War, and the new partners developed the business to large propor- 
tions, making it one of the largest in the city. Mr Bernheimer is a bachelor. He 
takes a lively interest in the societies of the Hebrew race, and is liberal in his charities. 

NATHAN BERNSTEIN, wholesale meat merchant, a native of Nassau, Germany, 
born in 1830, died in Brooklyn, Oct. 7, 1894. Beginning life as a journeyman butcher, 
he sailed for America in 1849, settled in Brooklyn, resumed the occupation in which he 
had been trained, and during over forty years of active promotion of this honest trade 
attained wealth. The large abattoirs he established in Brooklyn gave employment to 
many men. He was a Hebrew by descent and a warm supporter of the charities of his 
race in Brooklyn. 

DAVID BETTnAN, oil producer, a native of New York city, was born July 9, 1848. 
He is a son of Abraham Bettman, merchant. After graduating from the College of the 
City of New York, he acquired an experience in mercantile pursuits as clerk for 
Bernheimer Bro's and, in 1867, for Adolph Bernheimer, the latter a manufacturer of 
cotton goods. In 1869, he became a partner in Adolph Bernheimer & Co. The house 
dissolved in 1884 Like his brother Marcus, he invested his savings in petroleum 
properties in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, West Virginia and Indiana, and his firms 
of Stettheimer & Bettman, J. Stettheimer & Co., and Bettman & Watson are among 
the largest individual oil producers in the United States. In 1880, Mr. Bettman was 
married to Ida, daughter of Herman Bernheimer, and their children are Roland and 

MARCUS ABRAHAM BETTnAN, merchant and oil producer, was born in this 
city, June 19, 1845. He is of German Hebrew descent, and a son of Abraham Bettman, 
by occupation a dry goods merchant in this metropolis, who had emigrated hither in 
1840. Marcus attended the public schools and the College of the City of New York un- 
til the age of seventeen, and then found employment as a clerk with Bernheimer Bro's 
and afterward with Bernheimer & Newman, merchants. A vigorous and capable man, 
he rose to a partnership and when the firm dissolved in 1870, he joined that of Bern- 
heimer, Son & Co., remaining until 1890. He was drawn to the oil fields of Pennysl- 
vania in 1878, and has engaged in producing, with so much animation and perseverance, 
that the oleic treasures of the earth have brought him a fortune. No less than 850 oil 
wells belong to him, wholly or in part, in Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia, 
Ohio and Indiana, through his connection with the firms of J. Stettheimer and Co., 
Bettman & Watson, and Bettman, Watson & Bernheimer. His brother David and he 
are classed among the largest oil producers in America, and they own a machine plant 
in Belmont, W. Va., in which are made the boilers, engines, tools, and other appliances 
required in their oil operations. Marcus is also the owner of much improved realty 
in New York and other cities. In 1874 he was married to Emma, daughter of Herman 
Bernheimer, and their children are Mabel, Gladys, Edyth and Man-in Bettman. Mr. 


Bettman is a director of The Fourth National Bank and a member of The Manhattan 
Club, which occupies A. T. Stewart's old marble mansion on Fifth avenue. 

SOLOMON BEUTHNER, capitalist, born in 1824, died in New York city, June 5, 
1889. A hard-headed, sturdy, positive man, he went to New Mexico in early life, 
fought his way through all the trials which beset the pioneers, and was at one time a 
partner of Lucien B. Maxwell, proprietor of the well-known Maxwell Land Grant. He 
aided in the development of mining industries in the Territory, and had, besides his 
office in New York, branches in Toas and Santa Fe. In his later years, he engaged in 
mining in Germany, and amassed a fortune from his various enterprises. They called 
him the " king of New Mexico." Self-made, unassuming and honest, he was a sterling 

ISAAC BIERMAN, merchant, a native of Germany, was born Dec. 31, 1824. He 
is of Hebrew ancestry. Properly educated in German schools, he turned his face to- 
wards the new world in 1845 and after a few years of honest occupation on this coast, 
followed the Argonauts to California in 1849. Two years in that rough region sufficed 
and he returned, locating in Pittsburg, Pa., as a clothing merchant. Thrifty, indus- 
trious and capable, he fared so well in the smoky city, that he was able in 1 880 to estab- 
lish himself in a large clothing business in New York. He is yet a member of Bier- 
man, Hiedelberg & Co., on Broadway, but gives his time now almost wholly to The 
Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, of which he is a director. Various other Hebrew 
societies engage his attention also. He was married in 1848 to Miss Frowenfeld of 

ABRAHAM BININQER, wine importer, born in New York city, April 3, 1816, 
died in New York, April 16, 1894. He was of Swiss descent, his ancestor, Christian 
Bininger, having come to this country in 1640. His grandfather, a resident of Wash- 
ington county, N. Y., settled in New York city in 1776, and established the grocery 
and wine firm of A. Bininger & Co., long and favorably known throughout the 
United States and Europe. His son, Jacob Bininger, succeeded to the firm, and died 
in 1737, when he was succeeded by his son Abraham. The subject of this sketch was 
educated in Bethlehem, Pa., and by private tutors, and then travelled extensively through 
Europe and the East. Returning, he became occupied with wine and grocery importa- 
tions in the old firm. He inherited means, and gained a yet larger share of this world's 
possessions by his own business talents. In 1846, he was married to Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Alonzo Draper, once American Consul in Paris. Mrs. Bininger was lost at sea 
on. the Ville du Havre, in 1873. His children are Miss E. D. Bininger; Harriet, wife 
of Frederick A. Post, of London; William B. Bininger, and Frances, wife of the late 
Francis R. Rives. A man of social accomplishments, he was a member of the Union 
and New York Yacht clubs and of the St. Nicholas Society, and one of the founders 
of the Knickerbocker club, of which his son, William B. Bininger, is a member. 

HENRY BISCHOFF, banker, a native of Baden, near Bremen, in Germany, was 
born Sept. 9, 1827. His father was Bruno Bischoff a lumber merchant and brick 
manufacturer at Baden and Ohsen on the Weser. Educated by private tutors, he 
served an apprenticeship with Waltjen & Co., merchants of great prominence at that 
time in Bremen. He came to this country in 1847, an <l after a careful survey of possi- 
bilities, began, in March, 1848, the importation of fruit and wines, adding thereto the 
making of remittances of money and the collection and sale of bills of exchange, a then 


prevalent part of the business of all old country merchants. After 1858, he devoted 
himself exclusively to banking and founded the now prominent banking house of 
Bischoff & Co., of which he is the head. He owns valuable real estate in the metrop- 
olis. Mr. Bischoff has always stood well in this city and his family have exerted a 
strong influence in local affairs. In 1850, he married Amalie Louise Bolte, now de- 
ceased, daughter of Frederick Bolte, and their children are Emily, now deceased, wife of 
Paul von Frankenberg; Henry; Ernest, deceased; Franklin J. ; Amanda, wife of Ferdi- 
nand von Graberg ; and Ottilie, wife of Theodore Brenzing. Henry Bischoff, jr. , is judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas. The family lives at City Island on the Sound during 
the summer season. Mr Bischoff is a director of The Union Square Bank; was one 
of the earlier members of the German Liederkranz; and is among the oldest living 
members of The German Society. He is also a patron of The Isabella Heimath, 
founded by Mrs. Ottendorfer. 

GEORGE HENRY BISSELL, founder of the petroleum industry, born in Han- 
over, N. H., Nov. 8, 1821, died in New York city, Nov. 19, 1884. His family, Nor- 
man French in origin, was planted in this country by emigrants from Somersetshire, 
England. John Bissell settled in Windsor, Conn., in 1635. Isaac Bissell, father of 
George H., a native of Connecticut, traded with the Indians for furs at Mackinaw and 
Detroit during his earlier years; married Miss Nancy Wemple, daughter of John Wem- 
ple, who owned a large estate on the Mohawk river, near Johnstown, N. Y. ; and died 
when George was twelve years old. The latter graduated from Dartmouth College in 
1845, earning his own support meanwhile, accepted a Greek and Latin professorship in 
the University of Norwich, Vt., and was then successively Washington correspondent 
for The Richmond Whig until 1846, a traveller in the West Indies, a journalist in New 
Orleans, principal of the High School there, and Superintendent of Schools. He re- 
signed in 1853 to come North on account of his health. During that summer he saw 
a bottle of petroleum at Dartmouth College, which had come from Oil Creek, Pa. 
Realizing intuitively the commercial value of petroleum, he went to Titusville and 
with J. G. Eveleth as a partner leased about 200 acres of land, paying therefor $5,000. 
In 1854, in New York city, the two men organized The Pennsylvania Rock Oil Co., 
the first petroleum company ever formed in the United States. By trenching, they har- 
vested a few barrels of oil per season, selling the product mainly for medecine at one 
dollar a gallon. In 1855, Mr. Bissell became a lawyer, and was admitted to the bar. 
The same year, he reorganized the oil company with Prof. Silliman as president. The 
discovery of small quantities of petroleum in a salt well at Pittsburgh, suggested the 
idea of boring artesian wells on Oil Creek. Their efforts, at first fruitless, were finally 
crowned with success. Aug. 28, 1859, the first vein of oil was reached by boring. A 
natural flow of ten barrels a day was increased by pumping to forty barrels a day; and 
a new industry then took its place in the commercial world. The excitement which 
followed is historic. Mr. Eveleth died in 1863. Mr. Bissell retained his connection 
with the industry for many years, built a railroad in the oil regions and established 
several banks there. After 1863, he dwelt in New York city, and made large purchases 
of real estate here. In October, 1855, he- was married to Ophie Louise Griffin, who 
died in 1867. Their children were Pelham St. George and Florence Wemple 
Bissell. His son, PELHAfl ST. GEORGE BISSELL, real estate owner, was born in 
New York city, Dec. 5, 1858. Isaac Bissell and Captain John Wemple, his great grand- 


fathers, served for several years in the War of the Revolution, and other ancestors 
were also soldiers in that war. Mr. Bissell received an excellent education at Columbia 
College, graduating in 1880. He then found occupation as a dealer in real estate and 
has continued therein down to the present time. A large amount of excellent real 
estate on Broadway and other important streets, has descended to him from his for- 
bears ; and the continual expansion of this emporium adds fresh value to his posses- 
sions. The Adirondacks Pulp Co. was organized by him, afterward being merged in 
The International Pulp Co. Mr. Bissell is a member of the New York Athletic and 
Columbia Alumni clubs and The Sons of the Revolution, as well as a life member of 
The New York Historical Society. His wife is Helen Alsop French, daughter of 
Colonel Thomas J. French, and they have one child, Pelham St. George Bissell, jr. 

JOHN MUNSON BIXBY, lawyer, born in the beautiful village of Fairfield, Conn., 
in February, 1800, died in New York city, Nov. 21, 1876. He was son of William 
Bixby, and grandson of Elisha Bixby, a captain in the American Revolution, who was 
promoted for gallant service at the storming of Stony Point. John began the study of 
law in Wilkes Barre, Pa. , where he remained about two years, coming then to New 
York city. Here he enjoyed a large and successful practice, retiring in 1849. He in- 
vested his means in real estate in New York, from which he realized great gains. His 
son, Robert F. Bixby, now receives an annual ground rent from the Union League 
club larger in amount than his father paid for the property. In 1849 ^ r - Bixby mar- 
ried Miss Mary W. Poe, a cousin of Edgar Allan Poe, the poet. Three children were 
born to them; Robert F., Grace S., and Berkeley Bixby. Mrs. Bixby died in 1854. 
Mr. Bixby was a man of scholarly tastes, and the author of two novels, "Standish the 
Puritan," and "Overing, or the Heir of Wycherly," both of which were published in 
New York. His son, ROBERT FORSYTH BIXBY, lawyer, was born near Augusta, 
Ga., April 14, 1850. Through his maternal lins, he is a great great grandson of David 
Poe, who served from Maryland in the War of the Revolution, and great, great, great, 
great grandson of Sir William Beverly, Governor of Virginia. Graduating from 
Trinity College in 1870, he fitted himself for the law at the Law School of Columbia 
College. His father's death brought upon him the care of a large property, which he 
has managed with excellent skill. He owns the Casino Theatre and property, the 
ground whereon the Union League club stands, and a few scattered dwellings, includ- 
ing a residence on Fifth avenue at 4oth street. He has joined the Union, University, 
City, Union League, Calumet, Lawyers', Bar, New York Athletic, Trinity Alumni, 
Liederkranz, Alpha Delta Phi, Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht, and other clubs and as- 

EUGENE GILBERT BLACKFORD, merchant and banker, famous among ichthy- 
ologists the world over, is a son of Gilbert L. Blackford, a carriage maker, and WHS 
born in Morristown, N. J., Aug. 8, 1839. At the age of fourteen, the lad found em- 
ployment in New York city and tried several occupations as a clerk, without finding 
that which suited him, finally leaving A. T. Stewart's wholesale store to enter the fish 
market of Middleton, Carman & Co. on Fulton street. In a few years he opened his 
own stand in Fulton Market, and is now the proprietor of thirteen stands there and the 
largest dealer in fish, turtles, crabs, oysters and lobsters in the country. In one year, 
. his sales have amounted to 33,000,000 pounds, about three-fourths of the total of Fulton 
Market. The now popular idea of signalizing April ist, the opening day of the trout 


season, with an exhibition of live trout in tanks, originated with him. Since 1879 he 
has been officially connected with the restocking of lakes and streams, and the hatching 
of food fish, being for thirteen years president of the State Fish Commission. In spite 
of the pressing duties of public and commercial life, he finds time to serve as president 
of The Bedford Bank in Brooklyn and director of The City Savings Bank of Brooklyn, 
The People's Trust Co., The Hide & Leather Bank, and The Schermerhorn Bank. 
His clubs are the Manhattan, Reform and Fulton of New York, and the Union League, 
Hamilton, Oxford, Brooklyn and Montauk of Brooklyn. 

BIRDSEYE BLAKEMAN, book publisher, born in Stratford, Conn., Jan 25th, 
1824, died in Stockbridge, Mass., his country home, Sept. 30, 1894. He learned the 
requirements of business in Bridgeport, and began as a merchant on his own account 
in that city in 1843. In 1844 he moved to Albany, N. Y., and soon afterward to New 
York city, joining a book house, where his excellent judgment and sound sense soon 
marked him as a rising man. A few years later, he was admitted to partnership in 
Sheldon, Blakeman & Co., and remained with them until 1863, when he entered the old 
book publishing firm of Ivison, Phinney & Co., which after twice changing its name 
adopted that of Ivison, Blakeman & Co. The firm dissolved Jan. i, 1891, having sold 
its school book interests to The American Book Co. Mr. Blakeman was made presi- 
dent, retaining the position until 1893, when he refused re-election, being then succeeded 
by David Ivison, son of his former partner. He was also president of the Spencerian Pen 
Co. Mr. Blakeman headed the electoral ticket of the Republican party in New York 
State in 1 884, being always a devoted Republican in politics. A man of quick discern- 
ment and accurate judgment, courageous, upright and generous, he enjoyed the respect 
of every business associate and the affection of a wide circle of friends. To his native 
village he gave a public library, which cost more than $25,000. He was connected 
with many of the important clubs of this city, including the Union League, Century, 
Grolier, Ladies' and Aldine, and The New England Society. The surviving members 
of his family are, his wife, Anna M., daughter of Dr. John Tomlinson, to whom he was 
married Jan. 30, 1850, and his children, Louis Henry Blakeman and Marianna, wife of 
John V. B. Lewis. 

ANTHONY JAHES BLEECKER, auctioneer, born on his grandfather's farm in 
Xew York city, Oct. 20, 1799, died in New York, Jan. 17, 1884. He was a son of 
James Bleecker and grandson of Anthony Lispenard Bleecker, and came from the old 
family which owned the estate through which Bleecker street now passes. Educated 
in Dr. Eigenbrodt's school at Jamaica, Long Island, he began life as an auctioneer with 
his father. In 1862, President Lincoln appointed him Assessor of Internal Revenue in 
this city, and he served for six years. The taxes in his district were larger than in any 
other in the United States, Alex. T. Stewart alone pa3>ing $460,000. At one time, he 
also served as United States Marshal of the Southern District of New York. Politics 
interested him early in life and he was the oldest Sachem in Tammany Hall at the time 
of his death, although he was one of those who, in 1855, started the Republican party, 
and a candidate for Mayor of New York in 1856 on the Fremont ticket. Owing to the 
land proprietorship of his family, he was led at an early day into a real estate business 
and became one of the noted auctioneers of this class of property. He conducted many 
important sales. He sold the Tallman estate, near Central Park, for $1,500,000, and 
Dr. Valentine Mott's property for $1,000,000. The annual sales by Mr. Bleecker 


amounted to millions, and it was his jocular boast that he had sold the Island of Man- 
hattan, twice over. He certain!}' knew what the Island was worth, because he appraised 
its realty in 1871, amounting to $247,000,000. With Judge Jones of Orange county, 
Mayor William V. Brady, Cornelius W. Lawrence, Collector of the Port, and George 
H. Purser, he laid out the Hudson River Railroad, and was chairman of the other com- 
mission which extended Central Park from io6th to noth street, his associates being 
Richard Kelly, now president of The Fifth National Bank, and Hawley D. Clapp, pro- 
prietor of the Everett House. One of the stewards of The St. Nicholas Society, he 
enjoyed the friendship of Washington Irving. Richard Grant White says that he had 
no rival in his knowledge of Shakspeare. In October, 1825, Mr. Bleecker married 
Cornelia, daughter of John Van Benthuysen, of Poughkeepsie. The children born to 
them were, John Van Benthuysen Bleecker, who died during the war ; Sarah Bache 
Bleecker, who died in 1867 ; Helena, who died in 1833 ; and James Bleecker, successor 
to his father as an auctioneer. Mr. Bleecker was a vestryman of Trinity Church, as 
were his father and grandfathers, and is buried in the family vault of that church yard. 

CORNELIUS NEWTON BLIS5, merchant, a man of sturdy physique, clear mind, 
and unquestioned force and probity of character, has, from a modest beginning, made his 
way to the front in the business life of the United States and especially of the metrop- 
olis, by honorable business methods and an unconquerable determination to succeed. 

He was born in Fall River, Mass., in 1833. His ancestry was English, originating 
in Devonshire and belonging to the yeoman class, which owned and tilled its own land. 
They were Puritans of sturdy convictions and suffered persecution for conscience sake. 
Mr. Bliss's immigrant ancestor came to America in 1633, settling first at what is now 
Weymouth, but becoming later one of the original settlers of Rehoboth, Mass. The 
father of the subject of this sketch moved to Fall River and died there at the age of 
twenty-six, when Cornelius was an infant. The mother remarried and moved to New 
Orleans, but the boy remained in Fall River in charge of his mother's family until he 
had graduated from the common schools and Fiske's Academy. Thus at an early age 
he was compelled to accept the responsibility and endure the labors which toughen a 
man's fibre and develop his manhood. At fourteen, the lad went to New Orleans and 
completed his school life there in the High School of that city. 

He then entered mercantile life, gaining his first acquaintance with the require- 
ments of trade in the counting room of his stepfather. After a brief experience there, 
he returned North and secured a position in the house of James M. Beebe & Co. , of 
Boston, then the largest dry goods importing and jobbing house in the country. He 
proved a valuable clerk and solely upon his merits was in time admitted as a partner to 
the firm succeeding J. M. Beebe & Co. In 1866, he became a member of the dry goods 
commission house of J. S. & E. Wright & Co. Upon the death of the senior partner, 
this firm was reorganized as Wright, Bliss & Fabyan; and later, it became Bliss, 
Fabyan & Co., of Boston, New York and Philadelphia, and as such remains, having now 
grown to be one of the leading commission dry goods houses in the United States, its 
members highly esteemed and its trade one of great proportions. They occupy a large 
store on Duane street at its junction with Thomas street, in the very heart of the down- 
town wholesale dry goods district, their sign being one of the landmarks of that busy 
region. The New York house has been conducted under the direct personal super- 
vision of Mr. Bliss for many years. 


Since his removal to New York, Mr. Bliss has entered heartily into every move- 
ment which would promote the growth and welfare of this town. Few public spirited 
projects fail to receive his contribution of time or money, and in all the numerous ad- 
mirable schemes which have emanated from among his colleagues of the Union League 
Club, he has taken a cordial interest. Mr. Bliss's strong character, high social standing 
and financial strength have caused him to be much sought after as a trustee in financial 
institutions in this city, the character of whose directorate is the important element in 
securing the public confidence. He is a director and vice-president of The Fourth 
National Bank (once having served as its acting president), The Central Trust Co., 
The American Surety Co., The Equitable Life Assurance Society, The Home Insur- 
ance Society, and other important institutions, and is governor and treasurer of The 
Society of the New York Hospital. 

Always an active and loyal Republican in politics, Mr. Bliss has, however, never 
sought public office and has never occupied official station, except as a member of the 
International Conference in Washington, D. C., in 1889-90. A Cabinet position was 
tendered to him during the term of President Arthur, but he declined that honor as 
well as the suggestion of nomination for various elective offices. 

While too preoccupied to serve his countrymen in public station, he has, however, 
labored with energy to promote the practical work of his party. In 1884, he was Chair- 
man of the Committee of One Hundred, appointed at a public meeting of the citizens 
of New York to attend the Chicago Convention and urge the nomination of the Hon. 
Chester A. Arthur to the Presidency. The committee failed to gain their object, and 
thereupon became loyal supporters of Mr. Elaine. He has been for several years a 
member of the Republican County Committee in New York, and was chairman of the 
New York Republican State Committee in 1887 and 1888, as well as treasurer of the 
Republican National Committee in 1892. He has long been a director, and is now 
president, of The Protective Tariff League, which carries on a persistent appeal to the 
reason and patriotism of the people of America in favor of the American system of 
protection to domestic industry. 

The social standing of Mr. Bliss is exhibited by his membership in the Union, Cen- 
tury, Union League, Riding, Metropolitan, Merchants', Player' and other first-class 
clubs, and in several of the public-spirited societies, which have developed the intellect- 
ual and artistic life of the metropolis and filled the city with great museums and build- 
ings of public importance. 

ELIPHALET WILLIAHS BLISS, of Brooklyn, manufacturer, born at Fly Creek, 
in Otsego county, N. Y., April 12, 1836, is the son of John Stebbings Bliss, a 
physician, whose ancestors were English and settlers of Springfield, Mass. He was 
educated in the public schools and Fort Plain seminary, and began life as a farmer. 
Before the age of sixteen, he entered a machine shop in his native county, served there 
until twenty-one, and then spent seven years in the Parker Machine Shops of Meriden, 
Conn., as foreman. In 1866 he removed to Brooklyn, N. Y., and then in 1867 
founded there the machine shops, which have since grown through his ingenuity and 
constant perseverance into the corporation of The E. W. Bliss Co., now employing 600 
men. The plant comprises extensive buildings and machine shops for the manufacture 
of tools, presses, dies, and patented articles of various kinds. Mr. Bliss supplied some 
of the material for the Brooklyn Bridge, and has had contracts with the United States 


for projectiles and torpedoes. He has pursued this business with great success, and is 
largely interested in improved real estate and city railroads in Brooklyn, being vice- 
president of The Brooklyn Heights Railroad. He is also connected with The Brooklyn 
Gas Fixture Co. Mr. Bliss was married, June 19, 1865, to Miss Anna E., daughte 
of Charles H. Metcalf, and there has been born to them one daughter, Eva M., now 
wife of James Warren Lane, of New York. Mr. Bliss dwells on the heights at Bay 
Ridge, and is a member of the Manhattan and New York Yacht clubs of New York, and 
The Hamilton, Atlantic Yacht, Brooklyn, Marine and Field, and Ridge clubs of Brooklyn. 

GEORGE BLISS, banker, was born in the beautiful village of Northampton, Mass., 
April 21, 1816. 

The Bliss family in America is descended from the best Puritan stock. Tradition 
represents them as living in the South of England, where they belonged to that staunch 
class known as English yeomanry. From time immemorial, they regarded with extreme 
disfavor the lax manners of the clergy and laity, and incurred the enmity of King 
Charles I. by determined opposition to the court religion and their manifest resolution 
to maintain their own views. The first, of whom there is trusworthy information, was 
Thomas Bliss of Belstone Parish, County of Devonshire. A wealthy landowner, he 
belonged in religion to the Puritans, so called on account of the simplicity and purity 
of their forms of worship, and was persecuted by the civil and religious authority 
under the direction of Archbishop Laud, maltreated and imprisoned, and finally ruined 
in health and fortune by the indignities and hardships heaped upon him. The ani- 
mosity of the dominant church party extended to the sons of Thomas Bliss, two of 
whom, Thomas and his younger brother, George, turned their eyes to the new world 
as an asylum, in which they could enjoy liberty of conscience. In the autumn of 1635, 
the two young men embarked, with their families, for the wilderness of America. 
Landing at Boston, Thomas located at Braintree, Mass., whence he afterward moved 
to Hartford, Conn. He died in 1640, and his widow and children subsequently 
removed to Springfield, Mass. From this family are descended most of those of the 
name of Bliss in the old county of Hampshire. George, after remaining for a few years 
at Lynn and Sandwich, Mass., finally settled in Newport, R. I. They maintained their 
sturdy independence of character, and bore with fortitude the deprivations and hard- 
ships which were the lot of the hardy pioneers of the new civilization. From Thomas 
and George Bliss have descended large families, many of whose members have attained 
eminence in the various walks of life. 

George Bliss, the subject of the present sketch, is of the ninth generation in de- 
scent from the original Thomas, and in the eighth from Thomas Bliss, the pioneer in 
1635. His father was William Bliss, and his mother, Martha Parsons, daughter of 
Timothy Parsons, of the same place. From these excellent parents, George inherited 
a strong constitution, great natural ability and stern probity of character. With such 
educational advantages as were afforded by the local schools, he began life in 1832 as 
clerk in a dry goods store in New Haven, Conn. Here his diligence, fidelity and 
intelligence soon won recognition, and after remaining less than five years in a 
subordinate capacity, he was admitted to a partnership with his employer, the firm 
taking the name of Sanford & Bliss. He continued in this firm for seven years. In 
1844, he removed to New York city to become a partner in the firm of Chittenden, 
Bliss & Co., jobbers of dry goods, which, while it continued, attained a commanding 


position in the wholesale trade. After its dissolution, Mr. Bliss continued in the same 
business under firm names of Phelps, Bliss & Co. and George Bliss & Co., until 1869, 
when he retired to engage in banking. 

In that year Mr. Bliss associated himself with the firm of Levi P. Morton & Co. , 
in the business of banking, under the name of Morton, Bliss & Co. The firm, with 
their London branch of Morton, Rose & Co., now stand in the front rank among the 
, financial institutions of this country. While dealing largely in foreign exchange, this 
house has conducted an extensive business in investment securities and effected 
numerous important railroad negotiations. Their conservatism, sound business 
methods and success have won the entire confidence of the financial world. 

Mr. Bliss's excellent judgment and capacity have caused him to be sought after as 
trustee of important corporations, and he has filled acceptably the office of director of 
The United States Trust Co., The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, The 
St. Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba Railway, The Manhattan Elevated Railway, The 
Mutual Life Insurance Co., The Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., The Continental In- 
surance Co., and The Western Union Telegraph Co. He has also held prominent rela- 
tions with many other railroad and financial corporations. He has joined a number of 
the best social organizations in town, including the Century, Union, Union League, 
Metropolitan and Lawyers' clubs and Down Town Association, and The New England 
Society. He is also a member of the Chamber of Commerce and, with the same public 
spirit which animates his colleagues of the Union League club, has given his influ- 
ential support to the great museums of the city. The purely material result of Mr. 
Bliss's long career has been financial success. While attaining this end, however, his 
just and honorable character has gained what is of greater value, the esteem and confi- 
dence of his associates of the business world. He makes a worthy use of his means in 
charities, deriving his satisfaction not from heralding his good actions but from the 
good which follows them. Among the charities of a public nature which have drawn 
largely upon both his time and means are The Woman's Hospital, of which he is a gov- 
ernor, The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled, and The Protestant Half Orphan 
Asylum, of both of which he is a trustee. He is also treasurer and trustee of The Pro- 
testant Episcopal Domestic and Foreign Missions Society, and in addition to these; has 
contributed freely to churches and hospitals. 

Mr. Bliss was married Sept. 29, 1840, to Catherine S., daughter of Hervey Sanford 
of New Haven. He lost his wife by death in 1862, and in 1868 was married to Augusta, 
daughter of William M. Smith, a prominent resident of New Haven. Of the nine 
children born to Mr. Bliss, five are now living, two sons and three daughters. They 
are George T. and Walter Phelps Bliss ; Mary H., wife of A. Gifford Agnew ; and the 
Misses Catherine A. and Augusta Bliss. 

WILLIAM BLISS, merchant, born in Chipping Norton, England, July 4, 1833. 
died in New York city, Jan. 2, 1890. He came to this country with his parents while a 
young boy, and at an early age entered the employ of Dallett Bro's, shipping and com- 
mission merchants of Philadelphia. After several years in their office, he went to 
Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, where he soon became a partner in the firm of Boulton, 
Bliss & Co. In 1860, after having spent eight years in Venezuela, he returned to Phil- 
adelphia and joined the firm of John Dallett & Co. , which was established the following 
year. In 1862 John Dallett, sr , died, and thereafter the responsibilities of the busi- 


ness devolved principally upon Mr. Bliss and his life long friend, William G. Boulton. 
In 1867, the firms of John Dallett & Co. and Dallett & Bliss, of New York, were con- 
solidated, and Mr. Bliss thus became a member of the firm of Dallett, Bliss & Co. , as 
the firm in New York were styled. Mr. Bliss continued to reside in Philadelphia until 
1 88 1, when the house there was closed and the entire business was thereafter transacted , 
in New York, under the firm name of Boulton, Bliss & Dallett. The principal business 
of the firm has always been with Venezuela, from which country coffee, hides, etc., were^ 
imported and to which American produce of almost every description was exported. At 
first, small sailing vessels were employed to carry the firm's merchandise, but as the 
business between the countries increased, steam was employed, resulting in the establish- 
ment of the present Red " D " Line of American steamships, so called from the private 
flag which had been used on the sailing vessels. In 1861, Mr. Bliss was married to Miss 
Athenade Dallett, who died in 1872. He subsequently married Miss Anna Dallett, who 
with his four children, John Dallett, William, Robert Parker and Anita, survived him. 
WILLIAJ1 HETCALF BLISS, merchant and banker, born in Troy, N. Y., in 1812, 
died at Orienta, his home in Mamaroneck, N. Y., Aug. 29, 1893. He sprang from Puri- 
tan ancestry, his line producing many men eminent in the legal profession, for which 
Mr. Bliss was himself originally intended. His father, of the same name, a man of 
marked ability, served as Master of Chancery in Troy, for a long period. Carefully 
educated, William came to New York while a young man, entered business life, and 
with George Merritt, established the firm of Merritt, Ely & Co., with whom and their 
successors he continued until his retirement in 1864. He belonged to the old class of 
solid, upright New York merchants, having the dignified manners of his generation, 
and distinguished both for ability and personal character. Nature endowed him with 
a mind which would have commanded success in any calling, and he rose above the 
trammels of mercantile life to larger position. Noble in appearance, chivalrous in 
nature, a charming conversationalist, and a Christian gentleman, few excelled him in 
the warm friendship and cordial respect which he inspired. He was prominent as 
president of The Central National Bank, and a trustee of The Equitable Life Assur- 
ance Society. He was twice married, first to Miss Champion, of Troy, and later to 
Lucie Ann, daughter of Ellis Baker, of Albany. 

JOSEPH BENJAMIN BLOOfllNGDALE, merchant, was born in the city of New 
York, Dec. 22, 1842. His father, Benjamin Bloomingdale, had immigrated from Alten- 
moor, in Bavaria, in 1837, being the first person to leave that section of the country for 
the new world. The elder Bloomingdale made an effort to establish himself in New 
Jersey and North Carolina, but finally moved to New York, where he has since resided 
almost continuously. At the age when boys of the present day are compelled by law 
to be at their books, Joseph secured a situation as clerk in a dry goods store on Canal 
street, then the centre of the fashionable shopping district. In 1860, he went to the 
Pacific coast, where he filled positions variously in San Francisco, Sacramento and Car- 
son City, Nev. Having saved some money, he became infected with the fever to grow 
rich suddenly, and invested what he had in mining stocks. This soon wiped out his 
little surplus; and with this additional fund of experience, he made a fresh start, follow- 
ing the tide of gold discovery into Oregon, Idaho and Montana, attempting various 
occupations, including actual work with a pick and shovel on what afterward became 
the famous Blue Cloud mine, taking off some pay-dirt from the surface and then selling 


at what appeared to him to be a splendid profit. The purchaser of the claim made a fort- 
une, while young Blooming-dale returned to the city of his birth. Here his father and 
his brother Lyman were engaged in manufacturing hoop skirts, and Joseph secured a 
position with them as travelling salesman. In this he was very successful, and, a short 
time afterward, on the retirement of his father, he became a member-of the firm. Un- 
fortunately, however, hoop skirts were becoming less fashionable. The two brothers 
did not recognize this fact quickly enough to save themselves from loss, and, in 1871, 
were obliged to make a compromise with their creditors. This overwhelming misfort- 
une, however, really inured to their benefit. They established a small retail dry 
goods store on Third avenue, near the corner of s6th street, under the name of Bloom- 
ingdale Bros., and thus laid the foundation of one of the most successful department 
stores in the world. Their success was immediate. In a few years, they were able to 
pay their former creditors the balance of their claims, although under no legal obliga- 
tion to do so. Removing shortly to the corner of sgth street and Third avenue, they 
rented two buildings. Their buildings, which are seven stories high, now occupy 
twenty-one city lots, with a total floor area of 490,000 square feet, their stock of goods 
including almost everything required by man, woman and child, a great part of them 
being manufactured on the premises. Some lines of goods are controlled exclusively 
by them. Their trade is not confined either to the limits of New York city or State, 
but includes almost every part of the habitable globe. Mr. Bloomngdale is a member 
of or contributor to nearly every institution in the city of New York, without regard 
to sect or denomination, and is vice-president of The Hebrew Technical Institute, and 
of The United States Savings Bank. Physically, Mr. Bloomingdale is six feet one 
inch tall, of fine physique, with a face which has been called handsome. He was 
married in 1875, to Clara, oldest daughter of Lewis Koffman, an old-time New York 
merchant, and has two children, a son and a daughter. 

LYHAN G. BLOOMINGDALE, merchant, born in New York, Feb. n, 1841, is a 
son of Benjamin Bloomingdale, a native of Bavaria. Lyman graduated from Smith's 
Collegiate Institute and then went to Leavenworth, Kan., with his father. In that 
town, he began life as an independent merchant with about $300 of borrowed capital, 
starting a crinoline and dry goods store. He was doing well, when he was ordered 
under arms with a militia company, in which he was a sergeant, to repel Confederates, 
who were threatening a raid. After this service, he sold his store and came to New 
York, where he joined his father in the manufacture of crinoline skirts. In 1872, he 
aided in organizing the firm of Bloomingdale Bros. , to transact a dry goods and general 
trade, and is senior partner of the firm. He has revealed remarkable shrewdness and 
energy in adapting his store to the requirements of the dense population, which occu- 
pies the East Side of the city. 

EDWARD CUSHMAN BODMAN, merchant, was born in Charlemont Mass., 
March 22, 1840. His father, John Bodman, was a bank president and business man of 
Northampton, Mass. Edward graduated from Williston Seminary in Easthampton, 
engaged in the grain trade and banking in central Illinois, 1861-65, an d carried on the 
same business in Toledo, O., 1865-85, being president of The Northern National Bank 
there, 1873-82. He came to New York in 1885, and his firm of Milmine, Bodman & 
Co , have already won a name, ranking as a leading house in the grain trade. They 
transact a strictly commission business, never speculating. For twenty years Mr. Bod- 


man was largely interested in Illinois lands, at one time owning and cultivating 4,000 
acres. Jan. 10, 1878, he married Ida M. Berdan, of Toledo, a niece of Chief Justice 
Waite. Their children are Herbert L. arid George M. Bodman. He is a member of the 
Union League club and the Ohio and New England Societies. Mrs. Charles H. Park- 
hurst of New York is Mr. Bodman's sister. 

ROBERT BONNER, proprietor of The New York Ledger, is a native of London- 
derry, Ireland, where he was born April 28, 1824. His parents were Scotch-Irish. 
Coming to this country in 1839, he learned the printer's trade in the office of The Hart- 
ford Courant, and is remembered there as a smart and rapid compositor. He removed 
to New York city in 1844, worked at his trade, and in 1850, for $900, purchased The 
MercJiants' Ledger, then an unimportant commercial newspaper in drooping circum- 
stances. He conducted this paper for four years, at first dealing with dry figures, hard 
facts and prosaic statistics, without increasing its importance greatly, and then intro- 
duced many new and spicy features, miscellany, stories, etc , and finally, in i&55> 
changed its name to The New York Ledger and its contents to romance pure and sim- 
ple. His first audacious move was the engagement of Fanny Fern, in 1855, to write a 
continued story at $100 a column. By printing pure and sound romances and contri- 
butions from the best known writers, and by astonishing enterprise and extraordinary 
expenditures for advertising, he increased the circulation of Tlu Ledger until the 
American people from the Atlantic to the Pacific were reading the paper. Staid old 
merchants of that day shook their heads solemnly over the extravagant advertisements 
of The Ledger, which they regarded as a new form of humbug, but Mr. Bonrier's cour- 
age captivated the public mind and led to great success. One idea to which he rigidly 
adhered was to keep his paper absolutely free from even a suggestion which would be 
improper for the family circle. His writers included the most conspicuous men and 
women of the day. At first, The Ledger contained advertisements, but these were 
gradually withdrawn. Among the famous contributors to The Ledger have been Fanny 
Fern, Mrs. Sigourney, Sylvanus Cobb, jr., Mrs. Southworth, Prentice, Saxe, Edward 
Everett, Henry Ward Beecher, Horace Greeley, James Parton, and Dr. John Hall. 
The abundant means which Tlie Ledger has brought Mr. Bonner have enabled him 
to make large gifts to Princeton College and various churches and charities and to buy 
noted horses. He has owned some of the most celebrated trotters in the world. Rigidly 
opposed to betting and to racing for money, he has withdrawn his purchases from the race 
tracks and keeps them for his own driving. Among his purchases were Peerless, Dex- 
ter, and Maud S., for which he paid William H. Vanderbilt $40,000. In February, 
1888, he presented his sons, Andrew Alley, Robert Edwin and Frederic Bonner, with 
a large amount of real estate, as an incentive to application, and these young men now 
have entire charge of the paper, as Robert Bonner's Sons. 

PETER RIKER BONNE IT, merchant, born in Frankfort street, New York city, 
Dec. 10, 1801, died at his residence in this city, Sept. 4, 1871. He was the son of 
Peter Bonnett, a prominent leather merchant in " the Swamp," who had a large tan- 
nery on the corner of Frankfort and Skinner (now Cliff) streets. The family came 
from Huguenot ancestry. The pioneer, Daniel Bonnet, settled in America in 1 700, 
after a residence of ten years in Bristol, England, having left Rochelle, France, in 
1690, a few years after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Mr. Bonnett was 
educated in the city, and in early life entered the employment of Harper & Arcularius. 


wholesale grocers, in Front street, near Fulton. The firm subsequently became 
Arcularius & Bonnett, and later Bonnett, Schenck & Co., when their location was 
changed to Vesey street, where, for many years, they carried on a large wholesale 
business with the West. Mr. Bonnett devoted his entire time to his business and 
to home life, never occupying public or corporate office, although often urged to do so. 
He was connected with St. George's Church. Aug. 17, 1835, he married Maria Salton- 
stall, of New London, Conn., who, with two sons and four daughters, survived him. 

DAVID AUGUSTUS BOODY, banker and broker, born in Jackson, Me., Aug. 13, 
1837, is a son of David Boody, by occupation a farmer. He was educated in the public 
schools, with six months in Phillips Academy, Andover. At the age of eighteen, he 
found his first occupation as a school teacher. Beginning the study of law at twenty, 
he was admitted to the bar when twenty-three. A year later, he came to New York 
and entered the banking house of Henry H. Boody, at No. 12 Wall street. An alert, 
progressive and able man, he began business on his own account two years later, and 
has been successfully engaged in stock transactions to the present day, excepting only 
during a period of three years, when absent from the city. Several large corporations 
have secured his interest and he has been elected president of The Louisiana & North- 
western Railway, vice-president of The Sprague National Bank, and trustee of The 
People's Trust Co. At one time, he served as president of The City Savings Bank of 
Brooklyn. His wife is a daughter of the late Henry Treat of Frankfort, Me. They 
have five children. Mr. Boody has taken special interest in public questions and was 
at one time president of The Civil Service Association of Brooklyn, in which city he 
makes his home. He is a member of the Reform club and The New England Society 
of New York city, and the Hamilton, Brooklyn, Montauk and Carleton clubs, New 
England Society, and Young Men's Christian Association of Brooklyn. 

HENRY AUGUSTUS BOORAEfl, merchant, born at No. 16 Dey street, in this 
city, Sept. 3, 1815, died in Jersey City, Feb. 18, 1889. He was a son of Hendrick 
Booraem, an old time merchant of dry goods on Pearl street. The emigrant ancestor 
of this family, a native of Holland, came to this place in 1666, settling at Newtown on 
Long Island. Henry went from the private schools of this city and Fordham directly 
to his father's store, where he received a thorough training, after the fashion of the 
times. While in Paris, France, just as he was attaining his majority, his father died. 
Upon his return to New York, he became a member of the firm of L. & B. Curtis, of 
which Lewis and Benjamin Curtis were partners, and for more than thirty years im- 
ported French dress goods, silks and velvets to this city. He retired about 1869. Mr. 
Booraem was justly esteemed for his character, ability and public spirit Grace Church 
of Jersey City was organized in his parlors, and claimed him as a vestryman, and he 
was a member of the Committee of One Hundred of Jersey City at the time of his 
death. In 1838, he married Cornelia, daughter of John Van Vorst of the town of Van 
Vorst, now a part of Jersey City, and a descendant of Governor Van Vorst, whom The 
Dutch East India Co. sent out in 1638 as Governor of Pavonia. It is related that Gov- 
ernor Wouter van Twiller, Eberardus Bogardus, the dominie, and Captain de Vries 
visited the new Governor of Pavonia upon his arrival to pay their respects, and when 
a salute was fired from a swivel, upon their departure, a spark set fire to the Van Vorst 
homestead and burned it down. To Mr. Booraem were born : John Van Vorst Booraem, 
consulting engineer-in-chief of The American Sugar Refining Co.; Frances D. 


Booraem; Henry L. Booraem, deceased; Josephine B. , wife of Augustus Zabriskie, 
son of ex-Chancellor Zabriskie; Louis V. Booraem, the lawyer; Augustus Booraem, 
who has charge of the Booraem estate; Robert Elmer Booraem, lately in charge of the 
Blue Bird mine in Butte City and the Morning Star and Evening Star mines in Lead 
ville; and Randolph M. Booraem of Philadelphia. John Van Vorst owned large tracts 
of land on the west bank of the Hudson. The right of ferriage between Paulus Hook 
and New York city, now owned by The Pennsylvania Railroad, was bequeathed by the 
great grandfather of Cornelia Van Vorst to her father. In the settlement of the 
estate it was transferred to Cornelius Van Vorst, his brother, and by him conveyed to 
The Associates of The Jersey Company. 

EDWIN BOOTH, the distinguished actor, born near Baltimore, Md., Xov. 13, 
1833, died at the Players' club in this city, June 7, 1893. He was the fourth son of 
Junius Brutus Booth, a figure as brilliant in the annals of the American stage as that 
of Edmund Kean in England. His entrance upon a theatrical career occurred at the 
Museum in Boston, Sept., 10, 1849, in Tressel in "Richard III." and grew out of a 
desire to oblige the prompter, who had been cast for the part against his will. That 
arrangement was made without the knowledge and approval of the elder Booth, 
who for a long time opposed his son's adoption of the stage. Nevertheless, Edwin 
drifted into that pursuit and persevered in it, and his father soon became reconciled 
to his course. Mr. Booth identified himself from the first with the highest class of 
dramas, and early in his career made a highly successful tour of the South, beginning 
in Baltimore. It was in Richmond, during this tour, that he met for the first time Miss 
Mary Devlin, who became his wife in New York city, July 7, 1860. Shortly afterward, 
they sailed for England. His wife was an excellent musician and a pleasing actress. 
They remained in England until September, 1862, their daughter Edwina, being born 
at Fulham, London, Dec. 9, 1861. On their return to America, they established their 
home at Dorchester, Mass. Mrs. Booth died Feb. 21, 1863. The opening of Booth's 
Theatre in New York, Feb. 3, 1869, was the most important dramatic incident in the 
metropolis at that period. Here he appeared in the dramas of Shakspeare, regularly 
nearly every season, for many years. He was married again to Miss Mary McVicker 
of Chicago, at Long Branch, X. J., June 7, 1869. Miss McVickers last professional 
appearance was made at Booth's Theatre in the spring of that year as Desdemona. A 
son was bom to them July 3, 1870, but died within a few hours. Mrs. Booth died in 
New York, Nov. 13, 1881. Mr. Booth's long service upon the American stage was 
never stained by an appearance in any except the most ennobling plays, and during 
his time there was no greater exponent of Shakspeare than he. His influence was 
good, his popularity unbounded, and his genius has inscribed his name forever upon 
the pages of history. Incidentally, his impersonations of heroic characters brought him 
a fortune. In San Francisco, during one engagement of eight weeks, the receipts 
exceeded $96,000. While he made more than one visit to England, the most of his 
career was upon the American stage. His last public sen-ice was his institution of the 
Players' club of this city. The bulk of Mr. Booth's estate was left in trust for his 
daughter, Mrs. Edwina Booth Grossman, although a number of societies and friends 
were remembered. 

HENRY PROSPER BOOTH, shipping merchant, was born in New York city, July 
19, 1836, and comes from New England ancestry. At the Mechanics' Institute he 


gained a sound education, and then, as clerk for a shipping merchant, allied himself 
with the commercial interests of the port, to which his life had been ably and prosper- 
ously devoted. In 1856, he was admitted to partnership in James E. Ward & Co., and 
is now senior member of the firm. Strong determination and great force of character 
have brought him into prominence in the maritime world. He is a member of the 
Manhattan and Colonial clubs. 

GAIL BORDEN, manufacturer, born in Norwich, N. Y., Nov. 6, 1801, died in 
Borden, Texas, Jan. n, 1874. His parents, who were of New England descent, left 
New York State when Gail was thirteen years of age, settling after a time in Madison, 
Ind. Gail attended the common schools and at the age of twenty-one removed to Mis- 
sissippi, where he taught school and engaged in public surveys. In 1829, he pushed on 
to Texas, acquired some prominence upon the establishment of the Republic of Texas, 
and was appointed first Collector at Galveston, of which city he had made the first 
surveys in 1837. In 1849, the need of more convenient food supplies for the emigrants 
to the Pacific Coast led him to make a few experiments, with the result that he pro- 
duced "pemmican," afterward used with such success in Arctic expeditions, and the 
" meat biscuit," a simple and portable form of concentrated food. Though these inven- 
tions brought him a medal from the World's Fair in London in 1852, and an honorary 
membership in The London Society of Arts, they proved a pecuniary failure, and he 
lost all his means. His attention had meanwhile been attracted to the preservation of 
milk, and in 1853 he applied for a patent for "concentrated milk," which the Govern- 
ment granted in 1856. This venture proved an unqualified success. Under the title 
of The New York Condensed Milk Co., he established factories at Brewster Station, 
N. Y., and Elgin, 111., and extended the operations of these by manufacturing an extract 
of beef, for which he afterward built a factory at Borden, Texas. There then followed 
preparations of cocoa, tea and coffee, and in 1862 a patent for condensing the juice of 
fruits into a small fraction of the original bulk. Mr. Borden amassed a large fortune 
and dispensed his means with a liberal hand. 

MATTHEW CHALONER DURFEE BORDEN, merchant and manufacturer, a native 
of Fall River, Mass., was born July 18, 1842. His father, the late Colonel Richard 
Borden, was a conspicuous leader in all which contributed to the success and large 
prosperity of Fall River, from the date of the organization of its first and greatest 
manufacturing enterprises, beginning with the Fall River Iron Works Co. in 1821, down 
to the close of his eventful and memorable life, in 1874. 

The Borden family is of original French stock, and is traceable back to Bourdon- 
nay, an ancient village in Normandy, from which it probably takes its name. The 
first of the family found on English soil entered the British Isles with William the Con- 
queror. After the overthrow of Harold and the Saxon regime, they were assigned 
estates in the County of Kent. Giving their name to the estate, they founded a 
religious parish there, which also bore the name of Borden. In 1635, Richard, then 
the head of the family, emigrated to America, settling in Rhode Island. The birth of 
Matthew Borden, in May, 1638, is mentioned in the Friends' Book of Records, and he 
was the first child born of English parents on Rhode Island soil, thus fixing the date of 
the first settlement at Portsmouth. From this point, the family descent is authentically 
recorded down to the present time. 

The subject of this sketch was fitted for a higher range of education at Phillips 


Academy, Andover, Mass, and graduated from Yale College in the class of 1864. 
Almost immediately thereafter, he entered the employment of a leading dry goods job- 
bing house in New York, as stock boy in one of the departments. Three years later, 
he became a partner in a leading commission" house of New York, where he represented 
The American Print Works as selling agent, continuing in this capacity until the end 
of 1879. The American Print Works having failed, his connection with the house 
referred to ceased. 

Mr. Borden inherited a large share of the enterprise and capacity for management 
of his worthy father, and mainly through the joint efforts of his eldest brother and him- 
self, the company was reorganized and resumed operations under the name of The 
American Printing Co., in January, 1880. At the same time, Mr. Borden made an 
alliance with the commission house of J. S. & E. Wright & Co., now Bliss, Fabyan & 
Co., with whom he has remained in the conduct of the business controlled by him 
ever since. 

In 1887, Mr. Borden bought his brother's interest in The American Printing Co., 
and from that time has been the capable sole owner of the works, which, in the number 
of yards printed annually, is probably the largest establishment of the kind in the 
world. The capacity of the Printing Company required from 60,000 to 70,000 pieces 
of cloth weekly, and it finally appeared desirable to become independent of the open 
market, as to a portion of the weekly consumption. In 1889, therefore, Mr. Borden 
proceeded to build cloth mills in Fall River for this purpose, and, at the end of three 
years, had erected and equipped in the most perfect manner possible three large mills 
for spinning yarns and weaving the same into cloth for printing. The plant so estab- 
lished, under the title of The Fall River Iron Works Co., a previous corporate name 
having been retained for the sake of keeping the old charter, which is valuable, now 
consists of the mills named, containing about 200,000 spindles and more than 
5,000 looms, producing 35,000 pieces of print cloth weekly, or about one-half the 
whole amount required by The American Printing Co. The two companies are of 
enormous value to Fall River. They employ an army of well paid operatives, 
whose earnings, being diffused through the community, quicken every branch of local 

Since establishing his home in New York, Mr. Borden has identified himself with 
the progress and social life of the city, and has gained the esteem, which is only ac- 
corded to sound character, public spirit, and good business qualifications. He is a 
director in The Manhattan Company Bank, The Lincoln National Bank, The Astor 
Place Bank, The Lincoln Safe Deposit Co. , and The New York Security & Trust Co ; 
trustee and treasurer of The Clinton Hall Association ; and governor in the Woman's 
Hospital in the State of New York. In politics, he has been an earnest and uncom- 
promising Republican for more than thirty years. Mr. Borden has never sought office 
and never held office, except during one term as Commissioner of Parks, when he gave 
a large portion of his time for six years to this public duty. Experience in the employ- 
ment of a large body of working people convinces him of the value to American labor 
of the protective system, and he advocates the policy which enables him to pay excel- 
lent wages to his people. His public spirit is also illustrated by his contributions to the 
support of the great museums of this city. 

In 1865, Mr. Borden was married to Harriet M Durfee of Fall River. Seven 


children have been born to them, of whom the following named four survive : Bertram 
Harold, Matthew Sterling, Howard Seymour and Owen Ives Borden. 

Mr. Borden is a member of the following clubs : Union League, Metropolitan, 
Republican, Merchants', Down Town, Players', Riding, New York Athletic, New York 
Yacht, Seawanhaka Yacht, Yale Alumni, South Side Sportmen's, Jekyl Island and 
Whist. He also belongs to The New England Society. 

CHARLES HERBERT BOSHER, banker, a native of Richmond, Va., born in 1834, 
died in New York city, May 19, 1894. He came from a well known and highly 
respected family. After the civil war he removed to New York city, and in 1872 be- 
came one of the original members of the banking firm of R. T. Wilson & Co. , with 
which he continued until his death. Deeply interested in the revival of Southern pros- 
perity, he aided in re-establishing the railroad systems of that part of the country, in 
which patriotic work he gained his fortune. The wonderful recuperation of the South 
from the terrible prostration which followed the war of 1861-65, was in part due to the 
spirit of enterprise engendered by that historic struggle itself, but was mainly the 
result of the energetic labor and sagacity of a group of men, among whom the partners 
in R. T. Wilson & Co. stood in the front rank. They enlisted the interest of capital, 
rebuilt the railroads, opened the mines, established town sites, and erected furnaces 
and factories and gave a powerful impetus to the mercantile, industrial and financial 
enterprise of that whole region. Mr. Bosher took an active part in many notable 
schemes. He married Miss Ingram, of Kempsville, Va., and to them was born one 
daughter. He was a member of the Metropolitan, Down Town and Manhattan clubs, 
and The Southern Society, and had been for years a member of St. Thomas's Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church. 

IQNATZ BOSKOWITZ, fur merchant, is a native of Floss in Bavaria, Germany, 
having been born there Feb. 13, 1837. He began life with his uncle, I. L. Honigs- 
berger, in the cloth business, and when fifteen years of age, found employment in 
banking in Leipzig. At the age of sixteen, he removed to America. Successively a 
dry goods clerk, bookkeeper in a clothing store in Chicago, 1855-58, and merchant of 
fur and wool, he came to New York in 1860, and has since conducted the latter business 
here, under the name of I. & A. Boskowitz, with his brother, Adolph, as a partner. 
Here they have gained a good name and a profitable business. Mr. Boskowitz is presi- 
dent of The Mechanics and Traders' Bank, and finds recreation in the West End, 
Harmonic, Freundschaft, Progress and Manhattan Chess clubs. His marriage with 
Carrie Goldsmith, of this city, took place May 5, 1867. 

JABEZ ABEL BOSTWICK, oil producer, a native of Delhi, Delaware county, 
N. Y. , was born Sept. 30, 1830, and died at his home in Mamaroneck, N. Y., Aug. 16, 
1892. His ancestors came from England to New England. Receiving a good busi- 
ness education, he went to Covington, Ky. , when about eighteen years old, and 
obtained employment in a bank. He subsequently removed to Cleveland, O., and 
entered the commission and hardware firm of Reynolds & Bostwick, as a clerk, finding 
occupation later as accountant in the bank of J. B. Tilford, in Lexington. After 
several years of labor for others, he became a dealer in cotton on his own account in 
Cincinnati, displaying excellent abilities as a merchant. In 1866 he removed to New 
York city, and continued his dealings in cotton on a large scale, his firm being known 
as Bostwick & Tilford. When dealing in petroleum rose into importance, his house 


became receivers of oil and from this went on to undertake the refining business, soon 
making a name in that industry as J. A. Bostwick & Co. When The Standard Oil Co. 
was organized, Mr. Bostwick allied himself with its originators, and was for a number 
of years one of the trustees. In charge of one of the departments of the company, he 
became well-known on the speculative exchanges, and acquired a reputation as a Stan- 
dard Oil magnate, which clung to him long after he nad severed his connection with 
the trust. In 1887, Mr. Bostwick became president of The New York & New England 
Railroad, resigning in January, 1892. Among his more recent ventures was The Stan- 
dard Gas Light Co., and he was also interested in The New York Steam Co., and The 
Gas Engine and Power Co. In 1866 he married Helen C., daughter of Smith Ford, a 
retired tobacco merchant. The family made their home at 800 Fifth avenue, and at 
Mamaroneck, N. Y., their house in the country adjoining that of James M. Constable. 
His three children are Nellie B., wife of Francis Lee Morrell, of New York; Francis 
B., wife of Captain Alfred Carstairs, of the Royal British Rifles; and Albert Bostwick. 
His clubs were the Union League and New York Yacht, and he also belonged to The 
Ohio Society. He gave freely from his large income to charitable objects, in a man- 
ner always unostentatious. The Suffolk Street Baptist Church is one of the public 
monuments to his liberality and devotion to the cause it represents, and his private 
charities were generous and creditable. 

WILLIAM GEORGE BOULTON, shipping merchant, born in La Guayra, Vene- 
zuela, Jan. 24, 1832, died at his home in Orange, N. J., Sept. 10, 1891. The family from 
which he descended came originally from the Lake district in England, settling in 
Lancashire. Early in life, Mr. Boulton was brought to Philadelphia, where he was 
educated in private schools. He then entered the office of Boulton, Sons & Co., Cara- 
cas and La Guayra, Venezuela, as a clerk, became a partner, and in 1857 removed to 
Philadelphia, where Oct. 28, the same year, he married Mary E., daughter of William 
E. Bowen, banker, of Browns & Bowen. of Philadelphia, and Brown, Shipley & Co , of 
London. Engaging in a commission business with Venezuela, he soon afterwards en- 
tered the firm of John Dallett & Co., general merchants and shippers. In 1881, the 
headquarters of the firm were moved to New York, the style being changed to Boulton, 
Bliss & Dallett. This house has engaged extensively in a commission trade, the im- 
portation of coffee, and management of ocean steamers. It controls the " Red D" line 
of steamers, sailing to Venezuela and Curacao. Mr. Boulton was an excellent mer- 
chant, a member of the New York Chamber of Commerce and Produce and Maritime 
Exchanges, and a director of The Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., of this city, The 
Delaware Insurance Co. of Philadelphia, and until his removal to New York, vice presi- 
dent of the Maritime Exchange of Philadelphia. To him were born a daughter who died 
in infancy and one son, William Bowen Boulton, the latter a member of the firm. Mr. 
Boulton was an earnest Episcopalian and for many years one of the wardens of the 
Church of the Epiphany in Philadelphia. On removing to this city, he attached him- 
self to Grace parish. He was especially noted for the interest he took in young men; 
and the substantial assistance, which he rendered to many at the outset of their careers, 
was a conspicuous illustration of his character. 

GEORGE S. BOWDOIN, banker, born in New York city, Sept. 25, 1833, comes 
from old American stock, and is a son of the late George R. J. Bowdoin, a lawyer. 
Through the maternal line, he descends from Alexander Hamilton and General Philip 


Schuyler, both soldiers in tire American Revolution, and through the paternal line from 
Governor Bowdoin of Massachusetts. The late Robert C. Winthrop was his great 
uncle. The young man was carefully educated, and had the advantage of three years in 
the scientific course in Harvard University, His early business experience was gained 
as clerk for Aymar & Co., shipping merchants on South street. In 1871, he became a 
partner in the firm of Morton, Bliss & Co., bankers of this city, and Morton, Rose & 
Co., of London, which relation he continued for thirteen years. In 1884, he joined the 
banking house of Drexel, Morgan & Co., as a partner, and he is also connected with 
Drexel & Co., of Philadelphia, and Morgan, Harjes & Co , of Paris. Clear-headed, 
quiet and capable, he has borne his share of the labors of his great bank, and has been 
identified with various railroad reorganizations, especially those of The West Shore, The 
The Philadelphia & Reading and The Baltimore & Ohio Railroads. The New York 
Life Insurance & Trust Co., The Mutual Life Insurance Co., The Commercial Union 
Fire Insurance Co. and the Bank for Savings have been glad to elect him to their direc- 
torates. He is also a governor of the Bloomingdale Asylum and The New York 
Hospital, to the latter of which he has given a good deal of his time. By culture, 
education and inherited refinement, Mr. Bowdoin is a man of attractive manners and 
social temperament. He is a valued member of about twenty clubs and societies, 
including the Metropolitan, Union League, Union, Knickerbocker, Century, Players', 
City, Racquet, Tuxedo and New York Yacht clubs, and, by virtue of lineal descent, of 
The Sons of the American Revolution. His wife is Juiia Irving, daughter of the late 
Moses H. Grinnell. 

HENRY CHANDLER BOWEN, proprietor of Tlte New York Independent, was born 
in Woodstock, Conn., Sept. n, 1813. He is the son of George andLydiaWolcott Eaton 
Bowen. One of his ancestors, Henry Bowen, was one of the twenty -two founders of the 
town of Woodstock. He was educated in the local schools and the academy in Dudley, 
Mass. , and began life as a clerk in his father's store. When eighteen years of age he was 
appointed assistant to his father, then postmaster of the village. In 1833, the young man 
came to New York by invitation, entered the employment of Arthur Tappan & Co. , silk 
merchants, and throve so well in this store that several offers of partnership were made 
to him. In 1838, Theodore McNamee, a fellow clerk, and he founded the firm of Bowen 
& McNamee, merchants, aided by a loan of $25,000 from John Rankin, who became a 
special partner. Mr. Bowen aided in organizing The Continental Insurance Co., in 
1852, by giving the names of nearly forty of the forty-five original directors. So many 
persons were anxious to serve as directors in that company that, forthwith, The Home 
Insurance Co. was formed, the corporators and directors being named in Mr. Bowen's 
office, one of them being Theodore McNamee. In 1848, The New York Independent was 
founded by five men, of whom Mr. Bowen was one. Unprofitable at first, the property 
finally came into Mr. Bowen's ownership, and he has been sole proprietor now for thirty 
years or more. To this newspaper he finally devoted his whole attention and has 
made it a profitable enterprise. Mr. Bowen is a resident in Brooklyn, but spends his 
summers at Roseland, in his native town, has created the beautiful Roseland Park 
there, and for more than twenty years has held public celebrations of the Fourth of 
July on the grounds. These celebrations have become famous, the most distinguished 
men in the country gracing them with their orator}-. Mr. Bowen has expended large 
sums of money upon the Woodstock Academy, the village parks and the churches of 


the town. He is a Republican and a very capable and public-spirited man. His first 
wife was a daughter of Lewis Tappan, his second a daughter of Hiram Holt. M.D., of 
Pomfret, Conn. His children are Henry Eliot, Edward Augustus, Herbert Wolcott, 
Clarence Winthrop, John Eliot and Franklin Davis Bowen, Mrs. Mary Louisa Holt, 
Mrs. Alice Linden Richardson, Grace Aspinwall, Winthrop Earle and Paul Holt Bowen. 
CALEB SHITH BRAGG, book publisher, born in North Sidney, Me., May 24, 
1824, died suddenly from heart disease on a railroad train, near Altoona, Pa., March 8, 
1894. He was educated in Waterville, Me., and in 1847 began life as a school teacher 
in Northern Ohio. In 1849, he accepted an agency for W. B. Smith & Co., school book 
publishers in Cincinnati, and proved so good a merchant that, in 1855, he began busi- 
ness on his own account in Cleveland, as a bookseller, in Ingham & Bragg. In 1871, 
however, he removed to Cincinnati and entered the book firm of Wilson, Hinkle & Co., 
who had succeeded W. B. Smith & Co., and who, in turn, were succeeded by Van Ant- 
werp, Bragg & Co. The latter soon ranked among the best-known publishers of school 
books in the United States. Their firm were consolidated in 1890 with Ivison, Blake- 
man & Co., D. Appleton & Co., and A. S. Barnes & Co., under the title of The Ameri- 
can Book Co. School book publishing brought Mr. Bragg a fortune. A short time 
before his death, he established his home in New York, in order to serve as one of the 
managing directors of The American Book Co. His wife was Mary A. Mills, daughter 
of Mathew Mills, of Brighton, Canada, and the children born to them were Charles 
Froom Bragg, now deceased, and Caius Cobb Bragg. 

JOHN BRAND, tobacco manufacturer, a native of Elmira, N. Y., was born Feb. 
26, 1855. He is of German descent, his parents having come to America in 1850. Re- 
ceiving his education in the public schools, he began life in 1873 as clerk for his father, 
a tobacco merchant, in Elmira. In 1879, he was admitted to partnership, and after his 
father's death, in 1880, rose to the head of the firm. He carried on the trade in Elmira 
for a number of years, but has lately come to New York city to live, although retaining 
his factory in Elmira. An enterprising man, he has invested his earnings in properties 
in Elmira, Buffalo, New York city, and Colorado. By his marriage with Clara E. 
Woodruff, in 1879, he has three children, John Herbert, Charles George and Walter 
Henry Brand. His clubs are the Elmira City and Century. 

BENJAMIN BRANDRETH, manufacturer of medicines, born near Leeds, Eng- 
land, June 22, 1808, died Feb. 19, 1880, in Sing Sing, N. Y. His father, a musician 
of reputation, having been converted to the faith of the Friends, abandoned his profes- 
sion for a mercantile life. Of his six children, two sons and four daughters, Benjamin, 
the youngest, was born after his father's death. At an early age, Benjamin was taken 
under the care of his grandfather, William Brandreth, with whom he studied medicine, 
subsequently succeeding him in business at Leeds in making medicines. In 1827, he 
was married to Harriet Smallpage, and had three children. He came with his family 
to New York in 1835. His first wife dying in 1836, he married Virginia Graham of 
New York city in the following year. To them were born ten children. In May, 1835, 
Mr. Brandreth opened an office in Hudson street. The buildings there soon proved 
too small for the business, resulting in a removal of the factory to Sing Sing in 1837, 
where it has been conducted ever since. After coming to this country, he was gradu- 
ated from the Eclectic Medical College of this city. In 1857, he built the Brandreth 
House at the corner of Canal street and Broadway, his office being then established in 


this building. The secret of the enormous sale of the Brandreth medicines lay in the 
fact that during the first fifteen years or more, he expended almost his entire profits of 
$1 50,000 a year in advertising. In politics, a Democrat, Dr. Brandreth was elected to the 
State Senate in 1849 and served four years. He was frequently a delegate to the con- 
ventions of his party. In private life he had many friends. He distributed his wealth 
liberally in acts of charity, especially among the families of his own employes. 

JAMES CARSON BREVOORT, civil engineer and man of letters, bcm in Bloom- 
ingdale, New York city, July 10, 1818, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1887. He 
descended from Elias Brevoort, one of the early land proprietors of the Island of Man- 
hattan, and was a son of Henry Brevoort, who received his mercantile training under 
the original John Jacob Astor, to whom he was apprenticed as a boy. From his father, 
Tames C. Brevoort inherited a large property in real estate. The young man received 
an excellent education, obtaining his diploma as a civil engineer from the Ecole Cen- 
trale of Arts and Manufactures in Paris. He was employed for a time on the North- 
eastern boundary survey under his uncle Professor James Renwick, and in 1838, went 
abroad as private secretary to Washington Irving, then M inister to Spain. After serving 
a year at Madrid, he devoted himself for a while to European travel. Returning, he 
married, in 1845, the only daughter of Judge Leffert Lefferts, whose homestead com- 
prised a large tract of land in the Bedford section of Brooklyn. Mr. Brevoort there- 
after made his home in the old Lefferts mansion in Brooklyn, in which city he served 
in the Board of Education and in the Water Commission, when the Brooklyn Water 
Works were constructed. He was president of The Long Island Historical Society 
1863-73 and 1876-78, superintendent of the Astor Library in New York, as well as a Re- 
gent of The L'niversity of the State of New York, a member of The New York Histor- 
ical Society, The Academy of Natural Sciences and of The American Geographical 
Society, and numerous other associations. In 1863, Williams College conferred on 
him the degree of LL. D. He wrote much on history, fish, bugs, and coins, and had 
perhaps the finest private library in Brooklyn, containing about 100,000 volumes, some 
of which he had inherited from his father. His collections in entomology and ichthy- 
ology are now owned by public institutions. He left a son, an engineer, who married 
a daughter of John Lefferts of Flatbush, L. I. 

HENRY BREWSTER, carriage maker, born in New Haven, Conn., May 19, 1824, 
died in New York city, Sept. 20, 1887. He came from old New England stock, 
being a descendant of Elder Brewster, of the Mayflower. His father, James Brewster, 
a carriage maker of New Haven, trained his boys to the trade, and took Henry and 
James into the firm of James Brewster & Sons. Henry was finally sent to New York 
to manage the sales of the firm in this locality, a factory being established in Bridge- 
port, Conn. The young man started in business for himself in 1856, with partners, as 
Brewster & Co., and devoted himself to the construction of fine carriages. The firm 
soon became the largest of their class in the world. At the Paris Exposition, Mr. 
Brewster won the gold medal arid the cross of the Legion of Honor, and on his return 
to New York was presented with a testimonial from the carriage makers of the United 
States. One of the organizers of The Union Leage club, he stoutly espoused the cause 
of the Union during the Civil War. At the time of the draft riots, he hoisted a flag on 
his building, and armed his workmen to prevent the mob from tearing it down. His life 
was threatened, but he never flinched. He was a charming companion in private life. 


CALVIN STEWART BRICE, lawyer and statesman, a progressive and energetic 
man in private life and one of the most able Democrats of the United States Senate, was 
born in Denmark, Ohio, Sept. 17, 1845. His father, William Kirkpatrick Brice, was a 
Presbyterian minister; his mother, Elizabeth Stewart Brice, was a woman of good 
mind, eminent for the graces and charms of her personal character. The family re- 
moved to Columbus Grove in Putnam county, Ohio, in .1848. 

Great pains were taken with the education of young Calvin during his early life, 
and he not only enjoyed the inestimable advantage of being reared under the care of 
loving, superior and devoted parents, but received the benefit of the scholarly 
tuition of his father until 1858. At thirteen years of age, he entered the prepara- 
tory department of Miami University at Oxford, O. , to receive a higher education. 

In April, 1861, at the outbreak of the Civil War, the young man, inspired with the 
generous sentiments, which actuated the flower of the youth of the North, enlisted in 
Captain Dodd's University Company, and was stationed with his associates at Camp 
Jackson in the city of Columbus, the capital of the State. Returning to college in the 
fall, he again enlisted in April, 1862, and joined a university organization under the 
command of Captain McFarland, which became Co. A, of the 86th Ohio Infantry. The 
summer of that year was spent in campaigning in West Virginia. 

Later, Mr. Brice resumed the college course, thus interrupted by patriotic labors, 
and graduated from Miami University in June, 1863. He ranked high as a student 
and made himself conspicuous in his class for extensive reading of general literature. 
A voracious reader of the best books, his mind had become richly stored with the 
thoughts and philosophy of famous writers before he had fairly entered upon his dis- 
tinguished and successful business career. 

After graduation, the young soldier and scholar removed to Lima, O , and taught 
for several months in the public schools, finding employment thereafter as clerk in the 
office of the Auditor of Allen county. 

In July, 1864, Mr. Brice again went to the front to uphold the cause of the Union. 
He re-entered the Federal service in a company of Union volunteers, recruited by him- 
self, and received a commission as captain of Co. E, iSoth Ohio Infantry. He served in 
the field in the 23d Army Corps, in Tennessee, Virginia, Carolina and Georgia, until the 
close of the war. He was appointed Lieutenant Colonel, but not mustered in. 

In the fall of 1865, he attended lectures in the Law School of the University of 
Michigan at Ann Arbor. Admitted to the bar in the spring of 1866, and to practice in 
United States courts, he immediately formed a partnership with James Irvine, under 
the name of Irvine & Brice, in Lima, O., and for ten or twelve years was actively 
engaged in the practice of his profession. The partners became noted for high charac- 
ter, ability and thoroughness, and their devotion to their clients led to a large and suc- 
cessful practice, which brought to them both a good living and a moderate surplus besides. 

It was during this period that Mr. Brice became interested in traffic enterprises; 
and by the success which attended his skillful management of their business, he was 
gradually led away from the law into the realm of practical affairs. His first railroad 
experience was gained in the legal department of the old Lake Erie & Louisville Rail- 
road, with which he had accepted a connection. He took an active interest in the 
work of the company, acquired by purchase a moderate amount of its stock, and 
played an energetic part in constructing extensions of the road. Through the efforts of 


himself and associates, the property was greatly developed. His success in this enter- 
prise led Mr. Brice and his associates to enter upon the construction of The Nickel 
Plate Railroad, an enterprise which grew out of the refusal of The Lake Shore & Mich- 
igan Southern Railroad to make satisfactory arrangements for taking care of the traffic 
delivered to it by The Lake Erie & Western. The construction and subsequent sale 
of The Nickel Plate is generally supposed to be the dividing line between his status as 
a comparatively poor man and his later career as a man of extensive means and large 
investments. With a capital which capable and energetic management had now 
brought to him, he engaged more largely in traffic enterprises. His reputation and 
notable skill resulted in Mr. Brice being called into a share of the management of all 
the important lines with which he formed a connection. Railroads in the region between 
the Gulf and the Ohio claimed a part of his attention, and he was an active spirit in 
developing the lines of transportation of the New South. He has been a director in 
late years of The" East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railway, The Mobile & Bir- 
mingham Railroad, The Memphis & Charleston Railroad, The Lake Erie & Western 
Railroad, The Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Railway, The Knoxville & Ohio Rail- 
road, The Pacific Mail Steamship Co., and of other corporations. He is now chairman 
of the Union Pacific Reorganization Committee. 

In politics, Mr. Brice is an enthusiastic Democrat, and has long been known as one 
of the most capable, safe, conservative and energetic leaders of his party. He served 
on the Tilden electoral ticket in 1876 and the Cleveland electoral ticket in 1884. A 
delegate-at-large from Ohio to the Democratic National Convention in St. Louis in 
1 888, he was then selected to represent Ohio on the National Committee in the ensuing 
campaign. As Chairman of the Campaign Committee he conducted the National cam- 
paign of 1888. Upon the death of William H. Barnum, in 1889, he was elected chair- 
man of the National Democratic Committee. He was delegate-at-large and chairman 
of the delegation from Ohio to the National Democratic Convention in 1892. 

In January, 1890, Mr. Brice was elected Senator from Ohio for the term beginning 
March 4, 1891. In this exalted position, he has wielded a large influence among his 
political associates. His advice is sought on all important questions and is always 
judicious, being the result of a long experience in practical affairs, a penetrating mind, 
extended reading, and a cautious and conservative temperament. His service has been 
mainly upon the Committees on Appropriations, Pensions, Public Buildings and 
Grounds, and Pacific Railroads, being chairman of the latter. He is also a member of 
the " Steering Committee" of his party in the Senate. 

In 1870, Mr. Brice was married to Catherine Olivia Meily, and gained thereby a 
charming, judicious and valuable companionship for life. Mrs. Brice is a woman of great 
culture and literary ability and a delightful hostess. She has devoted herself to the 
education of their children, three sons and two daughters, all of whom have assisted 
her in a busy social life in Washington as well as in Ohio, New York and Newport. 

Mr. Brice is a man of fine personal presence, straight and commanding, his hair 
and beard in early life quite red and later a dark brown, framing a face expressive of 
keen intelligence, dignity and good nature. Slightly reserved in manner and careful 
in speech, he is nevertheless an agreeable associate in private life, and an attractive 
figure at public dinners ; and he has been elected to membership in all the prominent 
chibs in Ohio and many elsewhere, including the Manhattan (the leading Democratic 


social organization), the Lawyers', Riding, and Whist clubs of New York city. He is 
also a member of The Ohio Society of this city and of the Delta Kappa Epsilon club. 

ELBERT ADRAIN BRINCKERHOFF, manufacturer, born in Jamaica on Long 
Island, Nov. 29, 1838, is the son of John N. Brinckerhoff, principal of Union Hall 
Academy there from 1837 to 1865, and grandson of Robert Adrain, LL.D., a distin- 
guished mathematician. His ancestry is traced back to the landing of the early Dutch 
settlers in New Amsterdam in 1638. Elbert graduated from the academy, of which his 
father was principal, and had turned his face toward college, when an opportunity 
offered for a voyage around the world in a sailing vessel. In January, 1855, he sailed 
from New York for San Francisco. The unexpected charter of the vessel in San Fran- 
cisco for New York, instead of China, changed his plans. Accepting an offer from a 
commercial house in San Francisco, he entered upon his work and remained in that city 
from April, 1855, to August, 1860, when he returned home for a visit. Consideration 
of the long distance from his parents, determined him to secure a position in New York ; 
and in November, 1861, he was employed as bookkeeper and cashier by the firm of Fox 
& Polhemus, then the leading commission merchants and manufacturers of cotton 
duck in the city. In 1865 he became a partner in the house, and a few years later, 
owing to deaths and retirement, the senior partner. Since 1870, the house has been 
known as Brinckerhoff, Turner & Co. After more than twenty-five years in the manu- 
facturing and selling of cotton duck, he retired, in 1887 from an active interest, with- 
drawing entirely in 1890. In 1869 he married Emily A., daughter of the late Colonel 
Washington R. Vermilye. Their children are Emily Vermilye, now Mrs. Frederick S. 
Duncan; Mary E., now Mrs. James D. Armstrong; Elbert A. Brinckerhoff, jr., and 
four younger daughters. The family live in Englewood, N. J., but business interests 
call Mr. Brinckerhoff daily to the city. He is a member of the St. Nicholas and Hol- 
land Societies and the Down Town and Presbyterian clubs; vice-president of The 
American Bible Society and The Merchants' National Bank; treasurer of The Presby- 
terian Hospital ; and trustee of The American Seamen's Friend Society. 

ISAAC VAIL BROKAW, merchant, was born near New Brunswick, N. J., Nov. 
-', J 835. His ancestors were French Huguenots, who settled in New Jersey afc an 
early date, the first one to come to this country being Bourgon Broucard, who, with his 
wife, Catherine Le Febre, landed in 1675 Mr. Broucard with a few others established 
the first French Protestant Church in New York. The name was changed in process 
of time to Brokaw. On the maternal side, Mr. Brokaw came from the well-known and 
highly esteemed Vail family of Quakers, of New Jersey, William Vail the most promi- 
nent. The young man received his education in New Brunswick. Being of an ambi- 
tious temperament, he decided at an early age to enter upon a business career in New 
York city. He first found employment as clerk in the well-known house of Wilson 
G. Hunt & Co., at that time considered the leading cloth importers in this country. 
By faithful and diligent service, Mr. Brokaw so won their esteem and confidence, that, 
at the end of a short time, he was entrusted with the keys to the store containing goods 
valued at a million dollars and over. By application and careful study of their texture, 
he became an expert in the handling of woolens; and then, recognizing the fact that 
his opportunity for rapid advancement was limited, owing to the large number of clerks 
employed older than himself, he formed the plan of starting in business on his own 
account. Accordingly, with the advice of his kind friend, Wilson G. Hunt, he formed 


a partnership and began a clothing business under the firm name of Dunham & Brokaw. 
This business was most successfully carried on from 1856 to 1861, when Mr. Dunham 
retired, and Mr. Brokaw continued the business under his own name. In 1866 he 
admitted to partnership his brother, William Vail Brokaw, thereafter adopting the 
name of Brokaw Bro's. The business has been highly successful down to the present 
time. No firm are more highly esteemed in the United States, no trade better 

Mr. Brokaw considers his success due to the fact that his business has been most 
diligently conducted, that the goods purchased have been of the best quality, and the 
productions of the firm constructed with the greatest possible care and attention. He 
believes that the great success of any undertaking is accomplished by the greatest 
energy and most eternal vigilance as to details. 

