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Successful Men of Affairs 

An Encyclopedia of Contemporaneous Biography 


Vol. II. 







Volume I. of "America's Successful Men" described the careers and char- 
acters of nearly a thousand of the men most prominent in finance and practical pur- 
suits in the metropolitan district of New York. The present volume is devoted, on 
the other hand, to a more numerous company of the master spirits of the business 
world in the United States at large. The two books constitute a publication, unique 
in character, national in its scope and sincerely believed to be of permanent and 
standard value. 

New York city is a great commercial and financial center and the gateway 
through which rolls an enormous traffic by sea and land. The pursuits of her people 
relate mainly to trade, transportation, manufactures, the construction of buildings 
and development of the ever growing city and its suburbs, and to banking, finance 
and the management of corporations. It is an old, settled, prosperous and 
refined community and the home of several millions of people. Beyond the metrop- 
olis, there are, indeed, other great cities, but it may fairly be said, that, in the 
United States at large, man is brought closer to nature and to the vast and even yet 
only partially developed resources of America's magnificent domain. A greater 
variety of pursuits give occupation to the people and enlist the interest of the leaders 
of industry. The struggle for success is yet attended, in some parts of the country, 
with personal hardship, unusual excitement and even danger ; and it follows that the 
biographies in Volume II., taken as a whole, present a greater variety of experience, 
are intrinsically more entertaining, and perhaps hold up to view a truer picture of 
American life than those of the companion volume. 

The keynote of this work is success in business and practical affairs. Little or 
no attention is paid the lives of men whose prominence is due solely to wealth, 
inherited from a preceding generation, and none at all, unless the possessor of large 
means has performed actions of merit and made a name through his own labors and 

In the preparation of all the sketches, the Editor has received cordial aid from 
individuals and families, to whom he acknowledges indebtedness, and it is thought 
that the biographies are all substantially correct. 

The American who believes that American life does not afford the material for 
picturesque literature, surely does not know his own country. Uneventful and monot- 
onous as is the life of the average business man, and true as it is that practical 
affairs constitute a field in which one would least naturally look for the elements of 
romance, yet there are scores of life stories, incidents and achievements of extraor- 


dinary interest in the following pages, some of them bordering upon the marvellous, 
any one of which would supply the material for an entertaining and valuable book. 
The reader may find, for himself, these stories scattered through the work. 

These volumes teach one or two useful lessons. While protection to domestic 
industry and maintenance of a safe monetary standard are of immense and direct 
interest to the mass of the people, to the small operators and workers, yet they are, 
after all, of comparatively little account to men of intellect, originality, force, courage 
and frugality. Men of this stamp, the actual leaders, thrive under all systems and 
under all circumstances. There are rich men in every kingdom of the world, in free 
trade England and protection France, in free silver Mexico and gold standard Europe, 
in India where wages are a, few cents a day, and in Japan where a dollar brings com- 
forts and conveniences which an American must pay five times the money to obtain, 
as well as in America. One great fact which distinguishes America from nearly if 
not quite every other country under the sun is, that here the avenues to wealth and 
position are absolutely open to all, without reference to the education, means, or 
social standing of the man at the beginning of his career, or his official station after- 
ward. In Europe and Asia at large, and perhaps in South America, the men of 
largest wealth are to be found mainly, although not entirely, among the nobles and 
official classes. The man sometimes said to be the richest individual in the world,, 
the Emperor of China, is the extreme type of the foreign system. His inherited wealth 
and income, the latter wrung from subordinates and the people by exactions, are both 
enormous, and his liberality is seen chiefly on such occasions as celebrations of the 
imperial birthday, when, with lavish ostentation, he scatters $3,000,000 among the 
people to keep them in good humor. In America, a typical example is, perhaps, 
John D. Rockefeller, a man of the people, who, from a boyhood in obscurity and 
a clerkship on a small salary, rose to enormous possessions by his own genius 
and the organization of an important industry, which provided honest labor 
for an army of workmen, developed the natural resources of his country, and 
reduced the cost of one of the necessaries of life to his countrymen, and who gives 
millions, not showily, to dazzle and conciliate an oppressed people, but in the most 
singularly unobtrusive manner, to promote popular intelligence and the happiness of 

The examples of success in this work should prove a strong incentive to the 
capable youth of America to make the most of their lives, to begin in youth to 
cultivate habits of thrift and thoroughness, and to lay, even before attaining their 
majority, the sound basis of character, practical sense, energy and integrity, without 
which a lasting success in affairs is practically impossible. 



HORACE ABBOTT, iron manufacturer, Baltimore, Md. , became famous for his 
part in the equipment of iron clad monitors during the Civil War. Born in Sudbury, 
Mass., July 29, 1806, he removed to Baltimore at an early age and engaged in iron 
manufacturing. At first, his attention was directed chiefly to steamboat shafts, cranks 
and other heavy forgings, and he made the shaft for the frigate Kamtchatka, built in 
this country for the Russian navy. It is said, in fact, that he made the first large 
steamboat shaft ever known in America. Through intelligent persistence, he developed 
a large business, and was long a leader in the United States in this line of undertakings. 
He supplied the heavy iron used in the new dome of the Capitol at Washington, and 
was able to produce American plates for hulls of vessels, which took the place entirely 
of those of English make previously imported. His first mill, built in 1850, was larger 
than any other in the country at the time, having nine foot rolls. The second mill, 
completed in 1857, had ten foot rolls. Another mill, built in 1858, and a fourth in 
1861, enabled Mr. Abbott to produce larger iron plates than could be obtained from 
any other mill. These ?.chievements were accomplished by economy and prudent care 
of profits. The first work done in the fourth mill was the making of the heavy iron 
for Ericsson's Monitor, which, except for this mill, could not have been produced in 
America, and the Monitor could not have been built in time to reach Hampton Roads 
to fight her famous battle with the Merrimack. During the war, Mr. Abbott made 
the iron armor for the other monitors, including the Roanoke, Agamenticus and Monad- 
nock. It was the ambition of Mr. Abbott to show byactual demonstration that in the 
United States it was practicable to compete successfully with English makers, even at 
the low tariff rate. When he had illustrated his purpose, he readily gave way to 
others who, seeing what he had done, were eager to take his place, more especially 
since the Morrill tariff was by that time affording encouragement to the purpose. 
Successful in his efforts, Mr. Abbott retired from the iron business in 1865. His works 
were sold and became known afterward as The Abbott Iron Co. He died Aug. 8, 1887. 
Mrs. Isaac M. Gate of Baltimore is his only child. 


ERNEST ROBINSON ACKERflAN, manufacturer, Plainfield, N. J., already con- 
spicuous in public affairs and likely to become more so, is a native of New York city, 
where he was born June 17, 1863. He comes from patriotic ancestry and descends from 
Colonel Morgan, a famous officer of the American Revolution. His father, the late 
J. Hervey Ackerman, was president of the Common Council and City Judge of Plain- 
field, N. J., while the late Warren Ackerman, of Scotch Plains, N. J., was his uncle. 
When Ernest was five years of age, the family removed to Plainfield, and there the 
youth received a sound education, graduating from the High School in June, 1880, and 
being one of seven, who had won by application special distinction in the class. The 
same year, he went to Europe with Bishop Vincent and his son George and spent sev- 
eral months in travel in England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Germany and Switzerland. 

Returning in October, his mind stimulated by what he had seen and eager to enter 
upon a career, Mr. Ackerman applied himself to learning the details of the cement in- 
dustry, in the office of The Lawrence Cement Co., on William street, New York city. 
Fidelity to duty, ambition, and intelligent effort, resulted in February, 1885, in his elec- 
tion as director and secretary of The Cumberland Hydraulic Cement & Manufacturing 
Co., and in the following September vice-president. He speedily became an expert in 
the manufacture of cement, thoroughly conversant with the practical and economic sides 
of the industry. In March, 1 886, Mr. Ackerman was elected a director in The Rock 
Lock Rosendale Cement Co., and during 1885, visited California in the interest of his two 
concerns and made another tour of Europe, and in 1895 mada a tour round the world. 
In January, 1887, The Lawrence Cement Co., which had grown to large proportions 
through a union of various concerns, appointed him one of its general sales agents, the 
duties of the position compelling him again to travel extensively. In 1891, he was 
elected to the presidency of The Lawrence Cement Co. 

The Lawrence Cement Co. produces about 5,000 barrels per day, or over 1,000,000 
barrels a year, which is nearly an eighth of the whole product in this country. The 
works of the company extend four miles on the Rondout Creek in Ulster county, N. Y., 
and are located over quarries of dark blue tentaculate or water limestone rock, which, 
when burned and properly treated, assumes the condition of a powerful hydraulic 
cement. The rock lies mainly within a narrow belt, scarcely a mile wide, skirting the 
Shawangunk Mountains. It is quarried from drifts and tunnels, driven into the hills 
at various depths and following the bed in which the rock has lain for ages. In loosen- 
ing the rock, there were consumed in these works in one year 62,000 pounds of dyna- 
mite, 350 kegs of black powder and 175,000 feet of blasting fuse. The rock is drawn 
in cars to openings on the hillside, and then, in various buildings, is burned, crushed, 
ground, mixed, proved and packed for shipment. Great pains are taken to prevent the 
sale of any cement below standard excellence. The mills, kilns, storehouses, repair 
shops, cooper shops, railroads, mines, etc., constitute an extensive plant, requiring the 
services of about a thousand well-paid men. A fleet of twenty-five canal boats, built 
by the company, transports the product to market by way of The Delaware & Hudson 
Canal and the Hudson river, and a large number of outside vessels find desirable em- 
ployment in the same business. The product of these works goes by the name of the 
Hoffman Rosendale cement, and finds a market in every part of the United States. 

This industry derives its greatest value in an economic sense, from the fact that 
labor constitutes at least 87 per cent, of the cost of the finished product. The rock as 


it lies in the ground, the lumber pile from which the barrels are made, and the coal 
purchased for fuel, are the raw materials of the industry. All of the rest of the value 
comes from careful, conscientious and expert labor. The possibility of maintaining the 
cement industry in this country against foreign competition is simply a question of 
wages and protection. It is an interesting fact, that, during the hard times of 1893-94, 
when thousands of working men went begging for work at half wages, Mr. Ackerman 
refused, from a sense of public duty and interest in his employes, to take advantage of 
the situation and reduce the wages of his regiment of men. He bore the brunt himself 
and paid full wages during the whole period. This act of practical philanthropy 
strongly endeared him to working men. Mr. Ackerman's thorough knowledge of this 
industry stood him and the men in good stead in July, 1888, when revision of the tariff 
was under consideration in Washington. He appeared before the Congressional sub- 
committee on that occasion as the champion of such duties on foreign cement as would 
permit a continuance of the domestic manufacture and sustain the employment of 
skilled labor. His clear and earnest recital of the simple facts made a strong impres- 
sion on both the Republican and Democratic members; and a working duty on foreign 
cement was retained. 

The revelation of his abilities as an advocate of the interests of American labor led 
the Republican managers of the Presidential campaign in 1888 to invite Mr. Ackerman 
to join in public discussions. In compliance with their request, he spoke in Cumber- 
land, Md., with Col. T. M. Bayne, of Pennsylvania, and Joseph D. Taylor, Congress- 
man from Ohio, and in Kingston, N. Y., with Gen. George W. Carter, of Louisiana, 
and Col. George H. Sharpe. His speeches in both places abounded in strong and sen- 
sible suggestions; and the one in Kingston was printed in full in New York city by The 
Mail and Express. To his surprise, he then found himself launched upon a public 

In 1888-89, repeated requests were made that Mr. Ackerman should serve his ward 
in the Common Council of Plainfield. He declined, at first, owing to preoccupation 
in practical affairs, but, in 1890, consented to accept the Republican nomination for 
Councilman from the Third Ward, and was elected by a handsome majority. In the 
stormy session of 1891, Mr. Ackerman proved to be the right man in the right place. 
He led the Republicans, with credit, in a lively contest in the Board, and by his 
earnest efforts saved the taxpayers of Plainfield a large sum of money. He was a 
member of the famous minority of five, who successfully resisted the efforts to 
fasten upon the city a water and sewerage system, to which the taxpayers were 
stubbornly opposed.. Mr. Ackerman did not absent himself from one of the forty- 
three sessions of that year. 

In politics, there is always a large amount of hard and prosaic work, which entails 
loss of time, the expenditure of much money, and distraction from business pursuits; 
and such work is, as a rule, energetically avoided by prominent business men. Those 
however, who, from genuine public spirit, accept the responsibilities of such work, 
perform a service which merits recognition. Although a busy man, Mr. Ackerman 
has not shirked his duty to the Republican party. He has attended many conventions 
as a delegate, and was honored in 1892 by being elected chairman of the County 
Convention, and in 1893, chairman of the City Convention. He was a delegate to the 
National Convention of Republican clubs in Denver, Colo., in 1894, and has been a 


hard-working member of the City and County Executive Committees. His services, 
ability aud character led, in 1 894, to the suggestion that he be made the Republican 
nominee for Congress at the next election in the Plainfield district, but his vast business 
interests made it impossible for him to be a candidate. He is well fitted for public 
service, and, should he ever accept a nomination for Congress, will undoubtedly display 
the same fidelity and ability which have so far characterized his career. His political 
creed is summed up in the remark, recently made : ''I believe in a tariff on foreign 
goods sufficient to equalize the differences in labor cost between this country and 
Europe ; in other words, in maintaining the wages of the laboring man and not reduc- 
ing them to the European level. I believe that every dollar of our currency should be 
equal to any other dollar, and that all should be of the best. I believe in a free and 
unrestricted ballot and a fair count ; that our foreign commerce should be extended by 
proper reciprocity treaties; that we should be ever mindful of the services and sacri- 
fices of the men who saved the life of the nation, and that we should give proper 
recognition to all just claims for pensions." 

Mr. Ackerman was married in February, 1892, to Mora L., daughter of William 
E. Weber, of Cumberland, Md. While his business office is in New York city, his 
home and social and political interests are entirely in Plainfield. 

ALVIN ADAMS, founder of The Adams Express Co., a native of Andover, Vt., 
and born June 16, 1804, died in Watertown, Mass , Sept. 2, 1877. He was descended 
from Henry Adams, an emigrant from England in colonial times to Braintree, Mass. 
John Adams, President of the United States, was a descendant from the same emi- 
grant. In 1840, Alvin Adams engaged in the then novel specialty of forwarding par- 
cels, money, and valuable merchandise between Boston and New York by way of 
Worcester, Norwich and New London, beginning in a little store in Boston, at No. 9 
Court street, on the site of the present Ames Building, and making his first trip May 
4. Later, he formed the partnership of Adams & Co., with Ephraim Farnsworth, the 
latter taking charge of the New York office, and being succeeded at his death soon after- 
wards by William B. Dinsmore. In 1854, Mr. Adams effected a union of four concerns, 
Adams & Co., Wm. F. Harnden & Co., Thompson & Co., and Kinsley & Co., under 
the name of The Adams Express Co. , and became president of the organization. So 
many bright and energetic men were associated in this concern that it was not difficult 
after that to extend the business to the West and South, and The Adams Express Co. 
became a powerful corporation. Mr. Adams was associated at one time with the pio- 
neers of the express business to the mining camps in California, but in 1854, sold his 
Pacific coast interests to The California Express Co. The wife of Mr. Adams was Ann 
Bridge of Cambridge, a descendant of John Bridge, one of the original settlers of Cam- 
bridge, then Newtown, Mass., who established the school from which sprang Harvard 
College. WALDO ADAMS, son of Alvin Adams, born in Boston, May 23, 1836, died 
in the same city, March 9, 1892. At the age of eighteen, he entered his father's office, 
where he learned the express business and worked up through all grades-to that of 
superintendent. In 1888, after the death of President Dinsmore, he assumed the office 
of actual manager, and held it for the rest of his life. Governor Andrew called him 
into the public service during the Civil War, as assistant quartermaster on the staff, 
and often sent him to the front with supplies for the hospitals and troops, his knowl- 
edge of the express business especially fitting him for these labors. Mr. Adams was a 


director in The Equitable Life Assurance Society. June 2, 1857, Mr. Adams was 
married to Isabella H., daughter of Walter and Annis Crawford Burnham of Lowell. 
His wife survived him. 

CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, writer and man of affairs, is a member of the 
famous family which gave two Presidents to the United States, and for four genera- 
tions has occupied a prominent place in public and social life. He is a great grandson 
of John Adams, grandson of John Quincy Adams, and son of the late Charles Francis 
Adams, formerly Minister to England. His mother was a daughter of Peter C. 
Brooks, an old time merchant, who died in 1848 the richest man in New England 
leaving a fortune of over $2,000,000 to several children. A considerable portion of the 
real estate of the family descends from colonial times. Henry Adams, of this family, 
settled in 1636 at Mount Wollaston, later Braintree; and in that portion of Braintree 
which in 1792 was incorporated as Quincy, the Adams family have had their homes 
from 1640 until the present day. The men were in early times farmers, who slowly 
increased in substance ; and the growth of population has enhanced the value of their 
lands. The family real estate in Boston ranks with the most productive in the city. 

Charles Francis Adams, born in Boston, May 27, 1835, graduated from Harvard 
in 1856, was admitted to the bar in 1858, and received a commission at the beginning 
of the Civil War, as ist Lieutenant in the ist Mass. Cav. He served loyally and was 
mustered out as Colonel and brevet Brigadier General in July, 1865. Mr. Adams then 
began the practice mainly of railroad law, and in 1869, became a Railroad Com- 
missioner of Massachusetts, resigning the position in 1879. In 1871, he published a 
book, entitled " Chapters of Erie, and other Essays," which attracted much attention. 
Subsequently, in 1871 and 1872, he published two treatises, " Railroads, their Origin 
and Problems, " and " Notes on Railroad Accidents." It was through Frederick L. 
Ames that Mr. Adams became connected with The Union Pacific Railroad. Mr. 
Ames took him all over the road, so that he might know the property, and made him 
a director, and, in 1884, president of the corporation. Mr. Adams proved of much value 
to the company. After six years of service, he resigned in 1890. He is now president 
of The Kansas City Stock Yards Co., and a director in The Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Co., of Pittsburgh, and other companies. 

Mr. Adams was, 1883-95, an overseer of Harvard University. He is a fellow of 
The American Academy, and vice president of The Massachusetts Historical Society. 
In June, 1883, he delivered the Phi Beta Kappa oration at Harvard, which under the 
title of " A College Fetich," created a lively public discussion. His main contention was 
in favor of rescinding the rule, which made a superficial study of elementary Greek a 
requirement for admission to colleges. Mr. Adams is an independent in politics. 
Since 1890, he has devoted himself to private affairs and literary pursuits, especially to 
historical investigation. He is chairman ot the Metropolitan Park Commission and 
was an original member. Besides numerous addresses, essays and monographs, there 
have come from his pen, " Richard Henry Dana," a biography in two volumes of the 
author of "Two Years Before the Mast," 1890; "Three Episodes of Massachusetts 
History," being in fact a history in two volumes of Braintree and Quincy, 1892; and a 
smaller work, " Massachusetts, its Historians and its History," 1893. 

In 1865, Mr. Adams married Mary Hone, daughter of Edward Ogden, of Newport, 
R. I. , and they have two sons and three daughters. Their home is in Lincoln, Mass. 


J. flcQREQOR ADAHS, manufacturer, Chicago, a native of Londonderry, N. H., 
was born March n, 1834. The Rev. John R. Adams, D. D., his father, who married 
Mary Anne McGregor, served as chaplain throughout the War for the Union, in the 
5th Me. and izist N. Y. Vols. Mr. Adams is in the seventh generation of descent 
from Henry Adams of Braintree, Mass , whose tombstone declares that he " took 
flight from the dragon, Persecution, in 1630." Governor Bradford of Plymouth col- 
ony, who came to America in the Mayflower, was another ancestor, and John Adams, 
LL. D. , his grandfather, was principal of Phillips Academy, Andover, for over twenty 
years. On the maternal side, his lineage extends back to Gen. George Reid of London- 
derry, who fought at Bunker Hill and in other battles of the American Revolution, and 
to the Rev. James McGregor, one of the defenders of Londonderry Island, who, tra- 
dition says, fired the gun, announcing arrival of relief to the besieged. This colonial 
parson emigrated in 1630 with his congregation and settled in Londonderry, N. H 
Educated in Gorham, Me., and Andover, Mass., J. McGregor Adams went to New 
York city in 1853, to become a clerk in a dry goods house in Cortlandt street, at a salary 
of $150 a year, and managed to live on this scanty sum. Subsequently, he entered the 
office of Clark & Jesup on Beaver street, New York, and with this house and its suc- 
cessors has ever since been connected. In 1858, he settled in Chicago, representing 
Morris K. Jesup & Co., the house being subsequently merged into that of Crerar, 
Adams & Co., which is yet in existence, and of which Mr. Adams is a partner. 
In this concern and in The Adams & Westlake Co., incorporated in 1874 with a capital 
of $650,000, of which he is president, The Union Brass Manufacturing Co., and kin- 
dred concerns, Mr. Adams manufactures the whole range of goods called railroad sup- 
plies, including headlights, lanterns, car trimmings and other specialties in metals, 
many of them patented articles. He is a member of the Chicago Board of Trade and 
one of the Commissioners of Lincoln Park, has been president of the Union League 
and Union clubs, and belongs to the Loyal Legion and Society of the Cincinnati. His 
wife is Jane Rockwell King, whom he married July 12, 1864. 

JAY ELMER ADAMS, land proprietor, originated March 30, 1862, on a farm 
near Osceola, Clarke county, Iowa, the son of Thomas J. Adams, farmer, and Berilla, 
his wife. His people were Kentuckians. originally, and are of the kin of the Adams, 
Moffett and Hickman families of Indiana. Brought up as a country boy, with no 
superfluity of education, Jay E. Adams was thrown upon his own resources at eleven 
years of age by the death of his mother. Each summer was spent in working on a 
farm for the bare necessaries of life, and the winters were devoted to plodding through 
simple text books at a rural school. At the age of eighteen, Mr. Adams took charge 
of a country school in Western Nebraska, then went into a store as clerk, and at twenty 
became travelling salesman for a wholesale house in Omaha, being then as thoroughly 
trained to toil and as self-reliant and alert as most college men are at thirty. His sal- 
ary as a salesman was good and the nucleus of a fortune was laid by frugal living and 
careful saving. For a time, Mr. Adams lived in Denver, Colo., but in October, 1890, 
settled in San Antonio, Tex. , which has ever since been his home. There he devoted 
himself to real estate interests, buying much acre property and dividing it into city 
lots. It is he who bought the land, plotted the streets and developed the attractive 
suburb of Laurel Heights, now the best residence property in the city. He gave 
10,000 to the water works company to lay their mains through the Heights and $5,000 


to The San Antonio Street Railroad Co. to run their cars out there. Mr. Adams is also 
the owner of 30,000 acres of land in Colorado and 4,000 acres in Blanco county, Texas, 
and of herds of cattle. All his operations have been conducted in his own name. To 
him and his wife, Maud M. Young, whom he married in Central City, Neb., in 1883, 
two children have been born, Carleton and Craig. Mr. Adams takes a natural pride in 
growing possessions, but far more in the fact that he has never intentionally done any- 
thing to be ashamed of and has always tried to apply the golden rule. He feels the 
keen interest of every native American in political affairs, while his church, The Young 
Men's Christian Association and various religious societies, to which he belongs, furnish 
ample scope for social inclinations. 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, lawyer and farmer, born in Boston, Sept. 22, 1833, died 
Aug. 14, 1894. He was the oldest son of the late Charles Francis Adams, sr. , 
Minister to England, and was known as the farmer member of the family. Like his 
father and brothers, trained for college in the Boston Latin School, he graduated from 
Harvard in 1853. Charles W. Eliot, now president of that University, was a class- 
mate. Mr. Adams studied law, was admitted to practice in 1855, and ranked for a 
time as one of the leading members of the Norfolk County bar, maintaining offices in 
both Boston and Quincy, but he was not attached to the profession and preferred the 
freer life of a country gentleman. He settled in Quincy, therefore, and busied him- 
self with an estate of about 500 acres, inherited from his father. During the Civil 
War, he served as a Colonel on the staff of Governor Andrew, and went to the front 
several times, but saw no active service except for a short time in 1861, when stationed 
in Fort Independence in Boston Harbor as a lieutenant of artillery. In 1866, 1869 
and 1870, he sat in the State Legislature. Although originally a Free Soiler, he 
became in the reconstruction period a Democrat, and, while an able man, was not 
fortunate in politics. In 1867, when the Democrats of Massachusetts made one of 
their many new departures, in the hope of gaining power, they nominated him for 
Governor. The State was overwhelmingly Republican, however, and Mr. Adams was 
defeated. He was again nominated and again defeated. In 1872, he was nominated 
for Vice-President of the United States on the ticket with Charles O 'Conor, of New 
York, with a similar result. In 1873, at the solicitation of his party, he became a 
candidate for Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts on the ticket with William 
Gaston, who had just served a term as Governor, but with him was defeated. He was, 
in 1884, nominated for Congress in the Second District, but declined to stand, and after 
that time, was not active in politics. In 1891, Governor Russell appointed Mr. Adams 
a member of the Rapid Transit Commission. Mr. Adams was always a refined and 
courteous gentleman, whose character was above reproach and whose ability was 
characteristic of the family. He served as a trustee of large estates, and sat in the 
directorate of several railroads. The surviving members of the family are his wife, 
Mrs. Frances Crowninshield Adams, George Casper, Charles Francis, 2d, and Arthur, 
his sons, and a daughter, Adelaide. Mrs. Adams is a member of The Fifty Associates, 
who own a large amount of valuable real estate in Boston. 

JOHN EDWARD ADDICKS, capitalist, a native of Philadelphia, was born Nov. 21, 
1841. He traces lineal descent from Donald O'Sullivan Beare of Dunboy Castle, 
County Cork, Ireland, chief of Beare and Bantry, leader of the Munster forces in the 
war with Queen Elizabeth, and, at his death, Earl of Beerhaven. Among this old, 


Irish chiefs posterity were Gen. John Sullivan of the American Revolution, and Bar- 
bara O'Sullivan of Philadelphia, who married John Edward Charles Addicks, German 
Consul to Philadelphia and became the grandmother of the subject of this sketch. Mr. 
Addicks is also of gentle descent through his mother, Margaret McLeod Turner, a 
great grand daughter of Lady Arabella Galbraith of Scotland. Graduating from the 
High School in Philadelphia at the age of fifteen, Mr. Addicks spent four years in a 
wholesale dry goods store and then entered the employment of Levi Knowles, a flour 
merchant, who finally admitted him to partnership. In 1863, with the capital he had 
saved, Mr. Addicks engaged in the flour business and rose to prominence in the trade 
in Philadelphia Spring wheat flour from the Minnesota region was introduced in 
Philadelphia largely through his energy. Mr. Addicks was married in 1864 to Laura 
Wattson Butcher of Philadelphia. Their only child is a daughter, Florence. 

When he had gained the means, Mr. Addicks embarked in real estate ventures, but, 
in recent years, he has become prominent through the introduction of water gas for 
lighting purposes into the larger cities of the country. Works for the manufacture of 
this gas were built by him in Jersey City and for The Consumers' Gas Co. of Chicago, 
and the competition which he engendered led to a union of the gas companies in Chicago 
into the now noted Chicago Gas Trust. In 1884, he organized and became president 
of The Bay State Gas Co. of Boston, which constructed large works. In 1892, he 
bought a majority interest in The Brooklyn Gas Co., becoming its president, and is now 
largely interested in other gas companies in Brooklyn. These operations have brought 
him large wealth. He has also established a gas making plant in Wilmington, Del. 

Mr. Addicks has been by turns a resident of Philadelphia, Boston and New York, 
and is a member of the Law, Vaudeville and New York Yacht clubs of New York city, 
the Eastern and Boston Yacht clubs of Boston, and the Hamilton club of Brooklyn. 
Having finally established a country home in Claymont, Del., he became a candidate in 
1895 for United States Senator from Delaware, and his pertinacity, wealth, and 
strenuous methods enabled him to make a strong showing in the lively and memorable 
contest which followed, and, by an extraordinary procedure in politics, to defeat the 
election of Senator Henry A. DuPont. The friends of Mr. DuPont commanded exactly 
one more vote than Mr. Addicks and the whole combined opposition; but the former 
Lieutenant Governor of the State (who had been promoted to the Gubernatorial chair) 
was brought into the joint convention of the Legislature and cast his ballot, thus tying 
the vote and affording the opposition a basis on which to contest Mr. DuPont's election. 
The Democrats an^ Populists of the Senate refused to seat Mr. DuPont. 

JOHN PETER ADRIAI E, manufacturer, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., was a son of John 
Adriance, manufacturer, and was born in Poughkeepsie, March 4, 1825. He died 
June 18, 1891. After school attendance in his native city and in New Paltz, N. Y , 
he gained his first impressions in business as a clerk in the hardware store of Storm & 
Uhl in Poughkeepsie. Later, he took a position in the same trade with Walsh & Mal- 
lory of New York, and in 1845, was sent by the firm to Manchester, N. H., to manage 
their store there. While he succeeded to this business, he was not content with it, and 
he returned to New York in 1852 and went into the wholesale hardware trade with his 
brother-in-law, Samuel R. Platt, and with Samuel W. Sears, under the firm name of 
Sears, Adriance & Platt. This concern purchased, in 1854, the Manny mower patent 
for the New England States, and began building the machine in Worcester, Mass , the 


manufacture being carried on in the name of John P. Adrian ce. In 1857, Mr. 
Adriance acquired the patent rights for the same territory for a mower, which had just 
been awarded the first premium at a field trial in Syracuse, N. Y. This machine he 
named the "Buckeye" from the fact that it had originated in Ohio. The Manny 
machine being abandoned, manufacture of the new one was begun in Worcester, Mass. 
In 1859, the factory was moved to Poughkeepsie, and in 1863, the firm of Sears, Adri- 
ance & P.latt was succeeded by Adriance, Platt & Co. , who were destined to rise to dis- 
tinction. In January, 1882, Mr. Adriance incorporated the business under the old firm 
name, and took the presidency of the company, which position he held until his death. 
The Buckeye mower and reaper enjoyed an extended sale, and the works proved of 
much benefit to the city of Poughkeepsie. Mr. Adriance was of Dutch descent and a 
member of the Holland Society of New York. He was survived by his wife, Mrs. 
Mary Jane Ruthven Platt Adriance, and his children, Isaac Reynolds, John Erskinc, 
Harris Ely, William Allen, and Francis Henry Adriance, and Marion, wife of Silas 

PROF. ALEXANDER AQASSIZ, capitalist, Cambridge, Mass., has gained a fortune 
without a life of slow accumulation, and has been able to devote his time to science, 
authorship, and education. A son of the late Prof. Louis Agassiz of Harvard Uni- 
versity, he was born in Neuchatel, Switzerland, Dec. 17, 1835. Coming to the 
United States in 1849, and graduating from Harvard in 1855, he studied civil engineer- 
ing and chemistry, and for a while acted as instructor in his father's school for young 
ladies. In 1859, the United States Coast Survey employed him as an assistant in 
work on the Pacific coast and northwestern boundary. He returned to Cambridge, 
Mass., the following year. In 1863, Prof. Agassiz engaged in coal mining in Pennsyl- 
vania, and in 1866 in copper-mining in the Lake Superior region. The copper mines 
made him a rich man. Until 1869, he had charge, as superintendent, of the Calumet 
and Hecla copper mines, which developed into enormous copper producers. Prof. 
Agassiz is now president of The Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. He is connected _ with 
Harvard University as curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and has given 
upwards of $750,000 to that institution and the college. As a result of several deep 
sea dredging expeditions in the Blake and the Albatross, sent out by the Coast Survey 
and the United States Fish Commission to the West Indies and the Pacific under his 
charge, and of extended travels in South America, India and Europe he is the 
author of a large number of publications on marine zoology and scientific topics, an 
imperfect list of which appears in the catalogue of scientific papers published by The 
Royal Society of London. The Metropolitan, Century and Engineers clubs of New 
York city have enrolled him as a member. 

CAPT. JOHN COHIQERS AINSWORTH, pioneer of the Pacific coast, first saw 
the light of day June 6, 1822, in Springborough, Warren county, O. His mother and 
father both dying before he was twelve years old, the boy had to go to work at once at 
$5 a month in the store of his uncle, where he enjoyed strict and even harsh discipline. 
The limited schooling of his boyhood was so supplemented by reading and private 
study, that Captain Ainsworth always passed for an educated man. When of age, he 
found employment in the navigation . of the Mississippi, rose to be a pilot, and at the 
time of the discovery of gold at Sacramento was master of a steamboat, plying between 
St. Louis and Galena. He removed to California in 1850 with William C. Ralston, and 


reached Sacramento with just $9 in his pocket. Before he died, his funds had grown to 
several millions. Mr. Ainsworth pushed on to Oregon, and in time promoted the 
building of a steamboat at Milwaukee on the Willamette to ply between Oregon City 
and Astoria, with Mr. Ainsworth as captain. A year or so later, when Capt. R. R. 
Thompson built the Uniatilla, a stern wheel steamer, to trade on the middle Columbia, 
these two men joined their interests; and during the Indian War of 1855, the Utnattlla, 
commanded by Captain Ainsworth, was largely and profitably employed in carrying 
troops and supplies for the Federal government. In 1857, gold was discovered on the 
Frazer river, and thereupon Captain Ainsworth made an historic voyage. Reducing all 
the top hamper of the Umatilla, Captain Ainsworth took his boat under steam out 
through the breakers which roar across the famous Columbia river bar, and made a 
three days' trip on the open sea to Frazer river. This voyage was the theme of anec- 
dote for years. Throughout the gold excitement, his boat was employed on that route, 
realizing handsome profits. But in the winter of 1 860-61, gold was discovered on the 
upper tributaries of the Columbia, and Captain Ainsworth, Captain Thompson, and 
Simeon G. Reed of Portland, thereupon created a fleet of steamboats, afterward merged 
in The Oregon Steam Navigation Co., to trade to all points accessible on the upper 
waters of the Columbia and its tributaries. For many years this company enjoyed the 
monopoly of an enormous traffic. Captain Ainsworth was one of the largest three 
stockholders, when, in 1879, the boats were sold to The Oregon Railroad & Naviga- 
tion Co. He had meanwhile become a large owner of improved real estate in Portland 
Removing in 1880 to Oakland, Cala., he organized The Ainsworth National Bank of 
Portland, in 1886, and later The Central Bank of Oakland. In 1888, Captain Thomp- 
son and he bought land at Redondo Beach, upon which they created a seaside hotel. 
Captain Ainsworth was a prominent member of the Masonic order, philanthropic, 
liberal, and devoted to his family, a just man, and, while a money maker, generous. 
He died Dec. 30, 1893, survived by his wife and six children, George J., John C., 
Daisy, Henry, Maude, and Belle. 

HEALY CADY AKELEY, an operator in the lumber industry in Minneapolis, has 
proved many things and held fast to one which was good. A native of Stowe, Vt., 
he \vas born March 16, 1836. The ancestors of his family came from England at an 
early period, and his mother was a member of the Dustin family of Haverhill, Mass., 
famous for their part in Indian wars. Educated in the local schools, Mr. Akeley 
began life as a farmer and surveyor, later becoming a lawyer, as so many farm boys 
do. In October, 1863, he enlisted in the and Mich. Cav. as a private, and was mustered 
out in 1865 as Adjutant of the regiment. In 1872, he went into the manufacture of 
lumber in Grand Haven, Mich., and continued therein until removal to Minneapolis in 
1887. He was Mayor of Grand Haven two terms, and, 1866-81, Collector of Customs 
for the District of Michigan. Mr. Akeley is now president of The H. C. Akeley 
Lumber Co., in Minneapolis, in partnership with Charles H. Hackley and Thomas 
Hume, of Muskegon, Mich., president of The Itasca Liimber Co., and member "of the 
lumber firm of Walker & Akeley, who are operating pine lands owned by the partners. 
Among the twenty saw mills of Minneapolis, those of Mr. Akeley occupy a place in 
the front rank. Character, grit, wide knowledge of the world, and patient persever- 
ance, have made Mr. Akeley a prosperous man, and he is now president of The Flour 
City National Bank and The Metropolitan Trust Co., and, by reason of social qualities, 


a member of the Minneapolis and Union League clubs. Annie Murray of Waterbury, 
Vt., became his wife in 1859, and in 1869, after her death, Mr. Akeley married Hettie 
E. Smith of Grand Haven. He has one child, Florence. 

GEORGE ADELBERT ALDEN, merchant, Boston, Mass., has been for more than 
forty years successfully connected with-the trade in crude rubber. One of the lineal 
descendants of John and Priscilla Alden of the Mayflower, he was born in Hope, Me. , 
April 7, 1830. Upon leaving the High School in Bangor, he became a clerk in the 
drug business in the same city, but went to Boston in 1848 and entered the drug store 
of William B. Little & Co., remaining there until 1855. He then started on his own 
account a brokerage business, in drugs and crude rubber, adopting the firm name of 
George A. Alden & Co. In 1878, his oldest son, Adelbert Henry Alden, then just of 
age, came into the concern as a partner. The firm now enjoy a large business in 
importing rubber and have gradually come to deal in various other foreign products, 
such as cocoa, shellac, gambier, etc., and to export lumber, staves, petroleum, etc., 
with a branch office in New York. They have resident agents in Paris, London, Liverpool, 
Hamburg, Lisbon, Calcutta, Singapore and Bahia, and transact a business of about 
$8,000,000 a year. Cable dispatches, relative to the state of the markets, are received 
by them daily from important points abroad. Mr. Alden is an excellent business man, 
and is a director in The Revere Rubber Co., The Boston Rubber Co., The National 
Revere Bank, and The Seamless Rubber Co., and a shareholder in various other com- 
panies. He is a member of the Algonquin, Temple, Country, Athletic, Merchants' 
Exchange, and Trade clubs. Through marriage in Charlestown, April 21, 1856, with 
Harriett J. Hadley, he is the father of Adelbert Henry and George Alden. The family 
occupy a farm at Wellesley during the summer seasons. 

NELSON WILHARTH ALDRICH, merchant, street railroad president and United 
States Senator, a native of Foster, R. I., received an academic education, entered mer- 
cantile life in Providence, and, as a partner in a wholesale grocery firm, made an effec- 
tive and prosperous use of his time until middle life. While a young man, Mr.-Aldrich 
entered politics as a Republican ; and a happy faculty for making friends, a clear and 
studious mind and strong common sense promoted him in office rapidly. He was presi- 
dent of the Common Council in Providence, 1871-73; a member of the Legislature, 
1875-76, serving as Speaker, the second year; and Member of Congress, in 1879-83. 
In 1 88 1, the Legislature elected him United States Senator to succeed General Burn- 
side and returned him to the Senate in 1886 and 1893. Mr. Aldrich's services at Wash- 
ington have been conspicuously useful He is an authority on the Tariff and one of 
the most effective and successful supporters of the American policy of protection. 
Within the last two or three years, he has taken a large interest in the management of 
street railroads in Providence and been influential in the formation of The Union Street 
Railroad Co. , which has bought not only the city railroads but those connecting the city 
with various suburban towns. Mr. Aldrich is now president of the company and of 
The Providence Cable Tramway Co. and The Pawtucket Street Railway. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity. 

ALEXANDER JOHN ALEXANDER, farmer, Spring Station, Ky., was born in 
Woodford county, Ky., Oct. 7, 1824, on the Woodburn farm, now owned by him. 
Robert Alexander, his father, migrated from Scotland in 1785, first to Virginia and 
afterward to Kentucky, and purchased the Woodburn estate in 1791. The young man 


received an excellent education, partly in the schools of his native State and partly in 
England. Since his return to America in 1849, he has been engaged in farming and*, 
stock raising, except during about five years in Chicago. He inherited a handsome 
estate from his brother, Robert Aitcheson Alexander, including mining interests in 
Scotland and the Woodburn farm of 3,000 acres in Kentucky. The latter property, 
one of the finest in this State, is well supplied with herds of cattle, sheep and horses. 
It is in the Blue Grass region, exceedingly fertile, and well situated. Mr. Alexander 
has added largely to his inheritance by operations in real estate. He has some prop- 
erty in Chicago, and, a few years ago, paid Gen. Simon B. Buckner, the old Confeder- 
ate officer, $500,000 for a block of business buildings in Chicago, which he then demol- 
ished, erecting a sixteen-story structure upon the old site. He is a gentleman of philan- 
thropic spirit, a Democrat and an elder in the Presbyterian church in Versailles, which 
he regularly attends. All his neighbors and associates hold him in high esteem. 

GEN. RUSSELL ALEXANDER ALGER, one of the ablest cavalry officers in the 
Civil War, lumber manufacturer and public man, is a conspicuous example of the re- 
wards which await even the poorest man, if he possesses courage, character, patience, 
health and intelligence. John Alger, his great grandfather, fought in many of the 
battles of the American Revolution, and the enterprising spirit of this old veteran seems 
to have descended to his children. Russell, in this line, left his Connecticut home in 
1820. He afterward married Caroline Moulton, penetrated the Western wilderness and 
settled on a wooded farm in Lafayette, Medina county, O., where he cleared part of 
the land, built a simple log cabin with a sloping roof and strove to support his family 
by planting crops. In the little log house in this clearing, Russell A. Alger was born, 
Feb. 27, 1836. The almost pinching poverty of the frontier burdened the struggling 
family, but love and all the sterling graces of human character prevailed under its hum- 
ble roof. The father was finally obliged to mortgage the farm and lost it under fore- 
closure, leaving the family without a dollar in the world; and, in 1848, his four small 
children were orphaned. The oldest child, a daughter, also soon died. 

During the sickness of his parents, Russell, the second child, had eked out the 
family support by earning a few cupfuls of flour or a sixpence a day by such services 
as a boy could perform. He now found homes for his younger sister and brother and 
went to live with an uncle who gave him a home, board and clothes and three months' 
schooling, every winter, in exchange for his work upon the farm. At the age of four- 
teen, Russell A. Alger became a farm laborer at $3 the first month, $4 for the second 
month, and $5 a month for the next four months. Mr. Alger spent seven years more in 
farm work, and his growing ability in this period was denoted by the fact that his 
compensation advanced to $6, $8, 10, $12, and finally to 15 a month, the highest wages 
then paid upon a farm. During this period, Mr. Alger attended Richfield Academy 
five winters, working for his board, and for two winters, in 1856 and 1857, taught 
country school, living with the neighbors, in accordance with custom, much of his 
earnings being applied toward the education of his brother and sister. So far in his 
career, he had shown himself a wholesome, energetic and well taught young man 
and a loving brother of the right stamp. 

In 1857, he went to Akron, O., and there read law in the office of Wolcott & Up- 
son, being admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the State in the Spring of 1859. 
Removing then to Cleveland, he spent a year in the office of Otis & Coffinbury, where 


hard study, overwork and too much midnight oil impaired his health, and he was 
forced to abandon a profession he had labored so hard to master. While the disappoint- 
ment was great, Mr. Alger lost nothing otherwise by the severe mental discipline and 
broadened knowledge of those three years in the law. Upon the last day of 1859, he 
turned his face westward, and journeying to Grand Rapids, Mich. , with a little borrowed 
capital he embarked in a lumber business with a friend. Fortune refused to favor him, 
and the failure of a firm in Chicago, to which the two friends had shipped their lumber, 
cost them the loss of all they had and left Mr. Alger in debt for the borrowed money. 
The year 1861 marked the beginning of a stirring era in the affairs of the subject 
of this biography. On the zd of April, he took to himself a bride in the person of Miss 
Annette H., daughter of W. G. Henry of Grand Rapids. A few weeks afterward, the 
flag of the United States was fired upon at Fort Sumter, and the whole country sprang 
to arms. Mr. Alger could not go at first, but Aug. 19, 1861, he enlisted in the 2d Mich. 
Cav. , and went out as Captain of Co. C. Medals of honor were unknown in those 
days, but Captain Alger exchanged his shoulder straps for those of Major for gallantry 
at Boonevillc, Miss., July i, 1862. With ninety picked men, he had attacked the rear 
guard of 3,000 Confederates under General Chalmers, stampeded the whole force, and 
had been wounded and taken prisoner, escaping the same day. Next day, he became 
Major of the command. His services were so prompt and effective, in fact, that he 
was made Lieutenant Colonel of the 6th Mich. Cav., Oct. 16, 1862, and Colonel of the 
5th Mich. Cav., Feb. 28, 1863. The 5th and 6th Mich. Cav. belonged to a famous 
mounted brigade in the Army of the Potomac, a part of the time under the command 
of Custer. Both are classed among the " 300 fighting regiments " of the War, and the 
brigade lost a larger percentage of men in action than any other cavalry command in 
the army. The 5th Mich. Cav. (Alger's), which saw no service until 1863, having 
been recruited late in 1862, lost a greater percentage of men in battle, according to the 
number of men enlisted, than any other cavalry regiment in the service. In both cases, 
the result was in part due to the fact that cavalry were more constantly in action than 
the infantry. General Custer took command during the march to Gettysburg, and the 
5th Mich. Cav., under Colonel Alger, was the first Union regiment to reach that 
field. Colonel Alger did splendid service in the battle and during the pursuit of Lee, 
and received special mention in Custer's report. The Colonel was severely wounded 
at Boonsboro, Md., July 8, 1863, but returned to the front within two months. In 
1864, he served with Sheridan in Shenandoah Valley, and won distinction by splendid 
fighting at Trevilian Station, June n, 1864, where the regiment met with its heaviest 
loss. He charged with 300 men and captured 800 Confederates, but, having passed too 
far through an opening in the enemy's line, and being cut off from the brigade, was 
obliged to cut his way out, and did so successfully, but lost 2 1 in killed and wounded 
and 136 prisoners. No commander could bettei appreciate what was done that day 
than General Sheridan, and Colonel Alger was warmly commended in official reports. 
Colonel Alger was mustered out Sept. 20, 1864, and, after the War, June n, 1865, he 
was brevetted Major General of volunteers for gallant service in action. 

In 1866, General Alger settled in Detroit and resumed the lumber business in the 
firm of Moore, Alger & Co. , the moneyed men of the concern being Franklin and Stephen 
Moore. In the winter of 1867-68, the subject of this sketch took his wife and one 
child, 100 miles by sleigh into the woods to the lumber camp, and spent the Winter 


there in a log cabin, returning to civilization in the Spring by the same conveyance. 
This experience not only gave him a thorough acquaintance with the practical part of 
lumber operations, but a knowledge of the woods, and under his 'energetic and skillful 
direction the firm entered upon a period of satisfactory prosperity. Stephen Moore 
retired after a time, and his brother at a later date, the firm then taking the name of 
R. A. Alger & Co. As the years passed by, the business proved increasingly profitable 
and surplus earnings were largely devoted to purchases of eligible tracts of pine timber 

In 1 88 1, the business was incorporated under the name of Alger, Smith & Co., 
General Alger being the president and principal stockholder. The parent house has 
since put out an offshoot in The Manistique Lumbering Co. , now one of the strong 
concerns of the Northwest, of which General Alger is president. The annual product is 
about 140,000,000 feet of lumber. Middle age finds the General at the head of fin 
important and flourishing business, prosperous, respected, a moving spirit in a number 
of separate enterprises, and able to look back with satisfaction over a career full of 
appalling difficulties, but free from the slightest taint of dishonor and certainly full of 
achievement. He has never had a note protested or more than one law suit. About 
1,000 men are employed and there has never been a strike among them. Wages are 
invariably paid in cash. 

Some attention is given to independent ventures in these later years. General 
Alger is a stockholder and director of The Detroit National Bank, and The State Sav- 
ings Bank, and principal owner of the Volunteer iron mine, which operates the valuable 
Palmer iron mine in Marquette county and ships a large amount of ore. He is also 
a director in The United States Express Co. , and owns timber lands in Canada, on the 
Pacific coast and in the South. He is liberal in charity, but as a rule only toward 
those who are unable to help themselves, unless it may be some old army comrade. It 
is said that one-fifth of his income is expended annually for charity. Once a yeir, new 
clothes are given to the newsboys of Detroit, and it was these boys who started the cry 
of " He's all right ! " heard in the Chicago convention of 1888, and since in the mouths 
of pretty nearly the whole American people. In Christmas gifts to inmates of State 
institutions, and other forms, his liberality is continually felt. 

General Alger has always been a Republican, and, in 1884, sat in the Republican 
National Convention in Chicago as a delegate. The same year, Michigan elected him 
Governor, and he served with marked ability, declining renomination, however, emphat- 
ically, to the general regret of a host of personal friends in both parties. In 1888, the 
Michigan delegates made him a candidate for the nomination as President of the United 
States, and in the Republican National Convention gave him 143 votes on one ballot. 
Although he telegraphed to have his name withdrawn when satisfied that he could not 
be nominated, Michigan stood by him solidly to the end. The State then made him 
first Presidential Elector, and he cast his vote for Harrison and Morton. In August, 
1889, the Grand Army of the Republic elected him Commander-in-Chief, and he served 
one year. He belongs to the Loyal Legion, and in New York city to the Union 
League club and Ohio society. 

Nine children have been born to him and his wife, five of whom are living: Caro- 
line Alger, wife of Henry D. Shelden, of Detroit; Fay Alger, wife of William E. 
Bailey, of Harrisburg, Pa.; and Frances A., Russell Alger, jr.. who married Miss 


Marion Jarves, of Detroit, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Deming Jarves, and Frederick 
M. Alger, now a student in Harvard College. 

GERARD B. ALLEN, manufacturer, St. Louis, Mo., a native of Ireland, died at 
Richfield Springs, N. Y., July 21, 1887, at the age of seventy-four. Settling in St. 
Louis about 1837 and going to work for his living, he was able, about 1855, to establish 
The Fulton Iron Works and perform a large amount of important work. During the 
Civil War, many iron clad war vessels for the Federal government were built and fitted 
out at these works, and in the erection of the great bridge across the Mississippi river 
at this point, projected by Captain Eads, they played an important part. The famous 
Anchor line of Mississippi river steamboats to New Orleans was established by Mr. 
Allen, who was a large owner in the stock of the company, and he was identified with 
a number of other commercial and financial enterprises, being among other things 
president of the company, which published TJie Missouri Republican, a Democratic 
newspaper. From the date of its organization until his death, he was president of 
the Commercial club. 

THOnAS ALLEN, LL.D., railroad president, St. Louis, Mo., born in Pittsfield, 
Mass., Aug. 29, 1813, died in Washington, D. C., April 8, 1882. A graduate of Union 
College in 1832, he studied law in Albany and New York city and was admitted to the 
bar in 1835. 

Early earnings were added to by writings for the public press, and Mr. Allen 
turned aside from the law to establish The Madisonian in Washington, D. C., in 1837, 
shortly after which, he was elected Printer, first of the lower house of Congress and 
two years later of the Senate. In 1842, he sold his printing interests and removed to 
St. Louis, Mo., thenceforth making that city his home. There, he soon won the en- 
tire confidence of substantial men and with them became prominently connected with 
internal improvements and the building and management of railroads. An argument 
published by him in favor of the construction of The St. Loxiis & Cincinnati Railroad 
attracted general attention and during his lifetime he projected and built more than a 
thousand miles of line. The first locomotive west of the Mississippi was taken there by- 
him in 1852. 

In 1857, Mr. Allen was elected president of The Terre Haute, Alton & St. Louis 
Railroad, and later aided in securing a trans- continental line to the Pacific. The Iron 
Mountain and The Cairo & Fulton Railroads were bought by him in 1867 and built and 
completed within two years. He was president and director of other public works and 
institutions and gained a large fortune. Mr. Allen was a member of the Missouri Sen- 
ate, 1850-54, and St. Louis sent him to Congress in 1880 as a Democrat, giving him 
2,436 plurality. When elected to Congress, he was president of The St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern Railway, but soon afterward sold his railroad interests and re- 
tired from active business, seeking recreation thereafter in farming. Mr. Allen en- 
dowed a chair at Washington University in St. Louis, at an expense of about $40,000, 
and, in 1874, presented his native town of Pittsfield with a free library. The same 
year, he received the degree of LL.D. from Union College. One of the finest houses in 
Pittsfield, Mass., was built by Mr. Allen in 1858 for a country seat and his family even 
now usually spend their summers there. As a zealous Union man during the war, Mr. 
Allen contributed generously to the expense of equipping soldiers both at Pittsfield and 
in Missouri. His wife, Mrs. Ann C. Allen, and two children survived him. 


SAflUEL WATERS ALLERTON, packer, Chicago, 111., and a noted character, 
descends from one of the pioneer families which settled in the galley of the Webutook, 
Dutchess county, N. Y., while the Indians yet swarmed in tfie neighboring forests. 
Born May 26, 1828, near South Amenia, in that county, in an old fashioned white house 
on the stage road to Boston, son of Samuel Waters and Hannah Kurd Allerton, and a 
descendant of Isaac Allerton of the Mayflower, he gained a little learning in the 
intervals of farm work, in part at the country schools, and more from the columns of 
THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE. In 1837, the family moved to Dubuque, la. The head of 
the family, who had lost most of his means in a cotton factory, now tried lead mining, 
but in 1840 returned to New York State, broken in health and fortune. 

The subject of this sketch found employment at the age of twelve with a merchant, 
and for some time drove cattle from Amenia to Poughkeepsie, being paid 2 for each 
round trip. In 1842, the family moved to the western shore of Seneca lake, a few 
miles from Geneva, and there, and later at Newark in Wayne county, prospered in farm- 
ing. Samuel, the son, leased a farm of 100 acres in 1847 and by 1850 had saved $3,250. 

In 1852, Mr. Allerton engaged in a new occupation and entered, as a merchant, 
actively into the purchase of live stock in his part of the State and its shipment to New 
York city. In this vocation, he fared exceedingly well, although it is related that 
upon one occasion, when he bought 100 head of cattle and fed them in New York city 
upon a lot now occupied by the home of the late William H. Vanderbilt, he lost $700 
by the transaction. Western New York soon proved too limited a field, the entire 
stock of cattle there not exceeding 4, 500 head at this period and Mr. Allerton began to 
make purchases in the Lake Erie region. When shipments from the West were 
stopped by the burning of bridges on the Lake Shore Railroad by a mob, Mr. 
Allerton bought 100 head in Erie, Pa. On the way to New York, he was stopped at 
Port Jervis, N. Y., for four days by a flood, but finally reached New York with his 
shipment and made a profit of $3,000 on the venture. Reaching farther and farther 
West from year to year, he finally landed in Chicago in 1856. There was then no 
market in Chicago for cattle, and for a while Mr. Allerton pursued the plan of buying 
in the farming districts and transporting his stock directly to New York by railroad. 
In 1859, he established his home permanently in Chicago, and has since been largely 
instrumental in making that city the live stock market of the West. Mr. Allerton now 
owns an interest in the modern stock yards in Chicago, Omaha, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, 
Philadelphia, Jersey City and Baltimore. 

In 1873, Mr. Allerton began packing meats, and carried on the business as The 
Allerton Packing Co., of which he is yet president. He now has 40,000 acres of 
farm land 25,000 in Illinois, 2,500 in Ohio, and 17,500 in Iowa upon which live 
stock is raised and fattened ; is one of the two survivors of the organizers of The First 
National Bank of Chicago; and a large owner in The Chicago City Railway, The 
Arcade File Works of Anderson, Ind., president of The Allerton Bank of Allerton, 111. 

Mr. Allerton is a Republican, and was, in 1893, an unsuccessful candidate for the 
Mayoralty of Chicago. He belongs to the Union League club and is president of the 
Hamilton club of Chicago. Every American should read his pamphlet, " How to 
have universal property, called the honest dollar." 

To him and his wife, Priscilla Thompson, have been born two children, Kate 
Burnett and Robert H. Allerton. 


JOHN BASSETT ALLEY, manufacturer, like other business men of Lynn, Mass., 
gained prominence originally in the boot and shoe industry, but later made a fortune 
of several millions in corporate enterprises. Lynn, a city of 78,000 souls, is devoted 
to one industry, there being more than 200 shoe factories within its boundaries and 
numerous kindred shops, and Mr. Alley naturally grew up in this branch of produc- 
tion. He was born in Lynn, Jan. 7, 1817, and after an education in the local schools, 
began life, a poor boy, as apprentice to a shoe manufacturer. About the age of 
twenty, he made an excursion into the scantily populated West, loaded a flat boat with 
merchandise at Cincinnati and sold the cargo on the rivers below with . great profit. 
Returning to Lynn after two years in the West, he went into the manufacture of shoes, 
later engaging in the leather trade in Boston. His firm there is yet known as Alley 
Bro's & Co. In 1852, Lynn elected him an Alderman, and next year the Governor 
made him one of the Council. Later, he sat in the Massachusetts Senate and the Con- 
stitutional Convention, and in 1856, was elected to Congress as an Abolitionist and 
served eight years, being a Representative during the exciting period of the Civil War 
and spending nearly a million dollars in the Union hospitals. The family maintained 
a well-appointed house in Washington. Mr. Alley invested his surplus earnings 
largely in mines, banks and corporations; and being a man of large wealth, the financial 
management of The Union Pacific Railroad was entrusted to him at a most critical 
period of its history. He performed a great work for that company, restoring confi- 
dence in its affairs. Slow accumulation in business and the rise in value of securities, 
which he bought at a low price, made him worth at one time aboiit $10,000,000, but 
reverses afterward diminished this amount considerably. At his death, in West New- 
ton, Mass., Jan. 19, 1896, John S. Alley, of West Newton, William S. Alley, of 
Chicago, Mary, wife of G. L. Storey and Miss Emma Alley, his children, survived him. 

JOHN P. ALTQELD, Governor of Illinois, was born in Germany in December, 
1847. When the boy was three months old, his parents settled near Mansfield, O., 
where he was reared upon a farm. Trained to hard work, he, nevertheless, attended 
the public schools during the Winter, and while yet a child displayed a studious disposi- 
tion, and at odd moments succeeded in familiarizing himself with theology and the his- 
tory of the ancients, and he read works on almost every branch of knowledge, borrow- 
ing all the books the neighborhood afforded. When sixteen years of age, he entered 
the Union army and carried a musket in the James river campaign. At nineteen, he 
began to teach school, and at twenty-one went farther West. So far, all of his earn- 
ings had been devoted toward paying for his father's farm. 

The Spring of 1869 found him in St. Louis, working by day and studying law at 
night. After a few months there, he went into southern Kansas. There he was taken 
sick and reduced to such straits that on recovery he was compelled to work his way for 
nearly 100 miles across the country with bare feet. In the Fall of 1869, Mr Altgeld 
settled in Savannah, in northwestern Missouri, where he read law with Judge William 
Herron and the Hon. David Ray, teaching school in the Winter. Admitted to the bar 
there, he served as City Attorney and drafted a new code of ordinances for the city, 
but, before the expiration of two years, resigned the office to attend to private practice. 
In 1874, he was elected State's Attorney for Andrew county, Mo. Having served about 
one year, he resigned and moved to Chicago. 

Being an entire stranger in the city, he spent most of his time about the law library, 


and it was several years before he had much of a practice. After having gained a start, 
however, business came rapidly and he was soon employed in difficult cases. 

In the Fall of 1877, he was married to Miss Emma Tford, a woman of beauty and 
cultivation, who is now his constant companion. She was the daughter of John H. 
Ford, a prosperous fanner living near Mansfield, O. 

For several years, Mr. Altgeld eschewed politics, but in 1884 ran for Congress in 
Chicago. Although defeated, he made so vigorous and thorough a campaign that it 
attracted the attention of the politicians throughout the State. He was elected Judge 
of the Superior Court of Chicago in 1886, and was for a time Chief Justice of that 
court. After serving on the bench about five years, he resigned to devote himself to 
private affairs. Meanwhile, he had become interested in Chicago real estate, and built 
six of the finest business blocks in Chicago, one of them a sixteen-story fireproof struc- 
ture, called The Unity, which is regarded as one of the finest office buildings in the 
country. He looked after every detail in its construction, personally, and it is 
said that the building is his only achievement of which he has ever been known 
to boast. 

While thus busily engaged, his restless energy led him to devote some attention to 
literature. In 1884, he published a small volume, entitled, "Our Penal Machinery 
and Its Victims," and, in 1890, a volume entitled " Live Questions," being a discus- 
sion of some of the problems of the day. In 1894, he published Vol. II. of the work 
last named. These books were well received by the bar of Chicago, among whom the 
subject of this sketch ranks as a man of ability and merit, although many lawyers take 
issue with him on political questions. 

Nominated for Governor of Illinois on the Democratic ticket in the Spring of 1892, 
Mr. Altgeld immediately determined to become acquainted personally with the people 
of the State, and he made a tour of the entire commonwealth, going into the towns and 
villages of 102 counties, meeting the people in the factories, stores and shops, and con- 
ferring with the politicians. He thus created a large amount of enthusiasm. This 
tour, during which he made no speeches, was completed in September. He then made 
a second canvass of the State, speaking at all of the principal points. The State of 
Illinois had formerly given Republican majorities ranging from 20,000 to 50,000, but 
Mr. Altgeld was elected by upward of 22,000 majority. 

As a business man, lawyer and politician, the Governor is described by an intimate 
friend as " a calm, resourceful, silent man, of indomitable industry and keen percep- 
tion, who believes that, if you want a thing well done, it is best to do it yourself. " 
This terse sketch omits one element of his nature, which may possibly account to some 
extent for acts which have excited public opposition and criticism. Although exacting 
with himself, he is exceedingly sympathetic and always quick to discover extenuating 
qualities in cases where the shortcomings of others are concerned. His strong sympa- 
thy for those who toil with their hands is shown in his writings, although it is said that 
he has never had any affiliation or acquaintance with labor leaders and never attended 
any of their meetings. As a Judge, his fearlessness and impartiality have been com- 
mended by lawyers and others, and his utterances on the bench and in his more public 
papers show clearness of mind and a powerful a:*d incisive manner of expression. In 
demeanor he is modest, for the most part silent and unobtrusive. He may be called a 
solitary man, caring little for society but fond of introspection. His familiarity with 


modern literature in all its branches is wide, and he finds especial pleasure in poetry 
and likes the drama. 

An incident in his career as Governor of the State, which aroused the wrath of 
almost the whole civilized world, was his pardon of the ' 'Anarchists. " While examin- 
ing their case, Governor Altgeld reached the conclusion that they had been tried by a 
packed jury and convicted on public clamor. The evidence did not convince him that 
they were guilty of the crime charged, the prosecution having never found out who had 
actually thrown the bomb, and consequently having been unable, in Governor Altgeld's 
opinion, to connect the defendants or anybody else with the act. Further than that, 
he found that the Supreme Court of the State had in a recent case laid down a rule of 
law in regard to the competency of jurors, which was just the opposite of that laid 
down in the "Anarchist " case. Governor Altgeld declares that it appeared to him that 
he would be obliged either to grant the pardon or shirk a duty; and he did not want to 
be Governor if he could not act on his convictions of justice. The men were poor and 
friendless, and he granted the pardon. No official in recent history has ever been so 
severely criticised as he for this act. 

It must be said, however, that Governor Altgeld gazed at the storm calmly and 
pursued the even tenor of his way unmoved and undisturbed, and that his action is now 
justified by some who have since investigated the facts and read the Governor's reasons. 

FREDERICK LOTHROP AHES, son of Oliver Ames, 2d, born in North Easton, 
Mass., June 8, 1835, died Sept. 13, 1893, on the steamer Pilgrim, while en route to 
New York city. Well educated, first in a school at Concord, then at Phillips academy, 
Exeter, and at Harvard University in the class of 1854, he wanted to learn the law, 
but his father preferred that he should at once enter the great Ames shovel factory in 
North Easton. Unlike his cousins, he did not go into the shops but into the office of 
the concern, where he mastered the details of financial management, and, in accordance 
with the rules of the house, went from grade to grade, until he had risen to the head of 
the accountant's department. He had already become well-grounded in management 
when admitted to the firm in 1863. In 1876, the firm were chartered as The Oliver 
Ames & Sons Corporation, Frederick L. Ames being chosen treasurer, a position he 
held the rest of his life. Mr. Ames inherited a large fortune from his father in 1877, 
and added something to it in the business of the firm, but with his surplus means, 
engaged in outside operations, which gave him one of the largest fortunes in 

In the management of railroads, some of which were in part built by him, he 
was singularly successful. While yet a young man, he took a seat in the directorate of 
various important lines, and gradually became officially connected with seventy-five in 
all, including The Union Pacific, The Chicago & Northwestern, The Missouri Pacific, 
the old Oregon short line and The Texas Pacific. He worked extremely hard, too hard, 
in fact. Every important meeting of the boards found him in attendance. He studied 
all financial problems closely and came to be considered the best-informed railroad 
man in the United States. Unfailing courtesy controlled his manner, and during the 
most excited discussions, he never forgot that he was a gentleman. In the statement 
of his views, he was brief, clear and convincing. The Union Pacific Railroad engaged 
his greatest interest. In The Old Colony Railroad and The Old Colony Steamship 
Co. he was at one time vice president, and was also a director in The Western Union 


Telegraph Co., The General Electric Co. and a large number of banks and trust 
companies in Boston. In real estate in Boston, he invested nearly $6,000,000. 

A man of refined tastes, he built greenhouses at N*erth Easton, which contained 
the finest, although not the largest, collection of orchids in the country. The Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society knew him as a constant friend. His houses at North 
Easton and on Commonwealth avenue in Boston were supplied with exquisite paint- 
ings, rare china and beautiful tapestries. His genuine interest in charity is disclosed 
by the fact that he was president of The Home for Incurables, and a trustee of The 
Children's Hospital, The Massachusetts General Hospital, The McLean Insane Asylum, 
The Kindergarten for the Blind. He was also member of the Harvard College cor- 
poration, and all these institutions received liberal gifts from him. To the First 
Unitarian Church, which he attended, he also made large gifts. Political life had no 
attraction for Mr. Ames, although he consented to sit in the State Senate in 1872. 

Married in 1860 to Rebecca Blair, a daughter of James Blair, of St. Louis, origin- 
ally a Virginian, he became the father of Helen Angier, wife of Robert C. Hooper, of 
Boston, Oliver, Mary Shreve, Lothrop and John Stanley Ames. 

OAKES ANGIER ArtES, president of the corporation of Oliver Ames & Sons, 
North Easton, Mass., is the oldest son of the Hon. Oakes Ames, who "will be re- 
membered as the master mind, through whose perseverance and indomitable energy in 
the face of seemingly insurmountable obstacles was forced to completion the pioneer 
railroad across the Western continent." Born in Easton, Mass., April 15, 1829, Oakes 
A. Ames is in the eighth generation of descent from William Ames, who with his 
brother John, both of Bruton, Somerset, England, came to America in 1635. William 
settled in Braintree and John became an original proprietor of West Bridgewater. 

The shovel works established and maintained by this famous family were founded 
by Oliver Ames (April n, 1779-Sept. n, 1863), originally a blacksmith by trade and 
an ingenious and able man, who dwelt in the little hamlet near Boston now known as 
Easton. Not content with commonplace work and being one of the few men endowed 
by Providence with original and creative genius, Oliver Ames began in a small way the 
manufacture of shovels and guns, employing a few neighbors in his modest shop for 
the purpose. Whenever tools enough had been produced to load a wagon, they were 
sent to Boston for sale. About 1820, the American people entered upon an era of con- 
struction of canals, railroads, and other public works and of the occupation of public 
lands by an ever-swelling tide of immigration from abroad. A lively demand for shovels 
and kindred implements for construction work sprang up in every part of the country, 
and became especially marked after gold had been discovered in California; and under 
the protection of a moderate duty on foreign tools, the Ames shovel shop grew to larger 
and larger proportions and, during the lifetime of the grandsons of the founder, into 
works of imposing magnitude, the largest of their class in the world. 

Oliver Ames married Susannah, daughter of Oakes Angier. Mrs. Ames was, 
through her grandfather, Col. Edward Howard, a direct descendant of Col. John Winslow 
and his wife, Mary Chilton, of Mayflower fame. She was also a great grand daughter 
of the Rev. Uriah Oakes, president of Harvard College from April, 1675, to July, 1681, 
and of the direct lineage of the Rev. Dr. William Ames, the eminent divine, author and 
theological controversialist, and Professor of the University of Franeker, Friesland. 
After the death of the Rev. Dr. Ames, his daughter Ruth Ames came with her mother 


and brothers to New England and married Edmund Angler of Cambridge. Their son 
the Rev. Samuel Angier married Hannah, daughter of President Uriah Oakes; their 
son the Rev. John Angier married Mary Bourne, greaf grand daughter of Governor 
Hinckley; and their son Oakes Angier, a law student under President John Adams, 
was father of Susannah Angier. By the marriage of Oliver Ames and Susannah 
Angier, the two branches of the English family of Ames were united on these shores. 

Oakes Ames, oldest son of the original Oliver (a native of Easton, Jan. 10, 1804, 
dying in North Easton, May 8, 1873), was a man of rugged energy and honor and a 
financier of extraordinary abilities. The story of his life is a part of the history of the 
United States, and cannot adequately be told here. In brief, it may be said that he 
learned to make shovels with his own hand, as have all the Ameses, became superinten- 
dent of the works and for many years enjoyed the unbounded confidence of all his as- 
sociates, and greatly promoted the world-wide expansion of the family industry. Mr. 
Ames supported the Union during the Civil War, and in 1862, went to Congress, 
where he remained until March 4, 1873. The building of The Union Pacific Railroad 
across the plains toward the Pacific Ocean was the great work of his life. To no one 
man more than to Mr. Ames is due the honor of the successful execution of that gigan- 
tic task. The stormy events of his last year of life and the furious attacks made upon 
Mr. Ames need not be dwelt upon here; but it may be said that the sober judgment 
of mankind pays to Mr. Ames unqualified honor for his unflinching truthfulness, his 
purity of character, the heroic dignity with which he bore unjust accusations, and the 
great achievement which linked his name forever with the annals of American prog- 
ress. On Nov. 29, 1827, he married Eveline O. Gilmore, who died July 20, 1882. Oakes 
A. , Oliver, and Frank M. Ames, and Susan E., wife of H. W. French, were the survivors 
of his five children. 

Oakes A. Ames received an excellent education in the local common schools of his 
native town and at Fruit Hill Classical Institute, near Providence, and the academies of 
North Attleboro, Leicester and Easton, Mass. In accordance with family tradition, he 
then went into the shovel works at the age of eighteen, and by actual practice learned 
the art of making shovels and tools in the most minute details, being then assigned to 
duty in charge of one branch of the business after another. In every capacity, he 
showed power, sagacity and good management. In 1863, his father made him a partner 
in Oliver Ames & Sons. In 1876, the firm was converted into a corporation, and in 1877, 
Mr. Ames was elected, on account of his splendid qualities as an executive officer and 
manager, to the presidency of the great concern, an office he has filled with more than 
credit to the present time. Every branch of the business receives his closest attention 
and he pays untiring vigilance to every phase of affairs which affects the interests of 
the concern. The production increased under his management to 1,250,000 shovels, 
spades, scoops, and drainage tools per year. So for as quality is concerned, it is suf- 
ficient to say that the Ames manufactures are beyond question the standard in this 
respect throughout the world. 

Mr. Ames is intensely devoted to the local interests of his town. In 1868, his firm 
built a schoolhouse of large cost and gave it to the town. The handsome granite Oakes 
Ames Memorial Hall in North Easton was built by him and his brother, in a command- 
ing location, and presented to the town Nov. 17, 1881, at a cost of $60,000. It was de- 
signed by Richardson and has been pronounced by architects as one of the finest build- 


ings in the country. Many other improvements are due to Mr. Ames's generosity and 
local pride. 

The gratitude of the public of Easton and the high respect entertained for the 
character and usefulness of Mr. Ames by the people of Massachusetts have ensured for 
him almost any office to which he might aspire, but Mr. Ames prefers a private life and 
has refused all suggestions of office. He is, however, president of The North Easton 
Savings Bank; vice president of The Easton National Bank; a director in The Lincoln 
National Bank of Boston and The Kinsley Iron Machine Co. ; trustee of The Taunton 
Lunatic Hospital. 

In July, 1855, he was married to Catherine, daughter of Judge Hobart of East 
Bridgewater. His four living children are Hobart, married to Julia Colony of 
Keene, N. H.; Maria, wife of Dr. R. H. Harte of Philadelphia; Winthrop and 

Mr. Ames is a Unitarian in religion and has always taken a great interest in 
education and the advancement of the cause of Temperance. He is liberal to all good 
objects, and while very affable and courteous, is of prompt decision and resolute 
character, and can and will say "No," to all plans or schemes which his judgment does 
not approve. Positive in his own convictions, he is very considerate of the opinions of 

OLIVER AMES, manufacturer, North Easton, Mass. , second son of the late Oakes 
Ames, was perhaps the best known member of his generation of the family. He was 
born in Easton, Eeb. 4, 1831, and educated first at the academy. After a five years' 
apprenticeship in the practical work of the Ames shovel works, he took a special course 
of study in Brown University, and for twenty years thereafter acted successively as 
foreman, manager and traveling salesman for Oliver Ames & Sons. After 1863, he 
was a member of the firm and one of the most practical and useful. A number of in- 
ventions of value sprang from his fertile brain, and the methods of manufacture in the 
Ames shops were greatly improved. The death of Oakes Ames, in 1873, imposed upon 
the subject of this memoir highly responsible duties in connection with settling his 
father's estate; and the manner in which he discharged the trust gave him a distinct 
reputation as a financier, matters being arranged to the great advantage of all con- 
cerned. An indebtedness of several millions was paid, legacies to the amount of 
$1,000,000 were satisfied, and a large surplus was distributed among the heirs. Mr. 
Ames was until death a director of many railroads, banks and other corporate enter- 
prises. Ever interested in public affairs, he had been a Lieutenant-Colonel in the State 
militia, and was a member of the Massachusetts Senate, 1880-81; Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, 1883-86; and Governor, 1887-89. To his native town, where stood his summer 
home, Mr. Ames was a constant benefactor. The streets were provided with shade 
trees by him and Oakes A. Ames, and they erected a hall in memory of their father and 
a spacious High School house. Gov. Ames's wife, whom he married March 14, 1860, was 
Anna C. Ray, a native of Nantucket, and their six children are William Hadwen, Eve- 
lyn Orville, Anna Lee, Susan Evelyn, Lilian and Oakes. Gov. Ames was a member 
of the Algonquin, Merchants', and Art clubs of Boston and the Union League club of 
New York city. Business interests compelled him to spend much time in visiting 
various parts of the United States, and he enjoyed a large acquaintance among the 
leading men of the country. He died in North Easton, Oct. 22, 1895. 


WILLIAH AflORY, lawyer and manufacturer, born in Boston, June 15, 1804, died 
there at his home on Beacon street, Dec. 8, 1888. The English ancestors of 
this family settled originally in North Carolina. Mr. Atnory entered Harvard Col- 
lege in 1823, with Russell Sturgis, George Peabody, Samuel Putnam Blake and other 
men of later note, and during his stay in Cambridge became first major in the Harvard 
Washington corps. Early in the winter of 1823-24, owing to a students' rebellion, the 
authorities suspended Mr. Amory and with him about half of the class. After a few 
months' study at schools near Boston, Mr. Amory went to Europe and attended the 
universities of Gottingen and Berlin. Extended travel followed and then he returned to 
Boston to study law with Franklin Dexter and W. H. Gardiner. Although admitted 
to the bar, he never practiced law, having inherited means and become interested in 
mercantile and manufacturing enterprises and active in promoting them. The Jack- 
son Manufacturing Co. of Nashua, N. H., was managed by him as treasurer for eleven 
years. From 1837 to 1876, he served as treasurer of the great Amoskeag Manufactur- 
ing Co. and, with the exception of four and a half years, was treasurer of the Stark 
Mills from 1839 to 1876. He was also a director in the Manchester Mills and their 
successors, The Manchester Print Works, as well as in the Langdon Mills from their 
origin in 1860, being also president of the latter, 1864-67. A patriotic, alert and 
public-spirited man, he took a lively interest in many useful movements and helped 
lay the corner stone of Bunker Hill monument. Daniel Webster was his warm friend. 
The family who survived comprised his wife, Mrs. Anna P. G. Sears Amory, and four 
children, William, Charles W. and Francis I. Amory and Mrs. Ellen S. Anderson. 
WILLIAM AHORY, jr., of Boston, Mass., financier, was born in Boston in 1833, 
the son of William Amory and Anna P. G. Sears, his wife. When he left the doors of 
Harvard University a graduate, he entered without preliminary struggles into some of 
the business ventures of his father, and, as treasurer of a cotton manufacturing corpo- 
ration, quickly made a reputation. For a number of years, he was a member of the 
extensive commission dry goods firm of Gardner Brewer & Co., selling agents for a 
number of New England mills. Mr. Amory first married Miss Ellen Brewer, a 
daughter of Gardner Brewer, by whom he had two children, Caroline and Anna S. 
Amory. His second wife is Jeanne Philomene Guichard, of France. Mr. Amory is a 
member of the Hull Yacht club of Massachusetts and of the Riding club of New York. 

GEN. JOSEPH R. ANDERSON, soldier and manufacturer, Richmond, Va. , born 
at Walnut Hill near Fincastle, Botetourt county, Va., Feb. 6, 1813, died Sept. 7, 1892, 
at the Isles of Shoals, N. H. His father was William Anderson, and his mother, 
before marriage, Miss Thomas, a relative of the late Gov. Francis Thomas of Mary- 
land. General Anderson graduated from the Military Academy at West Point, second 
in the class. Having given him a commission, the authorities stationed him for a 
short time at Fortress Monroe, and later in Charleston, whence he returned the same 
year, 1837, to Fortress Monroe. 

Having been detailed in 1838 to assist in internal improvements, under the direction 
of the State of Virginia, he resigned soon afterward from the army and made his home 
in Richmond. Engaging in a commission business, he became, among other things, 
commercial agent of Dean & Cunningham, owners of the Tredegar Iron Works. This 
connection, and his education in engineering, led him in 1843 to lease the Tredegar 
works for five years, and his success in management was so marked that he then 


bought the works and began business under the name of Anderson, Morris & Co. 
The firm subsequently reorganized as J. R. Anderson & Co., the partners being Mr. 
Anderson, Dr. R. S. Archer, Major R. S. Archer and Mr. Tanner. The Tredegar 
works, which were the most important in the South, had the good fortune to secure 
large contracts for Government ordnance, projectiles and cable iron for ships, and for 
the commercial world they produced general foundry products and rolled iron. They 
consolidated with The Armory Iron Co. 

When the Civil War broke out, the Confederate government commissioned General 
Anderson as a brigadier. He took part in the terrible battle of Gaines Mill and 
made a gallant record in the field, becoming an intimate friend of Jefferson Davis. 
His works supplied the Confederate armies with an immense amount of material. 

In 1867, The Tredegar Co. was organized to carry on the iron business, with 
$1,000,000 of capital and General Anderson as its president. In 1873, the company 
fell into financial straits and went into the hands of General Anderson as receiver. 
Every difficulty was finally surmounted and the property restored, in 1878, to the corpo- 
ration, which thereafter met with prosperity. The plant now includes a foundry, large 
machine shops, and two rolling mills, capable of producing 45,000 tons a year of 
merchant and railroad iron, and shops having a capacity of 2,000 freight cars per 
year, the property occupying twenty-three acres of land on the river front. These 
works have in recent years built cars and equipments for Southern railroads, and now 
rank among the leading three works of their kind in the United States. Mr. Anderson 
was a man of unusual energy, probity and judgment, and the people of the Sotith 
loved him for his devotion to their interests, his public spirit, character, and interest in 
religious and charitable work. In 1857, he was elected to the Virginia House of 
Delegates, and again in 1873-4 and 1874-5. ^ n x ^74 an & ^TS, he was elected president 
of the Chamber of Commerce of Richmond, but resigned March 9, 1876, when elected 
president of the City Council. 

He married in 1837 Miss Sallie, daughter of Dr. Robert Archer, then surgeon of 
the Post at Fortress Monroe. Of their twelve children five survived: Col. Archer 
Anderson, now president of The Tredegar Company; Joseph R., jr., and John F. T. 
Anderson, Mrs. E. L. Hobson and Mrs. T. Seddon Bruce. After the death of 
Mrs. Anderson, in 1883, he married Miss Mary, daughter of the late Gen. James 

CHAUNCEY HUnASON ANDREWS, a pioneer in coal mining in Ohio, was born 
in Vienna, Trumbull county, O., Dec. 2, 1823, and died in Youngstown, Dec. 25, 1893. 
The son of Norman Andrews, a farmer and proprietor of the Mansion House in 
Youngstown, the subject of this memoir began life in country schools, and on the farm. 

When coal was discovered in Ohio, his brother Wallace, now of New York city, 
and he began prospecting for coal mines and operating them. At first, success was 
moderate; but in 1857, the Thorn Hill mine was opened and proved a profitable venture, 
the bed yielding a million tons of coal before it was exhausted. In 1858, with William 
J. Hitchcock, he joined in founding Andrews & Hitchcock, to operate in coal; and 
the firm are yet in existence, having been incorporated in 1892 as The Andrews & 
Hitchcock Co., capital, $400,000. In 1868, they developed the Burnett coal bank, one 
of the largest in the Mahoning Valley. In 1864, with his brother Wallace, Mr. 
Andrews opened the Oak Hill and Coal Run mines in Mercer county, Pa., and later, 


with various associates, held an interest in the Brookfield, Stout, and Stewart mines, 
The Ohio Coal & Mining Co., in Columbiana county; The New Lisbon Coal Co., The 
Andrews Coal Co., The Holliday Coal Co., The Imperial Coal Co., and other concerns 
of that class. Through a coal depot in Cleveland, Mr. Andrews shipped enormous 
quantities of coal to the Lake regions. 

Mr. Andrews was certainly a remarkable man, his energy, determination, versa- 
tility and power of continued labor being far beyond that ordinarily seen. As he 
gained capital, he aided in developing many industries in his region, among them The 
Westerman Iron Co. 's rolling mill and two furnaces in Sharon, Pa.; a furnace and 
rolling mill at Wheatland; The Andrews Bro's Co.'s rolling mill and furnace in Youngs- 
town, this concern having a capital stock of $500,000; the Harris & Blackford rolling 
mill in Niles, O. ; The Niles Iron Co., and other furnaces and factories. Railroads 
finally attracted his interest, and in 1869, he completed The Niles & New Lisbon 
Railroad, thirty-five miles in length, of which twelve miles had already been built. In 
1871, he aided to construct The Mahoning Coal Railroad, and was connected with The 
Montour and The Hazelton & Leetonia railroads. Of The Pittsburgh, Cleveland & 
Toledo Railroad, he was one of the organizers and he built part of the line himself. 
He was one of the incorporators of The Pittsburgh, Youngstown & Chicago Railroad, 
and a director in The Hocking Valley Railroad, president of The Commercial National 
Bank, vice president of The Second National Bank, and a large owner in The Mahon- 
ing National Bank. 

Mrs. Andrews, whom he married July i, 1857, was formerly Louisa Baldwin, 
daughter of 'Squire Baldwin of Boardman. She survived her husband, with two daugh- 
ters, Edith, wife of John A. Logan, jr., of Youngstown, and Julia, wife of Leslie E. 
Bruce, of New York city. 

THOflAS GOLD APPLETON, author, Boston, Mass., was born in that city, March 
31, 1812. Having inherited wealth from his father, Nathan Appleton, he was enabled 
to obtain an education at Harvard college, and to spend his life mainly in leisure, 
literary work, travel, and the enjoyment of the arts, although he gave diligent attention 
to his investments and managed them well. He was one of the founders of the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts, and contributed generously to its funds, and from his own 
collection of paintings, to its art treasures. Among other institutions which interested 
him were The Boston Public Library, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Harvard University, and the museums of Natural History of Boston and Cambridge. 
As an amateur painter, he produced many pictures of merit, his most important work 
consisting of a hundred or more water color sketches of scenes on the river Nile. Mr. 
Appleton was the author of a book of poems, entitled " Faded and Fresh Leaves," and 
the prose works of "A Nile Journal," "Syrian Sunshine," "A Sheaf of Papers," 
" Windfalls," and " Chequer Work," the book in prose being mainly essays and stories 
of some originality and good natured discernment. Few men in Boston have ever 
excelled him as a wit and raconteur. The phrase, ' ' All good Americans go to Paris 
when they die," originated with- him. His house in Commonwealth avenue became 
the resort of men eminent in literature, politics and philosophy, and he is recollected 
as one of the founders and prominent spirits of the Boston Literary club. His sister, 
Frances Elizabeth, married the poet Longfellow. Mr. Appleton died in New York 
April 17, 1884, while en route from Washington to Boston. 


GEORGE J. APPOLD, retired merchant, Baltimore, Md., was, while actively 
engaged in business, the leading tanner and dealer in leather in his city. The house 
of which he was the head, long known as George Appold & Sons, was founded by his 
father, George Appold, about 1812, upon a site a few doors removed from the present 
location of the firm of George J. Appold & Son. During a life of incessant industry, 
intelligent management and untarnished integrity, the founder became one of the most 
prominent and most respected merchants of the city. George J. Appold and his brother 
Samuel were admitted to partnership about 1840. When the founder died in 1853, the 
firm owned two tanneries in Baltimore and six in other localities, besides having an 
interest in many others. George J. Appold inherited some means from his father, 
but his large fortune is mainly the product of his own genius. He retired from the active 
management in 1878, and has since found congenial occupation in financial and other 
investments. He has been one of the enterprising improvers of real estate in Balti- 
more, and owns excellent properties in several different parts of the city. He was 
president of The Boston & Savannah line of steamers for many years, and is now 
president of The Merchants' & Miners' Transportation Co., a large concern which 
owns ten of the largest steamers plying to Boston, Providence, Norfolk and Savannah, 
and has created valuable wharf properties. Originally incorporated in 1852, capital 
$100,000, the company now has $1,200,000 of capital stock and the business is large 
and profitable. George J. Appold & Son, wholesale leather merchants, were succeeded 
in December, 1895, by The Howard Oak Leather Co., which was organized on the 
tenth of the month. 

CHARLES ARBUTHNOT, merchant, Pittsburgh, Pa., born in April, 1816, in the 
North of Ireland, of Scotch descent, died in this country, Oct. 4, 1892. He was a son 
of Charles and Hannah Arbuthnot. Ireland detained the boy at home long enough to 
give him an education, but at the age' of nineteen, he followed the emigration to 
America and here gained an acquaintance with business methods as clerk in a dry 
goods store. In due time, with a courage characteristic of him, he started a dry goods 
store of his own. In the present firm of Arbuthnot, Stephenson & Co. of Pittsburgh, 
wholesale dry goods merchants, which he founded in 1843, he attained success and for- 
tune. Mr. Arbuthnot was a very prudent and careful man in business affairs, shrewd 
and far-seeing, and had the energy to extend his enterprise beyond his regular trade. 
As an investor in real estate, he bought a large amount of Pittsburgh business property, 
which he leased, and was interested in various banks and railroads. The Bank of Com- 
merce enjoyed his counsel and advice as a director, and he held the presidency of 
The Penn Cotton Mill and The Pittsburgh Insurance Co. , and was a director of The 
West Penn Hospital. In 1853, he was married in Pittsburgh to Elizabeth, a daughter 
of Thomas Wilson Shaw, and his family consisted of six children, Charles, Wilson S. , 
Alexander and Thomas S. Arbuthnot, Elizabeth, now deceased, wife of Jonas R. 
McClintock, and Sarah N. Arbuthnot. Mr. Arbuthnot was a strong Presbyterian and 
deeply interested in church work and foreign missions. He gave, however, freely to 
other Protestant denominations. While his life was not especially eventful, it was an 
illustration of the success which may be attained by perseverance and good character. 

BENJAHIN WALWORTH ARNOLD, lumberman, Albany, N. Y., was born in 
Arnold's Hollow, Yates county, N. Y., April 24, 1821, and died in Albany, Jan. 24, 
1891. He traced his lineage in a direct line to William Arnold, who came from Eng- 


land to Rhode Island in 1636 and whose son William was first Governor of Rhode 
Island. His own father was Israel Arnold, a general merchant and mill owner. Ben- 
jamin was educated at the academy in Lima, N. Y. , aad began business life as a clerk 
at Ithaca. In 1847, ^ e removed to Albany and was employed by J. B. King as lumber 
salesman. In 1853, he resolved to be his own master and formed a partnership in the 
lumber business with Alexander Folsom, which continued for thirty-five years, termi- 
nating only at the death of Mr. Folsom. For several years, the firm conducted lumber 
operations in New York State, but soon acquired a saw mill and timber property at West- 
port, Ont., and shortly afterward became interested at Ottawa. In 1865, they pur- 
chased a saw mill and adjacent timber lands at Bay City, Mich., and this enterprise is 
yet operated by the two estates. In 1881, a large tract of timber was purchased on the 
Spanish River, Ont., the development of which came under the entire supervision of 
Mr. Arnold, as president of The Spanish River Lumber Co. He conducted a prosper- 
ous and increasing business, and, through untiring enterprise, extended his interests to 
timber lands in Minnesota, Michigan, Arkansas and New York and to vessel property 
on the great lakes, while also becoming a stockholder and officer in various corporations. 
Political life never attracted him. He was ruling elder and trustee, as well as an 
earnest supporter, of the Fourth Presbyterian Church of Albany, and was also actively 
associated with all the charitable and benevolent institutions of the city. In 1853, he 
married Miss Frances Elizabeth Avery, who died in 1876. He subsequently married 
Miss Jane Treat Avery, who, with one son, Benjamin Walworth Arnold, survive him. 

JOHN ARNOT, sr., banker, the foremost man of his time in the southern tier of 
New York, who died Nov. 17, 1873, at his home in Elmira, N. Y., was born in Perth- 
shire, Scotland, Sept. 25, 1789, and accompanied his father's family to this country in 
1 80 1. They settled near Albany, N. Y., from which place John Arnot removed to the 
Chemung Valley, in 1819, to engage in mercantile ventures with a gentleman named 
Egbert Egberts, operating under the firm name of John Arnot & Co. In ten years, the 
new firm had developed a larger business than that enjoyed by any old one. Goods 
were purchased twice a year in New York city and were brought by the Hudson river, 
the Erie canal, Seneca lake and wagon road to Elmira, then known as Newtown. 
Trade was carried on under difficulties in those days, actual cash being scarce and bar- 
ter universal in country places so many yards of cloth for so much wheat, so much 
sugar for so much butter. Mr. Arnot throve with the settlement of his region, how- 
ever, and had an interest in every public enterprise in the Chemung valley for more 
than a half century. With the large means which he gained, he often, in times of 
financial distress, maintained the credit of Elmira and the southern tier of New York 
with a firm and unyielding hand. It would be necessary to allude to every enterprise 
set on foot for the good of Elmira during his active career, from the sale of a patent 
right for an automatic oiler to the building of the latest railroad, to touch everything 
fostered by his means and aided by his wise counsels. He was a private citizen all his 
life. Except for service in bodies which looked to the education of children, he held 
no public position. He did nofwish office, as he did not need it to make him promi- 
nent and powerful. The name of John Arnot in the valley of Chemung does not need 
any prefix to make it honored and remembered, so long as water shall run down hill 
and blades of grass reach upward from the earth. The six children of Mr. Arnot and 
wife, Harriet Tuttle, were Mrs. William B. Ogden, High Bridge, N. Y. ; Aurelia C. and 


Stephen T. Arnot, both deceased; Mrs. George G. Haven, New York city; JohnArnot, 
jr., deceased; and Matthias H. Arnot. flATTHIAS HOLLENBACK ARNOT, third 
son of John Arnot, sr., is now at the head of the estates of the Arnot family. John 
Arnot's oldest son, Stephen Tuttle Arnot, was at one time the financier of the family 
and something of a politician. The second son, John Arnot, jr., who died in Novem- 
ber, 1886, went to Congress from the district, served as Mayor of Elmira, and lived a 
life so full of generous impulses and kindly actions, that his memory is held in rever- 
ence by every man, woman and child in the valley. During his last illness, Col. Archie 
Baxter, who was defeated by him for Congress in 1881, declared that he would wade 
through two feet of snow to Washington if it would bring "Jack" Arnot back to 
health. The older sons, both dead, Matthias H. Arnot succeeded to a vast inheritance. 
He was born Nov. 10, 1832. As president of The Chemung Canal Bank, a family in- 
stitution, which has in every crisis proved itself as solid as The Bank of England, Mr. 
Arnot has sustained the financial credit of Elmira in every storm. His name to-day is 
a tower of strength. Mr. Arnot's temperament is entirely domestic. The only offices 
of public nature which he has ever held have been those of member of the Board of 
Education and the Elmira State Reformatory. Never has he failed to sustain the honor 
of the family name. His art gallery, which has cost not less than $300,000, is an evi- 
dence that his aspirations are higher and better than the mere love of gain. Among 
his practical interests are The Chemung Canal Bank, The Sheldon Saddlery Co., 
Thomas Briggs & Co., brewers, The Junction Canal Co., The Seneca Lake Steam Navi- 
gation Co., The Chemung Plank Road Co., and The Elmira Industrial Association, of 
most if not all of which he is the head. He is a member of the Calumet, Seawanhaka 
Corinthian Yacht and Delta Phi clubs of New York city. 

BENJAMIN ATHA, manufacturer, Newark, N. J., is a son of the late Andrew 
Atha, who came to this country from England in 1842, and in 1847 engaged in the 
manufacture of cast steel in Newark, founding The New Jersey Steel Works. Andrew 
Atha was a man of notable qualities. Most of his employes were tenants in his houses, 
and he made it known to them during the Civil War that the families of those who 
should enlist could occupy their dwellings rent free until the term of enlistment was 
over or the war ended. Many of the men took advantage of this patriotic offer, and 
resumed their places in the factory when they returned. Mr. Atha was also a munifi- 
cent contributor to the comfort of other Jersey soldiers in the field and of their families. 
Benjamin Atha was born in Sullivan county, N. Y., Jan. 5, 1844, and was educated 
in private schools in Newark. His first occupation in the steel works established by 
his father fixed his vocation for life. Upon the death of his father in 1874, he became 
the head of the concern, and has since managed affairs with marked success and greatly 
developed the business. Two plants now belong to the concern, one in Newark, the 
other in Harrison, N. J. , the two employing about 900 men. The firm have recently 
filled contracts for the manufacture of armor plate for the United States Navy, and 
they are now incorporated as The Benjamin Atha & Illingsworth Co. Mr. Atha is 
president and general manager, as also president of The Atha Cast Steel Co. , and vice 
president of Atha & Hughes. 

ELISHA ATKINS, who was born in Truro, Mass., in January, 1813, and died at 
his home in Boston, Mass., Dec. 9, 1888, had reached middle age before the financial 
world knew him as anything else than a merchant of considerable business talent. The 


story of his early life varies little from that of other striving men, except with respect 
to the energy with which he improved the opportunities of his times and developed 
the most profitable branches of his trade. Beginning, as a clerk for Dennis Brigham 
on Rowe's Wharf in Boston, he formed when of age the firm of Atkins & Freeman, 
merchants in the West India trade. Later, as the head of Elisha Atkins & Co., he 
confined his attention to producing, importing and refining sugar. In the sugar 
trade and in refining, he acquired a large fortune, being an owner in the local sugar 
trust. Later, in the field of finance in which men of means can operate to advantage, 
he gained a large accession to his means in the securities of The LTnion and Central 
Pacific Railroads, of which he had been a large buyer at low prices. He served as 
first vice-president of the Union Pacific until his retirement and was the last link con- 
necting the old directorate with the new. He was a large owner in The Little -Rock & 
Fort Smith Railroad, and a director in The American Loan & Trust Co., The Boston 
Wharf Corporation, The New England Mortgage Security Co. and The Guarantee 
Company of North America, and at one time director in The Howard Bank and The 
Commonwealth Insurance Co. A large property descended to his wife, Mrs. Mary E. 
Atkins, his daughter, Grace Eveline, wife of Wm. Howell Reed, and his son Edwin F. 
Atkins. The latter continues as sole proprietor of the refining business and one of the 
principal owners in The Trinidad Sugar Co. and is vice president of The Union Pacific 

CORNELIUS AULTHAN, manufacturer, Canton, O., born March 10, 1827, died in 
Canton, Dec. 25, 1884. He was one of a group of men who came upon the stage in 
Ohio during the period when the settlement of the West was creating an enormous de- 
mand for farm implements, and he made his fortune catering to the demand. In 1851, 
he entered into partnership with .Ephraim Ball, an ingenious inventor, in the firm of 
Ball, Aultman & Co. , and engaged in the manufacture of the plows and stoves, patented 
by Mr. Ball. Being a man of marked executive ability, Mr. Aultman devoted his at- 
tention to the general affairs of the firm, while Mr. Ball continued to invent new de- 
vices, which the firm took charge of and manufactured. The "Ohio mower," the 
"World mower and reaper," the "Buckeye mower "and the " New American har- 
vester " were brought out successively and were manufactured in enormous quantities. 
After 1872, the style was changed to C. Aultman & Co. Having accumulated more 
means than could be employed to advantage in his own business, Mr. Aultman invested 
his surplus resources in various industrial concerns, including The Wrought Iron 
Bridge Co., The Mansfield Mower & Reaper Works, and Aultman, Miller & Co., of 
Akron. He was a man of probity and popularity, had been mentioned for Congress 
and was considered eligible for nomination as Governor of Ohio, when death closed 
his career. His wife and one daughter, Elizabeth A., wife of George D. Harter, the 
banker, survived him. 

JOSEPH AUSTRIAN, merchant, Chicago, 111., was born in Wittelshofen, a small 
village in Bavaria, Sept. 15, 1833. His father, Abraham I. Austrian, followed the 
occupation of farmer and cattle raiser, while his mother, a member of the Heule family, 
one of the foremost of Braunsbach, Wurtemberg, was a remarkable woman, and lived 
to the age of eighty-eight. The farm claimed Joseph's attention during boyhood years, 
but he came to America at sixteen, and in Detroit joined his brother Julius, an Indian 
trader. Employed for a time in the store, and next in the winter logging camps in 


the Wisconsin woods, he made many coasting trips in fishing boats, had the misfor- 
tune to get lost in the woods and on the ice, and experienced, in short, all the hardships 
of a pioneer. By 1853, sufficient money had been saved to enable him to become a 
merchant in a small way in Eagle River, Mich., and in 1865 he removed to Chicago, 
where with his brother Solomon and the Messrs. Leopold, he bought the propeller 
Ontonagon, and began a steamship service to Lake Superior, in the firm of Leopold & 
Austrian. Fortune now smiled upon his efforts, and the firm soon added two other 
boats to the line. About 1882, they consolidated their interests with those of C. F. A. 
Spencer and others under the name of The Lake Michigan & Lake Superior Transpor- 
tation Co. , Mr. Austrian being elected the general manager, which office he yet holds. 
The Company now operates six excellent steamers. The magnificent Manitou, the 
finest steel passenger steamer on the lakes, was added to the fleet in 1893. Mr. Aus- 
trian has an interest in. The Mastodon Iron Co., near Crystal Falls, Mich., of which 
he has always been secretary and treasurer, and owns considerable Chicago real estate. 
He bears a reputation for uprightness, and is a member of the Standard club. 

WILLIAM HOLT AVERELL, banker, was born in 1794, in Cooperstown, N. Y., 
in which place he always lived, of English- French parentage. A lawyer by profession, 
and one of the organizers and until his death chief owner and president of The Otsego 
County Bank, now The First National Bank of Cooperstown, his time was mainly occu- 
pied with the care of this institution, and of an estate, inherited and acquired, consist- 
ing largely of lands in the West. The growth of the country gave great value to his 
possessions and made him a man of wealth. He was State Bank Commissioner in 
1841, and a bright man of the old school. He died Aug. 17, 1873, leaving his estate 
mainly to his daughter, Mrs. Jane Russell Averell Carter, who married a resident of 
Cleveland, O. , and was left a widow. Mrs. Carter built a large mansion in Coopers- 
town, and dwelt there the whole of her life. She was a woman of great liberality and 
expended much in private charity. She died Jan. 31, 1888, survived by Jane R. A. 
Brown, Mary Yale Clarke, wife of George Hyde Clarke, son of the great Central New 
York landholder, Anna Grace Carter, and Lawson Averell Carter. 

BENJAfllN FRANKLIN AVERY, manufacturer, Louisville, Ky., founder of 
B. F. Avery & Sons and of one of the largest plow factories in the world, was the son 
of Daniel Avery, and was born in Aurora, Cayuga county, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1801. He 
died in Louisville, March 3, 1885. He was educated in the local schools and at Union 
College, and then studied law at the earnest desire of his father. A natural inclination 
for mechanical occupation overcame, however, his interest in any other. Engaging in 
the manufacture of plows in 1824, in Clarksville, Va., he followed the same business in 
Milton, N. C., and for a longer time in Meadsville, Va. He came to Louisville in 
1847, resumed the manufacture of plows, and developed a business, which pushed its 
trade not only to every part of the United States, but also to most of the civilized coun- 
tries of the world. Mr. Avery was a progressive man, continually improving his plows 
and owning some valuable patents. Depots for distribution were established in New 
Orleans, Fort Worth, Dallas and New York city. The principal products of his indus- 
try were cotton sweeps, and chilled, wheel gang, shovel, steel, subsoil and sulky plows. 
The old firm are now incorporated with a capital of $1,500,000, the stock being owned 
almost wholly by the Avery family. The founder was a man of great force of charac- 
ter and business genius and became one of the most highly regarded citizens of Louis- 


ville. Mr. Avery was married in 1844, at Utica, N. Y., to Susan Howes Look. At 
his death, he left a large estate to his wife and his children, Mrs. Lydia Avery Coonley, 
Samuel Look Avery, Mrs. Gertrude Avery Shanklin, George Capwell Avery, who is 
now president of the company, Mrs. Helen Avery Robinson, and William Sidney Aver}'. 

CHRISTIAN AX, manufacturer, Baltimore, Md., was born in Daaden, Rhenish 
Prussia, Nov. 12, 1823. Coming to America in 1851, he was employed as a travelling 
salesman by George W. Gail, manufacturer of smoking tobacco, to whom he proved so 
valuable an aid that, in 1855, Mr. Gail admitted him to partnership. The firm of 
G. W. Gail & Ax developed during the life of Mr. Ax one of the largest manufactur- 
ing plants of its class in the country. It is now identified with The American Tobacco 
Co. Mr. Ax became a brother in law of the senior partner, and the two men, congenial 
in spirit and united by ties of sentiment, co-operated in perfect unity to extend their 
trade and both gained fortunes. Mr. Ax was a Republican in politics. Several nom- 
inations for office were tendered to him but were declined, the Democrats being in the 
ascendency in the State. He always gave, however, liberally to campaign funds. He 
was a warm friend of General Grant, and active in caring for wounded soldiers during 
the late War. During the Franco- Prussian war, Mr. Ax accepted the position of head 
of a society, formed to aid the Germans in that war, and was the means of sending 
many thousand dollars in behalf of their cause. He belonged to nearly all the national 
and local German societies of note. Caroline, a sister of G. W. Gail, accepted and 
married Mr. Ax in 1853, but died in 1857. Their children were Marie and Charles, the 
latter dying in 1886. In 1862, Mr. Ax married Nancy, another sister of Mr. Gail. 
This union brought them one son, Christian. Mr. Ax died March 20, 1887. 

BENJAMIN AYCRIQQ, lawyer, Passaic, N. J., born in that city, March 16, 1857, 
died in Passaic, May 15, 1893. He was of English descent, his father being Charles 
Aycrigg, a retired gentleman. The subject of this brief memoir received his education 
in the New York University and then studied law in Jersey City in Judge Dixon's office, 
being admitted to the bar in 1884. He practiced his- profession successfully in Paterson, 
where he made a large number of friends. His life was free from stain and his high 
character won universal respect. A public spirited man, he took a great interest in 
schools and at one time served as a member of the Board of Education in Passaic. In 
1887, he removed to Paterson, N. J., and was one of the most able members of the 
Paterson Board of Trade. He gave much time to all matters in which this association 
was interested. Keen and comprehensive in mind, he was capable of grasping in a 
masterly way every subject which came before him. He was a large owner of real 
estate which rose to great value with the increase in population. For the press, he 
wrote several thoughtful articles on current topics. In 1887, he married Abbie Brown 
of Pittsfield, Mass. , and his family consisted of two sons, Charles B. and George B. 

FREDERICK AVER, manufacturer, Lowell, Mass., a brother of the late Dr. James 
C. Ayer, was born in Ledyard, Conn., Dec. 8, 1822. Educated in the public schools 
and then in higher schools in Jewett City, Conn., and Baldwinsville, N. Y., he began 
life as clerk in the general country store of John H. Tomlinson & Co., in Baldwinsville. 
Here he showed himself a capable young man and was sent for three years to Syracuse 
to take charge of a branch store there, being finally admitted to partnership. He subse- 
quently became the partner of the late Dennis McCarthy, the leading dry goods mer- 


chant of Syracuse, the firm of McCarthy & Ayer continuing for eleven years. In 1855, 
Mr. Ayer retired to join his brother in the manufacture of Ayer's Proprietary Medicines 
in the firm of J. C. Ayer & Co., Lowell, Mass. , and was made treasurer of the company. 
In 1871, the brothers bought a controlling interest in the Tremont Mills and The Suf- 
folk Manufacturing Co. , then bankrupt and idle, and united them as The Tremont & 
Suffolk Mills, and Mr. Ayer is yet a director in their management. He has displayed 
capacity as an administrator and organizer and has been president of The Lowell & 
Andover Railroad since its organization, director and treasurer of The Portage Lake 
Canal and The Lake Superior Ship Canal, Railway & Iron Co., and director in The 
Keweenaw Association, The Lowell National Bank, and The Merchants' National 
Bank of Lowell, The Central Savings Bank, and The New England Telephone Co. 
In 1885, he bought The Washington Mills of Lawrence at auction, was president 
for the first year, and has been treasurer ever since. The company employs 
3,200 hands. 

DR. JAHES COOK AYER, famous as a manufacturer of proprietary medicines, 
and as an organizer and financier, was born May 5, 1818, in that part of the town of 
Groton, Conn. , which now bears the name of Ledyard. In his veins ran the blood of 
old American families, distinguished for personal character and active interest in 
public affairs. Frederick Ayer, his father, who served as a soldier of the War of 1812 
and died in 1825, was a son of Elisha Ayer, a hero of the American Revolution. 
The mother of Dr. Ayer was Persis Cook Ayer, who died in Lowell, Mass., July 23, 

Although he lost his father by death, early in life, the subject of this memoir was 
anxious for a liberal education and obtained it in his own way. An arrangement was 
made, whereby he removed to Lowell, Mass., and there he attended the grammar 
school, going later to the Westford academy and Lowell high school. He then prose- 
cuted alone for three years the course of studies prescribed at Harvard college, having 
the advantage of tutorship by the Rev. Dr. Edson in Latin only. An active mind 
led him to supplement this preliminary education by the diligent reading of sound and 
choice books, and, through a tenacious memory and an ardent desire for knowledge, he 
became a man of extended scholarship and the most varied information. 