In political faith Mr. Brokaw has always been a staunch Republican. He has 
always preferred service in the ranks, however, and although well fitted by character 
and ability for positions of trust and honor, he has firmly declined several which have 
been offered to him. Other positions of prominence and places upon boards have also 
been refused by him, because he has always preferred to devote his time and attention 
to carrying on his own particular business. He is a member of the Union League club 
and of The Huguenot Society of America, and was for many years an officer in the late 
Dr. Howard Crosby's Church, which he attended for many years. Mr. Brokaw, 
although not having held any political office, nevertheless has always taken the keenest 
interest in public affairs and municipal government, and has allied himself with the 
side of truth, justice and honest government at all times. He is a firm believer in 
charities and religious work, many institutions owing their origin and advancement 
to support received at his hands. The Bethany Mission of Dr. Kittredge's church and 
the Brokaw Memorial at Princeton are examples of his generosity. 

HENRY D. BROOKMAN, merchant, a native of Bucksport, Me., died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Feb. 19, 1895. Bucksport is a shipping town, and Jwr. Brookman's father was 
a merchant. The youth was led naturally into nautical and mercantile enterprises, 
and* after an experience in his native place and in Boston, he came to New York in 
1848 to open an office as a shipping and ship chandlery merchant. Having been joined 
by his brother John, the two men formed the firm of H. D. & John U. Brookman, in 
1851, and for twenty-three years carried on a thriving business. They became large 
owners of vessels. The Civil War gave a rude shock to the maritime interests of 
America, and in 1864, the brothers went out of business. But both had gained fortunes, 
which they increased afterward by investment. He married Marion, daughter of John 
N. Prentice, warehouseman, and left three children, Henry Prentice Brookman, Mrs. 
Amory Carhart and Mrs. Philip Niles. 

JOHN ULHORE BROOKHAN, shipping merchant, was born in Bucksport, Me., 
Nov. 25, 1830. His father, a Prussian by birth, settled in America about 1800. His. 
mother came from an old colonial family. His education was finished at Wesleyan 
Seminary in Kent's Hill, Me. At the age of sixteen, he began life as clerk for his. 
brother Henry, commission and ship chandlery merchant. In 1851, John was admitted 
to partnership in H. D. Brookman & Co., the style being changed in 1856 to H. D. 
& John U. Brookman. The brothers worked hard, gradually gained large interests in 
vessels and derived large profits, both from their store and in freighting cargoes. 


between the continents of the world. In 1 864, the firm dissolved, selling their vessels 
as rapidly as possible. Since then, Mr. Brookman has transferred his interests mainly 
to railroads and real estate. He is a capable, clear headed and successful man. At 
one time, he served in the directorates of The Evansville & Terra Haute, The Chicago 
& Eastern Illinois, The Louisville & Nashville and The Northern Pacific Railroads, 
but retired therefrom when he sold his stock. At present, he operates mainly in real 
estate and is aiding in the development of Tacoma, Wash. His wife, whom he married 
in 1856, is Sarah, daughter of Colonel Rowland Carlton of Sedgwick, Me. 

CLARENCE BROOKS, varnish manufacturer, born in this city, Aug, 27, 1826, died 
in New York, March 25, 1891. His father was James Brooks, leather merchant, and 
his grandfather, an emigrant from England, is reputed to have introduced the art of 
tanning leather into this country. Clarence gained his education at Hubbs & Clark's 
High School in 4th street, and at the age of twenty-eight engaged in business with 
Tilden & Blodgett, varnish manufacturers. Having mastered the mysteries of the 
craft, and feeling competent to conduct business on his own account, he established in 
1859 the firm of Brooks & Fitzgerald, afterward known as Clarence Brooks & Co., 
which latter name is yet retained. He was for upwards of forty years successfully 
engaged in this industry, and was always held in the highest regard. The factory 
stood at the corner of West and West i2th streets. He was married Feb. 22, 1849, to 
Maria Louisa, daughter of Jacob Bogert, and their two children are Ella Louise, wife 
of N. W. Anthony, and Warren Ward Brooks. 

ELISHA BROOKS, merchant, born in Rye, Westchester county, N. Y., June 15, 
1815, died in New York, Oct. 26, 1876. He was the son of Henry S. Brooks, clothing 
merchant, who founded in 1818 the great business, afterward carried on by Brooks 
Bro's. Elisha gained a sufficient education in the public schools, and in 1830 entered 
his father's store as clerk. He received a rigid business training, and being of the stuff 
from which great merchants are made, he proved so efficient that he became a partner 
in 1833. After the death of the senior Brooks, the business was continued by his five 
sons. Elisha represented the firm in financial matters and consequently became director 
and trustee in several banks, fire and life insurance companies, and other corporations. 
During the Civil War his firm filled large contracts for army clothing and made large 
profits. Two sons and four daughters survived him. He was a man of attractive and 
genial manners, unswervingly faithful, his word as good as his bond, public spirited, a 
stout Union man and a good citizen. 

JOHN HAHIL BROWER, merchant, born on Gold street in Brooklyn, Aug. 12, 
1801, died in New York city, June 15, 1881. He came from an old Dutch family, be- 
ing a descendant of Jacob Brower. and Amantie Bogardus, the latter a grand daughter 
of Aneke Jans Bogardus His father, Adolphus Brower, followed the occupation of a 
ropemaker, married Elizabeth Baker, and served in the War of 1812. John left school 
at the age of twelve to become the clerk of Augustus Wyncoop, a large grocer and gen- 
eral merchant; and by strict, enterprising and unremitting attention to duty, he ad- 
vanced from position to position until he became Mr. Wyncoop's confidential manager 
and finally his partner. Upon Mr. Wyncoop's death, the house was reorganized as 
Arthur & Brower. From about 1840, Mr. Brower managed the business alone and 
after 1844, under the name of Brower & Neilson. In 1848, with his son-in-law, Benj. B. 
Blydenburgh, he formed the firm of J. H. Brower & Co. At first, a grocer and mer- 


chant in the West India trade, he extended his operations to insurance, commission and 
ship owning. The New York & Texas packet line was his venture and, at one time, 
fifteen vessels belonged to him and traded to all parts of the world. His ship Harvey 
Birch, named after the noted spy of the American Revolution, was the first vessel cap- 
tured and destroyed by the Confederates during the Civil War. Almost the first mer- 
chant in the trade with Texas, he became the largest, and developed that field of com- 
merce by his advice and operations. He was at one time Consul for Texas in the 
United States and among the first to extend credit to the business men of that region 
after annexation to this country. At the time of his death, he was the oldest merchant 
in the cotton trade and a prominent member of the Cotton Exchange. During his 
earlier life, he helped .organize the ;th regiment of this city and held a captain's com- 
mission. While previously a director of The City Bank, The Bank of the Republic and 
The Commercial and The Union Mutual Insurance Go's, he resigned from these boards 
several years before his death and retained a place on the board of The American Fire 
Insurance Co. only. He was universally respected for his intelligence, high character 
and abilities. His wife, Ann S., daughter of George Duryee, died before him. Eight 
children were born to them, Mary E., now deceased, wife of Benjamin B Blydenburgh; 
Elizabeth B., wife of Morgan L. Smith; Annie B., wife of Mason B. Browning; Maria 
P., wife of George W. McNeel; Susan R., wife of Joseph R. Pierson; Amanda E., wife 
of Thomas B. Hewitt; Kate M., who died in 1863; and Morgan L. S. Brower, who 
died in 1864 at the age of about thirty. 

JAMES BROWN, banker, born in County Antrim, Ireland, in February, 1791, 
died in New York city, Nov. i, 1877. He was the youngest son of Alexander Brown, 
linen merchant, who came to this country in 1798, and established a linen store in Bal- 
timore and afterward a famous bank. The parent house of Alexander Brown & Sons 
having resolved to put forth branches in various parts of the world, James was sent to 
New York in 1825 to establish the house now known as Brown Bro's & Co. While 
their father lived, all the Brown brothers frequently resorted to Baltimore for advice 
and consultation. James Brown became one of the representative bankers of New 
York. In the panic of 1837, the English branch of the firm was able to secure a loan 
of $10,000,000 from the Bank of England, which enabled the local firm to weather th 
financial storm without suspension, and placed them in the front rank of the banke 
of the world. The house has branches in Baltimore and Philadelphia in this country, 
under different names, and in England under the name of Brown, Shipley & Co. Fo: 
fifty years a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Mr. Brown was at the time of hi 
death the third oldest member, his seniors being Wm. F. Gary and Caleb Barstow 
His first wife was Louisa, the daughter of Rev. Joel Benedict, of Plainfield, Conn 
Their three daughters were Mrs. Alexander Brown, of Richmond Hill, England, Mrs 
Howard Potter, and Mrs. James Cooper Lord. From his second marriage, to Eliz; 
daughter of the Rev. Dr. Coe, of Troy, two children were born, John Crosby, am 
George H. Brown, both of whom became members of their father's bank. One othe 
son, Clarence S. Brown, died early in life. Mr. Brown was noted for public spirit an 
benevolence, and for a desire to avoid having his good deeds brought into public notic 
His disposition was frank, generous and charitable. 

JAMES flUNC ASTER BROWN, banker, born in Baltimore, Md., Dec. 8, 1820 
died at Manchester, Vt., July 19, 1890. He was of Irish descent, and a son o: 


Stewart Brown, well known in Baltimore in former years. When a young man, he 
entered the bank of Alexander Brown & Sons of Baltimore, remaining with the firm 
until 1844, when he came to New York to join the firm of Brown Bro's & Co., here. 
He was identified with this great firm the remainder of his life, being at his death the 
senior partner, and always active in the management. Mr. Brown lent his energies 
and influence in a marked degree to the furtherance of benevolent and Christian insti- 
tutions in this city, and was president of The New York Hospital and vice-president of 
The American Bible Society. He supported The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals, and succeeded Henry Bergh as its president. An earnest advocate and 
supporter of The Young Men's Christian Association, he also promoted other charitable 
organizations. A sturdy, judicious, sound man, he was for many years president of 
the Chamber of Commerce, an election to that office being the highest compliment the 
merchants of this town can bestow. He never held public office, but took part in a 
quiet way in movements to promote municipal reform. By his marriage with Julia E. , 
daughter of the late Waldron B. Post, he had four children, Waldron P. Brown; Ellen 
Whipple Brown; Julia Elizabeth, who married James Taylor Soiitter; and Mrs. Sarah 
Elizabeth, wife of Anson W. Hard. 

JOHN L. BROWN, contractor, born in Vermont in 1805, died in New York, March 
29, 1875. A poor boy, he was obliged to go to work, with scanty education, early in 
life, as a blacksmith. But brains, good character and perseverance enabled him to 
make his way as well as many of the collegians. He came to New York about 1845, 
and engaged in the manufacture of platform and other scales for weighing. He subse- 
quently undertook construction work, and pushed ahead until he ranked as one of the 
largest contractors of New York city. For a time partner of Charles Guidet, he helped 
build a portion of the Brooklyn Water Works. In 1863, in company with William 
Devoe and Shepherd L. Knapp, Mr. Brown obtained a contract to clean the streets of 
New York city for ten years. A year later, the contract was sold to Judge Whiting, 
who, in turn, sold it three years later to Mr. Brown, who held it until 1872, and then 
disposed of it to the Police Commission. In 1868, he contracted to grade Central 
Avenue from Macomb's dam to the Yonkers township line, and accomplished the work 
in two }-ears. He built the high service tower at High Bridge, which is employed 
to pump Croton water to the elevated parts of the city, and also contracted for laying 
the water mains, six feet in diameter, from 92d street for a long distance towards High 
Bridge. When The Long Island Bridge Co. was formed, with a view to bridge the 
East River at the lower end of Blackwell's Island, he was made its president. He 
retired from active business in 1872. A son was his only child. 

WALSTON HILL BROWN, contractor and banker, born in Cincinnati, O., June 
6, 1842, is a son of Augustus J. Brown, lawyer, who removed from Bangor, Me., to 
Cincinnati and became a partner there of General Nat. McLean for many years, remov- 
ing in 1852 with his family to New York. Walston graduated from Columbia College 
in 1864, and was admitted to the bar in 1868. He never practiced, however. In 1869, 
his father and he founded the banking firm of Augustus J. Brown & Co., in New York, 
succeeded in 1877 by Walston H. Brown & Co. This house is yet in existence. Early 
in his career, Mr. Brown was drawn into railroad building as a contractor. As a mem- 
ber of the firm of Merriam & Brown, he aided in building in 1870 The Sioux City & St. 
Paul Railroad, and was a member of a committee comprising David Dows, H . H. Por- 

' rltrt*nA<w^/ 

^ h 


ter and himself to reorganize The West Wisconsin Railroad and create the present 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railroad system. He was a member of 
Brown, Howard & Co., who built the reorganized and extended Lake Erie & Western, 
The Toledo & Ohio Central, The Peoria, Decatur & Evansville, The Buffalo, Rochester 
& Pitsburgh, The New York, Chicago & St. Louis, and The Duluth, South Shore & 
Atlantic Railroads. In the firm of Brown, Thomas & Co., in which General Samuel 
Thomas is a partner, which in 1887 succeeded Brown, Howard & Co., he took a contract 
from the corporation of New York to construct one half the Croton Aqueduct for over 
$12,000,000. He was secretary of The Sioux City & St. Paul Railroad for several 
vears, managing director of The Ohio Central for two years, and receiver and president 
of The Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw Railway for five years. In 1889, he married 
Eva, daughter, of Robert G. Ingersoll, of New York, and their children are Eva Inger- 
soll Brown and Robert Ingersoll Brown. His clubs are the Union League, Down Town 
and Riding, and The Ohio Society, and a seat has been given him in The Chamber of 
Commerce also. 

JOHN HAZARD BROWNING, a prominent merchant of this city, was of the 
sixth generation in descent from Nathaniel Browning, who came from England in 1645 
and settled at Warwick, R. I., where he purchased a piece of land from the Indians for 
three pounds of wampum. 

The Browning family were, down to the fifth generation, Quakers. 

The father of John Hazard Browning was William T. Browning, who married 
Catharine Morey, Dec. 29, 1794, the father of the latter living at Newport, R. I., 
where he owned ships engaged in the West Indies trade and was considered wealthy 
for those times After his marriage, he moved to North Stonington, Conn., and bought 
a farm a few miles east of the village of Preston City. 

Upon this farm, the subject of this sketch was born, July 21, 1801 When very 
young he met with an accident by falling down a well, some forty feet deep The well 
was dry of water at the time, so that he ran no risk from drowning, but the fall broke one 
leg in two places and made a gash in his forehead and a scar which he carried until the 
time of his death. The village physician insisted that the broken leg should be ampu- 
tated, but the boy's heroic mother would not consent, and by her care and attention 
the limb was saved and became perfectly well, so as to leave no mark of the injuries 
in after life. The lad went on crutches for several years, or until he was fourteen 
years old. 

He was brought up on his father's farm, attended the district school and received 
a common school education. He made his first start as a teacher in the same school 
in which he had been educated. While there, he met the lady who afterward became 
his wife, Miss Eliza Smith Hull, a daughter of Colonel John W. Hull, who was a farmer 
and bank president, living in the neighborhood. They were married Sept. 21, 1829. 

The first business venture of the young man, at his own risk, was a general store 
at Middletown, now North Stonington, Conn. , where he dealt largely in yarns, produce 
and merchandise, carrying his yarns by wagon to the mills at Providence. About 
1830, he removed the business to New London, Conn., where he conducted a general 
store for a few years. Leaving this place, he came to the city of New York in the 
latter part of 1833, and started in the wholesale dry goods business under the firm name 
of Browning & Pomeroy, afterward Browning & Hull, and then Browning, Hull & 


Marsh. He continued in the wholesale dry goods business until 1848, being widely 
known and thoroughly repeated among the substantial merchants of the metropolis. 

In the days of the California excitement, Mr. Browning started a general store 
near the mines, in company with two partners, he taking charge of the business in this 
city, his partners at the mines. Very shortly afterward, they removed the store from 
the mines to the city of San Francisco. The partnership was entitled Jennings & 
Brewster. Both these men were prominent merchants of New York city. The store 
in San Francisco was carried on until 1860, when Mr. Browning withdrew from all 
active business, except that he remained a special partner in the firm of Hanford & 
Browning, the Browning of this firm being his eldest son, William C. Browning. In 
politics, he started as an "old line" Whig, afterward identifying himself with the 
Republican party. He was present at an historic abolition meeting in the Broadway 
Tabernacle, then located in Pearl street, one of the first ever held in this city, and at 
which a riot occurred on the assembling of the meeting. He seldom entered into poli- 
tics more than to cast his vote, always applying himself closely and energetically to 
his own extensive business. In early life he joined the Presbyterian Church, but after- 
ward united himself with the Reformed Dutch Church, in which he held a prominent 
position until the time of his death. In 1865 or 1866, he formed a syndicate for the 
purchase of The Shelby Iron Co., in Alabama, whose works had been destroyed by 
Sherman's army during the war. This proved a very valuable investment. He after- 
ward started a similar industry in Cedartown, Ga. , where he possessed large interests. 
He died March 21, 1877, leaving three children surviving: William C. Browning, of 
the firm of Browning, King & Co., New York city; Edward F. Browning, and John 
Hull Browning, president of The Northern Railroad of New Jersey. 

Mr. Browning was an excellent example of the self made men of the United States. 
Early acquaintance with the difficulties and trials which young men encounter, devel- 
oped in his own character the qualities of humanity and sympathy ; and he was noted 
at all times during life for his liberal spirit and generous nature. 

WILLIAM CHARLES BROWNING, dry goods merchant, born in New York city, 
Nov. 13, 1833, is a son of the late John Hazard Browning, merchant. The young man was 
educated in his native city. He began business life as a boy in a broker's office, remaining 
there a little over one year, when he became associated with his father for seven years. 
In 1858, he formed the firm of Hanford & Browning, succeeded in 1863 by Wm. C. 
Browning & Co., in which latter firm he associated himself with two brothers. In 1868, 
the partners established the firm of Browning, King & Co. , to represent the manufac- 
turing and retail interests of their clothing trade, their wholesale business being -carried 
on in Chicago under the name of Henry W. King & Co. At the present time, they are 
the largest manufacturers of clothing in the world. They have retail branches in Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Kansas City, St. Paul, Omaha, 
New York (Harlem), Minneapolis, Brooklyn, Boston, Lincoln, Providence and Cleve- 
land. The firm made large contracts for army clothing during the war, and were 
pioneers in the method of bringing their material at manufacturer's prices directly to 
the consumer through their retail houses. Sound in judgment, able in enterprise, Mr. 
Browning ranks among the leading merchants of this generation. He is a director of 
The Mercantile National Bank, vice-president of The Northern Railroad of New 
Jersey, and a large owner in The Cherokee Iron Co. of Cedartown, Ga. In 1861, he 


married Adelaide a daughter of John D. Scott, and their children are John Scott, Wil- 
liam Hull and Henry King Brdwning. He belongs to the Union League and Merchants' 
clubs and is a member of The New England Society. 

GEORGE BRUCE, type-founder, a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, was born July 5, 
1781, and died in New York city July 6, 1866. Coming to America while a young man, 
he first learned the bookbinder's trade, and then apprenticed himself to Thomas Dob- 
son, a printer in Philadelphia. In 1798, Dobson's office was burned down and yellow 
fever broke out, whereupon both George and his brother David left the city. George 
had vellow fever at Amboy, but recovered. He worked at the printer's trade in Albany 
for a short time, and then came back to New York. In 1803, he was foreman of The 
Daily Advertiser, and in November became printer and publisher for the proprietor. 
In 1806, David and George opened a book publishing office at the corner of Pearl street 
and Coffee House Slip. Industry and excellent work brought them plenty of orders. 
In 1809, removing to Sloat Lane, near Hanover Square, they had nine presses in oper- 
ation, and published occasionally on their own account. In 1812, David went to 
England, and brought back the secret of stereotyping. The brothers introduced this 
process in this city, being compelled to cast their own type, so as to give it a deeper 
shoulder. The}' invented various appliances to aid in stereotyping, and in 1816 gave 
up publishing to start a type foundry. George gave his attention to type founding, 
David his to stereotyping. When, in 1822, David's health failed, the partnership was 
dissolved, and George soon gave up stereotyping for type founding, pure and simple. 
In this trade he made reputation and a fortune. With his nephew, David Bruce, jr., 
he invented the only type-casting machine that has stood the test of time, and brought 
out many new and beautiful styles of letters. Mr. Bruce was shrewd, but benevo- 
lent, unflinching in his integrity, and prompt and decided in character. He was presi- 
dent of The Mechanics' Institute for many years, and of the Type Founders' Asso- 
ciation. Type founding and careful investments in real estate brought him a fortune. 

WILLIAM BUCHANAN, manufacturer, a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, was 
born June 10, 1828. He comes from a notable family, whose names are recorded in 
the Register's Office, established in his native city in 1745. His father was Peter Bar- 
nett Buchanan, born in Dunfermline, Scotland, Dec. 8, 1807, who was educated at Hax- 
ton's School under the tutorship of the late Rev. E. Hawley, chaplain of the New York 
State Senate. His mother, Isabella Cockburn, was born in Edinburgh. Mr. Buchanan 
is the heir at law of the late James Buchanan, Councillor of the Sixth Ward of Edin- 
burgh for about thirty years, whose widow enjoys his large fortune. His uncle, William, 
served as British Commissary General of the Mauritius Isle of France for about thirty 
years, and his grandfather was the W. B. of the story of the " Mysterious Disappear- 
ance " in Wilson's "Tales of the Borders." 

William received quite a cosmopolitan education, having studied successively in the 
schools of Scotland, Ireland and Canada, and then, through an introdu^ ion from 
John Sparrow, the great timber merchant of Waterford, Ireland, he got a r' .'nation as 
clerk in the Montreal branch of the great shipping house of Pollok, Gilm r & Co., 
where he busied himself with ships and cargoes for six years. In 1853, i'. r iased His 
Excellency, Lord Elgin, to appoint Mr. Buchanan second lieutenant in tn - Montreal 
Rifles. Mr. Buchanan then decided, much to the regret of his employer:: t.o remove to 
the metropolis of the United States, and Mr. Gilmour told him that if .e should ever 


return to Montreal the best position in the house would be open to him. Coming to 
Xe\v York in 1853, the young man went on in the shipping business, as clerk for 
Francis McDonald, whose interests are now merged in the Anchor line, Wallace, Wicks 
& Co., and Stanton, Sheldon & Co., all well known and influential merchants. Owing 
to the fact that he never attempted any task which he did not possess the power to per- 
form, and to the additional fact that nature had endowed him with the faculty of throw- 
ing his whole soul into every undertaking, Mr. Buchanan is not conscious of ever having 
had any early struggles in life, because success rewarded him from the start. An 
illustration of the good will which followed him to New York, is afforded by the cir- 
cumstance that Gilmour & Co. commissioned him to execute many orders for their 
firm during one or two years here. One of these orders, which was for tobacco, finally 
drew his attention to the possibilities of that trade. 

In 1858, with such resources as he could command, he began the manufacture of 
tobacco in Brooklyn, in partnership with the late W. W. Huse, under the style of Huse 
& Buchanan. Two years later the firm dissolved, and David C. Lyall, a brother-in-law of 
Mr. Buchanan, was then in 1860 admitted to partnership under the name of William 
Buchanan & Co. The most harmonious relations existed between these two men, and 
they spent thirty-two years in cordial co-operation and successful enterprise, the most 
of the time under the name of Buchanan & Lyall. The junior partner died in 1892. 
His interest remains in the business, however, and the old name is retained. The firm 
operate a factory at Brooklyn, and they also own the Planet mills in Brooklyn for the 
manufacture of hemp carpets, yarns and binding twine, and now enjoy an extended and 
prosperous trade. 

Mr. Buchanan was united in marriage, March 4, 1858, with Adele Jaclard, of New 
York. Two children were born to them, William and Clara. After the death of his 
wife, Mr. Buchanan married again, June 2, 1863, Mary Josephine Pise, of Brooklyn. 
This union has brought them one son, Charles Peter Buchanan, who is now a member 
of his father's firm. 

Mr. Buchanan is a member of the Chamber of Commerce, and enjoys the reputa- 
tion of an upright, driving and clear headed business man. Practical affairs necessarily 
engage his principal attention, but he finds time for the more pleasant side of life, 
which is to be found in the company of his family and occasional attendance at the 
houses of various social organizations to which he belongs. He is a member of the 
Union League, Manhattan, Tuxedo, New York Athletic, Down Town, New York Yacht 
and New Rochelle Yacht clubs. 

EDWIN BULKLEY, paper merchant, born in Southport, Conn., Dec. 2, 1817, died 
in that town, July 7, 1881. He came from old Non-conformist stock, his ancestor, the 
Rev. Peter Bulkley, having settled in Massachusetts in 1635 to enjoy freedom of con- 
science. The youth grew up with a fair amount of schooling and a large inheritance of 
health and brains. In 1837, he became one of the founders of the paper firm of Cross, 
Bulkley & Goodkin, which was succeeded in 1848 by Bulkley & Bro., and in 1865 by 
Bulkley, Dunton & Co. His mercantile career was long, honorable and worthily suc- 
cessful. To extend his trade, he engaged in the manufacture of paper and in 1865, 
with Colonel Alvah Crocker of Fitchburg, and others, started a mill at Turner's Falls, 
Mass., a village which ow r es its origin to its water power. He was a large owner in 
The Montague Paper Co. and The Keith Paper Co., of that place, both noted for the 


high quality of their productions, and a stockholder in The Winnipiseogee and The 
Russell Paper Go's, The Crocker Bank, and The John Russell Cutlery Co. He dwelt 
in Southport, Conn., and was a director of The Southport Bank there, and of The Bank 
of North America and The Standard Fire Insurance Co. here. 

WILLIAM LANflAN BULL, stock broker, born in New York city, Aug. 23, 1844, 
is the son of Frederic Bull, and a descendant of that famous Jonathan Trumbull, Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut and friend of George Washington, to whom the nickname of 
"Brother Jonathan" was given. Mr. Bull's education was acquired in the College of 
the City of New York, and he began his business career as clerk in the banking house 
of Edward Sweet & Co. In 1867, he became a partner. This business was originated 
by Edward Sweet in Boston over forty years ago, and afterward removed to New York 
city. Mr. Bull is a brother-in-law of Mr. Sweet. The firm transacts an extensive 
business in stocks and the investment of money for foreign houses, and has been 
successful. Mr. Bull has been twice president of the New York Stock Exchange, and 
is a director of The Northern Pacific Railroad, The East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia 
Railway and The Metropolitan Trust Co., and is also connected with The Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad. He was married Feb. 15, 1871, to Tasie W., daughter 
of Henry R. Worthington, and his children are Frederic, Henry Worthington and 
William Lanman Bull, jr. Well bred, well educated, courteous and able, Mr. Bull 
enjoys a wide acquaintance in town, and is a member of most of the best clubs, 
including the Metropolitan, Century, Union, University, City, Aldine, Grolier, Rac- 
quet, Riding, Players' Church, Country, South Side Sportsmen's and Mendelssohn 
Glee clubs. By virtue of lineal descent, he is a member of The Sons of the American 

JAMES ABERCROHBIE BURDEN, manufacturer, born in Troy, N. Y., Jan. 6, 
1833, is a son of Henry Burden, a Scot, who came to this country in 1819 and rose 
to eminence as a manufacturer. James was educated by private tutors in New Haven, 
and attended lectures in the Yale Scientific School and the Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute. Inheriting his father's inventive genius, he gained a practical knowledge of 
the business in his father's shops, where he first served as mechanical engineer and mill- 
wright. He advanced step by step until he became president of The Burden Iron Co., 
of Troy and New York. He has obtained eighteen patents for inventions of his own 
for machines used in the manufacture of iron, one of the most important being that for 
making horse and mule shoes, this machine producing seventy finished shoes per 
minute, punched with holes and prepared in every other way, ready for the horse's 
foot. In 1883, he became president of The Hudson River Ore & Iron Co., with mines 
in Columbia county, but resigned later on account of ill health. His iron foundries 
and machine shops give employment to three thousand men. In 1891, he married 
Mary, daughter of Richard Irvin, of New York. Their children are James A., 
Richard Irvin, Williams Proudfit and Arthur Scott Burden. He makes his home in 
New York city about half the year. He has declined nominations as Mayor of Troy, 
Member of Congress, and other offices, but has been twice a presidential elector on the 
Republican ticket. He is a member of The American Institute of Mining Engineers, 
president of The Society of New York Farmers, and member of the Union, Metropolitan, 
Engineers', Union League and Riding clubs, and of several scientific societies in Great 
Britain, and one of the influential supporters of the annual Patriarchs' Ball. 


JOHN BURKE, agent for the Guinness ales and porters, born in County Galway, 
Ireland, Aug. 7, 1829, died Feb. 4, 1892. He was a son of the Rev. John Burke. The 
boy received an excellent education, although never sent to college. He studied law 
under private tutors, but did not practice, joining instead his brother Edward in distil- 
ling liquors. After mastering the details of business, he went into partnership with 
his brother, and helped found the now well known firm of E. & J. Burke, of Dublin, 
whose Irish whiskey soon became known all over the world. Later, the firm began 
the bottling of Bass's ale and Guinness's porter. Both men were energetic and shrewd 
and met with great success. They maintained branches in Liverpool, New York and 
Australia, and finally transacted so large a trade with America that, in 1859, John 
Burke came to New York to take charge in this country, under the name of The E. & J. 
Burke Bottling Co. The parent house finally took the name of E. & J. Burke, Ld. 
Edward Burke died about 1889, leaving his entire fortune to John. The latter built 
the Burke pavilion at the Orange Memorial Hospital in honor of Edward's memory, at 
a cost of 30,000, adding $16,000 as well as 10,000 for the Hospital afterward. John 
Burke was a man of warm feelings and generous nature, and gave largely to public and 
private charities. He was twice married, his second wife being Elizabeth West, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. John Watson, of Orange. His children were John Burke, jr. ; Mrs. 
Moor, a resident of England; Edward F., Mabel and Edith L. Burke. 

THOMAS BROWNELL BURNHAfl, manufacturer and social leader, was born in 
New York city, Jan. 30, 1866. He descends from an ancient and distinguished family, 
which traces its lineage directly back through English history to Walter Le Ventre, 
who came from Normandy to England with William the Conqueror. The family was 
planted upon the shores of the new world by John Burnham in 1635 and bore its part 
in subduing the red man, bringing the wilderness under cultivation, and creating upon 
the Western Continent the most progressive nation in the world. Captain Benjamin 
Church, one of Mr. Burnham's ancestors, was active in the war with King Philip's Indian 
tribe. Jedediah Burnham, his grandfather, was a land holder and farmer. 

Gordon Webster Burnham, his father, was a remarkable man. Born upon the 
farm in Hampton, Conn., March 20, 1803, and dying in New York city, March 18, 1885, 
he devoted over fifty years of his life to large and successful operations in the field of 
manufacturing industry. Leaving home at the age of fifteen and gaining an acquain- 
tance with practical business in various employments, during a part of the time 
being a merchant on his own account at Waterbury, Conn. ; he entered the firm of 
Benedict & Co., in Waterbury, Conn., manufacturers of brass and copper utensils, in 
1832. In 1834, in partnership with Mr. Benedict, he established what became The 
Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Co. , the largest manufacturers of brass and copper 
appliances and fixtures in the United States, if not in the world. In 1836, Mr. Burn- 
ham established a depot of supplies in New York city, and, the venture meeting with 
success, he removed to this city permanently in 1837. A house was also established in 
Boston. When the New York house was dissolved in 1863 and that at Boston in 1867, 
Mr. Burnham found himself the possessor of a large fortune. Meanwhile, he had pro- 
moted other industries and had become president of The Waterbury Clock Co. , The 
Waterbury Watch Co., The Waterbury Brass Co., and The American Pin Co. He 
was an ardent admirer of Daniel Webster, and, in 1876, presented to New York city 
the impressive bronze statue of Webster, heroic size, which was erected in Central 


I2 5 

Park. To Bishop Brownell, of Connecticut, he also erected a bronze statue in Hart- 
ford ; and his own monument in Greenwood, built before his death, is one of the finest 
in that beautiful cemetery. Mr. Burnham was twice married, first to Ann Griswold 
Ives, of Meriden, their son, Douglas W. Burnham, surviving him. Twenty years later, 
he married Mary Louisa, daughter of Bishop Brownell, of Connecticut, and their son 
is Thomas Brownell Burnham. 

Thomas Brownell Burnham was carefully educated by his parents and prepared for 
Harvard College, but did not enter. He has since found occupation mainly in the 
supervision of the large fortune bequeathed to him by his father and of various Con- 
necticut industries with which he is connected. He is a director in The Benedict & 
Burnham Manufacturing Co., Holmes, Booth & Haydens, brass manufacturers, and 
The Waterbury Watch Co., all of Waterbury, Conn. He is also a large stockholder and 
director in The Sixth Avenue Railroad of New York city. Mr. Burnham leaves to 
competent subordinates the details of management of the properties with which he is 
connected, and spends much of his time in foreign travel and open air recreation. 

A courteous address, a fine mind and hospitable nature render him a favorite among 
refined people ; and he is conspicuous in the social interests of New York city and those 
which centre at Tuxedo, and in the Union, Manhattan, Tuxedo, Racquet, New York 
Yacht, and Westminster Kennel clubs, of which he is a member. He was married in 
1885 to Agnes, since deceased, daughter of Henry Havemeyer, of this city, and has 
one son, Gordon Le Roy Burnham. 

CALVIN BURR, merchant, born in Hartford, Conn., Dec. 15, 1789, died in New 
York city, Jan. 17, 1887. He was a son of Joseph Burr, at one time a wealthy man 
who, however, lost his means and left his children in poverty. Calvin began life with 
few advantages and roved around the world for many years, engaging in various occu- 
pations. At different times he conducted business in Albany, Cazenovia and Ludlow- 
ville, X. Y., meanwhile serving in the War of 1812. About 1847 he came to New 
York city, with considerable means, and invested his money in real estate in New 
York and South Brooklyn with such good judgment that the subsequent appreciation 
in value brought him large wealth. 

HENRY AARON BURR, manufacturer, born in Canaan, Columbia county, N. Y., 
in 1810, died in New York, Dec. 25, 1884. His father was a first cousin of Aaron 
Burr, and his grandmother a sister of Jonathan Edwards, Educated in the local 
schools of the village, Henry showed a great inclination for historical and scientific 
books from boyhood. After service for several years as clerk in a store at Athens, 
X. Y., he came to New York city in 1831. Finding employment as bookkeeper in the 
hat store of Elisha Bloomer, he served there for five years, and then opened a hat 
store on his own account. In 1845 he began to experiment with hat-making machines, 
finally obtaining a patent and beginning the manufacture of hats. His invention was 
eminently successful, giving him a virtual monopoly of the industry until his patents 
expired in 1872. Large means accrued to him from his trade, through the invest- 
ment of which he became a director of The Mechanics' National Bank and The Loril- 
lard Insurance Co., and a Trustee of The Metropolitan Savings Bank. He was one of 
the members of the Union League club, The New York Historical Society and The 
American Institute, and for seventeen years president of the board of trustees of the 
volunteer fire department. He took an active part in forming military companies, 


including the Ellsworth Zouaves, and sending them to the front during the war. He 
left two daughters, Mary Eloise, wife of Frank D. Harmon, and Emma Louise, wife 
of Cornelius H. Van Ness. 

COL. JAflES BURT, broker, born in Albany, N. Y., Aug. 15, 1836, died in 
New York city, July 6, 1892. A descendant from Puritan stock, he was a son of 
Thomas M. Burt, once one of the proprietors of The Albany Argus. The emigrant 
ancestor, Henry Burt, settled in Roxbury, Mass., in 1637. James graduated from 
Union College in 1854, engaged in business, and for many years conducted a sugar 
brokerage business, at 44 Pine street, in this city, with great success. Although not a 
military man, he gained the title of Colonel by appointment on the staff of Gov. 
Fenton in 1866, as Commissary General of New York. Service as Assistant Appraiser 
of this port, 1869-73, rendered him an expert in the dutiable values of imported sugar. 
A faithful and religious man, he attended the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, helped 
found the Church club, and was treasurer of both. He also joined the Grolier and Com- 
monwealth clubs. Col. Burt was married Oct. 18, 1865, to Euretta, eldest daughter 
of the late Covington Guion, of Kinderhook, N. Y., who survives him, with two] 

THERON R. BUTLER, merchant, born in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 1813, died in j 
New York city, Jan. 19, 1884. In 1828, while yet a lad, he went to Ohio, and en- 
gaged in mercantile pursuits for several years. He returned to New York city in 1843, 
and entered the dry goods trade, first as junior partner in the firm of Avery, Hilliard 
& Co., of which he subsequently became the head. For about twenty years he carried 
on a prosperous trade. In 1865 he was chosen president of The Sixth Avenue Railroad 
Co., retaining that position until his death. He served for many years in the directorate 
of The Erie Railroad Co., and was interested in other roads. In 1848 he married Maria 
Miller of Ohio, who, with one daughter, the wife of Rev. H. M. Sanders, survived 
him. Mr. Butler entertained a strong liking for fine paintings, of which he made a 
large collection, including excellent examples of many famous European painters. 

WILLIAH ALLEN BUTLER, lawyer, born Feb. 20, 1825, is a native of Albany, 
N. Y., and a son of Benjamin Franklin Butler, one of the revisers of the Statutes of 
New York, and Attorney General in the Cabinets of Presidents Jackson and Van Buren. 
He traces his family line back to Jonathan Butler, of Saybrook, Conn. His grand- 
father, Medad Butler, was the first judge of Columbia county, N. Y. The maternal 
line originated in Nantucket, Mass. Mr. Butler studied at the Albany Academy and 
in a private school in Georgetown, D. C. , and graduated from the University of the 
City of New York in 1843. He began practice, with his father, in New York city, in 
1846. In 1849, he formed a partnership with Hiram Barney, afterward Collector of 
the Port, and later became head of the law firm of Butler, Stillman & Hubbard, lead- 
ing commercial and corporation lawyers. Mr. Butler has argued many important 
cases before the United States Supreme Court. Engrossed in his profession, he has 
never held civil office except as a member of the Commission on Cities, appointed by 
Gov. Tilden, but has been president of The American Bar Association and The Bar 
Association of the City of New York. Mr. Butler is a man of cultivated tastes and is 
often seen in many of the best clubs in town, in which he is a member, including the 
Century, Union League, Grolier and Lawyers'. He is a trustee of The Central Trust 
Co. and The Lenox Library and member of the council of the University of the City 


of New York. March 21, 1850, he was married to Mary R. Marshall, and their chil- 
dren are William A. Butler, jr., Howard R., Charles H., George P., Arthur W., Mary 
M., Harriet A. and Margaret C. Butler. His published writings include " Nothing to 
Wear" and other poetical works, many addresses and "The History of the Revision of 
the Statutes of New York." 

GEN. DANIEL BUTTERFIELD, soldier and banker, was born in Oneida county, 
X. Y., in 1831, and is a son of the late John Butterfield, one of the originators cf The 
American Express Co. , who aided in building the first telegraph line from New York 
to Buffalo and was president of the overland mail enterprise to San Francisco. His 
maternal grandfather, Gamaliel Olmstead, was a soldier of the American Revolution. 
Graduating from Union College in 1849, the future soldier studied law, but was too 
young for admission to the bar, and entered business life instead. When the Civil 
War broke out, as Colonel ot the i2th N. Y. Militia, he tendered the services of his 
regiment and himself to the Government and took his command to the front. There- 
after, he served with distinction and chivalric courage, rising to the rank of Major 
General, taking part in the campaigns in Virginia and all the battles of the Army of 
the Potomac, until wounded at Gettysburg in 1863. Later he served in Tennessee 
and the heavy fighting of the Atlanta campaign. Upon his return to the North, he 
resumed business pursuits. Latterly he has been engaged in banking. His wife is 
Julia L. Safford, widow of the late Frederick P. James. Gen. Butterfield is president of 
The National Bank of Cold Spring on the Hudson. He is a man of courteous manners, 
fine presence, and high character, and a member of the Union, Church, Sigma Phi and 
Union Alumni Clubs, and of the Loyal Legion and the Sons of the Revolution. 


HUGH NESBITT CAMP, manufacturer, was born Oct. 14, 1827, in the village of 
Livingston, N. J., about ten miles from Newark, at the house of his maternal grand- 
father, Calvin Ely. In the following December he was brought to New York by his 
parents, and New York has been his home ever since. His parents were Isaac Brook- 
field Camp and Jeannette Ely, both natives of New Jersey and children of neighboring 
farmers. Beginning life at fourteen, he was employed in various ways until 1843, when 
he entered the counting house of James A. Edgar, then of the firm of Booth & Edgar, 
commission merchants. In March, 1854, at the suggestion of Francis Skiddy, his life- 
long and much loved friend, he formed a partnership for sugar refining in Bristol, R. I. 
With $40,000 capital, loaned to the new concern by Francis Skiddy, Booth & Edgar, 
and William Platt & Sons, of Philadelphia, the firm of Camp, Brunsen & Sherry engaged 
in business and were highly successful. Within a year they repaid their borrowed 
capital, and for fourteen years fortune smiled upon them. In 1868, the firm dissolved, 
Mr. Camp buying the interest of Messrs. Brunsen and Sherry, and forming a new part- 
nership, taking as partners George Robertson, one of his salesmen, and William McK. 
Chapman, under the name of Hugh N. Camp & Co. During the war many competitors 
came into the field, over-production followed, and Mr. Camp succumbed in 1870. He 
prepared to resume, but finally concluded that the real estate business offered a greater 
opportunity, and he opened an office in Pine street, as broker and auctioneer, and met 
with success far ahead of his expectations. In 1880, he began buying and selling on his 
own account, paying especial attention to lands in the 23d and 24th Wards. In these 
dealings he has been successful. He is also and has been for many years largely inter- 
ested in lead mining in Missouri, and in the cement business in Pennsylvania. In 1854, 
Mr. Camp married Elizabeth Dorothea McKesson, daughter of John McKesson. Of 
their eight children, six are living Edward B., Maria Lefferts, who married Perry P. 
Williams; John McKesson, Fred. Edgar, Alice Emily, and Hugh Nesbitt Camp, jr. 
Their home has been since 1861 at Morris Heights, where in 1863 he built " Fairlawn.' 
In 1880, Mr. Camp was appointed by Mayor Edson, one of the Committee of Seven, to 
inquire as to the necessity of an additional supply of water for this city. From the 
action taken at that time, the citizens of New York are indebted for the magnificent 
supply of pure water it now has. Mr. Camp has been trustee of The Mutual Life 
Insurance Co., director of The Mechanics' National Bank, The Continental Trust Co., 
The Title Guarantee & Trust Co. (and vice-president of the latter), and The Twenty- i 
third Ward Bank; and trustee of Clinton Hall Association, of which he was secretary 
about thirty years, The Skin and Cancer Hospital, and The House of Rest for Con- 
sumptives. At present he is treasurer of The St. Joseph Lead Co., The Doe Run 
Lead Co. , The Mississippi River & Bonne-Terre Railroad, trustee of several charities 
and a member of The Chamber of Commerce. His clubs are the Century, Union 
League, Grolier, Church, Republican and City. In politics Mr. Camp is a staunch 
Republican, and has been since 1859. 

FELIX CAMPBELL, merchant and banker, a native of Brooklyn, N. Y. , where he 
is a resident, was born in 1829, of Scotch-Irish parentage. He left the public schools 


at the age of twelve, to learn the trade of printer in the office of The Brooklyn Daily 
Eagle, and followed this calling for several years in Brooklyn. In 1848, he entered 
the factory of Walworth, Nason & Guild, No. 79 John street, New York city, to learn 
steam heating and engineering. Having mastered the art, he was made foreman at 
the age of twenty-two, and held this position for ten years, leaving only to go into 
business for himself. The old firm having removed to other quarters, he hired the old 
place on John street and established himself in business. A few years later, he pur- 
chased the building and has carried on the business there successfully down to the 
present time. Mr. Campell is a Democrat, and has been selected by his party for 
public position. At twenty-three he was elected to the Board of Supervisors of Kings 
county, and, although the youngest member, was chosen president of the bod}'. He 
was a Fire Commissioner during the volunteer days, and, under appointment by Gover- 
nor Tilden, in 1876, a member of the Centennial Committee. For twelve years a 
member of the Brooklyn Board of Education, he was, in 1884, elected member of 
of Congress from the Second District of Brooklyn, being re-elected three times in 
succession, and ceased to represent Brooklyn at Washington only upon his positive 
refusal to accept a fifth nomination. While in Congress, he procured an appropriation 
of nearly 1,500,000 for the new Brooklyn Post Office. The building is probably the 
only building of its class in this country completed under its original appropriation. 
As a private individual, Mr. Campbell has done much to promote the efficiency of the 
public schools. He is president of The People's Trust Co. and The Brevoort 
Savings Bank and a director of The American Bank Note Co., The Union Ferry 
Co., The Brooklyn Art Association, and other important institutions. 

GEORGE W. CAHPBELL, manufacturer, born in 1813, died June 4, 1893. In 
1851, with about $30,000 of joint capital, George A. Thayer and he engaged in the 
useful and lucrative industry of manufacturing linseed oil in the firm of Campbell & 
Thayer. For twenty years prior to his death, the firm ranked among the best known 
manufacturers of this commodity in the country. Mr. Campbell never slept over his 
business affairs. He was keenly alert, and drove his trade with great energy, and, 
having attracted attention and commendation, became by election a director in The 
National City Bank and several insurance companies. The married life of Mr. Camp- 
bell and Virginia W. , his wife, was a happy one. There were born to them ten children 
Euphemia; Moses T. Campbell, now deceased; Samuel, George W., Allen W., 
Catharine, Harriet, Eliza S , Helen K. , and Jane Allen Campbell. 

RICHARD L. CAflPBELL, merchant, who died while at sea, Feb. 3, 1884, in the 
forty-fifth year of his age, was a lifelong resident of New York. He was sent to school 
at White Plains, but did not go to college. His first important business connection 
was with John H. Hall and Augustine Smith, merchants and manufacturers of paper. 
Starting in early life, he continued a member of this firm until a short time before his 
death, when failing health compelled his retirement. He owned a large interest in The 
Chelsea Paper Manufacturing Co., and was a member of the Union League club, but 
refrained from outside business ventures, devoting his whole time to his business. He 
married a sister of Henry E. Coe, who, with two daughters, survived him. 

SIR RODERICK WILLIAfl CAMERON, shiping merchant, born in Glengarry 
county, Canada, July 25, 1825, and educated in a district school in Kingston, came to 
Ne\v York city in 1852 to charter a ship, in which a party of young Canadian adven- 


turers were to make a voyage to Australia. The venture proved a success and the future 
knight decided to establish himself in this city in business as a shipping merchant. 
Although a novice, he succeeded so well that within the first three years he dispatched 
to Australia more than 3,000 emigrants and several thousand tons of American prod- 
ucts, and since then has carried on a commission business with success. In 1870, he 
admitted to partnership his clerk, William A. Street, then adopting the title of R. W. 
Cameron & Co., which is yet retained. The firm have branches in Sydney, N. S. W., 
and in London. Although an ardent admirer of the American Republic and at one 
time, in 1861, a Union volunteer in the ypth Regiment, Sir Roderick has always 
remained a British subject. He was knighted in 1883 for his services as an honorary 
commissioner from Australia to the World's Fair of Philadelphia in 1876, and Paris in 
1878, and from Canada to those at Sydney and Melbourne in 1880 and 1881. The same 
honor was bestowed upon his ancestor, Sir Roderick Ivor McLeod, by King James in 
1713. Sir Roderick is a member of the Metropolitan, Tuxedo, Knickerbocker, Down 
Town and New York Yacht clubs and of various clubs in London. He was married 
first to Miss Cumming in Quebec, who died in 1859. In 1861, he married Miss Leaven- 
worth, of this city, by whom he has had seven children. 

JOHN CAREY, capitalist, born in London, England, May 21, 1821, died in New 
York city, April 2, 1881. He came to this country when nine years old, with his 
father, John Carey, who died in 1880. Graduating with honor from Columbia Col- 
lege, where he had for a classmate John Jacob Astor, he studied civil engineering, 
and practiced it with success until, in 1850, he married Mary Alida, second daughter 
of William B. Astor. Shortly after this, he retired from business, devoting himself 
exclusively to the management of his own and his wife's property. About this time, 
he purchased the estate in Newport, R. I., known as Grassland, at the corner of Nar- 
ragansett avenue and Spring street. For several years he dwelt in Europe, spending 
most of his time in Germany, where his children were being educated, and thereafter 
lived in New York in the winter season and in Newport in summer, being conspicuous 
in social life. 

THOflAS FAIR CARHART, merchant, born in 1827, in Warren county, N. J., died 
in White Plains, N. Y., Dec. 6, 1882. He was a descendant of early Dutch settlers of 
New Jersey. After an education in private schools, he entered business life as early 
as 1848, in Newark, N. J., and carried on a trade in clothing in that city, New Orleans 
and, after 1854, in New York city, until his death. By careful cultivation of the 
qualities which ensure progress, and the possession of a good mind and character, he 
achieved distinct success. In 1858 he married Marie Louise, daughter of Lewis. 
Castera, a leading lawyer of New Orleans, and dwelt for many years with his familj 
at White Plains, north of the city. His wife, two sons and three daughters survived 

RICHARD F. CARMAN, real estate owner, born in 1801, died July 13, 1867, in 
Carmansville, on the northern part of this island. He began life a poor boy, making 
packing boxes for merchants. Then, as a carpenter and builder, he gained sufficient 
means to enable him, after the great fire of 1835, to take contracts for rebuilding the 
ruined structures. When these contracts were made, labor was scarce and material 
was high in price, but this fact attracted so large a rush of workmen and selling agents 
to New York city that wages and prices depreciated and he completed his contracts at 


great profit. He followed his.vocation for many years and then devoted himself to 
real estate, founding and creating the beautiful village of Cannansville, fronting 
the Hudson River, on the upper part of the island. This suburb, then far north of 
the city, is now surrounded by a dense population, and the land is enormously valuable. 
His children were Richard, Charles E. and Frances Sage. 

ANDREW CARNEGIE, iron and steel manufacturer, a native of Dunfermline, 
Scotland, born Nov. 25, 1837, is the son of a weaver. The family came to America 
in 1848 and settled in Pittsburgh. In 1849, Andrew took charge of a small stationary 
engine and later became a telegraph messenger and operator. One of the first to read 
telegraphic signals by sound, he rose to be clerk to the manager of the telegraph lines 
of The Pennsylvania Railroad. While in this position he joined Mr. Woodruff, 
inventor of the sleeping car, in an effort to introduce the new car. The success of 
this venture gave him the nucleus of his wealth. He became in time superintendent 
of The Pittsburgh Division of The Pennsylvania Railroad. His first large operation 
was a share in the purchase of the Story farm on Oil Creek, for 40,000. The oil 
wells on this tract yielded in one year over $1,000,000 in cash dividends. With the 
capital thus obtained, Mr. Carnegie joined with others in establishing iron bridge shops, 
and, from this beginning, went on until he had become the controlling owner of the 
largest iron and steel industry ever developed in the United States. His success has 
been phenomenal, and is attributable to concentration. Every offer of a directorship 
has been declined by him. During the Civil War he was appointed Military Superin- 
tendent of Government Railways and Telegraphs, and he was afterward appointed by 
President Harrison a Delegate to the Pan-American Conference. A few years ago all 
his interests were consolidated in The Carnegie Steel Co. (Limited), with a capital of 
$25,000,000. The plants comprise eleven blast furnaces in Pittsburgh, Pa., capable of 
producing 1,200,000 tons of pig iron per year; The Edgar Thomson Steel Works at 
Bessemer; The Keystone Bridge Works, The Allegheny Bessemer Steel Works, The 
Pittsburgh Steel Works, The Beaver Falls Steel Co., The Frick Coke Co., and other 
properties. These works rank as the largest producers of pig iron, steel rails and coke 
in the world, and now make armor plate for war ships. Mr. Carnegie is a good deal 
of a Scot yet. He long ago owned eighteen English newspapers, which he conducted 
in the interest of radicalism, and has received the freedom of seven cities of his native 
land. In 1879, he erected swimming baths for the use of the people of Dunfermline, 
Scotland, and in 1880, a free library. In 1884, he gave $50^00 to Bellevue Hospital in 
this city for a laboratory; in 1885, 1,100,000 to Pittsburgh for a public library, music 
hall and art gallery and a second million to endow the art gallery and museum ; in 
1886, $250,000 to Allegheny City for a music hall and library, and 300,000 to Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, for a free library. He has also established free libraries at Braddock, 
Ayr and Johnstown, Pa., Fairfield, Iowa, and other places. His gifts now exceed 
5,000,000. Mr. Carnegie is the author of many essays on labor and economic questions. 
His "Triumphant Democracy, "published in 1886, a review of the progress of America 
under the Republic, attracted attention, went through eight editions, and has been 
published in French, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, and even in Japanese. An essay on 
"How to Get Rich," in THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE, in which he declared that a college 
education was not essential to business success, greatly aroused the college men and 
led to controversy. His other books include " Round the World" and "An American 



Four in Hand in Britain," but the most important essay is the one on "Wealth," 
which attracted the attention of Mr. Gladstone, and was, at his request, reprinted in 
Britain under the title, "The Gospel of Wealth." It holds that " Surplus wealth is a 
sacred trust which its possessor is bound to administer in his lifetime for the good of 
the community from which it is derived. It teaches that the man who dies possessed 
of millions of available wealth, which was free and his to administer during- his life- 
time, dies disgraced." 

OLIVER STANLEY CARTER, merchant and banker, a native of New Hartford, 
Litchfield county, Conn., born July 25, 1825, is a son of Hernias and Hannah Booth 
Carter. Reared upon a farm, he gained an education at the public schools during the 
winter seasons, and at seventeen years of age obtained a situation as clerk in a wholesale 
grocery house in Hartford. There being little prospect for advancement, he came 
to New York early the next year with good letters of recommendation, went from store 
to store in search of employment, and found it in the store of Civill & Whitlock, grocers. 
The firm did not employ a porter. That work was expected from the youngest clerk. 
The business was small and proved of great advantage to Mr. Carter, as it gave him a 
knowledge of different details of the business. Correspondence was principally done 
in the evening by the junior partner. The letters being copied by hand instead of by 
letter press, this afforded advantages to the young man. The senior partner soon re- 
tired. Mr. Kellogg was admitted and the firm took the name of John W. Whitlock & 
Co. Mr. Carter made no agreement for salary after the first year. His compensation, 
at first $150, upon which he had to live, was increased from time to time, and made 
$3,000 in 1853. Jan. i, 1854, Mr. Carter was admitted to the firm, which then displayed 
the sign of Whitlock, Kellogg & Carter. The business had now increased about three- 
fold. After Mr. Whitlock's death, in 1858, the firm took the name of Kellogg, Carter 
& Hawley, the latter bringing considerable capital. Mr. Kellogg died in 1859, when 
Mr. Carter admitted a brother of Mr. Hawley with additional capital, and the firm 
became Carter & Hawley; afterward, in 1868, Carter, Hawley & Co. Jan. i, 1880, 
George H. Macy, Mr. Carter's son-in-law, was admitted. Mr. Carter retired from 
business April i, 1884. At the expiration of the co-partnership, Mr. Carter having 
given Mr. Hawley permission to do business under the firm name of Carter, Hawley 
& Co., satisfactory terms could not be made between Mr. Hawley and Mr. Macy, in 
consequence of that permission to him individually, and Mr. Carter then joined Mr. Macy 
as Carter, Macy& Co., associating with them two employes who had been with the house 
for many years. The firm have increased the business largely over that formerly carried 
on, and become by far the largest importers and distributors of teas in the United States. 

Mr. Carter was elected a director of The North American Fire Insurance Co., in 
1856, and The Home Insurance Co., about 1860, which positions he has since held. 
He has been trustee and director of several other institutions. In 1874, he was elected 
director of The National Bank of the Republic, and after Henry W. Cannon had resigned 
to take the presidency of another bank, Mr. Carter was made vice president. Not 
being closely confined to his tea business, he displayed rather more interest in the bank 
than usual for a director. On the death of the president, the Hon. John J. Knox, in 
February, 1892, Mr. Carter was persuaded to accept the presidency of the bank, which 
he has since held. He owns the Carter Building at Broadway and 8th street, the 
Carter & Macy Building at 140-142 Pearl street, and some other realty. 


By his marriage with Elizabeth Hyde Coley, daughter of John H. Coley, of New 
Haven, he had one son, who died in infancy, and five daughters, who are married and 
settled in their own homes. In 1887, he was married to Isis Yterbide, daughter of 
Woodburn Potter, of Washington, D. C. Mr. Carter lived in New York city two or 
three years, when he moved to Brooklyn. In 1862, by the advice of a physician, he trans- 
ferred his residence to Orange, N. J. His beautiful home there is the largest in the 
place. Mr. Carter is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Union League 
and Down Town clubs of this city, and The New England Society of Orange. 

WALDEMAR CASPARY, cloak manufacturer, born in Berlin, Germany, Jan. i, 
1841, began life as a salesman in his native city. Doubtful of an advancement, equal 
to his ambition, at home, he arrived in New York city May 16, 1872, with several trunks 
full of samples of Berlin made garments, and visited in turn all the large cities of the 
United States as far west as St. Louis, meanwhile closely observing the shape of 
American clothing. Laden with orders from importing merchants, he returned to 
Berlin. In 1873, he opened an office on Mercer street in New York city, for his firm 
of Hahn & Benjamin, and next year was admitted to partnership. He was the pioneer 
in the introduction of Berlin made garments to the American market. For several 
years he imported largely, removing in 1875 to Broadway, and in 1877, succeeding the 
old firm in the new one of Benjamin & Caspary. The American tariff finally compelled 
him, in 1882, to undertake to manfacture his cloaks here. He has gradually developed 
the industry to large proportions. In 1 884, the store was removed to more spacious quarters 
at Broome and Greene streets. In 1876, Mr. Caspary married Miss Amelia Hexter of 
this city, and has three children, Alfred, Alice and Howard. He is a member of the 
Progress Club. 

JOHN CASWELL, merchant, son of William and Mary Buloid Caswell, was born 
at Newport, R. I., Dec. 6, 1797, and died in New York March 29, 1871. He came to 
New York in 1811, being then fourteen years old, to serve as clerk for his uncle, Robert 
Buloid, then in business on Broadway between Maiden Lane and Fulton street. In 
1820, the business was removed to Front street, near Burling Slip, and conducted under 
the name of Buloid & Finch. Upon the death of Mr. Finch in 1822, Mr. Caswell was 
taken into partnership, and the firm became Buloid & Caswell, until the death of Mr. 
Buloid several years later. Mr. Caswell then carried on the business in his own name 
for a time, but soon, with his brother, Solomon T. Caswell, and others, formed the firm 
of John Caswell & Co., about 1836. They remained at No. 87 Front street until the 
death of Mr. Caswell. They were one of the representative houses in the trade with 
China. By industry and integrity Mr. Caswell acquired a high reputation and a fortune. 
He was a modest and retiring gentleman, shrewd and sagacious, and distinguished for 
his conscientious character and unostentatious charity. A regular attendant at St. John's 
Chapel, then at the Church of the Ascension, and afterward of Trinity Chapel, he served 
as a vestryman of Trinity Church for many years. He was also one of the founders 
of St. Luke's Hospital, a director of The Union Bank, The United States Trust Co., 
The Continental Fire Insurance Co., and The Second National Bank, and at times 
held other positions of fiduciary trust. His property descended to his wife and five 

JULIUS CATLIN, merchant, a native of Hartford, Conn., born in 1833, died in 
Quebec, Canada, July 20, 1893. Beginning life with no other advantages than his fel- 


low clerks in the dry goods trade, he excelled many of them in spirit, fidelity and 
power of application and in the courage finally to undertake business on his own 
account. His house, known successively as Hunt, Catlin & Valentine, Catlin, Brun- 
drett & Co., and Julius Catlin & Co., was for a business generation conspicuous in the 
wholesale dry goods districts of New York and Boston. The friendships made among 
his associates led to his election as director of The United States Life Insurance Co., 
The Importers & Traders' National Bank and The Greenwich Savings Bank. He was 
married to a daughter of Seth B. Hunt and to them were born Julia Hunt, wife of 
Trenor L. Park, and Mary Helen and Edith Raymond Catlin. Mr. Catlin lived in 
Morristown, N. J , but was nevertheless a member of prominent clubs in New York, 
including the Union League, Union, City, Merchants', Yale Alumni and New York 
Yacht. He also belonged to the Morristown Club and The New England Society. 
Warm hearted and liberal, he gave generously to the worthy poor. 

CHESTER WILLIAflS CHAPIN, railroad president, born in the town of Ludlow, 
Mass., Dec. 16, 1798, died in Springfield, Mass., June 10, 1883. Although not a New 
Yorker by birth, he was one to whose memory conspicuous place must be given in any 
adequate review of celebrities of the metropolis, by reason of the prominence he com- 
manded in some of the most important traffic enterprises in which this city had a finan- 
cial and commercial interest. 

He was a typical American, a direct lineal descendant in the sixth generation from 
Deacon Samuel Chapin, who came from Wales to this country in 1675, and was one of 
the founders of the city of Springfield, Mass. Ephraim Chapin, grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, was one of the principal land owners of the old Bay State, his 
property comprising considerable portions of the towns of Chicopee, Ludlow and 
Springfield. The portion thereof lying in the western part of the town of Ludlow, 
upon which was the old "Torrey house," passed to his son Ephraim, and there Chester 
W. Chapin was born, the youngest of seven children. 

While he was yet a boy, the death of his father, during the absence of his older 
brother Ephraim at college, threw upon him the cares of manhood and the manage- 
ment of the large family estate, thus imposing at an unusually early age a severe but 
excellent practical training, which was of inestimable service in developing the .enter- 
prise, self-reliance and prudence, which were his distinguishing traits in after life. 
His formal education was limited to the district school and the Westfield Academy; 
but his active mind, rare faculty of observation, and the instructive experience of 
public life, speedily equipped him with an education so thorough and practical that he 
was enabled easily to win distinction as a leader among men, both in commercial affairs 
and legislative councils. 

Upon attaining his majority, Mr. Chapin went to Springfield. There he engaged 
in mercantile business, married a daughter of Colonel Abel Chapin, of Chicopee, and 
built, by contract, the paper mill at Chicopee, the first in which paper was made by 
machinery in this country. This narrow field did not content him. His enterprising 
spirit sought wider employment and found it, in the interest which has enlisted such a 
number of the ablest and most progressive of our public men and built up so many of 
the largest fortunes in this country, that of traffic enterprise. 

Like Commodore Vanderbilt, he began in a modest way, although, perhaps, 
with some advantage in the matter of capital. The Commodore's first venture as a 


master of transportation was in a pirogue ferryboat, of which he was commander and 
crew. That of Mr. Chapin was in a stage coach line between Hartford and Brattle- 
boro. He not only invested his money in this enterprise, but managed it, and even on 
occasion held the reins. The stages were well conducted and popular, and the line 
speedily became profitable, being fully up to all the requirements of that day. Mr. 
Chapin was not slow to realize that the progressive spirit of the age would soon "make 
the ancient good uncouth," and by the utilization of steam as a motor, both on land 
and water, do away with the stage coach in the more densely populated parts of the 
country. Not a few of the old-time stage-line owners ruined themselves by obstinate 
contention against the new order of things. Mr. Chapin, however, not only foresaw 
clearly, but gracefully accepted, and, with characteristic promptness and energy, made 
the most of the inevitable change ; and he took early measures for transference of his 
interests to the new and greater field. 

Soon after Mr. Blanchard's demonstration, in 1830, of the practicability of steam 
navigation between Springfield and Hartford, Mr. Chapin bought the steamboats 
which were employed in that trade, and for a dozen years controlled that profitable 
line of water transportation on the Connecticut river. During the same period, he 
also acquired a large interest in The New York & New Haven Steamboat Line, which he 
retained the whole of his life. From the stage coach to the steamboat was a long 
stride in advance, but he realized that it was hardly half which the requirements of 
traffic would demand. 

The railroad was, in the natural order of things, a necessity of the then immediate 
future. Mr. Chapin consequently took a leading part in procuring connection by rail 
between Springfield and Hartford, becoming a director in the corporation, controlling 
that line when it was formed, and taking an active and most efficient part in the 

It is illustrative of his resourcefulness and careful conservatism that in spite of all- 
these important changes, Mr. Chapin did not allow himself to lose the old stage coach 
line, which had been the foundation of his prosperity. Its usefulness in the original 
field was at an end, but demand could be made for it elsewhere. Securing extensive 
postal contracts in the West, he took these stages out to that part of the country, and 
established a mail coach line between St. Louis, Mo. , and Terre Haute, Ind. , which 
proved as successful as all his other ventures. 

In 1850, Mr. Chapin became a director of The Western Railroad, and in the same 
year resigned that position to accept the presidency of The Connecticut River Railroad. 
Four years later he was made president of The Western Railroad, also, and in 1855, 
effected in London a loan of one million dollars to that corporation by English capital- 
ists. The judicious expenditure of that money, in improvement of the road and ex- 
tension of its facilities, put the company, for the first time, upon a solid dividend paying 
basis. The Albany bridges, the iron bridge at Springfield, the continuous double 
track, the consolidation of The Western \vith The Boston & Worcester Railroad Co. into 
the Boston & Albany, with magnificent tide-water facilities, a huge elevator at Boston, 
and a great depot at Worcester, all were due, in great part, to President Chapin's 
admirable judgment and shrewd management. The development of The Boston & 
Albany Railroad he made the principal work of his life. Of that company he was 
president for many years. 


Among the more important of his widely diversified interests outside the traffic 
lines mentioned, may be noted his directorship in The New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad; his ownership of a controlling- share of The Collins Paper Co., at Wil- 
braham and The Agawam Canal Co., at West Springfield; his presidency of The 
Chapin Banking & Trust Co., of Springfield, formerly The Agawam Bank, of 
which he was founder; and the Manhattan Elevated Railway. 

The diversity and magnitude of his business concerns did not preclude his taking a 
prominent part in public affairs, wherein his advice and conclusions were always of mo- 
ment. In 1853, he was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention, and in 
1874, was elected a representative from his native state to the XLVIth Congress. In all 
his career Mr. Chapin distinguished himself by a rare blending of conservative prudence 
with liberal and energetic enterprise, which in many instances seemed impelled by 
prescient inspiration. In manner, he was cool and decided, but considerate, kind and 
obliging, never hasty, but always prompt. Of all the various enterprises, traffic, mer- 
cantile, manufacturing and financial, with which he was connected, and which were 
wholly or largely under his control, not one failed of important benefit by his shrewd 
foresight and skillful management. When his long and useful career was ended by his 
death, the inheritors of his well won honors and name were his three children, Chester 
W. Chapin, Mrs. William Bliss and Mrs. James A. Rumrill. 

ISAAC F. CHAPMAN, ship owner, born in Damariscotta, Me., April 8, 1812, died 
in Brooklyn, Jan. 30, 1895. He came from a family planted in this country in 1635. 
Robert Chapman, his father, was a farmer, the owner of large tracts of timber land 
and a saw mill, and a ship carpenter, as was his father before him. Isaac spent his 
youth on the farm and at country school and, learning, in 1828, the shipwright's art 
in his father's employment, for eight years he helped frame, plank and launch wooden 
vessels. In 1837, he became a storekeeper in Damariscotta, but, in partnership with 
Benjamin Flint, soon afterward built a small bark of 280 tons, for general trading 
purposes. This led the two men into more extended operations. Chapman & Flint 
located in Thomaston in 1843, opened a ship yard, and thereafter built a wooden ship 
about once a year, for the general carrying trade of the world. In 1858, Mr. Chap- 
man settled in Brooklyn, in order to manage the fleet of about fifteen large ships to bet- 
ter advantage, and, by his energy, close attention to business, and careful management, 
placed the name of Chapman & Flint in the front rank in American maritime circles. 
After 1868, Mr. Chapman's ships were constructed in Bath on the Kennebec, under the 
supervision of John McDonald, one of the best builders in New England. They were 
among the largest carriers in the sailing fleet of the country. In 1880, the old firm 
dissolved, to be succeeded by I. F. Chapman & Co., in 1883, Albert G. Ropes, a son- 
in-law, being admitted as a partner. During the War, Mr. Chapman and Mr. Flint 
built all the houses on the east side of Montague Terrace, Brooklyn. 

NELSON CHASE, lawyer, died in Ridgewood, N. J., March 18, 1890, at the age 
of seventy -nine. In early life, while studying law in Saratoga county, N. Y., he 
formed the acquaintance of the celebrated Madame Jumel, of New York city, and of 
Mary Jumel, her niece. An attachment to the latter led him to New York, where, in 
the office of Aaron Burr, he finished his legal studies. Two years later he married 
Mary Jumel, and later, through his wife, inherited a large share of his mother-in-law's 
fortune of about $3,000,000, consisting largely of real estate on Liberty street and 


Broadway, the famous mansion and grounds on Washington Heights, and a farm in 
Saratoga county. He dwelt in the Jumel mansion until his wife's death, about 1845, 
and thereafter until 1888, when he removed to Ridgewood, N. J. For fifty years he 
practiced law in New York city. About 1870, he married again. Three children sur- 
vived him, Eliza Carye, and William and Raymond Chase. 

ROBERT AUGUSTUS CHESEBROUQH, inventor and manufacturer, while born in 
London, England, Jan. 9, 1837, is a scion of some of the most patriotic and ancient 
American families. The paternal ancestor of the family was William Chesebrough, 
who sailed from Cowes with Governor John Winthrop, March 29, 1630, and settled in 
Boston, Mass. Here he filled several official positions, and in 1634 was chosen High 
Sheriff. In 1651, he obtained by grant from Connecticut, about 2,300 acres of land, 
which grant was confirmed by the general court at Pequot, on which he settled and 
built a homestead. On this land now stands the present city of Stonington, Conn. , 
where live many of his descendents. A new commonwealth was here established. 
William Chesebrough, the first "Comytioner" or magistrate thereof, was in 1664 
chosen as first representative to the General Court at Hartford to adjust the dispute as 
to boundaries with the State of Connecticut. Robert Chesebrough, the paternal 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was the fifth son of Nathaniel, who was the 
grandson of William Chesebrough. 

Henry A. Chesebrough, father of Robert A. Chesebrough, was a dry goods mer- 
chant of New York city, who lived at No. 7 Bridge street, then a fashionable place of 
residence, and grandson of Robert Chesebrough, dry goods merchant and founder and 
president of The Fulton Bank. 

Through the maternal line, the subject of this sketch descends from William 
Maxwell, founder and president of The Bank of New York, the first financial institu- 
tion ever established in this State, who upheld the cause of the American Revolution 
and derived his pedigree from a family prominent in Scottish history. The Maxwells 
were earls of Nithsdale and barons of Herries. James Homer Maxwell, son of William, 
married a daughter of the patriot, Jacobus Van Zandt, whose family were driven from 
New York city by the British occupation and saw much of the operations and experi- 
enced many of the hardships of the heroic struggle for American independence. Miss 
Van Zandt became an actual eye witness of the battle of Monmouth, and, as a bride, 
she had the honor of opening the first inauguration ball as the partner of General 
Washington. Their son, William H. Maxwell, was the titular earl of Nithsdale at the 
time of his death in 1856. Mr. Chesebrough's mother was a daughter of Richard M. 
Woodhull, and granddaughter of James Homer Maxwell, and also a grand niece of 
General Woodhull of the American army, who fell in the battle -of Long Island. The 
family Bibles of the Maxwells and Van Zandts are yet preserved in this family, and 
rank among the most interesting and valuable relics of that time. But there are two 
others of note, which may be seen in the old Senate House in Kingston, N. Y., being 
large oil portraits of the father and mother of the wife of William Maxwell, which 
display a number of holes, punched by the bayonets of the British soldiers, when the 
latter occupied the Maxwell home on Wall street. They were presented to the collec- 
tion by Mr. Chesebrough. 

The subject of this biography attended the best schools in New York during boy- 
hood, and, in 1858, began the manufacture of the products of petroleum. This in- 


dustry, yet in its infancy, had attracted attention for a few years only, and Mr. Chese- 
brough became one of the pioneers in the utilization of petroleum for the purposes of 
man. Success attended his efforts from the start. 

As a result of continual experiments in distilling and filtering petroleum, he dis- 
covered and patented, in 1870, the substance now known as vaseline. When the value 
and uses of this product had been developed and introduced by him, Mr. Chesebrough 
engaged in its manufacture, and has introduced it not only to the people of the United 
States at large, but to the inhabitants of nearly every civilized country under the sun. 
In 1880, the business was incorporated as The Chesebrough Manufacturing Co., with a 
capital of $500,000, Mr. Chesebrough acting as president from 1880 to the present 
time. The production of vaseline has increased steadily, and a growing foreign trade 
has resulted from the establishment of branch offices and distributing depots in Lon- 
don, Paris, Berlin and Montreal. 

His discoveries and enterprise having been followed by a suitable reward, Mr. 
Chesebrough has now become a large owner of realty in the metropolis. In 1881, he 
erected the huge office building, which bears his name, facing the Battery, and was 
led by scientific interest to devote his personal attention to its arrangement. He intro- 
duced heating and ventilating appliances of his own invention into this structure ; and 
these have since attracted wide attention among architects and owners. The Real 
Estate Exchange originated with Mr. Chesebrough, and he was second vice-president 
and one of the building committee of the Consolidated Stock Exchange. The removal 
of the immigrant station from Castle Garden to Ellis Island in the harbor grew very 
largely out of his vigorous efforts in that direction. The Battery Park is now no 
longer flooded with unattractive strangers and emigrants, as in former years. 

The action of Mr. Chesebrough, in 1878, with reference to the Paris Exposition, 
illustrated his energy and public spirit. The Federal Government had been unac- 
countably slow in providing for a general display of American products and, finding 
the inertia of the authorities too great to be overcome, Mr. Chesebrough called to- 
gether a number of Americans who wished to exhibit at Paris, and, through Frederick 
R. Coudert, the lawyer, secured from the Duke Descazes permission for a display of 
products by Americans on their private account. This proceeding spurred the State 
Department into action, and an American exhibit finally took place under proper 

During the exciting Mayoralty contest in Long Island City, between Mr. Gleason and 
Mr. Sanford, in 1892, the Street Improvement Commission of that city, of which Mr. San- 
ford was president, was accused of gross frauds and irregularities. At a citizen's meet- 
ing, Mr. Chesebrough was elected chairman of an Investigating Committee to ascertain 
the facts. He employed an expert accountant to examine the books and contracts, and 
a few days before election made his report, exonerating Mr. Sanford and the Commis- 
sion, which, being published in the Long Island City newspapers, resulted in the elec- 
tion of Mr. Sanford by a few hundred majority, showing a marked change of public 
sentiment against Mr. Gleason. 

Mr. Chesebrough has always shown an interest in public affairs, and in 1894, he 
received a nomination for Congress from the Republicans of his district in this city. 
He made a gallant fight, but the time was too short for a suitable canvass against the 
heavy Democratic majority of the district ; and, although he cut down the Democratic 


majority from over 10,000 to 1,300, he suffered the same fate as Levi P. Morton when 
he first ran for Congress, and was beaten. 

By his marriage with Margaret McCredy, sister of Mrs. Frederick R. Coudert, 
April 28, 1864, Mr. Chesebrough has three sons and a daughter, Robert M., William 
H., Frederic W., and Marion M. Chesebrough. Mrs. Chesebrough died April 3, 1887. 
The summer home of the family was formerly at Legget's Point on the Sound, north 
of the city, but has now been sold to an English syndicate for division into lots. The 
family live at No. 17 East 45th street every winter, and usually spend their summers 
either in travel or in the suburbs. Mr. Chesebrough is a member of the Union League, 
Riding and Manhattan Athletic clubs, and was president of the Down Town Republican 
Club in 1890. He is a writer of ability, and author of "A Reverie and other Poems," 
which were favorably reviewed by the press. A calm, judicious, energetic business 
man, he has won position by his own efforts, and the general esteem by his upright 

SIMEON BALDWIN CHITTENDEN, merchant, born in Guilford, Conn., March 
29, 1814, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., April 14, 1889. After preparing for Yale College, 
he was obliged to abandon the college course, which was his ambition, and, at the age 
of fifteen, he entered a store at New Haven, Conn. Having saved a little money, he 
carried on business on his own account for a while, and came to New York in 1842, 
where he opened a dry goods store, and was, until 1874, one of the prominent mer- 
chants of the city, gaining a large fortune. He was vice-president of the Chamber 
of Commerce, 1867-69 a founder of The Continental Bank and The Continental Fire 
Insurance Co. , a director in the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and other railroads, 
and president of The New Haven & New London Shore Line Railroad in Connecticut. 
During the War, he served upon the Union Defense Committee of New York and the War 
Fund Committee of Brooklyn, and gave generously to the support of the Government. 
He always dwelt in Brooklyn, and was elected to Congress from that city, serving from 
Dec. 7, 1874, until March 4, 1879, as an Independent Republican. Mr. Chittenden 
gave liberally to the Long Island Historical Society and other institutions and, in 1887, 
presented $125,000 to Yale College for a library building. He also gave the site for a 
building in Brooklyn to the Young Woman's Christian Association. He married a 
daughter of Sherman Hartwell, of Bridgeport, Conn. To them were born two chil- 
dren, a son, Simeon B. Chittenden, who survived him and resides in Brooklyn, and a 
daughter, now deceased, wife of Dr. William T. Lusk, of New York city. 