In 1838, the youth found employment in the apothecary shop of Jacob Robbins 
in Lowell, as a clerk and student, and there gained the training which determined his 
occupation for life and led him on to fortune. For four years, he studied chemistry 
with all the ardor of a fresh and vigorous nature, aided by his own training in study, 
and then studied medicine under Dr. Samuel L. Dana and Dr. John W. Graves. In 
both branches of science, he became proficient, taking rank at an early day both as an 
excellent analytical chemist and a competent physician. The University of Pennsyl- 
vania gladly gave him the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 

In April, 1841, an opportunity to buy the apothecary business of Mr. Robbins, 
his former employer, presented itself; and securing a loan of $2,486 for this purpose, 
Dr. Ayer bought the shop and its stock of goods and conducted the business thereafter 
on his own account, and, it may be said, with such success, that within three years he 
repaid the loan in full. Beginning thus without capital of his own, he had then come 
into the possession of a paying business. This little store was the foundation of the 
enormous industry, which Dr. Ayer developed in later years. 


Nov. 14, 1850, Dr. Ayer married Miss Josephine Mellen Southwick, a daughter of 
the Hon. Royal Southwick, for many years a woolen manufacturer as well as a politi- 
cal leader in that district. 

In 1855, tije manufacture of proprietary medicines was undertaken in accordance 
with formulas invented by Dr. Ayer himself. These prescriptions were primarily 
intended for the use of people resident on the frontier and in remote districts, where, 
in cases of sickness, the prompt services of a physician could not be obtained. They 
proved to be useful not only to persons so situated, but to the public at large, and soon 
found a ready sale. Dr. Ayer's business grew in volume from year to year, until 
Ayer's Proprietary Medicines became known not only throughout the United States but 
in every part of the civilized world. Much of their success grew out of energetic and 
ingenious advertising. One of Dr. Ayer's original ideas was the publication of an 
almanac, yearly, which, in addition to its valuable astronomical data and calendar, 
should contain a great variety of irresistibly witty jokes as well as complete informa- 
tion about the medicines. Ayer's Almanac was given away by the millions of copies, 
and became in time no less renowned and no less eagerly sought for than the medicines 
themselves. The principal remedies prepared by Dr. Ayer were his Cherry Pectoral, 
Sarsaparilla, Ague Cure, Hair Vigor and Pills. A large laboratory was built to 
accommodate the growing manufacture, and was expanded until it gave employment to 
nearly 300 persons. The establishment having been fitted up with machinery for the 
publication of 15,000,000 almanacs a year, 800 tons of paper were bought annually for 
this single branch of the extended advertising of the house. In 1877, the firm of Dr. J. 
C. Ayer & Co. was succeeded by The J. C. Ayer Co. 

While the fame of Dr. Ayer grows largely out of the publicity given to his medi- 
cines, yet it must be said that his genius had many sides and his versatility was extra- 
ordinary. While profoundly versed especially in the mysteries of chemistry, he loved 
also the physical sciences. One of his investments took place early in the War. In 
November, 1861, he bought four sea island cotton plantations at Hilton Head, Ga., 
and engaged in cotton raising with free black labor. Although there were difficulties 
to be overcome, yet he finally made the enterprise successful; and the grandson of 
John C. Calhoun is the author of a statement, that if the South had believed that 
such enormous crops could be produced with free labor, there would have been no war. 

In 1865, Dr. Ayer invented processes for the disintegration and desulphurizing of 
rocks and ores by means of liquids, applied to them while incandescent. Three 
patents were secured upon these processes, but Dr. Ayer did not possess the facilities 
for manufacturing; and for convenience, he sold the patents to The Chemical Gold 
& Silver Ore Reducing Co. 

He was engaged in many important public works. Among other ventures, he em- 
barked in a plan of his own for supplying water to the inhabitants of Rochester, 
N. Y., from a beautiful sheet of water named Hemlock lake. Much litigation 
attended this enterprise. Dr. Ayer was also one of the original projectors of The 
Lowell & Andover Railroad and a large owner in its stock. 

In 1870, he bought a large interest in The Tremont Mills and The Suffolk 
Manufacturing Co., two large cotton industries, then bankrupt and idle, and by 
consolidating them as The Tremont & Suffolk Mills, he placed them under good 
management and made them the most successful in New England. He was treas- 


urer of the corporation for many years. Having made large investments in other fac- 
tories in Lowell and Lawrence, Dr. Ayer became deeply interested in honest and 
capable management, and was one of the most influential advocates of corporation 
reform, a question which attracted the attention of the manufacturing world for 
two decades. It is remembered that he stoutly opposed the management of great 
corporations in the interests of a few large stockholders, rather than for the good of 
all the owners, large and small; and the strenuous battle of Dr. Ayer awakened public 
interest and brought about the desired reform. 

The famous Portage ship canal at Keeweenaw Point on Lake Superior, a mile and 
a half long, by which Portage lake and Portage river were opened through to Lake 
Superior, and no miles of dangerous navigation were saved and an excellent har- 
bor created, was the product of his mind; and he was the inspiring genius and a 
large owner in The Lake Superior Ship Canal & Iron Co., which built the canal. 
An effort was made to induce Dr. Ayer to lend his ' strong support to the Panama 
canal, but his judgment of the impracticability of that water route led him to refuse 
to engage in the scheme. 

Always taking a native born American's interest in public affairs, and fitted by 
natural gifts for public station, Dr. Ayer was mentioned for Congress several times ; 
and in 1874, he was nominated by the Republicans of his district. That was a year of 
tidal reaction against the Republicans, and Dr. Ayer was defeated, as were hundreds 
of the best men of the party in that year. He probably would have been elected, how- 
ever, had not Judge E. R. Hoar, whom Dr. Ayer had cordially supported on a pre- 
vious occasion, run that year as an independent third party candidate, dividing the 
Republican vote. 

Ample means enabled Dr. Ayer to gratify impulses of genuine philanthropy, 
and he contributed a bell to the chime in St. Anne's Church in Lowell in 1857. 
In 1866 he presented to the city a winged statue of Victory for the public square 
in Lowell and made the public address of presentation. When the town of Ayer 
was incorporated in 1871, it was named in honor of him, and he gave it a beautiful 
Town Hall. 

A man of constructive ability, Dr. Ayer scorned to build his own fortune by wreck- 
ing those of others. Vast wealth came to him through untiring endeavor, honest 
methods, the development of new enterprises, fine organizing genius, great capacity, 
and a business judgment that was unusual. He never undertook what he could not 
accomplish and what ought not to be accomplished. He was able, unaided, to buildup 
one of the large fortunes of the United States, without incurring the hazards of specu- 
lation. While devoted to science, he loved literature and art. He was a good scholar 
in Greek and Latin, spoke French fluently, and learned Portuguese when fifty years of 
age. In his large house in Lowell, he accumulated a large library and was fond of 
reading the soundest and choicest books, especially the works of Horace. Art in 
all its finer forms awoke his admiration, and had he not died before the comple- 
tion of his plans, Lowell would have been enriched by gifts of paintings of great 

He died July 3, 1878, universally regretted, leaving a large estate to his wife, his 
son, Frederick Fanning Ayer, and his daughter, the wife of Lieut. Commander Frederick 
Pearson, a gallant officer of the navy. 


ELI AYLSWORTH, merchant, judge, banker and man of affairs, Providence, R. I. , 
was a strong, original and self reliant character, an excellent specimen of the typical 
Yankee. He came into the world, June 6, 1802, on a farm in Foster, R. I., the first of 
the twelve children of Arthur and Mary Preston Aylsworth. The little farm could not 
support so numerous a brood as this, and Eli was driven while a boy to help sustain 
the family. The strong, robust, hearty lad was hired out at the age of eleven, and at 
eighteen went into a country store for two years, and, at twenty, more practical and 
experienced than a college graduate, he married Miss Martha Bennett, and opened his 
own store, with $149 of capital. Much of his early success came from the kindness and 
sound advice of Randolph Chandler, a Providence merchant, who trusted him with 
goods, and far more of it from his good and able wife. Economy, shrewdness and 
a liking for hard labor won a handsome reward almost from the start. The blanks in 
his early education were filled by his strong and active mind so thoroughly, that his 
townsmen made him Deputy Sheriff and Justice of the Peace, and in 1838, Judge of 
Common Pleas in Providence county. Mrs. Aylsworth died in 1837, the mother of ten 
children, and, in 1840, her husband married Maria Fairman, who also died in July, 
1842, leaving a son r Henry P. Aylsworth. In 1843, Mr. Aylsworth married Eliza S. 
Angell, who lived until January, 1894. The years from 1841 to 1850 were spent in 
Danielsonville and Brooklyn, Conn. Thereafter, Mr. Aylsworth was a resident of 
Providence. While occupied with his own investments, largely in real estate, and with 
his duties as director of The Atlantic Bank at one time, president of The Jackson Bank, 
vice president of The Mechanics' Savings Bank for nearly twenty years, from which he 
withdrew in 1878, and president of The Westminster Bank from 1856 until his death, 
he managed a large volume of investment business for other people. Several large 
estates were committed to his care, and it is thought that more little trusts were left to 
him than to any other man in New England. He sat in the Legislature as a Whig or 
Republican in 1854, 1866 and 1867. He was a Methodist, a man of large benevolence, 
an able man whose advice was sought continually, and an all round good citizen. 
When he died, Aug. 5, 1894, in his 93d year, only five children survived him, Mercy 
Bennett, Emily Rothwell, Hiram B., Adaline Angell and Eliza Burlingame. 


FRANCIS GRANGER BABCOCK, banker, Hornellsville, N. Y., born in the town 
of Pharsalia, Chenango county, N. Y., in 1831, is a descendant of an old New England 
family. Luke Babcock, his grandfather, was originally a resident of Connecticut but 
became one of the first settlers of Chenango county. Mr. Babcock is a son of Paul 
Randall Babcock, and his mother's maiden name was Adelaide McClara Wallace. 

The subject of this sketch was educated at Bacon Academy in Colchester, Conn., 
where he enjoyed educational advantages of a high order. Mr. Babcock remembers 
to this day, with grateful appreciation, the training which he received in that place of 
learning and speaks in the highest praise of his old tutor in mathematics, James S. 
Eaton, a graduate of Andover Seminary, Mass., and acknowledged to have been one 
of the best mathematicians in the country. 

After leaving school, Mr. Babcock entered upon a business career in a country 
store in Connecticut. No better school in which to lay the foundation of a commercial 
education could have been selected. Evidence of natural aptitude for business 
pursuits soon became apparent, and Mr. Babcock 's shrewd insight into human 
nature may be. traced to the information picked up by him in that country store in 

Subsequently, his business talents and enterprise attracted the attention of his 
uncles, the Messrs. Usher, who at that time carried on a more extensive trade with 
the West Indies than any other house in Rhode Island. They made Mr. Babcock 
chief clerk, and in this wider field he demonstrated again the possession of abilities, 
which have since placed him in the front rank among banking men. 

In 1852, when the Erie railroad had been completed and began running trains 
from Piermont to Dunkirk, Mr. Babcock recognized the important influence which 
this enterprise would exert upon business undertakings along its line, and promptly 
located in Allegany county, N. Y. , first taking a position as a clerk in a country store. 
There he met Miss Elizabeth Clark, a daughter of the late Charles S. Clark, to whom he 
was married in 1854. Their family now consists of six children : Charles Clark Babcock, 
Mrs. Charles O. Rose, Mrs. Horatio Seymour Lang, Francis Granger Babcock, jr., 
Mrs. Edwin S. Brown, and Blake Bonnett Babcock, all of Hornellsville. 

About six years after marriage, Mr. Babcock associated himself with his father-in- 
law, in the business of manufacturing and dealing in pine lumber and the sale of general 
merchandise. This business was conducted for nearly twenty-five years in fact, until, 
the death of Mr. Clark in the latter part of 1880. During this period, Mr. Babcock 
prospered in everything he undertook. Quick to perceive the character of investments 
brought to his attention, he rarely failed to profit by every legitimate opportunity 
which offered itself. To his wide awake mind, it soon became apparent that the 
development of the country would exceed anything, of which people in his younger 
days had dreamed, and he became extensively interested in the ownership of pine lands 
in Michigan and Pennsylvania. Every investment was made only after personal 
examination of the property purchased and with a clear perception of its future value. 
Some of these investments proved far more profitable than anticipated. Large tracts 



in Pennsylvania, purchased with reference to their value as timber land, turned out to 
be petroleum producing, and Mr. Babcock came to be widely known as one of the 
largest oil land owners and sellers in McKean county, Pa. 

By 1871, Mr. Babcock had become one of the best known business men in Western 
New York, and in that year he removed from Allegany county to Hornellsville in 
the adjoining county of Steuben. Then, as now, Hornellsville was one of the most 
important points on the line of the present New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad, 
of which road, by the way, Mr. Babcock has always been a firm and enthusiastic friend. 

He is public-spirited and always ready to aid in advancing the interests of the 
city, in which is located his home. In 1874, he built the Babcock building, one of the 
principal structures in Hornellsville, and in 1875 established The Bank of Hornells- 
ville, now a most prosperous institution, which he organized under State law. Two- 
thirds of its stock are own.ed by Mr. Babcock, who has been president since organization. 
The remainder of the stock is owned by a brother, D. D. Babcock, vice president of the 
bank, and by members of the respective families of both, so that the institution may 
aptly be termed a family bank. Enormous as are the enterprises in which Mr. Babcock 
is interested, he gives personal attention to them all, and their success shows the 
ability and genius of the man who controls and guides them. He is recognized as a 
very able man, and his opinion on a business question is always received, with confi- 
dence, as authority. 

In addition to the enterprises already mentioned, Mr. Babcock was at one time 
largely interested in the importation and breeding of Holland and Scotch cattle, to 
which he gave close attention for several years. He is the owner of the celebrated 
Babcock Stock Farms, located at Hornellsville, which are unrivaled in the State, 
Some of the best horses in the country are being bred there. With his brother, 
D. D. Babcock, he also owns a fine farm in Kansas, comprising about 12,000 
acres, upon which are kept from 2,500 to 3,600 head of cattle and horses. 

Notwithstanding the extent and diversity of Mr. Babcock's interests, he has 
found time to take an active part in politics. His party sent him as a delegate to 
the Democratic National Conventions of 1880 and 1888, and made him a member of 
the Democratic State Committee in 1882 and 1883, representing the Congressional 
district, then composed of Chemung, Steuben and Allegany counties. In 1893, 
Governor Flower appointed him one of the State Forest Commissioners, and his 
associates made him president of the body, which position he now holds. 

Mr. Babcock is, in the truest sense of the term, a self-made man. Although 
not born in poverty, he has had to make his way, nevertheless, from the time he 
was ten years of age, and to depend upon his own resources for a living. With 
the exception of fifty dollars, his only inheritance has been the industry, enterprise 
and business ability, which have won for him wealth and prominence. 

JOHN JUDSON BAGLEY, manufacturer, Detroit, Mich., a native of Medina, 
N. Y., born July 24, 1832, died in San Francisco, Cala., July 27, 1881. He removed 
to Michigan with his father's family in 1840, and tutelage in the common country 
schools ended when he was fourteen. After a few years at Constantine and Owosso, 
he left home for Detroit, at the age of fifteen, to seek employment. His first engagement 
there was in the tobacco store of Isaac Miller. On reaching his majority, he established 
a small tobacco factory of his own and in a short time became a large and successful 


manufacturer. In later years, he connected himself with various other industries and 
with banking and real estate ventures, and was, as a rule, successful. Public life 
attracted his bold and active nature and the position of Metropolitan Police Commis- 
sioner and other positions of trust in his city and State were confided to him. In 1868, 
he became chairman of the Michigan Republican State Central Committee, and in 1872, 
the Republicans elected him Governor of the State and re-elected him in 1874. During 
his administration, the educational and charitable institutions of the State received his 
special care and attention and were placed on a higher plane of usefulness. The treat- 
ment of the liquor traffic by taxation was the result of his recommendations. He was 
a man of large physique and fine presence, heavily bearded, and a great reader and 
profound thinker, with a broad and comprehensive grasp of all public questions. A 
member of the Unitarian Church, his donations were large but were confined to no sect 
or creed. He married Miss Frances E., daughter of the Rev. Samuel Newbury, and 
left a large estate to his wife and children, Mrs. Florence B. Sherman, John N. Bagley, 
Frances B. Brown, Margaret B. Hosmer (since deceased), Olive, Paul F. and Helen. 

CHARLES flARTIN BAILEY, manufacturer, Winthrop, Me., born there, Oct. 
24, 1820, began life as a farmer and acquired in early life the thrifty habits, strong 
physique and practical mind, for which the people of the State are famous. When he 
resolved to become a business man, he began the manufacture of oilcloth carpets on a 
small scale, finding a local market at first but prospering to such an extent that the busi- 
ness gradually developed into a considerable industry. Wages were low in Maine, and 
when Mr. Bailey began competing for the general trade of the United States, his for- 
tune rapidly improved. Depots are now maintained in New York city and Philadelphia. 
Mr. Bailey has now resigned the active management to Charles I. and Edward A. 
Bailey and Joseph E. Briggs, the latter his son-in-law, the business being conducted 
under the style of The C. M. Bailey s Sons Co. Many people consider him the richest 
man in Maine. The Bank of Winthrop and The Maine Steamship Co., of both of 
which he is president, and other enterprises now fully occupy his attention. Oct. 23, 
1844, Mr. Bailey married Sophia D. Jones. 

JOHN BAIRD, marble manufacturer, Philadelphia, Pa., born in Londonderry, 
Ireland, in 1820, died in Philadelphia, Feb. 13, 1894. The son of a coppersmith, he 
was brought to Philadelphia while an infant, set to work in early boyhood, and later 
apprenticed to a marble cutter. He liked marble work, was self-denying and saving, 
worked overtime, and at the age of twenty-one, started a marble business of his own in 
a small shed on Ridge avenue near Spring Garden street, meanwhile taking drawing 
lessons at night and, making a special study of ornamentation and the orders of archi- 
tecture. His business improved with advancing knowledge, and ere long Mr. Baird 
moved to a better location on Spring Garden street near i3th. Competition compelled 
Mr. Baird to introduce labor saving appliances and he was the first to employ steam in 
the cutting of marble slabs. About 1852, his brother, Matthew Baird, became a part- 
ner, withdrawing, however, two years later to enter the since famous Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works. Mr. Baird imported foreign marble in order to obtain the finest 
materials for special works and frequently visited the quarries in New England for the 
same purpose, finally purchasing an interest in an excellent quarry. Among his con- 
tracts for marble was one for the Capitol at Washington. As he gained prosperity, Mr. 
Baird bought real estate, especially in the northwestern part of the city, and built 



thereon several long rows of dwellings. He was also president of the Continental 
Hotel corporation. Everything this energetic man undertook, he did with all his 
might and his capacity for labor was enormous. Responsibilities accumulated upon 
him as the years passed by, and he served with credit as president of The City National 
Bank, 1878-88; president of The Cambria Mining & Manufacturing Co. ; and the de- 
signer of Agricultural Hall at the Centennial Exposition, and, part of the time, a mem- 
ber of the Board of Finance. The city received from him a marble model of the 
Centennial Buildings at a cost of $25,000 to himself. Public spirit led him also to 
become an organizer and vice president of The Pennsylvania Museum & School of 
Industrial 'Art, vice president of The School of Design for Women, trustee of The 
Williamson Free School, vice president of The Spring Garden Institute, a corporator 
of The Hayes Mechanics' Home, and president of The Mechanics' Exchange. Mr. 
Baird was an owner in The Winifrede Coal Co. of West Virginia. Matilda, his 
wife, and three children, Thomas E., John E., and Matilda Baird, survived him. 

MATTHEW BAIRD, locomotive builder, Philadelphia, Pa., was not a native 
American, but was born in Londonderry, Ireland, in 1817. He died in Philadelphia, 
May 19, 1877. His excellent parents, Scotch-Irish by descent, came to the new 
world in 1821, settling in Philadelphia on Lombard street. The senior Baird, a 
coppersmith, gave Matthew a fair education and then encouraged him to support 
himself. The boy went to work at first in a brickyard and proved by his subsequent 
course, that it is not the way a man begins in America, which determines his suc- 
cess, but how he goes on after he begins. A better place came to him, when he 
was made a laboratory assistant in the University of Pennsylvania. In 1834, then 
seventeen years of age, he entered the works of The New Castle Manufacturing Co. , 
and made such progress that in a short time he became superintendent of the railroad 
shops in the same town. Thorough in all his work and a good manager, he had the 
good fortune to secure, on his merits, in June, 1838, the place of foreman of the sheet 
iron and boiler department of The Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia, and 
from that time forward rapidly built his fortune. The next twelve years were spent 
as an employ6 of this concern, but in 1850, he left it for four years. It should be 
told here, that, during 1845-50, he- was a partner of Richard French, sr., and Henry 
R. Campbell, under the name of French & Baird, in the manufacture of locomotive 
smoke arresters, and for about two years engaged a partner of his brother, the not less 
well-known John Baird, in the marble business. In 1854, he returned to The Baldwin 
Locomotive Works as a partner in M. W. Baldwin & Co. In this industry, his 
mechanical genius and native ingenuity had full play and he made noteworthy experi- 
ments in the economical burning of soft coal in railroad engines and adopted the de- 
flector plate or brick arch, now in general use. In 1867, following the death of Mr. 
Baldwin, the firm reorganized as M. Baird & Co., George Burnham and Charles T. 
Parry, being the junior members. Mr. Baird retired in 1873. He had large interests 
in other enterprises, and found congenial occupation in their management, being a 
director in The Central National Bank, The Texas & Pacific Railway, The Andover 
Iron Co. , The Philadelphia & West Chester Railroad and other corporations, one of 
the incorporators and a director of The American Steamship Co. , and a stockholder in 
The Pennsylvania Railroad. He was always devoted to the interests of Philadelphia, lib- 
eral in charity, and disposed at all times to assist every wise and public-spirited work. 


The Northern Home for Friendless Children and The Philadelphia Academy of Fine 
Arts have cause to remember him with gratitude. 

CHARLES JOSEPH BAKER, merchant and manufacturer, Baltimore, Md., born 
in Friendsbury, the family home near Baltimore, May 28, 1821, died Sept. 23, 1894. It 
is related that his grandfather, William Baker, having been left an orphan by an Indian 
massacre near Reading, Pa., came to Baltimore at the age of twelve and lived to found 
and carry on the successful house of William Baker & Sons. This trade gave direc- 
tion to the labors of his children. In 1841, the subject of this memoir graduated from 
Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., where so many of the youth of Baltimore have gained 
an education, and entered the office of the window glass factory of his father, then do- 
ing business under the name of The Baltimore Glass Works. In 1842, his brother, 
Henry J. Baker, and he started a paint, oil and glass business. The brothers were hard 
working men, careful and shrewd, and met with marked success. As a branch of then- 
business, they carried on the manufacture of glass for years in The Baltimore Window 
Glass, Bottle & Vial Works. The firm changed its name to Baker & Bro., in 1848, and 
to Baker Bro's & Co., in 1851. In 1865, Mr. Baker bought the interest of his partners, 
his sons taking their place. Mr. Baker was a very capable merchant. He imported 
chemicals, oil, and glue and knew how to increase his business by promoting auxiliary 
local industries. He was connected with The Maryland White Lead Co. , The Maryland 
Fertilizing & Manufacturing Co., The Chemical Co., of Canton, and other concerns. 
He was also interested in other enterprises merely as investments, including The 
Franklin Bank, of which he became a director in 1859 and in 1866 president ; and 
The Canton Co., of which he was a director after 1860 and after 1870 the president, 
a position which he resigned in 1877. It was through his efforts that the Union railroad 
and tunnel were constructed ; and, having bought control of The Baltimore Gazette, he 
was enabled to advance reform movements, which excited his lively interest. A man 
of probity, public spirit and great activity, Baltimore was the gainer by his labors. 

DORSEY SYNQE BAKER, M.D., banker, Walla Walla, Wash., originated in Centre- 
ville, Wabash county, 111., Oct. 18, 1823, son of Ezra Baker, a country doctor. It was 
in the ship Elizabeth Ann, that the founder of this family, Alexander Baker, arrived 
in 1635 in Boston, Mass. The subject of this memoir studied the profession of medicine 
at the Philadelphia Medical College. In 1848, Dr. Baker crossed the plains to Portland, 
Or., and went to California in 1849. The practice of his profession proved remunera- 
tive, but a capacity for business and the opportunities of a new and wonderfully pro- 
ductive country soon asserted themselves and he abandoned a profession always dis- 
tasteful for a hardware store in Portland. He also built a flour mill in Southern Oregon, 
among the first in the State, and later engaged in steamboating on the Columbia and 
its tributary, Snake river. In 1862, he removed to Walla Walla and in 1871 took steps 
to organize a railroad company to build a line from Walla Walla to Wallula. This 
road, the first in the Territory, was built entirely from his own means and was finished 
in 1873. Dr. Baker took part in many other forms of enterprise, including the pur- 
chase of wheat and the management of a bank, and being a man of extraordinary energy 
and sound intellect, he became one of the foremost citizens of the Territory of Washing- 
ton. His principal properties were The Baker & Boyer Bank in Walla Walla, the first 
bank in the Territory, and The Walla Walla & Columbia River Railroad. About 
1851, Dr. Baker married Caroline Tibbetts of East Portland and to them were born 


Edwin T. Baker; Mary E., now wife of Miles C. Moore, last Territorial Governor of 
Washington; Henry C. and W. W. Baker. By his second wife, Mrs. Elizabeth McCul- 
loch, he was the father of Ida Mabel, Anna Amelia, Rose Imogene, and Ada Louise 
Baker. The children named are all living. There were others, who died quite young. 
Dr. Baker did not live to see the Territory become a State, but died July 4, 1888. 

ISAAC GILBERT BAKER, merchant, now of St. Louis, Mo. , is a son of Connec- 
ticut and was born in Ridgefield in that State, Aug. 22, 1819. Isaac Gilbert, grand- 
father on his mother's side, was a descendant of Matthew Gilbert, one of the planters 
of the New Haven colony, and Dr. Amos Baker, his other grandfather, served in the 
American Revolution as assistant surgeon in Wadsworth's Connecticut brigade. With 
his father's family, Isaac G. Baker left the old home in Ridgefield, when eight years 
old, and moved to New Haven, where the lad learned all that the common schools 
could teach him, spending one year thereafter in the academy at Wilbraham, Mass. 
Then, as a clerk, he began to sell groceries in a retail store. 

In the spring of 1839, before Horace Greeley had uttered his famous remark, "Go 
West, young man," and indeed before there was any NEW YORK TRIBUNE in which to 
utter it, Mr. Baker crossed the States to enter as a clerk a store in Burlington, la. 
In 1841, he accepted a situation at the Sac and Fox Indian Agency at Des Moines, la., 
and was present when the treaty was signed, under which the red men ceded more 
than three-fourths of the present State of Iowa to the Federal government. The 
Indians thereafter removed to a reservation near what is now Ottawa, Kan., Mr. 
Baker following them and carrying on the Indian and general trade until 1851. Then, 
while continuing his store at the Sac and Fox agency, he opened another in Westport, 
Mo. In 1864, Pierre Chouteau, jr., & Co., of St. Louis, offered to Mr. Baker control 
of the trade in furs and Indian supplies at the distant post of Fort Benton. The offer 
was accepted. Mr. Chouteau died in 1865, and the exclusive control of the Missouri 
river trade of Pierre Chouteau, jr. , & Co. was sold to a new company, of which Martin 
Bates of New York was head and principal stockholder. In 1866, Mr. Baker built a 
general store and warehouse at Fort Benton, and engaged in mercantile business under 
the firm name of I. G. Baker & Co. , operating the Baker line of steamboats, transport- 
ing freight by wagons to the mining towns, and trading with the Indians. Every 
year, he collected in that region from 15,000 to 22,000 dressed buffalo robes and shipped 
them to a market in the East. In 1874, the Canadian government raised a force of 
500 mounted police and garrisoned the American boundary line, and the Missouri river 
then became the most practicable route over which the police could obtain supplies, 
and Mr. Baker shared largely in the business. 

Mr. Baker sold his mercantile business in 1878 but has retained large interests in 
Montana to the present day. He is president of The Benton & St. Louis Cattle Co., at 
Fort Benton. He owns an improved ranch at Highwood, which nestles in a beautiful 
valley at the foot of the Highwood mountains, twenty-five miles from Fort Benton, and 
upon that property spends three months of every year with his family and domestics. 
The remainder of each year he dwells in St. Louis, and is occupied there with the 
affairs of The Continental National Bank. 

ROBERT HALL BAKER, manufacturer, Racine, Wis., was born June 27, 1839, 
at Lake Geneva, Wis., and died in Racine, Oct. 5, 1882. He was a son of Charles 
Minton Baker, lawyer and judge, and of Martha Washington Larrabee, his wife. The 


paternal ancestor came to America from England in time to become inoculated with the 
spirit of liberty and fight for freedom in the American Revolution, while the original 
immigrants on the maternal side of the house were Huguenots, driven from France by 
persecution to New Jersey. Graduating from Beloit College, Mr. Baker entered the 
law office of his father at Lake Geneva, but soon removed to Racine and opened a law 
office of his own. Through an acquaintance with the late Jerome I. Case, manufac- 
turer of threshing machines, Mr. Baker was finally induced to become a partner in Mr. 
Case's firm, and he remained successfully engaged in that business until death. Mr. 
Baker was a man of excellent ability, one of the best financiers in Wisconsin, and not 
only proved a strong reinforcement to the threshing machine industry but received the 
compliment of election to various important public offices. State Senator of Wiscon- 
sin, 1872-76, and Mayor of Racine, 1874, he was afterward chairman of the State Cen- 
tral Committee of his party. President Garfield appointed him government director 
of The Union Pacific Railroad, and Mr. Baker attended the Paris Exposition of 1878 
as one of the three American Commissioners. Mr. Baker and General Garfield were 
intimate friends, and when the secret history of the latter's election to the Presi- 
dency shall be told, Mr. Baker will be found to have played an important part in 
the affair. Mr. Baker was a member of the Masonic order and various other secret 
societies. To him and his wife, Emily M. Carswell, whom he married in Racine, 
Dec. 20, 1859, were born M. Louise, George C., Edward L., Robert H., and Charles 
H. Baker. 

LIVINGSTON L. BAKER, pioneer of the Pacific coast, came into the world in 
Portland, Me., Aug. 2, 1827, and arrived in San Francisco by the steamer Panama in 
August, 1849. " To Sacramento, with his washbowl on his knee," he immediately re- 
paired, and after a short experience in the gold diggings, he settled in Sacramento in 
partnership with the late Robert H. Hamilton and engaged in the business of selling 
tools and hardware to builders and miners. The firm of Baker & Hamilton afterward 
established a factory for the manufacture of farm implements at Benicia, and conducted 
stores in Sacramento, San Francisco and San Luis Obispo. By the time of his death, 
in San Francisco, Dec. 21, 1892, Mr. Baker had made himself one of the best known 
merchants on the coast and acquired a large estate. 

EDWARD BALBACH, smelter and refiner, Newark, N. J., was born in Carls- 
ruhe, Baden, Germany, March 19, 1804. He died in Newark, Oct. 14, 1890. Early 
in life, he acquired a liking for chemistry, made it a special study, and was given a 
scientific education. His first venture was a small shop in his native city for the refin- 
ing of precious metals. Profits were not large, however, and in 1848, the opportunities 
of the new world brought him here on a tour of inspection. He found that there 
would be little competition in his specialty in the United States, and after visiting the 
principal cities decided to locate in Newark. At this juncture, a brother in Germany 
died, leaving eight helpless orphan children. Mr. Balbach hurried back to Europe to 
provide for them, and, in 1850, returned to Newark and erected the first of the now im- 
mense smelting and refining works, through which pass more gold and silver than are 
sent out from the Philadelphia mint. The jewelry manufacturers of Newark supplied 
sufficient employment at first, and he began by reducing jewelers' sweepings, a new 
trade in this country, soon gained orders from other States and was compelled to en- 
large his works. He then began smelting lead from New York and Pennsylvania 


mines, and later lead ores from Mexico. The work of separating gold and silver from 
the baser metals was next undertaken ; and Mr. Balbach patented a " de-silverizing pro- 
cess," which has completely revolutionized the smelting of gold and silver in this 
country and in Europe, and which brought to his works a continual stream of consign- 
ments of gold and silver ores from all the Western States and Territories, Mexico and 
South America. During his later years, he added to the business the making of per- 
fectly pure lead for the manufacture of paints. Years ago, he admitted his son, 
Edward Balbach, jr. , to partnership under the name of Edward Balbach & Son, but 
afterward incorporated the business, with himself as president, as The Balbach Smelt- 
ing & Refining Co. 

ALBERT BALDWIN, merchant, manufacturer and financier, New Orleans, La., 
was born at Watertown, Mass., in 1834. His father, Jacob Baldwin, and his grand- 
father, who was a soldier in the American Revolution, were born in Jaffrey, N. H. 
The emigrant ancestor, Henry, came from Devonshire, England, subscribed in Charles- 
town to the town orders for Woburn, and after that became a distinguished citizen and 
freeman of the colony. On the mother's side, Mr. Baldwin is of Scottish lineage, his 
mother being Martha Bruce, a direct descendant of Robert Bruce. 

At the age of thirteen, Mr. Baldwin went to work in the counting room of the 
Cabot Mills of Chicopee, Mass. At sixteen, he went to Boston and entered the house 
of J. M. Beebe & Co., afterward known as J. M. Beebe, Morgan & Co., and remained 
many years in the counting room of that then large dry goods importing establishment. 
In 1858, he removed to New Orleans and took charge of the office of John Burnside & 
Co., at that time a very prosperous and- large dry goods importing house. He is now 
president of the hardware corporation of A. Baldwin & Co. , Ld. , The New Orleans 
National Bank, The New Orleans Railway & Mill Supply Co , and The Gullett Cotton 
Gin Factory of Amite, La. Three sons and a son-in-law are closely identified with him 
in various undertakings. 

Mr. Baldwin fulfills the ideal of a successful merchant, manufacturer and financier. 
No one will gainsay the position he now deservedly holds of being a leader in all mat- 
ters of business where shrewdness, clearheadedness and sound judgment are brought 
into play. His executive ability and skill in directing important business affairs and 
large forces of men, are seen in the success which attends every enterprise which he 

ELBERT IRVING BALDWIN, merchant, Cleveland, O., born in New Haven, 
Conn., May 13, 1829, died Jan. 27, 1894, at his residence on Prospect street, Cleveland. 
He was a son of Silas I. Baldwin, one of the lineage of Richard Baldwin of Bucks 
county, England. Hopkins Grammar School of his native town prepared Mr. Baldwin 
for college, but ill health precluded a college course and he took a position in the dry 
goods store of Sanford & Allen, accepting a similar place two years later in New York 
with Tracy, Irwin & Co. Mr. Baldwin studied business as he did books, conscientiously 
and thoroughly, preparing himself well for the responsibilities of life. In 1853, after 
careful examination of the cities of the West, he selected Cleveland by preference and 
there established the mercantile house of E. I. Baldwin & Co. 

Mr. Baldwin is remembered as a pioneer in the "one price and cash" system of 
doing business in Cleveland. Older merchants regarded his innovation at first with dis- 
favor and incredulity, but he succeeded in this matter as in other things by persever- 


ance. Opposers soon became his followers. The success of his system was ensured 
from the outset by the upright dealing, unusual good judgment, foresight and energy 
of its founder. These same characteristics quickly made Mr. Baldwin an authority on 
questions of finance, and he attained as much prominence in the banking as in the mer- 
cantile world. Fifteen years after the establishment of the business in Cleveland, his 
firm erected the first fine store in the city at an expense of over $100,000 This ex- 
ample has been well followed by others, but Mr. Baldwin may be regarded as the pioneer 
builder of fine business structures in Cleveland. 

He was married in 1855 to Mary Jeannette Sterling of Lima, N. Y., and early the 
following year united with the Second Presbyterian Church, of which he was ever a con- 
sistent member and an elder during the last twenty-seven years of his life. Mr. Bald- 
win was at all times a Christian gentleman, refined by nature, cultivated by study and 
travel both at home and abroad, full of enthusiasm, and inclined to aid all artistic and 
educational development. That he never lost an opportunity of doing good is attested 
by his numberless charities. He is survived by his wife, his three sons, Elbert F., 
Irving and Arthur K., and his daughter Gertrude. 

HENRY PORTER BALDWIN, manufacturer, formerly Governor of Michigan and 
United States Senator, reached high station from a modest beginning. He was born 
in Coventry, R. I., Feb. 22, 1814. Left an orphan in boyhood, he became a mercan- 
tile clerk in Pawtucket, R. I., eight years before he came of age. When of age, he 
went into business on his own account in Woonsocket. In 1838, he moved to Detroit, 
Mich., and amassed a large fortune by the manufacture of boots and shoes and the in- 
vestments of profits in real estate, banking and railroads. He was for a time pres- 
ident of The Second National Bank. Elected in 1861-62 to the Michigan Sen- 
ate, he was made Governor of the State in 1869-73, an( i i Q l %19 was sent 
to the United States Senate. A liberal and public-spirited man, a practical 
friend of the University of Michigan and an Episcopalian, he was universally 
esteemed. He died Dec. 31, 1892, survived by his wife, Mrs. Sybil A. Baldwin, and 
four children, Mrs. Percie B. Rose, and Sybil F. , Katharine}., and Marie Louise 
Baldwin. By his will, he gave about $75,000 for charity. 

HATTHIAS WILLIAM BALDWIN, locomotive builder, Philadelphia, Pa., was one 
of the sons of William Baldwin, of Elizabeth, N. J., a carriage maker, who left his 
family in comfort at his death, but whose estate was so lessened by bad management 
that his sons were compelled to go to work for a living. Matthias was born Dec. 10, 
1795, and died in Philadelphia, Sept. 7, 1866. 

From early boyhood, the future engine builder loved mechanics and showed con- 
structive talent. Beginning at sixteen, as apprentice to Woolworth Bro's of Frank- 
ford, Pa., he learned the art of making jewelry, and, when his own master, went to 
the shop of Fletcher & Gardiner in the same city and showed himself a good work- 
man. In 1819, he started in business for himself, but misjudged the times and made 
a failure. Meanwhile, a process for gold-plating had been invented by him, now 
in general use. For a few years, Mr. Baldwin sold groceries and tried various other 
trades, but in 1825, returned to his proper calling and opened a small shop for 
making bookbinders' tools, copper cylinders for calico printing, and similar appli- 
ances. It was his energy and ingenuity which drove foreign tools for binders out 
of the market and revolutionized the calico industry. Needing something better 


than the weight of the human foot for motive power, Mr. Baldwin built a small 
steam engine in 1828 from his own designs, which proved so efficient that he built 
others, and soon made a reputation as a builder of stationary motive power. 

In 1830, the Stevens family of Hoboken brought from England a small loco- 
motive for The Camden & Amboy Railroad. Mr. Baldwin made drawings of all 
the parts of this machine before it was assembled, and then built a small model 
locomotive of his own and a better one in design than its predecessors. Made for his 
own amusement, this little engine, which drew two cars, each holding two persons, 
was set running on a circular track at Peale's Museum, April 25, 1831, and drew 
throngs of curious visitors, among them some gentlemen interested in The Phila- 
delphia & Germantown Railroad, six miles long. The latter gave Mr. Baldwin an 
order for his first locomotive. Many of the tools required to build this engine had to 
be created by the young mechanic, but he finally finished a smart little affair, which 
.he named " Old Ironsides " and set in operation on the track, Nov. 23, 1832. It cost 
$3,500, weighed five tons, drew thirty tons on a level grade at the rate of thirty miles 
an hour, and, in spite of its cast iron hubs, wooden spokes and wrought iron tires, was 
a positive success and remained in service for over twenty years. From that time for- 
ward, Mr. Baldwin made railroad engines a specialty. In 1834, he built a locomotive 
for The South Carolina Railroad, and another, weighing a little over eight tons and 
able to haul seventeen loaded cars, for The Pennsylvania State Line Railroad. In 
1835, ne moved to Broad and Hamilton streets, and, under the name of M.. W. Bald- 
win & Co., started on a small scale the great works which yet bear his name, but 
now cover the squares bounded by Pennsylvania avenue and Spring Garden, Broad and 
Fifteenth streets. In 1835, fourteen engines were produced, and the next year forty. 
The panic of 1837 forced him to suspend; but creditors were indulgent and gave him 
time. He paid every debt within five years. Mr. Baldwin improved the locomotive, 
year by year, and patented the flexible truck in August, 1842. The works now have a 
capacity of 1,200 engines per year. 

Mr. Baldwin was a member of The Franklin Institute, The American Philosophi- 
cal, The Horticultural and The Musical Fund societies and a director of The Academy 
of Fine Arts. In 1853, he was elected to the Legislature. He was conspicuous for 
his benefactions to churches and charities and as a devoted Christian deeply interested 
in church missions. He left an honored name and a fortune to his wife, Sarah C. , 
and his daughters, Anna B., wife of John Clayton; Mary Louise and Cecilia. 

ORVILLE DWIQHT BALDWIN, San Francisco, Cala., real estate proprietor, was 
born in Rensselaerville, N. Y. , Aug. 8, 1843, and grew to young manhood at Amster- 
dam, N. Y. He gained a moderate education in the public school, and earned his 
first money as a newsboy, errand boy and broom corn cutter. When Signer Blitz, the 
magician, visited Amsterdam with his show, he employed the capable lad to bill the 
town and then took him on the stage and taught him legerdemain. With the aid of a 
friend who advanced the money, Mr. Baldwin finally made a tour of the country as 
" Master Orville D wight, the Marvel of the Age." The first trip proved a failure, but 
several subsequent ones were successful and he managed to save a little money. This 
was soon expended, however, and he migrated to California in 1860, arriving almost 
penniless Then followed a long train of hardships. His first employment was as a 
waiter in a restaurant. Losing his health, he worked his passage to the Sandwich 


Islands and back to recuperate, then found various employments, and became partner 
in a fruit store, afterward buying a bakery and restaurant. Both these latter ventures 
were made profitable by untiring hard labor. In 1886, he engaged in local real estate 
operations, and has since gained a fortune. Mr. Buldwin is now vice president of The 
American Bank & Trust Co. 

JULIUS BALKE, manufacturer of billiard tables, born March 30, 1830, in Gehr- 
den, Westphalen, came from an agricultural family, being the son of Carl Balke, owner 
of stock farms, and Caroline Koenig, his wife. After study at the Gymnasium in Her- 
ford and the Polytechnikum in Hanover, the youth entered unwittingly upon the 
career which was to make him well known, by becoming apprentice in a furniture 
factory. The whole family emigrated to America in 1851, settling in Cincinnati, and 
in 1853, Mr. Balke had made enough progress to become a partner in a small billiard 
table factory. The game of billiards was then attracting attention in America, and 
the tables made by this firm were so excellent that the firm acquired a considerable 
trade. In 1861, Mr. Balke bought out Mr. Holzhalb and continued the business under 
his own name of Julius Balke until 1873, when he consolidated with the J. M. Bruns- 
wick concern, and went on under the name of Brunswick, Balke & Co. In 1879, the 
New York billiard manufacturer, \V. H. Collender, joined the corporation, and busi- 
ness has been conducted since then by The Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co., capital 
$1,500,000. Mr. Balke acted as vice president until his death, which occurred June 6, 
1893. He was a good mechanic, a good business man, and popular in Cincinnati. He 
belonged to the Queen City and German clubs and the Turnverein. Married to Char- 
lotte Harkemper in Cincinnati in 1856, he was the father of Julius Balke, jr., Mrs. J. 
G. Schmidlapp, Mrs. Dr. Roehler, R. F. Balke, Mrs. Rud. A. Koehler and Walter 

GEORGE BALL, banker, Galveston, Tex., born in Gansevoort, Saratoga county, 
N. Y., May 9, 1817, died in Galveston, March 13, 1884. At twelve years of age, 
George Ball went to live with an uncle in Albany, N. Y. , George Hoyt by name, and 
from him learned the trade of silversmith and jeweler and gained a training in business 
affairs. On reaching his majority, the young man sought for a place in which to locate, 
and after travelling extensively in the West and South settled in Shreveport, La. At 
this period, Texas was beginning to claim public attention, and reports from that region 
induced Mr. Ball to try what fortune might have in store for him in the infant republic 
across the Louisiana line. Returning to New York city and forming a partnership with 
his brother Albert, Mr. Ball embarked for Galveston with a stock of merchandise and 
with lumber to build a store, arriving in the Fall of 1839 during an epidemic of yellow 
fever. A lot was leased on Tremont street, a store erected and business began. Albert 
Ball joined in 1840. The two men prospered with the rising tide of trade and soon 
moved to the Strand and 22d street, but, a few years later, separated, Albert to carry 
on a clothing business, George to continue in dry goods. 

In 1854, Mr. Ball sold his mercantile interests and, with John H. Hutchings and 
John Sealy formed the firm of Ball, Hutchings & Co. to engage in a banking and com- 
mission business. In this new relation, the senior member showed himself a man of 
sound ability and the firm eventually became the most influential in the State. In 
1 86 1, the Federal navy blockaded Galveston and the firm removed to Houston and for 
four years transacted a large business with Europe, through Mexico, for the Confederate 


government. Arms and merchandise were imported and cotton and other products 
exported in large quantities. Several blockade runners were employed by the firm, 
and it is said that these ships ran the gauntlet of the blockading fleet with almost the 
regularity of mail steamers. 

In 1865, the bank was re-established in Galveston and soon became the most famous 
and substantial in the State and the largest in the Southwest. The panic of 1873 was 
met with entire success. Every enterprise calculated to develop the commerce and 
resources of Galveston as a shipping point found a staunch friend and supporter in Mr. 
Ball. He took the first $10,000 of stock in The Mallory Steamship Co., was a large 
owner in The Galveston Wharf Co. , and contributed to scores of private undertakings. 
Quiet in tastes, averse to public office, and deeply devoted to his family, Mr. Ball was 
remarkable for kindness of heart and a disposition to be helpful to others. His wealth 
was so used as to accomplish the most good. Among other acts of generosity, he gave 
$50,000 for a school building in Galveston in 1883 and later $20,000 more. The build- 
ing had been barely finished when his life drew to a close. April 19, 1843, Mr. Ball 
married Miss Sarah Catherine Perry, a native of Newport, R. I. , and daughter of Capt. 
James Perry, who settled in Galveston in 1839. Of this union, six children were born, 
two of whom survive, Mrs. Nellie League of Galveston and Frank Merriman Ball. 
Mr. Ball's death was regarded as a public calamity, and banks, many stores and the 
Cotton Exchange closed their doors at noon on the day of his funeral. 

PETER BALLANTINE, brewer, Newark, N. J., lived until Jan. 23, i88 3 ;and died 
at the age of ninety-one. Born in Ayrshire, Scotland, poverty drove him to America 
in 1820. An ale brewery in Albany, N. Y., gave him his first employment, and when 
about 1840 he had saved by slow degrees a little money, he moved to Newark, N. J., 
and in conjunction with a partner named Patterson, leased and operated an old brew- 
ery on High street, meeting with much success. In 1850, Mr. Ballantine bought a'site 
on the Passaic River, and erected a new ale brewery with modern appliances, and 
when, about 1857, his three sons, Peter H., John H., and Robert F. Ballantine, came 
into the business, he organized the firm of P. Ballantine & Sons. The Ballantines took 
great pride in this brewery, which was a family affair, and developed it to large pro- 
portions. The head of the family finally came to be recognized as the wealthiest man 
in Newark, the valuation of his personal property being nearly $5,000,000. He was 
prominent in other lines of business and financial institutions. Mr. Ballantine was a 
religious man, a Protestant, and gave liberally to religious and charitable objects. 
Peter H. Ballantine died in 1882 and John H. Ballantine, April 27, 1895. 

HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT, author of "The Native Races of the Pacific 
Coast," and of "The History of the Pacific States," is better known in historical than 
in financial circles, but has made an enviable reputation in both. 

His father was a resident of Granville, Mass. ; his mother a descendant of the Ver- 
mont family of Howe. Each was a member of a Puritan colony which settled in cen- 
tral Ohio in early days, in a village named Granville in honor of the Berkshire county 
home. Their son Hubert was born in Ohio, May 5, 1832. The enormous capacity for 
work, which the future author displayed in after years, was gained in part by inherit- 
ance from sturdy parents and in part by a wholesome training in boyhood in the open 
air life of his father's farm. The youth attended the village schools in Winter until he 
was sixteen. He then entered upon the vocation, which through his genius and 


industry, was destined to lead him on to a permanent place in the history of his 
country.' He was offered a place in the bookstore of his brother-in-law, George H. 
Derby, a publisher in Buffalo, N. Y. Accepting the opportunity, he entered the store, 
remained there four years, and applied himself diligently to the mastery of the require- 
ments of the publication and sale of books. In 1852, when the rush of population to 
California had created a great and virgin market there for every variety of merchan- 
dise, Mr. Bancroft was sent to San Francisco to found a branch of the Buffalo house; 
and this was the beginning of his forty-two years of honorable and successful enter- 
prise, in which there was neither flaw nor failure. 

The death of Mr. Derby, soon after the founding of the San Francisco house, threw 
Mr. Bancroft upon his own resources. Although not yet twenty-five years of age, he 
resolved to continue the business on his own account. He met with competition, but 
he persevered and in time built up the largest publishing and bookselling business on 
the Pacific coast. 

The manner in which he was led into authorship is told by him in fascinating lan- 
guage in his " Literary Industries." In brief, having acquired a taste for publishing 
from his employer, Mr. Derby, he was led in San Francisco to issue a number of local 
manuals. While collecting material for a reference almanac, which should contain data 
of value concerning the Pacific coast, he gradually acquired several hundred books re- 
lating to the history of California. Surprised and captivated by the entertaining nature 
of the fragments of history these books revealed, he read them with great attention ; 
and then there came to his mind an idea, which finally took possession of him and led 
him to devote his life to its realization. He planned the preparation of a complete 
bibliography of the Pacific cost, a scheme of no small magnitude, but one which he felt 
he was able to accomplish. As a preliminary, he devoted himself for several years to 
the collection of every map, book and manuscript bearing on the Pacific coast. He 
visited Europe twice in pursuit of his purpose. His agents ransacked America, 
Mexico, the old Spanish mission houses on the California coast, and the royal archives of 
Spain, Portugal and France, and every other possible source of information was 
diligently explored. Documents of priceless value were dug up from the de*bris of 
mission churches and rescued from the old adobe houses. Stenographers were sent to 
gather the recollections of the early settlers. And, finally, as the product of unceas- 
ing labor and of a large expenditure of money, there grew into existence that remark- 
able collection of 60,000 volumes, known as The Bancroft Library of San Francisco, 
representing a money value of $350,000, a mass of material which is absolutely unique 
in literary history. Such a result was never before attained by any other- individual 
or by any society or nation. Unaided, Mr. Bancroft has saved from oblivion a vast mass 
of human experience, whose value cannot be measured by money, giving to this country 
fuller early historical data than is possessed by any other nation, and securing to the 
holder of this collection, with easily obtainable Eastern books added, a library of 
American history, such as never can be equalled by any other. 

Mr. Bancroft erected a library building for the safe and convenient storage of his 
collection, placed his subordinates in charge of his business, and then, in 1869, began 
the labor of creating a subject index of the contents of his library. A large force of 
competent men was employed in this task, and $80,000 were spent before it was com- 
pleted. Having first personally visited every region he was about to describe, Mr. 


Bancroft began the preparation of his "Native Races of the Pacific Coast." The work 
was published in five volumes in 1875. Written with complete mastery of the subjects 
treated and a fine enthusiasm, fresh, vivid, and lucid in style, these volumes established 
his reputation as an author. 

Without delay, Mr. Bancroft then began his " History of the Pacific Coast." With a 
force of assistants to gather facts, verify dates, and compare authorities, much routine 
labor was saved; and the author himself, inspired by the greatness of his own con- 
ception, sustained by the magnificent health he had gained in early boyhood, and 
freed from sordid cares by the income from his property, was able to devote his abilities 
exclusively to the production of his work. For years he wrote, almost without cessation, 
from eight to ten hours a day. He produced a new volume every few months, and the 
result was thirty-two volumes of surpassing interest and intrinsic value, which have 
now taken their place in the permanent and standard history of the world. 

The author has since added a volume of essays and one of his memoirs to his works, 
and has also written another work, entitled, "The Book of the Fair. " The latter is 
acknowledged as the best and only complete presentation, in print and picture, of the 
World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. It is pronounced by critics a work of art. 

Let the young man who thinks the world is overcrowded and that great opportunities 
are gone, meditate a moment on the success which has been achieved by the farm boy 
from Ohio in honorable, creative and useful labor, on the slope of the Pacific coast. 

EDWARD BANGS, lawyer, Boston, Mass., was born in that city July 16, 1825, 
of old American stock, being a descendant of Edward Bangs, who landed at Plymouth 
from the ship Ann in 1623. After graduation at Harvard College in 1846, Mr. Bangs 
read law and was admitted to the bar, Oct. 7, 1850. Forming a partnership with Sam- 
uel Wells, son of ex-Governor Wells, of Maine, he devoted his life to practice of the 
legal profession. His talents and the favor of friends drew to his office a large num- 
ber of important cases, in which he was notably successful, and for the management of 
which he charged very heavy fees, which were cheerfully paid in view of the services 
rendered. Mr. Bangs made investments in real estate, which so increased in value as 
to make him the possessor of a large property. He died Feb. 16, 1894. 

JOSEPH BANIQAN, manufacturer, Providence, R. I. , born in County Monaghan, 
Ireland, June 7, 1839, spent two years with his father's family in Scotland, after he 
was six years old, and two years later migrated to Providence, in which city he 
has lived practically ever since. When old enough to work, he earned modest wages 
for a year in the factory of The New England Screw Co., and then spent three years 
as apprentice in the jeweler's trade. Becoming a journeyman, he followed the jewelry 
trade until a better opportunity presented itself. The first connection with the rubber 
trade dates from 1860, when Mr. Banigan began making rubber bottle-stoppers as 
superintendent of a factory in Boston. Discerning his opportunity, he organized The 
Woonsocket Rubber Co., in 1866, and has ever since been its president and general 
manager, making his home in Providence. The concern now has a capital of 
$2,000,000. Upon the organization of The United States Rubber Co., the presidency 
was tendered to Mr. Banigan, as one of the largest manufacturers of rubber goods in 
the country, and he accepted it, retiring, however, in 1896. He has since promoted 
the creation of other rubber companies. Mr. Banigan is president of The Providence 
Telegram Publishing Co. and The American Wringer Co., the latter organized in 1891, 


by a union of The Metropolitan Wringer Co., of Middletown, Conn., The Bailey 
Wringer Machine Co., of Woonsocket, The F. F. Adams Co., of Erie, Pa., and The 
Empire Wringer Co., of Auburn, N. Y. Mr. Banigan is a quiet man, sturdy in 
frame, and smooth shaven, and owes his success to hard work, a clear head and sound 
good sense. He is a member of The Home and The Rhode Island Historical Soci- 
eties. In 1886, Pope Leo XIII. made him a knight of the order of St. Gregory the 
Great, in return for generous benefactions to Roman Catholic charities. He was united 
in marriage in 1860 to Margaret, daughter of John F. Holt, and their children are 
Mary A., John J., Alice and William B. Banigan. After the death of Mrs. Bani- 
gan, he married Maria T. Conway in New York city, Nov. 4, 1873. Business and 
social ties make him a frequent visitor to the metropolis. 

OHIO C. BARBER, president of The Diamond Match Co. of Chicago, was born 
in Middlebury (now sc part of the city of Akron, O.), April 20, 1841. He is a descend- 
ant, on the paternal side of the house, of an English family, which came to this coun- 
try early in the seventeenth century. His father, George Barber, was a native of 
Connecticut, and his mother, Eliza (Smith) Barber, a native of Ohio. George Barber 
was born in 1804, in Hartford, Conn., his parents being Ezriah and Ann Barber, who 
removed from Connecticut to Onondaga county, N. Y. , when the boy was four years 
old. In Onondaga country, George Barber grew to manhood, acquiring an education 
in the old fashioned country school, and was apprenticed for three years to the coopering 
trade. At the expiration of his service, he decided to make a visit to the West, with a 
view of settling there. After a few years of travel in Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio, he 
settled in Middlebury, O., and there engaged in the coopering business until 1847, 
when he began the manufacture of matches, one of the first in this industry in the 
West. The beginning was necessarily on a small scale, but it was the foundation of a 
great manufacturing establishment. The development of the industry from whittling 
out match splints by hand, when matches we're first discovered in 1833, to the processes 
of manufacturing by the almost perfect machinery of to-day, would itself make an 
interesting chapter, too long for these pages; but, as the subject of this sketch has had 
much to do in directing the development of this machinery, which now is revolutioniz- 
ing the match industry of the world, it seems to be in order to state briefly what is 
accomplished by it. The wood for the matches, the paraffine in which the match splint 
is saturated just before the head of the match is put on, the composition for the head 
of the match, and the boxes which contain the finished product, are automatically fed into 
the machine, which delivers the matches, without having been touched by human hand, 
in the small paper or straw board box, at the rate of 500,000 per hour. The present 
development of this machine saves seventy-five per cent, of labor over any other 
known process in the art. 

Ohio C. Barber, the only surviving son of George Barber, was educated at the 
common school, and at the age of sixteen years, he actively engaged in selling the 
matches manufactured by his father, travelling in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Penn- 
sylvania, where his efforts had no little part in establishing the reputation of the 
Barber match. When he became of age, the entire management of the business was 
left to his dictation. In 1880, The Barber Match Co., of which he was at the head, 
was making over one-fourth of the matches manufactured in the United States. About 
this time, Mr. Barber saw the advantages of consolidating a number of the leading 




manufactories, and through his business sagacity, with the help of others whom he 
convinced that the scheme was a good business venture, which would result profitably 
to those who would engage in it, an organization was effected under the laws of 
Connecticut, Jan. i, 1881, with a capital of $2,250,000, and there were carried over 
into the new company over thirty different match companies and firms. This resulted 
in a great reduction in the cost of manufacturing and a corresponding reduction of cost 
to the consumer, and the consumption of the article since 1881 has increased in the 
United States in consequence about 400 per cent., and instead of thirty factories being 
required for their manufacture, ninety per cent, of the matches in this country is now 
manufactured in five factories. 

The Diamond Match Co. has $11,000,000 invested in the business and in manu- 
facturing lumber, phosphorus, straw board, paper and match machinery. This machin- 
ery is now being introduced throughout the world. The Diamond Match Co. is now 
building a plant at Liverpool, Eng. , which, when equipped, will have a capacity for 
producing over 200,000,000 matches per day. It is through the industry and energy 
of the subject of this sketch, and the large number of able associates, that these results 
have been accomplished. Mr. Barber is not an advocate of a man dividing his ener- 
gies in many enterprises, and thinks that any man who does so only weakens his abil- 
ity. He claims that for every new-industry a man takes up, an extra additional expense 
must be paid for learning the business, because the effort is a divided one. These facts 
he has demonstrated by experience, and he would caution with regard to them the 
young man who may by chance read his biography. 

Mr. Barber was one of the founders and president of The Portage Straw Board Co., 
organized in 1882, in which year the company built at New Portage, O., the largest 
straw board mill in the United States. Two years later, it built a mill at Circleville, 
O. , having double the capacity of the Portage mill. The two mills had a capacity of 
eighty tons of straw board per day, which at that time was one-fourth the amount 
consumed in the country. This great product placed on the market by the new and 
improved methods of manufacture adopted by The Portage Straw Board Co., had the 
effect of reducing the price of the article about 40 per cent. The demonstrated suc- 
cess which Mr. Barber had made in the match combination, and the energy with which 
The Portage Straw Board Co. was successfully competing for trade, made it compara- 
tively easy for him to induce associates to join him in consolidating twenty-six straw 
board companies into one. In 1889, The American Straw Board Co. was organized 
with $6,000,000 capital, with Mr. Barber as president, in which position he served 
until 1894. 

In 1889, he aided with his capital the organization of The Neracher & Hill Sprink- 
ler Co., a company which manufactured an apparatus for automatically extinguishing 
fires, the usefulness of which has been so thoroughly demonstrated that no manufac- 
turer or merchant of any considerable note has not profited by it. This company and 
several others of a like nature were merged into The General Fire Extinguisher Co. 
of New York, in 1892, with a capital of $3,000,000, with Frederick Grinnell of Provi- 
dence, R. I., as president and Mr. Barber as vice president. Mr. Grinnell was the 
pioneer of this business, which has saved to insurers who have adopted the apparatus, 
an amount of money which can only be estimated by millions, and has saved to the 
world, by preventing fires, a corresponding amount Mr. Barber has been connected 


with no industry in which he feels a greater pride, on account of the good it is doing, 
than The General Fire. Extinguisher Co. 

In 1891, Mr. Barber and associates founded the town of Barberton, O., which now 
has a population of over 3,000 people. He has organized there a number of manu- 
factories and has until recently been the president of them all. The growth of the 
town is somewhat of a marvel in these times. Two of its manufactories are the largest 
of their kind in the world. The Diamond Match Co's largest factory was built there in 
1894-95, and is now in full operation. The National Sewer Pipe Co. has in Barberton 
the largest works of the kind in the world, with a capacity for turning out twenty cars 
of sewer pipe per day and with a capital of $1,000,000. Mr. Barber is president of 
this company, as he is also of The Stirling Boiler Co., capital $500,000. The product 
of The Stirling Boiler Co. ranks higher than that of any other boiler company in this 
country and received 'the highest mention at the .Columbian Exposition in 1893. 
Among other companies, which have manufacturing plants at Barberton, are The 
American Straw Board Co. and The Creedmore Cartridge Co., the latter controlled by 
The Winchester Arms Co. The Diamond Match Co. has also a large machine shop 
and foundry at Barberton, whose product in time will find a market throughout the 

Mr. Barber is president of The Ohio Tube Co. -of Warren, O. , a company for the 
manufacture of iron pipe, capital $500,000, and a daily product of one hundred and 
thirty tons of gas and water and steam pipe per day. He is also president of The 
Barberton Belt Line Railroad Co., organized for the purpose of connecting the three 
railroads running through Barberton, namely^ The New York, Western & Lake Erie, 
The Baltimore & Ohio, and The Cleveland, Akron & Columbus, with each other and 
with all the different manufacturing establishments. It now has nine miles of railroad 
in operation and handles from one thousand five hundred to two thousand cars of freight 
per month. 

Mr. Barber has always kept in mind the interests of minority stockholders, hold- 
ing that it was not advisable to maintain high salaried officials, preferring the system 
whereby the income of the officers depended upon the net earnings of the respective 
companies through dividends, and says that where that system has not been adopted, 
by companies he is interested in, there will be found the failures. Mr. Barber, as has 
been indicated, is an indefatigable worker, and his life has always been one of great 
activity, backed by a strong physical constitution and a mental poise which is not dis- 
turbed by mishaps. He has been enabled to do more work than is often allotted to 
one man, and his success may be attributed to this, and to his high moral character, 
his good judgment of men, his personal magnetism, originality of idea, and enthusi- 
asm, and the faculty of imparting the last named quality to any one he takes into his 

Having been identified with many of the commercial enterprises of Akron, O., 
Mr. Barber, although now a citizen of Chicago, holds a strong allegiance to his native 
city and State. He is a liberal giver to all deserving charities and has contributed 
liberally to the erection of three churches in Barberton. He is also the organizer of 
and the largest contributor to The Akron City Hospital, which through his energies has 
an endowment of $40,000. Mr. Barber was married, Oct. 10, 1866, to Miss Laura L., 
daughter of Daniel and Minerva Brown and a lineal descendant of Cotton Mather. 


PHILETUS SWIFT BARBER, merchant, a native of Erie county, N. Y., was 
born June 21, 1815, and died Dec. 26, 1893, in Bardstown, Ky. Receiving such edu- 
cation as country schools afforded, Mr. Barber removed to the city of Buffalo, then, as 
now, the commercial center of western New York. There he engaged in the fur trade 
with the Indians and trappers, and supplemented his labors in that occupation by learn- 
ing to make hats. In 1835, Mr. Barber removed to the South, locating first in Wheel- 
ing, W. Va., but afterward in Louisville, Ky., in each of which places he conducted a 
hat store prosperously for many years. While Mr. Barber was always successful in his 
regular business, the wealth he amassed was largely due to one fortunate and timely 
investment of his early days. When Chicago was in its infancy, Mr. Barber purchased 
a tract of 640 acres in what is now the heart of the city, paying from $7 to $50 an acre. 
This was his most profitable venture. The land was sold a few years ago in small plots 
at prices ranging from 5,000 to $7,000 an acre. Mr. Barber was also a heavy purchaser 
of real estate in Kansas City, St. Louis and Louisville. All his real estate operations 
realized handsome profits. A few years ago, Mr. Barber retired from active busi- 
ness in Louisville and established his home in Bardstown, a thriving village in Nelson 
county, Ky. , about 30 miles south of Louisville. A widow, and a son and daughter 
survive him. 

LUCIUS ALBERT BARBOUR, manufacturer of spool cotton, was born in Madison, 
Ind., Jan. 26, 1846. His father, Lucius Barbour, is remembered as a prominent dry 
goods merchant in Madison and afterward in Cincinnati. Graduating in 1864, from 
the High School in Hartford, Conn., to which city the family had removed while Lucius 
was an infant, the subject of this brief history entered business life as a clerk in The 
Charter Oak National Bank in Hartford, where he learned precision, application and 
fidelity to duty. He retired in 1871, for the sake of foreign travel, and spent two years 
abroad. In 1882, he became identified with The Willimantic Linen Co., a concern 
organized in 1854, which was the first to make all sizes of six-cord spool cotton from 
the raw material, and is now president and treasurer of that great industry. Mr. 
Barbour takes a commendable pride in the exquisite neatness, beauty and attractive 
interior of the huge spool cotton mills in Willimantic, which afford, in fact, one of the 
most conspicuous examples in New England of the good will of employers toward their 
operatives. The works of this concern now cover eight acres of ground, employ more 
than 2,000 operatives, and produce about 250,000 spools of thread a day. While 
marvellous processes and machinery which seems almost endowed with human intelli- 
gence may be seen in many of the factories, with which Connecticut is thronged, yet 
no industry in the State is more interesting than that conducted by Mr. Barbour, and 
the mills are visited by hundreds of delighted travellers yearly. In a factory in Maine, 
the company converts 5,000 cords of birch into spools and a million feet of lumber per 
year into boxes. Mr. Barber has been able to reduce the cost of manufacture to one- 
half that of thirty years ago, while doubling the wages paid. He is thoroughly 
American in sentiment and takes a lively interest in public affairs. When of age, he 
joined the Connecticut militia, wherein he rose to be Major of the ist Regiment, N. G., 
in 1875, Lieutenant Colonel in 1876, and Colonel, 1878-84. The Charter Oak National 
Bank, The Farmington River Power Co. , and The American Asylum for the Deaf and 
Dumb, all receive a share of his attention, and have elected him a director, and he is 
a partner in H. C. Judd& Root, wool commission merchants. 



Mr. Barbour satin the Legislature in 1879, and served as Adjutant General on Governor 
Bulkeley's staff in 1889. Mrs. Barbour, whom he married in 1877, is Harriet Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Alfred S. Barnes, the book publisher of New York, and their chil- 
dren are Lucius Barnes and Hattie Burr Barbour. 

ROBERT BARBOUR, manufacturer, Paterson, N. J., belonged to a family famous 
as flax spinners, and took his first lessons in the same trade in the industry founded by 
his grandfather, John Barbour, in Tisburn, Ireland, more than a century ago. It was 
at Belfast, Ireland, that Robert Barbour was born in 1828. When thoroughly trained 
as a spinner, he was sent to America, and, with his brother Thomas, established the 
industry in Paterson, N. J., under the name of The Barbour Flax Spinning Co., Robert 
being president of the company. American tariff laws made it more profitable to 
manufacture in this country, than to manufacture in Ireland and sell the goods here. 
The thread was excellent in quality and found a ready sale. Having opened an office 
in New York city for the sale of thread, the young manufacturers rapidly created an 
extended trade. Mr. Barbour was a man of strong character, stern common sense, and 
fine abilities, and his company became the most prominent makers of linen thread in 
the United States, owning enormous factories. At different periods, profits were 
exceptionally high, especially during the Civil War, and by careful investment of sur- 
plus earnings, Mr. Barbour gained a fortune of nearly $10,000,000. While employing a 
part of this large sum in the purchase of securities, Mr. Barbour remained steadfast in 
his devotion to the Barbotir industry, and held few official positions in corporations. 
To him and his wife, Sarah Rebecca, daughter of Major John Edwards of Paterson, 
were born a son and four daughters. Mr. Barbour died in Paterson, Nov. 25, 1892. 

GEORGE BARNES, manufacturer, Syracuse, N. Y., was born in Tenterden, 
Kent county, England, Oct. i, 1827, and died in New York city, Oct. 17, 1892. While 
his ancestors belonged to the solid middle class of England, Mr. Barnes began life 
with few advantages and no means. He was. a student at school until fourteen 
years of age, and then came to America, settling in Syracuse. There he sought 
employment in various pursuits, and supported himself by labor as a mason, clerk in 
a law office, clerk in the office of the old time railroad between Utica and Syracuse, 
and later in banking. Prior to 1870, Mr. Barnes founded a small company for the 
manufacture of mower and reaper knives, for which -there was a lively demand, and 
about 1878, consolidated the concern with other similar works as The Whitman & 
Barnes Manufacturing Co. Mr. Barnes was president and the largest shareholder of 
the company. He possessed business ability of a high order, and gradually developed 
the company into the largest of its kind in the world, with branches in Canada and 
many of the principal cities of the United States. He was devoted to the machine 
works, but found time to interest himself also in The State Bank of Syracuse and The 
Trust & Deposit Co., of Onondaga, in which he was a stockholder. Mr. Barnes mar- 
ried Rebecca S. Heermans, now deceased, and his only surviving child, Elizabeth 
Barnes, is the wife of the Hon. Frank Hiscock, of Syracuse, lawyer and for many 
years United States Senator from New York State. 

PHINEAS T. BARNUM, Bridgeport, Conn., the most celebrated of American 
showmen, amassed and lost several fortunes, and died April 7, 1891, worth more than 
four millions. Born in Bethel, Conn., July 5, 1810, the son of a country merchant 
and innkeeper, it fell to the lot of Phineas to make his own way in the world from the 


start. How well he made it is a household word in America. His limited education 
proved no drawback to him in life, because of his native shrewdness, ingenuity, 
courage and common sense. Until eighteen he toiled at various callings in various 
places, including New York city and Brooklyn, and then opened a store in Bethel, and 
made some small gains at one time while agent of a State lottery, chartered to raise 
funds for building the Groton monument to the patriots of the American Revolution. 
He spent his money on a larger store and lost it all by bad debts. Having married, in 
1829, he then became the editor of The Herald of Freedom, in which paper his free- 
dom of comment was so marked that he incurred the ire of Judge Daggett and was 
immured for sixty days in prison for libel. Public opinion favored Mr. Barnum in the 
matter, and his release was celebrated by a public gala demonstration and oration. 
Mr. Barnum came to New York in 1834. 

In early days in America, a local museum of curiosities, containing implements 
of savage warfare, beasts and birds, stuffed or alive, ocean shells and other rare objects, 
was a part of the necessary resources for entertainment of every community of 
respectable size. In Philadelphia, there was then being exhibited an old colored woman, 
named Joice Heth, said to be 161 years old, and to have been the nurse of George 
Washington. Joice Heth having been bought for $1,000, and advertised widely, soon 
brought Mr. Barnum an income of $1,500 a week. Within a year, Joice Heth died 
and a post mortem examination disclosed the fact that the dame could not have been 
more than ninety years of age. Having acquired a liking for shows, Mr. Barnum 
then travelled for several years in the South with small exhibitions. 

In 1841, with borrowed money, he bought Scudder's American Museum in New 
York, at the corner of Ann street and Broadway, to which he gave the name of 
Barnum's. Here he became an exhibitor of astounding curiosities. He delighted in 
innocent humbugs. The original war club which killed Captain Cook, was the merest 
trifle in his collection. As Mr. Barnum used to say, no museum in any part of the 
country could afford to be without it. His famous so-called mermaid and a fine 
menagerie were special attractions in his collection. In 1842, Mr. Barnum discovered 
Charles S. Stratton of Bridgeport, a dwarf less than two feet high, weighing sixteen 
pounds. As the exhibitor of " Gen. Tom Thumb," the name he gave to Mr. Stratton, 
Mr. Barnum made a large amount of money. 

In 1849, Mr. Barnum brought to America, after protracted negotiations, the 
famous singer, Jennie Lind, under a contract to pay her $1,000 a night for 150 nights. 
In all, 95 concerts were actually given, and his total receipts were $712,161. 

Bridgeport became the permanent home of Mr. Barnum in 1846. In 1855, he 
retired with a fortune and devoted two years to real estate improvements in East 
Bridgeport, laying out many miles of streets, planting thousands of trees, and actively 
promoting the establishment of manufactures. But in 1857, having endorsed the notes 
of a manufacturing company for .nearly a million dollars, he lost his money and was 
compelled to resume business a poor man. Once more, Tom Thumb served to restore 
him to prosperity. He travelled to every part of the United States with this diminu- 
tive specimen of humanity and took him also to Europe, where his protege and he were 
received at court by many royal personages. Returning to his old Museum in New 
York, with fresh wonders, he saw it destroyed by fire July 13, 1865, and after rebuild- 
ing again saw the Museum burned. 


A thousand stories are told in illustration of the shrewdness of this versatile man. 
One will suffice here. James Gordon Bennett, senior, founder of The New York 
Herald, greatly desired the corner upon which the American Museum stood as a home 
for his newspaper. The property had been leased to Mr. Barnum for a term of years, 
and the lease had eight years more to run. Mr. Bennett bought the equity from Mr. 
Barnum for several hundred thousand dollars. With the money thus obtained, the 
showman then bought the property itself, and Mr. Bennett was obliged to pay him 
another large sum to obtain a deed of the ground. 

In 1871, Mr. Barnum organized the travelling circus, yet known as " P. T. Bar- 
num's Greatest Show on Earth," and travelled with it yearly to various parts of the 
United States, usually exhibiting in the Winter time in New York city. During the 
inactive part of each season, his menagerie and outfit were stored in large buildings in 
the suburbs of Bridgeport. A few years before he died, Mr. Barnum took James A. 
Bailey, a competitor, into partnership in the circus, and Mr. Bailey is now the senior 
proprietor. Mr. Barnum experienced many tips and downs of fortune, but at the end 
left a fortune of $4,280,000. He was a man of generous nature, and gave to Bridge- 
port a park and to Tufts College a stone museum. He wrote three entertaining books, 
his biography, " Humbugs of the World " and "Lion Jack," a romance. Four times 
a member of the Connecticut Legislature, he was also once Mayor of Bridgeport. 

WILLIAfl H. BARNUfl, manufacturer, a man of great energy of character, began 
life with nothing and lived to amass a large fortune. Born Sept. 17, 1818, in Columbia 
county, N. Y. , he died at his home in Lime Rock, Conn., April 30, 1889. His father, a 
prosperous farmer, having discovered there was more beneath the surface of the earth 
on his farm than he was likely to gather from the top of it, became a maker of iron 
from a local deposit of excellent ore, establishing an iron foundry at Lime Rock for the 
purpose. When the son had finished his studies at the public school, he entered the 
iron works at the age of eighteen, and passed his life in the manufacture of pig iron and 
car wheels, succeeding to his father's interests and developing the business to large pro- 
portions. His firm of Barnum, Richardson & Co. built large works in Lime Rock and 
East Canaan, Conn , and finally added a car wheel shop in Chicago. Mr. Barnum also 
had large interests in mining properties in the Lake Superior region. Although busi- 
ness interests should have made him a Republican in politics, he was independent in 
character and a strong Democrat and became prominent in Connecticut affairs. In 
1851-52, he sat in the State Legislature and from 1868 attended every national conven- 
tion of his party as a delegate, serving also on the national executive committee of his 
party from 1872 and being its chairman for several years. He was a member of Con- 
gress, 1867-76, and Connecticut then made him United States Senator. 

WILLIAM BARR, merchant, St. Louis, Mo., was born in the town of Lanark, 
Scotland, Oct. 7, 1827, and after an education at the leading local schools came to 
America in 1840. In the Spring of 1842, he engaged in business in New York city with 
the dry goods firm of Ubsdell & Peirson, then at the northeast corner of Canal and 
Mercer streets. Starting as a boy at a salary of $2 a week, he reached in their 
employment the highest salary paid in those days to any salesman, $1,000 a year. The 
firm were at the time interested in a dry goods business in St. Louis, established in 1849 
as H. D. Cunningham & Co. Becoming sole owners in 1854, they sent Mr. Barr there 
as a partner, the firm becomiug Ubsdell, Peirson & Co. They were succeeded by 


Ubsdell, Barr, Duncan & Co., Barr, Duncan & Co., and William Barr & Co., and this 
business grew so large eventually that it was incorporated as The William Barr Dry 
Goods Co., with Mr. Barr as its president. Mr. Barr has always carried on an immense 
business, one of the largest west of the Mississippi, and solely by his own merit, 
devotion to business, and executive ability, has risen to prominence and wealth. He 
was married in August, 1855, to Miss Jessie R. Wright of New York, and besides his 
home in St. Louis, he maintains a residence in Orange, N. J. 

HENRY FRANCIS BARROWS, manufacturer, son of Alfred Barrows, belongs to 
an old family, four generations of which have been born and raised in Attleborough, 
Mass., although the pioneer ancestor, believed to have been of French origin, first made 
his home in Maine. Aaron Barrows, his grandfather, served at the battle of Lexing- 
ton and as an officer in the campaign in Rhode Island during the American Revolution. 
A graduate of the local High School, Henry F. Barrows learned the trade of a jeweler 
and in 1853 started a jewelry factory on his own account in North Attleborough. For 
a time, Louis A. Barrows, a brother, and James H. Sturdy, were his partners in H. F. 
Barrows & Co., but during the most of his career Mr. Barrows has been sole proprietor 
of the business. He is now the leading operator in a town famous as a center of the 
jewelry manufacture, and the promoter of most of the public enterprises of the local- 
ity. He introduced telephones there, and is the builder and president of The Attle- 
borough Branch Railroad, manager of The North Attleborough Gas Co. , president of 
The North Attleborough National Bank, and director of The Providence Telephone Co., 
The First National Bank of Pawtucket, The Jacksonville, Fla., Gas Co , and other 
corporations. His wife is Henrietta Thompson Richards. They were married in 
1855 and have five children, Henry F., Ira, Fanny, Louise and Harriet. The two sons 
now carry on the industry. 

HENRY A BARRY, manufacturer, Passaic, N. J. , was a native of Boston, Mass. His 
first venture in business was in Somerville, Mass. , where he carried on for several years the 
business of dyer and finisher of print cloths. Having removed to Passaic, Peter Reid 
and he conducted a similar business there, under the style of Reid & Barry, and 
developed their print works into one of the principal industries of that city of 13,000 
inhabitants. Mr. Barry sold his interest in the firm in 1887 to a brother in order to 
devote himself to his other ventures. The same year, he organized The Hamilton 
Loan & Trust Co. of New York city, and was chosen its first president, the company 
dealing principally in Western farm mortgages He was also a trustee of The Mutual 
Fire Insurance Co. of New York and a director in The Passaic Bank. By energy, 
application and excellent business talent, and by some fortunate operations in stocks, 
Mr. Barry gained an ample fortune. He had just completed one of the finest dwell- 
ings in Passaic, costing $60,000 when he died, April 15, 1888, leaving a large estate to 
his wife and his children, Henry R., Ed\vin W., and Florence D. He was always a 
liberal giver to public objects. 

PATRICK BARRY, nurseryman, Rochester, N. Y., son of an Irish farmer, born 
near Belfast, in 1816, died at his home in Rochester, June 23, 1890. For some time 
employed as a teacher in Ireland, he came to America in 1836, and, as a clerk for 
Prince & Co., nurserymen at Flushing, L. I., learned the vocation to which he gave 
the remainder of his life. In 1840, he removed to Rochester, N. Y., and, with George 
Ellwanger, established the Mount Hope nurseries, the pioneer establishment of the 


kind in a city which now boasts the possession of many other large and important 
nurseries. Among other branches of their enterprise, the firm took the lead in import- 
ing from France dwarf varieties of pears grafted on quince roots. They extended their 
business in every direction, until the nurseries were the largest in the country, the 
property comprising 650 acres. Various wild species of shade trees were introduced 
into cultivation by them; hardy exotics were acclimatized and improved, and new 
varieties of fruits and flowering plants were developed. Mr. Barry edited The Gcnesee 
Farmer, 1844-52, and was editor of The Horticulturist, 1852-54. He wrote extensively 
on subjects connected with pomology and flowers, and in 1851 produced a "Treatise 
on the Fruit Garden." His most important book is the complete and valuable " Cata- 
logue of the American Pomological Society," which has long been a standard work. 
For several years, Mr. Barry served as vice president of The American Fruit Cultur- 
ists' Society, and for over twenty years as president of The Western New York Horticul- 
tural Society, and was a member of the Board of Control of the New York State Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. The only political offices he ever held were member of 
the City Council of Rochester and Supervisor of Monroe county, but he was president 
of The Rochester City & Brighton Railroad Co., The Flower City National Bank, The 
Mechanics' Savings Bank, The Rochester Gas Co., and The Powers Hotel Co. 
William C. Barry, his son, succeeded his father in the Mount Hope nurseries. 

AMOS CHAFEE BARSTOW, manufacturer and philanthropist, a man of vigorous 
nature and incisive mind, spanned with his long and useful labors the whole period of 
the evolution of the quaint little leisurely seaport town of Providence, R. I., into a 
driving commercial and manufacturing emporium of 150,000 population, and he was 
himself influential in bringing about the change. Few men pass across the stage of 
affairs whose fortunes are so honorably won as was his, or who make such a noble use 
of their time and means for the welfare of their countrymen. Born in Providence, 
April 30, 1813, he died at his home there, Sept. 5, 1894. The son of Nathaniel and 
Sophia Chafee Barstow, he was descended from the race of men who planted in a 
savage wilderness a new republic and engrafted in its fundamental laws freedom to 
worship God, each man in his own way. William Barstow, his great, great, great 
grandfather, of English origin, settled in Dedham, Mass., in 1636, and was the first man 
to create a home in what is now the town of Hanover, .Mass. With a grammar school 
education finished by study for three terms in the private school of Luther Aylsworth, 
young Mr. Barstow began life modestly at the age of seventeen, as a clerk to James Eames, 
merchant of stoves and tinware on Westminster street, Providence, near the Arcade. 
A good and diligent boy, keen, quick and willing, he made handsome progress from 
the start, married his employer's daughter in 1834, and in the Fall of 1836, emboldened 
by experience and some small savings, started a small foundry at Norton, Mass., for 
the manufacture of stoves, furnaces and ranges. The business was well managed, and 
a few years later, Mr. Barstow bought a lot on Point street in Providence and trans- 
ferred the business to that place. Upon that site, he developed by slow degrees a 
large and flourishing industry, whose products found a ready and profitable sale in half 
the States of the Union, and whose disbursements for labor in Providence greatly 
stimulated the growth of the city. As soon as his son, Amos C. , jr., had acquired suffi- 
cient experience and shown himself well qualified for a share in the management, he 
acquired an interest in the business and was assigned to the oversight of the different 


branches. In 1859, the property had been incorporated as The Barstow Stove Co., with 
the senior Barstow as president. 

During the early days, while organizing and expanding the business, Mr. Barstow 
was fully occupied with the affairs of the foundry, and many men less active and eager 
in spirit would have been contented to go on, always, in its tranquil management, and 
find their greatest happiness therein. But Mr. Barstow was no ordinary man. His 
mind was too broad and his interest in public affairs too keen, to permit him to be 
entirely absorbed in the foundry; and when his son assumed a part of the burdens of 
management, he threw himself into a great variety of other enterprises. How many 
points of contact he had with business affairs is denoted by the fact that he was at 
different times president of The Slater Mill & Power Co., and The Providence Ware- 
house Co.; from 1846 until his death president of The City National Bank; a share- 
holder in The Builders" Iron Foundry and The New England Butt Co. ; director of 
The Gorman Manufacturing Co. and of several banks. He aided in organizing The 
Mechanics' Savings Bank and had been its president for many years at the time of 
his death. He was also president of The Providence Gas Co. ; chairman of the famous 
meeting of the creditors of A. & W. Sprague, and at the time of his death had been 
for eight months a member of a committee which was undertaking the reorganization 
of a large western Mortgage & Trust Co. Mr. Barstow always entertained a high 
opinion of Providence business real estate as an investment, and in 1860, built the 
Roger Williams Hall for concerts and public entertainments, the principal place of 
amusement in the city until, ten years later, he built Music Hall, which then took the 
precedence. In the early summer of 1892, he bought a new business building in 
process of erection at the corner of Weybosset and Page streets, and had visited the 
building only the day before he was attacked with fatal illness. 

In politics, always a Republican, he looked tipon public office only as an agency for 
carrying out reforms and measures for the public good. For the prestige of official 
station, he cared nothing, being singularly free from vanity. The use of stimulants 
he abhorred. In 1847, he became a candidate for Mayor of Providence upon the 
nomination of the temperance party, simply to promote a cause he always cherished. 
Although defeated, he adhered inflexibly to his temperance principles. For several 
years, although not continuously, beginning in 1851, he sat in the General Assembly 
of the State, and became chairman of the committee, charged with consideration of 
the question of temperance. Mr. Barstow favored the Maine law strongly and the 
enactment of that law, at the May session of 1852, was largely due to his personal and 
untiring labors toward that end. Mr. Barstow not only knew clearly which side he 
was on, in alt public affairs, but he was gifted with the ability to set forth his views, 
persuasively and clearly, and when thoroughly aroused showed himself an orator. Jan. 
27, 1852, he made a vigorous speech in the lower house on that subject, committing 
himself without compromise to temperance, and not only made a notable contribution 
to the arguments for bringing the force of the law to the aid of sobriety, but impressed 
the public mind with the excellence of his cause. That speech and his other labors 
made him Mayor of Providence in 1852, and his inaugural address on June 7th was 
published at the request of the City Council. As Mayor, he delivered a memorial 
address on Daniel Webster in Market Hall, Nov. 4, 1852, which rose to the dignity of 
the occasion, and was warmly commended. The House elected him Speaker in 1870. 


In order to promote propositions of importance to the city, Mr. Barstow also served 
several times in the Common Council, and as a member in February, 1855, made a 
report, recommending the present site of the City Hall, and became chairman of the 
committee which bought the lots for the city. Plans for the new structure were sub- 
mitted June 17, 1855, by a committee of which he was also a member. The Crawford 
Street bridge of Providence was built under his supervision as one of the com- 
missioners, and later on he was one of the commissioners for building the Providence 
Washington bridge. 

To slaven r , the twin evil of intemperance, Mr. Barstow was unalterably opposed, 
like so many other prominent men of his day. Dec. 2, 1859, he presided at a public 
meeting of anti-slavery men and spoke strongly in commendation of the character of 
John Brown, who was executed that day. To the convention of loyal Southern men, 
which met in Philadelphia, Sept. 12, 1866, Rhode Island sent him as one of its delegates 
and the report of the convention was drawn up by him. Mr. Barstow's pen was 
employed at times upon themes less severely formal than public affairs, and during his 
only trip to the old world, in 1873, he wrote a series of entertaining "Letters from 
Europe," for The Providence Journal, which were afterward reprinted in a bound vol- 
ume. At another date, The Journal printed a number of equally agreeable "Letters 
from California" from his pen, which also were reprinted in 1870. Nine more letters 
from California and Oregon appeared in 1875. Mr. Barstow also made an occasional 
excursion into verse, and he wrote numerous articles for the press on temperance, the 
South, the Indian races, Congregationalism and kindred topics. The alert and ener- 
getic business man exerts a wide influence in affairs always, through no other agency 
than personal counsel and advice, but when he is armed with a pen, the radius of his 
influence is enormously increased. 

In church and philanthropic work, Mr. Barstow took an active and earnest part. 
President Grant induced him in 1875 to accept appointment to the Board of Indian 
Commissioners, and his colleagues in the Board made him chairman in 1878 and for 
several years thereafter. Time and means were expended liberally by him for the 
improvement of the condition of the surviving red men, and several long and 
fatiguing journeys to remote parts of the country were made in their interest. No 
one line of work ever succeeded in engrossing his whole attention, however, and 
Mr. Barstow served at different times, as trustee of The Rhode Island Hospital Trust 
Co. and The Dexter Donation Fund, first president of The Providence Y. M. C. A., 
president of The Providence Association of Mechanics & Manufacturers, The Butler 
Hospital, The Rhode Island State Temperance Union, and various temperance soci- 
eties in the city, and as a member of the American Board of Foreign Missions. He 
was certainly one of the most valuable men in the Congregational Church in Rhode 
Island. At the age of nineteen, he had joined the Beneficent Congregational Church, 
and in December, 1834, became one of the original members of the High Street 
Church. Even here he insisted on being actively useful, and at the age of twenty-six 
became superintendent of the Sunday School and filled that position for twenty-six 
years. June 27, 1865, the church made him a deacon to fill the position left vacant by 
the death of his father-in-law, James Eames. Through his close observation of what 
would aid his congregation, he was led to suggest and by his gifts he made possible the 
union of the High Street and Richmond Street Churches. 


The vigorous health, active mind, and purity of character of Mr. Barstow, his. 
prudent habits, and genial temperament, preserved his faculties unimpaired until the 
rinal change. He knew his country well and had travelled to nearly every part of it. 
One voyage to Europe interested him, but he did not care to go again. Clubs did not 
attract him. In a home, in which love and the Christian virtues reigned, he found 
relief from every care and abundant sociality. His wife was Miss Emeline Mumford, 
daughter of James and Sarah Eames, and they were married May 28, 1834. To them 
were born seven children, Sarah S., who married Charles L. Thomas; Emeline E., 
wife of W. H. Bradford; Mary L., who married the Hon. S. A. Cooke, jr.; Martha M., 
who married James H. Cutler and died June 29, 1873; Anna J., wife of the Rev. E. O. 
Bartlett, and Amos C. and George E. Barstow. 

WILLIAM BARTH, real estate owner, Denver, Colo., born in Dietz, Nassau, Ger- 
many, in 1829, received a common school education and then took the precaution to 
ensure himself against poverty by learning a trade. In 1851, he came to America, set- 
tling in New Orleans. The next ten years were spent in Illinois and Missouri, Mr. 
Earth making a moderate living as best he could. In 1861, his Union sentiments not 
being in harmony with those of his neighbors, he removed to Colorado, the ox-team 
with which he crossed the plains being his only property. After a brief stay in Cali- 
fornia Gulch, now Leadville, he engaged in the boot and shoe business for a time and 
then returned to St. Louis to manufacture boots for the Rocky Mountain trade. In 
1863, he settled in Denver and continued the business, in which he soon achieved pro- 
nounced success. The rough life of the mountains was so destructive of foot gear as, 
to create an enormous demand for his goods. Foreseeing the great future of Denver, 
Mr. Earth at an early day bought a large amount of local real estate. This he did at 
the right time, and the subsequent remarkable rise in values of property in Denver 
brought him wealth. Mr. Earth took an active part in building The South Park Rail- 
road and The Denver, Texas & Gulf Railroad, jn both of which companies he owned 
considerable stock and was a director. He began to purchase stock in The Cit) T 
National Bank soon after its organization and became its president for ten years and 
one of its controlling stockholders. A year or two ago, he retired from active business 
to devote himself to private interests, although retaining official relation with the bank 
as its vice president. He is president of The Bi- Metallic Bank of Cripple Creek. His. 
success is due to close attention to opportunities, sound judgment and strict integrity. 

DAVID LEWIS BARTLETT, the senior partner of the firm of Bartlett, Hayward 
& Co. of Baltimore, was born in Hadley, Mass., Dec. 6, 1816. His ancestors were New 
England people for many generations and intimately connected with the history of that 
section His rudimental education was begun in the very excellent common schools of 
New England and continued at one of its best academies. 

Mr. Bartlett began the manufacture of iron goods in Hartford, Conn., when a 
young man. In 1844, he removed to Baltimore, and established a foundry for the manu- 
facture of stoves and architectural iron work, under the firm name of Hayward, Bartlett 
& Co. On the death of Mr. Hayward in 1866, the firm name was changed 'to Bartlett, 
Robbins & Co. Mr. Robbins died in 1880, when the present firm of Bartlett, Hayward 
& Co. succeeded, comprising Mr. Hayward, the son of a Mr. Hayward of Hayward, 
Bartlett & Co., and E. L. Bartlett, son of the senior member of the present firm. The 
firm have continued to the present time. 


In 1863, The Winans Locomotive Works passed into the hands of Hayward, Bartlett 
& Co., under the name of The Baltimore Locomotive Works, and continued as such 
until the close of the late Civil War. The business has been gradually enlarged and 
very successful, frequently employing from 1,000 to 1,500 skilled workmen. Many 
large contracts have been successfully filled for work for the Government and orders 
have been received from every part of the globe. The firm are among the most 
extensive manufacturers of architectural iron and gas works in the United States. 
Many of the public and private buildings of Baltimore, the Treasury, State, War and 
Navy and Post Office buildings in Washington, the Custom Houses of New York city, 
Portland, Or., and Portland, Me., the Post Office Buildings in Chicago, 111., Cincinnati, 
O., and St. Louis, Mo., and The Central Bank of Tokio, Japan, are heated by apparatus 
constructed at their works. They have erected gas plants at Milwaukee, Wis., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Newark, Hoboken, and Morristown, N. J.., Boston, Brookline and Haver- 
hill, Mass., Washington, D. C., Montreal, Canada, and Havana, Cuba, and have also 
erected the largest gasholders in the United States at Chicago and New York. 

Mr. Bartlett has been entrusted with many important measures involving the inter- 
ests of the public. He was a member of the committee appointed by the Mayor of 
Baltimore to report on the proper means of encouraging manufactures in the city; also 
of the committee to report on the pavements of other large cities with a view of secur- 
ing the best results for Baltimore. He is president of the board of trustees of The 
McDonogh School Fund, and chairman of the Druid Hill Park board. He is one of 
the vice presidents of The Board of Trade, also of The Merchants' & Manufacturers' 
Association, and of The Baltimore Trust & Guarantee Co. He is a director in The 
National Farmers' & Planters' Bank, The Equitable Insurance Co., and The Central 
Savings Bank. 

Mr. Bartlett's general reputation may be well conceived by the character of the 
public trusts with which he has been connected. He has brought to every undertaking, 
both public and private, a faithful and conscientious discharge of duty, which has secured 
for him the confidence of the community, in which he cast his fortunes more than fifty 
years ago. Mr. Bartlett is commanding in presence, social and genial in all his rela- 
tions with men, and exceedingly popular with all classes. He has been active, con- 
sistent and faithful in all connections, religious, political . and business, thereby secur- 
ing the esteem and approbation of all with whom he has come in contact. He is 
a communicant in the Episcopal church, and takes a deep interest in its welfare. He 
has been a member of the Republican party from its organization, but has no taste nor 
inclination for political office. 

Mr. Bartlett has been twice married, and has a son and daughter by his first wife. 

SIDNEY BARTLETT, LL.D., a distinguished lawyer, was a son of Dr. Zacheus 
and Hannah Jackson Bartlett, and a native of Plymouth, Mass., Feb. 13, 1799. Grad- 
uating from Harvard college in 1818, he taught school in Scituate a short time and 
spent a year in Plymouth reading law, being at the same time a private in the Standish 
Guards, a military company organized in 1818. He was admitted to practice in Boston 
in the Court of Common Pleas, Oct. 2, 1821, and in March, 1824, to practice in the 
Supreme Court. By unusual strength of mind, tremendous labor, and the favor of 
influential men, he advanced steadily but surely in his profession, until he had won rec- 
ognition as leader of the Massachusetts bar. Never a ready or eloquent pleader before 


a jury, Mr. Bartlett excelled as a shrewd and wise legal adviser. The results of his 
exhaustive study no man dared to question, and his arguments before the courts were 
instructive even to the judges. He never sought or accepted office which would divert 
him from his exceedingly remunerative practice, although the highest judicial positions 
in the land were within his reach. He was indeed a member of the State House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1851 and of the Constitutional Convention of 1853, but with the exception 
of these instances he scrupulously avoided public life. He was identified to some 
extent with railroad properties. Mr. Bartlett died March 6, 1889. 

JOHN H. BASS, manufacturer, Fort Wayne, Ind., one of the most active, 
intrepid and useful men in that city, began life as a bookkeeper. The savings of sev- 
eral years of endeavor and economy were finally invested by him in the manufacture of 
car wheels and machinery. Into that business he threw his utmost energy, and he has 
risen by a life of determined endeavor to large influence entirely through his own exer- 
tions. He is now the principal owner and president of The Bass Foundry and Machine 
Works, which succeeded to a business established about 1853, and was incorporated in 
1873 with a capital of $500,000. The works produce several hundred car wheels a day, 
railroad castings, boilers, the Bass-Corliss engines, and general machinery, and are one 
of the popular local institutions of Fort Wayne, being owned at home, unlike the car 
shops whose proprietors are mainly non-residents. They have disbursed millions of dollars 
in the community for wages and supplies. Their importance is indicated by the fact that 
Fort Wayne would decline in population at once should these shops be taken to some 
other part of the country, a contingency, however, not to be feared. The pay roll is 
about $35,000 a month. The car wheels of the Bass Foundry do not run on every rail- 
road in the world exactly, but they are found flying over the rails in almost every civil- 
ized country under the sun. Mr. Bass owns The Fort Wayne Iron Works and The Bass 
Furnace Co., which smelts pig iron in Rock Run, Ala., and has large furnaces in Lenoir 
City, Tenn. His extensive business has also required him to establish branch factories 
in Chicago and St. Louis. Mr. Bass is also interested in The Fort Wayne Electric Co., 
and in The Star Iron Tower Co., manufacturers of towers and mast yards for electric 
lighting. He is highly esteemed in the community whose welfare he has done so much 
to promote, and his presidency of The First National Bank is as much a testimonial to 
his character as to his financial strength. 

SETM BATEMAN, proprietor of a summer resort and bank president, was born in 
the suburbs of Newport, R. I., Aug. 26, 1802, and died at his home there, Nov. i, 
1887. Lord William Henry Bateman of Castle Hill, Hertfordshire, was his great 
grandfather, and it was Henry, son of Lord William, who emigrated in the early days 
to Coventry, R. I., and became the pioneer of the family in the new world. William 
Bateman, a son of Henry, married Susannah, daughter of Jeremiah Spencer, who, on 
his emigration from England, had settled in Connecticut. The Spencer family derived 
descent from the second Duke of Marlborough and occupied estates of their own in 
England. Jeremiah was the first of the family to leave his native land for America. 
William and Susannah Bateman, the parents of twelve children, were farmers, liv- 
ing near the then small city of Newport, and occupied a tract of land in the suburbs, 
now included within the limits of the city. Seth, one of their sons, availed himself of 
the country schools and then entered upon the work of the paternal farm Father and 
son were both men of spirit, and the former leased for many years a portion of the 


Brenton estate, then embracing 2,000 acres, and including the tract afterward owned 
by the Bateman family. It was not until 1837, that the afterward well known house 
was established for the entertainment of summer visitors on Bateman's point, by Seth 
Bateman. The enterprise was begun amid discouragements, but was opportune and 
well considered, and the house soon attracted a steadily increasing number of summer 
guests from New York, Boston and other cities. Through capable management and 
perseverance, the house finally became a fashionable summer resort. Mr. Bateman 
enlarged and improved the property several times until the spacious establishment over 
which he presided and which played a conspicuous part in the social life of Newport, 
came into being. 

When prosperity had brought him surplus means, he became a stockholder in and 
for many years president of The Merchants' Bank of Newport. He was a member of 
the Society of Friends; and a regular attendant at their services. Prosperity did not 
blunt the tenderness of his character or make him forget to share his means with the 
less fortunate. His benefactions were liberal but unostentatious, and lay chiefly in the 
direction of aid to worthy young men seeking an education. He never sought public 
office, but consented at one time to serve as a member of the General Assembly of the 
State, and was elected to that position. 

By his marriage in 1857, with Elizabeth, daughter of David Peckham of Newport, 
Mr. Bateman became allied with several prominent families of Rhode Island. Mrs. 
Bateman died May 15, 1887. Their only child died in infancy. 

DANIEL BAUQH, manufacturer, born in Chester county, Pa., Oct. 22, 1836, is ths 
great great grandson of an emigrant from Germany, who settled on a farm in Chester 
county before the American Revolution, and established a little tannery near Paoli, 
eighteen miles west of Philadelphia. John Pugh Baugh and Hannah Krauser, both 
natives of Chester county, were the parents of Daniel. After leaving a private academy 
in Norristown, Mr. Baugh joined his father in the family tannery for a short time. 
Tanning was abandoned in 1855, however, and John P. Baugh and his two sons moved 
into Philadelphia and began the manufacture of fertilizers, to which has since been 
added the making of bone black for use in sugar refineries and of various heavy chemi- 
cals and glue. The father and brother of Daniel Baugh died fourteen and twelve years 
ago respectively, but the old name of Baugh & Sons was retained until 1887, when 
the business was incorporated as The Baugh & Sons Co., capital $1,000,000, Daniel 
Baugh becoming its president. A son, Edwin P. Baugh, is now vice president of the 
concern. Mr. Baugh never aspired to public office, but takes great enjoyment in busi- 
ness affairs, and is president of The Girard National Bank and director of The Dela- 
ware Insurance Co., the Philadelphia Bourse, and of several public institutions. 
Privately, a genial, well-educated and agreeable man, he is a great traveller, spending 
a part of every year in Europe, and being especially interested in archeology. 
He is president of the Art club and member of the Union League, Manufacturers', 
Country, Corinthian Yacht and Merion Cricket clubs. Husband of Anna, daughter of 
the late Allen Wills, of Chester county, Mr. Baugh is the father of Edwin Pugh and 
Paul D. Baugh, and of Elizabeth Wills, who was married Oct. 22, 1894, to Benjamin 
Harris Brewster, son of the late Attorney General of the United States. 

SAMUEL BAYARD, banker, Evansville, Ind., a native of Vincennes, Ind., is a 
son of John Francis Bayard of Grenoble, France,. who served under Napoleon, and 


emigrated to Vincennes, Ind. , in 1817. There the pioneer married Mary Ann Boneau, 
a member of an old family, which settled there when Vincennes was yet almost exclu- 
sively a French village. Mr. Bayard attended private schools and the Collegium 
Sancti Gabrielis in Vincennes, but did not graduate, considering further study a waste 
of time. As a clerk to his father in a grocery store, a worker on the paternal farm, 
and a trader in flat boats with sugar planters on the lower Mississippi, and the maker 
of ornamental wooden work at home, young Mr. Bayard entered upon a business 
career. Being a good penman, he took the deputy clerkship of the . Circuit and 
Probate Courts in Vincennes in 1847, and when, in 1851, the election of a new clerk 
approached, he went into the branch of the State Bank of Indiana, in Evansville. In 
November, the directors made him teller of the bank, and when, in 1857, The Bank 
of the State of Indiana succeeded the prior institution, with a branch in Evansville, 
he became cashier of the latter. In 1865, Mr. Bayard reorganized the institution as 
The Evansville National Bank, becoming vice president in 1867 and president in 1876. 
But charters expire, if given time enough, and in 1885, The Old National Bank of 
Evansville was organized to take over the business and began its existence with a 
capital of $500,000 and a surplus of $250,000. Mr. Bayard is now president, and the 
raw country lad of 1847 is to-day a man of prominence and means. He was connected 
with the banking firm of W. J. Lowry & Co., several years, finally selling his interest, 
is a director in The German Bank, treasurer of The Evansville Gas & Electric Light 
Co., and has been interested in several railroads. Tall, with sharply cut features, 
upright, genial and benevolent, he is very popular in his city and a useful citizen. 
March 6, 1867, he married Miss Mattie J., daughter of Samuel Orr. It is believed 
that Mr. Bayard owns the largest private library in Indiana. 

JAMES SMITH BEAN, a prominent merchant and banker of Ogdensburgh, 
N. Y., was born in Meriden, N. H., Oct. 6, 1824, and died July 10, 1883. He was ason 
of Samuel Bean, a farmer, whose ancestors came from England to the southern part of 
New Hampshire. While a youth, Mr. Bean was educated at Kimball Union Academy 
in his native town. 

Farming being distasteful to him, he sought occupation as a merchant and began 
the dry goods business for himself in Meriden, N. H., at the age of twenty-four and 
continued therein until 1853. Success rewarded his energy, shrewdness and upright 
dealings. He then located in the city of Ogdensburgh, N. Y., as clerk and agent for 
the firm of John J. Prentiss & Co., merchants in the flour and grain trade. Their 
failure occurring shortly afterward, Mr. Bean established himself in the same line of 
business and prosecuted it with success until 1873, when he closed his active connec- 
tion with mercantile pursuits. The firm of Egert, Wheeler & Co. succeeded and Mr. 
Bean was a silent partner for five years.' 

Dec. i, 1873, Mr. Bean associated himself with The Ogdensburgh Bank under the 
firm name of Averills, Chapman & Bean. Of this institution, he was chief business 
manager until his death. In the course of his active connection with affairs, Mr. Bean 
acquired by praiseworthy and legitimate methods a large fortune, which made him an 
important factor in the financial life of the city. He was a man with no political aspira- 
tions, but always manifested a deep interest in placing the best men in office regard- 
less of their political faith. He held the entire confidence of the community, and his 
honor, integrity and superior judgment were unquestioned. He possessed the qlial- 


ities, in marked degree, which are pre-eminently required of a man in the position 
which he occupied. 

Mr. Bean was married March 17, 1858, to Miss Mary B. Deane, of Weathersfield, 
Vt., who survives him. They had no children. 

NELSON BEARDSLEY, Auburn, N. Y., the oldest bank president in the United 
States at the time of his death, was the son of John Beardsley, prominent in his town, 
county and State, being a Justice of the Peace, Member of Assembly and State Senator. 
Nelson was one of twelve children, and Roswell Beardsley of North Lansing, N. Y., 
his brother, is the oldest postmaster in the United States, having been first appointed 
under John Quincy Adams. Nelson Beardsley was born in Southbury, Conn., May 30, 
1807, and died in Auburn, Jan. 15, 1894. In 1808, his parents removed to Scipio, 
N. Y., where they occupied a farm, but in 1836, settled in the city of Auburn. Nelson 
graduated from Yale college in 1827, studied law, was admitted to practice in 1830, and 
immediately thereafter formed a partnership with the late William H. Seward, as 
Seward & Beardsley. After Mr. Seward's election as Governor of the State, Mr. 
Beardsley joined in a partnership with John Porter. The firm conducted a large prac- 
tice for a city the size of Auburn until the pressure of other interests induced Mr. 
Beardsley to give up the law. From that time on, he was identified with banks and 
other enterprises in Auburn. He took the presidency of The Cayuga County Bank in 
1843 and held the office until his death. During the War, the institution reorgan- 
ized as The Cayuga County National Bank. Mr. Beardsley's life was one of unbroken 
financial activity. In 1848, he became one of the incorporators of The Oswego Starch 
Factory, and in 1883, its president, and held the office for the rest of his life. 
In 1849, he was elected one of the original trustees of The Auburn Savings Institution, 
which, twenty years later, was changed to The Auburn Savings Bank and of which Mr. 
Beardsley was for many years the president. He had stock in every other incorpo- 
rated bank in the city, was a director or stockholder in many local manufacturing con- 
cerns, and gained a fortune of seven millions. In 1836, Mr. Beardsley married Miss 
Frances, a daughter of James Powers of Catskill, N. Y. Mrs. Beardsley died in 1854. 
Six daughters survived him, Emily B., wife of the Rev. Frederick W. Flint, of Los 
Angeles, Cala. ; Gertrude B., wife of William W. Andrews, of Cleveland; Caroline B., 
wife of Paul C. Woodruff; Alice B., wife of the Hon. Charles N. Ross; Frances B. , wife 
of Charles P. Burr; and Mary D. Beardsley. The latter four are residents of Auburn. 

PHILIP BECKER, merchant and financier, Buffalo, N. Y., is a native of Germany, 
and was born on the banks of the Rhine in 1830. The Beckers were originally dwellers 
of France. Well educated at home and in France, Mr. Becker sailed for America in 
1847 and went by river to Albany and by canal to Buffalo. Beginning life as a grocer's 
clerk, he saved enough money and gained enough experience in seven years to start a 
grocery house of his own, under the style of Philip Becker & Co., and for years con- 
ducted a large and lucrative wholesale trade. Mr. Becker retired a year or two ago 
from active trade, and is now occupied with investments in real estate and corporations. 
He has been Mayor of the city three times and president of The German Insurance Co. 
since 1869, and is a large owner in The German Bank and other financial institutions. 
He is highly respected for his excellent character and abilities. He was a delegate 
to the Republican National Convention in 1876. In 1882, he accepted the office of presi- 
dent of the National Saengerfest to be held in Buffalo in 1883, a very successful meet- 


ing, gave $25,000 towards building the beautiful music hall in which the Saengcrfest 
was held and managed the building operations with great success. When this hall was 
burned in 1885, he subscribed many thousand dollars for its reconstruction. 

PHILO DANIEL BECKWITH, manufacturer, Dowagiac, 'Mich., was a son of 
Stephen Beckwith, of old Puritan stock, and\vas born in Pike, Allegany county, N. Y., 
March 6, 1825. Circumstances permitted him to attend district school for a year or two 
only,, and he then began life as a machinist's apprentice. In 1854, he moved to Dow- 
agiac and started a small iron foundry for custom work and the making of plows, with 
one workman to help him. A brave struggle with adverse circumstances followed for 
several years, during which Mr. Beckwith made and sold a few plows and performed 
some general work. He then bought control of the Roller Grain Drill for sowing 
grain, an invention which proved a happy one. He soon enlarged his operations, 
employed a score of workmen, and finally built new shops, in part with borrowed 
money. When the Civil War came on and the markets were disturbed, Mr. Beckwith 
experienced great trials. In 1871, however, he invented the Round Oak stove for 
heating purposes, which has since revolutionized the stove trade of the United States. 
Heating stoves had previously lacked endurance, but this fault was remedied in Mr. 
Beckwith's invention, the result being that his shop was soon overwhelmed with orders. 
The works were run day and night, and the business enabled him to pay his debts 
promptly and in time brought him a fortune. The works now constitute a very large 
manufacturing plant. Mr. Beckwith invested some of his profits in real estate, which 
grew to possess great value, and was elected Mayor of Dowagiac four times. He died 
Jan. n, 1889, survived by his wife, Mrs. Catherine Scott Beckwith, and his daughter, 
Kate, wife of Frederick E. Lee, banker and manufacturer. 

JAHES MADISON BEEBE, merchant, Boston, Mass., was at the time of his 
death, Nov. 9, 1875, one of the most prominent business men of Boston. Mr. Beebe 
was born in Pittsfield, Mass., March 18, 1809, son of Levi and Sarah Pierson Beebe. 
His father was an obscure farmer, of scanty means, but respectable lineage. Young 
Beebe received a slight education in the common schools of his native town, and then 
for a short time in Stockbridge Academy. The age of sixteen found him seeking his 
fortune in Boston, where he went at the solicitation of J. V. C. Smith, a native of Pitts- 
field, and afterward Mayor of Boston, beginning as chore boy, later going to Bowen 
& Co. , dry goods merchants on Hanover street. 

At last, in 1830, on his twenty-first birthday, Mr. Beebe began business for him- 
self as a dry goods merchant, in a little store on Hanover street, with one clerk, 
forming soon afterward the firm of J. M. Beebe & Co., with John Hathaway as a 
special partner. This connection was severed at the end of five years, but Mr. Beebe 
continued at the Hanover street store until 1850, under the same firm name. He had 
as partners at different times such men as Josiah J. Fiske, C. S. Cutter, A. F. Barnes, 
A. French, E. B. Welch, G. A. Brown, J. B. Welch and J. A. Gannett. 

Mr. Beebe was credited with being one of the first men, if not the first, in his line 
of business to introduce the system of cash payments. His motto was quick money and 
small profits, and he was known to sell at a five per cent, advance when other mer- 
chants were receiving an advance of ten or fifteen per cent. Having enlarged his 
wholesale trade and engaged extensively in importing, he finally found the store at No. 
90 Hanover street too small, and in 1850 went to Kilby street. Here, in 1853, Junius 


S. Morgan, formerly of Mather, Morgan & Co., of Hartford, Conn., became his partner, 
the style remaining as before, J. M. Beebe & Co. In 1854, Mr. Beebe made his first 
trip to England, and in the year following Mr. Morgan retired, going to England, 
where he became a member of a large banking house. George C. Richardson then 
came into the firm for two years. Mr. Beebe was noted for frequent changes of part- 
ners, and for always retaining the firm name. During the ten years on Kilby street, 
he had as partners, besides those already mentioned: J. C. Burrage, D. C. Blodgett, 
M. M. Kellogg, C. Hulbert, Charles S. Cutter, G. J. Fiske and W. Chadbourne. The 
next location was on Franklin street, but in 1861, the business was moved to Mr. Beebe's 
own magnificent building on Winthrop Square. In 1866, Mr. Beebe retired. 

The house of J. M. Beebe & Co. was always one of the most substantial in the 
city. It carried on an enormous trade in dry goods with all parts of the country, and 
was especially strorig in the great panic of 1857. At that time, Mr. Beebe was rated 
as the largest jobber of dry goods in New England, and second in the country only 
to Stewart of New York. He was also the second largest importer in the United 
States, and at one time transacted a business of $5,000,000 annually. 

Having a dislike for publicity, Mr. Beebe avoided politics and public life, his only 
political service having been as a delegate to the convention, called in 1853, to revise 
the Constitution of Massachusetts. In business circles, however, he held a number of 
positions of trust, having been a director of The Webster Bank for many years; director 
of The Boston & Albany Railroad from election until the January before his death ; 
president of The Chicopee Manufacturing Co. just before the War; director of The 
Boston Provident Institution for Savings from 1853 until his death; vice president of 
the Boston Board of Trade from 1854 to 1856, and during the next two years president. 

Mr. Eeebe married Miss Esther Brown, of Pittsfield. Five children with the 
widow, survived him, the former being Emily B. , Mary L., Edward P., James A., 
and Frank H. Beebe. Few were the charities of the city of his adoption which did not 
profit by his philanthropy. 

LUTHER BEECHER, merchant, Detroit, Mich., who died Sept. 16, 1892, was 
born in Cheshire, Conn., Feb. 16, 1815, son of Benjamin Dutton Beecher, millwright, 
machinist and inventor. As a boy, Luther Beecher began to earn his living at the age 
of nine in the trade of a millwright, and he bore a part in building the factory and plac- 
ing the shafting and machinery of the first large broadcloth manufactory in Waterbury, 
Conn. In 1832, he went to New York city and, in the employment of an oil merchant 
and master painter, became a fair painter and glazier, and later, confidential clerk. 
When the business was wound up, Mr. Beecher found employment in another establish- 
ment in the same capacity. Hard work, merit, promotion to a good salary, and economy 
enabled Mr. Beecher to save a little money, and in 1836, he removed to Detroit, Mich., 
and opened a general store. There, after the usual experience with bad debts and other 
trials which afflict a beginner, he became permanently established. Mr. Beecher made 
use in his business of the system of profit-sharing to advantage. After 1852, he 
confined his trade exclusively to carpets and carried on the business both in Chicago 
and Detroit. By buying the interest of all the other carpet dealers in Chicago, he was 
for a number of years at the head of the largest carpet trade in the Northwest, while 
the growth of Detroit, where he had become largely interested in real estate, greatly 
increased his fortune. He was twice married, first in 1845, to Maria L. Williams, who 


died in 1850. In 1852, he married Miss Mary A. Wilkins, of Pittsburgh, Pa. George 
L. Beecher, his son, now manages the property. 

HERBERT A. BEIDLER, capitalist, Chicago, was born in that city, Aug. 22,1861. 
His father's family were of German extraction and came to this country previous to 
the American Revolution, settling in Pennsylvania. His mother's people were driven 
from England by religious persecution, settled in Holland, acquired the language and 
manners of the country, and finally came to America, settling in the Mohawk valley, 
New York State. Mr. Beidler graduated from Cornell University and began life as a 
draughtsman. At the death of bis father, Henry Beidler, March 16, 1893, he inherited 
a large estate, largely in city property on the west side of Chicago, around Madison and 
Halstead streets. He is president of The Standard Elevator Co., manufacturers of 
passenger and freight elevators, and a member of the Illinois club. Jan. 20, 1887, he 
married Ida L. Merriman. 

JAflES JEROflE BELDEN, contractor, banker and political leader, Syracuse, 
N. Y., has been known for many years as one of the most prominent and influential men 
in Central New York. He is a direct descendant of Richard Belden, who came from 
England in 1636, settling in Wethersfield, Conn., and also of Captain Benjamin 
Wright and Joseph Chamberlain, famous in the Colonial wars. The Belden family 
is well known in New England history, numbering among its members officers of 
the American Revolution, judges of various courts, legislators and successful busi- 
ness men. It is a remarkable fact that the town clerk of Wethersfield was a Bel- 
den continuously for more than a hundred years. Denison Belden, the father of 
James J., was an old resident of the rural township of Fabius in Onondaga county, 
N. Y. , where the subject of this sketch was born, Sept. 3'o, 1825. 

An active and promising lad, with only a common school education and brief attend- 
ance at the Fabius Academy, Mr. Belden commenced his business career at an early 
age, in a village store in his native town. From Fabius, he went to Jefferson county, 
N. Y. , where he remained five years as clerk and partner in the business of a country 
merchant. Allured by the discovery of gold in California, however, he gave up his 
position in the Spring of 1850 and journeyed to the Pacific coast, where he fell ill with 
the prevailing climatic sickness. Upon his recovery, instead of going to the mines, 
Mr. Belden opened a store for the sale of mining and camp supplies, trappings, milk 
and other goods. He was a shrewd judge of men and a close observer of the wants 
of the community where he was located, and so adapted himself to his surroundings, 
that, by untiring diligence, he succeeded in a short time in accumulating a capital of 
several thousand dollars. 

Returning to the East in 1853, he took up his residence at Syracuse, a city 
already giving promise of a prosperous future, and for a number of years devoted 
his attention mainly to the construction of public works by contract. Having mar- 
ried the daughter of the late Robert Gere, one of the foremost of the early residents 
of Syracuse and a large manufacturer and contractor, Mr. Belden was naturally 
attracted to a sphere of activity for which he was specially qualified. In his first con- 
tract, he was associated with his father-in-law and took part in the enlargement of the 
Oswego canal. Subsequently, in company with his brother, A. C. Belden, and the 
late Henry D. Denison, he engaged extensively in the construction of railroads, reser- 
voirs, canals and other public works, the firm acquiring a high reputation for energy 


and efficiency throughout the State and elsewhere. Among the more important con- 
tracts performed by them were the building of street railroads in Detroit, the enlarge- 
ment of the locks on the Welland canal in Canada, and the construction of the Syra- 
cuse Northern and Chenango Valley railroads and the great Croton reservoir in Putnam 
county. They also executed numerous large contracts for dredging in New York and 
other harbors and for repairs and improvements on the canals of New York State. The 
principal contract for removing the broken rock, after the famous blasting of Hell 
Gate, was awarded to this firm by the United States Government and was most success- 
fully' completed. Their last considerable work was the construction of The West 
Shore Railroad between Syracuse and Little Falls. 

While Samuel J. Tilden was Governor of New York, a fierce attack was made for 
political reasons on the firm of Denison, Belden & Co. and other contractors, who were 
charged with unlawful combinations and other irregularities in connection with con- 
tract work for repairs and improvements on the Erie and Champlain canals. Numer- 
ous suits were brought by the State and a protracted litigation followed ; but when the 
actions came to trial the charges could not be sustained, and the final result in every 
case was in favor of Mr. Belden 's firm. 

While these suits were in progress, the Republicans of Syracuse testified their con- 
fidence in Mr. Belden by nominating him for Mayor, without his knowledge and during 
his absence from the city. He was elected by an unusual and emphatic majority and 
entered upon the duties of the office in February, 1877. In this position, he displayed 
rare executive ability and gained the lasting admiration of the community by the vigor 
and sagacity with which he discharged his official duties. Thorough and practical 
reforms were instituted in every department of the city government by Mr. Belden, 
and he conducted affairs with an economy and business discernment which were of per- 
manent value to the city, and added greatly to his own reputation. At the close of his 
term, Mr. Belden was re-elected without substantial opposition, and his whole adminis- 
tration is regarded as a notable epoch in the history of Syracuse. 

In addition to the extensive contract business carried on by his firm, Mr. Belden 
became interested from time to time in various local enterprises, such as railroads, 
banking, iron and salt manufacturing and other industries. He has been prominently 
connected with The First and The Third National Banks, and with The Syracuse Sav- 
ings Bank. In 1881, he established The Robert Gere Bank (so named in honor of his 
father-in-law), which is one of the soundest and most successful financial institutions 
in the State. The building lately erected by him for the use of this bank is altogether 
the finest structure of the kind in Central New York. 

Upon the election of the Hon. Frank Hiscock to the United States Senate in 1887, 
Mr. Belden became the Representative in Congress from the Onondaga district, and 
has been three times re-elected by the most flattering majorities. He took a prominent 
part in the contest for Speaker, which resulted in the selection of Thomas B. Reed, and 
was one of Mr. Reed's most intimate and trusted advisers. In the House, the Speaker 
has placed him on such important committees as Appropriations, District of Columbia, 
etc., and Mr. Belden has attained a marked degree of influence and popularity among 
the members. He has taken special interest in the veterans of the Civil War and been 
remarkably successful in securing pensions for disabled soldiers and in otherwise pro- 
moting their welfare. He is an earnest and aggressive Republican and is recognized 


at Washington and elsewhere as an able champion of honest government and the rights 
of American labor. In 1890, the Republican Congressional Committee elected Mr. 
Belden its chairman, and in various capacities he has long occupied a high place in the 
councils of his party. In accordance with a purpose, announced at the time of his last 
election, Mr. Belden has declined a re-nomination and will retire from Congress at the 
close of his present term. 

It is not, however, for the ample fortune which he has accumulated, or his promi- 
nent relation to public affairs, that Mr. Belden is best known or most esteemed ; but 
rather for those qualities of mind and heart, which have secured the confidence of asso- 
ciates and the affection of friends. Endowed with remarkable energy, forceful and self 
reliant, he has made his way from the humblest beginnings by resolute effort and the 
wise employment of his natural faculties. Of kindly disposition and unassuming man- 
ners, he is approachable by rich and poor alike, and his advice is constantly sought by 
those in trouble or misfortune. His acts of benevolence are numerous and helpful, but 
they are so unobtrusively performed as seldom to be known save to those who are aided 
by him. In his personal habits he is strictly temperate, and his private life is without 
a blemish, yet he is extremely tolerant in his views and charitable towards the failings 
of others. A business man of superior judgment and capacity, a citizen of broad and 
elevated public spirit, a tried and trusted friend, he enjoys a respect and popularity 
which are rarely exceeded. 

ALEXANDER GRAHAFl BELL, patentee of the Bell telephone, is a native of 
the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, where he was born March 3, 1847. After passing 
through that sound institution of learning, the University of Edinburgh, he moved to 
London in 1867 and entered the University there for further study, but ill health 
obliged him to retire. He then spent a short time in Canada with his father, A. M. 
Bell, a professor in the University of Edinburgh, and in 1872, came to the United 
States to introduce his father's system of visible speech. While earning a modest 
income in Boston, Prof. Bell engaged in experiments for the transmission of sound by 
electric wire and invented some appliances for the purpose. The result was that in 
1876, he was able to exhibit publicly in Philadelphia a practical telephone. This is a 
scientific age, and the commercial value of this invention needed no argument. With 
men of executive ability to aid him, including Gardiner G. Hubbard, his father-in-law, 
Prof. Bell organized, in 1878, The American Bell Telephone Co. , to introduce telephone 
service into general use throughout the United States. Subordinate companies came 
into existence in various sections of the United States, and after protracted litigation 
and contention with The Western Union Telegraph Co. , Prof. Bell established his 
rights, and the telephone has now become one of the most necessary as it is one of the 
most useful facilities for the transaction of every day business. The patent upon his 
receiving instrument expired Jan. 30, 1 894, but the company has obtained other patents 
which, it is supposed, will prolong the activity of the parent company. Prof. Bell is 
the author of other inventions, equally as interesting as the telephone in their scientific 
nature, which, however, have not yet come into commercial use. He devised an appa- 
ratus by means of which sound can be transmitted through a vibratory beam of light, a 
certain distance, as effectively as through a wire, and he has made successful experi- 
ments in the way of recording speech by photographing the vibrations of jets of water. 
His wife is a daughter of Gardiner G. Hubbard. 


WILLIAn A. BELL, M.D., a graduate in medicine and the arts from the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge, Eng., was born in Ireland in 1841. He visited America in 1866, 
and in 1867, joined a party which surveyed the 35th parallel. In 1870, he settled in 
Colorado, and was associated with Gen. William J. Palmer in the building of The Den- 
ver & Rio Grande Railroad, and had a share in the management afterward, being vice 
president for several years. Retiring in 1882 to devote himself to real estate interests 
in the numerous rising towns, which the railroad company had formed in the southern 
half of the State, such as Colorado Springs, Manitou, South Pueblo, Alamosa and 
Durango, he has since operated on a large scale and with such satisfactory results that 
he now ranks among the most substantial residents of Colorada. 

WILLIAH BARNES BEHENT, retired manufacturer, Philadelphia, is one of the 
most interesting examples in American life of what one man may achieve, even though 
born to a prospect of continued toil, by dauntless courage, determined application and 
good character, when accompanied with a touch of that creative ability which is the 
gift of a Higher Power, He was born in the rural township of Bradford, Merrimac 
county, N. H., May 10, 1817, and came upon the stage of affairs when American 
industry was beginning to take organized form, and factories and shops were springing 
into existence in the Northern States. Samuel Bement, his father, a man of mechani- 
cal talent and more than average energy, left his native State of Connecticut in early 
life, and in Tunbridge, Vt., carried on a modest industry in the making of wrought 
iron nails until about 1816, when he settled upon a farm in Bradford, N. H., and inci- 
dentally continued to carry on his vocation as a worker in iron. The son grew to 
manhood on the farm, attending rural schools every winter and at times, governed by a 
boy's fondness for mechanics and urged by the constructive ability which he possessed, 
aided his father in the forge and helped construct a number of more or less rude 

In the Fall of 1834, in order to obtain a thorough training, the young man regu- 
larly apprenticed himself for three years to Moore & Colby of Peterboro, N. H., manu- 
facturers of cotton and woolen machinery, and in two years' time was foreman of the 
shop and before he was twenty a partner in the firm, which then took the name of Moore 
& Bement. But great things could not be hoped for in the little town of Peterboro, 
and in 1840, Mr. Bement severed his relations with the firm to seek a larger field in 
Manchester, N. H. , and spent two years in that city with the since famous Amoskeag 
Machine Co. , in whose service he improved materially in skill and knowledge. 

In 1842, the position of superintendent of a woolen machine shop in Mishawaka, 
Ind., was offered to Mr. Bement, whereupon he resigned the Manchester engagement 
and went West, only to find the shop, of which he was to take charge, a heap of smoking 
ruins, having been burned to the ground while he was en route. Not in the least 
daunted by this unexpected calamity, Mr. Bement went courageously to work in Mish- 
awaka to earn his living, and as a blacksmith and gunsmith made considerable prog- 
ress. His talents as an inventor found their first expression there in the designing and 
construction of an engine lathe, which he needed as an auxiliary in his business. The 
St. Joseph Iron Co. allowed Mr. Bement to assemble this machine in their shop, in 
return for permission to build a similar lathe for themselves. 

Mr. Bement's skill and originality were so much admired that The St. Joseph Iron 
Co. secured his services and gave him charge of their shops ; and, by his advice and 


under his direction, enlarged the works and fitted them up with new appliances. At 
that juncture, the shop was destroyed by fire, but Mr. Bement had made plans for anew 
one within twenty-four hours and the works were reconstructed. During his three 
years' stay with the Iron Company, Mr. Bement invented and built a gear cutting en- 
gine, the first ever seen west of Cleveland. 

In 1847, Mr. Bement went to Lowell, Mass., already in possession of a reputation 
for inventive skill and energy which were of value to him, and was for three years 
employed by W. A. Burke, superintendent of The Lowell Machine Shop, in the valu- 
able capacity of designer of machinery and head of the pattern shop. 

It is impossible for a man of marked talent and energy to remain unknown any- 
where in the United States, and in 1851, Mr. Bement received an offer of apartnership 
from E. D. Marshall, proprietor of a small machine shop on 2oth and Callowhill streets 
in the city of Philadelphia. This was the turning point in his fortunes. Much against 
the wishes of his Lowell employers, Mr. Bement accepted the offer, went to Philadel- 
phia, and devoted himself there to the invention and manufacture of machine tools and 
machinery. By intense application and through many trials, and by the invention of 
many original mechanical devices, and by adopting the highest standard of workman- 
ship, Mr. Bement succeeded with his partners in extending the business materially, and 
as improving means permkted, he gradually developed the original small shop into an 
enormous manufacturing plant. The Industrial Works, as they were called, grew in time 
both in size and prestige to equal the best of their class in America, and they are said to 
stand second only to the Whitworth shops in England. During the Civil War, they per- 
formed much important work. The name of the firm has undergone a number of changes, 
in the flight of time, having become, successively, Marshall, Bement & Colby; Bement 
Colby, Dougherty & Co.; Bement, Dougherty & Co.; in 1870, William B. Bement & 
Son; and in 1885, upon a consolidation with Frederick B. Miles's Machine Tool Works, 
Bement, Miles & Co., which name is yet retained. 

In 1888, Mr. Bement resigned the labor of management to his sons and has since 
that year spent his time in the enjoyment of well earned leisure. In these latter 
days, he has surrounded himself with a notable collection of works of art and has aided 
as director of The Academy of Fine Arts in the cultivation of popular taste, and the 
encouragement of artists. No man in Philadelphia enjoys the more sincere respect of 
his fellow citizens. 

In 1840, in Royalton, Vt., Mr. Bement married Miss Emily Russell, and to this 
devoted and loving pair have been born Clarence S., William P., and Frank Bement, 
all now partners in Bement, Miles & Co., and Mary Ella, now Mrs. Claftin. 

GEORGE WILLIAn BEMENT, merchant, Terre Haute, Ind., a native of Stock- 
bridge, Mass., March 4, 1824, is an excellent illustration of the result of quiet perse- 
verance in a chosen calling, backed by good health, close attention to opportunity, and 
a good name. At the age of seventeen, he settled in Evansville, Ind, but in 1843, 
located in Terre Haute, and by more than fifty years of unremitting application and 
prudent husbanding of means, he has accumulated large wealth in the wholesale gro- 
cery business. Like other merchants of substance, he has made investments in real 
estate, and not without advantage, and has identified himself with all the public spirited 
and philanthropic movements in his enterprising city, which commen " themselves to 
his judgment. 

8 4 


JOHN BERTRAM, shipowner, Salem, Mass.. was not an American by birth, but he 
grew to manhood in America, was essentially American in all his thoughts and aspira- 
tions, and did much to promote the prestige of the American flag at sea. When brought 
in early childhood to Salem by his parents, from the Island of Jersey, where he had 
been born, Feb. n, 1796, the family were poor, but John died the richest man in Salem. 
With a scanty education, a mere stripling, he took to the sea, the principal interest of 
that port, worked his way up through all grades to the quarterdeck and, as master of 
a vessel, 'made many voyages to the coasts and rich islands of Asia and Africa, encount- 
ering all the adventures incident to a seafaring life. In 1814, the British captured him 
as a privateer, threw him first into a prison ship at Bermuda and then into another at 
the Barbadoes and finally sent him to England. The peace set him free. About ten 
years afterward, one of -the numerous illustrations of his shrewdness occurred, while he 
was sailing as captain of the schooner General Brewer, chartered by himself, to the 
island of St. Helena. Sighting the Elizabeth, another Salem vessel, at sea, which he 
suspected was bound for the same port, Captain Bertram threw overboard his deck load 
of lumber to lighten the schooner, crowded on all sail, reached St. Helena, sold his cargo 
to good advantage and was leaving port, just as his rival, the Elizabeth, arrived. For 
three or four years, he traded to the coast of Patagonia, and in 1830, established a trade 
with Madagascar and Zanzibar, which grew to great proportions and proved a training 
school, in which so many successful merchants were bred, that Stanley, in his reports 
on Africa, speaks of Captain Bertram with enthusiastic praise. About 1840, Michael 
Shepard and he went into partnership in commercial and shipping ventures. When the 
California excitement broke out, Captain Bertram did not neglect his opportunity but 
sent some profitable cargoes of goods, including ice, to the Pacific coast. He gained a 
large fortune, which he used liberally in good deeds. The Bertram Home for Aged 
Men was founded and long maintained by him and The Salem Hospital, The Home for 
Working Women, and The Women's Friend Society, received gifts from him, while he 
also established a fuel fund in 1879 for the benefit of tire poor, and gave away countless 
small sums to worthy objects. At his death, in Salem, March 22, 1882, his wife and 
three daughters survived him, the latter being Mrs. David P. Kimball, of Boston; Mrs. 
George R. Emmerton and Mrs. William G. Webb, of Salem, and in addition, Mrs. S. 
H. Bertram, widow of his adopted son, J. H. M. Bertram. 

CHARLES F. BERWIND, coal miner, born April i, 1846, died at his home, 2010 
Spruce street, Philadelphia, Dec. 4, 1890. With a sufficient education, gained at the 
Central High School in Philadelphia, he entered as office boy the coal office of R. H. 
Powell, 104 Walnut street, the first year of the War. The young man was so eager, 
capable and full of push, that in 1863, the president of The Powelton Coal & Iron Co. 
made Mr. Berwind his own assistant. In this position, he acquired a thorough 
knowledge of administration and the clue to success in the coal business, and later 
became vice president of the company. In 1869, he organized the firm of Berwind & 
Bradley, which took over the business of the Powelton company, thus making the most 
of his opportunity, and thereafter carried on a large and increasing trade in coal with 
marked vigor and success. The firm of White & Lingle, with which he became 
associated July i, 1874, changed their name later to Berwind, White & Co.; and The 
Berwind- White Coal Mining Co., of which he was the leading spirit, succeeded, in 
January, 1886, and became the leading bituminous coal concern in the United States, 


operating nearly thirty collieries in Pennsylvania. Among other properties, they owned 
coal lands in Clearfield county, from which for many years they supplied transatlantic 
steamers with semi-bituminous coal. Mr. Berwind was also interested in and a director 
of The Alexandria Coal Co., The Witmer I^and & Coal Co., The Punxsatawney Coal 
Co., The Irvona Lumber Co., The Sunbury & Lewistown Railroad, The Girard Life 
Insurance, Annuity & Trust Co., The Girard National Bank and other corporations, and 
president of The Pennsylvania & Northwestern Railroad. A handsome fortune grew 
out of his life of intelligent, persevering and well directed labor, approximating 
5,000,000. H. A. Berwind is now president of The Berwind-White Co. 

JOHN FREDERICK BETZ, Philadelphia, Pa., said to be the richest brewer in 
America, was born April 8, 1831, in Stuttgart, Wurtemberg, and is a son of John 
George Betz, in the fatherland a farmer, and in America a hotel keeper. The Betz 
family brought their household goods to the United States in 1832, and landed in Phila- 
delphia, whence not long afterward they removed to Pottsville, to keep the Eagle 
Hotel. John F. Betz began life at the age of thirteen in the sen-ice of D. G. Yuengling, 
a brewer of Pottsville. Men who have anything in them show their metal while young, 
and Mr. Betz was foreman at eighteen. A trip to Europe in 1852, for the purpose of 
studying the art of brewing as practiced in Austria and elsewhere, gave the young man 
a number of new ideas, and upon his return to America he engaged in brewing in New 
York city in the firm of Clausen & Betz. Another trip to Europe in 1865, and a more 
elaborate study of foreign methods, was followed in 1866 by Mr. Betz making a venture 
for a year in brewing in Richmond, Va. The year of 1867 found him in Europe again, 
and in 1868, he secured an old brewery at Callowhill and New Market streets in Phila- 
delphia, and by persistent labor in its management began to make more progress. The 
brewerj' was moved to a new and larger site on Callowhill street in 1880, and the mam- 
moth plant of John F. Betz & Son was there created. In 1889, during the period when 
English capital so largely sought investment in the United States, a part interest was 
sold to a London syndicate, and the company of The John F. Betz & Son, Ld., was 
incorporated with a capital of $2,500,000. Mr. Betz became the largest stockholder and 
chairman of the new concern, and his son, John F. Betz, jr., the treasurer. The pres- 
ent large plant, which cost over $2,000,000, makes about 300,000 barrels of beer a year 
and exports about two-thirds of the product to foreign countries. Mr. Betz is now a 
large owner of real estate in Philadelphia. His properties are the Riverside Mansion, 
Lyceum Theatre, Grand Opera House, and the huge Betz Building on South Broad 
street, and he is also connected with The Germania Brewing Co. Mr. Betz gave the 
Pennsylvania Hospital $5,000 in memory of his brother, John George Betz, who died 
there from cholera, during the first short stay of the family in Philadelphia. He also 
gave $5,000 to the German Hospital, and is liberal in contributions to other objects. 
Oct. 19, 1854, he married Miss Sybilla C., daughter of John Sanders of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. They have had two sons, Louis Frederick, now deceased, and John F. Betz, jr. 

GEN. JOHN BIDWELL, land owner, Chico, Cala., one of the earliest pioneers of 
the Pacific coast, is a native of Chautauqua county, N. Y., where he was born Aug. 5, 
1819. His father, Abraham Bid well, was a Connecticut man and his mother, Clarissa 
Griggs, a former resident of Massachusetts. Both his grandfathers fought on the right 
side in the American Revolution. 

When John was ten years of age, the family moved to Erie, Pa., thence to Ashta- 



bula county, O., and later, in 1834, to Western Ohio, near Greenville. Mr. Bui well 
returned to Ashtabulain 1836, and in 1837 attended the Kingsville Academy. 
1839 he rode most the way to Cincinnati on a wagon load of farm produce, and trav- 
eled 'thence by steamboat to St. Louis. Going on to Iowa, then a new Territory, he 
consulted the Governor, Robert Lucas, about the region, and ended by preempting a 
farm on the Iowa river. But ague and fever drove him toward the frontier of Missouri. 
For two years, he taught school there in Platte county. 

Attractive reports of the beauty and fertility of California having reached the 
settlers of Platte county, Mr. Bidwell organized an expedition to locate in that distant 
region Five hundred men signed the pledge to go, but local merchants opposed the 
movement, and Mr. Bidwell was the only one of the company who repaired to the ren- 
dezvous at Sapling Grove, Kan., May 9, 1841. With barely enough money to buy 
supplies, he started alone, but was joined by others at various points, and crossed the 
plains and mountains, accompanied by 68 men, women and children. The party 
encountered enormous herds of buffalo, heavy hail storms, and many Indians, but 
accomplished the trip successfully, and have since been famous as the first overland 
expedition to California. Nov. 4, 1841, Mr. Bidwell reached the first settlement in 
California. The territory then contained a civilized population of only about 15,000 
Mexicans and Mission Indians. 

Mr. Bidwell found employment with John A. Sutter at the ranch and fort where 
Sacramento now stands, took charge of one of Mr. Sutler's farms in 1843, and became 
his bookkeeper and general business men. It was James W. Marshall, one of Sutler's 
employes, who, Jan. 24, 1848, found gold at Suiter's saw mill, and it was Mr. Bidwell 
who, shortly afterward, first found gold on the Feather river, and was the first man 
to carry to San Francisco the news which set the whole country wild. 

For many years, Mr. Bidwell prospected for gold with some success. When he had 
secured about $20,000 in the precious metal, he purchased a Mexican grant from a Mr. 
Dickey and located the land at Chico in Butte county. This estate of 25,000 acres, 
since reduced to 23,000, and now worth $1,500,000, is devoted to farming and grape 
growing. The first grapes grown on this ranch were suitable for wine making. No 
others could be had. But General Bidwell is a pronounced temperance man and in time 
he destroyed all his vines and replaced them with raisin and table varieties. 

General Bidwell has taken an active part in public affairs. While only thirty years 
of age, he was elected both member of the convention to form a State constitution and a 
Senator in the first State legislature. In September, 1859, he presided over a State 
convention in San Francisco called to take action in favor of the project of a Pacific 
railroad. As an ardent Democrat, he represented his State in 1860 in the Charleston 
convention, and it is remembered that he was the only member of his delegation who 
remained true to the Union. During the Civil War he was a Republican. In 1 863, 
Governor Stanford gave him command of the 5th brigade of California militia, and in 
1864, his District sent him to Congress. In 1868, he married a daughter of the Hon. 
Joseph C. G. Kennedy. 

ANSON A. BIQELOW, lumberman, Chicago, 111 , was long senior member of 
Bigelow Bro's, owners of saw mills and pine lands in the Northwest. A native of 
Easton, Washington county, N. Y., and born Nov. 7, 1833, he was a descendant of 
that John Bigelow, who emigrated from England to America as early as 1620. Like 


many other lads of Washington county, Mr. Bigelow attended school in the village of 
Cambridge, N. Y., and then put his hands to practical work. Early in life he went 
West, entered the lumber business, and gradually made his way by energy and good 
business qualities to large operations. For a long period, he cut and sawed the excel- 
lent timber growing in the region tributary to Muskegon, Mich. , and, when the profit- 
able pine had been cut off, he sold the saw mill in Muskegon and transferred his busi- 
ness to another field. The firm of A. A. Bigelow & Co. now own a large area of pine 
forest near Washburn in Bayfield county, Wis., and have built capacious mills 
there. Mr. Bigelow was prudent and skillful in management and weathered the 
hard times of 1893-95 with excellent success. Dec. 13, 1859, in Racine, Wis., he mar- 
ried Emma W. Ullman and had two children. A very warm regard for Mr. Bigelow 
was entertained by the people of Chicago, where he made his home, and he belonged to 
the Chicago, Calumet and Athletic clubs there. He died Oct. 13, 1895. 

ERASTUS BRIQHAM BIQELOW, A.M., manufacturer, Boston, Mass., widely 
known as the originator of the power loom for carpets, was born in West Boylston, 
Mass., April 4, 1814 While a mere boy, he showed a great fondness for contriving 
new appliances and invented several machines, including a loom for making sus- 
penders. His ingenuity revealed itself also in a book which he published on stenog- 
raphy. In 1836, he invented a loom for weaving coach lace, " the first power loom for 
weaving terry fabrics known in the history of the arts," and followed this with looms 
for weaving knotted counterpanes and ingrain carpets. He developed the coach lace 
loom into the power loom for weaving Brussels carpets, and operated it successfully at 
Lowell in 1845. Specimens of carpets woven on this machine were exhibited at the 
great London Exhibition in 1851 and received high praise. In association with his 
brother Horatio, Mr. Bigelow founded the town of Clinton, Mass., and established 
there The Bigelow Carpet Co. , The Clinton Wire Cloth Co. , and other industries. He 
was a logical thinker and entertaining writer on economical subjects and rendered 
great service to American industry not only by his inventions, but by his work on "The 
Tariff Question," published in 1862, and his wise support of protective legislation. He 
was a member of The National Association of Woolen Manufacturers, The American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and The Massachusetts Historical Society. He had 
acquired a liberal fortune before his death in Boston, Dec. 6, 1879. Mrs. Bigelow 
survived him with one child, who is now the wife of the Rev. Daniel Merriman of 
Worcester, Mass. 

FREDERICK BILLINGS, lawyer, a native of Royalton, Vt., born Sept. 27, 1823, 
died in Woodstock, Vt., Sept. 30, 1890. He was the fourth of a family of nine chil- 
dren. While he was quite young, the family removed to Woodstock, where his father, 
Oel Billings, served for many years as Register of Probate. Frederick graduated from 
the University of Vermont in 1844, was admitted to the bar in Windsor county in 1848, 
and 1846-48 served as Secretary of Civil and Military Affairs under Governor Eaton. 

In 1849, while on his way to California and waiting in New York for a steamer, 
news reached him that gold had been discovered near Sacramento. In the great rush 
which followed, Mr. Billings had the advantage of an early start, and was, in fact, the 
first lawyer to display his sign in the embryo city of San Francisco. Archibald C. 
Peachy was his first partner, but Major General H. W. Halleck and Trenor W. Part 
were taken into partnership, and for many years Halleck, Peachy, Billings & Park were 



the leading law firm of San Francisco. Mr. Billings was one of the founders of the 
College of California, and was once urged to take the presidency. Selling most of 
his property in California in 1866, he returned East and settled in New York city, liv- 
ing every summer upon a farm of 600 acres near Woodstock, Vt., which had been the 
birthplace of Geo. P. Marsh, the eminent scholar, and Hiram Powers, the American 
sculptor. Here Mr. Billings built a beautiful home. The project of an overland rail- 
road awoke Mr. Billings's ardent interest, and the information he had acquired concern- 
ing the Pacific coast and the various proposed routes made his counsel of value to 
capitalists. In the development of The Northern Pacific Railroad enterprise, he was an 
active participant, and in the reorganization of the company after the failure of Jay 
Cooke in 1873, he rendered such useful service that the stockholders made him for sev- 
eral years president of the company. He was one of the original promoters of a ship 
canal to the Pacific, and at the time of his death was chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of The Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua, and a director of the construction 
company. He was also president of The Woodstock National Bank, and a director in 
The Farmers' Loan and Trust Co., The American Exchange Bank, The Delaware & 
Hudson Canal Co., The Manhattan Life Insurance Co., The Rutland, Vermont Valley, 
Connecticut River and Passumpsic Railroads, and a trustee of the Presbyterian Hospital 
and the Brick Church in Fifth avenue, New York, and of many charitable and 
religious associations. 

Mr. Billings's gifts to the University of Vermont amounted to $250,000, and, 
among other donations for public purposes, he gave $50,000 to D. L. Moody's Mount 
Hermon School for Boys, and $50,000 to Amherst college. He was a member of the 
New York Chamber of Commerce, and of various clubs in New York city, including 
the Union League, Century and Lawyers', and Down Town Association. He was mar- 
ried in 1862 to Julia, a daughter of the late Dr. Eleazar Parmly, of New York. His 
wife and five children survive him. 

ROBERT CHARLES BILLINGS, merchant, Boston,' Mass., was born in that city, 
Jan. 3, 1819, the child of Ebenezer and Elizabeth Cleverly Billings. The progenitors 
of the family came from England in 1620, to Quincy, Mass. Mr. Billings began his 
successful business career as a fourteen year old boy in the house of T. Tarbell & Co. in 
Boston, August 19, 1833. He was admitted to partnership in 1846 and has remained a 
partner through the various changes, which have taken place, until the present time, 
a period of sixty-two years. The firm are now known as Faulkner, Page & Co. and 
conduct a very large dry goods trade. Mr. Billings is noted for intelligence, conserva- 
tive methods, perseverance, and careful management. He is interested in several mercan- 
tile firms, owns good real estate, and is a Republican and a Unitarian, but not a club man. 
His wife is Sarah Elizabeth Hill, whom he married in 1859. They have no children. 

LORENZO BLACKSTONE, manufacturer of cotton goods in Norwich, Conn. , and 
a gentleman of cultivation, inherited not only the refined character but no small share 
of the ability of his distinguished ancestor, Sir William Blackstone, famous as a com- 
mentator on law, as well as the enterprise of William Blackstone, one of the first settlers 
of Boston and founder of the family in the new world. In Branford, Conn., where he 
was born in 1819, he left the local academy to become a merchant. Making his way 
rapidly, he removed to Norwich in 1857. That was a panic year and not favorable to 
new enterprise, but in 1859, Mr. Blackstone built a small cotton factory in the village of 


Dayvnle, which he named the Attawaugan mill and operated with much success. 
In 1865, he bought the Ballou mill in the same village and thus added another mill to 
the plant. Cotton goods brought high prices then, and Mr. Blackstone throve to such 
an extent that he bought the Totokett mills at Occum in 1870, and in 1877, his company 
erected the Pequot mills in Montville. A keen and penetrating mind, energy, and 
sound judgment brought success to all of Mr. Blackstone's ventures, while his personal 
qualities made him one of the most respected citizens of Norwich. He was a director 
of the great Ponemah Manufacturing Co. and The Thames National Bank and for 
several years president of The Chelsea Savings Bank. The Attawaugan Co. , which 
operates his mills, is now managed in part by his two sons, William Norton Blackstone, 
who is treasurer, and James De Trafford Blackstone, who is secretary. 

TIMOTHY B. BLACKSTONE, railroad president, Chicago, 111., originated in the 
little village of Branford, Conn., March 28, 1829, and has virtually been a railroad man 
all his life. The majority of Connecticut men, who do not go West or go to the 
Legislature or Congress and then spend their lives in politics, either grow up on the 
farms, in the factories or in the railroad service. Mr. Blackstone went into railroads, 
making a start in October, 1847, as rodman among the surveyors engaged on The 
New York & New Haven Railroad. One year was pleasantly spent in this work. 
Location and construction of The Stockbridge & Pittsfield Railroad occupied the next 
fourteen months, and similar work on The Vermont Valley Railroad from the end of 
1849 to April, 1851, Mr. Blackstone being assistant engineer in both cases. This open 
air life proved beneficial and agreeable to Mr. Blackstone, who, being an able man, 
developed into an excellent engineer. The next engagement took him to the West, 
and from May, 1851, to December, 1855, he was active in the location and construction 
of The Illinois Central Railroad as division engineer of surveys. Civil engineering 
develops vigorous health and a fearless spirit, but many men find it as a means of liveli- 
hood a precarious occupation. A panic and a pause in railroad building throw out of 
employment in all parts of the country a large force of competent engineers, who must 
remain idle for years. Men of the stamp of Mr. Blackstone are always in demand, 
however, and during the period under review, railroad building was being pushed 
in America with great energy. From the early part of 1856 to January, 1861, 
Mr. Blackstone was chief engineer in the building and operation of The Joliet & Chi- 
cago Railroad ; and the stockholders of the road then showed their discernment and 
high regard by electing the subject of this sketch president of the company, a position 
he retained until January, 1864. From that date, Mr. Blackstone has been a director 
and since April, 1864, president of The Chicago & Alton Railroad. Fortune has come 
to him mainly through the careful husbanding of surplus income and the purchase of 
railroad securities, which his own labors have rendered valuable. The secret of his 
success has been work, untiring and intelligent, and the early influences which devel- 
oped self-reliance and honest charater. 

ANDREW JACKSON BLACKWELL, a remarkable character and the leading citizen 
of Oklahoma Territory, was born in Georgia, Jan. 29, 1842, the son of Janos Blackwell, 
teacher, and Matilda, his wife. He is English by descent on the paternal side and 
Scottish on the other, and has in addition a slight admixture of Indian blood in his 
veins. During boyhood he was a farmer but, when the War broke out, he entered 
the Confederate army, in the jd Ga. Vols. and after a service of three years, came out 


with a title and has ever since been called " Colonel." The South had been ruined by 
the War and many of the men of both armies went to the new West. Among the whole 
company, there was probably none of more energetic, versatile and original character 
than the Georgia soldier. For a while, he was a merchant in Fayetteville, Ark. , and 
then began to take an interest in the public lands, to pre-empt sites, and build towns. 
Drifting to Kansas in 1864, he built the first house in Ottawa in that State, boomed the 
town, and served as its Mayor. 

In 1882, he took up a site at what is now Blackwell, on the Cherokee strip in 
Oklahoma Territory, a location not at the time highly prized by others. Under the 
energetic booming of its founder, the town proved a successful enterprise and is now 
one of the best inland communities in the Territory. He has been its Mayor and Justice 
of the Peace. Mr. Blackwell also founded the town of Rock Falls, O. T., and he is 
president of The North Oklahoma Railroad. 

Mr. Blackwell believes that the Indian blood in his veins is of genuine Cherokee 
extraction, and in 1880 he laid his claims before the Cherokee nation in Indian Terri- 
tory and asked for recognition as a member of the tribe. The tribal council rejected 
his claims, but Mr. Blackwell was not daunted and he married Miss Rosa Vaught, 
one of the most handsome girls in the Cherokee nation, one-eighth of Indian blood, and 
thus secured by adoption a recognition denied him as a birthright. Mrs. Blackwell had 
the right to claim a portion of the domain of the Cherokee nation, and upon her prop- 
erty, in 1894, Mr. Blackwell laid out the City of David and started in to boom it. 
Hearing that he was selling lots to persons not members of the nation, an offense pun- 
ishable with death, the Indians arrested Mr. Blackwell and held him in durance vile 
for a time, loaded with chains and hidden in the woods. They tried to extort a confes- 
sion from him by torture. After losing his luxuriant beard and enduring great suffer- 
ings, Mr. Blackwell managed to send word of his plight to his energetic wife, and Mrs. 
Blackwell promptly aroused such a storm of alarm and indignation that her husband 
was released. The authorities of the Cherokee nation have done much to hinder him, 
however, and to thwart his enterprises, but nothing daunts him and the City of David 
continues to grow, and has schools, stores and even a newspaper, The David Progress, 
of which Colonel Blackwell is editor. In this new city, Colonel Blackwell proposes to 
build a church, which he has named Solomon's Temple, and of which the corner stone 
was laid June 9, 1895, in the presence of 5,000 people. He proposes to make it a 
building to commemorate the life and customs of the Indians. 

To him and his wife Rosa have been born three bright children, King David, 
Solomon and Hazel Blackwell. Colonel Blackwell is a man of sturdy physique, great 
determination, honest, bold, energetic and a type of the true hustling Western business 
man. He has built a church at his own expense at Blackwell, and is doing all he can 
for the cause of Christ and the proper education and training of the young. 

JAMES BLAIR, of Scranton, Pa., banker, a brother of John I. Blair, of New 
Jersey, was born May 15, 1807, at Beaver Brook, Warren county, N. J., the son of 
James Blair, farmer, and Rachel Inslee, his wife. John Blair, his grandfather, was a 
Scot, a descendant of the Covenanters, who emigrated to America in 1720. The vil- 
lage school taught young James all that it had to impart, and a country store took him 
as a clerk at the age of fifteen. Three years were enough, and, at eighteen, Mr. Blair 
started a store in his own behalf in Marksborough, N. J. 


About 1832. he helped found The Belvidere Bank and, in that institution, has made 
the remarkable record of serving as director for sixty-four years consecutively. 
Improving means led Mr. Blair in the natural course of events into the development of 
coal properties and the iron and railroad interests of Scranton, and later into western 
railroads. These labors compelled him, in 1865, to establish his home in Scranton and 
there he has since resided. The moral virtues of this family are not more marked than 
their business abilities, and Mr. Blair has thrived in basket and in purse since his first 
entrance into affairs. Among the properties in which he now has a large interest are 
The Lackawanna & Iron Steel Co., The Belvidere National Bank, The Scranton 
Savings Bank, of which he is president and which is practically owned by James and 
John I. Blair, The Dickson Manufacturing Co., and The First National Bank of Scran- 
ton, but there are others. He is a large owner of real estate in and around Scranton. 

Mr. Blair's success has been due to a vigorous constitution, self-reliance, high 
character, a clear head, sound common sense and persistence, qualities which make him 
greatly respected in Scranton. His first wife, whom he married in New Jersey in 1834, 
was Elizabeth Locke. After her death, he married Mrs. Margaret McKinney of Ithaca, 
N.Y., .in 1864, but was left a widower once more. He has been, since 1874, the 
husband of Mrs. Alice Rodgers, of Springfield, O. His children all came by the first 
marriage, viz. : A. B. Blair, Mrs. Lauretta A. Coursen, Mrs. Anna B. Linen and C. E. 
Blair, who are living, and Milton Locke Blair, who died in 1865, and J. Selden Blair, 
who died in 1 889. 

JOHN INSLEY BLAIR, the richest man in New Jersey, born in Belvidere, N. J., 
Aug. 22, 1802, son of James Blair, farmer, earned his first money by trapping musk- 
rates at Brown Creek and rabbits in the woods, for their skins. Sixteen skins sold for 
$i. At the age of eleven, he became clerk for a cousin in a store in Hope, N. J. , and 
thereafter saw no more of school. James Blair died when John was fourteen years old 
and the lad had to help support his mother, seven brothers and three sisters for several 
years. In 1821, having managed to raise a few hundred dollars, this enterprising and 
self reliant youth borrowed a little more money from his mother and a relative and 
started a general country store in Blairstown, N. J. , in partnership with a relative, John 
Blair. Two years later, Mr. Blair became sole owner, and this venture in trade laid the 
foundation of all his subsequent success. For forty years, he carried on this store and 
during most of that time others in Marksborough, Paulina, Huntsville and Johnson- 
burgh, dealing largely in produce and promoting flour mills and cotton factories. 

About 1833, Mr. Blair joined with others in developing the iron mines near Oxford 
Furnace, an ancient forge, and in 1846, aided in the organization of The Lackawanna 
Coal & Iron Co., and in buying and rebuilding the railroad from Owego to Ithaca, and 
next aided in building The Legget's Gap Railroad from Scranton to Great Bend, which 
was finished in 1851. In 1853, he built The Warren Railroad, and in 1856, took an 
active part in the consolidation of The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, of 
whose stock he became a large holder. 

The large means which the latter enterprise brought to him led him to embark in 
railway building in the West, especially in Iowa, Wisconsin. Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, 
Dakota and Texas. The first railroad across the State of Iowa was built by Mr. Blair, 
and subsequently he constructed more than 2,000 miles in Iowa and Nebraska. His 
general plan was to organize a company to go into an undeveloped section and persuade 


the people to issue county and city bonds sufficient to pay expenses, the actual building- 
being done by a construction company, in which Mr. Blair was the controlling spirit. 
More than eighty towns were laid out in the West and a hundred churches erected mainly 
through his instrumentality. Mr. Blair was one of the original directors of The Union 
Pacific Railroad, and is now a director in The Warren Railroad, The Blairstown Rail- 
road, which he built with his own capital, 1876-77, The Lackawanna & Bloomsburg, The 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, The New York, Susquehanna & Western, The 
Oregon Pacific, The Chicago & Northwestern, The Burlington, Cedar Rapids & North- 
ern, The Union Pacific, The Sioux City & Yankton, The Sioux Falls & Dakota, The 
Chicago & Pacific, The Chicago, Iowa & Dakota, The St. Louis & Hannibal, The 
Kansas City & Southern, The Cedar Rapids & Missouri River, The Green Bay, 
Winona & St. Paul, The Green Bay & Stevens Point, The Sioux City & Pacific, 
The Iowa Falls & Sioux City, The Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska, The Fremont, Elkhorn 
& Missouri Valley, The Maple River, The Sussex & Mount Hope, The Cayuga & Susque- 
hanna and The Bangor & Portland Railroads, and The Pittsburgh & Wheeling Coal Co. 
He is president of a bank in Belvidere, N. J., and is considered worth $20,000,000. 

Mr. Blair has always made his home in Blairstown, N. J., and has endowed the 
Presbyterian academy at Blairstown, which bears his name, with $150,000, and has 
founded professorships in Princeton and Lafayette colleges, besides contributing gen- 
erously to a number of Western colleges. He is a strong Presbyterian, and his bene- 
factions to that church exceed $500,000. He gave $70,000 to the College of New 
Jersey, in Princeton, and $150,000 to the Blair Presbyterian Academy. In politics, Mr. 
Blair is a Republican. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of New Jersey 
in 1868, and took his defeat with good humor. Every national convention of his party 
since its organization has been honored by his presence as a delegate. 

In 1826, Mr. Blair married Nancy Locke, the daughter of John Locke, whose 
brother, Captain Locke, a soldier in the American Revolution, was killed in a skirmish 
at Springfield in Morris county. Mr. Blair died in 1888. .His children are Marcus L. 
Blair, now deceased, DeWitt Clinton Blair, Emma L., wife of the late Charles Scrib- 
ner, the New York publisher, and Aurelia, wife of Clarence G. Mitchell, a lawyer. 

WILLIAM BLAIR, one of the most sagacious merchants of Chicago, a pioneer in 
his field of activity, springs from New England stock. The line of his father, Samuel 
Blair, had been resident in New England for five generations, and began with that 
sturdy Protestant, Robert Blair, a Scot by descent, whose family had lived for a long 
period in Ulster, Ireland, and who himself arrived in the new world in 1718, settling in 
Worcester, Mass. Hannah Frary, the mother of the subject of this biography, was a 
daughter of Jonathan Frary and of English lineage. Both parents were natives of 
Blandford, Mass., and it was after their removal to New York State, that, on May 20, 
18 1 8, in the little village of Homer, N. Y., their fifth son, William, was born. The 
family removed a few years afterward to a farm in the adjoining town of Cortland and 
in that rural locality William Blair spent his boyhood and acquired his education. 

Duty, affection and contentment retain many boys upon the farm all their lives, 
while temperament and natural powers send others forth to play a stirring part upon the 
battle field of life. William Blair was fitted by an active mind, upright character and 
an energetic spirit, for large responsibilities; and when, in 1832, he became a clerk for 
Oren North, the stove and hardware merchant in the village of Cortland, he entered 


upon a vocation, which was destined to tax his abilities to the uttermost and finally to 
lead him to renown. Athough a mere lad, he was eager, hearty, attentive to duty, and 
useful to such an extent that at the age of eighteen he was selected for an important 
trust. Mr. North had resolved to open a branch store in the then far West at Joliet, 
I1L , with the view of transferring his whole business to that part of the country in 
course of time. William Blair, then only eighteen and never before outside of Cortland 
county, was given the opportunity to establish the branch house and had the courage 
and self reliance to accept the mission. Going to Syracuse, N. Y., he voyaged by canal 
boat to Buffalo, sailed thence to Chicago by the next steamboat on its monthly trip, and 
made the rest of the way overland. The trip consumed three weeks. The Joliet store 
was promptly opened, and Mr. Blair carried it on prosperously until the collapse of the 
land boom in 1837. Mr. North then abandoned the idea of removing to Joliet and even 
resolved to close the Western store ; but Mr. Blair bought the business, put his youthf ul 
energy into the difficult task, and carried on the business for five years successfully in 
a town thought to be ruined. In those days, he took some little interest in politics, and 
in 1840, as a Whig (he is now a Republican), he attended a convention in Springfield, 
making the 150 mile trip from Joliet by wagon. The party spent two weeks on the 
road and were obliged to camp out by the wayside every night. 

Chicago was beginning to attract notice as a growing town and in August, 1842, 
Mr. Blair transferred his business to that city, after previous careful consideration, and 
placed his sign over a small store at the corner of Dearborn and South Water streets. 
He was an exceedingly observing and alert man, and being in good credit with Eastern 
houses soon built up a very promising trade. The West was then growing rapidly in 
population. Villages and cities were springing up like magic. Mr. Blair saw the oppor- 
tunity for a wholesale trade, and about 1848, after the opening of the Illinois & Mich- 
igan canal, closed the retail branch of his business, thus becoming the first to establish 
an exclusively wholesale hardware house in Chicago and being at the time the only one 
in the West outside of St Louis. From that time forward for nearly half a century, he 
remained at the head of a constantly expanding and sagaciously managed trade in hard- 
ware, cutler)' and iron. At various times he admitted others to partnership with him, 
the first being his brother, Chauncey B. Blair, then living in Michigan City, Ind., but 
William bought his brother's interest in 1846. In that year his brother-in-law, William 
E. Stimson, became a partner under the name of Blair & Stimson, but soon retired, 
and in 1853, C. B. Nelson, former bookkeeper, was admitted to that relation under 
the name of William Blair & Co., which name was ever afterward retained. In 1856, 
O. W. Belden, an employe, in January, 1871, James M. Horton, now head of the house, 
in 1873, Augustus O. Hall, and on Jan. i, 1888, Edward T. Blair, the latter a son of Mr. 
Blair, were taken into the concern. During 1853-60, Mr. Blair was a special partner 
in E. G. Hall & Co., iron merchants in Water street. 

In 1847, Mr. Blair moved to a larger store at No. 103 Lake street, and built a larger 
one at No. 176 on the same street the next year. The large and handsome building at 
Nos. 179-181 Randolph street was erected in 1865. Both of his stores went down in the 
great fire of 1871, but within fifteen days Mr. Blair resumed in a previously vacant 
store at 30-32 South Canal street. By Oct. i, 1872, he had erected new and capacious 
business houses at 172-176 Lake street and 179-181 Randolph street. 

One of the first men in the trade to appreciate the fact that the products of hard- 


ware and cutlery factories were destined to be concentrated in the hands of large job- 
bing firms in the interior, Mr. Blair made contracts at an early day with various English 
firms, which brought him large advantages. After the great fire of 187 1, builder's hard- 
ware was in extraordinary demand, and Mr. Blair's energy proved of great service in 
the reconstruction of the city. When he retired in 1888 with his son, Edward T. Blair, 
the event attracted general attention in the trade. Mr. Blair had created a most profit- 
able and extended trade in hardware in the West, and he left it to his surviving part- 
ners, who at once incorporated as Horton, Gilmore, McWilliams & Co. 

A man of remarkable capacity for work, exact, just in every transaction, prudent 
and farseeing, Mr. Blair had weathered every panic and calamity with entire success, 
and at the end of his active management could look back on a record without a blemish, 
Previous to 1855, he had been- an attendant and for a time a vestryman of Trinity 
Episcopal Church, but, since 1859, he has been a member of the Second Presbyterian 
Church. Philanthropic work, travel and official duties now engage his attention. He 
is a trustee of Lake Forest University and has been a manager of the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital since its organization. In former times, he helped manage The Young Men's 
Library Association and The Protestant Orphan Asylum, and was acting president of 
The Home for the Friendless for several years, a member of The Chicago Historical 
Society, The Art Institute, and the Union League club, and connected with many other 
institutions, whose treasuries received liberal contributions from him. He remains a 
director of The Merchants' National Bank and has been such from its foundation in 
1865. Formerly, for several years, he sat in the directorate of The Atlantic & Pacific 
Telegraph Co. and The Chicago Gas Light & Coke Co. 

June 21, 1854, Mr. Blair married Miss Sarah M., daughter of John Seymour of 
Lyme, O. Two sons were born of this union, William Seymour Blair, who passed away 
in December, 1861, at the age of six, and Edward Tyler Blair, a graduate of Yale in 
1879. Mr. Blair has spent much time in travel in continental Europe and in Medi- 
terranean countries and the British Isles, including the Highlands of Scotland. 

EDWARD HARWARD BLAKE, president of The Merchants' National Bank, 
Bangor, Me., is the son of William A. Blake, a merchant, who, with his brother, the 
Hon. Samuel H. Blake, a lawyer, made a fortune in dealing in pine lands. When 
Edward H. Blake came into the world, July 8, 1867, he was far more sure of a life of 
reasonable ease than most young princes are of their future thrones. Great pains were 
taken with his education and he had a course at Brown college and post-graduate 
course at Harvard. He then attended the Albany Law School and practiced law in 
Bangor until business responsibilities compelled him to relinquish his profession. He 
was made president of The Merchants' National Bank in 1887. Mr. Blake inherited 
large means from both his father and uncle, and has shown sense, acuteness and con- 
servatism in their management. 

NOAH FARWELL BLANCH ARD, financier, Newark, N. J., born in Nashua, N. H., 
the son of a farmer, Jan. 22, 1821, died in Newark, May u, 1881. Until of age, Mr. 
Blanchard spent his time at school and upon the farm, and then learned the tanner's 
trade. In consequence of the failure of his employer in 1853, he went to Newark, 
N.J., in search of employment and found it with T. P. Howell & Co., manufacturers 
of patent leather, who recognized the ability of the young man and made him their 
superintendent and finally a partner. In 1860, Mr. Blanchard engaged in the manufac- 


ture of leather on his own account, taking his brother, David O. Blanchard, into part- 
nership in 1862. In 1869, P. Van Zandt Lane was admitted as a partner, under the 
firm name of Blanchard, Brother & Lane, and the firm became one of the largest and 
best known manufacturers of patent leather in the United States. Mr. Blanchard was 
not only prominent in business circles but was a member of the Trinity Methodist 
Episcopal Church in Newark, and for twenty-five years the president of its trustees, as 
well as president of The Law and Order Association, and would have been the candidate 
of the association for Mayor of the city of Newark, had he not refused the nomination. 
In politics, Mr. Blanchard was a Republican. He was a member of the Board of 
Trade of Newark, director of The Merchants' Fire Insurance Co., and one of the 
gentlemen who organized The Prudential Life Insurance Co. , to which more extended 
reference is made in the life of John F. Dryden in these pages, and was its president at 
the time of his death. 

ELIPHALET W. BLATCHFORD, manufacturer, Chicago, 111., born in Lansing- 
burg, N. Y., May 26, 1826, came from English ancestry. His education was thorough, 
ending with a course at Illinois college at Jacksonville, 111. Studying law, he began 
practice in New York city and later removed to Chicago, where, in 854, he began the 
manufacture of lead, a vocation far more profitable and certainly more attractive to an 
energetic nature than the law. His firm of E. W. Blatchford & Co. , now incorporated, 
have been extremely successful. Mr. Blatchford has invested his means in banks and 
other independent enterprises. In 1858, he married Mary E. Williams and is the 
father of Paul Blatchford, Mrs. Howard S. Bliss, Frances M., Edward W., Charles H., 
and E. Huntington Blatchford. The Chicago, Union League, University and Com- 
mercial clubs have enrolled him among their membership. 

DELOS ABIAL BLODGETT, probably the richest man in Western Michigan, 
makes his home in Grand Rapids. A native of the town of Otsego, N. Y. , he was 7 1 
years old March 3, 1896. With a rudimentary education, no capital, a stout heart and 
the muscular strength of a Hercules, Mr. Blodgett started out in the world in 1845. 
After some time spent in labor in the Southern States, he went, in 1848, into a saw mill 
in upper Michigan. In the Fall of that year, he joined Henry Knickerbocker's logging 
camp on the Muskegon river, and the hearty fellow and good axeman soon became fore- 
man in command. In July, 1850, he joined T. D. Stimson as a partner, in harvesting 
the prodigal wealth of pine timber at different points along the Muskegon river, but in 
1854, having made a little money, severed relations, so as to be free to operate on his 
own account. Building a saw mill and grist mill on the Muskegon river in the little 
hamlet of Hersey in 1858, later he improved a farm of 600 acres near by, on which, as 
well as on another estate of 700 acres in the neighboring county of Missaukee, he has 
since raised French draft horses. Mr. Blodgett invested his savings largely in low 
priced pine lands in the Muskegon country, and in 1871, under the title of Blodgett & 
Byrne, in company with the late Thomas Byrne, he added to the manufacture of 
lumber the business of dealing in logs and lands. Much of his sawing has been done 
by mills other than his own; but Mr. Blodgett did not neglect to increase his own milling 
facilities by buying a plant in Muskegon and another on Muskegon lake, and, in recent 
years, he has produced more than 60,000,000 feet of lumber annually, the actual man- 
agement being under the direction of his son, John W. Blodgett. Mr. Blodgett con- 
ducts business in his own name, but he is also a partner in Blodgett, Cummer & Dig- 


gins, of Cadillac, who cut some of the Blodgett pine, manufacture and market it. Men 
of the enterprise, experience and means of Mr. Blodgett always extend their business 
interests in later life, and so it happens that the subject of this sketch is president of The 
Fourth National Bank, a large stockholder in The Kent County Savings Bank, The 
Leaf Lumber Co. , The Grand Rapids Fire Insurance Co. , and other corporations of 
Grand Rapids, a moving spirit in The Preston National Bank of Detroit, The National 
Lumberman's Bank of Muskegon, and The Standard Accident & Life Insurance Co. of 
Detroit, and senior in the bank of D. A. Blodgett & Co. in Cadillac, which, in 1895, was 
succeeded by The Cadillac State Bank. At least 300,000 acres of pine belong to him 
in Mississippi, as well as several blocks and buildings in Grand Rapids, some real estate 
in Chicago, and a goodly amount of street railroad securities. To Mr. Blodgett and his 
wife, Jennie S. Wood, of Woodstock, 111., whom he married Sept. 9, 1859, have been 
born two children, John W. Blodgett and Susan R. , wife of Edward Lowe of Grand 
Rapids. As a delegate, he attended the Republican national convention of 1880. 

ARETAS BLOOD, manufacturer, Manchester, N. H., enjoys the fame of being 
one of the most practical and energetic men of his State. It is interesting to know that 
the stock, whence he sprang, originated in America with Col. Thomas Blood, his emi- 
grant ancestor from England, in colonial days. One branch of the family spread into 
Concord, Mass., while Richard M. Blood became one of the proprietors of Groton, 
Conn. Born in Weathersfield, Vt. , Oct. 16, 1816, son of Nathaniel Blood, a farmer, 
and Roxcellana Proctor, his wife, this young man took enough time away from farm- 
ing, during the months when the country was buried in snow, to get a fair education in 
Windsor, Vt. When he left the farm to learn the trade of a blacksmith, it may well 
be imagined that he struck sturdy blows, his muscles being already as hard as iron. 
But Mr. Blood had an ingenious mind as well as a vigorous frame, and he soon advanced 
to a higher branch of the trade and became a machinist ; and a machinist, he likes to 
call himself to-day, although the word does not fully denote the man. Mr. Blood rose 
rapidly in his trade, became a proprietor of some machine works in Manchester, and, 
in these later years, has made a reputation in The Manchester Locomotive Works, 
makers of steam fire engines and locomotives, of which he is now president and prin- 
cipal owner. His productions are well known and sell for a profit in all parts of the 
United States. At various periods, the business has been especially thriving and given 
Mr. Blood the means to push out into other enterprises. Among the ventures with 
which he is connected are The Nashua Iron & Steel Co., of which he is manager; The 
Manchester Mills, The Amoskeag Paper Mill, The Manchester Hardware Co., The 
Second National Bank of Manchester, of which he is president; The Boston & Maine 
Railroad, and The Columbian Canal in South Carolina, being in most, if not all of 
them, an official of some kind. But there are others yet, his interests being even more 
varied than indicated above. A business man of energy, upright, conservative, sound 
and able, he is a useful citizen and of benefit to his State. In politics, he favors the 
Republican and protective tariff side of public questions, and presided as chairman over 
the meeting of the Presidential Electors of his State, which cast New Hampshire's vote 
for Garfield. No clubs whatever win him away from business pursuits. His wife comes 
from Lowell, Mass., and their children are Mrs. Nora Carpenter and Mrs. Emma French. 

HORACE SEYMOUR BLOODGOOD, Providence, R. I., manager of the manufacture 
of the Perry Davis proprietary medicines, originated in New York city, where he was 


born May 15, 1841. He is one of the hereditary members of The Society of the Cincin- 
nati, by virtue of descent from a member of Washington's staff, his great grandfather. 
While he began life in the modest capacity of a clerk in New York, he was very active 
in local affairs and served as a member of the old volunteer fire department and went t > 
the front during the Civil War in the ranks of Ellsworth's Fire Zouaves He boro 
himself with credit, and being transferred to the Rhode Island artillery came home at 
the end of his service Captain of Battery G, ist R. I. Art In 1876, he entered the 
works in Providence, in which the Perry Davis medicines were being made, and 
has retained that connection until the present day. Practically the entire management 
now rests upon his shoulders. He is a member of the Union, Hope, and Rhode Island 
clubs of Providence, and the Racquet & Tennis and Manhattan clubs of New York city. 

RICHARD JOHNSON BOLLES, Denver, Colo., owner of one-quarter of the famous 
Mollie Gibson silver mine and president of the Argentum Juniata silver mine, is the 
second son of Dr. R. M. Bolles, a homeopathic physician, who died in the city of New 
York in 1866. Mr. Bolles was born in Xew York city, Aug. i, 1841. When he left 
the public schools, he engaged in business first as office boy with George Manley, a 
Wall street broker. Later, he became an operator in Wall street himself, and ex- 
perienced the usual ups and downs of fortune in that maelstrom of finance. A member 
of the Stock Exchange from about 1870 until May, 1884, he then sold his seat and re- 
moved to Colorado, in whose mines previous investigation had led him to believe a for- 
tune might be found. Success beyond the average came to him through indomitable 
will and perseverance and the fact that he has never been seriously ill during his busi- 
ness career. Certainly, inheritance has played no part in his affairs. He has never at 
any time received money assistance from any source whatever. That which he has ac- 
cumulated is the result of industry, self reliance, pluck, and determination to win. At 
present, he is president of the new stock exchange at Colorado Springs, and has retained 
his large interests in the Mollie Gibson and the Argentum Juniata silver mines through 
the recent hard times. Mr. Bolles is a large investor in real estate and owns the Hotel 
Glenwood at Glenwood Springs, in the mountains beyond Aspen. That resort is already 
famous for its hot springs, dry climate and stupendous scenery. In 1867, Mr. Bolles 
ivas married in the city of New York to Miss Julia A. , eldest daughter of Sylvester 
Sherman of Medina, Orleans county, N. Y. She is a lady of cultivation, whose unusual 
voice and excellent singing are well remembered both in America and in Europe. Mrs 
Bolles is not only a vocalist and musician but a linguist, speaking several languages 
fluently, and a writer of merit, both of prose and verse. She is the author of several 
plays and of many novels, which have been written merely to occupy her time. Syl- 
vester Sherman, father of Mrs. Bolles, was the grand-nephew of Roger Sherman, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

CHARLES JOSEPH BONAPARTE, lawyer, Baltimore, Md., grandson of Jerome 
Bonaparte, brother of the great Napoleon, was born in Baltimore, in which city he has 
always resided, June 9, 1851. Carefully educated in preliminary schools and by 
tutors, he then attended Harvard, graduating in 1871, and in 1874, receiving his diploma 
at the Harvard Law School. He has since practiced his profession in Baltimore. The 
story of the marriage of Jerome Bonaparte to the beautiful daughter of William Patter- 
son, a prominent ship owner and merchant of Baltimore, and the refusal of Napoleon to 
recognize the marriage, form a romantic incident in the history of the two coimtries 


and is sufficiently recorded in the general histories of the day. He was a man of 
wealth, and had two sons, Jerome Napoleon and Charles J. Bonaparte. Each of 
these inherited property, consisting largely of real estate. Charles J. Bonaparte is a 
member of various clubs, including the Harvard of New York city. He was married 
Sept. i, 1875, at Newport, R. I., to Ellen Channing Day of Boston. 

GEORGE HENRY BONEBRAKE, lawyer, merchant and banker, Los Angeles, 
Cala. , one of the most energetic residents of the Pacific coast, is a native of Eaton, 
Preble county, O. He was born June 9, 1838, son of the Rev. Frederick and Margaret 
Bonebrake, the father being a clergyman of the United Brethren's Church and of the 
lineage of Prussian ancestors who settled in Pennsylvania. The boy spent his boy- 
hood on a farm, and at the age of seventeen he left the paternal roof for Otterbein 
university in Westerville, O., where he spent six toilsome years, paying his own way. 

After graduation, Mr. Bonebrake resolved to enter 'upon a profession and accord- 
ingly mastered the mysteries of Kent and Blackstone, under the tuition of Gen. 
Thomas Brown, at the latter's office in Winchester, Ind. For a time, he supported 
himself by conducting The Winchester Journal, a weekly newspaper, and by teaching the 
boys at the local academy, as principal of the institution The great Civil War was 
then in progress, however, and in July, 1862, the ) r oung man responded to the call of 
duty and enlisted as a private in Co. C., 6gth Ind. Vol. Inf., and hurried to the front. 
There, he saw much arduous duty at the sieges of Vicksburg and Mobile, and during 
General Bank's famous Red river campaign, and during his more than three years' 
service won the shoulder straps of a Major, and a brevet as Lieutenant Colonel, later, in 
the days of peace, receiving from the War Department the medal of honor. 

Upon returning to Winchester, Ind. , Major Bonebrake entered into partnership 
with Gen. Thomas Brown, for practice of law, and carried on a very fair business for 
several years. 

When The Citizens' Bank of Noblesville, Ind., was projected, Mr. Bonebrake took 
part in the organization and became its cashier, a position he filled with credit and profit 
until 1878. His marriage in January', 1869, with Miss Emma Locke, a former school- 
mate, eventually led to his removal to the Pacific coast. Two children blessed the 
union of this devoted couple, Blanche and Percy Bonebrake, the former now the accom- 
plished wife of J. W. Off, cashier of The State Loan & Trust Co., Los Angeles. 

In the Summer of 1878, the lungs of Mrs. Bonebrake became seriously affected and 
her husband took her to Southern California. A stay, intended to be temporary, finally 
became permanent. Major Bonebrake made a number of investments in Southern 
California, and as a merchant of wagons and carriages developed a large trade. The 
great bereavement which he had dreaded overtook him March 2, 1880, and Mrs. 
Bonebrake then passed away. The Major then applied himself with energy to the 
development of his business, until his interests extended all along the coast from 
San Diego, Cala., to Portland, Or. In 1883, he established The Los Angeles National 
Bank, of which he has been president to date, and he has since established First 
National Banks in Pasadena, Pomona, Riverside, Santa Ana, and Santa Monica, a 
State Bank in Santa Paula, and The Savings Bank of Southern California and The 
State Loan & Trust Co. in Los Angeles. He is also now connected with The Central 
National Bank of Topeka, Kan., and is undoubtedly one of the largest holders of bank 
stock on the Pacific coast. These with other interests engross his attention. 


The influence of Major Bonebrake has been exerted in the direction of public 
improvements in Southern California, and the construction of railroads, and many fine 
buildings in Los Angeles owe their existence to his energy and investments. He is an 
honored member of the Union League, Jonathan and California clubs of Los Angeles, 
and a leading member of the local Board of trade, having been its second president. 

EDWARD L. BONNER, a merchant of Missoula, Mont, born in Orwell, Oswego 
county, N. Y., Aug. 18, 1834, is a son of Ephraim Bonner, farmer arid lumberman, 
and of Jane C. Acker, his wife. The pioneers of his father's race in America came 
from England and were among the first settlers of New York State, while the Ackers 
are of Holland Dutch descent. Tutored in country schools until the age of thirteen, 
Edward L. Bonner learned the rudiments of mercantile life in the Catherine street 
store of Lord & Taylor in New York city, and later in a store in Boston. Emigrating 
to Oregon in 1857, he tilled the soil, raised cattle, grew up with the country, acted as 
agent for The Oregon Steam Navigation Co., at Lewiston, Idaho, until 1866, and, 
before the close of that year, had taken a stock of goods to Missoula and Deer Lodge, 
Mont. , and opened a store under the sign of Bonner & Welch. Out of this enterprise 
grew the present Missoula Mercantile Co., the largest and most influential house of 
wholesale and retail grocers in the Northwest, and a number of branch mercantile 
firms, including E. L. Bonner & Co., in Butte, now The M. J. Connell Co., and The 
E. L. Bonner Mercantile Co. , of Deer Lodge. Mr. Bonner remains a large owner, but 
gives his attention now mainly to other enterprises. Large returns were gained from 
timber and tie contracts with The Northern Pacific Railroad in 1881-84. Having 
secured good timber privileges on the public lands, The Big Blackfoot Milling Co. 
came into existence at Bonner, Mont., in which Mr. Bonner is interested and which has 
constructed and now operates a very large saw mill plant. During the boom of 1886-91, 
Mr. Bonner operated in real estate in Missoula to good advantage and is yet president 
of The Missoula Real Estate Association. He is also an owner in The First National 
Bank. Married in Lewiston, Idaho, in 1865, to Carrie S. Kenyon, Mr. Bonner has 
three children, Charles E. , Lenita J., and Bessie A. Bonner. The family spend their 
winters, as a rule, in New York city, where Mr. Bonner is a member of the Manhattan 
club and engaged to some extent in business. 

CHARLES WILLIAfl BONYNGE, stock broker, San Francisco, Cala., is a native 
of London, England, and was born Oct. 5, 1838. He comes from an old English fam- 
ily of Norman extraction, the possessor of large estates in Great Britain. His father 
was Thomas Bonynge, of Ranelagh. Mr. Bonynge is a graduate of Scott's College in 
Dublin, and made his entrance to the business world as bookkeeper in a large export- 
ing house. Migrating to California, he gained a fortune first by mining on the Corn- 
stock lode in Nevada, and increased it by buying and selling the shares of silver mines 
at the Stock Exchange in San Francisco. Mr. Bonynge was at one time president of 
the Exchange and has retained his membership to this day. He owns a bank in Wood- 
land, Cala., and an interest in The Spring Valley Water Co., and now ranks as one of 
the large capitalists of the State. A home is maintained in San Francisco, but much 
time is spent in Virginia and London. He was married June 5, 1869, to Rodie S., 
daughter of James M. Stephens, planter and member of one of the old prosperous 
families of Virginia. Mrs. Bonynge descends through the maternal line from George 
Read, one of the drafters of the Declaration of Independence, a signer of the United 


States Constitution, and United States Senator. Their daughter, Virginia, was recently 
married in London to Viscount Deerhurst, oldest son of the Earl of Coventry, and the 
youngest daughter, Louise, is the wife of Major John Maxwell, of the 426. Highlanders, 
and military secretary to the British administration in Egypt. The Union League, 
Manhattan and Lotos clubs of New York have each made Mr. Bonynge a member. 

JOHN W. BOOKWALTER, manufacturer, Springfield, O., born in Rob Roy, 
Fountain county, Ind., in 1837, is of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry. Reared upon a 
farm and taught at country schools, Mr. Bookwalter gave promise of an interesting 
career by a display of the constructive temperament, in the making of two or three tele- 
scopes and other mechanical contrivances. While a boy, he also aided in converting an 
old saw mill on the farm into the first grist mill in that part of the country. The saw 
mill gave him the firs.t remunerative employment. When a new water wheel had 
become necessary, Mr. Bookwalter was sent to Springfield, O. , to buy one from James 
Leffel, manufacturer of turbine wheels, and being obliged to wait a few days while the 
turbine was being made, he was lodged in Mr. Leffel's home and promptly fell in love 
with Miss Eliza Leffel, whom he subsequently married. Mr. Leffel liked the young 
man, took him into the factory in Springfield and finally admitted him into partnership. 
There were various partners in the firm, but changes took place and Mr. Bookwalter 
finally rose to the head of the establishment and nearly sole ownership. Under his 
very able direction, the business soon expanded and the manufacture of the Leffel tur- 
bine wheel and the Bookwalter upright engine is now the largest industry in Spring- 
field. As he gained capital, he extended his interests, and is now, among other things, 
president of The Bookwalter Steel & Iron Co. of New Jersey, proprietor of the Lagonda 
hotel and a handsome business block and opera house in Springfield, and owner of The 
Mechanical News, a newspaper devoted to manufacturing interests. He is also a large 
owner of farming lands in Illinois and Nebraska and has a 20,000 acre sheep ranch at 
Missouri Creek, and possesses many books and the finest art gallery in his city. 

ALFRED BOOTH, packer, Chicago, 111., son of Benjamin and Margaret Booth, 
was born in Glastonbury, England, Feb. 14, 1828, and came to America about 1848, 
locating on a farm near Kenosha, Wis., on Lake Michigan. When in 1850, he went to 
Chicago, it was for the purpose of putting his knowledge of rural and piscatorial pur- 
suits to better use, and he started in business as a dealer in vegetables and fish, with 
stands in the North and State street markets. Mr. Booth had a marked talent for 
trade, promoted the new and more profitable features of his business, became a large 
dealer in oysters, and, as time wore on, opened stores and packing houses in different 
parts of the city. Hard labor and close application finally enabled Mr. Booth to create 
out of nothing an immense and extended trade in fish, oysters and fruit. In 1880, 
Alfred E. and William V. Booth, sons, came into partnership with their father under 
the title of A. Booth & Sons, and the concern is now incorporated as The A. Booth 
Packing Co., capital $1,000,000. The three men named are its officers. There are 
collecting houses for oysters, fruit and salmon in California and Oregon, and for fish at 
Manistique and Escanaba, Mich. , besides several others of minor importance at other 
points, while the products of the packing houses are marketed through the agency of 
branches in numerous large cities. Mr. Booth married in April, 1849, Miss Isabella 
Hews of Chicago, -and has four children, Alfred E., William V., Margaret E. and 
Marian Alice. 


JAnES BOOTH, Paterson, N. J., manufacturer, was a son of Joseph Booth, a dry 
goods merchant and farmer in Cheshire, England. Born in Doddington, Jan. i, 1833, 
he died in Paterson, Aug. 20, 1894 A student until sixteen years of age, Mr. Booth 
was then indentured as an apprentice in the silk making trade in Leake. In 1854, he 
came to America by the sailing ship Sarah Sands, hoping to better his position, and at 
first secured employment as clerk in a dry goods store in New York, city. A few 
months later, he removed to Paterson and was appointed under foreman in the silk mill 
of John Ryle, pioneer of the silk industry in that. city. In two months' time, Mr. Ryle 
made the energetic young man foreman in the finishing department, but this did not 
content him, and, in May, 1855, Mr. Booth began the manufacture of tailor's sewing 
silk on his own account in the Beaver mill, beginning with fifteen men and 3,000 worth 
of machinery. The same year, Robert Hamil and he formed the partnership of Hamil & 
Booth, which entered upon an exceedingly successful career. One enlargement of the 
mill heralded another, and the firm finally rose to be among the most extensive oper- 
ators in the city. They now have, two mills. When Mr. Hamil died, Sept. n, 1880, 
Mr. Booth succeeded as head of the house. Mr. Booth never took part in public 
affairs but was an active spirit in business matters in Paterson. He was one of the 
organizers of The Passaic County Savings Institution and director during its whole 
existence. A member of the Board of Trade and of various silk associations in Pater- 
son and New York city, he also served as director in The First National Bank, The 
Paterson Savings Institution, and The Paterson Opera House Association, and held 
stock in The Paterson Press. For convenience he joined the Merchants' Central club 
in New York city. Two sons survived him. 

NEWTON BOOTH, merchant and public man, Sacramento, Cala. , began life as a 
lawyer, but was on that account all the better merchant when he went into trade, and 
as a politician and orator, found his legal training so valuable, that, aided by tact, a fair 
insight into human nature, and great energy, he never suffered defeat in a contest for 
any office to which he aspired. Born in Salem, Washington county, Ind. , Dec. 30, 
1825, he was so fortunate as to secure a college education and graduated from Asbury 
University (now De Pauw), in 1846. After mastering the elements of law in Terre 
Haute, he received authority to practice in 1849. It was at this time that gold was 
discovered in California, and Mr. Booth joined the rush to the Pacific coast. Gold was 
the quest of the vast majority of emigrants to that then savage region, but cool-headed 
men often found more wealth in other pursuits. Mr. Booth consulted his own interests 
by giving up the law and, turning from the franctic rush to the mines, he embarked in 
business pursuits in Amador county. Later, in February, 1851, he opened a store for 
the sale of groceries in Sacramento. For six years, he carried on a lively trade and 
then returned to Terre Haute and practiced law for three years. The year of 1860 
found him again in Sacramento, where for twenty years he devoted much time to politics. 
He was an attractive orator, and espoused the cause of the people in every controversy. 
In 1863, the city sent him to the State Senate, and in 1871, he became Governor of the 
Stnte as an independent candidate, holding the position until 1875, when he resigned to 
;.ccept election as United States Senator, as the candidate of the anti-monopolists. His 
term in Washington lasted from March 9, 1875, to March 3, 1881. Upon retiring, he 
returned to mercantile life, and in the firm of Booth & Co. , built up a large wholesale 
trade in groceries with every part of the coast. His death occurred July 14, 1892 


GAIL BORDEN, inventor of condensed milk, was the son of New Englanders. 
Born in Norwich, N. Y., Nov. 6, 1801, he died athishomeinBorden, Tex., Jan. n, 1874. 
In 1814, a great emigration of population took place to the westward and the Borden 
family joined it and settled in Covington, Ky. , moving afterward to Madison, Ind. 
Their son, Gail, an adventurous youth, seems to have begun life as a school teacher in 
Mississippi and to have done some surveying both for county and Federal authorities. 
In 1829, he moved on to Texas and took an active part in public affairs there, sitting as 
delegate in the convention for the separation of Texas from Mexico and making the first 
topographical map of Texas, compiled from surveys of which he had charge. Having 
been appointed to the Land Office in San Felipe, he settled in that place and in 1835 
started The Tclegrapli and Texas Land Register in company with his brother, Thomas 
H. Borden. This newspaper was transferred to Houston, in time, and enjoyed the honor 
of being the first and only newspaper in that region during the Texan war for independ- 
ence. When Texas became a republic, President Houston appointed Mr. Borden the 
first collector of the port of Galveston, and as a surveyor he laid out that city into streets 
and squares. During 1839-57, Mr. Borden acted as agent of The Galveston City Co., 
which owned several acres of land on which Galveston has since been built. These 
labors brought him some means. It was in 1849, that the needs of the emigrants, 
crossing the plains, suggested to Mr. Borden the desirability of condensed food ; and 
finally, after some experiments, he offered for sale his production of " pemmican," 
afterward made famous by use during Dr. Kane's Arctic expedition. He also invented 
the "meat biscuit," gained a medal for it at the World's Fair of 1852, and lost all his 
means in its manufacture, owing to the opposition of the army contractors. Mr. Bor- 
den then came North and after other experiments applied, in 1853, for a patent for con- 
densed milk, which was given to him in 1856. A company was formed to manufacture 
the new product, and factories were opened in Brewster's, N. Y., and Elgin, 111. Fac- 
tories were in later years started in other localities. The late War created an enormous 
demand for condensed milk, and, after some hesitation, the public of the country at 
large made use of it in ever increasing quantities. Mr. Bo'rden also produced an ex- 
tract of beef, building a factory in Borden, Tex. , to make it, condensed tea, coffee and 
cocoa, and juices of apples, grapes and other fruits. But it was the condensed milk to 
which the larger part of the great fortune he accumulated was due. 

HENRY LEE BORDEN, president of The New York Condensed Milk Co.-, Chi- 
cago, 111., was born about sixty years ago in the State of Texas, son of Gail Borden, to 
the head of whose company he succeeded upon the death of the worthy father. H. Lee 
Borden was born to wealth and position, therefore, but has developed the sturdy qual- 
ities of physique and the noble elements of character, seen more often in the children of 
adversity. Although his principal business interests are in New York, Mr. Borden 
lives in Chicago, his company operating an extensive plant at Elgin, 111. Recently, 
one shipment from his Elgin factory to San Francisco freighted an entire railway train. 

Notwithstanding his immense business, Mr. Borden appear ; to be without a care, 
philosophically enjoying life as it proceeds, full of humor and good health, rich in hope, 
diffusing cheer on every hand. He presents the best example of a happy man, not 
dependent for his enjoyment upon externals but drawing for his joy upon an unfailing 
source within. His hair is whitened somewhat, but his large, erect, muscular frame 
and elastic step indicate that age as yet has made no marked impress upon his general 


vitality. He professes to have mastered the secret of youth, health, progress and hap 
piness, and furnishes in his own personality strong evidence of the claim. The writer 
has examined, with some care, the probable sources of his enviable physical and mental 
qualities. They are, temperance, life in the open air, brain discipline to overcome the 
tendency to habitual business hurry, and the establishment of the faculty of instantane- 
ous diversion from care, and last, but not least, the practice of invariable kindness, thus 
relieving the brain entirely of the memory of painful omissions as well as commissions, 
in connection with the lives and concerns of his fellow men. The writer believes Mr. 
Borden is not known as the giver of large gifts to famous institutions of charity, but he 
is aware of many obscure and unnoted needs, which have felt in gratitude his benefac- 
tions, whose aggregate would constitute a not inconsiderable fortune. Wherever his 
footsteps stray, his kind deeds betray his whereabouts deeds done with a genuine sym- 
pathy which much enriches their value. 

Mr. Borden spends his summers in his cottage at St. Clair Springs, Mich., and there 
enjoys the mighty sweep of the clear deep river, which flows grandly before his door. 
His steam yacht, the Penelope, is the especially graceful beauty among the numerous 
private craft of the locality. Mr. Borden has ability to use wealth for his own enjoy- 
ment and that of others. The evidence of his prosperity excites no envy. He is felt 
to be the friend of his neighbors and a benefactor of the race. 

JAMES WILLIAHSON BOSLER, merchant, Carlisle, Pa., second son of Abraham 
and Eliza Herman Bosler, was born at Hoguestown, Cumberland county, Pa. , April 4, 
1833, and died Dec. 17, 1883, at his office in Carlisle. He was of German ancestry and 
several of his forbears were soldiers in the American Revolution. Educated at New 
Kingston Academy and at Dickinson College, where he took a partial course, Mr. Bosler 
entered business life as a student of law and merchantile clerk in Wheeling, W. Va. , a 
school teacher in Ohio, and a merchant in Moultrie, O. In 1856, his store having been 
burned, he removed to Sioux City, la., where he established the banking firm of Bosler 
& Hedges. Not long afterward, Mr. Bosler took a number of government contracts, 
under which he furnished large quantities of grain, cattle and other supplies for the 
Indian tribes and Western military posts. He was the organizer and president of The 
Palo Blanco Cattle Co. of New Mexico, Stephen W. Dorsey and Colonel Robert G. 
Ingersoll being associated with him in this enterprise. It was upon Mr. Bosler's own 
extensive ranches on the North Platte in Nebraska that the first co-operative system 
of "round ups" was organized. His cattle bore the B bar brand. After 1866, he 
made his home in Carlisle, Pa. He was an organizer of The Independence National 
Bank of Philadelphia and a director at the time of his death, and was also president of 
The Carlisle Manufacturing Co. and connected with The Carlisle Gas & Water Co. 

In politics, he was always prominent, at first as a Democrat, being in 1860 a dele- 
gate to the celebrated Convention at Charleston, S. C. Later, he figured largely in 
Republican politics. With Levi P. Morton, George Bliss, Jesse Seligman, A. Kuntz, 
J. A. Stewart and Charles Lanier, he became, in 1880, one of the large contributors to 
the National Finance Committee. The election of President Garfield was due to him 
as much as to any other man in the United States, the financial part of that campaign 
being organized by him, when it had begun to droop. It was also largely due to his 
influence that Benjamin Harris Brewster, a warm, personal friend, was appointed to 
the cabinet of President Arthur. James G. Elaine found Mr. Bosler one of his warmest 


supporters for the Presidency and took especial pains to attend Mr. Hosier's funeral, 
being moved to tears as he looked upon the face of his old friend. The handsome 
James W. Hosier Memorial Building, of Dickinson College, perpetuates his name. 
Active, generous, public-spirited, but unpretentious, with a boy's heart, a man's 
head, and an open hand, he was the friend alike of rich and poor, and always a 
leader, but without pretension. 

In 1860, Mr. Bosler married Miss Helen Beltzhoover, of a prominent family in 
Cumberland' county, and his surviving children are Frank C., Mary Eliza, DeWitt 
Clinton and Helen Louise Bosler. 

JONATHAN BOURNE, New Bedford, Mass., gained a fortune partly in the prin- 
cipal industry of early days at that famous seaport, namely, the operation of ships and 
the capture of whales for their oil and bone. He was born in Sandwich, Mass., March 
25, 1811, and began life in New Bedford as a merchant's clerk, afterward being 
admitted to partnership. Having made some investments in whaling ships, he sold his 
mercantile business and devoted his attention to vessel property and whaling industry. 
At one time, he was the largest owner of whaling tonnage in New Bedford, pos- 
sibly in the United States. His quaint old sailing craft brought to the wharves of the 
town many a profitable cargo. Mr. Bonner was honored with selection for various 
political offices and was active in the management of corporations. He was a promoter 
and large owner of the stock of the Bourne cotton mills in Tiverton, R. I. , where 
the plan of giving operatives a share of the profits was tried for many years. Liberal 
gifts were made by him to the town of Bourne and to other objects. In 1878, he 
became president of The Merchants' National Bank. He died Aug. 7, 1889, leaving 
his large property to his wife and family. 

JONATHAN INQERSOLL BOWDITCH, LL.D., merchant and financier, Boston, 
Mass. , was the son of a very well known man and member of a family conspicuous in 
New England for at least a century. In 1802, his father, Nathaniel Bowditch, mathe- 
matician, issued "The New American Practical Navigator, " calculated and compiled 
by himself. This was a work of immense value to sailors, sea captains and merchants 
in New England, and in successive editions in revised form it filled the place of a 
standard book of reference for years. Nathaniel Bowditch died March 16, 1838. His 
son, Jonathan, was born in Salem, Mass., Oct. 15, 1806. The kindly feeling entertained 
toward his father smoothed the entrance of young Mr. Bowditch to mercantile life, and 
after a useful experience as a clerk in Boston and supercargo of trading vessels, he set- 
tled down on shore and became a successful merchant in the India trade. When he 
retired from commercial affairs with a fortune, he accepted the presidency of The 
American Insurance Co. Later in life he became trustee of large estates. Scientific 
investigations always interested him, and he edited several editions of the " American 
Navigator," being also a fellow and for some time treasurer of The American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences. In 1849, Harvard College bestowed upon him the degree of 
A.M. and later that of Doctor of Laws. For many years, he and his brothers main- 
tained their father's collection of books as a library for public reference, and finally 
added it to The Boston Public Library, the subject of this memoir making an annual gift 
of $500 for its maintenance. Mr. Bowditch died Feb. 19, 1889, at his home in Jamaica 
Plain. By will, he gave $10,000 for the maintenance of the Bowditch collection in the 
Boston Library and the purchase of works on mathematics and astronomy, and divided 


I0 5 

$23,000 among Harvard College, the Dorchester Industrial School, the Asylum and 
Farm School for Indigent Boys and other public institutions. CHARLES P. BOW- 
DITCH, son of the latter, was born in Boston, Sept. 30, 1842, and was educated in the 
local schools. He began as manager of the William W. Wadsworth estate in the Gene- 
see Valley, N. Y., and his business life has been passed in the care of that and other 
estates as trustee and attorney. Having inherited means from his father, he invested 
them in corporations, and is president of The Pepperell Manufacturing Co. , and The 
Laconia Co., Avhich operate large cotton mills in Biddeford, Me., and is a member of 
the executive committee of The American Bell Telephone Co. He is also an owner in 
The Merrimack Manufacturing Co. , The Nashua Manufacturing Co. , The Salmon Falls 
Manufacturing Co., The American Telephone & Telegraph Co., The Jackson Co., and 
The Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Co. Mr. Bowditch is a trustee of his 
father's estate and a member of various clubs, including Union, University, Country, 
City and Harvard clubs of New York city. He was married in Lenox, Mass., June 12, 
1866, .to Cornelia Rockwell, daughter of Judge Julius Rockwell, and their children are 
Cornelia, Lucy Rockwell, Katharine Putnam and Ingersoll. 

JAHES BOYCE, capitalist, Muncie, Ind., is the only person of considerable wealth 
within the walls of the " banner city of the natural gas belt " of Indiana. Born in Bel- 
fast, Ireland, from Huguenot ancestry, April 7, 1833, and educated at the public 
schools, he began life at twelve years of age in a linen factory at almost incredibly low 
wages, better suited to India than to a civilized land, namely, 9 cents a day. Mr. Boyce 
lived on corn mush and buttermilk, of which, at any rate, he had twenty-one meals a week. 
Shortly afterward, he was taken to France to teach the art of making linen. Remain- 
ing there about four years, he came to the United States as a sailor. His life has ever 
since been one of constant endeavor, his mottoes being honesty, industry and economy. 
In Muncie, he is now senior member of James Boyce & Co. , manufacturers of baskets 
and D and long handles for shovels and spades, and the owner of large investments in 
real estate and other prosperous interests, treasurer of The Boyce Rivet Co , makers of 
rivets and machinists, and The Tappan Shoe Manufacturing Co., and president of The 
National Gas Lines Heat, Light & Power Co. , and The Citizens' Enterprise Co. Natural 
gas, of which Muncie has an abundant supply, has proved a great boon to the manu- 
facturers of that city, and factories are frequently operated to their full capacity there, 
when other cities are compelled to restrict their production. Mr. Boyce is a member 
of the Commercial club and the Real Estate Exchange, and has taken the highest 
degrees in Odd Fellowship and Masonry. 

ALEXANDER BRADLEY, manufacturer and banker, Pittsburgh, Pa., was born m 
Baltimore, Md., Oct. 31, 1812. He never knew his father, who died when the boy was 
a few months old. Going to Pittsburgh in 1827, he served as an apprentice in the iron 
concern of W. T. McClurg, and after working for one or two other concerns, became a 
partner, in 1836, in the Franklin foundry, owned by W. T. McClurg & Co. Pittsburgh, 
although already a large manufacturer of iron, did not make stoves, and, in 1845, Mr. 
Bradley with his brother Charles formed the firm of A. Bradley & Co., and entered 
upon the manufacture of stoves. Charles died in 1 848, but Alexander Bradley went on 
alone and long held the position of leading stove manufacturer of Pittsburgh toward 
the end of his active management producing 21,000 stoves a year. He has finally 
retired from that industry, leaving the business to his son. Mr. Bradley was the first 



treasurer of The National Association of Stove Manufacturers. In recent years, he has 
been known as a banker. He organized and opened the doors of The Tradesmen's 
National Bank of Pittsburgh, Dec. 31, 1864, and has managed that institution as presi- 
dent down to this date. Among other official positions held by him are those of vice 
president of The Pittsburgh Bank for Savings, and director of The Monongahela Navi- 
gation Co. and other corporations, and he has been a director of the old Trust Co., 
which became The First National Bank, The Citizens' National Bank, and long a trustee 
of Western University and Allegheny College. Sterling qualities and an. upright and 
capable character make him greatly esteemed. Among other trusts held by Mr. Brad- 
ley is that of president of the trustees of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. He is a loyal 
American, but has travelled extensively. 

DAVID OQDEN BRADLEY, banker, son of Henry Bradley, the candidate of the 
Liberty party for Governor of New York in 1846, was born in Penn Yan, N. Y., April 
27, 1827, and died in Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Feb. 16, 1895. Educated at Hamilton 
college and equipped with the degree of Master of Arts, he began business life in 
1849 as a banker and dealer in real estate in Chicago. In 1854, he removed to New 
York city, busied himself with the same occupations there, and in 1861, helped organ- 
ize the Open Board of Brokers. In 1879, he was appointed receiver of The Mutual 
Benefit Savings Bank. He organized The Tarrytown National Bank in 1882 and was 
its president continuously until his death. Mr. Bradley was a successful man and had 
various investments in real estate in New York city, Brooklyn, Auburn, Penn Yan, 
and Dobbs Ferry, his home being at the latter place. He had been a member of the 
Legislature and was president of The Dobbs Ferry Historical Society, Sleepy Hollow 
Cemetery, and the Capture of Andre Monument Association, and a leader in nearly 
every movement for the promotion of the welfare of Dobbs Ferry. He was frequently 
called to preside over public celebrations and meetings. 

NATHAN BALL BRADLEY, lumberman, Bay City, Mich., an old resident of a 
city of saw mills, saltworks, and ship yards, was born in Lee, Mass., May 28, 1831, 
and is a descendant of an early English emigrant. William Bradley, his father, a tanner, 
moved to a farm upon the Western Reserve in Ohio in 1835. Nathan attended the 
district school and a select school, and then learned a trade as an apprentice. With a 
companion, he then started upon an exploring expedition to the West, and arrived in 
Oshkosh, Wis., in October, 1849, in debt to his companion for a part of his travelling 
expenses. A saw mill gave him employment for a while, but he returned to Ohio in 
1850, and in 1852, was drawn West again by the fragrant breath of the pine woods. 
Settling in Lexington, Mich., he engaged in lumber manufacturing on a small scale, 
and, when the scanty local supply of pine was exhausted, moved to the Saginaw valley, 
which has since become famous for its vast production of white pine lumber, in quality 
the best in the world. In 1858, his operations were transferred to Bay City, where he soon 
became one of the most prominent lumbermen in the town. From the first, Mr. Brad- 
ley has exhibited a commendable pride in the city, and a wise regard for his own inter- 
ests, by contributing to the contraction of railroads to Bay City, promoting and man- 
aging the first street railroad there, and aiding in other schemes. He became a manu- 
facturer of salt soon after the discovery of brine in his section, and was one of the first 
to aid in the formation of the salt association of the Saginaw valley. A capable man 
always finds more than enough to do in this bustling world, and Mr. Bradley is identi- 


fied with banks, and has served his fellow citizens in local offices, the State Senate, and 
in Congress, 1873-77. Mr. Bradley has seen Bay City grow from a small frontier hamlet 
to a poulation of 29,000 souls, and no one has contributed to the result more than he. 
Nearly all the churches in his own vicinity and many in adjoining counties have been 
built in part through his contributions. Two sons, Elmer E. and Frederick W. Brad- 
ley, are now partners in the firm of N. B. Bradley & Sons. The firm have recently 
dismantled their old mill in Bay City, and their sawing is done by Bradley & Hurst at 
Deer Park, Mich., and by Ross, Bradley & Co., planing mill owners in West Bay City, 
in both of which firms they are interested. Mr. Bradley is the owner of bank and 
other stocks and much real estate, a partner in H. C. Wason & Co. , lumber merchants of 
Toledo, O. , a member of the Masonic order and a substantial and highly esteemed man. 

NATHANIEL LYMAN BRADLEY, manufacturer, Meriden, Conn , dwells in a city 
whose industries and the inventive genius of whose sons have caused her to take an 
exalted position among the manufacturing sections of the world. Prominently identified 
with the manufacturing interests of Connecticut and justly ranked among the leading 
and progressive citizens of New Haven county is Nathaniel L. Bradley, who possesses 
in a remarkable degree the traits of character which have made the name of New Eng- 
land synonymous with integrity and uprightness. He traces his ancestry to the Hon. 
William C. Bradley, who came from Bingley, Eng. , in 1643, aQ d was one of the early 
settlers of New Haven, Conn. Levi Bradley, his father, was born in Cheshire, 
Nov. n, 1792, and niarried Abigail Ann Atwater. Their family consisted of Emiline, 
wife of Alfred P. Curtis, of Meriden; Samuel A. Bradley of Cheshire, William L. 
Bradley of Boston, and Abby Ann, wife of Walter Hubbard of Meriden. Of the 
children, Nathaniel L. Bradley is the only surviving member. Levi Bradley was a. 
progressive farmer and a man of marked influence in his native town, whose moral 
worth made for strong and wholesome virtue in the community. His sympathies were 
decidedly Christian and in the conscientious observance of all religious duties he was 
heartily joined by the entire family circle. The advancement of the interests of the 
church found in him an earnest supporter. Although a close student of passing events, 
he gave much time also to the study of history, in which he was deeply interested to the 
close of his life. He died, March 18, 1877, honored and respected by a large circle of 
friends and acquaintances. Mrs. Levi Bradley, although now at the advanced age of 
ninety-six years, retains her mental and physical vigor in a remarkable degree. 

Nathaniel L. Bradley was born in Cheshire, Conn., Dec. 27, 1829. His boy- 
hood was passed in his native town, where the rudiments of an education were 
acquired in the district schools. He subsequently entered the old Meriden academy, 
then under the supervision of John D. Post, and graduated in 1845, Dexter R. Wright 
at that time being the principal. Mr. Bradley then entered the employment of E. B. 
M. Hughes, a hardware merchant in New Haven, and remained one year, when, at 
the request of his parents, he returned to his native town, very much to the regret of 
Mr. Hughes, and devoted himself to farm work. His ambition rose above agricul- 
tural pursuits, however, and, after remaining on the farm a short time, he began work in 
a clock factory in Southington, Conn., at a compensation of $1.25 per day. It was 
there that his eminent business ability, which has shown resplendent in later years, 
began to show itself, and the young man rose rapidly in the appreciation of his 
employers. Within a short time, he was offered a contract for making clocks in this 


factory with its capacity of 300 per day, and readily accepted it. Later, in the event 
of the great accumulation of goods, which compelled stoppage of the works, it was pro- 
posed to Mr. Bradley that he should visit New York, Philadelphia, -Baltimore and 
Washington, for the purpose of selling the goods of the company. The success of his 
venture demonstrated practically the traits of his character, illustrated his great busi- 
ness tact, and was not less gratifying to himself than to the president of the concern, 
and resulted in the dismissal of the other salesmen, Mr. Bradley being chosen not only 
the representative salesman of the company, but also elected a director. 

The year of 1852 marked the inception of the great industry in Meriden, with 
which Mr. Bradley's name has since been associated. The Bradley & Hubbard Manu- 
facturing Co., as originally organized, was composed of Nathaniel L. Bradley, William 
L. Bradley, Walter Hubbard and the Hatch brothers, the capital being $5,000. The 
business rapidly increased and two years later, more capital being an imperative neces- 
sity, the Hatch brothers disposed of their interests, and the new company of Bradley 
& Hubbard was organized, consisting of Walter Hubbard, William L. and Nathaniel 
L. Bradley. The business continued under this name until 1862, when William L. 
Bradley disposed of his interest to Nathaniel L. Bradley and Walter Hubbard. This 
co-partnership lasted until 1875, when a joint stock company was formed, bearing 
the name of The Bradley & Hubbard Manufacturing Co., and C. F. Linsley was 
admitted, then in the employ of the company. No change in the holdings of- stock or 
in the organization has occurred since that time, with the sole exception that C. P. 
Bradley, son of Nathaniel L. Bradley, has been admitted as a stockholder and director 
and is also his father's private secretary and treasurer. The present organization of 
the company is: Walter Hubbard, president; Nathaniel L. Bradley, treasurer; and 
C. F. Linsley, secretary. This company has enjoyed almost phenomenal success, and, 
from a small concern, employing only six workmen, it has grown to own and occupy an 
immense plant of brick buildings, with a floor area of nearly seven acres, employing 
about 1,500 operatives, with offices and sales rooms in New York, Boston, Chicago and 
Philadelphia. Keeping abreast of the great stride in the manufacturing world, The 
Bradley & Hubbard Manufacturing Co. has adopted the most improved machinery and 
give the closest attention to the best and most artistic class of work to be found in this 
or any other country. The highest attainments in art are made subservient to the taste 
of the trade, and each successive year denotes the greatest possible skill in intelligent 
artisanship. The products of the company have a ready and large sale, not only in the 
United States but in foreign countries. The show rooms in Meriden form one of the 
beautiful places, to which visitors to the city are taken, being a true exponent of the 
city's mechanical ability and proof of the enterprise of Messrs. Bradley & Hubbard. 
Their manufacture is in the line of chandeliers, brackets, piano lamps, banquet lamps, 
bordeaux lamps, table lamps and hanging lamps for oil in brass, bronze and wrought 
iron, all of which have the celebrated B. & H. burner. Oil stoves are also made in 
great variety. Gas and combination gas and electric fixtures are made in bronze, brass 
and wrought iron, and comprise what are conceded to be the finest goods made, both 
in artistic design and finish. Bronze statuary, bronzes, stationers' art goods, brass 
tables with onyx, brass and wrought iron and irons, fenders and fire sets, clocks in 
ornamental iron cases, taking the place of French clocks, and a variety of elegant ware 
in bronze and brass, not readily classified, are to be seen at their elaborate show rooms 


Mr. Bradley has always manifested a lively interest in all matters affecting the 
welfare of Meriden, and his period of residence there covers the most important era in 
the city's growth, during which, from a business center of 3,000 people, Meriden has 
increased to one of the leading manufacturing cities of New England, with a population 
of 30,000. Although too thoroughly engrossed in the management of large business 
interests to accept office, as often as it has been urged upon him by his fellow citizens, 
Mr. Bradley has served the city as Alderman and acting Mayor, and has exerted a strong 
influence in the improvement of the city in its physical features its streets, parks and 
cemeteries being objects of his special care. He is president of The Meriden Park Co. 
and president of The Meriden Hospital. He is also interested in various financial enter- 
prises in Meriden, which are greatly benefited by his mature judgment and clear busi- 
ness foresight. He is a director of The First National Bank, The City Savings Bank, 
The Meriden Fire Insurance Co., being also vice president of the latter, The J. D. 
Bergen Co., The Meriden Trust & Safe Deposit Co., The Meriden Horse Railroad Co., 
The Meriden Republican Publishing Co., and other financial enterprises. He is also a 
trustee of the State School for Boys, was elected, in 1896, vice president and treasurer of 
the new Meriden Board of Trade, and has ever been a liberal supporter of every public 
enterprise. He is also a member of the Sons of the American Revolution. 