JOSEPH HODGES CHOATE, lawyer, one of the leaders of the New York bar, a 
native of Salem, Mass., was born Jan. 24, 1832. His family is an old and conspicuous 
one. Graduating from Harvard College in 1852, he studied law and was admitted to 
practice in Massachusetts in 1855. He came to the metropolis in 1856, and has since 
attained distinction in the law, public oratory and statecraft. If the fees paid to Mr. 
Choate are sometimes enormous, his clients are always willing to admit that his serv- 
ices have been worth the money. He has appeared in many noted cases. One of the 
old Committee of Seventy, which routed the Tweed Ring, he obtained the reinstate- 
ment of Gen. Fitz John Porter to his rank in the army after a prolonged struggle, and 
successfully defended the Cesnola collection of ancient statuary in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art against imputations affecting its integrity. He is noted both as a 
public and an after-dinner orator and for his independence of mind. In 1894, he was 



chairman of the Constitutional Convention, and had the pleasure of seeing the work, 
for which he had labored with great ability and energy, triumphantly ratified at the 
polls. He is a member of the most important clubs in the city, including the Union 
League, University, City, Century, Grolier, Bar, Harvard, Down Town, Racquet, 
Riding, Alpha Delta Phi, New York Athletic and Mendelssohn Glee, and The New 
England Society, and various other organizations. 

AUSTIN CHURCH, manufacturer, a native of East Haddam, Conn., born Jan 8, 
1799, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 7, 1879. His father, Oliver Church, was a school 
teacher. Left an orphan at an early age, the youth of Mr. Church was full of hard- 
ship, but, chiefly by his own efforts, he gained an education in the Yale Medical School. 
During the practice of his profession in Ithaca, Rochester, Utica and Cooperstown, 
X. Y., he originated the notion of substituting bi-carbonate of soda in place of the 
kindred preparation of potash for baking purposes, and, in 1832, established in Rochester 
the pioneer factory in this line. Success rewarded his enterprise, and, in 1845, he removed 
the business to New York city, where his firm of Church & Co. rose during the thirty 
years following to a leading position in the trade. By means of travelling agents, Mr. 
Church increased his sales year by year, and saw his production increase from one ton to 
10,000 tons a year. Since his death, the trade has more than doubled. While his 
office was at No. 132 Front street, the factory was in Brooklyn, in which city he dwelt 
for over twenty-five years. Mr. Church was liberal in charity and an excellent man. 
In 1827, he was married to Nancy, daughter of Dr. Elihu Dwight, a prominent physi- 
cian of South Hadley, Mass., and lived to celebrate his golden wedding in Brooklyn, 
in 1877. There were born to them James A., Elihu Dwight, and Fannie Church, who 
live at the old home in Brooklyn, and Mrs. Henry Pease, of Hartford, Conn., now 
deceased. Mrs. Church died in January, 1 890. The two sons now manage the firm of 
Church & Co. 

HORACE BRIOHAM CLAFLIN, merchant, a native of Milford, Mass., born Dec 
1 8, 1811, died in Fordham, N. Y., Nov. 14, 1885. His father, John Claflin, was a 
country storekeeper, farmer, and justice of the peace. Horace graduated from Milford 
Academy, and became a clerk for his father. In 1831, with his brother Aaron and his 
brother-in-law, Samuel Daniels, he succeeded to his father's business. In 1832, they 
opened a branch dry goods store in Worcester. In 1833, Aaron took the Milford store, 
leaving to the other partners the Worcester business. In 1843, Horace removed to 
New York city, and with William F. Bulkley organized the importing and wholesale 
dry goods house of Bulkley & Claflin, at No. 46 Cedar street. In 1850, the firm built 
a store at No. 57 Broadway, which they occupied until 1853. Mr. Bulkley withdrew 
in 1851, the business being conducted as Claflin, Mellen & Co. Meanwhile, the trade 
had increased rapidly. To obtain larger accommodations, Mr. Claflin, with others, 
erected the Trinity building at No. 1 1 1 Broadway, whither the business was transferred. 
In 1 86 1, the great warehouse on Worth street, extending from Church street to West 
Broadway, was secured, and this gigantic store was for many years one of the curi- 
osities of New York city. The Civil War found the firm's assets rendered almost 
worthless ; and they were compelled to ask an extension of time, which was promptly 
granted. The liabilities were paid with interest long before maturity. Thereafter, 
the house entered upon a career of unparalleled prosperity. In 1864, the firm assumed 
the name of H. B. Claflin & Co. Mr. Claflin's sales were enormous, often amounting, 


in a single year, to $70,000,000. From 1865 to the time of his death, this house was 
the largest of its class in the world. Mr. Clanin invested large sums in real estate in 
Brooklyn, and at Fordham in the upper part of New York city. He was a man of 
domestic habits and of exemplary life, fond of books and of horses. Almost daily he 
drove from ten to twenty miles. He was a prominent member of Henry Ward 
Beecher's church in Brooklyn, where he resided every winter. A large hearted and 
generous man, his readiness to assist young men was a marked trait of his character. 
Probably no other person in the United States aided so many beginners with money 
and credit, until they were able to sustain themselves. In politics, an opponent of - 
slavery and a Republican until 1884, thereafter he supported Mr. Cleveland. John 
Claflin his son, is now the head of the firm, while Arthur B. Claflin, another son, is a 

GEORGE P. CLAPP, merchant and philanthropist, a native of Woodstock, Vt, 
born Sept. 6, 1831, died in Algiers, Africa, Jan. 25, 1884. He descended from 
New England ancestry, and his father, Joel Clapp, was an Episcopal clergyman 
at Woodstock. Coming to New York city about 1857, he entered the employ- 
ment of Pinneo & Co. in Chambers street as a clerk. Saving, diligent, and de- 
ermined to succeed, he was able, in 1862, to found the firm of George P. Clapp & 
Co., importers and jobbers, in this city, subsequently carrying on the business in the 
firm of Clapp & Braden, later, Clapp, Braden & Co. In 1877, he retired, after a 
successful career. He was married in 1867 to Desier A. Pryer, the niece of John 
Alstyne, then residing at No. 27 Madison avenue. Mrs. Clapp inherited a large 
property from Mr. Alstyne, and, by her will, gave it to her husband upon her decease, 
in 1 88 1. During their happy married life, Mr. and Mrs. Clapp gave away large sums 
of money for benevolent work. The Church of St. Paul's- Within-the-Walls, in Rome, 
Italy, was one recipient of their bounty, and the Church of the Holy Trinity, in Paris, 
France, received large gifts. Upon the decease of Mr. Clapp, more than $500,000 
of the Alstyne property was distributed under his will to worthy religious and charit- 
able institutions, mostly in the city of New York. A man of great energy and 
strength of character, a gentleman of cultivated manners and attractive personality, 
Mr. Clapp earned from the Rev. Dr. Morgan the encomium that he combined, "in rare 
association, the simplicity of childhood with the wisdom of age." He was buried in the 
cemetery in Algiers, where a granite monument marks his resting place. 

GEORGE A. CLARK, cotton-thread manufacturer, born in Paisley, Scotland, in 
1824, died Feb. 13, 1873. He was a son of John Clark and descendant of Peter Clark > 
who, in 1812, made the first cotton thread ever used in sewing. When Napoleon seized 
Hambuyg and destroyed the silk in that port, Peter Clark, who had been making silk 
needle twine in Paisley, found himself obliged to search for a substitute for silk in its 
manufacture, and made experiments with cotton thread, winding it on bobbins with his 
own hands, for sale to ladies in Paisley. Convinced that his discovery was valuable, 
he abandoned the making of twine and founded the great spool cotton industry, which 
has ever since been carried on by the family. George A. Clark began life in the 
employment of Kerr & Co., of Hamilton, Ont. Four years later he returned to 
Scotland, to engage in the manufacture of Paiseley shawls. In 1850, his brother-in- 
law, Peter Kerr, and he undertook the manufacture of cotton thread, their interests 
being afterward merged with those of the Clark Bro's. In 1856, Mr. Clark came to 


New York, to promote the sale of Clark threads here, and, in 1864, was led by the 
American tariff on foreign thread to start a small factory in Newark. In 1865, The 
Passaic Thread Co. was organized by him, with George A., Alexander and William 
Clark and Thomas Barbour as incorporators. Gigantic works were constructed and 
put into operation in 1866. Their venture was successful. Mr. Clark was a member 
of The Board of Trade of Newark and The People's Fire Insurance Company. 

HORACE F. CLARK, LL.D., lawyer, a native of Southbury, Conn., born 
Nov. 29, 1815, died in New York city, June 19, 1873. He was graduated from Williams 
College in 1833, and in 1837, began practice of the law, attaining distinction as a hard 
working, prudent and far-seeing practitioner. In 1848, he married a favorite daughter 
of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt. He served in Congress an an anti-Lecompton 
Democrat, 1857-61. After 1857, railroads occupied his principal attention, leading him 
into the directorate of The New York & Harlem Railroad and various other lines; 
and into heavy and successful operations in stocks in Wall street. He displayed great 
capacity, and, at the time of his death, was an officer in the management of as many 
miles of railroad as any other man of his day. He was president of The Lake Shore, 
Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana and The Union Pacific Railroads; and a director 
of The New York Central & Hudson River, The Harlem, The New Haven, Hartford 
& Springfield, The Shore Line, The Chicago & Northwestern Railroads, among others, 
as well as of The Western Union Telegraph Co. He was also president of The Union 
Trust Co. In the assault upon the Tweed ring, Mr. Clark did valiant work. When 
the robbers had been driven out he joined Tammany Hall. Mr. Clark had one child, 
Marie Louise, who was thrice married and died in 1894. 

WILLIAM CLARK, manufacturer, born in Paisley, Scotland, in 1841, is a son of 
the late John Clark, of James & John Clark, manufacturers of cotton thread. He was 
educated in the local grammar schools, and at once entered the thread factory founded 
by his ancestors. Coming to the United States in 1860, he joined his brother, George 
A. Clark, in the general agency of the Clark threads in America. In 1 864, the broth- 
ers started a cotton thread factory in Newark, being identified with The Passaic Thread 
Co. from the start. In 1873, William Clark rose to seniority in the house. A 
great spooling factory was built and the thread works were enlarged under his adminis- 
tration. The works now occupy ten acres of ground on the banks of the Passaic 
river. He is treasurer of The Clark Thread Co., a partner in George A. Clark & Bro., 
and a member of the Union League, New York Yacht and American Yacht clubs of 
New York, and the Essex and Essex County Country clubs, of Newark. Numerous 
public institutions owe much to his generosity. 

BENJAfllN Q. CLARKE, iron manufacturer, born in Easton, Pa., in 1820, died in 
Antwerp, Belguim, Aug. 12, 1892. Early in life he began business in the iron and 
steel trade, and remained prominent in the industry until the end of his days. He was 
a founder of The Thomas Iron Co. , at Hokendauqua, Pa. , one of the largest pig iron 
concerns in the country, and largely interested in The Lackawanna Iron & Steel Co., 
The Lackawanna Iron & Coal Co. , The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, 
The Tilley Foster Iron Co., The Hudson River Ore & Iron Co., The New Jersey Zinc 
& Iron Co., of which he was president, and eight or ten other pipe, iron or steel com- 
panies. During the Civil War, Mr. Clarke excelled in devotion to the Union. His 
advice was often sought on matters of importance by the Government, and he devoted 


much of his time and means to the Union cause, until the War was over. A man of 
noble presence and generous heart, he took great interest in assisting young men in 
their early struggles. He was a member of the Union League Club, a member of Dr. 
Parkhurst's church, and much interested in the local reform movement initiated by that 
clergyman. Mrs. Mary E. Thompson, Mrs. Julia M. Finck, and Anne M. and Ada 
Clarke are his children. 

HENRY CLAUSEN, brewer, born in New York city, Aug. n, 1838, died here, 
Dec. 28, 1893. He was the son of -Henry Clausen, founder of the brewing establish- 
ments of this family. The lad's education in the public schools and under private 
tutors was supplemented by four years of study abroad. He grew up in the brewery 
started by his father about 1857, and became a partner in 1866, and when, in 1870, a 
corporation was formed, its president. A few years ago when English capital sought 
investments in the United States, H. Clausen & Son, and Flannagan, Nay & Co., con- 
solidated and organized The New York Breweries Co., with a capital of $4,500,000, 
admitting a syndicate of English capitalists to part ownership. Mr. Clausen retained 
his individual interest. He was at one time president of The United States Brewers' 
Congress and of The Brewers' Association of New York city, and one of the managers 
of The Produce Exchange. At his death, he held the positions of vice-president of The 
Murray Hill Bank and Brewers' Ice Co., and director in The Harvey Peak Tin Milling 
& Mining Co., The Mount Morris Electric Light Co., and The Consolidated Gas Co 
The Manhattan and Liederkranz clubs admitted him to membership. In politics, he 
was naturally a Democrat, and served in the State Assembly, and as Alderman-at-large 
of this city. Three sons and a daughter survived him. 

HENRY CLEWS, stock broker, banker and author, a native of Staffordshire, 
England, is the son of a manufacturer of goods for the American market. His parents 
wished that he might enter the ministry, but temperament fitted him for a more active 
life. At the age of fifteen, he visited America with his father, and became so fascinated 
with the animation and opportunities of the new world, that he decided to remain here. 
After a thorough training in the store of Wilson G. Hunt & Co., importers of woolen 
goods, he entered Wall street in 1859, as a partner in Stout, Clews & Mason, stock 
brokers and bankers, afterward Livermore, Clews & Co. During the Civil War, his 
firm acted as agents for the sale of Government 5-20 bonds, and, with Jay Cooke 
& Co., were largely instrumental in making that loan a success. After the War, he 
devoted his attention to banking and a commission, bonds and stocks business. He 
organized the present firm of Henry Clews & Co. in 1877, the different members of 
which pledged themselves never to take speculative risks. They deal in investment 
securities, have excellent connections abroad, and employ over a hundred clerks. A 
few years ago, Mr. Clews wrote " Twenty-Eight Years in Wall Street," which was well 
received and is yet frequently quoted. He is a liberal contributor to the support of 
public institutions, and a member of the Union League and Union clubs. In 1874, he 
married Miss Lucy Madison Worthington of Kentucky, a grand niece of President 

WILLlAfl P. CLYDE, shipping merchant, born in November, 1839, is a son of the 
founder of the Clyde line of coasting steamers. He graduated from Trinity College, 
and began business life in the office of his father, where he received such a training 
as acquainted him fully with the management of freight and passenger steamers. He 


has succeeded to the business which is now conducted under the name of William 
P. Clyde & Co. Mr. Clyde is one of our most respected merchants. He has become 
thoroughly identified with the life of the city, and is a member of the Union League, 
Down Town, Riding, St. Anthony, Racquet, New York Yacht, and Trinity Alumni 


GEORGE SinMONS COE, banker, a native of Newport, R. I., was born March 
27 1817. Anglo-Saxon in his ancestry, he descends from John Alden and Priscilla 
Mullins, the latter the first female child born in America in the earliest Pilgrim com- 
pany. His father, Adam S. Coe, a man of strong common sense and religious faith, 
was a maker of cabinet furniture. George went from the common schools at the age of 
fourteen, to a country store, where he served for four years. He then entered a bank as 
general clerk, sweeper and messenger, later being bookkeeper and teller. Meanwhile, 
bv extra services, he added to his earnings, and by constant reading improved his store 
of knowledge. In 1838, he entered the bank of Prime, Ward & King, in New York 
city, where he continued about six 3 r ears, and then removed to Cincinnati, to represent 
the firm in a banking and commission business. Later, he became cashier of The Ohio 
Life Insurance & Trust Co., in New York, resigning to engage in banking on his own 
account, as partner in a house already established. In 1856, he was elected cashier of 
The American Exchange Bank, of which institution, in a few months, he became vice- 
president, and, in 1860, president, which office he held until 1894, when he was forced 
by illness to retire, after a service of nearly forty years. It was Mr. Coe who conceived 
the idea of combining the local banks in the Clearing House, and of making use of 
Clearing House certificates. James Punnett, president of The Bank of America, and 
James Gallatin, of The National Bank, strongly endorsed the young financier's idea, 
and it was unanimously adopted. Clearing House certificates have since been re- 
sorted to in the years 1873, 1884, 1890 and 1893, on each occasion with good results. 
By the same expedient, the banks were enabled to combine their resources so as to 
subscribe for 150,000,000 of Government bonds at the beginning of the War, which 
they would not otherwise have done. Mr. Coe has taken an active interest in The 
National Bankers' Association, and, in 1881, was elected its president. He is treasurer 
of The Children's Aid Society, trustee of The Mutual Life Insurance Co., director of 
The Fidelity & Casualty Co., The Commercial Cable Co., and The Postal Telegraph 
Cable Co. ; an officer in the Presbyterian Church ; and member of The Board of Foreign 
>ns. Mr. Coe has lived in the beautiful suburb of Englewood, N. J., for a num- 
ber of years, but is a member of the Reform Club and New England Society. He was 
married, June 15, 1843, to Almira Stanley, of New Britain, Conn., and on Nov. 5, 
1887, to Mary E. Bigelow, of Englewood. To him and first wife were born Edward 
Paine and Alice Stanley Coe. 

CHARLES LEWIS COLBY, banker, a native of Roxbury, Mass., now part of 
Boston, was born May 22, 1839. He is a son of Gardner Colby, and descends from 
English ancestry. Graduating from Brown University in 1858, with the degree of B.A., 
he found his first occupation in the shipping house of Page, Richardson & Co. In 
1 86 1, he made his home in New York city, and organized the shipping firm of Dunbar 
& Colby, of which, in 1 864, on the death of the senior partner, he became sole pro- 
prietor. In 1870, at the request of his father, he interested himself in the construction 
of The Wisconsin Central Railroad, and finally abandoned business in New York to 


devote himself entirely to railroad and mining interests in the West. This resulted, in 
1874, in removal to Milwaukee, where he became an active citizen, interested in many 
useful and public enterprises. Gardner Colby, president of The Wisconsin Central 
Railroad, being obliged by reason of ill health to resign his position before the line was 
completed, Charles succeeded him in the presidency, finished the railroad, and assumed 
a leading part in building up the railroad system of Northern and Central Wisconsin. 
He was president and treasurer of The Wisconsin Central Railroad, The Milwaukee & 
Lake Winnebago, The Wisconsin & Minnesota, The Chippewa Falls & Western, The 
Minnesota, St. Croix & Western, The Penokee, The Chicago, Wisconsin & Minnesota, 
and The Chicago Great Western Railroads. He was also the first to develop the iron 
regions of northwestern Michigan. The Colby mine, the first one opened, belonged 
to The Penokee & Gogebic Development Co., of which Mr. Colby was president and 
treasurer. He afterward became president of The Consolidated Mines and The Aurora 
Iron Mining Co. Greatly occupied with all these interests, Mr. Colby, nevertheless, 
found time for charitable religious and educational work. He contributed the larger 
portion of the funds required for the construction of two churches in Milwaukee, was 
next to one of the largest contributors of the Y. M. C. A. building, and gave the Babies' 
Home the land on which their building stands, besides being a regular contributor to,i 
and efficient friend of, most of the charitable institutions of that society. The Wayland 
University at Beaver Dam received a large gift from his generous hand. In politics, 
Mr. Colby is a staunch Republican, and his speeches during the Garfield and Elaine 
campaigns met with an enthusiastic reception. He was a member of the Wisconsin 
Legislature in 1876, and was sought for other higher political positions, which, how- 
ever, he declined on the ground that duty to his associates in business would not 
permit him to forsake them. Mr. Colby returned to New York in 1890, and has since 
been senior partner of the firm of Colby & Hoyt, in Wall street. He is a member of 
the Union League, Metropolitan, Lawyers', Down Town, University, and Brown Uni- ': 
versity clubs, and the Alpha Delta Phi, The Sons of the Revolution, and The New 
England Society; and a honorary member of The American Society of Civil Engin- 
eers. Since graduation, the honorary degree of A. M. has been bestowed upon him, 
as well as an election as honorary member of . B. K. He has for several years been 
president of the Brown University club, and is also a Fellow of that University. He 
has also served at different times as president of the international convention of the 
Y. M. C. A., vice-president of The American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, trustee 
of the Y. M. C. A. of New York city, and president of The New York Baptist Mission 
Society. Mr. Colby is a director of The Mercantile National Bank, and The Farmers' 
Loan & T*rust Co. 

JAHES B. COLGATE, banker, born in New York city, March 4, 1818, is a son of 
William Colgate, who came to America in 1798, settled in Harford county, Md., and, 
in 1804, removed to New York, where he established the now widely known industry 
of manufacturing Colgate's soaps. James B. Colgate has been for many years a 
banker and dealer in securities and bullion. Although he makes his home in the 
adjoining suburb of Yonkers, he has contributed generously to the support of the 
great museums and art institutions of New York and to the promotion of the work of 
the Baptist church. One of his latest gifts was a $60,000 house of worship for The 
First Baptist Church of White Plains. Large donations have been made to The War- 


burton Avenue Baptist Church in Yonkers, Madison University, Rochester University, 
Rochester Theological Seminary, Colby Academy, Peddie Institute and Columbian 
University. He is a member of the Down Town and New England Society. 

ROBERT COLGATE, manufacturer, born in 1812, died July 4, 1885. He was the 
oldest son of William Colgate, manufacturer of soaps, and had the advantage of 
beginning life in an established industry. While long connected with his father's firm, 
his greatest achievement was the manufacture of white lead by corrosion for use in 
paints. About 1845, he organized the firm of Robert Colgate & Co., built works in 
the city of Brooklyn under the name of The Atlantic White Lead & Linseed Oil Co., 
and by able management and courageous perseverance, made his factories the largest 
of their class in the world. His children were Robert, Abner W., Romulus B., 
.,'iana and Alice R. Colgate. The family made their home in Riverdale on the 
Hudson. His son, SAflUEL JAMES COLGATE, manufacturer, born in this city, in 
died here, Feb. 15,1 893. He entered The Atlantic White Lead & Linseed Oil Works 
at twenty-one years of age, and in 1885, succeeded his father as president, continuing in 
the office until 1889. While the inheritor of large means, he was a man of enterprise, 
and conducted his business successfully. In 1882, he married Cora, daughter of 
Samuel Smith of New Orleans, and his wife, with one daughter, Adele S. Colgate, 
survived him. Mr. Colgate was prominent in social life, possessing the acquaintance 
of a large circle of refined friends, and being a member of the Union, Knickerbocker, 
Racquet, Down Town, Riding, Hudson River Ice Yacht, New York Yacht, Seawanhaka 
Corinthian Yacht clubs. He was the first commodore of the latter club and the origin- 
ator of the Corinthian races. At Uplands, his country place at New Hamburg, N. Y.. 
Archibald Rogers and he managed the Dutchess County Hunt. 

SAMUEL COLGATE, manufacturer, son of the late William Colgate, was born in 
Xc\v York city, March 22, 1822. At an early age he took a position in the works of 
Colgate & Co., manufacturers of soap, and has since devoted his business life to this 
industry, being now senior partner in the concern. Mr. Colgate has been a patron of 
the benevolent enterprises of the Baptist denomination. In conjunction with his 
brother, James B. Colgate, he erected the Colgate academy building, in Hamilton, 
X. Y., at an expense of $60,000. He is president of The New York Baptist Educa- 
tion Society, and of The Society for the Suppression of Vice, and a member of The 
Board of the American Tract Society. 

DAVIS COLLAMORE, merchant, born in Scituate, Mass., Oct. 7, 1820, died in 
Orange, N. J., Aug. 13, 1887. His ancestors were among the first settlers of the town, 
coming from England in 1640. The pioneer, Peter Collamer, died without children, 
leaving his estate to his nephew, Anthony Collamer, who was the progenitor of nearly 
all of the name in this country. About 1700, the spelling of the name was changed to 

, Collamore, although some of the descendants of Captain Anthony, among them the late 
Hon. Jacob Collamer, of Vermont, have retained the original orthography. Col. John 
Collamore, father of Davis, a man of the stern old Puritan type, was twice a member 
of the Massachusetts Legislature and one of the Convention to revise the State Con- 
stitution in 1820. His wife, Michal Curtis was a woman of sweet and gentle nature. 

', Davis Collamore, the youngest of twelve children, inherited from his parents that 
mingling of strength and gentleness so attractive in his character. In 1836, he came 
to New York and entered the china and glass store of his brother, Ebenezer Collamore, 


Xo. 151 Broadway. It had been his earnest desire to study law, but his resolute 
character appeared in the fact that, having once decided to give up a cherished plan, 
he entered thoroughly into the vocation chosen for him and pursued it to success. In 
1842, "he established himself in business, at his own risk, at No. 595 Broadway, and 
was enabled about a year later to marry Hannah Augusta Fiske, a Bostonian by birth. 
Thev had four children. Mrs. Collamore died Nov. 13, 1882. Mr. Collamore's refined 
taste led him to emphasize the artistic quality of his china. He did much to cultivate 
public taste, and to increase the love of ceramic art. In 1886, the firm of Davis Colla- 
more & Co. became a stock company, with Mr. Collamore as president. As a young man 
Mr. Collamore was a member of the 7th Regiment, and on duty at the the Astor Place 
riot. The recollection of his boyhood home was ever fascinating to him, and as soon as 
business cares would allow, he purchased a beautifully wooded tract of seventy acres on 
the eastern slope of the Orange mountains. There he built a country home, which was 
a constant source of pleasure to him. It was beautiful, not only from its surroundings, 
but on account of what it grew to be under the direction of a man of true culture and 
refinement. Mr. Collamore was an active member of The American Jersey Cattle 
Club, and a founder of The New England Society of Orange, N. J. The members of 
the society respected Mr. Collamore for the purity of his life, the gentleness of his 
manners, and the traits which marked him pre-eminently the Christian gentleman. 

WASHINGTON EVERETT CONNOR, financier, one of the most conspicuous 
stock brokers in Wall street for many years after his entrance to the Stock Exchange 
in 1871, now occupies an enviable position in the financial world. He was born Dec. 
i ; . 1 849, on Spring street in this city, in a house standing next to that in which his 
grandfather had been born, and which, with some adjoining property, had been owned 
by Mr. Connor's father for more than half a century. This locality was included in 
the ancient village of Greenwich, whither the city government of New York fled in 
1822-23, for security during the cholera epidemic. The elder Connor was a well 
known merchant of the Ninth Ward, and, for over thirty-six years, connected with The 
Greenwich Bank. 

At an early age, the boy entered the public school in Clark street, from which he 
graduated to enter the College of New York, then known as the Free Academy. He 
proved a bright scholar, always ranked high in his class, and especially excelled in 

After a year in college, he entered commercial life, having secured a clerkship in 
the banking house of H. C. Stimson & Co. The head of this firm being a heavy 
speculator in stocks, Mr. Connor was thus brought into contact with many noted figures 
in financial circles, among them Commodore Vanderbilt, and secured a valuable train- 
ing in Wall street tactics. His experience developed the possession of unsuspected 
talent and determined his vocation for life. Ready, appreciative, and faithful to duty, 
he soOn acquired a technical knowledge of the stock brokerage business, and, when he 
came of age, self-reliant, conscious of his own strength, and ambitious, he purchased a 
seat in the Stock Exchange, and was admitted to membership Oct. 6, 1871. 

From the beginning of his Wall street career, Mr. Connor met with marked suc- 
cess. Clear headed, prompt, devoted to the interests of his clients, and agreeable in 
manners, he soon drew to himself a large number of important clients. Having 
attracted the notice of Jay Gould, Mr. Connor was entrusted by him with various com- 


missions, which he executed with brilliant energy and entire success. The great 
financier was a competent judge of men, and, in 1881, he formed a partnership with 
the young broker, under the name of W. E. Connor & Co., and, in time, pleased with 
his adroitness, energy and audacity, admitted him to intimate friendship. George J. 
Gould became a member of the firm upon attaining his majority. For many years, 
both before and after 1881, Mr. Connor was the confidential representative of Jay 
Gould, and was entrusted with the management of many important operations in Wall 
street. He was also a favorite broker of Russell Sage and other leading capitalists in 
Wall street. By unsparing labor and able and sagacious, management, he created an 
extensive business, which, with his own operations at the Exchange, brought him an 
ample fortune. 

The successes of Mr. Connor and Mr. Gould have been world famed. While that 
partnership existed, financiers marvelled at the secrecy with which they conducted their 
business. Mr. Connor had learned the art of dealing through a large number of 
brokers at once, some of them buying, some of them selling stocks for him, and all 
unaware of the real object of the campaign in which they were engaged. When Jay 
Gould made his famous campaign in the stock of The Western Union Telegraph Co. , 
which resulted in the transfer of control from the Vanderbilt to the Gould interest, the 
purchases of stock made by W. E. Connor & Co. were so well covered that Wall street 
entertained the impression that the firm were heavily short of the stock, when, as a 
matter of fact, they were the the principal buyers. Washington E. Connor himself 
conducted all the operations ; and the manner in which the transaction was managed was 
always a matter of much satisfaction to Jay Gould, who subsequently frequently 
referred to the articles published in the newspapers, predicting that he would be 

During the panic of 1884, it was ascertained that W. E. Connor & Co. were bor- 
rowers to the extent of $12,000,000; and a combination was promptly formed on the 
street to force Mr. Connor and Mr. Gould to the wall. Attacks were made on their 
credit, various brokers and financial institutions were induced to exclude Missouri Pacific 
securities from their loans, and every pressure which could be brought to bear against 
them was used as strongly as possible. The policy of the firm, however, of giving twice 
as much margin for their loans as other houses and of "notifying the loaners of money 
that they could have more margin if they desired, demonstrated that they were in pos- 
session of ample security. Wall street, instead of forcing Mr. Connor and Mr. Gould 
to sell their securities, made heavy losses through being "short" of Missouri Pacific. 
So great were these losses, that, when the time for reckoning came, there were one 
hundred and- forty-seven houses on Wall street "short" of and borrowing Missouri 
Pacific stock from W. E. Connor & Co. The price of the stock was rapidly carried 
from 64 to par; and the principal t "bears" saw themselves forced to cover at between 
95 and par, at great loss to themselves and equally great gain to W. E. Connor & Co. 
In 1886, Mr. Gould retired from Wall street and Mr. Connor followed a year later. 

During recent years, Mr. Connor has gained an interest in The Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago and The Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroads, and various other corpo- 
rations, and devoted himself to improving his properties. He has been a director of 
The American Union Telegraph Co., The Credit Mobilier, The Texas & Colorado Im- 
provement Co., The Metropolitan, The Manhattan and The New York Elevated Rail- 


way Go's and The New Jersey Southern Railroad, and president of The Central Con- 
struction Co. 

Wall street draws heavily upon the vitality of the leading spirits in that theatre of 
exciting competition, but Mr. Connor has preserved his health, clearness of mind, and 
physical vigor by open-air recreations. He was the owner of the steam yacht Utowana, 
and has spent much time cruising upon salt water. He is also a regular attendant at 
the opening nights of new plays and operas, a good billiard player, and a familiar fig- 
ure in many social clubs, in which his unfailing good nature, clear head, and wide 
experience render him a popular associate. A reader of excellent books, his mind is 
well stored with general information. His winter home is at No. 532 Madison avenue, 
and he maintains a summer cottage at Seabright on the Jersey coast. He has been 
elected to membership in a number of exclusive social clubs, including the Union 
League, Republican, Arkwright, Lotus, New York Athletic, American Yacht, Larch- 
mont Yacht and Boston Yacht, and with praiseworthy public spirit has long been a 
supporter of various important public institutions, including the three which have done 
so much to develop the art and educational interests of New York, The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, The American Museum of Natural History, and The Metropolitan 
Opera House Co., having been one of the original stockholders of the latter. 

Mr. Connor also stands very high in the Masonic fraternity. In 1877-78, he was 
Master of St. Nichola Lodge, 321; in 1879, District Deputy Grand Master of the Sixth 
Masonic District; in 1884, Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Virginia, and 
in 1885 was made Chief of Staff of the Grand Lodge of New York and Grand Treasurer 
1887-89. He is now the Representative of the Grand Lodge of England. 

JAHES MANSELL CONSTABLE, merchant, was born in Sussex, England, in 
1812. While a young man, he was persuaded by an uncle to accompany him on a 
pleasure trip to the United States. After his return to England, the future of the 
United States appeared so bright to him, that as a result of thinking the matter over 
for two or three years, he decided to make this country his future home and in 1840 
sailed for New York. Upon his arrival, he visited Aaron Arnold, then of the firm of 
Arnold, Hearn & Co., founded in February, 1827, whom he hadknown on his previous 
visit, and decided to enter their employment. Two years afterward, in 1842, upon the 
retirement of the Messrs. Hearn, he became a partner of Mr. Arnold under the firm name 
of A. Arnold & Co. In 1853, when Richard, the only son of Aaron Arnold, was admitted 
to the firm, the style was changed to Arnold, Constable & Co., and as such has been con- 
tinued ever since. Mr. Constable married Henrietta, only daughter of Aaron Arnold, 
in 1844. Their surviving children are Frederick A., Harriet M., wife of Hicks Arnold, 
and Amy H., wife of Edwin H. Weatherbee. 

JOHN H. CONTOIT, realty owner, born in 1798, who died Oct. 2, 1885, was a son of 
John H. Contoit, a native of France, who established himself in this city in the early part of 
the century as a merchant of confectionery on Broadway between Murray and Warren 
streets. He was the favorite purveyor of ice cream for the prosperous families of that 
time. Mr. Contoit gained large means which he invested in real estate. The son suc- 
ceeded his father in the business and conducted the New York Garden and confection- 
ery store on Broadway, opposite the old Carlton House, which he made a famous and 
fashionable resort. He was a very clear headed, capable, and judicious man, and with 
confidence in the future of New York as the commercial emporium of the United States, 


followed his father's example and invested his means almost wholly in real estate, which 
afterward increased enormously in value. His children were Maria Hall and Charles 
H. Contoit. 

HENRY HARVEY COOK, capitalist, a native of Cohocton, Steuben county, N. Y., 
was born May 13, 1822, and is the oldest surviving son of the late Judge Constant Cook, 
lawyer and farmer of Warren, N. Y. The family traces its line to persons of noble 
extraction in England, and was founded in America by Capt. Thomas Cook of Earle's 
Colne in Essex, England, who settled in Boston before 1637. Henry left the academy 
in Canandaigua to serve as a dry goods clerk in Auburn and in Bath, N. Y. , a year in 
each place, and in 1844, engaged in mercantile pursuits in Bath, retiring ten years later 
with means. In 1854, his father and he organized The Bank of Bath under State 
laws, reorganizing as a national bank in 1864. Mr. Cook served as cashier until 1874, 
and then became president of the bank. Mr. Cook came to New York city in 1875, 
entered financial life, and is now a prominent man in the railroad world. He inherited 
some means, but has made his way chiefly by his own abilities. Operations in stocks 
have occupied him to some extent, and his ventures have been exceedingly successful. 
He is a director of The Union Pacific Railroad, The American Surety Co., The New 
York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad, The Buffalo, New York & Erie Railroad, The 
State Trust Co. and The National Bank of North America. His wife is Mary, daughter 
of William W. McCay of Bath, agent of the Poultney estate, and his children are Mrs. 
Clinton D. MacDougall, Mrs. M. Rumsey Miller, Mrs. C. F. Gansen, and Mrs. C. de 
Heredia. Among his clubs are the Metropolitan, Union League and Riding. He is 
also a life member of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Historical and Geo- 
graphical Societies. 

PETER COOPER, manufacturer, born in New York city, Feb. 12, 1791, died here 
April 4, 1883. At the time of his birth, this city contained less than 30,000 inhabitants. 
His father and his mother's father were soldiers of the American Revolution. The early 
life of Peter Cooper was full of hardship, and his original schooling was confined to 
an attendance every other day for one year. To earn a support, he secured employ- 
ment in a carriage shop in 1808, at $25 a year and board, and when he had become an 
expert workman, invented a machine for mortising the hubs of carriage wheels, which 
proved of great value. His earnings were at first spent largely for books and the 
services of a teacher in the evening. At Hempstead, L. I., he toiled for five years at 
$1.50 a day, and having saved $500, illustrated the nobility of his character by giving 
it all to relieve the necessities of his parents. Having invented an apparatus for 
shearing the nap from woolen cloth, he manufactured a number of the machines and 
then returned to New York, where he established himself as a merchant of groceries. 
Prosperity now rewarded his enterprise, and he soon established a glue and isinglass 
factory. Mr. Cooper was a very ingenious man, and he so improved the manufacture 
of glue as finally to control the trade of the country. This industry was the foundation 
of his fortune. In 1828, he purchased 3,000 acres of land in Baltimore, Md., on which 
he built iron furnaces and a rolling mill and a few locomotives. In 1830, he constructed 
from his own designs, for The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, what is said to have been the 
first locomotive constructed on this continent. The Baltimore industry he sold a few 
years later at a profit. He also built in New York wire works and a rolling mill, which 
were afterward removed to Trenton, became the pioneer manufacturer of railroad iron 


in this country, and operated blast furnaces at Trenton and Philipsburg. A supply of 
iron ore was drawn in part from mines of his own at Andover. In his various 
industries, 2,500 men found employment. Mr. Cooper possessed remarkable mechanical 
ability and inventiveness. He was active in the development of the telegraph system 
of the United States, becoming president of The American Telegraph Co., and The 
North American Telegraph Association. Marshall O. Roberts, Cyrus W. Field, 
Wilson G. Hunt and he and a few other associates, laid the first Atlantic cable. Mr. 
Cooper's greatest philanthophic work was the founding of The Cooper Union for the 
advancement of Science and Art. Begun in 1854, the building was finished five years 
later, at an original cost, exclusive of the site, of nearly $1,000,000. The public hall 
in the basement of this building has since become historic for the large number of 
great public meetings held within its walls. Mr. Cooper was married in 1813 to Sarah 
Bedel, at Hempstead. Two children survived him, Edward Cooper and Sarah Amelia, 
wife of Abram S. Hewitt. His son, EDWARD COOPER, manufacturer, grew up in 
the counting room of Peter Cooper & Co., and since 1883, has been the senior partner 
of the house, now known as Cooper, Hewitt & Co. He is a very capable and energetic 
man, has made his own position, and is a highly respected citizen. Under his admin- 
istration. The Trenton Iron Works, The Trenton Iron Co., The Pequest Furnace in 
Oxford, N. J., and The Dunham Iron Works at Riegelsville, Pa., all well managed 
concerns, have increased their production to about 60,000 tons of pig iron annually, 
and a large quantity of bridge, roof and other structural iron and steel. Mr. Cooper 
has taken part in the direction of The United States Trust Co. , The American Sulphur 
Co., The New Jersey Steel & Iron Co., The New York & Greenwood Lake Railway, 
The American Electric Elevator Co., The Chrysolite Silver Mining Co. and The Metro- 
politan Opera House Co. He is a Democrat and has been Mayor of New York. 

AUSTIN CORBIN, railroad president, a native of Newport, N. H., was born July 
ii, 1827. His father, Austin Corbin, was a farmer and for several years a State Sen- 
ator in New Hampshire. The son graduated from Harvard Law School and practiced 
law for two years in New Hampshire, having as a partner Ralph Metcalf, afterward 
Governor of the State. In 1851, he removed to Davenport, Iowa, practiced law with 
success, and then engaged in banking, being the only banker in Davenport who did not 
close his doors in 1857. He reorganized, June 29, 1863, as The First National Bank of 
Davenport, having the honor to be the first man in the United States to begin banking 
under the Federal law. In 1865, he came to New York and engaged extensively in 
banking and the negotiation of mortgage loans on farms in Iowa and other Western 
States. The Corbin Banking Co., of which he is the head, was established in 1873. He 
has become famous chiefly through his marked ability and success in railroad enter- 
prises. His first operation was the reorganization of The Indiana, Bloomington & 
Western Railroad, which under his presidency was made a paying property. In 1 880, 
he turned his attention to The Long Island Railroad, purchased a large number of 
shares, and became receiver and president of the company, Jan. i, 1881. Mr. Corbin's 
management resulted in payment of the debts, reconstruction of the roadway, and a 
high state of prosperity. He promoted travel by developing the attractions of Coney 
Island, Manhattan Beach, Rockaway Beach, Long Beach, and other resorts on the sea 
coast, gradually placing the road in excellent condition and its traffic upon a profitable 
basis. Having revealed himself as one of the most capable and practical railroad men 


in the United States, he became prominently identified with the reorganization of The 
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Co., and served as its president from September, 1886, 
to June 27, 1890. Having been appointed receiver of that company in October, 1886, 
he repeated his previous successes with great eclat. He is now president of The Long 
Island Railroad, The Elmira, Cortland & Northern Railroad, The Manhattan Beach 
Co., The Manhattan Beach Hotel & Land Co., and The New York & Rockaway Beach 
Railway; and a director of The American Exchange National Bank, The Western Union 
Telegraph Co., The New York, Brooklyn & Manhattan Beach Railway, The Nassau 
Fire Insurance Co., and The Mercantile Trust Co. In 1853, he was married to Hannah 
M., daughter of Simeon Wheeler, of Newport, N. H., and his children are Isabella, wife 
of George S. Edgell, Anna and Austin Corbin, jr. One other daughter, Mary, the eldest 
of the family, married Rene Cherennot Champollion, grandson of the famous Egyptian 
scholar, but she died in Paris, June 5, 1892. The husband had previously died in this 
country. They left one son, Andre, the only male descendant of the family of the illus- 
trious Champollion, who is being educated in America. Mr. Corbin's clubs are the 
Manhattan, Reform, Players', Lawyers', Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht, Meadow Brook, 
and South Side Sportsmen's clubs. 

JOHN B. CORNELL, manufacturer, born at Rockaway, on Long Island, Feb. 7, 
1821, died in Lakewood, N. J., Oct. 26, 1887. His ancestor, Thomas Cornell, of 
Cornell's Neck, born in England in 1595, died in Portsmouth, R. I., in 1655. Reared 
'upon his father's farm, Mr. Cornell, at the age of fifteen, began to learn the trade of 
iron manufacturing. In 1847, with his brother, W. W. Cornell, he opened a factory in 
New York, which subsequently grew to large proportions. At these works the pro- 
prietors made an immense amount of architectural iron, including the iron for the 
elevated railroads in New York city. In 1867, Mr. Cornell admitted his son to partner- 
ship, taking the firm name of J. B. & J. M. Cornell. A devoted member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and a practical" Christian. Mr. Cornell devoted a certain 
percentage of his annual income to benevolent purposes. As his wealth increased, his 
gifts grew proportionately. His annual contributions to the Methodist church fre- 
quently amounted to $50,000. Over 100 churches, within as many miles of New York, 
profited more or less by his munificence. At the time of his death, he was active in 
various charitable societies and the Union League club, a director of The Broadway 
Savings Bank, and the only Christian member of The Hebrew Society for the Improve- 
ment of Deaf Mutes. Seven children were born to him. His son, JOHN n. 
CORNELL, iron manufacturer, was born in New York city, Aug. 27, 1846. He left 
school at fifteen years of age, and then learned a trade in his father's shops. Upon 
attaining his majority, he was taken into partnership in J. B. & J. M. Cornell, and 
since 1887, has been sole proprietor of the works. The use of iron and steel in the 
framework of modern buildings is a new science, to which Mr. Cornell has given 
patient and careful study, and he has manufactured enormous quantities of these 
metals in structural shapes. Some of the most conspicuous buildings in New York city, 
erected since the era of gigantic structures began, about twenty years ago, have been 
supplied with the interior frame work, which supports all the rest, from the Cornell 
shops. Among them are the Hotel New Netherland, the Hotel Waldorf, The Times 
building, and numerous edifices in the lower part of the city. Mr. Cornell is a member 
of the Reform, Building Trades and Riding clubs. 


PETER CORTELYOU CORNELL, manufacturer, born in Red Hook, on Long Island, 
X. Y., in 1803, died in the city of Brooklyn, May 5, 1885. He was a son of John Cornell, 
proprietor of a large flour mill. The family were of English and Dutch pedigree, the 
Cornells tracing their line to the Cornewells, who ranked among the landed gentry of 
England several centuries ago. Thomas Cornell, founder of the family here, received a 
grant of Cornell's Neck from Governor Kieft, in 1646. Peter entered business life at an 
early age, and promoted a great variety of enterprises. He was for many years prosper- 
ously engaged in the manufacture of gunpowder, as president of The Hazard Powder Co. 
on Wall street. He also aided in the establishment of local gas works, ferry lines, banks, 
and white lead works in Brooklyn. His wife was Elizabeth Bunce. They had no children. 

HANSON K. CORNING, merchant, born in 1821, died in Para, Brazil, April 22, 
1878. He was one of the leading merchants in the South American trade in this city, 
and imported rubber and other tropical products for many years with success. He 
owned a large area of land in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Dakota. Retiring in 1856, 
he was succeeded by his son, Ephraim L. Corning, who, later, himself withdrew from 
business, and made his home in Geneva, Switzerland. Three children were born to 
him, Ephraim L. Corning, Margaretta C. Stone and Anna M. Eraser. An invalid 
during the last twenty years of his life, he bore his sufferings with fortitude, and dis- 
played the beauty of his character by large contributions to The Presbyterian Mission 
in Brazil, The American Bible Society, and other philanthropic institutions. 

FREDERICK H. COSSITT, merchant, born in Granby, Conn., Dec. 18, 1811, died 
in Xew York city, Sept. 23, 1887. His ancestors, French by descent, enrolled them- 
selves among the early settlers of Connecticut, going there as early as 1720. Mr. 
Cossitt received his education in the public schools and Westfield (Mass.), Academy. 
In 1827, a relative conducting a dry goods store in Clarksville, Tenn., gave the young 
man employment and a business training. Five years later, Mr. Cossitt removed to La 
Grange, Tenn., where he managed a dry goods house with an uncle. From 1835 to 
1842, he was a dry goods merchant in Pontotoc, Miss., and Helena, Ark., and in the 
latter year started a wholesale dry goods store in Memphis, which he conducted until 
1861. Finding it necessary to be represented in Xew York, he made his home in this 
city in 1850, thereafter making the purchases for his Southern trade. His attention 
having been drawn to metropolitan real estate as an investment, he made heavy pur- 
chases on Broadway and other important streets, and the increase in value of this 
property brought him a fortune. He was well informed concerning railroad properties, 
and served as a trustee of The Mutual Life Insurance Co., vice-president of The 
Central Trust Co., and director of The Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., and The 
Greenwich Savings Bank. Three daughters survived him, May C., wife of George 
E. Dodge; Helen M., wife of Augustus D. Juilliard; and Mrs. Elizabeth R. Stokes. 

PATRICK CARROLL COSTELLO, tanner, was born in 1829, and is a son of Will- 
iam Costello, a tanner. He is of Irish ancestry. From the common schools he went 
into his father's tannery. Having learned the useful art of making leather, he became 
an operator on his own account in 1848, at Camden, X. Y., in the firm of P. & P. Cos- 
tello. Success inspired him with ambition, and, in 1873, he became a partner in the 
firm of Lapham, Costello & Co., of Xew York city. Thoroughly practical, clear-headed 
and energetic, Mr. Costello has risen to be one of the foremost tanners of these times. 
In 1886, the house was reorganized as P. C. Costello & Co. He has been a resident of 


New York city since 1881, and his name is one of the most conspicuous in the leather 
trade in "the swamp." His firm dissolved in 1893, to join The United States Leather 
Co., one of the greatest corporations in the country, of which he is a director. He is a 
member of the Hide and Leather and Down Town clubs. 

CHARLES HENRY COSTER, banker, born in Newport, R. I., July 22, 1852, is 
a son of George W. and Elizabeth Oakey Coster, both of New York. His grandfather, 
John Gerard Coster, came from Holland at the close of the American Revolution, and 
rose to prominence as a New York merchant. The maternal grandfather, Daniel 
Oakey, an Englishman by birth, was also a merchant in this city. Sept. 12, 1867, 
Charles went down town to enter the office of Aymar & Co., at 34 and 35 South street, 
as a clerk. Occupied with the importation of tea, coffee, etc., for five years, Nov. i, 
1872, he identified himself with Fabbri & Chauncey, at 47 and 48 South street. This 
firm took over the business of Aymar & Co. They were shipping and commission 
merchants, dealing principally with the West coast of South America and the Philippine 
Islands. Mr. Coster remained with them until October, 1883. Jan. i, 1884, he was ad- 
mitted to partnership in the great banking house of Drexel, Morgan & Co., of this city, 
Drexel & Co., of Philadelphia, and Drexel, Harjes& Co., of Paris, resident in New York. 
He has since proved a prudent, capable and useful member of these firms. Mr. Coster 
has joined the Metropolitan, City, St. Nicholas and Reform clubs, and is prominently 
connected with The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, The Southern Railway, The Elgin, Jo- 
liet & Eastern Railway, The General Electric Co., and The Edison Electric Illuminating 
Co. June 2, 1886, he married Emily Pell Coster and has two children, Emily and Helen. 

AMOS COTTINQ, merchant and banker, a native of Boston, Mass., born about 
1827, died in New York city, May 13, 1889. He was a very enterprising and courageous 
man, who having spent about fifteen years in the dry goods business in St. Louis, came 
to New York with large means in 1866 with his partner, Mr Jameson, and established 
the bank of Jameson, Smith & Getting. Equally as successful in finance as in trade, 
Mr. Cotting retired Jan. i, 1889. He belonged to the Union League and other clubs, 
and was one of the most highly regarded men in the city. 

STAflATY COVAS, importer, born in Greece in 1816, died in New Brunswick, 
N. J , Sept. 16, 1881. He came to this country in 1851, locating in New Orleans as a 
merchant in the firm of Covas & Negreunde, but in 1861 removed to New York, where 
for twenty years he carried on a large exportation of raw cotton, and an importation of 
general merchandise. He was a member of the Produce and Cotton Exchanges, and 
by a long life of patient industry gained a large fortune. His wife Ethelind, and two 
children, survived him. The family made their home in New Brunswick, N. J. 

ELLIOT CHRISTOPHER COWDIN, importing merchant, born in Jamaica, Vt, 
Aug. 9, 1819, died in New York city, April 12, 1880. He was a son of Angier Cowdin, 
landowner, and came from Scottish ancestry. Capt. Thomas Cowdin, his grandfather, 
of Fitchburg, Mass., served his country in the American Revolution. Elliot spent 
his youth in Boston. After leaving the public schools he was employed by Allen & 
Mann, merchants of ribbons and millinery. Nine years of diligent and progressive 
service led to his admission as partner to the succeeding firm of W. H. Mann & Co. 
In 1853, he came to New York, and in the firm of Elliot C. Cowdin & Co., engaged 
in the importation of silks and silk ribbons, rising to a prominent place in the trade. 
The panic of 1857 left him almost impoverished, but his coolness, tenacity, and per- 


sistent enterprise finally brought a large reward, and he retired in 1877 a man of 
means. During his whole life, Mr. Cowdin was remarkable for activity. A member of 
the Chamber of Commerce, and once president of The New England Society, he 
aided in founding, and became one of, the vice-presidents of the Union League club. 
He also joined the Century club. The purchase of merchandise led him constantly to 
Europe, and, in all, he crossed the Atlantic ocean eighty-six times. In general, he 
held aloof from political strife, but was, in 1862, defeated for Congress, and in 1876 
elected to the State Assembly. In politics, a Republican, he spoke frequently on 
public matters, was vehement in his loyalty, outspoken in his views, and emphatic, 
though courteous, in their expression. For several years after 1869, he lived in Paris. 
On the approach of the Prussian army, during the Franco-Prussian war, he was 
obliged to leave the city. As a Commissioner to the French Exposition, Mr. Cowdin 
made a report on silk culture which received much praise. In 1853, he married Sarah 
Katharine, daughter of Samuel Wallis Waldron, of Boston, and their six children were 
Katharine Waldron, wife of Gaspar Griswold; John Elliot Cowdin; Martha Waldron, 
wife of Robert Bacon; Winthrop Cowdin; Alice, wife of Hamilton L. Hoppin, and 
Elliot C. Cowdin. 

ALFRED ABERNETHY COWLES, manufacturer, born in Torrington, Conn., 
Sept. 28, 1845, is a son of George P. Cowles, vice-president of The Ansonia Brass & 
Copper Co., until his death in 1887, and springs from English and Scottish ancestry. 
His mother was a daughter of Gen. R. C. Abernethy, of Scottish descent. Educated 
in the schools of Connecticut and at the Sorbonne in Paris, he began life as teller in 
The Ansonia National Bank. Through service in various positions in this institution 
he gained a thorough knowledge of banking. In 1867, he entered the employment of 
The Ansonia Brass & Copper Co. , gave close attention to the business, took charge of 
the New York office, and has risen to be vice president and executive manager of the 
company. The Ansonia Clock Co., which he took an active part in organizing in 
1879, is now the largest establishment of its kind in the world. These two industries 
give employment to thousands of working people. Mr. Cowles has invested his savings 
largely in other industries, and is vice president of The Ansonia Clock Co. , president of 
The Birmingham Water Power Co., treasurer of The Ansonia Land & Water Power Co., 
and a director of other companies. In 1872, he was married to Miss Frances, daughter 
of William Bailey of Devonshire, England. Their children are Russel A. and Frederick H. 
Cowles. His clubs are the L T nion League, Fulton, Blooming Grove Park and Suburban. 

LOTTA M. CRABTREE, actress, while certainly not a successful man, is a very 
beautiful, worthy and successful woman. She was born in New York city, Nov. 7, 
1847. Her father kept a book store for many years in Nassau street, New York, went 
to California in 1851, and there engaged in gold mining. His wife and daughter 
followed in 1854. Lotta made her first appearance on the amusement stage in 1855, as 
a singer in an amateur entertainment at La Porte. At the age of eleven she plaved the 
part of Gertrude in the "Loan of a Lover," at Petaluma. Shortly afterward the mother 
and daughter both became members of a theatrical company, which travelled through 
California in 1860. The success of Lotta was very great. To a piquant and bewitch- 
ing manner, she joined vigorous health, a bright mind and dramatic ability; and when, 
in 1864, she appeared in New York city in spectacular plays at Niblo's Garden, her 
audiences were large and the receipts profitable. Her reputation was established first 


in John Brougham's " Little Nell and the Marchioness." She soon became a favorite 
with the American public, both in the large cities and the smaller towns, in comedy, 
and has usually played parts especially written for her. Her chief successes have been 
as "Topsy," " Sam Willoughby," "Firefly," "Zip," "Bob," "The Little Detective," 
and " Nitouche." Lotta is a good business woman, and has had the prudence to invest 
her earnings in real estate in New York city and Boston, the appreciation in value of 
which has made her rich. 

JACOB CRAfl, merchant and realty owner, born in Exeter, N. H.. about 1783, died 
in New York city, July 6, 1869. He was a classmate of Daniel Webster and Lewis 
Cass in the Exeter academy. He began the study of theology, but gave it up for a 
commercial life, entering a leading store in Boston. Gaining experience, to which he 
added by a tour of Europe, he returned and engaged in business on his own account. 
In 1816, he came to New York city, and was long known as a sound, upright, and 
enterprising merchant, gaining the confidence and esteem of the whole community. 
His fortune was invested mainly in uptown real estate, which rose enormously in value 
as the tide of population surged northwards over the island. He also owned property 
of this class in Chicago. Two sons, Henry C., and John Sergeant Cram, and two 
daughters survived him. 

WILLIAM CRAWFORD, dry goods merchant, born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, in 
' August, 1845, after attendance in the parish schools, began life as an apprentice in the 
dry goods store of Thomas Chalmers & Co., in Glasgow. In 1866, he came to America 
and found a clerkship with Hogg, Brown & Taylor, dry goods merchants, in Boston. 
Three years later, Scottish thrift enabled him to start a store of his own in Nashua, 
N. H. Later, he added branch stores in Manchester, N. H., and Taunton, Mass. At- 
tracted to New York by a favorable offer, he joined the firm of Richard Meares & Co., 
retail dry goods merchants, in September, 1877. He infused great energy into the 
affairs of the firm. In August, 1879, the house reorganized as Simpson, Crawford & 
Simpson, to succeed the business of Mr. Meares. Under the new firm, a highly suc- 
cessful dry goods business has been conducted, and the store on Sixth avenue is one of 
those which now form a necessary part of the route of ladies on a shopping tour. Both 
his partners have died, and Mr. Crawford is now sole proprietor, although retaining the 
previous name. He has joined the Manhattan, Lotus, Colonial, New York Athletic 
and Larchmont Yacht clubs. He is not married. 

RAMON FERNANDEZ CREADO Y GOMEZ, planter, born in Guines, Cuba, Dec. 
20, 1825, died in Havana, June 8, 1882. His father was Fernandez Creado, a planter of 
Spanish blood, owned large estates and was widely known and respected. While 
Spanish rule in Cuba-had been uninterrupted, it had been frequently disturbed by 
insurrections, many of which during Mr. Creado's boyhood and youth were extensive 
and serious. The island abounded with rumor and intrigue, and the elder Creado deter- 
mined to educate his son in the United States, where he could have the advantage of 
the finest facilities and political tranquility. Accordingly, about 1840, the young 
Cuban began his studies in St. Mary's College, Baltimore, where he spent several 
years. Of an ardent and earnest nature, he early became an admirer of the American 
republic and qualified as a citizen of the United States. This step, whether entirely 
due to admiration for his adopted country, or the result of the unsettled condition of 
Cuba, proved the means eventually of preserving his life and preventing the loss of his 


estate. Called home by the death of his father, Mr. Creado found himself an object of 
suspicion. Having quelled the rebellion, the rapacity of the Spanish authorities knew no 
bounds. They plundered and maltreated wealthy planters at will, and the mere charge 
of sympathy with the rebellion was sufficient justification for any excess. Conspicuous 
wealth made Mr. Creado an object of attack. It is true that he freed every slave in his 
possession and treated those belonging to the undivided estate with great kindness, and 
that, beholding the outrages to which his friends were subjected, he sympathized 
secretly with the struggle of the insurgents for liberty in 1868, but well understanding 
the futility of the catise, he gave it no countenance by word or deed. This, however, 
was immaterial. The Spanish authorities desired his large estate, proclaimed him a 
rebel, and ordered the confiscation of his property. Escaping to the United States, Mr. 
Creado proved his citizenship in the United States, and for many years with slender 
resources, he struggled in vain to secure his property, William M. Evarts acting as his 
counsel. After long correspondence between the State Department at Washington and 
the Spanish Government, the justice of Mr. Creado's contention was recognized, the 
decree against him was rescinded, and in 1877 his property was restored. As soon as 
he considered it safe, Mr. Creado returned to Cuba and occupied himself with the mani- 
fold requirements of his neglected property, which consisted not only of extensive plan- 
tations but also of large blocks of valuable real estate in Havana. On his plantation 
' Xeda," and wherever his influence could be felt, he introduced American improve- 
ments, and the American system of education. He also made every effort to compel 
the government to repay the income wrongfully appropriated during the years of his 
exile, but in this he failed. Mr. Creado made annual visits to New York, which he 
had learned by many years of residence to regard as home. He never married. 

JOHN DANIEL CRIMMINS, conspicuous as a contractor for the building of private 
and public works, descends from Irish stock, and was born in New York city, Ma)' 18, 
1844. His father, Thomas Crimmins, was a man of sound sense and great enterprise, 
who, having settled in New York in 1837, engaged in contract work in 1849, and retired 
from business in 1873, the possessor of a fortune. John gained his education in the 
public schools and St. Francis Xavier College, and then, at the age of sixteen, found 
occupation as a clerk in the office of his father. The vocation suited his enterprising 
nature, and he entered upon the master}- of all necessary details with ardor and ability. 
At the age of eighteen, he was made superintendent of his father's business, and at 
twenty was admitted as a partner, the firm name being Thomas Crimmins & Son. 

The contracts executed by the firm previous to this date were confined mainly to 
excavations, water front improvements, heavy foundations, etc. The influence of the 
junior partner was now seen in an extension of the operations of the firm to the con- 
struction of buildings under contract. The first work of this nature was performed in 
1866, and since that year more than 400 houses have been erected in various parts of 
the city. This branch of the business has always been under the direction of John D. 
Crimmins, and has given excellent scope for the power of organization, the foresight, 
energy and good management, which are characteristic traits of the man. The erec- 
tion of dwellings for others has led Mr. Crimmins into real estate transactions on his 
own account, and he has gradually become one of the largest operators in the city. 

The influence of Mr. Crimmins was also seen at an early day in the employment 
of machinery upon a large scale in making excavations. H e was the first contractor in 


New York city to adopt machinery for this purpose ; and his greater promptness in 
executing contracts and ability to perform the work at a reasonable compensation 
quickly resulted in a large increase of the general contract work of the firm. To a 
greater or less extent, Mr. Crimmins has now for thirty years been identified with all 
the large construction work projected in New York city, especially with operations 
requiring the highest degree of ability in the contractor. He accepts few if any con- 
tracts from the city. His work is almost wholly performed for corporations, estates 
and individuals. He laid the foundations for The Manhattan Railway, built the elec- 
trical subway, has laid many miles of gas mains, built the tank fotindations for various 
gas companies, and constructed the Broadway and the street railroads on Lexington, 
Lenox and Columbus avenues. 

Since 1873, he has been senior member and the leading spirit of the firm. Mr. 
Crimmins gives to every contract the closest personal attention, and has carried forward 
to a successful completion every enterprise in which he has been engaged. His work 
is thorough and satisfactory, and contracts are generally awarded to him without com- 
petition. He is one of the largest employers of labor in the city, seldom carrying fewer 
than 2,000 men upon his pay rolls, and often as many as 6,000. He has weathered every 
financial storm with skill, and has never missed a pay day or disappointed a creditor. 

His influence with his workmen is remarkable. Patient, an attentive and sym- 
pathetic listener, just in his conclusions, while at the same time ready to defend with 
reasonable argument his position against unwarranted demands, he has never failed to 
reach a friendly settlement of every dispute with his own men. He has frequently 
been called upon to serve as arbitrator in strikes, and in most cases has aided in adjust- 
ing differences to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. The principal office of the 
firm, at 50 East spth street, is to-day within half a mile of the spot where Mr. Crim- 
mins was born. 

Mr. Crimmins is now largely associated with street railroad enterprise in the city 
and is an important stockholder in The Metropolitan Traction Co., of the metropolis, 
and The Consolidated Traction Co., of Jersey City. He is allied with the progress, 
development and commercial life of the city at many points. A member of the 
Chamber of Commerce, he is a director in The Fifth Avenue Bank and The National 
Union Bank, president of The Essex & Hudson Land Improvement Co , and trustee 
of The North-Western Mutual Life Insurance Co. of Milwaukee. He is also a member 
of several boards of trustees of charities connected with the Roman Catholic church, and 
of the building committees of three of them, and has superintended the building of 
various convents, schools, asylums and churches, and the house of the Catholic Club. 

In politics, a Deniocwat, Mr. Crimmins has played some part in public affairs, 
although too busy a man to enter upon a political career. He was a Park Commis- 
sioner, 1883-88, and served at various dates as either president or treasurer of that 
board. At one time appointed by the President a member of the Board of Visitors to 
the Military Academy at West Point, he has also been a Presidential Elector and 
member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1894. He has also been a valued 
member of all the special committees of citizens, formed during the last ten years to 
represent the people of the city in public commemorations and the achievement of non- 
partisan objects, in which prominent people are accustomed to co-operate. He is one 
of the Executive Committee of the Prison Association. 


In manners, he unites courtesy and refinement with the thoroughness of discussion 
and quickness of decision of an experienced business man. Several of the best known 
business and social clubs of the city have elected him to membership, including the 
Manhattan, Lawyers', Democratic, Catholic, Players', Suburban, Stamford Yacht, and 
Building Trades; and he is also a contributor to the support of The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art and The American Museum of Natural History. 

April 1 5th, 1 868, he was married to Lily L. Lalor, a daughter of Martin Lalor. 
His family now consists of himself and eleven children. He maintains a city home at 
40 East 68th street, near Central Park, and in the summer dwells at his fine country 
seat of Firwood on the Sound, near Noroton, Conn. 

FREDERIC CROnWELL, treasurer of The Mutual Life Insurance Co., a man of 
notable personality and a valuable citizen, was born in the village of Cornwall on the 
Hudson, Feb. 16, 1843. He is a son of the late David Cromwell, who retired from 
business in New York city nearly sixty years ago and built a residence in Cornwall, 
where he died in 1857. The family is of English ancestry, tracing its descent from Col. 
John Cromwell, a brother of the Protector and third son of Richard Cromwell. John 
Cromwell, a son of John, emigrated from Holland to New Amsterdam, and in 1686 
resided at Long Neck in Westchester county, afterward known as Cromwell's Neck. 
Through his mother, Rebecca Bowman, the subject of this biography is descended from 
John Bowman, an Englishman, who died in 1661, and whose son Henry joined the 
Society of Friends in 1666. 

After a full experience in preparatory schools, Mr. Cromwell entered Harvard 
College, graduating in 1863. Of the following two years, the first was devoted to study 
of the law, the second to European travel. Every experience is useful to a man of 
retentive mind and progressive spirit, and while Mr. Cromwell preferred an active to a 
professional career, his legal studies proved of value to him in later years. In 1865, 
he established himself in the occupation of importing British cloths, relinquishing this 
in 1868, in order to devote more attention to other important interests. 

Mr. Cromwell was one of the originators of The People's Gas Light Co., of Brook- 
lyn, and in 1870 became its president. He was also interested in the gas companies of 
Baltimore, Md. His experience with the manufacture of illuminating gas led him, in 
1870, to remove to St. Louis, Mo , where he resided four years. There, under his 
direction, The Laclede Gas Light Co. constructed its works. He managed the company 
from its inception and until its affairs were placed upon a firm and profitable basis, one 
third of the gas used in the city being supplied by these works. After a year in 
Europe, he returned to Brooklyn in 1875, where he interested himself in a number of 
corporate enterprises. In conjunction with his brother-in-law, he purchased control of 
one of the street railroad companies of Brooklyn, and for several 3-ears directed the 
extension of the lines until an important system had grown into existence. 

The people of Brooklyn remember Mr. Cromwell with affection. While a very 
active business man, he was much interested in matters of public concern. When a 
Civil Service Reform Association was formed in Brooklyn, he became its first president, 
and afterward he served as a member of the first Civil Service Commission. Further, 
he was active in promoting the higher interests of the people of the city, especially 
those which center around The Brooklyn Art Association, which he served as president, 
and The Philharmonic Society, of which he was vice-president. 


It was in 1880, that Mr. Cromwell was chosen a trustee of The Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Co., one of the soundest financial institutions in the metropolis, which occupies 
the site of the old New York post office, formerly an historic church, on Nassau street. 
His services in the board resulted in his election, in 1884, to the responsible position 
of treasurer of the company. Great as are the interests centering- in the city of New 
York, it may be safely stated that no corporation among its numberless institutions 
places a heavier burden of trust and responsibility upon its financial officer than does 
The Mutual Life Insurance Co. All the loans of the company, running into the 
millions, fall under the guidance of the treasurer. To those unacquainted with the 
details of the operations of this corporation, an adequate idea of what it is to be its 
treasurer can only be given by citing a few figures. The assets of the company are 
$200,000,000 and its annual receipts and disbursements above $50,000,000, while loans 
have been made upon proper security to the amount of $75,000,000. These trans- 
actions, stupendous to the ordinary mind, require the supervision of a treasurer and 
board of directors, calm and sound in judgment, thoroughly acquainted with financial 
affairs, upright and beyond suspicion, and capable of untiring labor. It is a sufficient 
comment upon the personal quality of Mr. Comwell, to say that he holds the position 
of treasurer of this company, and has filled it for ten years to the eminent advantage of 
the interests he serves and the satisfaction of the trustees, of whom he is one. Upon 
accepting this position, Mr. Cromwell became a resident of New York city, spending his 
winters in town and dwelling during each summer upon his farm at Bernardsville, N. J. 

Mr. Cromwell is represented in many prominent financial institutions and bears 
an active part in their counsels. He is a director of The New York Guarantee & 
Indemnity Co , The National Union Bank, The Brooklyn Trust Co. , The Bank of New 
Amsterdam and other institutions, including The New York & East River Gas Co., 
which recently completed a tunnel under the East River. 

A man of fine presence, large, dark featured, courtly in demeanor, Mr. Cromwell 
enjoys the acquaintance of a wide circle of the choicest people of the city. He married 
Esther, daughter of Seymour L. Husted, and has had five children, of whom four are 
living, one son and three daughters. He is associated with several charities. 

He has joined a few clubs, including the Century, Metropolitan, University, 
Harvard and Down Town of this city, and the Hamilton of Brooklyn. 

WILLIAM BEDLOW CROSBY, realty owner, born in New York city, Feb. 7, 
1786, died here, March 18, 1865. His grandfather was Judge Joseph Crosby, his father 
Dr. Ebenezer Crosby, a leading physician of this city, while his mother was Catharine, 
daughter ot William Bedlow, whose family possessed Bedlow's Island in New York 
bay, and of Catharine Rutgers, daughter of Hendrick Rutgers. Left an orphan at the 
age of two, William entered the family of his great uncle, Col. Henry Rutgers, who 
adopted him as a son. By inheritance from his mother, the young man received a 
large share of the old Rutgers estate, which included the greater portion of the Seventh 
Ward in New York city and became very valuable. Mr. Crosby's time was greatly 
occupied with the care of his property. He found, however, both time and inclination 
to engage largely in philanthropic enterprises, taking an active interest in various soci- 
eties of a public character and giving liberally of his large means to colleges and 
charity. The American Bible Society especially enlisted his interest. In 1821, he 
became a life director, and in 1853, a vice-preside'nt. His father having rendered 


efficient service as a surgeon during the Revolution, William B. Crosby became oy vir- 
tue thereof a member of The Society of the Cincinnati. He was married, Feb. 7, 1807, 
to Harriet A., daughter of the Rev. William Clarkson, and grand daughter of William 
Floyd, a Signer of the Declaration of Independence. His children were William Henry, 
John Player, Robert Ralston, Clarkson Floyd, who died Feb. 22, 1858, Edward Nicoll, 
the Rev. Dr. Howard Crosby, a leading Presbyterian minister of New York city, Cath- 
arine Clarkson, Eliza Smedes, and Mary; and Clarkson, Anna Bancker, and Harman 
Rutgers, who died in infancy. Mrs. Crosby died Dec. 13, 1859. His son, JOHN 
PLAYER CROSBY, lawyer, born in New York city, May 22, 1810, died from heart 
failure while bathing off Fire Island on the Long Island coast, Sept. 19, 1876. Gradu- 
ating from Columbia College in 1827, he studied law and engaged in the active prac- 
tice of his profession until his death. He was first associated with R. M. Blatchford, a 
son of Judge Blatchford, afterward with F. F. Marbury. Yet later, he was a member 
of the firm of Crosby, Ostrander & Jones, and finally of Crosby, Hoffman & Crosby. 
During his later years, he attained especial prominence as referee and trustee of large 
estates. He belonged to the Bar Association and earnestly promoted the work of sev- 
eral religious and charitable institutions. Nearly all his life he served as an elder in 
the Presbyterian church. In February, 1835, Mr. Crosby married Ellen, daughter of 
John R. Murray. His wife died in May, 1836. In 1840, he married a daughter of the 
late Benjamin F. Butler, Attorney General during part of President Van Buren's admin- 
istration. Six sons and three daughters were born to him. Franklin Butler Crosby, one 
of his sons, was killed in the battle of Chancellorsville. Mr. Crosby was a man of 
singular frankness and courtesy, and his cordial and generous disposition drew about 
him a large number of warm friends. 

JEREMIAH CURTIS, manufacturer, born in Hampden, Maine, in 1804, died in New 
York city, March 24, 1883. While a young man, he established a bank in Calais, Me., 
and later built the first railroad in Maine, from Calais to Middletown, and accepted the 
Abolition nomination for governor of his State, being, however, defeated. He came 
: Xe\v York about 1863, and entered the drug business, in which he was remarkably 
successful. The owner of several formulas for medicines, he manufactured largely, 
and from the sale of Winslow's Soothing Syrup, Brown's Bronchial Troches, etc., 
amassed a large fortune. Several years before his death he retired from business, 
leaving the industry to the conduct of his sons. He was a man of estimable private 
character, and until age compelled him to retire, he was accustomed to gather around 
him a circle of choice friends. 

DON ALONZO CUSHflAN, merchant, born in Coventry, Conn., Oct. i, 1792, died 
in New York city, May i, 1875. The Cushman family was planted in America by 
Robert of that name, who, in June, 1620, chartered the Mayflower, which brought over 
the first company of Pilgrims, and who followed them to New England on the Fortune 
in the following November. Allerton Cushman of this line was a resident of Coven- 
try, Conn. His son, Minerva, one of the pioneers of Otsego county, N. Y., gave all 
of his children at least one name beginning with D, and his fifth son was Don Alonzo 
Cushman. Alonzo grew up on the Otsego county farm, gained what teaching he could 
in the country schools, and in 1805 entered a store in Cooperstown, N. Y., where he 
learned to sell dry goods and groceries. He took private lessons in arithmetic, became 
bookkeeper for Col. Russell Williams, and through the kindness of the latter secured a 



place in a retail dry goods store on Broadway, New York city, in 1810. He had saved 
up to that time just $17, and this small sum was soon consumed in New York. Here, 
thrown entirely on his own resources, he learned at the outset that frugality, industry 
and merit must be his sole reliance for success. During the War of 1812 he served 
three months in one of the forts of the harbor. In 1815, Charles Weed, his employer, 
sold his store on credit to Mr. Cushman and Archibald Falconer, and invested a few 
thousand dollars as their partner in Cushman & Falconer. The young merchant expe- 
rienced many and great trials at different times but by perseverance finally built up an 
immense trade, which after 1824 was confined to the wholesale branch of the business. 
The house finally became known as D. A. Cushman & Co. In 1855, Mr. Cushman re- 
tired. He was a pioneer in the development in the Chelsea district, extending a distance 
of several blocks on Ninth avenue above i4th street. Upon a large tract of land there 
he created a village of well-to-do families, and established his own dwelling on Ninth 
avenue, opposite the Episcopal Theological Seminary. Since his death, the house 
has been occupied by some of his family. This region, once an independent village, has 
since been swallowed up by the rush of population northwards, and is indistinguishable 
now from the rest of the densely inhabited region of which it is the center, except that 
it retains some of the characteristics of the older New York. Mr. Cushman was presi- 
dent of The Greenwich Savings Bank, and director in several insurance companies. 
Married in 1815 to Matilda C. S., daughter of Peter Ritter, thirteen children were 
born to him, Mary Matilda Falconer, wife of Philip F. Pistor, of this city; Alonzo 
Ritter; Catharine Ritter, wife of N. B. Smith, of New Orleans; Caroline Thomas, wife 
of James Talman Waters; John Henry Hobart; Angelica B., wife of Gustavus W. 
Faber; Emily A., wife of George Wilcoxson, of Nyack; Archibald Falconer, Ephraim 
Holbrook, James Stewart and William Floyd Cushman. Julia Josephine and Elizabeth 
Emeline died while young. -JAflES STEWART CUSHHAN, fifth of the six sons of 
Don Alonzo Cushman, born in New York, Nov. 19, 1836, died Nov. 25, 1894. He was 
educated in the Columbia College grammar school, and began life as clerk for Reed, 
Drexel & Co. He started in business for himself in the stock brokerage firm of Cush- 
man & Gignoux, who were succeeded by Christmas, Cushman & Hurlbut, and later 
by Cushman & Hurlbut. A member of the Stock Exchange and one of the original 
members of the Gold Board, he became prominent as a stock broker and operator in 
Wall street, but withdrew about 1880 to confine his attention to the management of real 
estate inherited from his father. He was a man of solid and sincere character, influen- 
tial, well known and universally respected. Although fond of fine horses and the owner 
of several, he was too conservative to become greatly addicted to the race track. He 
dwelt in his father's old mansion on Ninth avenue, where he maintained the Chelsea 
traditions and hospitable customs for which the homestead was famous. His clubs 
were the Union League, New York and New York Athletic. 

FRANCIS BROCKHOLST CUTTING, an eminent lawyer, born in New York in 
1805, died here June 26, 1870. He was a son of William Cutting, lawyer, and grand- 
son of the Rev. Leonard Cutting, proprietor of a noted grammar school. Graduating 
from Columbia College, he entered the law and advanced in the arduous labors of this 
profession to great distinction, largely on account of his profound acquaintance with 
commercial law. From 1840 to 1855, few cases were tried in the metropolis, involving 
this branch of legal knowledge, in which Mr. Cutting was not retained as leading coun- 


sel. He found time to take an active interest in politics, and frequently gave the Demo- 
cratic party the benefit of his talents as a public speaker. During- 1836 and 1837, he 
represented New York city in the State Assembly. The sessions were exciting and 
Mr. Cutting held a conspicuous place in the debates. In 1853-55, he represented one 
of the New York city districts in Congress. Kansas and Nebraska were leading topics 
at that time. Mr. Cutting refused to follow the lead of the pro-slavery Southern Con- 
gressmen who controlled their part}", and he became involved in a personal quarrel with 
John C. Breckinridge, which was finally adjusted without a duel. At the outbreak of 
the war, he supported the Union as a War Democrat vigorously, and aided the second 
election of Lincoln, thereafter retiring from politics to follow his profession. Wealth 
came to him in part by inheritance from his father, who was the principal owner of 
the old Brooklyn Steamboat Co., whose boats plied as a ferry between New York and 
Brooklyn, and from his mother, Gertrude, daughter of Walter Livingston of Living- 
ston Manor. He added to his means, however, in the practice of the law and by invest- 
ments in local real estate. He was esteemed as a man of fine intellect, graceful accom- 
plishments and kindly manners. His son, Gen. William Cutting is now the only 
survivor of his children, two other sons, Heyward and Brockholst, having died. 