Politically, Mr. Bradley is an earnest Republican. In charity and religious life, 
his influence is especially strong. He gives freely and constantly to proper objects of 
charity, and every good work has his sympathy and aid. He was among the first to 
provide liberally for the work of the Y. M. C. A. , to the erection of whose building he 
subscribed cheerfully and generously. He has been very closely related to the work 
of the First Congregational Church, of which he is a member, and gave a princely sum 
towards the erection of its handsome edifice. For nearly twenty-seven years, Mr. 
Bradley has been chairman of the committee of this society, and through all that time 
has studied and labored earnestly to build up a harmonious and prosperous fellowship. 

His financial interests are not confined alone to the city of Meriden. He is inter- 
ested in The Dunnellon Phosphate Co., near Ocala., Fla., formed, in 1890, with a paid 
in capital of 1,200,000, whose property covers an area of 30,000 acres, the shipping 
point being Fernandina, Fla. The business of the company is the mining of rock 
phosphate, which is the foundation of all phosphate fertilizers. The annual product is 
at present 75,000 tons a year, which can be increased to any amount, as the demand 
requires. The product is all marketed in London, Eng., where it finds a ready sale. 
Mr. Bradley, as capitalist, is also interested in the salt works at Warsaw, N. Y., which 
are conducted under the name of The Bradley Salt Co. The brine of the salt pro- 
duced by this company is absolutely colorless, and the Bradley Granulated Salt, which 
is made by a new patent process, is conceded to be the best in the world. The com- 
pany also makes a specialty of table salt, which, from its excellence and purity, com- 
mands a large sale. The present capacity is 5,000 barrels per day, which can be 
increased to any amount, as the demand requires. 

Oct. 25, 1860, Mr. Bradley united in marriage with Hattie E., daughter of 
Seldon and Lucy Hooker (Hart) Peck, of Kensington, Conn., and their family consists 
of one son, Clarence P. Bradley, who, as mentioned above, is associated with his father 
in business. Mrs. Bradley is a worthy helpmate, and encourages the good spirit of her 
husband by co-operation in his benevolent and religious designs Their residence is 


delightfully located on a principal street, and is one of the most beautiful in the city. 
Notwithstanding his active business life, Mr. Bradley has crossed the Atlantic six times. 

Prominent among Mr. Bradley's personal traits is his sound and discriminating 
judgment and his fearless and impartial discharge of official and private duties. He 
is a man of spotless integrity and of quick apprehension, accuracy, method and faithful- 
ness in business. These qualities make him an acknowledged leader in the commu- 
nity. Decision of character, tact and sagacity are indicated in every line of his strong, 
earnest face, and, when united with his strong physique, the picture is complete of a man 
born to achieve success in business and to command the confidence of his associates. 

W1LLIAH L. BRADLEY, manufacturer, Boston, Mass , born on a farm in Cheshire, 
Conn. , in 1 826, received a better education than most farm boys, having had the advantage 
of a year at Southingtoh academy, a year at Cheshire academy and six months at the Lan- 
casterian school in New Haven. Beginning life at thirteen as dry goods clerk in New 
Haven, he was a partner within the first six months, and at seventeen became a sales- 
man for Charles Parker of Meriden. With the consent of Mr. Parker he embarked 
in an outside venture, leaving the management to a partner, and at the end of the 
first year found himself actually $20,000 in debt. Mr. Bradley refused to com- 
promise and settled the debts in full, Mr. Parker raising his salary of $3,000 to $6,000 
and paying it for four years in advance, Mr. Bradley serving the four years without 
further compensation, maintaining himself by outside endeavors, in 1861, he removed 
to Boston, to manufacture fertilizers. He was without capital, but he presented his 
views to the late Oakes Ames, a man of penetration, always willing to help a young 
man of merit, who advanced a small amount of money, taking Mr. Bradley's notes in 
return and a verbal promise of one-fourth of the profits. Mr. Bradley at once built a 
factory in the Back Bay district of Boston, and transacted a business of $15,000 in the 
manufacture of fertilizers the first year. The business is now enormous, employing 
over 1,500 men and a capital of over $4,000,000. The original factory was outgrown 
within three years and a new one built at North Weymouth, Mass. , which formed the 
nucleus of the present immense works. In 1871, Mr. Bradley was obliged to obtain an 
extension of time, but in two years' time he had paid in full to the amount of $523,000 
with interest. In 1872, Mr. Bradley organized The Bradley Fertilizer Co. 

ANTHONY N. BRADY, financier, Albany, N. Y., born Aug. 22, 1843, in Lille, 
France, in a family which had fled from Ireland to escape political persecution, was 
brought to the United States in youth and reared in the city of Troy, N. Y. This 
brilliant operator in large corporate enterprises began life in the financial department 
of a barber shop of the Delavan House in Albany, N. Y., being, in fact, the cashier 
of the concern. By careful saving of his wages, Mr. Brady gained the money to go 
into a tea store of his own in Albany, and, in course of time, became the proprietor of 
several " China tea stores " in Albany and surrounding towns. The next step was the 
taking of contracts for the supply of granite and construction of pavements and sewers 
in Albany. These operations increased his bank account considerably. With Roswell 
P. Flower, Edward Murphy, E. C. Benedict and others, Mr. Brady then formed a 
syndicate, which obtained control of the gas companies of Albany and reorganized 
them as The Municipal Gas Co., of which he is president, and by the use of water 
gas and other improvements created a rich and flourishing corporation. Since 
then, he has operated largely in Chicago gas stocks, in the horse railroad systems o 


Albany and Troy, which have been converted into trolley lines, in the so-called 
" Huckleberry " street railroads of the northern part of New York city, the Providence 
street railroad consolidation, The Metropolitan Traction Co. of New York, and the 
Brooklyn street car systems. By consolidating independent lines into large companies, 
increasing the capital stock and imparting value to the new stock issued, he has gained 
a large fortune. Mr. Brady is a cool, incisive, energetic man, with unusual capacity 
for work. His wife was formerly Miss Marcia A. Myers, daughter of a Vermont law- 
yer, and their family comprises two boys and four girls. 

EDWARD BREITUNG, mine and land owner, Marquette, Mich., was one of the 
only two men who gained wealth from the mineral lands of that region and remained 
residents of Marquette. A native of Schaekau, Germany, in 1831, he came to Mar- 
quette in 1858, with a stock of clothing, worth about $2,000. He opened a store and 
by close attention to business, gained some surplus capital. A short time after his 
arrival, Mr. Breitung bought a half interest in a tract of land, which afterward proved 
to contain the Republic iron mine. A small investment yielded him a fortune. About 
1875, he paid 100,000 for an interest in some pine and iron lands in Vermillion county, 
Minn. , and added a large increment to his means by the sale of standing timber to 
lumbermen. Fortunate real estate investments around Marquette and Xegaunee 
brought him further wealth, and when he died in March, 1887, he was worth more than 
two millions. He left this large estate to his son, Edward N. Breitung, and his wife, 
who is now Mrs. Mary Kaufman, wife of Nathan M. Kaufman, president of The 
Marquette County Savings Bank. 

CHARLES EDWARD BRE5LER, a merchant, Detroit, Mich., is a native of Cann- 
stadt, Silesia, Germany, where he was born, Nov. 16, 1816. Receiving a little educa- 
tion in European schools, he was compelled to leave, home at an early age and work for 
his own support. The family came to the United States while Charles was young, and 
in 1841, the courts admitted him to American citizenship. It was in the fur trade of 
the Northwest that he first made his mark, and he now conducts a successful fur busi- 
ness in New York city and Detroit, with a branch in Leipzig. Investments in real 
estate in Detroit and New York city and in several banks in the United States and Ger- 
many, occupy him now to some extent. Mr. Bresler is not a club man, but belongs to 
the Masonic order. In 1861, he was united in marriage to Minnie Marshall, and their 
children are Arthur Lebel Bresler, now a general in the army of Venezuela; Rosa, 
Joseph M., Annie, Eugene A., and Amanda A. Bresler. After the death of Mrs. Bres- 
ler, he married, in 1885, Louise Krueg, and they have one child, Victor C. E. Bresler. 

GARDNER BREWER, a public spirited and successful merchant of Boston, Mass., 
was born in that city, May i, 1806, and died at his country seat in Newport, R. L, 
Sept. 30, 1874. The son of a merchant in the West India trade, and himself a distiller 
at the commencement of his career, he soon abandoned all other vocations, founded the 
firm of Gardner Brewer & Co. , and embarked in a commission dry goods business. 
Many of the largest mills in New England entrusted him with the sale of their goods, 
which he marketed both in Boston and at branch houses in New York and Philadel- 
phia. Mr. Brewer was a Republican, and greatly interested in politics and industrial 
development, and by great sagacity, energy and skill in organization gained a fortune 
of more than two millions. A liberal use of his wealth was made for public objects. 
The beautiful fountain at the angle of the Common was only one of his public gifts. In 


the great Boston fire of November, 1872, Mr. Brewer's warehouse was totally 
destroyed, but, before the end of 1873, he had replaced the building with one of greater 
size and convenience the costliest in Boston. His house was built upon the site of the 
residence of John Hancock of historic fame. The survivors of his family were his wife, 
Mrs. Mary Weld Brewer, and two daughters, Mary Elizabeth, wife of George II . 
Penniman of New York, and Caroline Abigail Brewer. Mrs. Brewer was a member of 
the Weld family of Roxbury, one of the oldest and most respected in the State, and had 
the honor to be born in the old Weld mansion, which is yet in possession of the family. 
She was a lover of fine paintings and the owner of a remarkable collection, and 
surrounded herself always with the evidences of exquisite taste. She was generous in 
charity, and when death overtook her Dec. 15, 1889, at the age of eighty-five, the poor 
of Boston lost a warm hearted and liberal friend. 

SIHON LATHAfl BREWSTER, banker, Rochester, N.-Y., borninGriswold, Conn., 
July 27, 1811, is a son of Elisha B. Brewster, a farmer. The family descend from 
Elder Brewster, of the Mayflower. Mr. Brewster gained an education in the schools 
of his native town, spent his minority on the farm, and then found employment for 
ten years as a carriage maker at Jewett City, Conn. In 1841, he removed to Rochester, 
N. Y. , and there conducted a retail and wholesale grocery trade for eighteen years, 
retiring in 1859. In 1863, he became president of what is now The Traders' National 
Bank, of Rochester, an old institution, originating in 1852 as The Eagle Bank, and 
reorganized under the national laws. Mr. Brewster has conducted the affairs of the 
institution with close attention and success to the present time, and is now probably the 
oldest president of a national bank in the State. His high character has won general 
esteem. Among his investments is a large interest in The Flower City Hotel Co. Mr. 
Brewster was married Oct. 14, 1844, to Editha Chloe Colvin, and has two children, 
Henry C. and Jane Eunice Brewster. Mr. Brewster was long a supervisor of the 
county, and is a director in The Flower City Hotel Co. The family is one of the most 
reputable and cultivated in the city of Rochester. 

PETER BRENT BRIG HAM, capitalist, was born in February, 1807, at Bakers- 
field, Vt. His father died while he was a lad, and he went to Boston on horseback, 
arriving with fourteen dollars in his pocket and no expectations, and found humble 
employment as clerk in a grocery store. He then began to sell oysters on his own 
account, at first peddling them with a wheelbarrow, and finally opened an oyster store 
on Hanover street in 1828. In 1836, he bought Concert Hall, and, in the ownership 
of a restaurant, which he conducted for forty years, met with great success. Mr. 
Brigham invested his savings in real estate, which advanced in value, and .in railroads. 
He was one of the first promoters of the Hoosac Tunnel road, president of The 
Nashua, Acton & Boston Railroad and a director in the Fitchburg road. At the time 
of his death, May 23, 1877, he had amassed a fortune of over $1,300,000, nearly all in 
real estate. Having no wife or children, he gave his property mainly to public objects. 
After about $250,000 in specific bequests to relatives and friends, including $40,000 to 
the town of Bakersfield, Vt., to be invested as a permanent fund for caring for the 
graves of his parents, brothers and sisters, and as a Brigham School Fund for education 
there, he provided that after twenty-five years, the residue of his estate should go for 
a Brigham Hospital in Boston for the indigent, thus, in the end, making a noble use of 
a fortune acquired in the most honorable manner. 


JOHN BRISBIN, corporation lawyer, born on a farm in Sherburne, Chenango 
county, N. Y., July 18, 1818, died at his home in Newark. N. J., Feb. 3, 1880. John 
worked on the farm in boyhood, attending school in the Winter, first as a pupil and then 
as a teacher. The fertile lands and growing population of the West tempted him to 
spend a little time in that section of the country, but he soon came back and settled in 
Tunkhannock, Pa., where he acted as paymaster and bookkeeper for a canal company. 
Meanwhile, he had married, and when he concluded to study law, he taught school to 
support himself, and his wife nobly aided him by giving music lessons. Mr. Brisbin 
practiced law for two years at Tunkhannock and for a while in Milwaukee, Wis. , but again 
returned to Pennsylvania, and was afterward elected to Congress from the Luzerne dis- 
trict. While conducting a case against The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Rail- 
road, in 1854, he displayed so much shrewdness and ability, that the company considered 
him too good a man to ignore, and accordingly appointed him its own assistant counsel. 
Thereupon, Mr. Brisbin removed 'to Scranton, and became superintendent and after- 
ward president of the railroad, and later general manager of the lines of The Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western Railroad. In that relation he continued until 1870. He was 
also counsel for The Delaware & Hudson Canal Co. , The Rome, Watertown & Ogdens- 
burgh Railroad, and The Lackawanna Iron& Coal Co. His services were handsomely 
remunerated. At the time of his death, he had lived in Newark about ten years. 

CHARLES ARTHUR BROADWATER, banker and business man, Helena, Mont, 
was a native of St. Charles, Mo. Born Sept. 25, 1840, he died May 24, 1892, from the 
effects of la grippe, contracted the year before in New York city. His parents were 
Charles Henry Broadwater, merchant and in early life a sea captain, and Anne Smith, 
his wife, while the American ancestors of Mr. Broadwater were Virginians of English 
and Spanish descent. Educated in St. Louis, the young man began life at sixteen as a 
strong, hard working clerk in a clothing house, and in 1860, went to Colorado, arriving 
in Montana in 1862 and taking up a variety of occupations to make a living, including 
trade with the Indians. After locating in Montana, he served as wagon master for a 
freighting concern for four years, when he purchased an interest in the business. He 
was actively engaged in the adventurous and interesting pursuit of freighting goods 
over the plains by wagon trains until 1879, and for many years supplied the United 
States military posts with provisions, etc., under contract, being post trader at Fort 
Assiniboine and Fort Maginnis for some time. He finally located in Helena, and in 
1882, founded The Montana National Bank, of which he was president. Being full of 
energy, he took an interest in a large variety of enterprises and originated numberless 
schemes for the benefit of the city and State. The Montana Central Railroad, of which 
he was the .president, was built by him, and so was Hotel Broadwater in Helena, the 
latter at a cost of 450,000. James J. Hill of St. Paul and he were partners in The San 
Coulee Coal Co., the bulk of whose coal is consumed by The Great Northern and The 
Montana Central Railroads; and Mr. Broadwater also held a large ownership in The 
Great Falls Water Power & Town Site Co., was president of banks in Great Falls, 
Livingston and Neihart, and otherwise active in affairs. Jan. 15, 1873, he married 
Julia K. Chumasero of Helena, Mont. , and his wife and two children survive him, the 
latter being Charles Chumasero and Antoinette Wilder Broadwater. Mr. Broadwater 
was a member of the Democratic National Committee and the Montana, Silver Bow 
and Rainbow clubs of Helena and the Manhattan club of New York. 


CALVIN BRONSON, manufacturer, Toledo, O. , came from a New England family 
and inherited the character of a Warwick. Scrupulously honest, reared in moderate, 
even poor circumstances, he started out early, with a limited education, prompted in 
part by differences with a step mother. It was as a manufacturer of tobacco at works 
in Centerville and Toledo, O., and as a wise manager, inspired with energy, that he 
made his fortune. His experiences with the world of business during the active part 
of his four score and six years made him careful and mistrustful. He personally man- 
aged his large estate of over $800,000 and kept his own counsel to the last day of his 
life. His will then showed that he had great solicitude for one child and his grand- 
children, to whom he left all he had gained in life, and further, to assure it to them, he 
left it in trust with a friend, one he had never been disappointed in, satisfied that his 
promise was as good as his bond. He owned a large amount of real estate in Toledo, 
and had built some of the finest and most substantial fire-proof buildings in the city. 
At his death, Jan. 18, 1892, at the age of eighty-six, "he was survived by one daughter, 
Mrs. Agatha E. Messenger, wife of Charles R. Messenger. 

ALHON BROOKS, M.D., Chicago, 111., born in Warren, O., in March, 1841, was 
educated in the public schools and left home at an early age, following the profession 
of school teacher for several years and meantime qualifying himself in preliminary 
studies for his life work. In July, 1865, he graduated from the medical department of 
the University of Virginia, and located in Memphis, Tenn. , but removed from that city 
in 1868, to establish himself in practice at the Hot Springs of Arkansas. Visitors to 
that resort testify to his extensive employment there for many years. In the full tide 
of success, he departed for his present field, the city of Chicago, led by ambition, 
regardless of seeming pecuniary sacrifice, to the center of a larger population. In 
Chicago, all of his energies have since been applied to professional work, and to this 
day, he attends to these duties with unabated interest and enthusiasm. Like many 
others, Dr. Brooks, at a period of great financial depression, invested his savings in 
Chicago real estate, and the fortunate result of his operations in that branch of practical 
enterprise, due largely to the phenomenal growth of the city, has added his name to the 
list of those who are prominent in the business world. 

CHAUNCEY BROOKS, merchant, Baltimore, Md., sprang from the farm and lived 
to become a highly prosperous resident of the leading city of Maryland. Like others 
of the prominent citizens of Baltimore, he was of New England origin, having been 
born in Burlington, Conn., Jan. 12, 1794. He died May 18, 1880, worth $3,000,000. 
In 1813, he left the roof of his father, who bore the same name as he, and made his 
way in Baltimore for a time. After 1822, Baltimore became his home permanently, 
and not long afterward he formed the firm of Booth & Brooks to engage in a wholesale 
trade in drugs. A large trade was built up with districts tributary to the city. Mr. 
Brooks had many different partners as he went along and the firm name underwent 
quite a number of changes, but Mr. Brooks was always the head of the concern. No 
greater excitements fell to his lot than those which grow out of the management of 
business undertakings, but these commanded the utmost vigor of his mind. He was a 
director in the old Savings Bank of Baltimore, and president thereof for more than 
thirty years after 1844. In 1856, he was made president of The Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad. Salt works in the Kanawha region and other forms of enterprise were pro- 
moted by him. Four sons survived him. 


HORATIO Q. BROOKS, locomotive builder, Dunkirk, N. Y., originated in Ports- 
mouth, N. H., Oct. 30, 1828, the descendant of some of the earliest pioneers of New 
England. He died at his home in Dunkirk on April 20, 1887. About 1838, his fam- 
ily, moving to Dover, N. H., let Horatio finish his school studies in that place. The 
building of The Boston & Maine Railroad through Dover powerfully interested the 
inhabitants of the town, and, so little ever happens in a small community, that then, as 
in these latter days, the arrival and departure of railroad trains were always watched 
by curious groups of idlers, young and old, and by none more eagerly than by Horatio 
G. Brooks. The lad had a natural fondness for mechanics and made the acquaintance 
of the engineers, who frequently allowed him to ride on their locomotives. At the age of 
sixteen, he went as an apprentice into the printing press factory of his cousins, Isaac & 
Seth Adams, but in 1 846 , destiny led him into more congenial work in the shops of The Bos- 
ton & Maine Railroad in Andover, Mass. But he longed for a place on an engine, and 
secured it as fireman in 1848, being promoted to be an engineer before he was twenty-one. 
In 1850, when construction of the western division of The New York & Erie Railroad 
was begun at Dunkirk, N. Y., Mr. Brooks was sent to that point in charge of a loco- 
motive from Boston, and is remembered as the pioneer locomotive engineer of that 
section. In the Fall of 1856, he moved on westward to Aurora, Ind., to take the place 
of master mechanic of The Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, but was so greatly missed 
that, in 1860, the Erie Railroad sent for him, made him master mechanic of the com- 
pany at Dunkirk, and in 1862, division superintendent and master mechanic of two 
divisions. The sound ability, good judgment and energy of the man commended him 
so strongly to the company that, in 1865, they appointed him superintendent of motive 
power of the whole road, with headquarters in New York city. When the company 
fell into financial straits, it proposed, in 1869, to close the Dunkirk shops. That gave 
Mr. Brooks the opportunity of his life. Leasing the shops on his own account and 
resigning his official position, he began business in Dunkirk, Nov. 13, 1869, under the 
name of The Brooks Locomotive Works. Hard work and the experience of previous 
years fitted him for this undertaking, and he was successful in weathering every finan- 
cial storm and in developing a large and profitable business. From one locomotive a 
month, under the impulse of his strong mind and unceasing activity, the works grew 
until they were producing about two hundred locomotives a year. In 1883, the com- 
pany bought the works back again at a fair price. Mr. Brooks was three times Mayor 
of Dunkirk and a highly respected man. The works are yet in operation, employing 
1,200 men in busy times. March 6, 1851, Mr. Brooks married Miss Julia A. Haggett, 
of North Edgecomb, Me., who survived him with three daughters. 

J1OSES BROOKS, a pioneer of Cincinnati, O., born Oct. 31, 1789, in Tioga Centre, 
N. Y. , died May 12, 1869. Of English lineage, and the son of John and Bethiah Good- 
speed Brooks, he was educated in Olean, N. Y. , and in Cincinnati. A lumber mer- 
chant in the early days, he came into the ownership of forest lands in Pennsylvania, 
whence he shipped large quantities of lumber by raft and flat boat to Cincinnati. It 
was upon a flat boat, fitted up with every possible convenience, that he took his wife, 
Lydia Ransom, whom he married Feb. 9, 1812, on her bridal trip down the Ohio river 
to Cincinnati, where the party arrived in safety after a delightful sail. As a lumber 
merchant, Mr. Brooks became prosperous, widely known and influential. But this 
business did not content him entirely, and, having studied law, he went into partnership 


with Nicholas I^pngworth, his intimate friend, in that profession, in Cincinnati, and 
was able, in 1865, after more than half a century of active labor, to retire with a 
fortune. The versatility of Mr. Brooks was quite unusual. He was a strong Republi- 
can and figured to some extent in politics, being elected at one time to the City Council, 
and took part in the management of banks and other business enterprises. He also 
wrote plays, which were acted at the theatres in Cincinnati, and on one occasion, a 
theatrical address from his pen, recited between the farce and play, by Mr. Collins, 
actor and proprietor, with taste and energy, elicited the enthusiastic applause of the 
audience, which clamored for the author's name. The occupant of a log cabin in early 
life, Mr. Brooks passed his closing years in a palatial mansion on Mount Auburn, a 
suburb of Cincinnati. His children were Ransom, Mary Ann, Angeline, Caroline, 
Eliza, Bethiah, and William Ransom Brooks. 

GEN. GEORGE S. BROWN, banker, Baltimore, Md., was for half a century the 
active head of the famous old bank of Alexander Brown & Sons. Alexander Brown, 
founder of the bank, was a native of Ballymena, Antrim county, Ireland, where he was. 
.born, Nov. 17, 1764. To him were born in Ballymena, four sons, William, George, 
John Alexander and James. The family came to America in 1800, settling in Balti- 
more, where, after a prosperous career as a linen merchant, Mr. Brown founded the 
bank of Alex. Brown & Sons, in partnership with his four sons. He died April 6, 
1834. The parent bank soon established the houses of Brown, Shipley & Co., in 
England, Brown Bro's & Co., in New York, and Brown Bro's & Co., in Philadelphia, 
and at one time conducted a larger business than the Rothschilds. 

George Brown remained in Baltimore, becoming the head of the local house and a. 
large owner in Baltimore & Ohio securities, and retired in 1838, dying Aug. 26, 1859. 

Gen. George S. Brown, son of George, took charge of the local bank. He was, 
born May 7, 1834, upon the site of the present City Hall of Baltimore. A partner in 
the bank at twenty, and the inheritor of wealth from his father, he gained a larger for- 
tune by his own ability. In 1857, he married Miss Harriet Eaton of New York. Gov- 
ernor Swann appointed him Paymaster General of the State, an example followed by 
several other governors. An active business man, General Brown engaged in many 
forms of enterprise, and, in politics, was a leader in the reform movement of 1859, which 
overthrew the " Plug Ugly " element in Baltimore, and in similar movements in 1875 
and 1889, being in the latter year chairman of the nominating committee of 100. He 
was prominent in the Presbyterian church, a manager of The House of Refuge and 
trustee of the Peabody Institute and the Blind Asylum. He was also for many years 
president of The Baltimore & Havana Steamship Co., vice president of The Canton 
Co., and director in The Union Railroad Co., The Calvert Sugar Refinery, and The 
National Mechanics' Bank. He died May 19, 1890, at his home in Baltimore. 

HENRY CORDES BROWN, contractor and financier, Denver, Colo., was born 
Nov. 18, 1820, near St. Clairsville, O. Samuel Brown, his father, a Scot by descent, 
fought at Bunker Hill in the American Revolution, bore arms also in the War of 1812, 
and died when Henry was seven years old. The boy had previously, at the age of two, 
lost his mother, a member of the Newkirk family and of German descent. At work 
on a farm near St. Clairsville, until sixteen, Henry C. Brown spent the $150 he had 
acquired by inheritance of ten acres of land from his father, upon a year's tuition at 
Brooks Seminary. He then learned the carpenter's trade and during 1844-52 worked 


partly with his brother, Isaac H. Brown, a prominent builder and contractor in St. 
Louis, Mo., and in part for himself, and in 1852, crossed the plains to California with 
an ox team, the trip from St. Joseph, Mo., consuming one hundred and ten days. 
Building operations in Placerville, Cala., Portland, Or., and Olympia, Wash., and a 
lumber business at the mouth of the Whatcom river, occupied him for a while, and he 
then sailed for San Francisco, where he built under contract a number of cottages, 
houses and fine business buildings, including General Sherman's fire-proof bank. 
General Sherman and he were warm friends. While in St. Louis, Mr. Brown had 
received $1.50 per day for his services, but in San Francisco earned $10 a day. 

The panic of 1854 cost Mr. Brown the $50,000 he had then saved, but by building 
labors in Oroville, Lynchburg and Marysville, Cala., he soon saved $6,000, and in 
December, 1857, sailed for Callao, Peru, and there engaged in a commission and ship 
chandlery business. The country did not suit him over well, and coming home via 
Hampton Roads, he reached St. Louis in May, 1858, and in the construction of a hotel 
at a point sixty miles above Omaha, lost all his money again, the owners not keeping 
their contract. Reaching St. Louis with sixty cents in his pocket, fifty of which went 
for a breakfast and the other ten for an apple, Mr. Brown resumed his trade there and 
at Decatur, 111., and in 1860, arrived in Denver, the possessor of $2,500. In Denver 
he ever afterward remained, growing rich by building contracts and operations in lands 
and mines. In the Spring of 1864, he took up a homestead claim of one hundred and 
sixty acres, at $2. 50 per acre. The property is now worth millions. He was one of the 
builders of the Denver street railroad, and built and owned Brown's Palace Hotel, 
which cost $1,600,000. Among his other properties are four hundred acres of mineral 
land in Gilpin county, Colo. ; two hundred acres in Pueblo, Colo. , eighty acres lying in 
the heart of the present city; mines in Summit, Boulder and El Paso counties and the 
Cripple Creek region, and much other realty. April 16, 1875, Mr. Brown gave ten 
acres for a site for the Capitol of Colorado. So large and valuable were his holdings 
that the taxes upon his real estate now amount to more than $350,000 a year. 

In August, 1859, Mr. Brown married Miss Jane Thompson, who died in San Diego, 
Cala., Feb. n, 1893. May 2, 1895, he married Miss Mary Matthews. His children 
are James H. Brown, lawyer; Caroline M., wife of R. T. Cassell; and Sherman Brown. 

HENRY FRANCIS BROWN, financier, Minneapolis, Minn., is another American, 
who shouldered the burden of his- own support early in life and with no capital, other 
than brains and a little public school education, has made his mark. Born in Baldwin, 
Me., Oct. 10, 1838, son of Cyrus S. and Mary Burnham Brown, and confronted with 
toil from the start, he worked on the home farm, taught school, and at the age of sev- 
enteen, went West to resume farming and later to become a lumberman. A farmer, 
however, he is to the present day, but now solely for recreation. As a manufacturer 
of lumber in Minneapolis, he has in recent years displayed so much energy and ability, 
that he has amassed a fortune with the entire good-will and respect of the community. 
Savings have been in part invested in real estate, which has greatly advanced in value 
in spite of the recent hard times, and in part in corporate enterprises ; and Mr. Brown 
is now president of The Union National Bank, vice president of The Minneapolis Trust 
Co., and president of The Minneapolis Land & Investment Co., the latter being an 
important enterprise, with $1,500,000 capital and owning about seventy-five houses, 
stores and factories, with street railways and other plant. Mr. Brown owns much of 


the stock of The North American Telegraph Co., and is connected with The Minne- 
apolis Street Railway Co., and is a member of the Minneapolis club. Upon his farm 
ranges the finest herd of Short Horn cattle, it is believed, in the world at this time, 
which won more laurels at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago than any other there. 
Mr. Brown was married July 19, 1865, in Saco, Me., to Susan H. Fairfield. 

JOHN BROWN, long known in Boston as the "West End millionaire," was a 
native of Waltham, Mass., the date of his birth being Feb. 18, 1811. While his name 
was not remarkable in any way, the man himself was. He could trace his lineage as 
far back as 1373 in England, and it is recorded that his ancestor came to America from 
Swan Hall in Hawkedon. This shrewd, hard headed and energetic being had a mod- 
erate education in Waltham and began life as a farmer. Fortune smiled upon him for 
the first time when he became a provisions merchant on Beacon Hill in Boston. Aris- 
tocratic families make'their homes in this neighborhood and Mr. Brown had Lhe wisdom 
to turn the fact to account. He kept the choicest of goods and charged the highest of 
prices, his patrons paying him what he asked in order to assure themselves of being 
well served. From this business, he retired worth about $50,000. Serving then as one 
of the Assessors of Boston for a period of eighteen years, he evolved into one of the best 
judges of real estate in the community and operated in that class of property to 
some extent. Investments in the copper mines of Lake Superior and loans of money 
increased his means, which were added to by a profitable interest in The Boston Water 
Power Co., The Quincy, The Franklin, and The Pewabic Mining Go's and The Metro- 
politan Steamship Co. Mr. Brown once sat in the Legislature of the State. By his 
marriage with Isabella Brown of Boston, Feb. 12, 1834, he had two children, Isabella 
and John Edward Brown. He died Aug. 16, 1893. 

JOHN BUNDY BROWN, an influential and public spirited citizen of Maine, born 
May 31, 1805, in Lancaster, N. H., died at his home in Portland, Me., Jan. 10, 1881. 
The son of Titus Olcott Brown, farmer and manufacturer, and Susannah Bundy, 
his wife, he sprang from old American and Puritan stock, tracing his lineage to 
Thomas Brown, one of the first settlers of Lynn, Mass., in 1631, presumably an 
Englishman, and John Bundy of Plymouth, Mass., in 1630, who- is believed to have 
immigrated from Holland or Belgium. Mr. Brown inherited sterling traits of charac- 
ter and in a loving home circle grew into a promising manhood. A college education 
was denied him, but he learned much that the public schools and Hebron Academy had 
to teach, and by subsequent observation and reflection became a remarkably well 
informed man. Owing to loss of property by his father, young Mr. Brown felt obliged 
to earn his own living at an early period, and at twenty entered a trader's store in Port- 
land. An alert mind, strong common sense and abounding physical vigor, guaranteed 
his progress and he soon became the partner of St. John Smith in a prosperous grocery 
business. In 1845, Mr. Brown built a sugar manufactory in Portland, for which he 
imported molasses direct from the West Indies, and engaged in foreign commerce. 

The bank of J. B. Brown & Sons was founded by the subject of this memoir, and 
a great variety of enterprises in Maine and elsewhere came in part under his energetic 
management. He was one of the original corporators of The Atlantic & St. Lawrence 
Railroad, now merged in the Grand Trunk system, a director and for many years and 
until his death its president. He was also a director of The Maine Central Railroad 
and a power in its affairs, director of The Portland, Saco & Portsmouth Railroad and. 


for a brief period, of The New York, Lake Erie & Western, one of the promoters and 
largest stockholders of The Toledo, Peoria & Warsaw Railroad, and a director of 
corporations in Portland, including The Portland Co., The Rolling Mill Co., The Kero- 
sene Oil Co., The Glass Co. and The Maine Steamship Co., and The First National 
Bank, as well as president of The Portland Savings Bank. The Board of Trade made 
Mr. Brown its first president and he was president of Maine General Hospital, a man- 
ager of The Portland Benevolent Society, and a trustee of Bowdoin college, in which 
institution he founded a scholarship in memory of his son, James Olcott Brown. 

In politics, Mr. Brown had little part. Originally a Whig, he was prominent in 
the organization of the Republican party in Maine, and was elected to the Maine Senate 
in 1856 and a Presidential Elector in 1860, but otherwise never held office, although a 
staunch Republican. He belonged to the Union League club of New York city. 

The family of Mr. Brown consisted of his wife, Ann Matilda, daughter of Capt 
Philip Greely, whom he married Sept. 30, 1830, and five children, Philip Henry, who 
died Oct. 25, 1893; Matilda; James Olcott, also deceased; Brig. Gen. John Marshall 
Brown, and Ellen Greely, married to William Henry Clifford, son of Justice Nathan 
Clifford, of the United States Supreme Court. Mr. Brown was a generous, strong, 
kindly natured man, simple in manners, devoted to his family and absolutely without 
reproach in all relations in life. 

JOHN CARTER BROWN, merchant and manufacturer, was a member of one of 
the most powerful families in Rhode Island. Born in Providence, Aug. 28, 1797, he 
died there June 10, 1874. 

Nicholas Brown, his father (April 4, 1769-Sept. 27, 1841), descended from Chadd 
Brown, a Baptist minister, who fled from persecution in Massachusetts, and was sub- 
sequently associated with William Wickenden in pastoral labors. In 1781, Nicholas 
Brown inherited means from his father, Nicholas, one of four famous brothers, 
and, with his brother-in-law, Thomas P. Ives, founded the famous firm of Brown & 
Ives, which is yet in existence and has the highest mercantile credit in New England. 
This house originally engaged in shipping and the foreign trade, but withdrew from 
the sea during the decadence of American maritime interests and invested its capital, 
at the right moment, in cotton factories and other industries in New England, and is 
now wholly occupied with these interests. It was in honor of Nicholas Brown and in 
recognition of his gifts, amounting nearly to $100,000, that Rhode Island college 
changed its name to Brown university. He afterward gave two buildings to the 

John Carter Brown graduated from Brown University in 1816, and became the 
partner of his father in time to obtain a thorough acquaintance with affairs, before the 
responsibilities of management fell upon him. It was during his time that the mari- 
time and commercial ventures of the firm were abandoned. The industrial prosperity 
of Rhode Island was greatly promoted by his investments, and he was part owner of 
several cotton factories and interested in other industries. In politics, Mr. Brown was 
a Republican, but he shunned notoriety and never cared for public office. Like his 
father, he promoted the interests of Brown university, and gave in all $160,000, and 
was a liberal patron also of art and literature. Although actively engaged in business, 
he maintained an interest in literary matters and collected a fine library of Americana, 
considered at the time the most complete in the world. On several occasions, eminent 



historians in Europe availed themselves of his courtesy to peruse valuable books in this 
collection. He was a trustee of Brown university, 1828-42, and a fellow, 1842-74. A 
full account of this family is given in " The Early History of Brown University." 

Mr. Brown was a man of noble character, clear judgment and sound physique, and 
by his regular habits and open air exercise, retained his activity and clearness of mind 

until the last. 

JOSEPH EMERSON BROWN, lawyer and public man, Atlanta, Ga., illustrated 
anew, in his remarkable career, the old adage, that " honor and fame from no condi- 
tions rise." Vigorous in temperament and determined in mind, he made his way from 
small beginnings to the highest stations in the gift of the people of his State and died a 
man of fortune. Born into an humble home in Pickens county, S. C., April 15, 1821, 
he spanned the age referred to by the Psalmist and died in Atlanta, Nov. 30, 1894. 
When he was a lad of fifteen, his family moved to Union county, Ga. , travelling in an 
oxcart, and "Joe," as he was popularly called to the end of his life, marched along bare- 
foot. The young man received only a rudimentary education, but he was endowed 
with brains, and men of this stamp succeed with or without schooling. In Georgia, 
Mr. Brown began life as backwoods school teacher and became a lawyer in Canton in 
1845. He afterward received a course at the Yale Law School. Plain in manners 
but of great natural force and sterling common sense, he soon gained a large practice 
and his personal popularity led to his election to the State Senate in 1849. In 1852, he 
was a Presidential elector on the Pierce ticket, and in 1855, was elected judge of the 
Superior Court on the Blue. Ridge circuit. It is an interesting fact, that Mr. Brown 
never met defeat at any popular election. 

In 1857, after an animated canvass, he became Governor of the State by over 
10,000 majority. He was successively re-elected by increased majorities in 1859, 1861 
and 1863, and during the Civil War supported secession and the Confederate govern- 
ment with determined energy, although opposed to the conscription act. During that 
long struggle, he was noted for his vigor in supplying men and means to carry on the 
War. In 1864, he refused to make terms with General Sherman, denying that he had 
authority to do so, and Secretary Stanton immured him in military prison at Washing- 
ton. President Johnson liberated him on parole, however. After release, he returned 
to Georgia and resigned the office of Governor. 

Governor Brown always thought for himself, and was one of the first men in the South 
to perceive that the "lost cause " was actually lost, and to begin repairing the ravages 
of war. During the contest over reconstruction, he made a personal visit to Washing- 
ton to ascertain the true situation of affairs. By invitation of a number of citizens 
who had been his loyal supporters during the War, he then published a letter, in which 
he advised the people of Georgia to accept the situation, comply with the terms of 
reconstruction, and secure representation in Congress as soon as possible sound doc- 
trine but in advance of the times. The majority of his people denounced him bitterly. 
Many old friends deserted him. But he knew that he was right, and in after years 
opinion reacted strongly in his favor. For a time, as an expression of courageous con- 
viction, he acted with the Republican party. In 1868, he was appointed Chief Justice 
of Georgia, but he resigned to engage in business enterprises. In 1870, the South had 
begun to awaken from the stunning disaster of the War and Governor Brown threw 
himself into the development of its material resources. Southern railroads, iron and 


coal properties, and Atlanta real estate each received his attention. In 1871, he became 
the president of The Western & Atlantic Railroad and proved so capable that he was 
afterward made president of The Southern Railway & Steamship Association. He 
was also president of The Dade Coal Co. 

Having finally returned to the Democratic party, Governor Brown was, in 1880, 
appointed United States Senator to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Gen- 
eral Gordon, and was twice elected his own successor. In the Senate, he displayed the 
same rugged strength of character and aggressive and dauntless nature as in Georgia. 

In the '505, Governor Brown married the daughter of the Rev. Mr. Gresham, a 
Baptist preacher. Julius L. Brown, one of his six children, is now a prominent lawyer. 

SAflUEL RITTER BROWN, financier, Omaha, Neb., never borrowed or owed 
a dollar in his life and received nothing by inheritance. What he accomplished, he did 
alone. Born in Mount Vernon, O., May 22, 1823, the son of Richard M. Brown, a 
soldier of 1812, and grandson of Samuel Brown, a soldier in the American Revolution, 
he entered his father's store as a clerk and, in 1849, joined the emigration to California. 
While others died in the gold diggings or gave it up and went home, Mr Brown perse- 
vered, made a little headway, carried on banking for a time in Colorado and Montana, 
and, in 1856, settled down in Omaha, Neb., where he engaged in trading, the loaning 
of money, and the shipment of goods by wagon across the plains. Mr. Brown firmly 
believed that the little old muddy town of Omaha would become an important city, 
especially after the railroad reached there, and he bought much real estate, which he 
improved and leased, and which advanced in value to half a million. His principal 
properties were at the corner of Farnam and Fourteenth streets, and Capitol avenue 
and Fifteenth street. Refusing public office, his life was one of ceaseless but peaceful 
industry. He died Jan. 29, 1893, survived by his wife, Clematina, his son, Samuel A. 
Brown, and his daughter, Mrs. Almira C. Millard. 

CAPT. SAnUEL SniTH BROWN, Pittsburgh, Pa., son of the late William 
Huey Brown, was born Dec. 15, 1842, in Pitt township, now a part of the city of 
Pittsburgh. He studied at different normal schools and at Jefferson college in 
Canonsburg, Pa. ; and then enlisted in the Union Army as a member of the Tenth 
Pa. Reserves, serving through the early part of the War in the Army of the Potomac. 
Leaving the field, he then took charge of the handling of coal and hay at Memphis, 
Tenn., for the Federal government at the time of the beginning of Grant's campaign 
against Vicksburg, but was finally compelled by malarial fever to relinquish this post 
Returning to Pittsburg, he identified himself with his father's large coal mining and 
shipping operations. Captain Brown is now the owner of valuable coal lands, a mem- 
ber of the firm of W. H. Brown's Sons, coal miners, and Brown & Cochran, coke 
manufacturers; stockholder in The Pittsburgh Coal Co., The Ohio Valley Coal & Min- 
ing Co., The Ohio Valley Railway, The Homestead & Pittsburgh Bridge Co., and The 
Electric Mining Machine Co., owner in many lines of steamboats on the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers, and lessee of the Monongahela House, the leading hotel in Pittsburgh. 
Political office he has never held, save only that of member of the Select Council, from 
the Twenty-third Ward of Pittsburgh twice. - Business matters absorb his attention. 
He belongs to the Manhattan club of New York, Pendennis club of Louisville, Ten- 
nessee club of Memphis, and Americus club of Pittsburgh, all the Masonic orders 
up to the thirty-second degree, Scottish Rite, and the Order of Elks. 


TALLMADQE ERASTUS BROWN, lawyer, who died at his home in Des Moines,. 
la., May 2, 1891, was born in the rural town of Pharsalia, Chenango county, N. Y., 
Oct. 4, 1830, and grew to manhood during the period when the star of empire was push- 
ing its way westward with especial speed. Of good old Massachusetts stock by 
descent, his parents gave him a sound education in Oxford and Preston, N. Y. , and 
the young man then made his way by school teaching until admitted to the bar at the 
age of twenty-three in Elmira, N. Y. In 1854, he settled in Des Moines, la., his 
entire fortune then consisting of a few law books. Mr. Brown practiced the arduous 
profession of the law successfully for eight years, and then engaged in real estate oper- 
ations with great profit. Later, he filled a number of street paving contracts in Mem- 
phis and other cities. He was married Sept. 13, 1856, to Anna L. Marsh of Des 
Moines, and his children are Frank T., Caroline L., Tallmadge E., and Louis P. 

WILLIAH HUEY BROWN, coal operator and manufacturer, Pittsburgh, Pa., born 
in Armstrong county, Pa., June 15, 1815, died Oct. 12, 1875, in Philadelphia. He was 
of honest but humble origin, being a son of James Brown, a farmer of Scotch-Irish 
descent, and rose to wealth and influence, simply by utilizing the homely every day 
opportunities, which were close at hand. With an education sufficient to lift him out 
of the ranks of the unlettered, he began life on the farm. Learning to manage horses, 
he became a teamster at the coal mines and then a coal miner, later a boatman on the 
canal which shipped the coal to market, and finally, by saving every dollar he could 
from his earnings, a merchant of coal on a small scale in Pittsburgh. In this occupa- 
tion, he made enough money to buy a part interest in a coal mine in that part of the 
country, and in 1 848, started to operate a colliery and make coke for local furnaces. 
In 1858, Mr. Brown became a pioneer in the shipment of coal to cities along the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers, in flat boats towed by river steamers, and he gradually acquired 
large interests in steamboats and barges. During the war, the Federal government 
awarded to Captain Brown, as he was called, large contracts for supplying coal at Cairo 
and Memphis, and he found profitable buyers also in the gas works in St. Louis. 
Captain Brown developed into a bold, untiring, and practical man, and rose to the head 
of the coal trade with New Orleans and the lower Mississippi. Unsparing toil brought 
him a large fortune, which he invested in iron works, blast furnaces, iron mines and 
various other Pennsylvania enterprises. He was united in marriage in 1839 to Mary 
Smith, a good woman of English ancestry, and had six children, Samuel Smith Brown; 
Mrs. Elizabeth B. Ward; Capt. Jomes H. Brown, now deceased; Alice B., wife of 
James M. Schoonmaker; Charles S. and W. Harry Brown. 

FELIX R. BRUNOT, business man and philanthropist, Pittsburgh, Pa., was born 
Feb. 7, 1820, at the United States Arsenal, Newport, Ky., where his father, .Col. 
Hilary Brunot, U. S. A., was temporarily stationed. He entered Jefferson college at 
Canonsburg, Pa., when fourteen years of age, graduated at seventeen, and engaged in 
civil engineering with W. Milnor Roberts until 1842. Moving to Rock Island, 111., he 
then carried on a milling business and managed a store at Camden on the Rock river. 
Good returns rewarded these efforts, and in 1847, Mr. Brunot returned to Pittsburgh 
with a comfortable fortune, a portion of which he invested in the steel works of Singer, 
Hartmann & Co., founded in 1848, and the first large factory of its class in the city. 
The firm reorganized in 1859, as Singer, Nimick & Co., Ld. Mr. Brunot has always 
maintained his connection with the firm, who are among the most successful in Pitts- 


burgh. His fortune has grown steadily, and he is now a director or trustee in The 
Bank of Pittsburgh, The Monongahela Navigation Co., The Pittsburgh Safe Deposit 
Co. and The Allegheny Cemetery Association, and is connected with other industries. 

Middle life found Mr. Brunot a man of wealth, and he projected, founded and 
for many years served as president of the Mercantile Library of Pittsburgh, and 
is yet one of the managers of the Library Hall of Pittsburgh, which originated with 
him. A commission of high rank was offered him in the Civil War, but he refused it, 
and devoted himself as a volunteer to the cause of the sick and wounded. After the 
bloody battle of Shiloh, he organized a volunteer relief expedition and a corps of 
nurses and surgeons, fitted up two steamboats, and hastened to Pittsburgh Landing. 
He brought nearly four hundred sick and wounded back to Pittsburgh, and after recov- 
ering from severe illness contracted in the service, returned to the front Early in 
1862, the Pittsburgh Relief Committee placed him in charge of a corps which, while 
engaged in work at Savage Station, was left behind by the Union forces. The Confed- 
erates captured them, allowed them to continue at work for about a week, and then 
sent the whole party to Libby Prison. Eight days later, Mr. Brunot was allowed to go 
to Washington to negotiate an exchange of himself and two companions for three prom- 
inent Southerners. The negotiations failed, and, bound by his word of honor, Mr. 
Brunot returned to captivity. He was shortly afterward exchanged, however, and 
during the remainder of the War devoted himself to his chosen work. Shattered in 
health, he visited Europe after the War to recuperate. 

Mr. Brunot has also been active in promoting the welfare of the Indian tribes. 
President Grant appointed him, in 1868, chairman of the Board of Indian Commission- 
ers, whose hard labor, protracted travel and careful investigations ended in a greatly 
improved management of the Indian Bureau. He has always retained a strong 
interest in the welfare of the Indians, and done much efficient work in their behalf. 
The Western Pennsylvania Hospital, The General Hospital of Allegheny and The 
Western University have also enlisted his interest, and he has been a trustee of each, 
and has long served as warden of St. Andrew's Protestant Episcopal Church. 

CHARLES FRANCIS BRUSH, Ph. D., electrician, Cleveland, O., is the son of a 
prosperous farmer of Euclid, Cuyahoga county, O., and was born March 17, 1849. 
His maternal ancestor, the Rev. George Phillips, a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land, arrived in Boston in 1630, while his father's ancestor, Thomas Brush, a farmer, 
came from England in 1652 and located on Long Island, N. Y. The future inventor 
spent his boyhood on the farm. Many incidents are recollected of his early liking, 
while at school, for mechanics and electricity and his efforts at the construction of a 
telescope, batteries, magnets and induction coils. After attendance at the High School 
in Cleveland, 1864-67, and graduation from Michigan university in 1869 a year ahead 
of his class, he engaged in analytical chemistry and metallurgy in Cleveland for three 
years. During 1873-77, he engaged in the pig iron and iron ore business as a mer- 
chant, in partnership with C. E. Bingham. 

Having meanwhile made a study of electric lighting and perfected a successful 
dynamo in 1876, he arranged with The Telegraph Supply Co., of Cleveland, to produce 
an entire system of arc lighting, and retired from the iron business in 1877, to devote 
himself to the work. A place was set apart for him in the factory for experiments ; 
and, in a few months' time, he had finished a practical dynamo and other appliances 


and exhibited them before the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, carrying off the 
highest honors. The Brush system was a success from the start. The Telegraph 
Supply Co. took charge, under contract, of the introduction of the system into popular 
use, and Mr. Brush went on with his inventions. In 1880, The Anglo-American Brush 
Electric Light Corporation, Ld., came into existence in England, and bought Mr. 
Brush's earlier inventions for use in foreign countries, in return for cash and stock, 
which eventually brought mm half a million. A new concern took charge of matters 
in this country in 1881, called The Brush Electric Co., composed mainly of the stock- 
holders of the former Telegraph Supply Co. The Brush lighting system was then 
introduced rapidly into factories, villages and cities throughout the United States and 
in England, and for many years a large and important business was conducted in the 
manufacture of apparatus and the sale of territorial franchises. Up to 1890, the net 
profits were more than $2,000,000. The company was also the pioneer in electric rail- 
roads and built the first experimental line in Cleveland. In 1890, the company was 
sold to The Thomson-Houston Electric Co., for $3,000,000 cash, and later merged with 
The General Electric Co. of New York. Mr. Brush is a large owner in the General 
Electric and in several other large corporations. Among his inventions are the 
series arc lamp, having a shunt circuit of high resistance, which made lighting from 
central stations practicable ; copper-plated carbons, the automatic cut out for arc lights, 
the compound series shunt winding for dynamos, the multiple carbon arc lamp, and the 
fundamental storage battery. Fierce litigation has taken place over some of these 
inventions, but Dr. Brush's patents have been, as a rule, fully sustained. 

Dr. Brush is now president of The Euclid Avenue National Bank of Cleveland, but 
finds time to continue his experiments and studies of the fascinating science, in which 
he has gained fame and fortune. He received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 

1 880, from the Western Reserve university, and is a fellow of The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers and The American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and since 

1881, has been a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor of France. 

'Oct. 6, 1875, Dr. Brush married Miss Mary E. Morris, of Cleveland, and their 
two daughters are Edna and Helene. Their home on Euclid avenue is illuminated 
with about 400 incandescent lights, operated by a windmill, designed by Dr. Brush, the 
wheel forty-five feet in diameter and the largest in existence. 

EDflUND A. BRUSH, capitalist, born in January, 1803, in Detroit, Mich., in which 
city he passed his life, died July 10, 1877. One of his lineal ancestors, a Vermonter, 
enjoys the distinction of having been the first American over the ramparts at the battle 
of Bennington. Having gained a moderate amount of capital in business pursuits, Mr. 
Brush bought, in the early days of Detroit, a strip of land which is now covered by the 
choicest residences in town. The evolution of Detroit into a commercial and manu- 
facturing emporium of 210,000 inhabitants, enormously enhanced the value of this 
property, and at his death Mr. Brush possessed the most valuable land estate in Detroit, 
excepting possibly that of the late Gen. Lewis Cass. In 1877, it was considered worth 
about $2,000,000 and has increased in value since. The property descended to his son, 
Alfred E. Brush, and his grand daughter, Elizabeth M. Thompson, now Mrs. Henry 
Le Grand Cannon, of New York city, daughter of the Hon. William G. and Adelaide 
Brush Thompson. ALFRED ERSKINE BRUSH, lawyer, born in Detroit, Feb. 14, 1850, 
graduated from the University of Michigan in 1872, studied law and was admitted to 


the bar. He married Isabel Rowena Hunt, of Toledo, O., April 7, 1878, and has two- 
children, Virginia Eloise and Alfred Erskine Brush. The management and improve- 
ment of his father's large estate give him ample employment. The Hotel Ste. Claire, the 
Lyceum Theatre and Detroit Driving Club are properties in which he is largely inter- 
ested, as well as The Michigan Peninsular Car Co. Mr. Brush has been elected to 
membership in various clubs, including the Republican, Manhattan and Sigma Phi, of 
New York city, and the Detroit, Yonatega, and St. Clair Flats, of Detroit, and the 
Toronto Shooting & Fishing club. 

EBENEZER BUCKINGHAM, banker, Chicago, 111., son of Ebenezer and Eunice 
Hale Buckingham, was born Jan. 16, 1829, at Zanesville, O. He graduated from Yale 
College in the class of 1848, and removed to Chicago in 1859. In 1866, with his. 
brother, John, he bought the grain elevators in Chicago connected with The Illinois 
Central Railroad, and continued in that business twenty-five years. After the death of 
George Sturges in 1890, he was elected president of The Northwestern National Bank,, 
and is also president of The Traders' Insurance Co. Mr. Buckingham is of New Eng- 
land descent, and his father was prominent in the early settlement of Ohio, removing- 
there in 1798. In 1853, he was married at Zanesville to Lucy Sturges, who died in 
1889. Their three children are all living. 

EDWARD BUCKLEY, lumberman, Manistee, Mich., a native of Devonshire, Eng- 
land, and born Aug. 8, 1842, springs from the yeoman class of England, which owns. 
and tills its own land. His family sought the opportunities of the new world while 
Edward was a lad, locating in Milwaukee, Wis., where the youth received his education. 

At the age of fourteen, Edward Buckley started to learn the trade of a tinsmith, 
but was diverted therefrom in 1862 by the call to arms to save the Union. Enlisting in 
the 24th Wis. Inf. , he served gallantly until the end of the War, taking part in the 
engagements of Chapton Hills, Murfreesborough and Chickamauga, and the several 
battles of the Atlanta campaign, as well as the actions at Franklin and Nashville. He 
survived the perils of the field and returned to his tools in Milwaukee. After two years 
of hard work and close economy, he had saved enough money to open a small hardware 
store in Manistee, Mich., and first displayed his sign there in 1867. In this trade, he 
was busily occupied until about 1875, when he became identified with lumbering inter- 
ests; and in 1880, William Douglas and he formed the firm of Buckley & Douglas,, 
to carry on a general lumber business. Shrewd, thoroughly practical and full of energy, 
the partners soon developed a large industry, which they incorporated Dec. 31, 1892, as. 
The Buckley & Douglas Lumber Co. , with the senior partner as president and treas- 
urer. By investment of savings from time to time, Mr. Buckley has now come to own 
and control large tracts of pine and other timber lands in Michigan and Minnesota, and 
is thus able to obtain his own independent supply of logs. He owns a controlling inter- 
est in the steam barge Edward Buckley, one of the most capacious and best equipped in. 
the lumber trade of the Lakes, and is president and general manager of The Manistee 
& North Eastern Railroad. 

Mr. Buckley's success is due to good character, incessant application and sound 
judgment, coupled with the opportunities which America affords for a man of energy. 
In social life, he has also risen to prominence, being president of The Unitarian 
Church Society, the Olympian club, and The Manistee Driving Park Association, and 
a member of high rank in the Masonic fraternity, belonging to all the local lodges, and 


being past Eminent Commander of the Manistee Knights Templar and a member of 
the Grand Rapids Consistory. He was married in 1869 to Mary D. Ruggles, of Manis- 
tee, who, after a suffering illness of several years, died in New York city in. 1885, with- 
out children. In March, 1894, Mr. Buckley was married to Miss Joannie Sloan, a lady 
of Southern descent, in Thomasville, Ga. Although a Republican in political faith, 
and identified with the work of the party in various capacities, he has always declined 
public office, being too greatly absorbed in practical pursuits. 

WILLIAH BUCKNELL, son of William and Sarah Walker Bucknell, born near 
Marcus Hook, Delaware county, Pa., April i, 1811, died March 5, 1890, at his home in 
Philadelphia, Pa. The father was a Lincolnshire farmer and carpenter and among the 
early settlers of Delaware county. The early instruction of the son took place in a 
country school. Learning the trade of a wood carver and being industrious, temperate 
and frugal, young Bucknell acquired some small savings and set himself up in his 
business, and, be it noted, from the first earnings and in accordance with a principle 
practiced through life, he set apart a percentage for benevolent and religious purposes. 

After his first marriage, Mr. Bucknell found real estate transactions more conge- 
nial and profitable than a trade, and by purchases of suburban lands, the erection of 
buildings and other successful enterprise in this field he rapidly acquired capital. 
Next, he took contracts for constructing gas and water works in various cities of the 
country and made a great deal of money by accepting stock in part payment. His 
plans proved generally profitable, his foresight, excellence of selection of executives, 
punctuality, rigid caution and judgment being notable. In later years, brokerage busi- 
ness in Philadelphia, dealings in securities, and improvements of real estate occupied 
him, and he pushed on with unfaltering will to a large fortune. He held a large own- 
ership in The Cleveland & Pittsburgh Railroad, The Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
road, The United Railroads of New Jersey, and various coal and iron mines, among 
other properties. Mr. Bucknell held no political office, joined no clubs and connected 
himself with no corporations except as his contracts required ; and his church relations 
and their kindred societies comprised most of his social associations. His gifts for 
humane, religious and other purposes were numerous and diversified and made on prin- 
ciple, and included, it is said, $140,000 to the university of Lewisburg, now called the 
Bucknell university; over $525,000 for missions and churches of the Baptist denomina- 
tion; $50,000 for the payment of church debts, and $52,000 for more than twenty sets 
of church libraries. He established the Rangoon Mission in India, aided in the erec- 
tion of the Baptist Publication House in Philadelphia, and for several years paid the 
expenses of ten missionaries in India. Mr. Bucknell gave a million to public objects. 

In 1836, he married Miss Harriet, daughter of the Rev. William E. Ashton; in 
1839, Miss Margaret, daughter of John P. Crozer, and on her death, Miss Emma, 
daughter of the Rev. William Ward, D.D. Seven children survived him, among them 
Mrs. James H. Little, Mrs. Craig Lippincott and Mrs. Henry S. Hopper. 

SlflON BOLIVAR BUCKNER, one of the bravest officers of the late Confederacy, 
a Major General and later Governor of Kentucky, is a man of fine appearance, and the 
descendant of an old family, which bore a part in the American Revolution. He was 
born in Kentucky in 1823, and graduated from the U. S. Military Academy in 1844. 
Entering the 2d U. S. Inf., he was from August, 1845, until May, 1846, assistant professor 
of ethics at West Point. During the Mexican war, personal gallantry at Contreras and 


Churubusco, where he was wounded, made him a first lieutenant, and heroic courage at 
Molino del Rey, made him a captain. In August, 1848, he was appointed assistant 
instructor of infantry tactics at West Point, but resigned March 25, 1855, to become 
superintendent of construction of the Chicago custom house. The same year, a regi- 
ment of volunteers enlisted in Illinois for the Utah expedition, Simon B. Buckner, 
Colonel, but was not mustered into the service. 

When the storm of Civil War swept over the land, Colonel Buckner had become a prac- 
ticing lawyer, but he promptly cast his lot with his native State and was made Adjutant 
General and Commander of the State Guard of Kentucky. Sept. 12, 1861, he issued 
from Russellville an address, calling upon the people of Kentucky to take up arms, and 
then occupied Bowling Green with his troops. He aided to defend Fort Henry, and 
when the fort was abandoned withdrew to Fort Donelson, where he commanded a 
brigade in the battles Feb. 13 to 15, 1862. General Buckner behaved with great gal- 
lantry upon this occasion, but being abandoned by Generals Pillow and Floyd was 
obliged to surrender the fort, Feb. i6th, to General Grant. He was held as a prisoner 
of war at Fort Warren, Boston, until exchanged in August, 1862. He subsequently 
commanded the first division of General Hardee's corps in the army of General Bragg, 
in Tennessee, and when promoted to be a Major General and assigned to the third 
grand division, took part in the battles of Murfreesborough and Chickamauga. General 
Buckner was elected Governor of Kentucky in 1887 and was honored with re-election. 
He was one of the pall bearers at the funeral of Gen. U. S. Grant. 

The first wife of General Buckner was a daughter of Major Kingsbury, U. S. A. , who 
gained a fortune in California in the early days and invested it in Chicago in business 
buildings. This fortune descended through Mrs. Buckner to the General. At the 
beginning of the Civil War, fearing confiscation of the property, General Buckner 
transferred it to a brother-in-law for safety. The latter dying, reconveyed the property 
by an oral will to its proper owner. After the War, the General improved his prop- 
erty and sold a part of it for half a million dollars. He now lives at Rio in a beautiful 
region in Hart county, in the enjoyment of ease and the cordial esteem of his fellow 
citizens. The Sons of the American Revolution made him, at one time, president of 
their Kentucky society and vice president general of the National society. 

CHRISTIAN HENRY BUHL, manufacturer, a native of Zelienople, Butler county, 
Pa., May 9, 1810, died at his home in Detroit, Mich., Jan. 23, 1894. The son of Chris- 
tian and Fredericka Goehring Buhl, emigrants from Germany, the subject of this 
memoir learned the art of hat making in Pittsburgh, Pa. , and then went to Chicago ; 
but, as Chicago was small and unpromising at that time, he journeyed on to Detroit, 
arriving there May 30, 1833. Buying a small hat store, Mr. Buhl spent twenty years 
in its management, and then dealt in furs until 1855, when these interests were laid 
aside for a wholesale hardware and iron trade. In this line, always enterprising, 
he soon became especially prosperous, his firm becoming finally known as Buhl, Sons 
& Co. The manufacture of iron and tinware was also undertaken by him in The 
Detroit Stamping Co. , the factory now occupying an entire square and itself a valuable 
piece of property. Mr. Buhl also owned The Sharon Iron Works and The Brookfield 
Coal Co. of Sharon, Pa. , and a large interest in The Detroit Copper & Brass Rolling 
Mill. One of the first to move in the formation of national banks in Detroit, Mr. Buhl 
was, for years, president of The Second National Bank, founded by himself. Several 


railroads were built by him. His success was due to determined labor, a marked 
capacity for organization, high character, and fidelity to every duty. In political faith 
a Republican, the people of Detroit once elected him, as such, Mayor of the city. He 
belonged to the Michigan, Detroit, and Fishing & Shooting clubs. Aug. 10, 1843, 
he married Caroline O. DeLong, in Utica, N. Y., and was the father of Frank H., 
Helen Ida, Caroline O. and Mary Louise Buhl. THEODORE D. BUHL, born in Detroit, 
Aug. 20, 1844, received a thorough education at home and in New Haven, Conn., 
and went at once into the hardware store of his father. With his father's interests 
he has ever since been connected, being now senior partner in Buhl, Sons & Co. , presi- 
dent of The Michigan Malleable Iron Co. and The Buhl Stamping Co., treasurer of 
The Sharon Iron Co. , and connected with The Detroit National Bank and The Detroit 
Copper & Brass Rolling Mill. Mr. Buhl was one of the organizers of The Peninsular 
Car Co. and its president the first four years. Married in Detroit, April 22, 1868, to 
Julia E. Walker, he is the father of Christian Henry, Theodore D., Willis E., Arthur 
H., Frank H., Edgar H., Lawrence D., and Mary C. Buhl. His clubs are the Detroit, 
Riding & Driving and Fishing & Shooting. 

LORENZO BULL, a prominent business man of Quincy, 111. , began life with noth- 
ing except ambition, an active mind and excellent common sense. By diligent labor in 
modest positions, he slowly acquired the first $1,000 of his fortune, which is the hard- 
est of all to secure, and then, by close attention to mercantile business and- later by 
banking, he gradually attained a strong position. With the best interests of Quincy he 
has always been identified, and, jointly with his son, is now proprietor of The Quincy 
Water Works. He is also president of The State Savings, Loan & Trust Co. Mr. 
Bull was born in Hartford, Conn., March 21, 1819, and removed to Quincy, then a vil- 
lage, May 15, 1833. 

JOHN CHRISTIAN BULLITT, lawyer, Philadelphia, Pa., born in Jefferson county, 
Ky., Feb. 10, 1824, traces his ancestry back through a line of conspicuous men to 
Benjamin Bullitt, a Huguenot, who emigrated to Maryland in colonial times to escape 
religious persecution in Languedoc, France. The Bullitt family has contributed many 
men from its ranks to the bench of Virginia and other positions in the public service. 
It was Capt. Thomas Bullitt who laid out the city of Louisville. The son of the latter, 
Alexander S. Bullitt, married a niece of Patrick Henry and occupied an estate of 1,000 
acres of land near Louisville. The father of John C. Bullitt was William C. , and his 
mother, Mildred Ann, daughter of Joshua Fry, a prominent figure in Virginia colonial 
history. John C. Bullitt, owner of the ancestral estate of Oxmoor, graduated from 
Center College in Danville, Ky. , first in his class at the age of eighteen. After a three 
years' course in the University of Lexington, he was admitted to the bar in 1845 and 
practiced in Clarksville, Tenn., and Louisville, Ky. , for a number of years. In 1849, 
the desire for a larger field drew him to Philadelphia, and he has since risen to emi- 
nence in that city. At one time, he was senior member in the legal firm of Bullitt & 
Fairhouse. He is an authority on commercial and railroad law, and has been employed 
by estates, banks and large corporations in many important and difficult cases. The 
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad owes the success of its first reorganization largely to 
his wise counsel as legal adviser, and his management of the affairs of Jay Cooke & Co. , 
after their failure in 1873, his untiring and well directed labors and the confidence gen- 
erally reposed in his judgment and character, resulted in an unexpectedly satisfactory 


settlement of the claims against the bank. After eight years of labor, ending in 1886, 
he secured a reversal of verdict in the case of Gen. Fitz John Porter, and he shared in 
framing an excellent new charter for the city of Philadelphia. The law has brought 
him wealth, and he is now a director in The Fourth National Bank, one of the owners 
of the Bullitt office building, and the holder of other valuable realty. His wife, Theresa 
Langhorne, died in 1881, survived by seven children. 

HENRY BURDEN, manufacturer, and inventor, Troy, N. Y., was a remarkable 
being, whose originality gave to the world mechanical devices of novelty and value, 
and whose foresight of the possibilities of ocean navigation stamped him as a man of 
prophetic vision. Born in Dumblane, Scotland, April 20, 1791, he removed to America 
in 1819, and after a life of stirring activity died in Troy, Jan. 19, 1871. 

The son of a farmer, he made with his own hands a threshing machine and other 
labor saving farm machinery while in Scotland, and spent a few years in erecting grist 
mills and manufacturing farm tools. After a course in engineering and drafting in 
Edinburgh, he sailed for America with letters to Senators Benton and Calhoun and the 
Hon. Stephen Van Rensselaer, settled in Albany, and began the manufacture of farm 
implements. Without delay, he produced a new and improved plow and, in 1820, 
patented the first cultivator ever used in America, and, in 1822, removed to Troy, to 
take charge of an iron and nail factory there, and finally became sole proprietor. 

After much labor, Mr. Burden invented a machine for making wrought iron 
spikes, which up to that time had been hammered out by hand, received a patent May 
26, 1825, and in succeeding years made and sold enormous quantities of the spikes. 
His patent for the making of wrought counter sunk railroad spikes for the flat rails 
then in use, is dated Dec. 2, 1834. During the Winter of 1834-35, Mr. Burden visited 
England. Learning that flat rails were to be superseded, he returned and recon- 
structed his machine so as to make hook headed spikes, and, in 1836, he supplied 
The Long Island Railroad with ten tons of them. The patent was taken out in 1840. 
For another machine to make horse shoes, Mr. Burden obtained a patent in 1835, 
improved upon it in 1843, and perfected it in 1857. This was one of his greatest suc- 
cesses, and was patented in every part of Europe. One of his achievements was the 
building of what Louis Gaylord Clark called "the Niagara of Water Wheels." Five 
ordinary water wheels could not supply the power his nail factory demanded, and Mr. 
Burden accordingly constructed an overshot wheel of 1,200 horsepower, 60 feet in 
diameter, 22 feet wide, with 36 buckets each 6 feet deep. Cast iron tubes composed 
the axis, and 264 iron rods, 2 inches thick, the spokes. His rotary concentric squeezer, 
patented in 1840, is now in general use. In consequence of these inventions, the iron 
works gradually grew into a large establishment, of which Mr. Burden became sole 
proprietor in 1848, conducting it thereafter under the name of Henry Burden & Sons. 

Mr. Burden was one of the organizers of The Hudson River Steamboat Co. and 
thought much on the subject of the speed of steam vessels. In 1825, he laid before the 
Steamboat Association of Troy certain plans as to proportions of hulls, which were 
afterward carried out in the Hendrick Hudson, a splendid steamer in its day, making an 
average of twenty miles an hour. Later, he built the Helen, named after his wife, 
which rested on two cigar-shaped hulls, 300 feet long, having a 30-foot paddle wheel 
amidships. This was a fanciful sort of craft, but the trial trip took place Dec. 4, 1833, 
and in July, 1834, the boat made eighteen miles an hour, demonstrating his prophecy. 


Patents were secured for improvements in 1837. Mr. Burden favored iron plates for 
sea going vessels and sent some plates to Glasgow for examination, and was the first 
advocate of long ships for ocean navigation. In 1846, he issued a remarkable docu- 
ment, entitled "Prospectus of Burden's Atlantic Steam Ferry Company. Managing 
Director, H. Burden. Engineers, L. Gordon and L. Hill, Jun'r." The company was 
never organized but the modern transatlantic lines have all adopted his ideas. Owing 
to its value as an historical document, the Prospectus is presented here in full: 

Considering the vast and increasing population on both sides of the Atlantic, the extent of their mercantile transactions with each 
other, and the enormous sums which are annually spent on both continents in perfecting the land communication, it becomes a most 
important object to improve the present comparatively defective means of passing the Atlantic ocean. 

The benefits that would accrue not only to this country, the United States, and the Canadas, but to the whole continents of Europe 
and America, if the voyage, still so tedious, uncomfortable and expensive, was rendered at once safe, expeditious, comfortable and 
cheap, are too apparent to require illustration. 

That those who could guarantee these results would reap a splendid return there can be little doubt, and of this, the rapid and 
profitable increase of railway business is a forcible illustration. 

The present Atlantic steamers, magnificent though they be, are as inferior in their results to what they may become as a well 
appointed stage coach is to a railway train. 

How this desired improvement is to be accomplished may at first appear no easy matter, but in, reality, it is a problem already 
solved. The wonder is that so rich a field should have lain so long neglected, when the means of insuring so splendid a harvest, are 
so much within our reach. All experience in steam navigation shows that increase of size and power has been invariably attended 
with increase of speed, economy and comfort. 

Witness the successive and gradual advance from the first boat on the Clyde to the last built ships of The Transatlantic Com- 
pany. Compare the performance of Henry Bell's little 40 foot boat with the present Liverpool steamers, which now make the trips 
from Glasgow to Liverpool in little more than double the time that the Comet made her voyage to Greenock, or compare the laborious 
efforts of the earlier Hudson River Steamers, when the time required was 30 to 40 hours from New York to Albany compare these 
with last summer's performances of the steamer Hendrick Hudson, which daily carried 300 or 400 passengers between- these places, a 
distance of 150 miles in 7^ hours, and that with all the comforts of a first class hotel for 60. 

The present company propose to carry out the suggestion of our countryman, Henry Burden, of Troy, U. S., to whose skill and 
foresight the present speed of the Hudson River Navigation is mainly owing (he having laid before the Troy Steamboat Association so 
early as 1825, and then strongly urged the adoption of the identical propositions which have now been successfully carried out in the 
steamer Hendrik Hudson}, and to establish boats of power, dimensions and strength sufficient to make the passage from Liverpool to 
New York in 8 days certain so adapted for their purpose, in fact, as Auspice Deo to defy the wind and the waves. The first vessel 
will be about 500 feet long. The strength requisite for such a length can be fully obtained without detracting much from the vessel's 
tonnage, and as it is now known that the height and force of the waves is limited, it is obvious that the strength of a vessel may be so 
increased as to render the largest waves perfectly harmless. 

This is proposed only as the beginning of a system which must ultimately be carried much farther. The Great Britain Steamship 
is 322 feet long, and those who have seen her are only amazed at the lightness of her framing. Those who have sailed in her, testify 
that the "pitching" even with her length is very much reduced. That her speed is not proportional to her size, is owing to some 
imperfection of her form and defective system of propulsion. 

That the passage will be made in the time proposed, or probably in less, there can be little doubt, when it is stated that the propor- 
tion of horse power to tonnage will be nearly double that of the usual allowance, and such an engine, with boiler of the requisite capac- 
ity, can be erected without encroaching on more of the ship's tonnage than is the present proportion. 

The cost of equipment, etc., of such a vessel will be about 120,000, put it is proposed to make the capital .150,000. That such 
expenditure would be amply remunerative, there can be little doubt. Experience proves that traffic increases in proportion to the pop- 
ulation of the districts accommodated, and inversely as the time and price of transit. There are millions on each side of the proposed 
ferry (for ferry it will ere long became) and in this point of view the traffic will be illimitable. From New York to Liverpool is clearly 
the line of communication, and a glance at the maps show the innumerable feeders to the one grand trunk. Boats of the dimensions 
proposed would carry from 400 to 500 passengers with infinitely greater comfort than the vessels hitherto established, and as their regu- 
larity may be guaranteed, the returns shown in the following statement may be confidently relied on ; 

One boat two trips per month : 

400 Passengers at ^15 6,000 o o 

1,300 tons Light goods at 5 6,000 o o 

12,000 8 o 
Expenses per trip including outlay at 10 per cent, on capital, 1,000 Tons of Coals : 

Shore and other Expenses j% o^ 

Aside for Surplus Fund 

1,000 o o 


,8,000 o o 

Twenty-four trips per year is 192,000 or upwards of 120 per cent, on the proposed capital. Without taking into account Letters, 
Parcels, or Steerage passengers, one or two hundred of whom can be also accommodated. 
9th January, 1846. 


At his death, the works in Troy with their blast furnaces, Bessemer steel works, 
Tolling mills and great variety of machinery ranked among the largest plants in the 
world. Mr. Burden used his large fortune liberally in the cause of philanthropy. 

JAMES ABERCROMBIE BURDEN, of Troy, N. Y., born in that city in 1833, is 
a son of the late Henry Burden, manufacturer, inventor and founder of The Troy Iron 
Works. Mr. Burden's first years of special study were passed under a tutor until fitted 
for the Yale Scientific School, and he closed his course of education at the Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute. With the ending of student days, came the application of 
knowledge acquired and the beginning of business life. Mr. Burden had a happy 
inheritance of inventive skill and when he entered the iron works at Troy, as a practi- 
cal engineer and millwright, he secured the position of foreman of one of the depart- 
ments. Ability and firmness of purpose brought one promotion after another, until he 
was finally made president of the company. 

The cares of administration in this vast concern did not keep Mr. Burden from 
putting into effect ideas of his own ; and he obtained eighteen patents, connected with 
iron manufacturing, one of the most important being a machine for making horse and 
mule shoes, by which he increased the power of the elder Burden's machine to the 
extent of ten shoes per minute, seventy shoes being thereafter the number turned out 
every sixty seconds. Mr. Burden was first president of the Engineer's club of New 
York, and is president of the Farmer's club and The Hudson River Iron & Ore Co. 
and vice president of Mining Engineers, to which office he has been re-elected several 
times. He is also a member of The Society of Civil Engineers and The American 
Institute of Mining Engineers, as well as of several scientific societies of Great Britain, 
and a director in various banking institutions and railroads. He has been twice chosen 
Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket. 

Mr. Burden's social relationships are of a high grade, he being a member of the 
Union League, Metropolitan, Union, and Gentlemen's Riding clubs of Xew York city. 
He is endowed with warmth of manner and kindliness of temperament and is 
approachable, courteous, and well fitted for the position he holds in finance and society. 

STEVENSON BURKE, railroad president, Cleveland, O., was born in St Lawrence 
county, N. Y., Nov. 26, 1826. Choosing for his life work one of the most arduous of 
professions, he began life in 1848 in the practice of the law in Elyria, O. In fugitive 
slave days, Mr. Burke appeared, on one occasion, as counsel for several residents of 
Oberlin, who had rescued from the sheriff's officers a colored man escaping from Ken- 
tucky. The case went against the young lawyer at first, but he finally won by arrest- 
ing the Kentuckian pursuers and securing their indictment for kidnapping. This 
strategy caused a discontinuance of proceedings and the slave escaped. In "1862, Mr. 
Burke was elected as Judge of Common Pleas, but he retired in 1869 and removed to 
Cleveland, O. . where he rapidly rose to prominence. 

His specialty was corporation and constitutional law, and through railroad cases he 
gradually became interested in railroad management. In 1870, he accepted the place 
of general counsel for The Cleveland & Mahoning Valley Railroad, became a director 
of the company, and in 1880 was elected president, a position he has occupied to the 
present time. During 187581, he served as general counsel and a director in The 
Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis Railroad with so much ability, that 
the stockholders elected him vice president in 1881 and president in 1886. In the 


law suits which grew out of the reorganization of The- Atlantic & Great Western Rail- 
way, he served as attorney for The Erie Railroad, and, with Chief Justice Waite, as one 
of the arbitrators to adjust the differences between the two companies. The New York 
Central Railroad Co. employed him as its agent in negotiating for the purchase of The 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, popularly known as the "Nickel Plate." 
In 1884, Judge Burke made a famous argument in the famous Butzman and Mueller 
case against the constitutionality of the Scott liquor law. 

Growing prosperity enabled Judge Burke to purchase an interest in many roads, 
and he speedily became a director and officer in several. He is to-day president of The 
Cleveland & Mahoning Valley, The Toledo & Ohio Central, The Toledo, Columbus 
& Cincinnati, The Kanawha & Michigan, and The Central Ontario Railways and has 
been an officer of The Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad. Having invested in the 
coal lands of the Hocking valley, he bought for the owners of those lands in June, 1881, 
the three coal carrying railroads of that region, and in 1885, The Ohio Central Railroad. 
He is an excellent judge of railroad properties, and his negotiations have all been 
exceedingly successful. Judge Burke's investments have not been confined to rail- 
roads and coal. He is president of The Canadian Copper Co., which operates mines at 
Sudbury, Ont., and is also interested in various manufactures in Cleveland, in nickel 
mines, The Hollander Hotel Co. and other enterprises. 

HENRY GORDON BURLEIQH, merchant and public man, Whitehall, N. Y., is a 
son of Gordon Burleigh and was born in Canaan, N. H., June 2, 1832. His family is 
of English descent, and was planted in America by four brothers who came to this 
country in 1640, and settled respectively in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode 
Island and Maine. It is from Giles Burleigh, the brother who settled in New Hamp- 
shire, that the subject of this sketch is descended. 

The future Congressman received his education in the common schools of Concord, 
N. H., and removed to Ticonderoga in 1845, engaging in mercantile business there. 
In 1866, he removed to Whitehall, of which city he has been a resident ever since. A 
very wide awake, earnest and energetic man, alert to the opportunities of his part of the 
State and always ready to engage in any promising enterprise, he has been success- 
fully occupied until the present time with lumber, iron ore, coal, and transportation 
business at Whitehall, and also has large business interests at Ticonderoga. 

Washington county sends its best men into public life if they will go, and Mr. 
Burleigh represented the county in the Assembly in 1876 and was Chairman of the 
Committee on Canals. In 1882, he was elected to the 48th Congress from the Wash- 
ington- Rensselaer district and was re-elected in 1884. 'He has always been a Repub- 
lican, was secretary of the first Republican convention in Northern New York in 1855, 
and a delegate to the National Republican Convention in 1884, which nominated Mr. 
Elaine. It was Mr. Burleigh who moved to make the nomination of Mr. Elaine unani- 
mous at the request of President Arthur. He was also a delegate to the National Con- 
vention at Minneapolis in 1892, which nominated Benjamin Harrison the second time. 

Mr. Burleigh is president of The Old National Bank of Whitehall and of The First 
National Bank of Ticonderoga and a member of the Republican club of New York city. 

was better known in Boston as Perry Burnham. Mr. Burnham was born in Ipswich, 
Mass., Jan. 27, 1814, went to Boston in youth and became in time, in the firm 


founded by B. M. Burnham, a noted merchant of antique books, while at the same 
time conducting the sale of modern books. He was known to every book collector 
in New England, and enjoyed an intimate acquaintance with a large circle of literary 
men. Always gracious in manner, he was nevertheless a shrewd merchant, able 
to judge of the value of any volume with astonishing quickness. Edward Everett 
came to him, one day, with a book taken from Mr. Burnham's shelves, which, not hav- 
ing been supposed to possess special value, had been privately marked for sale at 
twenty-five cents. Mr. Everett's face betrayed the eagerness of a collector, and his 
judgment of the value of old books being well known, Mr. Burnham, who saw the 
truth at a glance, calmly charged him $3.75 for the volume, merchant and client part- 
ing both well satisfied. Mr. Burnham attended all sales of libraries in Boston, and 
rarely failed to attend an auction in New York city. His judgment was so sound that 
buyers from different parts of the country followed him more closely than any other 
man, with two or three exceptions. Mr. Burnham gained a fortune in trade and grad- 
ually became a large owner of real estate. Among his possessions was a building next 
to the Parker House, which the proprietors of the latter desired to incorporate with the 
hotel. Mr. Burnham was a strong temperance man, and, after many refusals, finally 
sold the building, upon the express condition that it should never be used for the sale 
of liquor. The old bookseller died, Nov. 13, 1891, at his home on Beacon street, Bos- 
ton, willing the bulk of his fortune to The Masssachusetts General Hospital. 

FRANCIS BURNS, head of an influential family in Baltimore, Md., was born in 
County Antrim, Ireland, April n, 1792, and died in Baltimore, Dec. 28, 1879. His 
father brought the family to America in 1 798, and engaged in brick making in Phila- 
delphia. Francis learned the business and, in 1818, opened a yard of his own in Balti- 
more, carrying on the trade with success until 1860, when he retired a man of large 
means. By investment in the securities of The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, he profited 
largely; and he was a director in The Eutaw Savings Bank and The Western Bank 
and connected with other financial undertakings. William F. Burns, his son, is now 
one of the prominent business men of the city, and has been a director and, during 
the illness of Robert Garrett, president of The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, as well as 
president of The People's Gas Co., and is president of The Eutaw Savings Bank, and 
vice president of The Western National Bank. 

ASAHEL BUSH, merchant and banker, Salem, Or., son of the late Asahel and 
Sally Noble Bush, was born in Westfield, Mass., June 4, 1824. The father was a 
prominent man, frequently chosen to public office, and the homestead in which young 
Asahel first saw the light of day has been in the possession of the family for more 
than a century and a half. The lad attended the village academy, and at fifteen years 
of age lost his father by death. Three years were spent in learning and practicing the 
printer's art in Saratoga Springs, N. Y. , and later he followed the trade in Albany. 
Returning to his native town, he read law, was admitted to the bar in Springfield in 
1850 and accepted election to the office of town clerk, resigning it, however, to go to 
Oregon, then a Territory. In this then distant region, settled largely by emigrants 
from New York State, Mr. Bush soon made himself at home. In December, 1850, he 
was chosen chief clerk of the House of Representatives at Oregon City, and next be- 
came Territorial (afterward State) Printer of Oregon. In March, 1851, he began the pub- 
lication of The Oregon Statesman in Salem, an influential newspaper of the early days and 


yet in existence. In 1861, the Government appointed him one of the Board of Visitors 
to West Point. While very zealous and prosperous in business pursuits, it was as silent 
partner in the mercantile firm of Heath & Co., in Salem, and after 1868 as resident 
manager of the private bank of Ladd & Bush, founded by William S. Ladd of Portland 
and himself, that he gained his fortune. Mr. Ladd retired in 1883, and the bank has 
since been entirely in the hands of Mr. Bush and his son, Asahel N. Bush, and one of 
the most successful institutions in the Northwest. Mr. Bush is now one of the most 
extensive land proprietors in the country, owning also some valuable real estate in 
Salem. He is connected with banks in Portland, Seattle and Tacoma, is controlling 
owner of The First National Bank of Salem, and has a large interest in mills in Oregon City 
and Portland. Married near Salem, in 1854, to Miss Eugenia Zieber, he is the father 
of four children, Estelle, Asahel N. , Sally and Eugenia. Mr. Bush is a Democrat, 
and in 1878, was made Superintendent of the State Penitentiary in Salem. He was 
chairman of his party's State Committee in 1888, and a delegate to Chicago in 1892, 
has been the .candidate of the Democrats for United States Senator, and is now a 
Regent of the State University. 

GEN. ASA SfllTH BUSHNELL, manufacturer, Springfield, O., now Governor 
of Ohio, descends from Holland stock and is a grandson of Jason Bushnell, a soldier 
of the American Revolution and son of Daniel Bushnell, farmer and for more than 
thirty years a school teacher. Governor Bushnell was born at Canterbury Hill, near 
Rome, N.Y., Sept. 16, 1834, and went with the family to Cincinnati, O., in 1845, where 
he attended school for two years. While the paternal farm gave him occupation for a 
time, he went to the city of Springfield, in 1851, without means, and began life as clerk 
in a dry goods store, at $5 a week and board, and later served Leffell, Cook & Blake- 
ney,water wheel manufacturers, as bookkeeper for three years. In September, 1857, Dr. 
John Ludlow, his father-in-law, gave him employment in a drug store, which he left 
in May, 1864, to go out to the Shenandoah valley for four months as Captain of Co. E, 
i52d Ohio Inf. Returning then to the drug store, he left mercantile business alto- 
gether in 1867, to enter the Lagonda Agricultural Works of Warder, Mitchell & Co., 
with which concern and its successors he has ever since been connected. Having 
bought a small interest soon after joining the works, he has increased his share since 
that time, and of The Warder, Bushnell & Glessner Co., as the concern is now named, 
he has been president since 1886. Champion mowers and binders are manufactured 
by the company, and the factory is one of the largest industries in Springfield, cover- 
ing over sixty acres of ground and employing more than one thousand workmen. In 
1886, Mr. Bushnell was appointed Quartermaster General of Ohio for four years, on 
the staff of Governor Foraker. He is now president of The First National Bank and 
The Springfield Gas Light & Coke Co., a member of the Masonic order in the 32d 
degree, and otherwise prominent in social and public affairs. In 1857, he married 
Ellen Ludlow, and their children are Fannie, wife of John F. McGrew, Harriet E., wife 
of Henry C. Dimond and John Ludlow Bushnell. In 1895, the Republicans elected 
General Bushnell, Governor of Ohio by the overwhelming plurality 92, 138. 

GEN. BENJAHIN F. BUTLER, Lowell, Mass., lawyer, soldier and statesman, was 
less generally known as a business man, but is entitled to the credit of marked success 
in that field. Born in Deerfield, N. H., Nov. 5, 1818, he died in Washington, D. C., 
Jan. ii, 1893. The son of Capt. John Butler, who served under Jackson at New 


Orleans, he came to Lowell, Mass., a poor boy, sturdy in build, rugged in health and 
determined to succeed Through his own exertions, he gained admittance to Water- 
ville college in Maine and graduated in 1838. Thereupon he studied law, began prac- 
tice in Lowell in 1841, and, while not making a specialty of the highest class of cases, 
developed a large and profitable practice in Lowell and Boston, largely in the field of 
criminal law. By careful investment of his large receipts in real estate and manufac- 
turing enterprises, he succeeded in accumulating a fortune of about $3,000,000. 

General Butler was always fond of public affairs, the hurly burly of politics having 
strong attractions for his bold and combative nature. He sat in both branches of the 
Massachusetts Legislature before the Civil War, and in 1860, attended the Charleston 
convention as a delegate. When the War broke out, as Brigadier General of Massa- 
chusetts militia, he marched to the front in April, 1861, and led his command to the 
rescue of Washington. May 16, 1861, he was commissioned Major General and served 
until December, 1864, taking a conspicuous but not always successful part in many 
famous campaigns. 

Elected in 1866, a Member of Congress, he sat in the House of Representatives 
(saving 187577) until 1879, taking part in many stormy debates. General Butler was 
an ardent Republican in his earlier years and one of the most noted and effective 
orators of the party in campaigns. Later, he became an advocate of a large issue of 
United States greenbacks and, being thus at variance with his party, gradually became 
a Democrat. He was elected Governor of Massachusetts in 1882, for one year, and was 
defeated for re-election, and, in 1884, nominated for President by the Greenback party. 
After retiring from a public career, he resumed the practice of la\v and manage 1 many 
important suits. In 1821, he married Sarah, daughter of Dr. Israel Hildreth, of 
Lowell. Mrs. Butler left the dramatic stage to become his wife. She died April 8, 
1876. Two children survive them, Paul Butler, now treasurer of The United States 
Cartridge Co. , and Mrs. Blanche Butler Ames, wife of the Hon. Adelbert Ames. 

FRANCIS CLARKE BUTflAN, merchant, was one of the leading shipowners in 
the foreign trade of Salem, a city which at one time rivalled Boston in importance as a 
commercial center. He was born in New Orleans, May 26, 1819, son of a shipmaster, 
sailing in the employment of Joseph Peabody, of Salem. The boy was trained to the 
shipping business in the office of Michael Shepard, of Salem, and spent several years 
as commercial agent for leading firms in Para, Pernambuco and Buenos Ayres, ship- 
ping, buying and selling many cargoes of goods. Thereafter, for a time, Edward B. 
Kimball, of Salem, and ex-Mayor Cobb, of Boston, engaged in mercantile ventures in 
the foreign trade with Mr. Bertram, making large profits. During the latter part of 
his life, he traded with Sierra Leone, the Cape Verde Islands and the gold coast of 
Africa, owning three or four vessels and chartering others. At the time of death, the 
bark Jennie Cushman and the brig Lucy Snow were yet sailing in that trade. Mr. 
Butman exhibited the bluff, positive, brusque manners of a shipmaster in business 
affairs, but in private life the geniality and accessibility of a warmhearted, pleasant 
man. In the Board of Trade of Salem, the members valued him for his wide knowl- 
edge and incisive methods. Perseverance, incessant enterprise and cool good judg- 
ment were the secrets of his success. His opinion was always valued, and the people 
made him a member of the Common Council in 1866-68 and of the Board of Aldermen 
in 1869. An active spirit in creating the Wenham water supply, it was due to his good 


financial management that the first water loan was successfully negotiated, and the city 
saved a large amount of money. Mr. Butman died in Salem, May 23, 1891, leaving a 
fortune and an honorable name to his sons, Francis R. and Henry C. Butman and five 
daughters. His wife (Abby Church) had preceded him to the other world, Oct. 
27, 1887. 

FRANCIS BUTTRICK, merchant, Waltham, Mass., was born in Pepperell in the 
same State, Jan. 20, 1814, and died in Waltham, Oct. 8, 1894. He was a son of Francis 
Buttrick, a carpenter, and of Puritan ancestry. Educated in the schools at Concord, 
Mass., he began business life as a carpenter and builder and, in 1857, invested his hard 
won savings in a lumber yard in Waltham. He was a good merchant, made his way 
rapidly, and continued in the business until 1889. Then, he invested largely in real 
estate. Mr. Buttrick "was a Selectman of the town for many years, in order that he 
might promote the welfare of the community. At one time a director of The Waltham 
National Bank, he was president of The Waltham Co-operative Bank at his decease. 
Upon his death, he gave to the city of Waltham $60,000 for a public library; $10,000 
to The First Universalist Society; $10,000 to the city of Waltham for a poor fund, and 
$25,000 for other purposes. The executors were made -trustees of all the residue for 
public charities. 


RANSOfl R. CABLE, railroad president, Chicago, 111., a native of Athens county, 
O., born in 1834, is the son of Hiram and Rachel Henry Cable. With a scanty education, 
he began life in the lumber business, which he followed until 1856. Then removing 
first to Rock Island and later to Valley City, 111. , he became the proprietor of a flour 
mill. About 1859, Mr. Cable entered the coal and railroad business at Rock Island, 
and rose to be superintendent and finally president of The Peoria & Rock Island Rail- 
road, and also managed The Rockford, Rock Island & St. Louis Railroad from 1871 
to 1874. In 1883, L^r. Cable was made president of The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railroad, which caused him to select Chicago for his home. He retains the presidency 
of that corporation to this day. Coal mining yet interests him, and he is also president 
of The Rock Island & Peoria Railroad and a director in The LTnion Stock Yards & 
Transit Co. of Chicago, and other corporations. He has married twice, the second 
time to Miss Jane Buford, of Rock Island, and has four children, Hiram S. , Josephine, 
Fanny and Benjamin. 

FRANCIS CABOT, manufacturer, a native of Newton, Mass., born June 16, 1825, 
is a descendant of a numerous family, endowed with the money making faculty and 
excellent social traits and prominent in commerce and manufactures in New England 
for several generations. Frederick Cabot, his father, was an old time Boston mer- 
chant. It was the good fortune of Francis to have wealth entrusted to him by inher- 
itance, and it is much to his credit that he has not passed his life in idle leisure, but has 
been active in affairs, wise in management and modest in demeanor. He is treasurer 
of The Cabot Manufacturing Co., whose mills of 72,000 spindles are located in Bruns- 
wick, Me., and has held that position for thirty-five years. He is also treasurer of The 
Fisher Manufacturing Co. at Grafton. Mass. , and has various other interests. 

DR. HENRY flARTVN CALDWELL, Birmingham, Ala., capitalist, born in Green- 
ville, Ala., in 1836, the son of a merchant and cotton planter, graduated in medicine 
from the University of Pennsylvania and practiced the healing art in civil life in Green- 
ville until the time of the Civil War. The uprising of the South called him into the 
medical department of the Confederate army, where he served first in the 33d Ala. 
Inf. , afterward going into the post hospitals. After the War, he returned to his pro- 
fession in Greenville. In 1875, he removed to Birmingham, which then gave promise 
of material advancement, and displayed so much public spirit that the people made 
him Mayor of the city. His talent, integrity, untiring energy and enthusiastic belief 
in the future of his State led to the organization of The Elyton Land Co. , and the 
stockholders naturally made him president of the enterprise. He accepted, with the 
determination to make the ' ' magic city " his life work, and in the new enterprise risked 
every dollar he had saved. The Elyton Land Co., formed with a capital of $200,000, 
purchased a tract of several thousand acres in Jones valley at a railroad crossing and 
laid it out in streets. Furnaces were built for smelting the iron from the neighboring, 
hills, workmen were brought to the town, houses, banks, and all the equipment of a 
center of industry were created, lots were sold to actual settlers on reasonable terms, 
and a city sprang into existence a hundred miles away from any other community of 


5,000 people. While the land sales of the company have been large, once amounting 
to a $1,000,000 worth in a single month, the bulk of the property is retained by the 
company and has grown enormously in value. Taxes are now paid on a valuation of 
about $900,000. With the growth of Birmingham, this company seems destined to a 
prosperous future. Dr. Caldwell has also taken an interest in other land companies 
and corporations, has served for a number of years as president of The Birmingham 
Trust & Savings Co., and is president or The Caldwell Hotel Co., which has built a 
handsome house in a commanding situation on a hill. He has also been a director in 
The First National Bank, The Williamson Iron Co. and The Birmingham Iron 
Works. His wife is a sister of Col. John T. Milner. 

JANES EDWARD CALHOUN, land owner and naval officer, Abbeville, S. C., was 
born in 1798, at Bonneau's Ferry, near Charleston, S. C. , and died upon his estate, Oct. 
31, 1889. He was of the kin of the famous Hon. John C. Calhoun, and son of John 
Ewing Calhoun, lawyer and first Senator from the up-country of South Carolina and a 
remarkable man. Floride Bonneau was the mother. The great grandfather, Calhoun, 
emigrated from Donegal, Ireland, to Pennsylvania in 1733, and moved thence to Vir- 
ginia and to Abbeville district in South Carolina. James Edward Calhoun first entered 
the United States Navy. He became a remarkable linguist, learning to speak nearly 
every language in its native country, and also read Sanscrit. He was detailed to special 
service and sent with Long on his expedition to Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, to make 
a report, which has become quite famous. Resigning from the Navy, after eighteen 
years of service, and having travelled all over the world, and becoming, as before 
stated, a linguist, he settled at a beautiful spot on the Savannah river, at Abbeville, 
S. C. , and scarcely ever afterward left the State of South Carolina, never accepting politi- 
cal office, either State or national. He became occupied with planting and interests in 
land and accumulated a very large estate, amounting to something like 25,000 acres in 
Abbeville county, S. C., and Washington county, Ga., extending on both sides of the 
Savannah river. There he lived. He bought, and his estate now owns, what is known 
as the famous Trotter's Shoal, in the Savannah river, which affords enough water 
power to turn the wheels of the city of Lowell, Mass. He was visited by Governor 
Lawrence of Rhode Island and other distinguished gentlemen before the late War, who 
came to examine and investigate his wonderful water power. He also accumulated an 
estate of about 100,000 acres, some of it mountainous, in what is now known as Oconee 
and Pickens counties, S. C. Mr. Calhoun was the largest land proprietor in South 
Carolina. He also accumulated one of the most valuable libraries in the United States, 
which he presented to a college. Mr. Calhoun was one of the most courteous and ac- 
complished gentlemen of the South. He married Miss Maria Simkins of Edgefield, 
S. C., and had one child, a girl, who died in infancy. When he died, his estate fell to 
John C. Calhoun of New York city, a grandson of the original John C. Calhoun, and to 
Patrick Calhoun, brother of the present possessor of the name, and to five other heirs. 

JAHES CALLANAN, Des Moines, la., one of the most prominent men in the State, 
was born in New Scotland, Albany county, N. Y., Oct. 12, 1818, the son of James and 
Mary Williams Callanan. His paternal grandfather was a native of Ireland, who 
emigrated in youth to America and married Miss Susan, daughter of Helmos Rowe, 
of an old Knickerbocker family. The wife of James Callanan, sr., was a daughter of 
Thomas Williams, a descendant of Roger Williams, the founder of Providence, R. I. 


The subject of this sketch spent his youth on the paternal farm, and at the com- 
mon schools and the seminary at Cazenovia. Studying law, at first with Koon, Bram- 
hall & Ferguson and later with G. & R. W. Peckham in Albany, he was admitted to the 
bar in 1845 and settled in Albany to practice. For a young man, his success was 
marked. He soon saved a little money, which, with a small legacy from his father, he 
invested mostly in lands in Iowa. In 1857, S. R. Ingham and he started the bank of 
Callanan & Ingham at Des Moines, Mr. Ingham being the resident partner. The firm 
having bought real estate in Des Moines and vicinity, and dissolving partnership in 
1863, it became necessary for Mr. Callanan to remove to Des Moines. He had intended 
to return to Albany but found it necessary to remain, and then, becoming more largely 
interested in Des Moines and the State, concluded finally to make Iowa his home. 
Active from the start in the material development of the city and State, he has always, 
held large real estate interests in the central and western counties and is now interested 
in The Iowa Loan & Trust Co., The Citizens' National Bank, The Valley National 
Bank, The Des Moines Savings Bank, The State Savings Bank, and The Capital City 
State Bank. He was one of the founders of The Hawkeye Insurance Co., a prosperous 
institution, and has been its vice president for over twenty years, and is also largely 
interested in tin and gold mines in the Black Hills, S. D., and the large iron property 
in Durango, Mexico. In the organization of The Des Moines & Minneapolis Railroad, 
he took a leading part and was the principal contractor in building the road, which was. 
afterward transferred to The Chicago & Northwestern Railroad. Once a Democrat, 
the aggressions of the slave holders made him a Republican, and the temperance cause 
has always had his support and received his liberal contributions. He also believes in 
aiding the colored man to improve and gives money continually for their benefit. 

In 1846, Mr. Callanan married Miss Martha, a daughter of Daniel and Anna Coonley 
of Albany county, N. Y. Her family were Quakers and lived in the same school 
district with the Callanans. Mrs. Callanan is active in benevolence and has done much 
with money and pen, to aid the cause of equal suffrage. 

Through the exertions of Mr. Callanan and his liberal gift of nearly $50,000,. 
Callanan college was established, and when Cazenovia seminary, which he attended in 
boyhood v fell into financial straits on account of non-payment of interest on over 20,000 
in bonds, Mr. Callanan quietly bought the bonds and gave them to the seminar}-. 

JOHNSON N. CAflDEN, oil operator and railroad president, Parkersburg, 
W. Va., was born in Lewis county, Va., March 6, 1828, son of John S. Camden, business 
man and legislator, and although a man of modest circumstances at the start, rose in 
torty years to be the richest man in his State. After spending two years in the Mili- 
tary Academy at West Point, he went into the law in Parkersburg and became prosecut- 
ing attorney in 1852, for Nicholas and other counties, afterward spending a few years, 
1854-58, in The Exchange Bank of Virginia, at Weston. When petroleum was discov- 
ered in West Virginia, at Burning Springs, Mr. Camden engaged in oil operations with 
his brother-in-law, Col. William P. Thompson, and with W. N. Chancellor, under the 
style of J. N. Camden & Co. In 1862, he became president of The First National Bank 
of Parkersburg. The first great success of the oil firm arose from the discover}' of 
lands near Parkersburg, which yielded an excellent lubricating oil. They bought the 
lands, built a refinery, and soon came to the front as the largest dealers in oil suitable 
for lubrication in the United States. In 1875, the firm reorganized as The Camden 


Consolidated Oil Co., Mr. Camden being president, joined The Standard Oil Co., and 
took steps to secure control of the entire oil business of West Virginia. In this, they 
were successful, buying all the refineries of Parkersburg and Marietta, and making 
profitable alliances with oil concerns in Louisville and St. Louis. Mr. Camden aided 
materially in carrying out the purposes of The Standard Oil Co. , and on his own part, 
came into possession of large wealth. From that day to this, Mr. Camden has been 
active in the material development of his State. The Ohio River Railroad originated 
with him in 1882, and he built the road, and has since been chairman of the executive 
committee. He also promoted the construction of The Monongahela River Railroad, 
The Clarksburg, Weston & Midland Railroad (now a part of the West Virginia & Pitts- 
burg system) and The West Virginia & Pittsburg Railroad, and has been for years 
president of these companies. He owns a bank, several river steamboats, several coal 
mines, lumber plants and a large interest in the Greenbrier White Sulphur Springs. 
Although a strong Democrat, he did not join the Confederacy during the Civil War. In 
1868, the Democrats nominated Mr. Camden for Governor of the State, but the iron clad 
oath 'excluded so many Democrats from voting, that the ticket met defeat. In 1872, he 
was again a candidate for Governor, and came close to election, but was defeated by the 
the Bourbon element and Governor Jacobs, an independent candidate. After a 
stubborn contest, lasting a month, he was defeated for United States Senator in 1875, 
but was elected in 1881, and served afterward, Jan. 28, i893-March 3, 1895. In 1858, 
Anna, daughter of George W. Thompson, of Wheeling, became his wife, and they 
have two children, Johnson N. Camden, jr., of Spring Hill, Ky., and Anna, wife of 
Gen. B. D. Spilman. 

ALEXANDER CAF1ERON, a prominent tobacco manufacturer of Richmond, Va., 
is the well known senior member of Alexander Cameron & Co., of Richmond, Va., 
and a partner in Cameron & Cameron, of Richmond, and of William Cameron & Bro. , 
of Petersburg, Va. 

He was born in the North of Scotland, Nov. i, 1834, the son of Alexander Cam- 
eron, a farmer, and Elizabeth Grant, his wife. The family came to America in 1847 
and settled in Virginia. Well trained at home and sufficiently well schooled for all 
practical purposes, young Alexander began to earn his living at the age of thirteen, 
when he took a position in the factory of David Dunlop, a leading tobacco manufac- 
turer of Petersburg. A diligent, shrewd, active boy, he applied himself earnestly to 
the duties assigned him, and mastered the various details of the business. Having 
won Mr. Dunlop's confidence, he was in time advanced to a partnership in the concern. 
In 1856, Mr. Cameron decided to embark, with his brothers, William and George, 
in business, and formed the firm of William Cameron & Bro. , of Petersburg. They 
entered upon the manufacture of tobacco upon a small scale and met with success from 
the start. Quick to see, after the Civil War, an opportunity for a heavy increase in 
the business, they extended the industry, by organizing the firm of Alexander Cam- 
eron & Co., of Richmond, in 1865. In the same year, with characteristic enterprise, 
the two men with their brother George established an Australian branch, and built 
large factories at Melbourne, Adelaide, Sydney and Brisbane. They thus sprang into 
great prominence upon the rising wave of the restoration of business, which followed 
the War, and the fame of the Camerons and their many brands of tobacco soon became 
almost world wide. Besides the large demand for their goods in this country and 


Australia, they developed a profitable business in far off India, South Africa, and in 
fact throughout all the British possessions wherever tobacco is used. 

To conduct successfully a large and far reaching industry like this called for busi- 
ness genius and executive ability of the highest order, and in Mr. Cameron, the head 
of the Richmond firm and general manager of its affairs, these qualities were never 
lacking. His nephew, Alexander Cameron, jr., has charge of the business in Australia, 
where the appointments and facilities of their factories are in every way equal to the 
great establishments they maintain in Virginia. The Sydney and Melbourne plants 
have in recent years been improved and extended at a cost of over 100,000. At each 
factory they have erected their own bonded warehouse to facilitate local trade, and 
these are under the charge of officials, specially detailed by the Colonial government. 

The Richmond factory of Alexander Cameron & Co. is devoted to the production 
of about twenty brands of plug and twist tobacco for export, and has a yearly capacity 
of a million and a half pounds of manufactured product, employing about 300 hands. 
It is a model of its kind, with a complete equipment of the best and latest machinery, 
and the latest ideas have been utilized looking toward the cleanliness and health of the 

The factory of Cameron & Cameron in Richmond, located alongside of the prop- 
erty just mentioned, and a large structure, is used for the manufacture of paper and 
all tobacco cigarettes, cheroots and smoking mixtures. It employs 250 hands, and has 
an enormous capacity for the production of cigarettes and cheroots, besides 10,000 
pounds of smoking tobacco, daily. Here are made five different brands of paper cig- 
arettes, seven brands of cheroots, six brands of all tobacco cigarettes and a dozen brands 
of smoking tobacco, which have found their way into the favor of dealers and con- 
sumers throughout the world, and are put up in every conceivable style and shape, of 
which these goods are susceptible. 

The mammoth concern of William Cameron & Bro., under the management and 
control of George Cameron, located at Petersburg, Va., gives daily employment to 
more than 600 people and has an annual output of over two and a half million pounds 
of tobacco! which is distributed to the four quarters of the globe. Like the great fac- 
tory of Alexander Cameron & Co., at Richmond, this concern is a producer of plug 
and twist tobacco for export, and the dozen or so brands made here are celebrated both 
at home and abroad. This plant is as complete as any other in the country ; and, with 
the offices, warehouse, engine rooms and drying rooms, occupying separate buildings, 
it forms an imposing group of structures with the dimensions of a manufacturing town. 
Ever}' detail of its equipment seems perfect and all the machinery is from special designs. 

Mr. Cameron has always maintained the highest standard of quality for his manu- 
factured goods, and his customers are composed of the best of foreign and home trade. 

Personally, Mr. Cameron is recognized as one of the most active, enterprising and 
public spirited citizens of Virginia, and is always interested in any movement looking 
toward the welfare of his State and the South. He was married Sept. i, 1868, in Orange 
county, Va. , to Miss Mary, daughter of Barton Haxall, a prominent miller of Rich- 
mond. This union resulted in ten children: Mary Haxall, Alexander, jr., Barton 
Haxall. William, Elizabeth Grant, Malcolm Graham, Jennie Gordon, Flora McDonald, 
James Blakewood, and Ewen Donald Cameron. 

Mr. Cameron is a member of the famous Westmoreland club of Richmond. 


While a staunch Democrat, he has never sought or held political office. His city home 
is at 519 East Franklin street, and he owns in addition a handsome and well appointed 
place in Orange county, known as Cameron Lodge, where he spends the Summer. 
He is domestic in his tastes and finds his greatest enjoyment in the society of his family. 
JAHES DONALD CAHERON, Harrisburg, Pa., banker and railroad president, is 
a son of the late Simon Cameron, of distinguished memory. Left an orphan at nine 
years of age, Simon Cameron educated himself while learning the trade of a printer, 
edited a newspaper in Doylestown, founded The Middletown Bank in 1832, made money 
rapidly, promoted the building of railroads, and was president of two or more ; entered 
public life in 1845, and was elected United States Senator five times ; served as Secre- 
tary of War in 1861 and Minister to Russia in 1862, and died the possessor of a large 
fortune, survived by his son, the subject of this sketch, and his daughter, Mrs. Wayne 
MacVeagh. James Donald Cameron was born in Middletown, Pa., May 14, 1833, and 
graduated from Princeton College in 1852. His father gave him a clerkship in The 
Middletown Bank, now The National Bank of Middletown, and the young man 
rose successively to be cashier and president, and is president of the bank to-day. 
Through inheritance, he now has coal, iron and manufacturing interests in Pennsylvania 
and silver interests in the West, and was president of The Northern Railroad, 1863-74, 
until that line came under the control of The Pennsylvania Railroad. Like his father, 
he has taken an active part in public affairs and attended the Republican national con- 
vention in 1868 as a delegate. Under President Grant he served as Secretary of War, 
1876-77, and resigned to accept a seat in the United States Senate to fill a vacancy 
caused by his father's resignation. He was re-elected in 1879, 1885 and 1891. In 
Congress, he has served as a member of the Senate committees on Military Affairs and 
Revolutionary Claims, chairman of Naval Affairs, and member of select committees on 
the Quadro-Centennial and Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. His first wife, Mary 
McCormick, having died, Senator Cameron married, in 1878, Elizabeth Sherman, a niece 
of General Sherman. He is a member of the New York club of New York. 

PAUL CARRINQTON CAflERON, lawyer, planter and financier, Raleigh, N. C., 
born Sept. 25, 1808, in Stagville, N. C., died in Hillsboro in the same State, Jan. 6, 
1891. Duncan Cameron, his father, was a native of Virginia, 1777, and in North Car- 
olina became a lawyer, judge, planter, and 1829-49, president of the old State Bank of 
North Carolina, while Mrs. Duncan Cameron was Rebecca, daughter of Richard Ben- 
nehan, a wealthy merchant and planter of what is now the county of Durham, N. C. 
The Rev. John Cameron, D.D., father of Duncan, emigrated to Virginia in colonial 
times from Fairntosh in the Highlands of Scotland and derived lineal descent from Sir 
Edwin Cameron of Lochiel, chief of the Cameron clan. In Virginia, the doctor of 
divinity married Anne Owen, daughter of Col. Thomas Nash, older brother of Gov. 
Abner Nash and Gen. Francis Nash, both distinguished in the annals of the Revolution. 
Paul C. Cameron was one of a family of eight children, but his seven brothers and 
sisters all died either unmarried or without issue. Paul was a young man of striking 
appearance, large and strong, with keen eyes, large head, aquiline countenance, ruddy 
features and bushy red hair; but, when after tutelage under private tutors and at 
Partridge's military academy in Middletown, Conn., where he commanded the four 
companies of cadets, he made his appearance at the University of North Carolina, 
lad in a full suit of red homespun, the boys called him " Red Bird." This precipi- 


tated a fight, and the young athlete was expelled the day of his admission. The uni- 
versity took him back, but he left two years later and graduated from Washington (now 
Trinity) college, Hartford, Conn., in 1829. 

Thereafter he devoted himself to the care of his father's extensive plantations in 
North Carolina, Alabama and Mississippi, Duncan Cameron being obliged to spend most 
of his time in Raleigh. These plantations, worked by slave labor, were patriarchal 
estates, with looms, shoe, wagon and blacksmith shops, a chapel and other less impor- 
tant equipments. Mr. Cameron developed into a model planter and became president 
of the first agricultural society in the State. But planting did not content him. He 
studied law and became inflamed with the spirit of internal improvement, promoted 
the building of The North Carolina Railroad, was elected a director and served for one 
year as president. He was also a director of The Raleigh & Gaston and The Raleigh 
& Augusta Air Line Railroads, The Citizens' and The Raleigh National Banks and in 
two of the largest factories in Rockingham, N. C., as well as a stockholder in cotton 
mills at Rocky Mount, N. C. , and Augusta, Ga. Partly by inheritance, and in part 
through his own splendid energies, he rose to large wealth. In 1856, Orange county 
sent him to the State Senate. Formerly a Whig, he stood by his State and became a 
Democrat. Mr. Cameron never joined any clubs or secret societies, but served as 
president of The Historical Society of North Carolina and of the Alumni of the State 
university, for the welfare of which institution he labored constantly. In 1879, he 
delivered the commencement address at Trinity college. 

Mrs. Cameron was Ann, daughter of Thomas Ruffin, Chief Justice of the State. 
They were married, Dec. 20, 1832. Two children died early in life; Duncan, a son, 
died in 1887, leaving three children, and Rebecca, wife of John W. Garham, also died 
before her father. The survivors of the family were Bennehan Cameron, Anne, wife 
of George Collins, Pauline, wife of William B. Shephard, and Mildred Cameron. 

WILLIAfl CAflERON, manufacturer, Petersburg, Va., was born in Grantown, 
Strathspey, shire of Inverness, Scotland, Aug. n, 1829, the son of Alexander Cam- 
eron and Elizabeth Grant, his wife. The father tilled a farm and in town made shoes, 
having the largest shop there. The founder of the family in Strathspey came over 
from Lochaber during the fifteenth century, as one of a body guard of twelve dark- 
haired lads, nearest of kin to the daughter of Lochiel, bride of the Laird of Grant. 
The parish school taught young William in boyhood for a few years, but the father 
died when the lad was eleven, and then the beloved mother of the family emigrated 
with her six children, William the oldest, to New York. There, she soon lost her 
money in a little retail business, which had been started to support the family. Send- 
ing the children to Petersburg, Va. , Mrs. Cameron apprenticed William to the tobacco 
trade for four years. The mother passed away, Jan. 9, 1848, leaving her boys orphans 
in a strange though generous land. 

From floor sweeper in a tobacco factory, William was in due course of time pro- 
moted to the head of a department, and later, he became the head manager. In 1853, 
hard work, fidelity and shrewd, hard sense brought their reward, Mr. Cameron being 
admitted to partnership. This brought the chance for saving a little money, and at 
last, in 1858, Mr. Cameron started a tobacco factory on his own account under the name 
of Cameron & Crawford. Thereafter his rise was constant, year by year, interrupted 
only by the Civil War. Mr. Crawford died in 1866, whereupon Mr. Cameron with 


two brothers and two brothers-in-law founded the firms of William Cameron & Bro., 
of Petersburg; Alex. Cameron & Co., of Richmond; Robert Dunlop & Co., of Louis- 
ville, and George Campbell & Co., of London and Liverpool, England. This circle of 
business houses, united by the strongest ties of kindness and business interests, has 
proved solid as a rock against financial troubles and has created a very great and remu- 
nerative trade. Mr. Cameron made his first visit to Australia during sixteen months of 
1865-66, and became the pioneer in development of direct trade in tobacco products 
with that country. Up to 1886, he had made eight more trips, thus in all crossing the 
equator eighteen times. In 1886, Mr. Cameron retired in favor of his two brothers, 
but in 1888, finding that idleness was irksome, Mr. Cameron launched a new 
and stalwart craft and re-entered the industry under the flag of Cameron & Co., 
manufacturing tobacco, for home consumption entirely ; but he could not make headway 
against the trusts, and, at the age of sixty-six, he cast anchor safely in the quiet haven 
of final retirement, and is now enjoying the fruits of more than half a century of 
honest, diligent and sagacious labor. 

In October, 1852, he married Martha Louisa Russel at Northfield, near Cumber- 
land Court House in Virginia. Their only child, a son, died in 1859. Mr. Cameron is 
a member of the Melbourne club in Melbourne, and the Australian club of Sydney, 
N. S. W. , and was once an honorary member of the Conservative club in London, 

DANIEL J. CAHPAU, lawyer, a native of Detroit, Mich., was born Aug. 20, 1852, 
the son of Daniel J. Campau, a man of large fortune, who in turn was the son of Joseph 
Campau, a famous frontier merchant and Indian trader, whose long life of nearly a 
century was spent at Detroit. This family has now been established at Detroit for 
nearly two hundred years. Its first representatives came to the new world with Cadil- 
lac, founder of Fort Pontchartrain on the site of Detroit in 1701, and, after their 
arrival, they saw and took part in all the long labors, which resulted in the creation of 
cities and a civilized state in the then gloomy wilderness, inhabited only by savages and 
wild beasts. Mr. Campau was educated at Fordham, N. Y., studied law in Detroit, 
and, thoroughly equipped, was admitted to practice in all the courts, including the 
United States Supreme Court. In early manhood, he engaged in business on his 
own account, independently of his father, met with success and amassed his own 
fortune. He was then selected by his father, whose health was failing, to manage 
the latter's large estate. The Campau building for offices, the finest of its class in 
Detroit, was erected during his trusteeship. One of the three heirs of his father 
(who died Feb. 15, 1883), he received a large legacy, and has since been occupied 
with investments. Mr. Campau is a Democrat and influential in the councils of his 
party. Several times a delegate to local, State and national conventions, he aided 
in nominating and electing President Cleveland in 1884, and has been treasurer of 
the Democratic State Committee since 1886. Collector of Customs at Detroit, 1886-90, 
he was chairman of the State Committee and carried Michigan for the Democrats in 
1890, for the first time in thirty-seven years. Mr. Campau has been prominently 
connected with the trotting turf, principal owner of the Detroit Driving club, presi- 
dent of The American Trotting Association, and controlling owner of the newspaper 
called The Chicago Horseman. A man of force, capacity and character, liberal and 
public spirited, he is highly esteemed. 


ANTHONY HcHUQH CANNON, a Western banker, born on a farm in Monmouth, 
111., died in New York city, April 6, 1895, at the age of sixty-eight. At seventeen, 
this energetic man found his way to Chicago, and, knowing a little about farming mat- 
ters, worked up in the grain business until he had become a member of the Board of 
Trade. Later, he went to Kansas City and engaged in the milling business, in 1867 
crossed the plains with an ox team, and, when the gold fever broke out, joined the 
rush to the White Pine regions and became a miner. Afterward, he opened a hotel in 
Los Angeles, Cala. But business was slow and within a few years he went to Portland, 
Or. About 1884, Mr. Cannon resolved to see what could be done at the falls of the 
Spokane river, fifty miles from its junction with the Columbia, wherj an enormous 
water power was running to waste in the heart of the wilderness. He became one of 
the first settlers of Spokane and was always known as " the father of Spokane Falls." 
During his twelve years' residence there, he accumulated $3,000,000. At the time of 
his death, he was president of a bank at Spokane, The Washington National 
Bank, The First National Bank of Taluse City, The Spokane Milling Co., The 
Spokane Gas Co.. The Spokane Railway system, The Columbia Railway & Navi- 
gation Co., and The Sno\v-Qualimix Coal & Coke Co., and one of the principal 
owners of The Spokane Review. He was known as a liberal and charitable, and 
had been elected Mayor of Spokane several times. In 1 890, he was a candidate for the 
United States Senate and withdrew because of bad health. He was married three 
times and leaves a widow and several children. 

CHARLES WESLEY CANNON, a pioneer of Montana and land owner, was bora 
in Cleveland, O. , July i, 1836. Jan Canon, a Huguenot emigrant, founded this family 
in America, in 1692. James Le Grand Cannon, the grandfather of Charles, lived in 
Stratford, Conn., and there George Cannon, the father of Charles, was born. The 
subject of this sketch moved, with his parents, at an early age to Dubuque, la., went 
to school with the other boys and at the age of sixteen, his father's health having 
failed, took charge of the latter's store. To the satisfaction of all concerned, he 
proved a very good merchant, and his partnership of Cannon & Smith, formed in 1859, 
grew to be one of the largest mercantile firms in the State. In 1863, Mr. Cannon and 
his 3'ounger brother sold their business, and, after a tedious journey of five months 
across the plains by way of Omaha, in their own wagon, arrived in Virginia City, 
Mont. Twice they were attacked by the Sioux, but they found pure water to drink 
and had enough to eat and arrived in safety, at once opening a store in Virginia City 
as the firm of Cannon Bro's. When gold placer mines were discovered at Helena in 
1864, Mr. Cannon looked over the ground and then opened a branch store at Helena 
as Cannon & McQuade, reorganizing later as Kerchival, Cannon & Co. The store 
became one of the largest depots of groceries and miners' supplies in the Territory. 
In 1882, having gained a moderate capital, Mr. Cannon withdrew from mercantile pur- 
suits to devote himself to real estate and mines. To-day he is the largest tax payer 
in Helena, and is a leading spirit in gas, electric light and street railroad companies 
and president of several of them. He is also vice president of The Montana Central 
Railway, director of The Montana National Bank, proprietor of a ranch of 3,000 
acres, stocked with cattle, horses and sheep, and an all-round useful citizen. In 
March, 1868, Mr. Cannon was married to Miss Catherine B. Martine, of Ithaca, N. Y., 
daughter of Capt. W. W. Martine. 


JOHN BROE CAREY, property owner, Wichita, Kan., an Irishman by birth, 
originated in County Dublin, June 21, 1828, and came to America in 1847. Removing 
to Maroa, 111., he was twice a councilman there, three times town clerk and twice 
Justice of the Peace. He came to Kansas in 1874. One of the early settlers of the 
State, his first occupation was in the live stock and cattle business Kansas is too new 
for the creation of many large fortunes, and being devoted mainly to farming and 
stock raising, exposed to occasional drouth and grasshoppers, and partly ruled by Pop- 
ulist notions, has gathered wealth more slowly than other States. Yet the State is 
full of opportunities, and Mr. Carey has made his way by adapting himself to his sur- 
roundings and dealing in lumber, live stock and real estate. He is the owner of the 
Carey Hotel and other excellent property, has money to lend, the sure sign of a pros- 
perous man, and has been enabled to make satisfactory investments in excellent securi- 
ties. He was elected Mayor of the city in 1893. 

JOSEPH flAULL CAREY, LL. D., lawyer, ranchman, and formerly United States 
Senator from Wyoming, a native of Milton, Del., was born Jan. 19, 1845. His father 
was Robert Hood Carey, merchant and farmer, and his mother, Susan Pitt Davis. The 
ancestors of both were among the early settlers of Delaware. Young Mr. Carey had 
some difficulty in getting an education, but by study at home and by teaching in the 
public schools, he managed to fit himself for college, and spent two years in Fort Ed- 
ward collegiate institute and had a partial course at Union college. In 1867, he gradu- 
ated from the law department of the University of Pennsylvania. 

In 1869, an appointment as District Attorney for the newly created Territory of 
Wyoming changed the current of his life. Mr. Carey repaired to Cheyenne, dealt with 
frontier crimes to the best of his ability, and in 1872, became a Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Wyoming for four years. He was one of the first to utilize the nutritious grass 
of the unfenced plains of Wyoming for cattle growing and met with remarkable success 
therein. About 1885, his interests were incorporated under the title of The Penn Cattle 
Co., capital $2,000,000, and Mr. Carey has been president of the company to this day. 
He is also president of The Fremont Cattle Co., and The Wyoming Development Co., 
and for several years was president of The Wyoming Stock Growers' Association, which 
represented a combined ownership of $100.000,000 in cattle, horses and sheep. Judge 
Carey also did much to promote real estate development in Cheyenne, and during his 
administration as Mayor, 1880-84, introduced the water and sewerage systems and other 
public improvements. Judge Carey has been active in politics as a Republican and 
represented Wyoming in the 49th, soth and sist Congresses, there being no opposition 
at the last election. The admission of Wyoming as a State, July 10, 1890, was largely 
due to his personal and untiring labors in Congress. He drafted the act of Congress 
and secured its passage. The Republicans of Wyoming having swept the State, Judge 
Carey was elected United States Senator for the term ending March 4, 1895, 

In 1877, he married Miss Louise, only daughter of E. C. David, Surveyor General 
of Wyoming, and they have two sons, Robert Davis and Charles David Carey. 

THOHAS n. CARNEGIE, iron manufacturer, a brother of Andrew Carnegie, died in 
Pittsburgh, Pa. , Oct. 19, 1886, at the age of forty-three. Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, 
he arrived in America at the age of four, being taken at once to Pittsburgh by his 
father. His first small earnings were gained in the telegraph department of The Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, after a few years, he became clerk and assistant to the general 


superintendent of the company. While yet under eighteen years of age, he formed 
a partnership with Andrew Kloman and Henry Phipps, jr., for the manufacture 
of iron on a small scale. The demand for iron during the Civil War aided them 
greatly and they made considerable money. After the War, this firm consolidated with 
another, of which Andrew Carnegie and Thomas M. Smith were members. High 
prices had called a vast number of iron furnaces into existence, and the Carnegies saw 
no wav to gain an advantage over their competitors except by creating so large a plant 
that iron could be made at the lowest possible cost per ton. So they entered upon a 
policy of enlargement. The Edgar Thomson Steel Works and other establishments 
were acquired; steel, steel rails, rolled iron and coke were added to the production; and 
in April, 1881, the partners organized the firm of Carnegie Brothers, Ld . Thomas 
being elected chairman and holding that position until his death. The Carnegie works 
were enlarged until they had become probably the most extensive in the world, and 
their profits, while not large per ton of metal produced, were enormous in the aggre- 
gate. Mr. Carnegie was a director in various coal and coke companies, The Keystone 
Bridge Works, The Lawrence Bank, The Third National Bank, The New York & 
Cleveland Gas Coal Co., with mines at Turtle Creek, Pa., and various other concerns. 
In June, 1866, he married Miss Lucy, daughter of the late William Coleman, and had 
nine children, six sons and three daughters. A few years before his death, Mr. Car- 
negie purchased 20,000 acres of land at Dungeness, Cumberland Island, on the east 
coast of Georgia, where he built a winter home, costing $200, ooo exclusive of the land. 
The island is famous as the burial place of many heroes of the American Revolution. 
Mrs. Carnegie was sole inheritor of her husband's fortune. 

COL. JULIAN S. CARR, banker and manufacturer, is president of The First 
National Bank of Durham, N. C., and of Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Co., manufac- 
turers of the brand of American smoking tobacco, which is probably the best known 
of any throughout the world. He is in the prime of life, of agreeable manners and fine 
business ability and has risen into prominence with unusual rapidity. 

He was born at Chapel Hill, Orange county, N. C., Oct. 12, 1845, of Scotch-Irish 
descent. His father, John W. Carr, married Miss Eliza Panel Bullock in 1835, and 
resided continuously at Chapel Hill, where, to the time of his death, he conducted the 
leading mercantile interest, enjoying in a marked degree the respect and confidence of 
the entire community, regardless of creed or color. One feature of the elder Carr, 
worthy of comment, was that he was careful to provide all his children with a most 
liberal education. 

Julian S. Carr was educated at the State university, at that time possibly the most 
renowned seat of learning and the most influential in the Southern States. At a tender 
age young Carr left the university and joined the army of Northern Virginia under 
Lee. As a private in Co. K, 3d N. C. cavalry, Barringer's brigade, he served until the 
close of the War; and while carrying in his pocket two commissions for promotion, 
preferred to serve with the rank and file, on the theory that "the post of honor is 
a private station." 

Colonel Carr's financial success grows out of a modest investment, which he made 
in 1870, in the manufacture of Blackwell's Durham smoking tobacco. The founder 
of this business, a man of striking qualities, had made a fortune and had lost it. 
Other makers had come into the field, and a fierce competition had reduced the busi- 



ness to a low ebb. Colonel Carr believed that he could retrieve the fortunes of the 
house, and he engaged in an effort to do so, with an energy, quietness and soundness 
of judgment which have always been characteristic of the man. He discerned clearly 
the road to success, which lay in the direction, first, of the production of -a mellow and 
fragrant brand of pure smoking tobacco, and, next, of the advertising of it in an 
original, persistent and striking manner. He sent an army of advertisers into every 
part of the United States and into foreign countries, and these men painted every 
available rock, fence and building with the picture of the sturdy Durham bull, which 
was his trade mark. The cost of this work was enormous. Competitors were astounded 
at the prodigal expenditure. But the returns justified Colonel Carr's judgment. 
Orders for the Durham Bull tobacco soon poured into the office of the works from 
every part of the world. Colonel Carr made a point of dealing openly with the retail 
trade, and of not requiring that merchants should sign a contract forbidding them to 
sell the brands of other producers. He paid farmers the full price for their tobacco 
and in every respect conducted his business upon a high plane and in the most hon- 
orable manner. Little by little he built up the sale of his goods, until he led all com- 
petitors in every country in the world. His packages were shipped from Durham by 
the car load. A factory is now in operation in Durham under his management, which 
gives remunerative employment the year around to a large force of operatives. 

Colonel Carr lives in a commanding location in the city in a beautiful mansion, 
called Somerset Villa, which represents the most refined taste of the present day. Its 
cupola, gable, stained glass windows, interior decorations, and carefully laid out grounds, 
charm every visitor, who is permitted to visit the spot. 

Deeply interested in public affairs, he is fitted by reading and experience for public 
station. He was one of those considered in the formation of President Cleveland's 
cabinet and has been prominently named for Governor of the State. His energies have 
brought millions of money to North Carolina for the purchase of its productions, and 
few, if any, other men in the State in private life, are held in such high esteem. 

He is president of The First National Bank of Durham, The Golden Belt Manu- 
facturing Co., The Bessemer Mining Co., The Durham Electric Lighting Co., The 
Greensboro Female College Association, and The Southern Manganese Co., and vice 
president of The Durham Cotton Manufacturing Co., The Durham Fertilizer Co., and 
The Southern Immigration Land& Title Co., and trustee of the State University, and 
Trinity college and director of the Oxford Orphan Asylum, etc. 

WILLIAM T. CARTER, coal miner, Philadelphia, Pa., who died in that city, Feb. 
9, 1893, was born in Cornwall, England, Aug. 23, 1827, in an old family which traced its 
ancestry directly to the kings of England. William Carter, his father, was a miner 
and shipper of coal, the mother being Mary Thomas before marriage. .Sailing for 
America in 1850, Mr. Carter settled in Stockton, Pa., and entered the employment of 
of his uncles, John and Richard Carter, pioneers in anthracite coal mining. By 
industry and thrift, he had soon earned enough to buy a part interest in a coal tract 
and finally bought from his partners the whole property, known as the Coleraine 
collieries, near Beaver Meadows, Pa. He operated these mines for many years, add- 
ing millions of tons to the anthracite production of Pennsylvania during the thirty 
years of his active life. About 1867, Mr. Carter founded the town of Redington, on 
The Lehigh Valley Railroad, below Bethlehem, built there two large blast furnaces 


for the manufacture of pig iron, and erected machine shops and othei works and a 
large number of dwellings. After 1860, his home was in Philadelphia, and he became 
a large owner in many good properties in that city including the Ridge avenue, 
Fourth and Eighth street railroads and The Philadelphia Traction Co He was also 
one of the largest stockholders in The Fidelity Insurance, Trust & Safe Deposit 
Co., and other financial institutions. Mr. Carter was gifted with a striking personality 
and formed a unique and prominent figure in industrial circles. In social life, he was 
well liked. Among his clubs were the Art, Union League, Rittenhouse and Historical 
& Genealogical. Nov. n, 1868, in Cleveland, O., he married Miss Cornelia Reding- 
ton, who survived him with three children, William E. Carter, Helen R., wife of Dr. 
Joseph Leidy, and Miss Alice Carter. 

JEROnE I. CASE, manufacturer, Racine, Wis. , was born in Williamstown, 
Oswego county, N. Y., Dec. n, 1819, died in Racine, Dec. 22, 1891. The English 
progenitor of the Case family arrived in the new world in the century before the 
American Revolution, and, on his mother's side, Mr. Case was of the kin of Presi- 
dent Jackson. When a lad of fifteen, Jerome began to help his father develop a 
crude project for thrashing grain by a mechanical contrivance, in order to save the 
back breaking labor of beating straw with a hand flail. In 1 840, he began to do busi- 
ness for himself, but, realizing the need of more education, went to school for one 
season at Mexicoville, N. Y. In 1841, he started for Racine, Wis., with six crude, 
one horse, tread mill threshers, sold all except one, and ran that one until it was 
worn out. In 1843-44, a better machine was perfected by Mr. Case, able to thrash 
and separate the grain in one operation, and in 1847, a modest factory was build by 
him, three stories high, 30 by 90 feet in ground plan, and the manufacture undertaken. 
The success of the Case machines was phenomenal. Repeated enlargements of the 
plant were needed, and these great and prosperous works now occupy forty acres of 
ground and have an output of $2,000,000 worth of machines a year. In 1880, the 
business was incorporated as The J. I. Case Threshing Machine Co., capital $1,000,000, 
Mr. Case being principal owner and president. He was also a founder and control- 
ing spirit of The J. I. Case Plow Works, capital $400,000, and founder and president 
of The Manufacturers' National Bank of Racine, The National Bank of Burlington, 
The Granite National Bank of Monrovia, Cala., and The First National Bank of 
Fargo, N. D. Mr. Case was a man of noble traits of character and fine abilities, 
being generous to employes, upright in the extreme, and liberal in charity. He was 
Mayor of Racine at one time and a State Senator. In 1849, he married Lydia, 
daughter of Stephen Bull, one of his partners, and four of their seven children sur- 
vive him, Henrietta, wife of Percival S. Fuller; Jessie S., wife of H. M. Wallis; 
Amanda, wife of J. J. Crooks, and Jackson I Case. Mr. Case found entertainment 
in raising thoroughbred horses, and he was the owner of Jay Eye See and other 
noted animals, and of a third interest in Glenview stock farm, near Louisville, Ky. 
Jackson I. Case has succeeded his father in the plow and threshing machine companies. 

LEONARD CASE, sr., a man greatly beloved in Cleveland, O., could boast that 
even- drop of blood in his veins was of Protestant origin. Butler Case, his progenitor, 
was one of four sturdy Dutchmen, brothers, the others being Christopher, Theophilus, 
and Reuben, who migrated from Holland early in the last century to Long Island and 
New Jersey. Butler went out in 1778 to Westmoreland county, Pa., where his son 


1857, he was made Secretary of State under Buchanan, but resigned when Buchanan 
refused to reinforce Fort Sumter. 

The public career of General Cass lasted fifty-six years, and he was always well 
regarded for patriotic spirit, natural ability and attainments, and upright and temperate 
character. His wealth came from the purchase in early days of land, upon which a 
portion of Detroit has been built. It was the largest land estate in the city. General 
Cass died in Detroit, June 17, 1866, leaving one son, Lewis Cass, jr. Mrs. Cass was 
Elizabeth Spencer of Virginia. 

ALEXANDER JOHNSTON CASSATT, civil engineer and railroad manager, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., is the son of a manufacturer and banker. Born in Pittsburgh, Pa., Dec. 8, 
1839, the University of Heidelberg and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute made him 
a civil engineer. Student days being ended in 1859, Mr. Cassatt helped locate a line 
of railroad in Georgia, but the South waxed hot over politics and Mr. Cassatt came North 
at the outbreak of the Civil War, and in April, 1861, went to work as a rodman for The 
Pennsylvania Railroad. With this company he remained until 1882, receiving one 
promotion after another until he had nearly reached the top. In 1863-64 he was assist- 
ant engineer in the construction of the line, connecting The Pennsylvania and The 
Philadelphia and Trenton Railroads and in 1864-66, resident engineer in charge of the 
middle division of The Philadelphia & Erie Railroad, during that period dwelling in 
Renovo. Col. Thomas A. Scott, president of The Pennsylvania Railroad, soon saw the 
value of Mr. Cassatt, who became successively superintendent of motive power of The 
Philadelphia & Erie Railroad, and during 1867-70, of The Pennsylvania Railroad at 
Altoona, rising, Dec. i, 1871, to be general superintendent of the whole road and gen- 
eral manager of the lines east of Pittsburgh. He then established his home in Phila- 
delphia. July i, 1874, after the death of J. Edgar Thomson, president, the company 
elected Mr. Cassatt third vice president and, June i, 1880, first vice president. His 
administration from first to last is recorded as one of unvarying success. He was capa- 
ble of continuous labor, never spared himself in any position, and was active in all that 
long effort, which ended in the final consolidation of a large number of independent 
lines in the great system of The Pennsylvania Railroad, and not only played well his 
part in creating a great property, but in these operations gained a considerable fortune. 
He retired, Sept. 30, 1882, and, to secure greatly needed rest, immediately made a trip 
to Europe. He is yet a director of The Pennsylvania Railroad. Feb. i, 1885, Mr. 
Cassatt became president of The New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk Railroad, and, 
since 1891, has been president of a syndicate, which has in view the building of a railroad 
to connect North and South America. He finds much enjoyment in the management 
of a stock farm, and is a member of the Union and Coaching clubs of New York city, as 
well as of other social organizations. 

JOHN DEAN CATON, Chicago, 111., capitalist, possesses in a marked degree 
both legal and business talent. He was born in Monroe in Orange county, N. Y., 
March 19, 1812, and after a course at the academies in Rome and Utica, N. Y., devoted 
himself to the text books of the law and was admitted to practice in Chicago in 1833. 
Friendly favor toward the attractive new comer in the then small town resulted in his 
election as Justice of the Peace in 1834. The city was then so small that only 229 
votes were cast at the election. Mr. Caton gained a large and lucrative practice 
during the next few years, and in 1842, was elected Judge of the Illinois Supreme 


Court, becoming Chief Justice in 1855. He resigned that honorable position in 1864, in 
order to devote himself to private business. Judge Caton's prosperity is largely due to 
his successful practice of law, but has grown more directly out of a patented pro- 
cess of his own for cutting granite, his investments in a foundry and glass factory in 
Ottawa, 111., and his ownership in telegraph lines. After his retirement from the 
bench, he travelled for several years in Europe, China and Japan. A good observer and 
a competent writer, he has produced several interesting books, among them ' ' A Sum- 
mer in Norway," and "Antelope and Deer of America," while The American Naturalist 
and other scientific journals have printed many articles from his pen, and he has made 
many public addresses. One of his essays read before the Chicago Philosophical 
Society on " Matter and a Supreme Intelligence," attracted widespread attention. 

JONATHAN CHACE, the shrewd, kindly, and well-known Quaker manufacturer of 
Providence, R. I., born in Fall River, Mass., July 22, 1829, is a son of Harvey and 
Hannah Wood Chace. For six generations on both sides of the family in America, the 
ancestors of Mr. Chace have belonged to the Society of Friends. Oliver Chace, his 
grandfather, built the second cotton mill in the United States and ranks in history as 
one of the pioneers of that industry. Harvey Chace followed his father in cotton 
manufacturing, and Jonathan has followed in the same path. Taught at the Friends' 
School in Providence, and finding a field for his youthful energies ready at hand 
in the prosperous business of his father, Mr. Chace was not called upon to endure 
any hardship at the beginning of his career, and his sunny nature and well-devel- 
oped character are, in part, the consequence of the result of not being obliged to grow 
up under conditions so harsh as to leave no opportunity for self-improvement. Dur- 
ing the early stages of his business career, Mr. Chace was for six years, 1851-57, a 
dry goods commission merchant in Philadelphia, a city full of Friends, among whom 
he found congenial society. Since 1857, he has lived in Providence and has been 
engaged in cotton manufacturing. Too prominent to remain wholly a private citizen, 
Mr. Chace has been sent to the State Senate twice, the lower House of Congress for 
two terms, March 4, 1881-85, an< ^ has twice been elected to the United States Senate, 
beginning in 1885, but resigned in 1888. He is a partner in J. H. & J. Chace, mer- 
chants of cotton goods and agents of The Albion Co., treasurer of the company thus 
named, president of The Phenix National Bank, director in several other companies, 
and greatly honored in every relation for his character and ability. Mr. Chace is not 
a club man. His wife is Jane C. Moon, whom he married in Bucks county, Pa., in 
1854. They have two daughters, Anna H. and Elizabeth M. 

JEROME BUNTY CHAFFEE, a gold miner in Colorado, who died in March, 1886, 
belonged to the class of men, whom no adverse circumstances of poverty in youth or 
lack of finished education can keep in the background. Born in Niagara county, N. Y., 
April 17, 1825, and, when old enough to work, supporting himself for several years as 
clerk in a country grocer)' store, he finally moved to Adrian, Mich. , and both taught 
grammar and mathematics in the High School and carried on a dry goods store there. 
The death of his wife led him to change his residence to St. Joseph, Mo. , where, in 
three years' time, he had built up a large frontier trade as a merchant, and for a time 
conducted a bank. Then he moved to Elmwood, Kan., to speculate in land through 
the operations of a land company, of which he was president. The Pike's Peak excite- 
ment drew him to Colorado in 1859, in time to let him become one of the first settlers 


and founders of the city of Denver. As early as 1861, he had a stamp mill running in 
the mountains near Central City, and in time he took an interest in nearly a 
hundred gold mines on the famous Bob Tail and other lodes, which seamed every 
mountain in that vicinity. These properties yielded him a fortune of about $3,000,- 
ooo, a part of which was afterward lost in unsuccessful ventures. In 1865, he bought 
Clark & Go's bank in Denver, and established The First National Bank, of which 
he was president until 1880. In 1861, Mr. Chaffee went into the old Territorial Legis- 
lature, in which the Spanish members from Southern Colorado, when rising to speak, 
used to have an interpreter stand up with them and translate their remarks into Amer- 
ican, sentence by sentence. Mr. Chaffee was re-elected in 1863, and in 1876, became 
one of the first United States Senators from Colorado. In 1884, the Republican 
National Committee elected him its chairman. Mr. Chaffee died March 9, 1886, at the 
home of his daughter, Mrs. U. S. Grant, jr., Salem Center, Westchester county, N. Y. 
THOMAS CHALriERS, manufacturer, Chicago, 111., born at Dronley, near Dun- 
dee, Scotland, in 1815, emigrated to America in a sailing ship from Glasgow in 1842, the 
voyage consuming fifty-two days. He landed in New Orleans and went on to Chicago. 
An ingenious youth, with a love for mechanics, anxious to earn his own living, he 
took an apprenticeship in the machinist's trade, and, when the right time had arrived, 
engaged in business for himself. Partly through native wit and good workmanship 
and in part in consequence of the rapid growth of Chicago, which made a demand for his 
services, he soon rose to prominence. He was superintendent for a time of The Eagle 

In 1871, when The Eagle Works withdrew from business, D. R. Eraser and 
Thomas Chalmers organized the firm of Eraser & Chalmers, and began their labors in 
a small shop, 60 by 145 feet in ground plan, with a force of sixty men. Both of the 
partners were practical machinists and entirely congenial to each other, and a large 
industry grew up under their management. Their success has undoubtedly come in 
large part from their early recognition of the importance of the gold, silver and copper 
industries. They invented and patented improved machines for milling, smelting and 
refining ores, which soon came into general demand, bringing to their works an 
immense business. Among their machines are haulage apparatus, cages and cars, 
pumping machinery, stamp mills, ore crushers, amalgamators, air compressors, and a 
large variety of other articles for the mechanical outfit of mines producing gold, silver 
and copper. The firm have sent their products into all the mountain ranges of the 
United States, Bolivia and Mexico, and for many years have enjoyed a trade with South 
America, India, Africa, China and Japan. In 1890, they incorporated under their 
own name with a capital stock of $2,750,000. The little old shop has now grown 
to cover four acres of ground. A new one, covering eight acres of ground, has 
been built at Twelfth and Rockwell streets, besides a factory at Erith, Kent, on the 
Thames, in England, in order the more readily to reach the general markets of the 
world. The original force of sixty employes has grown to 1,200 competent and 
able machinists. 

The extended trade of the concern has compelled them to open branch offices in 
New York city, London, Denver, Helena, Salt Lake City, the City of Mexico, and 
Tokio in Japan. Mr. Chalmers is a Free Mason, an Odd Fellow and member of the 
Illinois club. 


WILLIAfl J. CHALMERS, manufacturer, Chicago, 111., son of Thomas Chalmers, 
was born at No. 112 West Monroe street, in Chicago, July to, 1852. From the West 
Division High School he stepped into business life. For four years an apprentice in 
The Eagle Works, of which his father was superintendent, he spent his period of 
pupilage in the drawing room and pattern shop. He next spent a year in travel in 
France, Germany, Switzerland, and other parts of Europe as well as in the British 
isles. In 1871, when Fraser & Chalmers succeeded to The Eagle Works, William J. 
Chalmers took charge of the finances and has since steadily risen through intermediate 
grades to the presidency of the concern. He is a practical man, energetic, keen, 
upright and sympathetic. In fact, through his instrumentality, a relief and aid society 
has been organized at the works for the benefit of employes. In general subscriptions 
for charity, Mr. Chalmers is especially liberal toward the care and assistance of chil- 
dren. For the success of the World's Fair, he labored with all his energy, as a direc- 
tor from the first, and a member of the Committees on Ways and Means and Mines 
and Mining, and he is now a director in The Commercial National Bank and The Field 
Columbian Museum, and a member of the Chicago, Union League, Illinois, Washington 
Park. Athletic and Fellowship clubs. He generally takes luncheon at the Chicago club 
in company with friends prominent in the business and professional world, and has been 
president of the Illinois club. In politics, he is a Republican, and has served on the Board 
of Education. Travel, music and the drama form his favorite diversions President 
Chalmers was married in 1878, to Miss Joan Pinkerton, a daughter of the late Allan Pink- 
erton, famous as a detective. This union has brought them two children, Joan and 
Thomas. Their summer home is at Dronley cottage, Lake Geneva, Wis. 

SELAH CHAHBERLAIN, railroad builder, Cleveland, O., born in Brattleborough, 
Vt., May 14, 1812, died in Cleveland, Dec. 27, 1890. He was of English descent and 
the son of Selah Chamberlain, a farmer. Educated at the public schools, he left the 
home of his boyhood at the age of twenty-one, and entered a store in Boston as clerk, 
remaining there two years. But a store did not suit his active nature. In 1835, he 
found work as a contractor and built the Erie extension of the Pennsylvania canal, and 
afterward part of the Ohio & Pennsylvania and Wabash & Erie canals. In 1845, he 
went to Canada, and spent two years in canal improvements along the St. Lawrence 
river, and then built successively under contract The Rutland & Burlington, The Og- 
densburg & Rouse's Point, The Cleveland & Pittsburgh, and a large number of other 
railroads, in whole or in part, including The La Crosse & Milwaukee and The Minne- 
sota Central Railroads. The construction of the lines of The Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul system gave him a large amount of work. In 1871, he began building The 
Lake Shore & Tuscarawas Valley, now The Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling Railroad, 
and was its president at his death. Mr. Chamberlain was interested largely in iron 
manufactures in Cleveland and in Lake Superior iron mines, and had been a director of 
The Mercantile National Bank in Cleveland, president of The Cleveland Transportation 
Co., director of The Dubuque Water Co., of which he was principal owner, head of the 
private bank of Chamberlain, Gorham & Perkins and interested in other Cleveland en- 
terprises. He gained a large fortune by honorable methods. While refusing political 
office, he was deeply interested in whatever would promote good citizenship, and for 
about forty years belonged to the Presbyterian church. He married in 1844, Arabella 
Cochran of Crawford county, Pa. Two children were born to them, neither now living. 


ZACHARIAH CHANDLER, merchant and United States Senator from Michigan, 
was born in Bedford, N. H., Dec. 10, 1813. Like so many other noted Americans, 
he sprang from the farm, and, during early years, attended country school, and taught 
therein one winter. It is said that his father offered him the choice of a course at 
college or $1,000 with which to go into business. Zachariah chose the money, and, in 
1833, located in Detroit and opened a modest dry goods store in that then small, 
growing city. The business career of Mr. Chandler proved exceedingly successful. 
The store grew with the city and State, became a wholesale establishment after a 
while, and made Mr. Chandler a rich man. 

Wide reading, acquaintance with men, and a strong mind supplied fully the lack 
of a college education in Mr. Chandler, and he became one of the best informed and 
most influential men of his State. Early struggles developed in him shrewdness of 
native wit and a vigorous and independent way of his thinking, and these, with a com- 
manding personal appearance, a combative nature, and a positiveness of character 
almost verging on sternness, were the sources of his power. Before the War, Mr. 
Chandler was an active agent in the famous "underground railroad" to Canada. He 
entered public life in 1851 as Mayor of Detroit, and in 1852. ran for Governor of 
Michigan and received so large a vote as to attract public notice. In January, 1857, he 
succeeded Lewis Cass in the United States Senate, and held that seat until Octo- 
ber, 1874, when, for two years, he became Secretary of War under President 
Grant. In February, 1879, for the fourth time, he was elected to the United States 
Senate. While lacking scholarly grace of manner and speech, Mr. Chandler exerted 
a strong influence while in Washington. Intensely Republican, aggressive, absolutely 
fearless, he was one of the strong and uncompromising champions of freedom in Kan- 
sas, of suppression of the Rebellion and the enactment of Republican measures. Feb. 
n, 1861, he wrote a letter to Governor Blair of Michigan, in which he said: "With- 
out a little blood-letting, this Union will not, in my estimation, be worth a rush." He 
regretted that President Lincoln did not call for 500,000 men at first instead of 75,000, 
and in July, 1861, introduced a sweeping confiscation bill, which, however, was not 
passed in its original form. One expression of Mr. Chandler's loyalty, the purchase 
of Government bonds, eventually added largely to his fortune, biit he would cheer- 
fully have submitted to entire loss of his investment rather than have seen the Gov- 
ernment crippled for lack of funds. He was chairman of the Republican National 
Committee in 1876, and in the Presidential campaign of that year. While in Chicago 
to deliver a political speech, he died alone in his room on the morning of Nov. i, 1879. 
A fortune of several millions was left to Mrs. Letitia Grace Chandler, his wife, and 
his daughter Mary, the wife of Eugene Hale, United States Senator from Maine. 

HENRY AUSTIN CHAPIN, owner of the famous Chapin iron mine and a resident 
of Niles, Mich., originated in Leyden, Franklin county, Mass., Oct. 15, 1813, son of 
Lorenzo and Maria Kent Chapin, farmers. The lineage of this gentleman goes back 
to Deacon Samuel Chapin, a settler in Springfield, Mass., in 1642. Owing to a migra- 
tion westward, Mr. Chapin learned to read, write and do other things of that sort in a 
country school in Portage county, O., and he set foot on the first round of the ladder 
of business life as clerk in a general store in Akron, O., climbing high enough to 
open a store on his own account in Michigan. How high he has since ascended is 
denoted by the fact that to Mr. Chapin belongs the fee of the land on the upper 


peninsula of Michigan, upon which the Chapin iron mine is now being operated. A 
royalty is paid for every ton of ore taken out, and, it is said, Mr. Chapin's revenue 
from that source has sometimes amounted to between $100,000 and $300,000 a year. 
The principal ownership of three paper mills in Niles and the electric light plant in 
South Bend, Ind. , are included among his holdings now, as well as real estate in 
Chicago and shares in various corporations not named. While a member of the 
Masonic order, and in politics once a Whig and now a Republican, with a wide circle 
of friends, Mr. Chapin enjoys life tranquilly and refuses to engage in political strife. 
To him and his wife, Ruby N. Nooney, whom he married March 22, 1836, at Mantua, 
O., have been born Sarah M., Caroline E., Charles A., and Henry Chapin. 

JOSEPH GILBERT CHAPHAN, manufacturer, St. Louis, Mo., was born in 1840 
at Oxford, N. Y. He graduated from Brown university in 1860. and then joined his 
father in St. Louis, engaging in the manufacture of lumber. While their mills were in 
Wisconsin, the product was distributed to St. Louis and intervening States. In 1873, Mr. 
Chapm;m acquired by inheritance a more commanding interest in mills and tracts of 
pine timber. The business was successfully liquidated in about 1887. Mr. Chapman 
married a daughter of the late Hudson E. Bridge, for many years president and con- 
trolling owner of The Pacific Railroad of Missouri, and of whose estate he has for 3*ears 
been a trustee. He has been prominently identified with the best life of St. Louis 
and its educational and philanthropic movements, and has been a trustee of Washing- 
ton university for the past fifteen years. For nearly as many years, he was president 
of The St. Louis Museum and School of Fine Arts, to whose endowment he contrib- 
uted largely, and for whose development and expansion he has labored earnestly. He 
is president of the St. Louis Protestant Hospital and president or vice president of sev- 
eral large corporations in which he holds interests. Mr. Chapman's residence, one of 
the largest in the city, has been the center of a refined social life for years. There is an 
excellent collection of works of art in the picture gallery of this large and imposing- 
house, especially rich in representative works of the English school, while cabinets of 
rare treasures adorn the other rooms, collected through years of travel and opportunity. 
Mr. Chapman is a descendant of Robert Chapman, one of the English, colony which 
settled in Saybrook, Conn., in 1640, a man of culture and education, having large land 
interests and wielding a wide influence during his life in that colony. His maternal 
ancestor was Abijah Gilbert, who came from England in 1787, entering a large tract 
of land under the Morris patent in Otsego county, X Y. , and founding the village of 
Gilbertsville, one of the picturesque towns of Central New York. 

EDWARD CHAPPELL, merchant, Nonvich, Conn., was so modest a man, that, 
were he living, he would be surprised to discover himself worthy of notice in these 
pages; but he was a successful man, and never more so than in his resistance to the 
temptations of avarice. Born in New London, Conn., March 4, 1815, of remote Eng- 
lish ancestry, he died, Oct. 13, 1891, sincerely mourned by all who knew him. While 
a young man, he became a merchant in Norwich, Conn., and passed his life mainly in 
the management of a coal and lumber business and in the investment of surplus accu- 
mulations. Honor was innate in the man, arid, on one occasion, when he failed in busi- 
ness and resumed only after compromising with his creditors, he subsequently paic 1 
every dollar of the remaining indebtedness, with interest, amounting to over $100,000, 
which he was under no legal obligation to refund. 


WILLIAM LEVERETT CHASE, merchant, Boston, who died Oct. 7, 1895, was 
a native of Grafton, Mass., where he was born Dec. 4, 1853. With the advantage of 
tuition at Harvard, class of 1876, and immediate introduction into a business already 
established by his family, it is not surprising that Mr. Chase soon made his mark. 
Taking a place in the house of H. & L. Chase, manufacturers and importers of bags, 
he was given every chance to learn all branches of the business and, after the death 
of H. Chase in 1884, and of L. Chase in 1885, he became sole proprietor, retaining, 
however, the old firm name. From the senior Chase, the subject of this memoir inher- 
ited large means, through which he became president of the Victoria mills, vice pres- 
ident of The State Street Safe Deposit & Trust Co. , and a director in The Third 
National Bank. He was an honest man, popular socially, capable and considerate, and 
a member of the Commercial club, a Park Commissioner and president of the local 
Society of the Sons Of the Revolution. 

HOBART C. CHATFIELD-TAYLOR, author and financier, was born in Chi- 
cago, March 24, 1865. Henry Hobart Taylor, his father, a native of Oneida county, 
N. Y., who married Adelaide Chatfield, was of English descent, his ancestor settling 
in Northhampton, Mass., about 1760. From Oliver Chatfield, his ancestor, one of 
Morgan's riflemen in the War of the Revolution, the subject of this sketch derives his 
eligibility to membership in the Sons of the American Revolution. Horace Chatfield, 
grandfather, was a Captain in the New York militia in the War of 1812. Hobart grad- 
uated from Cornell university in the class of 1886 and then devoted himself to litera- 
ture. For two years, he edited a weekly review named America, which he sold in 1889. 
He is the author of two novels, "With Edge Tools " and ''An American Peeress," 
and has contributed to the Cosmopolitan and other magazines. Mr. Chatrield-Taylor 
inherited wealth from his father and his uncle, W. B. Chatfield. He is a man of fine 
mind, agreeable manners, and wide acquaintance, and is a member of the Union and 
Calumet clubs in New York city, the Metropolitan in Washington, D. C., and the 
Chicago, University, Union and others in Chicago. For services rendered the Spanish 
government during the Columbian Exposition, he received the decoration of " Isabella 
the Catholic." June, 1890, Mr. Taylor married Rose, the daughter of ex-Senator 
Charles B. Farwell, at Lake Forest, 111., and has two children. 

FELIPE CHAVES, a banker, Belen, N. M., is a son of the late Jose" Chaves, who 
was a Governor of New Mexico under the Mexican Republic about 1846. His family 
came originally from Spain, and Francisco X. Chaves, grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch, was the first political chief after the Spaniards left. Two of his sons 
and a brother were Governors. Felipe was born in Padillas, N. M., Nov. 20, 1834, 
and was educated at Guadalajara, State of Jalisco, Mex. He began business life at 
Padillas as a merchant and sheep raiser and made many trips for the sale and purchase 
of merchandise in several cities of the Mexican republic, travelling with mule teams 
and returning with large stocks of Mexican goods. He also crossed the plains many 
times to buy goods in St. Louis, Philadelphia and New York. During the Civil War, 
his life was often endangered and his losses were heavy. An overflow of the Rio 
Grande having destroyed his house and mills, he removed to Belen in 1866, and in 1880 
sold his sheep and mercantile business and established the private bank of Felipe 
Chaves, which he is now conducting. Mr. Chaves is a large owner of lands in his 
region and an interesting character. 


BENJAHIN PIERCE CHENEY, notable as one of the pioneers in the express busi- 
ness in New England, born Aug. 12, 1815, in the rural townshipof Hillsborough, N. H., 
died at his home in Wellesley, Mass., July 23, 1895. Deacon Tristram Cheney of this 
line, great grandfather of Benjamin P. Cheney, was one of the early settlers of Antrim, 
N. H., having been born in Dedham, and a resident successively of Framingham, 
Sudbury. and Rindge, N. H., locating finally in Antrim, where he built a homestead 
near Cork Bridge on what is known as the Diamond Dodge Place. Of several children 
born to him, one, Elias, grandfather of Benjamin P. , married first Miss Blanchard of 
West Deering, N. H., and subsequently Miss Deborah Winchester of Hillsborough. 
He had nine children, of whom Jesse served his country for four years in the American 
Revolution, two years for himself, one for his father, and one for his brother. Jesse 
married Miss Alice Steele of Antrim and he became the father of nine children, 
William, who died in infancy, Benjamin Pierce, James, Jesse, Oilman and John, and 
three daughters. 

Jesse Cheney was a blacksmith and his boy, Benjamin, struggled to get an educa- 
tion in the public grammar schools, but the moderate means of the family made it 
incumbent upon him to bear a hand at the age of ten in his father's shop, and two 
years later to find gainful occupation in a tavern and store in Francestown, N. H. 
His later career was merely an evolution from the circumstances which then surrounded 
him, combined with his own sturdy qualities of mind and body. Stages drove up to 
the doors of the hotel in Francestown, every day, because this was before the advent 
of the iron horse, and finally, finding indoor life injurious to his health and perhaps 
captivated a little by the pomp and show of the stages, young Benjamin bought his 
time from his father, and at the age of sixteen began to drive a stage from Nashua to 
Keene, N. H., over a route fifty miles in length. This he did for six years, facing 
rain, snow and the other rigors of that northern climate and mastering every branch 
of the practical side of staging. At the age of twenty-three, he was sent to Boston to 
act as agent for the Nashua and other stage lines, running northward from the termi- 
nus of the Lowell railroad in Nashua, and making his office at No. n Elm street. 
Here he gained an insight into management, and being a wide awake, progressive and 
courageous man, finally saw the great opportunity of his life and took advantage of it. 
It may be said that, for a time, he lived on Bullfinch Place in the house of Mrs. Hani- 
den, whose husband had been connected with express enterprise in Southern New Eng- 
land and in New York State, but in 1865, upon his marriage, he established a home in 
Marlborough street, which was ever afterward retained. 

About 1842, with Nathaniel White of Concord, N.H., another former stage driver, 
and William Walker, Mr. Cheney organized an express route for the forwarding of 
packages from Boston to Montreal, the old carrier service by stages being then about 
to be abolished by newly built railroads. At one time, the firm name was Cheney, 
Fisk & Co., but when Phin Fisk died, it became Cheney's Express, and as such speedily 
made itself widely known in Northern New England and proved a most profitable enter- 
prise for all concerned. Mr. Cheney carried it on for nearly thirty-seven years, the latter 
part of the time under the name of The United States & Canada Express Co. About 
1855, Mr. Cheney lost one of his arms, the right, on The Northern New Hampshire 
Railroad. While in the express car talking with the express messenger, an accident 
occurred to the tender of the train and the cars next astern piled up on the locomotive, 


Mr. Cheney being pinned down by the wreck and suffering the loss referred to. Owing 
to his open air life, a sturdy physique and robust health, he quickly recovered from the 
other effects of the accident. In 1880, with his associates, he merged his business into 
that of The American Express Co., taking stock in payment. He was promptly made 
a director of The American Express Co. , and remained such the rest of his life, being 
the largest individual stockholder in the company. 

During this period, Mr. Cheney had been enabled by large means to play a part in 
various other important enterprises. He helped establish the overland mail and 
express business across the plains and mountains of the West to San Francisco, and 
held an interest in Wells, Fargo & Co. He was also one of the pioneers in develop- 
ment of The Northern Pacific Railroad, and a director of the company. It is said that 
he had the faculty of grasping the possibilities of any railroad enterprise quicker than 
the majority of men. He had great faith in The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rail- 
road, invested largely in its securities and became a director, and he also held the same 
relation to The Mexican Central Railroad, another of the Nickerson enterprises. He 
was also a director of The Northern Railroad of New Hampshire and The Central Ver- 
mont Railroad, and connected with The Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad, The 
Market National Bank and The American Loan & Trust Co. of Boston, and other 

As age and a desire for relief from business cares advanced upon him, Mr. Cheney 
placed some of the burdens of management upon his oldest son and devoted himself 
to an attractive estate at Wellesley, Mass., upon which he spent the larger part 
of every year. Nearly surrounded by the Charles river and containing more than 
two hundred acres of land, a splendid mansion, and perhaps the largest lawn 
in the United States, Mr. Cheney took great pleasure in this property, which over- 
looked the scene of Mrs. Stowe's story of "Old Town Folks." He gave much 
time to flowers, and became a member of the Horticultural Society in consequence. 
Clubs he never cared for and never entered except as a guest, although he was a sub- 
scription member of the Art club of Boston. Unassuming in manner, genial, a thor- 
ough business man, clear and accurate in his observations, equally kind to an express 
messenger as to a railroad president, he was loved by employes as well as officers and 
universally respected wherever known. 

Mr. Cheney was married in Boston, June 6, 1865, to Elizabeth S., daughter of 
Asahel Clapp, and to them was born Benjamin P. , Alice S. , Charles P. , Mary and 
Elizabeth Cheney. June 17, 1886, he presented to his native State a bronze statue of 
Daniel Webster, costing $12,000, which was placed in the State House park in Concord, 
N. H. The pedestal is of the finest Concord granite, and was designed by Thomas 
Ball and executed by him at Florence, the casting being made at Munich. To Dart- 
mouth college, he gave 50,000. 

BENJAfllN PIERCE CHENEY, jr., son of the last named, and now well known 
in the business and club world, was born in Boston, April 8, 1866. Graduating from 
the English high school in 1885, and already showing strong traits of character, he 
entered Harvard college in 1886, was a member of the Hasty Pudding club, and a 
leader of its theatrical organization, and graduated in 1890. Mr. Cheney at first felt an 
inclination to enter the law office of Augustus Russ, but this was given up, and he 
went into The Market National Bank, in which his father was a director, to learn the 


banking business. He began at the lowest round, worked faithfully, and in about two 
years' time was chosen a director in place of his father, who desired to retire. He is 
now the most active man in the board. About this time, also, he entered his iather's 
office on Court Square, and had hardly familiarized himself with the new duties, when 
his father's illness made it nefessary that he should at once take charge of large and 
multifarious interests. These consisted of large holdings in various New England rail- 
road and banking properties, The American and The Wells- Fargo Express Co's and 
The Atchison, Mexican Central, Northern Pacific, and a dozen or more other large 
Western railroads. It is sufficient to say of this comparatively young man that he has 
met every expectation of his family. He is a strict believer in business principles and 
is never too busy to talk business, a splendid listener but not anxious to have others 
listen to him. He observes quickly and acts promptly and with judgment. The qual- 
ities of a successful business man seem to be his and the future is bright with promise 
of achievement. He is at present a director of The Mexican Central and The Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa F6 Railroads, and The San Diego Land & Town Co. , and a member 
of the Boston Athletic Association, the Algonquin and Art clubs of Boston, and the 
Harvard and Players' clubs of New York. 

JATIES CHENEY, lawyer, Fort Wayne, Ind., is a native of Sutton, Vt., the date 
of his birth being Dec. 15, 1817. In the practice of the law, mainly in Fort Wayne, 
he gained a start and as a reticent, cautious, shrewd investor and operator in railroads, 
stocks, loans and lands, he has risen to fortune. He was at one time a director in 
The Wabash Railroad and was president, treasurer and controlling owner of The 
Fort Wayne Gaslight Co. He lives a part of the time in New York city, and when 
stocks are low operates in Wall street, where he has been exceedingly successful. He 
is said never to vote at an election in Indiana. 

WARD CHENEY, pioneer silk manufacturer, South Manchester, Conn., belonged 
to the race of men of original ideas, who change the course of human events and leave 
a rich heritage of benefits to their fellow men. Born on a farm in South Manchester, 
Conn., in 1813, the son of George Cheney, he spent his early years in the work of the 
farm, but dreamed of a more active part in the larger world outside, and finally went 
into a dry goods store in Providence, R. I. While there, a new industry, the growing 
of raw silk, began in 1833 to attract attention in America. The older men of the 
present generation well remember the famous " mori multicaulis " speculation, which 
grew out of the first attempts at silk culture, a craze never before equalled except by 
the historic tulip mania of Holland. Mr. Cheney had been a farmer. The new industry 
was in the line of his experience and he believed that raw silk production gave him an 
opportunity, whereupon he removed to Burlington, N. J., to engage therein. A natural 
outgrowth of silk culture was the establishment of a small factory, in 1836, by Mr. 
Cheney on his father's farm at South Manchester for the spinning of silk. In this 
venture, he persevered for several years but the enterprise was in advance of the age 
and finally came to an end. In 1841, aided by riper knowledge, Mr. Cheney made a 
fresh attempt. The second experiment was successful, and the business which he 
created and handed down in his family became one of the most creditable triumphs of 
American pluck and perseverance. His thread having been once accepted as excel- 
lent in quality, the Cheney factory gained ground every year in spite of many trials. 
Arthur, Charles and Frank W. Cheney, brothers, successively joined the founder in the 

1 64 


business, which then took the name of Cheney Bro's, under which style it is yet carried 
on. The sewing silks made by the Cheneys have proved superior to the best European 
brands, and are in especial demand for sewing machine use, on account of their 
strength, uniformity and finish. The firm finally undertook the weaving of dress goods, 
both plain and figured, and their business expanded to such a magnitude that it was 
necessary to organize a joint stock company for convenience of management. Ward 
Cheney became president of the company, and was afterward president of The Silk 
Association of America. Both of these positions he retained until his death, March 
22, 1876. All of the brothers established their homes at South Manchester, and as one 
result of their activity, a model New England village has grown into existence upon the 
old farm, handsomely laid out, its houses beautiful in design, and the town possessing 
the complete equipment of a modern municipality. For the uses of their employes, 
the firm have supplied the village with schools, a library and reading room, a theatre 
for dramatic entertainments, and a public hall which is open for secular purposes on 
week days and for religious worship on Sundays. The factories are now under the 
management of the second and third generations of the Cheney family. 

THOMAS EDWARD CHICKERINQ, piano manufacturer, Boston, Mass., born in 
that city, Oct. 22, 1824, died there Feb. 14, 1871. He was the son of Jonas Chickering, 
founder of Chickering & Sons, and at the death of his father, in 1853, became senior 
partner in the firm of which he had been a member since attaining his majority. The 
Chickerings developed a piano of brilliant quality, which vied with the Steinway piano 
for the favor of musicians and the public, and has been practically the only American 
rival of the Steinway among those who are content with nothing less than first class in- 
struments. The principal salesroom of the firm was in New York city. Mr. Chickering 
was for many years before the Civil War interested in the State militia of Massachu- 
setts, and, in 1862, left Boston in command of the 4ist Mass. Vols. The regiment was 
dispatched to New Orleans in December of that year and performed efficient service in 
the field. In April, 1863, Colonel Chickering became military governor of Opelousas, 
and at the close of the War was brevetted Brigadier General. 

GEORGE WILLIAfl CHILDS, proprietor of The Public Ledger of Philadelphia, 
was born in Baltimore, Md., May 12, 1829, and died in Philadelphia, Feb. 3, 1894. He 
attended private schools until thirteen years of age and was then appointed to a position 
in the United States Navy, but in 1844 settled in Philadelphia, a poor lad, entirely de- 
pendent upon himself, and began his singularly successful career as an errand boy in a 
book store. On account of his capacity, the firm soon delegated him to attend book 
sales and make purchases. In 1847, Mr. Childs opened a small book store on his own 
account, in the old Public Ledger building, investing therein his entire capital of a few 
hundred dollars. This business fared well. A few years later, he entered into part- 
nership with Robert E. Peterson, first as Peterson & Childs and then as Childs & Peter- 
son, and engaged in publishing various books of merit. In 1880, Mr. Peterson retired. 
For about a year, Mr. Childs went on in partnership with J. B. Lippincott and then 
withdrew and went on alone. In 1863, he made a modest venture in newspaper pub- 
lishing by buying The Publishers' Circular, which he changed to The American Gazette & 
Publishers' Circular and enlarged in value and usefulness. 

Dec. 3, 1864, Mr. Childs bought for about $150,000 The Public Ledger, a daily 
newspaper of then small circulation and a bankrupt property. In this venture he was 


aided by Anthony J. and Francis A. Drexel as partners. Mr. Childs understood the 
people of Philadelphia thoroughly and knew how to adapt his paper to their require- 
ments. He enlarged, improved and elevated The Public Ledger, gave his entire time 
to the paper for years, remaining in the editorial rooms until midnight, placed it after 
a struggle upon a profitable basis, and for many years enjoyed the largest income 
received from any newspaper property in Philadelphia. The new home of his journal 
at Sixth and Chestnut streets was built in 1866-67. He gained a fortune of several 
millions, which he used with public spirit. The badinage of The New York Sun, 
which called frequent attention to the obituary poetry in The Public Ledger, contrib- 
uted in a measure to make Mr. Childs known throughout the United States. 

The private benefactions of Mr. Childs and his subscriptions to public objects were 
constant and noteworthy. He was the first to subscribe $10,000 towards the Centen- 
nial Exposition, and gave liberally to the $100,000 fund for the family of General 
Meade. He endowed a burial lot for printers in Woodland Cemetery, gave a Shakespeare 
memorial fountain to Stratford-on-Avon, erected monuments over the graves of Edgar 
A. Poe, Richard A. Proctor and Leigh Hunt, and placed a stained glass window in 
memory of Cowper and Herbert in Westminster Abbey. He was the largest Ameri- 
can subscriber to the fund for a memorial window to Thomas Moore in a church in 
England. Half of his gifts will never be known. Mr. Childs gratified his schol- 
arly tastes by the collection of a large library, which contained, among other things, 
the original manuscript of "Our Mutual Friend," by Dickens. 

Although an intimate friend of President Grant, public office had no charms for 
Mr. Childs, and when, in 1888, a disposition appeared among his friends to nominate 
him for the Presidency, he ended the matter abruptly by an emphatic declination in 
Tlie Public Ledger. The only important office he ever held was that of vice president, 
and after the death of Mr. Drexel, president of the Drexel Institute. His wife, Emma 
Bouvier, a daughter of Robert E. Peterson, survives him. 

OZRO W. CHILDS, merchant, Los Angeles, Cala., born in Button, Vt., June 5, 
1824, died in California, April 17, 1890. His mother was of Scottish and his father of 
English descent. Educated first at Brownington academy and afterward at Lyndon, 
he passed his early life upon the farm, teaching school, however, for three successive 
winters. In consequence of the severe climate and the hard work of the farm, he was 
attacked with asthma. He went to Massillon, O., in 1848, where he took charge of 
a school of 125 pupils at a salary of twelve dollars a month. In 1850, he removed to 
California, finally settling in Los Angeles, and embarking in the hardware business. 
The sale of the store four years afterward and some real estate operations gave him a 
profit of $100,000. In 1856, he engaged in the nursery business, importing a great 
many exotic and rare plants, previously unknown to that part of the country, and won 
the reputation of being the pioneer nurseryman and florist of Southern California. He 
was married in 1860 to Miss Emmeline Huber, a lady of German descent, but a native 
of Louisville, Ky., by whom he had six children, Ozro W., Emma S., Carrie M., Ruth 
E., Stephen W., and Hortense C. Childs. The nursery business was sold in 1880. 
Mr. Childs was enabled to make numerous investments and was a director in The 
Farmers' & Merchants' Bank, The Security Savings Bank, The City Water Company 
and various other enterprises. He built the Grand Opera House in Los Angeles in 
1884, and was trustee of the State Normal School. Health, always delicate owing 


to asthma, did not prevent his mind from being vigorous and his business career 
highly successful. He lived by sheer force of will and determination. 

WILLIAM CHISHOLM, manufacturer, Cleveland, O., is a native. of Scotland, 
having been born in Lochgelly, in Fifeshire, Aug. 12, 1825. Unable to obtain an 
elaborate education, at the age of twelve he was apprenticed to a dry goods merchant 
in Kircaldy. Three years later, finding life on shore rather dull, he became a sailor 
and followed the sea for seven years. In 1847, he settled in Montreal, Canada, and 
made a start as a builder and contractor. His brother Henry having settled in Cleve- 
land, Mr. Chisholm removed to that city in 1852, and later to Pittsburgh, where he 
remained until 1857 engaged in practical pursuits. In 1857, he returned to Cleveland 
and joined his brother, Henry, in the management of The Cleveland Rolling Mills. 
While retaining his injterest in that company, he withdrew several years later from 
active management to engage in the manufacture of spikes, bolts, and horseshoes, on 
his independent account. Having made experiments in the manufacture of wood 
screws from Bessemer steel, he organized The Union Steel Co., of Cleveland, in 1871, 
to engage in that industry. He afterward invented machinery for the manufacture of 
steel shovels, spades and scoops, and in 1879, established The Chisholm Steel Shovel 
Works, of which he has remained the head until the present time. The firm which 
operates this large plant is known as William Chisholm & Sons, the senior partner 
having admitted Henry A. and Stewart F. Chisholm to a share in the ownership and 
management. In 1882, he began to make steam engines for hoisting and pumping, 
and transmitters for carrying coal and ore between vessels and railroad cars. Mr. 
Chisholm is vice president of The National City Bank, and owns valuable realty in 
Cleveland and stock in The State National Bank and other concerns. 

WILLIAfl CHISHOLM, manufacturer, a nephew of the foregoing, is a son of the 
late Henry and Jean Allan Chisholm, the former the founder of The Cleveland Rolling 
Mills and a man of enterprise and ability. William was born in Montreal, Canada, May 
22, 1843. Both parents were natives of Scotland, who migrated to Montreal in 1842 
and then, in 1849, to the livelier country across the border, settling in Cleveland, O. 
Laying aside his books in 1858, after two years in the High School, William Chisholm 
went to work in The Cleveland Rolling Mills as a clerk. There, he speedily learned 
enough to know that there was more he did not know, and he took a four years' course 
in mechanical engineering in the Polytechnic college, Philadelphia. From that place, 
he went to Chicago as secretary and manager of The Union Rolling Mills, and had be- 
come vice president and manager, when, in 1880, his father recalled him to Cleveland 
to make him vice president of the Cleveland concern. Since the death of his father, 
he has been president of the company, and a capable one. Under his management, 
these mills have grown into an industry of the first importance. The capital stock is 
$4,000,000. For politics, so far as office is concerned, Mr. Chisholm cares nothing. 
Finance alone now interests him and he is vice president of The National Bank of 
Commerce and The Union Steel Screw Co., and interested in lake transportation com- 
panies and Lake Superior mines. However, he is of a social nature and belongs to the 
Union, Roadside and Country clubs and is a member of The American Society of En- 
gineers and trustee of the Orphan Asylum. In 1864, in Chicago, Mr. Chisholm married 
Mary Henrietta Stone, and their children are Mrs. Mary C. Painter, Alva Stone Chis- 
holm and Jean Allan Chisholm. 


PIERRE CHOUTEAU, fur merchant, St. Louis, Mo., was the son of that Pierre 
Chouteau, who, ascending the Mississippi river in 1 763, with the expedition of Laclede 
to establish a fur trade with the Indians, founded, in 1764, the little trading post, 
which in time grew into the city of St. Louis, Mo. Auguste Chouteau was a com- 
panion of his brother Pierre in this expedition and in the business operations which 
followed. Frontier life afforded Pierre Chouteau, jr. , a limited education only, and, at 
fifteen years of age, he became clerk to his father and uncle in their extended trade 
with the Indian tribes. That trade descended to him in time, and, with so much energy 
did he prosecute his enterprise, one of the most profitable in that era, that he 
amassed large wealth and occupied a position in the West similar to that of John Jacob 
Astor in the East. With the gradual settlement of the West, the red man retired 
farther and farther into the wilderness, but Mr. Chouteau followed the Indians as they 
slowly retreated westward, and, through his agents, traded with them at many different 
points, including St. Joseph and Kansas City, Belleview, Council Bluffs, Fort Pierre, 
Fort Berthold, Fort Union, and Fort Benton, the latter at the head of navigation on 
the Missouri. Trading posts along the Osage river and on the Mississippi, from 
Keokuk to St. Paul, were also established by him. About 1806, he visited Dubuque in a 
canoe to trade with the Sac and Fox Indians. Several other large dealers in furs were 
at times the partners of Mr. Chouteau, among them, John Jacob Astor of New York. 
In 1834, his associates and he purchased Mr. Astor's interest in The American Fur Co., 
and, in 1839, formed a new organization, which, under the name of P. Chouteau, jr., & 
Co. , extended its trade from the Cross Timbers of Texas in the South and the Black- 
feet country in the West to the Falls of St. Anthony in the North. The trade of 
Santa F6 was also in its hands. The sale of his furs compelled Mr. Chouteau to make 
many visits to the East and Europe, and, at one time, he dwelt for several years in 
New York city. He died in St. Louis, Sept. 8, 1865, survived by his son Charles and 
daughter Julia, now Mrs. Charles C. Maffit, both of St. Louis. 

GEORGE HENRY CHRISTIAN, Minneapolis, Minn., flour miller, was born in a 
wigwam in the heart of Alabama, Jan. 14, 1839. He is of Irish and Scotch descent. 
After attendance at school in Wilmington, N. C. , he entered business life as a clerk in 
the office of The Continental Fire Insurance Co. on Wall street, New York city, where 
he became cashier. He resigned the place to enter the army in 1861, but was pre- 
vented by circumstance from carrying out the latter design. He then removed to Chi- 
cago and learned flour milling. In 1867, he removed to Minneapolis, and later, with 
C. C. Washburn, engaged extensively in the flouring industry there. The business 
was conducted under the name of Geo. H. Christian & Co. until 1875, when the senior 
partner retired, and his properties were transferred to The Northwestern Consolidated 
Milling Co. He is now president and chief owner of The Hardwood Manufacturing 
Co. and a member of the Minneapolis club. He was married to Leonora Hall, April 
23, 1867, and his children are George Chase and Henry Hall Christian. 

RICHARD CHUTE, property owner, Minneapolis, Minn., a native of Cincinnati, 
O., Sept. 23, 1820, has spent his entire life in the West and has witnessed, and helped 
bring about, the marvellous transformation of an unoccupied wilderness into the abode 
of civilized man. Educated by his father, young Chute went to work at twelve as a 
clerk, but in 1844, he built a trading post in Minnesota, near Fort Snelling, and 
dealt with the white man and the Indian on his own account. He made money, and, 


in 1854, bought an interest in The St. Anthony Falls Water Power Co. and became 
a resident of Minneapolis. The Water Power concern was managed by him for many 
years. Mr. Chute was one of those who saw the advantages which this water power 
would bring to Minneapolis, and he gained a fortune by his courage in investing his 
means in real estate there and in St. Paul. At his death, Aug. i, 1893, a wife and 
three children survived him. 

JOHN M. CLARK, Chicago, 111., was born in Michigan in 1836, and educated as a 
civil engineer, graduating trom the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1 856. Becoming 
a member of the firm of Grey, Clark & Engle in Chicago, he engaged in the manufacture 
of leather, with a branch house in Boston. Although now for a number of years not 
actively occupied with details in the work of the house, he retains an interest in the 
corporation. He has, held a number of official positions, and has been a member of the 
City Council of Chicago, and of the Board of Education, and Collector of Customs for 
the port and district of Chicago for four years. The latter position was held during the 
period of the World's Fair, when its duties were very much increased. 

WILLIAfl ANDREWS CLARK, pioneer, merchant, banker and miner, of Mon- 
tana, is one of that class of bold and enterprising men of very nearly universal genius, 
whose talents are constructive and whose services are of incalculable value to any com- 
monwealth in which they may reside. Nature had bestowed upon Montana an 
opulence of material resources, a majesty of natural beauty and fertility of soil, which 
should have invited the settler and awakened the enterprise of a teeming population 
fifty years ago. But for generations the tide of emigration westward had rolled by 
Montana, then considered a wilderness too savage for civilized man, until a group of 
hardy spirits, of which Mr. Clark is one, encamped among her mountains and created 
there, first a Territory, then a State, and in a business life time gave Montana a popula- 
tion nearly equal to that of some of the States which were planted two hundred years 
ago. The story of the life of these pioneers can not fail to be of interest. 

The ancestors of Mr. Clark came from County Tyrone, in Ireland, his paternal 
grandfather, John Clark, settling in the early days in Pennsylvania soon after the 
American Revolution, and marrying Miss Reed, of Chester county, whose parents 
were also from the North of Ireland. William and Sarah Andrews, grandparents on 
his mother's side, were also emigrants from County Tyrone and settled in Western 
Pennsylvania very early in the present century. Mrs. Andrews, born Kithcart, 
descended from the Cathcart family of Huguenots, whose name became changed to 
Kithcart through the error of a registrar in the transfer of a tract of land. John 
Clark, father of William A. Clark, lived with his wife, Mary Andrews, in Penn- 
sylvania until 1856, when the family moved to Van Buren county, la., where he 
died in 1873, at the age of seventy-six. He was an elder in the Presbyterian church 
for forty years. Mrs. Mary Clark now lives at Los Angeles, Cala. , at the age of nearly 

William A. Clark was born on the farm near Connellsville, Fayette county, 
Pa., Jan. 8, 1839, and spent his boyhood days at the homestead, attending school for 
three months every Winter and toiling the rest of each year in the work of the farm. 
At the age of fourteen, he entered Laural Hill academy and acquired a good English edu- 
cation. After the family had removed their household goods to Iowa, William assisted 
for one season in tilling the new prairie farm, but taught school the succeeding Winter 

The Lewis Tub. Co. Clucago. 


and then was taught himself in an academy at Birmingham for one term. Afterward, 
he attended Wesleyan university at Mount Pleasant, but did not graduate, nor, 
although he studied law for two years, did he ever practice. Stirring news was being 
received from the Rocky Mountains. Gold had been discovered in Colorado, and 
finally, after teaching school in 1859-60 in Missouri and a short stay at home, Mr. Clark 
drove a team across the great plains in 1862 to South Park, Colo., and entered upon the 
career which was destined to enlarge his usefulness and make him a distinguished man. 
He toiled in the gold quartz mines in Central City, Colo. , for wages one year, gaining 
there the knowledge and experience which afterward served him so well. 

In 1863, news came of gold discoveries at Bannack, and Mr. Clark was among the 
first to start for the savage region, which had so far been virtually avoided by all except 
the hunter, trapper and soldier, and after sixty-five days' travel with an ox team he 
arrived at Bannack just in time to join another stampede to Horse Prairie. At the 
latter place, he located a claim and worked it during that and the following season, gath- 
ering from its bosom $i , 500 the first Summer. This modest sum enabled him to engage 
in farther operations in Montana and formed the basis of his fortune. While mining 
exerts a fascinating influence on the majority of its devotees, it reluctantly awards the 
prizes within its grasp to very few. The man who keeps his head may often do 
better in other enterprises. Instead of continuing to work the placers, Mr. Clark took 
advantage of the rush of population into the Territory and had the sense to engage in 
mercantile pursuits, with the result that in five years he was at the head of one of the 
largest wholesale trading establishments in the Territory, built up from the smallest of 
beginnings. His first venture was to bring in from Salt Lake City, in the Winter of 
1863-64, a load of provisions, which he sold at amazing prices. The next Winter, the 
experiment was repeated on a larger scale, with Virginia City as a market. In the 
Spring of 1865, he opened a general store at Blackfoot City, then a new and hustling 
mining camp. This he sold in the Fall. But he was alert to opportunities. Tobacco 
being scarce in the mining camps, Mr. Clark then rode on horseback to Boise City, 
Idaho, where he purchased several thousand pounds of the product, paying $1.50 a 
pound. Freighting his precious cargo to Helena by wagon, he sold the tobacco to 
ready purchasers for 5 and $6 a pound. In February, 1866, a stampede occurred to 
Elk Creek, and there Mr. Clark established another store. He sold goods to the miners 
during the season and the store itself in the Fall, and then made his way to San Fran- 
cisco, travelling a goodly portion of the journey on horseback. Returning to Montana 
with another stock of goods, which he had selected to meet the wants of the miners, he 
readily disposed of the wares at large profits. 

In October, 1866, Mr. Clark went East by way of Fort Benton and the Mackinaw 
route, being thirty-five days on the Missouri river from Fort Benton to Sioux City. 
After visiting the principal cities of the East and the South, he returned to Montana 
the following year. His next important venture was a ' ' star route " mail contract be- 
tween Missoula and Walla Walla, a distance of 400 miles, an enterprise which gave his 
energy ample scope and called for courage and good management. He made a success 
of mail carrying and staging, as he did of every other undertaking, and then, the gainer 
by all these experiences, turned his thoughts again to trade. 

In the Autumn of 1868, he visited New York city, and there formed a co-partnership 
with R. W. Donnell in wholesale mercantile and banking business in Montana, a con- 


nection which resulted in the creation of one of the strongest business firms in Montana. 
They shipped a large stock of general merchandise by way of the Missouri river in the 
Spring of 1869 to Helena, and established in that city an extensive wholesale trade. In 
1870, the business was transferred to Deer Lodge and consolidated with that of Mr. 
Donnell in the last named city. At this time, S E. Larabie was admitted into the 
business, the style of the firm then being Donnell, Clark & Larabie. They soon closed 
out their profitable mercantile business to devote their exclusive attention to banking, 
first at Deer Lodge and at a later date at both that place and at Butte City. In May, 
1884, Clark & Larabie purchased the interests of Mr Donnell in their Montana busi- 
ness; and subsequently Mr. Clark and his brother. James Ross Clark, came into full 
ownership of the Butte bank, disposing of the Deer Lodge interest. The Banking 
House of W. A. Clark, & Brother, of Butte City, yet in existence, has, owing to the 
existence of rich deposits of gold, silver and copper in that neighborhood, grown to 
become one of the strongest of its class in the West. 

The surplus capital of a merchant in Montana is likely to find its way into mining 
investments, and it has been in the development of mills and smelters that Mr. Clark 
has in more recent years attained his greatest success. No other individual has played 
a more conspicuous part in this direction. Mr. Clark first began to give attention to 
the quartz prospects of Butte in 1872, when he bought in whole or in part the " Origi- 
nal," "Colusa," "Mountain Chief," "Gambetta," and other copper and silver mines, 
nearly all of which proved afterward to be fabulously rich. But lacking the special 
knowledge required for scientific labors, he had the sense and courage to spend the 
Winter of 1872-73 at the School of Mines, Columbia college, in a thorough course in 
practical assaying and analysis. The first stamp mill of Butte, the " Old Dexter," was 
finished in 1876, through the financial aid of Mr. Clark. The first smelter of any con- 
sequence in Butte was erected by The Colorado & Montana Mining & Smelting Co., 
organized by him in 1878, which, changed in name since 1883, to The Colorado Mining 
& Smelting Co., continues one of the leading enterprises of the Copper City. Mr. 
Clark is one of the largest stockholders and vice president of the company. 

In 1880, he organized The Moulton Mining Co., with a capital of $2,000,000, 
which at once built a complete dry-crushing and chlorodizing forty-stamp silver ore 
mill, sank a three compartment shaft 800 feet into that mine of gold and silver, put in 
modern pumping and hoisting works, and thoroughly explored the property, at a cost 
of about $500, ooo. This mine is yet in successful operation, and its stock is strongly 
held by those who know its value. Even during the financial depression of 1893-94, 
when nearly every other silver mine in the West was closed, the stamps of the Moulton 
never ceased to drop. Mr. Clark is president of The Moulton Mining Co. , and his 
brother Joseph K. Clark, the manager. With his brother James R. Clark, he owns 
The Butte Reduction Works, established 1884, the Colusa- Parrot and several other 
copper and silver mines, in connection therewith. He also has large individual hold- 
ings in various mines at Butte, many of which are in profitable operation, affording 
employment to a large number of men. Besides being president and principal owner 
of The United Verde Copper Co., of Jerome, Ariz., whose property is a wonder, 
being probably the richest and most extensive copper mine in the world, not except- 
ing the Anaconda, Mountain View, or any of the big properties of Butte, he has also 
in recent years obtained control of The Idaho Copper Co. , of Houston.' Idaho, and 


built a smelting plant there. Mr. Clark may now be justly regarded as the largest 
copper mine operator in the world. The Calumet and Hecla mines in the Lake Supe- 
rior region, which yielded large fortunes to the stockholders in Boston, have been 
eclipsed in these latter days by the mines under Mr. Clark's control. The railroad to 
the copper mines in Arizona, twenty- six miles in length, which is a marvel of engineer- 
ing and for its length one of the most expensive in the West, was built by Mr. Clark, 
and the immense smelting and refining plants in Arizona are also his creation. It may 
be said also, that at Jerome and Granite, Ariz. , he is a partner in the mercantile firm 
of T. F. Miller & Co. 

Since Mr. Clark settled in Butte, the city has grown to large proportions. Four 
railroads now reach the place and the town possesses nearly all the local facilities of 
which any community in the East can boast. The original water works and electric 
light plants were established by Mr. Clark. The cable and electric railroads were pro- 
moted by him and he is president of both. He is also the owner of The Butte Miner, 
one of the leading daily papers of the State, while largely interested in many other 
industrial enterprises. 

In spite of the responsibilities with which he is laden, his executive talents and 
power of disposing of work with precision and judgment are so marked that he has 
been repeatedly called upon to serve the welfare of his fellow citizens in public sta- 
tions. He has responded to every call of public duty, and his sendees have invariably 
been of the highest order. By appointment from Governor Potts, he represented Mon- 
tana at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876 as State orator, aud his brilliant address on 
that occasion aided materially to make known the wonderful resources of his region. 
In 1877, he was elected Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of Montana, and in 1878, 
during the Nez Perce invasion, he led the Butte battalion as Major of the corps to the 
front against Chief Joseph. In the first constitutional convention in 1884, he was, 
chosen presiding officer and won decided laurels as a master of parliamentary law. In 
1884, President Arthur appointed him a Commissioner to the World's Industrial and 
Cotton Exhibition at New Orleans, where he spent several months in the interest of 
Montana. In 1888, the Democrats nominated him to Congress, but after an energetic 
canvass he was defeated by treachery within the party camp. When Montana was 
admitted to the Union in 1889, a second constitutional convention became necessary and 
Mr. Clark again served as presiding officer, rendering splendid sendee. When the 
first Legislative Assembly met in Helena in January, 1890, the members endeavored 
to elect two United States Senators, but a deplorable muddle grew out of Precinct No. 
34 troubles, which resulted in the organization of two Houses of Representatives and 
the election of two sets of United States Senators. The Democrats elected Mr. Clark 
and Martin Maginnis, while the Republicans chose W. F. Sanders and T. C. Power, 
Mr. Clark receiving the unanimous vote of his party. Messrs. Sanders and Power were 
finally seated. Mr. Clark had had the great satisfaction, however, of receiving from his 
party in the State the highest honor within its gift 

A memorable contest took place in 1893 over the election of a Senator to succeed 
Colonel Sanders. The Legislature met in Helena in January, three Populists holding 
the balance of power. Mr. Clark again received the nomination of his party, but a 
small body of Democrats, under the avowed leadership of Marcus Daly, refused to go 
into caucus or to abide by the decision of the majority. As a consequence, the contest 


was protracted for sixty days, and the gavel fell at adjournment with no election for 
United States Senator. Several times, Mr. Clark came within two votes of an election, 
receiving the support of one Populist and several Republicans and a faithful band of 
twenty-six Democrats, who stood true to him from start to finish. Mr. Clark headed 
the delegation to the Democratic National Convention at Chicago in 1892, and has 
been recognized in the distribution of Federal patronage in the State. 

While not of a strongly combative nature, Mr. Clark is a formidable antagonist 
when aroused, and, in 1894, he was drawn into an animated fight. The first contest 
between the cities of Montana for designation as capital of the State took place in 
1892, and finally narrowed down to Helena and Anaconda. Helena was the tempo- 
rary capital. Anaconda, owned and controlled by one corporation, had a powerful 
backing and, for a time, seemed likely to win the day. The Helena men lacked a 
leader, but finally found one in Mr. Clark, whose home is within plain view of the 
Anaconda mines in Butte. Entering the fight in behalf of the people as against a cor- 
poration and making known his position in The Butte Miner, he became at once the 
recognized chief of the Helena forces. Not only did he spend his means to secure a 
decision for Helena but he addressed the people in the different cities of the State and 
made the most powerful appeals to their pride and patriotism. No battle more excit- 
ing ever raged in Montana. Helena won, and an enormous throng of people gathered 
in that city to do honor to their champion. The citizens bore him on their shoulders 
from his train, placed him in a carriage, and then, detaching the horses, took their 
places at the pole and triumphantly hauled it to the city as a victor's chariot. 

In March, 1869, Mr. Clark was married to Kate L. Stauffer, a highly accomplished 
lady of Connellsville, Pa. , the couple starting on their wedding day for their distant 
home in the mountains. To them have been born six children Mary C. , who is now 
happily married to Dr. E. M. Culver, of New York city, and mistress of a beautiful 
home in the metropolis; Jessie, who died in Deer Lodge in April, 1888, at the age of 
three; Katharine L., the latter's twin sister; Charles W., William A. and Francis Paul 
Clark. Charles, the oldest son, is a graduate of Yale college and a mineralogist and 
now in full charge of the copper mines at Butte. Mr. Clark took his family to Paris in 
1879, where they remained three years, all of them besides himself acquiring a thor- 
ough knowledge of the French language. He then sent them to Dresden, Germany, 
for two years to acquire the German language. During these years, Mr. Clark spent 
the Winters in Europe, and Mrs. Clark and he and the elder children travelled exten- 
sively throughout Europe and in parts of Asia and Africa. In later years, besides 
their home in Butte, they have maintained a residence in a fashionable district in New 
York city, where a portion of each year is spent, and where the younger boys are pre- 
paring for college. He is a member of the Manhattan, Democratic and Down Town 
clubs there, as well as of the Silver Bow and Irish American clubs of Butte. Oct. 19, 
1893, Mr. Clark met with the greatest loss of his life in the death of his wife, which 
occurred in New York city, after a brief illness. Mrs. Clark was a lady of rare intel- 
ligence and refinement, and a fitting helpmate for her active and ambitious husband. 
Her death was sincerely mourned by her many friends. 

Mr. Clark has, by determination, honesty and intelligence of a high order, won 
his way to prominence among the self-made men of the United States. His life should 
be an inspiration to every young man born in an humble station. Though rich, he is 


genial and unassuming, liberal and sympathetic. Montana owes much to his energy, 
and will ever hold him in greatest esteem. 

CRAWFORD W. CLARKE, merchant, Sacramento, Gala., is the junior partner in 
Cox & Clarke, cattle raisers. Over forty years ago, he engaged with Mr. Cox in the busi- 
ness of supplying meat to the miners in the foot-hill counties of California, with headquar- 
ters at Coloma, the place where Marshall discovered gold. Both of the partners were 
young men, with no other capital than good physical health and plenty of energy. They 
were both practical men and made a great success of their trade. As they began to 
accumulate capital, they invested their means in land and droves of cattle, and steadily 
increased their business until they are to-day the owners of about 100,000 acres of land 
in California, Oregon and Nevada, stocked with vast herds of horses and cattle. Mr. 
Clarke is himself the owner of about 40, ooo acres in Kern, Tulare and San Luis Obispo 
counties. He is a man of hearty manners, plain in his dress, and, although now well 
advanced in years, is possessed of the excellent health which comes from an open air 
life. He lives in a fine residence in Sacramento, surrounded by a large family. 

ISAAC HALLOWELL CLOTHIER, merchant, retired since Jan. i, 1895, one of 
the best known business men of Philadelphia, was born in that city, Nov. 5, 1837. 
His parents were members of the Society of Friends, and he has, himself, been identi- 
fied with that denomination during the whole of his career. Until the age of seven- 
teen, a student in schools under care of the Friends, he then assumed his share of the 
responsibilities of life. Entering at that age the house of George D. Parrish & Co., 
importers of dry goods, he spent six years in laying the foundations of his future busi- 
ness career. 

Courtesy, fidelity to the interests of his employers, and untiring application were 
with him the natural outgrowth of personal character. He received a thorough train- 
ing in commercial matters, and in 1 86 1 , was emboldened to venture in business for 
himself. In connection with George Morris and Edmund Lewis, he established the 
firm of Morris, Clothier & Lewis, dealers in cloths, in which business he remained for 
eight 3 - ears. 

In 1868, Mr. Clothier accepted a proposition to enter into partnership with Justus 
C. Strawbridge in the retail sale of dry goods, and the now renowned firm of Straw- 
bridge & Clothier was established. In a little store at the corner of Market and Eighth 
streets, they laid the foundations of a trade which was destined to attain mammoth 
proportions upon that site. 

In 1875, the growth of the business made it necessary to enlarge the store. Other 
enlargements corresponding to the growth of the business took place in 1877, "78, '81, 
and '82. Finally, in 1887, the large building adjoining, Nos. 8 11-813 Market street, was 
absorbed in its entirety. The business now occupies a floor area larger, it is believed, 
than that devoted anywhere else in America to the retail sale of dry goods. 

Mr. Clothier has combined the best traditions of the mercantile life of an earlier 
generation with the most wholesome and progressive of modern methods. He never 
forgot the precepts and the wise philosophy of the Society of Friends in the labor of 
building his fortune, and, while proving himself a capable and successful merchant, has 
had the good fortune to win the general confidence and esteem of the community. 

After thirty-three years of successful business life, twenty-six of which were in 
the firm of Strawbridge & Clothier, he retired from business, Jan. i, 1895, followed by 


the good opinion and respect, not only of his associates, but of the entire community. 
His son, Morris L. Clothier, entered the firm upon the same day. 

Business pursuits have not entirely occupied Mr. Clothier's mind. He has been 
active in the Society of Friends and an attendant at the Meeting at Fifteenth and 
Race streets. Swarthmore college awoke his interest at an early day and has received 
large contributions from him both in labor and money. He has been for years a 
manager of the institution. He is abundantly endowed with public spirit, and, in a 
quiet and modest way, peculiar to himself, has promoted every recent movement look- 
ing to the welfare of the city. 

The home of Mr. Clothier is at Wynnewood, seven miles west of the city on The 
Pennsylvania Railroad, and he has a summer cottage on the island of Conanicut in 
Narraganset bay, opposite Newport. 

GEORGE HORRISON COATES, merchant, born in Philadelphia, Aug. 20, 1817, 
lived in that city to the end of his life, May 21, 1893. He was the son of George Mor- 
rison Coates, a successful merchant, and of Rebecca Horner, daughter of yet another 
merchant. Mr. Coates had a distinct inheritance of mercantile training, most of his 
ancestors having followed commerce from the time of his great great grandfather, 
Thomas Coates, who came to Pennsylvania from Sproxton, Leicestershire, Eng., in 

1682, and John Horner, who landed from the ship Providence at Burlington, N. J., in 

1683. Among the passengers by the Shield, the first vessel of size to ascend the Dela- 
ware as far as Burlington, in 1678, were two other ancestors Thomas Potts and 
Mahlon Stacy, the latter one of the proprietors of West Jersey. Another ancestor 
was the father of the famous Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts, and yet another 
was Capt. George Morrison, one of the signers of the non- importation resolution 
of Oct. 25, 1765, a fac-simile of which hangs in Independence Hall. Thomas Coates 
died in 1719, leaving, among other property, a house and lot on Second street above 
Market, where his great great grandson was to begin his mercantile career. Taught 
at private schools, and, as a clerk, trained by James Fassett, merchant, George Mor- 
rison Coates, at the age of twenty-one, with his father's assistance, began business as a 
merchant in cloths and cassimeres upon the property before mentioned, which then 
belonged to his father and which had been for a long time occupied by Coates & Ran- 
dolph, the firm of his grandfather, Josiah Langdale Coates. This adventure proving 
profitable, Mr. Coates a few years later removed to a larger establishment upon Market 
street above Third, leaving his Second street business, in which he retained an interest, 
to a new firm, of which his cousin, the late Charles W. Pickering, was the head. The 
panic of 1857 brought reverses, and in 1859, Mr. Coates retired from business, and soon 
formed a partnership with his brother, Benjamin, to deal in wool. The wool trade was 
greatly stimulated by the War in 1861, so that the new firm enjoyed a rapid and per- 
manent success. In 1869, the two brothers became interested as special partners in a 
now well-known publishing firm, and later Mr. Coates took an interest. Mr. Coates 
was for years an active member of the Board of Trade and the Board of Health, 
and served for eleven years as a city director of The Pennsylvania Railroad. He was 
one of the earliest members of the Union League, always greatly interested in public 
affairs, and a liberal contributor to the Republican party, of which he was one of the 
organizers. During the war, he gave liberally of time and means and took an interest 
especially in the raising of the regiments sent out by the Union League. In 1864, 

I 7 6 


1868 and 1872, he was chosen a Presidential Elector. He had, however, no ambition 
for political life, and uniformly declined office carrying with it an emolument. Mr. 
Coates married, in 1840, Anna, daughter of Henry Troth, and after the death of his 
wife, in 1881, he withdrew almost entirely from public life. 

KERSEY COATES, property owner, Kansas City, Mo., born Sept. 15, 1823, in 
Sadsbury township, Lancaster county, Pa., died in Kansas City, April 24, 1887. His 
parents, farmers and life long members of the Society of Friends, were Lindley and 
Deborah Simmons Coates. Kersey was educated at Whitestone seminary in New York 
and Phillips academy, Andover, Mass., and returned to the chair of English literature 
in the High School of Lancaster, Pa. In the office of Thaddeus Stevens, he was 
admitted to the bar in 1853. Next year, he went to Kansas and there, among other 
things, engaged in real estate operations. A desperate set of men then controlled the 
region, gathered from Missouri, Kentucky, Virginia and Georgia, and set in the deter- 
mination to make Kansas a slave state. Imbued with a very different sentiment, Mr. 
Coates took sides with the anti-slavery party and defended freedom of speech so bluntly 
as to become an object of hatred with the pro-slavery element. Fearless and cool, he 
passed through many daring and startling experiences in safety. Having added Kansas 
until she was virtually through her troubles, Mr. Coates settled in Kansas City, Mo., and 
lived there the remainder of his life. In 1855, he married Miss Sarah W. Chandler, also 
of the Society of Friends and a native of Chester county, Pa. In 1856-57, Kansas City 
began to show signs of awakening activity, and Mr. Coates aided in developing the 
resources of the city, its banks, real estate interests and trade, being also prominent in 
securing legislative and municipal aid for The Missouri Pacific and The Cameron Rail- 
roads. During the War, he espoused the cause of the Union, being in 1860, president of 
the only Republican club in Western Missouri. Later, he met the border ruffians of 
Kansas and Missouri in the open field as Colonel of the 77th Enrolled Missouri Militia, 
which upon different occasions during 1863-65 rendered actual service and was especially 
useful during the Price raid of 1864. After the War, prosperity came to most of his 
business ventures. Kansas City was yet without a railroad and half the population had 
disappeared during the War. Mr. Coates applied himself to rebuilding the city. He 
was president of The Missouri River & Fort Scott Railroad for several years, and besides 
a handsome residence, owned the Coates House and the Coates Opera House, one of the 
finest theatres in the West. He helped organize the Kansas City Industrial Exposition 
and Agricultural Fair Association in 1870, and when the Inter-State Fair Association 
was planned in 1882, he was elected its president. He was a generous man and gave 
much to charity. The New Coates House has been mainly built since his death by his 
wife, Sarah Chandler, whom he married in 1855, and his three children, Laura, Lindley 
and Arthur. 

SILAS B. COBB, pioneer and merchant, Chicago, 111., born in Montpelier, Vt., 
Jan. 23, 1812, is the son of the late Silas W. Cobb, farmer, tanner, and tavern keeper. 
Having been apprenticed to a harness maker, Mr. Cobb saved $60, and went out to 
Chicago, going from Albany by packet boat on the Erie canal and from Buffalo in the 
schooner Atlanta. They had a stormy trip and in five weeks' time dropped anchor 
at Chicago. Being a few dollars in debt to the captain, Silas spent three days on the 
vessel in virtual captivity in sight of the promised land, and was released only when 
a generous stranger paid the claim. 


Fort Dearborn (Chicago) was, in the Spring of 1833, a scanty collection of log huts. 
Absolutely penniless, Mr. Cobb obtained work as a carpenter from James Kinzie, who 
was building a hotel from logs and unplaned boards. From his first $5, he paid the 
man who had delivered him from the schooner, and later bought some trinkets and 
began to trade with the Indians. Thus he became a merchant and soon found he must 
have a store of his own. Lumber was obtained after much tribulation from Plainfield, 
111., forty miles away, and in a new shanty, with $30 furnished by Mr. Goss, Mr. Cobb 
started a harness shop, built up a good business, and in 1848, sold at a good profit. 
During 1848-52, he carried on a general leather, boot and shoe trade. After that date, 
he confined his operations to real estate and other local enterprises. Several fine blocks 
of buildings on Lake and Dearborn streets bear public testimony to his faith in Chicago. 
In 1855, he took the place of director of The Chicago Gas Light & Coke Co., and a few 
years later that of an officer. An improvement due to Mr. Cobb was the Chicago 
cable railway system, initiated while he was president of The Chicago City Railway 
and effected largely under his direction and advice. He is yet prominent in the 
company as well as in The West Division Horse Railway. For years, Mr. Cobb 
was the controlling spirit in The Chicago & Galena Railroad, now The Chicago & 
North Western, and in The Beloit & Madison Railroad. He is a director of The 
National Bank of Illinois. 

When the new University of Chicago sought to secure $1,000,000 for its buildings, 
Mr. Cobb came forward at the critical moment and gave $150,000, which assured the 
success of the undertaking. The Cobb Lecture Hall now stands on the university 
campus, a monument to his liberality, and the university is pledged to replace it, 
should it ever be destroyed. Generous gifts have been made to The Presbyterian 
Hospital and The Humane Society. In politics, Mr. Cobb is a Republican. Oct. 27, 
1840, Mr. Cobb married Miss Maria, one of the twin daughters of Daniel Warren of 
Warrenville, 111. He lost his wife by death, May 10, 1888. Of their six children, two 
survive, Maria Louise, wife of William B. Walker, president of the Chicago Stock 
Exchange, and Bertha, widow of the late William Armour. Those who have passed 
away were Walter, Leonora, wife of Joseph G. Coleman, and two infant daughters. 

ABNER COBURN, lumberman, born in Skowhegan, Me., March 22, 1803, and a 
resident of that place all his life, was the son of Eleazar Coburn, farmer, surveyor 
member of both branches of the Legislature and an incumbent of other positions of 
responsibility. Beginning life upon the farm and educated at the Bloomfield academy, 
Mr. Coburn entered upon the profession of a land surveyor in 1825. Through the run- 
ning of lines in the forests of the northern part of the State, he acquired an intimate 
acquaintance with the natural resources of that region, especially with the location of 
the best tracts of pine timber, and availed himself of this knowledge ably. In 1830, 
the senior Coburn, with his two sons, Abner and Philander, formed the firm of E. 
Coburn & Sons, surveyed and bought at the low prices then prevailing large tracts of 
the choicer pine lands, and cut large qiiantities of timber along the Kennebec river. 
Abner Coburn became, in time, one of the largest owners of this class of property in 
Maine, his firm having bought 450,000 acres of timber land. They also had 60,000 
acres in the West. The sale of lumber, conducted for more than fifty years, brought 
Mr. Coburn a large fortune. In 1854, Mr. Coburn began to invest his means in rail- 
roads, and accepted office with several important lines. In 1838, 1840 and 1844, he was 


elected to the Legislature as a Whig, and in 1852, was a candidate on the Whig elec- 
toral ticket A member of the Governor's Council in 1855 and 1857 and Presidential 
Elector in 1860, he became Governor of Maine in 1863. In 1884, he was again a 
Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket and chairman of the Electoral College. 
Governor Coburn was a man of very great public spirit, and derived much pleasure 
from serving as president of the managers of the State Agricultural college and vice 
president of the trustees of Colby university. He remained a bachelor through life, 
made liberal gifts to schools, colleges and Baptist churches and at his death in Skow- 
hegan, Jan. 4, 1885, gave $200,000 to Colby university, $100,000 to The Maine State 
College of Agriculture, $200,000 to The American Baptist Home Mission Society, 
$100,000 to The American Baptist Missionary Union, $50.000 to The Maine Insane 
Hospital, $100,000 to The Maine General Hospital, $50,000 to Wayland seminary, 
$5,000 each to Hoult'on academy and The Maine Industrial School for Girls. $18,000 
to the Baptist denomination in Skowhegan, $7,000 to Bloomfield seminary. $30,000 to 
The Skowhegan Public Library, $20,000 to the poor of Skowhegan, and $15,000 to The 
Skowhegan Hall Association in all, $900,000. The residue of his property of several 
millions descended to eleven collateral heirs. 

ALFRED ANDREW COHEN, lawyer, San Francisco, Cala., was born in London, 
Eng., July 17, 1829. His father had inherited coffee plantations in the West Indies, 
but sustained severe losses in consequence of the emancipation act of 1833-38. In the 
ancient Roman city of Exeter, near the Devonshire coast, selected on account of its 
educational advantages, Alfred lived and went to school, and seven years later, in 
the offices of a London solicitor, he began the study of law. Aware of his parents' 
struggles, he pleaded earnestly to be allowed to go to America, and his father, purchas- 
ing a passage in a London packet bound for Canada, sent the boy out into the world 
with thirty pounds in his pocket and letters of introduction to two friends in govern- 
ment positions in Quebec. A few days before reaching Canada he completed his four- 
teenth year. The friends to whom he was accredited promised assistance, but never gave 
it. The boy secured work as an errand boy, however, swept out the shop and in the 
evenings copied law papers. Later, about 1847, Mr. Cohen joined an older brother in 

The discovery of pure gold in the sands of the Sacramento river in California 
excited Mr. Cohen, as it did thousands of other men in various parts of the world, and 
in 1849, he sailed from New York for the Pacific coast, where he arrived in 1850, and 
engaged more or less prosperously in a commission business in San Francisco. In 
1854, he married Emilie, daughter of Dr. Henry and Martha Poole Gibbons of San 
Francisco, formerly of Delaware. Two years later, he gave up business and moved to 
Alameda, then a small town, seven miles across the bay from San Francisco, which 
became his permanent home. Having resumed the study of the law, begun in youth, 
he entered into active practice and was elected Justice of the Peace in Alameda county. 
In 1862, he retired from the law to construct a ferry and railroad to connect Alameda 
with San Francisco and two years later bought the San Francisco and Oakland ferries, 
and eventually he extended these lines to Hay ward's. In 1869, Mr. Cohen sold these 
roads and ferries to The Central Pacific Railroad, and was then retained by the company 
as advisory counsel, but not approving the action of some of the company's officers he 
resigned. In 1875-76, before the State Legislature, Mr. Cohen advocated the passage 


of a bill to regulate fares and freights. To defeat his influence, the railroad began an 
action against him, entitled, " The Central Pacific Railroad Co. vs. Alfred A. Cohen. " He 
had never been served with papers in this suit, but he accepted the challenge, pushed 
the matter to immediate trial, and argued the case in person. Judgment was immedi- 
ately rendered in his favor. Again he entered into active practice, but in so doing only 
accepted cases in which large interests were involved, and these cases were invariably 
decided in favor of his clients. It is a matter of record that Mr. Cohen never lost a case. 

The last active service which he rendered for The Central Pacific was before the 
United States Railway Commission in 1886-87. He was often in New York city and 
belonged to the New York, Lotos and Lambs' clubs there. Mr. Cohen had reached 
Sidney, Neb., on his way to San Francisco, when an attack of apoplexy terminated his 
life, Nov. 16, 1887. Mr. Cohen was the father of seven children, William G., Alfred 
H., Edgar A., and Donald A. being the sons. The daughters are Mabel, wife of 
Gerritt L. Lansing, her husband dying Feb. 4, 1896; Edith, wife of Dr. William G. 
Daggett of New Haven, Conn., and Emilie E. Cohen. 