ROBERT LIVINGSTON CUTTING, sr., son of the late William Cutting, born in 
New York, in February, 1812, died in New York, Feb. 25, 1887. He graduated from 
Columbia College, and afterward established himself in a stock brokerage business in 
Wall street. Attractive and winning in manner, clear headed and capable, he was 
associated with some of the giants of Wall street in various stock operations and notably 
aided Commodore Yanderbilt in large transactions, when the latter began to deal in 
the stocks of The Harlem and Hudson River Railroads. He was, in 1865, president of 
the Stock Exchange. Aided by inheritance, he became a man of fortune. About 
1870, he retired from business, and six years before his death, sold his seat in the 
Stock Exchange. He was prominent in the social and club life of the town, a member 
of the Union Club, a stockholder in the Academy of Music and a promoter of grand 
opera. In 1871, he joined the Committee of Seventy and labored efficiently for the 
overthrow of the Tweed ring. In 1835, he was married to Juliana, daughter of James 
DeWolf, of Bristol, R. I., and was survived by two children, Robert L. Cutting, jr., and 
Walter, who lives in Pittsfield, Mass. His son, ROBERT LIVINGSTON CUTTING, 
broker and banker, born in this city, July 2, 1836, died here, Jan. 13, 1894. He was 
educated at Columbia College, graduating in 1856, and fitted himself for the law, but 
finally entered the stock brokerage business with his father. He became a member 
of the Stock Exchange, May 13, 1864, and later special partner in the firm of John 
Benjamin Lee & Co., which succeeded his own. At the time of his death, he held 
a similiar interest in Lee, Livingston & Co. Mr. Cutting was one of the best known 
men in social life in New York. He belonged to the Union, Metropolitan, Knicker- 
bocker, Manhattan, New York Athletic, Racquet, Tuxedo and Delta Phi clubs, and 
the Alumni Association of Columbia College. He was handsome and commanding 
in appearance, a prominent patron of the opera, a stockholder in the Academy of 
Music and Metropolitan Opera House, and an epicure of wide reputation, while at the 
same time a generous giver to charity and a regular contributor to the support of many 
public institutions. His wife, Judith E. Moale, of Baltimore, a sister of Mrs. I. Town- 
send Burden, and two sons, James De Wolf and Robert L. Cutting, survived him. 


CHARLES FREDERICK DAflBMANN, merchant, a native of Wiesbaden, Ger- 
many, died June 26, 1868, in this city, at the age of fifty-five. The family had made 
their home in Wiesbaden for generations and were reputable traders and merchants. 
The subject of this memoir might have made his mark in the fatherland, because his 
friends noted in him from youth the spirit of enterprise, clearness of vision and origin- 
ality of thought; but these very qualities led him, after a short experience in a mercan- 
tile clerkship, to come to America while a young man and seek the enlarged opportunities 
of the new world. He. was a born merchant, and after a modest beginning in New 
York city, he established his own business, and in the firm of C. F. Dambmann & Co., 
importers of laces, velvets and kindred fabrics, won a pronounced success. The house 
first occupied a store on Park Row, later on Franklin street. In due time, when large 
means had come to him in consequence of the prudent and energetic prosecution of his 
trade, he made numerous investments of his capital in corporations. Mr. Dambmann 
was connected with The National Park Bank, various gas companies and other cor- 
porations, and aided in founding The Continental Insurance Co. , and The Continental 
Bank, being a director of both until his death. A well educated man, he joined various 
German societies and clubs, whose members esteemed him highly for his soundness of 
judgment, well informed mind and probity. By his marriage with Sarah, daughter 
of George Long, book publisher, he had four children, George John Adolph Damb- 
mann; Louisa, wife of Gustave Cambefort, now living in Lyons; and Charles Frederick 
William D. Dambmann, jr., a resident of Baltimore, Md. , and another now deceased. 

CHARLES ANDERSON DANA, editor, of The New York Sun, was born in Hins- 
dale, N. H., Aug. 8, 1819. The first of the family, Jacob Dana, came from France 
to Boston about 1640, in consequence of the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and 
Daniel Dana, great grandfather of Charles, was killed in the massacre of Wyoming. 
His father, a country merchant, failed while Charles was a boy, and the latter left 
school at the age of ten. A year or two later, the youth began life in Buffalo -as clerk 
in a dry goods store, where he stayed several years. Having fitted himself for college 
under many discouraging circumstances, he entered Harvard in 1839 and remained 
until the end of the sophomore year, when serious trouble with his eyes compelled him 
to abandon the idea of finishing his college course. Later he obtained his full degree. 

In 1842, led by sentiment, Mr. Dana became one of those philanthropic souls, who 
engaged in the famous experiment at Brook Farm, being associated therein with 
George Ripley, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Theodore Parker, Margaret Fuller, George 
William Curtis, William Henry Channing and others, who afterwards rose to distinc- 
tion. These philosophers strove for a high plane of social and intellectual life, but 
Mr. Dana was their only practical man and the experiment finally came to an end. 

A close thinker, sound in his reasoning, and capable of expressing himself in 
forcible language, Mr. Dana, then at the age of twenty-seven, began writing for The- 
Chronotype of Boston, receiving during a year and a half the munificent salary of $5 
a week He had had previous experience upon The Harbinger, devoted to reform and 
general literature, and now learned the requirements of a daily newspaper. In 1847, 


he came to New York, procured the place of city editor on THE TRIBUNE at $10 a week, 
subsequently raised to $14, and made his mark at once. In 1848, he spent eight 
months in Europe as a correspondent, and upon his return in 1849, became managing 
editor of THE TRIBUNE at 20 a week and one of its stockholders. This position he retained 
for fifteen years, his compensation being increased until it reached $50 a week. Mr. 
Dana brought the force of tremendous energy into the operations of THE TRIBUNE, and 
labored diligently with Mr. Greeley to arrest the extension of slavery to the Territories 
and to oppose the acquisition of any foreign domain, which should increase the area 
of American soil devoted to slave holding. He was especially hostile to the repeal 
of the Missouri compromise and the attempt to fasten slavery upon Kansas and 
Nebraska. Between Mr. Dana and his chief, there long existed a most intimate 
friendship and the spirit of harmonious co-operation. In 1861, Mr. Dana spent con- 
siderable time in Albany in an almost successful but finally fruitless effort to secure 
the election of Mr. Greeley as United States Senator. The outbreak of the Civil War 
led to a disagreement between the two men, and Mr. Dana resigned. 

Called, thereupon, to the service of his country in the War Department in Wash- 
ington, and employed by Secretary Stanton in special work, his efficiency resulted in 
his appointment as Assistant Secretary of War in 1863. For the duties of this office, 
he was fitted not only by natural force and a capacity for untiring labor, but by his 
trained judgment of men and measures, and accurate information of affairs. Both the 
President and Mr. Stanton relied greatly upon Mr. Dana during this period ; and it is 
recollected that the latter's confidence in the abilities of General Grant was very influ- 
ential in saving that rising officer, at one time, from a concerted effort on the part of 
his opponents to destroy his prestige and promotion. Mr. Dana spent some time at the 
front during the war and rode in the saddle during the campaigns about Vicksburg 
and Chattanooga and in those in Virginia during 1864-65. 

After the war, Mr. Dana edited The Chicago Republican for a short time, which 
failed, owing to no fault of the editor, and in 1867 he returned to New York to enter 
upon a career of intrepid endeavor and phenomenal success. With a few friends, he 
bought from Moses Y. Beach The New York Sun, an independent daily newspaper of 
the Democratic faith, whose first number under the new management was issued Jan. i, 
1868. Nearly thirty years have elapsed and Mr. Dana is yet in charge. One of the 

equipped, ablest and most trenchant w r riters in American journalism, he has made 
the editorial page of his paper famous for its force, purity of diction, and individuality. 
The Sun has become a tremendous power both in attack and defense. His warfare 
upon General Grant, by whom he considered himself affronted, was one of the most 
remarkable to which a prominent man in America was ever exposed. His criticisms 
of the administration, while General Grant was president, exposed Mr. Dana to an 
attempt in July, 1873, to t^ 6 hi m to Washington for trial in a police court for libel. 
The enterprise was frustrated, however, Judge Blatchford of the United States Dis- 
trict Court in New York city refusing a warrant on the ground that the proposed form 
of trial was unconstitutional. 

Mr. Dana spends his winters in New York and his summers at Dosoris, an island 
near Glen Cove on the Long Island coast of the Sound. He finds happiness in direct- 
ing the operations of his paper, and recreation in the society of his library, rather than 
in social life. He is a charming, dignified and always instructive and entertaining 


public orator, and graces every occasion when he is present as a speaker. In conver- 
sation, in editorial work, and in utterances from the platform, he is concise, forcible, 
and entertaining in expression, and always impatient of cant and verbosity. By virtue 
of lineal descent, he is a member of The Sons of the American Revolution, and has 
been their Vice President General. He also belongs to the New England Society. 

He was married March 2, 1846, to Eunice Macdaniel, and has four children, Zoe, 
Ruth, Paul and Eunice. 

A number of books have issued from his pen, including " The Black Ant," a 
volume of stories, translated from the German; a Life of General Grant, in collabora- 
tion with Gen. James H. Wilson; and the " Household Book of Poetry," a charming 
collection, of which many editions have been printed. With Rossiter Johnson, he also 
edited " Fifty Perfect Poems," and with George Ripley he planned, in 1855, and edited 
the " New American Cyclopedia," published by the Appletons. 

ALFRED B. DARLING, the senior proprietor of The Fifth Avenue Hotel, for many 
years the most famous and successful of American houses for the accommodation of 
travellers, is the direct descendant of an English sea captain, who came to the new 
world from Darlington in the north of England and settled in Kingston, N. H., about 
the year 1660. Many of the family name had been seafaring men, captains of mer- 
chant vessels, but in the new world they adapted themselves to the occupations of the 
pioneers of a new country, and many attained eminence in the various walks of life. 
Their ancestor, the settler of Kingston, had a large family and all the Darlings in 
A.merica are believed to be his descendants. 

One of the sons of the English sea captain was Lieut. John Darling, born at 
Salisbury, Mass., in 1714. His son, Peter, born July i, 1752, married and settled at 
Hopkinton, N. H. The latter's son, Major Ebenezer Darling, the father of Alfred 
B. Darling, settled in Caledonia county, Vt., was a soldier in the War of 1812 and after- 
ward a Major in the State militia. He represented his town three times in the Legis- 
ture and otherwise took prominent part in public affairs. 

Alfred B. Darling was born March 23, 1821, in Burke, Vt. At the age of fourteen 
he left home to live with his uncle, Timothy Fisher, a successful farmer, with whom he 
remained until twenty-one years of age. Mr. Fisher became so much attached- to the 
young man that he proposed to deed to him the farm they were cultivating, Alfred, in 
return, to take care of the old people while they lived. But Mr. Darling's views of 
life and its opportunities led him to seek a wider field of activity and usefulness. 

An expedition to Boston by the two men, both driving teams loaded with produce 
of the farm, changed the whole current of Mr. Darling's life, as many another unim- 
portant incident has opened a new career and brought fortune to others of America's 
successful men. Arriving at Charlestown Neck, the two men stopped at the inn 
established in earlier years by the Hon. James Sullivan, a sturdy promoter of the 
American Revolution, a writer and in 1807 Governor of Massachusetts. The proprietor 
of the house gained a great liking for Mr. Darling during their brief stay at the inn, 
and the result was that the latter left the farm and went to the hotel on Charlestown 
Neck for the period of two and a half years. There he formed those plans which 
he has steadfastly followed and which have made him in later years one of the most 
famous hotel proprietors in the world. 

He removed next to Boston, where he was employed by Paran Stevens, the lead- 


ing man of his profession, in the old Revere House, famous in that day as a hostelry 
for eminent men, notable among them being Daniel Webster. 

In 1852, Mr. Darling became associated with Mr. Stevens, as partner, in the man- 
agement of the Battle House in Mobile, Ala., then one of the finest and most costly 
hotels in the South. 

It ^Yas finally resolved to engage in the hotel business in New York city. The 
Fifth Avenue Hotel was then in process of construction. Mr. Darling came to New 
York in 1858, before the roof had been placed on the building. In 1859, a partnership 
was formed between Paran Stevens, Hiram Hitchcock and Mr. Darling, under the title 
of Hitchcock, Darling & Co., and the firm leased the hotel which was destined in follow- 
ing years to shelter more men of public and social distinction than any other in the 
United States. 

In 1867,- the interest of Mr. Hitchcock having been bought by Mr. Griswold, the 
firm name was changed to Darling, Griswold & Co. ; but in 1879, Mr. Hitchcock bought 
back his interest, and the old name was re-adopted and has ever since been retained. 

The Fifth Avenue Hotel has been a remarkably successful house. Owing to good 
management, the comfort of the hotel, its excellent table, its location upon the beauti- 
ful Madison Square at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and Broadway, and its nearness 
to the shopping region, the hotel not only soon became the resort of travellers of 
fashion and social position from all parts of the United States and Europe, but also the 
favorite abiding place in the town of public men. The successive registers of this great 
hotel bear upon their pages the autographs of nearly every eminent American and 
European who has visited New York since 1859 They form a historical record of im- 
posing interest. The stories of entertaining and important incidents in the history of 
the house would fill a volume. Political committees have made the place their head- 
quarters for years, and in spite of the modern rage for the construction of gigantic and 
beautiful hotels in other parts of the city, the old Fifth Avenue, under its experienced 
proprietors, retains its prestige unshaken. 

Mr. Darling is a man of decided convictions and of broad views upon all questions 
of public interest. He has attained a high position, and has become one of the sub- 
stantial men and highly esteemed citizens of the metropolis, because of his inherent 
force of character and business ability. His fortune has been bravely and honestly 
earned by a life of untiring industry. Mr. Darling has served from time to time as 
director in important institutions, among them being The Second National Bank, The 
Fifth Avenue Safe Deposit Co., The Union Dime Savings Bank, etc. He is one of the 
earlier members of the Union League club and of The New England Society. All 
patriotic and honorable causes receive his sympathy and approval. 

JAHES DARRAQH, merchant, born in Lurgan, Ireland, in 1827, died in Cairo, 
Egypt, in December, 1889. He emigrated to America while a boy and found employ- 
ment in New York city in the manufacture of coir mats and matting. Learning that 
labor was low in price in India and that mats could be woven there at the smallest ex- 
pense, he sailed for Aleppy on the west coast of Malabar, where, although beginning 
with small means, he gradually developed a factory, employing a thousand natives in 
this industry. He spoke the native language with fluency, made friends among the high 
caste residents, was kind to the poor, and acquired such influence as to earn the title of 
"King of the Coast." The house in this city took the name of Darragh & Smail, in 


consequence of the admission of Henry Smail, a son-in-law, to partnership. Mr. Dar- 
ragh was the first person to manufacture cotton spool thread in Travancore. His mill 
at Quilon cost $350,000 to build and gave employment to 1,500 natives and a few ex- 
pert Europeans. The Maharajah and his cabinet opened the mill with formal cere- 
monies. Mr. Darragh's family consisted of his wife and two daughters, the latter 
being Mary, wife of Henry Smail, and Ellen, wife of John McStay of Belfast, Ireland. 

BOWIE DASH, merchant, born July i, 1834, on Varick street, opposite old St. 
John's Park in this city, died on his farm at Kingsbridge, Sept. 28, 1895. He was the 
ninth child of Daniel Bowie and Anzonetta Burke Dash, and grandson of John Balthus 
and Ann Bowie Dash, all natives of this city. He first attended the private school of 
Mr. Greenough and then the University of the City of New York, and received a busi- 
ness training in the firm of Wolfe & Gillespie, hardware merchants. In 1860, he mar- 
ried Louisa Scott, daughter of William Scott, a coffee merchant well known in business 
and church circles, and, by her, had seven children. One son and two daughters 
are now living. Mr. Dash happened to be in Montgomery, Ala. , when Jefferson Davis 
was inaugurated President of the Southern Confederacy, going there against the advice 
of John Sherman and others, who said that he would risk his life. Mr. Dash advised 
his firm of Wolfe, Dash & Fisher, to accept cotton in payment of their claims against 
Southern merchants, but this they decided not to do. Mr. Dash was a Democrat in 
politics, becoming a strong Republican thereafter. Unable to enlist in the Union 
army, he gave his time to raise money to equip a regiment of volunteers, and succeeded 
Charles Strong as treasurer of the Ladies' Union Bazaar. Forty thousand dollars 
passed through his hands for the benefit of the families of New York soldiers. About 
1865, Mr. Dash succeeded the firm of Scott & Wisner, under the firm name of Scott & 
Dash, and afterward became a large importer of fine teas and coffees, continuing in 
active business until his death. In his enterprise he met with the varied success and 
adversity experienced by all merchants. He was honest, capable and constantly 
sought for as an arbiter by his fellow merchants. Several times, he served as foreman 
of grand juries and was untiring in his efforts to secure justice for all men. One of 
the vestryman of Trinity Church, he served that corporation with zeal and loyalty, and 
was also a vestrymen of the Church of the Mediator at Kingsbridge, where he made 
his home on a farm of sixty acres, cut in half by Broadway and adjoining Riverdale 
avenue and Van Cortlandt Park. He belonged to The Sons of the Revolution and the 
Down Town association; and was a man who pleased not himself but labored for the 
welfare of his city and country and of his generation. 

JOHN BALTHASAR DASH, merchant,^, born in New York city, Aug. 12, 1818, 
died here, May n, 1888. The son of Daniel Bowie and Anzonetta B. Dash, and grand- 
son of John B. Dash, a hardware merchant transacting business at No 145 Broadway, 
he was educated at Mr. Pond's school in Westchester, N. Y., and left his studies at the 
death of his father to go to London for a training in the hardware business. He 
entered the house of Jacob & Co., and under the care of Joseph Farrell, with whom he 
lived, remained in London a suitable time, and then returned to New York. Here he 
took charge of his father's business and estate, consisting of property at 145 Broad- 
way and 86-88 Liberty street, which has now been a family possession for more than a 
hundred years, and at 70 Cortlandt street, and 219 Fulton street. He was at one 
time with Wolfe & Bishop, hardware merchants, and later a partner in Wolfe Dash & 


Fisher. A conservative man, a good financier, and a rare judge of real estate, honest, 
and of the highest character, he prospered greatly in his business affairs, and was 
greatly respected. Property which he purchased near Kingsbridge has since grown 
valuable. He never married, and was for thirty years a member of the Union club. 
He attended Trinity chapel on West 25th street. Upon his death his estate was left to 
his brother and sisters, Bowie Dash, Mrs. Margaret B. Bininger, Mrs. Anzonetta B. 
Wolfe, and Arabella B., wife of Walter H. Lewis. 

JOHN DAVIDSON, lawyer, was born in Berwickshire, Scotland, March i, 1837. 
He is the son of George Patterson Davidson, a merchant in Berwick-on-Tweed. John 
came to America when ten years of age. He attended the College of the City of New 
York, studied law with William R. Stafford, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. He 
has conducted a large and profitable practice in New York city for thirty years, largely 
in the field of real estate law. He has bought land and built houses in New York, 
Brooklyn, and elsewhere, and has large interests in The Sherwood Park and other land 
companies, The New York & West Shore, The Northern Pacific and other railroads. 
He has been active in Republican politics in New Jersey. Important public positions 
were offered to him by Presidents Lincoln and Grant, but declined. Interested in 
philanthropic work, Mr. Davidson has served as superintendent of a Sabbath School 
in Elizabeth, N. J., for nearly thirty years. In 1860, he married Adelia S. Wait, of 
Perth Amboy, N. J. They have one son, William Newcomb Davidson, and two daugh- 
ters, Jenny, wife of Prof. Hibben, of Princeton University, and Margaret Newcomb 
Davidson. His home is in Elizabeth, N. J., but he has joined the Republican and 
other clubs of New York city. 

JAJ1ES MORGAN DAVIS, stock broker, was born on Staten Island, April 10, 1837. 
Always from youth intelligent and progressive, he left the Episcopal Collegiate Insti- 
tute, determined to make his way. After an apprenticeship as clerk in the office of a 
Wall street firm, he joined the Stock Exchange in February, 1860. A partner of Will- 
iam R. Travers for three years, he retired in 1863, but subsequently entered the firm 
of Work, Davis & Barton. In 1873, he formed the well known firm of Davis & Free- 
man. Mr. Davis has been active in the development of Staten Island, especially in The 
Staten Island Rapid Transit Railroad. He belongs to the Metropolitan and New York 
Yacht clubs. By his marriage with Mary D. Hazard in Brooklyn in 1874, he has three 
children, Morgan, Edythe and Anna Davis. 

HENRY DAY, lawyer, a native of South Hadley, Mass., born Dec. 25, 1820, died 
in New York city, Jan. 9, 1893. He came from old New England stock, some of his 
ancestors figuring as "minute men" during the American Revolution. The family 
were not rich in this world's goods, and a brother, the Rev. Pliny Da}-, assisted in the 
education of Henry by sending him to school at Deny. By his own labor, he then 
earned enough money to enter Yale College, whence he graduated in 1845, supporting 
himself while studying there by teaching at Fairfield, Conn. One of his pupils was his 
future brother-in-law, George De Forest Lord. After graduation from the Law School 
at Harvard, Mr. Day came to New York city, where in 1849 he married Miss Phebe L., 
daughter of Daniel Lord, the latter taking him into partnership in the firm of Lord, 
Day & Lord. Through the possession of marked ability, Mr. Day became a noted law- 
yer and a prominent figure in the social life of the city. An associate of Henry B. Hyde 
in the organization of The Equitable Life Assurance Society, he was elected attorney 


and director of the Society, and was also director of The Consolidated Gas Co. , The 
Mercantile Trust Co., and The Lawyers' Title and Guarantee Co. Various important 
estates were entrusted to him, including those of S. F. B. Morse and William Morgan. 
For many years he managed the legal affairs of the Astor estate. Religious mat ers in- 
terested him greatly, and he took an active part in the councils of the Presbyterian 
church, accepting the place of director of the Union Theological Seminary and defend- 
ing Dr. Briggs in his controversy with the church authorities. Formerly devoted to the 
"old school" branch of the Presbyterian church, he earnestly advocated union between 
the old and new schools, and when this was effected, in 1869, he drafted the articles. 
Mr. Day wrote much for publication, among his works being "The Lawyer Abroad" 
and "From the Pyrenees to the Pillars of Hercules." At his death, he was the sole 
surviving member of the original law firm of Lord, Day & Lord. The Union League 
and Reform clubs both enrolled him a member. He was survived by his wife and three 
children, George Lord Day, Sarah Lord, wife of R. H. McCormick, of Chicago, and 
Miss Susan De Forest Day. 

FREDERICK DE BARY, merchant, born in Frankfort, Germany, Jan. 12, 1815, is 
of Huguenot descent. His father, Christian De Bary, was a banker in Frankfort. 
Frederick began life as salesman for a large manufacturer of dry goods. In 1852, he 
established himself in this city as agent of G. H. Mumm & Co. 's champagne and other 
high class wines. He has been very successful, and since 1869, when Adolph De Bary, 
a son, was admitted to partnership, has displayed the firm name of F. De Bary & Co. 
He is the proprietor of several orange groves in Florida and other real estate, is 
closely devoted to business, and derives his prosperity from concentration and unceas- 
ing enterprise. In 1843, ne was married to Julia Scherpenhausen. To them have 
been born two children, Adolphe De Bary and Mrs. Eugenie von Mauch. 

ALFRED DE CORDOVA, stock broker, born Aug. 19, 1848, on the island of 
Jamaica, is a descendant of Gen. Gonzalvo de Cordova, who annexed Grenada to Spain 
and stood in high favor at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella. His education, begun 
in the West Indies, was finished in New York city, whither he removed early in 
life. First a broker in petroleum, he purchased a seat in the Stock Exchange in, 1875, 
and his firm of Alfred de Cordova & Son have since been successful in the brokerage 
of stocks. In 1894, he was elected a governor of the Exchange. Possessing some- 
thing of the enterprise of his military ancestor, Mr. de Cordova is fond of yachting, 
fine horses, and carrier pigeons. A large trotting horse farm in New Jersey affords 
him both pleasure and health. He has been elected to membership in the Lotus, Mer- 
chants', Manhattan, Colonial, New York, Lajchmont Yacht, American Yacht, New 
York Athletic, Suburban, Cuttyhunk, Riding and Driving clubs, and was the first com- 
modore of the American Yacht club. He was married to Mrs. Helene Louise Schroe- 
der-Loweree, Aug. 19, 1889, at the Church of the Heavenly Rest. 

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT DE FOREST, born in New York city, Aug. 16, 1818, 
of good old Dutch stock, died here Nov. 9, 1887. He was the son of John De Forest 
and of Charlotte Vanderbilt, oldest sister of Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt. After 
receiving a common school education on Staten Island, where his parents settled during 
his early childhood, he was apprenticed to his cousin, Cornelius Simonson, a ship- 
builder. On reaching manhood, he returned to New York and engaged in various en- 
terprises with more or less success, until he finally settled upon the manufacturing of 


machinery oils, in which business he continued for many years, becoming widely known 
through all the manufacturing districts of New England. In 1863, he acquired a for- 
tune in Wall street through the good offices of the Commodore, who always looked upon 
him as a favorite nephew and felt for him a strong attachment. Mr. De Forest remained 
almost constantly at the bedside of his uncle during the latter's last illness, comforting and 
cheering him to such a degree, that the Commodore desired his continual presence. Dur- 
ing this illness Mr. De Forest's mother contracted a heavy cold, which soon developed 
pneumonia and her death followed that of the Commodore within about twenty-four hours. 
Having retired from the oil business, he accepted the position of purchasing agent of The 
New York Central Railroad, and for thirteen years served the road with the strictest in- 
tegrity, doing his best for the corporation and receiving on his retirement, which was due 
to impaired health, most flattering testimonials from the officers of the road. In 1879, 
he withdrew from active business, retaining an interest in the firm of Colbron, Chauncey 
& Co. of Wall street. Always a lover of good horses, he enjoyed for many years his 
daily brush on the road with Frank Work, Joseph Marker, Wm. Turnbull, Wm. H. 
Vanderbilt and other owners of fine horses. In early life, he married Miss Katherine 
Rice, daughter of a sea captain of Nantucket and of old Dutch stock through her 
mother who was a Van Pelt. Mr. De Forest left an unblemished record and possessed 
the sincere affection of hundreds to whom he was always ready to extend a helping 
hand, being of a most genial and kindly nature. He left a son, now living in the West, 
and a daughter, Isabel De Forest, the wife of Wm. T. Colbron of New York. 

HENRY P. DE QRAAF, merchant and banker, born in Herkimer, N. Y., Nov. 24, 
1825, is of old Holland Dutch descent. Remarkable even in youth for stature, at the 
age of fourteen, when he first left home, he had already grown to be over six feet in 
height. Ambitious to make his way in the world, he learned the cabinet maker's trade 
in Little Falls, and in three years' time Young & Co pronounced him the best of their 
sixty workmen. Mr. De Graaf practiced the trade for several years in Albany and 
Canajoharie. In 1849, he went to California in a ship so crowded that there was not 
space enough for the whole company to sleep at once. Arriving in San Francisco 
after a voyage of six months and mine days, he proceeded to the mines. While pros- 
pecting for gold, he was induced by the high price of provisions, pork then selling at 
$2 a pound, to hunt for game and sell the meat to the miners. He received 70 cents a 
pound for venison and a share of the profits of the miners whom he supported, and 
gained a little capital in this occupation. A thirteen months' stay in California com- 
pletely satisfied the young New Yorker, and in 1851, he resumed the cabinet maker's 
trade in Canajoharie. Later, he again visited California, and opened the pioneer ship 
chandler)' store of San Francisco. This venture was successful. In 1852, he came to 
Xe\v York city, and found work in the furniture shop of the firm of Wentworth & Sons, 
and thereafter for many years followed this honest calling. Honest, competent, untir- 
ing, an excellent workman, and able to deny himself unnecessary luxuries, he gained 
sufficient capital to venture in business alone, and in 1857, he started a furniture factory 
of his own on Pearl street. This enterprise was profitable from the start, although 
exposed to keen competition from a rival store adjoining. The firm of De Graaf & 
Taylor, founded in 1860, moved to the Bo%very, and in a few years attained great 
importance. In 1865, this firm shipped a large amount of furniture of their own mak- 
ing to the Pacific coast. The consignee refusing to accept the goods, De Graaf & Taylor 


promptly established their own branch store in San Francisco. They gained the point 
they had in view, and then, in 1867, sold the store. In New York city, their trade 
gradually attained large proportions and brought to its enterprising proprietors ample 
rewards. When Mr. De Graaf was elected president of The Bowery Bank, he placed 
his oldest son in charge of his interests in De Graaf & Taylor, and has ever since given 
his attention to the bank. Upon the death of his son, Mr. De Graaf sold his interest in 
the factory, which is continued by The De Graaf & Taylor Furniture Co. Mr. De Graaf 
has been once around the world and has crossed the Isthmus of Panama three times, 
and visited portions of Central and South America, as well as Europe. He spends his 
winters in New York city, his summer home being at Oscawana near the Hudson 
river. By his. marriage in 1843 with Amanda M. Lloyd, of Canajoharie, he had two 
sons and a daughter. 

HENRY DELAFIELD, merchant, born at his father's beautiful country seat on the 
East River, now forming a part of Long Island City, N. Y., July 19, 1792, died in this 
city, Feb. 15, 1875. His father, John Delafield, who had removed from London to New 
York in 1783, was the eldest lineal representative of his family, who for centuries had 
been prominent proprietors in the shires of Buckingham and Oxford. Henry prepared 
for Yale College, but, impatient to enter upon business life, gave up a collegiate course. 
After a few years of experience in subordinate capacities, he founded, with his twin 
brother William, the firm of H. & W. Delafield, and conducted an extensive foreign 
trade with England, India, China, South America, and later with the West Indies. At 
one time the firm owned the largest merchantman, flying the American flag, sailing 
from the port of New York. The great fire of 1835, with the consequent ruin of all 
except two of the insurance companies, reduced their large fortune to such an extent, 
that they practically had to begin business life anew. Again, . they met with well de- 
served success. Both brothers were highly esteemed and were identified as directors or 
officers with many corporations. Both served as privates in the war of 1812 in Captain 
Swartwout's Iron Grays. When Faustin Soulouque was established as Emperor of 
Haiti, Henry was appointed Consul for that country in New York, retaining the office 
during the Emperor's reign and a part of that of his successor, President Jeff rard. Early 
in the century he inherited a life interest in the Baker estate, a property of over forty 
acres on the East River, near what is now 75th street, and almost opposite his birth- 
place on the other shore. This was his summer home, until in consequence of the ever 
advancing throng of buildings and the heavy assessments for avenues and streets, he 
united with his brother, who followed him in the entail, and transferred the property to 
its final owner, The New York Protestant Episcopal Public School. William died un- 
married Nov. 20, 1853. A few years afterward Henry admitted Tallmadge Delafield, 
a son of his brother John to the firm, which was thereafter known as Henry Delafield 
& Co. In 1857, Henry retired from shipping and foreign business, retaining only cer- 
tain banking and trust interests, which a few years later were transferred to Maturin 
L. Delafield, a son of his brother Joseph. Both of Mr. Delafield's nephews were suc- 
cessful in the business so acquired. Two older brothers, Major Joseph and Dr. Edward 
Delafield, died respectively on Feb. 12 and 13, 1875. The almost simultaneous death 
of the three brothers, all of them over four score years of age, and their joint funeral 
from Trinity Church, excited more than a passing interest. Henry married late in life, 
Mary Parish, daughter of Judge L. Monson of Delaware county, N. Y., and had an 


only child, Mary Frances Henrietta Delafield, born June, 1869, who died unmarried 
Oct. 27, 1886. 

JOSEPH RAFAEL DE LA MAR, gold and silver miner, born in Amsterdam, 
Holland, in 1848, has had a singularly romantic and striking career, of which some 
account should be given in these pages. His grandfather, a banker in Paris, estab- 
lished a branch bank in Amsterdam, which he placed in charge of Joseph's father. 
The latter married a charming woman, a native of Holland, but of German descent, 
and thus Joseph is of mingled French and German extraction. His father's love of 
art and painting led him to name the boy after the great painter Rafael. 

Left an orphan at the age of six by the death of his father, Joseph's self-reliance 
and love of adventure asserted themselves even at this tender age ; and, at seven, he 
ran away from home, secreting himself on a Dutch vessel outward bound in the East 
India trade. When the young stowaway was discovered, the captain made him cabin 
boy and assistant to the cook, without wages. The voyage was an exciting one to his 
mind. He entered heartily into the work of the ship, gained the favor of the captain, 
and on the homeward trip earned his first money, his wages being fixed at the munifi- 
cent sum of one guilder, or 40 cents, a month. He followed the sea for many years, 
encountering all the vicissitudes of a sailor's life and sailing to nearly every part of the 
world. His education was gained mainly on shipboard, with the assistance of the 
officers, whose kindness he recompensed by various services. Only one text-book was 
available, the " Navigator's Epitome." From this he learned the art of navigation, 
while acquiring the rudiments of a general education. At the age of twenty, he 
gained a master's certificate, and at twenty-three, the captain of his ship having 
died in a distant port, he brought the vessel safely home and obtained a captain's 

Although his advance thus far had been reasonable, Captain de la Mar appreciated 
the fact that his profession held out no very nattering promises of advancement. His 
alert mind was at this juncture attracted to submarine work, a vocation then profitable, 
owing in part to the Civil War in America. With characteristic energy, he abandoned 
the merchant service and became a diver. His success on the surface of the water was 
repeated in the exploration of its depths. He soon became a submarine contractor on 
his own account, with headquarters at Vineyard Haven, Mass. , but operating along the 
entire coast to the West Indies. During this period, he raised not less than forty -one 
sunken vessels and had many interesting encounters with the inhabitants of the deep. 
His last successful operation was the raising of a cargo of 1,600 tons of Italian marble 
from the ship Charlotte, of New York, submerged off the Bermudas, many years 
before, which had baffled the attempts of three previous wrecking companies. The 
steamer William Tibbetts, which had grounded on the rocks off Pesque Island, near 
Martha's Vineyard, led to an adventure which nearly cost him his life. Going down in 
his diving suit to examine the damage personally, he lost track of the flight of time and 
failed to observe the ebbing of the tide, when, suddenly, he discovered that the ship 
had ceased rolling and had settled down in her bed and made him a prisoner under its 
bottom. There was no chance of escape for hours. He waited until both the wind 
and tide should cause the ship to become waterlogged again and resume rolling. His 
armor had been leaking and the water crept in up to his neck. It was the month of 
February and the water chilled him to the bone. He finally lost consciousness but 


returned to life to find himself on board his own ship, having been rescued by the 
energy and untiring devotion of his mate, after thirty-six hours' imprisonment in the 
depths of the sea. This experience, and others which preceded, led Captain de la Mar 
to relinquish submarine work. 

Having accumulated some means, Captain de la Mar studied the opportunities of 
trade with Africa, a country which he had visited during his early voyages as a sailor. 
Finally convinced that Africa held out the promise of both adventure and gain, he 
assumed charge of a vessel with a cargo of suitable goods and sailed for the land 
of Ham. Previous to that time, trading companies had confined their operations 
mainly to the coast, where they met the natives from the interior. They sold to the 
Africans bars of copper, iron flint lock guns, powder, calicoes, salt beef, flour and 
tobacco, exchanging these things for ivory, gum copal, palm oil, bees' wax, dry and salted 
hides, etc. The native goods were brought down to the coast on the shoulders of 
negroes, sometimes coming several hundred miles and growing dearer in price according 
to the distance carried. On the other hand, the articles supplied by the traders had to 
be carried back in the same manner, growing higher in value the farther they were 
transported. Captain de la Mar had the shrewdness to perceive the value of bringing 
the t\vo markets together and doing the trading in the interior. The scheme involved 
danger and hardship. Nevertheless, it was at once carried into execution. A small 
vessel, capable of navigating the African rivers, was equipped with four small cannon 
and a dozen blunderbusses, the crew being armed with rifles and ammunition, while 
about twenty-five fighting negroes were taken aboard. Thus this little vessel was 
fitted up very much like a man of war. Captain de la Mar pushed on to the interior, 
exercising constant vigilance to prevent attacks from hostile tribes. The venture was 
crowned with complete success. By gaining the highest selling prices for his goods 
and buying from the natives at the lowest prices, Captain de la Mar soon distanced his 
competitors in the trade. Danger and adventure thronged upon him during this 
period, but he reaped a satisfactory reward before his imitators had crowded the field. 
He kept a vessel busily engaged plying between New York city and the coast for three 
years, and was the pioneer in the section in which he traded, his operations being 
carried on principally on the Gambia and Great Jeba Rivers, southwest coast of Africa. 
That which led him to abandon this trade was the climate. Several of the white men, 
whom he had brought to the coast, died every year from African fever, and_he was 
himself frequently attacked. Finally, when his men lowered over the side of the vessel 
the body of his faithful mate, the last of the original white crew, he determined to 
return to New York, and in 1878, sold his outfit to an English company. 

At this time, the mining excitement at Leadville and throughout the Rocky Moun- 
tains was attracting the attention of the country. Something in a miner's life appealed 
irresistibly to Captain de la Mar's adventurous spirit. Repairing to the West, he recon- 
noitered the country and had the sagacity to decide, without delay, not to be governed 
by the impulses of the amateur miner and follow the blind rush to new "diggings," 
but on the other hand to acquire a sound knowledge of metallurgy and chemistry, in 
order more judiciously to invest his means. He therefore returned to Chicago, engaged 
the sen-ices of a professor, and devoted himself assiduously to stud}'. At the end of 
six months, he had become sufficiently educated in mining engineering, analysis and 
assaying. He then bought the Terrible lead mine in Custer county, Col., for $3,500,. 

I 7 8 


worked it profitably until 1886, and sold the mine to The Omaha & Grant Smelting 
& Refining Co., for a handsome profit. Two years of travel among the mining camps 
resulted finally in locating on a mountain, six miles west of Silver City, Idaho, where he 
bought a group of claims for a small sum. By filing a number of other claims, he came 
into control of a property a mile long and three-fourths of a mile wide, covering the 
whole mountain. Many large veins of gold and silver were discovered on this property 
by means of tunnels driven through the mountain, and the owner sold half of his 
interest in 1891, after he had taken about $1,500,000 from the mines, to The De Lamar 
Mining Co., of England, for $2,000,000. 

He was an active worker for the admission of Idaho as a State and in 1891 served 
as State Senator in the first Legislature, where he occupied the chairmanships on 
Finance, Railroads and Constitutional Amendments. On adjournment, he decided to 
leave Idaho and retire from business, much against the wish of the representative men 
of his State, who were anxious to have him enter the political field, assuring him of 
hearty co-operation in securing the highest honors in the gift of the State. But politics 
being distasteful to him, he removed his residence to New York city, where, May 
1 8 1893, he married Nellie Virginia Sands, whose mother belonged to the old 
Virginia Adams family and was a direct descendant of John Quincy Adams, and whose 
late uncle, Dr. Henry Burton Sands, left behind him a record as the greatest surgeon 
of his time. 

In February, 1893, Captain de la Mar, concluding that mining life had not lost all 
its fascination for him, once more embarked in mining, this time in southeastern 
Nevada, where he made extensive purchases, and is now building large reduction 
works, telegraph lines and waterworks, and is employing a large number of men. He 
has also built reduction works in Colorado's great gold field, called Cripple Creek, 
near Colorado Springs. Occasionally visiting his Western enterprises, he spends his 
summers on his yacht. He is of a retiring nature, and a member of only one club in 
this city, the New York Yacht club. Like the great Hiram S. Maxim, he believes in 
aerial navigation, and is devoting considerable study to this subject, believing that 
the conquest of this most difficult problem is among the possibilities of the future. 
In the event of non-success in this special venture, he will leave behind him, neverthe- 
less, a record of having added many millions to the gold and silver reserves of the 
world, and of building three prosperous mining towns on sites where he scarcely found 
more than a man and a dog on his arrival, viz.: Use, Colorado; De Lamar, Idaho; 
and De Lamar, Nevada. The latter two were christened after him by his appreciative 

Although so actively engaged in business pursuits, Captain de la Mar has not lost 
sight of the refinements of life, and takes especial pleasure in the collection of fine 
paintings, of which he has now a number of masterpieces, painted by the best 
European and American artists. 

CORNELIUS HENRY DE LAMATER, manufacturer, born Aug. 30, 1821, in 
Rhinebeck, N. Y., died in this city, Feb. 7, 1889. On his father's side, his ancestors 
were Huguenots. His mother was Scotch, her maiden name being Douglas. He was 
an only child. Beginning life in a hardware store in New York city, kept by a Mr. 
Swords, he was only there a few years, when he left to become a clerk in The Phoenix 
Iron Foundry, of which James Cunningham was proprietor. When about twenty-one 


years of age, he took the f oundry and two years later moved to the foot of West 1 3th 
street, and about 1851 founded The De Lamater Iron Works. They had run the works 
about four years when Mr. Hogg, his partner, wishing to embark in sugar refining, sold 
out his interest to Mr. De Lamater, taking his notes in payment. Before these fell 
due, Mr. Hogg urged payment of them in cash. Mr. De Lamater complied, in order 
to accommodate him, and thereby became so embarrassed that he had to ask an exten- 
sion of five years from his creditors, they taking his notes for that length of time with 
interest. A little over two years later, the Civil War broke out, giving a great impetus 
to the foundry business, and work became so remunerative that Mr. De Lamater 
rapidly made money, and when the notes were two and one half years old he took them 
up with interest. Owing to an intimate friendship with Captain John Ericsson, Mr. 
De Lamater built the engines for the ship Ericsson, the largest hot air engines ever 
manufactured. The ship proved to be both a commercial and a mechanical failure. 
The investors lost heavily, one of them being ruined. Captain Ericsson and Mr. De 
Lamater continued to experiment with hot air engines, however, for many years, at 
heavy cost. About 1875, ^ r - De Lamater designed the present style of Ericsson hot 
air pumping engine, which is closed, with a vertical cylinder, and uses the same 
air over and over again. This engine is now in extensive use all over the country. 
Mr. De Lamater was a pioneer in many respects. The Iron Witch, the first iron 
wheel steamboat on the Hudson, and the Matanzas, the first iron ocean-going steamer 
built in America, were both constructed by him, and he led in the manufacture 
of screw propellers for many years. He also built the engine for the first Monitor, 
waiting for payment until the boat had been tested in action. Later, he built the 
machinery for a large number of monitors, and the hull and machinery for the Dicta- 
tor, at that time the largest of her class. Government work brought no profit, owing 
to the rapid increase in cost of labor and material, but it did bring reputation and ren- 
dered his work for private individuals lucrative. A natural sequence to engine build- 
ing was the acquirement of a large interest in steamship property, and Mr. De Lamater 
joined with H. B. Cromwell and C. H. Mallory in the lines running to Galveston and 
New Orleans. One of the undertakings which illustrated his energy was the contract 
he filled for the Spanish Government for furnishing thirty gunboats inside of eight 
months. Since 1889, general business has been discontinued at The De Lamater Iron 
Works, and operations are confined to hot air engines, by a son, William De Lamater, 
and his brother in law, Leander A. Bevin, the present proprietors. Mr. De Lamater 
married, when twenty-two years old, Ruth O. Caller. They had seven children, one 
girl dying in infancy. Six are living at the present time, five daughters and one son. 
He was Rapid Transit Commissioner, a member of the Union League club, and for 
many years prominent as a member, and at one time president, of The General Society 
of Mechanics and Tradesmen. 

JOHN DE LAHATER, builder, born in New York city, July 30, 1792, died here 
Dec. 21, 1877. His great grandfather came to this country from France, with other 
Huguenots, about 1700. Learning the carpenter's trade, he followed this industry all his 
life, and helped build many of the large warehouses and public edifices of his times. 
He was one of the prominent men who, about 1835, moved from Greenwich, in the old 
9th Ward, to the i6th Ward. For more than fifty years, after the common schools were 
instituted in this city, until his death, he was connected with those useful institutions, 


either as founder, commissioner, inspector, or trustee, and he devoted the last twenty 
years of his life to the schools of the i6th Ward. He represented the 9th Ward as 
Alderman in 1834 and 1835. He was a charter member and director of The Greenwich 
Bank, The Greenwich Savings Bank and The Greenwich Insurance Company. By his 
marriage with Eliza Ostrander, of Walden, N. Y., he became the father of Samuel, 
Benjamin, Charles H., and John W. De Lamater and Mrs. Eliza H. Allason and Mrs. 
Harriet Myers. 

JOHN F. DELAPLAINE, lawyer, oldest son of John F. Delaplaine, was born in 
New York city, April 24, 1815, and died at his home, No. 27 East 63d street, Feb. 14, 
1885. His father, an honorable, enterprising and successful shipping merchant, like so 
many others of the founders of families on the Island of Manhattan, purchased large 
blocks of land in this city when the price was low, both in town and in the outlying 
districts north of the center of the city, and gained a second fortune from the rise in 
value of his property alone. He possessed not only the piers on the East River from 
Burling Slip to Fly Market Slip, but lots and buildings on Broadway, the Bowery, 
Monroe, Rivington and Pike streets, and some in Brooklyn, New Jersey and elsewhere. 
The son graduated from Columbia College and studied law but never practiced. His 
time was fully occupied with the management of his father's estate. While William 
H. Seward was Secretary of State, Mr. Delaplaine was appointed Secretary of the 
American Legation at Vienna, which position he held for nearly twenty years. At 
Vienna, he was noted for his hospitality. Thoroughly versed in the continental lan- 
guages, he gave many entertainments cosmopolitan in their character. While in 
Vienna, he made a notable collection of pictures, statuary, clocks and other works of 
art. He returned to New York in 1884. He died unmarried, and his fortune de- 
scended in part to two daughters of his brother Isaac, but a large sum was given to 
charitable institutions. 

DAVID A. DE LlflA, commission merchant in the South American trade, born 
in the Island of Curacao, Dutch West Indies, Feb. 19, 1837, died in New York city, 
May 5, 1891. He was of Dutch descent, his ancestors coming from Amsterdam to 
Curagao in the latter part of the seventeenth century. He received his education in 
the island, and there also began his business career. He was married in 1860 to Sarah 
Wolff, daughter of Ralph Wolff and Judith Pinto, who, with five children, survived 
him. His sons are Elias, Edward and Charles, and his daughters Esther and Lylia. 
In 1870, Mr. De Lima came to this country, and, with a capital of $10,000, established 
a commission house, which, by dint of great perseverance, he gradually built up into 
one of the most important in its line. He was a-sound, conservative and enterprising 
merchant, limiting himself strictly to his own affairs, and avoiding always all tempta- 
tions of outside enterprises. Since his death the business has been continued by his 
oldest son and his son in law, under the firm name of D. A. De Lima & Co. During 
the years 1870-74, and 1877-78, Mr. De Lima represented the Dominican Republic in 
this city, as its Consul General. While acting in this capacity, he did everything in his 
power to secure the annexation of Santo Domingo to the United States. He was a 
director of the Board of Trade and Transportation, and The Panama Railroad, and a 
member of the Chamber of Commerce and Coffee Exchange. 

JOHN DELflAR, realty owner, was born in Ireland, Sept. 6, 1838. The family 
moved to the United States in 1849, locating in Brooklyn. Mr. Delmar's first venture 


on his own account was, in 1860, the sale of milk, his office being at the corner of 
Second avenue and pth street. After three years in this trade, he entered politics, 
for which his countrymen have a passion (and these two cities present such great oppor- 
tunities), and became chief clerk to the Superintendent of the Poor in Brooklyn. 
Elected Justice of the Peace in 1867, and twice re-elected, he became County Clerk in 
1876. This office gave him an acquaintance with the values of real estate in Brooklyn, 
and led him in 1881 to open a real estate agency at the corner of Fifth avenue and Ninth 
street in that city. A large amount of property has been transferred through his 
office, and by investments of his own, mainly near Prospect Park, he has gained a 
fortune. He is the leader of the Democrats of the Twenty-second Ward of Brooklyn, 
and is a director of The City Savings Bank and The Fifth Avenue Bank, and president 
of The Citizens' Electric Illuminating Co. , all of Brooklyn, and is connected with The 
Knickerbocker Steamboat Co. and other enterprises. He served in the old volunteer 
fire department, and was foreman of Hose Co. No. 14, for several years, and for twenty- 
five years director, and for the last seven years treasurer, of the Widows and Orphans 
fund of the old department. 

CHARLES C. DELMONICO, restaurateur, born in 1840, died near Orange, N. J., 
Jan. 5, 1884. He belonged to a family long famous as restaurateurs and wine mer- 
chants, who came to this country from Switzerland early in this century. The great 
reputation which the Delmonicos acquired as caterers was largely due to the ability and 
untiring efforts of Lorenzo Delmonico, who was distinguished for his politeness and 
the excellent cooking and purity of the wines supplied to patrons. Francois and Siro 
Delmonico, his brothers, were associated with him in business, Francois, in fact, being 
the proprietor of the original restaurant on William street. One or two restaurants 
were always maintained down town, as well as one up town. To this business Charles 
succeeded, rising to its head after the death of Siro and Lorenzo in 1881. Under his 
administration, the large banquet hall in the upper part of the up-town restaurant 
became the scene of many important balls and functions in social life, and of a constant 
succession of notable public banquets, and famous throughout the United States and 
Europe. The Chamber of Commerce, The New England Society, and other great 
organizations have held their annual banquets here for years, and nearly all the most 
conspicuous men in the United States have been heard at public dinners there. Mr. 
Delmonico's fortune descended to collateral relatives. 

LORENZO DELHONICO, the most famous restaurateur and caterer of the United 
States, born in the Canton of Ticino, Switzerland, March 13, 1813, died in Sharon 
Springs, N. Y., Sept. 3, 1881. He came to America at the age of 19. His uncles had 
established a small candy store at No. 23 William street, and Lorenzo was taken by his 
unwilling relatives into their employment. This proved afterward of great advantage 
to them. In 1833, the first Delmonico restaurant was opened, only to be burned in the 
great fire of 1835. They started again at No. 78 Broad street, with a lodging house 
attachment. This new restaurant was burned in 1845, and next year a new one was 
opened on Broadway at Morris street. The finest cooking and finest wines in the city 
soon made this place famous and the best in the city. About 1856, it was removed to 
the corner of Chambers street. Later, the famous cafe at the corner of Fifth avenue 
and i4th street was established, followed by the restaurants at No. 22 Broad street, the 
one on Fifth avenue at 26th street, and one at No. 112 Broadway. In 1876. the branches 


at the corner of Chambers street and i4th street were discontinued. The management 
of the great business devolved entirely upon Lorenzo Delmonico, who was distinguished 
by -his courtesy and business ability. He lost about half a million of money in 1861 by 
a speculation in petroleum, but paid the debt in full in a few years. While married, he 
had no children, and his business descended to his brother Siro and his nephew Charles. 

WILLIAM DEMUTH, merchant and manufacturer, born in Germany in 1835, is 
the son of Zacharias Demuth, who was engaged in the insurance business. After 
his education, ambition at the age of seventeen led him to the new world, apd in 
New York he entered the business of importing smokers' articles. After years of con- 
scientious attention to the interests of his employer, he foresaw the greater possibilities 
of manufacturing on his own account, and with enterprise opened a small store and 
factory in Liberty street. These quarters, ample at the beginning, became, through 
the energy instilled into the business, too contracted, and he found larger and more 
prominent quarters on Broadway. Here, by honorable business methods and untiring 
zeal, he has built up a business which is the largest of its kind. Mr. Demuth has 
demonstrated to the world the superiority of American made smokers' articles, not 
alone through exhibits at the Centennial and Chicago World's Fairs, but also by enter- 
ing, as it were, the lion's den, and taking away the gold medal at Paris. His creation 
, and enlargement of the industry in this country have naturally made him an ardent 
Republican and protectionist. 

CHAUNCEY MITCHELL DEPEW, LL.D., president of The New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad, descends through remote paternal ancestors from French Hugue- 
nots, who were among those who came to America in the early days of the country 
and founded the village of New Rochelle, in Westchester county. His mother, Martha 
Mitchell, was of illustrious and patriotic New England descent, being a member of the 
family to which belonged Roger Sherman, a Signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
and he is a lineal descendant of the Rev. Josiah Sherman, Chaplain of the 7th Conn. 
Continental line, and Gabriel Ogden of the New Jersey militia, both of whom served in 
the American Revolution. The ancestors of Mr. Depew settled in Peekskill, N. Y., two 
hundred years ago, and the farm they then occupied yet remains a family possession. 

Mr. Depew was born in Peekskill, April 23, 1834. He received an education in his 
native village and graduated from Yale College, with honors, in the famous class of 
1856. Returning to Peekskill, he studied law with the Hon. William Nelson and was 
admitted to the bar in 1858. Successful from the start, interested in the higher politics 
and the national issues of the day, and a passionate lover of human liberty, he joined, 
while yet a young man, the new Republican party, then rising from the ruins of the 
old Whig organization, and became one of its most active champions. His talents 
being promptly recognized, he was chosen a delegate to the State Convention in 1858. 

In 1860, Mr. Depew took the stump for Abraham Lincoln. He made many speeches 
and displayed a solidity of logical argument, a brilliancy of wit, and a power of holding 
the steadfast attention of an audience, which placed him at once among the successful 
orators of the period. Elected by personal popularity to the Legislature in 1861 and 
1862, in spite of Democratic ascendancy in his county, he revealed extraordinary abilities 
during his two terms in that body, and was seen to be a man with a great and brilliant 
future. In 1863, he was elected Secretary of State by 30,000 majority, reversing the 
majority of the year before for Horatio Seymour as Governor. Declining a renomina- 


tion, as well as the position of Minister to Japan, tendered him by Secretary Seward, 
he resumed the practice of law. 

In 1866, his abilities having attracted the attention of Commodore Vanderbilt and 
of his son, William H. Vanderbilt, Mr. Depew was appointed attorney for The New York 
& Harlem Railroad. In 1869, he was made attorney for The New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad and afterward a director. This was the period of the develop- 
ment of the Vanderbilt system of railroads. Mr. Depew was a constant adviser of the 
Vanderbilts, and by his good judgment and excellent advice maintained their constant 
respect and friendship. In 1875, he was made General Counsel for the entire system 
and a director in each one of the roads. 

His growing popularity led to his being named, in 1872, by the Liberal (or Greeley) 
party of New York, for Lieutenant Governor of the State, but he shared in the defeat 
of his colleagues, and, the Liberal party having run its course, he again became an 
ardent Republican. 

In 1885, he was prominently named for United States Senator, and, although 
reluctant, assented to the use of his name in the contest, which took place over filling 
the vacancies caused by the resignation of Senators Conkling and Platt. In the joint 
meeting of the Legislature at Albany in the early part of 1885, there was a stirring 
contest. Mr. Depew's name gradually made its way to the front among those who had 
been nominated, until on the nineteenth ballot it came within ten votes of an election, 
and on the thirty-fourth ballot it was yet as near to the goal. On the fortieth ballot, 
his strength yet undiminished, Mr. Depew withdrew. 

In 1884, he was tendered an election as United States Senator by all factions 
of the Republican party, and would have been elected without opposition had he not 
become so committed to business obligations as to be compelled to decline. 

In 1885, Mr. Depew, after three years of service as vice president of The New 
York Central Railroad, was elevated to its presidency. While thus given a position of 
great influence in the business world, his growing reputation made him eligible for 
greater political honors than any for which he had yet been named. In 1888, he was 
the candidate of the Republicans of New York State at the National Convention of the 
party for President of the United States. He received the solid vote of the New York 
delegation, but withdrew his name. President Harrison offered him the position of 
Secretary of State, to succeed Mr. Blaine, but Mr. Depew again declined. 

He is now president of two railroads of the Vanderbilt system and a director in 
twenty-eight others, besides being a director in The Wagner Palace Car Co., The Union 
Trust Co., The Western Union Telegraph Co., The JSquitable Life Assurance Society, 
The Western Transit Co., The West Shore & International Bridge Co., The Morris 
Run Coal Mining Co., The Clearfield Bituminous Coal Corporation, The Hudson River 
Bridge Co., The Canada Southern Bridge Co., The Niagara River Bridge Co., The 
Niagara Grand Island Bridge Co., The Tonawanda Island Bridge Co., The American 
Safe Deposit Co., The New York Mutual Gas Light Co., and The Brooklyn Storage 
and Warehouse Co. 

Mr. Depew stands extremely high socially, and is a member of many of the first 
class clubs of New York city, including the Union League, Metropolitan, Lotus, 
University, Century, Lawyers', Tuxedo, Republican, Press, Players' and Quaint. 
He is also a member of several yacht clubs and societies. He was president of 


The Union League Club for seven years, a term longer by several years than that given 
to any other occupant of this distinguished position ; declining a re-election, he was 
made an honorary' life member. He was for ten years president of The Yale Alumni 
Association, and at the close of his decade of service, was elected an honorary member 
for life. He is president of the local Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. 

While a successful lawyer and business man, Mr. Depew is, if possible, more widely 
known as one of the most brilliant and entertaining of the orators of this generation. 
For over thirty years he has been continually in demand for addresses at public dinners 
and in celebrations of public moment of the most important and impressive character. 
He has probably been invited more times than any other man in the United States, to 
speak to public assemblages. His presence as a speaker ensures the success of any cele- 
bration; and his wit, scholarship, strength of argument and clearness of exposition, never 
fail to charm and delight his hearers. He is without an equal in America as an after 
dinner orator. 

FREDERIC JAMES DE PEYSTER, lawyer, born in this city, Feb. 5, 1839, is a 
son of Capt. James Ferguson De Peyster, and his wife, Frances Goodhue Ashton. The 
men of the family have been prominent as land holders, and in public affairs for 250 
years. He graduated from the College of the City of New York, and fitted himself 
for the legal profession at Columbia Law School. Mr. De Peyster is exempt from 
the necessity of daily toil, and devotes his abilities to the study of history, public 
lectures and addresses, and the management of various societies. He is president 
of The Society of Colonial Wars, The St. Nicholas Society, and an officer of various 
charitable institutions. For many years president of The Archaeological Society, he 
took a leading part in the founding and building of an American school of classical 
study in Athens. Oct. 10, 1871, he married Augusta McEvers Morris, daughter of 
William H. Morris, of Morrisania. 

JOHN WATTS DE PEYSTER, Brevet Major General, State of New York, was 
born March 9, 1821, at No. 3 Broadway, New York city, the only child of Frederic De 
Peyster and Mary Justina, youngest daughter of the Hon. JOHN WATTS, II, and Jane 
De Lancey. The history of his ancestors on both sides, his blood relatives and connec- 
tions, was the history of New York, down to the close of the Revolution ; on his father's 
side, ' 'through six generations, from father to son, each a leader of men in his day, and 
charged with civic trusts when public life meant honorable fame." The grandfather 
on his mother's side, John Watts, vir equanimitatis, who was the last Royal Recorder 
of, and founder and endower of The Leake & Watts Orphan House in, the city of New 
York, was born in that city, Aug. 27, 1749 (O. S.), and died there, Sept. 3, 1836 (N. S.). 
He was the second son of the Hon. John Watts, I., president of the King's Council, first 
president of The New York City Hospital, etc., and in high favor and respect Avith the 
Home Government, in consequence of which he was put under the ban, and his ample 
fortune, among other properties his beautiful country seat about Twenty-first street on 
the East river in New York city, confiscated by the Revolutionary authorities. A por- 
tion of this property was purchased from the Committee of Sequestration by John 
Watts, II. (not restored, as often falsely stated), perhaps owing to the fact that his 
brother Robert married Mary, daughter of William Alexander, titular Earl of Stirling, 
Continental Major General, whose grandmother was daughter of Johannes, first 
De Peyster in this country. 


Frederic de Peyster, vir auctoritatis, was born in New York, Nov. n, 1796, and 
died at Rose Hill, Dutchess county, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1882. He was sixth in descent 
from Johannes, who was Schepen, 1655-65, Alderman under the English and Burgo- 
master under the Dutch administrations, Deputy Mayor 1677, and appointed Mayor 
the same year, but declined. His two sons, Abraham and Johannes, were Mayors of 
New York, the former 1691-95, the latter 1698-99. Abraham was the most distin- 
guished of the family, of superior ability and worth: Colonel, commanding Regiment 
of New York city Troops, horse and foot, 685 men, in 1700, Alderman 1685, Mayor 
1691-95, Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court 1698, Chief Justice 1700, President of 
the King's Council and, as such, Acting Governor 1701, Treasurer of the Provinces of 
New York and New Jersey 1706-1721, confidant of New York's best Royal Governor, 
the Earl of Bellomont, and friend of William Penn. He was born July 8, 1657, and 
died Aug. 2, 1728. 

Frederic de Peyster's three grandsons served in the Union Army during the Slave- 
holders' Rebellion, and two lost their lives in consequence. The eldest, John Watts de 
Peyster, jr., was Major, ist New York Volunteer Artillery, and brevetted Colonel, 
U. S. V., principally for distinguished conduct at Chancellorsville. The second, 
Frederic de Peyster, jr., was brevetted from 2d Lieutenant to Major, U. S. V., and 
to Colonel, N. Y. V., especially for gallantry, etc , at first Bull Run, 1861; and the 
third, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel, U. S. V., and Colonel, N. Y. V., for general merit 
and for having had the signal opportunity of hoisting "the first American flag" over 
the Capitol of captured Richmond, April 9, 1865. 

John Watts de Peyster is as much a self-educated man as a majority of those who 
have won that reputation, and through study and observation and reflection, assisted by 
marvellous memory, his forecasts and judgments in matters to which he has given his 
attention have proved almost infallible. A catalogue of his literary, historical and 
scientific works, by no means complete, in the Annual Reports of the American His- 
torical Association, occupies more than a dozen pages. These works have won for their 
author all the university degrees, honorary or corresponding memberships or fellow- 
ships, in historical, literary and scientific societies, at home and abroad, and many val- 
uable medals and decorations, the latest the "Gold medal, for 1894, of the' Society 
of Science, Letters and Art, of London," "for scientific and literary attainments." In 
the military service of the State of New York he rose to the rank of Brigadier General, 
and is the first officer so appointed by any Governor individually, his every promotion 
having been made for special services, and, in 1866, he was commissioned Brevet Major 
General, "for meritorious services rendered to the State^and the United States prior to 
and during the Rebellion," by special act or concurrent resolution of the State Legis- 
lature, and he is the first and only officer receiving such a distinction from the State of 
New York or any State. By inheritance from his grandfather, John Watts, he was the 
last Patroon or owner of the lower Claverack Manor and other lands in Columbia 
county, N. Y., virtually confiscated by the Legislature pandering to Anti-Rent, and 
through his father of extensive hereditary lease-lands in the county of Dutchess, N. Y. 

NICHOLAS DE PEYSTER, who died in New York city, Feb. 17, 1889, was a direct 
descendant of Johannes De Peyster, first of the name in New York, 250 years ago. 
Nicholas was educated by private tutors. He inherited large means from the De 
Peyster estate, but increased it by his own efforts. In 1849, ne went to California, 


where he was exceedingly successful. After his return to the East, he spent much 
time in foreign travel. In 1870, he was married to Miss Marianna Moore, and his wife 
and one son, William D. De Peyster, survived him. He was, at different times, a 
member of the St. Nicholas, New York, Century and American Yacht clubs. 

CHRISTIAN EDWARD DETflOLD, civil engineer, born in Hanover, Germany, 
Feb. 2, 1810, died in New York city, July 2, 1887. Graduating from a military 
academy in Hanover, he came to America in 1826, intending at first to enter the 
Brazilian Army, but subsequently adopting the profession of civil engineer and 
settling in New York city. A man of very energetic nature and ingenious mind, he 
made a number of surveys in the South; drew plans in 1828 for the first locomotive 
engine built by the Messrs. Kemble ; constructed The Charleston & Hamburg Railroad 
in South Carolina, one of the first in the country; and in 1833 and 1834 laid the founda- 
tions of Fort Sumter under the direction of the War Department. Later, he con- 
structed canals in Maryland and Pennsylvania, and built the Crystal Palace in New 
York city, on the site of what is now the Fifth avenue reservoir, completing it in 
1853. He then purchased a large interest in coal mines in Pennsylvania, and engaged 
in manufacturing iron, in which he made valuable improvements. He built the works 
of The New Jersey Zinc Co., at Newark, N. J., being president of the company, and 
developed the manufacture of spiegel iron from the residue of zinc ore. Failing 
health finally compelled him to seek recreation abroad, and he spent a number of years 
in Paris, returning to New York in 1885. At one time he served upon the committee 
for investigating the Tweed frauds. He was a member of the Century and Union 
League clubs, and gave evidence of literary ability by translating the principal 
writings of Machiavelli. His wife, Phoebe L. Crary, and two daughters, survived 
him, the latter being Wilhelmina Emilie, wife of Count Gaston d'Arschot, Charge 
d'Affaires for Belgium, at Washington, and Zella Trelawney, wife of Joseph Lentilhon. 

JACOB GERHARD DETTnER, manufacturer, was born in Piqua, O., Aug. 31, 
1845. He is of German descent and a son of Justus G. Dettmer, who emigrated to Ohio 
from Hanover, German}', in 1829. A bright student at the local high school, Jacob 
learned the dry goods trade as a clerk in Troy, O., and was made a partner two years 
later, in Steil & Dettmer. In 1866, he moved to St. Louis, to embark in a wholesale 
woolen goods trade, as junior in the firm of Reiter, Steil & Co. While adherence to 
one line of business is usually the best guarantee of success, Mr. Dettmer improved 
his position materially in 1871, by coming to New York and engaging in the- manu- 
facture of cream of tartar, tartaric acid, baking powder and other grocers' sundries in 
The Royal Baking Powder Co. and The New York Tartar Co. He retired in 1886. 
He is a director of The Bedford Bank, The People's Trust Co. and The City Savings 
Bank of Brooklyn, and now a large owner of excellent real estate. He makes his home 
in Brooklyn, where he has joined the Hamilton, Union League, Montauk and other 
clubs and societies. 

CHARLES DEVLIN, contractor, a native of Lurgan, Ireland, born March 15, 1805, 
died in Xe\v York, Feb. i, 1881. His ancestors had dwelt in the same part of Ireland 
as he for generations, and had fought and bled in the struggle for freedom. He came 
to this country at the age of twenty-seven, finding occupation as an apprentice and 
then as a journeyman baker. By careful saving, he soon gained the capital to start in 
the baking business on his own account. Honest and hard working, he -was prospered 


greatly. About 1850, through being compelled to finish a piece of work, undertaken 
by a contractor, who had defaulted and for whom he had given security, he became 
a contractor himself. His first signal success was a contract for building part of The 
Hudson River Railroad, and he then engaged in the construction of sewers and other 
public works, including the greater part of the heavy grading and rock cutting in 
Central Park. In time, he grew to be one of the best known contractors in the 
country. In politics a Democrat, he served the city twice as School Commissioner. 
A famous dispute arose in 1857, when Fernando Wood appointed him a Street Commis- 
sioner. The Governor having appointed Daniel D. Conover a Street Commissioner at 
the same time, a conflict of authority followed, celebrated in the municipal history 
of the city. Such intellectxial giants as Charles O'Conor, James T. Brady and David 
Dudley Field engaged in the battle. The Mayor's appointee won. The Hackley 
street cleaning suit against the city, which occupied the courts for upward of thirty 
years, was carried on by Mr. Devlin as assignee of Andrew J. Hackley, and has been 
recently argued by the Court of Appeals on behalf of John B. Devlin, executor. Mr. 
Devlin came into prominence in 1871, as one of Tweed's bondsmen for $300,000. 
Although then considered worth $2,000,000, his liberality led him into difficulties, 
which in 1878, ended in his bankruptcy. In the settlement of his estate, upward of 
$300,000 in notes, for money he had lent to friends, were sold for $39. On receiving 
his discharge from bankruptcy, Mr. Devlin resumed work as a contractor, paid his 
legitimate creditors in full, and at the time of his death again ranked as a man of 
wealth. He was never connected with corporations, but was a large holder of real 
estate. By his marriage in this country with Mary Mackin of Dromore, Ireland, he had 
six children, Charles B. , John B. and Joseph A. Devlin, and Mrs. Mary Tully, Mrs. 
Isabel Bram and Mrs. Frances Croft. 

FREDERICK WILLIAM DEVOE, merchant and manufacturer, is a native of New 
York city, where he was born Jan. 26, 1828. He descends from a very ancient family, 
whose share in public affairs has been so conspicuous, that it can be traced back in his- 
tory for fully eleven centuries. The name has undergone changes in process of time, and 
has been spelled De Voe, De Veau, de Veaux, de Vaux, and otherwise. It seems to- have 
been derived from the district of Vaux in Normandy, the original seat of the family. 
Various possessors of the name were of high rank and related to royalty by marriage. 

The first member of the family to find his way to America was Matheus de Vos, a 
Huguenot, who found in the new world the liberty of conscience denied to him in 
France. He was a resident of New Amsterdam with his family at least as early as 
1653, and came into prominence as a notary and attorney ir/the Court of Burgomasters 
and Schepens. Daniel and Nicholas de Vaux came to America later and settled in Har- 
lem. Their brother, Frederick de Veaux, ancestor of the subject of this sketch, a native 
of Annis, in France, fled from his native land with his father's family to escape massacre 
by the King's troops. He grew to manhood in Manheim, became a merchant, and emi- 
grated to New York in 1675. He settled in Harlem with his brothers, and there mar- 
ried Hester Terneur, daughter of Daniel Tourneur, and thus came into possession of a 
tract of land, known later as the Cromwell farm, near the Central bridge. For several 
generations the persons in this line were farmers and owners of land, now enormously 
valuable. Frederick De Veaux made several purchases, from time to time, and 
acquired 184 acres, comprising a neck of land at the bridge at McComb's Dam, a farm 


in Morrisania, and two farms at New Rochelle, these last containing 300 acres. He 
died in 1743 in Morrisania. His oldest son, Frederick de Voe, jr., born in 1684, died 
in 1753, leaving a large estate. Frederick de Voe, son of the latter, born about 1710, 
settled upon a farm on the Philipse manor, below Yonkers. When the Revolution 
occurred, he was too far along in years to bear arms, but his son John was a soldier in 
the southern battalion in the town of Yonkers. The family suffered the loss of all 
their possessions for their loyalty during the War. After the peace, John bought 136 
acres of the old Philipse manor, and there dwelt the remainder of his days.. In 1779, 
he married Rebecca De Voe, a daughter of his father's half brother Daniel. Eleven 
children were born to them, of whom John was the father of the subject of this sketch. 
John De Voe possessed the martial spirit of his father, and served a part of the first 
year of the War of 1812 in the regiment of Lieut. Col. Jonathan Varian. In 1807, he 
married Sophia, daughter of Thomas Farrington, of Mile Square, in Yonkers. Of his 
family of ten children, Frederick William De Voe was the youngest. 

Frederick was educated in private schools, and in 1843 became a clerk in the coun- 
try store of his brother Isaac, in Spotswood, N. J. The training in these country stores 
is always an excellent one, and Frederick was well equipped for more important labors, 
when, in 1846, he returned to New York city to enter the store of Jackson & Robins, 
drug and paint brokers on Wall street. This engagement proved congenial to him and 
fixed his occupation for life. His brother John was a junior partner in the firm, who 
were engaged in the trade of paints, varnish and oils, succeeding the old house of 
William & Gerardus Post, at the corner of Water and Fletcher streets. 

In 1848, Frederick improved his position by becoming clerk for Butler & Raynolds. 
He was able, diligent and ambitious, and, by 1852, felt sufficiently confident of himself 
to undertake business on his own account, and formed the firm of Raynolds & Devoe. 
In 1855, the firm established their store on Fulton street, succeeding Schanck & 
Downing in the paint and varnish business. The partners displayed all the qualities 
which are necessary to business success and made their way steadily. 

In 1864, the firm reorganized as F. W. Devoe & Co. They have made steady 
progress until the present time and during their history of thirty-one years have, borne 
a high reputation for enterprise and business honor. 

For several years Mr. Devoe was also engaged in refining petroleum and the ship- 
ment of it in cans and cases. His product, called " Devoe's Brilliant Oil," enjoyed a 
very extended sale, and was shipped to Germany, the Mediterranean, the East Indies, 
Australia, China, and the Pacific coast, besides having a large sale in the United States. 
This branch of the business was afterward carried on under the name of The Devoe 
Manufacturing Co. , and was sold, in 1873, to other owners. Although thus largely 
interested in petroleum, Mr. Devoe was never in any way connected with any of the 
land companies formed for the production of crude oil. 

Mr. Devoe has a natural taste for mechanics, and much of his machinery and fac- 
tory plant were built after his own plans, during the early part of his career. In 1890, 
the business was incorporated under their former name, with Mr. Devoe as president. 
In 1892, by a consolidation of two concerns, the business assumed the name of The 
F. W. Devoe & C. T. Raynolds Co. Both firms were on Fulton street, occupying large 
stores nearly opposite to each other. The present company is one of the leading con- 
cerns in the country, and Mr. Devoe is its president and treasurer. 


Mr. Devoe has little taste for political life, but has served his city and State 
acceptably in several official positions. He was appointed by Mayor Cooper, in 1880, 
a Commissioner of Education, and was reappointed by Mayors Edson, Hewitt and 
Grant. He resigned from the Board in 1891. His labors in this position were devoted 
to such changes and improvements in the course of study, as to render a public school 
education of more practical utility. His persistent efforts did much towards preparing 
the way for the industrial schools, which are now a valuable feature of the public 
school system. 

Governor Hill appointed him in 1890 as a trustee of The Middletown Homoeopathic 
Hospital for the Insane, in place of Fletcher Harper, deceased. Mr. Devoe is also a 
trustee of The New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital. In 1890, when 
the "Greater New York" commission came into existence, he received the honor of 
appointment as one of its members. To the duties of all these positions he pays close 
attention. The work to which he is most actively devoted is The New York Juvenile 
Asylum, of which he became a director in 1890, being elected vice-president in 1893. 
He is now its president. 

He was married in 1853 to Sarah M., daughter of Walter Briggs. This union 
brought them five children. Two daughters died in infancy, and Henry Meyer De 
Voe, the only son, when eight years old. The family now consist of Mr. and Mrs 
Devoe and two daughters, young ladies. They have a charming home on Jerome avenue, 
in Fordham, now a part of the Twenty-fourth Ward, opposite St. James's Episcopal 
Church. Mr. Devoe is strongly opposed to social club life, is fond of home life, and 
enjoys the respect of a wide circle of friends. He is a member of the Holland and 
St. Nicholas Societies, as well as of The New York Microscopical Society. The family 
possess cultivated musical taste, and are associated with several musical societies. 
Finally, it may be said that Mr. Devoe is one of the wardens of The Church of Zion 
and St. Timothy on West 57th street. 

HENRY DEXTER, president of The American News Co., was born in West Cam- 
bridge, Mass., March 14, 1813, and is a son of Jonathan Marsh Dexter, a fur merchant. 
The latter was the oldest son of David Dexter, who, with his younger brother, the 
well known Dr. Aaron Dexter of Boston, professor in Harvard College, 1783-1829, 
was born in Maiden, Mass., the original seat of the Dexter family in this country, 
where land, purchased in 1663, has been continuously held in the Dexter name to this 
day. They were sons of Richard, son of Richard, son of John, son of Richard Dexter, 
who seems to have fled from the massacre of the Protestants, which took place in Ire- 
land in October, 1641, and who was probably descended from Richard De Exeter, 
Governor of Ireland in 1269. The subject of this biography was educated in West 
Cambridge, and in publishing houses in Boston and Cambridge. He removed to New 
York city in 1836, and carried on the hardware business for several years with the 
Whittemores, the inventors of the famous cotton card making machine. In 1842, be- 
coming convinced of the capabilities of the wholesale trade in books, magazines, peri- 
odicals and newspapers, which his brother George had already taken up, he joined the 
latter and laid the foundations of the eminence, to which he has since attained. Mr. 
Dexter originated the conception of The American News Co., which he was finally able, 
with the aid of others in the same business, to realize in 1864. Under the enterprising 
management of himself and associates, this company has extended its operations to 


every part of the United States and Canada, and transacts business in England, France 
and Germany, as well as South America and the East Indies. Its sales amount to more 
than twenty-five millions of dollars annually. Mr. Dexter, who has thoroughly grasped 
the principles of the business, is a clear headed man, of great purity of character. He 
has travelled extensively, both on this continent and in Europe, Egypt and Palestine. 
The family own a little less than 2,000 acres in the Adirondacks, which they use for a 
summer residence. Oct. n, 1853, Mr. Dexter married Lucretia Marquand Perry, 
daughter of Orrando Perry of Easton, Conn. They have surviving a daughter and one 
son, Orrando Perry Dexter. 

WATSON BRADLEY DICKERMAN, stock broker, born Jan. 4, 1846, is a native 
of Mount Carmel, Conn., and a son of Ezra Dickerman. Every drop which flows in 
his veins is derived from the Puritans of New England. The pioneer of the family 
settled in Massachusetts in 1635. Receiving an education in Williston Seminary, East- 
hampton, Mass., the young man found his first employment in the banking house of 
Jacob Bunn, in Springfield, 111. This engagement fixed his occupation for life. In 
1868, he joined the Open Board of Brokers in this city, subsequently consolidated with 
the Stock Exchange, and in 1870, with W. G. Dominick, established the brokerage firm 
of Dominick & Dickerman. He has been successful both in his business and in win- 
ning the confidence and entire goodwill of his fellow brokers. In 1890 and 1891, they 
elected him president of the Stock Exchange. He is president of The Norfolk & 
Southern Railroad, and director of The Long Island Loan & Trust Co. In 1869, he 
was married to Martha E., daughter of Samuel and Mary Phelps Swift, of Brooklyn. 
Their child, a son, died when two years old. The family make their home at Hilland- 
dale farm, near Mamaroneck, N. Y. Mr. Dickerman has joined the Metropolitan, Union 
League, Country, New York Yacht, and Brooklyn clubs. 

PATRICK DICKIE, merchant, a native of Balquhine, Scotland, born June 26, 
1793, died in this city, Nov. 16, 1877. A shrewd, wide awake yoting man, he began 
life in London, and came to the new world in 1817, establishing here the drug store 
in which he made his fortune. His trade was very extensive. Samuel Houston 
received aid from him in the form of medical supplies for the Texan army, and in his 
gratitude gave Mr. Dickie nearly 75,000 acres of land. This grant was repudiated, 
however, after the battle of San Jacinto. Mr. Dickie filled excellent contracts with 
the city government in New York. He was far seeing enough to invest his savings 
in local real estate; and a public garden, which he bought in 1820, at the corner of 
Broadway and Canal street, realized a million dollars in profits in the next 
forty-two years. Married to Susan Orr Perry, his children were Emma D. , wife of 
Jasper T. Van Vleck; Serena D., wife of Charles I. Turrell; Charles P. Dickie, now 
deceased; Edward P. Dickie; Helen D., wife of Jay L. Adams; Horace P. Dickie, and 
Susan Dickie, now deceased. 