GARDNER COLBY, merchant and manufacturer, Boston, Mass., born in Water- 
ville, Me., in 1809, died in Newton, Mass., April 2, 1879. His father died when Gard- 
ner was young and the mother removed to Charlestown, Mass. Gardner received a 
grammar school education, learned the dry goods trade in Boston, and, in 1830, opened 
a small retail dry goods store of his own. Being very successful, he afterward 
restricted his operations to the wholesale trade and later became a manufacturer of 
woolen goods, and, with J. Wiley Edwards of Boston, owned and operated The Ma- 
verick Woolen Mills at Dedham, Mass. In 1870, he became largely interested in rail- 
ways in Wisconsin and elsewhere, and was for several years president of The Wisconsin 
Central Railroad. By his marriage with Miss Mary Low Roberts of Gloucester, Mass., 
he became the father of Gardner R. Colby, of the firm of Harding, Colby & Co., of 
Boston and New York, since deceased ; Charles L. Colby, who succeeded as president 
of The Wisconsin Central Railroad, and now deceased; Henry F. Colby, who for twenty- 
seven years has been pastor of the First Baptist Church of Dayton, O. ; Joseph L. Colby, 
who was president of the Monte Christo mines in Washington; Mary F., wife of Arthur 
Walworth of Boston, Mass., and Georgetta E., wife of Daniel R. Wolfe of St. Louis, 
Mo. Mr. Colby gave liberally from a very large fortune to deserving objects, 
especially to the missions of the Baptist church. He was treasurer and trustee of The 
Newton Theological Institution and a large benefactor of Brown university, and, in 
1864, gave $50,000 to Waterville college in Maine, which adopted the name of Colby 
university, in consequence of the gift. A large circle of friends loved and honored 
Mr. Colby for his great business abilities, clear head, generous heart and unswerving 
adherence to Christian principle and high ideas of honor. 

GEORGE DAWSON COLEMAN, part owner of the celebrated Cornwall iron ore 
hills near Lebanon, Pa., born in Philadelphia, died in Paris, France, Oct. 16, 1891. 

The Cornwall mines in which he had an interest, are among the most famous in 
the world, and with them is identified the history of two of the richest and most influ- 
ential families in Pennsylvania. The property covers about 326 acres of ground, five 
miles from Lebanon, and lies in three hills, Big or Main, Middle and Grassy, which are 
no less than solid masses of iron ore. Nov. 30, 1737, the original deed was given to 
Peter Grubb by John Thomas and Richard Penn, covering " 300 acres in Lebanon," 


and the transfer was made in consideration of the payment of three shillings sterling 
per annum at Lancaster. During his life time, Peter Grubb owned the whole of the 
Cornwall mines, and he sold and melted into pig iron and cast into various forms 
enough of the ore to make him a rich man, and record his name in history as a pioneer 
iron manufacturer of the State. There was no mining in the ordinary sense, the ore 
being quarried from the hills. 

Peter Grubb held command of the 2d Regiment of Pennsylvania Associates during 
the Revolution, and by his marriage with Mary Shippen Burd, a colonial belle, became 
the great grandfather of Gen. E. Burd Grubb, of New Jersey. 

It was about 1785, that Robert H. Coleman, who owned iron forges on the Schuyl- 
kill river and in Berks county, bought a large interest in these mines and from that 
date to this, the Coleman family has steadily devoted itself to the development of this 
property, having long held a five-sixths interest therein, the other sixth belonging to 
the descendants of old Peter Grubb. The mines soon became the nucleus of a village of 
workingmen, and of a net work of furnaces and other industries to which they gave 
support. The fortunes of the Colemans, as rapidly as they accumulated, were 
invested in furnaces, mills, lands, railroads and a great variety of enterprises in 
Pennsylvania, and in time in railroads and other schemes in other States. For nearly 
a hundred years, the name of Coleman has been one to conjure with in the Key Stone 
State. The Cornwall ore hills contain 30,000,000 tons of ore above water level, 
probing with the drill indicating as much as 60,000,000 tons more in the banks below. 
No limit to the deposit has ever been found. The ore is magnetic. 

George Dawson Coleman studied at Princeton college for a time and graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvania, class of 1843. His vocation in life was already 
provided for him, and, from 1846 to 1852, he operated the Cornwall mines in company 
with his brother, Robert W. Coleman, other members of the family being also inter- 
ested. Owing to the fact that one of the Colemans had drawn out more ore than he 
was entitled to, the interests of the family were consolidated Feb. i, 1864, into The 
Cornwall Ore Bank Co. Of the ninety-six shares in this corporation, sixteen were 
given to the Grubb estate, fifteen to Robert Coleman, then living in Paris, fifteen to 
George Dawson Coleman, twenty-five to William C. Coleman, and twenty-five to 
Robert Coleman. The stock was afterward distributed among fourteen persons, in 
consequence of the division of estates. 

George Dawson Coleman was a considerate employer and built a chapel for the 
workmen on his estate, and performed many other acts of kindness. The lot upon 
which he was born, together with a large sum of money, he gave to St. Peter's 
church in Philadelphia and a tablet and memorial window there attest the gratitude of 
the parish for his munificence. As a farmer, breeder of cattle and cheese maker, he 
attained considerable note, and he brought himself so close to the people in many ways 
that they sent him to the Legislature five years as a member of the lower house and 
for three years to the Senate. He was a member of the State Board of Charities, 
president of The First National Bank of Lebanon, and a large stockholder in The 
Penn Steel Co. and many other enterprises. 

Mr. Coleman married Miss Brown of Philadelphia and was the father of seven 
children, Mrs. Arthur Brock, Mrs. Horace Brock, Mrs. Glover, B. Dawson, Edward, 
Annie and Fannie Coleman. 


WILLIAM TELL COLEnAN, merchant, San Francisco, Cala., while successful in 
a material way, won reputation chiefly from his public services in freeing his city from 
lawlessness at two different periods. Born in Cynthiana, Ky., Feb. 29, 1824, son of 
Napoleon Bonaparte and Cynthia Chinn Coleman, he began life in Kentucky as a sur- 
veyor and then went into the lumber business in St. Louis. As early as 1845, Mr. 
Coleman tried to organize a party to go to California, and actually started in May, 
1849, with a small company across the plains and in Sacramento did some business as a 
builder. He tried mining for a while also in Placerville, and, in 1850, established him- 
self in San Francisco as a commission merchant, in which vocation he made a fortune. 
In 1852, he entered into a shipping business in New York city, and, in 1856, started a 
a regular line of ships to San Francisco. After that, he lived, until 1864, alternately 
in San Francisco and New York. 

During 1851, the ruffians of San Francisco committed a series of murders, rob- 
beries and other crimes, which brought about a reign of terror and which the courts 
were absolutely powerless to suppress. In the operations of the Vigilance Committee 
of that year, Mr. Coleman took a quiet but determined part, being a member of 
the executive committee. "The Committee of Thirteen," as they called themselves, 
performed their work with unyielding courage and determination and then disbanded, 
having had only one open conflict with the civil authorities. 

But crime again broke out. From 1849 to 1854, 4,20x5 murders took place in Cali- 
fornia, 1,200 being in San Francisco; and with reference to the latter, only one conviction 
in the courts. Various men requested Mr. Coleman to take the lead in forming a new 
Committee, and having secured a promise of absolute secrecy and obedience, issued a 
call in The A/fa, signed " The Committee of Thirteen," for a public meeting. At 8 
A. M., a crowd gathered at the hall and the great Vigilance Committee of 1856 was 
formed. Mr. Coleman was number one in the enrollment, and 1,500 men took an oath 
the first day, swearing to secrecy, loyalty, obedience and the risk of their lives, liberty 
and fortunes. An executive committee was formed, of which Mr. Coleman was always 
president, and a breastwork of gunny bags was put up to defend the permanent head- 
quarters, called Fort Gunnybags, and protected by cannon and armed men. Indict- 
ments were agreed upon in secret session, and Mr. Coleman presided at the trials as 
judge. The Committee assumed complete control of the administration of justice. The 
Governor of the State, the Federal army officers at the post on the bay, and others 
remonstrated, but all to no avail. Mr. Coleman and the Committee were firm. The 
forms of law were observed, but the Vigilantes were relentless; and after hanging sev- 
eral men, they restored order, and disbanded in August, 1856, dismantling their for- 
tress. On the 28th, Mr. Coleman sailed for New York, bearing the thanks of all good 
citizens. Judge David S. Terry of the Supreme Court of the State was arrested by 
this Committee for stabbing one of the Vigilance police, but Mr. Coleman always coun- 
selled moderation, and Judge Terry was released without punishment. Suits for dam- 
ages amounting to $1,500,000 were brought against Mr. Coleman, but failed. 

In 1864, Mr. Coleman returned to San Francisco to spend the rest of his days. 
He died Nov. 22, 1893. Mrs. Coleman was Carrie M., daughter of Daniel D. Page, of 
St. Louis, and they were married Aug. n, 1852. Of their seven children only two 
reached maturity, and one, Carlton Chinn Coleman, has since died. Robert Lewis. 
Coleman alone survives. 


COFFIN COLKET, Philadelphia, a pioneer railroad builder, and a native of Epping,. 
N. H., Oct. 15, 1809, belonged to the lineage of Edward Colcord, an Englishman, who 
settled in Exeter, N. H., in 1638. Peter Colcord, his father (who married Phcebe 
Hamilton), followed a popular English practice of pronouncing his name wrong and 
the American practice of spelling it the way it was then pronounced. The means of 
the family did not permit Coffin Colket to go to college, and at the age of twenty, in the 
hope of finding work in the construction of The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, which had 
been begun in 1828, he went to Baltimore, and was promptly given something to do in 
the making of the roadbed of that line. There he remained until 1831. In 1831-32, 
he found work on The New Castle & Frenchtown Railroad and when the line was done, 
went to Philadelphia and secured a contract to lay the granite blocks and edge rails on 
two sections of the new State railroad between Philadelphia and Lancaster. John O. 
Stearns and he then formed the partnership of Colket & Stearns, which, for twenty- 
three years, 1834-57, contracted for the building of parts of many new railroads of that 
period in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The whole of the original line of 
The Central Railroad of New Jersey was constructed by them, under various contracts, 
1834-42, and then the road was leased to and operated by them, and, in 1846, sold to 
them under foreclosure. Upon reorganization of the company, Mr. Colket became a 
director. After 1857, Mr. Colket gave his attention mainly to the construction of street 
railroad lines in Philadelphia and the management of corporations. From 1852, he was 
president of The Chestnut Hill Railroad and from 1858 a director, and after 1867, presi- 
dent of The Citizens' Passenger Railway; from 1867, president of The Philadelphia, 
Germantown & Norristown Railroad; from 1860, director of The City National Bank; 
from 1867, a director in The Plymouth and The Philadelphia & Darby Railroads; and, 
at other times, a director of The Morris Canal Co., The Tioga Improvement Co., The 
Long Island Railroad (and once its president), The Township Line Turnpike Co., The 
Coates Street Railroad and The Penn Township Bank. March 21, 1839, Mr. Colket 
married Miss Mary Pennypacker, daughter of William Walker. The survivors of his 
family, at his death in Philadelphia, April 5, 1883, were his wife and his children, 
William W., George H., Mrs. Mary Jane Audenreid, Anna B., wife of Edward C. 
Gallup, Ida, wife of Howard B. French, and Charles H. Colket. 

SAMUEL COLT, inventor, Hartford, Conn., born in that city, July 19, 1814, died 
Jan. 10, 1862. The son of a merchant and manufacturer, Samuel ran away from school 
in Amherst, Mass. , and cured himself of a love of the sea by taking one voyage to the 
East Indies, as a sailor before the mast. Then, taking a place in the bleaching and 
dyeing department of his father's factory in Ware, Mass., he learned chemistry and at 
eighteen years of age, travelled for two years in the United States and Canada as a 
lecturer on chemistry, under the name of " Dr. Coult." While a sailor, Mr. Colt had 
whittled out a wooden model of a pistol, which should fire several shots before reloading, 
and in 1835 obtained a patent for this weapon, both in America and in England and 
France. The Patent Fire Arms Co., capital $300,000, was organized to manufacture 
the pistol in Paterson, N. J., and a part of the regular army being supplied with Colt's, 
revolvers used them with great success in the Florida war. The sale stopped at the 
end of the war, but when the Mexican war broke out, General Taylor ordered $ 1,000 of 
them at $28 each. The Patent Fire Arms Co. had suspended, and the revolvers were 
made by Mr. Colt at Whitneyville, Conn. Other orders followed, a larger factory 


became necessary, one was built in Hartford, Conn., and from that time, Mr. Colt was 
a prosperous man. A new plant was created in 1852 upon a tract of 250 acres in Hart- 
ford and, in 1855, The Colt Patent Fire Arms Co., capital $1,000,000, was organized to 
cany on the business. A large number of improvements were made upon the original 
arm, and the works were devoted in part to the making of ammunition and of machinery 
for armories. During the Civil War, Mr. Colt designed a submarine battery for the 
defense of harbors, and he was the first to test the notion of an ocean telegraph cable 
by laying one from Fire Island to the harbor of New York city. The works he 
founded now represent an investment of $2,250,000. Caldwell H. Colt, a son, suc- 
ceeded to the management of the industry, but died at Punta Gorda, Fla. , Jan. 21, 1894. 

ANDREW WESTBROOK COMSTOCK, pioneer and lumber manufacturer, Alpena, 
Mich., born in Port Huron, Mich., Oct. 5, 1838, descends from an old family. The 
Comstocks are from England, the Westbrooks from Holland. His mother's family 
of Waldo traces its ancestry back to the sixteenth century, and some of the men of the 
family were knighted for meritorious service. When Andrew W. Comstock was thir- 
teen years of age his father moved to a farm, sixteen miles north of Port Huron, in the 
township of Burtchville, at the end of the wagon road. To the westward lay an 
unbroken wilderness. Eastward, between Black river and Lake Huron, there was an 
occasional settler. The senior Comstock built a small water mill on his place, and 
Andrew toiled both upon the farm and in the mill during the open season, and in the 
Winter time in getting out logs. 

In the Fall of 1858, he went to the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, where he 
remained one year, having had no instruction since he was ten years old. He then 
returned to the farm, and for two Winters taught the local school. About this time, he 
bought eighty acres of wild land, clearing sixty acres himself, with the help of one 
man and the friendly aid of neighbors, who joined him in old fashioned "logging 
bees. " Dissatisfied with frontier life, he mortgaged his farm and with the money thus 
obtained went to Detroit and took a course at Bryant & Walter's Commercial College. 
Jan. 5, 1864^ he removed to Alpena, without a dollar of money, served as clerk in a 
store for two years, saved his money, and then embarked, ih 1866, in mercantile busi- 
ness. The following year, he built a shingle mill, bought a tract of pine land, and 
engaged in the manufacture of lumber. His old experience in the woods now served 
him well, and he succeeded from the day on which he began life for himself. The 
location of Alpena on Thunder bay supplied him with ample facilities for shipment to 
market, and his mill rapidly increased its operations and grew to a large concern. Mr. 
Comstock has been a Supervisor of his county and Mayor of Alpena, and is now presi- 
dent of The Alpena Banking Co., and a partner in H. S. Robinson & Co. , manufacturers 
of boots and shoes, as well as in a warehouse firm. His lumber firm operate not only 
in Alpena but in Canada and Mississippi, where they own tracts of pine lands, and Mr. 
Comstock owns some real estate in Chicago and iron lands in Mesaba and Vermillion, 
and is now a man of fortune. 

He is a member of the Masonic order, having reached the thirty-second 
degree. He was married July 14, 1869, in Detroit, to Lillie J. Tuttle, and his children 
are Caroline L. and Anna Winfield Comstock. His success is not due to speculation or 
inheritance. Every dollar has been gained by steady perseverance, legitimate industry, 
energy and determination to rise. 



SWITS CONDE, manufacturer, Oswego, N. Y., is a son of Henry S. Conde", a 
merchant and manufacturer, and was born in Oswego county, N Y., April 24, 1844. 
He is descended from that illustrious family founded in the twelfth century in France 
by Godfrey de Conde, from which sprang the princes of Conde. Adam Conde. a 
French Huguenot, fled from religious persecution to Holland the latter part of the six- 
teenth century, came to America soon afterward, settled in Schenectady, was known as 
the Chevalier Conde, and in 1724, was High Constable at Albany He was killed by 
Indians near Schenectady in 1748, and was the great great grandfather of Swits Condi 
Swits Conde attended the public schools of Oswego until eighteen years of age. In 
1863, he went to Louisiana, and for four years was engaged m cotton and sugar grow- 
ing. In 1867, he engaged in the manufacture of knit goods in Oswego, and through 
inventions and processes of his own has developed a large and successful industry. 
He has taken out about twenty-five patents, all utilized in his own shops. His success 
is due to close study of details and improved processes of his own invention. Mr. 
Conde is a man of excellent ability and agreeable manners, and a member of the Union 
League, Riding, Wool, Republican and Larchmont Yacht clubs, the Huguenot Soci- 
ety and Chamber of Commerce of New York city, and the Thousand Islands and sev- 
eral other clubs. He is the owner of the steam yacht Ruth. In 1873, he married Miss 
Apama I., daughter of Churchill and Sarah Morse Tucker, of Fulton, N. Y., and is 
the father of several children. 

JOSEPH SPENCER CONE, land owner, born on a farm near Marietta, O., Aug. 
26, 1822, died at his home near Red Bluffs, Cala., Sept. 12, 1894. Mr. Cone could 
trace his family line back for twenty-eight generations to William de St. John, who 
invaded the British isles under the flag of William the Conqueror, as grand master of 
artillery. In 1629, Elizabeth St. John, of England, in whose person was united the 
lineage of ten European sovereigns, married the Rev. Samuel Whiting, and settled not 
long afterward in Lynn, Mass. One of her descendants married Joseph Cone, a naval 
officer in the American Revolution and grandfather of the subject of this memoir. 

Until twenty-two years of age, Joseph S. Cone worked on the farm and then engaged 
in trade with the Cherokee Indians. Pushing overland in 1850, from Jasper county, 
Mo. , with a party of other pioneers, he left the wagon train near Fort Laramie and with 
four others went on ahead on horseback, fighting the Piutes several times but reaching 
Nevada City in safety. Mining at Newcastle and Ophir kept him busy for a time, suc- 
cess being moderate, and Mr. Cone then made a better living by cutting shakes from 
the tall sugar pines near Nevada City. He then went into the freighting of supplies 
from Sacramento to the mines, and the sale of them there at a handsome profit. 
Returning to Ohio in 1853 and soon tiring of the dullness of life at home, he started for 
the Pacific coast again in 1854 with a drove of cattle, which he sold in the mining towns 
at a large profit. He then turned his attention to various occupations, finally, in 1857, 
buying land on Alder Creek in Tehama county and raising cattle and sheep on this 
farm. Selling this tract in 1868 for $12,000, he bought a ranch of 16,000 acres near 
Red Bluff, farmed it, and increased his purchases from time to time, until he had 
acquired nearly one hundred thousand acres, extending from near Red Bluff for four- 
teen miles southward. Upon this typical western ranch, which now produces 125,000 
bushels of wheat per year and large quantities of fruit, and on which 30,000 sheep have 
been grazing, Mr. Cone attained to riches. 


Among other things which he did may be mentioned the fact that he developed The 
Antelope Flume & Lumber Co. , and its successor, The Sierra Lumber Co. , established 
The Bank of Tehama County in Red Bluff in 1872, of which he was president until his 
death, and built a large water power plant on Antelope creek, which is lighting Red 
Bluff with electricity as well as the Cone homestead sixteen miles from town. His will 
contained generous gifts to persons not members of his family. Mr. Cone never held 
political office, except as one of the first Board of Railroad Commissioners. In 1867, he 
married Anna R. , a daughter of Colonel Reppert, of Ohio, and became the father of 
Douglas S. and Josie B. Cone, and Mrs. E. W. Runyon, the husband of the latter being 
president of The Bank of Tehama County. 

COL. ARTHUR LATHAM CONGER, manufacturer and public man, Akron, O., 
while a native and always a resident of Ohio, having been born in Boston, Summit 
county, Feb. 19, 1838, is a son of John Conger, a native of Vermont, and Hannah 
Beales, his wife, and a descendant of Deacon Job Conger, an emigrant to New England 
in the early part of the seventeenth century. The family of Mr. Conger were farmers, 
and they removed from Vermont to Ohio in 1831. The State of the Beautiful River, 
as the Indians then called it, although admitted to the Union in 1802, was yet, in 1831, 
little more than a primitive wilderness; and the usual deprivations of a frontier life were 
the lot of the Conger family for many years after their settlement in Akron. 

Arthur grew up on a farm under the discipline of a Puritan family, and acquired 
from his parents and the environment of his home the qualities of temperance, self 
control, industry and frugality, since exemplified in his career. While yet a mere boy, 
he had already begun to earn the trifling sum of ten cents a day in a foundry, and the 
first promotion came in the form of an engagement in a flour mill at a salary of twenty- 
five cents per day. The eager lad applied himself so heartily to his duties, that the 
miller soon increased his wages to fifteen dollars a month. Like other American youths, 
who are dependent mainly upon themselves and must gain experience before selecting 
a permanent occupation, Mr. Conger saw service also as a workman in a brick yard. 
The first venture on his own account illustrated his health and energy, and reminds one 
of President Garfield's early life on the canal towpath and Senator Sherman's famous 
speculation with a flat boat and a load of salt, which yet supplies amusement in the 
Sherman family. With a playmate, Mr. Conger bought a canal boat and operated it 
for several years on the Ohio canal, then a valuable route of transportation between the 
northern and southern sections of the state. Later yet, he became a school teacher 
and a good one, probably deriving as much benefit from study as did any of his pupils. 
From the text books, he learned the history of his native country and many other things 
besides and imbibed valuable lessons of patriotism and ambition. 

By the time of the outbreak of the Civil War, Mr. Conger had developed into a self 
reliant, active, courageous young man and longed to bear a part in the great struggle 
for the preservation of the Union. In the Fall of 1862, he enlisted as a private in Co. 
G., 1 1 5th Ohio Inf., learned the manual of arms and drill of the soldier, and became 
Second Lieutenant on the organization of the company. The usth Ohio served until 
the end of the War and happened to be on board the steamer Sultana on the Mississippi 
river, April 27, 1865, when the boilers exploded, killing eighty-three men of this regiment 
alone. Mr. Conger was soon promoted to be First Lieutenant and finished his service in 
July, 1865, as Captain. In action, he was fearless of danger, cool, cautious and efficient, 


attracting frequent attention and being repeatedly detailed for special service. For 
some time, he served as Adjutant of his regiment and acting Adjutant General on the 
staff of Brig. Gen. Jacob Ammen, and was also Provost Marshal under Gen. J. D. Cox, 
and Assistant Inspector of railroad defenses in the Department of the Cumberland 
under Gen. George H. Thomas, and, for a time, in charge of the office of the railroad 
defenses of the Department in Nashville, under the immediate supervision of Major 
James R. Willett, ist U. S. Vet. Vol. Engineers. Executive ability, promptitude and 
thoroughness in discharging every duty were displayed in every position. Captain Con- 
ger had the honor to receive a number of letters of commendation and congratulation 
from General Thomas and other commanders, and these documents are treasured to this 
day, as a most cherished possession. It may be said here that activity in military 
affairs did not end, even after the volunteers had come marching home. In 1882, he 
was elected Colonel of the 8th Ohio, N. G. , and commanded the regiment for eight 
years. This organization held the post of honor in the public square in Cleveland, 
during the funeral of President Garfield, and in 1885, it held in check an excited mob 
of nearly 10,000 persons, during the execution of Horn and Griffin at Ashland, O. By 
calmness and determination, Colonel Conger prevented disorder and bloodshed on the 
latter occasion, without firing a shot, and received, in consequence, flattering commenda- 
tion from the county officials and Governor Hoadley. He has always maintained, 
close relations with the old volunteers, was Department Commander of the Grand Army 
of the Republic in 1886, and is a member of the Ohio Commandery of the Loyal Legion. 

The problem of an occupation after the War was partly solved, in Colonel Conger's 
case, by election, twice as treasurer of Summit county, once as city treasurer of Akron, 
and once as secretary of the Board of Education. He soon became a leader in the 
active life of Akron, and was, in time, honored with election as president of The 
Business Men's Association. 

The remarkable success of Colonel Conger in practical pursuits began in 1870 
with his engagement as travelling salesman for The Whitman & Miles Manufacturing 
Co., a concern which, starting in 1850, had grown in to the ownership of factories in Fitch- 
burg, Mass. , and Akron, O. This was the first concern in the world to make a specialty of 
the manufacture of knives for mowing machines and of reaper sickles and sections, and 
already in 1870, it had risen, by the excellence of its productions and energy of its 
management, to the head of this industry. Colonel Conger sold the goods of the com- 
pany with so much success that he was called into the home office, made a director, 
promoted to be a vice president in 1877, and, in 1884, made president of the company. 
In 1877, the business of the company was united with that of George Barnes & Co., 
of Syracuse, N. Y., under the name of The Whitman & Barnes Manufacturing Co.; 
and for several years thereafter, Colonel Conger concentrated the actual production of 
knives at the Akron and Syracuse factories. Driving, shrewd and intelligent in man- 
agement, he had the satisfaction of seeing production increase until the growth of the 
business made imperatively necessary, in 1878, the establishment of a branch plant in 
St Catharine's, Canada, and in 1883, one in Canton, O. To the original classes of goods 
produced by his company, Colonel Conger has, from time to time, added other special- 
ties, including wrenches. Branch houses have also been opened in New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia, Chicago, Kansas City, San Francisco, London and Paris. Compelled 
finally to take radical steps for the enlargement of its capacity, the company, in 1893, 


purchased twenty acres of land between ngth and i2oth streets at West Pullman, Chi- 
cago, and covered ten acres of ground with handsome buildings of red brick from 
Marion, Ind. , the woodwork being framed entirely on the mill construction plan. This, 
the fifth plant, made The Whitman & Barnes Manufacturing Co. the largest industry 
of its class in the world. Colonel Conger is yet at the head of the company. 

He is also now connected with several other industrial enterprises, the motive 
power of his active mind being far from absorbed by any one establishment. He was 
for five years, president of The Diamond Plate Glass Co. of Kokomoand Elwood, Ind., 
which operated a plant only second in size among the glass factories of the world. 
When this concern was consolidated with The Pittsburgh Glass Co. of Pittsburgh, 
capital $10,000,000, Colonel Conger became vice president of the new company. He is 
also president of The, Hartford City Glass Co. of Hartford City, Ind., whose enormous 
shops manufacture window glass by the tank process. The American Tin Plate Co. of 
Elwood, Ind., was established by him in 1891, and he held the presidency and general 
direction for several years, during which time he made it the leading concern of its kind 
in America and demonstrated the entire practicability of the manufacture of tin plate in 
this country. He is also president of The Akron Steam Forge Co., having plants in 
Akron and in Elwood, Ind. ; vice president of The Enterprise Manufacturing Co. 
of Akron ; president of The Muncie Land Co. of Muncie, Ind. , and The Hartford Land 
Co. of Hartford, Ind. ; and vice president of The Elwood Land Co. Among his other 
corporations is The Pittsburgh, Akron & Western Railroad, now The Northern Ohio 
Railway, of which he was one of the promoters and vice president, having a line of 165 
miles between Akron and Delphos, O. This company was re-organized as The Northern 
Ohio Railway, of which Colonel Conger was vice president, until it became a part of 
The Lake Erie & Western Railway system. 

The secret of Colonel Conger's rise from poverty to fortune lies in the energy, 
clearness of mind, uprightness, and invincible determination of the man, combined with 
the opportunties which America affords for a career like his. He has strong physique, 
abounding health, and courteous manners, and is generous and sympathetic, absolutely 
devoid of affectation and a thorough, all round good citizen. He belongs to the 
Protestant Episcopal church in Akron and is one of its vestrymen, has long been presi- 
dent of The Union Charity Association, and is noted for his kindness of heart and 
liberality. His home is dearer to him than any club, but he is a member of the Ohio 
Society of New York city and belongs to several other social organizations. 

In 1865, Colonel Conger married Miss Emily, daughter of the late Hiram V. Bronson 
of Peninsula, O., whose father Hiram was one of the association which purchased the 
Western Reserve. To them have been born Kenyon B. Conger, now associated with 
his father in business as private secretary; Arthur Latham, a student in Harvard 
university; Erastus Irving, now deceased; and Latham H. Conger. The family live 
at Irving Lawn, so called in memory of their deceased son. 

WILLIAfl CONNELL, coal operator and banker, Scranton, Pa., is a Nova Scotian 
by birth, and Sept. 10, 1895, was sixty-eight years of age. His native place was Cape 
Breton. James Connell, his father, was a native of Scotland, and his mother, Susan 
Melville, of Irish descent. The family lacked the means to give William much of an 
education, but he learned enough at school to answer all practical purposes. In 1844, 
the family moved to Luzerne county, Pa. , where William began life as a wagon driver 


and a workman, callings sufficiently useful to give him a chance to show that he did not 
lack energy and mind. His opportunity came in 1856, when The Susquehanna & 
Wyoming Valley Railroad & Coal Co. placed him in charge of the anthracite mines they 
were operating near Scranton. Fourteen years of hard labor and careful saving enabled 
him, in 1870, to buy those mines and take charge of the business in his own name. His 
firm of William Connell & Co. now own several hundred acres of valuable coal lands 
and operate several collieries. Mr. Connell is principal owner and president of The 
Connell Coal Co. of Scranton, incorporated with a capital of $500, ooo, with mines near 
Old Forge in Lackawanna county and at Duryea in Luzerne county. In 1872, Mr. 
Connell founded The Third National Bank of Scranton, in company with others, and in 
1879, took the presidency, which he has retained down to the present date. He is one 
of the organizers and directors of The Scranton Safe Deposit & Trust Co. , founded in 
1887 ; treasurer of The Lehigh Salt Mining Co., which owns 400 acres of salt land and 
has purchased the right to the salt under 3,000 acresmore; director in The Dickson Manu- 
facturing Co. and The Lackawanna Iron & Steel Co ; president of The Lackawanna 
Knitting Mills, The Scranton Button Manufacturing Co., vice president of The Scranton 
Forging Co. and owner in several other industries. He uses his fortune with liberality, 
especially in the interest of the Methodist Episcopal church, and Syracuse University, 
Wesleyan University and Drew Theological Seminar}', of which he is a trustee. 

WILLIAM GEORGE CONRAD, banker, a native of Clarke county, Va., and born 
Aug. 3, 1848, descends from English and German ancestry. Educated in country 
schools and by private tutors, he settled in Montana in 1868, plentifully endowed with 
ambition, vitality and character, but without means. Entering the employment of 
I. G. Baker & Bro., merchants, at Fort Benton, as bookkeeper, he displayed much 
ability, and his younger brother, Charles E. Conrad, and he were admitted to partner- 
ship in 1872. They bought out the Bakers in 1878, carried on the business with suc- 
cess, and established the wealthy firm, now known as Conrad Bro's, bankers, of Great 
Falls, Mont. In 1880, they organized The First National Bank of Fort Benton. The 
brothers have owned a line of steamers on the Missouri river, and furnished the L'nited 
States and Canadian Governments both with supplies and money, and, before the 
advent of railroads, did most of the freighting for the army posts in the Northwest, 
employing hundreds of wagons and teams. They also operated stores at Fort McCleod 
in the Northwest Territory and at other points. William G. Conrad is now senior part- 
ner of the bank of Conrad Bro's, president of The Northwestern National Bank, vice 
president of The Conrad National Bank of Kalispel, president of The Queen Mining & 
Milling Co. of Neihart, and treasurer of both The Benton & St. Louis Cattle Co. , and 
The Conrad- Price Cattle Co., which own large ranches in Northern Montana. His 
brother and he own the majority of the stock in all these companies as well as large 
land, cattle and sheep interests in Montana and the Canadian Northwest. Mr. Conrad 
is considered by those who know him the best financier in the State of Montana. He 
was the first Mayor of Fort Benton and Territorial Senator, 1879-80, and is a member 
of the Rideau club of Ottawa, Canada. By his marriage with Miss Fannie E. Bowen, 
of Clarke county, Va., Oct. 12, 1876, he is the father of four children, Maria, Joseph- 
ine, Minnie Athisson, George Harfield and Arthur Franklin. The family maintain 
several homes, one of which is located at White Post in the Shenandoah valley, near 
Washington, and is the handsomest estate in Virginia. 


ELISHA S. CONVERSE, manufacturer, Boston, Mass., born July 28, 1820, in 
Needham, Mass., the son of Elisha and Betsey Wheaton Converse, saw little prospect 
of distinction in life, when, at the age of nineteen, with a public school education only, 
he started out to earn his living. In a little clothing store in the village of Thompson, 
Conn. , he helped to do up bundles and sell goods for a year, and then, in a subordinate 
station in the boot and shoe trade, took the lessons which he put into practice after- 
ward with unexpectedly good results. In 1853, The Boston Rubber Shoe Co. made 
him manager, and by careful saving, ability and hard work, he rose in the course of 
events to the presidency of the corporation, having a large interest in its stock. The 
Boston Rubber Shoe Co. is one of the corporations which has remained independent of 
The United States Rubber Co. , and has always fared well, in spite of refusing to enter 
into any trust or combination. The present year finds Mr. Converse a prosperous man, 
related in interest to a great variety of enterprises and holding the positions of presi- 
dent of The First National Bank of Maiden, Mass. , a town which made him first Mayor 
in 1 88 1, and to which he has given a library building; president of The Boston Belting 
Co., and The Rubber Manufacturers' Mutual Insurance Co. ; director in The Exchange 
National Bank and The Revere Rubber Co. ; and trustee of The Boston Five Cent 
Savings Bank and Wellesley College. Sept. 4, 1843, he married Mary D. Edmands, of 
Thompson, Conn., and has four children, Frank E., Mary Ida, Harry E. and Frances 
Eugenie. In State affairs, he was a member of the Legislature, 1878-79, and State 
Senator, 1 880-81. 

JAHES WHEATON CONVERSE, long known as "Deacon" Converse, a manu- 
facturer of Boston, born in Thompson, Conn., Jan. n, 1808, died in Swampscott, Mass., 
Aug. 26, 1894. When old enough to think for himself, believing that he could do better 
elsewhere than upon his father's farm, he took his bundle of clothes, with the paternal 
consent, and in Boston went to work for two uncles in the Boylston market at 
$5 a month and board. In 1828, he bought the restaurant part of the business, 
stopped the sale of liquor, sold out at a profit in 1831, and then went into partnership 
with William Hardwick in the boot, shoe and leather business on Milk street in Boston, 
as Hardwick & Converse. Jan. i, 1833, he became a partner in Field & Converse on 
Broad street in the hide and leather trade. This house, which, after several changes of 
location, settled on High street, brought him a fortune. Jan. i, 1870, Mr. Converse 
retired to devote himself to a few large interests. He was a merchant of the old school 
and made large profits, which found investment in a great variety of enterprises, includ- 
ing railroads, banks and real estate. 

In 1850, in part by rail, canal and stage, he journeyed to Grand Rapids, Mich., to 
save to the Baptist church their Indian reserve there, and did that. Later, he bought 
the property, and to him more than to any other one man is due the creation of the city 
of Grand Rapids out of an almost primeval wilderness. His investments in factories in 
and around that municipality and in real estate there amounted to more than a million 
dollars. The gypsum quarries, the toll bridge, the railroads to Kalamazoo and White 
Cloud, several churches, and most of the factories, of some of which he was president or 
director, are monuments of his enterprise. 

With banking in Boston, he became connected as early as May 16, 1836, when The 
Mechanics' Bank was organized. A founder and always a director of that institution 
from the beginning, he was its president after 1847 until 1888. His place in the finan- 


cial world is denoted by the fact that he was a large stockholder, after 1861 a director, 
and after 1863 president, of The Boston Rubber Shoe Co. and president of The Bos- 
ton Land Co. and The Phoenix Furniture Co. of Grand Rapids, one of the organizers 
and president for twenty-seven years of The Boston & Colorado Smelting Co. of Denver 
the last named having a capital stock of $1,500,000 and at Argo, Colo., the largest 
refining and smelting plant in the United States, and president of The American 
Rapid Telegraph Co. He had a large interest in The Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 
was the principal builder of The Canada Southern Railroad and served as railroad 
receiver several times. The title of Deacon came to him through his devotion to the 
Baptist church, of which he was an active member. 

SETH COOK, a successful miner on the Comstock ledge, sprang from a New York 
family and was born in Byron, Genesee county, N. Y. , in 1830. Dying Feb. 26, 1889, he 
was buried in Rochester, N. Y., in which city he had passed his early life. In 1850, he 
appeared in California, and spent many years in the mining regions, prospecting with 
good and bad fortune alternately. He was among the first of the men to establish 
themselves on the Comstock ledge, and with his brother Daniel made a great deal of 
money in 1886 in the Crown Point deal. It is said that his profits were millions. 
Later, he obtained control of the Standard mine at Bodie, and finally returning to the 
Comstock ledge, became controlling owner of the Alta group of mines at the southern 
end of the lode. Mr. Cook also had mines on Maxwell creek and large interests in 
land, including a stock ranch in Contra Costa county. 

JAY COOKE, banker, Philadelphia, Pa., had the good fortune to inherit the vir- 
tues and energy of his Pilgrim ancestor, Francis Cooke, who arrived in America in the 
Mayflower and built the third house in Plymouth, and of his father, Eleutheros Cooke, 
lawyer, Whig politician and Member of Congress; but, except a good training at home, 
under his mother, Martha Casswell, he had the honor to inherit very little else. Born 
in Sandusky, O., Aug. 10, 1821, Mr. Cooke started in life poor, owing to reverses in 
his father's business, and had to go to work at an early age. He spent a year at San- 
dusky and St. Louis each, and in 1838 took a clerkship with E. W. Clark & Co., bank- 
ers in Philadelphia, in which city he has ever since made his home. The firm made 
him a partner at his majority and, through the operations of this house, he learned the 
art of financiering, which he afterward employed for his own benefit. Retiring about 
1858 from E. W. Clark & Co., with considerable means, Mr. Cooke founded the house 
of Jay Cooke & Co., in order to associate his sons with him in business, and, within a 
few years, had plunged into gigantic undertakings. The larger part of the $2,000,- 
000,000 of the bonds issued by the Federal government during the Civil War was sold 
through his house, although not without the expenditure of large sums of money in 
advertisements in newspapers and magazines, and persistent and herculean efforts 
among capitalists, carried on through branch houses in New York, Washington and 
London. After the War, Mr. Cooke ranked as a man of large wealth. He then made 
a specialty of negotiating large issues of railroad securities, was interested in hundreds 
of railroad lines, and beginning in 1864 undertook to build The Northern Pacific Rail- 
road. This work went on prosperously for a while. Construction work began in 1869 
and the line was finished from Duluth to Bismarck in 1873. The road was ahead of 
the times, however, and a default in payment of interest, due to the depression of 1873, 
overwhelmed Jay Cooke & Co. with disaster and caused their failure. The principal 


part of his fortune was swept away by this occurrence, but his attorneys managed to 
save more from the wreck than any one had expected and Mr. Cooke now lives in 
comfortable retirement. He is connected with a number of business enterprises and 
is a large owner of wild lands in the West. The wife of Mr. Cooke entered into rest 
fifteen years ago. She was Miss Elizabeth D. Allen of Lexington, Ky., and they were 
married Aug. 22, 1844. Of their eight children, four are living, Jay and Henry E. 
Cooke; Laura E., wife of C. D. Barney, the banker; and Sarah E., wife of John M. 
Butler, all of Philadelphia. Mr. Cooke's clubs are the Union League and the New 
England Society. 

THOflAS JEFFERSON COOLI DOE, merchant and manufacturer, Boston, Mass., 
is a grandson of Thomas Jefferson and was born in Boston, Aug. 26, 1831. From Har- 
vard college, Mr. Coolidge went into the East India trade with the late Joseph Gardner, 
under the style of Gfardner & Coolidge, and in that vocation acquired the means to 
engage in manufacturing enterprises. Most of his investments have been made with 
such careful judgment as to secure remarkably handsome returns, and he has been 
successful especially, not only in management of solvent enterprises but in rescuing 
others from a condition of virtual bankruptcy. 

In 1858, he accepted the presidency of The Boott Manufacturing Co. of Lowell, then 
in financial straits, and within three years had rebuilt its cotton mills and established 
their trade upon a prosperous footing. Three years were then spent in France. During 
1868-80, he managed The Lawrence Manufacturing Co. as its treasurer with good 
results, and was long treasurer of The Amoskeag Co. at Manchester, N. H., a large 
producer of cotton goods and flannels, and probably the largest manufacturing corpora- 
tion in New England, having a capital of $4,000,000, owning a property of $8,000,000, 
operating sixteen mills, employing 8,000 men and women, and controlling the water 
power of the Merrimack river at Manchester. In 1880, he began to operate in railroad 
properties and gained fresh laurels in this field as a manager of extraordinary abilities. 
He accepted the presidency of The Atchison, Topeka & Santa F6 during an interreg- 
num, aided the company through its worst period, and then resigned, to take the presi- 
dency of The Oregon Railway & Navigation Co. , now leased by The Northern Pacific 
Railroad, resigning as soon as the business had been brought to a satisfactory condition. 
Mr. Coolidge then resumed the treasurership of The Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., 
which he yet retains. He has an extended ownership in other cotton mills, including 
The Emery and The Lawrence Manufacturing Co. 'sand The Dwight Manufacturing 
Co. in Chicopee, being president of the latter, and is a director of The Boston & 
Lowell, The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, The Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis, 
and allied railroads, as well as many other enterprises. 

His public services include a representation at the Pan-American Congress, at which 
he brought in a minority report against the free coinage of silver, which was accepted. 
He was one of the original Park Commissioners of Boston, when those officials served 
without salary. In 1892, President Harrison appointed him Minister to France, a 
position which he filled with credit. Mr. Coolidge is a man of courteous manners, and 
in private life an agreeable associate. Among his clubs are the University and Har- 
vard of New York city. His family now consists of T. Jefferson Coolidge, jr., and 
three daughters, all married. He has given a fine public library to the city of Man- 
chester, N. H., and $130,000 to the Laboratory of Physics in Boston. 


JAMES E. COOPER, showman, Philadelphia, Pa., was born in Philadelphia, 
Nov. 4, 1832, and died there, Jan. i, 1892. He began business for himself at the age 
of fifteen as proprietor of an omnibus line, which he sold three years later in order to 
purchase the Germantown line, which in turn he sold shortly afterward for three times 
the amount he had paid for it. He then started an independent omnibus line in Wash- 
ington, D. C., and inside of three months had gained control of every line in that city. 
Returning to Philadelphia in 1 863, he entered the circus business in the firm of Gardner, 
Hemmings & Cooper, and became the first manager to give a concert under a circus can- 
vass. In 1866, Dan. Rice and his performing horses and the first trick mules seen in 
the country were engaged at 1,000 a week and expenses. During the next four sea- 
sons, the firm bore the name of Hemmings, Whitby & Cooper, becoming in 1871, Hem- 
mings & Cooper. In 1872, James A. Bailey, who had been connected with the circus 
as general agent, bought the interest of Mr. Hemmings and the show then took the 
name of " Cooper & Bailey's International Ten Allied Shows." The circus exhibited 
in even- part of the country and was extraordinarily successful, visiting Australia and 
New Zealand also twice, as well as all the principal cities in South America. Mr. Cooper 
retired from the firm in 1880. In 1886, he re-entered the circus business in partnership 
with P. T. Barnum. W. W. Coole and James L. Hutchinson, the show taking the name 
of " P. T. Barnum & Co's Greatest Show on Earth." At the close of 1887, Mr. Cooper 
sold his interest to James A. Bailey and retired with the intention of devoting the 
remainder of his days to the enjo} T ment of the fortune he had amassed, but the fascina- 
tion and excitement of the circus arena tempted him forth once more, and, in 1890, he 
purchased the Adam Forepaugh shows, and he died while in the harness. His wife 
and three children survived him. Mr. Cooper owned a large amount of real estate. 

JOB A. COOPER, banker, Denver, Colo. , is the son of an English farmer, who 
arrived in America in 1820, and, after a short stay in New York, became one of the 
first men to take up his abode in Bond county, 111. In that county, the subject of -this 
sketch was born, Nov. 6, 1843. From the high school in Knoxville, Mr. Cooper 
went to Knox college at Galesburg but left it in 1864 to join the i37th 111. Inf., 
as a sergeant of Company I. During the raid of General Forrest against Mem- 
phis, Mr. Cooper distinguished himself for gallantry, and indeed his valor was con- 
spicuous while he remained at the front. The regiment was ordered home toward 
the close of the War and Mr. Cooper graduated from Knox college in 1865 with high 
honors. In 1867, he was admitted to practice as a lawyer, and, in 1868, accepted elec- 
tion as clerk of the Circuit Court of Bond county, in which capacity he served for four 
years. Removing to Denver in May, 1872, he practiced law for a year with A. C. 
Phelps, and then engaged in the insurance business until April, 1876, when he became 
vice president of The German National Bank, in which position he won great popu- 
larity among depositors. In December, 1876, he was chosen cashier. Mr. Cooper 
soon learned the possibilities of Denver and not only did all that lay in his power to 
develop the city, but invested the larger part of his earnings in real estate, in order 
that he might profit by its growth. His interest in public affairs led to his service in 
the City Council in 1876 and his election as treasurer of the State university at 
Boulder. In 1 889, he was made Governor of the State for two years. He was for 
some time president of The First National Bank, and is now president of The National 
Bank of Commerce, and is recognized as a capable financier. The panic of 1893 may 


have caused some shrinkage in his assets, but a year or two of business activity will 
restore them to their former value. He owns 15,000 acres of land in Weld county, 
devoted to cattle raising. Mr. Cooper was married in 1867 to Miss Jennie O. Barnes, 
of Galesburg, 111., and is the father of four children. 

SAMUEL CHAMPION COOPER, Camden, N. J., lawyer, is a son of Joseph W. 
Cooper, a farmer, and was born at Cooper's Point, Camden county, N. J., April 6, 
1840. His ancestor came to America two years before William Penn, in 1680. Mr. 
Cooper began life in the work of the farm, followed by steamboating on the Delaware 
river and then made practice of the law and operations in real estate his life work. 
In 187 1, Mr. Cooper inherited a moderate property from his father, and has by good 
management added to his means, especially in real estate investments in Camden and 
vicinity. Among the corporations which have secured his interest are The Camden & 
Atlantic Railroad, The Cooper Point & Philadelphia Ferry Co., The Camden Gas Co., 
The West Jersey Traction Co., and The Champion Land Co., but there are others. He 
was married in June, 1865, to Emma J. Widener, of Philadelphia, and has two chil- 
dren, Joseph W. and Rebecca F. Cooper. 

CALEB FREDERICK COPE, merchant and financier, pronounced by a Bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church as the most eminent Philadelphian of his time, who 
died in Philadelphia, May 12, 1888, was born in Greensburg, Pa., July 18, 1797. He 
was eighteen years old when Napoleon and Wellington met at Waterloo. Washington 
was yet living, and John Adams had just become President. His life spanned an era 
of extraordinary progress. William Cope, his father, died when Caleb was young, so 
that the boy received his training from his mother, Elizabeth, and his grandfather, 
Frederick Rohrer. The latter, a native of Alsace and a famous pioneer of the West in 
America, emigrated to this country in 1759, at the age of seventeen, and visited 
Pittsburgh, when the place had only a fort and half a dozen Indian huts. He took 
across the Alleghany Mountains and planted the first wheat ever raised west of them, 
discovered and boiled the first salt ever traded in there, and sold the salt to the Indians 
of Ligonier valley, among whom he lived until they drove him away. The Copes 
were a once numerous and opulent family of Wiltshire, Eng. , and traced their descent 
from ancient Norman, Saxon and vSpanish knights and kings. Oliver Cope, with his 
wife Rebecca, came to America in 1682, with William Penn, having previously received 
one of the earliest land grants in Pennsylvania. 

Caleb F. Cope received tuition in a one-story log cabin, whose pedagogue was 
finally driven insane by the pranks of his fifty pupils. While a boy, Caleb was bound as 
an apprentice to John Wells, storekeeper, and at the end of four and one-half years 
went home to his mother, who had meanwhile married John Fleeger, a very worthy 
man. In 1815, Caleb was driven from Greensburg to Philadelphia in a Conestoga 
stage, over the rough roads of the day, and anointed his bruises at night with the tallow 
of the candles which lighted him to bed. June 17, he arrived in the city and next day 
entered the employment of his uncles, Israel & Jasper Cope, on Market street. At his 
majority, a new firm was formed with Caleb as a partner, and in time he succeeded his 
uncles in business. Silks were dealt in mainly, but, after the famous Cope line of 
packets had been established in 1821, by Thomas Pim Cope, the subject of this memoir 
traded with the East Indies, and Caleb Cope & Co. soon became the leading dry goods 
merchants of Philadelphia. An extensive trade was built up with the South and West. 


In 1836, The Merchants' Hotel Co. was established by nine merchants, and Mr. Cope 
was its president for nearly half a century and the last of its founders to survive. In 
later years, the Continental Hotel received its name from him and he presided at the 
first meeting called to encourage the enterprise. He joined the Pennsylvania Fire Co. 
of the old volunteer fire department on Feb. n, 1817, and of the more than two hun- 
dred members in 1820 he was last survivor. He was at one time president of the 
company and upon resigning received the gift of a silver memorial vase. 

In 1836, Mr. Cope was elected a director of The Bank of the United States and 
lived to survive all his colleagues in the Board under both the old and the new charters. 
For a time, in 1838, he served as acting president and had been one of a committee of 
twenty-four eminent citizens of Philadelphia, who went to Washington in 1834 with a 
petition signed by over 10,000 residents of Philadelphia, to ask for an extension of the 
charter of the bank. Of this committee also, he was the last survivor. Preserved 
among his papers is an account of the inner operations of the Bank and the causes 
which led to its downfall. While a trusted adviser of Mr. Biddle, he differed from that 
gentleman in his views and resigned in 1 839, refusing to rejoin when urged to do so 
under Mr. Dunlap, successor of Mr. Biddle. 

In 1853, a new store was opened at No. 183, now 429, Market street in the presence 
of many distinguished guests; and the occasion was celebrated at Jones's Hotel, Mayor 
Gilpin presiding, speeches being made by A. T. Stewart of New York, Morton Mac 
Michael, William W. Swain and others. In the panic of 1857, Caleb Cope & Co. failed 
through the dishonesty of partners, and Mr. Cope paid $750,000 before be had extin- 
guished the debts of the house with interest. It is a remarkable fact that, in settling 
up the affairs of the house, half a million dollars owing by southern merchants was 
paid within a few weeks, when the impending war would have enabled them to escape 
the indebtedness. Mr. Cope aided all his old partners except one. 

During the Civil War, Mr. Cope was invited by the government to go to Europe to 
purchase supplies and negotiate loans, but finding that he was unable to serve at that 
time, George Plummer Smith was authorized on his nomination to perform the duty. 
Mr. Cope was active during the War in providing for the comfort of volunteers en route 
to the front and the families of those who had enlisted. On the Commission for the 
Relief of the Families of Philadelphia Volunteers, he was instrumental in disbursing 
2,596,307 to i, 108,116 persons, between April 22, 1861, and Aug. 5, 1865. As treasurer 
of the great Central Fair of the Sanitary Commission, he drew a check to the order of 
General Strong for $1,035,398, the proceeds of that undertaking. 

In 1864, Mr. Cope became president of The Philadelphia Savings Fund Society, of 
which he had been a director since 1841, and gave to this institution the last twenty- 
four years of his life. He was one of the original trustees of The Lehigh Coal & 
Navigation Co., a representative of his State to the World's Fair in 1851, incorporator 
of The Cooper Shop Soldiers' Home, trustee of The Pennsylvania Hospital, director of 
The American Fire Insurance Co. , member of the Board of Trade and several historical 
and horticultural societies both at home and in Europe, manager of The Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Instruction of the Blind and The Magdalen Society, and connected 
with many other organizations. Originally a Lutheran and later a Protestant Episco- 
palian, in politics he was a Federalist, a Whig and a Republican. He refused all 
public office but wielded his pen in the public prints in important controversies. 



In 1835, after a visit to Europe, Mr. Cope married his cousin, Miss Abbey Ann, 
daughter of Jasper Cope. Mrs. Cope died in 1845 and her only child, a daughter, also 
passed away. In 1864, Mr. Cope married Miss Josephine Porter of Nashville, Tenn., 
and of this union two sons were born, Caleb F. and Porter F. Cope. At one time, he 
owned the magnificent estate of Springbrook on the Delaware, near Holmesburg, 
where he gathered together the finest collection of orchids, camellias, cactuses, ferns 
and mosses, and aquatic and other plants in the country. Aug. 21, 1851, there bloomed 
on his grounds for the first time in the United States the great lily, Victoria Regia, 
one of whose leaves measured seventy-eight inches in diameter and which attracted 
visitors from all parts of the world. He built the first orchid house in America and 
took delight in sending flowers to weddings and fruits to the sick. This property was 
sold at a sacrifice in consequence of the failure of his firm above recorded. It is now 
occupied by the Forrest Home for Actors. 

HENRY WINSLOW CORBETT, merchant and banker, Portland, Or., son of 
Elijah Corbett, a mechanic and pioneer manufacturer of edge tools, was born in West- 
borough, Mass., Feb. 18, 1827. His family traces its ancestry back through .English his- 
tory to Sir Robert Corbett, one of the knights of William the Conqueror and propri- 
etor of the castle of Carrs. Mr. Corbett was educated in the public schools and 
academy, and began his career as a boy in a country store in Cambridge, N. Y., 
and later as a clerk in the dry goods store of Williams, Bradford & Co. in New York city. 
In the Fall of 1850, aided by the firm who advanced the capital, Mr. Cor- 
bett shipped a stock of goods around Cape Horn, and left New York, Jan. 20, 1851, by 
steamer and the Isthmus and arrived in Portland in March, 1851. Opening a store, 
he sold the goods for $20,000 profit. Other shipments were made to Portland, and in 
1860, Mr. Corbett changed to wholesale hardware, and in 1891, consolidated with 
Henry Failing as Corbett, Failing & Co. While successful as a merchant, Mr. Cor- 
bett has not confined his enterprise to that field, but has also engaged in steam trans- 
portation, and was at one time mail contractor between Oregon and California over- 
land, stocking the road in 1866 with Concord coaches for 740 miles. His contract with 
the Government amounted to $179,000 per year. As he gained the means, Mr. Cor- 
bett then became a large buyer of choice real estate in Portland, and has recently built 
a number of business blocks. He is now one of the largest owners of improved prop- 
erty in the city, and pays taxes on about $850,000 worth of realty. In 1869, Henry 
Failing and he bought control of The First National Bank of Portland, and Mr. Cor- 
bett is now vice president, owning 1,800 shares of the stock, which were once so profit- 
able as to be rated at $750 a share. He is also president of The Security Savings & 
Trust Co. and The Portland Hotel Co., of which latter he is in fact one of the princi- 
pal owners, director of The Oregon Railway & Navigation Co. and The Oregon Fire 
& Marine Co., and has been president of the Board of Trade, The Boys' & Girls' Aid 
Society, The Children's Home, and The Pioneers' Society, chairman of the Committee 
of 100, a Water Commissioner, and an incumbent of other offices of trust. After Jay 
Cooke's failure, Mr. Corbett helped to reorganize The Northern Pacific Railroad. 

One of the few men with large business interests, who are willing to serve 
their fellow citizens in laborious stations, he was chairman of the Republican State 
Committee in 1859, delegate to the national convention in 1860 and 1868, and during 
1867-73, United States Senator. In Washington, he made a good reputation by oppos- 


ing every- measure, which savored of repudiation, and by sustaining' the movement for 
specie resumption. In Feburary, 1853, he married Miss Caroline E. Jagger. Of their 
two children, Henry J. Corbett is living and a young man of great promise ; he mar- 
ried Miss Helen Ladd, of Portland. Hamilton F. Corbett, a second son, a highly 
esteemed man, died at the age of twenty-four. Mrs. Corbett died in 1865. Two years 
later, Mr. Corbett married Miss Emma Louise Ruggles, of Worcester, Mass., who 
accompanied her husband to Washington while he was Senator and is remembered 
there for her man}' graces of character. At the family home in Portland, Mr. Cor- 
bett has entertained the two great Union generals, Grant and Sherman, and other men 
of note. His home denotes refinement. 

PHILIP CORBIN, manufacturer, New Britain, Conn., was born in the town of 
Wilmington, Conn., Oct. 26, 1824, son of Philip Corbin, a poor farmer, and during 
his early life gained his robust strength by the work upon the farm. He attended the 
public schools and West Hartford academy, and, in 1844, became an apprentice of 
North & Stanley, hardware manufacturers in New Britain. When of age, he secured a 
contract for some of the work of the shop, was successful, and, in 1849, with his brother, 
Frank, started a shop of his own, which has grown into the remarkably prosperous 
hardware manufactory of P. & F. Corbin. The firm are now incorporated, with Philip 
Corbin as president. They make gas fixtures, door knobs, and general bronze hard- 
ware. Mr. Corbin has held several offices, including those of member of the Legislature 
in- 1844, State Senator in 1889, and Republican Elector for Connecticut in 1892. 

WILLIAM WILSON CORCORAN, banker, Washington, D. C., was born within 
the limits of the District of Columbia, namely, at Georgetown, Dec. 27, 1798, and died 
Feb. 24, 1888. Thomas Corcoran, his father, an emigrant of 1783, settled first in Bal- 
timore but subsequently became a director of The Bank of Columbia, trustee of Columbia 
college and Mayor of the city, in Georgetown, as well as a rich and prosjjerous man. 
William W. Corcoran began life, therefore, under excellent auspices, as a dry goods 
clerk, and went on as an auction and commission merchant on his own account, with 
Thomas, a brother, as partner. In 1823, the firm failed in business, all of their credi- 
tors being paid, however, in full, with interest, in later years. During 1828-36, Mr. 
Corcoran had charge of the real estate interests of The Bank of Columbia. After 1835, 
he was a resident of Washington. 

He having engaged in banking in 1837, the State Department selected Mr. Cor- 
coran as its financial agent in 1841, and in 1842, George W. Riggs and he founded the 
afterward famous banking house of Corcoran & Riggs, which rose into prominence 
through sales of government bonds at the time of the Mexican War and later. As 
Mr. Corcoran 's means began to increase, he devoted himself to real estate interests in 
Washington and New York city, and at his death $1,800,000 of his fortune was repre- 
sented by this class of property. He was a man of handsome presence. 

Mr. Corcoran earned the title of philanthropist by numberless gifts, which amounted 
during his life time to about $4,000,000. and which included, among other things, 
Oak Hill cemetery in Georgetown, a site for the Washington Orphan Asylum, the 
endowment of Columbia college in Georgetown, gifts to William & Mary college, Vir- 
ginia Military Institute and the uni% T ersity of Washington & Lee, and the establishment 
of the Louisa Home for gentlewomen and the Corcoran Art Gallery. In 1835, Mr. 
Corcoran married Louisa, daughter of Commodore Morris of the navy. Mrs. Corcoran 


died in 1840. Her one son died in youth and the only daughter married George Eustis,. 
member of Congress and son of Chief Justice Eustis of Louisiana. Mrs. Eustis died 
about 1868, survived by three children, George P., Louise M. and William C. Eustis. 

GEORGE HENRY CORLISS, inventor, born in Easton, N. Y., the son of Dr. 
Hiram Corliss, June 2, 1817, died in Providence, R. I., Feb. 21, 1888. In 1825, the 
family moved to Greenwich and there George attended school. He had several years 
as clerk in a cotton factory,, three years in the academy in Castleton, Vt, and in 1838, 
he started a general country store in Greenwich. That he had ingenuity was shown 
by the way in which he rebuilt a bridge and invented a machine for stitching 
leather. In 1844, he settled in Providence, and in 1846 began to labor upon a better 
valve for steam engines and he perfected a plan, for which a patent was awarded him 
March 10, 1849, in which the governor of an engine directly controlled the valve. He 
made various improvements after that, but had hit upon a happy thought, in his first 
invention, and the rest was easy, the Corliss valve having secured economy in the 
operation of a steam engine. To gain the benefits of his invention, he began to man- 
ufacture steam engines fitted with his valves, at first in the firm of Corliss & Nightin- 
gale and later in The Corliss Steam Engine Co., Mr. Corliss being president. The 
valve was a triumph and in the management of his industry Mr. Corliss made a very 
great name and a fortune. His brother William held a place in the company for a 
number of years but eventually Mr. Corliss became sole owner. Some of his special 
engines were marvels. The single engine of 1,400 horse power to move the machinery 
of the Centennial Exposition was a great success, in spite of predictions that it would 
prove noisy and troublesome. It cost $100,000 more than the appropriation and was 
called by Bartholdi in his report to the French government a work of art. The famous 
Pawtucket pumping engine was of his make. Of ordinary engines, he built hundreds. 
When his patents had expired, nearly all the prominent engine builders of the world 
adopted his ideas. Among the honors which he won were awards at Paris in 1867 and 
Vienna in 1873, the Rumford medal in America in 1870, the Moynton prize in France 
ir 1873, one of the highest honors for mechanical achievement, and in February, 1886, 
the decoration of an officer of the Order of Leopold from the king of Belgium. Among 
his other inventions were a bevel gear cutting machine, a condenser for marine engines, 
a stationary boiler, and a pumping engine for water works. At the time of his death, 
he was perfecting plans for a greatly improved Corliss engine. Mr. Corliss was highly 
esteemed in Rhode Island, and he sat in the State Senate, 1868-70, and was a Presidential 
Elector in 1876. He declined a unanimous nomination for Governor, but was one of 
the commissioners who built the City Hall in Providence. 

EZRA CORNELL, pioneer builder of telegraph lines and founder of Cornell uni- 
versity, was born at Westchester Landing, N. Y., Jan. n, 1807. His father, Elijah 
Cornell, a member of the Society of Friends, was a native of Massachusetts, a teacher, 
farmer and pottery maker. The young man was educated at the public schools, first 
at home, later in Syracuse and Homer, N. Y. ; and, after 1828 in Ithaca, he found 
employment as a carpenter, and then entered a machine shop on weekly wages. In 
1830, he entered Jeremiah S. Beebe's mills and rose in ten years' time to the position of 
general manager. During this period, he cut a tunnel several hundred feet in length 
through the solid rock to bring the water of Fall creek down to the mills. He was 
man-led March 19, 1831, to Mary Ann, daughter of Benjamin Wood of Dryden in the 


same county. In 1841, the mills were sold, and Mr. Cornell became travelling sales- 
man for a patent plow. 

In 1843, while at Portland, Me., Mr. Cornell met Francis O. J. Smith, who had 
become interested in the inventions of Professor Morse. Congress had appropriated 
30,000 to build a telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore, and Mr. Cornell invented 
a machine to be drawn by eight mules for laying the wires underground and was 
employed as superintendent to carry out his idea. Owing to bad insulation, the wire 
would not work, and Mr. Cornell suggested and contracted for the stringing of the 
wires on poles. Next year, a line was built by him under contract from New York to 
Philadelphia, and in 1846, one from New York to Albany. In 1847, he organized a 
company and built a telegraph line from Troy to Montreal, and in 1848; formed The 
New York & Erie and The Erie & Michigan Telegraph Go's, to construct lines from 
New York to Lake Erie and thence to Milwaukee. In these latter enterprises, Mr. 
Cornell overtaxed his resources, but managed to retain his interest in the lines through 
adversity and bitter competition, and when The Western Union Telegraph Co. was 
formed, he became the largest stockholder, a director and a very rich man. He had 
been during his career at one time so poor that, on one occasion, the lucky discovery 
of a silver shilling on the ground saved him from going without a meal. 

Mr. Cornell being now in possession of large wealth became an owner in banks, 
railroads and manufacturing companies. He gave a $75,000 building to Ithaca for a 
free library and made a further gift for books. For the founding of Cornell univer- 
sity, he gave nearly a million dollars and so located the agricultural college land grant, 
which New York State had transferred to the university, that it produced three or four 
times its original value. He died Dec. 9, 1874, leaving an estate of $1,650,000 to Mrs. 
Mary M. Cornell, his wife, and his children, Alonzo B. , Franklin C., O. H. P., and 
Mary E. Cornell and Emma C., wife of Col. Charles H. Blair of New York. 

THOMAS WHITE CORNELL, banker, Akron, O., a son of George and Maria 
White Cornell, belonged to a family, which for several generations occupied the same 
farm in Beekman, Dutchess county, N. Y., where Thomas W. Cornell was born, Jan. 
8, 1820. Until twenty-two years of age, Mr. Cornell did -such work as falls to the lot of 
a farmer, having meanwhile gone to country school, finishing his education at Jacob 
Willet's school in Washington, Dutchess county. With a very small amount of money, 
saved from moderate earnings, he then engaged in distilling, brewing and malting in 
company with C. S. Burtis, at Auburn, N. Y., and so continued for thirteen years. In 
1855, with larger means, he migrated to Cuyahoga Falls, O. , purchased a distillery 
there and operated the same with profit until 1863. Having a larger income then than 
he chose to keep employed in distilling, Mr. Cornell bought an interest in a number of 
other enterprises, and upon his removal to Akron, O. , in 1863, became president of 
The First National Bank of that city. During the next thirty years, every large man- 
ufacturing and business enterprise in Akron knew him as a promoter and stockholder, 
and he was president of The Akron Gas Co. He also held stock in gas companies in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and was president of a company operating nickel and copper mines 
at Sudbury, Ontario. Mr. Cornell was gifted to a remarkable degree with thorough- 
ness, energy, and boldness in business affairs. His skill in management won the 
respect of all his contemporaries. Jan. n, 1854, Mr. Cornell married in Brookfield, 
Conn., S. Elizabeth Fairchild, who died two years afterward. Although without chil- 


dren, Mr. Cornell never again married. A man of great kindness of heart, unosten- 
tatious and retiring, his life was a source of much happiness to others. Few except the 
numerous beneficiaries of his bounty knew of his marked generosity. He died June 
10, 1892, at his home in Akron, leaving $2,450,000 to a brother, Egbert Cornell, of 
Newburgh, N. Y. , and several nephews. 

ERASTUS CORNING, banker and manufacturer, Albany, N.Y., was born in that 
city, June 16, 1827. Samuel Corning, the pioneer of his family, came from England 
to Beverly, Mass., in 1641, and Bliss Corning of this line was a soldier of the American 
Revolution. Erastus Corning (Norwich, Conn., Dec. 14, 1794 April 9, 1872, Albany), 
son of the latter and father of the subject of this sketch, founded the works in Troy, 
which, in 1875, were consolidated with those of John A. Griswold as the Albany & 
Rensselaer Iron & Steel Co. and became a man of large wealth in manufacturing, 
banking and railroads. ' He was Mayor of Albany, State Senator, Member of Congress 
and Regent of the University. Erastus Corning, jr., graduated from Union college 
and then became his father's partner in the hardware business; and the roll- 
ing mills at Troy, having been purchased and reorganized as The Albany Iron 
Works, he \\ as in due time admitted to partnership in that enterprise also. He suc- 
ceeded to his father's manufacturing interests, retaining the old firm name of Erastus 
Corning & Co., March i, 1875. Mr. Corning alterward consolidated his mills in Troy 
with those of John A. Griswold & Co., under the name of The Albany & Rensselaer 
Iron & Steel Co., becoming president of the new organization, which now operates a 
great iron and Bessemer steel plant. Mr. Corning is a Democrat in politics, but has always 
avoided public office, except on one occasion, when he served in the Common Council 
of Albany. He is the owner of many thousands of acres of pine lands and possesses 
a farm south of Albany, equipped with thorough bred cattle and horses and extensive 
conservatories. He is president of The Albany City National Bank, was formerly 
president of The Albany City Savings Institution, and is a member of the Union club 
of New York city and the Fort Orange club of Albany, and the Sons of the American 
Revolution. He has been twice married, in 1850, to Miss Gertrude Tibbitts, and in 
1873, to Miss Mary Parker. 

WARREN HOLMES CORNING, retired merchant, Cleveland, O., born in 
Painesville, Lake county, O., Feb. 18, 1841, has put his talents to such effective use as 
to be able to retire from active business in middle life. His grandfather, Warren 
Corning, born at Beverly, Mass., Nov. 21, 1771, was a member of an old colonial fam- 
ily, and a descendant from Samuel Corning, first of his line in the new world. The 
pioneer arrived in 1627 from Holland, was admitted as a freeman in Boston, June 2, 
1641, and became one of the founders of the first church in Beverly, Mass. 

Warren Corning married Elizabeth Pettingill, Nov. 12, 1795, and in 1810 went 
with his wife from Acworth, N. H., where they were then living, to the thinly settled 
township of Mentor in northern Ohio, accomplishing the long and difficult journey with 
a six-horse team and a covered wagon, such as was afterward used in crossing the 
prairies. Mr. Corning was accompanied by a number of others, who, like himself, 
were going into the then far West to seek homes and fortune, and, having been made 
commander of this expedition and directing their movements, he was called by his 
companions " Colonel," by which honorary title he was afterward known. The Corn- 
ing family endured many hardships during the first few months in this new land, but 


conditions soon improved, and Mr. Corning, by his industry and high standing in the- 
community, became exceptionally prosperous. It was his daughter Harriet, who 
afterward sold part of Mr. Coming's farm to our late President, James A. Garfield. 
Mr. Corning had nine children, of which Solon Corning, born in Acworth, N. H., 
Feb. 2, 1810, was one. 

Solon Corning married Almira E. Holmes, of Willoughby, O., and became the 
father of seven children. He inherited a comfortable competence from his father, and 
by his natural and inherited thrift added to the fortune which had been left him. He 
was the father of the present Warren Holmes Corning. 

When Warren was only five years old, his father took the family to Cleveland, but 
remained only two years, then going to Newark, O. , by way of the canal, there being 
no railroads in that, part of the world at that time. In 185.3, the family returned to 
Cleveland, where Solon Corning went into business with A. H. and D. N. Barney, 
under the name of Barney, Corning & Co. , which firm was one of the first to operate a 
large fleet of vessels on the Great Lakes. Warren attended school in Cleveland and 
graduated at the High School. As a boy, it is remembered that he was always honor- 
able, truthfulj generous and staunch in devotion to his friends. With these traits he 
grew to manhood. Leaving school, he became a clerk, at the age of sixteen, for Gordon, 
McMillan & Co., wholesale grocers and leading merchants of northern Ohio, and there 
obtained a thorough business training, which was of great assistance in mastering the 
business problems of later life. Warren served faithfully, displayed great interest in 
his work, and gained an excellent knowledge of business affairs. After three years in 
this service, he engaged in manufacturing and distilling with his father in Cleveland, 
and carried on business there with succcess, until competition made it desirable to 
establish the .plant nearer to the grain fields. Thereupon Mr. Corning removed his 
business to Peoria, 111. , but retained his home in Cleveland, which compelled him to 
make frequent business trips West. About the year of 1887, Mr. Corning sold The 
Monarch Distilling Co. at Peoria, 111., upon satisfactory terms to The Distilling & 
Cattle Feeding Co. , and retired with well earned laurels from the company. 

Released from the exacting routine of daily attention to a large establishment, Mr. 
Corning then gave his attention to other things. He made large investments in various 
institutions, including The Standard Sewing Machine Co. , The Wick Banking & Trust 
Co., The First National Bank, and The Guardian Trust Co. of Cleveland, in all of 
which he is a director and has taken an active interest in their management. In these 
later days, he passes his time largely at a beautiful home on Euclid avenue in Cleve- 
land or in travel and recreation. 

Dec. 7, 1864, Mr. Corning married Miss Mary Helen, daughter of Henry Wick of 
Cleveland, and to this congenial and united couple have been born six children, Leslie 
S., Henry W., Mary A., Adele, Helen, and Oliver Payne Corning. Mr. Corning is 
frequently called to New York city by financial matters or pleasure, and is a member of 
the Metropolitan and New clubs and The Ohio Society there, as well as of the Union, 
Roadside, and Country clubs of Cleveland. He is a man of genial temperament, the 
embodiment of every manly quality, of noble character, and the centre of a large 
circle of faithful friends. Strict integrity and wise insight in business affairs give 
weight to his advice and his services are in great demand among those associated with 
the financial world 


HENRY COWELL, merchant, San Francisco, Cala., bom in Wrentham, Mass., 
June 30, 1819, is a descendant of a family which came to America in 1635, settling in 
Boston and Wrentham. His grandfather, after the news of the battle of Lexington, 
assembled a company of minute men and marched for the relief of Boston, and was 
afterward wounded at Bunker Hill, but recovered and served through the War. On 
his mother's side, Mr. Cowell descends from an English nobleman, who, becoming a 
supporter of Cromwell, was, upon the restoration of King Charles, forced to fly to 
America, and occupied land in Massachusetts which Mr. Cowell now owns. 

Trials and disappointments beset Mr. Cowell's early life. After leaving home, he 
found employment at eight dollars a month and board, working from 6. A. M. to 8. 30 
p. M. When he had saved $136, he loaned $125 of it to a man who suddenly failed. 
Mr. Cowell subsequently recovered fifty-two cents on the dollar As superintendent 
of a railroad on Lookout Mountain in the South, he lost $498 by the failure of the com- 
pany, part of it borrowed money, and was left completely stranded, having less than 
twenty-five cents of money in the world. The company being reorganized, he 
regained his employment, but was glad, in 1851, to remove to California. 

On the Western coast, although he had performed no physical labor for years, he 
accepted the first work offered and wheeled coal in a wheelbarrow one day. At night, 
his hands were blistered and bleeding. He received ten dollars for this first day's work 
in California. In August, Mr. Cowell walked seventy-five miles in two days through an 
Indian country, carrying a pack weighing fifty-one pounds, a heavy revolver and other 
trappings, with the thermometer 120 in the shade and without water for sixteen miles 
of the route. Reaching the mines, he prospected with pick and shovel, met with some 
success, and cleared 3.400, which he loaned to a friend and lost. These trials finally 
made our hero a cautious man, and his substantial progress dates from this latter period. 

Returning to San Francisco, he engaged in practical business and soon entered the 
firm of Davis & Cowell, now Henry Cowell & Co., to deal in lime and cement. In this 
business, he prospered. The firm have imported Portland and other cement for many 
years, but also now manufacture lime on a scale so extensive that Mr. Cowell has 
earned the soubriquet of the ' ' Lime King. " Thousands of acres of lands have been 
bought in the counties cf San Juan, San Mateo, El Dorado and Santa Cruz, and lime 
kilns built in large number. Mr. Cowell is shrewd, untiring and a money maker, 
and now enjoys the possession of an ample fortune. He is called "Captain " on the 
water front, having owned vessels and steamers. 

ECKLEY BRINTON COXE, mining engineer and mine owner, born in Phila- 
delphia, June 4, 1839, died in Drifton, May 13, 1895. A graduate from the L T niversity 
of Pennsylvania in 1^58, Mr. Coxe spent a few months in the anthracite coal mines, 
and then went abroad for two years' study at the Ecole des Mines in Paris, and a year 
in the Freiberg mining school, after which nearly two years were devoted to studying 
the mines in England and continental Europe. Sailing for home, he then embarked in 
coal mining, with his brothers, and developed anthracite properties at Drifton, Pa., 
which under his management became among the most successful and best conducted in 
the State. His firm of Coxe Bro's & Co. are well known in the trade as among the 
largest coal operators in the United States. As an expert in the mining of anthracite 
coal and the survey of mines, Mr. Coxe frequently lectured before scientific bodies, and 
was a highly respected member of The American Institute of Mining Engineers, and its 


president, 1878-81. Of The Institute of Mechanical Engineers, he was vice president, 
1 880-8 1, and he also belonged to The American Society of Civil Engineers. A number 
of papers on technical subjects from his pen have proved of value and interest, espe- 
cially his translation of Weisbach's "Mechanics of Engineering and Construction of 
Machines." Mr. Coxe was a State Senator in Pennsylvania, 1881-84, and created a 
lively agitation upon the organization of the Senate in January, 1881, by refusing to take 
the oath of office, from conscientious scruples. He declared that he had spent money 
freely in the campaign and the oath conflicted with that practice. The seat was 
declared forfeited, a special election was held, and Mr. Coxe was sent back to the 
Senate. Being thus vindicated, he took his seat. With other members of his family, 
he owned coal lands at Hazleton, Pa., and in various other parts in Luzerne, Schuylkill 
and Carbon counties., A wife survived him, but no children. 

FRANK COXE, banker and capitalist, born in Rutherfordton, N. C., Nov. 2, 1840, 
is a son of Francis Sidney Coxe, of Philadelphia, a member of the family famous in 
the Key Stone State for its ownership of coal mines. The first ancestor of this family 
in America was Col. Daniel Coxe of London, who came to this country in 1700, as 
Governor and one of the owners of the province of West Jersey. Educated at the 
University of Pennsylvania, the subject of this sketch began life as a civil engineer and 
miner of anthracite coal, but having become greatly interested in the South, where he 
was born, he served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. Since' the War, he 
has become active in business affairs and is now president of The Commercial National 
Bank of Charlotte, N. C., and The Charleston, Cincinnati & Chicago Railway, vice 
president of The Western North Carolina Railway, and sole owner of the Battery Park 
Hotel in Asheville, N. C., and The Battery Park Bank. He married Mary Matilda 
Mills, April 29, 1861, at Green River, N. C. , and the names of -his children are, Otis 
Mills, Francis Sidney, Daisy, Maude, and Tench Charles Coxe. A social man, he 
belongs to the Philadelphia, Rittenhouse, Country and other clubs of Philadelphia and 
the Manhattan club of New York. The family passes the Summer months in the 
North Carolina mountains and the Winter time mainly in Philadelphia. 

WILLIAFl CRAHP, founder of Cramp's ship yard in Philadelphia, was of the true 
American pioneer type of men, who leave behind them permanent monuments of crea- 
tive genius. Born in Kensington, Philadelphia, in September, 1807, he laid the founda- 
tion of the ship building industry, which bears his name, at the early age of twenty-three, 
on a considerable scale for those times, and steadily pushed his way to the front, shrinking 
from no obstacle and dismayed by no misfortune. Essentially a man of steady habits, 
free from vices, scrupulously exact in business engagements, and methodical in the 
conduct of his work, he was a thorough and effective disciplinarian in the management 
of his working forces, yet mild in manner and genial of intercourse. The extraordinary 
pride he manifested in his work sprang more from ambition to excel in professional 
reputation than from a more sordid motive. 

At the time of his death in Atlantic City, N. J., July 6, 1879, he had completed 
more than half a century of constant professional work on his own account. His vigor 
of body was equal to the energy of his mind, and it is literally true that his last illness 
was his first. 

When William Cramp laid his first keel in 1830, there were not less than twelve 
other ship yards on the Delaware and Schuylkill river fronts of Philadelphia. Cramp's 


alone survives to this day, growing apace with the times until it has become a colossal 
monument to the perseverance, industry and probity of the modest man whose name it 
bears and to the abilities of his sons. The ship yards which have vanished built wooden 
vessels only. When the day came for the great change from wood to iron, the estab- 
lishment founded by William Cramp proved to be the only one prepared to meet the 
new conditions, 

The period of William Cramp's activity as a builder of wooden sailing vessels was 
also the era of greatest importance of the United States as a commercial power in the 
ocean carrying trade, namely, from 1830 to 1861. At the outbreak of the Civil War, 
armored ship construction was yet in its infancy, but William Cramp & Sons unhesi- 
tatingly entered this untried and unknown field with marked success. As soon as the 
American people had fairly settled down to the pursuits of peace after the great Civil 
War, and the position of the iron ship had been assured as a controlling factor in mari- 
time supremacy, William Cramp directed toward the re-building of our merchant marine 
on that basis the same skill, energy and cheerful faith, which had marked his career 
tinder the old regime, although his first efforts to domesticate iron ship building were 
put forth under conditions, which would have appalled most other men. 

It is not easy to overestimate the impress, which the builder of 207 ships for com- 
merce or for war makes upon the destinies of his country. No single mind can trace 
the ramifications of the influence of his creations, The keels of the Cramp ships have 
ploughed every sea for the commercial aggrandizement of the republic, and the thunder 
of their cannon has been heard in battle for its life. The skill of the builder, some- 
times forgotten after the ship has been set afloat, is perhaps the most potent influence 
in its triumphs. 

This is a too brief an epitome of the public character and services of William Cramp. 
In private life, he was the embodiment of domestic and neighborly virtues. He never 
wrought an injury and never missed a chance to help. He lived beloved and died 
mourned by every one who had ever known him. It is a matter of practical moment 
that of eleven children, inheritors alike of his genius and fortune, several sons grew up 
under his careful training thoroughly prepared to develop and carry on his work. 

CHARLES HENRY CRAMP, president of The William Cramp & Sons Ship & 
Engine Building Co. of Philadelphia, is now the most conspicuous ship builder of the 
United States as well as among the most eminent in the world. 

Born in Philadelphia, May 9, 1828, son of the late William Cramp, he graduated, 
in 1845, from the Central High School in that city, in which he had been an eager and 
ambitious student. It is recorded of Mr. Cramp's school days that he was one of the 
four lads selected by Prof. Alexander Dallas Bache, founder of the United States 
Coast Survey, to make nightly observations from the observatory of Girard college, 
their reports forming in part the basis upon which the United States Weather Service 
has since been established. In the yard of an uncle, John Bircly, Charles H. Cramp 
learned the ship builder's art and three years later took his place in the yard of William 
Cramp. In 1859, he became a partner in William Cramp & Sons, and, by the keen- 
ness of his mind, his fertility of suggestion, and thorough qualifications for affairs, 
proved a valuable coadjutor in the business from the start. During the Civil War, the 
Cramp ship yard was able to build many large frigates and monitors for the Federal 
Government. The greatest ship built by William Cramp was the New Ironsides, a 



powerful war vessel, in fact, the pioneer seagoing battleship, constructed to meet an 
emergency during the War. In seven months' time, the oak timber had been felled in 
the woods, hewn and sawn to its shape, and fitted to its place in the vessel, and the 
ship plated with iron armor, launched and delivered to the Government. In four 
months more, she was in action at Charleston harbor. 

The growing business of the firm was incorporated, in 1872, as The William Cramp 
& Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., the stockholders being William and his five sons, 
Charles H., William M., Samuel H., Jacob C., and Theodore, and, in 1879, after the 
death of the founder, Charles H. Cramp became president of the company, a position 
he yet retains. 

While Mr. Cramp inherited from his father a share in an established business, it is 
due to him to say that he entered the works at a time when the American mercantile 
marine was in a state of decline and an old order of things was giving place to a new. 
In the natural order of events, the causes which were leading to the loss of America's 
prestige at sea would have destroyed every constructing ship yard in Philadelphia, as 
they have actually destroyed every one of the famous yards of former times in New 
York city. But Mr. Cramp brought to the management of the concern the ability to cope 
with the new problems presented and a progressive and enterprising spirit. During 
the war period, largely by his advice, iron ship building was determined upon. In the 
infancy of iron ship building, the constructive work was done by boiler .makers and 
machinists, the regular ship builders providing the plans and performing the technical 
work. In this manner, the Cramp establishment had engaged in iron ship building as 
early as 1845. The first iron ship built by themselves in their own yard and under 
their own contract was the Yasoo, a monitor for the United States Navy, in 1863. 
The first iron merchant steamship built by Cramp was the Clyde, in 1867. From 
that time forward, the history of Cramp's ship yard has been one of increasing 
effort, tireless study and constant progress. For many years, the construction of 
steamers to ply in the trades of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, with an occasional 
war ship for the Navy, occupied the energies of the company. Their first vessels for 
transatlantic service were the four swift steamships of the American line, built in 
1872-74, the Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania, of 3,126 tons burden each, which 
have always ranked as among the finest examples of the constructive art in the 
world. How many Americans know that these four steamers, the product of an 
American ship yard, made of American materials by their own countrymen, have 
always been able to secure actually the lowest rates of insurance accorded by the 
marine insurance companies to any ships upon the sea the finest testimonial to 
their staunchness and excellence of construction which could possibly be afforded? 
The swift cruisers Europe, Asia, Africa, and Zabiaca, were built at the Cramp ship 
yard for the Russian government, and a long list of large and powerful commercial 
steamers for service upon the Atlantic and Pacific oceans have since been launched, 
and several splendid steam yachts for American owners. Among the innovations 
introduced by this thoroughly progressive firm was that of compound engines, in 
1870, and triple expansion engines, in 1884"; and it is considered that the develop- 
ment of modern marine engineering dates from these two improvements. The new 
American Navy has been strengthened by a mimber of splendid cruisers and battle 
ships built at these yards, among them the Baltimore, Philadelphia, Newark, New 


York, Columbia, Minneapolis, Indiana, Brooklyn and Massachusetts. The engines of 
the Cramps are unequalled in construction anywhere in the world, and for high speed 
and long coal endurance these ships are now rulers of the sea. 

The Cramps have now gradually created, at the old site upon the Delaware river, 
the largest and finest ship and engine building plant in America and second to none in 
the world. Seven ships of the largest size can be constructed simultaneously within 
the enclosure which surrounds the works, and it has often happened that as many as 
that have been building at one time. Adjoining the yards on the north are the works 
of the I. P. Morris Co., makers of force and lift pumps, steam engines and heavy cast- 
ings, which have been purchased by the Cramp company. A large dry dock has also 
been added to the equipment, and a valuable tract of land fronting on the Delaware river, 
five miles below the present yards, has been acquired for the future use of the company. 
The works employ about six thousand men at high wages and disburse millions of 
money annually for labor and supplies. No better view of the achievements of Mr. 
Cramp and his associates can be afforded, than by an exhibit of the tonnage and indi- 
cated horse power under construction at this yard at one time. The maximum value of 
work on hand occurred in the years 1893 and 1894, the aggregate being 147,000 tons of 
displacement and 236,600 indicated horse power. 

While every one of the leading ship builders of the United States has been inspired 
with the worthy ambition to found a line of modern steamers, which should carry the 
American flag to Europe and renew the contest for the carrying trade of the Atlantic, 
it is to Charles H. Cramp that has fallen the honor of playing an actual part in the 
enterprise. Mr. Cramp aided materially to secure from Congress the act enabling The 
International Navigation Co. to register the Paris and New York under the American 
flag, and it is in his yard that the St. Paul and St. Louis have since been built, two of 
the finest vessels in the transatlantic trades. 

Mr. Cramp is a man in whom the spirit predominates over the physique. He is of 
medium stature and large head, intellectual, keen, original, and driving, conspicuous for 
the soundness of his judgment, the excellence of his plans and the vigor with which he 
carries them into execution, and famous for the unvarying success of the vessels 
launched from the ship yard which he manages. 

JOHN WILLEY CRAMTON, merchant, who lives in Rutland, Vt., was born in 
Tinmouth, in that State, Nov. 10, 1826. He comes from that early colonial stock of 
English descent, which helped to conquer the red man and the wilderness in Connec- 
ticut, and finally joined the migration to Vermont. No romantic episodes attended his 
debut in the world of affairs. Inured to labor from boyhood, he earned his first 
money after coming of age, as a wood chopper and brick maker. In January, 1853, he 
rented a house in Rutland, Vt. , and engaged in the manufacture of tinware, which, 
being sold in country towns all around, was there exchanged for wool, hides, old metal, 
paper rags, and any other commodities, which would sell to advantage in town, and in this 
honest and laborious vocation he made excellent headway. A saving disposition soon 
enabled him to invest in other kinds of business, and he has always shown himself ready 
to help other men who have been ready to help themselves. His firm of John W. 
Cramton & Co., earn' on a large trade in stoves and hardware, and the Bardwell House 
in Rutland has belonged to him for the last thirty years. He is now president of The National Bank, The Steam Stone Cutter Co., The True Blue Marble Co. and 


The Rutland Street Railroad, vice president of The Howe Scale Co. , and an owner in 
a grocery store and a horse livery. Vermont elects men to public office with more 
discrimination and closer scrutiny of private character than some other States, and it 
is a sufficient commentary on Mr. Cramton's merit, that he was a State Senator in 
1886; State Prison Director, 1882-92; and president of Rutland village for several 
terms. His wife is Florence B. Gates, whom he married in Rutland. 

RICHARD T. CRANE, manufacturer, Chicago, 111., born in Paterson, N. J., in 
1832, spent his early life chiefly in labor, having little time for study. Occupied with 
the machinist's trade in Paterson, Brooklyn, N. Y., and New York city, until 1855, he 
then removed to Chicago, where Martin Ryerson helped him to start in business by 
giving him a small piece of land on which to build a brass foundry. The original shop 
proved so profitable that Mr. Crane sent for his brother, Charles S. , and opened a 
larger establishment under the name of R. T. Crane & Bro. The making of steam 
heaters was begun in 1858, an iron foundry was added in 1860, and in 1865 a large four 
story factory was built and machinery and engines added to the production. Mr. Crane 
finally incorporated the business with $1,000,000 capital as The Northwestern Manu- 
facturing Co., re-organized it as The Crane Bro's Manufacturing Co. and later changed 
it to The Crane Co. This large concern, which is the proprietor of works both in 
Chicago and Omaha, is now an extensive producer of pipe and fittings, and has branch 
offices in New York, Grand Rapids, Boston, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and other cities. 
About 1874, the manufacture of elevators for factories, office buildings, hotel and apart- 
ment houses, was undertaken, and The Crane Elevator Co., capital $1,000,000, now 
manages this branch of this business, which is an important enterprise and has brought 
Mr. Crane a reputation. Not only are his freight, side walk, hand, steam power and 
hydraulic elevators for the transportation of heavy goods safe and manageable, but the 
passenger elevators for business buildings and apartment houses are noted for their 
artistic beauty and mechanical ingenuity. In the operating apparatus, a lever takes the 
place of the old hemp or wire rope, by which an elevator was formerly operated. Mr. 
Crane is at the head of both factories. 

ZENAS CRANE, paper manufacturer, Dalton, Mass., bears the name of a grand- 
father, who, in 1801, built a little paper factory in Dalton, which he handed down to 
Zenas M. Crane, a son, and which is now owned in large part by the subject of this 
sketch, son of Zenas M. Crane. Born in Dalton, Dec. 6, 1814, the Zenas of the third 
generation went into the factory, when old enough, and learned to make paper. Pro- 
moted, then, to the office and finally inheriting an interest, he has since shown good 
qualities as a wide awake, progressive proprietor. A parter in Z. & W. M. Crane, 
Crane & Co. and The Beikshire Mills Co., he has sold large quantities of special 
bond and bank note paper to the Federal Government and of other grades to the pub- 
lic at large. Mr. Crane also has an interest in The Dalton Shoe Co. 

HENRY HOWLAND CRAPO, lumberman, Flint, Mich., who died July 23, 1869, 
was born in Dartmouth, Mass., May 24, 1804, a member of the fifth generation in 
descent from a young Frenchman, who came ashore on Cape Cod suddenly and against 
his will, being in fact wrecked in a ship hailing from Bordeaux. The Cape Cod folks 
called the newly arrived Frenchman "Crapo," and the name adhered. The sailor's 
descendants lived in Rochester, Freetown, and Dartmouth, Mass. The subject of this 
sketch grew up on a farm, and promoted himself to be a school teacher, auctioneer and 


surveyor. The family were poor and the lad's education was absolutely self-acquired. 
He was married June 9, 1825, to Mary Ann Slocum in Dartmouth. This union brought 
them nine children, Mary, William W., Rebecca, Lucy, Rhoda Henrietta, Sarah, Lydia, 
Emma and Wilhelmino. Mr. Crapo having removed to New Bedford went to work 
there as a poor man must and a strong man can. Aided by native common sense, a 
strong mind, and a sound physical constitution, he labored unceasingly, became City 
Clerk of New Bedford, and finally engaged in whaling ventures with much success. 
In 1856, he moved to Michigan, his son, William W. Crapo, remaining a resident of New 
Bedford. In Flint, Mr. Crapo embarked in the manufacture of lumber and prospered 
therein. Elected Mayor of Flint and, in 1863-64, State Senator, he was twice thereafter 
(186569) Governorof the State of Michigan. No one at home did more than he to 
foster Union sentiment during the Civil War and promote the union cause. The city 
of Flint owes much in many ways to his remarkable energy and foresight. The Flint 
& Holly Railroad, now known as The Flint & Pere Marquette. was built by him. 

HORACE H. CRARY, tanner, Binghamton, "N. Y., a son of Calvert Crary, farmer, 
and of Eliza Hill, his wife, was born in Liberty, Sullivan county, N. Y., Aug. 29, 1824. 
The family are remotely of Scottish origin, Peter Crary of this line having arrived from 
Scotland in 1685 and taken up a farm on the Mystic river in Groton, Conn. Mr. Crary 
was brought up in the backwoods, showed a talent for mathematics at country school, 
and was active every Winter in catching foxes, rabbits and other game, and spent much 
time in fanning and in selling produce, game and poultry at Washington market in New 
York city, and selling goods at auction at general trainings. During 1846-50, he 
engaged in the butcher business in Liberty and in buying and selling horses. 

In 1850, Mr. Crary invested $2.000, which he had laboriously acquired, in Allison, 
Gregory & Co., tanners on Sands Creek, near Hancock, N. Y., drawing only one dollar 
a day from the firm for living expenses, the first year. Mr. Crary was largely the life 
of the firm and played an active part in its operations. In 1856, they reorganized as 
Allison, Crary & Co. and took a half interest in a new tannery at Lake Como, Pa. The 
panic of 1857 and the burning of the new tannery, May 10, 1862, were severe blows to 
the firm, but they were able to go on, and during the latter part of the War made a great 
deal of money. Walter Horton withdrew in 1864, to start a new tannery at Sheffield, 
Pa., the old firm then taking the name of Allison & Crary, and in 1866, Mr. Crary 
bought a third interest in some lands in Warren county, Pa. , taken up by Walter and 
Webb Horton, and the firm of Horton, Crary & Co. engaged in tanning at Sheffield. 
When the hemlock bark on several thousand acres of land had been exhausted, oil and 
natural gas were discovered. Horton, Crary & Co. sold a part of this land for $350,000, 
but continued to hold the rest and have received large profits from oil and gas. 

Mr. Crary is yet in the sole leather tanning business. He has had about twenty- 
five partners during his career, no one of whom has ever failed to pay his debts. In 
different firms, he is interested in tanneries at Sheffield, Tionesta, Brookston, Harri- 
son Valley, Arroyo, and Westfield, Pa., and Salamanca, N. Y., and perhaps elsewhere, 
and in The Penn and The L'nion Tanning Go's, each of them virtually a svndicate of 
tanners. He was active in forming The United States Leather Co., and his interests 
are now merged therein, and in Horton, Crary & Co. of New York, and Walter Horton 
& Co. of Boston. Mr. Crary also has a large interest in grist mills at Hancock, and is 
vice president of The Binghamton Trust Co. 


Since 1876, owing to impaired sight, he has spent much time in travel, and, since 
1885, has been a resident of Binghamton, N. Y. Mr. Crary is a man of striking 
appearance, being six feet four inches high, strongly built and large. He is highly 
esteemed for his upright character. In October, 1 853, he married Polly Burr of Liberty, 
N Y., and their five children are, Mrs. J. C. Young of Liberty, Grace, wife of F. H. 
Haskins, and Thomas B. Crary of Binghamton, Calvert Crary of Boston, and Miss 
Mary Crary. 

HUGH ALEXANDER CRAWFORD, capitalist, St. Louis, Mo., is a son of A. L 
Crawford, iron manufacturer, and was born in New Castle, Pa., Jan. 25 1844. After 
leaving the local schools, he found his first business occupation as clerk in a rolling 
mill and later managed a coal mine in Pennsylvania In 1874, he moved to St. Louis 
and engaged in the iron business and traffic enterprises, finally acquiring an interest in 
financial institutions! Mr. Crawford inherited moderate wealth from his father, but 
his prosperity is mainly due to his own energetic efforts and business ability and the 
practice of always saving a part of his income. He is president of The Sligo Furnace 
Co. and The Missouri Iron Co. ; vice president of The Continental National Bank and 
The Nashville & Knoxville Railroad, and director in The Wabash Iron Co.,' The Vigo 
Iron Co. and The Crawford Coal Co , all of Indiana; The Union Trust Co. of St. Louis, 
The Crawford Coal & Iron Co. of Tennessee, and The Gadsden Iron Co. of Alabama. 
Mr. Crawford is a strong protectionist and a warm friend of Major Wm. McKinley, 
jr., of Ohio, whose father was superintendent of a blast furnace at New Wilmington, 
Pa., owned by Mr. Crawford's father. He was married in St. Louis, Aug. 15, 1878, to 
Judith H. Evans. 

NICHOLAS C. CREEDE, gold miner, who came into prominence in consequence 
of his mines at Cripple Creek, Colo., was born in Fort Wayne, Ind. , April 4, 1842. John 
Creede, his father, was a farmer. The family moved to Iowa in 1846, and there their 
son Nicholas gathered his education. In 1862, Mr. Creede went to Colorado in search 
of adventure, and found it in seven years of service as a United States scout, holding 
the rank of First Lieutenant. He has since become famous as the founder of the 
Creede mining camp in Colorado, together with quite a number of other flourishing 
camps, and has been a successful prospector and miner nearly all his life. The bulk 
of his fortune was acquired in the Holy Moses and Amethyst mines at Creede, which 
properties he yet owns, and from which he ships large quantities of rich silver ore. 
He now lives in California, where he owns large interests in real estate and mines. 

JOHN CRERAR, Chicago, 111., who died in that city, Oct. 19, 1889, at the age of 
sixty-five, originated in Scotland and when he was seventeen migrated to New York 
city. His life was laborious, but owing to excellent abilities very successful. He 
settled in Chicago while yet a young man and founded in the course of time the house 
of Crerar, Adams & Co. , of which he was always the head, which dealt in and manu- 
factured railroad supplies. Mr. Crerar connected himself with a variety of enterprises, 
most of them feeders to his business, but some of them simply sound investment 
properties. He was president of The Joliet & Chicago Railroad, vice president of The 
Chicago & Alton Railroad, and director of The Pullman Palace Car Co., The Michigan 
Telephone Co., The Joliet Steel Co., in which he owned about $700,000 of the stock, 
The Illinois Trust & Savings Bank, and The London, Liverpool & Globe Insurance Co. 
In politics, he was a strong Republican and served, in 1888, as Elector at large in Illinois. 


When he died, no relations survived him except some maiden cousins in New York 
city. Feeling free to devote his fortune to public objects, he gave $217,500 to the 
Second Presbyterian church and its missions, $108,750 for a colossal statue of Abraham 
Lincoln, $775,000 to charities, hospitals and societies, and the residue, amounting to 
perhaps $2,000,000, for a John Crerar Public Library in Chicago. 

CHARLES CROCKER, merchant and railroad builder, owed his success in life to 
business talent of high order and early discipline in practical pursuits. 

A native of Troy, N.Y., where he was born Sept. 16, 1822, the son of a then pros- 
perous store keeper, Charles Crocker was compelled by his father's reverses to begin 
life in boyhood in the sale of newspapers and other occupations suited to his youth. 
The earnings of the family were carefully saved, and having bought a farm in Marshall 
county, Ind., they removed thither in 1836. Charles helped clear the land and till the 
farm, and then losing his mother by death and disagreeing with his father, began life 
for himself, in 1839, without a dollar of means, accepting employment first as a farm 
hand for a few months. He then entered a saw mill at Mishawaka on the St. Joseph 
river, Ind., owned by John Deming, and the following Winter, he went to school and in 
the Spring undertook the labors of a forge in Mishawaka, as apprentice to Alphonso 
Wilson. Having, in the Winter of 1845, prospected for iron ore with success in Marshall 
county, he started a forge of his own there, with the aid of Mr. Wilson, as Charles 
Crocker & Co. Upon the discovery of gold in California, Mr. Crocker sold his forge 
for $2,000 and with a party of forty young men, including two younger brothers, 
arrived in Sacramento, by the overland route, July 10, 1850. 

With a little capital, collected in the mines, Mr. Crocker engaged in mercantile 
pursuits in Sacramento in 1852, with one of his brothers, and eventually made his store 
the leading dry goods house of the city. In 1854, he was elected to the Common Coun- 
cil of Sacramento and in 1860 to the Legislature. 

Mr. Crocker's fortune was already considerable before he became identified with 
the enterprise, which enrolled his name prominently in the financial history of the 
United States. Having been led by mercantile interests and wide acquaintance with 
affairs to take a deep interest in the project of a railroad to the States, Mr. Crocker gave 
up his private business, in 1861, and threw his entire strength into the development of 
The Central Pacific enterprise, and was one of the four men who agreed to pay person- 
ally for the labor of 800 men for one year and staked their private fortunes to carry out 
the work. The survey across the Sierra Nevada was paid for by him. Each of the 
four originators of The Central Pacific Railroad played a separate part in the work. 
Mr. Crocker became the superintendent of construction, built some of the most difficult 
parts of the line himself, and never relaxed his efforts until the road had been built and 
the great enterprise brought to triumphant completion in 1869. Mr. Crocker then 
joined his three associates in projecting and building The Southern Pacific Railroad, 
and became its president in 1871, as well as vice president of The Central Pacific. He 
superintended the building of the division in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas, and 
took an active part in the consolidation of the two great trunk lines and their trib- 
utaries into the Southern Pacific system. 

Mr. Crocker was a large buyer of land in the early days, and had a large property 
on the Oakland water front. He was also largely interested in The Crocker- Huffman 
Land & Water Co., at Merced, Cala., and his estate now owns the entire assets of that 


enterprise, consisting of 42,000 acres of land, a lake of 700 acres, and twenty-seven 
miles of irrigating canals. Late in life, he established a home in New York city on 
Fifty-eighth street near Fifth avenue, and collected there a notable gallery of paint- 
ings, bronzes and fine specimens of ceramic ware. 

Mr. Crocker died in Monterey, Aug. 14, 1888, and his wife died Oct. 27, 1889. His 
surviving children are Col. Charles F. Crocker, vice president of The Southern Pacific 
Railroad and director in Wells, Fargo & Co., who married Miss Easton, a niece of D. 
O. Mills; George Crocker; William H. Crocker, and Harriet, wife of Charles B. 
Alexander of New York. 

CHARLES THOMAS CROCKER, paper manufacturer, Fitchburg, Mass., born in 
that city, March 2, 1833, is the only son of Alvah Crocker and Abigail Fox. The 
name of the father suggests to all the older residents of Massachusetts the initial effort 
and persistent force which carried to a practical completion The Fitchburg Railroad 
and the Hoosac tunnel. Alvah Crocker born Oct. 14, 1801, died Dec. 26, 1874 was 
the first president of The Fitchburg Railroad, and in 1842, personally placed the stock 
before the original fifty miles of railroad from Boston to Fitchburg had been con- 
structed. Latter, his unceasing persistency resulted in the extension of the railroad to 
the Hoosac mountain and in the undertaking, then unparallelled in America, of tun- 
nelling the Hoosac, a distance just short of five miles. Alvah Crocker was, with his 
partner, the late Gardner S. Burbank, in Crocker & Burbank, the most extensive paper 
manufacturer in the United States. 

Charles T. Crocker graduated from Brown university in 1854, and went into a 
paper store in New York city for four months. Then returning to Fitchburg, he was 
admitted to his father's firm of Crocker, Burbank & Co. He is now and has been since 
the death of his father, in 1874, senior member of the firm, to which also belong two of 
his sons, Alvah and Charles T. Crocker, jr., and George H. and Edward S. Crocker, 
sons of his cousin, the late Samuel E. Crocker, who, with the late George F. Fay, were 
for many years until their deaths members of this firm. The firm have eight paper 

Mr. Crocker has never been an aspirant for political honors, but at its request 
served his native city as one of its first Aldermen and again in the third year of the 
city's corporate existence. Fitchburg has twice sent him to the State Legislature, in 
1879 as Representative and in 1880 as Senator. His life has been devoted to the man- 
agement of properties, but hardly any public enterprise of worth in his locality has 
sought his aid in vain, while a kind and generous nature have led him to many acts of 
charity, of which his modesty has left no record. 

Apart from his large cotton and print mills, the Orswell and the Nockege, of which 
he is vice president, he is also largely interested in The Fitchburg Manufacturing Co. 
and The Star Worsted Co., of which he is president. He is a director of The Fitchburg 
Railroad, The Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad, The Fitchburg Gas & Electric 
Light Co. and The Union Machine Co. , and a trustee of The Fitchburg Savings Bank. 
In Turner's Falls, Mass. , he is heavily interested as president of The Turner's Falls 
Co., vice president of The Crocker National Bank, and director in the Montague and 
Keith paper companies and The John Russell Cutlery Co. 

Oct. 14, 1857, Mr. Crocker married Helen Eliza Tufts of Charlestown, who died 
June 21, 1877, leaving six children, Alvah, Emma Louise, now the wife of Rev. E. W. 


Smith of Fall River, William T., Kendall F., Charles T., jr., and Paul. June i, 1881, 
Mr. Crocker married Helen T. Bartow, eldest daughter of Samuel B. Bartow of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and they have two children, Edith B. and Bartow. 

URIEL CROCKER, publisher, a resident of Boston from 1811 to his death, was 
born in Marblehead, Mass., Sept. 13, 1796, and died in Cohasset, Mass., July 19, 1887. 
Moving to Boston, Sept. 14, 1811, he became the youngest apprentice of Samuel T. 
Armstrong, a printer at what is now No. 173-175 Washington street. The following 
November, another likely boy came into Mr. Armstrong's office in the person of Osmyn 
Brewster. Both were so faithful to duty, intelligent and industrious, that Mr. Armstrong 
took them into partnership, Nov. i, 1818, the articles of association being drawn by 
Jeremiah Evarts, the father cf William M. Evarts. The first large work published by 
this firm was " Scott's Family Bible," in six volumes, the sales of which were L Atisfactory. 
In 1825, the young men bought the interest of Mr. Armstrong, and under the name of 
Crocker & Brewster continued in business for a period of fifty-eight years, attaining a 
leading position in their trade, occupying a publishing and bookselling establishment on 
the old site until 1865 and then moving to the adjoining building. Theirs was prob- 
ably the only publishing house in Boston, which did not suspend either in 1837 or 
1857. At one time, for five years, the firm maintained a branch store in New York city, 
but in the end sold it to Daniel Appleton, by whom it was made the foundation of 
the now large business of D. Appleton & Co. By enterprise, self denial and persist- 
ence, Mr. Crocker gained an excellent fortune. He was one of the original subscribers 
to The Old Colony Railroad, and, with the exception of one year, a director of that 
corporation for forty years. He was also a director of The Concord Railroad, The 
Northern Railroad of New Hampshire, The Atlantic & Pacific Railroad, and The St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railroad, and for many years president of the corporation own- 
ing the United States Hotel and Revere House in Boston. Sarah Kidder, daughter of 
Elias Haskcll, became his wife Feb. n, 1829, and the mother of his three children, 
Uriel Haskell Crocker, born Dec. 24, 1832, now alawyer and manager of estates; George 
Glover Crocker, born Dec. 15, 1843, lawyer, public man, writer, and active in affairs, 
and Sarah C. Crocker. 

DANIEL EDGAR CROUSE, merchant, Syracuse, N. Y., born in Canastota, N. Y., 
June n, 1843, died at his home in Syracuse, Nov. 21, 1892. John Grouse, his father 
(i8o2-June 25, 1889), founded the largest fortune in Syracuse by a life of close applica- 
tion to a wholesale grocery trade, which he created and pushed to extend over the 
whole of Central and Western New York, and by investments in express companies 
and corporations. Grouse Memorial college was given by him to the Syracuse univer- 
sity. Daniel Edgar Grouse, son of John and Catharine White Grouse, accompanied the 
family, when it settled in Syracuse in 1852, and went to public and private schools. In 
1864, he entered the wholesale grocery business of his father and brother on East 
Water street, where a block of stores bore the sign of John Crouse & Co. Edgar 
received a share of the profits of the firm, but also inherited substantially the entire 
estate both of his brother, John J. Crouse, who died Feb. 10, 1886, and of his father. 
Mr. Crouse was fond of thoroughbred horses, being a close friend of Robert Bonner 
and Frank Work, and spent much time in New York city, where he built probably the 
finest stable in America. His fortune being well invested, largely in the securities of 
The New York Central, The Rock Island, The Chicago & Northwestern, The Chicago, 


Milwaukee & St. Paul, The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, and other sound rail- 
road companies, he retired in 1887, and spent his time thereafter mainly in travel, sports 
and recreation. He never married, but he was a social man, although he joined only 
the Chicago club of Chicago and the Driving club of New York. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON GROUSE, manufacturer, prominent in a city which con- 
tains a number of remarkable men, was born Nov. 23, 1832, in the rural township of 
Tallmadge, Summit county, O., whither his parents, George and Margaret H. Grouse, 
had emigrated from Pennsylvania. When the lad was three years of age, the family 
movcd to another farm in the same county, in Green township, and there the subject 
of this biography grew up to young manhood. The father was a poor man, the soil 
was the family's only support, and all the able members of the family, including 
George, the second son, had to put their hands to the plow, literally as well as figu- 
ratively. By their united efforts and the Providence of God, the family managed to 
gain a living and give their children an education. Every Summer was spent by George 
in working on the farm, but during the Winter seasons he went to school until he was 
seventeen, and thereafter, in Winter, taught school until he was twenty-one. It is safe 
to say that he learned as much himself while teaching as did the children of the neigh- 
borhood who were assembled to gain his instruction; and betwixt farm life and the 
school, Mr. Grouse developed into an athletic, hearty, intelligent man, full of vigor, 
having ambitions for something beyond the farm, and greatly esteemed by all who 
knew him. He did not travel far from home in these early years, but, of course, occa- 
sionally visited Akron, the county seat ; and, when of age, he went to Akron for good, 
and has lived there ever since. 

It was as a clerk in the office of the County Auditor and County Treasurer that Mr. 
Grouse began his singularly successful business career. At the end of two years, he 
became by election County Auditor himself, the youngest man who ever held the 
office. About this time improving circumstances enabled him to marry, and in 1859, 
Miss Martha Kingsley Parsons became his wife. Mr. Grouse's period of official ser- 
vice drew to a close just as that terrible drama south of the Ohio river, the struggle 
to save the Union, was approaching its crisis, and, impelled by the strong and honor- 
able feelings which moved men at that time, Mr. Grouse went to the front for the last 
year of the War as a private in the i64th Ohio Vols., served his period of enlistment, 
and came marching home a Second Lieutenant. 

Two opportunities were at once offered to Mr. Grouse after his return to Akron, 
one in a bank and another in the service of Aultman, Miller & Co. , manufacturers of 
the Buckeye harvesting machine. The latter proved more congenial to his tastes, and 
he went to work for the firm, being made secretary of Aultman, Miller & Co. By 
diligent labor in the following years, Mr. Grouse acquired an interest in the concern, 
and by application and talent, rose to the highest station in the gift of the proprietors, 
becoming president of the corporation in 1880. He has proved fully equal to every 
responsibility, has helped make his industry one of the largest in a city of 200 factories, 
and in legitimate enterprise has made his fortune. 

After twenty years of laborious application, Mr. Grouse found his health giving 
way under the strain of business cares, and to secure a little distraction, he organized 
matters properly in the works and returned to the stormy arena of politics, in which he 
had originally made his debut in Akron. Always a Republican, he was elected as such, 

. - 

in iffe, to fl Stole Senate and while senna? in Oat capacity me, m ***. elected to 

the lower house of Congress. While fatty appreciating the toner of a toe m the 
coofldfe of die nation, fife in Washington at that time prond nneanganaltol 

Pobfc aflah* did, indeed, divorce his mind from business aimrtirs !* trqir....-^J 
and training bad educated Mr. Croose to quick decision and immediate resells i 
matters within his influence. The Je of Ac House permitted a small nwntjto 
blockade legislation, and Mr. Grouse became indignant and wearied with membership 
in a body, which studied how to do nothing. Writing home, he declined a renomina- 
tion, and when March 4, 1889, arrived, making him a private citizen again, he took a. 
steamer to Europe with W family and spent six months in recovering from the feline 
and disgust of bis public service. 

Upon returning to. America, he gladly renamed the helm of business affairs ant 
since been entirely occupied with practical interests. The majority of men find then- 
energies completely absorbed by one enterprise, but Mr. Grouse's overflowing energy 
and versatility are not" pent np " in one ' Utka." and he is connected with and the motive 
power of a great variety of enterprises in Akron, as may be seen from the fact.that he 
is now president of The City National Bank, The Akron Twine & Cordage Co., The 
Thomas Phillips Co., The Akron Belting Co., The Akron Printing & Publishing Co.. 
The Capron & Curtice Co., The Charleroi Plate Glass Co., The Selle Gear Co.. 
The Akron Cultivator Co., and The Akron Water Works Co ; vice president of The 
B. F. Goodrich Co. ; and director of The Akron Steam Forge Co., The Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Co., The Taplin Rice Co., and The Akron Hydraulic Press Brick Co. As if that 
were not enough, he is active in philanthropic matters and among other things presi- 
dent of the trustees of Buchtel college. 

Mr. Crouse is a social man and loves his home. A charming family has come to 
him and his wife, the names of his children being Martha K., Julia M., Mary R., Helen 
J,, and George W. Crouse, jr. He now takes life more easily than in earlier days, and 
nothing gives him more cause for satisfaction than the fact that he can look back upon 
a life spent so far honorably, usefully and decently and with the approval of his fellow 
citizens of Ohio. 

SAHUEL ALRICM CROZER, manufacturer, Chester, Pa., is a descendant of 
Huguenot ancestors, who were driven from France to the North of Ireland, by the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and about 1720, settled in Delaware county. Pa. 
Born Dec. 25, 1825, in the county named, the son of John P. Crozer, a manufacturer 
of cotton goods, and of Sallie L., his wife, the subject of this sketch left the schools 
of Philadelphia in boyhood, to enter into the same industry as his father. He has 
always been a manufacturer of cotton, and has conducted mills at Upland and Chester, 
Pa., with so much energy and skill, that they have grown at length into large and 
successful establishments. The firm of Samuel A. Crozer & Son now operate both fac- 
tories. But this industry does not afford a sufficient outlet for the energy of Mr. Crozer 
and several other manufactories have come into being through his enterprise. Without 
entering into unnecessary details, it is sufficient to say that he is now president of The 
Crozer Iron Co. of Upland, The Crozer Iron & Steel Co., which operates furnaces in 
Roanoke, Va., The Crozer Coal & Coke Co., and The Crozer Land Association. He 
owns excellent coal mines in West Virginia. By self denial and energy, business 
ability and foresight, Mr. Crozer has made his way safely to a very strong position. 

THE cxrrcn STATK? AT n-Ms^r, <cr. 

Political adftce he has cagrfouy avoided, and finds sajficieratt WN.-witi<.va amd *ceiwenii 
aanpnhrr of horses, which he qagns. He is * member of 
neaHdlAitdMbsQf RnbAdphm. To him and his wife (Miss Cheney 
of New Hampshire, whom he aMUttfcd in 1854) have been born three anas and three 
daughters, all Hring. 

rUCHAEL CUDAHY, packer, Chicago, Hi, well known throughout the West, first 
saw the light in CalUan. an historical old town in County Kilkenny, Ireland, Dec.. , 
i&4i. His mother's people had removed from Dublin to Cattftn, and established A i*oi- 
tcry there; bat Patrick Codahy, the father, with his wife, Elizabeth Shaw, and family, 
came to America in 1849, under the impression that the new world offered belter induce- 
ments, soon locating in Milwaukee, Was, There, young Cudahy did light work for the 
local parting houses and slock yards between school hours. When fourteen years of 
age, he entered the employment of Layton & Pkinkinton, packers, and, at nineteen, 
accepted a position with Ed. Roddis, another packer, remaining with the latter until 
1866, when he went into business for himself, Frederick Layton soon induced him, 
however, to dispose of his own trade and to enter the employment of l*ayton & Co, as 
private meat inspector, at the same time securing for him the position of meat inspector 
on the Milwaukee Board of Trade, Mr, Cudahy received much practical encouragement 
from Mr. Layton and the two men became close friends. In 1869, Plankinlon & 
Armour placed Air. Cudahy in charge of their packing house in Milwaukee, then located 
in a. small frame building. The whole plant, including machinery, then worth $35,000, 
has since grown to be one of the largest packing establishments in the country. Mr, 
Cudahy's success was such that in 1873, P. D. Armour, of Chicago, offered him and he 
accepted a partnership in the "firm of Armour & Co. With a thoroughly practical 
knowledge of the business in all its branches, Mr. Cudahy took control of the stock yard 
end of the enterprise, and, for nearly seventeen years, he was the ruling spirit in its 
practical management. He withdrew in November, 1890. During the World's Fair 
in Chicago, Mr. Cudahy served as chairman of the committee to solicit subscriptions 
from the packers. 

Personally, Michael Cudahy is a man of robust constitution and fine physical 
proportions. A Democrat and a Catholic, he is a thorough American, loves his 
adopted country, and is a great admirer of its institutions. Social, witty and genial, 
devoid of prejudice, the subject of this biography is a popular man and greatly 
respected. He owes his present position to perseverance, hard work, mastery of the 
details and determination to succeed. 

He was married, in 1866, to Miss Catherine, daughter of John Sullivan, a well-to-do 
farmer near Milwaukee, Wis., and they have four daughters and three sons. The old- 
est daughter, Elizabeth, is the wife of William P. Nelson, a successful man of Chicago. 

Mr. Cudahv is the oldest of four brothers. William died when thirtv-seven vears 

J J 

of age. John and Patrick succeeded John Plankinton & Co. , of Milwaukee, in their 
packing business, under the firm name of Cudahy Bro's. Patrick lives in Milwaukee; 
John resides in Chicago. Edward A. is a partner of Michael, forming with him tlie 
corporation of The Cudahy Packing Co., of Omaha, Neb., which, before the with- 
drawal of P. D. Armour from the firm, was The Armour-Cudahy Packing Co. An 
idea of the extent of their interests may be gained from the fact that their distributive 
sales the past year amounted to $23,000.000 and their pay roll $1,250,000. 


WILLIAM C. CULBERTSON, lumberman, Girard, Pa., never appeared in public 
life until elected to the 5ist Congress as a Republican, but then made an excellent 
reputation as a cool, honest and clear headed man. He was born in Erie county, Pa., 
Nov. 25, 1825, and received a common school education. When it became necessary 
for him to engage in some gainful occupation, the State of Pennsylvania had been 
cleared here and there, but was yet heavily timbered in many districts, and Mr. Cul- 
bertson devoted himself to farming and lumbering with success. In these occupations 
he is yet engaged, although, having waxed in substance, he now has other interests, 
being president of The City National Bank of Corry, Pa., and the owner not only of a 
hotel at Youngsville and of other real estate in Erie county, but of a large wheat farm 
in Dakota. His life has been one of peaceful and perhaps slightly monotonous 
endeavor, but, if free, from many excitements, it is a happy one, and Mr. Culbertson 
has won the entire good will and respect of his friends and neighbors in Erie county. 

WELLINGTON WILLSON CUHflER, lumberman, Cadillac, Mich., born in Toronto, 
Canada, Oct. 21, 1846, is a son of Jacob Cummer, also a native of Toronto. His 
grandfather was born in the United States, and his great grandfather in Germany, but 
his mother's family came from New Brunswick. Wellington was educated at the high 
school in Newaygo, Mich., began life modestly, was active, saving and energetic, and 
became a manufacturer of flour in Newaygo on his own account. In 1871, he engaged 
in the lumber industry with his father in the little town of Morley, ninety miles north 
of Cadillac, met with some success, and in 1876, removed to Cadillac, establishing there 
the lumber business which is yet in existence, but carried on under the name of Blod- 
gett, Cummer & Diggins. He is president of The Cummer Lumber Co., and is a 
member of several firms which cut white pine trees in the woods, saw and plane lum- 
ber, and manufacture handles. This city is favorably situated for this industry and is 
the shipping centre of Northern Michigan Mr. Cummer is a partner in Cummer & Dig- 
gins, loggers and owners of a saw mill here, Cummer & Cummer, planing mill operators, 
andBlodgett, Cummer & Diggins, a firm organized to cut the white pine timber belong- 
ing to Mr. Blodgett. He is also the leading spirit in The Cummer Co. of Norfolk, 
Va. , which is developing the timber resources of that region. Among his investments 
are two lumber companies which are operating a large acreage of pine and cypress lands 
in Louisiana and Florida, and The Electric Light & Water Co., of Cadillac. Mr. Cum- 
mer has been chosen to several public positions and has been Alderman of this city two 
terms, Mayor once, a Republican Presidential Elector in 1888, and a member of the 
School Board for ten years. Oct. 3, 1871, he married Mary Ada Gerrish at Hersey, 
Mich., and his children are Arthur Gerrish, Waldo Emerson and Mabel Carrie. 

WILLIAH HULL CUMMINGS, one of the most prominent men in Northern New 
England and a resident of Lisbon, N. H., was born in New Hampton, N. H., Jan. 10, 
1817. His early life after leaving school was spent in business in New Chester, Lisbon 
and Haverhill. About 1849, he became a member of Allen, Cummings & Co. of Lisbon, 
and remained closely identified with the best interests of the town from that time for- 
ward. Banking, the manufacture of lumber and other enterprises occupied his atten- 
tion and he had been president of The National Bank of Newbury, Wells River, Vt, 
since 1873. He represented Lisbon in the Legislatures of 1856 and 1883, was State 
Senator during the season of 1877-78, when he had the honor to be mainly instrumental 
m the passage of the present Supervisor law of the State, and was a delegate to the 


National Democratic convention which nominated Samuel J. Tilden. He also held 
many town offices. Greatly respected for his energy and ability, he died, July 15, 1891, 
survived by his wife and two daughters. 

SAMUEL CUPPLES, manufacturer, St. Louis, Mo., was born in Harrisburg, Pa., 
Sept. 13, 1831, acd began life in 1843, as a boy in a grocery store in his native city. 
In 1846, he removed to Cincinnati, and entered the employment of A. O. Tyler, who 
was the pioneer manufacturer of wooden ware in the West. Mr. Cupples arrived in 
St. Louis in August, 1851, and began the manufacture of wooden ware on his own 
account, under the name of Samuel Cupples & Co. Through his energy and good 
business management, his trade reached large proportions, and in 1882, he incorporated 
under the name of The Samuel Cupples Wooden Ware Co., the capital now being 
$1,000,000. Mr. Cupples has been able to make some savings, and has invested a part 
of his means in The Samuel Cupples Bank, in the manufacture of paper bags and in 
real estate, and has incorporated The Samuel Cupples Real Estate Co. and The Samuel 
Cupples Paper Bag Co., and is also an owner in a cordage factory. 

WILLIAn CURRY, Key West, Fla., a native of the Bahamas, born in 1821, set- 
tled in Key West in 1837, at the age of fifteen, and, in due time became a citizen, and 
identified himself thoroughly with the affairs of Florida and the country. Making a 
start in a ship chandlery, provision and grocery store as a clerk, he had in six years 
mastered the details of business, and then opened a store of the same kind on his own 
account in 1843, as Wm. Curry & Co. Brown & Curry succeeded in 1852, but, in 1862, 
Mr. Curry bought the interest of the senior partner, and conducted the business suc- 
cessfully for nearly thirty years alone, retiring in 1891. The excellent profits of this 
store have been added to by Mr. Curry largely in the purchase of stocks of railroad and 
Pacific coast mines, when prices were low. During his long career, however, he has 
not been exempt from trials. He lost $50,000 by the failure of The Bank of California, 
$60,000 by a failure in New York, and $200,000 above insurance by the great fire in 
Key West in March, 1886, but losses only inspired him to renewed efforts. His present 
firm of Wm. Curry & Sons is now being carried on by his three sons, C. G., H. & 
M. W. Curry, and his son-in-law, M L. Hellings, and Mr. Curry is enjoying during 
these later years the leisure, which he has honorably earned. 

LEriUEL J. CURTIS, Meriden, Conn., a successful manufacturer 'in a city filled 
with factories and workshops, made a reputation during his life time in the produc- 
tion of silver plated ware. He was born Jan. 15, 1814, in Meriden, and was a descend- 
ant of the Curtis family, which originally settled in Stratford, Conn., in 1639. He 
received a common school education in Meriden, and thereafter learned the Britannia 
ware business as a subordinate in the works. Engaging in the manufacture of this 
ware, he was, in 1852, one of the organizers of The Meriden Britannia Co. He accu- 
mulated a large fortune by diligent industry, and at his death, in 1888, he left between 
$700,000 and $800,000 to found an asylum for destitute children and old women, which 
he called Curtis Home and is located in Meriden. He was a stockholder and director 
in many of the large concerns of the city, and a man of force and strong character. 

DWIGHT CUTLER, lumberman, Grand Haven, Mich., son of Dr. Isaac G. and 
Nancy Hastings Cutler of Amherst, Mass., inherited the fine mind of his father, u sur- 
geon and physician, and enjoyed the training of a good mother, but while yet a lad of 
four he lost his father by death. Born in Amherst. Nov. 14, 1830, and taught at 


Williston seminary in Easthampton, he found his way to Grand Haven on Lake Michi- 
gan, in 1848, and accepted a clerkship with Gilbert & Co., forwarding and commission 
merchants, in return for $50 and board the first year. In 1851, with modest capital, 
Mr. Cutler bought the business and during the following six years made enough money 
to acquire an interest in several steam and sailing vessels. Perceiving by this time the 
greater profits of the lumber business, Mr. Cutler bought extensive tracts of pine land 
along the Grand river and joined with Hunter Savidge, in 1861, in buying the old Hop- 
kins saw mill at Spring Lake in Ottawa county, in which county Grand Haven is situ- 
ated. From this beginning, the partners developed a handsome and extended business 
in the manufacture of pine lumber. They steadily enlarged the saw mill plant, opened 
a lumber yard in Michigan City, Ind., and, by close attention to opportunities, estab- 
lished a trade with nearly all parts of the United States and have in fact been able to 
send many cargoes of lumber to Europe. They now produce about 40,000,000 feet a 
year. A few years ago, the old firm reorganized as The Cutler-Savidge Lumber Co. , Mr. 
Savidge president, Mr. Cutler treasurer. Mr. Cutler has displayed genuine pride in 
the city of his home by building, in 1872, the Cutler House, a $200,000 hotel, and later 
a handsome private residence. Both were burned in a notable fire. The Cutler House 
was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale. Mr. Cutler has been Mayor of Grand Haven and 
for a quarter of a century school trustee, and is president of The National Bank of 
Grand Haven. Feb. 16, 1856, he married Frances F. Slayton, of Vermont, and to 
them have been born five children, Millicent, Esther, Dwight, Frances and Mary. 

LEONARD RICHARDSON CUTTER, merchant and property owner, Boston, Mass., 
who died July 13, 1894, was born in Jaffrey, N. H., July i, 1825. He was of English 
descent, his ancestor coming from New Castle on the Tyne. Educated in the local dis- 
trict schools and the Melville academy, he put his newly acquired knowledge to 
immediate use by teaching school for three Winters, spending the intervening Summers 
working on his father's farm. When nearly of age, he found employment in Boston in 
the retail grocery store of Joseph Mann, with whom he remained for six years, and 
whom he succeeded. This grocery business brought him considerable means in the 
next ten years. He gained an extended acquaintance in the city, and, being a. man of 
sound judgment and great honesty of character, was, in 1859, elected a member of the 
Board of Assessors. It is not every man in this service, who is able to utilize the 
position as did Mr. Cutter. His experience there gave direction to his subsequent life. 
Becoming an expert in estimating the value of real estate, he embarked in the real 
estate business in Boston and was the first man to build local tenement houses, the 
plans for which he drew himself. Encouraged by the first ventures and having great 
faith in the future of the city, he invested all his earnings in local property, and the 
appreciation in value of his holdings made him a rich man. He dwelt in a fine residence 
on Beacon street and owned a Summer house in Jaffrey. His sterling good sense 
resulted in his election to several city offices. In 1870, he became an alderman and 
served for three terms, being for a short time, in 1873, acting Mayor of the city. From 
1871, for twelve years, he served on the Board of Water Commissioners. He was 
upright, able and efficient, always opposed to rings and political robbery, and enjoying 
the highest respect of the community. Mr. Cutter was married in Brighton, Mass. , in 
April, 1852, to Mary Taylor of Boston, and had two daughters. 


MARCUS DALY, mining operator, Anaconda, Mont., a native of Ireland, is fifty- 
three years of age. His early life contained no incidents of note, having been spent 
mostly in quiet employments, and the remarkable prosperity, which he is now credited 
with, is the result of a long apprenticeship in the search for and management of mines 
in the West. In 1876, the arrived in Montana and had he good fortune to be appointed 
general manager of the Alice silver mine at Butte and afterward, by Messrs. Haggin 
& Tevis, manager, of the Anaconda copper mine and smelter. Mr. Daly has had a 
large interest in the Anaconda mine, which ranks among great copper properties, and 
has also acquired part or entire ownership in various gold and silver mines. Profits 
have been invested in real estate, smelting works, banks, ranches, and mercantile 
ventures in various parts of the State, but mainly at Anaconda, Butte City and 
Missoula. Among his corporations are The Bitter Root Development Co. of Hamilton, 
Mont., near which town he owns The Riverside Town Site and Ranch; The D. J. 
Hcnnessy Mercantile Co. of Butte City and Missoula; The Copper City Commercial Co. 
here, and The Montana Commercial Co. of Missoula. Mr. Daly is a practical miner 
and assayer and an excellent judge of mining properties. 

CHARLES DANFORTH, manufacturer, Paterson, N. J., who died in that city 
March 22, 1876, at the age of seventy-eight, originated in the State of Massachusetts. 
Trained in mechanics, and from the start a man of ingenious mind, he produced in 
early life several inventions upon the crude machines then used in the textile factories. 
A spinning speeder, a counter twister and throstle frame, which he patented before he 
was thirty years of age, came into extended use in the factories of the United States 
and England. Having removed to Ramapo, N. Y., he invented a cap spinning frame 
as well as an improved bobbin and flyer. In 1830, he settled in Paterson, made a con- 
tract with Goodwin, Rogers & Co., for the manufacture of his spinning frame, and 
became a partner in the firm, which was afterward reorganized as Charles Danforth 
& Co., and engaged in the manufacture both of his own inventions and of other 
machines. During that and the next decades, his work grew slowly to large propor- 
tions, partly on account of the protection given by patents, and partly through Mr. 
Danforth's energy and genius. In 1852, the firm of Danforth, Cooke & Co., of which 
he was the head, engaged in the manufacture of locomotives, and from the large shops 
of the firm went forth, in following years, hundreds of locomotives for important rail- 
roads. In 1863, the firm incorporated as The Danforth Locomotive & Machine Co., 
Mr. Danforth being president until 1871, when he retired, although remaining a direc- 
tor until death. These works became the most important in the ownership of any one 
firm in a busy city of 80,000 inhabitants. Always a strong Republican in politics and 
an advocate of a protective tariff, Mr. Danforth was never able, or for that matter 
strongly inclined, to go to Congress or hold any other political office. Charles, his only 
son, a gallant Union soldier in the Civil War, holding a commission as Captain, lost his 
life in battle. The survivors of Mr. Danforth's family were his wife, Mrs. Mary 
Danforth, and three daughters, Mrs. Matilda Taggart and Mrs. Mary E. Ryle, wife of 
William Ryle, being two of them. 


LEONARD DANIELS, prominent as a flour miller in Hartford, Conn., and, in his 
gray miller's suit, one of the best known figures in the city for nearly seventy years, 
was born March i, 1803, in Medway, Mass., and died in Hartford, Jan. 18, 1892. He 
was, in stature, of the build of Napoleon and Grant, short, strong and solid, and 
descended from old American stock which originated in England. No incidents marked 
his boyhood more exciting than those which grew out of his play at the district schools, 
the raising of crops every Summer on his father's farm, and the sale of produce in 
the Winter time in Boston for a few seasons; but, during this period, Mr. Daniels 
learned what the grammar schools had to teach him, became a strong, vigorous young 
man, and gained some acquaintance with the principles of mercantile pursuits. At the 
age of twenty-two, he removed to Hartford, Conn., arriving there Nov. 16, 1826, and 
found employment for a time in the saw mill of Ward & Bartholomew, on Sheldon 
street. When, a little later, he entered the service of Humphrey & Nichols in their 
grist mill, on the north side of Little river on Wells street, he found the calling whicq 
pleased him, and thereafter devoted his whole life thereto. About 1830, Mr. Daniels 
bought a small flour mill, formerly owned by Burt & Stanley. Mr. Stanley having 
given his property to the South church, Mr. Daniels brought a law suit to compel the 
trustees to sell the property, and, winning the case, bought the mill and went into 
business on his own account. This was the only law suit in which he was ever 
-engaged. In 1853, he built a new mill on the south side of Little river just above the 
stone bridge, and began business therein 1855. One secret of his great success was 
his promptitude in all business transactions. Another was his clear and sound mind, 
careful reflection and close and careful personal attention to every detail. As years 
rolled on, a growing business compelled him repeatedly to enlarge the brick building, 
known as Daniels's mill, and the surplus means which its operations brought him gradu- 
ally grew into a large fortune. After his death, the business was left to his nephew, 
Leonard C. Daniels, and grandson, Leonard D. Fisk. 

Mr. Daniels was a man of very strong individuality. His face expressed energy 
and determination. The vigorous health which originated in a wholesome boyhood 
never left him, and was preserved not only by active labor in his business but by pedes- 
trianism, of which he was fond. He never had been ill except when attacked with the 
measles at the age of thirty-seven, and, like most men so favored, abhorred the 
notion of taking medicine. His eyesight became impaired, however, in his later 
years, and he was blind the last eight years of his life. Three operations were per- 
formed, but they did not restore his sight. A remarkable trait was his conciseness of 
speech. Mr. Daniels was not a misanthrope and certainly not an ignorant man, nor was 
he averse to pleasant conversation with intimate friends; but he had the reticence, 
characteristic also of General Grant, and, with the energy and a little of the impatience 
of a born business man, loved to dispose of an argument, a proposition, or a question, 
in a terse expression, limited sometimes to two or three words. His honesty was pro- 
verbial. Of few men could it be said as truthfully as of him, that his word was abso- 
lutely as good as his bond. The determined nature of the man was exhibited in his 
politics. Even during the period when Connecticut was overwhelmingly Republican, 
Mr. Daniels adhered inflexibly to his own principles and was always known as an 
uncompromising Democrat of the old Jeffersonian stamp and not by any mean.s a pas- 
sive upholder of his party either, because he voted at every election. 


He was married thrice, and his widow and one daughter, wife of Augustus L. 
Ellis, survived him. Another daughter, Katharine Daniels, wife of Eugene Deloss 
Fisk, died about 1881, leaving two sons. 

A word should be said in closing concerning the two young men who succeeded to 
Mr. Daniels's business, because they are among the rising men of Hartford. Leonard 
Cressy Daniels was born in Medway, Mass., Sept. 29, 1863, a nephew of Leonard Dan- 
iels. He attended the local grammar schools and a business college, and, in 1880, 
entered the employment of his uncle. He proved so good a business man that more 
and more of the labors of the house were left to him and his present partner. In 

1892, Mr. Fisk and he succeeded to the business. Mr. Daniels was married Oct. 4, 

1893, to Mi.5s Grace, daughter of Edwin Hopkins Arnold of West Hartford. 
Leonard Daniels Fisk, oldest grandson of the late Leonard Daniels, and son of 

Katherine, the oldest' daughter, was born Sept. 4, 1869, in Hartford. School days 
being over, he entered the office of the flour mills, won the entire confidence and 
respect of his grandfather by businesslike quality, and became one of the two inher- 
itors of the business. His wife, whom he married in Hartford, is Miss Genevieve B., 
daughter of Henry Clay Judd of Hartford. 

JOHN DARST, banker, Eureka, 111., a native of Green county, O., born Nov. 6, 
1816, died in Eureka, Aug. 6, 1895. All his grandparents were Germans, born in the 
fatherland, but the subject of this memoir, as well as Jacob Darst, his father, who 
married Mary Coy, both grew up thorough Americans. All the early life of John 
Darst was devoted to farming, at first in his native county, where he made his farm in 
the heavy timber, and later in Woodford county, 111. , of which he was a pioneer. He 
remained a farmer until 1851, and in 1855, laid out the town of Eureka in Woodford 
county, originally known as Walnut Grove, now a thriving village of 1,500 inhabitants. 
Additions to the place were plotted by him in 1856, 1868, and 1886, every operation in 
real estate being successful. 

In 1882, Mr. Darst organized The Farmers' Bank of Eureka and remained at the 
"head of it the balance of his life. The Bank is now carried on by J. P. Darst & Co. , 
composed of James P., Leo C. and George W. Darst, sons of the founder. Owing to 
Ms own limited education and the nobility of his mind, Mr. Darst always felt an absorb- 
ing desire to place the opportunities for higher education within the reach of the young. 
He promoted the establishment of Eureka college, and served after 1855 until death 
as one of its trustees and for twenty years as president of the board. The college 
received many gifts in money from him and the most conscientious service. In 1857, 
he mortgaged his entire property, including his home, to save the institution from finan- 
cial ruin. In politics, he did not figure to any great extent, this being perhaps due to 
his intense convictions as a Prohibitionist and Abolitionist, which rendered him impatient 
of party trammels. The Baptist church gave him his first religious training, but an 
open and inquiring mind finally led him to accept the principles of the Christian church. 
For half a century he was an ardent supporter of that denomination and long an Elder 
in its service. A number of young men secured their education for the ministry 
through him. The conscientious manner in which every detail of multifarious duties 
was performed by Mr. Darst affords an example to all office bearers, well worthy of 
imitation. Even at the age of seventy, he spent many a day on horseback going 
from house to house to notify the college trustees of special meetings. His mind 


was of the William Lloyd Garrison type, determined in its convictions, but capable 
of waiting for time to render invincible the truth, which he grasped sooner than 
others. During the Civil War, five sons entered the Union Army, Oliver P., Henry 
H., Leo C. , James P. and Henry R., the latter sixteen years of age. Left without 
help on his farms, Mr. Darst hired some colored people to work them. Many old 
friends ostracized him. for this, and many threatening anonymous letters were sent 
him. Once, one of his houses was set on fire. Mr. Darst kept on without a mur- 
mur, the Bible his text book, Christ his pattern, until time dispelled all feeling 
and corrected the unjust judgment of his friends. 

While yet a farmer, Nov. 22, 1838, Mr. Darst married Ruhannah Moler and 
became the parent of eleven children, Oliver Perry, Henry Harrison, Leo Charles, 
James Perrine, Henry Reel, Francis Marion, and Rolla Moler Darst; Susan Mary 
D. Elkin; John William Darst, who died in young manhood; George Washington, 
and Jacob Alvin Darst. About forty grandchildren survived him. 

IRA DAVENPORT, capitalist and man of affairs of Bath, N. Y., a resident of the 
southern tier of counties, was born in Hornellsville, N. Y., June 28, 1841. He is a 
descendant of one of the Puritan families of New England, his ancestor, Thomas 
Davenport, having come from Chester in England in 1640, settling in Dorchester, Mass. 

Col. Ira Davenport, his father, pushed westward after the War of 1812 as far at 
least as Hornellsville, then a mere hamlet, becoming one of the earliest settlers of Steu- 
ben county. In these early days, lumber, grain and other rural products were sent by 
him down the streams running southward to the markets below. Amid the population 
which grew up around him, he was known as a man of public spirit and liberality and is 
recollected as the founder and builder of The Girls' Orphan Home in Bath, which he 
endowed, and on which his family have spent $350,000. With his wife, Lydia Cameron, 
and while their son Ira was a boy of six, the senior Davenport moved to Bath, N. Y. 
It was there that, in 1868, he carried out his plans for the building of the Girls' Orphan 
Home, one of the interesting and useful charities in the State. Ira Davenport, the 
son, received a careful education and then became associated with the extended 
business interests of his father. It may be said, in brief, concerning his business 
career, that the labors of his father having resulted in an honorable and ample 
fortune, the subject of this sketch had the advantage from the start of being freed 
from much of the drudgery and arduous labor which other men must undergo. 
But he has proved an excellent business man, a sound conservator of that already 
acquired and a man capable of giving a good account of his stewardship of the proper- 
ties placed at his disposal. An interesting outgrowth both of the circumstances and 
the spontaneous activity of Mr. Davenport's nature is the fact, that Mr. Davenport has 
been able to devote his abilities and labors largely to objects of a public character. The 
town of Bath has been particularly benefited by Mr. Davenport's labors. In 1876, The 
Grand Army of the Republic undertook the erection of a State Soldiers' Home at Bath, 
to which liberal contributions were made, and of the $19,000 there collected, Mr. Dav- 
enport gave $5,000. Land was purchased and work begun before any contribution had 
been secured from the State, and, in a financial crisis, the managers of the institutiou 
appealed to Mr. Davenport for the necessary assistance to complete the buildings and 
protect the soldiers, with the chance of the State refusing to refund the money. With 
characteristic public spirit, he replied that he would assume the risk and advanced 



$25,000, which enabled them to complete the work and open the Home on the appointed 
day. This Home is an exceedingly worthy and noble institution and the State now 
makes an annual appropriation of $80,000 for its support. 

The Bath Library is indebted to him for books, purchased by him, and for the 
Library building. He also contributed liberally toward the erection of the Presbyterian 
and the Episcopal churches and the Soldiers' Monument of Bath, besides being inter- 
ested in many other improvements and benefactions for the welfare of the city. 

Mr. Davenport's popularity and abilities led, in 1877,10 his nomination by the 
Republican party for the position of State Senator. Mr. Davenport naturally had a 
very large support in his own town, where he ran several hundred votes ahead of the 
State ticket. In 1879, he was renominated and elected by a yet larger majority. He 
steadily rose in popular esteem, and in 1881, was elected State Comptroller by a plu- 
rality of over fourteen thousand, a larger vote than that given to any of his colleagues 
upon the ticket. His administration of that responsible office was most able, and his 
reports to the Legislature abounded in wise suggestions and displayed a complete 
mastery of the subjects with which he was called upon to deal. Mr. Davenport intro- 
duced many radical reforms at Albany, and established a policy of economy and admin- 
istrative energy, which saved the State a great deal of money, and resulted in the 
permanent establishment of several laws and customs which have proved to be wise 
and beneficial. Under Mr. Davenport's Comptrollership the receipts amounted to 
$3,474,827.58, collected at an annual expense of $300. Delinquent corporations espe- 
cially were brought to book, and The Western Union Telegraph Co. , which refused 
payment, was sued for the sum of $179,371. 13, and judgment obtained. In the matter 
of taxation, Mr. Davenport urged strenuously that there should be no discrimination, 
and he recommended the passage of the bills reported to the Tax Commission in 1881. 
Mr. Davenport was renominated for the Comptrollership in 1883, but was defeated in 
the tidal wave of Democratic victory following the election of Cleveland as Governor. 
In 1884, he was elected to the Forty-ninth Congress by a plurality of over thirty-six 
hundred votes. In 1885, he accepted the forlorn hope of a Republican nomination for 
Governor against David B. Hill, Democrat, but was defeated by a plurality of 11,134 votes, 
although his character and services promised the State a most able administration of 
affairs. He had the satisfaction, however, of reducing Governor Cleveland's plurality 
of 193,000 in a previous campaign. In 1886, his district re-elected him to Congress by 
a plurality of nearly 14,000 votes. Mr. Davenport, during his years of public service, 
has been an indefatigable worker in the interests of his country and State. 

A gentleman of refined and cultivated tastes and a liberal patron of literature and 
art, he is possessed of a genial and engaging manner, and is a delightful associate in 
private life. He belongs to the Union League, Century and Metropolitan clubs of 
New York city. Mr. Davenport was married, in 1887, to Katharine Lawrence Sharpe, 
daughter of Gen. George H. and Catharine Hasbrouck Sharpe, of Kingston, N. Y. 

JOHN DAVENPORT, banker, Bath, N. Y., son of the late Col. Ira Davenport, sr., 
spent his tranquil existence in Bath, occupied with the management of a share of his 
father's estate and with works of charity and benevolence. Born in Hornellsville, 
N. Y., May 10, 1835, he died at his home in Bath, May 5, 1895. After graduation from 
Amherst college, class of 1858, Mr. Davenport went into banking and practical affairs. 
He was president of The Davenport Home for Female Orphan Children, built and 


endowed by his father and maintained wholly at the expense of the family. Struggling 
young men always found in him a friend and many received their college education 
through his liberality. His wife was Sarah Lyon of Bath, whom he married in 1879. 

CAPT. JAflES DAVIDSON, builder of lake shipping and a resident of Bay City, 
Mich., was born in Buffalo, N. Y., Aug. 15, 1841, the son of Joseph Davidson, stone 
contractor. After some service as a sailor on the lakes, and the command of a vessel 
for a time, he established a small ship yard in West Bay City in 1873. The lake trades 
give employment to an enormous fleet of grain, coal and lumber carrying vessels, and 
Captain Davidson's thorough acquaintance with the service, his common sense and prompt 
work as a builder, soon attracted a large business to his yard. Bay City has proved a 
favorable location, the supply of white oak and other hard wood timber in the valley 
being practically inexhaustible. As the repairing of vessels is, to every ship builder, 
equally important, as a source of profit, with the construction of new ones, Captain 
Davidson in time established The Bay City Dry Dock, of which he is the proprietor. 
He is now the owner of considerable tonnage on the lakes and is vice president of The 
Lumbermen's State Bank of West Bay City, Mich., a director in The Old Second 
National Bank of Bay City, president of The Michigan Log Towing Co. of Saginaw, 
vice president of The Frontier Elevator Co. of Buffalo, director in The Bay Cities Con- 
solidated Street Railway, and a manager of The Lake Carriers' Association, Cleveland, O. 
ALEXANDER HENRY DAVIS, proprietor of realty, Syracuse, N. Y., is a son of 
the late Thomas T. Davis, a lawyer, and was born in Syracuse, N. Y. , Oct. 19,1839. His 
ancestors were English on both sides of the house. The family owes its origin on the 
paternal side to Thomas Davis, son of Sir Thomas Davis, Lord Mayor of London, who 
came to America in 1670. Alexander Henry on the maternal side wasa kinsman of Patrick 
Henry of Virginia. Mr. Davis found himself after graduation from schools in Bridge- 
port, Conn., and Berlin and Munich, Germany, and after the study of law, ready to 
engage in affairs, but the Civil War broke out at that juncture and he went to the front 
in 1 86 1, as lieutenant of artillery. Promoted to be Captain and Assistant Adjutant 
General, in 1863, and Major and Assistant Inspector General, in 1864, he retired in the 
year last named and returned to the pursuits of peace. For several years, he superin- 
tended coal mining and transportation enterprises, operated in real estate and stocks, 
and was at one time largely interested in street railroads in Louisville, Ky. , and else- 
where. Mr. Davis owns a large property in coal mines. He dwells in one of the 
finest residences of Syracuse and is a man of fine character and attainments, a traveller, 
and a member of numerous clubs, including the Century of Syracuse; the Metropolitan 
of Washington; the Union of Boston; the Reform, Century and Lotos clubs and Loyal 
Legion of New York city; the Reform club of London; and the Royal Mersey and 
Eastern Yacht clubs. His marriage in October, 1868, to Caroline, daughter of John 
J. May of Boston, has brought him two children, May Henry and Ethel Henry Davis. 
Mr. Davis owns the steam yacht Erl King and the villa Floridiana in Naples, containing 
the Govi scientific library, closely associated with the Biological Laboratory in Naples. 
ANDREW JACKSON DAVIS, the richest man of Montana, was a native of 
Wilbraham, Mass., and son of Asa Davis, a farmer, of Welsh descent. The young 
man received a good academy education, and began life in the dry goods business. 
From 1835 to l86o > he was connected with a trade in general merchandise in Iowa, 
most of the time on his own account, and then went to the mines in California, and a 


little later, to Montana. Mr. Davis was a bachelor and remained so until the end of 
his days. There is a story of his having formed an attachment early in life with a 
worthy woman in the West, who, however, finally married another man, whereupon 
Mr. Davis resolved never to marry. He settled in Montana, just before the richest 
discoveries, prospected in the vicinity of Butte City, and met with remarkable good 
fortune. It is said that he took the Lexington mine for a $50 debt, and gained a prize. 
After The Lexington Mining Co. had produced $1,000,000, without exhausting its 
resources, Mr. Davis sold the property for about $1,000,000. Mr. Davis was also inter- 
ested in a large number of other mining claims, and held nearly a half ownership in 
The Butte & Boston Mining Co., formed to operate the Silver Bow group of mines of 
copper, gold, silver and lead. Of The Montana Smelting Works, which played an 
active part in reducing the ores of the neighborhood, he was the chief owner, a 
large amount of his wealth being derived from the operations of that concern. He 
took a lively interest in the development of the city of Butte and the improvement of 
its real estate, was president of The First National Bank of Butte, and nearly a half 
owner in The First National Bank of Helena. He died, March n, 1890, at the age of 
seventy-one years, leaving $1,000,000 to his nephew, Andrew J. Davis, and the balance 
of a fortune of $9,000,000 to a brother, John A. Davis, and other relatives. The will 
has been in contest ever since. 

HENRY QASSAWAY DAVIS, unquestionably the leading spirit in the develop- 
ment of the material interests of West Virginia, began life upon a farm in Maryland. 
Fifty years or more have flown by since he left the paternal roof to engage in battle 
with the world, and during that time he has built railroads, orgaiized banks, opened 
coal mines and sat in the Senate of the United States, and otherwise played a useful 
part in the drama of national life. The changes which have taken place in his affairs 
are entirely the product of his own energy and acumen. He owes nothing to inherit- 
ance and if, in his later years, something came to him by favor, the smiles of fortune 
were won entirely by his own deserts. Born in Baltimore, Md. , Nov. 16, 1823, he is a 
son of the late Caleb and Louisa Brown Davis. The father was in early life a merchant 
in Baltimore county and afterward engaged in farming and mercantile pursuits in How- 
ard county. Although generally successful in business, reverses came to him toward 
the close of life, and he lost the greater portion of his accumulations. The mother was 
of Scotch- Irish lineage and of a family remarkable for the strength of character and 
mental endowments of its members. One of the sisters of Mrs. Davis was the mother 
of Arthur P. Gorman, United States Senator from Maryland. 

An attendance for a few months in the Winter time at the country schools of 
Howard county gave the subject of this biography all the formal education he ever 
obtained. Acquaintance with the world, observation and reflection did all the rest. 
When the senior Davis died, the family were left in such circumstances as to make it 
necessary for Henry to lend his aid in their support. He was only a boy, but he went 
to work at once to lighten the burdens of the mother, who herself taught school as a 
means of support for herself and children. The first employment was given to young 
Davis by ex-Governor Howard, who had a fine plantation called Waverly. In. time, 
Mr. Davis became superintendent of the place. He was a patient, persistent and 
observing young man and watched with especial interest the building of The Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad through the section of country in which he lived. After completion 


of the road, he secured a position thereon as brakeman, was advanced to the place of 
conductor, and in time appointed agent at Piedmont, near the crest of the Alleghany 
Mountains and then the most important station on the road outside of Baltimore. 

Continually back and forth along the line and gathering a close acquaintance with 
the people and interests of the whole region, he finally put his experience and savings 
to use by resigning from The Baltimore & Ohio and going into business at Piedmont 
in company with his brothers, under the firm name of H. G. Davis & Co. They traded 
in general merchandise, but dealt largely in coal and lumber, shipping these products 
both East and West, and it was at this time that Mr. Davis laid the foundation of the 
fortune he now enjoys. As opportunity offered, he invested in coal lands in West Vir- 
ginia. They were then entirely inaccessible and consequently of small market value, 
but when, in after years, his energy and activity had caused a railroad to be built 
through them, he profited by his foresight, industry and good judgment. 

Mr. Davis realized more thorough!}' than any other man of his day the possibilities 
of West Virginia, being well acquainted especially with every part of the region lying 
southwest from Piedmont. He knew that the vast natural resources of the coal and 
timber counties might lie untouched by man forever, unless transportation to the out- 
side world could be provided for. It was his conception to build The West Virginia 
Central & Pittsburgh Railway, running from Cumberland along the banks of the Poto- 
mac to its source on the summit of the mountains and continuing beyond into the 
valleys on the Western slope of the AUeghanies. By opening up access to the coal and 
timber lands of the greatest value, he sprang at once into an important position in West 
Virginia affairs. Public life finally brought him into contact with men of prominence 
and wealth, and before he left the United States Senate he had enlisted several in the 
enterprise he had in mind The road was the fruition of his labors, and he has been 
president of the company since its organization in 1881. Its prosperity is largely, per- 
haps wholly, due to the personal attention he has given it. The coal mines have since 
been opened and worked, and Mr. Davis is yet actively occupied with these interests. 

He is at present president of The West Virginia Central & Pittsburgh Rail- 
way, The Piedmont & Cumberland Railway and The Davis National Bank of 
Piedmont, founded by him, and is a large shareholder in The Davis Coal & Coke 
Co., and other corporations engaged in the development of the country adjacent to 
his lines of railroad. In the management of some of these enterprises, his son-in- 
law, Stephen B. Elkins, now United States Senator, co-operates with him. 

In Tucker county, W. Va., at an elevation of 3,100 feet from the sea, and not more 
than 2 50 miles therefrom, in the midst of magnificent timber forests underlaid with coal, 
is the town of Davis, located less than ten years ago by the subject of this sketch, after 
whom it was named. It is now a prosperous community of 2,500 people. In 1890, 
The West Virginia Central & Pittsburgh Railway was extended into Randolph county, 
W. Va. , and a town was laid out by Senator Davis and his business associates, to which 
was given the name of Elkins. Here, Senator Davis has established his home and 
built one of the finest residences in the State. 

Mr. Davis is a Democrat in politics, and his public services began in 1865, when 
he became by election a member of the House of Delegates of West Virginia. Later, 
he served twice in the State Senate, and was United States Senator, 1871-1883, then 
declining re-election. He has been frequently mentioned for Governor of the State, 


but has so far been too much occupied to accept a nomination. He did accept a seat as 
one of the American delegates to the Pan-American Congress, however, took an inter- 
ested part in the proceedings of that body and became a member of the Intercontinen- 
tal Railway Commission. 

In 1853, he was married to Miss Kate A. Bantz, daughter of Gideon Bantz, of 
Frederick, Md., and they have five children, Hallie D., wife of Stephen B. Elkins, 
United States Senator; Kate B., wife of Lieut. Commander R. M. G. Brown, U. S. N. ; 
Miss Grace T. Davis, Henry G. Davis, jr., and John T. Davis. 

Mr. Davis is well known throughout the United States. Baltimore and New York 
are both important points of distribution for his coal and he is frequently called to both 
places by business interests, and is a member of the Manhattan club of New York and 
the Merchants' club of Baltimore. He has travelled widely, but has never lost his 
love of home, and has given many practical proofs of his attachment to the places in 
which he has dwelt. To Piedmont, W. Va., his former home, he gave a handsome 
building, now known as the Davis free school. During the Winter of 1894-95, he sent 
a letter to the Governor of West Virginia offering to give $50,000 for the establishment 
of a girls' industrial school upon certain conditions to be fulfilled by the State, and the 
Legislature has appointed a committee to confer with him on the subject. At Elkins, 
he has also built and given to the Presbyterian parish a beautiful stone structure, 
known as the Davis Memorial Church, and, in company with his son-in-law, Senator 
Elkins, is about to endow a Presbyterian college, to be located at Elkins. His vigor 
of mind and body, at the age of seventy-three, is remarkable. Life has been full of 
toil, but his spirit is as buoyant, his interest in affairs as keen, and his activity as driv- 
ing, as when he first twisted a brake on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 

EDWARD LIVINGSTON DAVIS, manufacturer, Worcester, Mass., son of Isaac 
and Mary H. E. Davis, was born in Worcester, April 22, 1834. Trained for a profes- 
sion, a graduate of Brown university in 1854, a student of law and then a practicing 
attorney, he soon left the laborious and not always bountifully rewarded field of the 
law, and entered the more hopeful enterprise of a partnership with Nathan Wash- 
burn and George W. Gill in the manufacture of railroad iron, car wheels and locomo- 
tive tires. Of The Washburn Iron Co., formed in 1857 to carry on the business, Mr. 
Davis was treasurer until 1882, when he retired, his attention to the finances of the con- 
cern having met with ample success. Since 1882, he has been occupied with invest- 
ments, and has been a director of The Boston & Albany, The Norwich & Worcester, 
and The Vermont & Massachusetts Railroads, and an officer of several local institu- 
tions. Mr. Davis is not much of a politician, and, although he served as Mayor of 
Worcester in 1874 and State Senator in 1876, he has declined other political honors. 

HORACE DAVIS, miller, San Francisco, Gala., born in Worcester, Mass., March 
16, 1831, descends from an emigrant who came from Kent, in old England, as early as 
1634, and is the son of John Davis, once Governor of Massachusetts and United States 
Senator, and Eliza Bancroft, his wife. This was a farming family for generations, 
but its present representatives are finding their way into commercial affairs. It is in 
the flour trade that Horace Davis has made his reputation, although after his gradua- 
tion at Harvard college, followed by removal to California in 1852, he spent several 
years in a variety of employments, and during 1857-60, sailed in coasting schooners as 
mate or master. In 1861, Mr. Davis engaged in the manufacture of flour, and is now 


president of The Sperry Flour Co., a concern with $10,000,000 of capital, which, a few 
years ago, bought the plant and good will of nine flour milling firms in California, 
including his own, and has since operated them with profit to all the shareholders. He 
is also a director in a savings bank or two. One son, Norris King Davis, has blessed 
his union in marriage with Miss Edith S , daughter of the Rev. Thomas Starr King. 
Mr. Davis is something of a politician, has served on the Republican State Committee, 
and was a Member of Congress, 1877-81, and a member of the Republican National 
Committee, 1 880-88. He belongs to the University club and many societies in San 
Francisco, and, 1886-90, was president of the trustees of the University of California. 

JOHN T. DAVIS, merchant, St. Louis, Mo., who died April 13, 1894, at the age 
of fifty -two, was one of the most prominent business men of his city. The first whole- 
sale dry goods house in St. Louis was established by his father, Samuel C. Davis, many 
years ago, under the name of Samuel C. Davis & Co., and became the largsst and most 
profitable house of its class west of the Mississippi. After the death of the founder in 
October, 1882, John T. Davis succeeded as head of the concern. It is sufficient praise 
to say, that Mr. Davis was as good a merchant as his father, different in many respects, 
but keen, energetic, capable, and conservative. It is understood that he gained possibly 
the largest fortune in St. Louis. During the latter part of his life, he organized the dry 
goods establishment with great care and was able to withdraw from a part of the labor 
of management, leaving the actual work to men who had grown up from boyhood in 
the house. An extended wholesale trade naturally awoke his interest in the promotion 
of railroad lines, by which the traffic of St. Louis could be transacted, especially to the 
South and West, and Mr. Davis bore a part in those enterprises. Of The State Bank he 
was vice president and of The St. Louis Trust Co. a director; and his confidence in 
the continued growth of the metropolis of Missouri influenced him to invest several 
million dollars in real estate in the heart of the city. Affable, courteous, and easily 
approached, although of retiring disposition, he was always well liked socially. The 
annual Veiled Prophet's show in St. Louis was organized by him, among others, 
and he belonged to the St. Louis and University clubs and the Merchants' Exchange. 
Politics never awoke his ambition, although he might have been elected to any office in 
the gift of the community. Mrs. Davis and three children survived him. 

PERRY DAVIS, chemist, born in Dartmouth, Mass. , July 7, 1791, the son of Edmund 
and Sarah Davis, lived until May 12, 1862, and came into publicity as a manufacturer 
of medicines. While a youth, he injured his hip by a fall on a raft and suffered much 
pain and illness for years, and the medicine which he afterward invented was designed 
to cure his own malady. In 1838, he removed to Pawtucket, R. I., and invented a mill 
to grind grain, and in Taunton and Fall River engaged in their manufacture. Burned 
out July 3, 1843, he removed to Providence and began the manufacture of a popular 
remedy, w r hich became known as Perry Davis's Pain Killer. Through his energy 
and persistent advertising, this and other medicines made by him came into use through- 
out nearly the whole world. Branches and agencies gre%v up under his direction in all 
parts of the globe, and for many years he derived a large income from enormous sales. 
Mr. Davis was a devout Christian and generous donor. Among his gifts was the erection 
of the Fifth Baptist church of Providence. The business founded by him fell, in 1862, 
under the management of his son Edmund, who conducted it until his death in 1880. 
The latter had three children, Edmund W. Davis and Ida, wife of Horace S. Bloodgood, 


and Eva Davis. Since 1880, Mr. Bloodgood has managed the business, but has latterly 
been assisted by Edmund W. Davis, a young man of fine physique, an athlete, an expert 
with rod and gun, and member of the Manhattan, Country and Racquet clubs of New 
York city. 

THEODORE DEAN, Taunton, Mass., originated upon a farm in Raynham, Mass., 
Dec. 31, 1809, and was fitted for a career at the free grammar schools and Bristol 
academy. When eighteen years of age, aspiring to intellectual pursuits, he began 
teaching school, and was occupied with that vocation for four Winters. Later, Mr. 
Dean became a manufacturer of ships' anchors at the Old Anchor Forge in Taunton, 
conducted by his father and said to have been the most ancient of its class in Amer- 
ica. This establishment descended to him, and was operated by Mr. Dean for a long 
term of years and until after the Civil War. During the latter part of his life, finan- 
cial affairs engrossed his attention, and he managed The Bristol County National 
Bank as its president. At his death, in Taunton, Jan. 19, 1885, Mrs. Dean survived 
him with two children, Mrs. Florence Dean Stickney and Miss Bertha Dean. His 
remains repose in the ancestral cemetery in Raynham. 

HENRY F. DE BARDELEBEN, financier, Birmingham, Ala., well known through- 
out the South, was born in Prattville, Ala., in 1840. The late Daniel Pratt took a 
great fancy to Henry while a boy, and employed him in the Daniel Pratt Cotton Gin 
factory, then the principal industry of Prattville and even to-day a thriving con- 
cern. There the youth remained until he had reached man's estate, when he mar- 
ried the only daughter of his benefactor. Upon the death of Mr. Pratt, Mrs. De Bar- 
del eben inherited about $150,000 from her father, and this was the beginning of the 
good fortune of the young couple. Mr. De Bardeleben was one of the pioneers in the 
movement for rebuilding the fortunes of the South after the Civil War. The first 
venture, the Alice iron furnace, proved a fortunate one, and led to a gradual extension 
of his investments to nearly all the numerous enterprises, which have finally been con- 
solidated in the ownership of The Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co., of which Mr. 
De Bardeleben is now general manager and president. Since 1880, he has been a 
resident of Birmingham. 

CHARLES H. DEERE, manufacturer, Moline, 111., an energetic and practical 
man and a successful producer of agricultural implements, was born March 28, 1835, in 
Vermont. While he was yet a small child, his father removed to Grand De Tour, 111., 
and remained until the boy was twelve years of age, when the family moved to Moline. 
The name of Deere has since been intimately connected with the growth and pros- 
perity of that town. Mr. Deere is a man of rare business capacity and sound judgment, 
and is now chief owner and president of two establishments, both of which have grown 
from modest beginnings to immense factories, employing large forces of skilled 
mechanics and constituting the principal industries of this busy city. His companies 
are Deere & Co. , or The Moline Plow Works, makers of plows, harrows, cultivators, 
sulky wheel and lister plows, and The Deere & Mansur Co., makers of corn and cotton 
planters, seeders, horse hay rakes, etc., etc. Mr. Deere has been engaged in manufac- 
turing plows all his life, and his plant is the largest of its kind in the United States. 
His old firm of Deere & Co. has now been incorporated under its own name with a cap- 
ital of $1,500,000. The location of this city on the Mississippi river supplies unrivalled 
facilities for transportation and distribution, and his plows turn the soil of millions of 


acres of American farms annually. Mr. Deere has established large depots for the sale 
of his implements at St. Louis, Kansas City, Council Bluffs, Keokuk, Des Moines, 
Decatur, Minneapolis, and San Francisco. The large factories have brought great 
prosperity to the city as well as to their o\vner. Mr. Deere is president of The People's 
Savings Bank, a position due both to his financial standing and probity of character, 
and is also interested in various other companies in Moline and Chicago, and was one of 
those who took hold of the Lake Street Elevated Railroad and finished it. He is 
now a director in the company and a member of the Union League club in Chicago. 
A manufactory of steel and iron in Moline is now being built with his aid. In 
politics Mr. Deere is a Republican and an advocate of a protective tariff. Many of his 
products are patented articles, but Mr. Deere maintains that there is the same neces- 
sity for protection to a patented implement as in the case of an article not patented. 
Mr. Deere held the office of the president of the Board of Labor Statistics of the State 
from its formation until his successor was appointed by Governor Altgeld; was Presi- 
dential Elector during the first Harrison campaign, and served as State Commissioner 
to the World's Columbian Exposition. 

WILLIAM DEERINQ, manufacturer, Chicago, 111., born in Oxford count}-, Me., 
April 24, 1826, descends from an English emigrant of 1634. The family is a numerous 
one in Maine, and a town near Portland has been named in their honor. James and 
Eliza Moore Deering, parents of William, were earnest Christians and excellent people. 
Their boy went to work at an early age and became manager of a woolen mill while 
yet a young man. In 1870, he took an interest in the manufacture of the Marsh mow- 
ing machine, and, sanguine of success, if he could be near the grain fields of the West, 
removed, in 1873, to Evanston, 111., where he opened a factory and where he yet resides. 
It is said that one can make anything he pleases of a boy, if one begins with the boy's 
grandfathers. Mr. Deering's grandfathers were capable people, as the annals of Maine 
bear witness, and the subject of this sketch has justified the proverb. Controlling a 
good patent and pushing his business with spirit, he found himself, in 1880, compelled 
to move the works to Chicago and build a larger plant. Thousands of men are now 
employed. In 1894, the old firm of William Deering & Co. took out a charter as The 
Deering Harvester Co., capital $6,000,000, Mr. Deering controlling proprietor. In the 
automatic binding of grain, Mr. Deering has been from the first a leader, and his 
patents have made his twine binding harvesters well known and successful. The 
enormous amount of capital required by the Deering industry is indicated by the fact, 
that the concern sometimes has a million dollars on deposit in the banks at one time. 

Mr. Deering has investments in cordage factories and banks and his real estate 
is exceedingly valuable. In politics, always a Republican, he has refused public office 
since the time, when, as a young man, he became a member of the councils of Gover- 
nors Chamberlin and Perham in Maine. Men who possess the money earning power 
are, apparently, by a law of Providence, the most philanthropic; and Mr. Deering has 
subscribed liberally to charities and institutions in Chicago, and is a trustee of the 
North Western university. 

He has been twice married first to Miss Abby, daughter of Charles and Joanna 
Cobb Barbour of Maine, Oct. 31, 1849. Their son, Charles Deering, born in 1852, is 
now secretary of the Deering works. Deprived of his wife, by death, Mr. Deering 
married, Dec. 15, 1857, Miss Clara, daughter of Charles and Man- Barbour Hamilton. 


This union has brought them two children, James Deering, now treasurer and general 
manager of the Deering firm, and Abby Marion Deering. Tall, sparely built, unassum- 
ing in manner, reticent in business hours, and absorbed in the care of a vast industry, 
Mr. Deering is, in the hours of social leisure, an affable and genial companion. 

JOHN DE KOVEN, banker and financier, a gentleman of prominence in the busi- 
ness and social life of Chicago, 111., was born in Middletown, Conn., the date of his 
birth being Dec. 15, 1833. History records the arrival of his father's ancestors in this 
country from Holland, and his mother had the distinction of descent from Governor 
Winthrop of Massachusetts. Something in the way of strength of character, activity 
of mind, and delicacy of feeling came to Mr. De Koven as a birthright by inheritance 
from his family. The traits which have made him one of the most graceful entertain- 
ers in Chicago were certainly not derived wholly from early education, which was 
limited to the grammar school of Columbia college, and two years of instruction by 
his brother, the Rev. Dr. Henry De Koven, previous to his entrance to the busy world 
of affairs down town in New York. 

At the age of sixteen, Mr. De Koven made an unnoticed entrance into the business 
world, as clerk in an importing house in New York city, where he remained until he 
was twenty-one. The compensation was moderate but the training excellent and, 
during his minority, Mr. De Koven gave promise of future success by his diligence and 
ability. Having reached the age, at which the law made him his own master, he 
plunged into the West early in 1855, having borrowed $100 for that purpose, settled 
in Chicago, and mastered something of the practical part of finance as an employe in 
the banking house of J. H. Burch & Co. Later, as cashier of The Merchants' National 
Bank and The North Western National Bank, he spent many years in contact with 
important affairs, did much to promote the convenience of the merchants of Chicago, 
and develop the business interests of the city, and forwarded various enterprises, which 
increased his own prosperity. Mr. De Koven had already become a sound and success- 
ful businessman, when in 1874, he inherited about $2 00,000 from his father's estate at the 
death of his mother, but the latter incident enlarged his usefulness, and has enabled 
him to become a more active factor in the management of important enterprises. He 
is now a director of the The Merchants' Loan & Trust Co. of Chicago, The American 
Surety Co. of New York, The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad, The 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, The Chicago Title Guarantee & Trust Co., 
and The Pullman Savings Bank, and otherwise related to the business life of the day. 
He is also a director in The Telephone & Telegraph Construction Co. of Detroit, in 
which several very strong men are associated, as well as in The Chicago Telephone Co. 
To Mr. De Koven and his wife, Helen Hadduck (daughter of a prominent mer- 
chant of Chicago), whom he married Feb. 16, 1858, was born one daughter. Mrs. 
De Koven died March 24, 1886; and, on April 8, 1890, Mr. De Koven married Annie 
Larrabee, a lady of unusual abilities. They have no children. The social inclinations 
and refinement of Mr. De Koven are denoted not only by his well known hospitality at 
home, but by membership in a number of first class clubs, including the Chicago, 
Union, Washington Park and Commercial of Chicago, the Union of Cleveland, the 
Union, Metropolitan and Manhattan ot' New York, the Jekyll Island club of Georgia, 
and the Kebo Valley and Mt. Desert clubs of Bar Harbor, Me. Mr. De Koven finds 
time for travel, and is an unusually well-informed man. 


DANIEL LAKE DEflflON, merchant, Boston, Mass., started in life modestly 
enough, but, being no common man, made his mark when opportunity came, and has 
long been known as one of Boston's substantial citizens. Originating in the Green 
Mountain State, Oct. 17, 1831, the son of Reuben Demmon, he learned all that was 
needed for a business career in the schools of Cambridge, Mass., and then took a place 
in the store of L. Beebe & Co. , New Orleans merchants. Later, he was bookkeeper 
and next the partner of Edward Walker, a wholesale provisions merchant, and, after- 
ward, had exactly the same experience in the house of Atherton, Stetson & Co. , who 
carried on a trade in boots, shoes and leather. Economy, hard labor, and a talent for 
dealing with the problems of trade can have only one result; and with the surplus 
means which he slowly accumulated, Mr. Demmon at last became able to take advan- 
tage of opportunities for investment. An interest in the copper mines of Lake Superior 
which were developed mainly, if not entirely, with Boston capital, has brought him 
large returns. He is manager and treasurer of a copper company. Mr. Demmon 
built the Boston Tavern in 1887-88, and has had the pleasure of seeing that and other 
real property which he possesses grow to considerable value. 

nARCUS DENISON, merchant, Baltimore, Md. , conducted a successful grocery 
business in that city for over half a century in one locality. Born in Baltimore, Oct 
25, 1800, a son of John Morgan Denison of Londonderry, Ireland, he was educated in 
Baltimore and began life as a grocer's clerk. When he had finally started in his own 
behalf, he gained a fortune by constant application, good management and upright 
character. In 1827, he married Matilda Roach, daughter of John Roach, a native of 
Plymouth, England. They had nine children, three of whom yet survive: John Marcus 
Denison of Baltimore; Mary Louisa, wife of John L. Russell of Troy, N. Y. ; and David 
Stewart Denison, formerly of the United States Army. One daughter, Mrs. Charles P. 
Montague, was the mother of the beautiful Mrs. Alexander Brown, wife of the banker 
of that name. John M. Denison was formerly connected with his father's business, but 
in 1860, became a banker and broker. The late Gen. A. W. Denison, postmaster at 
Baltimore at the time of his death, was his brother. Mr. Denison died Jan. 26, 1875, 
at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Montague, on Charles street, Baltimore. 

ALFRED LEWIS DENNIS, merchant and financier, Newark, N. J., was born in 
Newton, N. J., April 4, 1817, and died in Newark, Dec. 8, 1890. His father, Ezekiel 
Dennis, was of Welsh ancestry. The early educational advantages of the subject of 
this memoir were limited, but used to such good purpose and followed up with such an 
earnest spirit of self -improvement, that all the education needed for a business career 
was obtained. At twelve years of age, he left his humble home and entered upon 
active life as clerk in a store in Newark. He subsequently established in 'that city a 
publishing and book business, in which his brother, Martin R. Dennis, became a part- 
ner, forming the well known firm of A. L. Dennis & Bro. But his business capacity 
soon sought a larger scope, and Mr. Dennis became a dealer in leather and especially 
an importer of the finer goods in that line. The firm of A. L. Dennis & Co., at 25 
Park Row, New York, was well known and prominent in the trade from 1850 to 1860. 
He was interested also, at this time, as a partner in the banking house of Abram Bell, 
Sons & Co. then located at 25 Park Row. 

Retiring from active business in 1862, he gave his attention thereafter to duties 
and responsibilities in various corporations with which he had become identified, either 


as an officer or director. He had been elected vice president and also a director in 
The Naugatuck Railroad, at present a part of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
system, and was also a director in The New Jersey Railroad & Transportation Co , The 
National Newark Banking Co , and The Howard Savings Institution of Newark. 

In 1864, the stockholders of The New Jersey Railroad & Transportation Co. 
elected him president and he served in that capacity until the company was merged 
with the other main lines between New York and Philadelphia, under the title of The 
United New Jersey Railroad & Canal Co., which was subsequently leased for a period 
of 999 years to The Pennsylvania Railroad Co. Mr. Dennis was an influential advocate 
of this great transaction and an active party in its consummation, and by it the share- 
holders of The United Railroads secured from the Pennsylvania company a guarantee 
of an annual dividend of ten per cent, on their stock. The prosperity of both The 
Naugatuck and The' United New Jersey companies has been phenomenal, and the stock 
of both corporations has been quoted for many years at from two to two and a half times 
its par value. Mr. Dennis retained his directorship in The United Railroads of New 
Jersey and was subsequently elected president, which position he held to the end of his 
life. He was also a director of The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, The 
National Bank of Commerce, and The Mercantile Trust Co. of New York, and at the 
time of his death was either an officer or director in twenty-nine other corporations. 

His life was a happy illustration of the honors and rewards of business fidelity and 
industry, when combined with high principle and unswerving integrity. As a business 
man, his character was unclouded and unimpeachable. He had excellent judgment, 
and adhered with staunch consistency to sound, conservative and unquestionable methods 
of finance. His name was known among the highest circles of the financial world as 
that of a man who could be trusted and with whom it was a satisfaction to transact 
business. He occupied for some years before his death the trusted position of Financial 
Agent of The Pennsylvania Railroad in New York city, and many large and important 
transactions of that company were negotiated through his personal influence. 

His private life was simple and unostentatious. He was interested in many chari- 
table and benevolent enterprises, and liberal in his gifts along the lines of religious and 
philanthropic effort. To his native town of Newton, he gave a public library, which 
now bears his name. His life teaches the old and ever valuable lesson that true suc- 
cess comes only through tireless industry, guided and inspired by singleness of purpose. 
It emphasizes also the priceless value of unswerving loyalty to right, and the assured 
rewards of exemplary l : ving. 

Mr. Dennis was married, in 1841, to Miss Eliza Shepard, of Norfolk, Conn., who 
died in 1881. He was married again, in 1884, to Mrs. Jeannie Cooper, of Boonton, 
N. J., who survives him. Children by the former union are living, as follows : The 
Rev. James S. Dennis, D.D , Frederic S. Dennis, M.D., Samuel S. Dennis, Warren 
E. Dennis and Mrs. James C. Bell, jr. 

WILLIAM DENNISON, lawyer and banker, Columbus, O., was born in Cincinnati, 
O., Nov. 23, 1815, and died in Columbus, June 15, 1882. As the son of a successful 
business man, he had the good fortune to receive an excellent education and graduated 
at Miami university in 1835. Mr. Dennison was a man of more than ordinary ability, 
and after he had studied law in Cincinnati under Nathaniel Pendleton and Stephen 
Fales, he settled in Columbus to practice, and speedily rose to prominence in his pro- 


fession. In 1848, politics and practical affairs compelled him to relinquish the law. 
The fortune which he acquired came to him mainly through purchases and improve- 
ments of real estate, but in part through his management of The Exchange Bank and 
of The Columbus & Xenia Railroad, of both of which he was president. In politics, 
Mr. Dennison was a Republican. In 1848, he was elected to the Legislature, and in 
1856, to the national convention of the Republican party as a delegate. During the 
first two years of the Civil War, 186162, he served as Governor of Ohio, and induced 
the Legislature to appropriate 3,000,000 to protect Ohio from invasion and save the 
Union. When Ohio was called upon by President Lincoln for 11,000 volunteers. Gover- 
nor Dennison offered 30,000. Taking possession of the telegraph lines and railroads of 
Ohio in the name of the State, he pursued a policy so vigorous in every respect as greatly 
to promote the cause of the Union. In 1 864, he again attended the Republican national 
convention as a delegate, being made chairman of that body. President Lincoln and 
Governor Dennison were very close friends, and during 1864-66, the latter filled the 
office of Postmaster General of the United States, by Presidential appointment. Mr. 
Dennison remained an active factor in Republican politics until the day of his death, 
was a supporter of John Sherman for the Presidential nomination, and was himself 
supported for the United States Senatorship from Ohio by a large element in his party. 
Mrs. Anna E. Dennison, his wife, survived him. 

NEWLAND TALBOT DE PAUW, banker and manufacturer, New Albany, Ind., 
was born in Salem, Ind., Sept. 5, 1856, a son of the late Washington Charles De Pauw 
and of Kate Newland, his wife. The first member of this family in America, Michiel de 
Pauw, fifth of the Dutch padroons, established himself at the mouth of the Hudson 
river in 1621, in the principality of Pavonia, embracing Staten Island and Dutchess 
county, N. J. After the American Revolution, the family found its way into the West, 
and, as agent of Washington count}*, Ind., John De Pauw surveyed and sold to settlers 
the lots at the county seat of Salem. John De Pauw was a lawyer, judge and general. 

His son, Washington Charles De Pauw, born in Salem, Ind., Jan. 4, 1822, was a 
remarkable man. Reared in a region yet almost a wilderness, inhabited largely by 
red men, he gained while yet in middle life a modest fortune in flour milling and 
the grain trade. Devoting himself to study of the manufacture of plate glass, Mr. 
De Pauw succeeded finally after ten years of experiment, and he established a factory 
for its production in New Albany, Ind. The De Pauw Plate Glass Works which 
he created grew to enormous proportions and became one of the great industries of 
Indiana, employing over a thousand men, disbursing large sums annually in wages, 
and stimulating other forms of business. The W. C. De Pauw Co. was also founded 
for the manufacture of single and double strength window glass, fruit jars, etc. Mr. 
De Pauw was a large improver of real estate in New Albany, and, during the Civil 
War, made large purchases of United States bonds, which amply rewarded him for 
loyalty to the Union by their increased value, when the credit of the Government had 
become fully established. Mr. De Pauw gave $1,500,000 to De Pauw University 
at Greencastle, Ind., founded the De Pauw Female College in New Albany, and helped 
build churches and endow other institutions. He died in Chicago, May 5, 1887, leaving 
a fortune of several millions, n;ainly to his sons, Newland T. and Charles W. De Pauw. 

Newland T. De Pauw began life as messenger in a bank, and later graduated from 
Asbury University in Indiana. His struggles in early life were only such as a wise 


father thought necessary for the development of self-reliance and character. After 
graduation, the young man became cashier in the De Pauw glass works, then manager 
and finally president. Mr. De Pauw proved a capable man, and has been able to bring 
his works successfully through the depression of recent years. Admired by his 
employe's, he is in fact held in high esteem by all classes of the community. Large 
interests throughout Indiana come in part under his administration, including The W. 
C. De Pauw Co., of which he is president, The New Albany National Bank, The Ohio 
Falls Iron Works, The Merchants' National Bank, of which he is also president, The 
New Albany Manufacturing Co. , makers of machinery and castings, and The New 
Albauy Rail Mill Co., makers of rails, fish bars, sheet iron and steel, castings, spikes, 
bolts and cable railroad material. He is also connected with two institutions in Indian- 
apolis, The Bank of Commerce, of which he is president, and The Union Trust Co. , in 
which he is a director. He was married in Evansville, Ind., in October, 1879, to Miss 
Carrie Akin, and has two children, Kate Newland and Jennie De Pauw. His clubs are 
the Pendennis of Louisville and the Columbia of Indianapolis, and Mr. De Pauw also 
belongs to the Sons of the American Revolution, the Masonic order and Phi Beta 
Kappa Society. 

WILLIAH M. DERBY, financier, Chicago, 111., was born Dec. 19, 1824, in Northern 
New York. His family, farmers in Canada, were associated with officers from the 
French and English armies, who had received land allotments throughout Canada. 
The subject of this sketch secured an education near Richmond, Canada, paying for his 
tuition from his own earnings. At the beginning a farm superintendent and railroad 
contractor, and, after his arrival in Chicago in 1857, a large real estate builder and 
financial operator, Mr. Derby devoted great energy to all his labors and gained a 
fortune. His wife was Frances M. C. Wood. Mr. Derby was an attractive man of 
pleasing manners and an early member of the Calumet club and life member of the 
Chicago Historical Society. He died in Chicago, Dec. 6, 1892, leaving three children, 
William M. Derby, jr., Mrs. Gertrude S. Walker and Mrs. Frances D. Cleave. 

WILLAM GREEN DESHLER, banker, a highly esteemed resident of Columbus, 
O., was born in that city, May 24, 1827, son of the late David W. Deshler. The 
Teutonic ancestors of the Deshler family migrated to Pennsylvania in 1732. Mr. 
Deshler began his business career as teller of the Clinton Bank in 1842. His youth, 
politeness, readiness and attention pleased not only the patrons of the bank, but the 
stockholders ; the latter gave him frequent promotions, and a banker he has always 
remained. After long service as president of The National Exchange Bank, he retired 
in 1892. By careful saving and prudent investments in real estate and railroads, Mr. 
Deshler has risen to wealth. During the entire incumbency of Secretary Chase, Mr. 
Deshler was confidentially connected with the United States Treasury Department. 
At present, he holds the offices of president of The Central Ohio National Gas Co. and 
treasurer of The Corning Oil Co. , and has been an active member of The American 
Bankers' Association from organization and for many years of its executive council. 

FRANKLIN GORDON DEXTER, financier, Boston, Mass., was born in Decem- 
ber, 1825. Franklin Dexter, his father, is remembered by older men of the present 
generation as a lawyer of very strong powers and eminent reputation, while his 
mother, Elizabeth Prescott, was a grand daughter of Col. William Prescott of Bunker 
Hill fame. Six generations ago, the ancestors of Mr. Dexter occupied a pulpit and 



preached the gospel to the people of Dedham, Mass. F. Gordon Dexter was edu- 
cated in private schools, and, at the age of nineteen, went to India for business purposes 
for Samuel Austin, a Boston merchant. Practical affairs claimed his attention for half 
a century and he did not retire from active management until 1893. From his father, 
Mr. Dexter inherited a moderate fortune, and by operations in real estate and railroads' 
has increased his patrimony materially. He is an owner in The Union Pacific and other 
western railroads and in various trust companies, etc., and has been a director in sev- 
eral, and he is a member of excellent clubs, including the University of New York city. 

WIRT DEXTER, lawyer, Chicago, 111., established a lucrative practice of his pro- 
fession, and acquired a large interest in timber lands in Michigan and lumber manufac- 
turing, and when he died, May 17, 1890, he left a million dollars to his wife, Mrs. 
Josephine Dexter, and his children, Samuel and Katherine. A lineal descendant of 
Samuel Dexter, member of the cabinet of President John Adams, and son of Samuel 
Dexter, a well known lawyer, he was born in Dexter, Mich., in 1833, and was well 
educated. Settling in Chicago, he had the good fortune to gain a profitable corporation 
practice and to have the management of many important cases. In his later years, 
he was general solicitor for The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. 

niCHAEL HENRY DE YOUNG, proprietor of The San Francisco Chronicle, a native 
of St. Louis, Mo., 1848, far surpassed most of the boys he knew in brightness of mind 
and courage. At the age of seventeen, his brother Charles and he established in San 
Francisco a little newspaper called The Dramatic Chronicle, which they converted, 
shortly afterward, into The San Francisco Chronicle. Since 1879, this newspaper has 
been conducted solely by M. H. De Young, who has made it the largest and probably 
the most prosperous west of St. Louis. Mr. De Young possessed the art of making 
his paper talked about. He attacked those suspected of wrong doing, fearless even of 
the violence repeatedly threatened, and kept the paper so constantly before the public 
eye that The Chronicle long enjoyed entire supremacy in San Francisco journalism. It 
is an excellent property. The first high office building in San Francisco was built by 
Mr. De Young, as a home for his newspaper, and is of the modern style of construction, 
having a steel frame. A part of the building is leased to other tenants. Mr. De Young 
has other large investments in real property. He has served several times on the 
Republican National Committee, and been prominently named for United States 
Senator. The California Mid-Winter Fair, of 1893-94, was devised by him, and, as 
its Director General, he devoted his whole time to its management. 

THOn AS DICKSON, financier, Scranton, Pa. , was a Scot by decent, the original 
home of the family having been at Lander in Berwickshire. Thomas Dickson, his 
grandfather, of the gzd Highland regiment, fought for the crown in more than fifty 
battles, including Waterloo. James Dickson, son of the old warrior and a whcelright, 
sought a home in the new world in 1832, and, not being prospered in Toronto, Canada, 
where he made his first essay, tried by turns farming at Dundaff, Pa., during 1834, 
work as a mechanic in New York city after the great fire, 1835-36, and finally, after 1837, 
in Carbondale, Pa., work as master mechanic for The Delaware & Hudson Canal Co. 

Thomas, son of James, born in Leeds, England, March 26, 1822, died in Morris- 
town, N. J., July 31, 1884. Mr. Dickson was introduced into the arena of life in the 
modest capacity of driver of a mule, belonging to The Delaware & Hudson Canal Co., 
at a compensation of ten cents a day. Thinking that the arduous responsibility of 



managing a mule was entitled to a higher reward, he struck for an advance of two 
cents a day and got it. About 1838, a clerkship was offered him in a country store in 
Carbondale, from he which went to the store of Joseph Benjamin, and, in 1845, formed 
a partnership with the latter, retaining it until 1856. In 1852, Mr. Benjamin and he 
bought an interest in some foundry and machine shops, and this venture finally revealed 
to Mr. Dickson a new sphere, in which he might excel. In 1856, with the experience 
acquired and in company with his father, two brothers, John A. and John L. , and others, 
he started the firm of Dickson & Co. in Scranton, to manufacture machinery and 
stationary engines. Their capital was small but sufficient and they made such very 
good progress that, in May, 1862, the partners re-organized as The Dickson Manu- 
facturing Co., the concern continuing to grow until the capital of $75,000 had become 
$1,500,000 and the works gave employment to 800 men. Mr. Dickson was president 
until 1867. 

It was in The Delaware & Hudson Canal Co., however, that Mr. Dickson won his 
principal fame. He entered the service as superintendent of the anthracite coal depart- 
ment in 1856, became general superintendent in 1864, vice president in 1867, and in 
1869, president of the company, holding the latter office until his death, except during 
a tour around the world in 1871-72. He made that enterprise a great corporation. 

By investment of his earnings, Mr. Dickson became a large stockholder in the 
canal company, director of The Mutual Life Insurance Co., The Crown Point Iron Co., 
The Chateaugay Ore & Iron Co., and The Hudson River Ore & Iron Co., and 
stockholder in quite a number of other iron and coal companies and in banks and other 
enterprises. A Presbyterian and a trustee of Lafayette college, a member of St. 
Andrew's society, he was in every relation, public and private, a man of great useful- 
ness. The panic of 1873 so taxed him that his health was permanently impaired. 

He married, Aug. 31, 1846, Mary Augusta Marvine, daughter of Roswell E. and 
Sophia Marvine, of New York, and had five children, four of whom survived him, 
James P., Joseph B., Sophia, wife of Thomas F. Torrey, and Elizabeth, wife of Henry 
M. Boies, president of The Dickson Manufacturing Co. The family made their home 
in Scranton, but maintained a handsome country place in Morristown, N. J. 

HENRY DISSTON, manufacturer, Philadelphia, Pa., born in Tewkesbury, Eng- 
land, in May, 1819, died in Philadelphia, Pa., March 16,1878. His father removed to 
Philadelphia in 1833, but died three days after arrival, leaving Henry and his oldest 
sister alone in a strange land. The lad managed to get some little education, and then 
bound himself as apprentice to a saw maker. Saws were then made by hand. Mr. 
Disston liked the trade, learned it thoroughly, saved his money, and, in 1843, with a 
capital of $350, started a small shop for making saws in a basement near Second and 
Arch streets, Philadelphia. Having more ability than means, he built a furnace with 
his own hands, made his own tools, performed all the labor, in fact, of fitting up the 
shop, and made the first saws himself. The first few years brought little success and 
much hardship. Discouragements were many, one of them being a boiler explosion in 
the shop; but determination came to his aid, and, although he had to sell his product 
at a very small advance over cost to compete with foreign saws, a paying business 
finally grew up and Mr. Disston was able to employ several assistants. The year of 
1846 found him in a new location and larger quarters, and, after being burned out in 
1849, he built a yet larger factory. After 1861, the Morrill protective tariff aided the 


infant industry greatly. To Mr. Disston belongs the honor of having achieved, what 
others had attempted in vain, the manufacture of saws by machinery. One by one, 
old hand processes were replaced by mechanical devices, invented or improved by 
Mr. Disston; and he made many improvements in addition, including movable teeth. 
He was the first man successfully to roll steel saw plates in America; and excellence of 
material and workmanship both finally made the Disston saws the standard tools of 
their class all over the world. The Key Stone Saw Works, which he founded, are now 
a great establishment, employing hundreds of skillful men. In 1883, they were 
removed to Tacony, Pa. , where a branch factory had previously" been in operation. 
Mr. Disston released the United States from the dominion of foreign makers by sup- 
plying better hand and back saws, and at a lower price, than those previously imported. 
When his five sons were old enough, they were taken into partnership under the name 
of Henry Disston & Sons. Mr. Disston was always generous in his charities. He was 
a Presbyterian, a Republican, a Presidential Elector in 1876 and a member of St. 
George's Society and the Masonic order. 

OLIVER DITSON, publisher of music, bore a name which was more w r idely known 
in America and more of a household word than that of many of our Presidents and 
greatest statesmen. His life did more than simply found a great business house or 
amass a fortune. While those were interesting results of his energetic career, his great- 
est title to memory springs from the sweetness, purity and breadth of his character and 
the fact that he popularized music and brought happiness into millions of homes of 
America by the diffusion of the best and brightest songs and compositions, whose price 
he made so low as to put them within the reach of all. 

Born Oct. 20, 1811, in Boston, Mass., at the lower end of Hanover street, nearly 
opposite the residence of Paul Revere of the American Revolution, and during the 
same year as that which gave birth to Charles Sumner, he was one of the seven sons of 
a ship owner and of Scottish lineage. In Boston, he spent his life. Graduating from 
the North End public school, young Mr. Ditson entered the book store of Col. Samuel 
H. Parker on Washington street, near Franklin, as an apprentice at the age of twelve. 
There, he not only sold books and music, but read eagerly the treasures of literature 
upon the shelves of the store. Colonel Parker was then reprinting the tales of Sir 
Walter Scott, and these novels made an impression upon the sensitive mind of the 
gentle boy, which was never effaced. In order to learn the printer's trade, the young 
man left the store for a time and acquired all that he wanted to know in the offices of 
Isaac Butts and Alfred Mudge. He then returned to the book store, and, with -wider 
knowledge, made himself indispensable. Meanwhile, be it said, his wages were applied 
to the support of his father and mother and were nearly all they then had to rely upon. 

About 1834, the store burned down but some of the books were saved, and, with 
his faithful young friend, Colonel Parker resumed business in an old wooden building 
on Washington street, near School, and afterward at a single counter in the " Old 
Corner Bookstore," then owned by William D. Ticknor. This store is yet in existence 
under that name, and, near the Old South church across the way, is one of the institu- 
tions of Boston. There Mr. Ditson became a partner in Parker & Ditson. During 
this period, he had mastered thorough base and the organ, served as organist and choir 
leader in the Bulfinch Street Baptist church, and organized and led the Malibran Glee 
club, and had become a bright and entertaining writer and a general favorite in society. 


In 1840, having bought entire ownership of the store, he displayed the sign of Oliver 
Ditson, and gratified both his fondness for music and an unerring business instinct by 
discontinuing the sale of books and confining his attention entirely to music. Mr. 
Ditson was undoubtedly aided in this enterprise by attractive personal qualities, the 
large number of friends he had made in Boston, and the choice quality of those friends. 
The year of 1840 was notable in his career also for his marriage with Miss Catherine 
Delano, of Kingston, Mass. , daughter of Benjamin Delano, a ship owner, and direct 
descendant of William Bradford, second Governor of the Plymouth colony. 

Mr. Ditson came upon the scene as a merchant and publisher of music at a time 
when America had fairly emerged from the primitive conditions of earlier times and 
was just on the point of extending its domain to the Pacific Ocean, and when growing 
interest in the refinements of life made his enterprise welcome. It was no accident of 
the period, however, which gave to his business such a powerful impetus. Few busi- 
ness men have ever been more completely endowed with a panoply of alert intelligence, 
sound judgment and energy, than he, and in the gradual development of his trade to 
the point where he finally supplied sheets and books of music for millions of American 
homes, churches, clubs and schools, he manifested all the most telling qualities of the 
practical man of affairs. His foresight in discerning and promptitude in meeting the 
needs of the times were remarkable and were always the despair of his rivals. He had 
the spirit to add to his own business and publications those of other concerns, which 
had become insolvent or anxious to retire, and paid Mason for his catalogue over 
$100,000, J. L. Peters of New York over $125,000, and Lee & Walker of Philadelphia 
over $80,000. He bought, in fact, over thirty catalogues and concentrated all the busi- 
ness in Boston. Another element of his success was his cordial personal interest in 
artists and the generosity with which he sent over twenty talented young people to 
Europe to secure a musical education, this latter service, which was disinterested, being 
one of great value to his countrymen. Every musical interest and orchestral society 
was promoted by him, and it was Mr. Ditson who not only saved the Peace Jubilee in 
Boston from failure, but by his subscription of $25,000 and perservering labors made 
it a success. The growing magnitude of his business finally compelled him to establish 
branches in various parts of the country, and these again fostered the growth of the 
parent house. In 1860, he established John Church, a former employe", in the music 
business in Cincinnati, and finally sold the business to him. In 1867, having bought 
the catalogue and business of Firth, Son & Co., he opened a house in New York city, 
under the direction of his son, Charles H. Ditson, and after him, named it Charles H. 
Ditson & Co. The Philadelphia house of J. E. Ditson & Co. was established in 1875, 
under the management of another son, now deceased. The Chicago branch, Lyon & 
Healy, is now the largest music house in the Northwest. A local branch in Boston for 
the sale of musical instruments is known as John C. Haynes & Co. All these enter- 
prises had the benefit of Mr. Ditson's advice and judgment, and all proved successful. 
In fact, he developed into a financier of much ability, a fact further illustrated by his 
sen-ice for twenty-one years as president of The Continental National Bank and as 
trustee of The Franklin Savings Bank, which he originated, and of the Boston Safe 
Deposit Co. 

In personal appearance, Mr. Ditson was of medium height, erect and dignified. 
In temperament always sunny and cheerful, vivacious and witty in conversation, well 


informed and extremely patriotic, a courteous and Christian gentleman, he was a wel- 
come addition to any company of friends and in social life exceedingly hospitable. His 
children were Mary, wife of Col. Burr Porter; Charles H. Ditson of New York; James 
Edward Ditson, who died in 1881; Frank Oliver, who died in 1885; and a daughter who 
passed away in infancy. He was a Whig and a Republican in politics and a Baptist in 
religious creed. 

JOHN WESLEY DOANE, merchant, Chicago, 111., born in Thompson, Windham 
county, Conn, March 23, 1833, is a son of Joel and Oliva Haskell Doane. With a 
common school education, at the age of twenty-two, he journeyed to the West to seek 
his fortune, and in Chicago, with a scanty amount of money, opened a small grocery 
store. He grew up with the city and fostered his business with the intelligence, pains- 
taking care and whole hearted diligence which usually bring a good reward. By 1870, 
his sales had increased nearly to $3,000,000 a year. In the fire of 1871, J. W. Doane 
& Co. met with heavy losses, but soon regained their strong position. In 1872, Mr. 
Doane disposed of a large interest in his business and engaged in the direct importation 
of tea, coffee, spices, raisins, etc. The old firm are yet in business, flourishing and 
prosperous. In 1884, Mr. Doane was elected president of The Merchants' Loan & 
Trust Co., and he is now a large stockholder in The Pullman Palace Car Co. and The 
Allen Paper Car Wheel Co. He has bought real estate with good judgment and is a 
large holder of that class of property. His business record is without a blemish. He 
has been a member of the Calumet club since its organization, and at one time its 
president, and belongs also to the Commercial and Chicago clubs of Chicago and the Man- 
hattan of New York. Nov. 10, 1857, he married Miss Julia A. Moulton of Laconia, N. H. 
JOHN DOBSON, manufacturer, Philadelphia, Pa., a native of England, 1827, 
came to America in early life, and his brother James and he have done as much as any 
other two men in the United States to render Americans independent of foreign looms 
in the carpeting of their homes. He began as a manufacturer of woolen goods on a 
small scale, and being practical, wide awake and resolved to succeed, managed by dint 
of hard work to keep his mill employed. During the Civil War, he served twice as 
Captain of the Pennsylvania Reserves. About 1866, his brother and he formed the 
partnership of John & James Dobson, which has since risen to great prominence. 
Their factory has been developed by reinvestment of savings into a plant estimated as 
worth several millions of dollars. While producing fine silks, velvets and plushes to 
some extent, the firm are best known to the people of the United States as the makers 
of carpets, whose beauty, freshness of appearance, originality of pattern and excel- 
lence, leave little or nothing to be desired. Mr. Dobson is a Republican, a man of high 
character and vigorous physique, fond of open air and a good judge of horses. He 
drives daily in Fairmount park and owns several thoroughbreds of high speed. 

THOn AS DOLAN, manufacturer, Philadelphia, Pa. , born in Montgomery county, 
Pa., Oct. 27, 1834, made his start in life as a clerk in a commission knit goods house in 
Philadelphia, and in 1861, he opened a small factory at the corner of Hancock and Oxford 
streets, for the making of fancy knit goods and hosiery, and in 1866, became a pioneer 
in the use of the finest worsted yarns in his fabrics, especially in Berlin shawls. The 
goods of the Keystone Knitting Mills which he founded attained celebrity, and the 
value of his productions finally reached a million dollars annually. Quick to ascertain 
every caprice of fashion, he was from the start one of the first to place upon the mar- 


ket new and beautiful goods; and prompt adaptation to the demands of popular taste is 
undoubtedly a part of the cause of his success. In 1875, he began the manufacture of 
fancy cassimeres for men's clothing and ladies' dresses and cloaks, and this branch 
proving profitable, the making of hosiery was given up in 1878, and in 1882 the making 
of knit wear. The factory has since then produced \\ oolen cloths of the finest qualities 
exclusively. Upon the site of the modest establishment of 1861, an impressive group 
of buildings now rear their heads, covering not less than six acres of ground. He 
is president of The Quaker City Dye Works, The United Gas Improvement Co., a 
corporation with a capital of $10,000,000, which owns or leases thirty-five gas plants in 
nearly as many different cities ; director in The Philadelphia Traction Co. , The Brush Elec- 
tric Light Co., The Merchants' National Bank, and The Delaware Mutual Insurance Co.; 
one of the most public spirited of men, trustee of The Pennsylvania Museum of Indus- 
trial Art, director in The School of Design for Women and the University Hospital, presi- 
dent of The Philadelphia Association of the Manufacturers of Textile Fabrics, and vice 
president of The National Association of Wool Manufacturers. He is a Republican and 
a member of several clubs, including the Union League, of which he is vice president. 
Of the Manufacturers' club, he was president for many years, and upon his retirement 
was complimented with a public banquet. 

COL. PETER DONAHUE, pioneer and foundryman, San Francisco, Cala., born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, Jan. n, 1822, died in this country, Nov. 26, 1885. The family 
were all working people. Peter came to America in 1833, found work in the factories 
of Matteawan, N. Y., The Union Iron Works and the shops of Hugh Beggs and in 
the Kemble iron foundry in Cold Spring, N. Y. , and then helped build the Peruvian 
gunboat Rimac in New York city. In 1847, he sailed on this vessel to Peru as assistant 
engineer, the Rimac being the first American built steamer to pass through the straits 
of Magellan. Staying in Peru until the discovery of gold in California, he then 
embarked on the steamer Oregon for the North, but was stricken at Panama with 
fever, where he remained until, later, he earned $1,000 by repairing the boilers of the 
Oregon and serving as assistant engineer on a trip to San Francisco. On the way 
North, he bought potatoes and onions at San Bias, and sold the latter at one dollar 
each at the mines. Having saved about six thousand dollars, he lost his modest means 
in the mines. 

Meanwhile, his brother James, a boiler maker, had reached San Francisco and 
gone to the mines. Each was unaware of the other's presence on the coast. They 
found each other in 1849 and opened a blacksmith shop, with a capital of $500, in an 
adobe hut on Montgomery street, San Francisco. J. Y. McDuffey loaned them a 
little money, and they rapidly built up an excellent business, obtaining enormous 
prices for their work. In 1850, they removed to Mission and First streets, and there 
established the shops, which afterward grew into The Union Iron Works. A year 
later, they opened a foundry and, taking into partnership their brother Michael, a 
moulder, who had come across the plains and escaped from a six months' captivity 
with the Indians, they made the first iron c;istings in the State and built the first 
steam engine. Michael withdrew in 1852 and James retired about 1861. Peter had 
meanwhile become interested in other business enterprises, and, in 1864, he leased, and 
afterward sold, the iron works. 

Peter Donahue was a versatile, energetic and capable man. He founded the 



profitable San Francisco Gas Works in August, 1852, with a capital of $1,000,000 and 
after about 1863 was president for twenty years. He was one of the originators and 
first president of The Omnibus Street Railroad, chartered in 1861, the first of its kind 
in the city; helped establish The San Francisco & St. Jos6 Railroad, afterward 
developed into The Southern Pacific ; and built The San Francisco & North Pacific 
Railroad. In 1862, he built the monitor Comanche, the materials for which, largely 
obtained in New York, were brought to San Francisco in the ship Aquita, which sank 
at Hathaway's wharf in a gale, causing a delay of several months. Colonel Dona- 
hue was successful in all these enterprises and gained a large fortune. His mili- 
tary title grew out of an appointment on the staff of Governor Haight. Every other 
political office he refused. In 1872-73, he was president of the Society of Pioneers. 
Colonel Donahue was 1 twice married, first in 1852, to Mary Jane Maguire in New York. 
Of their four children, two are yet living, Mary Ellen, wife of Baron John Henry von 
Schroeder, and James M. Donahue. After the death of his wife, he married, in 1864, 
Miss Anne Downey, who survives him. 

JOSEPH A. DONOHOE, pioneer, banker, and man of affairs, was one of- the most 
highly respected citizens of San Francisco. He was born in the city of New York, 
Sept. i, 1826. Both of his parents were natives of the county of Cavan, in Ireland. 
The boy received a fair education, and showed, while yet a young man, a native energy 
and shrewdness, which promised well for his success in life. 

In 1846, he was offered and accepted a good position with the dry goods firm of 
Eugene Kelly & Co. in St. Louis. He was diligent in the work of the house. When 
the discovery of gold in California caused population to flock in countless numbers to 
that coast, he started, in 1849, for California, by the then difficult and dangerous route 
over the plains. It was his intention to make the transit by the Gila mail; but he was 
taken ill upon the plains, and the surgeon at the army post at Santa Fe advised him to 
return and travel by the way of the Isthmus. Mr. Donohoe thereupon changed his 
plans, returned to the States, and, in June, 1850, sailed from the port of New York for 
the Pacific coast, arriving in San Francisco in July. He was admitted to membership 
in the firm of Eugene Kelly & Co. of San Francisco in 1851, and threw himself into the 
development of their trade with all the ardor of an energetic but well balanced nature. 
He was honest, untiring, attentive and energetic. The firm were eminently successful 
in every undertaking. They established an enormous trade, and several of the part- 
ners, including Mr. Donohoe, attained great prosperity and a high position. In 1859, 
Mr. Donohoe gave himself the pleasure of a trip around the world for the recreation 
which he greatly needed. 

In 1860, the old dry goods firm of Eugene Kelly & Co. was dissolved. Mr. Dono- 
hoe thereupon turned his attention to banking, and, in 1861, the firm of Donohoe, 
Ralston & Co. was organized by him. This bank transacted a large business. In 
1864, the firm was dissolved, and Mr. Donohoe then founded the private bank of Dono- 
hoe, Kelly & Co. , whose operations during the next quarter of a century were extremely 
large and uniformly successful. In 1891, the partners incorporated their business 
under the title of The Donohoe-Kelly Banking Co., and, as such, the bank yet exists. 
Mr. Donohoe was always at the head of the firm and its president since incorporation. 

He had extensive interests outside of his bank, and had invested his means, with ex- 
cellent judgment, in valuable real estate and dividend paying gas and cable companies. 



He was married, in 1861,. to Emilie, daughter of Joseph Blain, an Englishman 
and an old merchant of New York. Both of her parents were honored members of 
good families. It 'is an interesting fact that her mother was the daughter of Bernard 
Pratte of St. Louis, who was a member of The American Fur Co. , with John Jacob 
Astor and others. Her maternal ancestors were among the founders of St. Louis. 
The married life of this couple was a happy one, and three children are living, Mary 
Emilie, wife of John Parrott, of San Francisco; Joseph A. Donohoe, jr., and Edward 
Donohoe. The sons occupy positions in The Donohoe-Kelly Banking Co. Mr. Dono- 
hoe died in San Francisco, April 5, 1895. 

A youth of good character, ambition and energy can draw from the life of Mr. 
Donohoe an inspiring lesson of the possibilities of free America for a man who is 
determined to succeed through honest industry, legitimate methods and the esteem of 
his business associates. 

STEPHEN LELAND DOWS, contractor, Cedar Rapids, la., descends from an 
early settler of Massachusetts, who arrived from England a few years later than the 
Plymouth colony. The family located near Boston, and, during the American Revo- 
lution, suffered the destruction of their property for the country's sake. Thomas Dows, 
bibliophile of Cambridge, was a great uncle of Stephen L. Dows. 

James Dows, grandfather of Stephen L. Dows, was a soldier of the War of 1812, 
who received his death wound in a skirmish with the enemy. His son, Adam Dows, 
became a merchant of New York city and married Miss Maria Lundy, daughter of 
Captain Lundy of the Metropolis. The Leland family were English and of gentle birth, 
their ancestor, John Leland, gentleman, having been born in London in 1512, and 
"becoming conspicuous during the reign of Henry VIII. 

To Adam and Maria Lundy Dows was born, in New York city, Oct. 9, 1832, 
Stephen Leland Dows. The boy was educated in the public schools, and the family 
having moved to Troy, N. Y., Stephen entered a machine shop at the age of fourteen 
to learn the trade. About 1850, he reached the city of Milwaukee, Wis., with seventy- 
five cents in his pocket, uncertain of his future but full of courage. For many years, his 
life was full of hardship, being employed at small wages as engineer or superintendent 
in shops or lumber plants at Green Bay, Marquette, Muskegon, and from 1855, in 
Cedar Rapids, la. In 1860, he was drawn to the Rocky Mountains by the Pike's Peak 
excitement, but after a year of prospecting and quartz mining returned to Cedar 
Rapids, and in August, 1862, enlisted in Co. I, 2oth Iowa Inf., and bore a part in the 
Civil War. Promoted to First Lieutenant, he soon became acting Quartermaster of 
the ist Brigade, 2d Division, Army of the Frontier. 

After the War, Mr. Dows engaged in railroad building under contract and was 
then rewarded for a long and patient effort by abundant success. The original seventy- 
five cents with which he had arrived in the West were soon succeeded by an ample for- 
tune. Mr. Dows rose to the position of one of the most extensive and prosperous 
contractors in the West, and his earnings in railroad building were largely increased by 
ventures in land. He bought at a low price large tracts situated in eligible locations 
and has developed the towns of Dows, Ellsworth, Armstrong and Estherville, la. 
In Cedar Rapids, the two Dows blocks belong to him. He has also invested in a large 
number of local concerns. A Republican in politics, Mr. Dows has been elected several- 
times to the State Senate and was at one time considered for Governor of the State. 


JAHES DOYLE, gold miner, Victor, Colo., is one of the group of fortunate men 
who have risen into prominence during the last four years, in consequence of the gold 
discoveries of the Cripple Creek region. His success is due, however, as much to 
shrewdness and good ability as to the fickle favors of fortune. Michael Doyle, a 
tanner, his father, and Mary Me Williams Doyle, his mother, were both natives of Ire- 
land. The former sailed for America from County Carlow in the old country in 1848, 
landing in Boston, Mass., and four years later going to Portland, Me., where he died 
March 4, 1887, at the age of fifty-two, five years before his son had become famous. 
The mother came from Londonderry county to America about 1852, and always made 
her home in Portland. 

While worthy people, the Doyles were not abundantly endowed with this world's 
goods, and their boy, born Dec. 20, 1868, in Portland, a clear headed, hearty, earnest 
fellow, was obliged to earn his own support as soon as the public schools had given him 
a little learning. James began as a clerk in a coal office in Portland, where he stayed a 
year and a half. He then learned the carpenter's trade, serving a full apprenticeship 
of three years, and wielding the hammer and saw for a short time in Portland. In 
1887, to better his condition, he started for the West, and, in the Fall of 1891, reached 
Colorado Springs, where he worked both at his own trade and at any other which 
would afford an honest living. All his companions knew him as an athletic, ambi- 
tious, sensible man, of excellent character and good repute, and one who would 
undoubtedly have made his mark in time. During 189091, he filled the position of 
Superintendent of Irrigation for the city of Colorado Springs. 

When the gold discoveries on Cripple Creek set all Colorado wild in 1891, Mr. 
Doyle repaired to that now famous valley and located at the spot, which has since been 
covered by the mining city of Victor. Like others of the vastly successful men of 
the region, he walked from the plains to the mining camp, arriving there Dec. 26, 1891. 
Prospectors were already swarming in every part of the valley and exploring every inch 
of the surface of the adjacent mountains, but Mr. Doyle managed to discover a little 
tract of vacant ground on Battle Mountain, and there, Jan. 22, 1892, staked off a claim, 
covering about a sixth of an acre of land, upon which has since been discovered one of 
the richest gold mines in the United States. In the soil of the mountain, just below 
the roots of the grass, there were plentiful indications of gold, and Mr. Doyle labored 
for more than a year to discover the mine, which, he felt convinced, lay hidden in the 
property. For a time, results were not flattering, and the young prospector, with 
hardly a dollar of capital in the world, could not do more, during the year of 1892, than 
to carry on assessment work. 

In November, 1893, James F. Burns, John Harnan and he formed a partnership. 
Mr. Doyle had traded a half interest in the Portland claim, so named after his native 
city, for a half interest in the Professor Grubb claim, owned by Mr. Burns. John Harnan, 
whom they had known slightly, had said to them, one day, that he thought paying ore 
might yet be discovered with a little work, and a third interest in the Portland was 
offered him, if he would find paying ore. Mr. Harnan thereupon went vigorously to 
work. One day, while in Colorado Springs, Mr. Doyle received from Mr. Harnan 
some rock, taken from the claim, which assayed 139^ ounces, or $2,790 to the ton of 
ore. Six weeks after that, Mr. Doyle walked into camp again, having traversed the 
intervening twenty-eight miles on foot, and with his partners began quietly but resolutely 


to develop the property. Fearful of all the complications which beset the discoverers of a 
valuable mine, they worked only at night on the claim, and carried the ore, which they 
took out, in sacks down the side of Battle Mountain to a secret hiding place under their 
cabins. When perhaps $10,000 worth of ore had been thus secured, the rock was 
loaded upon a wagon and taken to Canon City, thirty-two miles away, and thence trans- 
ported to Pueblo by railroad and there smelted. Its richness excited the immediate 
attention of the smelters, with the result that the Cripple Creek district was carefully 
searched by excited explorers, eager to discover the origin of this valuable ore. Their 
efforts were all in vain, however. The partners preserved the utmost secrecy as long as 
possible, smuggling their ore out to the smelters, but an accident, finally, about a year 
later, revealed their secret to the public at large. The partners then applied for a 
patent for a full lode claim, maintaining that as they were the first to discover paying 
ore on Battle Mountain, they should be confirmed in their title to a claim, 1.500 feet in 
length along the vein and 150 feet in width on each side of it. The authorities refused 
the request, and Messrs. Doyle, Burns and Harnan found themselves at once confronted 
with adverse claims and a number of aggressive law suits. No less than forty-two of 
these suits were brought against them and the best legal talent in the State was arrayed 
in the battle for possession of one of the richest gold mines in the United States. Fi- 
nally, in February, 1894, the partners accepted an offer of $200,000 for their interests in 
the Portland mine from T. G. Condon of Colorado Springs, representing W. K. Vander- 
bilt and Drexel, Morgan & Co., and The Portland Gold Mining Co. was organized, 
capital $3,000,000. The purchase money was never fully paid, however, and the partners 
again came into control of the property. As a result of their subsequent operations, 
the Portland property now comprises 142 acres in one tract on Battle Mountain, 
acquired at a cost of $1,750,000 cash for purchases and compromises, and the forty-two 
law suits were disposed of, either by a favorable verdict or a compromise. Every effort 
was then bent toward the development of the property and $1,000,000 was taken from 
the mine in 1894, and nearly twice that amount in 1895. 