JOHN BUMPSTEAD DICKINSON, merchant, born in New York city, June 29, 
1814, died in Chicago, March 16, 1875. He lived with his uncle, P. K. Dickinson, in 
North Carolina, until about sixteen years of age, and then came to New York to connect 
himself with commercial pursuits, in which, from the outset, he was successful to a 
marked degree. For many years he was a member of the firm of Wakeman, Gookin & 
Dickinson, in the California trade, and amassed a large fortune. A director of The 
National Shoe and Leather Bank, The Union Mutual Insurance Co., The Broadway 


Insurance Co., and The Brooklyn Dry Dock Co., and at one time president of The 
Tenth National Bank, he was also president of The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway 
and largely interested in The Brooklyn Ferry Co. His election to these trusts 
illustrated the integrity and ability of his character. Though reared an Episcopalian, 
he united in early manhood with the Methodist Episcopal Church, whose interests and 
welfare he loyally promoted. Mr. Dickinson was twice married, his first wife being 
Almira Cocks, sister of John D. Cocks, president of The Atlantic Fire Insurance Co. 
His second wife, who survived him, was Mrs. Mary C. Lowe, of Massachusetts, a lady 
of rare culture, well known for her lifelong work along educational, literary and 
philanthropic lines. Mr Dickinson contributed largely to the benevolent enterprises 
of his church, and his private charities were numerous and unostentatious. As trustee 
and director, he managed the affairs of others with the same fidelity and prudence 
which marked the direction of his own business. Eight children survived him: 
Platt K., John P., Howard C., and Frank F. Dickinson; and Almira, widow of 
Benjamin F. Sherwood, of San Francisco; Adelaide, widow of Frank Harrison Carter; 
and Jane Vance and Mary Dickinson. 

SIDNEY DILLON, railroad president, born in Northampton, Montgomery county, 
X. Y., May 7, 1812, died in New York city, June 9, 1892. His father was a farmer, 
and his maternal grandfather a soldier in the American Revolution. From the 
common school he went, while yet a youth, to a situation as errand boy on The 
Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, and afterward held a similar position on The Rensselaer 
& Saratoga Railroad. Next, overseer for the contractors, who were building The 
Boston & Providence Railroad, later he was employed as foreman and manager of 
work upon The Stonington Railroad, and foreman in some heavy rock work on The 
Western Railway of Massachusetts. Acquiring confidence, he made a bid for a section 
of the latter work, which he successfully completed in 1840. This was the beginning 
of Mr. Dillon's career as a contractor. He next took a heavy contract on The Troy & 
Schenectady Railway, employing for the first time a steam excavator; and after that 
time, either alone, or in association with others, he successfully completed a number 
of large contracts in the construction of railroads, including The Hartford & Spring- 
field, The Cheshire, The Vermont & Massachusetts, The Central of New Jersey, The 
Boston & New York Central, and The Philadelphia & Erie roads. He was remarkable 
for energy, power of organization, and ability in the management of forces of men. In 
1865, Mr. Dillon identified himself with construction work on The Union Pacific Rail- 
road, and meantime filled several other important contracts. In 1869, Mr. Dillon laid 
the last rail which established railroad connection between the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts. He was twice president, at intervals, of The Union Pacific Railroad, and held' 
that position at his death, and was also intimately associated with various other rail- 
road systems. He was a director of The Canada Southern Railroad, The Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, The New York, Lacka- 
wanna & Western, The Manhattan Elevated and The Missouri Pacific Railways, The 
Pacific Mail Steamship Co., The Wabash Railroad, The Western Union Telegraph 
Co., The Mercantile Trust Co., The Safe Deposit Co. of New York, and other corpora- 
tions. In 1841, Mr. Dillon married Hannah Smith, who died Dec. 6, 1884. Two 
daughters, Julia D., wife of J. D wight Ripley, and Cora D., wife of Peter B. Wyckoff, 
survived him. While brusque in manner, as men of force sometimes are, he was clear 


and direct in conversation, kindly and generous in his disposition, and highly re- 

WILLIAfl B. DINSMORE, president of The Adams Express Co., was born in 
Boston in 1810, and died in New York city, April 20, 1888. Deprived of the advantages 
of early education, William went to work on a farm at the age of eleven, remaining 
there for three years, when he returned to Boston and obtained employment in a 
saddlery establishment. A few years later, he made the acquaintance of Alvin Adams, 
who sent him to New York to take charge of the Adams express business here. 
After a hard struggle, Mr. Dinsmore placed the local branch upon a good footing. His 
energy and power of application were remarkable. He afterward took John Hoey 
into his employment, and from that time these two men toiled untiringly to build up 
The Adams Express Co. In a few years, they had extended the route of the company 
to all parts of the country. Mr. Dinsmore was a large owner in the stock of the cor- 
poration. He was also a director of The American Exchange Bank, The Pennsylvania 
Railroad and The New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad, and a member of the 
Union and New York clubs. A liking for the country led Mr. Dinsmore to establish 
a stock farm for Alderney cattle, as soon as he gained the means, and he made it the 
largest of its kind in the United States. His wife, Augusta M. Snow, of Boston, with 
'two sons, survived him, the latter being William B. Dinsmore, jr., and Clarence Gray 
Dinsmore. His name, throughout a long career, was a synonym for integrity, manli- 
ness and energy. 

CHARLES HEALY DITSON, publisher of music, was born Aug. n, 1845, and is 
a son of the late Oliver Ditson, founder of the house of Oliver Ditson & Co. , in Boston. 
He was educated in the schools of Boston, and began business life as an employe in his 
father's store. He showed capacity and was admitted to the firm in 1867. The same 
year the firm established a branch house in New York city, under the name of Charles 
H. Ditson & Co. , incorporated under New York laws, and Charles has, since that time, 
made New York city his home. He is treasurer of the now incorporated firm of The 
Oliver Ditson Co., in Boston, which owns the branch house in Philadelphia, and is part 
owner of Lyon & Healy, in Chicago. Mr. Ditson belongs to the Players' club and The 
New England Society of this city, and The Algonquin club of Boston. 

ALFRED P. DIX, note broker, a native of Massachusetts, was born Dec. 12, 1839. 
He is a grandson of Gen. Artemas Ward of the Continental army in the American 
Revolution, and the possessor of a valuable collection of papers and letters, belonging 
to the period of that war, including letters from George Washington, General 
Gates, General Ward, Lord Howe, John Winthrop arid others. Alfred left the 
Lawrence Academy in Groton, Mass., to spend five years in a clerkship in a dry 
goods store in Worcester, and five years more in the same occupation in Boston. 
He came to New York city in 1864, and was a partner for five years in Harden 
& Dix, commission merchants, and five years the representative of the Lawrence 
aid Pemberton Mills of Lawrence, Mass. In 1875, he engaged in banking, dealing 
in credits and the purchase and sale of notes. John J. Phyfe joined him the following 
year. The firm of Dix & Phyfe originated the business of discounting the notes of 
merchants, who were required to establish a credit with their bankers as well as with 
their selling agents. This system has since come into general use. The caution and 
discrimination of Dix & Phyfe cause paper approved by them to be in demand in 


banking circles. Mr. Dix was married in 1866 to Miss Carruth of Boston, and has one 
daughter living, Mildred Carruth Dix. 

WILLIAn EARLE DODGE, merchant, born near Hartford, Conn., Sept. 4, i8os > 
died in New York city, Feb. 9, 1883. His father, David Low Dodge, a cotton manu- 
facturer in Bozrahville, near Norwich, Conn., gave William employment for a time, 
after a brief attendance at the public schools. About 1818, the family removed to New 
York, when the son became the boy of all work in a wholesale dry goods store. In 
1827 he started a small dry goods store on his own account. Conspicuous from youth 
for an agreeable presence and high character, about 1830, he was married to a daughter 
of Anson G. Phelps, who, with Elisha Peck, had established an important business in 
the importation of metals. In 1833, Mr. Dodge was taken into the office of Phelps & 
Peck. Shortly afterward, the house reorganized under the name of Phelps, Dodge & 
Co. , a title which has been retained to the present time. The energetic policy of Mr. 
Dodge, who, for years, directed the operations of the house, resulted in a trade, conti- 
nental in its extent and highly profitable to the firm. As he gained the means, Mr. 
Dodge invested his earnings in important enterprises and was an extensive operator in 
lumber in Michigan, Wisconsin, Georgia, Texas, West Virginia and Canada, where he 
owned several million acres of forest lands. He was also a director of The New York, 
Lake Erie & Western Railroad, and prominently connected with The Delaware & Lack- 
awanna Iron & Coal Co., The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, and other 
corporations. Mr. Dodge attained distinction no less through the elevation and purity 
of his character than through phenomenal success in business pursuits. He was 
unbending in his advocacy of the sacredness of the Sabbath day and left the directory 
of The Erie Railroad when the company began to run .trains on Sunday. His contribu- 
tions to religious, charitable and educational institutions were extensive. The devotion 
of a portion of his income to philanthropic work began early in life and was with him 
systematic. For several years, his contributions amounted to from 200,000 to $350,000 
to worthy objects, and over 300,000 was given in his will to institutions. His wife, 
Melissa P., and seven children survived him, the latter being William E., Anson G. P., 
David Stuart, Charles C , George E., Norman W., and Arthur M. Dodge. His son, 
WILLIAM EARLE DODGE, jr., merchant, born in New York city, Feb. 15, 1832, 
received his education in this city. Associating himself with his father's business, he 
was admitted to partnership in Phelps, Dodge & Co. , which afterward became one of 
the leading houses in the city in the importation of metals. While inheriting a portion 
of his father's estate, he has increased his patrimony in the management of the old 
house, of which he has been since one of the senior members. He is a man of marked 
ability and fine character. His firm control The Commercial Mining Co., at Prescott, 
Arizona, and valuable mines at Big Bug and Senator, Arizona, including the Hack- 
berry mines, the Senator gold mines, and The Copper Basin Mining Co. Mr. Dodge 
is president of The Ansonia Brass & Copper Co., and The Ansonia Clock Co., and 
director or trustee of The Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Co., The Commercial 
Mining Co., The Detroit Copper Mining Co., The Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., The 
New York Life Insurance & Trust Co. , and The Lackawanna Steel Co. ; and president 
of the trustees of The Young Men's Christian Association, and of The Evangelical 
Alliance. The clubs to which a man belongs illustrate his tastes and social standing, 
and on this point it is sufficient to say that Mr. Dodge belongs to the Metropolitan, 


Union League, City, Century, Down Town, Riding, Reform, Presbyterian, Country, and 
Commonwealth clubs, and The New England Society. 

ALFRED DOLGE, manufacturer, one of the most remarkable men for whom 
America is indebted to the mother land of Germany, was born in Chemnitz in that 
country, Dec. 22, 1848. His father, August, was one of the leaders of the Revolution 
of 1 848-49, and the honor of being twice tried by court martial was accorded to him. 
Twice he was sentenced to death, but the penalty of his courageous efforts for liberty 
was afterward changed to imprisonment for fifteen years. 

Alfred attended the public schools of Leipzig during his boyhood, and then learned 
the trade of piano making in his father's factory, an art requiring the highest mechani- 
cal skill. Attracted to America by the greater liberty and more promising opportuni- 
ties of the new world, he landed at Castle Garden on the gth of September in 1 866. A 
strongly built, capable and practical youth, he accepted the first employment which 
offered, and found work on a farm in Wisconsin for one season. Returning then to 
the East, he spent two and a half years at his trade of piano making. With $500, 
which he had earned by diligent labor at the bench and saved by careful economy, Mr. 
Dolge began, in July, 1869, the importation of piano materials from Europe. The 
felts employed by piano makers in this country were at that time purchased abroad, 
but Mr. Dolge believed that they could be, and should be, made in America. To 
believe is, with a nature as energetic as his, to act. In 1871, therefore, Mr. Dolge 
began the manufacture of piano felts, in Brooklyn, and thus became the actual 
pioneer of this valuable industry in the L T nited States. In 1874, he moved the 
works to Dolgeville, in Herkimer county, N. Y. In this beautiful town, a large 
factory has gradually come into existence through his persistent energy; and at these 
works Mr. Dolge has also developed the most highly approved felt machinery known to 
the whole industry. Departments for making the different parts of pianos have been 
added to the factory', one after another, until Mr. Dolge is now the proprietor of the most 
complete, the largest and most highly developed piano material manufactory in the 
world. Employment is given to a large force of skillful operatives; and probably no 
where in the United States can there be found a finer group of working people than 
those to whom Mr. Dolge has been both an employer and benefactor. His enterprise 
has finally put an end to the importation of piano materials from Europe, and rendered 
America entirely independent of every other land for its supply of these articles. If 
it be added that the performance of public services of great utility has brought Mr. 
Dolge a fortune, it must be said on the other hand that he has bestowed far greater 
benefits than he has received. 

But to say that he is a successful manufacturer, by no means sums up the remarka- 
ble career of Alfred Dolge. The village of Dolgeville, founded by him, has become the 
model industrial town of American origin, both in its social and economic aspects. It 
has all the advantages of modern ideas and city methods, without the disadvantage of 
the paternalism usually associated with so called ideal towns. A free public school 
and an academy of the highest order, fully equipped with scientific apparatus and with 
all the modern appointments, have been built by Mr. Dolge and given to the town. 
Houses containing from six to nine rooms have been built, many of them wholly or in 
part by Mr. Dolge, and now belong to the workmen themselves. Mr. Dolge has also 
converted the woodlands surrounding the town into parks, which will always remain a 


permanent and beautiful feature of the place. In all which pertains to making Dolge- 
ville a model town in its sanitary, educational and picturesque aspects, Mr. Dolge has 
shown a practical good sense, amounting to real greatness. He is the leader of his 
people, not their patron. 

The most significant of the new ideas introduced at Dolgeville, and the one whose 
influence will be the most permanent and far reaching, is Mr. Dolge's contribution to 
the solution of the labor problem. One of the most depressing features of the present 
industrial system, apparently the one most difficult of treatment, is the discharge of 
workmen, when they reach the stage of " diminishing returns," or declining efficiency. 
It is a complaint against modern capital, that it takes labor when it is young and 
vigorous, exploits its vitality, and ruthlessly throws it aside, when it has passed the 
prime of life or approaches old age. The workmen are then too old to learn a new 
trade. Except in rare cases, they are liable to become recipients of charity or entirely 
dependent for support upon the younger members of their families. 

It is thus held, and not without force, that a hopeless old age is all the average 
working man can hope for, unless he dies in the harness. This is made the basis of 
much of the Socialistic attack upon modern capital. 

For this complaint, Mr. Dolge has, by experiments continued through twenty 
years, developed a successful remedy, based upon economic and scientific principles, 
which enables every workman to retire at the age of sixty with a competence for the 
remainder of his life. It is a system of industrial insurance, which is to labor what a 
depreciation fund is to capital. It provides for the retirement of workmen when they 
reach the age of declining efficiency, in the same way that a depreciation fund provides 
for replacing old machinery with new. This system entirely eliminates the inhumanity 
hitherto involved in the discharge of old and often faithful workmen. By providing 
for them a permanent income for the remainder of their lives, the hopelessness of old 
age is entirely overcome. 

In an article in The Social Economist for June, 1892, presenting the leading features 
of his system, Mr. Dolge says: " In order, therefore, to obtain the best results from 
laborers, they must not only live under good conditions while working, but they must 
be placed beyond the fear of want in their old age. To secure this, a labor deprecia- 
tion or insurance fund should be made an established part of the cost of production, 
just the same as depreciation for machinery is provided for now. From these, two 
important advantages are obtained: (i.) Laborers can be retired without becoming 
paupers, when they cease to be profitable factors in production, or when they reach 
what economists call the stage of 'diminishing returns.' 1 ' (2.) Their future being 
assured, laborers would feel safe in keeping their wives at home, sending their children 
to school, and otherwise living up to the full extent of their income. Thus, instead of 
constantly trying to restrict their standard of living to provide for old age, they would 
have every inducement for extending it, which would tend to increase their intelligence, 
social character and individuality, and develop not only more efficient laborers, but a 
higher manhood and superior citizenship among our people." 

Mr. Dolge's plan is entirely free from the slightest taint of paternalism, being based 
upon strictly economic and thoroughly practical business principles and verified by a 
test of twenty years. It is susceptible of universal application. If this were made a 
national policy, as it easily might be, it would tend to eliminate pauperism from this 



country, might do it altogether, and would certainly do much to destroy the acri- 
monious spirit which is creating a social antagonism against present methods of pro- 

In this, Mr. Dolge has proved himself a social philosopher as well as a successful 
manufacturer, qualities rarely found together. To grow rich, and at the same time 
to become more democratic towards the masses, is a quality of greatness. 

Mr. Dolge is now the head of the great firm of Alfred Dolge & Son ; a partner in 
C. F. Zimmerman & Co., manufacturers of autoharps; and Daniel Green & Co., second 
vice president of The Little Falls & Dolgeville Railroad, and in New York city, trustee 
of The German Savings Bank, and member of the Republican and Liederkranz clubs. 

By his marriage, Dec. 22, 1868, to Anna Auguste Horn, he has five children, 
Rudolf, William, Ernst, Henry and Fritz Dolge. His home is now in New York city, 
where he has become widely known and greatly respected. He is an interesting 
speaker and has frequently been heard with profit before public assemblages in ex- 
planation of economic questions. 

JOHN DOLLARD, merchant, born in County Kilkenny, Ireland, March 15, 1840, 
died in New York city, July 4, 1892. He was the son of Patrick Dollard, prominent as 
a grain merchant and the owner of large real estate interests in the southern part of 
this city. The father died about 1890, leaving a valuable estate. John attended the 
public schools and finished his education in St. Peter's parochial school in the basement 
of the church on Barclay street. A messenger and clerk in a Wall street bank about 
six years, he then joined his father and succeeded him in the grain business, which he 
managed with ability. His office was at 63 Pearl street. He was a vigorous, active 
man, and at one time a member of Washington Engine Co., No. 20, in the old volunteer 
days. He was married in 1868, to a daughter of John Galavan ; his wife and five 
sons survived him, the latter being Patrick A. and Kerrin X. Dollard, both now grain 
merchants; James J. Dollard, lawyer, John and Edward Dollard. 

WILLIAM PROCTOR DOUGLAS, capitalist, born in October, 1842, in New York 
city, is a son of George Douglas, gentleman farmer, who, born in 1792 and a descend- 
ant of the great Scottish family of Douglas, spent most of his life on a large estate 
at Douglaston, L. I. The family sold their lands in Scotland and bought property in 
America. William received his education in Edinburgh, Scotland. The town house 
of the family was at 26-28 Park Place, this property being yet one of the many pieces 
of realty owned by Mr. Douglas in this city. When Park Place filled up with stores, the 
family moved to i4th street, where they occupied a large mansion, situated in grounds 
comprising nine city lots, which, superbly kept, were for years the talk of the town. 
Every lover of art remembers this mansion as long the home of The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art before its removal to Central Park. Mr. Douglas inherited from his 
father the manor of about 270 acres at Douglaston, Little Neck Bay, Long Island, and 
a large amount of property in this city. He has managed his estate capably and is a 
director in The Greenwich and The North River Insurance Go's, and a stockholder in 
several banks. Mr. Douglas is known all over the world for his patriotic efforts in the 
defense of the America's Cup against British challengers. The Sappho which defeated 
the Livonia in 1871 was his boat. For a later contest, James Gordon Bennett and he 
built the Priscilla. In 1879, he married Adelaide L., daughter of Effingham Townsend, 
the dry goods auctioneer. Their children are Edith Sybil and James Gordon Douglas. 


Mr. Douglas belongs to the best clubs of the United States and Europe, including the 
Metropolitan, Union, Racquet, Tuxedo, Coaching, Lambs', Country, Carteret Gun, 
New York Yacht, Corinthian Yacht, Douglaston Yacht, Austrian Yacht, Westminster 
Kennel, New York Athletic, Palmer Island, Rockaway Hunt, and Meadow Brook. 

DAVID DOWS, one of the most distinguished merchants of his time, was born on 
a farm in Saratoga county, N. Y., Nov. 16, 1814, and died in New York city, March 30, 
1890. The Dows or Dowse family, which originated in the neighborhood of Colchester 
and Billerica in Essex, England, was of the strict Puritan type, and one of its members, 
Eleazar, served as a Colonel under Oliver Cromwell in the army of the Common- 
wealth. About 1630, Ebenezer and Maximilian Dowse, brothers of Eleazar, sought 
freedom of worship in the Colonies, and under the leadership of Governor Winthrop 
aided in the founding of Boston. Later, Ebenezer settled in Charlestown, Mass., and 
from him was descended Eleazar (father of David Dows), who was born in 1764. Be- 
coming a soldier in the War of the Revolution, Eleazar served under General Sullivan 
in Rhode Island and subsequently at West Point under the command of Benedict 
Arnold. In 1788, he established himself on a farm near Schenectady, in what was then 
a wilderness. His ability, energy, and decision of character soon brought him success 
and made him the leading man in his part of the county. By his marriage with Linda, 
daughter of Capt. John Wright, of Ballston (an officer of the Continental army), he be- 
came the father of six sons and six daughters. David Dows was the youngest of the sons. 

David worked on his father's farm and attended the district school until he became 
fourteen years of age. Then, in accordance with the example of his older brothers, he 
decided to leave home and make his way in the world. His first step in this direction 
was to obtain a clerkship in a dry goods store in Albany, one of the duties of which was, 
to open the shop every morning and make as attractive as possible a display of goods 
in the show window. It is not without interest to note that the compensation for his 
services, which were rendered with characteristic energy and intelligence, was $100, 
$150, and $250 per annum respectively, in the first, second and third years of his ser- 
vice, and that he boarded and clothed himself. 

While David was thus employed, his brother John, a man of remarkable business 
sagacity and strength of character, was building up a profitable business as a forwarder 
of grain, first on the Mohawk river, later on the Erie Canal, with headquarters in New 
York. Feeling that he could make use of his brother's services, John, in 1832, invited 
David to take a clerkship in his firm of Dows & Gary, which was gradually withdrawing 
from the transportation business in order to attend to the rapidly growing commission 
business which had been undertaken. Various changes now_occurred in the composi- 
tion and name of the firm, and in 1837, at the age of twenty-three, David was admitted to 
partnership in the newly constituted house of Dows & Cary. In 1844, John Dows died 
and David continued the business with Mr. Cary as an equal partner. In the following- 
year, in the midst of the universal money stringency, Dows & Cary were compelled to 
suspend payment on those acceptances, which, owing to the failure of certain country 
dealers to forward the produce, had not been covered by shipments of property. Owing 
to the confidence of their creditors, they were enabled almost immediately to resume 
business, and in the following year, one of unusual activity and large profits, the firm 
proved that this confidence was well placed, because it paid all its obligations, dollar 
for dollar with interest, including those which had been legally compounded. 


An important event now occurred. Mr. Gary was forced by ill health to leave 
active business, and the management of the house fell to Mr. Dows. This was Mr. 
Dows's opportunity and he grasped it with a firm hand. Following a broad and bold 
policy, he made large advances on property shipped to him from the interior and suc- 
ceeded in opening up new and important avenues of trade. His integrity, sound judg- 
ment and high credit soon made Dows & Gary, and the new firm of David Dows & Co., 
formed on the death of Mr. Gary in 1854, by the admission of Mr. Dows's nephew, 
John D. Mairs, the most prominent commission house in New York. Indeed, the 
business of the firm grew to such proportions that Mr. Dows, in spite of an iron consti- 
tution, felt the need of relief from detail work, and on this account made certain 
changes both in the composition and name of the firm, which resulted, in 1861, in the 
admission of Alexander E. Orr (a nephew by marriage), and the restoration of the 
name of David Dows & Co., which has been continued to the present time. The pres- 
tige of the firm was soon yet farther increased by its survival in that fierce struggle for 
financial existence, which marked the opening of the Civil War, and in which so many 
business institutions went to the wall; and it was this moral influence, derived from 
past successes, which made it natural that the agents of the Federal Government should 
turn to David Dows & Co., for the help of which that government soon stood in need 
in provisioning the large armies which it had in the field. The task to which Mr. Dows 
had now to apply himself was the purchase of enormous quantities of provisions with- 
out permitting the speculators, who sought to make excessive profits out of the govern- 
ment's necessities, to run up the price of these provisions. This was done with signal 
success and with absolute secrecy as to the nature of the transaction. 

It was during the progress of these operations, involving, as they did, the disburse- 
ment of many millions of dollars, that Secretary Chase took the first steps towards the 
creation of the national bank system, the immediate purpose of which was to create a 
market for the bonds of the government. The needs of the Treasury were press- 
ing, and it was of the utmost importance to the country that the system suggested by 
Mr. Chase should receive the confidence and support of the leaders in the financial 
world. But when the Secretary came to New York and urged that a prominent 
national bank should be at once organized, in order to secure the confidence of the 
country in the new system, he was met on all sides with hesitancy and prediction of 
failure. In this critical time, for it was indeed such, David Dows and a few others 
came to the front and at once organized The Fourth National Bank with a capital of 
$5,000,000. They agreed that the books should remain open just four days, and that 
they would personally take all the stock which might remain unsubscribed for at the 
end of that time. This determined support made the undertaking a success and was of 
inestimable aid to the government in initiating a most admirable financial system. 
The firmness with which this system has become established, makes it hardly possi- 
ble for the younger generation of men to realize how much public spirit and pluck were 
required to put it on its feet. 

In the foregoing sketch, note has been taken of the chief features of Mr. Dows's 
distinctive vocation, that of a merchant. It remains to make some mention of his 
connection with the railroads and financial institutions of the country. When Mr. 
Dows began his career as a merchant, the Erie Canal had just begun to make an 
Eastern market for the produce of the lake bound States; and two years before he came 



to New York there were only twenty-three miles of railway in the country. For a 
time, water transportation sufficed; but it soon became clear to Mr. Dows that the 
fertility of the great West could be turned to practical account only by the develop- 
ment of a great system of railways. He therefore began, some years before the Civil 
War, to apply his restless energies and increasing capital to the construction and 
development of railways in the West and Northwest, and in time took part in the con- 
struction and direction of The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (of which he was long 
vice president and in which he took especial pride and interest as an investor), The 
Chicago & Northwestern, The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, The Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha, and The Union Pacific Railroads. He also in time became 
a director of The Delaware & Hudson, and a promoter of The Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois as well as of many smaller railway corporations. But it should be clearly 
noted that Mr. Dows's work as a railway man was the logical outcome of his position 
as a merchant, and was undertaken primarily as a means of making a great market in 
the East for the produce of the West and of correspondingly increasing his business 
as a merchant. And directly in line with this underlying plan was the establishment, 
from time to time, of branch houses of David Dows & Co. in Chicago, Duluth, St. 
Paul and Baltimore, the building of elevators in the West along important avenues of 
traffic, and the erection of the Dows Stores on the Brooklyn water front. Similar con- 
siderations, too, actuated Mr. Dows in bending his forces to the solution of the rapid 
transit problem in New York city, for he felt that New York could not become the 
commercial center of the United States and control the business of the West, unless 
some provision were made for its more rapid growth, which was hindered by the 
peculiar shape of Manhattan Island. From the first, he favored the construction of an 
elevated road to be operated by steam, and after some discouragements with a cable 
system, took an active part in organizing The New York Elevated Railroad Co. in 1872. 
For ten years he took an energetic part in the control of this road and for several 
years more remained a director of the new Manhattan Railway Co. 

The latest period of Mr. Dows's business career is marked by his activity in the 
world of finance, the natural result, first, of large wealth seeking investment, and, 
secondly, of the demand of financial institutions for men of large and varied experience. 
He thus helped to organize and direct The Corn Exchange, The Fourth National and 
The Merchants' Banks, The Central Trust Co. of New York and The Union National 
Bank of Chicago. He was identified with the management of many large insurance 
companies, including The New York Life Insurance Co. and The North British & 
Mercantile Insurance Co. (American branch), and for many years was president of the 
New York Corn Exchange, from which developed the present Produce Exchange. 

In politics, Mr. Dows was an unswerving Republican, who never forgot the great 
work done by his party in the abolition of slavery and the preservation of the Union. 
Though exceedingly liberal in matters of religion, he was a firm believer in the Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church, and was for many years Senior Warden of St. George's. He 
was interested in several charitable works, to which he gave liberally, but without 

Hardly anybody came into relation with Mr. Dows, even casually, without being 
sensibly impressed by his striking personality. The tall and commanding figure, the 
massive head with its high and slightly retreating forehead, the quick, expressive eyes 


shaded by their heavy brows, the prominent, well shaped nose and the large, firm 
mouth, were unmistakable indications of the force, high spirit and intellectual vigor of 
the man. But the impression which he created was not merely that which comes from 
the possession of fine physical and mental powers, for his simple and courteous but 
dignified manner exerted a charm, which it is difficult to describe, but which was the 
expression of his kindly disposition and inborn refinement of nature. And yet it 
would be a serious error to suppose that Mr. Dows took the world easily. No man 
ever felt the seriousness of life more than he, and no man ever put more earnestness 
into his work or could be more stern and unbending when occasion required. 

Although it is a difficult task, it is always interesting to try to form some estimate 
of the qualities which have enabled a man to do a great life work. The achievements 
of David Dows were made possible by the possession of an extraordinarily vigorous 
and penetrating intellect, of a fine sense of fairness and justice, of a singular combina- 
tion of boldness and caution, and of an iron constitution, which was preserved until the 
last by uniform moderation in living. To these characteristics were united an excep- 
tional insight into human nature, undaunted courage in adversity, and, what is even 
more rare, a balance of mind wholly undisturbed by repeated successes and due to the 
entire absence of anything even allied to vanity. 

Such were some of the chief traits of a man whose fortune it was to begin his 
career in a time when the world was trembling with the impact of new moral, intellec- 
tual and physical forces, and whose life, while given to commerce, was interwoven 
with the growing fortunes of his country in such a way that every personal success was 
at the same time, and in greater degree, a contribution to the material prosperity of the 
country and the welfare of its people. 

In 1852, Mr. Dows married Margaret E., daughter of Horatio Worcester, of New 
York city. He was survived by his wife and seven children: Annie L., wife of Richard 
M. Hoe; Linda, wife of George B. Cooksey; David Dows, jr.; Margaret W. , wife of 
Dr. Carroll Dunham; Susan, wife of Dr. C. A. Herter; Mary, wife of Dr. E. K. 
Dunham, and Tracy Dows. 

JOSEPH WILHELtt DREXEL, banker, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 24, 1831, died 
in New York city, March 25, 1888. His father was Francis M. Drexel, the banker. 
Joseph was educated in the high school of his native city, and was soon admitted to 
the bank of Drexel & Co. Shortly afterward, he engaged in business for himself in 
Chicago. Owing to his popularity there, one of that city's finest avenues, the Drexel 
Boulevard, was named after him. After his father's death, he returned to Philadelphia, 
and in 1871, with Junius S. Morgan, of London, established in New York city the 
banking house of Drexel, Morgan & Co., becoming its head. He was also at the head 
of the Paris house of Drexel, Harjes & Co., and had an interest in The Philadelphia 
Public Ledger. He retired from business in 1876, with a large fortune. Esteemed as 
was Mr. Drexel among his business associates, it is not as a mere amasser of wealth 
that his memory will endure. Highly cultivated, and deeply interested in musical and 
artistic affairs, and in charities, he was closely connected with The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, and made liberal gifts to that institution, among them bejng some 
early Italian paintings, collections of Egyptian casts, a collection of ancient musical 
instruments, and a painting called " Harpsichord." He owned a large and valuable 
library of books relating to music, which he bequeathed to the Lenox Library, was 


president of The Philharmonic Society, and a director of The Metropolitan Opera 
House, a trustee of The Bartholdi Statue Fund, and treasurer of The Cancer Hospital. 
He did much to make The American Museum of Natural History a complete institution 
of its kind. Mr. Drexel's character and financial strength led to his election as 
director of The Knickerbocker Trust Co., The American Bank Note Co., The Western 
Car Co., The Model Tenement House Co., and The Metropolitan Trust Co. He owned 
a large tract of land in Maryland, and called it " Klej Grange," the name being formed 
from the initials of his four daughters' names. Having taught poor families how to farm 
at this place, he would send them West. He kept an agent at the Tombs in New York 
city to look after the families of poor convicts, and contributed largely to the support of 
the Episcopal Church. He was married in 1865 to Lucy, daughter of Thomas Floyd 
Wharton, and his wife and four daughters survived him, the latter being Katharine, 
wife of Dr. Penrose, of Philadelphia; Lucy, wife of Eric B. Dahlgren; Elizabeth, wife 
of John Winton Dahlgren; and Josephine Wharton Drexel. 

EDMUND DRIQQS, warehouseman and insurance president, born in Columbia 
county, N. Y., Feb. 25, 1809, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., July 31, 1889. His father was 
a Connecticut farmer. First engaged in sloop navigation of the Hudson, then a grocer 
and provisions merchant in the river trade at New York, he secured a situation after 
the great fire of 1835 as weighing master and found profitable employment in weighing 
the steel, wire and metal collected from the ruins of the great fire. Under Jesse Hoyt, 
Collector of the Port, he was appointed Inspector of Customs. In 1840, he returned to 
the grocery business at Broadway and Twelfth street, but in 1843 sold his store to 
accept an appointment as Inspector of potash and pearl ash for New York city. He 
was the last official of this class under State appointment. He then converted a part of 
the premises, which he had used for inspection, into a storage warehouse, and this store 
became the first bonded warehouse established under the United States law of 1846. 
He conducted this store for three years. In 1848, he settled in Williamsburg, now a 
part of Brooklyn, and was thereafter intimately identified with the affairs of the village, 
being elected its president in 1850. In 1853, he helped organize The Williamsburg 
Bank, which became The First National of Brooklyn, The Williamsburg Savings Bank 
and The Williamsburg Fire Insurance Co. He was a director in each concern and 
president of the latter until his death, excepting for a brief period, while serving as 
Collector of Taxes. He was prominent in securing the consolidation of Williamsburg 
and Brooklyn in 1854, served as Tax Collector of Brooklyn r 1859-65. 

DENNING DUER, banker, born in Rhinebeck, N. Y., in December, 1812, died at 
his home near Weehawken, N. J., March 10, 1891. The Duer family has been identified 
with the history of the country and of New York city from the early Colonial days. 
William Duer, grandfather of Denning, came to this country from Devonshire, England, 
and in 1779 married Lady Catherine, daughter of Gen. William Alexander, Earl of 
Stirling, of the Continental Army. An ardent patriot, Mr. Duer served his country as 
Deputy Adjutant General of the New York militia and member both of the Provincial 
Congress and Continental Congress. Judge William Alexander Duer, of Albany, son 
of the latter, afterward president of Columbia College from 1829 to 1841, was a noted 
man in his day. He married Maria Denning, their son being Denning Duer. The 
young man came to New York city in his seventeenth year, to take a place as clerk in 
the counting room of W. F. Gary & Co. Having, in 1837, married Caroline, daughter 


of James Gore King, he became a partner in the banking house of Prime, Ward & 
King, one of the oldest in Wall street. The style of the firm was afterward changed 
to James G. King & Sons, and later to James G. King's Sons. Of the latter firm, Mr. 
Duer was senior member until failing health compelled his retirement in 1875. He was 
a member of the Stock Exchange from 1843 until his death. Mr. Duer never entered 
public life, but was a strong Republican, and one of the earliest members of the Union 
club, joining in 1838. Mrs. Duer died in 1863. He left six children, Edward A., 
James Gore King, William Alexander, and Denning Duer, jr. , and two daughters, and 
was buried at Jamaica, L. I. , long the home of members of the Duer and King families, 
where they have owned a large area of land since the days of the Revolution. 

ANTHONY DUQRO, born in Alsace, France, in 1823, died in this city, Oct. 9, 
1884. He came to America early in life, engaged in contract work, and owned the 
stage line on Sixth avenue, which yielded him a large return. With a foresight, which 
did great credit to his judgment, Mr. Dugro invested his savings mainly in real estate 
in portions of the city, destined to become crowded with stores and residences, and, 
as a result, left a large property to his children. In 1852, he was elected one of the 
directors of the Alms House, which then had entire charge of the prisons and charities 
of the city, being re-elected in 1857. In 1876, he served on the Democratic ticket as 
elector. His children were Philip H., Jacob W. , and Francis A. Dugro, and Mrs. 
Dorothea Buttles His son, PHILIP HENRY DUGRO, jurist, born in New York city, 
Oct. 2, 1855, graduated from Columbia College in 1876 and from Columbia Law 
School in 1878. He studied law in the office of John McKeon and Recorder Frederick 
Smyth, and after being admitted to the bar, practiced his profession ably and success- 
fully. He dealt largely in real estate, of which he inherited much from his father. 
In 1878, he was elected to the Assembly from the XlVth District, as. a Democrat, and 
declined a renomination. In 1880, after a sharp contest he defeated William Waldorf 
Astor for Congress from the old VHth District. He declined a renomination and 
renewed his practice, but was, in 1886, elected Judge of the Superior Court. In 1888, 
he sought the Tammany nomination for Mayor, but through Mr. Croker's influence, 
the office went to Hugh J. Grant. He has lately taken no active part in politics. He 
is the owner of the Hotel Savoy on the Plaza at the. entrance to Central Park, which 
was built 1890-92, and has been remarkably successful. Judge Dugro has joined the 
Manhattan and University Athletic clubs. Married in 1876, he has two children, 
Charles and Antonia. 

ROBERT GRAHAF1 DUN, sole proprietor of The Mercantile Agency, at 314 Broad- 
way, has gained his high financial standing by his extended system for reporting on 
mercantile credits and by investments in real estate. 

Mr. Dun descends from an excellent family of Scotland. For twenty years, his 
grandfather, the Rev. James Dun, was a minister of the Free Church of Scotland in 
Glasgow. His father, Robert Dun, received a fine education and was destined for the 
ministry, but emigrated to America about 1815, settled in Virginia and engaged in 
practical pursuits, afterward moving to Ohio. He married Lucy W. Angus, who was 
also of Scotch parentage. Robert Graham Dun was born in Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1826. 
The young man was educated at the local district schools and academy, and at the age 
of sixteen, at a salary of 2 a week, began life in the employment of a business house, 
in which he soon rose to be a partner. In 1850, he removed to New York city, where 


he entered The Mercantile Agency then conducted by Tappan & Douglass. His zeal 
in the work of the house, his fidelity to duty and intelligence, resulted, in 1854, upon 
the retirement of Mr. Tappan, in Mr. Douglass admitting him to partnership under the 
firm name of B. Douglass & Co. In 1859, Mr. Dun bought the interest of Mr. Doug- 
lass. Realizing that there must be one controlling head in an organization so com- 
plex and extended as that cf The Mercantile Agency, Mr. Dun has continued sole 
proprietor of the business until the present day. 

The immense expansion of the internal commerce of the United States which has 
taken place since 1859, has rendered increasingly necessary the existence of The Mer- 
cantile Agency. Under Mr. Dun's ownership, the business of the house has kept pace 
with the times and grown with the growth of the country. As new cities sprang up in 
the West and South, their enterprising merchants have felt the absolute necessity of the 
services of an agency, which should devote its attention carefully to reporting upon 
credits and incidentally to collections. A large number of branch offices have been 
established by Mr. Dun, in almost every instance at the request of the local merchants, 
until now the house is represented in all the distributing centers of the United States 
and the Canadas and in the leading cities of Great Britain and continental Europe. At 
many points, the local income is necessarily limited and insufficient to pay the actual 
expenses of the local offices. Nevertheless, a staff is maintained at each center of trade, 
thus better to report the locality and make the records for the whole country more accu- 
rate and complete. An existence of over half a century has enabled The Mercantile 
Agency of R. G. Dun & Co. to acquire an experience and accumulate an amount of 
capital, which enable it to fulfil to the satisfaction of the mercantile community the 
important duties which it is called on to discharge. The whole business world is 
acquainted, to a greater or less extent, with its general purposes and system. The 
Agency possesses many distinctive features of great interest, however, and it yearly 
secures the support of a growing number of those whose business is such as to require 
them to extend either confidence or credit. 

Mr. Dun has never entered politics, or cared for political preferment. Away from 
business, he enjoys the pleasures of social life. The winter season is spent by him in 
New York at a comfortable home in the best residence section of Madison avenue, and 
in the summer time, he is often seen at his handsome country house at Xarragansett 
Pier. He is a member of both the Union League and the Manhattan clubs, which 
are respectively the leading Republican and Democratic social organizations in New 
York. He is a patron of some of the public institutions of the city. 

DAVID DUNCAN, merchant, born in Scotland in 1819, died at his summer home 
at Sea Bright, X. J., June 15, 1891. John Duncan, his father, brought the family to 
America in 1830, and opened a store on Broadway, in this city, for the importation of 
fancy groceries. David continued in this business all his life, and on his father's death, 
became senior member of the firm, known as John Duncan's Sons, his partner being 
his brother, John P. Duncan. In 1851, the retail branch was moved to i4th street. 
About the year 1887, the firm discontinued the retail department, retaining only the 
wholesale business. This was conducted for many years in Beaver street and in Col- 
lege Place, but afterward removed to No. 43 Park Place. Mr. Duncan died unmarried. 
He was a man of quiet tastes and retiring disposition, and a life long member of Rev. 
Dr. John Hall's church. 


ROBERT DUNLAP, hatter, born in this city, Oct. 17, 1834, is the son of William 
Dunlap, leather merchant from 1835 until his death in 1858. Robert attended the 
public schools, and at the age of fourteen began life as an errand boy in a hat store. 
An apprentice and then a salesman, he learned every branch of the trade, and in 1857, 
established a hat store on his own account at No. 557 Broadway, and in 1859, when the 
Fifth Avenue Hotel opened its doors, another store in that building. This was a bold 
venture for the young man. He overtaxed his resources and fell into embarrassment, 
but perseverance, industry and integrity won the day, and he has for twenty years past 
made steady progress. His firm of R. Dunlap & Co., of which he is sole partner, are 
now the leading hatters of New York city. He has branch stores in Chicago and Phila- 
delphia, and authorized agents for the sale of his hats in all the principal cities. The 
factory is in Brooklyn. Having once secured the confidence of the public, he has since 
retained the lead in style and fashion of gentlemen's hats, and his business is now one 
of the largest in the United States and very profitable. He is the largest owner in The 
Lake Hopatcong Hotel & Land Improvement Co. Mr. Dunlap is a very capable man, 
public spirited, a generous contributor to the museums and public institutions of the 
city, and a valued member of several New York clubs, among them the New York, 
Manhattan, Colonial, Lambs', New York Athletic, Larchmont Yacht and New York 
Yacht clubs. By his marriage with a daughter of Dr. T. H. Burras of New York, Oct. 
17, 1860, he is the father of four daughters and one son. 

FREDERICK WILLIAfl DUNTON, railroad promoter, was born in Northville, 
Sullivan county, N. H., June 9, 1851, and springs from a worthy and reputable family. 
He began life, like thousands of other honest boys, as a farmer, clerk in a store and 
clerk in a post office, finally at the age of sixteen going to Iowa, where he entered the 
employment of Austin Corbin, remaining with him as clerk and partner for about 
twenty years. His association with his intrepid partner has led him into railroad 
enterprises, and he is a director of The Chicago & Ohio River, The Elmira, Cortland 
& Northern, The New York & Rockaway Beach and The New York, Brooklyn & 
Manhattan Beach, and other railroad companies. Mr. Dunton is a man of extremely 
progressive ideas and untiring energy. His name is a household word on Long Island 
where he now resides, and in the development of which he has played a prominent 
part. He was among the first to perceive the merits of the bicycle principle as 
adapted to railroads, and enjoys the distinction of being at the head of the first and 
only bicycle electric railroad yet built, a section of which has recently been completed 
near Patchogue. So fully has this road met the expectations of its builders and the 
public, and so clearly has Mr. Dunton shown its special advantages for Long Island, 
that the dream of a few has become the hope of the many, and subscriptions for its 
extension indicate that it will soon be in active commercial operation between all impor- 
tant points. In 1891, he served his fellow citizens of Queens county as chairman of the 
Board of Supervisors. February 13, 1876, he married Emily M. Morgan in Brooklyn, 
and they have four children, Lois, Emily, William and Katheryn. 

CHARLES W. DURANT, railroad president, born in Hinsdale, Mass., April 23, 
1821, died in New York city, April 5, 1885. He was the son of Thomas Durant, mer- 
chant. At the age of fifteen, he entered the office of his uncle, Clark Durant, of the 
firm of Durant & Lathrop, shippers of grain at Albany, N. Y., and when of age, took 
the place of his uncle, who then retired, the firm becoming Durant, Lathrop & Co. , 


known for many years as the largest grain firm in the East. They were among the 
first owners of towing boats on the Hudson River. In 1859, Mr. Durant became inter- 
ested in The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, and was its president for many 
years. When his sons, Charles W. and Frederick C. Durant grew to manhood, he 
engaged in the sugar refining business with them, under the name of Charles W. 
Durant & Sons, in which he continued until failing health compelled his retirement. 
His wife, Margaret L. , died in December, 1884. Their children were Thomas F., 
Charles W., Frederick C., and Howard M. Durant, and Estelle, wife of Henry C. 

THOflAS C. DURANT, fl. D., railroad builder, born in Lee, Berkshire county, 
Mass., about 1820, died at his home in North Creek, Warren county, N. Y., Oct. 5, 
1885. His father, Thomas Durant, was a merchant and manufacturer, and his grand- 
father, William Durant, an officer in the American Revolution and a member of th.e 
Boston Committee of Safety. Selecting medicine as a profession, Thomas entered the 
Albany Medical College, and graduated at the age of twenty. After practicing three 
years, he became a partner in the shipping firm of Durant, Lathrop & Co., of Albany, 
who maintained branches in Boston, Chicago and New York, and agencies in different 
parts of the country. Besides owning and employing a large number of vessels for 
the transportation of merchandise, Dr. Durant had special charge of the New York 
branch, and shipped largely to all the European ports. The business was carried on 
with unexampled success until the breaking out of the French Revolution in 1848. 
A knowledge of the resources of the great West induced Dr. Durant then to turn 
his attention to railroad matters. He assisted materially in promoting The Michigan 
Southern Railroad, and under contract helped construct The Chicago & Rock Island 
and The Mississippi & Missouri Railroad. In 1862, after preliminary surveys of the 
Platte valley for The Union Pacific Railroad, Dr. Durant procured the subscription of 
two millions of stock, and in 1863-64, obtained from Congress important amendments 
to the charter. During 1 864, he perfected the financial organization under which the 
road was carried to completion. Immediately after laying the last rail, Dr. Durant 
retired from The Union Pacific, and began the construction of the Adirondacks Rail- 
way, of which he was president and general manager, until, his death. He left a wife 
and daughter at North Creek, and a son, W. W. Durant. 

GEN. HIRAM DURYEA, manufacturer, born in Manhasset, Long Island, April 
12, 1834, is a lineal descendant, in the seventh generation, of Joost Durie, a French 
Huguenot, who, with other refugees, settled in Manheim in the Palatinate and came 
to this country with his wife, Magdalina Le Febre, in 1660. He died in Bushwick, 
L. I., in 1727. Hiram's father, Hendrick Vanderbilt Duryea, born at Syosset, L. I., 
Feb. 23, 1799, died April i, 1891, while his mother, born at Glen Cove., L. I., Sept. 
12, 1801, died Jan. 9, 1881. The latter was a daughter of Zebulon Wright, a lineal 
descendant of Peter Wright, who settled at Oyster Bay, L. I., in 1653, having 
emigrated from Norfolk, England, to Massachusetts, in 1635. Hiram received a 
common and private school education and gave much time to military studies. At 
the age of twenty-one, he was taken into partnership with his father, under the 
name of H. V. Duryea & Son, in the manufacture of starch. His brothers started 
in the same business later, and the firm then merged their interests with the latter. 
Located at Glen Cove, L. I., the company was known as The Glen Cove Starch Manu- 


facturing Co. General Duryea was vice president of that company for many years, 
and its president, when, in 1890, it sold and closed its business. He has since devoted 
his time to personal affairs, except that he served for eighteen months as president of 
The National Starch Co. He was commissioned by Governor Clark, Feb. 5, 1855, 
ist Lieutenant of Artillery, 48th Regiment, N. Y. S. M. In consequence of a change 
of residence he resigned July 22, 1857. Immediately after the firing on Fort Sumter, 
he tendered his services to the State and was commissioned Captain in the 5th N. Y. 
Inf., July 4, 1 86 1, and was promoted in August, at the request of superior officers, to 
the rank of Major, and Sept. 7, 1861, to the Lieutenant Colonelcy. The Colonel of 
the regiment was G. K. Warren, a grand man and able soldier, who afterward distin- 
guished himself as a corps commander. For a short time Colonel Duryea commanded 
the regiment. The sth served as engineers and artillerymen in Baltimore, building 
there Fort Federal Hill and finishing Fort Marshall. In the siege of Yorktown, it 
built and served batteries. In the Peninsula Campaign, by reason of its efficiency and 
high record, the 5th was assigned to the division of regulars and thereafter acted 
continuously with them until the end of its service. Colonel Duryea had the honor of 
special mention in official reports for distinguished services in the siege of Yorktown, 
and at the battle of Gaines Mills, Va., the first of the seven days' fights. He was 
commissioned Colonel, Oct. 29, 1862, and May 26, 1866, brevet Brigadier General. In 
consequence of permanent injuries, and serious illness, he resigned in November, 1862, 
General Butterfield complimenting him highly in special orders. General Duryea is a 
member of the United Service club and the Loyal Legion. His children are, H. H., 
C. B., Anna E., and Milicent S. Duryea. 

SAflUEL BOWNE DURYEA, realty owner and philanthropist, born in Brook- 
lyn, March 27, 1845, died there June 7, 1892. He was the son of Harmanus Barkuloo 
and Elizabeth Bowne Duryea, the latter the daughter of Samuel Bowne. After an 
education in the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and the University of the City of 
New York, he entered the Yale Theological Seminary, but did not finish there, because 
property interests demanded his immediate attention. By inheritance from the Bowne 
family, Mr. Duryea came into the ownership of a large amount of real estate in Brook- 
lyn, which he managed with sagacity and success. He was noted for philanthropic and 
progressive spirit. All the leading public institutions of Brooklyn were actively pro- 
moted by him, and his action for the preservation of forests, streams and fish, made 
him a valuable citizen. He wrote many thoughtful essays on personal character and 
education. Sept. 23, 1869, he married in Milwaukee, Wis.~~ r Kate, daughter of Walter 
P. Flanders, a lawyer of position. In his will he bequeathed much property to his 
wife and relatives, but left a large tract of land, in trust, for schools, churches and 

WRIGHT DURYEA, starch manufacturer, born on Long Island in 1824, died at 
his home at Glen Cove, Sept. 17, 1889. He was the oldest of seven sons of Hendrick 
V. Duryea. He began life as a civil and mechanical engineer. In 1855, his father, his 
brother Hiram and he with others, established The Glen Cove Starch Manufacturing 
Co. Mr. Duryea was an inventor in various fields, and his originality was shown in 
the manufacture of starch and discoveries in the science of electricity. Mr. Duryea 
was twice married. His second wife, and two sons, Louis T. and Frank Duryea, sur- 
vived him. Mr. Duryea's will provided that his monument should be a large, rough, 


natural boulder, not less than 4,000 pounds in weight, as in some sense indicating his 
life, inscribed with his name, age, date and cause of death. 

JOHN BOWDISH DUTCHER, railroad manager, was born Feb. 13, 1830, in Dover, 
Dutchess county, N. Y. His father, David Dutcher, died June 9, 1853, and his 
mother, Amy Bowdish Dutcher, died June 5, 1875. His paternal grandfather came 
to this country from Holland, while his mother's family were Massachusetts people. 
Mr. Dutcher obtained his education chiefly in the common schools, was reared as a 
farmer and has always been a farmer. He remained on the farm until April, 1861, 
when he removed to the adjoining town of Pawling, where he has since resided. In 
1857, he was made Supervisor of Dover and the ensuing year Justice of the Peace. 
In politics, originally a Whig, upon the organization of the Republican party, he 
attached himself to them, and is yet a stout advocate of their principles, having been, 
during the war, an active and zealous partisan of the Union cause. He was a member of 
the Assembly in 1861 and 1862, and of the State Senate in 1864 and 1865. Since 1864, 
he has been a director of The New York & Harlem Railroad, and in 1865 took charge 
of the department of live stock transportation on The New York Central & Hudson 
River Railroad. He is president of The Union Stock Yard & Market Co. of New York 
and prominently identified with other corporations, being a director of The Spuyten. 
Duyvil Railroad, The Poughkeepsie & Eastern Railroad, The New York & Putnam 
Railroad, The American Safe Deposit Co., The Fifth Avenue Bank, The Mizzen Top 
Hotel Co., at Quaker Hill, and president of The National Bank of Pawling. He is also 
a member of the Chamber of Commerce, the Produce Exchange, the Union League 
club, and the St. Nicholas Society of New York city, and president of the village of 
Pawling and The New York State Agricultural Society. Not the least of Mr. 
Dutcher's labors has been a successful effort for the improvement of the village of 
Pawling. He has devoted a portion of his time to the management of his farm property, 
and is now the owner of 1,600 acres of fine grazing land in Dutchess county, stocked 
with thoroughbred cattle and horses. In 1860, he married Miss Christina, daughter of 
the late Daniel Dodge, of Pawling. To them was born one son, J. Gerow Dutcher, 
who now manages the stock farms and other interests at Pawling. In April, 1894, he 
married Helen Titus Willets, daughter of Edward Willets, of Roslyn, L. I. 

AMOS T. DWIQHT, merchant, born in New Haven, Conn., died in New York 
city, Feb. 6, 1881, in his seventy-fourth year. When a young man, he went to New 
Orleans and established himself in the clothing business under the firm name of 
Dwight, Trowbridge & Co. In 1848, he came to New York and started the firm 
of Trowbridge, Dwight & Co. on Chambers street. About 1865, he became a mer- 
chant of cotton in Hopkins, Dwight & Trowbridge, and continued in that vocation 
until 1878, when he retired with a large fortune, although retaining his interest in the 
firm. He was a director of The Home Fire Insurance and The Commercial Mutual 
Marine Insurance Co.'s, and a trustee of The Madison Square Presbyterian Church. 
He left one son, Frederick A. Dwight, and a daughter, Jeannette Atwater, wife of 
George T. Bliss. 


WILLIAM PITT EARLE, hotel proprietor, in his day a famous New York hotel 
keeper, was born in Worcester, Mass., about 1812, and died in this city, Jan. 2, 1894. 
Mr. Earle entered upon business life early and made his way with much energy. When 
he opened Earle's Hotel on Park Row, he began those operations, which, owing to 
his foresight and sagacity, were marked with almost monotonous success. In recent 
years, he conducted Earle's Hotel on Canal street at the corner of Centre street, and 
invested his earnings mainly in real estate in different parts of the city, which advanced 
greatly in value. He was one of the originators of The National Park Bank and The 
Consumers' Ice Co. His wife and five children survived him, the latter being William 
H., Gen. Ferdinand P., Eugene M., and Frank T. Earle and Emma Louise, wife of 
John L. Chadwick. The sons are all hotel men. Gen. Ferdinand P. Earle, formerly 
of Earle's Hotel and lately proprietor of the Hotel New Netherland, now conducts the 
Normandie and a summer hotel of the same name on the New Jersey coast, is a man 
remarkable for public spirit, and has lately bought the famous mansion of Madame 
Jumel, in which he lives on Washington heights. He was a member of the military 
staff of Governor Flower. 

TIMOTHY C. EASTHAN, merchant, born about 1821, died at his home, Tarry- 
town, N. Y. , Oct. n, 1893. He began life poor, working along the river front, where 
he became familiar with the handling of cattle in transportation, and showed so much 
energy that a position was given him on The New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road. In the course of time, he was placed in charge of all the cattle business of the 
company. Having saved some means, he went into business for himself, and gained 
fortune by effecting a revolution in the methods for supplying England with American 
beef. He not only shipped thousands of live cattle to England and whole cargoes of 
fresh beef in refrigerating chambers by steamship, but promoted retail market stores 
in all parts of the United Kingdom. In 1889, he founded The Eastman's Co., with a 
capital of $750,000 to carry on this trade, and was its president, his son Joseph being 
treasurer. Large abbatoirs were established at the foot of West S9th street. He was 
a director in The West Side Bank and a member of the Produce Exchange. He was 
survived by his wife, Mrs. Lucy P. Eastman, and his children, Joseph Eastman and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Bell. Mr. Eastman belonged to the Manhattan, New York and Law- 
yers' clubs, and The New England Society. 

THOHAS ALVA EDISON, inventor, was born Feb. n, 1847, in Alva, O. His 
only schooling was given him by his mother, who had been a teacher. When twelve 
years old, the lad went to work as a newsboy on The Grand Trunk Railroad, and, 
during leisure moments on the train, managed to study qualitative analysis and 
diversify existence in the baggage car with chemical experiments. A grateful 
station master, whose child he had saved from death at the risk of his own life, taught 
him telegraphy, and he soon became a skillful operator. While yet a boy, he invented 
the "automatic repeater." In 1864, the possibility of sending two messages at once 
over the same wire, suggested itself to his mind; and he perfected an invention for 
this purpose in 1872, developing it not only to duplex but even sextuplex transmission. 



In 1871, he came to New York, and was made superintendent of The Gold & Stock 
Telegraph Co., inventing for it the quotation ticker. He established a large workshop 
in Newark, X. J. , for the making of his machines, but, in 1876, transferred his mechanical 
interests to the hamlet of Menlo Park, N. J. , where he devoted himself to inventing. 
Among his new devices have been the carbon telephone transmitter, the microtasi- 
meter, aerophone, megaphone, phonograph, phonometer, and the incandescent electric 
lamp. The last he brought out in December, 1879, within a year after leading English 
scientific men had testified that sub-division of the electric light was an impossibility. 
His perfection of the small incandescent electric lamp has effected "a revolution in the 
lighting of business buildings and hotels. In 1878, he received the degree of Ph. D. 
from Union College, and during the same year was made an officer of the Legion of 
Honor by the French Government. He is a member of The Ohio Society, Press and 
Essex Count}' Country clubs, and The Theosophical Society. Since 1885, he has lived 
in Lle%vellyn Park, N. J. Mr. Edison was married in 1873 to Miss Mary Stilwell, 
daughter of N. Stilwell. In 1881, he was left a widower, and in 1885, he again 
married, his wife being Miss Minna M., daughter of Lewis Miller, of Akron, O. Mr. 
Edison is a director in a large number of companies, founded upon his patents, and 
owner of works for electrical manufacture and experiment. He is one of the few 
inventors who have profited by their inventions. His telegraph patents yielded at one 
time a large royalty, and his electric light appliances have brought him wealth. His 
latest device is the kinetoscope. 

FRANKLIN EDSON, merchant, was born in Chester, Vt., April 5, 1832, and 
received a common school education. When nineteen years old, he went to Albany, 
N. Y., where he was associated with his brother Cyrus in a distiller}' until 1866. In 
that year he removed to New York, and established himself in the grain commission 
business, by which and in real estate operations, he has since amassed a fortune. Three 
times president of the Produce Exchange, namely, in 1873, 1874, and 1878, he has been 
distinguished for public spirit and active leadership in the movement for free canals. 
His political affiliations have been with the County Democracy, and in 1882, he was 
elected Mayor of the city. He is i member of the Manhattan club and The New Eng- 
land Society, and has been for many years a director of The Bank of New York. In 
1856, he married Fannie C., daughter of Benjamin Wood, of Bath, N. Y., and has had 
seven children, Cyrus Edson, M. D., Health Commissioner of New York; David O., 
Franklin. Henry Townsend, Robert Stewart, Edith, and Ethel Townsend Edson. 

JOHN EICHLER, brewer, born at Rothenburg, Bavaria, Oct. 20, 1829, died in 
Goellheim, Bavaria, Aug. 4, 1892. Having, in his native place, served an apprentice- 
ship in the employment of Brewer Ott, he became a journeyman, toiled in various 
great German breweries, and then, in 1854, came to this country. He obtained 
employment as brew-master in Franz Ruppert's old Turtle Bay Brewer} 7 on 47th street, 
in this city. After a time, Mr. Eichler managed to start a little brewery of his own in 
partnership with a friend. Later, he purchased Kolb's Brewer}', a small establishment 
which stood where the huge concern of The John Eichler Brewing Co. now does. This 
company, incorporated Feb. 17, 1888, with a capital of $600,000, owns property now 
worth far more than that amount and does a very large business. Mr. Eichler married 
Marie Siegel of Goellheim, in New York, Nov. 2, 1856, and his only child, Minnie 
Augusta, died when not six years old. He was a member of various brewers' associa- 


tions, the Produce Exchange, the Arion and Liederkranz clubs, and many other social 
organizations. Honest, straightforward and sensible, he was highly regarded. 

LEWIS EINSTEIN, banker and manufacturer, who originated in Wurtemburg, 
Germany, was born, Sept. 6, 1812, and died April 22, 1874. Coming to the United 
States in July, 1835, Mr. Einstein spent nearly forty years in the successful pursuit 
of banking and the manufacture of woolen goods. He was for many years a resident 
of Cincinnati. Few men display more enterprise and sound judgment than did he 
and The Raritan Woolen Mills became an important property under his management. 
To him and his wife, Judith Lewis of Charleston, S. C., were born six sons and five 
daughters. His son, DAVID LEWIS EINSTEIN, manufacturer, was born in Cincin- 
nati, O., May 20, 1839, but has been a resident of New York city since childhood, and 
has followed his father's vocation all his life. His fortune has been derived partly 
from the manufacture and sale of woolen goods, but mainly from successful transactions 
in real estate, of which he is a large buyer. He is a shrewd and capable man, and 
part proprietor of extensive woolen mills in Raritan, N. J. He has various other 
corporate interests, and is a member of the Republican club and supporter of The 
American Museum of Natural History and The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Mr. 
Einstein, in 1870, married Miss Caroline Fatman, daughter of A. Fatman, of this city. 
Their children are Lewis D. Einstein, Mrs. Theodore Seligman and Amy Einstein. 
EDWIN EINSTEIN, another son of the late Lewis Einstein, born in Cincinnati, Nov. 
18, 1842, was brought by his parents to New York, when four years old. Here he 
graduated from the old Free Academy, and then received a full course at Union 
College. He began life as clerk in his father's woolen mill, and, when thirty years 
old was a mill owner. He is yet interested in The Raritan Woolen Mills and the Ivan- 
hoe, Va., iron mills, concerns which employ about 3,000 persons. It is worthy of note 
that there has never been a strike among the employes of either. Mr. Einstein has 
also been largely connected with banking interests. Although not so actively engaged 
in business as formerly, he is president of The Swan Incandescent Electric Light .Co. , 
and a director in The Alabama Mineral Land Co., and The Brush-Swan Electric Light 
Co. In 1878, he was elected to the Forty-sixth Congress, and declined a renomination, 
which was tendered to him. In 1892, the Republicans of New York city placed him 
in nomination for the Mayoralty, and gave him 98,000 votes. In 1895, he became a 
Commissioner of Docks. He is a member of the Union League club and The Union 
College Alumni, vice president of the Sigma Phi club, and a ^genial, public spirited and 
agreeable man. In 1877, Mr. Einstein was married to Miss Fanny Hendricks. 

DANIEL RIKER ELDER, merchant, a native of New York city, born July 7, 
1838, died April 25, 1875. The youngest son of George and Hannah Eliza Elder, he 
was through the paternal line of English descent, and through his mother's family, the 
Rikers, of Dutch ancestry. He was educated at Yale college, and began life as a 
wholesale grocer in the firm of George Elder & Sons, previously known as Elder & 
Painter. The trade of the firm brought him a fortune. Always genial and popular, 
he gained by travel a wide acquaintance with affairs and his conversation revealed a 
well informed mind. He made one tour around the world, and spent two winters in 
Italy and Austria. The survivors of his family were his sisters, Mrs. Julia Baldwin 
Adams, Mrs. Mary Louisa Havemeyer, and Jane Painter Elder. 

GEORGE W. ELDER, merchant, who died at his residence in this city, March 25, 


1873, in his forty-fifth year, was one of the able merchants of New York, and a capable, 
conscientious and clear headed man. During his active life, he devoted himself to the 
care of the large wholesale grocery business, founded by his father, George Elder, to 
the control of which he had succeeded. Toward the latter part of his life, when ill 
health had compelled him to relinquish the engrossing duties of his trade, he devoted 
his time, when able, to the affairs of The Old Dominion Steamship Co., of which he 
was vice president for a number of years. He was a man of quiet and domestic 
tastes and never cared for public life. His widow and several children survived him. 

JOSEPH LAWRENCE ELDER, sugar refiner, born in Hester street, in this city, 
Jan. 24, 1832, died in Stamford, Conn., on the isth of August, 1868. ' He belonged to 
the family of that name, long prominent in this city, which came originally from Man- 
chester, in England. As a boy, employed in the store of Elder & Painter, whole- 
sale grocers in Dey street, he grew up in this vocation, became a partner of his father 
and his brother George in a large wholesale grocery and sugar trade, and distinguished 
himself by a corner in sugar, which was managed with great skill and success. About 
1862, he was admitted to partnership by his father in law, Frederick C. Havemeyer, 
in the sugar refining business, under the name of Havemeyer & Elder, and it was in 
part through his marked energy and ability that his concern rose to eminence in the 
refining of raw sugars. Jan. 18, 1858, he married Miss Mary O. Havemeyer, and 
was the father of Minnie, wife of McCoskry Butt, and Frederick H. Elder. He was 
thoroughly interested in whatever would promote the welfare of New York city, and 
served in the Amity Hose Co. and the State militia. 

HENRY ELIAS, brewer, who died in Wilhelmshohe, Germany, Feb. 26, 1888, 
made his fortune in this city in the brewing trade. The influx of German population 
to the United States during the last thirty years has created a remarkable demand for 
malt liquors, and the presence of several hundred thousand Germans in the city of 
of New York has created an important local market. Mr. Elias gradually developed a 
large business, which is now incorporated as The Henry Elias Brewing Co. He was a 
member of the Produce Exchange and was survived by his wife and several children. 

STEPHEN BENTON ELKINS, lawyer, financier, Secretary of War in the Cabinet 
of President Harrison, and now United States Senator, a man of striking appearance, 
exceptional ability and unlimited capacity for work, has gained for himself by his own 
talents and application, an honorably attained fortune. He was born in Perry 
county, Ohio, Sept. 26, 1841, his father being a farmer. During his early boyhood, 
the family moved to Missouri. Mr. Elkins received an excellent education in the 
public schools and at the University of the State, and displayed ambition even in 
school, where he applied himself so diligently as to attract attention. He graduated in 
1860, at the head of his class. After fitting himself for practice of the law, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1863 During the war, he joined the Union forces, and for a while 
served on the Missouri border, with the rank of captain. 

The spirit of adventure and a desire to practice his profession in a field which was 
not over crowded, led him in 1864 to cross the plains to New Mexico, then a rough 
border country, inhabited by a population two-thirds of whom were Spanish. The 
life of the territory was full of hardship and danger at that time but presented 
opportunities for success to an enterprising man. Finding it necessary, at once, to 
master the Spanish language, Mr. Elkins became proficient in that tongue within 



2I 7 

one year. Stalwart and capable, he soon attracted important clients and a large prac- 
tice, and gained popularity and influence. In 1866, he was elected to the Legislature. 
His speeches in that body revealed great force of character and devotion to the welfare 
of the territory. In 1867. he rose to the position of Attorney General of New Mexico. 

In 1868, President Johnson appointed Mr. Elkins to be United States District 
Attorney of the territory, and he was one of the few officials of that administration 
whom President Grant did not remove. In this position, it fell to the lot of Mr. Elkins 
to enforce the act of Congress, prohibiting slavery or involuntary servitude in the ter- 
ritories of the United States, and he had the satisfaction of restoring, to liberty several 
thousand peons, who were then held in practical slavery by the Mexican residents. He 
was the first public official to enforce this law, and performed his task in the face of 
serious opposition, against the prejudices of the rich and influential and under threats 
of personal violence. 

In 1869, Mr. Elkins was elected president of The First National Bank of Santa 
Fe and held this position for thirteen years His income from law practice and other, 
sources was large and, being careful in his expenditures, at an early day he was enabled 
to invest large sums of money in lands and mines, soon taking rank as one of the 
largest land proprietors in the country and an extensive owner in the silver mines of 

In 1873, Mr. Elkins received an election as Delegate from New Mexico to Con- 
gress, defeating his opponent, a Mexican, by 4,000 majority. In Congress he served 
his constituents so well, that, in 1875, while travelling in Europe, notwithstanding a 
positive refusal to accept the office again, his district re-elected him handsomely to 
the XLIVth Congress. He could do no less than accept the honor thus bestowed 
and serve a second term. In Congress, he quickly gained prominence by industry, 
ability and effective support of important measures. During his second term, he 
was especially untiring in efforts to secure the admission of New Mexico as a State. 
An elaborate speech, setting forth the resources and claims of the then little known 
territory, gained for him a national reputation. 

While in Congress, Mr. Elkins married a daughter of ex-Senator Henry G. 
Davis of West Virginia, a woman of great refinement and social ability. 

Four years of experience in Washington brought Mr. Elkins well into the arena of 
public affairs. From the beginning, an active, earnest and aggressive Republican, he 
favored especially the policy of protection to American industry. His advocacy of con- 
structive measures made him, during his first term in Congress, one of the leaders of 
his party, and in 1875, a member of the Republican National Committee. Upon this 
committee, he served during three Presidential campaigns. In 1884, the executive 
committee elected him chairman. A warm and intimate friendship soon sprang up be- 
tween James G. Elaine and Mr. Elkins, and the latter was influential in bringing about 
the nomination of Mr. Elaine for the Presidency in 1884. He was equally instrumental 
in the nomination of Benjamin Harrison in 1888 and 1892. 

Dec. 17, 1891, he became Secretary of War under President Harrison. He was 
especially well fitted to perform the duties of this office, having had a large acquaint- 
ance with the affairs of the War Department in the West. His appointment brought 
into the service of the army, a man of intellectual strength, an excellent organizer 
and a courteous gentleman. He was invariably. cordial and obliging to persons engaged 


in public business, and exceedingly helpful to Senators and Members. Patient in inves- 
tigation, prompt in decision, and sincerely desirous of promoting the welfare of the 
army, he proved a successful and useful Secretary of War. 

Mr. Elkins's reputation does not rest entirely upon his public services. His pro- 
gress in the field of business and finance has been marked. About' 1878, he removed 
from New Mexico to West Virginia, and there devoted himself, in company with ex- 
Senator Davis, to the development of the railroads of the State, and the coal and timber 
lands of the Cumberland region. While practical affairs soon compelled him to aban- 
don legal practice in the courts, yet he has always retained his interest in the law and 
superintends all legal matters connected with his various enterprises. Success has fol- 
lowed effort in these enterprises, but it should be mentioned, that while adding to some 
extent to his private fortune, Mr. Elkins has conferred upon the people of his adopted 
State far greater benefits than he has received. He has been vice president of The 
West Virginia Central & Pittsburgh Railway Co. since its organization, and of The 
Piedmont & Cumberland Railroad, and is president of The Davis Coal & Coke Co. 
Through his agency large amounts of capital have been brought into the State and 
employment provided for thousands of men. 

In December, 1892, Mr. Elkins received the complimentary vote of the Republi- 
cans of the Legislature of West Virginia for United States Senator. A forcible or- 
ator, he has made many public addresses, all of which have shown originality, public 
spirit, and thorough acquaintance with economic and political questions. During 
the campaign of 1894, he led the Republicans of West Virginia in the struggle, which 
for the first time since the period of reconstruction broke the Solid South. Congress- 
man Wilson, in whose district Mr. Elkins resides, was defeated by a decisive majority ; 
four Republicans were elected to Congress ; the Legislature was made Republican by 
twenty-nine majority on joint ballot ; and the State carried by 13,000 majority. Asa 
result of this revolution, the Legislature elected Mr. Elkins United States Senator in 1895. 

His home is the beautiful country seat of " Halliehurst," at Elkins, in Randolph 
county, W. Va. This large mansion stands upon a mountain site of unusual beauty, 
commanding a magnificent view of the valley beneath and the forests and mountain 
peaks which frame the scene The house, four stories high, with towers, seems from a 
distance greatly like an old time castle. A porch surrounds the structure on three 
sides, and the main hall, fifty-eight feet long by twenty-five feet wide, indicates the 
size of the other apartments. 

During his casual residence in New York, where his Imsiness affairs required 
him to pass much of his time, he associated himself with many local interests, 
thoroughly in accord with his energetic nature, and became a member of the 
Union League, Republican, Ohio, United Service, Metropolitan and Manhattan Ath- 
letic clubs, and the Southern Society. Like other public spirited citizens, he also con- 
tributed to the support of those favorite projects of refined New Yorkers, The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, and The American Museum of Natural History, as well as 
The American Geographical Society. 

A man of strong and sturdy build, more than six feet in height, with fine features, 
and a large head set firmly on powerful shoulders, he is yet in the prime of life and an 
active force in affairs. His favorite room at home is his library, and he spends most of 
his time there, in the company of a large and well selected collection of books. 


JOHN ELLIS, M. D., oil refiner, a native of Ashfield., Mass., born Nov. 26, 1815, 
is a son of Dimick Ellis, a farmer, and a great grandson of the founder of the family in 
America, who came from Dublin, Ireland, at the age of twelve. It is supposed that 
the family originated in Wales After a course of study in the academies of Ashfield 
and Shelburne Falls, he graduated as a physician from the Berkshire Medical College 
in Pittsfield, Mass., in 1842. Dr. Ellis practiced the healing art in Chesterfield, Mass., 
a year; in Grand Rapids, Mich., two years; in Detroit, Mich., fifteen years; and in New 
York city about thirteen years. After more than thirty years of practice of an honor- 
able profession and at an age when most men begin to think of retiring from responsi- 
bilities of an exacting nature, Dr. Ellis, who had learned through his scientific studies 
many things not connected with the influence of drugs upon the human system, 
resolved to embark in practical business pursuits. In 1874, therefore, with moderate 
capital, in union with his son, Wilbur D. Ellis, and his wife's nephew, Theodore M. 
Leonard, he established an oil refinery in South Brooklyn, under the name of John 
Ellis & Co., and began refining petroleum by a process of his own invention. The 
venture was successful. In 1881, the firm bought a plot of land at Edgewater, N. J., 
directly opposite Grant's tomb, and removed the works to that place and developed 
them into a large plant. Their production is largely in the nature of lubricating oils. 
In spite of the risks to which this business is exposed, and an occasional fire, Mr. Ellis 
has made steady progress, and has gained a fortune, owing largely to the activity of 
his partners in finding a market for the product of the works. Mr. Ellis has an interest 
in various corporations but holds no office in them. In 1843, ne was united in marriage 
in Chesterfield, Mass., to Mary E. Coit, who died in Detroit in 1850. In 1851, he 
married Sarah M. Leonard, of Troy, Mich. His one child living is Wilbur Dixon 
Ellis. Mr. Ellis published, in 1859, a work on "Avoidable Causes of Disease," and 
has written many tracts on temperance and other reforms, in which he is deeply 
interested and concerning which he discourses with ripened judgment and enter- 
taining force. 

JOHN WASHINGTON ELLIS, banker, born in Williamsburg, Ohio, Aug. 15, 
1817, is a son of Benjamin Ellis, and a descendant of the pioneer Ellis, who came from 
Sandwich, England, in the seventeenth century. Benjamin Ellis emigrated from 
Sandwich, Mass., to Maine, and went, in 1809, to Ohio, traveling from New York to 
Pittsburgh on horseback, and rowing a skiff thence to Cincinnati, there being then no 
steamboats. John was educated in Cincinnati and Kenyon College Grammar School. 
While a young man he came to New York, but in 1840 returned to Cincinnati and 
entered the wholesale dry goods business, in which he continued until 1865, making 
himself, during that time, most favorably known to the importers and commission- 
merchants of the East. When the National Bank Act was passed in February, 1863, 
Mr. Ellis organized the first National Bank of Cincinnati, with a capital of 1,000,000, 
within a week's time. In the estimation of Chief Justice Chase, Mr. Ellis was one of 
those who ' ' did most to give the national bank system a real start and a firm founda- 
tion." In 1869, Mr. Ellis was invited to New York to take the management of the bank 
of Winslow, Lanier & Co., who had been doing a large Western business. This invi- 
tation he accepted, and this position he retained until 1883, when he retired from busi- 
ness. The most important operation of his life was the resusicitation of The Northern 
Pacific Railroad Co., in 1879-80, after the failure under Jay Cooke's management in 


1873. Mr. Ellis formed a syndicate, which took $40,000,000 of Northern Pacific bonds 
and finished the road to the Pacific. He retired from the directory in 1886. By his 
marriage, in 1845, with Caroline, daughter of Abraham Lindley, he is the father of 
Sallie, wife of Professor Postlethwaite, of West Point; Mary, wife of George Hoffman, 
now deceased, of New York; Helen, wife of Hugh L. Cole, of New York; and Ralph 
N. Ellis, also of this city. Mr. Ellis is a member of The Ohio and New England 
Societies and the Down Town and Union League clubs, and a contributor to the 
support of many charities and public institutions. 

EDWARD ELSWORTH, merchant, born at No. 213 Church street, in this city, 
Jan. 3, 1811, died at his home, No. 20 West 49th street, June 23, 1886. He came from 
Knickerbocker stock, being a son of John W. Elsworth, a lineal descendant of Chris- 
topher (or Christoffel, as the early Dutch records have it,) Elswaerts, who came from 
Holland to the Island of Manhattan in 1653. Beginning life in New York city as clerk 
for his brother Henry, he was taken into partnership in 1837, in H. & E. Elsworth, and 
for nearly thirty years carried on a wholesale oil, drug and paint business. He 
entered heartily into all the local interests of the city, was a volunteer fireman, and 
played a valiant part in fighting the great fire of 1835. At one time he had a large 
interest in clipper ships, being part owner of the Wisconsin and Tornado among others, 
and also had an investment in the Hudson river steamboat Niagara, which ran to 
Albany. Later, he was president of Enoch Morgan & Sons, manufacturers of Sapolio, 
and of The Keyport Steamboat Co. , which operated a number of harbor steamboats. 
He was also a director of The Commercial Insurance Co., The Niagara Insurance Co., 
The Merchants' Exchange National Bank, and The North River Bank. By his mar- 
riage wish Phcebe A., daughter of D. B. Martin, he was the father of fifteen children, 
of whom twelve survived him. Three of his sons served in the Union army or navy, 
one being killed at the second Bull Run, another at Port Hudson. 

HENRY ELSWORTH, merchant, born in New York city, Sept. 30, 1808, died 
there, Jan. 18, 1873. He was in the seventh generation in descent from Christoffel (or 
Stoffel) Elswaerts, who emigrated from England to Holland, and then to America, in 
1653, becoming first of his line on the Island of Manhattan, and thus the founder of one 
of the oldest families in the city. There is some reason to believe that the Ellsworths 
of Connecticut and the Aylsworths of Rhode Island descended from the same stock as the 
New York family. The name is derived from a small village near Cambridge in Eng- 
land, situated upon a rivulet once famous for eels. The Saxon word "worth" signified 
"place," and the village was called Eelsworth. The family name arose from the circum- 
stance, it is said, that it was the custom for the first settler in a new place to call himself 
after the name of the settlement. The descendants of old Christoffel Elswaerts were 
men of good repute in New Amsterdam and New York, and some of them were prom- 
inent in their day. Henry Elsworth's grandfather, William J. Elsworth, was a deacon 
in the Reformed Dutch Church, school trustee, first chief engineer of the fire depart- 
ment, and assistant Alderman, 1789-91. The parents of the subject of this memoir were 
John W. and Sarah Hinton Elsworth. Beginning life in the employment of Jonathan 
Southwick, a merchant of oils and paints in this city, Mr. Elsworth's industry, energy 
and trustworthiness secured for him rapid promotion, and he became, while young, the 
head of the business in succession to Mr. Southwick. In 1837, after his brother had 
become a partner, he adopted the firm name of H. &. E. Elsworth, and for a full 


business generation carried on a successful wholesale drug and paint business. An 
American business man of the best type, he displayed intelligence of a high order, 
firmness, rectitude and enterprise, and in spite of his marked modesty, obtained distinc- 
tion without seeking it. He promoted the foundation of The Manhattan Fire Insurance 
Co. , and the Society Library, served as first president of The Merchants' Telegraph 
Co., and was a trustee of various charities. May 26, 1831, he married Mary, daughter 
of William and Mary Morris Ryer. Besides his widow, who survived him nine years, 
Mr. Elsworth left two daughters, Sarah, wife of John H. Hinton, M. D., and Mary, 
wife of Edward C. Gregory. 

AMBROSE KITCHELL ELY, merchant, one of the oldest and most highly 
esteemed among the leather men of the "Swamp," was born in Livingston, N. J., 
Jan. 31, 1823. The family moved to New York two years later. In 1844, Mr. Ely 
entered his father's firm of Ring & Ely, leather merchants, at No. 1 7 Ferry street, 
afterward known as Thorne, Watson, Corse & Co., at No. 18 Ferry street. In 1857, 
he withdrew, taking out as his share of the capital about $250,000, and went into busi- 
ness alone, manufacturing and selling leather. At the same time, he engaged largely 
in real estate transactions. In both lines of enterprise he has been in the highest 
degree successful. During a number of years past, he has been virtually out of the 
leather business, but retains an office in the Swamp to manage his real estate interests. 
He is a bachelor and has never felt any leaning toward club life. 

DAVID JAY ELY, merchant, born in Lyme, Conn., May 5, 1816, died Feb. 24, 1877. 
He was one of the old class of merchants, and famous for the virtues and characteristic 
traits of his New England ancestry. The family was planted in this country abou' 
1650. Mr. Ely came to New York, a boy of thirteen, and began as clerk for Don 
Alonzo Cushman, was then engaged in business in the South for a few years, and 
finally located in Chicago during the '405, where he carried on the importation of tea, 
coffee, sugar, molasses, etc. His firm were known first as Reynolds, Ely & Co., then 
as D. J. Ely & Co. He was a very wide awake and capable merchant, and saw Chicago 
develop into a great city. In 1866, he removed to New York and imported coffee on 
a large scale as D. J. Ely & Co., until his death. He married, Jan. 27, 1848, Caroline, 
daughter of James Duncan of Massillon, O. The two children now surviving are James 
R. Ely, and Mary, wife of Charles A. Miller. 

HENRY GILBERT ELY, merchant, born in West Springfield, Mass., March 7, 
1824, died at his home in Brooklyn, N. Y. Aug. 8, 1877. Gaining an education in West- 
field academy, he would have entered college, had not his health failed. He came to 
Brooklyn in 1847 to enter the employment of his uncle, William Kent, in the dry 
goods trade, and later and up to 1857, was senior member of Ely, Bowen & McConnell, 
and Ely, Clapp & Bowen. He afterward established, in New York city, the firm of 
H. G. Ely & Co., leather merchants, of which he was at the head at the time of his 
death. They were prominent in the trade, and conducted a large and successful 
business. By his marriage with Mary P., daughter of Samuel Putnam, Feb. 27, 1851, 
he was the father of Leicester K., Samuel P., Bessie P., and Mary G. Ely. Mr. Ely 
was the forty-fourth person to join Plymouth Church, and took an active interest in 
its affairs from the foundation. Quiet and unassuming in manner, but a man of firm 
and upright character, the foe of all wrong doing, he was highly respected in social 
and business circles. 


SfllTH ELY, ex-Mayor of New York city, was born at the residence of his maternal 
grandfather, Ambrose Kitchell, in Hanover, Morris county, N. J., April 17, 1825. 
His father, Epaphras C. Ely, a leather merchant and a soldier in the War of 1812, was 
born in this city in 1795. Moses Ely, the grandfather of ex-Mayor Ely, served in the 
army of the Revolution, and his great grandfather and great, great grandfather, 
William and Richard Ely, were both captains during the old French war. By virtue 
of his ancestry, Mr. Ely is a member of The Society of the War of 1812, The Sons of 
the Revolution, and The Society of Colonial Wars. His maternal great grandfather, 
Judge Aaron Kitchell, who was Congressman, United States Senator and Presidential 
Elector at Large, was also a soldier in the Revolutionary Arm}'-. 

The subject of this sketch studied law for three years in the office of Frederic de 
Peyster, and afterward graduated at the University Law School, but he never practiced 
the profession for a livelihood, having devoted his middle life to mercantile pursuits. 

Mr. Ely has always been a Democrat. In 1856, he was elected School Trustee of 
the Seventh Ward, and held the position for four years. In 1857, he was elected a State 
Senator by a large majority, being the first Democrat ever elected from his district. In 
the Senate, he figured as the only Democrat on the most important two committees 
the Committee on Cities and the Sub-Committee of the Whole and he was thus enabled 
to do much good and defeat much evil in legislation. 

In 1860, Mr. Ely received an election as County Supervisor, one of whose functions 
was to raise the money and men to carry on the war. He held this office for eight 
years, and, while a member of the Board, became conspicuous by his opposition to the 
extravagancies of the Board. In 1867, he was re-elected in opposition to the regular 
Democratic and Republican candidates. In 1870, a union of the Democratic factions 
took place, and Mr. Ely was elected to the Forty-second Congress from the Seventh 
District, and did good service on the Railroad Committee, upon which he was placed 
by Speaker Elaine. He received a re-election in 1874, and an appointment by Speaker 
Kerr on the Committee on Foreign Relations, the Committee on Public Buildings, and 
the Committee on the Expenditures of the Treasury Department, of which latter he 
was chairman. 

In 1876, while Mr. Ely yet held his seat in Congress, the different Democratic 
elements in New York city united upon him as a candidate for Mayor. The Republi- 
cans nominated the distinguished soldier and statesman, ex-Governor John A. Dix, but 
Mr. Ely was elected by more than 55,000 majority. 

Mayor Ely's administration was characterized by wise"-and strict economy. In 
each of the years of his term the net amount of the city debt was reduced, and, not- 
withstanding the increase of population, the amount of the tax levy was each year 
diminished, viz. : 

Net City Debt. Total Tax Levy. 

January, 1877 $119,811,310 $31,109,521 

January, 1878 117,700,742 29,178,940 

January, 1879 113,418,403 28,008,888 

This financial success was never paralleled by any other Mayor. 

Before he left the Mayor's office, the Democratic party in his old Congressional 
District offered Mr. Ely the nomination for Congress, but he declined the honor, pre- 
ferring to return to private life. 

In 1867, Mr. Ely was Commissioner of Public Instruction, and in 1880 was nom- 
inated as one of the Presidential electors on the Democratic State ticket. 


Mr. Ely is a bachelor. His clubs are the Century, Manhattan, Drawing Room, 
and the Presbyterian Union. 

JOHN ENQLIS, one of the most famous of the steamboat builders of this port, 
was born Nov. 25, 1808, and died in the city of Brooklyn, Oct. 25, 1888. His father, 
of the same name, an honest Scot, came to America in' 1795, and made this city his 
home. John, the son, derived shrewdness, health and ability from his parents, and 
received from them a training in character which was of far more value to him than an 
inherited fortune. The fortune he made for himself. A promising, sturdy and vigor- 
ous boy, he studied during youth in the schools of New York city, and then, when 
he had mastered the elements of a sound education, sought the means of earning his 
own support. This he found on the East river front in the ship yard of Smith & 
Dimond, who ranked among the most noted ship builders of their times. The occupa- 
tion suited his active nature, and here, with axe and hammer, he toiled for several 
years, learning to shape the frame timbers, lay the planking and assemble the various 
parts of vessels. His progress was rapid, and he decided to adopt marine construction 
as his vocation for life. In a few years, he had risen to be a journeyman, and soon 
became foreman for Bishop & Simonson, another conspicuous firm of builders. While 
he gained a valuable experience in both these yards, it was evident early in life that the 
fame of the student was destined in time far to surpass that of his teachers. 

In 1837, when steam navigation was being introduced upon the great lakes, Mr. 
Englis had already earned sufficient reputation to be invited to Lake Erie, to build two 
steamboats for the northern trade. He constructed the Milwaukee and Red Jacket, 
both excellent boats, under contract, and then returned to New York. Experience had 
now brought to him a confidence in his powers, and he opened a shipyard on his own 
account at the foot of East loth street on the East river. 

While other shipwrights occupied themselves \vith the construction of the clippers, 
packet vessels, and freighting ships required for the extended foreign commerce of this 
port, Mr. Englis devoted his own energies to the separate and, if possible, more impor- 
tant, branch of his art, in which he had begun. Steamboat building, then in its 
infancy, required the highest talent in the designers of models and the greatest skill 
and ingenuity in construction. Intended for the navigation of comparatively shoal 
waters and to be propelled by powerful steam engines, these boats were in model 
utterly unlike those of the sailing ships, and presented many difficult poblems to the 
marine architect. It was to this branch of the art that Mr. Englis applied himself. 
Beginning modestly, but filling every contract with painstaking care and with fidelity 
to the interests of his clients, he soon attracted attention and commendation among 
the merchants of New York, and gradually rose to be the greatest builder of steam- 
boats at this port. It is a noteworthy fact that during the nearly fifty years of his 
active business life, nearly all the great side wheel steamers for the trade and travel of 
Long Island Sound, and the finest river steamboats in the world, were launched from 
his yard. Nor did he confine himself to river boats. Many noble steamships for the 
ocean trades were produced by him, and scores of vessels for the merchants of other 
commercial centers. In all, he constructed eighty-nine vessels, propelled by steam, 
averaging 1,500 tons each, an aggregate of about 135,000 t6ns. He was exceedingly 
careful in the selection of materials, ingenious in his models and the adaptation of 
means to ends in the framing of his boats, and thorough in workmanship. His 


methods were studied by other progressive builders, and copied in all parts of the 
country. During the Civil War, his yard was especially busy. From 250 to 450 of the 
best class of shipwrights, carpenters, joiners, and other mechanics, earned their liveli- 
hood in his employment. 

It is scarcely necessary to present a catalogue of all the vessels set afloat from his 
famous yard. A few of the more noteworthy may, however, be referred to. Old 
merchants and thousands of travellers remember the Drew, St. John, Dean Richmond, 
Newport, Old Colony, C. H. Northam, Tremont, Falmouth, Columbia, Saratoga, City 
of Troy, and Grand Republic, which were built for river and Sound service, and the 
ocean steamers, City of Mexico, City of Merida, City of Havana, City of Vera Cruz, 
City of Atlanta, City of Columbia, Villa Clara, Gloria, Trinidad and others, constructed 
for deep water navigation. Many of these boats are yet in existence and giving great 

Seven of his boats were built for service in China, and one of them, the Sumo 
Nada, is credited with a run of a thousand miles from Hong Kong to Shanghai in fifty- 
six hours. These boats were the despair of the builders of England, who had expended 
immense sums in the construction of craft for the same trade, but had never produced 
one which equalled the creations of Mr. Englis. 

In 1853, he constructed for the Lakes the Plymouth Rock and Western World, 
which outstripped every rival in speed as well as in beauty for many years, and 
during the days before the railroads had fairly conquered the West, carried an im- 
mense number of travellers to and from the West, proving exceedingly profitable to 
their owners. 

As an illustration of his energy, the construction of the Unadilla may be referred 
to. This was the first of the gunboats and was delivered to the Federal Government 
in 1861, in forty-eight days, or twelve less than the time allowed. The Secretary of 
the Navy expressed great satisfaction with this vessel, and wrote, under date of Oct. 8, 
1 86 1 : "It gives the Department much pleasure to add that the reports of the inspec- 
tors are in the highest degree complimentary of the manner in which the wor-k has 
been executed." An equally remarkable achievement was the building and launching 
of the steamboat Columbia in forty-two days, or within fifty-eight days from the 
date of signing the contract. This large and handsome boat was finished, complete, in 
ninety days. 

The St. John for The People's Line on the Hudson River, trading between New 
York and Albany, was at her birth the greatest triumph of-the day, and signalized a 
new era not only in marine construction but in the traffic of the river which was her 
home. The enterprise which led the proprietors to project this magnificent boat was 
handsomely seconded by the skill of her constructor. Of 3,400 tons burden, capable oi 
carrying 1,700 passengers and 700 tons of freight, upon a draft of 6 feet of water, 
this noble boat usually breasted the swift current of this crooked river and touched her 
pier in Albany within nine hours of her departure from New York. The cabins were 
marvels of exquisite workmanship, and the two tiers of state rooms, lighted by gas, 

icated by steam, and furnished in a costly manner, were the subject of flattering com- 
ment in the travelling world. The consort of this boat, the Dean Richmond, 308 feet in 

ength and 82 feet in width across the guards, took a place on the line in 1867, and 
proved no less famous and successful. 


Among the steamers built for the traffic of Long Island Sound may be mentioned 
the Newport, 340 feet in length, 44 feet beam, and 14 feet in depth of hold, which made 
the trip to Newport, a distance of 160 miles, in eight hours, a record which has not been 
beaten even by the gigantic vessels which are now plying upon that route. The Old 
Colony, 315 feet in length, 42 feet in beam, and 14 feet depth of hold, was also notable. 

Mr. Englis possessed the power of handling large masses of men and of co-ordi- 
nating their energies with skill and efficiency. He was, in fact, as much of a business 
man as an expert in marine architecture ; and it came about naturally that, in time, he 
acquired an interest in many important business ventures. He always preferred navi- 
gation enterprises, however, and invested a large share of his savings in The People's 
Line to Albany, The International Line, The Maine Steamship Co., The Charleston 
Line, The Knickerbocker Steamboat Co., and The New York, The Union and The 
Metropolitan Ferry Co.'s., and The Brighton Pier Co. Highly respected for sound 
judgment and high character, he might have shared in the direction of many financial 
institutions, but he declined every responsibility, calculated to divert his attention from 
the labors, which were the ruling passion of his life. He was a member of The Gen- 
eral Society of Mechanics & Tradesmen, and promoted every movement for the welfare 
of the working classes. 

He was married in New York city in February, 1832, to Mary A., daughter of 
Abram Quackenbush. His only son, John Englis, jr., a capable and progressive man, 
now conducts the old ship yard. 

AflOS RICHARDS ENO, realty owner, born in S"imsbury, Conn., Nov. i, 1810, 
traces his ancestry back to James Eno, an Englishman, who settled in Windsor, Conn., 
in 1648. The family were men of sturdy character and took an active part in the early 
wars. Salmon Eno, father of Amos, was a member of the Connecticut Legislature. 
About 1831, the subject of this sketch came to New York, and with his cousin, John Jay 
Phelps of Simsbury, opened a little dry goods store on Exchange place. They bought 
mainly at the large auction sales, paying cash, while others paid in notes, and in a year 
or two were firmly established in business. Eno & Phelps soon became the largest pur- 
chasers at auction sales. Their store burned to the ground in the fire of 1835. There- 
after, they carried on business on Hanover Square and ranked among the soundest and 
best merchants in the city. The firm dissolved in 1850, and Mr. Eno then engaged 
largely in real estate transactions, in which he had already become interested. He was 
among the first to operate on Dey, Warren and Chambers streets and Broadway, and 
built the Fifth Avenue Hotel at a cost of about a million. His properties have in 
recent years grown enormously in value. Mr. Eno is a director of The Second 
National Bank, and a member of the Reform club and New England Society. 

Matanzas, Cuba, May 16, 1808, died in New York city, March 16, 1888. His grand- 
father was a colonel in the Spanish army, and his father, Don Jeronimo Estevez, held a 
very high and honorable position in Matanzas, given to him for life by the Spanish 
government. He was first cousin of Jose Maria de Cardenas, Marquis de Prado Ame"no. 
During the earlier portion of his business career, he was a sugar broker in Cuba, and 
for several years prior to 1857 carried on an extensive business in Havana. Owing to 
the unsettled state of affairs in Cuba, he came to New York city in 1857, and founded 
the successful firm of Angulo & Estevez, and later, that of Estevez & Govin & Bro. 


He retired from business during the Cuban rebellion and engaged in heavy transactions 
in local real estate, his capital in these ventures being re-inforced by that of Felix 
Govin y Pinto, also a wealthy Cuban planter. Senor Estevez's wife was Louisa San 
Jorje, daughter of the Baron San Jorje. His wife passed away before him. His only 
child, Ramon Maria Estevez, jr., also now deceased, married Inez Morales de Mauresa. 
The only survivors of his immediate family are two granddaughters, sisters, to whom 
he left his entire fortune. They were Mary Ignacia Estevez, and Caroline Cecilia, who 
became the wife of Thomas H. Terry, Dec 3, 1890. 

JAflES EVERARD, brewer, the architect of his own fortunes, born in Dublin, Ire- 
land, in August, 1829, came from a mercantile family and passed his earlier years in 
the laborious occupations of printing and stereotyping and mason work and building. 
When the war with Mexico broke out, he joined the American army and fought in 
many battles under General Scott and General Taylor. After the war, he served for a 
time on the New York city police force, and resigned to engage in contracting and build- 
ing. He fulfilled important contracts in the construction of the New York Post Office 
and with the city for paving, grading, etc., continuing from 1857 to 1868. In 1876, he 
bought the Whitney brewery for the manufacture of ales and porter, and in 1886 built 
a lager beer brewery at i33d street, extending at the present time from i32d to ijsth 
streets, and including extensive bottling works, stables, wagon and blacksmith shops, 
etc. In 1894, he abandoned the Whitney brewery and built a new one for ale and porter, 
extending from 134111 to 135111 street, and erecting on the site of the old brewery at 
West, Washington and loth streets a large warehouse, fourteen stories high, for govern- 
ment stores. In 1890, he utilized property in West 28th street by building Russian and 
Turkish baths of great luxury and comfort. Mr. Everard is a director of The Fifth 
National Bank, has interests in a variety of other enterprises, and is credited with giv- 
ing away much in charity. He is married and has one daughter, Olga Jule Everard. 


EBERHARD FABER, lead pencil manufacturer, born in Stein, Bavaria, Dec. 6, 
1822, died in New York city, March 2, 1879. Caspar Faber, the first member of the 
family engaged in this industry, began the manufacture of lead pencils in 1761, in the 
little village of Stein, in Bavaria, and the industry has since been carried on by his 
family. In 1784, his son, Anthony William Faber, took charge of the business, and 
was succeeded by his son, George Leonard Faber. About 1 849, Lotha von Faber, head 
of the German house, saw the necessity of establishing a branch of the business in 
America; and accordingly, in that year, Eberhard, son of George Leonard Faber, who 
preferred a practical career to the study of the law, which he had been pursuing at 
several of the German Universities, was sent to New York city. In 1851, he opened a 
house at No. 133 William street, as the agent of the A. W. Faber lead pencils, and in 
1852 began the exportation to Germany of red cedar. In 1861, he built the first lead 
pencil factory in the United States at the foot of 42d street on the East river, and when, 
in 1872, this was burned, he built another at Kent and West streets in Green point. In 
1877, the office of the house was removed from William street to Broadway. Mr. Faber 
also introduced the manufacture of pen-holders, gold pens and rubber goods of all 
varieties, connected with the stationery trade. He enjoyed a practical monopoly of the 
pencil industry for many years, and by his enterprise made the A. W. Faber lead pen- 
cils as well known in every home and school in America as that of the parent house in 
Germany has made it in Europe. Mr. Faber's surviving children are John Eberhard, 
Lothair, Bertha, Sophia, Louise and Rosie Faber. His son, JOHN EBERHARD 
FABER, born March 14, 1859, in New York city, was christened John Robert Faber 
and was educated at the School of Mines, Columbia College, and in Nuernberg, Ger- 
many, and Paris, France. He then entered the office of his father, where he learned 
every necessary detail of the manufacture and sale of lead pencils. In 1879, ne took 
charge of the business in America, and then received permission from the courts to 
change his middle name to Eberhard. Several years later, he admitted his brother 
Lothair to the firm. Mr. Faber is a very capable manager of his business. He 
operates a factory in Brooklyn, and derives his supply of red cedar from Florida, which 
State alone grows this wood in perfection. Mr. Faber operates a large cedar yard and 
factor}' in Cedar Keys, Fla., at which the red cedar logs are sawed into slabs, ready for 
transportation to New York or Europe. His agents are continually exploring Florida 
for cedar lands, and have purchased for him large tracts of the standing timber. Mr. 
Faber is a director of The First National Bank of Staten Island, The American Life 
Union, and The Mutual Fire Insurance Co., and a member of the Staten Island Cricket 
and Staten Island Athletic clubs. He was married in 1887 to Abby Boles Adams. 

EQISTO PAULO FABBRI, banker, born Dec. 28, 1828, in Florence, Italy, died 
there, June 25, 1894. His father, Giovanni Fabbri, was a merchant of silk. His mother 
was Russian. Egisto received a sound education in Italy and England and planned to 
be a surgeon. Upon the death of his father, however, he entered a shipping house in 
Livorno and when it failed went to Paris. In 1851, he came to the new world. In 1852, 
he returned to Italy, but came to America again in 1854. After a year's search for 


employment, he became bookkeeper for John Randall & Co., shipping merchants, was 
admitted as a partner seven years later and so remained until 1867. Then, he founded 
the shipping house of Fabbri & Chauncey, which enjoyed a prosperous career, finally 
becoming extinct in 1884. In 1875, Mr. Fabbri became a partner in Drexel, Morgan & 
Co. Ill health compelled his retirement Dec. 31, 1885. During his last nine years, he 
travelled extensively in Europe and purchased a beautiful estate in Florence, upon which 
he dwelt thereafter. For his services in behalf of Italian independence, King Victor 
Emanuel bestowed upon him the unusual right of regaining Italian citizenship at his 
own pleasure. In his amiable, courtly, personal address, his famous hospitality, and his 
musical accomplishment, he reflected his Italian birthright, and in his business career, 
revealed financial sagacity and executive ability. He was one of the founders of the 
Metropolitan Opera House in this city. He was married June 28, 1849, to Mary Kealey. 
Being without issue, in 1890, he adopted the children of his deceased brofher Ernesto. 

ERNESTO QUISEPPE FABBRI, merchant, born in Florence, Italy, March 17, 
1830, died at Lake Mahopac, N. Y., July 3, 1883. He came to this city at the age of 
twenty-three, found employment as a clerk for John Randall & Co., subsequently 
became a partner, and then married a daughter of the senior partner. The firm was 
dissolved in 1861. Mr. Fabbri returned to Italy and in Genoa established the firm of 
Valerio & Fabbri, commission merchants. In 1865, he returned to this city and entered 
the commission house of Fabbri & Chauncey on South street, of which his brother 
Egisto P. Fabbri was a partner. In 1876, Ernesto succeeded his brother as the head 
of the firm. He was a director of The Central & South American Telegraph Co. , The 
Orient Mutual Insurance Co., and The United States Rolling Stock Co., and a member 
of the Chamber of Commerce and of The Maritime Association. Active in the Com- 
mittee on Italian Schools, he befriended his poorer countrymen in so many ways, that 
the Italian Government conferred upon him the honor of knighthood and the orders of 
the Crown of Italy and Sts. Maurice and Lazarus. His marriage with Sara, daughter 
of John Randall, brought him eight children, Egisto P., Ernestine, Marie Pauline, 
Ernesto G., Alice, Nathalie, Cora, now deceased, and Alessandro. He was a member 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Holy Communion. 

JOSEPH FAHYS, manufacturer, was born May 23, 1832, in Belport, France. 
Educated in France, he came to New York city and, in June, 1857, with a few hundred 
dollars, started the manufacture of watch cases on a small_scale. Afterward, he estab- 
lished a factory in Carlstadt, N. J. ; in 1866, one in Brooklyn ; and in 1881, one in Sag 
Harbor, which is the present location of the industry. His enterprise is now incorpor- 
ated as The Fahys Watch Case Co., making 1,500 cases a day. The business office is 
on Maiden Lane in this city. Mr. Fahys is the owner of the building bearing his name 
at No. 54 Maiden Lane; president of The Fahys Watch Case Co. ; a director of The 
Brooklyn Watch Co., The Montauk Steamboat Co., and The Third National Bank of 
New York; and trustee of the Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church and The 
Homoeopathic Hospital in Brooklyn. The family live near Sag Harbor in the summer, 
and find delight in cruising in their yacht Alsace. Their winter residence is in Brooklyn. 
He is a member of the Down Town club of New York, and the Hamilton and Riding 
and Driving, clubs of Brooklyn. Mr. Fahys was married April 19, 1856, to Maria L. 
Payne of Sag Harbor, and their children are Marie Louise, Lena M., Maria D., Bertha 
A., and George E. Fahys. 


EDWARD GEORGE FAILE, merchant, a native of Semiston, Roxboroughshire, 
Scotland, and born Feb. 9, 1799, died at his home at Hunt's Point, Westchester count}-, 
April 20, 1864. His father, George Faile, was a farmer, while his mother, Joan Hall, 
was a descendant of the Burrells of Northumberland, England, and of John Burrell, a 
courtier of Henry V., and bore upon her family arms the sturdy motto, " I adhere." 
The family came to this country in 1801, settling in Westchester county, where Edward 
was educated. At the age of seventeen, the youth became a clerk for Abram Valen- 
tine, wholesale grocer in New York. Remaining in that store until 1821, he then 
started for himself on the corner of Peck Slip and Front street. Feb. i, 1825, he ad- 
mitted his brother Thomas as a partner, under the name of E. G. Faile & Co. He was 
diligent, honest, and untiring, and prospered rapidly. In 1840, the firm bought the 
store at 181 Front street, moved into it, and for thirteen years carried on a large whole- 
sale grocery trade, attaining celebrity by their success. In 1853, both the senior partners 
retired, being succeeded by their sons and Richard Williams, in Faile, Williams & Co. 
Mr. Faile was always a man of public spirit and a director of The New York & Harlem 
Railroad in the early days and of The New York Central Railroad, while Erastus Corning 
was president. It was he who made a suggestion to Richard M. Hoe, which resulted 
in the invention of the first machine for stamping and dating tickets as issued, ever 
used in this country. He helped organize The Metropolitan Bank and was a member 
of the Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Faile had a home in Westchester county and was 
connected with the agricultural school in Ovid, N. Y. , and the Pease Farm Industrial 
School, and served as president of The New York State Agricultural Society. He was 
married, Dec. 8, 1821, to An i Delia, daughter of Abram Valentine. Their children were 
Ann D., Edward, Thomas H., Charles V., Henry, Samuel, Mary E., Harriet and Caroline. 

THOflAS HALL FAILE, merchant, son of the late George Faile of Westchester 
count}-, was born in Eastchester, Feb. 4, 1803, after the family had made their home in 
the United States. He died abroad, in Nice, Jan. 13, 1873. From his family he in- 
herited a fine physique, a noble countenance, a mind sagacious and bold, and a char- 
acter above reproach. Beginning life as a clerk for his brother, Edward G. Faile, 
wholesale grocer of New York, he became a partner, Feb. i, 1825, and during the 
following twenty-eight years was active and prominent in the trade, and a leading 
spirit in the life of New York city. To secure better opportunities for study to mer- 
chants' clerks, of whom he had been one, in 1846, he joined The Clinton Hall Association 
as a trustee, labored to stock the library with good and useful books, and fought every 
proposition to open the doors on Sundays. He joined the Chamber of Commerce, 
became a director of The Bank of America in 1839, and was a member of the Union 
League and Racquet clubs and St. Andrew's Society, and at one time president of 
The New York State Agricultural Society. During a journey to Europe, taken largely 
with this object in view, he visited many asylums for the insane, made a special study 
of their management, and, as a governor of The New York Hospital, and permanently 
charged with the supervision of The Bloomingdale Insane Asylum, he introduced many 
improvements in the system of the latter institution. This labor of love occupied the 
last fifteen years of his life. His public spirit was illustrated by his co-operation in 
establishing at the old Rotunda the Gallery of Fine Arts, celebrated for its exhibition 
of Cole's paintings of the Course of Empire and the Voyage of Life. His life was an 
unbroken record of success, generosity and philanthropy. Mr. Faile never married. 



BENJAJIIN LEWIS FAIRCHILD, lawyer, was born Jan. 5, 1863, in Sweden, 
N. Y., and is a son of Benjamin Fairchild, who served through the Civil War and then 
settled in Washington, D. C., and did not see his son until the latter was two years old. 
The family are of English descent and long known in Connecticut, where the pioneers 
settled. Mr. Fairchild's mother was a member of the Schaeffer family and of German 
ancestry. The subject of this biography was educated in the public schools of Wash- 
ington, D. C., and the law department of Columbian University. At the age of thirteen, 
he became a draughtsman in the Patent Office, and from fourteen until twenty-two, 
held a clerkship in the Treasury Department, meanwhile pursuing his studies. Having 
been admitted to the bar, he came to New York in 1885, without means, was successful 
in his profession, and invested his earnings in the development of real estate properties 
in Westchester county, in compliance with an injunction he had heard in boyhood to 
buy land by the acre and sell it by the foot. He continues to practice law, his firm 
being Southard & Fairchild, and has large realty interests at Pelham Heights and 
Mount Vernon. He has always been a Republican in politics and a popular man. In 
1894, the tidal wave of public sentiment swept him into a seat in Congress from a 
Democratic district. He was married in New York city, Feb. 28, 1893, to Anna E., 
daughter of the late James Crumbie. He is a member The Society of Medical Juris- 
prudence and the Republican and New York Athletic clubs. 

CHARLES STEBBINS FAIRCHILD, lawyer, born April 30, 1842, in Cazenovia, 
N. Y., is a son of the late Sidney T. Fairchild, a distinguished lawyer, for many years 
counsel for The New York Central Railroad, who died Feb. 15, 1889, the possessor of 
a large estate. Graduating from Harvard University in 1863 and from the Harvard 
Law School in 1865, Mr. Fairchild read law iii the office of Hand, Hale & Swartz, was 
admitted to the bar in Albany, and in 1873 became a member of the firm above named. 
In 1874, he was called into the public service as Deputy Attorney General of the State, 
and the following year was elected Attorney General as a Democrat. In 1878 he visited 
Europe. Upon his return in 1880, he established a law office in New York city, and 
has since become identified with large interests. He is president of The New York 
Security & Trust Co. , and has been president of The State Charities Aid Association. 
From March, 1885, to April, 1887, Mr. Fairchild held the important position of 
Assistant Secretary, and from the latter date, to the end of President Cleveland's term, 
that of Secretary of the Treasury. He is a member of the Metropolitan, Century, 
University, Manhattan, Aldine, Lawyers', Reform, Bar, Democratic, Harvard Alumni, 
and Alpha Delta Phi clubs. He received the degree of Doctor of Laws from Columbian 
and Harvard Universities in 1888. 

ARNOLD FALK, merchant, a native of Germany, and born. in March, 1843, came 
to the new world in 1858, after an education in the public schools in the fatherland, 
and was the constant partner of his brother, Gustav, in various enterprises connected 
with the tobacco trade. First a cigar manufacturer, he gained in that industry an 
intimate knowledge of the various classes of tobacco leaf, and then, in 1859, joined in 
establishing the firm of G. Falk & Bro., to import Sumatra and other foreign tobacco 
and export the native leaf of America. Success came to this house through their enter- 
prise, industry and good character. Mr. Falk was a member of The German Society. 
He married Miss Fannie Wallach of this city in 1876, and had two sons, Myron and 
Kaufman Falk, and died in Heidelberg, Germany, June 18, 1891. 


QUSTAV FALK, importer of tobacco, born in Germany, April 19, 1841, is a son 
of M. J. Falk, merchant, who came to America in 1858 and settled in New York city. 
Gustav received an education in the schools of Herford, Westphalia. Most of his 
success in life has been due to native shrewdness and ability. After a valuable ex- 
perience as a cigar manufacturer in this city, he entered into partnership with his 
brother, Arnold, in 1859, as G. Falk & Bro., for wholesale handling of foreign and 
domestic leaf tobacco. They were the first house to import Sumatra tobacco upon a 
large scale, and as they had no competition for several years, their business was exceed- 
ingly profitable. Their trade in Sumatra tobacco is yet large but the house also packs 
and exports American tobacco also extensively. Owing remotely to Sir Walter 
Raleigh's office in making the leaf popular, but more' immediately to Mr. 
Falk's own industrious career of thirty-five years, he has become one of the wealthiest 
dealers in the trade. He maintains store houses in this city and Lancaster, Pa. In 
1871, he married Miss Rebecca, daughter of Kaufman Wallach, and has five children, 
Julia, wife of David M. Frank, Kaufman S. , Sophia, Jesse M., and Milton J. Falk. 

JOHN TEMPLE PARISH, merchant, a native of Virginia, born about 1820, died 
at his home on Park avenue, in this city, May 13, 1891. Before he had attained his 
majority, he came to New York to live with his uncle, Lewis Rogers, then a prominent 
merchant, who acted as agent for the Rothschilds in the purchase of American tobacco. 
Mr. Parish was admitted to partnership in Rogers & Co. , and conducted so profitable 
an exportation of tobacco that he was able to retire when hardly forty years old. From 
that time forward, he was occupied entirely with investments. In 1870, he married 
Martha, a daughter of Justice Grier of the Supreme Court of the United States. Mr. 
Farish was deeply interested in charities, .and expended a large part of his income in 
philanthropic work. He was a regular attendant of St. Bartholomew's church. His 
wife survived him. By will, he gave to St. Luke's Hospital the sum of $50,000, to 
The New York Bible Society $10,000, to The Home for Incurables $50,000, to the 
Missions of the Episcopal Church $20,000, to The Church Mission for Deaf Mutes 
$20,000, and to other institutions, $120,000. 

FRANKLIN FARREL, manufacturer, has achieved signal success in varied lines 
of industrial enterprise and is entitled to a prominent place in the ranks of successful 
men. He was born Feb. 17, 1828, in Waterbury, Conn. His youth was passed in a 
mechanical atmosphere, his father being a skilled mechanic, and early in life it became 
evident that he had himself special aptitude in this direction. His early education was 
obtained in Waterbury, being rounded out by a course at West Point, where he received 
the degree of Civil Engineer. Mr. Parrel's first distinct business venture was the 
organization of The Parrel Machine Co , in Ansonia, Conn., about forty-five years ago. 
It was a modest beginning, the outfit consisting of a single lathe and planer. For many 
years Mr. Parrel gave this plant his closest attention, and such business ability did he 
bring to its management that the results are apparent to-day in an establishment con- 
taining over two hundred and fifty machine tools, many of them among the largest in 
the world, and employing in prosperous times over seven hundred men. 

Mr. Parrel is essentially a leader, and, when he lends his personality and efforts to 
the promotion of a project, success is practically assured. A striking illustration of this 
is shown at Bridgeport, Conn. In 1883, the western section of the city was undevel- 
oped, a great part of the territory being covered by a thick growth of underbrush. He 


was able to foresee the possibilities of the section, and the unexcelled rail and water 
facilities, which could be obtained by proper development. The Bridgeport Forge Co., 
a concern of which Mr. Farrel is president and principal owner, was organized and 
located in this seemingly desolate region. The Bridgeport Copper Co. was organized 
soon afterward through the efforts of Mr. Farrel, and its first buildings erected in the 
same locality. Owing to the business energy of Mr. Farrel and his associates, these 
companies have shown constant growth and must now be ranked among the most 
prosperous concerns in Connecticut. Encouraged by such enterprise, other large firms 
have since located in this part of the city, fine streets have been laid out and worked, 
substantial dwelling houses and blocks erected, and, as if touched by a magic wand, the 
section in a single decade has become one of the most prosperous and flourishing in 
the city of Bridgeport. 

After earning the reputation of being one of the most expert founders and machin- 
ists in the country, and establishing several of the largest firms in Connecticut on a 
successful basis, Mr. Farrel turned his attention in other directions. He embarked in 
the sugar business in 1879, and from a small beginning has achieved notable success. 
He selected capable and energetic associates, and wise co-operation and concerted effort 
have brought about fine results. The sugar estates are located in Cuba and Santo 
Domingo, and some idea of their proportions may be conveyed when it is said that 
three of these estates require in their operation over twenty-five miles of fixed railroad 
and furnish employment to over three thousand men. 

Another industry to which Mr. Farrel has directed his attention, and which has 
prospered under his direction, has been the manufacture of copper. He became identi- 
fied with The Parrot Silver & Copper Co., of -Butte City, Mont., and the first mine was 
worked in 1877. This company has grown under the competent management of Mr. 
Farrel and his associates, and to-day its product is one of the standard brands of copper 
of the world. Without further specific mention, it may be said that in every direction 
one can point to industries, successful to a marked degree, and all the product of brains 
and intelligence backed by Mr. Parrel's capital and business wisdom. Mines, smelters, 
metal refineries, forges, foundries, machine shops, brass and copper rolling mills, rail- 
roads, banks, hotels and sugar plantations are among the industries which claim the 
care and attention of this remarkable man. In politics, Mr. Farrel has always been an 
earnest and consistent Republican. Although often urged to allow his nomination for 
honorable positions, he has felt that he could not justly set aside or neglect the great 
business affairs entrusted to his keeping. His advice and -assistance, however, have 
always been sought and given to promote the interests of Republicanism. 

WILLIAH DOUGLAS FARWELL, merchant, born at Big Flats, Chemung county, 
N. Y. , May 31, 1827, died in New York city, Aug. 30, 1885. His father, Benjamin 
Farwell, was a man of marked integrity and strength of character and a warm hearted, 
generous Christian. The young man gained his first experience as a merchant in Steu- 
ben county. In 1863, he removed to Chicago, and in 1865 entered the wholesale dry 
goods house of John V. Farwell & Co., as a partner. The same year, he removed to 
New York to represent the business here as resident partner. As a business man, he 
commanded general respect. He was a member of the Union League and Merchants' 
clubs, the Chamber of Commerce, The New England Society and other social organiza- 
tions. While keen and enterprising as a merchant, money making did not enlist his 


entire attention. He was a Christian gentleman and an active member of the Madison 
Avenue Methodist Episcopal church, to whose prosperity he contributed largely, and 
of which he was a trustee, serving upon the Executive Committee for the erection of 
the present church edifice. For the support of missions, he spent a large amount of 
time and means, and served for many years as trustee of the Drew Theological Semi- 
nary. In 1866, he was married to Hannah D., daughter of the Rev. Dr. Allen P. Rip- 
ley, of Buffalo. His one child was a daughter, Cornelia Hannah. 

SIGOURNEY WEBSTER FAY, dry goods merchant, a native of Boston, Mass., 
was born Feti. 6, 1836. His father was Nahum Fay, also a merchant. The family are 
of English ancestry and descend from John Fay, who settled in this country in 
1640. Josiah Fay, great grandfather of Sigourney, born in Westboro, Mass., in 1732, 
and Elisha Forbes, of the same town, great grandfather in the maternal line, both 
served in the American Revolution, first at Bunker Hill and then in the ist Conti- 
nental Infantry. After graduation from the old English High School in Boston, Mr. 
Fay gained his first training in the dry goods store of Lawrence. Stone & Co., in Bos- 
ton, and the Middlesex Woolen Mills of Lowell. In 1860, he was invited to New York 
and in the commission dry goods firm of Stone, Bliss, Fay & Allen began a career which 
has been attended with uniform success to the present time. Until 1869, this house 
carried on, it is believed, the largest local commission trade in woolen goods in this 
city. They were the selling agents of about fifteen New England factories. In 1869, 
the firm reorganized as Perry, Wendell, Fay & Co., and in 1878, as Wendell, Fay & Co. 
Mr. Fay is in charge of the New York branch of the business. He is a sound and 
excellent merchant, energetic, capable and of high character. He is a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce, a director of The Hanover National Bank and The Exchange 
Fire Insurance Co., and a member of the Union League, City, Players', Metropolitan, 
and Merchants' clubs and The New England Society. By virtue of direct descent, he is 
a member of The Sons of the American Revolution. In 1860, Mr. Fay married Delia 
A., daughter of Emery B. Fay, of Boston. 

THOflAS FAYE, wall paper manufacturer, a native of Galway, Ireland, 1810, died 
in New York city, Feb. 24, 1892. His father was French, his mother Irish. After his 
mother's death, he came to this country at the age of eight, with his father, who, buying 
a farm near Rochester and losing his money in land speculation, died suddenly in 
1820 and left the boy to fight his own way unaided. Lacking a good education in the 
day schools, he so well compensated himself for this by attending night schools and 
debating societies, and by extensive reading and alert observation, that he became a 
notably well informed man. While young, he entered the employment of Francis 
Pares, a wall paper maker on Pearl street, and was admitted to partnership in 1830, in 
Pares & Faye, but subsequently withdrew and formed a partnership with Lewis Bel- 
rose, under the name of Belrose & Faye of this city and Philadelphia. The}- had a 
factory on West 29th street and a salesroom on Broadway. Just before the war, Mr. 
Faye retired from business with an ample fortune and the distinction of having been 
ths first to manufacture wall paper by machinery, having won for this achievement the 
first gold medal of the American Institute. He owned buildings on Broadway, near 
Franklin street and Grace Church, and about twenty acres on Washington Heights, 
now covered with private residences. Public office was frequently tendered him but 
always declined. During the Civil War he espoused the cause of the Union. Mr. 


Faye was married in 1839 to Marion, oldest daughter of the late Judge Edward Cope- 
land. They had four daughters and four sons, namely: Mary, Marion C., Ada M., Ella 
L., Edward C., Thomas F., Harold, James J., and E. Frederick Faye. 

DANIEL BURTON FAYERWEATHER, tanner and leather merchant, born 
March 12, 1822, died Nov. 15, 1890, at his home in New York city. He was the son 
of Lucius Fayerweather, a farmer and a descendant in the fourth generation from John 
Fayerweather and Abigail Curtis of North Stratford, now Trumbull, Conn. John 
Fayerweather, a soldier in the Colonial army, lost his life in 1775 in the campaign for 
the capture of Fort Ticonderoga. He was a farmer. Samuel, son of 'John, served 
through the whole of the American Revolution. Daniel's early education was gained 
in the schools of his native town and the academy in Newtown, Conn. Having learned 
the shoemaker's trade, as apprentice for Capt. Luzon W. Clark, of Trumbull, he joined 
his principal as a partner and conducted a profitable business for a long period, their 
market being chiefly in the South. While making purchases of leather in New York, 
Mr. Fayerweather made the acquaintance of Hoyt Bro's, on Spruce street, and from 
their mutual appreciation there resulted an arrangement whereby Mr. Fayerweather 
entered the firm on the basis of a percentage of profits. In this way he became con- 
nected with the leather business, a trade which placed a limit, neither on Mr. Fayer- 
weather's business abilities nor his broad and generous views of life. The Civil War 
gave a great stimulus to the leather trade. About 1862, Mr. Fayerweather was 
admitted to full partnership. About 1866, the associates divided, William, Oliver and 
Mark Hoyt continuing as Hoyt Bro's., in the hemlock leather business, while Joseph 
B. Hoyt, the oldest brother, and Mr. Fayerweather united as J. B. Hoyt & Co., retain- 
ing the old stand on Spruce street, and the trade in oak leather and belting. Jan. i, 
1884, J. B. Hoyt & Co. dissolved and the firm of Fayerweather & Ladew was formed 
by Mr. Fayerweather and Harvey S. Ladew. The new partners were exceedingly con- 
genial to each other and co-operated harmoniously to extend their trade. They owned 
a number of tanneries in the oak bark districts of Maryland, West Virginia, Tennessee, 
Georgia and Alabama. Their trade was enormous. Mr. Fayerweather was a shrewd 
investor, and at the time of his death held large amounts of the securities of about 
twenty railroads, which he had purchased to advantage. Like the rest of his family, 
he was stalwart in character and physique and of great purity of life. He was married 
to Lucy, daughter of William Beard Joyce, of Trumbull, Conn. During his energetic 
career and in honest industry, Mr. Fayerweather gained a fortune of several millions. 
By his will he gave specifically $3,725,000 to about thirty-frwe colleges and $560,000 to 
eleven hospitals. The residue, after the payment of those and other specific legacies, 
was bequeathed to trustees absolutely, to be disposed of to colleges and public institu- 
tions. Mrs. Fayerweather died in Rutland, Vt, July 16, 1892. 

CHARLES NYE FEARING, merchant, born in Wareham, Mass., March 10, 1812, 
died at his home in Lafayette Place, New York, Jan. 6, 1886. His father, William 
Fearing, a prosperous shipping merchant, came from English ancestry and traced his 
line to John Fearing, founder of the family in this country, who came from Cambridge 
or Hingham, England, to Hingham, Mass., in 1635. With an excellent education, ob- 
tained at Brown University, Charles began life in the dry goods business in partnership 
with Edwin Hoyt, as Fearing & Hoyt. In 1840, he embarked in the commission dry 
goods business in this city, on Exchange Place, in the firm of Fearing & Hall, and rose 


to prominence in this occupation. His house ranked among the leaders of the trade for 
more than twenty years. He retired in 1861, his life thereafter being a quiet one. He 
was president of The Auburn Woolen Co, for many years. In 1839, he married Mary, 
daughter of Benjamin L. Swan. Their children were three sons. Charles F.. a stock 
broker, William H,, an importer of wines, and Edward S. Fearing, who died in 1881. 

riARTIN S. FECHHEIMER, merchant, was born of Jewish parents, June 24, 
1835, in Mitwitz, Bavaria. His parents were poor and could not give him a better 
education than that afforded by the village school. The boy left home in 1847, removed 
to Cincinnati, and entered the employment of his uncles. He began at the bottom of 
the ladder, doing the hardest and roughest work, for which he received his board and 
lodging. Having acquired some experience, at the age of nineteen he started in busi- 
ness for himself at Toledo, O., and subsequently moved to Madison, Wis. In 1858, he 
went to California. As a clerk in Sacramento, he saved his earnings, and joined Henry 
Kronethal, in 1860, in a clothing business. In 1862, Henry Goodkind became associ- 
ated with them in Fechheimer, Goodkind & Co. From 1862 to 1884, the business was 
carried on in San Francisco, and they ranked eventually as one of the leading clothing 
houses of the coast. In 1884, Charles Fishel and Charles E. Adler, having become 
members, the firm established a store in the city of New York, which soon acquired 
such proportions that the firm discontinued the California branch. Oct. 31, 1891, Henry 
Goodkind retired, and the business has been continued since under the name of Fech- 
heimer, Fishel & Co. They are now one of the leading houses in the wholesale clothing- 
business. For many years past, Mr. Fechheimer has adopted a modified form of 
profit sharing, as a result of which and of his fairness to employes, he has never had 
a strike since coming to this city. He is a director of The Hanover National Bank 
and a member of the Harmonic social club. He assisted in organizing the first Society 
for Ethical Culture in this city, under Prof. Felix Adler, and for many years was 
president and trustee of the society. In 1865, he married Miss Francis Meyer. Of his 
seven children five are living. 

WILLIAM FELLOWES, merchant, a native of New Pitt, N. C., born April 17, 
1802, died May 12, 1875, at his home in Richmond county, N. Y. The son of Jonathan 
and Elizabeth Fellowes, members of old families, he began life with inherited spirit 
and after an education in Henderson, Ky., made his reputation as a merchant in the 
dry goods firm of William & Cornelius Fellowes in Louisville, Ky. His trade was 
largely with the river States and a branch store was established in New Orleans under 
the style of Fellowes, Jenkins & Co. About 1846, Mr. Fellowes removed to New y York 
city and managed another branch house, in co-operation with the other firms. He 
soon became known as a very capable, upright and progressive man. He owned a 
plantation in St. Mary's parish, La., a farm in Texas, and interests in The Manhattan 
Silver and The American Mining Go's, and other properties. Having made a large in- 
vestment in The Panama Railroad, he accepted office as a director of that company. 
By his marriage with Caroline Davis in Boston, he had nine children : Mrs. Eliza B. 
Ward well; Caroline, wife of David P. Morgan; William, Clara, Harriet D., Cornelius, 
Nancy W., Alice and Birney Fellowes. He was a member of the Union club. 

BENJAfllN HAZARD FIELD, merchant, born May 2, 1814, in Yorktown, West- 
chester county, N. Y., died in this city, March 17, 1893. He was a descendant of an 
old and gentle English family, one of whom, Robert Field, came to America with his 


neighbor and relative by marriage, Sir Richard Saltonstall, in the company organized 
in 1630, and settled in Watertown, Mass. Later, he moved to Newport, R. I. The 
subject of this sketch was the son of Hazard Field. He graduated from the North 
Salem academy and entered the office of Hickson W. Field, a merchant in the China 
trade and wholesale dealer in drugs in this city. In March, 1832, he became a member 
of the firm, and, in 1838, when the senior partner retired, assumed the management. 
June 9, 1838, he married Catherine W. Van Cortlandt de Peyster, daughter of Frederic 
de Peyster and noted for her beauty, prominence in society and activity in charitable 
work They had two children, Cortlandt de Peyster Field and Florence Van Cortlandt, 
wife of W. W. Bishop. Mrs, Field died in July, 1886. In 1861, Mr. Field was joined 
in business by his son. Four years later, the firm name was changed to Cortlandt de 
P. Field & Co., the elder Field remaining a silent partner. He owned a large amount 
of excellent real estate in New York city, and was a director of The Atlantic Mutual 
Life Insurance Co., and The Greenwood Cemetery Co., and vice president of The Bank 
for Savings. Early identified with the St. Nicholas Society, of which he became vice 
president and president, in 1884 he was elected a life member of the Society. To his 
efforts was largely due the erection of The Farragut monument in Madison Square 
and the monument to the poet Halleck in Central Park. He was exceedingly active in 
philanthropic work and an officer of numerous charities, being also a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce, and the Century and St. Nicholas clubs, and a life long member 
of the Protestant Episcopal church. 

CYRUS WEST FIELD, famous for his share in laying the first Atlantic cable, 
born in Stockbridge, Mass., Nov. 30, 1819, died in Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., July 12, 1892. 
He was one of eight distinguished sons of Dr. David Dudley Field, a Congregational 
minister of Stockbridge, and was descended from Zachariah Field, who settled in 
America about 1630. His education was obtained from his father and in the schools 
of Stockbridge. At the age of fifteen, he entered the employment of A. T. Stewart in 
New York, and in October, 1840, became a partner of L. Root & Co. in the paper 
trade. This firm failed in 1841, and, until 1843, Mr. Field found himself occupied with 
a settlement of their affairs. In 1843, he organized the firm of Cyrus W. Field & Co., 
built up a prosperous business, and paid off, in 1853, all the debts he had compromised 
in 1843. Becoming, in 1854, intensely interested in the possibility of connecting the 
old and new worlds by telegraph, and having partly retired from business, he devoted 
himself with enthusiasm to the subject of an ocean cable. In 1858, a cable was laid 
which worked imperfectly. Entire success was not attained until 1866. No one who 
studies biography for the elements of character which command success, can fail to be 
struck with the two fundamental factors, illustrated in this achievement, which won 
for Mr. Field world wide distinction, namely, first the conception of a useful and 
practical idea, and secondly the inflexible determination and undaunted pluck which 
he brought to bear in carrying out his plans in spite of discouragements and obstacles. 
For the laying of the Atlantic cable, Congress gave Mr. Field a gold medal and the 
thanks of the nation, and the Paris Exposition of 1867 awarded him a grand medal. 
In 1866, he again wrote to various creditors who had released him in 1860 and paid his 
indebtedness in full, with interest, to the amount of $170,897. He helped develop 
the elevated railway system of New York and was identified with other great enterprises. 
For several years, the name of Cyrus W. Field was well known in Wall street. Daring 


in speculation, upright and competent, he amassed a fortune of several millions, which, 
however, first reduced somewhat by speculation, at the last shrank to nothing, owing 
to the necessity of repairing losses for which he was not responsible. Successful in 
business, he was never more successful than in the triumph over self and the love of 
wealth, when he devoted the accumulations of a life time toward preserving the honor 
of his family. At the time of his death, he owned only five shares in The Anglo- 
American Cable and one hundred acres of land at Irvington on the Hudson, upon 
which there was a mortgage. Mr. Field was married Dec. 2, 1840, to Mar}- Bryan 
Stone of Guilford, Conn. Mrs. Field died Nov. 23, 1891. The children born to 
them were Mary Grace, Alice Durand, Isabella, Fanny Griswold, Arthur Stone, now 
deceased, Edward Moore and Cyrus William, who died June, 9, 1894. The first named, 
wife of Dr. D. A. Lindley, died Jan. n, 1892. 

HICKSON W. FIELD, one of the race of old New York merchants, who died in 
Rome, Italy, Feb. 12, 1873, at the age of eighty-five, laid the foundation of his fortune 
in the commission and drug business on Burling Slip. He inherited a moderate estate, 
but the most of his means probably came, however, from investments in real estate in 
the city, at a time when purchases could be made at a moderate valuation. The rapid 
growth of the town greatly enhanced the value of his properties. About 1845, he built, 
in company with a partner, the New York Hotel on Broadway, which, for nearly fifty 
years, ranked among the most prosperous hostelries in the city, becoming a head- 
quarters for Southern merchants especially. The uptown movement, it may be noted in 
passing, finally left this old hotel lagging in the rear. It ceased to pay, and, in 1894, it 
was levelled to the ground to give place for a modern office building. His son was 
Hickson W. Field, jr., and his daughter Mrs. Eleanor K. Jay. 

BENEDICKT FISCHER, tea merchant, born March 21, 1841, in Ober Schopfheim, 
Baden, Germany, has been a resident of the United States since the age of fourteen. 
Receiving only a limited education in the village school of his native place, he was 
thrown upon his own resources for his success in life. Beginning as a wheelwright's 
apprentice, he served his time, and afterward relinquished a salary of $45 a week to 
become a chemist's assistant at $3 a week with a view to a future career. He then 
entered a varnish factory, aided in the manufacture, and became a salesman of varnish. 
Later, he found as salesman for a wholesale grocery house the vocation he has since 
pursued. In 1861, he engaged in the tea and grocery trade for himself, making visits 
to buyers during the day, and at night preparing the goods for delivery. Through his 
own efforts, his present extensive trade is the outgrowth of a modest beginning. With 
several changes of partners, and with occasional mishaps, such as the burning of his 
store twice, he has gone bravely on in spite of discouragements, and has won large 
means by sheer perseverance and persistent enterprise. Mr. Fischer has a thorough 
knowledge of his trade, bears a good reputation, and has set an example which should 
prove an encouragement to many young merchants. Mr. Fischer was the first to intro- 
duce American tiles in the market, and is president of The American Encaustic Tile 
Co., the largest of its class in the United States. Of The Mauser Manufacturing Co., 
silversmiths, he is vice president. The Riverside Bank was organized by him and 
others. Mr. Fischer was married Sept. 21, 1864, to Kathrina Ebling. Of his nine 
children, five are living, William H., Florence and Irma Fischer, Mrs. Antonia 
Diefenthaler and Mrs. Leonora Koehler. 


CHARLES S. FISCHER, manufacturer, was born Jan. 30, 1820, in Naples, Italy. 
His grandfather and father were both military officers in the Austrian army, placed in 
Naples at the time of the Austrian protectorate, and the latter was one of the founders 
of the well known house of J. & C. Fischer, makers of the Fischer piano. Charles 
obtained an education at Naples. The family destined him for the priesthood, but he 
preferred a business career and learned a trade in Naples, under his grandfather, who 
was interested in various manufactures, among them the making of pianos. Coming 
to America in 1839, he started in business with his brother and William Nunns in 1840, 
as Nunns & Fischer. The senior partner had previously been connected with Robert 
& William Nunns and Nunns & Clark, piano makers. About twenty-five years ago 
Mr. Fischer was admitted to partnerthip in J. & C. Fischer, and since 1889 has been sole 
owner. He is the oldest piano manufacturer in New York city. In the past quarter 
of a century, the firm have built up a business which ranks among the foremost of its 
kind in the country and has brought prosperity to the very capable partners. There 
is a branch house in Troy, N. Y. The office of the concern is on Fifth avenue in 
this city. Mr. Fischer was married in New York to Helena W. Beilby. Of their ten 
children, six are living, namely, Charles S. Fischer, jr., M. D., Henry B. , Bernardo F., 
Adolpho H., Frederic G., and T. Tasso Fischer. Mr. Fischer is an accomplished man 
and a fluent speaker of four languages, Italian, French, German and American. 

HAMILTON FISH, diplomat, born in New York city in 1808, died here Sept. 
7, 1893. His father was Lieut. Col. Nicholas Fish, an officer in the American Revolu- 
tion, the friend of Washington, afterward Adjutant General of New York, and presi- 
dent of The Butchers & Drovers' Bank of this city. His mother was Elizabeth Stuy- 
vesant. The family is believed to be a branch of the old Saxon family of Fysche, which, 
in the tables of German nobility, dates from a remote era. The founder in America 
was Jonathan Fish, who came to Massachusetts from England about 1635. Hamilton 
Fish graduated from Columbia College and was admitted to the New York bar in 1830. 
While he practiced law to some extent, he entered early upon a public career. Absolved 
from labor by a large inheritance in real estate from his father and his uncle, Peter G. 
Stuyvesant, he was able to devote his life to public affairs and to fill important positions 
with fidelity and credit. A Whig in politics, he became a Republican after the forma- 
tion of the Republican party. He was elected a member of Congress in 1844, Lieuten- 
ant Governor in 1847, Governor in 1848-50, and in 1851-57 United States Senator. 
From 1869 to 1877, he was Secretary of State under President Grant and one of the 
commissioners who signed the Washington Treaty of 1871, which disposed of the ques- 
tion of Alabama claims. Mr. Fish was for many years president of The Society of the 
Cincinnati, succeeding his father, and of numerous social, philanthropic and intellec- 
tual organizations. His wife was Julia Kean. His oldest son, NICHOLAS FISH, 
banker, born in New York city, Feb. 19, 1846, graduated from Columbia College in 
1867, and from Harvard Law School in 1869, and entered upon the laborious profession 
of the law in this city. He has figured to some extent in public affairs, being first 
appointed as Second Secretary of Legation in Germany, 1871, and First Secretary thereof 
in 1874. He was Chargd d'Affaires to the Swiss Confederation, 1877-81, and United 
States Minister to Belgium, 1882-86. In 1887, Mr. Fish engaged in banking in 
Harriman & Co., as a partner, and has since been identified with financial affairs down 
town in that firm. Mr. Fish inherited means and a distinguished name, to which he 


has done honor by a spotless business record and high personal character. Well bred, 
well informed, courteous, sound in judgment and thoroughly a man of affairs, he 
occupies a very high position. His clubs are the Metropolitan, Century, University, 
Tuxedo, St. Anthony, Lawyers', Players', Down Town, University Athletic, and Coney 
Island Jockey. He is also a member of The Society of the Cincinnati, The St. 
Nicholas Society, and The New York Historical Society. He was married in Newport, 
R. I., to Clemence S. Bryce, and their two children are Elizabeth S. Clare Fish and 
Hamilton Fish jr. STUYVESANT FISH, railroad president, son of Hamilton Fish, 
a native of New York city, was born June 24, 1851. After a course at Columbia 
College, from which he graduated in 1871, he entered the Service of The Illinois 
Central Railroad in 1871, as a clerk in its New York office, and with the exception of 
four years has been continuously identified with that company's interests. In 1872, 
John Newell, then president of The Illinois Central Railroad, made Mr. Fish his 
secretary. Later in that year, Mr. Fish left to become a clerk in the employ of Morton, 
Bliss & Co. , of this city, and of their London correspondents, Morton, Rose & Co. 
Stalwart and clear headed, sound in judgment and physically capable of an enormous 
amount of work, Mr. Fish made his mark without delay. In January, 1875, he became 
managing clerk for Morton, Bliss & Co., and held their power of attorney. This posi- 
tion he retained for over two years. From Dec. 14, 1876, to March, 1879, Mr. Fish 
was a member of the New York Stock Exchange. He was, in February, 1877, elected 
a director of The Illinois Central Railroad, and treasurer of the Purchasing Com- 
mittee of The New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad, and has since given 
his attention entirely to railroad enterprises. Nov. 8, 1877, he was elected secretary of 
The Chicago, St. Louis & New Orleans Railroad, and March, 1882, vice president. In 
1883, he was made second vice president of The Illinois Central, and rose rapidly, 
becoming president in 1887, which position he retains to this time. He is also president 
of The Yazoo & Mississippi Valley Railroad and other corporations affiliated with The 
Illinois Central. Mr. Fish is a director of The National Park Bank and trustee of 
The Mutual Life Insurance Co., and The New York Life Insurance & Trust Co. He 
holds membership in several social clubs, among them the Metropolitan, Union, St. 
Anthony, Down Town and Players'. Married in 1876 to Marian G. Anthon, a daughter 
of the late William Henry Anthon, he has three children, named respectively Marian, 
Stuyvesant, jr., and Sidney Webster Fish. 

ROBERT COCKBURN FISHER, marble manufacturer, born on the Bowery, near 
Houston street, May 20, 1837, died in New Rochelle, N. Y., Dec. 26, 1893. His 
father, John Thomas Fisher, came to this country from Dublin in 1829, and his mother, 
Eliza Bird, was a native of Orange county, N. Y. Robert received his education in 
the Hamilton Collegiate Institute at White Plains, N. Y., and being a practical, ener- 
getic young man, joined his father in the marble business in 1854, in a yard at the 
corner of Houston street and the Bower}'. In 1859, he succeeded his father as senior 
partner in Fisher & Bird, and continued at the head of the firm until his death, at 
which time they were known as Robert C. Fisher & Co. His marble and granite works 
on East Houston street were carried on with great success. He was a member of the 
Reform and Church clubs and the American Geographical Society, and director of The 
Oriental Bank, but lived in New Rochelle, N. Y., where he was president of the Board 
of Education for twelve years. Owing to the gentle and kindly spirit of Mr. Fisher, his 


possessions excited no envy, except from those who envied his ability to do good to 
others. His presence was a constant benediction among his neighbors in every station, 
and death came while he was engaged in the practical philanthrophy, which had charac- 
terized his whole life. He devoted all his leisure time to religious objects, and was 
vestryman, warden and voluntary organist of Trinity Church, New Rochelle, for thirty 
years. Mr. Fisher was married May 5, 1859, to Miss Mary, daughter of Samuel Perry 
Ayres and Henrietta Williamson, his wife. Of their eight children, four survive, John 
T., Robert C., Thomas R. and Edward H. Fisher. 

BENJAHIN FITCH, dry goods merchant, born June 13, 1805, in New Canaan, 
Fairfield county, Conn., died in this city, Nov. 7, 1883 He was the son of Stephen 
Fitch, a merchant, and Charlotte, his wife. The family came from English ancestry. 
Benjamin left school to become a clerk in New York cit , and began business for him- 
self at an early age in Rochester, N. Y. A few years later, he removed to Buffalo, 
joined a dry goods house as partner, and became resident buyer in New York city. 
Inspired by ambition, he opened a dry goods store on Beaver street, under the name 
of Fitch & Robinson. His business record was so scrupulously honorable, that, in 1855, 
when he retired, a number of merchants of New York city presented him with a service 
of silver plate. Mr. Fitch enjoyed the pleasure of giving and during the course of 
his career disbursed about half his large estate for public and charitable purposes. When 
the Civil War broke out, being too old to go to the front, he took an active part in 
enlisting recruits and made provision for the families of those who might not survive. 
For this purpose he built an institution at Darien, Conn., known as Fitch's Home for 
the Soldiers' Orphans. It is yet occupied by disabled soldiers and is in charge of the 
State of Connecticut. In 1880, he became interested in The Charity Organization 
Society of Buffalo, N. Y., to which he donated $400,000 to build and maintain what is 
now known as The Fitch Institute. Somewhat eccentric, Mr. Fitch was self reliant 
and energetic, and won respect by his sterling honesty and many deeds of charity. He 
was never married. 

HENRY M. FLAQLER, oil producer and refiner, was born in Canandaigua, N. Y., 
about 1830, the son of a country clergyman. When fotirteen years old, he went by 
canal boat to Buffalo and thence by lake to Sandusky, O., arriving there almost penni- 
less. Ohio promised him no advantages at that time, and he returned to his native 
State and went to work as clerk in a store in Orleans county at a salary of five dollars 
a week. He was soon promoted, saved money by self denial, and while yet a young 
man, removed to Saginaw, Mich., and conducted some salt works there with excellent 
success. Later, he became a resident of Cleveland and one of the pioneers in the petro- 
leum business there. When he was finally admitted to partnership in the oil refining 
firm of Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler of that city, his future was assured. The men 
of this firm were among the first to discover that, by a union of the interests of different 
producers, an immense amount of expense might be saved to them all and that divi- 
dends might be gained simply from the savings, while at the same time light for the 
poor man might be made cheaper than he had ever known. Out of these considera- 
tions, The Standard Oil Co. came into existence, succeeding the firm to which Mr. 
Flagler belonged. He has been prominently identified with its management since its 
organization. Mr. Flagler is now connected with numerous large enterprises and is a 
director in The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, The Minnesota Iron Co , The 


Duluth & Iron Range Railroad, The Western Union Telegraph Co., The International 
Bank Note Co. , The Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railway, and other companies. 
In 1885, a visit to Florida revealed to him the possibilities of the State of the Ever- 
glades, and at St. Augustine he built at a cost of $3,000,000 those dreams of architecture 
the Ponce de Leon and Alcazar hotels. He has also built about 600 miles of railroad 
in the State and otherwise added enormously to the taxable property of Florida. Mr. 
Flagler has joined several of the best social organizations of New York city, including 
the Union Leagne, Metropolitan, City, Larchmont Yacht, New York Yacht, American 
Yacht and The New England Society. 

MAXIMILIAN FLEISCH/IANN, manufacturer, born in 1846, in Jagerndorf, Aus- 
tria, died on the steamship Columbia, while on his way to this city from Europe, 
Sept. i, 1890. He was a son of A. N. Fleischmann, by occupation a distiller, and 
received his early schooling in Budapest, Hungary. Coming to New York city in 1866, 
he introduced a new process in the manufacture of whiskey, known in Europe as the 
Fleischmann patent. Then, in 1868, with his brother Charles and the late James W. 
Gaff, he engaged in the manufacture of compressed yeast in Cincinnati. While not at 
all the inventor of the use of leaven, he did exercise ingenuity in preparing yeast in a 
compact, convenient and available form, which immediately addressed itself to the favor 
of the housewives of the country at large. The business grew to large proportions. 
Mr. Gaff died in 1882, whereupon his widow became a silent partner in the firm until 
1883. The firm then dissolved, and Charles and Maximilian Fleischmann succeeded. 
One of the factories remained in Cincinnati, but Maximilian became a resident of New 
York city, and took a deep interest in social and business affairs. He was a trustee for 
Grammar Schools No. 27 and 82, and a member of the Produce Exchange, Merchants' 
Exchange at Buffalo, and the Liederkranz and Republican Down Town clubs. He was 
survived by his wife and five children. 

EWALD FLEITMANN, importer, born in Schwerte, Westphalia, Dec. 5, 1846, was 
educated in a college near Cologne, and in a Prussian cadet school, finishing at a 
mercantile academy in Antwerp. In 1864, the young man arrived in New York city 
from the fatherland, and established an importation of European silks and dry goods, 
under the name of Fleitmann & Co. Their trade is now enormous, amounting nearly 
to $10,000,000 a year Mr. Fleitmann is a splendid merchant and has identified him- 
self closely with the interests of the city in which he dwells. He contributes to the 
support of various institutions and is a member of the Colonial, Merchants', and Mer- 
chants' Central clubs and the Deutsche Yerein, and a director of The Germania Life 
Insurance Co. , The German Savings Bank and The Citizens' National Bank. By his 
marriage with Miss Katherine Johanna Caesar of New Brighton, N. Y., in 1874, he has 
two sons and four daughters. 

BENJAMIN FLINT, ship owner and merchant, a native of Damariscotta, Me., 
born Dec. 13, 1813, died in Brooklyn, N. Y. , June 28, 1891. He was a son of Robert 
Chapman and Lucinda Flint, the latter being a daughter of Dr. Thomas Flint, a surgeon 
in the American Revolution, who, while serving on one occasion upon a privateer, was 
captured by the British and taken to England. Benjamin Flint Chapman, by which 
name he was first known, was adopted by his uncle, Benjamin Flint, a captain in the War 
of 1812, and at the age of twenty-two, by act of the Maine Legislature, changed his 
name to Benjamin Flint, in honor of his uncle. Trained to the art of a shipwright in 


Thomaston, Me., he possessed a mind which speedily lifted him out of the ranks of 
those who must spend their lives in manual labor. By investment of his earnings, he 
was finally drawn into shipping. In 1840, with his brother, Isaac F. Chapman, he 
formed the firm of Chapman & Flint, to conduct a general store in Damariscotta. In 
1841, they built the bark Alabama, of 280 tons, and soon thereafter rose to prominence 
as ship owners and general carriers in the ocean trade. For many years, the firm built 
a vessel nearly every year, first in Thomaston, Me., but after 1868 in Bath, Me., 
increasing the size of their vessels year by year until they reached about 2,600 tons. In 
i8?3, a younger brother, James F. Chapman, who had previously commanded several 
of their vessels, removed to San Francisco to manage the business of the firm there, and 
became part owner in many ships. Mr. Flint and Isaac F. Chapman removed to 
Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1858, in order the better to manage their large fleet. The firm of 
Chapman & Flint dissolved in 1880, and in 1886 Mr. Flint founded the firm of Flint & 
Co., with his sons Charles R. and Wallace B. Flint, as partners, with offices at 86 Water 
street. Their commission trade was mainly with South America, Mexico and the West 
Indies. While in Thomaston, Mr. Flint and Mr. Chapman bought adjoining lots and 
laid the foundation for houses exactly alike. In Brooklyn, they lived first in adjoining 
houses on Fort Green Place, and later bought brown stone houses precisely alike in Oxford 
street. During the Civil War, while Confederate cruisers were preying on American 
ships at sea, the firm suspended shipbuilding for a while and constructed a row of 
houses on one side of Montague Terrace in Brooklyn. Mr. Flint lived in the house at 
one end of the row, Mr. Chapman, on the corner, at the other end. This property 
afterward increased greatly in value. It is worthy of note that in thirty-five years, Mr. 
Flint never lost a ship, nor did one of his fleet meet with a serious accident. Mr. Flint 
was twice married, first to Sarah Toby, next to Frances E. Scribner. The latter sur- 
vived him, with his two sons, Charles R. and Wallace B. Flint. Mr. Flint was a sound, 
clear headed, and very capable man, of strong common sense, unbending integrity and 
kindly nature. He was universally esteemed in the business world. 

CHARLES RANLETT FLINT, merchant and financier, is one of the men of public 
spirit, high character and exceptional ability, for whom this metropolis is indebted to 
the State of Maine. He was born Jan. 24, 1850, in Thomaston, Me., and descends from 
Thomas Flint, an immigrant from Wales in 1642, who settled in the village of Salem, 
now South Danvers, Mass. Benjamin Flint, the father of Charles, was a shipowner, 
who lived and built his vessels in Thomaston during the -early part of his career, and in 
1858 moved to New York. Charles was educated first at the public schools of Thomaston 
and Brooklyn, and at the private school of Warren Johnson in Topsham, Maine, and 
graduated in 1868 from the Polytechnic of Brooklyn. An eager and popular student, 
he was made president of his class and of the Polytechnic alumni. 

He began his business career in New York city as a dock clerk, and later spent two 
years as a clerk in a shipping and commission house, engaged in business with the West 
Coast of South America. In 1871, he entered into the copartnership of Gilchrist, Flint 
& Co., ship chandlers, and in February, 1872, he united with William R. Grace inform- 
ing the firm of W. R. Grace & Co. In 1874, he visited the different countries of South 
America, and, in 1876, he organized the firm of Grace Bro's & Co., in the City of 
Callao, Peru. Mr. Flint remained on the West Coast nearly a year. Upon his return, 
he was appointed Consul of Chili at New York; and during the absence of the Charg6 



d' Affaires, was entrusted with the archives and correspondence of the Chilian Legation 
in the United States. 

In 1878, Mr. Flint organized The Export Lumber Co., Limited, now one of the 
most successful lumber concerns in the United States, with yards in Michigan, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Portland, Boston and New York, and handling over 200,000,000 feet of 
lumber per year. 

In 1 880, he was elected president of The United States Electric Lighting Co. 

In 1884, Mr. Flint visited Brazil and established a large rubber exporting business 
on the river Amazon. Two years later, in 1 886, he consolidated the leading dealers in 
crude rubber in this country, and formed The New York Commercial Co., which has a 
capital of $2,500,000, and is now the largest dealer in crude rubber in the world. 

About this time, he was appointed Consul for Nicaragua, and represented that 
country in negotiations which resulted in concessions being granted to Americans to 
build the canal. He has also been, in recent years, the Consul General of Costa Rica 
in this country. 

In 1883, Mr. Flint married Miss E. Kate Simmons, daughter of Joseph F. Sim- 
mons of Troy, N. Y. Mrs. Flint is noted for her musical ability. She has devoted the 
receipts from her musical compositions to charity, and from the sale of the ' ' Racquet 
Galop " endowed a permanent bed in St. Luke's Hospital. 

In 1885, Mr. Flint retired from W. R. Grace & Co., and became a partner in the 
now well known house of Flint & Co., then composed of his father, Benjamin, his 
brother, Wallace B. , and himself. This firm succeeded to the shipping business estab- 
lished by Benjamin Flint in 1840, and the lumber, rubber and general commission busi- 
ness, created by Charles R. Flint. For many years, the firm have been large importers 
of South American products and among the largest exporters of American products to 
even- part of Latin America. 

The financial ability of Mr. Flint has been exhibited during the last few years by 
the consummation of several schemes of great importance. In 1 89 v, he united the 
manufacturers of rubber boots and shoes in this country into one large concern, under 
the title of The United States Rubber Co., having a capital of $40,000,000. Of this 
corporation he became the treasurer. 

In 1892, he brought about a union of five companies manufacturing rubber belt- 
ing, packing and. hose, under the title of The Mechanical Rubber Co., with a capital of 
$15,000,000, of which concern he is a director. 

During the winter of 1889-90, Mr. Flint was appointed a member of the Interna- 
tional Conference of American Republics, which was held in the City of Washington. 
His intimate knowledge of the resources and trade of the South American continent en- 
abled him to render important services as a delegate of the United States to that Con- 
ference. In a letter, the original of which is in the archives of the Republic of Brazil, 
bearing on the recognition of the new republic by the United States, Secretary Blaine 
wrote to Mr. Flint: "It is important that you return to soon as possible. 
Your services in the Conference are so valuable that we need you every hour, though I 
am asking much of you to be here so constantly, for your large business demands a 
great deal of your attention. But just now it must be patriotism first and business 
afterward." It was he who, as a member of the Committee on Banking, proposed the 
idea of an International American Bank, with its headquarters in the United States and 


branches in all the other republics. His recommendations were ratified by the Confer- 
ence, heartily endorsed by Secretary Elaine and President Harrison, and by the latter 
pressed upon the attention of Congress. As a member of the Committee on Customs 
Regulations, he proposed the organization of a Bureau of American Republics to carry 
out the vote of the Conference in favor of a uniform system of statistics and the exten- 
sion of trade between the Republics. This proposition was favorably received, and has 
since been carried out by the governments represented in the Conference. 

After the adjournment of the Conference, at the request of Secretary Elaine, Mr. 
Flint served as the confidential agent of the United States in negotiating the reciprocity 
treaty with Brazil, the first one which was effected under the Aldrich amendment to the 
McKinley bill. This work was successfully accomplished. It provided for the conces- 
sion of tariff duties on American products in Brazil, lower than those imposed by that 
republic upon kindred products from all other countries. This treaty was the key to 
the reciprocity situation. It became at once the basis of other treaties with American 
Republics. It proved of especial value in the negotiations with Spain. Our Spanish 
neighbor was reluctant at first to open Cuba and Porto Rico to American products, but 
was, by force of the free admission of sugar from Brazil to this country, finally compelled 
to agree to a treaty by which American manufactures, flour and provisions were admitted 
to those islands at greatly reduced and special rates of duty, in consideration of our 
admitting their sugar free. 

At the time of the trouble between Chili and the United States, the large influence 
of Mr. Flint led Secretary Elaine to invite him to take part in the efforts for a friendly 
and peaceful adjustment of the question at issue. In response to a telegram from Mr. 
Blaine, Mr. Flint visited the city of Washington. There he learned that the Chilian 
complication was drifting into a position where the relations of friendship and good will 
between two American republics, which had been so cordially expressed at the Inter- 
national Conference, were in danger of being interrupted. Mr. Blaine said that while 
the United States would be able to force Chili into submission, yet he felt that it would 
be a more gracious action if the differences between the two countries could be arranged 
upon the more advanced plane of arbitration. The whole matter was then in such a 
delicate position, that it was not convenient for the Secretary of State to speak officially. 
Mr. Flint promptly called on the Brazilian Minister, Dr. Mendonca, who said that, if 
desired by the United States, he would telegraph to his government, suggesting that 
Brazil offer her services as a mediator. Mr. Flint suggested that Dr. Mendonca might 
render even a more friendly service, by making the suggestion to his government on 
his own responsibility. The result was that Dr. Mendonca cabled at once, and advised 
that Brazil offer her services to Chili and the United States, in a settlement by arbitra- 
tion under American international law. Brazil graciously complied with this sugges- 
tion and tendered her good offices. 