Mr. Doyle has now settled down to the tranquil operation of this and other com- 
panies in which he has an interest. He holds official relations with several important 
concerns, and is secretary and assistant manager of The Portland Gold Mining Co., 
president and owner of The Unita Mining & Transportation Co., which is operating a 
tunnel in Battle Mountain, in the expectation of piercing the Portland veins; president 
of The Santa Rita Gold Mining & Milling Co., whose property lies on Squaw Moun- 
tain; half owner of the Home Run gold mine, which lies below the Santa Rita; vice 
president of The Bernita Gold Mining & Milling Co. , which owns thirty acres on Gold 
Hill; vice president of The Colorado Automatic Telephone Co., which began opera- 
tions Feb. 20, 1896, and manager of The Amazon Mining Co., besides having an ex- 
tended interest in stocks, banks and realty in Victor. 

He is an intelligent man, handsome in appearance, and capable, and has been the 
recipient of political honors. In 1894, the Populists made him their candidate for 
State Senator, on which occasion he polled about 1,000 votes more than his associate on 
the ticket, but was defeated, nevertheless, by A. R. Kennedy, the Republican nominee. 
April 7, 1896, he was elected Mayor of Victor on the Populist ticket, by 163 majority, 
and is giving the place a business man's administration. Mr. Doyle is a bachelor, and 
is able to give his whole attention to the promotion of the interests of Victor. 


ELIAS FRANKLIN DRAKE, railroad president, St. Paul, Minn., son of Henry 
Drake, M.D., and Hannah Spinning, his wife, born in Urbana, O., Dec. i, 1813, died 
at Coronado Beach Hotel in California, Feb. 14, 1892. Mr. Drake began life as 
a boy on the farm and in a printing office, and as a clerk in a general store in 
Lebanon, O., where he toiled from da5'light until 10 p. m. While a clerk, he read 
law at night, and in 1831, at the age of eighteen, he became a partner in a general 
store and made several expeditions by stage and boat to New York, Philadelphia and 
Baltimore to buy goods. While chief clerk of the State Treasurer at Columbus, O., in 
1835 and later, he transacted some business in Washington with Andrew Jackson, then 
President. Mr. Drake was a Whig, and later a Republican. The law continued to 
attract him, so that his studies were resumed and were finished under Justice Noah H. 
Swayne of the United States Supreme Court, authority to practice being given at Del- 
aware, O. In 1837, Mr. Drake became cashier of The Bank of Xenia and engaged in 
the railroad operations which made him widely known. At Xenia, he became presi- 
dent of The Dayton & Xenia Railroad and The Columbia Fire Insurance Co. , and then 
formed a partnership with Andrew De Graff, to construct railroad lines. In company 
with Mr. De Graff, he built The Pennsylvania & Indianapolis and The Greenville & 
Miami roads, and organized and became president of The Dayton, Xenia & Belpre Rail- 
road, constructing the line from Xenia to Dayton as well as a number of other roads. 

In July, 1860, Mr. Drake removed to Minnesota and built the first ten miles of rail- 
road in the State from St. Paul to Minneapolis, now a part of The Great Northern sys- 
tem, and brought into the State the first rails, cars and locomotives ever seen there. 
He was the pioneer railroad man of the State. Removing to St. Paul with his family 
in October, 1864, he organized another railway company shortly afterward, built and 
operated The St Paul & Sioux City and The Sioux City and St. Paul Railroads, 
together with all their branches, and was for more than sixteen years president of the 
system in fact, the only president it ever had up to the sale to The Chicago, St. 
Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha system. This was the only railroad in the State which did 
not at some time go into the hands of receivers. Mr. Drake was also a director of The 
Merchants' National Bank, The St Paul Trust Co. and The St. Paul Fire & Marine 
Insurance Co., and president, at one time, of The Minnesota Historical Society. 
Lumber mills, stone quarries and a stock farm were among his other interests. His 
public career comprised service as Speaker in the Ohio Legislature and State Senator 
of Minnesota, and delegate to the conventions which nominated Lincoln and Garfield. 

He was married, in 1841, to Frances Mary, youngest daughter of Major James 
Galloway, of Xenia, O. Mrs. Drake died in the Spring of 1844, leaving a daughter, 
Sallie Frances, now Mrs. C. S. Rogers. Mr. Drake married again, Aug. 21, 1856, 
Carolina Matilda, daughter of Alexander McClurg, of Pittsburgh, Pa., by whom he had 
four children Harry Trevor, Alexander McClurg, Mary, now Mrs. T. S. Tompkins, 
and Caroline, now Mrs. W. H. Lightner. 

FRANKLIN N. DRAKE, Corning, N. Y., born in Milton, Crittenden county, Vt., 
Dec. i, 1817, died in North Adams, Mass., Dec. 28, 1892. From fifteen, this excel- 
lent man was compelled to rely solely upon his own earnings. Starting as a clerk in 
a drug store in Le Roy, N. Y. , he gained enough capital by self denial to engage, in 
1840, in the hardware and grocery trade and was very successful therein. In 1854, he 
invested some means in timber lands in Cohocton and undertook the manufacture of 



lumber, which he found so profitable that he embarked his entire capital in the indus- 
try, operating- six mills and shipping his lumber to various Northern markets. In 
1866, he retired from the lumber trade at Cohocton, and joined with others in the pur- 
chase of coal and timber lands near Blossburg, Pa. The associates built a railroad to the 
mines and developed the property. Mr. Drake was made general superintendent of 
The Blossburg Coal Mining & Railroad Co., and in 1867, removed to Corning, when 
the company bought The Tioga Railroad. Mr. Drake was also president of The Bloss- 
burg Coal Co. In May, 1882, he organized The First National Bank in Corning, 
became its president. He died Dec. 28, 1892. 

JOHN BURROUGHS DRAKE, hotel man, Chicago, 111., who died in Chicago unex- 
pectedly, Nov. 12, 1895, was a native of Lebanon, Warren county, O., Jan. 17, 1826. 
The death of his father compelled him to go to work at twelve, and he was clerk in a 
country store until 1842, clerk in a local hotel until 1845, and then clerk in the Pearl 
vStreet House and Burnett House in Cincinnati. 

In 1855, Mr. Drake went to Chicago and bought a fourth interest in the Tremont 
House, then perhaps the leading hotel in the city, and, in the firm of Gage Bro's & 
Drake, went along satisfactorily until 1868, when the firm became Gage & Drake, in 
1870, changing to John B. Drake & Co. The Tremont House went down in the great 
fire of Oct. 9, 1871, but, while the fire was yet raging across the street, Mr. Drake, on 
Oct. 10, bought the old Michigan Avenue Hotel, paying part down to close the bargain. 
This was the only hotel on the South Side to escape the fire, which stopped barely 
short of it. Naming the new purchase the Tremont House, he carried on the hotel 
until 1873, when he sold the furniture and closed the doors. The Auditorium Annex 
now stands on the site of that property. In 1874, he leased the Grand Pacific Hotel 
and managed the house successfully until the Spring of 1895, retiring then on account 
of the high rent demanded. Mr. Drake made the Grand Pacific the Republican head- 
quarters of the West and the favorite stopping place for thousands of American mer- 
chants and travellers, who long regarded it as the foremost hotel in Chicago. The 
wealth of Mr. Drake, said to have been about $2,000,000, was invested to a great extent 
in corporate enterprises. He was president of The Chicago & Joliet Railroad, vice 
president of The Illinois Trust & Savings Bank from its foundation in 1873, and direc- 
tor of The Chicago & Alton Railroad, The Chicago Telephone Co. and The Chicago 
Edison Co., but he also owned a large amount of South Side real estate. His clubs 
were the Commercial, Chicago, Union League, Calumet and Washington Park, and 
few if any of the members were more companionable than he. 

Political office he did not care for, although a Republican. Nevertheless, he served 
on the executive committee of the Inter-State Industrial Exposition, the Board of 
Finance of the Centennial Exhibition, and the official committee which went from 
Jlinois to attend the one hundredth anniversary of Washington's inauguration as 
President in New York, in 1889. The handsome ice water drinking fountain in Wash- 
ington Park was the gift of Mr. Drake. In faith, he was a Presbyterian. Feb. 24, 
1863, Mr Drake married Miss Josephine C., daughter of Francis E. Corey of Chicago. 
His wife with three sons and two daughters survived him. 

The success of Mr. Drake was due to early training in practical pursuits, courage, 
alertness to opportunity, the power of organization, good judgment in the selection of 
employes, and intense application to one line of effort. 


THOMAS DRAKE, manufacturer, born in Leeds, England, April 9, 1807, die<l at 
his home in Philadelphia, Pa., April 18, 1890. The family of his father lived by 
manufacturing, and, when all had come to America in 1828, the father, John Drake, 
undertook the manufacture of woolen goods at Manayunk, Pa. t while Thomas secured 
a place in a factory in Blackwood, N. J., where Kentucky woolen jeans were first made. 
With a goodly experience, acquired in several different factories, Mr. Drake started a 
little woolen mill of his own at Manayunk in 1837, with partners, as T. Drake & Co., 
but Thomas & James Drake succeeded that firm in 1838, James retiring in 1840. In 
1841, Mr. Drake built a new mill in Philadelphia, with seventy looms, and, in 1845, a 
cotton mill, with 224 looms and 10,000 spindles, where he made large quantities of print 
cloths. He was one of the pioneers in his field in Philadelphia, and was often called 
the "father of the manufacturing industries" of that city. Exact, scrupulous, prudent 
and honest, he was a good manager, always paid cash, never gave a note, and certainly 
made a fortune. He was a large stockholder of The First National Bank, The Penn- 
sylvania Co. for Insurance of Lives, The Fidelity Insurance, Trust & Safe Deposit 
Co., The Lehigh Valley Railroad, The Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, and the 
United Railroads of New Jersey, and a director of some, if not all, of these companies. 
At his death, the sum of $105,000 was left to public objects, and Mr. Drake provided 
that if his daughter, Charlotte D. M., wife of J. W. M. Cardeza, should die without 
children, the whole of his fortune of $5,000,000 should go to endow a school, known 
as the Thomas and Matilda Drake college, to be conducted upon the same plan as Girard 
college in all respects, except for girls instead of boys. 

GEN. WILLIAM F. DRAPER, manufacturer, Hopedale, Mass., Member of Con- 
gress from the Eleventh District of Massachusetts, is senior partner in George Draper 
& Sons, whose factories of cotton machinery support a population of nearly three or 
four thousand souls in Hopedale and adjacent towns. 

He was born April 9, 1842, in the city of Lowell, Mass. The family is an old one 
in New England, and an ancestor, Major Abijah Draper, was an officer in the Amer- 
ican Revolution. General Draper is the son of George and Hannah Thwing Draper. 
George Draper, a man of more than ordinary talents, was well known in manufacturing 
circles as an inventor and successful man of business. In his later years, he founded 
the celebrated Home Market club in Boston, which represents the manufacturing 
industries and the protection sentiment of New England. 

William F. Draper attended public and private schools until sixteen years of age, 
being at that time fitted for Harvard college, but his father considered him too young to 
enter. He then spent more than three years in machine shops and cotton mills, study- 
ing the construction and operation of the machinery there employed. 

In the Spring of 1861, he again took up his idea of entering Harvard, but Bull Run 
put an end to thoughts of college, and he enlisted August 9 in Co. B, 25th Mass. 
Regt. , which his father had assisted in raising, and of which he was chosen Second 
Lieutenant. The 25th Mass, was a part of the Burnside Expedition, and while this expe- 
dition was forming, Lieutenant Draper was detailed as signal officer on General Burn- 
side's staff. In this position, he took part in the campaign at Roanoke and Newberne 
and the capture of Fort Macon, and was then promoted to First Lieutenant, and returned 
to his regiment. In August, 1862, he was commissioned Captain in the 36th Mass., 
joined the new regiment just after the battle of South Mountain, Md., and went 


through the balance of the Antietam campaign and the battle of Fredericksburg. In 
June, 1863, the command was sent to Yicksburg to reinforce General Grant. They 
aided in the capture of Vicksburg'and took part in the march to Jackson and the fight- 
ing there, suffering considerable loss in battle but much more from the deadly climate. 
The 36th Regt. was reduced from a strength of 650 in June to a membership of 198 in 
September. During the Vicksburg campaign, Captain Draper was promoted to be a 
Major. In August, 1863, the corps returned to Kentucky, and on the loth of Septem- 
ber marched through Cumberland Gap into East Tennessee. The next Fall and Winter, 
Major Draper took part in the siege of Knoxville and the battles at Blue Springs and 
Campbell's Station, and commanded the regiment after the loth of October. In the 
Spring of 1864, the corps joined the Army of the Potomac. In the battle of the Wilder- 
ness, May 6, Major Draper was shot through the body, while leading his regiment to the 
capture of a rifle pit. He was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel from this date, and 
would have been made full Colonel had not casualities in the regiment reduced the 
number of men below the minimum. Without having recovered from his wounds, he 
rejoined the regiment on the gth of August in the trenches at Petersburg, just after the 
crater disaster. In the battle at The Weldon Railroad, as senior officer, he commanded 
the brigade. A month later, at Poplar Grove Church and Pegram Farm, his division 
was severely engaged and cut off from the rest of the army, and his regiment was the 
only one of the brigade which came out as an organization, bringing the colors of sev- 
eral of the others. During this action, he was struck by a nearly spent ball in the right 
shoulder. His term of service expired on the izth of October, and as he was suffering 
from wounds, he accepted a discharge. 

Returning home, General Draper was employed by his father's firm from Jan. i, 
1865. In April, 1868, his uncle retired, whereupon William F. Draper became a part- 
ner, and has continued in the business ever since, having been the senior since 1886. 
He has taken out many patents for his own inventions of cotton machinery, and it can 
truthfully be said that his firm have done more to improve and cheapen the manufac- 
ture of cotton cloth than any other establishment now existing in this country or 
abroad. Since 1870, inventions brought out by them have doubled the production of 
cotton spinning machinery in this country, without increasing the power consumed or 
the labor required to operate the machines. The saving in machinery amounts to tens 
of millions of dollars; the saving in power, fully a hundred thousand horse; and the 
saving in labor, about $5,000,000 a year in this country alone, and the end is not yet. 
These inventions have been copied abroad, and are the foundation of great industries 
there. The firm are now about bringing out a new machine, which, it is confidently 
expected, will do for weaving what they have already done for spinning. 

General Draper married, during the second year of the War, the adopted daughter 
of the Hon. David Joy, a descendant of the family of General Warren, who was killed 
at Bunker Hill. Five children came to them, all now living, and she died in Febru- 
ary, 1884. In May, 1890, General Draper married Miss Susan Preston, daughter of 
Gen. William Preston, of Kentucky, Minister to Spain under Buchanan, an officer in 
the Mexican War, Major General in the Confederate army, and a special envoy to 
Maximilian in Mexico. 

General Draper has always taken an interest in public affairs, but held no elective 
political office until his election to Congress in 1892. He was a delegate to the Repub- 


lican National Convention in Cincinnati which nominated President Hayes, and was 
chairman of the Committee on Resolutions at the Massachusetts State Convention in 
1887. Although a candidate for Governor in i888,*he was defeated for the nomina- 
tion by Governor Ames. The convention chose him, however, Presidential Elector at 
large, and he cast his electoral vote for President Harrison. For two years he served 
as president of the Home Market club of Boston, established by his father, and is a 
member of a large number of social clubs in various cities, as well as of the Loyal 
Legion and the Sons of the Revolution. 

ANTHONY JOSEPH DREXEL, banker, Philadelphia, Pa., born in that city, in 
1826, died in Carlsbad, Austria, June 30, 1893. Francis Martin Drexel, his father, 
founder of the bank which bears the family name, was a native of Dombirn in the 
Austrian Tyrol, April 7, 1792, and having studied portrait painting in an institution 
near Turin and in Berne, came to Philadelphia, in 1817, to avoid conscription. After 
some practice of his art in Philadelphia, and in Mexico and South America, he settled 
in Philadelphia, and in 1837, founded the bank of Drexel & Co. This institution met 
with marvellous success in the negotiation of securities, and when the founder died, 
June 5, 1863, he left to his two sons, Anthony J. and Francis A. Drexel, an excellent 
business. Anthony entered the bank at thirteen, in the old fashioned way, and received 
a sound business training, becoming in time a partner. Mr. Drexel exhibited from an 
early date enterprise, accuracy of judgment and conservatism of temperament, and 
rapidly rose to the highest rank among bankers in the United States. The Paris branch 
of Drexel, Harjes & Co. was founded in 1868, and the New York branch of Drexel, 
Morgan & Co., in 1871. The Drexels were at all times conspicuous as negotiators of 
railroad, government and corporation loans, and made it a rule never to offer to the 
public an investment in securities without previous rigorous investigation of the merits 
of the loan. When investors, large and small, had learned that it was safe to buy 
securities offered by the Drexels and that no securities would be offered by them 
which were not safe, an immense business came to the bank unsought. They had 
banks of correspondence in every important financial center abroad, and the mag- 
nitude of their operations made the two brothers very rich men. Mr. Drexel was 
noted for leadership in every worthy movement in Philadelphia, and gifts of large 
sums for public objects. The Drexel Institute of Industrial Art, which he founded 
in 1890-91, at a cost of $1,550,000, not only illustrated his breadth of view and 
generous character, but has proved of distinct benefit to the city and an example to 
other men, who have since founded similar institutes in other cities. This Institute was 
his pride, and he made to it additional gifts of more than $600,000 for specific purposes. 
Mr. Drexel joined his most intimate friend, the late George W. Childs, in founding 
The Childs-Drexel Home for Aged Printers, at Colorado Springs, and in the purchase 
of The Public Ledger. By the terms of the agreement between the partners, this news- 
paper, after the death of Mr. Childs, became the property of Mr. Drexel. Socially, not 
ostentatious, he loved all that was refined and continually collected fine paintings and 
works of art. To him and his wife, a daughter of John Rosel, merchant, were born 
Anthony J. Drexel, jr., George W. Childs Drexel, Emily, who became Mrs. Biddle, 
Frances, wife of James W. Paul, jr., and Mrs. John R. Fell. Mr. Drexels public 
bequests included $100,000 forThe German Hospital and $1,000,000 for an Art Gallery 
or Museum near the Drexel Institute. 



FRANCIS ANTHONY DREXEL, banker, Philadelphia, Pa., oldest son of Francis 
Martin Drexel born in Philadelphia, Jan. 7, 1824, died there, Feb. 15, 1885. Taken 
into his father's bank at thirteen and given a thorough training in every branch of the 
business, he was admitted to the firm of Drexel & Co., and in 1863, became joint propri- 
etor with his brother Anthonj'. Francis always devoted himself to the office work of 
the several branches of the firm, while Anthony represented the house in outside nego- 
tiations. The life of Mr. Drexel was one of close application, varied in later life with a 
wise indulgence in the pleasures of travel and sober recreation. Three children sur- 
vived him, Elizabeth L. , Catharine M. , and Louise Bouvier, wife of Edward De V. 
Morrell. Mr. Drexel left a tenth of his estate to be divided among twenty-seven 
Roman Catholic churches and institutions. 

JOHN FAIRFIELD DRYDEN, president of The Prudential Insurance Company of 
America, Newark, X. J., holds an" exalted place in the history of American life insur- 
ance, and has attained distinction from a modest beginning. Mr. Dryden was born on 
a farm near Farmington, Me., Aug. 7, 1839, son of John Dryden and his wife, whose 
maiden name was Elizabeth Butterfield Jennings. The line of the mother in New 
England extends back to 1640, within twenty years of the landing of the Pilgrims at 
Plymouth Rock, while the Drydens were of Northamptonshire origin, there being a 
vague tradition that John Dryden, the famous writer and poet, whose remains now lie 
in Westminster Abbey, was of the same stock whence came the subject of this sketch. 

When John F. Dryden was a lad of seven, the family removed to Massachusetts. 
Early in life, the boy gave evidence of the possession of a studious and reflective tem- 
perament, remarkable intuition, clearness and quickness of perception, indomitable 
perseverance and extraordinary energy. When the time came for him to choose a pur- 
suit in life, the character of his mind suggested the law as the proper field for his life- 
work, and, after having passed with credit through the ordinary schools, he entered 
Yale college in 1861, to prepare himself for a career at the bar. Such was the ardor 
with which Mr. Dryden pursued his studies, that his health, never robust, gave way, 
and, to his bitter disappointment, he was compelled to leave the college and seek 
recuperation at home. Serious, even in his amusements, he read works on life insurance 
for diversion, and the more he read on this subject, the more he desired to. Every 
work on life insurance which could be obtained was devoured, and so deeply interested 
did Mr. Dryden become in the subject, that he resolved to master it in all its details. 
Accordingly, he regularly engaged in the business. 

In 1865, the late Elizur Wright, Insurance Commissioner of Massachusetts, even 
then in high repute as an expert on insurance matters, made a report to the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature which contained some references to Industrial Insurance in Eng- 
land. Mr. Wright intimated that it did not necessarily follow that because there was a 
demand for small policies in England, the premiums upon which were payable weekly, 
there would, therefore, be a similar demand among the American masses, and he rather 
discouraged such a proposition, although admitting that ' ' various circumstances, how- 
ever, indicate that the want exists here also." This report set Mr. Dryden to thinking, 
and he finally became convinced that a system of life insurance, which would enable 
the wage earning masses to enjoy the same self protecting benefits as the moneyed and 
well-to-do classes, could be thought out and applied to the industrial masses of America, 
with a success equal to that secured among a like population by a like method in Eng- 


land. To devise, arrange and formulate such a system was the task Mr. Dryden 
imposed upon himself. For years, he labored upon it with the zeal and devotion of an 
enthusiast. Finally, having prepared a table of rates applicable to American conditions, 
and having matured a plan which could, as he believed, be successfully applied in this 
country, he took steps to put it into practical operation. At first, fate frowned upon 
the effort and afflicted the pioneer with vicissitudes and discouragements, such as 
have invariably confronted every famous discoverer, inventor or innovator at the outset 
of his career. Ill success, however, served only to increase Mr. Dryden's determina- 
tion, and he continued to draw upon his inexhaustible capital of perseverance and 
energy. In 1873, he went to Newark, N. J., and then came the turning of the tide. 
Business men, to whom he confided his plan, became converts to the idea and they joined 
hands with him to procure the passage of a law by the New Jersey Legislature, author- 
izing the formation of a company to do business on the new plan. A Friendly Society 
was then organized, but the business done by it was almost wholly experimental. Two 
years later, namely, Oct. 13, 1875, the real birth of Industrial Insurance in America 
took place. On that day, was formed what is now The Prudential Insurance Company 
of America. Into it were merged all the rights, titles, interests and obligations of The 
Friendly Society, and Mr. Dryden accepted the nominally modest but all important 
office of secretary. From the first, regardless of title, he has been the chief guide and 
motive power of the institution. 

The story of the rise of The Prudential Insurance Company of America is 
wonderful, bordering indeed upon the marvellous. When The Prudential began busi- 
ness, its start was modesty itself, the office being in the basement of a bank on 
Newark's main thoroughfare. Its office outfit, furniture, desks, books, blanks, station- 
ery, and signs, were limited in cost to $200 by vote of the board of directors, and the 
office staff consisted of four persons, the president, the secretary, a clerk and a boy. 
Newark was then, as now, a great manufacturing center, at once the Birmingham and 
Sheffield of America, abounding in factories and workshops. The tens of thousands of 
operatives employed in these places took kindly to the new gospel of individual and 
family protection, and saw that the weekly payment system of insurance would abolish 
a great annoyance and bitter humiliation the passing around of the hat for subscrip- 
tions to meet funeral charges, every time a death occurred in an improvident wage 
worker's family. They saw that the new system would, at a trifling and easily borne ex- 
pense (the small premiums being collected weekly by the company's agents at the homes 
of the insured), provide something to help the widow, orphans, and other bereaved ones 
pass through the immediate period of their bereavement without distress, want, priva- 
tion or debt. The feeling of independence, the incentive to thrift and prudence, and 
the like, combined to make not alone the American wage working class but the entire 
community see in the new system of insurance a heaven sent ameliorator. A cardinal 
feature of the new plan was the payment of claims almost immediately after death, and 
another was no falling back on quibbles or legal technicalities, if claims were just. 

So, from the first, The Prudential was a success. There are few, if any, cases of 
such success in the whole range of business or commercial life, when time of exist- 
ence, small amount of original capital invested and kindred matters are considered. 
The Prudential is now one of the six largest life -insurance companies in the world. 
During the first four years, The Prudential confined its operations to the State of 


New Jersey. In 1879 it resolved to extend itself over the United States. Com- 
plying' with the law, requiring all such companies to place $100,000 as a guarantee 
deposit in the hands of the New Jersey State Insurance Department, before business 
could be done in other States, Mr. Dryden established agencies in New York and 
Philadelphia. Step by step, it advanced North, East, South and West, until now 
the missionaries of its gospel of self help are to be found successfully presenting it 
to the people everywhere, from Boston to Denver, Colo. 

In 1875-76, the company issued less than 8,000 policies, received 14,494 in pre- 
miums, and had in force at the end of 1876 less than half a million of insurance. 
In 1878, the figures were: Policies issued, 20,064; premiums received, $59,817; in- 
surance in force, $2,027,888. In 1882, these figures had multiplied half a dozen 
times. When the company had attained its tenth year, it had 548,860 policies on 
its books, received more than $2,000,000 in premiums, and had nearly $60,000,000 
of insurance in force. The story of the next ten years is one of ever increasing 
success, the result of ceaseless activity, inexhaustible energy and a system of manage- 
ment and supervision in the home office and in the field, which works with the regu- 
larity of a standard clock and is well nigh perfect. The statement issued Jan. i, 1896, 
showed that there had been written by The Prudential during 1895 over $150,000,000 
of new business, nearly 2,400,000 policies were in force, assets had increased $2,738,- 
343, premium receipts had increased more than $1,000,000, over $3,900,000 had been 
paid out in claims during 1895, and that altogether the company had paid policy holders 
during the twenty years of its existence the sum of $21,600,000. It was shown further, 
that the company had investments and resources amounting to nearly $16,000,000, over 
$13,000,000 of which are represented by bonds and mortgages, real estate and railroad 
bonds. The company employs over 10,000 persons, nine-tenths of whom form the 
field staff or agency force. Three times, it has been obliged to remove its home office 
in Newark, first from the humble basement in two years to quarters four times larger ; 
next a few years later, to a four-story, brick building, the fitting up of which cost 
$20,000, and which within eight years became so cramped that quarters had to be 
obtained outside for some of the office staff; and finally, in 1892, to its own beautiful 
home office, unquestionably the finest business structure in New Jersey a model alike 
of utility and architecture. 

To return to Mr. Dryden : It is not alone for his genius and skill that he is entitled 
to a place among the foremost men of the time. His claim to live in the annals of the 
nation is, that he specially formulated for this country, and, together with his associ- 
ates, put into practical and successful operation, a plan of insurance, which will forever 
be a blessing of incalculable benefit to the American people. It is only twenty years 
since the mustard seed of Industrial Insurance was planted in Newark. Twelve com- 
panies are now operating upon this system in America, employing 30,000 workers, and 
having in the aggregate, 8,000,000 policy holders, and covering risks amounting to 
nearly $800,000,000. By them, there has been paid out in claims more than $80,000,000, 
mostly in sums varying from $10 to $500. Before Mr. Dryden's plan was put into 
practical operation in 1875, less than two per cent, of the American people were insured. 
Now, in 1896, the proportion of population insured is about fourteen and a half per cent 
These results are due to the genius of John F. Dryden. 

Mr. Dryden has often refused public preferment. While a student in and a lover 



of the science of politics, and an ardent believer in American institutions of govern- 
ment, he has always shown a great aversion to mingle in partisan strife. Nothing 
draws him from business or home except public charity or general improvement. 

CHARLES DUCHARflE, merchant, Detroit, Mich., born in Berthier-en-Haut, 
Lower Canada, May 5, iSiS, died in Detroit, Jan. 9, 1873. He was educated in a vil- 
lage school and began life as a clerk in a hardware store in Montreal, removed to 
Jonesville, Mich., in 1837, whence, after a short stay, he came to Detroit. Previous 
experience enabled him to enter the employment of Alexander Newbold, the leading 
hardware merchant of the city, with whom he remained until 1849. He then formed 
a partnership with his father-in-law. A. M. Bartholomew, under the name of Ducharme 
& Bartholomew. In 1855, Christian H. Buhl and he bought the hardware interests of 
Mr. Bartholomew and Alexander Newbold, formed the partnership of Buhl & 
Ducharme, and thereafter conducted a highly successful business. Mr. Ducharme was 
married, Aug. 10, 1833,10 Elsie Elizabeth Bartholomew, who was born in Montgomery, 
Orange county, N. Y. , May i, 1830, and died in Detroit, Jan. 14, 1892. Mr. Ducharme 
left a large estate to his four sons, Charles A., George A., Frederick T. and William 
H. Ducharme. At the time of his death he was president and a large owner of The 
Michigan Stove Co., and a director in The Second National Bank, The People's Savings 
Bank, and The Detroit Fire & Marine Insurance Co., and, as may be gathered by his 
success and relations with important institutions, a sound, upright and sterling man. 

JOHN DUDLEY, lumberman, Minneapolis, Minn , born in Penobscot county, Me., 
June 29, 1819, was a son of Samuel Dudley, a direct descendant of Thomas Dudley, 
second Governor of Massachusetts. Not entirely destitute of book learning, he never- 
theless acquired most of his education in the school of experience. At the age of 
twenty-one, he established a general store on his own account in Milford, Me. , a little 
town on the Penobscot river not far removed from the dense pine forests which yet 
clothe the whole of the northern part of the Pine Tree State. Upon the rolling waters 
of the river which ran past the town, there descended every year millions of feet of 
logs cut in the woods above and destined to be sawed into lumber at mills below. 
Naturally, Mr. Dudley could not fail to take a lively interest in the lumber business, 
and, in 1852, when he removed to Minneapolis, he put what means he possessed 
into pine lands and a lumber trade, gradually acquiring much property in Minnesota 
and Wisconsin. He was, at his death, April 18, 1893, a director in The First 
National Bank, and had been successful in all his ventures. Mrs. Hannah Dudley, his 
wife, survived him 

JAMES DUFFY, lumberman, Marietta, Pa., a shrewd, hard working, versatile 
Irishman, was a man of original talents and made far more of his life than could have 
been foreseen at the beginning. The family came to America while James was young. 
The father, although a man of ideas, left nothing to his family, and James received 
merely the rudiments of an English education. Living at Marietta, Pa., on the banks of 
the Susquehanna, he found his first employment, as a boy, in work upon the rafts of 
logs, which were being floated down stream to a market at Marietta, Middletown and 
other lumber centers. As a raft pilot, south of Marietta, Mr. Duffy often took a drive 
of logs down stream during the day time and walked home at night to resume the occu- 
pation next day. At a popular restaurant in Philadelphia, Mr. Duffy met, from time to 
time, many of the leading men of the State, all of whom liked him for his hearty 


manners, geniality and quiet wit. One day, one of these friends advised him to buy 
Pennsylvania Canal bonds, whereupon Mr. Duffy invested every dollar he had in those 
securities and made several thousand dollars by the transaction. This money was 
promptly embarked in the lumber business at Marietta, and gained a large accretion 
every year. About 1859, Mr. Duffy became interested in the freighting of supplies 
to army posts upon the plains and in California. Going West in person, he organized 
the sen-ice, which required several thousand wagons and teams, and resulted in satis- 
factory profits. The freighting interests were sold in 1861, and Mr. Duffy became a 
contractor for Government supplies During this period, he received the honorary title 
of "Colonel " from th );2 he dealt with. In Marietta, he took great interest and founded 
hollow ware and porcelain works there and The National Bank of Marietta. He 
was an active member of the State Fish Commission, and helped Thomas A. Scott 
financially with The Texas Pacific Railroad. During his later years, he went into 
farming and was the most successful tobacco grower in Pennsylvania. At his death, 
Jan. 7, 1877, age fifty-eight, Marietta lost a good citizen. 

WOODFORD HECTOR DULANEY, a property owner, Louisville, Ky., was born 
in Loudon county, Va., May 16, 1822, the son of Zachariah Dulaney, a school teacher 
and farmer, who, in turn, was the son of Leroy, son of William, son of William 
Dulaney, who settled in Bellhaven, now Alexandria, Va. , in 1700. The young man 
received a common school education and took his place in the world of affairs as a 
merchant in the dry goods business. He removed to Louisville in January, 1841, where 
he soon became conspicuous in judicious investments in real estate and good manage- 
ment of the property inherited by his wife, Margaret Josephine Cawthon, to whom he 
was married in 1851. Mr. Dulaney was several times elected to the General Council 
of the city of Louisville, and has been president of The Elizabeth Town & Paducah 
Railroad, The Cumberland & Ohio Railroad, and The Kentucky National Bank, and is 
now serving his twentieth year as director of The Bank of Kentucky. He was presi- 
dent of the Kentucky board of managers of the World's Columbian Exposition. His 
five children are, Florence, wife of Albert S. Willis, Minister to the Hawaiian Islands; 
Hector; Benjamin; Lizzie, wife of Judson C. Clements, member of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, and May. Mr. Dulaney is the largest individual tax payer in 
the city of Louisville. 

ROBERT DUNBAR, engineer, Buffalo, N. Y., who died Sept. 18, 1890, was born 
in Carnbee a few miles from the sea coast of Fifeshire, Scotland, Dec. 13, 1812, son of 
William Dunbar, a mechanical engineer. The Dunbars are in fact a family of engin- 
eers. The grandfather of Robert Dunbar located in Canada, in Pickering township, 
about twenty miles east of Toronto, and the village of Dunbarton grew up around his 
warehouse, tanner)-, wagon shop and blacksmith shop and near his farm. Robert sailed 
for Canada while a boy, went to school there, learned mechanical engineering and first 
showed his mettle, in 1832, by taking charge of the ship yard docks at Niagara, Ont, 
for which he designed the machinery and erected the whole outfit. Settling then in 
Buffalo, N. Y., he invented flour mills, and designed and built there the first grain ele- 
vator in the world, becoming the father of the present system of handling and stowing 
grain. The pioneer elevators in Canada and New York city were also constructed by 
him. In this business he continued until his death, building. nearly all the grain ele- 
vators in Buffalo (giving the city a position of one of the largest grain markets in the 


United States), and erecting others in Liverpool and Hull, in England, in Odessa, 
Russia, and many other gr tin shipping ports. All of his devices are in use to thi 5 day. 
The marine leg, to move up and dow" and extend from the side of an elevator, was one 
of his inventions. He was senior partner in Robert Dunbar & Son, grain elevator 
architects, engineers and contractors, and proprietor ot The Eagle Iron Works. By 
his genius and energy, he gained an ample fortune. Married, Aug. 26, 1840, to Sarah 
M. Howell, he was the father of William J. and Robert Dunbar, both now deceased; 
George H. Dunbar, now the proprietor of The Eagle Iron Works; Mary G. Dunbar, 
now deceased; and Emma G. Dunbar. 

JOHN H. DUNHAfl, successful banker and merchant, Chicago, 111., was born in 
Seneca county, N. Y., of English descent, May 28, 1817, and died April 28, 1893. A 
man of marked ability and sterling integrity, Mr. Dunham supplemented his early edu- 
cation, obtained at a small district school, by wide and extensive reading, becoming a 
close student of all of the great questions of his time in this and other lands; and his 
reading and observation together with foreign travel made him a man of wide and 
generous culture. While beginning life in a rural county, modestly and unnoticed, he rose 
to be one of the most influential and respected residents of the metropolis of the West. 

After a previous experience in mercantile life at Waterloo, N. Y., he moved to 
Chicago in 1844, and was ever active in promoting the best interests of his adopted city, 
and did much toward shaping Chicago's history, not only in connection with The Chicago 
Water Works, but also in many other successful enterprises. His mercantile enter- 
prise in Chicago was singularly successful, and in time he became a large owner of real 
property. He served one term with credit in the State Legislature, helped organize 
the Republican party in Illinois, and was appointed National Bank Examiner for the 
State by Secretary Hugh McCulloch, proving a most able and efficient officer of the 

Mr. Dunham organized The Merchants' Loan and Trust Go's Bank in 1857, becom- 
ing its first president, and to his strenuous efforts more than to all other influences, 
was due the complete overthrow of the local " wild cat " currency of that day and the 
establishment on a sound basis of the finances of the State of Illinois. His services 
in this respect cannot be too highly commended, operating, as they did, to promote 
the best interests of the people of his country. During the Civil War, the cause of 
the Union of the States received his ardent support. The great fire of 1871 entailed 
a loss upon Mr. Dunham, but he retrieved his ground by the energy characteristic of 
all he did. Attaining affluence by his own unaided efforts, he was ever ready to help 
the needy and the oppressed, but his charities, amounting to many thousands of 
dollars, were always bestowed quietly and without display. 

Mr. Dunham was a prominent member of the Second Presbyterian Church, The 
Chicago Historical Society, Academy of Science, The Y. M. C. A., The Soldiers' Home, 
the first Board of Trade, and many other well known organizations. He married the 
daughter of a prominent merchant of Waterloo, N. Y., and his widow with two 
daughters survive him. 

WILLIAfl DUNPHY, ranchman, San Francisco, Cala., was born in Montgomery 
county, N. Y., March 30, 1832, the son of a physician. He journeyed westward in 1849, 
and in 1853 became agent for The California Stage Co. at Tehama, next a livery stable 
proprietor, and then a merchant. He finally formed the firm of Dunphy & Hildreth, into 


whose affairs he put all the money that he had managed to save, and engaged in cattle 
raising. For a long period, this business was exceedingly profitable, lands being cheap, 
the natural increase of the herds supplying an abundant surplus every year for sale, 
and the vast population absorbed in the search for gold and silver and the prosecution 
of trade and banking at enormous profits, creating a ready and profitable market. 
After 1881, he conducted the business alone, with constantly increasing success. 
Ranches of 3,500 acres in Nevada and two ranches near Salinas in Monterey county, 
stocked with 20,000 cattle, belonged to him. His market was San Francisco and there 
he had a home. Mr. Dunphy died Sept. 17, 1892. 

WILLIAM HOOD DUNWOODY, flour miller, Minneapolis, Minn., is a native of 
Westown, Chester county, Pa., where he was born, March 14, 1841. His Scottish 
ancestor settled in Chester county, Pa., about 1735. The mother's family traces its line 
to John Hood of England, who settled in Philadelphia in 1684. William was educated 
in country schools, and at the age of eighteen entered business life in Philadelphia, 
where he learned the flour and grain trade with an uncle. In 1865, he established him- 
self in the same business in his own behalf, but with a partner. In 1869,- Mr. Dun- 
woody removed to Minneapolis, was a merchant of flour for a year and then engaged 
in flour milling at the falls of St. Anthony. From a modest beginning, he created a 
large and flourishing business, and now enjoys the honor of being one of those who 
has helped to make Minneapolis the greatest flour milling centre in the United States. 
He is vice president of the present Washburn- Crosby Co., which leases and operates 
the A, B, and C flour mills of the late Cadwalader C. Washburn, and is also president 
and controlling owner of The St. Anthony & Dakota Elevator Co. , director in The 
Northwestern National Bank, and vice president of The Minneapolis Trust Co. Dec. 
8, 1868, he married Kate L. Patten in Philadelphia. A man of fine character and 
mind, he exerts a large influence in affairs. 

ELEUTHERE IRENEE DU PONT DE NEHOURS, manufacturer, younger son of 
Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours, was born in Paris, France, June 24, 1771, his un- 
usual baptismal names having been selected by his god father, the celebrated Turgot. 

Irenee Du Pont, as he was commonly called, was brought up in the country at Bois 
des Fosses, in what is now the Department of Seine et Marne. His tastes turned early 
toward agriculture and science, which prompted his father's friend, Lavoisier, whom Tur- 
got had appointed superintendent of the government powder works (Regie Royale des 
Poudres et Salpetres), to take him in charge and secure his right of succession to that 
important post. This led to his going to the royal mills at Essonne to acquire a knowl- 
edge of the manufacture of gunpowder, and there he remained until the French 

June 8, 1791, his father, a leading advocate of constitutional monarchy, founded a 
large publishing house in the interest of the Conservative party, and summoned Irenee 
to take charge of the enterprise. Thus, at the age of twenty, the latter became super- 
intendent of a great business, necessarily connected with the political troubles of a 
stormy time. He was thrice imprisoned and frequently exposed to great personal dan- 
ger particularly on the fatal day of Aug. 10, 1 792, when he accompanied his father to 
the Tuilleries to defend the king's person. Both were fortunate enough to escape 
unharmed, and Irenee Du Pont remained for some time in concealment at Essonne. 
After the Reign of Terror, he supported his father in courageous opposition to the 


Jacobins who, when beaten at the polls. Sept. 5, 1797. called in Augureau's troops to 
overthrow the government, his father being again imprisoned and the printing house 
destroyed by the mob In despair as to the future and ruined in fortune, the Du Pont 
family turned toward the new world, and, in 1799. Irenee Dupont, with his father and 
brother, and their families, sailed for America, arriving in Newport, R. I. , on the first 
day of the present century 

A few months later, an accidental circumstance called Irenee Du Font's attention 
to the bad quality of the gunpowder made in the United States and gave him the idea 
of undertaking its manufacture. Going to France in January, 1801, he revisited 
Essonne to procure plans and models, and returned to the United States in August, with 
some of the machinery. It is noteworthy that he was urged by Thomas Jefferson, his 
father's friend, to locate in Virginia, and that he declined on account of the effects 
which the institution of slavery had produced upon the character of the white race. 
Similar reasons deterred him from establishing himself in Maryland, and after inspect- 
ing sites at Paterson, N. J., and several other places, he bought, in June, 1802, a tract 
of land with water power upon the banks of the Brandywine, four miles from Wilming- 
ton, Del., and arrived there with his family July 19. As early as 1810, his gunpowder 
works, known as the Eleutherian mills, and yet in operation, had a capacity of 600,000 
pounds per year, and during the War of 1812, in which he served as Captain of Dela- 
ware volunteers, they were able to furnish the entire powder supply for the American 
armies. The business, conducted from the start under the firm name of E. I. Du Pont 
de Nemours & Co., steadily grew, and at the time of Irenee Du Font's sudden death 
from cholera in Philadelphia, Oct. 31, 1834, his mills were the most important of their 
kind in the United States. 

Inheriting that spirit of philanthropy which characterized his distinguished father, 
amid the incessant toil of an engrossing business career, Irenee Du Pont never forgot 
for a moment the duties he owed to his fellow men. He was not only foremost in the 
development of the agriculture and industry about him and in every measure of local 
improvement, but found time to serve as director in The Bank of the United States, 
take part in the philanthropic labors of The American Colonization Society and associ- 
ate his life with innumerable acts of private benevolence. Nov. 26, 1791, he married 
in Paris, Sophie Madeleine Dalmas, who died in 1828. His three sons, Alfred Victor, 
Henry and Alexis Irenee, continued the manufacturing enterprise. 

HENRY DU PONT, manufacturer, second son of Eleuthere Irenee Du Pont de 
Nemours, born at the Eleutherian Mills, near Wilmington, Del., Aug. 8, 1812, died 
Aug. 8, 1889, in Wilmington. In October, 1822, he was sent to school at Constant's 
Mount Airy seminary, Germantown, Pa., which, in 1826, became a military school 
under the direction of Colonel Roumfort. He left there in 1829, upon his appointment 
as cadet at the United States Military Academy, West Point, whence he graduated 
July i, 1833, becoming Brevet Second Lieutenant of the 4th U. S. Artillery. Report- 
ing for duty at Fort Monroe, Va., he was soon ordered with a battalion to Fort Mitchell 
in the Creek Indian country, Ala., where he performed frontier duty with his com- 
mand. July 15, 1834, he resigned his commission in the army at the instance of his 
father, and returned to Delaware to assist in the manufacture of gunpowder. 

After Irenee Du Font's sudden death in Philadelphia in the following October, 
Henry Du Pont aided his brother-in-law, Mr. Bidermann, and afterward his oldest 


brother, Alfred, in the management of the business, which successfully weathered the 
financial depression of 1837. 

When, in 1850, Henry Du Pont became the head of the firm of E. I. Du Pont de 
Nemours & Co., his executive ability soon made itself felt, and from that time until his 
death, he was the controlling spirit of the enterprise, which, under his direction, 
assumed proportions of very great magnitude. In addition to the vast consumption of 
gunpowder in the vocations of peace, the mills sent large quantities abroad, in 1855, 
for the use of the English troops in the Crimea and supplied the United States govern- 
ment during the War of the Rebellion. During his long business career, Henry Du 
Pont was found equal to every emergency. Industry, enterprise, fair dealing and 
liberality were the characteristics of his management of affairs. 

A Whig in politics, he cast his first vote for Henry Clay in 1836, and, although he 
supported Bell and 'Everett in 1860, after the dissolution of the Whig party, yet, when 
the Rebellion broke out, his patriotic and law-abiding character made him a staunch 
advocate of President Lincoln, and he became one of the leaders of the Delaware 
Republicans and their candidate for Presidential Elector in 1868, 1876, 1880, 1884 and 
1888. In his eyes, political work was a patriotic duty and he performed it faithfully, 
serving for more than forty years as inspector of elections and challenger at the polls. 

His military service in the State began as Aide-de-Camp to Governor Cooper in 
1841. May 16, 1846, Governor Temple appointed him Adjutant General of the State, 
which office he held until May n, 1861, when he was appointed by Governor Burton 
Major General of forces raised and to be raised in Delaware. In accepting the office, 
General Du Pont stipulated that he should have absolute control of the armed forces of 
the State, and his first order, which compelled every man in the State military 
service to take an oath of allegiance to the United States or to surrender his arms, at 
once drew a line between the supporters of the Government and the disloyal spirits, 
who were counting upon the chances of Southern success and secretly discussing the 
question of taking Delaware out of the Union. Although the latter had influence 
enough to induce Governor Burton to suspend the order referred to, yet, upon General 
Du Font's application, General Dix, commanding the United States troops at Baltimore, 
sent an armed force to Delaware to maintain the supremacy of the general government. 

With many other family characteristics, Henry Du Pont inherited the strong agri- 
cultural tastes of his father and grandfather. He was probably the largest as well as 
the most popular land owner in Delaware, always displaying an almost fatherly solici- 
tude for the interest of his tenants and employes. Decided in opinion, liberal in 
thought, wise, prudent and sagacious in business, and generous in private life, he took 
an active interest in the local affairs of his community and was always the firm friend 
and advocate of public improvement. July 15, 1837, he married Louisa Gerhard, who 
survived him. 

HENRY ALGERNON DU PONT, soldier, son of Henry Du Pont, was born at the 
Elcutherian Mills, near Wilmington, Del., July 30, 1838. In 1853, he went to the Rev. 
Dr. Lyon's boarding school near Philadelphia, and in 1855, entered the University of 
Pennsylvania, leaving college a year later to go to West Point as a cadet at the United 
States Military Academy. Graduating at the head of his class, May 6, 1861, he was 
appointed Second Lieutenant of the Corps of Eng. , U. S. A., and May 14, 1861, First 
Lieutenant, 5th U. S. Art. July 6, 1861, he was made regimental Adjutant, and was 



acting assistant Adjutant General of the troops in New York harbor, April, 1862, to July 

4, 1863, from which date he was in command of Light Battery B, sth U. S. Art., in the 
field, being promoted to be Captain, 5th U. S. Art., March 24, 1864, and taking part in 
the battle of Newmarket, Va., May 15, 1864. As Chief of Artillery in West Virginia, 
dating from May 24, 1864, he commanded the artillery during Hunter's Virginia cam- 
paign at the battle of Piedmont, June 5, 1864, the engagement at Lexington, June n, 
the affair near Lynchburg, June 17, the battle of Lynchburg, June 18, and the affairs at 
Liberty, June 19, and Mason's Creek, June 21, 1864. Being then made Chief of Artil- 
lery, Army of West Virginia, July 28, 1864, he served in Sheridan's campaign in the 
Valley of Virginia, commanding the artillery brigade of Crook's corps in affairs with 
the enemy at Cedar Creek, Aug. 12, and Halltown, Aug. 23, 25 and 27; the action at 
Berryville, Sept. 3; the battle of Opequan (Winchester). Sept. 19; the battle of Fisher's 
Hill, Sept. 22; the affair at Cedar Creek, Oct. 13, and the battle of Cedar Creek, Oct. 
19, 1864. 

He was brevetted Major, to date from Sept. 19, 1864, for gallant and meritorious 
conduct at the battles of Opequan and Fisher's Hill, and Lieutenant Colonel, Oct. 19, 
1864, for distinguished services at the battle of Cedar Creek. After the war he com- 
manded Light Battery F, sth U. S. Art., and at various times the posts of Fort Mon- 
roe, Va., Camp Williams, Va., Sedgwick Barracks, D. C., and Fort Adams, R. I., and 
was a member of the board of officers which assimilated the tactics for the three arms 
of the service. Colonel Du Pont resigned from the army March i, 1875, and since May 

5, 1879, has been president of The Wilmington & Northern Railroad, and he is also a 
director of The Baltimore & Philadelphia and The Delaware River Railroads and The 
Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co., and the manager of much real estate in 


GEORGE EASTMAN, inventor of the Kodak camera, Rochester, N. Y., was born 
in Waterville, N. Y., July 12, 1854, son of George W. and Maria Kilbourn Eastman, 
and settled in Rochester, N. Y. , in 1861. At fourteen, Mr. Eastman went into the 
insurance office of Cornelius Weydell and spent several years in this line of occupation, 
both there and with Buell & Brewster and Buell & Hayden, but, in 1877, found a place 
as bookkeeper in The Rochester Savings Bank, for four years. As an amateur pho- 
tographer and experimenter during this period, Mr. Eastman perfected a process for 
making dry plates, and, leaving the bank in 1881, he began to manufacture dry plates 
on a small scale. Mr. Eastman soon realized that he had an invention of value. The 
same year, 1881, with Henry A Strong, he organized The Eastman Dry Plate Co., and 
engaged not only in the production of dry plates but of other photographic apparatus. 
The roll film, the roll holder and the Kodak came one after the other, and there finally 
grew into existence a group of industries devoted to the manufacture of the Eastman 
specialties and of photographic apparatus generally. The Eastman Dry Plate Co. now 
employs 700 people and has a branch factory in Harrow, England. The Kodak was 
the greatest hit, and The Eastman Kodak Co., formed to produce it, capital $5,000,000, 
is sending its goods all over the world. There is also another company now. The 
Eastman Photographic Materials Co., Ld. , capital $1,000,000, which is the foreign 
branch, and Mr. Eastman is treasurer and general manager of all three. The expres- 
sion, "You press the button, we do the rest," originated with him. He is now a 
director in The Flour City Bank and The Alliance Bank, and a member of the Genesee 
Valley club. He is unmarried. 

HENRY FRANKLIN EATON, lumberman, the most conspicuous citizen of the far 
Eastern frontier town of Calais, Me., born Nov. 22, 1812, in Groton, Mass., died March 
22, 1895. His paternal ancestors, Jonas and Grace Eaton, emigrated from England to 
Reading, Mass., in 1642. Jonas Eaton, his father, a farmer, married Mary Corey, 
and both were members of old Massachusetts families. Franklin spent his boyhood on 
the farm, gaining an education in the public schools and Lawrence Academy in Groton. 
When of age, he paid a visit to his brother, Joseph Emerson Eaton, a lumber manufac- 
turer on the St. Croix river, which forms the boundary between Washington county, 
Me., and New Brunswick, and resolved to remain upon the St. Croix. With $60, 
which he had earned in teaching, and the further equipment of physical vigor and hon- 
esty, he embarked in the manufacture and shipment of lumber. Through careful 
economy, something was saved every year, and by reinvestment Mr. Eaton finally 
became the proprietor of large saw mills in Calais and of pine timber lands in the 
counties of Washington, Somerset, Piscataquis, and Aroostook, Me. ,- and in Charlotte, 
N. B. In later years, two sons came into partnership in the firm of H. F. Eaton & 
Sons. Until seventy-eight years of age, Mr. Eaton dwelt on the New Brunswick sida 
of the St. Croix river, without, however, taking the oath of allegiance to the Queen. 
After that, he made his home in Calais. The family are all staunch Republicans. In 
1842, Mr. Eaton married Anna Louise Boardman, whose ancestors on both sides came 
from England to Ipswich and Newbury, Mass., about the middle of the seventeenth 



century. His children are George H. Eaton, a graduate of Amherst college, and 
Henry B. Eaton, both partners in H. F. Eaton & Sons; Wilfred L. Eaton, an employe 
of the firm; Franklin M. Eaton, a graduate of Yale college and a physician in Provi- 
dence, R. I. ; Henrietta M., wife of the Rev. John J. Blair, of Wallingford, Conn., and 
Annie K., wife of Horace B. Murchie, of South Orange, N. J. In early life, Mr. Eaton 
professed his faith in Christ. Added to his pure life and vigorous health, his success 
was due to a fixed purpose, perfect order, persistent industry, an equable temperament 
and simple habits. 

JAMES DEPEW EDflUNDSON, banker, Council Bluffs, la., was born Nov. 23, 
1838, in Des Homes county, la., on a farm. His father's family were of Scotch-Irish 
descent, name originally Edmiston. The maternal ancestor, Dupuy, a Huguenot, was 
driven from France by the repeal of the Edict of Nantes. James attended the public 
schools in boyhood, read THE NEW YORK TRIBUXE as an auxiliary teacher, and profited 1 
thereby; taught school; toiled as a clerk in the stores; and then read law. At the age 
of twenty-two, he was admitted to the bar and began practice, and, in addition, soon 
afterward devoted himself to buying and selling land in Western Iowa. He has been a 
resident of Council Bluifs since 1866. Mr. Edmundson made his way steadily but not 
without the usual period of struggle at the beginning. In 1882, banking was added to 
his other vocations and he is president of The Citizens' State Bank and is also con- 
nected with The State Savings Bank, the Sioux Valley Bank of Correctionville, la., 
and The Bankers' National Bank of Chicago as well as The Pioneer Implement Co. of 
Council Bluffs. He has other investments and owns a large amount of improved farm 
land in Iowa. His life has been honest, diligent and uneventful, although travel over 
most of the United States and frequently in Europe has occupied some of his time. 
He has been twice married and has no children. 

DAN PARMELEE EELLS, a representative American and prominent resident of 
Cleveland, O., is a descendant of a long line of men noted for deep religious feeling and 
strong mental and moral qualities. The first was a man famed rather for ability in war 
than in peace, Major Samuel Eells of Barnstable, England, a lawyer and an officer in 
the British army, who came to this country in the early part of the seventeenth century 
and located in Connecticut. 

Dan P. Eells is the youngest son of the Rev. James Eells and Mehitabel Parmelee. 
His mother belonged to the well known family of that name in Durham, Conn. In this 
family, there had always been a Dan Parmelee, hence Mr. Eells's name. In 1804, the 
Rev. James Eells removed with his family to Oneida county, and from there, in 1831, 
to Ohio, where, after one or two removals, he settled permanently in Amherst, Lorain 
county. When fifteen years of age, the son became a clerk in a store at Elyria. In 
1841, he went to Oberlin to prepare for college, paying his tuition out of what he was 
able to earn in one of the village stores. In the Fall of 1844, he entered Hamilton 
college ; but, being unable to meet his college expenses, he left at the expiration of his 
Sophomore year and returned to Ohio. The college gave him his degree afterward 
and his name appears in its records with the class of 1848. 

In September, 1846, Mr. Eells became a bookkeeper for Cobb & Bishop, forwarding 
merchants in Cleveland. That was the beginning of his active business life. He was 
a fine penman and able accountant and had inherited, in a marked degree, the moral 
and mental characteristics of his ancestors. Two months later, he left to teach school at 



Amherst. In the Spring of 1847, he again returned to Cleveland and became general 
bookkeeper in the large shipping house of Barney, Waring & Co., but two years later, 
took a place as bookkeeper in the old Commercial Branch of The State Bank of Ohio, 
where he remained for eight years and made many friends. Well fitted then for a 
venture on his own account, Mr. Eells became a partner in a private banking firm, 
Hall, Eells & Co. , who prospered from the start. Mr. Eclls's services in The Com- 
mercial Bank had been so much appreciated, however, that determined efforts were 
made by the directors to induce him to return, and this he finally did, remaining with 
The Commercial Bank as cashier until 1865, when its charter expired. 

The Commercial National Bank was organized the same year, Mr. Eells being vice- 
president, and later, upon the death of W. A. Otis, the president, in 1868, Mr. Eells 
succeeded to the presidency and has filled that position to the present time, guiding the 
institution through several periods of financial disaster, which brought forth fully the 
ability and foresight of the man and financier. Except for about a year and a half, 
when with the firm of Hall, Eells & Co., Mr. Eells's connection with The Commercial 
Bank has, at the present writing, 1896, covered a period of forty-seven years. 

Later on, when competent subordinates made it possible, Mr. Eells found time to 
participate in other business enterprises of large magnitude, and, being known as a 
judicious, honorable and exceedingly enterprising man, his name carried weight and 
influence. Becoming identified with prominent eastern capitalists, in conjunction with 
them he has carried through railroad enterprises of great importance. He built a con- 
siderable part of The Lake Erie & Western Railway, and was its first vice president. 
He was also one of the projectors of The Ohio Central Railroad and its first president, 
and prominent in the construction of The St. Louis, Keokuk & Northwestern Railway, 
The New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railway, The Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette 
Railroad, and The East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroad. In connection with 
others, he built and consolidated railroads, along whose lines villages sprang up, manu- 
factories were started and the whole country benefited. Mr. Eells's influence continued 
to broaden, until he became a prominent factor in many banks, railroads, mercantile 
companies and other enterprises of various character, and he has been a director of The 
United States Express Co. for about thirty years, and is president and director of sev- 
eral other corporations. 

There is scarcely a worthy charitable institution in Ohio which has not received 
benefits from his liberal hand, and he finds time, despite all the work of his active 
business life, to help in church work. For many years, Mr. Eells has served as an 
elder in the Second Presbyterian church of Cleveland, and as one of its most ardent 
members, and he has been, for a quarter of a century, president of The Cleveland 
Bible Society, and is a trustee of Lane Theological Seminary, Oberlin college, Ham- 
ilton college and Lake Erie seminary. 

To Mr. Eells and his first wife, Mary M. Howard, daughter of the late Col. George 
A. Howard, of Orwell, Ashtabula county, O., were born two children, Howard Par- 
melee and Emma Paige. His second wife was Miss Mary Witt, daughter of the late 
Stillman Witt. Of five children by this marriage, only one, Stillman Witt, a mem- 
ber of the class of 1896 in Yale college, survives. The eldest son, Howard P. Eells, 
is a graduate of both Hamilton and Harvard, and is one of the representative younger 
men of Cleveland, and ranks high as an enterprising and honorable business man. 


THOflAS WALKER ELIASON, a merchant of business ability and singular good 
judgment, Chestertown, Md , began life as clerk in a country store in that town, in 
which he was born, Dec. 27, 1843, and has found the busy community of now about 
3 ooo inhabitants, on the Chester river, fifty-five miles from Baltimore, a sufficient field 
for profitable enterprise. The hero of La Fontaine's fable pursued Fortune in vain at 
court and elswhere and returned to find it at last on his own door step. Mr. Eliason has 
proved the wisdom of looking on one's door step first. His mercantile business has 
proved successful, and later operations in stocks and bonds have placed him beyond the 
reach of poverty. 

WILLIAri LUKENS ELKINS, a prominent citizen of Philadelphia and a finan- 
cier of wide reputation, exceedingly active in affairs, is a native of West Virginia and 
was born of Quaker parentage, May 2, 1832. His father, George W. Elkins, is remem- 
bered as one of the pioneer paper manufacturers of the United States. 

Mr. Elkins comes from good old Colonial stock, his ancestors having emigrated 
from England about 1620 and taken their place among the earliest inhabitants of 
Xew England, the first of the name in this country making his appearance in the new 
world in the year 1614. The great grandfather on the maternal side was the Rev. 
John Watts, who founded the first Baptist church in Pennsylvania and figured quite 
actively both in the early history and development of Philadelphia. His daughter was 
married in that city in Christ church, which was finished in 1752 and stands to-day 
as one of the landmarks of the Quaker City. 

Mr. Elkins's parents came w T ith their family to Philadelphia in 1840, where William 
was educated in the public schools. At the age of fifteen, he left his books and accepted 
a position as entry clerk in a store in Philadelphia. In 1852, so promptly had he mas- 
tered the ideas of business, he engaged in produce dealings in New York city, and after 
a year's experience returned to Philadelphia to embark in the same vocation there in 
partnership with Peter Sayboldt. The firm were wide awake and industrious, and 
created in time what was possibly the largest business in dealing in agricultural prod- 
ucts in this country, and a profitable one. In 1861, Mr. Elkins purchased his partner's 
interest and continued alone until the general demoralization caused by the Civil War 
induced him to discontinue it. 

It was at this time that the discover}' of petroleum in Pennsylvania had created 
intense excitement among all classes, and Mr. Elkins was quick to see opportunities in 
this new field. Repairing to Western Pennsylvania, he made a thorough investigation 
of the oil regions, and from 1861 to 1880 organized many oil companies and operated 
extensively in this industry. Being convinced from the beginning that the supply of 
petroleum was practically unlimited, he returned to Philadelphia and became one of the 
first to engage in the refining of crude oil. Several small refineries were purchased, 
The Belmont Oil W T orks were leased and control of the entire local industry of oil refin- 
ing had soon been obtained by Mr. Elkins. At this time, his works had a capacity of 
about six hundred barrels per week. The business grew with amazing rapidity, how- 
ever, and increased to such proportions that in time Mr. Elkins was producing from his 
various plants over 20,000 barrels a month It is an interesting fact that the first gas- 
oline ever made was the product of his works. Several times, the plants were destroyed 
by fire, but after each disaster they were rebuilt and extended. As for oil wells, Mr. 
Elkins bo.ig'.it an interest in several and opened others. He purchased The Riverside 

( X 


Oil Works on the Allegheny river, which he afterward sold, and in 1875, he became a 
partner of The Standard Oil Co., to which, five years later, he disposed of his interest, 
accepting Standard Oil stock in part payment. 

In 1873, in addition to other enterprises, Mr. Elkins became largely engaged in the 
manufacture of illuminating gas, securing an interest in a number of gas works through- 
out the United States. 

In more recent years, Mr. Elkins has turned his business and his capital in a new 
direction. In company with associates, he invested heavily in the street railroads of 
Philadelphia and planned the organization of a company, which, by controlling a num- 
ber of the best paying roads in the city, would be enabled to operate them all at a 
minimum o f expense and make each road serve as a feeder for the others. The result 
of tbeir efforts was the formation of The Philadelphia Traction Co., which controls and 
operates many of the most important and valuable lines in Philadelphia and whose ser- 
vice **fawi* to every section of the city. 

The operations of Mr. Elkins and his associates in this species of enterprises are by 
no mftmg confined to Philadelphia, but they have extensive interests in street railways 
in Xew York, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and other communities, where their 
business has become widely r*r*vnAf*l Mr. Elkins has helped organize The West Side 
and The North Side Street Railroads of Chicago, The Metropolitan Traction Co. of 
New York, The Baltimore Traction Co., and The Pittsburgh Traction Co. and is a 
heavy stockholder and director in all these companies, besides being interested in the 
. of cable machinery and cable railroad plants, several of which latter have 

been created by his company. 

Mr. Elkins is practically the organizer of The United Gas & Improvement Co. and 
is at present a director in the same. This company, which is capitalized at $ i o, ooo, ooo, 
controls in the neighborhood of sixty-five plants for the manufacture of illuminating 
gas in different cities throughout the country, and is also president of The Globe Gas 
Light Co., president of The Continental Railroad, director in The Consolidation Bank, 
a trustee of the Girard estate, and has been a director in The Pennsylvania Railroad 
since 1*77. In company with his friend and partner, P. A. B. Widencr, Mr. Elkins has 
in recent years engaged extensively in building operations in the northwestern section 
of Philadelphia, where, having purchased large tracts of land, they have erected about 
3,000 houses and greatly developed that part of the city. 

By marriage, in 1858, to Miss Louisa Broomal of Chester county, Pa., whose family 
ate prominent in that HPftfr'n, Mr. Elkins has become the father of four children, 
George W. Elkins, Wiffiam L. Elkins, jr., Mrs. Eleanor Elkins Widener, and Mrs. Ida 
Elkins Tyler, wife of Sidney Tyler. He ranks among Philadelphia's most liberal and 
public spirited I'ltigmi-g and while a strong Republican, has never held political office, 
eacept as a ^ifi'fi'iniimi i to represent his city at the Vienna Exposition in 1873. He 
is a member of several of the best clubs, including the Union League. The family 
make their home in a notably fine residence on Broad street, where Mr. Elkins loves 
to surround hiTmsHf with beamtifnl objects and where he has a valuable collection 
of fine paintings, 'h"'^ n|-tf rtx best examples of European and American art. 
His further interest in art matters is shown by .the fact that he has recently offered a 
prise of $5,000 for a painting by an American artist, to be competed for at the exhibi- 
tion of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. 


Personally, Mr. Elkins is affable and hearty in manner, combining marked kindness 
of nature with a business promptness and decision, which enable him to transact busi- 
ness with rapidity and without apparent fatigue. A man of sturdy physique, clear 
mind, and indomitable determination, he has from an humble beginning made his 
way rapidly and honorably to the foremost ranks of business and commercial life. 

EDWARD ELLIS, manufacturer, Schenectady, N. Y., was born in that city, March 
13,1844, a son of the late John Ellis, locomotive manufacturer. He attended school in 
Schenectady and Ballston Spa, and then began life as a workman in the locomotive 
works of his father. He followed every process of the business, step by step, until his 
training was complete, and then received a share in the management He is now the 
president of The Schenectady Locomotive Works and a capable, industrious and suc- 
cessful man. He is vice president of The Mohawk National Bank of Schenectady, 
and a member of the 'Manhattan club of New York city and Chicago club of Chicago. 

COL. LITTLEBERRY AHBROSE ELLIS, prominent as a cotton and sugar planter 
in Texas, is a native of Mississippi, Hinds county. Born Feb. 19, 1827, and given a 
fair education, he began reading law but found the profession irksome and gave it up. 
From 1851 to 1861, a merchant in Jefferson, Texas, the bugles of the Civil War swept 
him into the field and he served in the Confederate army until all was lost. Returning 
to mercantile life, he then, in 1868, with Col. E. H. Cunningham, leased the labor of 
the State penitentiaries for ten years. Cheap labor and good prices for the products 
thereof added to his means. Colonel Ellis had inherited large plantations and these he 
devoted to cotton planting and the production and manufacture of sugar. He now has 
a large investment in sugar mills, lands and property in Walker county (in all 65,000 
acres in Texas), and three plantations in Louisiana, and has been remarkably successful, 
although sugar interests have recently received a check, owing to the policies enacted 
at Washington. In 1877-78, Colonel Ellis became one of seven to build The East Line 
& Red River Railroad, and is now a director in The American National Bank, and 
otherwise active in finance. A singular man in many respects, he takes no interest in 
politics, or at any rate has never held office, and never has joined any church or secret 
society. He married Miss Pink Owen, in 1855, and after her death, he married again 
in 1865. Six feet high, florid, with silvery hair, gray eyes and vigorous health, he is 
one of the most notable citizens of Austin, Tex. 

JAHES WILLI Afl ELLSWORTH, senior member of the firm of James W. Ellsworth 
& Co. , of Chicago and Cleveland, owners and operators of mines in Pennsylvania, Ohio 
and West Virginia one of the largest mining and shipping interests in the United 
States is a descendant in a direct line from Josias Ellsworth, an English colonist, who 
came to America in 1646 and helped found the town of Old Windsor, Conn. With 
that westward movement of New England, which left churches and colleges in its path, 
the grandfather, Elisha Ellsworth, removed to what is known as the Western Reserve 
in Ohio, where, at Hudson, Edgar B. Ellsworth, father of James W. Ellsworth, 
was born. The descendants of Josias number many names eminent in jurisprudence 
and in the political and Commercial affairs of this country. History records them as 
" Puritans of the best stock." The family traces its descent from Sir John Ellsworth 
of Cambridgeshire, England, in the reign of Edward III. 

The mother of the subject of this biography, Mary H. Dawes, daughter of Judge 
Dawesof Maine, was a woman in whom were embodied New England ideals and spirit. 


She constantly held before her children high conceptions of life, its privileges and oppor- 
tunity for culture. James W. Ellsworth was born at Hudson, Summit county, O. , Oct. 
13, 1849, and grew to early manhood in an atmosphere which has vitalized the latent 
energies of its sons, broadened their outlook and made many of them a power in the 
country. His father was an earnest Republican, when the Western Reserve was the 
battle ground of discussion, in which ideas of liberty were sure to have supremacy. As 
a boy, James showed a marked fondness for books and works of art, a fondness judi- 
ciously fostered by his parents, and one which has been steadily developed during his 
career. His education was received at Hudson in the preparatory school of the West- 
ern Reserve college, at the conclusion of which term of study, being thrown upon his 
own resources, he went to Chicago and there began his business career as an office boy 
in a coal office. He advanced slowly but steadily, saved his earnings, and, at length, 
started in the same business on his own account. The trade of Mr. Ellsworth grew so 
rapidly under his energetic direction that it soon became a necessity to control the 
sources of supply and the means of transportation. From time to time, mines were 
leased or purchased, and their output increased by the addition of machinery; docks 
were purchased at Duluth, West Superior and Ashland; depots were established in 
various cities in the West, and the firm, from a start of a few hundred dollars, has 
now risen to control vast amounts of property, and distributes more than 2,000,000 
tons of bituminous coal each year. Mr. Ellsworth is president of The Ohio Coal Co., 
at St. Paul, and president of The Cleveland & Pittsburgh Dock Co., in Cleveland. 

Notwithstanding the cares of this vast business, Mr. Ellsworth has yet found time 
for the cultivation of his artistic and scholastic tastes. His private library, distin- 
guished as it is by a rare collection of Shakespearian literature, the presence of many 
unique specimens, above all the " Guttenburg Bible," is only equalled by his collection 
of paintings, the chief and consummate canvas being a well known portrait by Rem- 
brandt. He also possesses the Lorenzo Lotto portrait of Columbus, which has been 
awarded distinguished consideration in Spain and is a priceless possession, besides 
man)' rare rugs and specimens of ceramic art. The rooms are freely open to those 
most interested in such collections. The residence of Mr. Ellsworth, like his ancestry, 
is old colonial in style and a notable example of characteristic American architecture, 
elegant in its appointments and admirably adapted to entertain, as was shown in many 
well known instances in the course of the Columbian Exposition. 

Mr. Ellsworth was married, in 1874, to Miss Eva Butler, daughter of Oliver M. 
Butler. Mrs. Ellsworth died in 1 888, leaving two children, Lincoln and Eva Clare. 

The public spirit of Mr. Ellsworth has shown itself in his labors as one of the South 
Park Commissioners, as an early friend and patron of the Art Institute, as president 
of the Inter-State Exposition and as a member of the board of directors of the World's 
Columbian Exposition. He was chairman of the Committee on Liberal Arts and a mem- 
ber of both the Executive and Finance Committees. His unflagging zeal, determina- 
tion that the Fair should redound to the credit of the city and nation, and his well 
remembered efforts in these directions, especially in the Finance Committee at trying 
times, when vast sums of money had to be raised, are among the admirable records 
of the preparatory work of the greatest exposition the world has yet known. He is a 
member of the Chicago and Union League clubs in Chicago, the Grolier, Players', Al- 
dine, Manhattan and Century clubs of New York, and the Bibliographical club of London. 


GEN. SAMUEL STEWART ELLSWORTH, jr., of Perm Yan, N. Y., born in that 
place while it was yet a mere village, Dec. 25, 1839, died in Pcnn Yan, May 6, 1892. 
The son of Judge Samuel S. Ellsworth, a pioneer of Yates county, and Elizabeth Vos- 
burg Henry, his wife, he was prepared in Penn Yan thoroughly for a higher education 
and graduated from Hamilton college in 1860, after a three years' course, being made 
an M.A. in 1863. While he read law for a time, he never practiced, the care of his 
father's estate falling upon him at the latter's death in 1863. To business affairs, he 
gave close attention during a successful and active life. For four years, beginning in 
1867, he conducted a grain, malting and forwarding business with F. Davis, jr., at 
Watkins, and in 1884, began to deal in coal, the local firm of S. S. Ellsworth & Co. 
being formed in 1890. Other business connections will be referred to hereafter. 

Politics, however, occupied much of his thoughts from early manhood. As a War 
Democrat, the government won from him a cordial support during the Civil War, and 
his always ready and eloquent speech and graceful comments on public affairs con- 
tributed much to advance the Union cause. In 1865, '68, '70 and '74, he sat in the State 
convention of his party as a delegate, and in 1872, in the national convention, in Balti- 
more, his advice being always received with respect. Public office did not especially 
attract him, yet in behalf of his party he made a contest for a seat in the State Assembly 
in 1870, and came out with great honor, although the Democrats were in a hopeless 
minority. His actual office holding was limited to two terms as Supervisor for the town 
of Milo, 1882-83, three years in the Board of Education of Penn Yan, 1875-77, and 
Quartermaster General on Governor Tildcn's staff, 1875-76. Eminent soundness of 
character, marked abilities and wide acquaintance with men and measures brought to 
General Ellsworth several positions of responsibility in private affairs. In 1869, he was 
elected president of The Sodus Point & Southern Railroad; in 1872, president of The 
Wilkes-Barre & Seneca Lake Coal Co. ; in 1870, trustee of Hamilton college; during 
iS68-8o, a manager of The Fall Brook Coal Co. ; and in 1891, president of The Lake 
Keuka Ice Co. He became a member of The American Institute of Christian Philoso- 
phy in 1890, and at another date a trustee of the John Magce estate. In every relation, 
the record of General Ellsworth was spotless and most creditable. It may be told, also, 
that he was the first patron of the Ellsworth Hose company of Penn Yan, named in his 
honor and composed of the best young men of the place, who won the State prize at a 
competition in Cortland, Aug. 28, 1888. 

The wife of General Ellsworth was Hebe Parker (only daughter of the late Hon. 
John Magee), whom he married Dec. 12, 1866, and who died in Paris, France, April 
16, 1880. To them two sons were born, Duncan Stewart, Feb. 19, 1870, and John 
Magee Ellsworth, May 17, 1874, both of whom have been students in Yale university. 
General Ellsworth was the central figure in the social and business life of Penn Yan, 
public spirited, pure, refined and cultivated, a strong Presbyterian, genial, remarkable 
for his clear memory and well trained mind, and universally loved and respected. 

GEORGE ELLWANGER, a nurseryman, Rochester, N. Y., was born in Gross- 
heppach, Wiirtemberg, Dec. 2, 1816, the son of a landholder and vineyard owner. The 
lad was educated in his native town and Stuttgart, and began life as an apprentice in 
the foremost horticultural establishment in Stuttgart. He came to America in 1835 
and settled in Rochester, where, in 1839, he established the firm of Ellwanger & Barry 
for the raising of fruit and shade trees, shrubs, and flower and foliage plants. This 


was the pioneer nursery of the West, and, being located just beyond the city limits on 
the Mount Hope road, took the name of the Mount Hope Nursery. There are 650 
acres now under cultivation. The firm have long made a specialty of fruit and orna- 
mental trees and the rarer evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs, and have been 
leaders in the propagation of new and previously unknown plants of various kinds. 
Imitation is the compliment regularly paid to success, and there are now more than forty 
competing nurseries in the suburbs of Rochester, but Ellwanger & Barry maintain their 
rank as the oldest and soundest house in the business. Their products are probably more 
diversified than those of any other nursery in the United States. Mr. Ellwanger built 
and owns the large Ellwanger & Barry office building and is a trustee of The Monroe 
County Savings Bank and The Trust & Safe Deposit Co., director in The Flour City 
Bank, and first vice president of The Reynolds Library and connected with various 
local industries. He was married in 1 846 at Brooks Grove, N. Y. , to Cornelia Brooks, 
and is the father of George H., Henry B., William D. and Edward S. Ellwanger. 

HENRY F. EMERIC, San Francisco, Cala, capitalist, is a son of the late Joseph 
Emeric, from whom he inherited a large property. Joseph Emeric, born in Novelles, 
France, in 1793, came to Boston in 1836 and located there as an importer of madder 
and teasles, removing to New York in 1840. There he became a prosperous merchant 
but finally failed and arrived in California in February, 1849, a poor man, with only a 
dollar of money. He prospected in the mines and then found work on the wharves in 
San Francisco, saved his money and engaged later in a wood and charcoal trade for 
two years and finally entered a grain and commission firm as partner. In 1854, the 
firm dissolved and Mr. Emeric accepted as his share of the proceeds land in Contra 
Costa county, upon which he engaged in fruit raising. He added to this tract by pur- 
chases until he had acquired 2,500 acres at San Pablo, fronting on the bay between 
Oakland and Berkeley. This property is now immensely valuable. In 1869, he again 
went into business in San Francisco as an importer of French wines and other prod- 
ucts. The venture was successful and brought him wealth, which he invested in local 
and business property, including the California Hotel. Henry F. Emeric was born in 
New York city, Jan. 17, 1849. He graduated from Union college, entered his father's 
office, and in 1872, went to the Donohoe, Kelly & Co. bank, and later to France to 
visit his uncles for two years. He returned in 1871. There was a difference at the 
time between father and son, and the latter put forth a determined effort to make his 
way alone, becoming a policeman, baker, grocer's clerk, salesman and prospector by 
turns, and, after many hardships, an employe with Wells, Fargo & Co., with whom he 
remained until his father's death in 1889. He has since been occupied with investments. 

LEWIS EMERY, jr., petroleum producer, Bradford, Pa., born near Cherry 
Creek, N. Y., in 1839, the son of a railroad contractor and small manufacturer of 
woolen goods, made his debut amid a throng of other fortune seekers in the oil regions 
in 1865. Stopping at Pit Hole in Venango county, Pa., he located his first oil well at 
Pioneei in the same year. Good luck rewarded him for a time and all went merrily 
until the year of the great panic, when Mr. Emery failed completely. Locating then 
in Bradford. Pa. in advance of oil development there, Mr. Emery leased about four- 
teen thousand acres of land, courage and good reputation being his only capital. Sink- 
ing the first well at Toad Hollow, two miles south of the present city of Bradford, in 
July, 1875, he obtained a flow of forty barrels of oil per day. Virtually the pioneer in 



the Bradford oil field, he has remained there until this day. The Quintuple Oil Co., 
-which owns oil lands and leases them to producers, receiving a royalty for every barrel 
of oil obtained therefrom, was organized by him. He has had some interest also in oil 
refining and is now associated with The Standard Oil Co. , carries on a trade in hard- 
ware supplies for oil wells, is chief proprietor of The Emery Manufacturing Co., and 
has interests in the West and South. 

WILLIAM ENDICOTT, jr., merchant, Boston, Mass., and member of an old and 
highly respectable New England family, is the son of William Endicott. Born in Bev- 
erly, Mass., Jan. 4, 1826, he attended school with other lads of the town at Beverly 
academy and took his first lessons in business as clerk in a country store a very fine 
school, by the way, for a progressive merchant if he has brains, being often a stepping 
stone to a place in the city. His fortune has been gained mainly in the dry goods 
business in the firm of C. F. Hovey & Co., of Boston, and in Western railroads. He 
is a man of high character, and president of The New England Trust Co. and The 
Suffolk Savings Bank, and in the city of Boston, where he has passed his life, enjoys a 
good reptitation and wide influence. 

JAMES E. ENGLISH, once Governor of Connecticut, and at his death probably 
the richest man in the State, who died March 2, 1890, was born in New Haven, March 
13, 1812. In a Puritan ancestry and an excellent home training undoubtedly originated 
his noble character. As a carpenter's apprentice Mr. English learned a trade, begin- 
ning at the age of sixteen, performing his first work on the Lancasterian school 
house of New Haven. A large number of the finest houses in New Haven in those 
days were erected by him. When of age, he had saved $100, and two years later was 
worth $3,000. He then embarked in business as a lumber merchant, and, aided by 
experience as a builder, met with much success, being able to continue in business even 
during the panic of 1857, when others failed. He also had an interest in shipping. 

In partnership with H. M. Welch and Hiram Camp, Mr. English, at the age of 
forty-three, bought the property of The Jerome Clock Co., then bankrupt, reorganized 
it as The New Haven Clock Co. , and brought it to a condition of prosperity. Local 
real estate was one of his favorite investments, and, at his death, Mr. English owned a 
large percentage of the taxable property of New Haven. 

Public affairs always excited his lively interest. In 1848, the office of Common 
Councilman in New Haven was bestowed upon him by election, and in 1855, he was 
chosen to the State Assembly. Then, for four years, 1861-65, he served as a War 
Democrat in Congress, and it is recorded that he left a sick bed to vote with the 
Republicans for the abolition of slavery. This act astounded some of his party associ- 
ates, but Mr. English often declared that the day of his vote for that great measure 
was the happiest in his life. During 1867-71, while Governor of Connecticut, he ren- 
dered the State a great service by urging to a successful issue the adoption of the pub- 
lic school system. In November, 1875, he was appointed United States Senator to fill 
a vacancy caused by the death of Senator Ferry. 

Governor English, as his friends always preferred to call him, was a man of unas- 
suming manners, strong common sense, native shrewdness and unusual ability. He 
talked as graciously with a workingman as with a banker, and his liberality to the poor 
and gifts to public objects were large. Among the latter were $10,000 for a law 
library to Yale university and $20,000 to build the English driveway to East Rook. 


WILLIAn HAYDEN ENGLISH, lawyer and banker, Indianapolis, Ind., born in 
Lexington, Ind., Aug. 27, 1822, died at his home in Indianapolis, Feb. 7, 1896. He 
was a son of Elisha G. English, a pioneer of Indiana, sheriff, and for twenty years a 
member of the Legislature, and of a daughter of Philip Eastin, an officer of the Amer- 
ican Revolution and descendant of Jost Kite. With an education at Hanover college, 
William H. English studied law, revealing unusual ability while yet a youth, being 
admitted to practice at eighteen and serving as deputy clerk of the county and postmas- 
ter of Lexington, before he was of age. In 1843-44, the Indiana House of Represen- 
tatives made him its principal clerk, and, in 1850, he became secretary of the convention 
which framed the State Constitution. While a successful lawyer, being aided to some 
extent in his practice by the good will entertained for his father and family, Mr. 
English rose to fortune through real estate, which he owned, and which increased in 
value with the growth of population and also through his management of The First 
National Bank of Indianapolis (to which city he removed in 1863), of which he was 
president, 1863-77. For ten years, he held a controlling ownership in the street rail- 
roads of the city. Mr. English was always fond of politics, an active Democrat and a 
regular attendant at all State conventions for half a century. Of the lower House in 
the first State Legislature, elected under the new Constitution, he was Speaker, and he 
held a seat in Congress, 1852-61, being also for eight years a Regent of the Smithsonian 
Institution He was a Union man during the Civil War, and in 1880 ran for Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States on the same ticket with General Hancock. His history of 
Indiana is a work of great merit. Nov. 17, 1847, Mr. English married Miss Emma M. 
Jackson of Virginia, who died Nov. 14, 1876, leaving two children, William E. English 
and Rosalind wife of Dr. Willoughby Walling of Louisville, Ky. Above the average 
height, erect, dignified and courteous, Mr. English was a man of striking personality. 
He had long been the president of The Indiana Historical Society, and by virtue of his 
descent, a member of The Sons of the American Revolution. 

WILLIAM ENO, lawyer, born in Amenia, N. Y., April 27, 1800, died at his home 
in Pine Plains, Dutchess county, N. Y., Nov. 17, 1874. The family came from English 
stock. While in attendance to some extent at the public schools during boyhood, the 
most of Mr. Eno's education was acquired by himself. He began life as a school 
teacher, studied law with his father, Stephen Eno, and practiced his profession in 
Dutchess county for about forty years. Mr. Eno and Henry Swift were leaders of the 
bar in that county, and appeared as counsel, in opposition, in nearly every important 
case. Mr. Eno's practice extended to Columbia county and into Connecticut. A mem- 
ber of the Legislature in 1836, he served as District Attorney also for two terms for 
Dutchess county when the office was filled by appointment by the Supreme Court 
Justices. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1848, his name was mentioned for 
the office of Supreme Court Justice, but being fond of farming he preferred to retire to 
his homestead at Pine Plains, where, having voluntarily, at the age of fifty-six, resigned 
his practice to his son, William S. Eno, he devoted the remaining years of his life to the 
cultivation of a large estate near that village. He was married to Eliza A. Stewart, 
daughter of William Stewart of Clinton, Dutchess county, and his children were William 
S. Eno. lawyer, and at present president of The Bunnell & Eno Investment Co. of 
Philadelphia; Henry W. Eno, a large farmer in Dutchess county; Mary E., wife of 
Col M H. Ellis of Yonkers, N. Y. ; and Frank Eno, lawyer, practicing at the Dutchess 


county bar. It is a fact, worthy of note, that in 1803, Stephen Eno erected a small 
law office in Pine Plains, which became the office successively of William and William 
S. Eno, and one of the landmarks of the county, is now occupied by Frank Eno. 

MASSENA BERTHIER ERSKINE, manufacturer, Racine, Wis., a native of Royal- 
ton, Worcester county, Mass., Dec. 19, 1819, son of Walter and Margaret Bo;ven 
Erskine, is of Scottish descent, the family, however, having been Americans for over 
200 years. A carpenter in young manhood, and a gold miner in California in 1849, and 
later a merchant, he returned East for his family, expecting to spend his life on the 
Pacific coast. But circumstances changed his plans, and, in 1852, he settled in Racine, 
Wis., where he met Jerome I. Case, and took employment in the latter's threshing 
machine factory, soon becoming foreman, and, in 1863, buying a fourth interest. Later, 
he took the vice presidency of The J. I. Case Threshing Machine Co. Mr. Erskine is 
a very energetic, practical and ingenious man. The immense business of his concern is 
due in part directly to his efforts. He is president of The Racine Wagon & Carriage 
Co. and The Manufacturers' National Bank, and has held official relations with The 
First National Bank of Racine, a bank of the same name in Burlington, Wis., .and The 
First National Bank of Fargo. In all the affairs of Racine, Mr. Erskine has taken a 
lively interest and has served as Mayor, 1869-70, 1871 and 1879. During the War, he 
was an ardent Union man, and his oldest son, Freeman W., joined the Union forces. 

CORNELIUS B. ERWIN, manufacturer, New Britain, Conn., born in Booneville, 
N. Y., who died in the city of his home, March 23, 1885, at the age of seventy-four, 
learned the shoemaker's trade at the outset of his career under his father's direction. 
When of age, he went to New Britain and found work in a hardware factory. This 
energetic man seems to have understood the science of success, because he saved his 
earnings carefully and invested them in small shops, and finally, in 1839, with Henry 
E. Russell embarked in the industry in which both men made their fame and fortune. 
This was the manufacture of hardware. Beginning in a small way, they went on with 
growing success, until, in 1851, they incorporated as The Russell & Erwin Manufac- 
turing Co., in order to systematize the business. Mr. Erwin invested his profits in fac- 
tories in Hartford, Waterbury, Willimantic and Bridgeport, The Phoenix, Travellers' 
and other insurance companies, and The New Britain National Bank, of the latter of 
which Mr. Envin was a founder and president while living. In politics a Republican 
and in religion a Congregationalist, he was a liberal giver to charity and an honored 
man. His wife died before him, and a step brother alone survived him. Of his for- 
tune of about $2,000,000, he gave $1,143,000 in specific bequest?, $160,000 to The 
New Britain Institute, $50,000 for a public park in New Britain, $86,000 to his native 
town of Booneville, $133,333 to The American College & Education Society, $43.333 
to The Missionary Association of New York, and large sums to other institutions, while 
the residue was divided among Olivet, Marietta, Talladega, Ripon and Iowa colleges. 
CHARLES ESTES, financier, Augusta, Ga., owes his ancestry to England, the 
pioneer of his race landing at Boston, Mass., Oct. 27, 1684. Mr. Estes was born in Cape 
Vincent, N. Y., Feb. 2, 1819, and after getting an education in the public schools occu- 
pied himself with the trade of watchmaker and jeweler. Making a little money, he 
settled in Augusta, Ga. , in 1844, and for six years carried on a dry goods store in the 
firm of Dow & Estes. From 1850 to 1866, he conducted a grocery store, became prom- 
inent, and in 1866-67, was a member of the City Council. Mr. Estes possesses the 


Northern faculty of driving any business, in which he is engaged, with much energy, 
and he has done much to promote the interests of his city. The Augusta canal, which 
yields 14,000 horse power, was built practically through his influence while he was 
Mayor, 1870-76. For seventeen years, he managed The Augusta Land Co. as its presi- 
dent, and of several other companies he is a director. The J. P. King Manufacturing 
Co., capital $1,000,000, which operates large cotton mills in Augusta, is one of his 
enterprises and he is its president. Every associate gives him the credit of being keen, 
energetic and a shrewd manager. Nov. 5, 1847, in Columbia county, Ga., Mr. Estes 
married Mary Ann Reid, and their three daughters have the pleasant names of Ella J., 
Georgia M. , and Augusta Georgia. 

JACOB ESTEY, founder and president of The Estey Organ Co., Brattleboro, Vt., 
whose energy, coupled with that of the late Thaddeus Fairbanks, in another industry, 
made the name of Vermont known throughout the civilized world, was a native of 
Hinsdale, N. H., where he was born, Sept. 30, 1814. After a life of tireless and benevo- 
lent activity and brilliant achievement, he died at his home in Brattleboro, April 15, 
1890. The Estey family came from England to Massachusetts in 1620, during the first 
half century of occupation by the white man, and it is related that Sarah Towne 
Estey was hung in Salem, Mass., about 1670, as one of the witches. Isaac and Patty 
Forbes Estey, parents of the subject of this memoir, settled in Hinsdale not long before 
the War of 1812. They were farmers of limited means. Owing to reverses, Isaac 
Estey, who had a large family, allowed his boy Jacob at the early age of four to be 
adopted by a neighbor named Alvin Shattuck. Subjected to unsympathetic treatment 
by his guardian, and thoroughly discontented with his lot, the stalwart lad accepted his 
fate until the age of thirteen, and then, April 14, 1828, with his bundle of clothes and 
$2 in cash, he ran away to Worcester, Mass., where an older brother was living. The 
next eight years were crowded full of unending labor. For four years, he worked upon 
a farm for from $6 to $15 a month, and expanded in the right way, being honest, free 
from bad habits and ambitious. By his own efforts, he managed to obtain an education 
at the public schools and two years at the academy, and at seventeen, entered the 
employment of Thomas Sutton, in Worcester, to learn the trade of making lead pipe 
and copper pumps. The senior Estey died Dec. 31, 1834, and Jacob, having saved the 
modest sum of $200, walked all the way to Hinsdale to attend the funeral and then to 
Brattleboro, and with the help of John Stearns and Oliver Adams, bought a plumbing 
and pipe business, after several hitches in the negotiations. This business was so well 
managed as to bring some small profits. Sales extended to all the neighboring States. 

About 1850, Mr. Estey built a two-story shop, just south of the Main street bridge, , 
and leased one of the rooms to Burdctt & Carpenter, who were engaged in an almost 
hopeless struggle to establish a small manufacture of melodeons. Unable to pay their 
rent, the proprietors induced Mr. Estey, after much persuasion, to accept an interest 
in the melodcon business in lieu of his claims as landlord, and, in 1852, all the other 
partners having retired in discouragement, Mr. Estey became sole proprietor by the 
payment of 2,700. The little shop then gave work to only half a dozen men. 
Deacon Estey, as he came to be called in later years, had taken a strong liking to the 
business, and, when he was free to bring his own talents to bear in an expansion of the 
industry, unimpeded by interference, he made it grow rapidly, gradually giving up his 
pipe and pump business. For seven years, he acted as his own salesman, and sold the 



products of the little factory himself, amounting to from fifty to seventy-five melodeons a 
year, driving about in a wagon loaded with the instruments and seeking purchasers, 
wherever he could find them, in Vermont, New Hampshire, Canada and New York. 
Whenever one of these melodeons was sold in a neighborhood, there was soon a 
demand for others, and so the business finally began to grow. In 1 85 7, the shop burned 
down and a larger one was built on the site of the present Brattleboro House. This 
was burned in 1864, but another factory took its place, since converted into the hotel 
named. In 1866, J. Estey & Co. were succeeded by The Estey Organ Co., and a yet 
more imposing factory was built at Front and Elm streets; but when the phenomenal 
freshet of 1869 swept away much valuable lumber and even threatened the organ works, 
Mr. Estey resolved to place his growing interests beyond the reach of fire and flood. 

A tract of sixty acres of farming and pasture land upon a high bluff west of the 
village was bought, and there Mr. Estey constructed a collection of new and well 
arranged buildings, equipped with the best machinery and supplied with the best 
modern facilities for preventing fires. Th^ works, now the largest of their class in the 
world, form the nucleus of the village of Esteyville, which derives its very existence 
and daily bread from the operations of the factory. The pay roll is now more than 
$20,000 a month, distributed among about 500 skilled operatives, and about 15,000 
cabinet organs are manufactured yearly. 

Deacon Estey was pre-eminently a business man, cool, vigorous, energetic, per- 
sistent, severely practical, the hater of sham, a splendid organizer, courageous and clear 
headed. Musical talent he did not possess, and, while a good mechanic, he was not 
eminent as an inventor. He delighted in action, and in the management of the intri- 
cate details of an extended business. Fame came to him in consequence of the service 
he performed in bringing within the reach of the most humble homes a musical instru- 
ment, beautiful to the eye, often the most attractive piece of furniture in the house, and 
capable of producing, even under the hands of players of modest ability, the sweetest 
of harmonies and a music so sympathetic as to touch the heart. He performed for 
humanity a service kindred to that which made Oliver Ditson famous. While Mr. Dit- 
son sent songs, hymns, ballads and concerted compositions into the homes of nearly 
every one of his countrymen, Mr. Estey gave them the instrument for producing the 
music and the accompaniments. Who can begin to fathom the influence upon our race, 
the sweetness and inspiration toward good, infused into the homes of the American 
people by the labor of Oliver Ditson and Jacob Estey? 

Mr. Estey was married May 2, 1837, to Desdemona, daughter of David Wood, of 
Dover, N. H., and two children grew to maturity, Julius J. Estey and Abby, the wife 
of Levi K. Fuller. 

Among the other investments of Mr. Estey were a piano factory in New York city 
and a furniture industry in Owosso, Mich. Mr. Estey took a cordial interest in public 
affairs what Vermonter does not and as a Republican served in the lower house of 
the State Legislature, 1869-70, and State Senate, 1872-74. He was a Presidential Elec- 
tor in 1876. Large sums were given by him to Shaw university in Raleigh, N. C., for 
the education of the colored people, and to the Vermont academy at Saxton's river, and 
many other good deeds are recorded of him, especially in the Baptist church, to which 
he belonged. It denotes the interest in his employes, for which he was conspicuous, 
that no labor troubles ever occurred in his factories. 



JULIUS JACOB ESTEY, son of Jacob Estey, and a man of distinction, born in 
Brattleboro, Jan. 8, 1845, was educated at the excellent local public schools and in the 
university at Norwich, Vt. In 1863, while yet only a small number of men were 
employed in the organ business, Mr. Estey entered his father's office and at once took 
an active part in the management of affairs. The year of 1865 was spent in Chicago 
in the management of a branch factry at that point, but upon the sale of the western 
establishment, Mr. Estey returned to Brattleboro, and became treasurer of The Estey 
Organ Co., organized April i, 1866, a position he has retained to the present day, 
although, since 1890, he has also been the president both of that company and The 
Estey Piano Co. of New York city. A large part of the unexampled success of the 
Estey concerns has been due to his energetic and sagacious management and sleepless 
enterprise. Mr. Estey is now in the full tide of success as a manager and in the full 
plenitude of his mental' powers. Among his responsibilities are those involved in his 
positions of president of The People's National Bank of Brattleboro and vice president 
of The Estey Manufacturing Co. of Owosso, Mich. 

In early life, Mr. Estey joined the Baptist church and has ever since exerted an 
active influence for good in the community at home and the church at large. This 
busy and serious man of affairs, upon whose shoulders rest the burdens of enormous 
business interests, is a Christian gentleman, whose convictions of duty lead him to 
active labors in the religious field, and he has been president of the State Sabbath 
School Association, and for ten years president of the board of managers of the Baptist 
State Convention. The Vermont academy at Saxton's River has received so much of 
his untiring devotion as now to rank among the leading schools of the State. 

Deeply interested in public affairs as a loyal Republican, he is nevertheless now 
too much occupied to accept public station, although it is true that he represented 
Brattleboro in the State Assembly in 1876-77 and in the Senate, 1882-84, an( i that he 
attended the Republican National Convention of 1888 as a delegate at large. To the 
military service of the State, he has given more attention. Co. I, now known as the 
Estey Guards, elected him their Captain in May, 1874, and in 1876, he accepted appoint- 
ment to the staff of Gov. Horace Fairbanks with the rank of Colonel. In June, 1881, 
lie became a Lieutenant Colonel in the National Guard, and in January, 1887, was 
commissioned Colonel of the ist Regiment of infantry. Since Dec. i, 1892, he has been 
Brigadier General in command of the entire National Guard of the State. 

In 1867, Mr. Estey married Miss Florence C., daughter of Dr. Henry Gray of 
Cambridge, N. Y. His three sons are Jacob Gray Estey, superintendent of The Estey 
Organ Co. ; Julius Harry Estey, now connected with the collection department of the 
company ; and Guy Carpenter Estey, a youth of fourteen. Vermont finds in General 
Estey, one of her most valued sons. Full of civic pride, generous and sagacious, he is 
quick to join in the support of all measures for the welfare of his city and the State and 
nearly every important institution in Vermont has found in him a steadfast friend. 

COL. JOHN H. ESTILL, proprietor of The Savannah Morning News, was born in 
Charleston, S. C., Oct. 28, 1840. Educated in the public schools in Savannah, Ga., he 
became a printer at the age of eleven, and during the Civil War served in the Confed- 
erate army. At the close of the War, he went to work in the office of The Savannah 
News. With his earnings as an employe, he bought an interest in 1867, and in 1868, 
became sole proprietor. The News is the only daily newspaper in Eastern and South- 



ern Georgia. It is conducted with energy and brains, and is now considered one of the 
best properties of its kind south of Baltimore. Colonel Estill has never sought office, 
but has been chairman of the State Democratic convention, member of the Democratic 
national committee, and a County Commissioner for fourteen years. Anxious to serve 
his city and State in a practical way, he has promoted many useful measures and is 
president of The Chatham Real Estate & Improvement Co. , and The Bonaventure 
Cemetery Co. , and a director in The Citizens' Bank, The Title Guarantee & Loan Co., 
The Savannah Construction Co., The Savannah, Florida & Western Railway, The 
Savannah & Atlantic Railway, and other corporations. The versatility of his character 
and his breadth of mind may be seen from his membership in the Cotton Exchange, 
Board of Trade, Commercial club, several military companies, and the Masonic order, 
in the latter having reached the thirty-second degree. Among other real estate which 
belongs to him are plantations of 10,000 acres in South Carolina opposite Savannah. 

JOHN EVANS, M.D., founder of Evanston, 111., and once Governor of Colorado, 
was born near Waynesvillc, Warren county, O., March 9, 1814, son of David and 
Rachel Evans, and received a diploma at Cincinnati college in 1838. His first prac- 
tice was among the settlers along the Illinois river. Moving to Chicago in 1845, where 
he had been elected to a chair in Rush Medical College, he held that professorship 
eleven years and practiced the art of healing with much success and accumulated some 
capital. Becoming known for public spirit, he was elected to the City Council in 
1852. The city of Evanston, now the home of 13,000 people, near Chicago, was 
founded by him as a site for the Northwestern University, and his extensive real 
estate investments there brought him a large return. He was always a strong anti- 
slavery man even before the War, and advocated freeing the slaves and allowing them 
to enlist in the Union Army. The Chicago & Fort Wayne Railroad was projected 
and built by him and others, and for years Dr. Evans was managing director in Chi- 
cago. In 1862, an important change in his career grew out of an appointment by Pres- 
ident Lincoln as Governor of the then Territory of Colorado, and he arrived at Denver 
at a time when an Indian uprising was feared and volunteers were drilling in anticipa- 
tion of war. On the day of his arrival, he was greeted with cheers by a volunteer com- 
pany of cavalry. His services as Governor gave him greater popularity than that to 
which appointive officers of the Territories generally attain, and the opportunities he 
saw for investment led him to make Denver his permanent home. He held the office 
of Governor three years. In 1863, Dr. Evans originated the plans for the Colorado 
seminary, now known as the University of Denver. He joined the First Methodist 
Episcopal Church in Denver and aided to give that organization the great prosperity it 
has since enjoyed. The Evans Memorial Chapel is his gift in memory of his daughter, 
Josephine, wife of the Hon. S. H. Elbert. The companies which built The Denver 
Pacific Railroad, The Denver, Texas & Gulf Railway, and the narrow gauge line, 
known as The Denver & South Park, were organized by Governor Evans. Of the first 
he was president for several years. A large purchaser of real estate in the early days, 
he has built upon his property many fine blocks of business buildings, among them the 
Railroad Building on Larimer street, which have since become exceedingly valuable. 
In 1839, he married Hannah, daughter of Dr. Joseph Can by, and Mrs. Evans dying in 
1850, he married in August, 1853, Margaret P., daughter of Samuel Gray, of Maine. 
They have had two sons and two daughters. 


HIRAfl BOND EVEREST, oil manufacturer and horticulturist, Rochester, N. Y., 
born in Pike, Wyoming county, N. Y., April n, 1830, is a grandson of Benjamin 
Everest, who served as private soldier through the entire American Revolution, dying 
from the effects of exposure, two months after its close. Benjamin's son, Joseph, was 
born in Salisbury, Conn., in 1793. In 1812, Joseph and his brother Marvin moved to 
Manlius, N. Y., where they cleared a farm, originally covered with heavy timber, and 
on which they located a plaster bed, afterward an important industry. Later, they 
moved to Pike, N. Y., where Joseph married Esther Robertson, and where Hiram Bond 
Everest was born. In 1831, the family moved to Wyoming village, and there Hiram 
was reared. In 1849, the young man was graduated from the Middlebury Academy, 
prepared for the senior class in college, and, stirred by the California gold fever, was. 
anxious to go West. A compromise was made with his parents, however, and he went 
to Wisconsin, taught school one Winter and then started a nursery business upon a half 
section of government land. Meantime, in 1852, he had married Mercy Eleanor 
Everest, and taken her to his frontier home, where their eldest son, Charles Marvin, 
was born. After several years in Wisconsin and Cleveland, O., Mr. Everest moved to 
Rochester, N. Y., in 1865, intending to establish a nursery business there. 

In Rochester, however, Mr. Everest accidentally met Matthew P. Ewing, a small 
manufacturer of kerosene oil, and was induced to try experiments for the purification 
of the distilled products of petroleum without the use of chemicals. These experi- 
ments were made by using a model vacuum still, whereby the distillates were removed 
at low temperatures, and resulted in the discovery of an unburned residual heavy oil. 
This new product was patented under the name of Vacuum Oil, the patent being after- 
ward conveyed to The Vacuum Oil Co., incorporated Oct. 4, 1866, Mr. Ewing selling 
his interest. From that time, for thirteen years, the management of the company was 
entirely in Mr. Everest's hands. Vacuum oil proved a valuable product. First used 
for dressing leather and later for lubricating purposes, it made its way rapidly and is 
now sold in every part of the world. In 1879, owing to illness in the family, the 
father moved to Denver, Colo. , and later to California. The business then came under 
the management of a son, Charles Marvin Everest, and continued to increase, until it 
has reached high standing. Hiram B. Everest has retained the nominal presidency. 

Twenty-eight years after Mr. Everest left Wyoming county, he returned to 
it, and, as president of The Vacuum Oil Co., leased 10,000 acres of land in the Oatka 
valley, with a view to its development as an oil producing property. He drilled a test 
well on his father's old farm, but, instead of finding petroleum, he discovered a stratum 
of rock salt, seventy feet thick, at a depth of about 1,300 feet. This deposit of salt has 
since been found to extend over a large area and the salt industry of Western New 
York has now grown to immense proportions. The first sixty-five barrels of salt man- 
ufactured in this region were made under Mr. Everest's direction in 1879. 

In 1879, when Mr. Everest resigned his practical management of the oil business, 
he moved to Denver, Colo., where he lived for two years. He purchased one hundred 
and twenty lots in that city and built several fine dwellings, introducing into Denver 
the first modern Eastlake houses. In 1881, he went farther West, and purchased one 
hundred acres of orange lands in Riverside, Gala., on which he planted 10,000 trees. 
This grove is now yielding 25,000 to 30,000 boxes annually under the management of 
Mr. Everest's younger son, Arthur Joseph Everest. 


HENRY FAILING, merchant, Portland, Or., was born in the city of New York, 
Jan. 17, 1834, son of Josiah Failing and Henrietta Ellison. The family came from 
Montgomery county, N. Y. At the age of twelve, Henry Failing began life as a clerk 
in a French importing store in New York city and later gained some experience in a 
wholesale dry goods house. In 1851, the family migrated to Portland, Or., then a city 
of 500 inhabitants, and opened the store of Josiah Failing & Co., which had a success- 
ful career and brought the family to prosperity. Later, the firm took the name of 
Henry Failing & Co. In 1854, Henry Failing took sole charge of the business and in 
1871 formed a partnership with Henry W. Corbett, under the title of Corbett & Failing, 
confining the trade thereafter to hardware. Edward and James F. Failing, brothers, 
came later into the firm, which now takes a leading position in the Northwest, as 
Corbett, Failing & Co. 

In 1869, Mr. Corbett and Mr. Failing purchased The First National Bank, Mr. 
Corbett becoming president for a time. The bank is probably the most important in 
the Northwest. Mr. Failing finally took the presidency and now devotes nearly his 
whole attention to its management. A portion of his means is invested in real 
estate, which he has improved with buildings and made exceedingly valuable. He is 
a large owner in The Portland Gas Co. and is treasurer of The Portland Hotel Co. 
He was elected Mayor of the city in 1864, 1865 and 1875, and is now a Regent of 
the State University, trustee of the Library Association, and chairman of the Water 
Commission, and always conspicuous for his public spirit and interest in education. 

Oct. 21, 1858, he married Miss Emily Phelps Corbett, sister of Senator Corbett, but 
lost his cultivated and refined wife in 1870. There are two daughters. While for fifty 
years immersed in business affairs and a hard worker, Mr. Failing is yet strong, vigor- 
ous and young in appearance. He is recognized as a successful financier and greatly 
esteemed for character and talents. 

JAMES GRAHAM FAIR, "bonanza king," born near Belfast, Ireland, Dec. 3, 
1831, died in San Francisco, Cala., Dec. 28, 1894. The family came to the United 
States in 1843 an d settled at Geneva, 111. James went to the common schools and 
then into business life and while a clerk in Chicago acquired a little scientific knowl- 
edge. Upon the discovery of gold in 1849, ^ e joined the rush to California, and spent , 
eleven years in the mining camps, either in prospecting or other pursuits, without 
meeting with flattering success. Joining the stampede to Nevada in 1860, and being of 
powerful physique, an energetic and daring n