During the Da G~ama rebellion in Brazil, Mr. Flint became the agent of President 
Peixoto in the purchase of vessels and munitions of war. The energy with which he 
discharged his duties in this crisis was remarkable. He purchased the Ericsson 
Destroyer and the swift yachts Feiseen and Javelin, and caused the latter two to be 
converted promptly into torpedo boats. El Cid, a steam merchant steamer of 4,600 
tons displacement, came into port Oct. 26, 1893, was discharged, placed in dry dock, 
and fitted out with a pneumatic dynamite gun, 22 rapid fire guns, and four torpedo 


launching tubes, and the ship changed so as to receive them. On Nov. i8th, christened 
anew as the Nictheroy, she dropped down the bay in commission. The Britannia, an 
iron steamer of 2,600 tons displacement, Norwegian built, came into port Nov. 6th, 
went into dry dock, and was fitted with 16 rapid firing guns, 4 launching tubes, and 
the Sims-Edison dirigible torpedo, and, renamed America, was ready for her voyage 
Nov. 24th. This fleet, capable of discharging 4, 500 pounds of dynamite simultaneously, 
was of the greatest value to Brazil in suppressing her rebellion. 

Mr. Flint has proved a useful associate in the management of financial institutions 
in this metropolis, and he is a director of The National Bank of the Republic, The 
State Trust Co., The Knickerbocker Trust Co., and the Produce Exchange Bank. He 
is also a director in The Hastings Pavement Co., The Fernbrook Carpet Co., of Yonkers, 
and various railroad companies. He is one of the Council of the University of the City 
of Xew York. 

An active, stirring, hard working business man, Mr. Flint maintains his vigor for 
the work which is pressing upon him by entering with zest into out-door recreations. 
He spends one day in every week in open-air recreation, either with the gun or rod. 
He has hunted in South America, the Rocky Mountains and Canada, and has shot 
moose, elk, caribou, bear and nearly all other big game found on the two continents. 
He is found of yachting, and was the owner of the Gracie, which has probably taken 
more prizes than any other yacht in the United States. He was one of the patriotic 
syndicate which built and raced the Vigilant, which successfully defended the America's 
cup against the Valkyrie. He is a member of several clubs, including the Union, 
Century, Riding, Metropolitan, New York Yacht, and the South Side Sportsmen's 
Club. He is also a member of the New England Society. 

WALLACE BENJAHIN FLINT, shipping merchant, son of the late Benjamin 
Flint, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., Oct. 10, 1863. He attended the Brooklyn Poly- 
technic and Collegiate Institute, and began his career as office boy for his father, and 
being advanced through different stages, gained a thorough acquaintance with commer- 
cial operations and the management of ships. In 1888, he was admitted to partnership 
by his father in the firm of Flint & Co., commission merchants, of which he is yet a 
member, the senior partner being his brother, Charles R. Flint. He is associated in 
most of the enterprises of the house, and is secretary of The Export Lumber Co., and 
treasurer of The New York Commercial Co. He has been the Consul of Uruguay in 
Xew York, and for two years director of the Maritime Exchange. Mr. Flint was 
married in 1892. 

ROSWELL PETTIBONE FLOWER, banker and public man, was born in Theresa, 
N. Y., Aug. 7, 1835. His father was a native of Greene county, N. Y., and his grand- 
father a resident of New Hartford, Conn. The family is of English origin. Roswell's 
early education was obtained in the public schools of Theresa. First a school teacher, 
he then served in the modest capacity of a clerk in the Post Office in Watertown, N. Y., 
his career thus practically beginning in the service of the United States, in which after- 
ward he occupied a more noteworthy position. Having saved a little money, he con- 
ducted a jewelry store in Watertown for a number of years. Upon the death of Henry 
Keep, Mr. Flower became trustee of that estate, valued at several millions, and was 
thus enabled to exercise the talents, which needed only an opportunity for develop- 
ment. In 1869, he moved to New York and established the banking and brokerage 


firm of Roswell P. Flower & Co. The firm have been active in reorganization schemes 
and other operations of Wall street and have attained marked success. They deal 
mainly with important clients. Mr. Flower's interest in the policies of the Democratic 
party led to his election to the XLVIIth, List and Llld Congresses. He finally retired 
from active management of the firm, although retaining a special interest in Flower 
& Co. In 1891, he was elected Governor of New York by 48,000 plurality. He has 
been a director of The Duluth & Iron Range Railroad, The Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific Railroad, The Minnesota Iron Co., The New York Security & Trust Co., The 
H. H. Babcock Co., The Municipal Gas Co. of Albany, and other corporations, and is 
a member of the Manhattan, Democratic, Press and United Service clubs, and of The 
New England Society. He was married in December, 1859, to Sarah M. Woodruff of 
Watertown, N. Y. Their daughter is Emma, wife of John B. Taylor of Watertown. 

WILLIAM HAYES FOGG, merchant, born Dec. 27, 1817, on a farm in Berwick, 
Me., died in New York city, March 24, 1884. His parents were Joseph and Phoebe 
Hayes Fogg, and his grandfather a dignitary in the church. He spent his early life 
upon the farm, then walked twenty miles to enter a village store as a clerk and finally, 
with two other young men, started a dry goods store in Boston, which proved highly 
unsuccessful. Many years later, although not legally bound to do so, he paid in full 
the debts of the firm. In 1847, with his brother James, he founded the firm of Fogg 
Bro's, and engaged in a dry goods commission business, having connections in China. 
The exportation of the product of New England looms led naturally to the importation 
of Asiatic tea and silks. In 1852, the business was transferred to New York city, and 
the Boston branch closed. James Fogg died in 1855, whereupon the style of William 
H. Fogg & Co. was adopted. In 1880, the firm reorganized as The China & Japan 
Trading Co., with Mr. Fogg as president, John F. Twombly as vice president, and 
George H. Burritt secretary. Mr. Fogg was a remarkably sound, capable and honest 
merchant, and his trade brought him a large fortune. He maintained branches in 
Yokohama, Osaca, Nagasaki, Shanghai, and other cities of Japan and China and in 
London. He was the first to subscribe to the merchants' fund to promote suppression 
of the rebellion, and one of the founders of the Union League club. He held director- 
ships or trusteeships in The National Park Bank, The Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., 
The Equitable Life Assurance Society, The Mercantile Trust Co., The Gutta Percha & 
Rubber Manufacturing Co. , The New York Hospital, The Sheltering Arms and The 
Women's Homoeopathic College. His wife was Elizabeth Perkins of Charlestown, 
Mass., whom he married in 1849. Mrs. Fogg survived him" but no children. Mrs. 
Fogg was a woman of great beauty of character and made a noble use of her fortune. 
Freely giving to charity at all times, she made about forty relatives and friends happy 
by legacies in her will, at her death Jan. 3, 1891, and gave $535,000 to public institu- 
tions, mainly in memory of her husband, including $50,000 to Berwick Academy for a 
library; $40,000 to Union Theological Seminary; $40,000 to Yale College; $55,000 to 
The Children's Aid Society; $20,000 each to The American Unitarian Association, The 
University of the City of New York, and The New York Hospital; $30,000 to The 
National Academy of Design, and $220,000 to Harvard University. 

GEORGE FOLSOM, lawyer, was born at Kennebunk, Me., in 1804, and died in 
Rome, Italy, in 1869. He was the son of Thomas Folsom, a merchant, and came from 
English ancestry. Educated in the schools of Portland, Me., to which place the family 


had moved, he graduated from Harvard College in 1822 and then became principal of 
the High School in Biddeford, Me. Studying law while teaching, he practiced for a 
while in Worcester, Mass., and moved to New York city about 1840. In 1841, he 
married Margaret, daughter of Benjamin Winthrop, and had three children, Margaret 
Winthrop, Helen Stuyvesant, and George Winthrop Folsom. Mr. Folsom was a very 
able man. His practice was large and lucrative, and his strength of character, purity 
and soundness of judgment, made him a desirable companion. A member of the State 
Senate in 1846, and Minister to the Netherlands under President Taylor, he was also a 
writer, and published a history of Saco, Me. , and delivered numerous addresses before 
historical societies in New York, Massachusetts, Maine and Vermont. He owned a 
country home at Brattleboro, Vt., his town house being on Stuyvesant Square. An 
extensive traveller both in Europe and the East, and a reader of the best books, he 
was a brilliant talker, and by his geniality and hospitality gained a large number of 
friends both in his own country and Europe. He was president of The New York 
Ethnological Society, the Athenaeum club, and The Citizens' Savings Bank. 

JOHN ROSS FORD, merchant, born June 21, 1817, in New Jersey, is a son of the 
late Josiah Ford, a Judge of Middlesex county courts. His lineage runs back to a 
pioneer, who came from England about 1600. Mr. Ford attended the school of Mr. 
Spaulding in New Brunswick, where William H. Vanderbilt, Henry Richmond, 
Charles D. Deshler and other distinguished men also gained a portion of their educa- 
tion. Early in life, he entered the dry goods store of C. Smith & Co. , on Maiden Lane 
in this city, and, before attaining his majority, engaged in the dry goods business for 
himself in New Brunswick. In 1844, he embarked in the manufacture of rubber goods in 
the firm of Ford & Co., which he incorporated, April i, 1853, as The Ford Rubber Co. 
Mr. Ford was the first to aid Mr. Goodyear in introducing the manufacture of rubber 
goods and in establishing the Goodyear patent. Previous to 1840, India rubber had 
little commercial value, but following Charles Goodyear's wonderful discovery of a pro- 
cess to harden rubber, there developed a business of immense value in this country and 
Europe. Goodyear's patent was obtained about 1842. Soon after its value became 
known, other persons claimed to have accomplished what he did. Goodyear was unable 
to defend his rights; and four out of six companies, which had been organized to 
manufacture rubber, united to carry the case to the highest courts. These were L. 
Candee& Co., The Ford Rubber Co., now known as The Meyer Rubber Co., The 
Newark India Rubber Co., and The Hayward Rubber Co. The contest in court 
lasted for years, those fighting it doing so with money made in violating the patent. 
Great lawyers took part on both sides of the case, Rufus Choate and Francis B. 
Cutting for the defendant, Daniel Webster and James T. Brady for the patentees. 
This was Webster's last case in court, and his great argument secured a decision for 
Mr. Goodyear. Of all the persons involved, Mr. Ford is believed to be the only sur- 
vivor. He yet retains his investment in the rubber industry. Mr. Ford is a director 
of The Home Insurance Co., The New York Mutual Gas Light Co., The Manhattan 
Trust Co., and The Meyer Rubber Co., and has resigned from a number of other cor- 
porations. One of the soundest merchants of the city, his character above reproach. 
He shares the public spirit of his colleagues of the Union League club, of which he is 
one of the original members, and has in many ways shown himself a sterling and useful 
citizen, especially by large contributions to charities. Mr. Ford was married Aug. 14, 


1844, to Elizabeth, daughter of James Bishop of New Brunswick, and their surviving 
children are James B. Ford, treasurer of The Meyer Rubber Co.; J. Howard Ford, 
president of The Meyer Rubber Co. ; and Harriet, wife of Dr. Everett Herrick of New 
York. Mr. Ford's second wife is Mrs. Elizabeth M. Horner of this city, to whom he 
was married in 1875. 

QEORQE JAMES FORREST, railroad president, a native of New York city, born 
on Pearl street, Nov. 27, 1810, died on West 22d street, May 18, 1889. Robert Forrest, 
his father, a ship master, came from the Eastern Shore of Maryland in 1810, and com- 
manded the privateer Three Brothers, of which he was the owner of a third, in the War 
of 1812, suffering" capture and a long imprisonment, thereafter returning to New York 
city. George was educated in the schools of New York, and began life in 1829 in 
Alabama, near Montgomery, as a merchant. In 1837, he removed to New Orleans and 
became a member of the firm of W. P. Converse & Co. While in Alabama the Legis- 
lature appointed him, in 1834, a director of The State Bank of Alabama. After 1848, 
he became a merchant in New York city, dealing in cotton. As he gained wealth, he 
acquired an interest in corporations, partly in association with Commodore Garrison, 
whose power of attorney he held after the death of W. R. Garrison, the Commodore's 
son. Mr. Forrest was president of The Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad, vice president 
of The New York & Northern Railroad, director in several other traffic enterprises, and 
president of The New York Loan & Improvement Co. He served as Commisoner of 
Emigration and was president of the Board, a number of years. Punctual, energetic, 
upright and a familiar figure in Wall street, his death removed a highly respected man. 
The Union, Century and St. Nicholas clubs claimed him as a member. In 1835, Mr. 
Forrest was married to Sarah A., daughter of Charles Hooks, a planter and State Sen- 
ator in Alabama, and left three children, Molton H. Forrest, of Philadelphia; Charles 
R. Forrest, of Hartford, Conn., and Mrs. George Z. Gray, wife of Dean Gray, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

CHARLES BARNARD FOSDICK, merchant, was born in New York city, Aug. 31, 
1824. His father, Capt. William Fosdick, was of Huguenot extraction. Charles -pre- 
pared for Wesleyan University but was obliged to earn his own support early in life. 
He made a start in a shipping and commission house in New York at the age of twelve, 
and at fifteen was made bookkeeper. At the age of eighteen, he was called to take 
charge of the business of his dying brother-in-law, assumed control, and has continued 
it since. In 1853, he became a partner in the firm of W. R. Fosdick & Co., leather 
merchants and tanners on Spruce street, and in 1864 succeeded to the head of the con- 
cern. Mr. Fosdick has operated tanneries in Fulton and Hamilton counties, N. Y. , and 
sold the leather at his store in this city, which is one of the landmarks on Spruce 
street. In 1871, the firm of Charles B. Fosdick & Son, was organized by him, and 
after a very successful career has now retired and is liquidating its affairs. During 
three years, he was president of The Hide & Leather National Bank, and is now vice 
president of The Second National Bank and director and treasurer of The Fifth Avenue 
Safe Deposit Co. and The Hamilton Bank, treasurer of The Training School for Nurses, 
member of the executive committee of the Union League club, member of the City 
club, trustee of The Homoeopathic Hospital, and vestryman of The Church of the Incar- 
nation. Although never in public office, he served his fellow citizens eight successive 
years after 1884 as foreman of the grand jury. He had the honor to serve on the 


famous grand jury which, in 1885, indicted the "boodle" aldermen, and on the later 
grand jury which, in 1889, acted upon the case of Sheriff Flack. Mr. Fosdick married, 
June 5, 1884, Mary E., daughter of David T. Baldwin. This union brought them. one 
child, Charles Baldwin Fosdick, who died April 25, 1894. 

FRANCIS PARKMAN FREEMAN, banker and broker, born Jan. 27, 1827, in 
Boston, Mass., is descended from Edmund Freeman, a resident of Sandwich, Mass., 
who came from England in 1635 and was vice Governor of Plymouth Colony, 1640-47. 
Francis was educated in New York city. After nine years' experience as clerk in a 
French importing house in Maiden Lane, he started a successful trade of his own in the 
same line. In 1873, at the request of Commodore Vanderbilt, Mr. Freeman opened a 
brokerage office in Exchange Place, and was the principal broker of the Commodore 
during the remainder of the latter's life, and represented William H. Yanderbilt in the 
same capacity during the nine years in which he survived his father. Mr. Freeman 
yet enjoys the confidence and business of some of the present generation of Vander- 
bilts. He is a director of The New York & Harlem Railroad and one of the organizers 
of The Lincoln National Bank and Lincoln Safe Deposit Co. Mr. Freeman, after a 
residence in New York city from 1829 to 1890, built a home in Lakewood, and now 
dwells there during eight months of the year, spending the four summer months in 
Newport. He is a member of the Down Town club of New York city and of The 
New England Society, and is connected with The Metropolitan Museum of Art, and 
The American Museum of National History. May 2, 1860, he was married on Staten 
Island to Louisa Morgan Dustan, daughter of Captain Isaac and Phebe Ann Dustan 
and a great niece of Commodore Vanderbilt. Their only living child is Frank Morgan 
Freeman, who married a daughter of Adrian H. Muller, jr., and is his father's sole 
partner and a member of the Stock Exchange. President Cleveland is a descendant of 
the fifth child of Edmund Freeman, founder of the Freeman family. 

LEONARD FRIEDMAN, leaf tobacco merchant, a native of Burgkundtstadt, 
Bavaria, born Oct. 26, 1845, is a son of a highly respected cloth manufacturer, whose 
ancestors had lived for several centuries in Burgkundtstadt. Leonard came to 
America while a youth, and finished his education in Cincinnati, O. His first business 
experience was in the trade in leaf tobacco in the West. Coming then to New York, 
he took the place of clerk for Robert S. Walter, who gave the latter a partnership in 
1872. This was the foundation of the present firm of Leonard Friedman & Co., formed 
in 1876, of which Mr. Friedman has always been senior partner. He has been exceed- 
ingly prosperous and makes a specialty of Sumatra tobacco, which he imports in large 
quantities. He is a director of The Columbia Bank and a member of the Harmonic 
and Progress clubs and numerous Hebrew charitable societies. Mr. Friedman was 
married Dec. 26, 1876, to a cousin, the daughter of Martin Friedman, and has no 
children. He has travelled extensively and is a well informed man. 

DUDLEY B. FULLER, manufacturer, born in Rutland, Vt., Dec. 22, 1800, died 
in New York city, May 18, 1868. He was a direct descendant of Samuel Fuller, a 
Pilgrim in the Mayflower. About 1825 he came to New York city and entered the 
firm of Varnum, Fuller & Co., dry goods merchants, at 165 Pearl street. In 1831, he 
married Mary, daughter of Luman Reed, an eminent merchant and art patron. In 
1846, he engaged in iron manufacturing, and in 1852 became the principal owner of 
The Boonton, N. J., Iron Works, which his firm of Dudley B. Fuller & Co., and 


Fuller, Lord & Co., operated successfully up to the time of his death. Mr. Fuller was 
one of the founders and original members of the Century club, having been a member 
of the Sketch club, from which, in 1846, arose the Century. He was also a member of 
the Union club and a director of various institutions. Elected in 1863 a trustee of The 
New York Life Insurance Co., he served until his death. His uprightness of character, 
genial disposition and cordial manners won for him the love and respect of all. His 
wife and several children survived him. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON FULLER, broker, born in this city, May 20, 1830, died 
here Dec. 21, 1892. His father, Ebenezer Fuller, was a merchant. Mr. Fuller, when 
sixteen years of age, entered the sugar firm of Moller & Co., in Front street, as a 
clerk, and soon became a partner, remaining with the firm until 1868 when he became 
a member of C. L. Cammann & Co., stock brokers. He remained a broker until 1886, 
when he retired. He then opened an office on Wall street, and later on Broad street, 
After 1886, he did little active business. Sept. 2, 1857, Mr. Fuller married Elizabeth, 
a daughter of Peter Pinckney, formerly president of The Bowery Insurance Co. , and 
leaves a daughter, Ella F., who is the wife of William D. Guthrie, and a son, William 
W. Fuller. He was a member of the Union League, Racquet, Down Town, New York, 
Country, and New York Athletic clubs, and the Chamber of Commerce. 

CHRISTIAN FREDERICK PUNCH, merchant, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 
1820, died at the German club in this city, Dec. 8, 1879. His father was at one time 
Consul for Denmark in Algiers. Christian was well educated, and began life as 
clerk in a Danish shipping house in Algiers. He was capable, rose to higher positions, 
and in 1847, came to New York city, where he established the commission shipping 
house of Punch, Meinecke & Wendt, which reorganized in 1869 as Punch, Edye & Co., 
and became prominent as ship brokers and commission merchants. Mr. Punch never 
lost his affection for his native land and spent much time in Copenhagen. He was a 
member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Produce Exchange and one of the most 
prominent managers of the Maritime Association, and belonged to several Scandinavian 
institutions. There were usually from fifty to one hundred and fifty ships in New York 
harbor, Scandinavian, German and Italian, consigned to Punch, Edye & Co. His only 
son was John Christian Punch of this city. 

WILLIAM P. FURNISS, merchant, born over a century ago, in Portsmouth, N. H., 
died at his home on West looth street in this city, Oct. 29, 1871. He came from an old New 
England family, and inherited the enterprise and excellent qualities of his race. At the 
age of twenty-one, he began business for himself on the Island of St. Thomas as a shipping 
and commission merchant, acting as naval agent for the United States Government for 
many years. His enterprise was successful, and he rose to high social and financial 
position, entertaining at his own house the most eminent visitors of all nations. His 
correspondence extended to all parts of the globe. He finally came to New York and 
invested his means in real estate with so much judgment that the increase of population 
added large value to his properties. Among his possessions was the Globe Hotel. 
Even before the war, he ranked among the leading property owners of the city. A 
Free Mason of high degree, and very benevolent, his charities were as generous as they 
were private. He married a lady from Pennsylvania, and was the father of Leon, Hart- 
man K. , now deceased, William, Sophia R. C. , Clementina and Margaret E. Furniss. 


ERNEST QABLER, manufacturer, born in Glogau, Germany, Jan. i, 1824, died 
in New York city, Feb. 27, 1883. While not so famous as several other of the piano 
manufacturers of New York, he was a very successful man, and by quiet and persever- 
ing industry gained an excellent fortune. He came to America in 1852, and two years 
later began the making of pianofortes. The factory is now on East 22d street, and a 
large establishment. When his brother Emil became a partner, he adopted the firm 
name of Ernest Gabler & Bro., which is yet retained. His wife, one son, and several 
daughters inherit his property. 

THOMAS W. GALE, merchant, a native of Goshen, N. Y., died in New York 
city, May 14, 1880, at the age of ninety. Coming to New York while a young man, he 
became a partner in one of the pioneer wholesale grocery houses of this city, long 
known as Wisner, Gale & Co. They lost their store in the great fire of 1835. ^ r - 
Gale was a bachelor, and so were his partners, Gabriel Wisner, and Mr. Gale's twin 
brother, Benjamin. Mr. Wisner died about 1847, and Mr. Gale then retired with a 
fortune, which he increased afterward by investments, largely in securities of various 
railroads. He was a veteran of the War of 1812, and for fifteen years was a director 
of The Erie Railroad, and for along time a director of The Phoenix National Bank and 
The Howard Fire Insurance Co., and had large interests in railroad securities. 

ALBERT ROLAZ GALLATIN, banker, son of Albert Gallatin, United States 
Senator and Secretary of the Treasury under President Jefferson, born in 1800, died 
in this city, Feb. 25, 1890. His mother was a daughter of James Nicholson, first 
Commodore of the United States Navy. Educated at Princeton College, the young 
man was admitted to the bar in Uniontown, Pa , near New Geneva, a town founded 
by his father. The law did not greatly attract him, however, and he abandoned prac- 
tice, removing to New York, where he entered Wall street as one of the first members 
of the Board of Brokers. At one time, he transacted business with John Jacob Astor. 
He had an extended acquaintance among public men, and accompanied his father to 
France in 1815, and to England in 1826, when the latter was American Minister to those 
countries, and became the personal friend of the Duke of Wellington and many of the 
leaders of the French Revolution. Mr. Gallatin inherited means, was the proprietor of 
much real estate in the city, and during his life honored the city of his home by his 
sterling character, public spirit, and excellent example. The names of his three sons 
are, Albert H., Frederick, and James Gallatin, the latter now deceased. 

JAMES GALLATIN, banker, son of Albert Gallatin, once Secretary of the 
Treasury, died in Paris, Mass., May 28, 1876, at the age of eighty. During his earlier 
life he dealt in stocks in Wall street, in partnership with his brother, Albert R. Gallatin, 
but in 1838 succeeded his father as president of The Gallatin Bank, and then gave up 
even-thing which would interfere with the management of this family institution. He 
held the position for thirty years, acquitting himself with credit, and retired in 1868, 
thereafter spending his time in Europe. Although prominent he never held public 
office. His wife, Josephine, and several grand children survived him. 


ROBERT MACY QALLAWAY, merchant and banker, born in New York city, 
Aug. 4, 1837, is of Scottish descent, the Gallaways having come to America in 1800. 
His father, Daniel Ayres Gallaway, was engaged in the iron business, and educated 
his son at Yale College, whence he graduated in the class of 1858. The young man 
then found occupation as clerk in his father's store and has since been actively engaged 
both in mercantile pursuits and as an officer of corporations. He was elected president 
of The Merchants' National Bank in January, 1892, and has since conducted the affairs 
of this institution with prudence and success. By reason of his active part in the 
development of the elevated railroad system of the city, he served as vice president 
under William R. Garrison and Jay Gould for eleven years. He is now a director of 
The Manhattan Railway, The United States Rubber Co. , The Bank of New Amsterdam, 
and The Bowery Savings Bank. Mr. Gallaway was married in 1868, to Miss Elizabeth 
A., daughter of Dr. Merrill W. Williams, and their children are, Merrill W., John M., 
and Mary. He has long been prominent and is a member of the Union League, 
Metropolitan, and Riding clubs, the New England Society and St. Andrew's Society. 

THOflAS GARNER, manufacturer, who died in this city, Oct. 16, 1867, in his 
seventieth year, was one of the best known and most successful business men of New 
York during the first part of the present century. At an early age, in partnership 
with his brother, James, he began the sale of dry goods in this city, but from insuffici- 
ent capital failed in 1832, afterward paying his obligations in full and re-establishing 
himself within a few years. His conduct in this matter was an indication of his char- 
acter, Mr. Garner being everywhere esteemed for his business probity and his upright 
life. He attained distinction through his energetic and successful efforts to establish 
the cotton manufacturing industry in this country. Little by little, he extended his 
enterprise in this direction until his factories had grown to enormous proportions. 
He owned large mills in Cohoes, Rochester, Little Falls, Pleasant Valley and New- 
burgh, N. Y., and Reading. Pa., as well as print works at Wappinger's Falls and 
Haverstraw, N. Y. The product of these mills was marketed by the commission house 
of Garner & Co., in New York city. Mr. Garner gained a fortune of several millions, 
which descended to his wife, Harriet, and their children, Thomas and William T. 
Garner, and Mrs. Josephine A. Graham, Mrs. Frances A. Lawrence and Mrs. Anna 
James. He gave $100,000 in his will to public institutions. Thomas died shortly after 
his father. The great business of Garner & Co. is yet conducted by trustees of the 
estate, who are at present John J. Lawrance and Adrian Iselin. His son, WILLIAfl T. 
GARNER, born in 1840, lost his life July 20, 1876, in consequence of the capsizing of 
his yacht, the schooner Mohawk, during a squall in New York harbor. He was care- 
fully educated and then associated himself with the affairs of Garner & Co. At his 
father's death, he became executor of the estate and senior partner in Garner & Co. , 
and managed the widespread and varied interests of the firm with such prudence, 
energy and sagacity, that he gained a fortune twice as large as his father's. Mr. 
Garner made an heroic effort to rescue his wife, Mary Marcellite, from the cabin of the 
Mohawk, when the yacht capsized, and both perished together. Their daughters were, 
Florence, now Lady Gordon-Cumming, Adele, who died at the age of four, and another. 

CORNELIUS KINGSLAND GARRISON, railroad president, born near West Point, 
N. Y., March i, 1809, died in this city, May i, 1885. He sprang from families who 
were among the earliest settlers of the Island of Manhattan. Compelled to seek 


employment at the age of thirteen, the family having lost their modest fortune, for 
three years the lad found occupation in the boats navigating the Hudson river. Every 
winter, when the river was closed by ice, he attended school. At the age of sixteen, 
he came to New York for three years of study of architecture, and during the next five 
years lived in Canada engaged in planning buildings and construction of lake steam- 
boats. He rose to be superintendent of The Upper Canada Co., in those days an im- 
portant corporation. Then he found occupation at St. Louis and in the vicinity of New 
Orleans. When gold was discovered in California, Mr. Garrison established a bank in 
Panama, which was successful. In 1852, he came to New York city to open a branch 
bank here, but accepted an offer of the San Francisco agency of The Nicaragua Steam- 
ship Co. , at a salary of $60, ooo a year. Removing to San Francisco, he established the 
bank of Garrison & Fritz, represented several large insurance companies, managed the 
steamship line, and became first Mayor of that city, and served practically without com- 
pensation, giving his salary to the local orphan asylums. After 1859, he made his home 
in Xew York city. Here he became extensively interested in steamship lines to South 
America and the Isthmus, acquiring therefrom the soubriquet of Commodore, and also 
in railroads on the Coast. During the War, he espoused the cause of the Union with 
enthusiasm. Butler's Ship Island expedition was initiated by him. The old steamship 
line to Brazil, founded by him, was an illustration of his courage and enterprise. At 
one time, these ships were the only steamers afloat, carrying the Stars and Stripes 
in the foreign trade of the United States. A few years before his death, he disposed of 
his maritime interests. He aided in building the railroad to the Pacific, and became 
controlling owner of The Missouri Pacific Railroad, when the line was sold under fore- 
closure in 1876. He finally sold his interest to Jay Gould. He was also largely inter- 
ested in the elevated roads of this city. The surviving children of Mr. Garrison and 
Letitia W. , his wife, were William R. Garrison, now deceased, and Catharine M , wife 
of Barrett Van Auken. A public spirited man, remarkable for his powerful physique, 
rugged energy, and unbending integrity, he was one of those who contributed greatly 
to advancing the interests of the metropolis. 

EPHRAIM CHURCH GATES, lumberman, born in Hubbardston, Mas*., March 28, 
1817, comes from old New England stock. His ancestors were English, and his grand- 
father, Asa Church, served in the commissary department in the American Revolution. 
His father, Salmon Gates, moved with his family, in 1823, from Hubbardston, Mass, 
to Calais, Me., which place he had visited as early as 1807, and thereafter was one of 
the active business men of Milltown, which was in his time the principal part of Calais. 
Ephraim attended the grammar schools of the town and for two terms the Washington 
Academy in Machias. He then found employment with his father, who was developing 
the lumber industry of the St. Croix river, then a new interest, and in 1840, having 
saved a little capital, began manufacturing lumber for himself, this industry being the 
source of the prosperity of this frontier city. For thirty-five years, 1847-82, he was 
the leading spirit of the lumber firm of Gates & Wentworth, in partnership with his 
brother in law, the Hon. Giles M. Wentworth. He became, by purchase, a large owner 
of timber lands in the counties of Washington and Penobscot, Me., and York, N. B. 
In 1849, Mr. Gates manufactured and sold to a lumber yard in Mott Haven, New York 
city, the first cargo of spruce lumber ever landed on the east side of the Harlem river. 
For sixteen years, he continued to sell lumber to this )'ard, which is on i38th street, 


and in 1865 bought the yard, which he placed under charge of his son, Church 
Ephraim Gates, then fresh from the Union army. This proved a fortunate venture. 
After the death of his son, Mr. Gates carried on the yard alone, being aided in the 
management by John F. Steeves, imder the old name of Church E. Gates & Co., until 
1889, when he admitted Henry H. Barnard and Bradley L. Eaton, his sons in law, and 
John F. Steeves, as partners. The same year he sold his interests in Maine to H. F. 
Eaton & Sons and removed to Harlem, where he now dwells. He owns a large 
interest in The Old Dominion Lumber Co. , whose shipping point is Norfolk, Va. By 
his marriage, Dec. i, 1839, to Vashti Randall Pickens, daughter of Leonard Pickens, 
he became the father of four children, Church Ephraim Gates, now deceased; Lucy, 
wife of Henry H. Barnard; Vashti, wife of Bradley L. Eaton; and one son who died 
in infancy. Mr. Gates is a member of the Harlem club and the Calais club of Calais 
and a man of conspicuous excellence of character. 

JAMES WATSON GERARD, lawyer, born in this city in 1794, died in New York, 
Feb. 7, 1874. He was a descendant of French Huguenots, who fled to Scotland after 
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Before the American Revolution, his father, 
William, came to New York city and lived to become a reputable merchant, but left 
his family with moderate means. James graduated with honor from Columbia College 
in 1811, studied law in the office of George Griffin, and entered upon practice while 
quite young. His abilities soon gave him a leading position in the profession. He 
enjoyed a long and successful practice, during which he strove with all his power to 
elevate the standard of the profession. When he retired in 1868, his brethren of the 
law gave him a banquet at Delmonico's, which was attended by many prominent mem- 
bers of the bench and bar. His marriage with Eliza, daughter of Governor Increase 
Sumner of Massachusetts, brought him three children, James W. , Elizabeth Sumner 
Wiggin, and Julietta Ann. Mrs. Gerard died in 1866. The House of Refuge was 
built mainly through Mr. Gerard's influence and the efficiency of the police force was 
greatly improved. The adoption of uniforms for the police grew out of his advocacy 
of the measure. For many years, he identified himself with the public school interests 
of his city, and rendered efficient service as inspector of schools. A nomination for 
Congress and another for Judge of the Superior Court were declined by him. 

ELBRIDQE THOMAS GERRY, lawyer, a native of this city, was born Dec. 25, 
1837. His family was planted in this country in 1730, by Thomas Gerry of Newton, 
England, merchant, who settled in Marblehead, Mass., and .whose son, Elbridge Gerry, 
a man of marked abilities, served his country as a member of the Continental Congress, a 
Signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Vice President of the United States. 
The subject of this sketch is a grandson of Elbridge and son of Thomas R. Gerry, a 
naval officer. His mother, Hannah, was a sister of Peter and Robert Goelet. The 
subject of this sketch lost his father by death, when the lad was seven years of age. 
He gained a good education, graduating from Columbia College in 1857, and delivering 
the German salutatory oration. He then studied law with William Curtis Noyes, was 
admitted to the bar in 1866, and formed a partnership with Mr. Noyes, and later with 
William F. Allen, Justice of the Court of Appeals, and Benjamin Vaughn Abbott, the 
law book author. For many years he was actively occupied with the laborious duties 
of an extensive practice, being retained in many famous cases. In 1867, he served the 
State as a member of the Convention to revise the State Constitution. Dec. 3, 1867, 


he was married to Louisa M., daughter of Robert J. Livingston and great grand- 
daughter of Morgan Lewis, once Chief Justice and Governor of New York. A large 
income from his law practice and a fortune inherited from the Goelets have left Mr. 
Gerry free to promote important philanthropic enterprises, and he has been prominent 
in this work for over thirty years. He has secured, in behalf of The Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the principal part of the legislation of the State on 
this subject. In 1874, he was conspicuous in founding The Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Children, and since 1879, has been its president. The present system of 
execution by electricity is due to a report, made by a commission appointed in 1886, of 
which he was a member. Mr. Gerry has long been actively identified with yachting in 
its higher forms, and was Commodore of the famous New York Yacht club, 1885-93, 
during several historic international yacht races. He is a prominent figure in the 
social life of the city, and a member of the Metropolitan, Knickerbocker, Manhattan, 
Bar, Riding, Players', Merchants', Country, Atlantic Yacht, New York Yacht, and 
Larchmont Yacht clubs. He also belongs to the New England Society and is a patron 
of the annual Patriarchs' ball. 

JOHN GIBB, merchant, a native of Scotland, was born March 14, 1829. He was 
educated at the local parish school and in Montrose academy, and then, at the age of 
fourteen, set his face bravely toward the task of fitting himself for a business career. 

He was so anxious to learn that, as an apprentice, he entered a small dry goods 
store in Montrose, where, in return for the privilege of acquiring what knowledge he 
could about textures, colors and the business generally, he performed all the drudgery 
for four years, without pay. At the age of eighteen, having finished the first labori- 
ous stage of his business education, Mr. Gibb travelled to London, arriving there an 
utter stranger and feeling somewhat lost in the whirl and excitement of the great 
metropolis. After a few days' search, however, he found employment in a large retail 
dry goods establishment. Here, he toiled at the duties assigned to him from early 
morning until eleven and twelve o'clock at night. Eighteen months of this sufficed 
for the young man, although it aided to develop the energy with which nature had 
abundantly endowed him ; and he then greatly improved his position by securing a 
clerkship in the largest wholesale lace house in London. The duties here were more 
congenial, and previous training made him a valued accession to the house. The firm 
advanced him rapidly. 

In June, 1850, under engagement with J. R. Jaffray & Co. of London, Mr. Gibb 
came to America and took charge of one of the departments in their New York house. 
In this establishment, he repeated his success in London. No day was too long, no 
work too hard for him, and promotion followed rapidly, although this was not sufficient 
to retain Mr. Gibb in a subordinate position. He was determined to become a mer- 
chant on his own account; and having, by diligent industry and strict economy, made 
and saved enough money for the purpose, he went into partnership with Philo L. 
Mills, a fellow clerk, under the firm name of Mills & Gibb, in 1865. The two men 
signed their articles of co-partnership on the day of the surrender of General Lee and 
began business in a store at No. 44 White street. 

The new firm made a specialty of laces and goods of like character, which they 
imported from Europe, and threw so much energy and good judgment into their 
operations, that they met with success from the start. The business grew to large 


2 57 

proportions in the space of a few years and has since extended to every part of the 
United States. In 1880, the handsome seven story building on the northeast corner 
of Broadway and Grand street, erected for Mills & Gibb, was occupied by them. In 
the division of the labor of the house, Mr. Mills lives in Europe, while Mr. Gibb has 
had the sole management of the trade in the United States. 

Upon his arrival in America in 1850, Mr. Gibb established his home in Brooklyn, 
and has been a resident of that city ever since. He was married in 1852. Eleven 
children have been born to him, of whom all except one are living, all of his sons being 
in business with him. He has always closely identified himself closely with the affairs 
of Brooklyn. In this respect, his practice differs from that of many merchants, who 
regard Brooklyn merely as a residence section of the metropolis and fail to interest 
themselves in the great financial and industrial interests of the city. Mr. Gibb is a 
director of The Brooklyn Trust Co., trustee of The Adelphi Academy and The Young 
Men's Christian Association, and a member of the Hamilton, Brooklyn, Crescent, 
and Riding & Driving clubs. His public spirit has greatly endeared him to his fellow 
citizens. In 1887, Mr. Gibb added to his mercantile interests by acquiring a controlling 
ownership in the retail dry goods firm of Frederick Loeser & Co., in Brooklyn, and this 
extensive establishment has since been managed with great success by Mr. Gibb and his 
son Howard. The store is now one of the largest dry goods bazaars in the United States. 

Mr. Gibb is fond of home life and domestic in his tastes and habits. The family 
occupy a spacious home on Gates avenue in Brooklyn, and during the summer time 
dwell in a beautifully located country seat at Islip, Great South Bay, on the ocean front 
of Long Island. While Mr. Gibb works hard during the hours of business, he also 
rests with equal vigor during the hours of relaxation, and spends two days in every 
week during the summer time fishing and sailing in his yacht, the Bonnie Doon. His 
success is due to early training, the power of performing a vast amount of work, intel- 
ligent and upright methods, and sound judgment. 

GEORGE YATES GILBERT, lawyer and lumberman, born in Gilbertsville, Otsego 
county, X. Y., March 26, 1815, died at the Victoria Hotel in New York city, April 29, 
1888. He was a descendant of John Gilbert and his wife, Marv Hill (the latter a relative 
of the celebrated Rowland Hill, the divine,) of Middleton, near Yarmouth, Warwickshire, 
England. To John Gilbert were born four children, of whom the oldest was Abijah, 
born in December, 1747, who was destined, forty years later, in 1787, to find a home for 
his race in the new world and to be the first settler and founder of the village of Gilberts- 
ville, X. Y. At the age of fourteen, he was the male head of his family, and at twenty- 
nine, married Mary Yates and lived at Xuneaton in Warwickshire, where he owned 
lands and did much to aid the poor. On arriving in America, he visited relatives of his 
wife in Xew Jersey, where he met and became the staunch friend of General Morris, 
who assigned to him a grant of 1,000 acres of land in Otsego county, for which Mr. 
Gilbert paid him ,571 sterling, before ever having seen the land. He very shortly 
doubled his holdings by the purchase of contiguous properties. Decided in char- 
acter but of courteous manners, he was known as Esquire Gilbert, and recorded in all 
the deeds as "gentleman." He died in 1811, leaving a large family. The oldest son, 
Joseph T. Gilbert, known as Deacon Gilbert, was a man of iron will, prominent in his 
county. George Yates Gilbert, the subject of this memoir, his fifth son, was educated 
at Hamilton and Yale colleges, graduating from the latter in 1837 in the same class with 


William M. Evarts and Chief Justice Waite. He was one of the charter members of 
the Yale chapter of the Delta Kappa Phi fraternity. Afterward, he went to New York, 
where he practiced law with John D. Sherwood. In 1853, he became vice president of 
The Eau Claire Lumber Co., in Eau Claire, Wis. , a position which he held for ten 
years. It was a highly successful undertaking. On retiring from its active manage- 
ment in 1869, Mr. Gilbert returned to Gilbertsville, where he erected the residence 
called "The Hall," now owned and occupied by his only daughter, Marion. The latter 
has been twice married, first to James Armstrong Murray of England, and after his 
demise to Thomas Swinyard, formerly managing director of The Great Western Rail- 
way of Canada, and The Detroit & Milwaukee Railway, and now president of The 
Dominion Telegraph Co. Though Mr. Gilbert took a deep interest in politics, he 
declined all overtures made to him to accept office. He was a staunch Republican, and 
his career was especially marked by uprightness of character and a strong sense of 
justice and generosity. He married Mary, daughter of Jabez Fitch, of Marshall, Mich., 
and left one son, Fitch Gilbert, a resident of Eau Claire, and one daughter, the elder 
of the two, who succeeded to the estate in Gilbertsville. 

PETER QILSEY, an old time merchant, born in Hobro, Province of Jutland, 
Denmark, in 1811, died in New York, Aug. 8, 1873. He received a moderate 
education, and landed in New York city in 1827, a friendless lad, but full of 
health and inspired with an earnest and manly ambition to win success. Having 
secured employment in a piano factory, and saving each week some part of his wages, 
he saved enough at length to go into business for himself. His first venture was the 
purchase of a retail tobacconist's stock, with which he opened a small store on the 
Bowery. In this occupation he prospered, and later he moved to the corner of Broad- 
way and Cortlandt street. Prospering yet more in the new locality, Mr. Gilsey soon 
gained the means to make investments in real estate, which brought him the bulk of 
his fortune. The property advanced rapidly in value, making him a rich man, and 
included the St. George Hotel, the Gilsey House, Coleman House, the Fifth Avenue 
Theatre, and an office building at the Corner of Broadway and Cortlandt street.- Mr. 
Gilsey was elected an Alderman of the city in 1873. The children of Mr. Gilsey and 
his wife, Mary C., were Andrew; Charles, now deceased; Peter; Henry; John, now 
deceased; Mary, wife of P. Gardner, and Mrs. Pauline Starr. Mrs. Gilsey survived 
her husband until Sept. 13, 1891. 

HENRY QINNEL, jeweler, a native of Locle, Switzerland, was born Jan. 9, 1821. 
He was educated in the local schools, and then learned thcTtrade of watchmaking, his 
town being one of the seats of that industry. At the age of eighteen he came to 
America, seeking the enlarged opportunities of the new world. In the employment of 
Frederick Grossclaude, he spent several years at the bench, working overtime in order 
the more rapidly to increase his savings. In 1847, he bought the shop of his employer, 
and became a manufacturer and merchant of watches and jewelry, and by energy and 
good abilities has expanded his trade, until he has one of the leading watch and jewelry 
stores on Maiden Lane, under the style of Henry Ginnel & Co. He was married 
Oct. 1 8, 1845, to Miss Clara Langrave. The family make their home in Brooklyn. 
Mr. Ginnel's career reminds one of the important truth that, in free America, at any 
rate, it makes little difference how modestly a man starts in life, provided only that his 
occupation be an honest one. 


PETER QOELET, realty owner, born June 22, 1800, died in this city, Nov. 21, 
1879. He came from a Huguenot family, which at the time of the fierce and bloody 
persecution of the Protestants by the Roman Catholic church, fled from Rochelle, 
France, to Amsterdam in Holland, in 1621, remaining there until 1676 Francis 
Goelet, youngest son of the family, having lost his wife, came to New Amsterdam in 
1676. with his only child Jacobus, a boy of about ten. Greatly pleased with the place, 
he left his boy in care of Mr. Phillips, merchant, and sailed for Holland to bring hither 
his effects, but was never heard from thereafter, and is supposed to have been lost at 
sea Jacobus remained in New York, married Jannetje, daughter of Mr. Coessar, a 
member of a Protestant refugee family from Rochelle, arid died in 1731, the father of 
six children. Jan Geolet, third son of Jacobus, was married in 1718 to Jannetje, 
daughter of Jan Cannon, a merchant of New York, who also traced his family line to a 
Protestant refugee from Rochelle. Dying in July, 1753, he left several children. 

Peter Goelet, fourth son of Jan, born in January, 1727, was the founder of the 
family fortunes. He carried on a trade in hardware, cutlery, locks, music, brushes, 
etc., for many years, with Peter T. Curtenius, under the name of Goelet & Curtenius, 
in a store on Pearl street, Hanover Square, at the sign of the ' ' golden key. " The 
firm dissolved in 1763, the junior partner engaging in business with a sign of a " golden 
anvil," while Mr. Goelet went on alone in the hardware trade. He was greatly pros- 
pered, gained what was then considered a fortune, and invested it almost wholly in local 
real estate. He was married in April, 1755, to Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Ratse, 
and at his death lived at No. 53 Broadway. 

Peter P. Goelet, son of the latter, was born in August, 1764, and died in October, 
1828. He inherited a large part of his father's property, and by the advice of his law- 
yer, Peter De Witt, invested nearly all of his accumulations in further purchases of 
real estate. He owned some securities of corporations, however, and was a member of 
The Western Inland Dock Navigation Co. In May, 1799, he married Almy, daughter 
of Thomas Buchanan, his brother Robert Ratse having married Margaret Buchanan, 
her sister. Upon his death, he was survived by four children, Peter, the subject of 
this sketch; Jean B. Goelet; Hannah G. , wife of Thomas R. Gerry, Commodore, 
U. S. N.; and Robert Goelet. 

Peter Goelet continued the policy of investing in land and buildings, mainly in those 
parts of the growing city, where in a few years there was certain to be a dense aggre- 
gation of buildings of the highest class. The land on which the Grand Central Depot 
now stands, was once his. 

Mr. Goelet was a lover of fine horses, of which he usually kept as many as six, 
although when going about his daily business he almost invariably walked or used the 
stages. He was charitable without ostentation, and during the war took a special in- 
terest in one of the New York regiments, expending money freely to relieve the suffer- 
ings of members who returned sick or disabled, and of the families of the killed. 

His recreation consisted largely in working at a forge in the basement of his house 
on Broadway and igth street, where he manufactured, after the fashion of one of the 
Kings of France, various sorts of machinery, but particularly locks of curious and intri- 
cate patterns. He owned many bright plumaged fowls and birds from all parts of the 
world. During the summer time, some of these were to be seen stalking about the 
_grounds surrounding the Goelet mansion. 


Mr. Goelet left his real estate equally to his brother Robert and his sisters Jean B. 
Goelet and Hannah G. Gerry. 

ROBERT GOELET, realty owner, a son of Peter P. Goelet, was born in October, 
1809, and died at his home, No 857 Broadway, Sept. 22, 1879. He was occupied dur- 
ing life with the management of properties inherited from his father. He resembled 
his eccentric brother Peter in many respects and was warmly attached to him, the two 
men making visits to West Point together every year, and being constantly in each 
other's society. In October, 1839, he married Sarah, daughter of Jonathan Ogden, 
and left two children, Robert and Ogden Goelet. The Goelet possessions are now cen- 
tered mainly in the ownership of these two men. Robert' Goelet, born Sept. 29, 1841, 
was married in 1879 to Harriette Louise, daughter of George Henry Warren, of New 
York, and has two children, Robert Walton and Beatrice Goelet. His brother Ogden 
was born June n, 1846, and married Mary R., daughter of Richard T. Wilson, the 
banker. Their children are Robert and Mary Goelet. 

JOHN GOOD, inventor and manufacturer of cordage, is one of those men of native 
genius, who have placed their names on the roll of fame by working as complete a revo- 
lution in the processes of an important industry, as took place in the homes of America 
when the slow and tiresome method of hand sewing gave way to the sewing machine, 
or as took place in the field of transportation when the lumbering old mail coach of the 
early days was superseded by the railway car. He has lightened the labors of the work- 
ing classes and reduced the cost of an article of extended consumption ; and the large 
fortune which has come to him in consequence of his inventions has been worthily and 
honestly won. 

He was born in Ireland in 1844. At the age of seven, the lad came to the United 
States with his father's family to seek the larger liberty and the better opportunities of 
the new world. The family being poor, John was compelled to earn his living as soon 
as he was old enough to toil. He was blessed with a stout and healthy frame and a 
happy disposition, and, finding employment in a little old-fashioned rope walk in Brook- 
lyn, he served an apprenticeship there, whistling as he went to his daily work. He 
became thoroughly familiar with the then simple processes of rope making, which were 
slowly and laboriously performed by hand. In this factor}', many young women were 
employed, whose labor required them to lift and carry loads beyond their natural 
strength. The good hearted boy came to sympathize with the hard lot of these fellow 
workers, and at an early age, he began to study what he could do to lighten their labors. 
Rope making had been practiced in this country at least 200 years. Every ship 
building city in New England and along the Atlantic sea coast of any pretensions had 
its "rope walk," a long, low building, several hundred feet in length, in which the 
hempen fibres were straightened, combed, drawn into strands, and the strands twisted 
into rope by operatives who performed the whole labor with their hands. All of the 
processes were laborious and tedious. No material improvement whatever had been 
introduced in the industry for a period of two centuries. Considering the enormous 
amount and high cost of cordage used in the rigging of ships during the palmy days of 
the American marine, it is extraordinary that in America, the very home of mechanical 
genius, it should never have occurred to any inventive American to patent improved 
processes for quickening, reducing the cost, and lightening the labor of rope making. 
This work was reserved for the young man from Ireland. 


After he had graduated from his apprenticeship, he left the rope walk and became 
a machinist. During the late Civil War, having become an expert worker in this trade, 
the idea occurred to him to study the possibility of inventing machines to perform the 
work of the various branches of rope making. He experimented for several years, 
and finally in October, 1869, took out his first patent. The pioneer machine was a 
" breaker," for bunching and combing out the tangled fibres of hemp and forming them 
into a long loose roll called a " sliver. " The fibres used in this industry come from 
tropical plants and are from three to twelve feet in length. In the old fashioned 
process, the "sliver" was cut into lengths, and thus the fibre entire was never used in 
a rope until John Good brought out a machine for the purpose. The first invention 
was followed by a number of others, until Mr. Good had patented a complete outfit for 
every branch of the manufacture of ropes and twine. His patents cover a first breaker, 
a second breaker, a first and second spreader, a first and second drawing frame, a 
spinning jenny, a laying frame, and a coiling machine. The "sliver" which first 
comes from the breaker is rough in texture, with the loose ends of many tangled fibres 
projecting from its surface. The spreaders and drawing frames draw out the original 
roll into longer and smoother slivers, which are free from the rough ends. The suc- 
ceeding machines twist the slivers into yarns, and the yarns into ropes, and coil the 
finished product into packages for shipment. The system is complete in all its parts 
and has completely changed the manufacture of cordage. The process has many dis- 
tinctive features. It has reduced the amount of ground space required, and the long 
tunnel-like rope walk of the olden times has now given place to a compact modern 
factory of several stories. The factory can be so arranged that the entire process can 
be performed in one room. The yarn and the strand are twisted in one operation, 
obviating one great difficulty of the old process, in which the yarn lost a large part of 
its twist before being formed into strands. The new process utilizes the full length of 
the fibres, and produces a rope fifty per cent, stronger than the old process. It has 
also lightened the manual labor of the operatives immensely. 

Until 1885, Mr. Good devoted his energies entirely to the perfection and manu- 
facture of his beautiful machines. Orders poured upon him from all parts of the 
United States, because every maker of cordage was compelled to take advantage of the 
improved facilities for manufacture and supply their factories with his machines. So 
largely have his patents been adopted, that it is believed that no more than about ten 
tons of cordage are annually made in the United States, which do not at some stage of 
the manufacture pass through one or more of his machines. Orders have also been 
received from abroad. In the United States, he has sold his machines outright, abroad 
upon a royalty. His factory in Brooklyn has been developed to large proportions, 
and gives employment to hundreds of skilled machinists. In 1885, he gave a public 
exhibition in Brooklyn of his complete process, and the occasion was deemed so 
important that it was attended by the principal rope makers both of the United States 
and Great Britain. 

Mr. Good then resolved to engage in rope making himself, and in 1886 he built a 
large factory on Vernon avenue in Ravenswood, a suburb of Brooklyn. The plant 
included a large frame warehouse and wharves on the river front. Manufacture was 
begun in 1887, with a large force of operatives and a capacity equal to one-third of the 
total cordage production of the country. 


When, in 1887, the Cordage Trust was organized under the name of the National 
Cordage Association, Mr. Good at first entered that combination. The Trust manu- 
facturers dreaded his competition so greatly that they were willing to pay him $200,000 
a year to close both of his factories, and they offered him $7,000,000 for his entire plant 
and good will. They were unable to obtain the amount of the purchase money, how- 
ever, and finally the whole arrangement proved unsatisfactory to Mr. Good. He had 
been asked to build a binding twine plant for the penitentiary in Minnesota, and the 
Trust had refused to allow him to do so. In 1892, he withdrew from the combination, 
and resumed operations entirely independent of the Trust. He now manufactures, on 
an extended scale, and besides the establishment at Ravenswood, operates a large 
cordage factory at Millwall, near London, and another at Great Grimsby. He has in 
contemplation the building of works in France, Germany and Italy. 

Mr. Good is the inventor of the machinery now in general use for the making of 
binding twine, and the reduction in price of that commodity in recent years is largely 
the result of his improved processes. 

On account of his large charities, and his services to humanity in lightening the 
burdens of the working classes, Mr. Good was honored by the Pope of Rome, in 1887, 
with the title of a " Count of the Holy Roman Empire." At the time of his jubilee, 
the Pope resolved to honor a number of prominent men of that church in the various 
countries of the world, who had contributed to human advancement. Mr. Good was 
the only American selected for the distinction of being made a Count. The honor 
came unsought, and was a great surprise. The formal announcement was publicly 
presented to Mr. Good in Brooklyn, April 19, 1888, in the presence of an immense 

Count Good is a man of large and fine physique, erect carriage, and courteous 
address. He has the firmness and conciseness of speech of a capable business man. 
He is unassuming in dress. His hair and moustache are nearly white and frame a 
face rosy with the glow of perfect health. 

BRENT GOOD, manufacturer, born in Rochester, N.Y., in 1837, was taken with the 
family to Canada when two years old, and grew up on the stoniest farm in Canada at 
the Bay of Quinte. Leaving country school to seek his fortune in the world of affairs, 
he served an apprenticeship in the drug trade, in Belleville, Ont., where he gained a 
thorough knowledge of the profession. In 1856, he came to New York city, with 
exactly $8. 40 as his entire capital, and here found employment with Demas Barnes 
& Co. , who ranked among the largest merchants of proprietary medicines in the world. 
He rose rapidly, became a successful salesman, was made a partner in 1863, and 
retired in 1869 when the business was sold to John F. Henry & Co. As Good, Root 
& Co., he then imported wines until 1878. In 1879, Mr. Good became interested in 
the manufacture of the Little Liver Pills of Dr. Carter of Erie, Pa. The author of the 
formula, upon which this medicine is made, had fallen into debt and was transacting 
a small business only, not over $10,000 a year. Mr. Good saw the merit of these pills, 
bought the right to manufacture them, organized The Carter Medicine Co. , and threw 
his entire energy into making and selling his remedy. His success has been phenomenal 
and is due to the spirit and ingenuity with which Mr. Good has advertised the medi- 
cine and pushed its sale. He has covered the barns, fences and rocks of the whole 
country with his advertisements, and has not only created a large domestic sale, but 


pushed his trade virtually to the uttermost parts of the earth by unceasing enterprise. 
He is president of The Carter Medicine Co. A few years ago, Mr. Good invaded 
England and made contracts with owners of unimproved property in the suburbs of 
London for the exclusive privilege of erecting sign boards. The staid inhabitants 
were startled one week by an eruption of signs of Carter's Little Liver Pills. Lord 
Rosebery aided Mr. Good to introduce his remedy to the English public by bringing 
a bill into Parliament to restrain Mr Good from "disfiguring the suburban scenery." 
The incident filled the newspapers with comments, gave a great impetus to sales, and 
enabled the pushing American to recover through the natural channels of trade, a part 
ol the $500,000 he had spent in England in advertising. Mr. Good has shared in 
numerous business enterprises in town, among them The Writing Telegraph Co., of 
which he was president long enough to sell his interest to excellent advantage. In the 
building occupied by The North River Bank, which failed in 1890, he established The 
Franklin National Bank, a sound institution, of which he is a director. He owns and 
manages The Lyceum Theatre, is president of The Sunbury Wall Decoration Co., is a 
Mason and Knight Templar, a yachtsman, and a member of the New York Athletic 
Lotus, Manhattan, New York Yacht, Hardware and Wa-Wa-Yonda clubs, and the St. 
James club of Montreal. His wife is a daughter of Henry I. Hoyt of Norwalk, Conn., 
and his children are Henry Hoyt and Kate Hamilton Good. 

GEORGE PHINEAS GORDON, manufacturer, born in Salem, N. H., April 21, 
1810, died in Norfolk, Va., Jan. 27, 1878. His father, Phineas Gordon, was a mer- 
chant in Boston, the family being descended from Alexander Gordon, (brother of Lord 
George Gordon), who emigrated from Scotland in 1697 and settled in New Hampshire. 
Educated in Boston, George learned the printing trade, and in 1850 started a printing 
office of his own in Nassau street in this city. His fame arose from his invention of 
the Gordon job press, a machine for the printing of circulars, letter heads, and other 
small work. The Gordon Press Works, having a factory at Rahway, N. J., of which 
he was proprietor, produced an immense number of these machines, which found their 
way into nearly every job office in the United States. Mr. Gordon was a man of great 
ability, and while numberless changes in the Gordon model have been made by rival 
manufacturers, who have striven to compete with the Gordon press, it is nevertheless 
true that the latter remains practically the model and standard for the ideal small 
printing press of the present day. In 1846, Mr. Gordon married Sarah E. Cornish, 
who died, and in 1857, he married Eleonora May. He had one son, George Byron 
Gordon, and one daughter, Mary Agnes Gordon, both children of the first wife. 

GUSTAV HENRY GOSSLER, merchant, born in Hamburg, Germany, March 
18, 1842, is a son of Ernst Gossler, by occupation a lawyer and president of the law 
court. Gustav was educated in his native city, and, after pursuing his mercantile 
studies in Germany, England, France, Spain and Portugal, he moved to this country in 
1863, and began life as a merchant. In 1868, he became connected as a partner with 
the firm of L. E. Amsinck & Co., commission merchants and bankers, who were suc- 
ceeded by G. Amsinck & Co , in 1874. This house is now widely known and highly 
esteemed, and has extensive connections in South America and Europe. Mr. Gossler 
is a good merchant and a successful man, and has been Vice Consul in New York for the 
republic of Brazil since 1874. In 1869, he was married to Mathilda, daughter of Theo- 
dore Durrien, and their children are named J. E. Mathilde, Anna S., and Olga Louise. 


Mr. Gossler's social interests in the city are many. He is a member of the Union, 
Vaudeville and Down Town clubs, and has the public spirit to help maintain the great 
public museums of the city and other institutions. 

JAY GOULD, financier, gained during his remarkable life a fortune, unique in that 
it was one of the largest ever acquired by a single individual in the United States by his 
own exertions. It owed no part of its origin to inheritance. Engaged in many specu- 
lative operations, Mr. Gould was probably not a gainer, to any great extent, by these 
labors. The bulk of his wealth came mainly from the leaps in value of many of the 
securities, which he owned in later life, consequent upon the higher appreciation placed 
upon them, after they had come under his management. > The story of his life, deeply 
interesting, affords encouragement to every man, who possesses patience, persever- 
ance, coolness and acumen, his power of persuasion, analysis and foresight, and his 
undoubted executive capacity and talent for combinations. 

Mr. Gould was slender in build, and not above medium height, but his face was a 
striking one. Eyes, hair, full moustache and beard were dark and handsome, and his 
expression, while kindly and pleasing, was firm, intellectual and penetrating. His 
purity in private life, his generosity, and his fidelity to friends, were proverbial. He 
won the enthusiastic devotion of many prominent men of sound judgment and great 
probity, and his death removed from Wall street a figure which had impressed itself 
ineffaceably upon the financial history of the United States. 

It was his lot to have less said in his praise than any other successful financier of 
this generation. Many of the charges were absolutely unjust. His silence, a remarka- 
ble trait, sometimes sprang from pride, which prevented him from combating a mis- 
representation when he was the only sufferer, while at other times it grew out of a 
shrewd knowledge that success would be furthered by concealing his plans. Mr. 
Gould's answers to many accusations, given years after their utterance, were drawn out 
only upon the witness stand, coming then too late to change an opinion widely enter- 
tained. He sometimes suffered on account of the transgressions of others, but always 
possessed the belief that, in time, justice would be done to him by a fair minded public. 
This confidence has been justified since his death, by a generous judgment of his 
achievements and cordial tributes to his memory. 

Mr. Gould was a descendant of two notable families of New England. Major 
Nathan Gold, the pioneer, was a man of great force of character, who came from 
St. Edmondsbury, England, to Fairfield, Conn , about 1646. His son, Nathan Gauld, jr., 
rose from town clerk of Fairfield to become Deputy Governor in 1 706 and Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court of the State in 1724. Several of the family were soldiers in the 
American Revolution. The wife of Col. Abraham Gold, Jay Gould's great grand- 
father, was Elizabeth Burr, whose ancestor was John Burr, an emigrant to America in 
1630 with Governor Winthrop, and one of the eight founders of Springfield, Mass. 
The Burrs included many soldiers, judges, and public officials of good repute. Col. 
Abraham Gold, the first of his line to spell his name Gould, was killed at the head of 
his regiment, the 5th Connecticut, at Ridgefield, Conn., while repelling the British raid 
on Danbury; and his sword, stainedwith British blood, is to this day in the possession of 
Abraham Gould Jennings, of Brooklyn, N. Y., one of his descendants. Capt. Abra- 
ham Gould, his son. "a grim, earnest, honest man," settled in 1780 in Roxbury, N. Y. 
John Burr Gould, his son, the first male white child born in Roxbury, was a man of 


sturdy character, and showed his fibre in 1844 by resistance to the fanatics of the anti- 
rent agitation. While defending his home against the anti-renters, he found an enthu- 
siastic supporter in his boy, Jay. A well read man, noted for public spirit, he helped 
to found schools and advance the interest of the community. He married Mary More, 
the grand-daughter of John More, a sturdy Scot, who had come from Ayrshire, in 
1772. From his excellent mother, Jay Gould inherited that religious instinct, which 
kept alive, in his later years of battle with the world, the gentleness of manner and the 
generosity of dealing which repeatedly characterized him when he bargained with other 
men over millions of dollars worth of property. 

Jay Gould, known in childhood as Jason Gould, was born at the homestead in Rox- 
bury, May 27, 1836. He was educated at 'the district school and Beechwood and Hobart 
seminaries, and at the age of seventeen learned Latin and Greek in a school in Albany. 
Application, acute perception and a retentive memory characterized him as a student. 
He was genial and fond of fun and open air sports but not of rude games. 

Not fitted for farm work, Mr. Gould longed for a business career. To gratify this 
aspiration, his father exchanged the farm for a hardware store in Roxbury, and here 
the young man received his first business training. He began as a clerk, was a partner 
at fifteen, and became chief manager of the business. During this time, he learned sur- 
veying. Studying his books from 3 to 6 A. M , and practicing with the instruments of 
Squire Burhans, a prominent resident, the young man became a competent surveyor. 

His first professional work, begun in April, 1852, was the survey and mapping of 
Ulster county, N. Y. He was employed at this task upon a salary first of $20, then of 
$30, a month. At the outset, he was an assistant in the venture. His partner failed 
before the survey was completed, and two other young surveyors being admitted to 
partnership, Mr. Gould sold his interest to them for $500. 

For several years, Mr. Gould hoped to realize enough from his ventures to carry 
him through Yale College. This dream was never realized. 

The young civil engineer then surveyed and mapped, 1853-56, the counties of 
Albany, Delaware and Sullivan, and the town of Cohoes. He also had charge of the 
mapping of counties in Ohio and Michigan, and the survey of a railroad from Newburg 
to Syracuse and of The Albany and Niskayuna plank road. Some of the contracts were 
transferred to a surveyor in Philadelphia before completion and netted Mr. Gould a 
profit of more than $5,000. The building of the Niskayuna plank road by him in three 
days and a half was a remarkable achievement. This road yet exists and has always 
been of great service to the town, even to those who originally opposed it. The enter- 
prise revealed his characteristic traits. He had prepared to make the survey with the 
common level. "Imagine my surprise," he wrote to a friend, "when one of the direc- 
tors came bringing up a monstrous theodolite with its complication of screws and what 
not, the identical one that served an apprenticeship on the Hudson River Railroad, and, 
for its valuable services there, was afterward promoted to generalship on the Northern 
Railroad. I could not for a good while even unloosen the needle, much less adjust the 
instrument. I was completely knocked in the head." But he kept his own counsel. 
Fortunately, the snow turned to rain, when the men were ready to begin, and during 
two stormy days Mr. Gould mastered the instrument. Confronted with other unexpected 
problems, he met them all victoriously by study in the State library and otherwise, 
without betraying how they had disconcerted him. 


While engaged in field work in Delaware county, Mr. Gould gathered the material 
for his famous history of the county. He wrote the work with great care, toiling over 
its pages when he should have been asleep, resting four or five hours a day only. When 
completed, it was sent to Philadelphia to be printed. In April, 1856, the young author 
learned that his manuscript had been burned. The tenacity of purpose which he revealed 
so remarkably in later life, served him then in good stead. He rewrote the book. A 
few proof sheets had been saved, and parts of the history had been printed in The 
Bloomfield Mirror. The greater part he rewrote from memory. He devoted himself 
to this task by night and day, and saw the book of 400 pages triumphantly issued in Sep- 
tember, 1856. This history, written ingenuously, was. a remarkable production'for a 
young man of twenty. The story that he afterward sought to buy the copies, which 
had been sold, and withdraw them, because the printer had spelled his name "Gold," 
is untrue. Copies of the book, now in existence, show the name spelled "Gould." 

Mr. Gould now plunged into a larger enterprise. In Eastern Pennsylvania, he 
founded the town of Gouldsboro' and established a tannery in partnership with Zadoc 
Pratt. Fifteen miles from any settlement, he felled the first tree with his own hands, 
sawed it into boards with a portable saw mill, built a blacksmith shop before sunset, 
and slept in the improvised cabin the first night. Of the tannery, Mr. Gould proved an 
enterprising and successful manager. He constructed a plank road, organized a stage 
route and two churches, built a school house, created a bank of which he was a director, 
and became postmaster of the place. The settlers became his ardent friends. 

Mr. Gould soon bought Mr. Pratt's interest and formed the partnership of Jay 
Gould & Co., with Charles M. Leupp and D. Williamson Lee, of New York. The tan- 
nery transacted a large business and stimulated other local industries. Oct. 5, 1859, 
Mr. Leupp committed suicide in New York, having for years been gradual!}' losing his 
mind. His brother in law, Mr. Lee, thereupon, as representative of a two-thirds inter- 
est, conceived the plan of forcing Mr. Gould out of the concern. He evaded a settle- 
ment, asked Mr. Gould to meet him in New York, Feb. 29, 1860, and, without waiting 
for him, hastened to Gouldsboro'. Taking possession of the tannery, he threw out the 
superintendent with bodily violence, barricaded the works, and garrisoned them with 
about thirty-five armed men. When Mr. Gould learned the situation, he sought advice, 
ascertained his rights, and repaired to the tannery. Entirely without his solicitation, 
about 250 residents gathered to support him. Being refused admission to the tannery, 
he led, unarmed, a squad of twenty-five men to the front door, while a second squad 
attacked the rear. He was twice repulsed, but the works were stormed on the third 
attempt, the garrison fleeing in all directions. The only persons wounded were several 
of the garrison, who were shot by their own mates. Mr. Lee then began legal pro- 
ceedings, but was completely defeated, and sought refuge, as many another assailant 
did in later years, in abusing Mr. Gould. Mr. Gould finally sold his interest in the tan- 
nery and the mammoth buildings then fell into decay and ruin. 

Just before the Civil War, the attention of Mr. Gould was drawn to railroads. He 
had thought much on the subject from boyhood. In 1860, the young financier met 
Daniel S. Miller, a great grocer of New York city, who feared failure through being 
a trustee of the second mortgage bonds of The Rutland & Washington Railway Co., 
believing that the first mortgage bonds had been cancelled. Mr. Gould offered to 
assist him, and succeeded in buying up the bonds for 10 cents on the dollar, they being 


considered worthless. He afterward became president, treasurer and superintendent 
of this road and obtained a thorough knowledge of railroading. The young surveyor 
carefully inspected every mile of track in person, examined all the bridges, grades and 
crossings, and estimated the resources of the country tributary to this road. He then 
began judicious repairs, developed the local traffic, and, by consolidation with other 
roads retrieved the fortunes of the companies. The rise in value of the shares of these 
roads, by his own operations, opened Mr. Gould's eyes to the possibilities of railroad 
management. This also gave him capital of his own for greater operations. 

He then entered the stock brokerage firm of Smith, Gould & Martin in New York 
city. * One step leads to a longer one in the progress of a successful man. The sur- 
veyor had become a railroad manager; the manager was now a dealer in railroad 
shares. Mr. Gould's Wall street career made him profoundly versed in the value of 
railroad properties ; and led to his buying shares in bankrupt roads and engaging, like 
others of the strongest capitalists of that day, in bold operations at the Stock Exchange. 

In speculation, Mr. Gould's genius for combination, his brilliant strategy, and 
untiring tenacity of purpose, blazed forth with great power. He was often a heavy 
loser, yet, in several ventures he met with notable success. At times, he was the 
largest, borrower in the United States, perhaps in the world. In obtaining the loans he 
required, he was aided by a trait, early displayed and characteristic of his whole life. 
He never broke his promise, but always kept his word. 

It is not practicable here to describe in detail all of the operations in which Mr. 
Gould was engaged. Only a few of the more striking need be referred to. 

While gold was at a premium, Mr. Gould bought and sold this metal for" a profit, 
in common with other operators, sometimes, though not always, with success. In 
August, 1869, a daring speculation was set on foot by a syndicate, controlled by Mr. 
Gould, in which James Fisk, jr., was a partner, which sought to "corner" the gold 
market. All the gold which could be had was bought, the price rising slowly from 
about 138 in August, to 140, then to 150, and finally, Sept. 24, 1869, to 162 The 
government having resolved to sell gold, Mr. Gould also began to sell, although giving 
orders not to sell to Mr. Fisk's brokers. The price fell to 134, and brought on the 
catastrophe of "Black Friday," Sept. 24, 1869. Mr. Gould lost $4,000,000, and was 
for some time charged with precipitating the panic. Men of position like Alonzo B. 
Cornell and others, thoroughly acquainted with the story, acquit Mr. Gould of respon- 
sibility for "Black Friday." They place it upon Mr. Fisk. Mr. Fisk repudiated his 
contracts. Mr. Gould did not. 

Mr. Gould became interested in The New York & Erie Railroad, when it was a 
bankrupt property. He bought about 500 shares, because he believed in the merits 
of the road. His confidence in the future of Erie led to his election as a director 
and afterward as president. During his management, he was forced into a struggle 
with Commodore Vanderbilt and Daniel Drew for the control of the road, but was 
able, by various adroit moves, all of them legal, but for some of which he was 
criticised by opponents, to retain the management for years. He built up the Erie Rail- 
road by exactly the same legitimate methods as those employed in Vermont, and made 
the Erie a great commercial highway and a paying investment. Circumstances asso- 
ciated James Fisk, jr., with Mr. Gould in this enterprise. He had been buying shares 
and was elected a director at the same time as Mr. Gould. Mr. Fisk was reckless and 


unscrupulous in methods, fond of extravagant display, and defiant of public opinion. 
He undoubtedly did more to influence the young men of his day to evil courses, than 
any other human being in the field of American finance. Mr. Gould strove to restrain 
Mr. Fisk. Nevertheless, they were associated in the public mind and Mr. Gould 
incurred blame for acts for which Mr. Fisk alone was responsible. 

In November, 1872, proceedings were brought against Mr. Gould for the recovery 
of Erie property, which, it was declared, he had improperly retained. The manage- 
ment having been changed by the vote of the foreign stockholders, as soon as his 
successor was elected, Mr. Gould turned over to him these securities, none of which 
had any market value and all of which had been held by his predecessor as president. 
Documents were given him, exonerating him from all the charges previously made. 

At various times, a number of combinations were made against Mr. Gould in Wall 
street. To " corner " him was a favorite attempt, but always exciting and dangerous. 
He was usually a match for antagonists. Nevertheless, in the panic of 1873, he is said 
to have lost a larger sum than any other capitalist of that time. 

In The Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad, Mr. Gould showed constructive abilities 
of high order. Having bought about 25,000 shares of its stock at about $65 and $70 
a share to oblige a friend, he reorganized the road, developed its traffic to such an ex- 
tent that while he was its manager it never passed a dividend, brought the stock up to 
$120 a share, and leased the road successfully to The Pennsylvania Railroad. He was 
a large gainer by this proceeding. 

As a railroad manager, Mr. Gould was identified most prominently with The 
Union Pacific, The Texas & Pacific, The Wabash, and The Missouri Pacific Railroads-. 
He took charge of The Union Pacific Railroad, when it was a discredited enterprise. 
Beginning in 1873, he bought a large amount of its stock when the price ranged be- 
tween $15 and $30 a share. In February, 1879, he was the owner of 190,000 shares. 
On the 1 7th of that month, he sold 100,000 shares for 7,000,000, his profit being about 
$4,000,000. He built up the road by attention to its requirements, securing proper 
connections to the eastward, and by consolidation, until it paid large dividends. 

The same constructive ability was shown in his management of the other great 
lines named above. Intelligent, far seeing, and straight forward, he created one of the 
most wonderful railroad systems of the world. The controlling interest in The Texas 
& Pacific, he bought from Thomas A. Scott, for $2,400,000. The Missouri Pacific, 
which he bought from Commodore Garrison, is a living testimony to his skill of com- 
bination. The main line of 287 miles from St. Louis to Kansas City has been made the 
principal factor in a system of about 10,000 miles of road, extending in one direction to 
Omaha, El Paso, Laredo and Galveston, and to Chicago, Toledo and Detroit in the other. 

Mr. Gould was, at times, the president of his various roads, but the care was too 
great for one man, and while retaining control and direction, he finally placed able 
managers in charge of many of them, in order to relieve himself from the details of 
management. An excellent judge of character, he seldom made an unfortunate selec- 
tion. In the general direction of these great systems, he repeatedly showed his good 
faith, when once pledged to a definite policy or when his word had once been given. 
He was in the habit of watching business closely, especially in a crisis, not only for 
his own sake but for that of stockholders, in order to prevent a failure. 

An interesting incident was a step, by which he averted a panic in 1882. The 


rumor had gone forth that he was financially embarrassed. To avert a crisis, he invited 
several of the strongest financiers of that day into his office, including Cyrus W. Field 
and Russell Sage, and laid before them the contents of his safe, displaying to their as- 
tonished gaze $53,000,000 in the best securities. This put an end to the crisis. 

Mr. Gould having finally attained an impregnable financial position, withdrew 
gradually from Wall street to devote his attention to a few great properties. 

In the development of The Western Union Telegraph Co., he showed both organ- 
izing power and tenacity of purpose. In 1875, he came into control of The Atlantic & 
Pacific Telegraph Co., whose lines were in bad condition, the expenses outrunning the 
revenue. Thomas T. Eckert was invited to the presidency and the two men entered 
upon a carefully aggressive policy. After a laborious and anxious commercial fight, 
Mr. Gould, with great financial skill, consolidated his concern with The Western Union 
Telegraph Co. , making it a special condition that Gen. Eckert should become general 
manager of the united companies. His disappointment was great when the fulfilment 
of the promise was evaded. In a letter recently written, Gen. Eckert narrates what 
followed : "It was necessary for me to decide upon other plans for myself. I accord- 
ingly, after mature deliberation, determined to construct a telegraph line between Bos- 
ton, Mass., and Washington, D. C. , via New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore, and to 
make it the nucleus of a yet larger system of wires designed exclusively for leasing to 
firms and individuals for commercial uses. When I had worked out this scheme in my 
mind, I laid it before Mr. Gould. He listened to me patiently, and then, in half quizzi- 
cal way, asked if I did not wish to have a partner. I was so absorbed in my ideas 
that I did not notice the smile with which he put the question; and I blandly answered 
him "No." He quietly disregarded me and began to write a check for one million 
dollars, which he said he thought I might find very useful to my credit. Out of this 
circumstance grew the incorporation of The American Union Telegraph Co. and I 
became its president." With The American Union, Mr. Gould menaced the older 
company, displaced its lines from The Baltimore & Ohio, The Union Pacific, and other 
railroads, and reduced the value of Western Union stock from $116 to $88 a share. 
This vigorous campaign brought about the consolidation of The American Union with 
The Western Union Telegraph Co., in 1881, and its preponderance in the ownership of 
the largest telegraphic system which has ever come into existence. Mr. Gould became 
a director. His holdings of Western Union stock were then $30,000,000. He reduced 
them afterwards to about $20,000,000. In 1883, he had absorbed The Mutual Union 
Telegraph Co., and four years later The Baltimore & Ohio. This made him con- 
troller of the telegraphic system of the United States, and he was the entire master of 
of the field until John W. Mackay and James Gordon Bennett appeared with their rival 
line. Mr. Gould aimed to make his company the only one in America. In this he did 
not succeed entirely, but he created a great system, with ocean cables to Europe, the 
West Indies and South America. 

A majority interest in the elevated railroad system of New York city was a posses- 
sion forced upon Mr. Gould for the rescue of his friend, Cyrus W. Field, from embar- 
rassment. Mr. Gould had purchased largely of the stock of these roads. Mr. Field, 
also a large stockholder, entered, in 1886, upon a speculation to advance the price of 
Manhattan shares to $200 or $300, that being the value of the shares of the surface 
street car lines. Through his operations, Manhattan rose to $175 a share. He bought 


largely as the price advanced, securing the money for new purchases by pledging his 
holdings as collateral. Mr. Gould warned Mr. Field more than once against the risk 
of overloading, but the latter continued to buy. At length, Mr. Field found himself 
carrying 88,000 shares of Manhattan stock, worth at par $8,800,000, which had risen in 
nominal value to $15,000,000. The price then suddenly fell. If Mr. Field had been 
compelled to sell, a panic would have ensued with a complete extinction of Mr. Field's 
fortune. In this emergency, he appealed to Mr. Gould for aid, through John T. Terry, 
a mutual friend. Mr. Gould first loaned to Mr. Field $1,000,000, in bonds, without 
security. He then bought from him 78,000 shares, at $120 a share, paying $9,360,000 
therefor, and later, loaned him $300,000 in cash. Mr. Gould did this at inconvenience 
to himself, while suffering severely from neuralgia, and saw his purchase drop $3,75,- 
ooo in value in a few days. Yet this act of unbounded generosity was performed to 
oblige a friend. The stock fell at one time to $77. 

Mr. Gould's wife was Helen Day, the daughter of Daniel S. Miller. She was the 
descendant of an English family, which had settled on Long Island, at Easthampton, 
in colonial days. A company of nearly fifty people were present at Mr. Gould's mar- 
riage, and four hundred or more attended the reception which followed. This was a 
happy union. Mr. Gould's home life was a beautiful one. His tastes were refined. 
He loved books, flowers and pictures, and was surrounded with them. His castle-like 
country home of Lyndhurst, at Irvington, built of stone, is now owned by Miss Helen 
M. Gould, but will revert to the estate when the younger member of the family, Frank 
Jay, attains his majority. It is delightfully situated, commanding an impressive view 
of the Hudson river. The grounds are beautifully laid out, and a large conservatory 
supplies the family with flowers and the choicest grapes all the year. At this place 
Mr. Gould and his family spent many happy days. His marriage brought him six 
children, George Jay, Edwin, Helen Miller and Howard Gould; Anna, wife of Count 
Paul Marie Ernest Boniface de Castellane of France; and Frank Jay Gould, all of whom 
are living. His family were always tenderly devoted to him. 

It was not generally known that Mr. Gould was a man of great liberality toward 
philanthropic objects, but such was the fact. His gifts were mainly made on condition 
that no publicity shouid be given to him as a consequence. His charities were silent, 
and the thousandth part of his beneficence has never become publicly known. For 
many years, Mr. Gould entertained the purpose of founding a great educational insti- 
tution for young men of moderate means. Illness and business cares prevented him 
from elaborating the plan, and his death, Dec. 2, 1892, finally frustrated the purpose. 
He left equally to his six children his great property, estimated at about $100,000,000, 
which was invested mainly in The Missouri Pacific Railroad, The Western Union 
Telegraph Co., The Manhattan Railway, The Wabash, and The Texas & Pacific 

JOHN PHYLE GOULD, merchant, born Dec. 12, 1817, in Philadelphia, died in 
New York city, July 5, 1892. He was the descendant of early English settlers of 
Pennsylvania. Early in life he went to Portsmouth, O., and spent a number of years 
in a large iron and roiling-mill business with his relative, T. G. Gaylord. Later, he 
engaged in the iron trade in Cincinnati, and about 1873 transferred his interests to 
Xe\v York city. He was considered an authority on financial matters, and drew up a 
number of legislative enactments in the interest of bankrupts and others, and had 


confidential relations with Hoyt, Sprague & Co. May 29, 1845, he married Caroline, 
daughter of the late Moses Brooks, of Cincinnati. The children born to them were 
Ella Brooks, who married Volckert P. Douw, member of an old family of Albany, 
N. Y. , both now deceased; Caroline E., who married J. W. Fiske, of New York; and 
Moses Brooks Gould, now deceased. 

WILLIAM RUSSELL GRACE, merchant, a man of great force of character and 
intellect, has, by energy and perseverance, become one of the most prominent mer- 
chants and financiers of this country, besides having attained a national reputation as a 
leader in the political affairs of the city and State of New York. 

The Graces were a Norman Irish family, and from the time of the invasion of 
their ancestor, Richard le Gros, they possessed extensive land-holdings in Queens 
county. When the English finally gained a mastery over Ireland, the Graces, 
being Catholics and very probably fighters, had their lands confiscated for disloyalty 
and were banished beyond the Shannon. The great grand-father of William R. Grace 
returned to Queens county and fought the claim to the family lands. He was 
offered a liberal compromise, but he said he would have the whole or none. All 
the Irish courts gave him the whole, but the English Appellate Court gave him none 
of the lands. From this time on, the Graces remained in Queens county, and so much 
did they prosper, that James Grace, father of the subject of this sketch, was left quite 
a fortune. This money the father lost in South America, whereas the son was destined 
to make many times more money in the same country. James Grace, when a young 
man, spent his money and came near losing his life in an expedition organized to free 
Venezuela from the Spanish rule. He married Ellen Mary Russell, of a well-known 
Protestant Irish family. They had four sons, all of whom have been successful in 
life. William Russell is the oldest son. John W. , the second son, is the founder of the 
San Francisco Grace house, and is one of the directors of the Grace corporation. M. 
P. Grace is the founder of the London house and the man who negotiated the Peruvian 
loan in London amounting to $40,000,000. Sir Morgan Grace went to New Zealand as 
a young army surgeon. 

William R. Grace was born in Queenstown, County Cork, Ireland, May 10, 1832. 
In early life, he displayed that keen foresight and indomitable will which have since 
made him famous. At the age of fourteen, realizing that the county district of Ireland 
offered no future for him. he ran away from school and, working his passage on a 
sailing vessel came to New York city. After remaining in New York two years, 
during which time he was employed in various capacities, he returned to Ireland 
upon a visit to his home. In 1850, he went to Callao, Peru, and entered the 
shipping house of Bryce & Co., of which he became a partner in 1852, the firm 
later taking the name of Bryce, Grace & Co., and afterward Grace Bro's & Co. 
Being the only American house of consequence at Callao, and having agencies in all 
the principal ports in Peru and Chile, besides excellent connections in the United States 
and England, the firm soon rose to distinction. They acted as agents for Baring Bro's 
& Co. for many years. 

In 1865, Mr. Grace came to New York, intending to retire from active business on 
account of ill health. Upon the return of his strength, however, he founded the house 
of W. R. Grace & Co., shipping and commission merchants, which has since become 
famous the world over, having branches in London and San Francisco and in Peru arid 


Chile, besides agencies in all the principal cities on the west coast of South America. 
The firm have important contracts with Peru for the importation of guano, and are the 
largest importers of nitrate of soda in the United States, besides dealing exclusively in 
the other products of Central and South America. They export large quantities of the 
manufactures of the United States, and have been instrumental in securing closer 
relations with the Central and South American republics. 

The relations of Mr. Grace with Peru have been so intimate and his standing as a 
merchant and financier so high, that his firm were at one time called upon to aid Peru 
in the conversion of its debt. A contract was entered into with the English bondhold- 
ers, which was negotiated in London by Michael P. Grace and proved beneficial to all. 

In 1 88 1, Mr. Grace established the New York & Pacific Steamship Co., Ltd., 
which is the only company conducting a regular steam service between this country and 
the West Coast of South America. 

In April, 1877, Mr. Grace was appointed receiver of The Continental Life Insurance 
Co., a position of great responsibility, which he filled with general satisfacton. 

In September, 1859, he was married to Lillius Gilchrist, daughter of George W. 
Gilchrist,, of St. George, Maine. Their five children living are: Mrs. W. E. Holloway, 
widow of the late W. E. Holloway, of San Francisco; Joseph P. Grace, Miss Lillius J. 
Grace, Miss Louise N. Grace, and William R. Grace, jr. 

Mr. Grace has three brothers, J. W. Grace, M. P. Grace and Dr. M. S. Grace, the 
first two being associated with him in business, while the latter is a surgeon in New 
Zealand and a Member of Parliament and has been knighted by the Queen. 

Mr. Grace is largely interested in a number of corporations. He is president of 
The Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co. , and The Hamilton Bank Note Co. ; vice president of 
The Fernbrook Carpet Co.; and director in The Lincoln National Bank, The Lincoln 
Safe Deposit Co , The Terminal Warehouse Co., The Brooklyn Warehouse & Stor- 
age Co., The New York Life Insurance Co., The New York & Pacific Steamship Co., 
The Occident Dock Co., and a number of others. 

In 1880, he was the Democratic candidate for Mayor of New York city and was 
bitterly opposed on account of his religion. Once elected, he gave the city a business- 
like administration. It is a notable fact that at that early date he exposed the ways of 
the Police Department. He took the street cleaning away from them and placed it in 
efficient hands. He asked the Governor to co-operate with him in removing some of 
the men, who presided over the department in its worst da^s. From the first, Mayor 
Grace took his stand against the corrupt elements of the Democratic party, and no mat- 
ter which way the scale turned, he was always to be found in the same place. 

In 1884, by running for Mayor, he was instrumental in swinging a large independ- 
ent vote to Grover Cleveland. In that election, the people showed what they thought 
of'a business administration. When he was unknown, he was elected by a majority of 
3)3. an d now in a three-cornered fight he was given a majority of over 10,000. 

In 1892, he was one of the men who went to Chicago to protest against the action 
of the State Democratic machine, and, by his efforts in organizing the protesting con- 
vention, showed plainly to the rest of the country that New York was for Cleveland. 
Again in 1894, he was found in his place, lending a powerful hand to throw Tammany 
out of its entrenchment of city offices. 

Though a citizen of the United States, Mr. Grace yet retains an interest in his 


mother country, and in 1879, when the famine was raging in Ireland, he contributed 
liberally for the relief of the poor people, having shipped half the cargo of the U. S. 
war ship Constellation, besides furnishing the stevedores and clerk hire necessary 
for loading the cargo. Mr. Grace is a devout Catholic and contributes liberally each 
year for the support of many charitable institutions. He is also a trustee of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral. Among the many clubs to which he belongs are the Metro- 
politan, Manhattan, Down Town, Lawyers', Reform, Catholic, Press and Country 
club of Westchester. 

COL. JOHN LORIMER GRAHAM, lawyer, born in London, England, March 20, 
1797, died in Flushing, L. I., July 22,* 1876. He was a' son of Dr. John Andrew Gra- 
ham, a native of this country and descended from ancient Scottish lawyers, who prac- 
ticed criminal law in this city during the early part of the present century. The son 
was brought to this city at the age of four, and received as good an education as could 
be obtained at that time. Educated to the law, he was admitted to the bar in 1821, and 
began practice in partnership with his cousin, James L. Graham. His military title 
was bestowed by Gov. DeWitt Clinton, upon whose staff he served. He had previously 
been an officer in a local military regiment here. He gained prominence in the prac- 
tice of mercantile law, being successively at the head of the noted firms of Graham, 
Xoyes & Martin, and Graham, Wood & Powers. By adding to a fortune inherited from 
his father, he became one of the strongest men in the city. He was married in 1818, to 
Miss Emily Clason, a favorite in social circles. A Democrat in politics, the Legislature 
made him in 1834 a Regent of the University, a position which he held until his death. 
He also became a member of the Historical, The New England, The St. George's and 
Bible Societies, and a member of the Council of The University of the City of New 
York, in which he founded a free scholarship. In 1840, President Van Buren appointed 
him Postmaster of New York city. Colonel Graham served for nearly four years, with 
ability and fidelity. Through the instrumentality of General Dix, he was called to 
Washington, to hold a confidential position in the Treasury Department. He read 
much, keeping himself well informed on the questions of the day. His wife died 
several years before him, but his four sons, James, Clinton, Augustus, and Malcolm, 
all well known in business circles, and a daughter, Emily, survived him. 

ROBERT GRAVES, one of the largest wall paper manufacturers in America, born 
in Dublin, Ireland, about 1820, died at his home on Lafayette avenue, Brooklyn, Jan. 2, 
1886. He came to this city when twenty-five years of age, found employment, and 
later began the manufacture of wall paper in Brooklyn, upon a small scale, becoming 
one of the pioneers of this industry. He gradually enlarged his factory until he 
occupied a block on Fulton street at Carleton avenue. There he employed 220 ' 
persons, and conducted a profitable industry. Shortly before his death, The National 
Wall Paper Co., in whose organization he took an active part, acquired his factory and 
trade, Mr. Graves becoming a large stockholder in the new company. To gratify a 
love for country life, Mr. Graves occupied a beautiful summer home with extensive 
grounds atlrvington, his graperies there being the finest on the Hudson. In 1885, he 
began building a spacious mansion on Clinton avenue, designed to be the finest residence 
in Brooklyn. The noted dwellings of New York city having been studied, plans were 
then made for a dwelling, which should be chaste, clasically simple and rich, and among 
other things contain a large art gallery. Mr. Graves did not live to enjoy his new home, 


and the property was purchased by Alfred J. Pouch. A handsome man, over six feet 
tall, with blue eyes and flowing hair and beard, he was attracted by home life more 
than by public affairs. His second wife, Cesarine, and eleven children survived him. 

RUFUS ROWE GRAVES, cotton merchant, born in Sunderland, Mass., Nov. 6, 
1807, died in Morristown, N. J., Aug. 17, 1876. He was a son of Erastus A. Graves, 
and came of old New England and English stock. After obtaining a common school 
education, he began his business career as a clerk for his father, then a resident of 
Macon, Ga., in a general store, and soon attained the dignity of partnership. E. A. & 
R, R. Graves became large buyers of cotton, which they shipped to the Northern 
States. In 1840, the firm removed to New York city. During the Civil War, the 
senior partner retired, and his son E. A. Graves, and a son of the junior partner, were 
then admitted, the name being changed to Rufus R. Graves & Co. They supplied 
many New England mills with raw cotton, and shipped large quantities of the staple 
abroad. Mr. Graves accumulated a large fortune, and retired in 1874, thereafter mak- 
ing two trips to Europe for recreation. He was a man of sterling integrity and up- 
rightness, utterly devoid of display or ostentation, and his life was a long record of 
charity and kindness. His gifts were known to no one except himself, but they far 
exceeded what those who best knew him supposed. He was a director of The Bank of 
the Republic, The Phenix Insurance Co. of Brooklyn, The Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western Railroad, and The New Jersey Zinc Co. For thirty years, he lived in Brooklyn 
and was long treasurer of Plymouth church. Later, he removed to Morristown, N. J. 
He was married in September, 1839, to Mary J., daughter of John Arms, in Conway, 
Mass., and their children were, Arthur B. Graves; Louisa M., wife of F. W. Owen; 
Carrie A., wife of F. J. Mather; Fannie R., wife of L. C. Lathrop, and Mary Ella 
Graves. By his will, Mr. Graves left $100,000 for the education of the colored race in 
the South, and $115,000 to other charitable objects. The bulk of the estate was given 
to his wife and children, but their best legacy was his beautiful and successful life. 

JOHN ALEXANDER CLINTON GRAY, merchant, was born in Gen. James Clin- 
ton's house in Little Britain, Orange county, N. Y. , Nov. 2, 1815. His grandfather, 
Alexander Gray, having been implicated in the unsuccessful struggle for Irish inde- 
pendence, left Ireland in 1790 for this country, dying soon after his arrival in Philadel- 
phia. Maria Gray, widow of Alexander, married in 1797, her cousin, Gen. James 
Clinton, of the army of the American Revolution. John Gray, son of Alexander, died 
in 1816, as the result of an accident, leaving a widow ^and one son, the latter, the 
subject of this sketch. The lad attended the academy in Montgomery, Orange county, 
and, at the age of fifteen, made his entrance into practical affairs as clerk for his uncle, 
Alexander McLeod Scott, a dry goods merchant in New York city. He was a young 
man of merit and Mr. Scott made him a partner in 1835. In 1837, he married Susan 
M., daughter of George Zabriskie of this city, lawyer, Alderman for several years, and 
Member of Assembly. Mr. Zabriskie died in 1849. After the death of Mr. Scott, the 
firm of John A. C. Gray & Co. , succeeded to the wholesale dry goods trade of the former 
firm and prospered therein for many years. In 1855, Mr. Gray retired, the business 
passing into the management of Buckley, Sheldon & Co. Mr. Gray was a special 
partner in Bailey, Southard & Co., a dry goods commission house, during 1856-60, and 
then retired wholly from active business. He has since spent his time largely in travel 
and the recreations of a gentleman of refinement and intelligence, but has been largely 


interested in railroad enterprises, among them The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern and 
The Xew York, Lake Erie & Western, aiding in the reorganization of the latter in 1878. 
In 1870, he served as receiver of The Memphis, El Paso & Pacific Railroad. He has 
invariably refused to allow his name to be used as a candidate for public office but per- 
formed a public service, as vice president of the Central Park Commission, when formed, 
devoting much time to the creation of Central Park, seeking no other reward than the 
satisfaction of creating a noble park for the benefit of his fellow citizens. It is owing 
to the disinterested and earnest efforts of Mr. Gray and his associates, aided by Andrew 
H. Green, Controller of the Commission, Mr. Vaux and v Mr. Olmsted, that the park has 
become what it is to-day. He was a strong Whig prior to 1856, and thereafter a Repub- 
lican. While shunning public life, he has delighted in the company of his friends, whom 
he has chosen from among men of letters rather than from the leading spirits of the gay 
world. Men like Horace Greeley, William C. Bryant, and others of that time in 
America, and Richard M. Milne, Lord Humphrey and Charles Kingsley of England, 
have enjoyed his intimate acquaintance. His children have been George Zabriskie 
Gray, late Dean of the Episcopal Seminary in Cambridge, Mass. ; Albert Zabriskie 
Gray, late Warden of Racine College; John Clinton Gray, Associate Judge of the Court 
of Appeals in this State; Catharine, wife of H. R. Bacon, a resident of the Isle of 
Wight ; and Miss Frances Gray. 

flRS. HETTY HOWLAND ROBINSON GREEN, capitalist, better known as Mrs. 
Hetty Green, was born in New Bedford, Mass., Nov. 21, 1835. She is a granddaughter 
of the late Isaac Rowland, and daughter of Edward Mott Robinson, a prominent 
shipping merchant of New Bedford, who, by a life of marked enterprise and strong 
natural powers, gained a fortune of several millions. Upon his death, June 14, 1865, a 
large part of this fortune descended to his daughter Hetty. The latter was married in 
1867 to Edward H. Green, a merchant of New York city. Mrs. Green aided her father 
in the management of his large estate, and thus, early in life, gained an acquaintance 
with business methods, which subsequently proved of value. She has retained control 
of his fortune, and devoted herself with ability to its management and increase. 

By careful investment, she has become a large holder of stock in sound railroad 
companies in the West and South, in The Chemical National Bank, and in business 
blocks and other real estate in Chicago and other parts of the country. A woman of 
remarkable force of character, Mrs. Green displays little taste for the recreations of 
fashionable life but derives great pleasure from business pursuits. She is shrewd and 
exceedingly competent, while at the same time animated with a kindly heart and a 
spirit of unfailing good nature. Her purchases of new properties are made with sound 
judgment and generally with excellent success. For a number of years, she operated 
to some extent in Wall street. Probably no other woman in America travels so much 
as she, but her trips to various parts of the country have business purposes in view. 
They are not made solely for recreation. She is rather above the middle height, large 
in frame, with gray eyes, a strong nose, and regular features. Her children are Edward 
H. R. Green and Sylvia Green. 

EDWARD HOWLAND ROBINSON GREEN, son of Mrs. Hetty Green, the capital- 
ist, was born in the Langham Hotel, London, England, Aug. 22, 1868. The family came 
to Ne\v York in 1872. Edward was educated in the public schools of New York city, 
the High School in Bellow Falls, Vt., and Fordham College, graduating from the latter 


in 1888. He then studied law, paying especial attention to the statutes pertaining to 
real estate and railroads. Having been admitted to the bar and thus equipped for the 
battle of life, he identified himself with his mother's properties and soon revealed 
excellent business talent. A beginning was made as clerk in the office of The Connecti- 
cut River Railroad, where he gained an insight into the management of this class of 

At the age of twenty-one, The Ohio & Mississippi Railroad elected him a director, 
giving him a larger opportunity for the study of traffic problems. In 1893, he visited 
Texas, and purchased, on excellent terms, a branch of The Houston & Texas Central 
Railroad, one of the most important transportation, systems in that State, formerly 
controlled by his mother. The same year, he took The Texas Midland Railroad, in 
which he owns a controlling interest, out of the hands of the receiver, and by election 
as the head of the corporation without his knowledge and during his absence, became 
the youngest railroad president of the United States, natural ability also making him 
one of the most competent. With the ardor of youth and the determination of a man 
who is resolved to know all about the business in which he is engaged, Mr. Green 
pervades with his activity the whole region traversed by his railroad. Frequent visits 
are paid to the towns along the line, and the merchants are visited for consultation with 
reference to everything which will increase the traffic and build up both the country 
and the railroad. It is not unusual for him to don a suit of overalls, mingle with the 
employes in the shops, and hold the throttle of an engine in a trip down the line He 
is not in the least afraid of work. Genial, enthusiastic, considerate and a gentleman, 
he makes friends everywhere, and is warmly respected by the officers and employes of 
the road. A large fortune will eventually come under his control, and he is rapidly 
qualifying himself in the most practical manner for its prudent management. 

Mr. Green is already a stockholder in numerous railroad companies and owns 
several blocks of houses in Chicago. He has won popularity socially by attractive 
manners, and the commendation of the judicious for his energy, caution and ability. 
His clubs are the Union of New York, the Union League and Chicago Athletic of 
Chicago, and the Dallas of Dallas, Texas Like his father, he is fond of athletic exer- 
cises, and has gained therein the iron muscles of a well developed specimen of hardy 

It makes some difference, as these pages clearly show, how a man starts in life, 
but in free America, early poverty is no bar whatever to success. The essential thing 
is how a man makes his way, after he has made a start, and this applies to both rich 
and poor. There is every reason to believe that Mr. Green possesses the constructive 
and progressive temperament, which promises for him a brilliant future. 

JOHN CLEVE GREEN, merchant, born in Lawrenceville, m N. J., April 14, 1800, 
died April 29, 1875, at his residence on Washington Square in this city. His father, 
Caleb Smith Green, was a farmer in Lawrence township in the present county of 
Mercer, N. J. While young, John entered the house of N. L. & G. Griswold, mer- 
chants in the China trade on South street in this city, and as a clerk displayed so much 
sagacity that he was appointed supercargo of the ship Panama, a famous tea clipper of 
that day, and of other vessels, and made many voyages to China and South America. 
In 1833, he was admitted to the house of Russell & Co., in Canton, China, and there 
laid the foundation of his large fortune. In 1839, on his return to New York, he mar- 


ried Sarah Helen, daughter of George Griswold, and carried on the China trade for 
many years thereafter, acquiring a fortune of about $7,000,000. Mr. Green was prom- 
nent in the social, business and public enterprises of the city. He had been for many 
years a director of The Bank of Commerce, a member of the Chamber of Commerce 
and a manager of several of the leading charitable and public institutions, being always 
known as a man of clear views, strong convictions and great force of character. He 
took an active interest in the University of the City of New York and in Princeton The- 
ological Seminary and Princeton College. His town house was in Washington Square 
in this city and his large country house with much land at Castleton on Staten Island. 
Mr. Green was the father of three children all of whom died in childhood. His brother, 
Henry W. Green, was at one time Chancellor of New Jersey, and his brother in law, 
Frederick Frelinghuysen, Senator from the same State. By his will, he left $50,000 to 
the Theological Seminary at Princeton and a large estate to be disposed of by his resi- 
duary legatees to religious, charitable and educational institutions. Mrs. Green died in 
May, 1893. 

NORVIN GREEN, M.D., president of The Western Union Telegraph Co., born 
where New Albany, Ind., now stands, April 17, 1818, died in this city, Feb. 13, 1893. 
His father, Joseph Green, born near Louisville in 1796, was a soldier in 1812, and 
took part in the battle of New Orleans, afterward becoming a farmer in Kentucky, 
tavern keeper, manufacturer and merchant, trading in a coiintry store and in flat boats 
on the Mississippi. Norvin grew up in the employments carried on by his father, kept 
the books, and helped manage a fleet of trading flat boats. In 1833, a storm wrecked a 
number of their boats on the lower Mississippi, and the rest were seized to satisfy a 
debt for which the senior Green had become surety. Norvin then bought a flat boat 
in Cincinnati and a stock of goods, traded down the Ohio, and located at the mouth of 
the Kentucky river, leased a farm, built a store, and in three years had made enough 
money to pay the family's debts and buy a farm. He then filled a contract to deliver 
1,200 cords of wood at Madison, Ind. The family now being prosperous, he studied 
medicine at the University of Louisville, graduating in 1840, and practiced his profes- 
sion for thirteen years in Kentucky. Dr. Green sat for two terms in the Kentucky 
Legislature. In 1853, Secretary Guthrie appointed him commissioner and disbursing 
agent for the building of the new custom house and postoffice in Louisville. The fol- 
lowing year, Dr. Green became interested in telegraph lines, and in July joined the 
company which leased The New Orleans & Ohio Telegraph Co. When this company 
was incorporated in 1854 as The Southwestern Telegraph COr, Dr. Green was chosen 
president. Under his management, the company built new lines on the railroads from 
Louisville to New Orleans, and the system was extended throughout Arkansas and 
Texas. In 1857, Dr. Green visited New York city, met the presidents of the six lead- 
ing telegraph companies, and with them entered into the Six-Party Contract, the first 
telegraph deal in America, which lasted thirty years and was never broken. Territory 
was partitioned and an interchange of business provided for. All later consolidations 
of telegraph companies have followed the principles of the Six-Party Contract. The 
North American Telegraph Association was formed in 1857, with Peter Cooper as 
president, and every telegraph company in the country finally became a member of it. 
The Southwestern Telegraph Co. , was united with The American Telegraph Co., in 
January, 1866, and in July following, the latter was consolidated with The Western 


Union Telegraph Co. Dr. Green refused the presidency, but accepted the vice presi- 
dency of the new company. Upon the death of William Orton in 1878, he succeeded 
to the presidency. In this position, he became one of the best known and most com- 
petent telegraph men in the country. His capacity for labor was immense. He pos- 
sessed great administrative ability, a thorough knowledge of telegraph law, and 
remarkable sagacity. The stockholders resisted every effort he made to retire from the 
head of the company. He was a man of fine culture and both in business and private 
life his manners were genial and winning. At one time, his friends in Kentucky made 
him a candidate for United States Senator, and would have elected him, had not a 
single vote intended for him and cast by a friend been mistakenly given to another. 
He was at one time president of The Louisville, Cincinnati & Lexington Railroad and 
later a director of The Gold & Stock Telegraph Co., The International Ocean 
Telegraph Co., The Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph Co., The Dives Pelican 
Mining Co., The American Speaking Telephone Co., and The Mercantile Trust Co. 
He married early in life Martha; daughter of James W. English, a well to do farmer 
near Carrollton, Ky. His four sons are Dr. James O. Green, who married a daughter 
of ex-Mayor Hewitt; John W. Green, at one time president of the Louisville Cham- 
ber of Commerce; Pinckney, and Warren Green. He also had several daughters. 
JOHN QREENOUQH, banker, a native of Boston, Mass., was born March 25, 1846. 
He is a son of David Stoddard Greenough, and Anna Parkman, his wife. The family 
are of Puritan ancestry, Capt. William Greenough, who settled in Boston in 1642, being 
the founder of the family in this country. The subject of this sketch was educated at 
Harvard College, and entered business life as clerk in the famous shipping house of 
Grinnell Minturn & Co., and utilized his training there, later, in establishing himself 
as a merchant in the River Platte trade. His firm of Wilder & Greenough gained a 
distinct and worthy success. In 1884, he was admitted to the firm of Poor, White & 
Greenough, stock brokers and bankers in this city, the firm subsequently becoming 
Poor & Greenough. This house is one of the most conservative and trustworthy in 
Wall street It has devoted its energies mainly to the negotiation of loans and invest- 
ment securities. When English capital began to seek investment in America to such a 
large extent, ten years ago, Poor & Greenough became one channel through which large 
sums of money found their way into the stocks of American corporations, the firm 
representing several investment companies in London. They have dealt largely also 
in industrial and railroad stocks, and are financial agents for The Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, The Wheeling & Lake Erie, and The Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Rail- 
roads, and other corporations, for which they have negotiated more than 50,000,000 of 
securities within the last few years. Both partners are directors of several railroad 
companies and financial organizations, including those above named, and The Knox- 
ville & Ohio, The Sherman, Shreveport & Southern, and The Kansas City & Pacific 
Railroads, The Bank of the State of New York, The Lawyer's Surety Co , The Lon- 
don & New York Investment Co., and others. A man of powerful mould and fine 
manners, Mr. Greenough has a large number of friends, and is a popular as well as 
successful man. He was married June 4, 1879, to Caroline, daughter of John M. 
Storey, of New York. The following clubs claim him as a member: University, 
Harvard, Tuxedo, Down Town and Lawyers', as well as The New England Society and 
The Sons of the American Revolution. 


MOSES HICKS QRINNELL, shipping merchant, born in New Bedford, Mass., 
March 23, 1803, died Nov. 24, 1877, in this city. His father, Cornelius Grinnell, a 
Huguenot by descent, was a successful shipping merchant of New Bedford. The 
family was planted in America in 1632 by three brothers, who settled in Rhode Island. 
On the maternal side, Mr. Grinnell traced his ancestry to John Howland, one of the 
company of the Mayflower. Moses was one of six brothers, who, educated in the New 
Bedford academy and their father's counting-room, nearly all became widely known in 
commercial circles. Henry Grinnell, an older brother, sent the Advance and Rescue 
in search of Sir John Franklin in 1850, Grinnell Land being discovered by this expedi- 
tion. Moses began life as a clerk for Wm. R. Rotch & Co., importers of Russian goods 
at New Bedford, at a salary of $100 a year. He finally engaged in business on his own 
account, and before twenty years of age sailed as supercargo of a vessel bound for 
Brazil and thence for Trieste with a cargo of coffee. After a few ) ears with Fish & 
Grinnell, a partnership was, in 1828, formed by Mr. Grinnell with Robert B. Minturn, 
known as Grinnell, Minturn & Co., the senior partner being then only twenty-two years 
old. They grew to be owners, wholly or in part, of about fifty ships, engaged in the 
trade with South America and foreign countries and the packet service to England. 
This firm -never failed and never endured a stain upon their name. For nearly forty 
years, their sign was a landmark on South street. The firm established the Blue and 
White Swallow-Tail Line of packet ships to Liverpool and the Red and White Swallow- 
Tail Line to London. It is said that Mr. Grinnell built more ships in his day than any 
other New York merchant. In 1838, Mr. Grinnell was elected president of The 
Phoenix Bank, and in 1843 succeeded Robert Lenox as president of the Chamber of 
Commerce, retaining the position five years. During 1860-65, ne was a Commissioner 
of Charities and Correction. He was also president of The Sun Mutual Insurance Co. 
Originally a Democrat and a member of Tammany Hall, he left that organization and 
in 1838 was elected to Congress as a Whig. In 1856, he served as Presidential elector 
at large on the Fremont ticket, and in 1869 was appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant. During the Civil War, he joined the Union Defence Com- 
mittee and gave largely in support of the Union. His first wife was Susan, daughter 
of Gilbert Russell. After her death, he married, in 1836, Miss Julia Irving, a niece of 
Washington Irving. They had three children, all of whom survived him, namely, 
Irving Grinnell; Julia, wife of George S. Bowdoin; and Fannie, wife of Thomas F. 
Gushing; and their country residence adjoined Washington Irving's "Sunnyside. " 

RANDOLPH QUQQENHEIMER, lawyer, was born July 20, 1848, in Lynchburg, 
Va. As his name implies he is of German descent. A student in the University 
of Virginia until he came to New York city, he finished his preliminary education 
in the University of the City of New York. The modest means of the family 
brought upon the youth, at an early age, the duty of entering upon active life. His 
first employment was as clerk for a merchant of woolen goods. Later, he became 
a clerk in the law office of Martin I. Townsend, upon the modest salary of $r a 
week. He was the all round useful young man of the office for several years, and 
meanwhile applied himself with diligence to investigation of the knotty problems of 
the law. When admitted to the bar, he opened a law office under the name of Guggen- 
heimer & Untermyer. By making himself thoroughly conversant with the law of cor- 
porations, he attracted important clients, built up a large and profitable practice, and 


has been more than ordinarily successful in negotiating large transactions with English 
syndicates, which desired to invest their surplus means in America. He has brought 
$60,000,000 of English capital into this country for investment. In 1887, Mayor Grace 
appointed him a member of the Board of Education, and he was twice re-appointed. 
Mr. Guggenheimer has met with a suitable reward for his legal enterprise, and is the 
owner of the site of the old New York Hotel on Broadway, on which he is now con- 
structing one of the most impressive buildings in New York city. He is also a director 
in The Yorkville Bank. Mr. Guggenheimer has been favored by nature with rugged 
health, a strong constitution and brains His succesr is due to incessant labor, tenacity 
of purpose and the confidence inspired by an honest character and clear head. Various 
excellent clubs have elected him to membership, including the Manhattan, Lotus, Arion, 
Suburban, Press and Driving clubs, and the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick. 

CHARLES GODFREY GUNTHER, fur merchant, oldest son of Christian G. Gun- 
ther, born on Liberty street in this city, April 7, 1822, died at his home on East i4th 
street, Jan. 22, 1885. He attended the Moravian Institute at Nazareth, Pa., and com- 
pleted his studies at Columbia College Grammar School. On attaining manhood, he was 
taken into the firm of C. G. Gunther & Co. , fur dealers, and for many years was occu- 
pied in the old store on Maiden Lane. Later, the business was removed to Broadway, 
near Prince street, and afterward to Fifth avenue, near 2jd street. Mr. Gunther allied 
himself with the Democratic party in early life, was a member of the Young Men's 
Democratic General Committee, its chairman for several terms, and one of the founders 
of the Democratic Union club. In 1855, he received an election as one of the governors 
of the Alms House, running 5,000 votes ahead of his colleagues on the ticket, the Board 
of Governors choosing him president. In 1856, he was elected a sachem of the Tam- 
many Society, and in 1861 he was nominated for Mayor, but was defeated by George 
Opdyke, the last Republican Mayor the metropolis was destined to see for thirty-three 
years. In 1863, however, Mr. Gunther became Mayor by a majority of more than 
7,000. After the expiration of his term, he withdrew from politics, having no sympathy 
with those who constituted the Tweed Ring and conscious that no one could succeed 
in politics, who did not obey their behests. In 1878, he consented to become a candi- 
date for Senator from the Vllth District, but was defeated. For many years a mem- 
ber of the old Volunteer Fire Department, he was elected later president of the Veteran 
Fireman's Association. Mr. Gunther saw at an early day that Coney Island possessed 
natural advantages as a pleasure resort and built The Brooklyn, Bath & Coney Island 
Railroad, and two hotels, one at Locust Grove on Gravesend Bay, which was afterward 
destroyed by fire. The Liederkranz and other societies claimed him as a member. His 
wife was Amelia B , daughter of George Arcularius, and his children were Christian 
G. and George A. Gunther; Lena, wife of James Miller; and Amelia B. Gunther. 

ERNEST RUDOLPH GUNTHER, retired, son of the late William Henry Gunther 
and grandson of the late Christian G. Gunther, was born in 1862 in what was known as 
"Gunther Row," which consisted of six large houses and one enormous house on the 
northwest corner of Second avenue and i4th street. This row was built about fifty 
years ago in what was then the fashionable part of New York by Mr. Gunther's grand- 
father, who came to America in the year 1812 for political reasons and to avoid serving 
in the German army. 

The name of the pioneer was originally von Gunther and he was the son of the 


celebrated von Giinther, who was Surgeon to the King of Saxony and of noble birth 
and a cousin of Prince Giinther, one of the richest German princes. Christian von 
Giinther brought with him to America two coats of arms and four miniatures, which 
have been handed down in the family. 

Ernest Rudolph Gunther is a member of many of the most select clubs in New 
York and lives at No. 9 West 5 7th street. 

He is a clever conversationalist and extremely popular among club men and the 
people who comprise what is known as the best society in New York. An invitation 
to one of the frequent musicales, given at his residence, is prized very highly by 
members of the New York smart set. 


WILLIAM ALEXANDER MADDEN, born in Flushing, Long Island, about 1811, 
died in New York city, April 2, 1880. He was a son of David Hadden, a native of 
Aberdeen, Scotland, 1773, and of Ann Aspinwall, his wife. Having gained a thorough 
knowledge of the linen trade in the store founded by his father, the subject of this 
memoir devoted his whole life to the importation of Irish linens, and the tranquil, 
capable and prosperous prosecution of their sale in this country. He was married in 
1849 to Frances Sanderson, daughter of James Elnathan Smith. Of their three children, 
two are living, James E. Smith Hadden and Harold Farquhar Hadden. 

GEORGE HAGEMEYER, merchant and manufacturer, a native of Castle in 
Germany, born in 1837, died in Cornwall on the Hudson, June 14, 1892. His parents 
were farmers and proprietors of a large grist mill. 

When fifteen years of age and after the death of his parents, the subject of this 
memoir removed to Rotterdam, and thence crossed the ocean to the United States in 
1852, by a sailing vessel, the voyage lasting forty six days. He reached New York city in 
December. The possessor of only a small amount of money, he was compelled to be 
saving from the start. A short time after his arrival in the metropolis of the new 
world, his older brother John gave him employment in a saw mill in Downing street, 
at that time considered the best mill in this city. Older brothers are sometimes incon- 
siderate, and John restricted the freedom of his younger brother so much, that the latter 
found he could do better elsewhere. Going to Yonkers, where he had been offered a 
position in G. Copcut & Co. 's saw mill, he devoted himself diligently to his work, and 
in less than a year had mastered the proper management of a saw. But, possibly a 
trifle homesick, he longed to be back to New York, and finally returned to his friends 
and his brother's mill in Downing street. Six months later, however, he again disagreed 
with his employer, and leaving his position, this time he had the enterprise to remove 
to Boston. After a short stay in Boston, and while employed in a saw mill there, he 
had the misfortune to meet with a serious accident, one of his legs being completely 
cut off by a circular saw. He was then seventeen years old. To many natures thi= 
disaster would have proved such a discouragement as to have taken away ambition, 
blighted all prospect of advancement in life, and resulted in a subsequent career of 
commonplace and routine effort. But Mr. Hagemeyer was ^lot daunted. The calamity 
served rather to call forth all the resources of which he was possessed. 

After remaining several months in a hospital, he returned to New York city. As 
he was then unfitted for laborious work in the mill or for his trade as a sawyer, he 
undertook the cigar manufacturing business to support himself. After making cigars 
by hand for two years, he was offered a position as buyer of timber by Cbpcut & 
Co. , who admired his energy and saw in him the making of an enterprising and sue. 
cessful merchant. Accepting the offer, he sailed from New York for the Honduras 
coast and for two years purchased the mahogany timber required by Copcut & Co. 
While this experience proved of great value to him, financially and otherwise, it was 
suddenly ended by an attack of fever, and Mr. Hagemeyer returned to New York. 

At the age of twenty-two, he had saved considerable money and was then taken 



into partnership by his brother, Melchior, who conducted a saw mill in Cannon street. 
He kept the books of the concern after business hours. Having long felt the need of a 
better education, the young man gave an excellent illustration of his practical common 
sense and energy by attending the night schools of the city, during his partnership. 

In 1862, at the age of twenty-five, he severed his connection with the saw mill 
industry and, upon his own responsibility, engaged in the business of dealing in timber, 
beginning with a little yard about 75 feet by 100 feet in dimensions on Attorney street 
in New York city. 

In 1864, he was married to Mary Muhlfeld and resided in Broome street for two 
years. In 1870, he moved his family to Williamsburg, across the East river and a 
year later to Green Point, both localities having since been incorporated within the city 
of Brooklyn. 

As a merchant of mahogany, hardwood lumber and veneers, Mr. Hagemeyer made 
rapid progress. He had served in every branch of the lumber trade and possessed the 
thorough practical knowledge of every detail, which is necessary to success. His busi- 
ness grew steadily until the original yard had become altogether too small to hold the 
huge lumber piles which his trade demanded. In 1869, therefore, he bought four 
city lots on the East river in this city at the foot of East nth street; and when this 
enlarged area finally proved insufficient, he extended the property to cover nine lots on 
East i ith street and nine more on East loth street. 

In 1871, he engaged in the manufacture of hardwood lumber in Peru, Ind., and 
opened an extensive yard there in which all the lumber purchased in Indiana was col- 
lected and stacked for distribution to different points, East, West and South. After 
that, he extended his operations to a number of other States, which possessed supplies 
of desirable hard wood timber, including Virginia, Tennessee, Pennsylvania and New 
York, as well as Canada. It was his practice to go directly to the woods for his stock, 
buying from the stump and setting up saw mills of his own, wherever necessary, to 
operate exclusively in his own interest. He maintained a large distributing yard in 
Crawfordsville, Ind., and saw mills in Camden, Frankfort, Darlington and Bedford, 
Ind. ; Laurel Gap, Tenn. ; and Croghan, N. Y. These plants are in operation to this 
day. The output of the mills and yards found a market in all parts of the United 
States, Canada, and even in Europe Mr. Hagemeyer's activity gave employment to 
large numbers of skilled workmen and supplied railroad lines and deep sea shipping 
with vast quantities of freight. 

Mr. Hagemeyer was the pioneer hardwood lumber merchant of New York city 
and never lost the position of leading dealer in mahogany, hard wood and veneers, 
after he had once gained it. In consequence of his intelligence and constant enterprise, 
many of the new departures in the trade originated with him. He was the first to saw 
quartered oak, sycamore, cherry and birch for the trade and it was he who introduced 
the use of these different woods, now so extensively employed in buildings and furni- 
ture. In every branch of his business, he was always the pioneer, attempting many 
things, succeeding in all, and following up with energy every profitable development of 
his industry. Owing to his prominence in the trade, The New York Lumbermen's 
Association elected him as its president; and his record as a member of that body is 
remarkable in one respect, if no other, in consequence of the fact that he never made a 
motion which was not carried unanimously. 


In his married life, he was very happy. Two sons and five daughters were born 
to him : George and Casper, who now carry on the lumber industry which he estab- 
lished, having been admitted to partnership in 1887 and 1891 respectively; and Eliza- 
beth, Martha, Mamie, Emma and Eva. Every one with whom Mr. Hagemeyer came 
in contact liked and respected him. His liberality toward individuals who were 
unfortunate and toward the public charities was marked, and his sound judgment, 
clear mind and store of varied knowledge rendered his opinions always of value. Suc- 
cess came to him through a progressive spirit, untiring perseverance and concentration 
of his powers upon his chosen occupation. 

JAMES BEN ALI HAQQIN, lawyer, a native of Mercer county, Ky., began life 
in the practice of law in Natchez, Miss. , and followed his profession in New Orleans, 
and after 1850, in San Francisco and Sacramento. Having become largely interested 
in lands and mines, Mr. Haggin finally abandoned his profession. Among the properties 
which he controls are mines in Utah, the Anaconda copper mines at Butte City, Mont. , 
and others in the United States and Mexico. His Rancho del Pascoin California is one 
of the largest and most successful breeding establishments in the world. He is largely 
interested with Lloyd Tevis in what is known as The Kern County Land Co., owning 
about 400,000 acres in California, which property is now being divided into farms and 
sold to settlers at from $50 to $100 per acre. He is also a stockholder in The Belling- 
ham Bay Improvement Co. At one time, Mr. Haggin maintained a large racing stable, 
but owing to the death of his son and daughter, his interest in the turf abated and he 
abandoned racing entirely. He is now a resident of New York city and a member of 
the Union and Manhattan clubs. 

DAVID HENRY HAIQHT, merchant, who died in this city, April 29, 1876, at the 
age of seventy-one, came from a local family of merchants. His father, David L. 
Haight, was first a merchant of saddlery, then of dry goods, and finally, in D. L. & J. 
E. Haight, of hat and shoe trimmings. The junior David began as a clerk for his father, 
on Maiden Lane, and became a partner in D. L. & J. E. Haight in 1827. In 1835, the 
house moved to No. 170 Water street, re-organized as R. & H. Haight, and carried on 
an enormous business. He retired in 1848, the house then taking the name of Haight, 
Halsey & Co. Thereafter he devoted himself to real estate. The St. Nicholas Hotel 
on Broadway and several other buildings were erected by him. Henry Jansen and 
Edward Clarence Haight, his sons, survived him. 

EDWARD HAIQHT, merchant, a native of New Yo*k city, born on Park Place 
about 1817, died in Westchester, N. Y., Sept. 15, 1885. He sprang from a race of New 
York merchants, founded by old Nicholas Haight, the farmer, who exemplified by 
their genuine interest in everything which went on in town in their day and generation, 
their activity, good character and success, the old time merchants of the city. After a 
sufficient education, Mr. Haight entered the firm of Cromwell, Haight & Co., importers 
of cloth and tailor's trimmings on Maiden Lane, in 1838. He retired in 1854 to a farm 
in Westchester, but was afterward a partner in Richards, Haight & Co., cloth 
importers. An organizer and president of The Bank of the Commonwealth 1856-70, a 
War Democrat and a member of Congress, 1861-63, he suggested the use of fractional 
currency, and was also a director of The Manhattan Life Insurance Co., and The 
National Bank of New York. Mr. Haight married a daughter of Dr. William Burgoyne, 
formerly of Charleston, S. C., and had six children. 


JOHN HUDSON HALL, a native of- New York city, born Oct. 15, 1828, died in 
Thomasville, Ga., March 3, 1891. He was a son of John V. Hall, whose ancestor 
came to this country from England in 1700. First, clerk in a bank and then in the 
store of Elliott, Burnap & Babcock, manufacturers of paper, he became a partner in 
1850 in Babcock, Dubisson & Hall, and in 1854, in Campbell, Hall & Co., who on Nas- 
sau street, rose to great prominence. Mr. Hall became senior partner in 1860. Having 
acquired considerable wealth, he retired in 1881. Mr. Hall was one of those who, July 
25, 1866, organized The West Side & Yonkers Patent Railway, which built half a mile 
of elevated railroad on Greenwich street, operated with stationary power and an endless 
cable. From that time forward, he gave great attention to elevated railroads, was a 
director of The New York Elevated Railroad Co., which built the first successful line, 
and shared in the management of The Manhattan Railroad until his death. At one 
time largely interested in The Oregon & Transcontinental and The Union Pacific, 
Mr. Hall also made investments in some of the largest railroad systems in the South. 
He was vice-president of The Georgia Central Railroad & Banking Co., and The Rich- 
mond Terminal corporation, and director of The East Tennessee Virginia & Georgia 
and The Richmond & Danville Railroads. In politics a Republican, he never took an 
active part in public affairs, but was a member of the Union League club. He was 
more of the typical American merchant and gentleman than politician. Thoughtful, 
shrewd, and unassuming, his influence was powerful in corporations. By his marriage 
in 1872, to Cornelia, daughter of Augustus H. Ward, he was the father of four chil- 
dren, John Hudson, Charles Ward, Cornelia Catherine and Martha Jane Hall. 

WILLIAM HENRY HALL, merchant, born in Hackensack, X. J., July 21, 1826, 
died in Budapest, Hungary, June 30, 1894. He was a son of Henry J. S. Hall, of 
Coventry, England, a watchmaker, who came to America in his youth. William served 
an apprenticeship as clerk for Bush & Hillyer, and then found employment with Olcott, 
McKesson & Co. , a leading drug firm. In a short time, he felt competent to manage 
a store, and, aided by a loan from his father, bought the retail drug store of Dr. Gunn 
on Bleecker street, in the then fashionable quarter of the city. In 1851, with John 
Ruckel, he engaged in a wholesale and importing trade in drugs, in the firm of Hall 
& Ruckel, down town, and reaped great profit from the ownership of certain popular 
proprietary articles and valuable trade marks. For about thirty years previous to his 
death, though the old style was retained, Mr. Hall had been sole proprietor. He was 
president of The L. W. Warner Co., director of The Fellows Medical Manufacturing 
Co., of New York and London, The Washington Trust Co., and The Terminal Ware- 
house Co. ; and the owner of choice real estate. Modest and retiring, calm, sound and 
sympathetic, he was a sterling man and held in affectionate esteem. Mr. Hall was 
married in 1850, to Martha M., daughter of Curtis Hitchcock, and had several children. 

ADOLPH HALLQARTEN, merchant, born in Mayence, Germany, Nov. 6, 1835, 
died in Wiesbaden, Feb. 13, 1885. Lazarus Hallgarten, his father, founded the house 
of Hallgarten & Herzbel, now Hallgarten & Co. Educated at the higher public 
schools, the subject of this memoir came to New York in 1850 and began life in the 
Eagle drug store on Broad way, near Grand street. Next year, he entered a wholesale drug 
house, and several years afterward the employment of D. T. Lanman & Co. , wholesale 
druggists. For D. T. Lanman & Co., he undertook many long trips to the West Indies, 
Mexico and South America, which yielded such good returns that he was taken into 



partnership in Lanman & Kemp, and his persevering endeavors finally brought him a 
fortune. In later life he devoted himself to charitable institutions, especially to the 
Hebrew Institute for deaf mutes and the Mount Sinai Hospital, serving the latter for 
many years as president. A wife, son and two daughters survived him. 

JULIUS HALLQARTEN, stock broker, born in Europe about 1842, died in Dabos, 
Switzerland, Jan. 7, 1884. In 1851, became to New York city with his family and 
learned brokerage and banking in the house of Hallgarten & Co. He joined the old 
Open Board of Brokers and in 1869, the Stock Exchange. The high character, ample 
capital and able business methods of the firm commanded success and, when Mr. Hall- 
garten died, he left a fortune of several millions to Matilda, his wife, and his son Albert. 
Mr. Hallgarten served for several years as president of The Philharmonic Society and 
displayed especial interest in musical and art matters. His gifts to the Academy of 
Design and for the encouragement of artists were large, and at his death, he willed 
$192,000 to philanthropic objects. 

JOHN HALSEY, hatter, born July 19, 1801, died Sept. 22, 1877, in Brooklyn. 
His mother was a member of the Crafts family of Boston, and his father traced his 
genealogy back in England to the Norman conquest. The ancient residence of the 
family was at Gladdesford Park, Hertfordshire. Mr. Halsey's childhood was spent in 
Boston. The family came to New York about 1811, and young Halsey a few years 
later entered the store of D. L. & J. E. Haight, merchants of hats and hat furnishing 
goods. He was rapidly advanced and finally became a partner, the firm then adopting 
the style of Haight, Halsey & Co. About 1835, Mr. Halsey and his two brothers 
bought estates in Brooklyn on Clinton avenue near Myrtle. This was then almost a 
country region and Mr. Halsey's house stood far back from the street. The three 
brothers married three sisters, the Misses Curtis. None of them had any children, and 
they adopted three boys and a girl, all of one family. Mrs. John Halsey died in 1875. 
Mr. Halsey was noted for his liberal spirit and aided many young merchants to gain 
their start. He was a Christian gentleman and unswervingly devoted to principle. He 
never held political office but was honored with high positions in benevolent institutions 
and at the time of his death, was vice president of The Dime Savings Bank of Brook- 
lyn. He had been a director in The Mechanics' and other banks. 

JAMES HOOKER HAMERSLEY, lawyer, is the present head of one of the notable 
families of the Island of Manhattan, whose history is worth recounting. His ancestor 
William Hamersley, merchant, born in England in 1687, died in New York city, 
August 3, 1752. He derived his descent from Hugo le Ktnge, who came to England 
from Provence, France, about 1366, and acquired a large estate in England, known 
as Hamersley, whence the family took their name. Sir Hugh Hamersley, of this 
line, a notable merchant of London in the trade with East Indies, America and Europe, 
rose to be Mayor of London in 1627. William Hamersley, his great grandson, served 
as an officer in the British navy, his letter of appointment, dated March 10, 1700, signed 
by G. Rooke, D. Mitchell, and George Churchill, all noted men, being now in the pos- 
session of James Hooker Hamerslsy, together with the original letters of commenda- 
tion, signed by the commanders of the vessels in which he sailed, advising his prefer- 
ment. About 1716, he came to New York city, married Miss Van Brugh, of an old 
Dutch family, and planted here the family of his name. He was prominent as a. mer- 
chant and a vestryman of Trinity church. His tombstone is in Trinity church yard. 


His son, Andrew Hamersley, for whom Hamersley street, now West Hous- 
ton, was named, born in this city in 1725, died May 24, 1819. As an importer of foreign 
goods, he gained considerable wealth, which, however, the American Revolution greatly 
impaired, owing in part to his having accepted a British commission. His fortune was 
restored by a large inheritance from Louis Carre, a merchant in the West Indies. He 
married Margaret Stelle, a granddaughter of Thomas Gordon, one of the twenty-seven 
original proprietors of New Jersey and Chief Justice of that State. In their home on 
Hanover Square, near Wall street the family became noted for refinement and hospi- 
tality. Mr. Hamersley invested his means mainly in Xew York city real estate. He 
had three sons, William, Thomas, and Lewis C., and two daughters, Elizabeth and 
Lucretia. Lewis Carre Hamersley, third son of Andrew, survived all his brothers and 
sisters, and died Nov. 4, 1853, eighty -six years of age. His wife was Elizabeth Finney, 
of Virginia, a woman of noble character and presence. They lived in Pearl street 
many years, and later in Murray street, until the death of Mr. Hamersley; but, when 
stores had finally grown up all around, the widow moved on to Bond street, then a 
fashionable street, and later to No. 257 Fifth Avenue, where she died March 30, 1870, 
at the age of eighty-eight. They had one daughter who never married, and two sons, 
Andrew Gordon and John William Hamersley. 

Andrew Gordon Hamersley, born in this city about the year 1806, died here Jan. 
24, 1883. A lawyer by education, he never practiced, owing to inheritance of a large 
share of his father's estate. He was a cultivated man, of extended knowledge and 
delightful manners, and might have followed a public career, had he chosen. While 
Mr. Rives was American Minister to Paris, he served as attache of the legation with 
credit. Being much in Paris, he saw many stormy scenes in the politics of France, 
including the Revolution. His marriage with Sarah, daughter of John Mason, 
brought him one son, Louis C. Hamersley. Mr. Hamersley was a large stock- 
holder and director of The Chemical Manufacturing Co., which gave rise to The 
Chemical Bank, and received from his wife a considerable addition to an already large 

Louis Carre Hamersley, lawyer, only son of the last named, died in the city of 
Xew York, May 3, 1883. He was educated at Christ Church College, Oxford, Eng- 
land, and afterward at the Law School of the University of the City of New York. 
His legal training formed merely a part of his equipment for the management of a 
property of about five millions, mainly in real estate, left to him by his father and 
mother. He never practiced. His wife, Lilly W , daughter of Commodore Price of 
the United States Navy and one of the belles of Troy, N. Y., her native city, speedily 
became a social leader in the metropolis. Mr. Hamersley joined the famous 7th Regi- 
ment as a private, atterward becoming captain in the gth N. G. , S. N. Y. Having no 
children, brothers or sisters, he provided that his wife should enjoy the entire income 
of his estate until her death, when the entire property, real and personal, should 
descend to the male heirs of James Hooker Hamersley, his cousin, and in case of lack 
of such heirs to charitable institutions. In 1888, Mrs. Hamersley became the Duch- 
ess of Marlborough by marriage in this city, and established her residence in England, 
where she spent large sums of money in restoring the ancient magnificence of Blenheim 
castle. The Duke of Marlborough died Nov. 9, 1892, and the Duchess has since 
married Lord Beresford. 


Col. John William Hamersley, lawyer, born on Hanover Square in this city, 
May 24, 1808, died June 7, 1889, at his home on Fifth Avenue. He graduated 
from Columbia College in 1826, practiced law successfully for a number of years, and 
then retired to devote himself to travel and literary pursuits. In the early part of his 
life, he was presented at the Court of Saint James and travelled extensively through 
Europe and Asia at a time when few Americans had crossed the Atlantic. He was a 
man of noble presence and fine character, rugged in physique, capable of great labor, 
and noted for his religious conviction. Throughout life a devoted Christian, he gave 
amply from his means to aid the causes he held at heart. He always declined to hold 
public office, preferring calm retirement and study, "otium cum dignitate," rather than 
the stormy arena of politics. He collected a fine library, especially rich in rare books, 
wrote several works, and translated "A Chemical Change in the Eucharist," written by 
Jacques Abbadie, the Frenchman. Mr. Hamersley was a founder of the Union club 
and a member of the Century and St. Nicholas clubs. He joined his father in the 
management of the family real estate, and by his excellent judgment, common sense, 
energy, ability and foresight, greatly increased the property. His Friday night recep- 
tions were famous for the number of eminent writers and artists who attended them, 
and his charities liberal and unostentatious. While a young man, he accepted an 
election as Colonel of a militia regiment in this city. He came prominently before the 
public at one time, in consequence of a strong effort, which he made in favor of the 
Mexican Republic against France. In company with James William Beekman, he gave 
a famous banquet in New York to a large number of distinguished men, at which earn- 
est speeches were made in favor of Mexico. The strong expression of sympathy by 
many of the best minds of the country influenced Congress to recognize the Mexican 
Republic. European nations followed, and this resulted in the defeat of Napoleon and 
Maximilian and the establishment of the Mexican Republic. In return for this invalu- 
able assistance to Mexico, in her darkest hour, Mr. Hamersley obtained a promise from 
Mr. Romero, the Mexican Minister at Washington, that Maximilian's life should be 
spared, but popular clamor among the Mexicans was so strong that this was impossible. 
Captain Mayne Reid, the distinguished British author, was an intimate friend of Mr. 
Hamersley and made him the hero of his novel "The Lone Ranche." Mr. Ham- 
ersley was for many years a member of Grace Church, and after his death his. 
children presented to that church a massive brass lectern in his memory. One of 
his chief favorites among the charitable institutions was The Children's Aid Society. 
James Hooker Hamersley has built for this charity, in memory of his father, a library 
and reading room at the summer home, Bath Beach, L. I. Mr. Hamersley married 
Catherine Livingston Hooker, daughter of Judge James Hooker of Poughkeepsie and 
a lady of rare abilities and sterling worth. Their four children are one son, James 
Hooker Hamersley, and three daughters, Virginia Hamersley, wife of Cortlandt de 
Peyster Field; Catherine Livingston Hamersley, who married John Henry Livingston, 
a great grandson of Chancellor Livingston; and Helen Reade Hamersley, who married 
Charles D. Stickney, jr. 

James Hooker Hamersley, son of Col. John W. Hamersley, born in New York 
city. Jan. 26, 1844, is the descendant of several conspicuous families. He is in the 
fifth generation from Judge Thomas Gordon, one of the Council for the province of East 
Jersey; Deputy Secretary, 1692; Judge of Probate, 1698; Attorney General of East 



Jersey, 1692; representative of Amboy in the Provincial Assembly, 1702-9; and Re- 
ceiver General and Treasurer of the province, 1710-19. 

He is also in the fourth generation from Joseph Reade, one of the Provincial Coun- 
cil of New York, 1764, from whom Reade street in this city derives its name. 

There runs in his veins the blood of the Livingstons, also, Mr. Hamersley being in 
the sixth generation from Robert Livingston, member and Speaker of the Provincial 
Assembly, 1718-25, and founder of Livingston Manor on the Hudson River. 

From Filyp Pieterse Van Schuyler, captain of the New York provincial forces in 
1667, he is in the seventh generation of descent. 

He is eighth in descent from Brant Arentse Van Schlichtenhorst, Governor of the 
colony of Rensselaerwick, 1648, and commandant of the fort and garrison of Rensse- 
laerstein, whose most conspicuous military operations were in leading his forces against 
Gov. Stuyvesant, of New Amsterdam, in which he was in the main successful. 

He is also sixth in descent from Henry Beekman, who obtained from Queen Anne, 
by letters patent, June 25, 1703, a large tract of land in Dutchess county, a portion of 
which Mr. Hamersley now owns, this property having never been out of the possession 
of the family since the days of Queen Anne. 

Mr Hamersley began his studies as a boy in Paris, fitted himself for a higher 
range of education at Poughkeepsie College Institute, and graduated from Columbia 
College in 1865 with high honors. He obtained an oration at the commencement exer- 
cises in the Academy of Music. Graduating from Columbia Law School in 1867, he 
learned the practice of law in the office of James W. Gerard, then leader of the New 
York bar. His alma mater bestowed upon him the degree of A.B. and A.M. 

During the next ten years, Mr. Hamersley was successfully occupied with the law and 
had charge of a series of precedent cases, connected with the opening of Church street 
and involving a principle of great importance to lawyers and property owners. These 
cases were carried from court to court, and, although the lower tribunal utterly 
opposed Mr. Hamersley's views, the young lawyer persisted until he had obtained 
from the Court of Appeals an unanimous decision in his favor. Many kindred cases 
followed at once in the wake of that decision. The incident illustrates the tenacity, 
energy and intelligence which Mr. Hamersley has always brought into play for the 
attainment of his purposes. He finally withdrew from the law to manage his own and 
the family property. A conservative man, of excellent judgment and character, and 
heartily interested in affairs, he at one time contemplated a public career, and was sent 
to the State convention by the Independent Republicans in 1877 as a delegate. Later, 
he was nominated for the State Assembly from the Xlth District, but withdrew in favor 
of his friend, William Waldorf Astor, whom he labored successfully to elect. For 
many years, he served as a director of The Knickerbocker Fire Insurance Co. , one of 
the oldest in America. 

April 30, 1888, he married Margaret Willing Chisolm of New York, daughter 
of William Eddings Chisolm and descendant of a distinguished family of South 
Carolina. Her mother was a daughter of John Rogers, a large owner of real estate and an 
honored citizen of New York city. The Church of the Holy Communion at the corner 
of Fourth avenue and 2oth street is a memorial to the memory of Mr. Rogers, built by 
his widow, who gave both the land and Ihe Church. Mrs. Hamersley is also a great- 
niece of the Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg, the founder of Saint Luke's Hospital. 


Mrs. Hamersley has charming manners, sweet disposition and great executive ability. 
Her kind heart and gracious ways make friends for her wherever she goes. She is 
much interested in charitable institutions. They have had three children, Margaret 
Rogers, who died in infancy; Catharine Livingston, born May 8,1891; and Louis Gordon 
Hamersley, born July 20, 1892. 

James Hooker Hamersley has made about a dozen voyages to Europe, and has 
travelled from the Mediterranean to the Arctic ocean. At the age of twelve, he had seen 
several crowned heads and nearly a score of v European capitals, climbed Mount Vesuvius 
on foot and been presented to Pope Pius IX. He is a member of the St. Nicholas 
Society, The Society of Colonial Wars, the University, Metropolitan, City and Badminton 
clubs, The New York Historical Socity, The New York Law Institute and The American 
Geographical Society, and president of the Knickerbocker Bowling club. He is a lover 
of history and the classics, and spends his leisure hours in reading favorite authors in 
the original. Time is found for writing upon the live topics of the day, religion, 
politics, etc., and he thus influences the age in which he lives. Many poems from his 
pen have appeared in books, periodicals and newspapers, but have never yet been 
collected in one volume. Among the best known are "The Countersign," "Yellow 
Roses," "Fog Curtain," "The Midnight Sun," "Ronkonkoma," "Masconomo" and 
"Voice of the Breakers." A staunch Republican, he believes that every American 
should labor for the welfare of his country, and he takes an active interest in philan- 
thropic work, being a trustee of The Society for Improving the Condition of the Poor, 
member of the executive committee of The Young Men's Christian Association (23d 
street branch), manager of the Babies' Hospital, an honorary manager of The Protestant 
Episcopal Society for Seamen and interested in many other kindred charities. 

COL. ALEXANDER HAfllLTON, lawyer, son of Alexander Hamilton, the states- 
man, born in New York city, May 16, 1786, died at No. 83, Clinton Place, Aug. 2, 1875. 
He was educated as a lawyer, followed his profession, and after a year in Spain in 1812, 
served in the War of 1812 as captain of the 4ist Infantry. He then resumed the 
practice of law. In 1817, he married Eliza P., daughter of William Knox, a leading 
merchant in this citj r . In 1823, President Monroe appointed him Land Commissioner 
for Eastern Florida. Both before and after this, he served as United States District 
Attorney in Florida, and while there received the rank of Colonel. He subsequently 
made his residence in New York, where he entered into real estate transactions, in which 
he was successful, and also became one of the leading men in Wall street. In 1835, in 
company with his wife, he drove in a coach and four over 4,000 miles through the 
West. Colonel Hamilton was an intimate friend of Henry Clay, and had many other 
political acquaintances, but never held elective office, excepting that of Member of 
Assembly for one term. A political contest, however, always awakened his enthusiasm. 
He left no children. 

COL. JOHN CHURCH HAHILTON, lawyer, born in Philadelphia, Aug. 22, 1792, 
while his father was Secretary of the Treasury, died in Long Branch, N. J., July 25, 
1882. He was one of the six sons of Alexander Hamilton, soldier and statesman. 
His mother was a daughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler. While the death of Alexander 
Hamilton, in consequence of the historic duel with Aaron Burr, left the family in 
straitened circumstances, the subject of this memoir was, nevertheless, able to 
graduate in 1809 from Columbia College. He was admitted to the bar, and engaged 


in the practice of his profession. During the War of 1812, he served as an aid on the 
staff of General Harrison, with the title of Colonel. Originally a Whig, he joined the 
Republican party before the Civil War, and admired and supported General Grant, and 
at one time he ran for Congress. Marriage placed ample means at his command, and 
Colonel Hamilton then gave himself up to study and literary pursuits. In 1834-40, he 
published the " Memoirs of Alexander Hamilton," in which he brought the life of his 
father down to the tragedy which ended it, but, with a delicacy of sentiment charac- 
teristic of him, made no mention of that event. His " Works of Alexander Hamilton," 
in two volumes, appeared in 1851. In 1850-58, he published a "History of the Republic, 
as traced in the Writings of Alexander Hamilton," in seven volumes. He was married 
Dec. 20, 1814, to Miss Maria Eliza Van den Heuvel, daughter of Baron John Cornelius 
Van den Heuvel, once Governor of Dulde, Guiana, and a leading merchant of his day, 
who lived at the corner of Barclay street and Broadway and owned a handsome 
estate at Bloomingdale. Mrs. Hamilton died in 1872 Nine children survived their 
father: Alexander Hamilton, of Tarrytown; Gen. Schuyler Hamilton, of Jamaica, 
N. Y. ; Judge Charles A. Hamilton, of the Supreme Court of Wisconsin; William 
Gaston Hamilton, civil engineer and vice president of The Mexican Telegraph Co. ; 
Elizabeth, who first married Major General Henry W. Halleck, and after his death 
Major General George W. Cullum; Mary E. wife of Judge Charles A. Peabody; and 
Charlotte A., Adelaide and Alice W. Hamilton. 

ANSON WALES HARD, sr., coffee importer, born in Arlington, Vt., Oct. 16, 
1841, is a son of the Rev Anson B Hard, a Protestant fipiscopal clergyman. Educated 
in the academy of his church in Philadelphia, Mr. Hard began life, when sixteen years 
old. as a clerk in his uncle's office in Baltimore. In 1862, he came to New York as the 
confidential and head clerk of Wright, Maxwell & Co., coffee merchants, and, in 1870, 
became a partner in Wright & Co. , coffee merchants. Their trade was largely with 
Rio de Janeiro, and Mr. Hard spent several years in Brazil, actively promoting their 
interests. He returned to the North in 1874, and in 1875, formed the present house 
of Hard & Rand, coffee importers, now recognized a leading concern in the business, 
having branch houses in Santos, Rio de Janeiro, London and Batavia. In 1870, Mr. 
Hard married Miss Sarah E., daughter of James M. Brown, the banker. Nine children 
have resulted from this union, seven of whom are now living, James M. B., Sarah A., 
Julia P., Laura W., Nellie W., Anson W., and De Courcey L. Hard. Mr. Hard 
is widely known as an honest, able and prudent man. -Jle is a member of the 
Century. Metropolitan Riding, Rockaway Hunting, Down Town and Church clubs, 
and a director of The Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., The Bank of New York, 
The Seamen s Bank for Savings, St. Luke's Hospital, The Home for Incurables, The 
Society of St. Johnland, and The American Museum of Natural History and trustee of 
The ^Norwich Fire Insurance Society of England. 

LOUIS STANISLAS HARGOUS* banker, born in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 17, 1809, 
died in New York city, Dec. 24, 1886. His father, Jean I. Hargous, a captain in the 
Royal Navy of France and a staunch Royalist, came to this country on the Jason under 
the orders of Count de Grasse> resigned, and married Mile. Marie de Brisson. Louis 
graduated from Princeton College, of which his cousin was a member of the faculty. 
At an early age, he was sent to Mexico, where he entered the banking house of La 
Serna in Vera Cruz and the City of Mexico, afterward known as Hargous & La Serna. 


For seventeen years, he represented the United States as Consul at these cities, and 
during the Mexican War served as Colonel on the staff of General Worth. After the 
war, he resumed banking in Mexico, and continued until 1868, when he retired with a 
fortune. Until 1875, he lived in Richmond, Va., and then settled in New York city. 
Mr. Hargous was a man of great financial ability and prominently identified with many 
of the most important financial transactions in Mexico. He spoke six languages 
fluently. By his marriage to Suzanne Jeannette, daughter of William Gallagher, in 
1850, he had eight children, Robert L. Hargous; Nina, wife of William Appleton of 
Boston ; Anita, wife of George B. Deforest of New York ; Sallie J . , wife of Duncan Elliot 
of New York, and Louis J. Hargous, who died June i, 1883. Three died in infancy. 

CHARLES WILLIAH HARKNESS, lawyer, son of the late Stephen V. Harkness 
of Cleveland, was born Dec. 17, 1860, in Monroeville, O., and received his education in 
Yale University, class of 1883, and Columbia Law School, class of 1888. At the age of 
twenty-four, he entered business life as a clerk and was occupied with the real estate 
interests of his father. At the death of his father, he was made administrator of the 
estate, and has been engaged since then in its management. He succeeded his father as 
director in many business corporations, including The Euclid Avenue National Bank, 
The Cleveland Arcade Co.. The United Salt Co. s The Ohio River Railroad, and The 
Monongahela River Railroad; also in The Iron Belt Mining Co., and The Ashland 
Mining Co. of the Gogebic range in the Lake Superior region and The Spanish Ameri- 
can Mining Co. of Cuba. In 1890, he moved to New York city and is a member of the 
University and New York Yacht clubs 

JOSEPH HENRY HARPER, publisher, grandson of Fletcher Harper, one of the 
founders of Harper & Bro's, was born in New York city, June 23, 1850. He was 
educated in a school in Germany and Fay's School in Newport, R. I. Entering the 
publishing house of Harper & Bro's, he began at the case and learned the trade of a 
compositor and then successively the practical work of each department in the busi- 
ness. He became a partner in Harper & Bro's in 1877, and was placed in charge of 
the literary and periodical department. Liberal in taste, socially accomplished, he is 
prominent in the literary and art life of the city, and a member of the Union League, 
Grolier, Players, Century, Racquet, Riding and Rockaway Hunting clubs. By his 
marriage with Mary, daughter of Col. Richard M. Hoe, in 1873, he has six children, 
Fletcher, Mary Hoe, Richard M. H , Urling, Joseph Henry, and John Harper. 

EDWARD HARRIMAN, stock broker, who died in this city March 24, 1887, 
belonged to one of the oldest and best New York families, and was the inheritor of 
considerable wealth, which he largely increased by his own exertions. He made his 
fortune in early life, in partnership with Leonard W. Jerome, under the name of Har- 
riman & Jerome, in brokerage and stock operations. About 1867, the parnership was 
dissolved and Mr. Harriman retired from active business. He enjoyed thereafter a 
tranquil and retired life, dividing his time between a country home in Hempstead and 
this city. He was a member of the Union club. 

COL. WILLIAM HAMILTON HARRIS, born in Albany, N Y., June 6, 1838, is a 
son of the Hon. Ira Harris, formerly United States Senator from New York. Educated 
in the Military Academy at West Point and the University of Rochester, he retired from 
the United States army after thirteen years service, 1857-70, during which, while captain 
of ordnance, he was brevetted Lieutenant Colonel tor ' 'gallant and meritorious service" in 


the Wilderness campaign. Engaging in the manufacture of iron, in 1870, in Decatur, 
111., and Rosedale, Kan., he filled with credit, later, the positions of treasurer of The St. 
Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern Rail way and president of The Bucyrus Steam Shovel & 
Dredge Co., of South Milwaukee, Wis. In 1864, he was married to Miss Emma Hazen, 
daughter of the late Stillman Witt, of Cleveland, one of the prominent men of that 
city. They have had two children, Edith, wife of Albert Symington, and Emma Witt 
Harris, both now living in New York city. In 1890, Col. Harris changed his residence 
to New York, and is engaged in various manufacturing 1 and commercial pursuits. 

FREDERICK CHRISTIAN HAVEflEYER, sugar refiner, born in New York city, 
Feb. 5; 1807, died at Throgg's Neck, N. Y. , July 28, 1891. He was a son of Frederick 
C. Havemeyer, junior partner in the old firm of W. & F. C. Havemeyer, sugar refiners. 
Frederick left Columbia College in 1823, at the end of his sophomore year, and entered 
the Havemeyer sugar refinery in Vandam street, as an apprentice. The factory was 
then producing 1,000,000 pounds of sugar a year, employing less than a dozen men. 
The young man speedily became a favorite with his uncle William, and under him 
acquired a thorough knowledge of the industry. He worked in every department of 
the factory,, from that of supplying the furnace with fuel to the final stages of refining 
and packing, and later became profoundly versed in the science of this industry. The 
little old sugar house, only 25 by 40 feet in ground plan, was also a store for the sale of 
sugar. Ladies in their carriages often came there to purchase their family supply of 
from one to twenty loaves of sugar or one to twenty gallons of molasses. In 1828, 
Mr. Havemeyer formed a partnership with his cousin, William F. Havemeyer, in after 
years twice Mayor of New York, under the name of W. F. & F. C. Havemeyer, jr. 
They continued refining until 1842, when both partners retired in favor of their broth- 
ers, Albert and Diedrick. The death of his father entailed upon Mr. Havemeyer the 
management of a large property, and he was busily occupied therewith for twelve 
years, his only relaxation being one tour of Europe and the Southern States. In 1855, 
he returned to sugar refining, organized the firm of Havemeyer, Townsend & Co., and 
built in Williamsburg the first of the collection of immense buildings, afterward known 
all over the world as the refineries of Havemeyer & Elder. In 1861, the partnership 
comprised Frederick C. Havemeyer, his son George, and Dwight Townsend. George 
Havemeyer died before the end of the year, and Mr. Townsend soon retired. There- 
upon, Mr. Havemeyer admitted as partners his son Theodore A. Havemeyer, and his 
son-in-law, J. Lawrence Elder, the firm name being then changed to Havemeyers & 
Elder. Two other sons, Thomas J. and Henry O. Havemeyer, and Charles H. Senff, 
a nephew, were also admitted in time. The manufacturing plant of the firm now 
covers five city blocks, and has a great water frontage upon the East River. It is the 
largest sugar refinery in the world. Mr. Havemeyer was married March 31, 1831, to 
Sarah Osborne, daughter of Christopher and May Townsend. Ten children were born 
to them, including Charles, Theodore A., George W., Henry O., Thomas J. and Fred- 
erick C. Havemeyer; Mary O., wife of J. Lawrence Elder; Kate B., wife of Louis J. 
Belloni; Sarah Louise, wife of Frederick W. Jackson, and Warren H. Havemeyer. 
-His son, THEODORE AUGUSTUS HAVEflEYER, refiner, was born in New 
York city, May 17, 1839. He entered the sugar refining business of his father in 1857, 
and was admitted to partnership in 1861. After a successful career as an independent 
refiner, he joined The American Sugar Refining Co., and is now an active director. 


In 1889, he became a member of the firm of E. C. Potter & Co., bankers. Mr. 
Havemeyer has taken an active part in real estate operations and owns many impor- 
tant properties. The great Havemeyer building on Cortlandt street was constructed by 
him. In 1863, he was married to Miss Emilie de Loosey, daughter of Sir Charles F. 
de Loosey, and that union has brought him the following children : Charles F. , Natha- 
lie, Emilie, Blanche, Marie, Theodore, Henry, Dora, and Frederick Havemeyer. Mr. 
Havemeyer is a man of prominence in social life, owning a residence on Madison 
avenue and a palatial "cottage" in Newport, and holding membership in the Union 
League, Tuxedo, Coaching, Metropolitan, Meadow Brook Hunting and New York 
Yacht clubs. He is Consul General of Austria-Hungary, in this city. 

HENRY OSBORNE HAVEHEYER, sugar refiner, a son of Frederick C. Have- 
meyer, was born in New York city, Oct. 18, 1847. He received an excellent education 
in public and private schools and in 1869 was admitted to partnership in Havemeyers 
& Elder. In a few years, he found himself practically the manager. Enormous as was 
the business of the firm, Mr. Havemeyer foresaw possibilities muqh greater in a union 
of the sugar refining firms in different parts of the country, then in rivalry. Mainly 
through his efforts, the great American Sugar Refining Co. was organized Jan. 1 2, 1891. 
In that corporation were merged The Havemeyer & Elder Sugar Refining Co., The De 
Castro & Donner Sugar Refining Co., The Havemeyer Sugar Refining Co., The Brook- 
lyn Sugar Refining Co., The Moller & Sierck Co., The Dick & Meyer Co., The F. O. 
Matthiessen & Wiechers Sugar Ref g Co. , The North River Sugar Refining Co. , and 
several others in Boston, New Orleans, St. Louis, and San Francisco. Purchase has 
since been made by this new company of the refineries of Claus Spreckels and Har- 
rison, Frazier & Co., in Philadelphia. The capital stock is now $75,000,000, making 
this one of the greatest corporations in the country. Mr. Havemeyer has revealed 
abilities of a high order and manages the affairs of his concern with fidelity and success. 
Aug. 22, 1883, he was married to Louisine Waldron, daughter of George W. Elder, of 
The Havemeyer & Elder Sugar Refining Co. They have had three children Adaline, 
Horace and Electra. Mr. Havemeyer owns a house on East 66th street, corner of 
Fifth avenue, but since 1883 has been legally a resident of Greenwich, Conn., where he 
has erected and presented to the town, at a cost of $250,000, a magnificent public school 
house. He is a member of the Grolier and Riding clubs. 

WILLIAM FREDERICK HAVEMEYER, sugar refiner, and three times Mayor of 
Xew York, was born in this city, Feb. 12, 1804. 

The name of Hoevemeyer, in which form it appears in the early re